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Sample records for successful coronary revascularization

  1. Coronary revascularization after arterial switch operation.

    PubMed

    Prifti, Edvin; Bonacchi, Massimo; Luisi, Stefano Vincenzo; Vanini, Vittorio

    2002-01-01

    We report two cases presenting bilateral coronary artery obstruction after arterial switch operation. The first patient underwent bilateral internal thoracic artery grafting to the left and right coronary arteries. The other patient, presenting a single coronary ostium, underwent surgical coronary ostial angioplasty in concomitance to proximal arterioplasty of both coronary arteries employing a single "pantaloon" shape autologous pericardial patch. Both patients survived and, at 1 year and 9 months after the coronary revascularization procedures, the coronary angiography demonstrated a good patency of the internal thoracic grafts and excellent ostial plasty results, respectively. A complete literature review of patients undergoing different coronary revascularization procedures after arterial switch operation is reported.

  2. Contemporary techniques for coronary CTO revascularization.

    PubMed

    Dedovic, Vladimir; Stankovic, Goran

    2017-03-01

    Despite permanent improvement in success rate and technical developments, chronic total occlusion (CTO) remains undertreated by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Dedicated CTO operators from Japan, Europe and USA perform these procedures with success rate beyond 90%, but there is still huge gap between this group of specialists and broader population of PCI operators. Recently proposed CTO scores can be used for patients' selection according to the CTO operators' experience. Patients with low CTO Score values may be suitable for less experienced operators at the beginning of the CTO PCI learning curve, while more complex CTOs (higher CTO Score values) should be differed to CTO experts. As most of CTO scores better predict antegrade procedural success, at the hands of expert CTO operators, lower or intermediate CTO Score values suggest cases which could be started by anterograde techniques. In this paper we review: 1) an impact of CTO on completeness of revascularization; 2) appropriate CTO equipment setting; 3) procedure planning aspects, including the use of computed tomography angiography and CTO scores; 4) current CTO techniques classifying them into A) antegrade, B) retrograde and C) hybrid approach. Further advancements in CTO PCI should not only provide higher rate of complete revascularization, with improved clinical outcome, but also simplify procedure and make it suitable for broader spectrum of interventionalists.

  3. [Off-pump coronary revascularization. Late survival].

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Juan; Camporrontondo, Mariano; Vrancic, Mariano; Piccinini, Fernando; Camou, Juan; Navia, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Although randomized clinical trials have compared the short-term results of coronary revascularization with on-pump vs. off-pump, the long-term survival effect of off-pump coronary surgery has not been analyzed. The aim of this study was to compare the long-term survival of patients with coronary surgery with off-pump technique. All patients that underwent coronary revascularization from November 1996 to March 2015 were included (n = 4687). We analyzed the long-term survival and the incidence of cardiac events between patients who received off-pump coronary revascularization (n = 3402) against those revascularized with on-pump technique (n = 1285). The primary endpoint was defined as death from any cause. To reduce potential biases, risk-adjusted analysis was performed (propensity score). In-hospital mortality and during follow-up (10 years) for both groups were analyzed. The overall hospital mortality was 3.1%. A statistically significant difference between groups in favor of off-pump surgery was observed (2.3% vs. 5.2%, p < 0.0001). In the survival analysis, off-pump surgery proved to have similar long-term survival as on-pump surgery (off-pump vs. on-pump: 77.9% ± 1.2% vs. 80.2% ± 1.3%, p log rank = 0.361); even in the adjusted survival analysis (84.2% ± 2.9% vs. 80.3% ± 2.4%, p = 0.169). In conclusion, off-pump coronary surgery was associated with lower in-hospital mortality; and it was not associated with increased long-term survival compared with on-pump surgery.

  4. Revascularization therapy for coronary artery disease. Coronary artery bypass grafting versus percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, J M; Ferguson, J J

    1995-01-01

    Coronary artery bypass surgery relieves the symptoms of myocardial ischemia and prolongs survival of patients with more severe coronary artery disease. Randomized trials of surgical therapy have consistently shown that the benefits of surgical revascularization are proportional to the amount of myocardium affected by, or at risk for, ischemic injury. This risk is inferred from angiographically delineated coronary anatomy, estimates of left ventricular function, and physiologic testing. The population that may see a survival benefit from surgical revascularization has probably been expanded beyond that reported in the VA, CASS, and ECSS trials, due to improved perioperative care, longer graft survival, and the use of internal mammary artery grafts. Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty revascularizes myocardium by dilating a stenotic segment of coronary artery. While successful in relieving the symptoms of myocardial ischemia, PTCA is hindered by the occurrence of abrupt vessel closure and the frequent development of restenosis. Furthermore, firm proof of a survival benefit, outside of emergency therapy for acute myocardial infarction, is not yet available. However, because the risk of procedure-related death or serious complication is lower than that seen with bypass surgery, PTCA provides a useful alternative revascularization method for patients with less extensive disease, in whom the risk of surgery may equal or exceed any beneficial effect. New technology and growing experience are widening the scope of percutaneous revascularization by extending the hope of symptomatic relief and survival benefit even to patients with extensive, severe coronary artery disease. Comparisons between surgical therapy and PTCA in select populations with single- and multivessel coronary artery disease have shown that PTCA is not as effective as surgery for long-term symptomatic control, and that it often requires repeat PTCA or cross-over to bypass surgery; however, long

  5. Coronary Artery Revascularization in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient Page Coronary Artery Revascularization in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus David H. Fitchett , Milan Gupta , Michael E. ... with exertion), heart attack, and possibly sudden death. Diabetes and Coronary Artery Disease Patients with diabetes mellitus ...

  6. Coronary stenting: A matter of revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Bonaventura, Aldo; Montecucco, Fabrizio; Liberale, Luca

    2017-01-01

    In the last few decades, the recommended treatment for coronary artery disease has been dramatically improved by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and the use of balloon catheters, bare metal stents (BMSs), and drug-eluting stents (DESs). Catheter balloons were burdened by acute vessel occlusion or target-lesion re-stenosis. BMSs greatly reduced those problems holding up the vessel structure, but showed high rates of in-stent re-stenosis, which is characterized by neo-intimal hyperplasia and vessel remodeling leading to a re-narrowing of the vessel diameter. This challenge was overtaken by first-generation DESs, which reduced re-stenosis rates to nearly 5%, but demonstrated delayed arterial healing and risk for late in-stent thrombosis, with inflammatory cells playing a pivotal role. Finally, new-generation DESs, characterized by innovations in design, metal composition, surface polymers, and anti-proliferative drugs, finally reduced the risk for stent thrombosis and greatly improved revascularization outcomes. New advances include bioresorbable stents potentially changing the future of revascularization techniques as the concept bases upon the degradation of the stent scaffold to inert particles after its function expired, thus theoretically eliminating risks linked with both stent thrombosis and re-stenosis. Talking about DESs also dictates to consider dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT), which is a fundamental moment in view of the good outcome duration, but also deals with bleeding complications. The better management of patients undergoing PCI should include the use of DESs and a DAPT finely tailored in consideration of the potentially developing bleeding risk in accordance with the indications from last updated guidelines.

  7. Coronary revascularization in the elderly with stable angina

    PubMed Central

    Kozlov, Kirill Lenarovich; Bogachev, Aleksandr Andreevich

    2015-01-01

    A proportion of elderly with coronary artery disease is rapidly growing. They have more severe coronary artery disease, therefore, derive more benefit from revascularization and have a greater need for it. The elderly is a heterogeneous group, but compared to the younger cohort, the choice of the optimal revascularization method is much more complicated among them. In recent decades, results has improved dramatically both in surgery and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), even in very old persons. Despite the lack of evidence in elderly, it is obvious, that coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) has a more pronounced effect on long-term survival in price of more strokes, while PCI is certainly less invasive. Age itself is not a criterion for the selection of treatment strategy, but the elderly are often more interested in quality of life and personal independence instead of longevity. This article discusses the factors that influence the choice of the revascularization method in the elderly with stable angina and presents a complex algorithm for making an individual risk-benefit profile. As a consequence the features of CABG and PCI in elderly patients are exposed. Emphasis is centered on the frailty and non-medical factors, including psychosocial, as essential components in making the decision of what strategy to choose. Good communication with the patients and giving them unbiased information is encouraged. PMID:26512248

  8. Prognostic Value of Coronary Computed Tomography (CT) Angiography and Coronary Artery Calcium Score Performed Before Revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Shinichiro; Kondo, Takeshi; Kumamaru, Kanako K; Shinozaki, Tomohiro; Takamura, Kazuhisa; Kawaguchi, Yuko; Matsumori, Rie; Hiki, Makoto; Miyauchi, Katsumi; Daida, Hiroyuki; Rybicki, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiac events after revascularization are equally attributable to recurrence at site of culprit lesions and development of nonculprit lesions. We evaluated the hypothesis that coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography and coronary artery calcium score (CACS) performed before revascularization predicts cardiac events after treatment. Methods and Results Among 2238 consecutive patients without known coronary artery disease who underwent coronary CT angiography and CACS, 359 patients underwent revascularization within 30 days after CT; in 337 of 359 (93.9%) follow-up clinical information was available. In addition to known cardiac risk factors, CT findings were evaluated as predictors of cardiac events after revascularization: CACS and the presence of CT-verified high-risk plaque (CT-HRP). Improvement of predictive accuracy by including CT findings was evaluated from a discrimination (Harrell’s C-statistics) standpoint. During the follow-up period (median: 673, interquartile range: 47 to 1529 days), a total of 98 cardiac events occurred. Cox proportional hazard model revealed that age, diabetes, triglyceride, CACS, and nonculprit CT-HRP were significant predictors of overall cardiac events. Although not statistically significant, discriminatory power was greater for the model with CACS (C-stat: 63.2%) and the model with both CACS and CT-HRP (65.8%) compared to the model including neither CACS nor CT-HRP (60.7%). Conclusions High CACS and the presence of nonculprit CT-HRP performed before revascularization are significant predictors of cardiac events after revascularization. PMID:26296858

  9. Role of surgical revascularization in diabetic patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Góngora, Enrique; Sundt, Thoralf M

    2005-03-01

    Diabetes is a well-known risk factor for morbidity and mortality associated with coronary artery disease. Currently, diabetics represent approximately a quarter of patients requiring coronary revascularization in the USA. The purpose of this article is to review and analyze the available data in surgical revascularization of diabetic patients with coronary artery disease. The review will also examine new developments in myocardial revascularization and assess their probable impact on the long-term outcome of diabetic patients.

  10. Surgical revascularization for premature coronary artery disease in second and third decade of life.

    PubMed

    Reddy, SriKrishna Modugula; Byrapaneni, Ramesh Babu; Rangappa, ChandraMohan; Gouni, Uday Kumar; Vakati, Chakravarthy; Suryavanshi, Satish; Kola, Prabhakar Reddy

    2017-01-01

    Coronary artery bypass grafting surgery may be needed in children and young adults for significant premature coronary artery occlusive disease. We report a case series of seven patients who underwent surgical revascularization in their second and third decade of life for significant multivessel coronary artery occlusive disease due to unusual causes.

  11. Hybrid Coronary Revascularization for the Treatment of Multivessel Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Puskas, John D.; Halkos, Michael E.; DeRose, Joseph J.; Bagiella, Emilia; Miller, Marissa A.; Overbey, Jessica; Bonatti, Johannes; Srinivas, V.S.; Vesely, Mark; Sutter, Francis; Lynch, Janine; Kirkwood, Katherine; Shapiro, Timothy A.; Boudoulas, Konstantinos D.; Crestanello, Juan; Gehrig, Thomas; Smith, Peter; Ragosta, Michael; Hoff, Steven J.; Zhao, David; Gelijns, Annetine C.; Szeto, Wilson Y.; Weisz, Giora; Argenziano, Michael; Vassiliades, Thomas; Liberman, Henry; Matthai, William; Ascheim, Deborah D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Hybrid coronary revascularization (HCR) combines minimally invasive surgical coronary artery bypass grafting of the left anterior descending artery with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of non–left anterior descending vessels. HCR is increasingly used to treat multivessel coronary artery disease that includes stenoses in the proximal left anterior descending artery and at least 1 other vessel, but its effectiveness has not been rigorously evaluated. OBJECTIVES This National Institutes of Health–funded, multicenter, observational study was conducted to explore the characteristics and outcomes of patients undergoing clinically indicated HCR and multivessel PCI for hybrid-eligible coronary artery disease, to inform the design of a confirmatory comparative effectiveness trial. METHODS Over 18 months, 200 HCR and 98 multivessel PCI patients were enrolled at 11 sites. The primary outcome was major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) (i.e., death, stroke, myocardial infarction, repeat revascularization) within 12 months post-intervention. Cox proportional hazards models were used to model time to first MACCE event. Propensity scores were used to balance the groups. RESULTS Mean age was 64.2 ± 11.5 years, 25.5% of patients were female, 38.6% were diabetic, and 4.7% had previous stroke. Thirty-eight percent had 3-vessel coronary artery disease, and the mean SYNTAX (Synergy Between PCI With Taxus and Cardiac Surgery) score was 19.7 ± 9.6. Adjusted for baseline risk, MACCE rates were similar between groups within 12 months post-intervention (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.063; p = 0.80) and during a median 17.6 months of follow-up (HR: 0.868; p = 0.53). CONCLUSIONS These observational data from this first multicenter study of HCR suggest that there is no significant difference in MACCE rates over 12 months between patients treated with multivessel PCI or HCR, an emerging modality. A randomized trial with long-term outcomes is needed to

  12. Off-pump coronary revascularization for left main coronary artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Mannam, Gopichand; Sajja, Lokeswara R; Dandu, Satya B R; Pathuri, Satyendra N; Saikiran, Krishnamurthy V S S; Sompalli, Sriramulu

    2008-12-01

    Experience of on- and off-pump coronary artery bypass in 379 patients with significant left main coronary artery stenosis was retrospectively reviewed. Beating-heart operations were performed on 219 patients between January 2001 and October 2007. Their results were compared with 160 who underwent revascularization under cardiopulmonary bypass during the same period. All patients had multivessel grafting via a median sternotomy. Both groups were comparable demographically. Off-pump patients received significantly fewer grafts per patient (3.21 +/- 0.86 vs 3.74 +/- 0.82). The use of moderate or high doses of inotropics (> 5 microg kg(-1) min(-1)) was more frequent in the on-pump group (44% vs 26%). Postoperative blood transfusion requirement was lower in off-pump patients, and fewer of them experienced worsening of preexisting renal insufficiency. There were 2 operative deaths in the on-pump group and 1 in the off-pump group. The off-pump procedure is safe and effective in patients with left main coronary artery disease.

  13. Oxidized cellulose as the cause of an acute ischemic event after coronary revascularization.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Jose Rubio; Quiroga, Juan Sierra; Cereijo, Jose Martinez; Lopez, Laura Reija

    2010-10-01

    Absorbable topical hemostatic agents are commonly used in cardiac surgery. In this study, we report an unusual case of an acute ischemic event after coronary revascularization produced by interaction between oxidized cellulose and epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA). An in vitro study was also performed to test the interaction between oxidized cellulose and EACA.

  14. Antianginal Efficacy of Ivabradine in Patients With History of Coronary Revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Zarifis, J.; Grammatikou, V.; Katsivas, A.

    2016-01-01

    Although coronary revascularization procedures are widely performed in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), angina is often reported, even after such procedures. This study evaluated the antianginal efficacy and effect of ivabradine treatment on quality of life (QOL) in patients with CAD and history of coronary revascularization. This is a post hoc analysis (926 post-revascularization patients) of a prospective, noninterventional study, which included 2403 patients with CAD and stable angina. The data were recorded at baseline, at 1 month and 4 months after inclusion. After ivabradine administration, mean number of anginal events decreased from 2.2 ± 2.3 (median: 2.0, minimum: 0.0, maximum: 21.0, range: 21.0) to 0.3 ± 0.6 (median: 0.0, minimum: 0.0, maximum: 7.0, range: 7.0) times/week (P < .001), while nitroglycerin consumption decreased from 1.5 ± 2.2 (median: 1.0, minimum: 0.0, maximum: 20.0, range: 20.0) to 0.1 ± 0.4 times/week (median: 0.0, minimum: 0.0, maximum: 5.0, range: 5.0; P < .001). Quality of life improved at study completion compared to baseline (P < .001). Ivabradine addition on top of optimal individualized dose of β-blockers is associated with decreased anginal events and improvement in QOL in patients with stable angina and history of coronary revascularization. PMID:26960667

  15. Coronary perforation with tamponade successfully managed by retrograde and antegrade coil embolization.

    PubMed

    Boukhris, Marouane; Tomasello, Salvatore Davide; Azzarelli, Salvatore; Elhadj, Zied Ibn; Marzà, Francesco; Galassi, Alfredo Ruggero

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, retrograde approach for chronic total occlusions has rapidly evolved, enabling a higher rate of revascularization success. Compared to septal channels, epicardial collaterals tend to be more tortuous, more difficult to negotiate, and more prone to rupture. Coronary perforation is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication of coronary angioplasty, often leading to emergency cardiac surgery. We report a case of a retrograde chronic total occlusion revascularization through epicardial collaterals, complicated by both retrograde and antegrade coronary perforation with tamponade, and successfully managed by coil embolization.

  16. Analog electrical model of the coronary circulation in case of multiple revascularizations.

    PubMed

    Maasrani, Mahmoud; Verhoye, Jean-Philippe; Corbineau, Herve; Drochon, Agnes

    2008-07-01

    In this work, we propose an analog electrical model of the coronary circulation for patients with obstructive disease undergoing revascularization. In this clinical situation, the collateral circulation to the occluded artery is difficult to ascertain via preoperative measurements and well-developed collaterals might induce long-term restenosis of the revascularized artery due to flow competition mechanisms. The proposed model allows an original biomechanical analysis of per-operative hemodynamic data in order to assess quantitative evaluation of pressures and flows inside the native stenosed arteries, the collateral network and the bypass grafts. Average cardiac cycle values are analysed. In the case of 3-vessel disease and chronic occlusion of the right coronary artery, the quantitative results confirm the protective effects of the collateral flows in the pathological situation, but also show that the revascularization of the occluded right artery is fully justified since the collateral flows remain low, even when the left territory is revascularized. The model thus provides a computational tool to evaluate therapeutic strategies for each patient.

  17. Coronary revascularization in Japan. Part 3: percutaneous coronary intervention during 1997.

    PubMed

    Shihara, Miwako; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki; Tsuchihashi, Miyuki; Shigematsu, Hideaki; Yamamoto, Shimako; Koike, George; Kono, Suminori; Takeshita, Akira

    2002-01-01

    A survey by the Japanese Coronary Intervention Study (JCIS) group revealed that 109,788 percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) procedures were performed at 1,023 laboratories during 1997. The present study aimed to describe the demographic and clinical characteristics, treatment strategies, in-hospital outcomes, and long-term outcomes of these patients. A total of 10,642 PCIs performed in 8,814 patients, which corresponded to approximately 10% of the overall PCIs, were selected at random. The mean patient age was 65 years, and 75% were males. The patients often had extensive coronary risk factors. The most prevalent clinical diagnosis was stable angina (36%), followed by myocardial infarction (MI) excluding acute myocardial infarction (AMI; 28%) and AMI (25%). Plain old balloon angioplasty was used as the sole procedure in 58% of lesions for which an attempt to heal was made, and coronary stent placement in 38%. Angiographic success was achieved in 92% of attempted lesions. Mortality, MI and emergency coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) rates during the hospitalization were 2.6%, 2.0% and 0.7%, respectively. In-hospital mortality rate for AMI was 7.6%, whereas that for elective PCI in cases without AMI was 0.6%. The overall mortality for 1.8 years was 8%. Repeat PCI was performed for 35% and CABG for 6% during the follow-up period. In Japan, PCI was performed in patients with coronary artery disease and extensive risk factors, but a high rate of angiographic success was achieved. The rates of in-hospital mortality and emergency CABG were low in non-AMI patients, but the 1-year rate of repeat PCI was as high as 32%.

  18. Risk assessment by myocardial perfusion imaging for coronary revascularization, medical therapy, and noncardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Papaioannou, Georgios I; Heller, Gary V

    2003-01-01

    Stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) has become an important tool in risk stratification of patients with known coronary artery disease. A normal myocardial perfusion scan has a high negative predictive value and is associated with low annual mortality rate (< 1%). Patients with extensive ischemia (> 20% of the left ventricle), defects in more than 1 coronary vascular territory, transient or persistent left ventricular cavity dilation, and ejection fraction less than 45% have a high annual mortality rate (> 3%). Those patients should undergo coronary revascularization whenever feasible, as the cardiac event rate increases in proportion to the magnitude of the jeopardized myocardium. Stress MPI can be used to demonstrate ischemia in patients with symptoms early after coronary artery bypass surgery (< 5 years) or in those without symptoms late (>/= 5 years) after coronary artery bypass surgery. With respect to patients who underwent percutaneous interventions, stress MPI can help detect in-stent restenosis early after the intervention (3-6 months) or assess the progression of native coronary disease afterward. Since preliminary data suggest that a reduction in the perfusion defect size may translate to a reduction of coronary events, stress MPI can help assess the efficacy of medical management of coronary disease. Finally, stress MPI is indicated for perioperative cardiac risk stratification for noncardiac surgery in patients with intermediate risk predictors (mild angina, prior myocardial infarction or heart failure symptoms, diabetes mellitus, renal insufficiency) and poor functional capacity or in those who undergo high-risk surgery with significant implications in further preoperative management.

  19. Coronary revascularization and TAVI: before, during, after or never?

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, C J; Stefanini, G G; Stortecky, S; Tüller, D; Windecker, S; Wenaweser, P

    2014-12-01

    Aortic valve stenosis and coronary artery disease (CAD) frequently coexist in elderly patients selected for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Therapeutic strategies to manage concomitant obstructive CAD are therefore an important consideration in the overall management of patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) undergoing TAVI. Conventional surgical aortic valve replacement and coronary artery bypass grafting is the treatment of choice for low and intermediate risk patients with symptomatic severe AS and concomitant obstructive CAD. However, TAVI and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) are viable alternative options for high-risk or inoperable patients presenting with symptomatic severe AS. PCI has been shown to be feasible and safe in selected high-risk or inoperable patients with symptomatic severe AS. However, the optimal timing of PCI relative to the TAVI procedure has been a subject of debate. The most frequent approch is staged PCI typically performed a few weeks prior to TAVI. However, concomitant PCI has also been shown to be a feasible and safe approach, particularly in patients with a low level of CAD complexity and an absence of severe renal impairment. Conversely, staged PCI should be considered in patients with higher degrees of CAD complexity, particularly in the presence of severe renal impairment. The aim of the present review is to discuss the safety and feasibility of performing PCI in elderly patients with severe AS and the optimal timing of PCI relative to the TAVI procedure using the most up-to-date available evidence.

  20. Predictors of Functional Dependence Despite Successful Revascularization in Large-Vessel Occlusion Strokes

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zhong-Song; Liebeskind, David S.; Xiang, Bin; Ge, Sijian Grace; Feng, Lei; Albers, Gregory W.; Budzik, Ronald; Devlin, Thomas; Gupta, Rishi; Jansen, Olav; Jovin, Tudor G.; Killer-Oberpfalzer, Monika; Lutsep, Helmi L.; Macho, Juan; Nogueira, Raul G.; Rymer, Marilyn; Smith, Wade S.; Wahlgren, Nils; Duckwiler, Gary R.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose High revascularization rates in large-vessel occlusion strokes treated by mechanical thrombectomy are not always associated with good clinical outcomes. We evaluated predictors of functional dependence despite successful revascularization among patients with acute ischemic stroke treated with thrombectomy. Methods We analyzed the pooled data from the Multi Mechanical Embolus Removal in Cerebral Ischemia (MERCI), Thrombectomy Revascularization of Large Vessel Occlusions in Acute Ischemic Stroke (TREVO), and TREVO 2 trials. Successful revascularization was defined as thrombolysis in cerebral infarction score 2b or 3. Functional dependence was defined as a score of 3 to 6 on the modified Rankin Scale at 3 months. We assessed relationship of demographic, clinical, angiographic characteristics, and hemorrhage with functional dependence despite successful revascularization. Results Two hundred and twenty-eight patients with successful revascularization had clinical outcome follow-up. The rates of functional dependence with endovascular success were 48.6% for Trevo thrombectomy and 58.0% for Merci thrombectomy. Age (odds ratio, 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.02–1.06 per 1-year increase), National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score (odds ratio, 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.02–1.15 per 1-point increase), and symptom onset to endovascular treatment time (odds ratio, 1.11; 95% confidence interval, 1.01–1.22 per 30-minute delay) were predictors of functional dependence despite successful revascularization. Symptom onset to reperfusion time beyond 5 hours was associated with functional dependence. All subjects with symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage had functional dependence. Conclusions One half of patients with successful mechanical thrombectomy do not have good outcomes. Age, severe neurological deficits, and delayed endovascular treatment were associated with functional dependence despite successful revascularization. Our data

  1. First-in-Man Computed Tomography-Guided Percutaneous Revascularization of Coronary Chronic Total Occlusion Using a Wearable Computer: Proof of Concept.

    PubMed

    Opolski, Maksymilian P; Debski, Artur; Borucki, Bartosz A; Szpak, Marcin; Staruch, Adam D; Kepka, Cezary; Witkowski, Adam

    2016-06-01

    We report a case of successful computed tomography-guided percutaneous revascularization of a chronically occluded right coronary artery using a wearable, hands-free computer with a head-mounted display worn by interventional cardiologists in the catheterization laboratory. The projection of 3-dimensional computed tomographic reconstructions onto the screen of virtual reality glass allowed the operators to clearly visualize the distal coronary vessel, and verify the direction of the guide wire advancement relative to the course of the occluded vessel segment. This case provides proof of concept that wearable computers can improve operator comfort and procedure efficiency in interventional cardiology.

  2. Successful Revascularization of an LCx CTO Lesion by Retrograde Approach From an Acute Thrombotic SVG Without Protection Device in an ACS Patient.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mei Mei; Wang, Ji Hung

    2016-05-25

    We describe a patient who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery with the presentation of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The diagnostic coronary angiogram showed acute thrombotic and occluded saphenous vein graft (SVG) and proximal right coronary artery (RCA) drug eluting stent (DES) instent restenosis (ISR) with chronic total occlusion (CTO). Our strategy was to recanalize the native left circumflex coronary artery (LCx) CTO instead of SVG or RCA instent CTO. After heparinization for 5 days, the LCx antegrade approach and the retrograde approach from left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) septal branches were first attempted but failed, and the LCx CTO was successfully revascularized retrogradely via the acute thrombotic SVG without an embolic protection device (EPD).

  3. Benefits of Intraaortic Balloon Support for Myocardial Infarction Patients in Severe Cardiogenic Shock Undergoing Coronary Revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dong-Yi; Tsai, Ming-Lung; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Cherng, Wen-Jin; Wang, Chao-Hung; Wen, Ming-Shien; Hsieh, I-Chang; Hung, Ming-Jui; Chen, Chun-Chi; Chen, Tien-Hsing

    2016-01-01

    Background Prior studies have suggested intraaortic balloon pump (IABP) have a neutral effect on acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients with cardiogenic shock (CS). However, the effects of IABP on patients with severe CS remain unclear. We therefore investigated the benefits of IABP in AMI patients with severe CS undergoing coronary revascularization. Methods and Results This study identified 14,088 adult patients with AMI and severe CS undergoing coronary revascularization from Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 2011, dividing them into the IABP group (n = 7044) and the Nonusers group (n = 7044) after propensity score matching to equalize confounding variables. The primary outcomes included myocardial infarction(MI), cerebrovascular accidents or cardiovascular death. In-hospital events including dialysis, stroke, pneumonia and sepsis were secondary outcomes. Primary outcomes were worse in the IABP group than in the Nonusers group in 1 month (Hazard ratio (HR) = 1.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.84–2.12). The MI rate was higher in the IABP group (HR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.16–1.79), and the cardiovascular death was much higher in the IABP group (HR = 2.07, 95% CI = 1.92–2.23). The IABP users had lower incidence of dialysis (8.5% and 9.5%, P = 0.04), stroke (2.6% and 3.8%, P<0.001), pneumonia (13.9% and 16.5%, P<0.001) and sepsis (13.2% and 16%, P<0.001) during hospitalization than Nonusers. Conclusion The use of IABP in patients with myocardial infarction and severe cardiogenic shock undergoing coronary revascularization did not improve the outcomes of recurrent myocardial infarction and cardiovascular death. However, it did reduce the incidence of dialysis, stroke, pneumonia and sepsis during hospitalization. PMID:27483439

  4. Impact of Multivessel Revascularization on Health Status Outcomes in Patients with ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction and Multivessel Coronary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jae-Sik; Spertus, John A.; Arnold, Suzanne V.; Shafiq, Ali; Grodzinsky, Anna; Fendler, Timothy J.; Salisbury, Adam C.; Tang, Fengming; McNulty, Edward J.; Grantham, J. Aaron; Cohen, David J.; Amin, Amit P.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Up to 65% of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) have multivessel coronary disease (MVCAD). TLong-term health status of STEMI patients following multivessel revascularization is unknown. OBJECTIVE We investigated the relationship between multivessel revascularization and health status outcomes (symptoms and quality of life [QoL]) in STEMI patients with MVCAD. METHODS Using a U.S. myocardial infarction registry and the Seattle Angina Questionnaire (SAQ), we determined the health status of patients with STEMI and MVCAD at the time of STEMI and 1 year later. We assessed the association of multivessel revascularization during index hospitalization with 1-year health status using multivariable linear regression analysis, and also examined demographic, clinical, and angiographic factors associated with multivessel revascularization. RESULTS Among 664 STEMI patients with MVCAD, 251 (38%) underwent multivessel revascularization. Most revascularizations were staged during the index hospitalization (64.1%), and 8.0% were staged after discharge, with 27.9% performed during primary PCI. Multivessel revascularization was associated with age and more diseased vessels. At 1 year, multivessel revascularization was independently associated with improved symptoms (4.5 points higher SAQ angina frequency score; 95% CI: 1.0 to 7.9) and QoL (6.6 points higher SAQ QoL score; 95% CI: 2.7 to 10.6). One year mortality was not different between those who did and did not undergo multivessel revascularization (3.6% vs. 3.4%; log-rank test p = 0.88). CONCLUSIONS Multivessel revascularization improved angina and QoL in STEMI patients with MVCAD. Patient-centered outcomes should be considered in future trials of multivessel revascularization. PMID:26541921

  5. Gender-specific differences in biomarkers responses to acute coronary syndromes and revascularization procedures.

    PubMed

    Sbarouni, Eftihia; Georgiadou, Panagiota; Voudris, Vassilis

    2011-09-01

    A growing body of gender-related research in coronary artery disease is beginning to gradually elucidate differences between women and men. In patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes (ACS), these sex differences include varying risk factor profiles, accuracy of diagnostic testing, clinical presentations, treatment practices and outcomes. There is also a differential expression of cardiac biomarkers by sex, which remains unexplained. This paper reviews all the available information on the effect of gender on cardiac biomarkers by search of MEDLINE using the terms gender differences, biomarkers, ACS and revascularization procedures. A better understanding of the sex disparities in biomarkers along with all other clinical information is essential to optimal management and patient care in the future.

  6. Clinical, Anatomic and Functional Descriptors Influencing Morbidity, Survival and Adequacy of Revascularization Following Coronary Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Ellis L.; Craver, Joe M.; King, Spencer B.; Douglas, John S.; Bradford, James M.; Brown, Marlin; Bone, David K.; Hatcher, Charles R.

    1980-01-01

    Clinical data on 3,479 consecutive patients having coronary bypass surgery were retrospectively analyzed. Perioperative complications, incomplete revascularization, and reduced long-term survival could frequently be correlated with manifestations of myocardial damage. Patients with triple vessel and left main coronary disease had a greater frequency of inotropic requirements than did patients with single or double vessel disease (7.9% and 8.6% vs. 3.8% and 4.2%). Inotropic requirements in the perioperative period were significantly increased for patients with preoperative left ventricular dysfunction; a history of heart failure or multiple infarctions did not significantly increase the incidence of inotropic requirements. Presence of previous myocardial infarction, heart failure, or left ventricular contraction abnormalities significantly decreased the ability to achieve complete revascularization with bypass grafting. Hospital mortality since 1976 has been 0.8% (25/3,040). Hospital mortality was significantly increased by history of myocardial infarction, hypertension, heart failure, extent of anatomic disease, presence of preoperative ST-T wave changes, and severe abnormalities of left ventricular function. Hospital mortality in patients with ejection fraction ≤0.35 was 3.4% vs. 1.3% for those >0.35. Anginal pattern, history of hypertension, previous myocardial infarction, preoperative heart failure all significantly affected long-term survival. Occurrence of perioperative myocardial infarction did not adversely influence long-term survival. Patients with normal left ventricular function had excellent 42 month survival regardless of vessel disease (95%, 96%, and 94% for single, double, and triple vessel disease, respectively). Survival was significantly less for such patients with abnormal left ventricular function. Inability to achieve complete revascularization did not adversely affect hospital mortality, but did significantly reduce late survival. The

  7. [Is coronary artery bypass grafting under extracorporeal circulation the only technic that assures complete myocardial revascularization? Pros and cons].

    PubMed

    Soltoski, P R; Panos, A L; Bergsland, J; Salerno, T A

    2000-03-01

    Like other technical advances in medicine, the initial phase of rejection of off-pump revascularization has given way to its acceptance with some limitations. Today's main concern is whether the technique can be safely applied to access all coronary arteries, specially the postero-lateral vessels of the heart. We believe that off-pump CABG has proven to be an excellent alternative to the standard revascularization techniques avoiding the risks and complications of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). It can be applied to any case with minimal incidence of conversions thus avoiding the complications of CPB. In this debate we describe our technique, discuss our experience with complete myocardial revascularization, and suggest that the CPB machine should be a readily available tool for more complex cases rather than the current concept that it is an indispensable element for myocardial revascularization.

  8. Outcomes of a Combined Approach of Percutaneous Coronary Revascularization and Cardiac Valve Surgery.

    PubMed

    Santana, Orlando; Singla, Sandeep; Mihos, Christos G; Pineda, Andrés M; Stone, Gregg W; Kurlansky, Paul A; George, Isaac; Kirtane, Ajay J; Smith, Craig R; Beohar, Nirat

    A subset of patients requiring coronary revascularization and valve surgery may benefit from a combined approach of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and valve surgery, as opposed to the standard median sternotomy approach of combined coronary artery bypass and valve surgery. To evaluate its potential benefits and limitations, a literature search was performed using PubMed, EMBASE, Ovid, and the Cochrane library, through March 2016 to identify all studies involving a combined approach of PCI and valve surgery in patients with coronary artery and valvular disease. There were five studies included in the study with a total of 324 patients, of which 75 (23.1%) had a history of previous cardiac surgery. The interval between PCI and surgery ranged from simultaneous intervention to a median of 38 days (interquartile range, 18-65 days). The surgical approach performed consisted of a minimally invasive one or median sternotomy. There were 275 single valve surgery (84.9%) and 49 double-valve surgery (15.1%) with a 30-day mortality ranging from 0% to 5.5%. The 1-year survival ranged from 78% to 96%, and the follow-up period ranged from 1.3 to 5 years. Herein, we present a review of the literature using this technique.

  9. 17β-estradiol effects on human coronaries and grafts employed in myocardial revascularization: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Polvani, Gianluca; Barili, Fabio; Rossoni, Giuseppe; Dainese, Luca; Ossola, Manuela Wally; Topkara, Veli K; Grillo, Francesco; Penza, Eleonora; Tremoli, Elena; Biglioli, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    Background This study was undertaken to compare the in vitro effects of 17β-estradiol on human epicardial coronary arteries, resistance coronary arteries and on arterial vessels usually employed as grafts in surgical myocardial revascularization. Methods Coronary artery rings (descending coronary artery, right coronary artery, circumflex coronary artery, first septal branch) and arterial graft rings (internal thoracic artery, gastro-epiploic artery) obtained from human heart donors with heart not suitable to cardiac transplantation were connected to force transducer for isometric force recording. Precontracted specimens with and without endothelium were exposed to increasing concentration of 17β-estradiol (3–30–300–3000 nmol/l) and to vehicle (0.1% v/v ethanol). We also evaluated the effects of 17β-estradiol on vessels before and 20 minutes after exposure to L-monomethyl-arginine and indomethacin. Results 17β-estradiol induced a significant relaxation in all precontracted vessels (mean maximum effect: 78,6% ± 8,5). This effect was not different among the different rings and was not related to the presence of endothelium. N-monomethyl-L-arginine and indomethacin did not modify 17β-estradiol relaxant effect. Conclusion The vasodilator action of the 17β-estradiol is similar on coronary arteries, resistance coronary arteries and arterial vessels usually employed as grafts in myocardial revascularization. PMID:17181858

  10. Women With Early Menopause Have Higher Rates of Target Lesion Revascularization After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linlin; Wang, Zhijian; Liu, Xiaoli; Zhou, Zhiming; Zhao, Yingxin; Shi, Dongmei; Liu, Yuyang; Liang, Jing; Yang, Lixia; Chai, Meng; Zhou, Yujie

    2016-04-01

    Early menopause has been found to be associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Our objective was to investigate the impact of early menopause on clinical outcomes for women undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We observed female patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing PCI and found that women with early menopause (≤46 years old) were more likely to have CAD risk factors and more severe coronary lesions. During the 18-month follow-up, early menopause was associated with similar risk of death and myocardial infarction but higher risk of target lesion revascularization (TLR; 7.8% vs 5.3%, P = .003) and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs; 11.3% vs 9.0%, P = .007). After adjustment, early menopause was an independent risk factor for 18-month MACEs (hazard ratio [HR], 1.54; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-2.00) and TLR (HR 1.61; 95% CI 1.21-2.13). In conclusion, for women undergoing PCI, early menopause is associated with higher risk of MACE, which is mainly driven by risk of TLR.

  11. Physiology of in-situ arterial revascularization in coronary artery bypass grafting: Preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative factors and influences

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson Jr, T Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Surgical revascularization with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has become established as the most effective interventional therapy for patients with moderately severe and severe stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD). This recommendation is based on traditional 5-year outcomes of mortality and avoidance of myocardial infarction leading to reintervention and/or cardiac death. However, these results are confounded in that they challenge the traditional CABG surgical tenets of completeness of anatomic revascularization, the impact of arterial revascularization on late survival, and the lesser impact of secondary prevention following CABG on late outcomes. Moreover, the emergence of physiologic-based revascularization with percutaneous cardiovascular intervention as an alternative strategy for revascularization in SIHD raises the question of whether there are similar physiologic effects in CABG. Finally, the ongoing ISCHEMIA trial is specifically addressing the importance of the physiology of moderate or severe ischemia in optimizing therapeutic interventions in SIHD. So it is time to address the role that physiology plays in surgical revascularization. The long-standing anatomic framework for surgical revascularization is no longer sufficient to explain the mechanisms for short-term and long-term outcomes in CABG. Novel intraoperative imaging technologies have generated important new data on the physiologic blood flow and myocardial perfusion responses to revascularization on an individual graft and global basis. Long-standing assumptions about technical issues such as competitive flow are brought into question by real-time visualization of the physiology of revascularization. Our underestimation of the impact of Guideline Directed Medical Therapy, or Optimal Medical Therapy, on the physiology of preoperative SIHD, and the full impact of secondary prevention on post-intervention SIHD, must be better understood. In this review, these issues are addressed through

  12. Reversibility of High-Grade Atrioventricular Block with Revascularization in Coronary Artery Disease without Infarction: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Rhanderson; Alfonso, Carlos E.; Coffey, James O.

    2016-01-01

    Complete atrioventricular (AV) block is known to be reversible in some cases of acute inferior wall myocardial infarction (MI). The reversibility of high-grade AV block in non-MI coronary artery disease (CAD), however, is rarely described in the literature. Herein we perform a literature review to assess what is known about the reversibility of high-grade AV block after right coronary artery revascularization in CAD patients who present without an acute MI. To illustrate this phenomenon we describe a case of 2 : 1 AV block associated with unstable angina, in which revascularization resulted in immediate and durable restoration of 1 : 1 AV conduction, thereby obviating the need for permanent pacemaker implantation. The literature review suggests two possible explanations: a vagally mediated response or a mechanism dependent on conduction system ischemia. Due to the limited understanding of AV block reversibility following revascularization in non-acute MI presentations, it remains difficult to reliably predict which patients presenting with high-grade AV block in the absence of MI may have the potential to avoid permanent pacemaker implantation via coronary revascularization. We thus offer this review as a potential starting point for the approach to such patients. PMID:26925272

  13. Simultaneous approach of internal carotid artery revascularization at the base of the skull and coronary arteries bypass without extracorporeal circulation.

    PubMed

    Keshelava, Grigol; Beselia, Kakha; Nachkepia, Merab; Janashia, Giorgi; Nuralidze, Kakha

    2011-07-01

    The best surgical approach for the treatment of patients with severe cerebral artery disease and simultaneous serious coronary artery disease remains controversial. In this report, we present a case of a 65-year-old man admitted to the hospital with unstable angina. Triple coronary artery obstructive disease and severe right internal carotid artery stenosis in the retroparotid region were diagnosed. A combined, simultaneous surgical procedure was performed. A lesion located in the retroparotid space required an approach by a presternocleidomastoid cervicotomy extended distally. Venous grafting of the internal carotid artery was performed. After carotid reconstruction, the three coronary arteries were revascularized without extracorporeal circulation. The patient showed a satisfactory postoperative outcome.

  14. Passive Leg Raising Correlates with Future Exercise Capacity after Coronary Revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shu-Chun; Wong, May-Kuen; Lin, Pyng-Jing; Tsai, Feng-Chun; Wen, Ming-Shien; Kuo, Chi-Tai; Hsu, Chih-Chin; Wang, Jong-Shyan

    2015-01-01

    Hemodynamic properties affected by the passive leg raise test (PLRT) reflect cardiac pumping efficiency. In the present study, we aimed to further explore whether PLRT predicts exercise intolerance/capacity following coronary revascularization. Following coronary bypass/percutaneous coronary intervention, 120 inpatients underwent a PLRT and a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) 2–12 days during post-surgery hospitalization and 3–5 weeks after hospital discharge. The PLRT included head-up, leg raise, and supine rest postures. The end point of the first CPET during admission was the supra-ventilatory anaerobic threshold, whereas that during the second CPET in the outpatient stage was maximal performance. Bio-reactance-based non-invasive cardiac output monitoring was employed during PLRT to measure real-time stroke volume and cardiac output. A correlation matrix showed that stroke volume during leg raise (SVLR) during the first PLRT was positively correlated (R = 0.653) with the anaerobic threshold during the first CPET. When exercise intolerance was defined as an anaerobic threshold < 3 metabolic equivalents, SVLR / body weight had an area under curve value of 0.822, with sensitivity of 0.954, specificity of 0.593, and cut-off value of 1504·10-3mL/kg (positive predictive value 0.72; negative predictive value 0.92). Additionally, cardiac output during leg raise (COLR) during the first PLRT was related to peak oxygen consumption during the second CPET (R = 0.678). When poor aerobic fitness was defined as peak oxygen consumption < 5 metabolic equivalents, COLR / body weight had an area under curve value of 0.814, with sensitivity of 0.781, specificity of 0.773, and a cut-off value of 68.3 mL/min/kg (positive predictive value 0.83; negative predictive value 0.71). Therefore, we conclude that PLRT during hospitalization has a good screening and predictive power for exercise intolerance/capacity in inpatients and early outpatients following coronary revascularization

  15. Improved regional ventricular function after successful surgical revascularization

    SciTech Connect

    Brundage, B.H.; Massie, B.M.; Botvinick, E.H.

    1984-04-01

    Left ventricular segments with reversible asynergy at rest demonstrate reversible myocardial perfusion defects on exercise thallium-201 scintigrams. To determine if improved perfusion eliminates asynergy at rest, 23 patients with angina (stable in 21, unstable in 2) were studied before and after coronary artery bypass surgery. All patients underwent exercise myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, contrast ventriculography and coronary arteriography before and after surgery. Selective graft angiography was performed during the postoperative catheterization to determine graft patency. Segmental ventricular function was quantitated by a regional fraction method. The scintigrams were divided into five regions and compared with the corresponding regions of the ventriculogram. Seventy-one of a possible 142 ventricular segments exhibited exercise-induced perfusion deficits. Preoperative regional ejection fraction was normal in 42 of these segments and abnormal in 29. Postoperatively, in 19 of the abnormal segments, function improved or normalized. All these segments had improved perfusion during exercise after surgery and were supplied by a patent bypass graft. Nine of the 10 segments in which abnormal wall motion persisted postoperatively continued to have exercise-induced perfusion deficits, and 9 of the 10 segments were supplied by an occluded or stenotic graft or one with poor run off. Of the 42 segments with normal wall motion preoperatively, 30 had improved perfusion after surgery and 35 maintained normal function. This study indicates that asynergy at rest is permanently reversed after coronary bypass surgery if improved myocardial perfusion can be documented. These findings are consistent with but do not prove the concept that reversible rest asynergy may reflect chronic ischemia or a prolonged effect from previous ischemic episodes.

  16. A case study of hospital closure and centralization of coronary revascularization procedures

    PubMed Central

    Hemmelgarn, Brenda R.; Ghali, William A.; Quan, Hude

    2001-01-01

    Background Despite nation-wide efforts to reduce health care costs through hospital closures and centralization of services, little is known about the impact of such actions. We conducted this study to determine the effect of a hospital closure in Calgary and the resultant centralization of coronary revascularization procedures from 2 facilities to a single location. Methods Administrative data were used to identify patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), including those who had combined CABG and valve procedures, and patients who underwent percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTCA) in the Calgary Regional Health Authority from July 1994 to March 1998. This period represents the 21 months preceding and the 24 months following the March 1996 hospital closure. Measures, including mean number of discharges, length of hospital stay, burden of comorbidity and in-hospital death rates, were compared before and after the hospital closure for CABG and PTCA patients. Multivariate analyses were used to derive risk-adjustment models to control for sociodemographic variables and comorbidity. Results The number of patients undergoing CABG was higher in the year following than in the year preceding the hospital closure (51.6 per 100 000 before v. 67.3 per 100 000 after the closure); the same was true for the number of patients undergoing PTCA (129.8 v. 143.6 per 100 000). The burden of comorbidity was significantly higher after than before the closure, both for CABG patients (comorbidity index 1.3 before v. 1.5 after closure, p < 0.001) and for PTCA patients (comorbidity index 1.0 before v. 1.1 after, p = 0.04). After adjustment for comorbidity, the mean length of hospital stay was significantly lower after than before the closure for CABG patients (by 1.3 days) and for PTCA patients (by 1.0 days). The adjusted rates of death were slightly lower after than before the closure in the CABG group. The adjusted rates of death or CABG in the PTCA group did not

  17. Comparison of inflammatory response following coronary revascularization with or without cardiopulmonary bypass

    PubMed Central

    Gasz, Balázs; Benkö, László; Jancsó, Gábor; Lantos, János; Szántó, Zalán; Alotti, Nasri; Röth, Erzsébet

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well known that conventional coronary revascularization is associated with a pronounced systemic inflammatory response due to the application of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with (on-pump) or without (off-pump) extra-corporeal circulation observing certain inflammatory response parameters. METHODS: Twenty patients undergoing CABG with (CPB group: 10 patients) or without (off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting [OPCAB] group: 10 patients) CPB were enrolled in this prospective, randomized study. Blood samples were collected three times during the operation and on postoperative days 1, 2, 3 and 7. The plasma level of proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method following stimulation, and the expression of adhesion molecules (CD11, CD18) of leukocytes were determined by flow cytometry. Furthermore, white blood cell (WBC) and neutrophil count were carried out. RESULTS: The WBC and neutrophil counts rose markedly in both groups following the operation and remained at this increased level during the observation period. There was a significant difference in WBC and neutrophil counts between the two groups of patients on postoperative day 7. A significant difference in the level of TNF-alpha was found between the two groups on postoperative day 2 (P<0.05). An intense increase was observed with CPB, which significantly exceeded the values of the OPCAB group without extracorporeal circulation in the early postoperative period. The CD11a and CD18 expression of leukocytes decreased during the operation and on postoperative day 1; thereafter, it increased markedly. There was a significant difference in adhesion molecule expression between the two groups on postoperative day 2. CONCLUSION: The investigation revealed that inflammatory response reactions following extracorporeal circulation could be reduced

  18. Effect of Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor on All-Cause Mortality and Coronary Revascularization in Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyo Eun; Jeon, Jooyeong; Hwang, In-Chang; Sung, Jidong; Lee, Seung-Pyo; Kim, Hyung-Kwan; Cho, Goo-Yeong; Sohn, Dae-Won

    2015-01-01

    Background Anti-atherosclerotic effect of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors has been suggested from previous studies, and yet, its association with cardiovascular outcome has not been demonstrated. We aimed to evaluate the effect of DPP-4 inhibitors in reducing mortality and coronary revascularization, in association with baseline coronary computed tomography (CT). Methods The current study was performed as a multi-center, retrospective observational cohort study. All subjects with diabetes mellitus who had diagnostic CT during 2007-2011 were included, and 1866 DPP-4 inhibitor users and 5179 non-users were compared for outcome. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality and secondary outcome included any coronary revascularization therapy after 90 days of CT in addition to all-cause mortality. Results DPP-4 inhibitors users had significantly less adverse events [0.8% vs. 4.4% in users vs. non-users, adjusted hazard ratios (HR) 0.220, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.102-0.474, p = 0.0001 for primary outcome, 4.1% vs. 7.6% in users vs. non-users, HR 0.517, 95% CI 0.363-0.735, p = 0.0002 for secondary outcome, adjusted variables were age, sex, presence of hypertension, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, glycated hemoglobin, statin use, coronary artery calcium score and degree of stenosis]. Interestingly, DPP-4 inhibitor seemed to be beneficial only in subjects without significant stenosis (adjusted HR 0.148, p = 0.0013 and adjusted HR 0.525, p = 0.0081 for primary and secondary outcome). Conclusion DPP-4 inhibitor is associated with reduced all-cause mortality and coronary revascularization in diabetic patients. Such beneficial effect was significant only in those without significant coronary stenosis, which implies that DPP-4 inhibitor may have beneficial effect in earlier stage of atherosclerosis. PMID:26755932

  19. Laser angioplasty and laser-induced thrombolysis in revascularization of anomalous coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Shah, Rakesh; Martin, Robert E; Topaz, On

    2002-04-01

    Acute coronary syndromes such as unstable angina and myocardial infarction are attributed to a pathophysiologic process that involves rupture of atherosclerotic plaque and subsequent thrombosis. Percutaneous intervention of anomalous coronary arteries in patients who present with acute coronary syndromes impose unique technical challenges related to the specific anatomic course and morphology of these vessels. Selection of appropriate guiding catheter configuration, choice of supportive guidewire, and proper delivery and activation of debulking devices and stents are important steps toward achieving adequate results. Excimer laser angioplasty is a debulking technology for removal of atherosclerotic plaque and associated thrombi. To date, application of laser angioplasty in anomalous coronary arteries is unreported. We herein present clinical data and discuss technical aspects related to performance of excimer laser angioplasty in three symptomatic patients with acute coronary syndrome, two having an anomalous right coronary artery and one with an anomalous circumflex artery. The delivery of laser energy in these cases resulted in rapid thrombolysis of an occlusive thrombus, successful debulking of the underlying atherosclerotic plaque, facilitation of adjunct balloon angioplasty and stenting, and ultimately, improved clinical condition.

  20. Ventricular Dysfunction in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome Undergoing Coronary Surgical Revascularization: Prognostic Impact on Long-Term Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Popovic, Batric; Agrinier, Nelly; Voilliot, Damien; Elfarra, Mazen; Villemot, Jean Pierre; Maureira, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome complicated by left ventricular dysfunction (LVEF) are a poor prognosis group. The aim of our study was to assess the short and long term LEVF prognostic value in a cohort of NSTE-ACS patients undergoing surgical revascularization. Methods We performed elective and isolated CABG on a cohort of 206 consecutive patients with LVEF≤0.40 complicating acute coronary syndrome. The case cohort was compared with a cohort of controls (LVEF>0.40) randomly selected (2:1) among patients who underwent the procedure during this period. Results The Kaplan-Meier 5-year estimated survival rates for patients in the low and normal LVEF groups were 70.8% (95% confidence interval CI: 64.2–77.4) and 81.7% (95%CI: 77.8–85.6), respectively. A low LVEF was associated with both a higher all-cause (HR [95%CI] = 1.84[1.18–2.86]) and a higher cardiovascular mortality (HR = 2.07 [1.27–3.38]) during the first 12 months of follow-up. After adjustment for potential confounders, a low LVEF remained associated with a higher cardiovascular mortality only (1.87[1.03–3.38]) during the first 12 months of follow-up. After 12 months of follow-up, a low LVEF was no more associated with all-cause, nor cardiovascular mortality. Conclusion Patients with low LVEF might require more intensive care than patients with normal LVEF during the year after the surgical procedure, but once the first postoperative year over, the initial low LVEF was no more associated with long term mortality. PMID:28005944

  1. Instantaneous wave-free ratio to guide coronary revascularization: physiological framework, validation and differences with fractional flow reserve.

    PubMed

    de Waard, Guus A; Di Mario, Carlo; Lerman, Amir; Serruys, Patrick W; van Royen, Niels

    2017-02-14

    Determining the optimal treatment strategy for revascularization of coronary artery stenosis involves the use of fractional flow reserve (FFR). To improve the low clinical uptake of physiological lesion assessment to guide revascularization, the instantaneous wave-free period (iFR) was proposed as a simpler alternative to FFR that does not require adenosine administration. iFR is calculated as the ratio of blood pressure distal and proximal to a coronary artery stenosis during the diastolic wave- free period. The wave-free period is a part of the cardiac cycle where generation of new pressure wavefronts does not occur and resting microvascular resistance is relatively minimized. iFR indicates the hemodynamic severity of a stenosis, by assessing the extent to which the epicardial stenosis depletes the microcirculatory, autoregulatory reserve. The introduction of iFR and the potential to assess hemodynamic stenosis severity without the need for administration of potent vasodilators such as adenosine, sparked an interesting debate about the fundamentals of human coronary physiology. Outcomes of two randomized clinical trials investigating iFR are pending. These studies are designed to evaluate whether iFR guided revascularisation is non-inferior to an FFR guided approach. The purpose of this review article is to discuss the physiological concepts underlying iFR, examine the existing validation studies and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of iFR as compared to FFR.

  2. Hyaluronan Based Heparin Free Coated Open and Closed Extracorporeal Circuits for High Risk Coronary Revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Gunaydin, Serdar; Ucar, Halil Ibrahim; Serter, Tanzer; McCusker, Kevin; Ozcelik, Gokhan; Salman, Nevriye; Yorgancioglu, Ali Cem

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: This prospective randomized study compares the inflammatory response and fibrinolytic activation of fully coated/uncoated and open/closed extracorporeal circuits (ECC) in high risk patients. Over a 2-month period, 48 patients with EuroSCOREs 6 or greater undergoing coronary revascularization were pro spectively randomized to one of the four perfusion protocols: Group 1: Closed and totally hyaluronan based heparin free coated (Vision HFO-GBS-HF™, Gish Biomedical, Rancho Santa Margarita, CA) ECC with a soft-shell coated venous reservoir (SVR11S2-HFC™, Gish Biomedical) and a hard-shell cardiotomy (CAPVRF44, Gish Biomedical) (n = 12); Group 2: Closed and totally uncoated identical ECC with soft-shell uncoated venous reservoir and a hard-shell cardiotomy (n = 12); Group 3: Open, totally hyaluronan based heparin free coated ECC (n = 12); and Group 4: Control-open, uncoated ECC (n = 12). Blood samples were collected at T1: Baseline; T2: 15 minutes after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) initiation; T3: before cessation of CPB; T4: 15 minutes after protamine reversal, and T5: in the intensive care unit. Serum IL-6 levels were significantly lower at T2 in all study groups, at T3 for coated groups, and T4 for closed+coated group (p < .05 versus control). Creatine kinase M-band (MB) levels in coronary sinus blood demonstrated well preserved myocardium after CPB in both coated groups versus Control (p < .05). Neutrophil CD11b/CD18 levels were significantly lower for all study groups versus control at T2, for both coated groups at T3 and only for closed+coated group at T4 (p < .05). Postoperative hemorrhage (mL) was 510 ± 40 in closed+coated and 536 ± 40 in open+coated groups (control: 784 ± 48, p ≤ .05). No significant differences in thrombin-antithrombin complex and free plasma hemoglobin were observed. Desorbed protein amount on ECC (mg/dL) was 1.7 ± .01 in closed+coated, 2.01 ± .01 in open+coated, and 3.3 ± .015 in control groups (p ≤ .05). Use of a

  3. Hyaluronan based heparin free coated open and closed extracorporeal circuits for high risk coronary revascularization.

    PubMed

    Gunaydin, Serdar; Ucar, Halil Ibrahim; Serter, Tanzer; McCusker, Kevin; Ozcelik, Gokhan; Salman, Nevriye; Yorgancioglu, Ali Cem

    2010-12-01

    This prospective randomized study compares the inflammatory response and fibrinolytic activation of fully coated/uncoated and open/closed extracorporeal circuits (ECC) in high risk patients. Over a 2-month period, 48 patients with EuroSCOREs 6 or greater undergoing coronary revascularization were prospectively randomized to one of the four perfusion protocols: Group 1: Closed and totally hyaluronan based heparin free coated (Vision HFO-GBS-HF, Gish Biomedical, Rancho Santa Margarita, CA) ECC with a soft-shell coated venous reservoir (SVR11S2-HFC, Gish Biomedical) and a hard-shell cardiotomy (CAPVRF44, Gish Biomedical) (n = 12); Group 2: Closed and totally uncoated identical ECC with soft-shell uncoated venous reservoir and a hard-shell cardiotomy (n = 12); Group 3: Open, totally hyaluronan based heparin free coated ECC (n = 12); and Group 4: Control-open, uncoated ECC (n = 12). Blood samples were collected at T1: Baseline; T2: 15 minutes after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) initiation; T3: before cessation of CPB; T4: 15 minutes after protamine reversal, and T5: in the intensive care unit. Serum IL-6 levels were significantly lower at T2 in all study groups, at T3 for coated groups, and T4 for closed+coated group (p < .05 versus control). Creatine kinase M-band (MB) levels in coronary sinus blood demonstrated well preserved myocardium after CPB in both coated groups versus Control (p < .05). Neutrophil CD11b/CD18 levels were significantly lower for all study groups versus control at T2, for both coated groups at T3 and only for closed + coated group at T4 (p < .05). Postoperative hemorrhage (mL) was 510 +/- 40 in closed + coated and 536 +/- 40 in open + coated groups (control: 784 +/- 48, p < .05). No significant differences in thrombin-antithrombin complex and free plasma hemoglobin were observed. Desorbed protein amount on ECC (mg/dL) was 1.7 +/- .01 in closed+coated, 2.01 +/- .01 in open+coated, and 3.3 +/- .015 in control groups (p < or = .05). Use of a closed

  4. Safety and Efficacy of Caproamin Fides and Tranexamic Acid Versus Placebo in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh Ghavidel, Alireza; Totonchi, Ziae; Chitsazan, Mitra; Gholampour Dehaki, Maziar; Jalili, Farshid; Farsad, Fariborz; Hejrati, Maral

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Excessive fibrinolysis contributes to post-cardiopulmonary bypass bleeding. Tranexamic Acid (TXA) and Caproamin Fides are synthetic lysine analogues that inhibit plasminogen-fibrin binding. The present study aimed to compare TXA and Caproamin Fides versus placebo in patients undergoing elective coronary artery revascularization. Methods: We analyzed perioperative data of 300 adult patients undergoing coronary artery revascularization. Patients were randomly allocated to receive TXA (n=100), Caproamin Fides (n=100) or placebo (n=100) during perioperative time. Mediastinal bleeding during the first 24 hours post-operation, transfusion requirement and post-surgical complications were assessed. Results: Most descriptive and intra-operative parameters were well comparable between the 3 study groups. Except for mean number of packed red blood cell (PRBC) units transfused during ICU stay (P=0.01), patients in the Caproamin Fides and TXA groups did not show any statistically significant differences regarding transfusion of blood products during peri-operative period. There was no evidence of a significant difference in mediastinal blood loss during the first 24 hours post-operation between the patients receiving TXA or placebo, while patients in the Caproamin Fides group had significantly lower mediastinal bleeding than the other 2 groups (Caproamin Fides vs. placebo, P=0.002, <0.001 and <0.001 at 6, 12 and 24 hours post-operation; Caproamin Fides vs. TXA, P=0.009, 0.003, <0.001 at 6, 12 and 24 hours post-operation). The incidence of postoperative complications were comparable between Caproamin Fides and TXA groups (P>0.05). Conclusion: In conclusion, Caproamin Fides seems to be superior to TXA regarding the blood saving effects in patients undergoing coronary artery revascularization. PMID:25320669

  5. Off-pump or on-pump beating heart: which technique offers better outcomes following coronary revascularization?

    PubMed

    Sepehripour, Amir H; Chaudhry, Umar A R; Harling, Leanne; Athanasiou, Thanos

    2015-04-01

    A best evidence topic was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether on-pump beating heart coronary artery bypass (BH-ONCAB) surgery has a different outcome profile in comparison to off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB). A total of 205 papers were found by systematic search of which 7 provided the largest and most recent outcome analysis comparing BH-ONCAB with OPCAB, and represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, date, journal, study type, population, main outcome measures and results were tabulated. Reported outcome measures included mortality, stroke, myocardial infarction, renal failure, myocardial damage, change in ejection fraction, number of bypass grafts and completeness of revascularization. With the exception of one study that favoured the off-pump technique, our review did not demonstrate a statistically significant difference in terms of mortality between the groups. We did not identify a statistically significant difference in any reported morbidity outcomes. However, there was a trend towards better outcomes for the on-pump beating heart technique, despite a higher risk profile in terms of age, ejection fraction and burden of coronary disease in this group. Consistent statistically significant differences between the groups were the mean number of grafts performed and the completeness of revascularization, both of which were higher with the on-pump beating heart technique. Limitations to the current evidence include the finding that most of the current data arise from specialist off-pump surgeons or centres that would usually only carry out BH-ONCAB in the higher risk patients where the added safety of cardiopulmonary bypass is desired.

  6. Randomized Trial of Complete Versus Lesion-Only Revascularization in Patients Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for STEMI and Multivessel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gershlick, Anthony H.; Khan, Jamal Nasir; Kelly, Damian J.; Greenwood, John P.; Sasikaran, Thiagarajah; Curzen, Nick; Blackman, Daniel J.; Dalby, Miles; Fairbrother, Kathryn L.; Banya, Winston; Wang, Duolao; Flather, Marcus; Hetherington, Simon L.; Kelion, Andrew D.; Talwar, Suneel; Gunning, Mark; Hall, Roger; Swanton, Howard; McCann, Gerry P.

    2015-01-01

    Background The optimal management of patients found to have multivessel disease while undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (P-PCI) for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction is uncertain. Objectives CvLPRIT (Complete versus Lesion-only Primary PCI trial) is a U.K. open-label randomized study comparing complete revascularization at index admission with treatment of the infarct-related artery (IRA) only. Methods After they provided verbal assent and underwent coronary angiography, 296 patients in 7 U.K. centers were randomized through an interactive voice-response program to either in-hospital complete revascularization (n = 150) or IRA-only revascularization (n = 146). Complete revascularization was performed either at the time of P-PCI or before hospital discharge. Randomization was stratified by infarct location (anterior/nonanterior) and symptom onset (≤3 h or >3 h). The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause death, recurrent myocardial infarction (MI), heart failure, and ischemia-driven revascularization within 12 months. Results Patient groups were well matched for baseline clinical characteristics. The primary endpoint occurred in 10.0% of the complete revascularization group versus 21.2% in the IRA-only revascularization group (hazard ratio: 0.45; 95% confidence interval: 0.24 to 0.84; p = 0.009). A trend toward benefit was seen early after complete revascularization (p = 0.055 at 30 days). Although there was no significant reduction in death or MI, a nonsignificant reduction in all primary endpoint components was seen. There was no reduction in ischemic burden on myocardial perfusion scintigraphy or in the safety endpoints of major bleeding, contrast-induced nephropathy, or stroke between the groups. Conclusions In patients presenting for P-PCI with multivessel disease, index admission complete revascularization significantly lowered the rate of the composite primary endpoint at 12 months compared with treating only the

  7. Total revascularization for an epsilon right coronary artery and severe left main disease combined with profound cardiogenic shock

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Hsiu-Yu; Lee, Wei-Chieh; Wu, Chiung-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Severe left main disease combined with right coronary artery occlusion was rarely encountered in our daily practice. Percutaneous coronary intervention in these patients was most challenging due to high probability of hemodynamic changes. Patient Concerns: Here, we report a 67-year-old man with Non–ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (NSTEMI) and profound cardiogenic shock and we attempted coronary intervention with total revisualization for severe left main (LM) disease and angulated epsilon right coronary artery total occlusion. He was treated successfully under intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support. Diagnoses: NSTEMI and profound cardiogenic shock. Interventions: Coronary intervention with total revisualization was performed for severe LM disease and angulated epsilon right coronary artery total occlusion under IABP and ECMO support. Outcomes: IABP and ECMO were removed until cardiac contractile function improved to left ventricular ejection fraction over 40 percentage 1 week later. The patient was discharged after 2 months and had survival for 5 years. Lessons: Coronary intervention could be performed safely in this cardiogenic shock patient with severe LM and triple vessel disease who was supported by IABP and ECMO. Stent deployment for extremely angulated coronary artery was required multiple combination techniques to facilitate the final success. PMID:27977615

  8. Evaluation of antiplatelet effects of a modified protocol by platelet aggregation in patients undergoing "one-stop" hybrid coronary revascularization.

    PubMed

    Gao, Peixian; Xiong, Hui; Zheng, Zhe; Li, Lihuan; Gao, Runlin; Hu, Sheng-Shou

    2010-01-01

    "One-stop" hybrid coronary revascularization has emerged to be a reliable and attractive alternative for selected patients with multivessel coronary artery disease. However, the optimal antiplatelet regimen of the one-stop hybrid procedure still remains controversial. We modified the antiplatelet protocol in order to reduce the risk of perioperative bleeding and maximally inhibit platelet activity. This study sought to investigate whether the inhibition of platelet activity by this modified antiplatelet protocol is comparable with the conventional protocol widely used and recommended in percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). Twenty three patients undergoing one-stop hybrid procedure and 20 patients undergoing conventional PCI were enrolled in this prospective study. The modified antiplatelet protocol included perioperative use of aspirin; clopidogrel was administered immediately before PCI with a 300 mg loading dose, followed by a maintenance dose of 75 mg/day for 12 months. Blood samples were obtained before the operation and 2 hours, day 1 and day 3 after operation. Platelet aggregation was induced with: 1) arachidonic acid (AA) (final concentration 0.5 mmol/L) to assess the efficacy of aspirin; 2) adenosine diphosphate (ADP) (final concentration 10 micromol/L) to assess the specific efficacy of clopidogrel. Platelet counts were statistically lower in the hybrid group than in the PCI control group (p = 0.0018) on day 1 after operation. AA-induced platelet aggregation increased significantly in comparison with the preoperative baseline values (p = 0.0079) and the PCI control group (p = 0.0023) on day 1 after operation. ADP-induced platelet aggregation gradually decreased in the hybrid group, and achieved similar platelet inhibition with the PCI group on 2 hours and day 1 after operation. No major adverse clinical events such as death, perioperative myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis or reoperation for bleeding occurred in both groups within 30 days after

  9. Procedural outcomes of revascularization of chronic total occlusion of native coronary arteries (from a multicenter United States registry).

    PubMed

    Michael, Tesfaldet T; Karmpaliotis, Dimitri; Brilakis, Emmanouil S; Fuh, Eric; Patel, Vishal G; Mogabgab, Owen; Alomar, Mohammed; Kirkland, Ben L; Lembo, Nicholas; Kalynych, Anna; Carlson, Harold; Banerjee, Subhash; Lombardi, William; Kandzari, David E

    2013-08-15

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of chronic total occlusions (CTOs) is a rapidly evolving area of interventional cardiology. We sought to examine the immediate procedural and in-hospital clinical outcomes of native coronary artery CTO PCI from a multicenter United States (US) registry. We retrospectively examined the procedural outcomes of 1,361 consecutive native coronary artery CTO PCIs performed at 3 US institutions from January 2006 to November 2011. Mean age was 65 ± 11 years, 85% of patients were men, 40% had diabetes, 37% had previous coronary artery bypass graft surgery, and 42% had previous PCI. The CTO target vessel was the right coronary artery (55%), circumflex (23%), left anterior descending artery (21%), and left main or bypass graft (1%). The retrograde approach was used in 34% of all procedures. The technical and procedural success rates were 85.5% and 84.2%, respectively. The mean procedural time, fluoroscopy time, and contrast utilization were 113 ± 61 minutes, 42 ± 29 minutes, and 294 ± 158 ml, respectively. In multivariate analysis, female gender, no previous coronary artery bypass surgery, and years since initiation of CTO PCI at each center were independent predictors of procedural success. Major complications occurred in 24 patients (1.8%). In conclusion, among selected US-based institutions with experienced operators, native coronary artery CTO PCI can be performed with high success and low major complication rates.

  10. Association of Lower Fractional Flow Reserve Values With Higher Risk of Adverse Cardiac Events for Lesions Deferred Revascularization Among Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Masrani Mehta, Shriti; Depta, Jeremiah P; Novak, Eric; Patel, Jayendrakumar S; Patel, Yogesh; Raymer, David; Facey, Gabrielle; Zajarias, Alan; Lasala, John M; Singh, Jasvindar; Bach, Richard G; Kurz, Howard I

    2015-01-01

    Background The safety of deferring revascularization based on fractional flow reserve (FFR) during acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is unclear. We evaluated the association of FFR and adverse cardiac events among patients with coronary lesions deferred revascularization based on FFR in the setting of ACS versus non-ACS. Methods and Results The study population (674 patients; 816 lesions) was divided into ACS (n=334) and non-ACS (n=340) groups based on the diagnosis when revascularization was deferred based on FFR values >0.80 between October 2002 and July 2010. The association and interaction between FFR and clinical outcomes was evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models within each group (mean follow-up of 4.5±2.1 years). Subsequent revascularization of a deferred lesion was classified as a deferred lesion intervention (DLI), whereas the composite of DLI or myocardial infarction (MI) attributed to a deferred lesion was designated as deferred lesion failure (DLF). In the non-ACS group, lower FFR values were not associated with any increase in adverse cardiac events. In the ACS group, every 0.01 decrease in FFR was associated with a significantly higher rate of cardiovascular death, MI, or DLI (hazard ratio [HR], 1.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03 to 1.12), MI or DLI (HR, 1.09; 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.14), DLF (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.18), MI (HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.14), and DLI (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.18). Conclusion Lower FFR values among ACS patients with coronary lesions deferred revascularization based on FFR are associated with a significantly higher rate of adverse cardiac events. This association was not observed in non-ACS patients. PMID:26289346

  11. Impact of multivessel coronary artery disease and noninfarct-related artery revascularization on outcome of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction transferred for primary percutaneous coronary intervention (from the EUROTRANSFER Registry).

    PubMed

    Dziewierz, Artur; Siudak, Zbigniew; Rakowski, Tomasz; Zasada, Wojciech; Dubiel, Jacek S; Dudek, Dariusz

    2010-08-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the impact of multivessel coronary artery disease (MVD) and noninfarct-related artery (non-IRA) revascularization during index percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) on outcomes of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Data on 1,598 of 1,650 patients with complete angiographic data, with >or=1 significantly stenosed epicardial coronary artery, and without previous coronary artery bypass grafting were retrieved from the EUROTRANSFER Registry database. Patients with 1-, 2-, and 3-vessel disease made up 48.5%, 32.0%, and 19.5% of the registry population, respectively. Patients with MVD were less likely to achieve final Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction grade 3 flow (1- vs 2- vs 3-vessel disease, 93.6% vs 89.3% vs 87.9%, respectively, p = 0.003) and ST-segment resolution >50% within 60 minutes after PCI (1- vs 2- vs 3-vessel disease, 80.9% vs 77.5% vs 69.3%, respectively, p <0.001). They were also at higher risk of death during 1-year follow-up (1- vs 2- vs 3-vessel disease, 4.9% vs 7.4% vs 13.5%, respectively, p <0.001), and MVD was identified as an independent predictor of 1-year death. In 70 patients (9%) non-IRA PCI was performed during index PCI. These patients were at higher risk of 30-day and 1-year death compared to patients without non-IRA PCI, but this difference in mortality was no longer significant after adjustment for covariates. In conclusion, patients with MVD have decreased epicardial and myocardial reperfusion success and had worse prognosis after primary PCI for STEMI compared to patients with 1-vessel disease. In this large multicenter registry, non-IRA PCI during the index procedure was performed in 9% of patients with MVD and it was associated with increased 1-year mortality.

  12. [Indices of intraoperative flowmetry, determining patency of grafts in the remote period after revascularization of the right coronary artery].

    PubMed

    Bazylev, V V; Nemchenko, E V; Pavlov, A A; Karnakhin, V A

    2016-01-01

    The authors studied the threshold values of ultrasound flowmetry concerning composite T-grafts, combined I-grafts, and autovenous shunts during revascularization of the right coronary artery (RCA), determining high risk for the development of shunt occlusion in the remote postoperative period. The retrospective study included a total of 223 patients subjected to revascularization of the RCA's basin with the help of composite T-grafts, combined I-grafts, and autovenous shunts. Depending on the method of bypass grafting of the RCA and its branches, all patients were subdivided into 3 groups: Group 1 was composed of 65 patients in whom the RCA basin was revascularized by a branch of the composite T-graft, Group 2 comprised 112 patients who endured autovenous aortocoronary bypass grafting, and Group 3 consisted of 46 patients in whom the RCA basin was shunted by a combined mammarovenous I-graft. The groups had no statistically significant differences on the main clinical and demographic parameters. Intraoperative assessment of the blood flow through the coronary shunts was carried out by means of ultrasound flowmetry. The remote results were evaluated based on the findings of the control coronaroshuntography which was carried out in all patients within the terms varying from 16 to 43 months. In the remote period in Group 1 patients (T-graft), 59 (90%) mammary shunts were patent, in Group 2 - 99 (88.4%) autovenous shunts, and in Group 3 (I-graft) 42 (95.5%) shunt were patent. Cumulative probability of freedom from shunt occlusion within the terms up to 3 years after surgery in Group 1 amounted to 82±0.5%, in Group 2 to 58±2.1%, and in Group 3 to 86±1.9%, with the differences between Group 2 and other groups being statistically significant (p=0.01). The Poisson regression analysis showed that the risk for graft occlusion increased by 10% with the resistance index in the branch of the T-graft from 4.0; by 8% with the resistance index in the autovein from 2.9; and by 3

  13. Transient cortical blindness and successful recovery after coronary bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Tasdemir, Kutay; Evereklioglu, Cem; Kaya, Mehmet G

    2011-10-01

    Left ventricular injury has a bad prognosis, especially when a coronary artery is involved. After perforation of the left cardiac ventricle by a knife, a 19-year-old male patient presented with: (i) complete bilateral visual loss; (ii) left anterior descending (LAD) artery injury; (iii) severe systemic hypotension. Under emergency conditions and cardiopulmonary bypass, the LAD artery was revascularized by a saphenous vein graft. Bilateral blindness recovered within several days. Cerebral hypoxia as a result of severe systemic hypotension was the most likely underlying mechanism.

  14. Clinical Significance of A Single Multi-Slice CT Assessment in Patients with Coronary Chronic Total Occlusion Lesions Prior to Revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Xinkai; Fang, Weiyi; Gong, Kaizheng; Ye, Jianding; Guan, Shaofeng; Li, Ruogu; Xu, Yingjia; Shen, Yan; Zhang, Min; Liu, Hua; Xie, Wenhui

    2014-01-01

    Accurate assessment of coronary chronic total occlusion (CTO) lesion is essential to design an appropriate procedural strategy before revascularization. The present study aims to evaluate the significance of a single multislice computed tomography (MSCT) examination in patients with CTO lesion. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 23 CTO lesions in twenty patients underwent computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) and SPECT. The CTCA was more powerful and sensitive to determine the CTO lesion length (100% v.s 47.8%) and to identify the length and location of calcification in occluded vessels compared with the coronary angiography (CAG). The LVEF measured by MSCT was comparable to that from the gated SPECT. Myocardial perfusion imaging showed that the location of the early defect region identified by MSCT was corresponded to the nuclide filling defect on the stressed 201thallium-SPECT imaging. The late hyperenhancement on MSCT was presented as incomplete nuclide filling on the 99mTc-MIBI imaging. The results suggested that a single MSCT examination in previous myocardial infarction without revascularization facilitates to provide some valuable information on the nature of the occluded lesion, myocardial perfusion and globe cardiac function, which would be helpful to design appropriate revascularization strategy in these subjects. PMID:24905494

  15. Extent of Coronary and Myocardial Disease and Benefit from Surgical Revascularization in Patients with Ischemic Left Ventricular Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Panza, Julio A.; Velazquez, Eric J.; She, Lilin; Smith, Peter K.; Nicolau, José C.; Favaloro, Roberto R.; Gradinac, Sinisa; Chrzanowski, Lukasz; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Howlett, Jonathan G.; Jasinski, Marek; Hill, James A.; Szwed, Hanna; Larbalestier, Robert; Desvigne-Nickens, Patrice; Jones, Robert H.; Lee, Kerry L.; Rouleau, Jean L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with ischemic left ventricular dysfunction have higher operative risk with CABG. However, those whose early risk is surpassed by subsequent survival benefit have not been identified. Objective To examine the impact of anatomic variables associated with poor prognosis on the effect of coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) in ischemic cardiomyopathy. Methods All 1,212 patients in the STICH surgical revascularization trial were included. Patients had coronary artery disease (CAD), ejection fraction (EF) ≤35%, and were randomized to CABG plus medical therapy or optimal medical therapy alone (OMT). This study focused on 3 prognostic factors: presence of 3-vessel CAD; EF below the median (27%); and end-systolic volume index (ESVI) above the median (79 ml/m2). Patients were categorized as having 0–1 or 2–3 of these factors. Results Patients with 2–3 prognostic factors (n= 636) had reduced mortality with CABG, as compared to OMT (HR=0.71, 95% CI=0.56–0.89; p=0.004); CABG had no such effect in patients with 0–1 factors (HR=1.08, 95% CI=0.81–1.44; p=0.591). There was a significant interaction between the number of factors and the effect of CABG on mortality (p=0.022). Although 30-day risk with CABG was higher, a net beneficial effect of CABG over OMT was observed at >2years in patients with 2–3 factors (HR=0.53, 95% CI=0.37–0.75; p#x0003C;0.001), but not in those with 0–1 factors (HR=0.88, 95% CI=0.59–1.31; p=0.535). Conclusions Patients with more advanced ischemic cardiomyopathy receive greater benefit from CABG. This supports the indication for surgical revascularization in patients with more extensive CAD and worse myocardial dysfunction and remodeling. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00023595) PMID:25104523

  16. Acute coronary syndromes without persistent st-segment elevation: advances in surgical revascularization.

    PubMed

    Zoffoli, Giampaolo; Nicolini, Francesco; Beghi, Cesare; Budillon, Alessandro Maria; Agostinelli, Andrea; Borrello, Bruno; Cagnoni, Giovanni; Frassetto, Guido; Fragnito, Claudio; Gherli, Tiziano

    2005-09-01

    Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) still plays a fundamental role in the management of acute coronary syndromes. The aim of this study is to report the experience of our center in the treatment of patients with acute coronary sindromes without persistent ST elevation urgently operated on with CABG, and to discuss surgical problems related. Two-hundred and six patients were urgently operated on for CABG for acute coronary syndromes without persistent ST-segment elevation from January 2001 to February 2003. The majority of them had three vessel coronary disease (72%) and left main stem disease occurred in 20% of the patients. Mean LVEF (left ventricular ejection fraction) was 54 +/- 12% whereas 9% of the patients had a LVEF < 40%. Twenty-one patients (10%) received glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitors and 35 (17%) received intravenous heparin therapy before surgery. Mean interval time between the onset of symptoms and surgery was 16 +/- 10 days (range 4-50). In-hospital mortality was 2% (4 patients). Perioperative AMI (acute myocardial infarction) occurred in 4% (8 patients) and a transient low cardiac output syndrome in 27 patients (13%). Bleeding requiring surgery occurred in 1% of the patients. Transient respiratory insufficiency was present in 12 patients (6%) and acute renal failure in 8 patients (4%). Mean I.C.U. time was 2.4 days (1-17). Urgent CABG for acute coronary syndromes shows a low risk for in-hospital mortality and morbidity. In acute patients arterial grafts are not detrimental for the outcome, but are recommended in the absence of contraindications to improve long-term results. In spite of recent developments in cardioplegic cardiac arrest, optimal myocardial protection against perioperative myocardial infarction still remains a challenge.

  17. Diabetes mellitus: a prothrombotic state Implications for outcomes after coronary revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Cola, Clarissa; Brugaletta, Salvatore; Yuste, Victoria Martín; Campos, Bieito; Angiolillo, Dominick J; Sabaté, Manel

    2009-01-01

    Coronary stent thrombosis is a serious problem in the drug-eluting stent era. Despite aggressive antiplatelet therapy during and after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), the incidence of sub-acute stent thrombosis remains approximately 0.5%–2%, which may represent a catastrophic clinical situation. Both procedural factors and discontinuation of antiplatelet therapy are normally associated with this event. We report on simultaneous stent thromboses of two drug-eluting stents implanted in two different vessels, which resulted in a life-threatening clinical condition. Possible contributing factors that led to synergistic thrombotic effects are discussed. PMID:19436654

  18. The Effects of Intra-Aortic Balloon Pumps on Mortality in Patients Undergoing High-Risk Coronary Revascularization: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting and Stenting Era

    PubMed Central

    Wan, You-Dong; Sun, Tong-Wen; Kan, Quan-Cheng; Guan, Fang-Xia; Liu, Zi-Qi; Zhang, Shu-Guang

    2016-01-01

    Background Intra-aortic balloon pumps (IABP) have generally been used for patients undergoing high-risk mechanical coronary revascularization. However, there is still insufficient evidence to determine whether they can improve outcomes in reperfusion therapy patients, mainly by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stenting or coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). This study was designed to determine the difference between high-risk mechanical coronary revascularization with and without IABPs on mortality, by performing a meta-analysis on randomized controlled trials of the current era. Methods Pubmed and Embase databases were searched from inception to May 2015. Unpublished data were obtained from the investigators. Randomized clinical trials of IABP and non-IABP in high-risk coronary revascularization procedures (PCI or CABG) were included. In the case of PCI procedures, stents should be used in more than 80% of patients. Numbers of events at the short-term and long-term follow-up were extracted. Results A total of 12 randomized trials enrolling 2155 patients were included. IABPs did not significantly decrease short-term mortality (relative risk (RR) 0.66; 95% CI, 0.42–1.01), or long-term mortality (RR 0.79; 95% CI, 0.47–1.35), with low heterogeneity across the studies. The findings remained stable in patients with acute myocardial infarction with or without cardiogenic shock. But in high-risk CABG patients, IABP was associated with reduced mortality (71 events in 846 patients; RR 0.40; 95%CI 0.25–0.67). Conclusion In patients undergoing high-risk coronary revascularization, IABP did not significantly decrease mortality. But high-risk CABG patients may be benefit from IABP. Rigorous criteria should be applied to the use of IABPs. PMID:26784578

  19. A scoping review of root canal revascularization: relevant aspects for clinical success and tissue formation.

    PubMed

    Conde, M C M; Chisini, L A; Sarkis-Onofre, R; Schuch, H S; Nör, J E; Demarco, F F

    2016-10-22

    The aim of this scoping study was to evaluate the survival rate and nature of tissue formed inside root canals of human immature permanent teeth with necrotic pulps (NIPT) under root canal revascularization (RCR). The search was performed in SciVerse Scopus®, PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science®, BIREME and in the grey literature up to November 2015. The keywords were selected using MeSH terms and DECs. Two independent reviewers scrutinized the records obtained considering specific inclusion criteria. The included studies were evaluated in accordance with a modified Arksey and O' Malley's framework. From 375 studies that were evaluated, 75 were included. A total of 367 NIPT were submitted to RCR, from which only 21 needed further endodontic treatment. The weighted mean follow-up time was 17.6 months. The data were derived mainly from case reports (69%) or small case series (15%). NaOCl [0.5-6%] was applied as the disinfecting solution in almost all studies. Triple antibiotic paste was as effective as Ca(OH)2 as on intracanal medicament. De novo tissue was cementum and poorly mineralized bone positive to bone sialoprotein (BSP) but negative to dentine sialoprotein (DSP). Failures were associated mainly with reinfection of the root canal. The majority of included studies reported a significant increase in both root length and width. However, as most of these data came from case reports, they must be interpreted with care, as most were focused on treatment successes (not failures). Therefore, well-designed randomized controlled trials comparing RCR with available apexification treatments are needed to address this gap in the literature.

  20. Revascularization using satellite vein after radial artery harvested for coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Gon, Shigeyoshi; Yoshida, Shigehiko; Sanae, Tsutomu; Takahashi, Tamami; Inada, Eiichi

    2006-06-01

    The radial artery has been increasingly used for coronary artery bypass grafting and has excellent long-term patency rates. Hand claudication is one of the adverse effects after radial artery harvest. We reconstructed a radial artery using the satellite vein to prevent hand claudication. Pulsating blood flow at 35 cm/sec was evaluated using color Doppler echocardiography three months after surgery. This method makes it possible to use a radial artery in patients with a positive Allen test.

  1. Fracking the Code to Complete Revascularization.

    PubMed

    Hira, Ravi S; Dean, Larry S

    2016-10-01

    Provisional use of rotational atherectomy (RA) is indicated for procedural success in heavily calcified lesions. In the current study, RA use at three high volume percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) centers between 2005 and 2013 was 1.4%. MACE rate was 17.8% at median follow-up of 22 months. Peripheral vascular disease (PVD), diabetes mellitus (DM), acute coronary syndrome (ACS), and SYNTAX > 23 were found to be independently associated with MACE. With increasing complexity of disease and SYNTAX score, there is usually an increase in severity of calcification and need for atherectomy. Complete revascularization with residual SYNTAX reduced to < 8 is associated with improved outcomes. Incompleteness of revascularization in patients with SYNTAX > 33 rather than procedural success of the target vessel with atherectomy may have contributed to the adverse outcomes.

  2. National trends in utilization and outcomes of coronary revascularization procedures among people with and without type 2 diabetes in Spain (2001–2011)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetes is associated with a high risk of death due to coronary artery disease (CAD). People with diabetes suffering from CAD are frequently treated with revascularization procedures. We aim to compare trends in the use and outcomes of coronary revascularization procedures in diabetic and non-diabetic patients in Spain between 2001 and 2011. Methods We identified all patients who had undergone coronary revascularization procedures, percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) and coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgeries, using national hospital discharge data. Discharges were grouped by diabetes status: type 2 diabetes and no diabetes. The incidence of discharges attributed to coronary revascularization procedures were calculated stratified by diabetes status. We calculated length of stay and in-hospital mortality (IHM). We apply joinpoint log-linear regression to identify the years in which changes in tendency occurred in the use of PCI and CABG in diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Multivariate analysis was adjusted by age, sex, year and comorbidity (Charlson comorbidity index). Results From 2001 to 2011, 434,108 PCIs and 79,986 CABGs were performed. According to the results of the joinpoint analysis, we found that sex and age-adjusted use of PCI increased by 31.4% per year from 2001 to 2003, by 15.9% per year from 2003 to 2006 and by 3.8% per year from 2006 to 2011 in patients with diabetes. IHM among patients with diabetes who underwent a PCI did not change significantly over the entire study period (OR 0.99; 95% CI 0.97-1.00). Among patients with diabetes who underwent a CABG, the sex and age-adjusted CABG incidence rate increased by 10.4% per year from 2001 to 2003, and then decreased by 1.1% through 2011. Diabetic patients who underwent a CABG had a 0.67 (95% CI 0.63-0.71) times lower probability of dying during hospitalization than those without diabetes. Conclusions The annual percent change in PCI procedures increased in diabetic and non

  3. Successful Coronary Stent Retrieval From a Pedal Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Mariano, Enrica Versaci, Francesco; Gandini, Roberto; Simonetti, Giovanni; Di Vito, Livio; Romeo, Francesco

    2008-05-15

    The purpose of this article is to report complications from a coronary drug-eluting stent lost in the peripheral circulation. We report the case of successful retrieval of a sirolimus coronary stent from a pedal artery in a young patient who underwent coronary angiography for previous anterior myocardial infarction. Recognition of stent embolization requires adequate removal of the device to avoid unwelcome clinical sequelae.

  4. Direct coronary stent implantation: safety, feasibility, and predictors of success of the strategy of direct coronary stent implantation.

    PubMed

    Laarman, G; Muthusamy, T S; Swart, H; Westendorp, I; Kiemeneij, F; Slagboom, T; van der Wieken, R

    2001-04-01

    , and 70.2 +/- 11.2 vs. 73.2 +/- 11.2, P = NS). Stent loss occurred in five (2.0%) cases, with successful retrieval in four. One stent was lost permanently in a small branch of the radial artery. Post-percutaneous coronary intervention (post-PCI) myocardial infarction occurred in four (1.6%) patients. There were no other in-hospital events. Six-month-follow up information was obtained in 99% of patients. Subacute stent thrombosis was noted in four (1.6%) cases. Target vessel-related myocardial infarction rate was 3.2%, of which half was caused by subacute stent thrombosis. The overall reintervention rate (coronary artery bypass grafting or PCI) was 9.7%. Target lesion revascularization by PCI occurred in only 4.0%. At 6 months, overall mortality was 2.0%, of which 1.2% was due to coronary events. Direct stent implantation is safe and feasible in the majority of cases with low rate of complications. Unfavorable factors include circumflex lesion, more complex lesion morphology, and increasing length of stent. Severity of stenosis does not appear to be of predictive value. Long-term outcome is favorable with a low target lesion revascularization rate.

  5. Comparison of 5-Year Outcomes for Patients With Coronary Artery Disease in Groups With and Without Revascularization With Different Results of Stress Echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Zagatina, Angela; Krylova, Ludmila; Vareldzhan, Yuliya; Tyurina, Tatyana V.; Clitsenko, Olga; Zhuravskaya, Nadezhda

    2013-01-01

    Background There is conflicting data in contemporary literature concerning the best way to treat patients with stable coronary artery disease; specifically, whether medical treatment alone or invasive strategies combined with medical treatment are better. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of patients with and without revascularization after stress echocardiography and to create formulas for detecting patients with a very high risk of cardiac death/major adverse cardiac event (MACE) in their present conditions. Methods We assessed 323 patients (53.9 ± 8.4 years, 247 men), undergoing upright bicycle stress echocardiography in 2006 - 2007. During a median follow-up of 5.2 ± 0.2 years, 21 cardiovascular and 5 confirmed non-cardiac deaths occurred. Eighty-three patients underwent revascularization. Results Stress echocardiography was normal in 32% and abnormal in 68%. All the patients with CAD were prescribed acetylsalicylic acid, statins, beta-blockers and ACE inhibitors. Eighty-seven percents of the patients took medication regularly. The percentage taking medication didn’t significantly differ in the subgroups. Two formulas were created for detecting a very high risk of cardiac death (25%) or MACE (68%) within 5 years. All the patients with abnormal stress tests were divided into two subgroups: 80 patients with revascularization and 138 subjects without revascularization. There was a significant difference in 5 year cardiac mortality if the patients had an index of wall motion abnormality (IWMA) after exercise greater than or equal to 1.3. Conclusion It is possible to identify during stress echocardiography subjects with a very high risk for cardiac death/MACE. Patients with IWMA ≥ 1.3 had improved outcomes following revascularization.

  6. All-cause mortality benefit of coronary revascularization vs. medical therapy in patients without known coronary artery disease undergoing coronary computed tomographic angiography: results from CONFIRM (COronary CT Angiography EvaluatioN For Clinical Outcomes: An InteRnational Multicenter Registry)

    PubMed Central

    Min, James K.; Berman, Daniel S.; Dunning, Allison; Achenbach, Stephan; Al-Mallah, Mouaz; Budoff, Matthew J.; Cademartiri, Filippo; Callister, Tracy Q.; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Cheng, Victor; Chinnaiyan, Kavitha; Chow, Benjamin J.W.; Cury, Ricardo; Delago, Augustin; Feuchtner, Gudrun; Hadamitzky, Martin; Hausleiter, Joerg; Kaufmann, Philipp; Karlsberg, Ronald P.; Kim, Yong-Jin; Leipsic, Jonathon; Lin, Fay Y.; Maffei, Erica; Plank, Fabian; Raff, Gilbert; Villines, Todd; Labounty, Troy M.; Shaw, Leslee J.

    2012-01-01

    Aims To date, the therapeutic benefit of revascularization vs. medical therapy for stable individuals undergoing invasive coronary angiography (ICA) based upon coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) findings has not been examined. Methods and results We examined 15 223 patients without known coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing CCTA from eight sites and six countries who were followed for median 2.1 years (interquartile range 1.4–3.3 years) for an endpoint of all-cause mortality. Obstructive CAD by CCTA was defined as a ≥50% luminal diameter stenosis in a major coronary artery. Patients were categorized as having high-risk CAD vs. non-high-risk CAD, with the former including patients with at least obstructive two-vessel CAD with proximal left anterior descending artery involvement, three-vessel CAD, and left main CAD. Death occurred in 185 (1.2%) patients. Patients were categorized into two treatment groups: revascularization (n = 1103; 2.2% mortality) and medical therapy (n = 14 120, 1.1% mortality). To account for non-randomized referral to revascularization, we created a propensity score developed by logistic regression to identify variables that influenced the decision to refer to revascularization. Within this model (C index 0.92, χ2 = 1248, P < 0.0001), obstructive CAD was the most influential factor for referral, followed by an interaction of obstructive CAD with pre-test likelihood of CAD (P = 0.0344). Within CCTA CAD groups, rates of revascularization increased from 3.8% for non-high-risk CAD to 51.2% high-risk CAD. In multivariable models, when compared with medical therapy, revascularization was associated with a survival advantage for patients with high-risk CAD [hazards ratio (HR) 0.38, 95% confidence interval 0.18–0.83], with no difference in survival for patients with non-high-risk CAD (HR 3.24, 95% CI 0.76–13.89) (P-value for interaction = 0.03). Conclusion In an intermediate-term follow-up, coronary revascularization is

  7. Urgent Coronary Revascularization with Bilateral Internal Thoracic Artery Grafting: Is the Risk Justified?

    PubMed

    Gatti, Giuseppe; Maschietto, Luca; Benussi, Bernardo; Dreas, Lorella; Forti, Gabriella; Sinagra, Gianfranco; Pappalardo, Aniello

    2016-05-13

    Background The frequent need of immediate institution of cardiopulmonary bypass because of ischemia and increased risk of bleeding and longer duration of surgery limit the use of bilateral internal thoracic artery (BITA) grafting in urgency. Patients and Methods Of 4,525 consecutive patients with multivessel coronary artery disease who underwent isolated coronary bypass surgery at the authors' institution (1999-September 2015), 121 (2.7%) patients had an operation before the beginning of the next working day after decision to operate, which is the definition for emergency according to the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation II. BITA and single internal thoracic artery (SITA) grafting were used in 52 and 46 of these patients, respectively; venous grafts alone were used in the remaining cases. BITA and SITA patients were compared as risk profiles, operative data, and outcomes. A propensity score (PS)-matched analysis was also performed. Results Between BITA and SITA patients, there was no significant difference as hospital mortality, both in the overall (3.8 vs. 6.5%; p = 0.66) and the PS-matched series (0 vs. 4.3%; p = 1). Among the postoperative complications, only bleeding (but not blood transfusion nor mediastinal re-exploration) was increased both in the overall (p = 0.037) and the PS-matched series of BITA patients (p = 0.092); duration of surgery was increased but not quite significantly (p = 0.12). Freedom from cardiac and cerebrovascular deaths, and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events were higher in PS-matched BITA patients, even though not quite significantly (p = 0.11 for both). Conclusion BITA grafting may be performed even in urgency. With respect to SITA grafting, hospital mortality and postoperative complications other than bleeding are not increased; late outcomes seem to be better.

  8. Outcome of Successful Versus Unsuccessful Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Chronic Total Occlusions in One Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Sohrabi, Bahram; Ghaffari, Samad; Habibzadeh, Afshin; Chaichi, Parastoo; Kamalifar, Amir

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic total occlusions (CTO) comprises already one-third of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs). There is controversy in PCI results considering short-term and long-term outcomes. We aim to compare efficacy and outcome of successful versus unsuccessful PCI in CTO in 1 year follow-up. Methods In this retrospective study we choose 330 consecutive patients undergone PCI on a CTO of a native coronary artery (163 successful and 167 unsuccessful) in Madani Heart Hospital, Tabriz, Iran. Patients were followed for a mean period of about 15 ± 3 months. Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in hospital and in follow-up were recorded comprising death, acute myocardial infarction, and need for repeat revascularization. Results Patients with unsuccessful PCI compared to successful PCI were mainly male (87.4% vs. 77.3%; P < 0.02), had a higher incidence of diabetes mellitus (31.1% vs. 20.9%; P < 0.04) and hypertension (53.3% vs. 42.3%; P < 0.04). Most patients in successful group had single vessel disease (63.4% vs. 46.7%; P < 0.001) and less three-vessel disease (11.8% vs. 22.8%) compared to unsuccessful group. In-hospital MACE was insignificantly higher in unsuccessful PCI (17.4% vs. 11%). Unsuccessful PCI was significantly associated with higher rate of 12 months MACE (43.7% vs. 30.1%, P = 0.01), especially revascularization (41.3% vs. 25.2%, P = 0.02). Conclusion Although in hospital outcome was the same between groups, patients with successful PCI of CTO had a better one year follow-up outcome than unsuccessful PCI. However mortality rate was the same and main complications were due to revascularization.

  9. Cost-effectiveness of everolimus- versus paclitaxel-eluting stents for patients undergoing percutaneous coronary revascularization (from the SPIRIT-IV Trial).

    PubMed

    Amin, Amit P; Reynolds, Matthew R; Lei, Yang; Magnuson, Elizabeth A; Vilain, Katherine; Durtschi, Amy J; Simonton, Charles A; Stone, Gregg W; Cohen, David J

    2012-09-15

    Although several drug-eluting stents (DESs) have been shown to be economically attractive compared to bare-metal stents in patients at moderate to high risk of restenosis, little is known about the cost-effectiveness of alternative DES designs, especially second-generation DESs. We therefore performed an economic substudy alongside the SPIRIT-IV trial, in which 3,687 patients undergoing single or multivessel percutaneous coronary intervention were randomized to receive second-generation everolimus-eluting stents (EESs; n = 2,458) or first-generation paclitaxel-eluting stents (PESs; n = 1,229). Costs through 2 years of follow-up were assessed from the perspective of the United States health care system. The primary cost-effectiveness end point was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio assessed as cost per quality-adjusted life year gained. Over a 2-year period, use of EESs versus PESs led to a trend toward decreased overall repeat revascularization procedures (14.2 vs 16.2 per 100 subjects, p = 0.20) driven by a significant decrease in the number of target vessel revascularization procedures (8.2 vs 11.0 per 100 subjects, p = 0.02) but also a slight increase in the number of nontarget vessel revascularization procedures (6.0 vs 5.1 per 100 subjects, p = 0.37). Follow-up cardiovascular costs were decreased by $273/patient in the EES group (95% confidence interval for difference 1,048 less to 502 more, p = 0.49). Formal cost-effectiveness analysis based on these results demonstrated that the probability that EES was an economically attractive strategy (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio <$50,000/quality-adjusted life year gained) was 85.7%. These findings demonstrate that in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with DESs, use of EESs is economically attractive compared to PESs with improved clinical outcomes and lower overall medical care costs at 2 years.

  10. Hybrid Coronary Artery Revascularization for Takayasu Arteritis with Major Visceral Collateral Circulation from the Left Internal Thoracic Artery

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Hyung Tae; Kim, Jeong-Won; Yoo, Jae Suk; Cho, Kwang Ree

    2017-01-01

    Coronary arterial involvement in Takayasu arteritis (TA) is not uncommon. Herein, we describe a case of TA with celiac trunk and superior mesenteric artery occlusion combined with coronary artery disease. Bilateral huge internal thoracic arteries (ITAs) and the inferior mesenteric artery provided the major visceral collateral circulation. After percutaneous intervention to the right coronary artery, off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting for the left coronary territory was done using a right ITA graft and its large side branch because of its relatively minor contribution to the visceral collateral circulation. PMID:28382269

  11. Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials Comparing Multivessel Versus Culprit-Only Revascularization for Patients With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction and Multivessel Disease Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    El-Hayek, Georges E; Gershlick, Anthony H; Hong, Mun K; Casso Dominguez, Abel; Banning, Amerjeet; Afshar, Arash Ehteshami; Herzog, Eyal; Tamis-Holland, Jacqueline E

    2015-06-01

    Current guidelines recommend against revascularization of the noninfarct artery during the index percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in hemodynamically stable patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). This was based largely on observational studies with few data coming from randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Recently, several small-to-moderate sized RCTs have provided data, suggesting that a multivessel revascularization approach may be appropriate. We performed a meta-analysis of RCTs comparing multivessel percutaneous coronary intervention (MV PCI) versus culprit vessel-only revascularization (COR) during primary PCI in patients with STEMI and multivessel coronary disease (MVCD). We searched Medline, PubMed, and Scopus databases for RCTs comparing MV PCI versus COR in patients with STEMI and MVCD. The incidence of all-cause death, cardiac death, recurrent myocardial infarction, and revascularization during follow-up were extracted. Four RCTs fit our primary selection criteria. Among these, 566 patients underwent MV PCI (either at the time of the primary PCI or as a staged procedure) and 478 patients underwent COR. During long-term follow-up (range 1 to 2.5 years), combined data indicated a significant reduction in all-cause mortality (relative risk [RR] 0.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.36 to 0.92, p = 0.02) and in cardiac death (RR 0.38, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.73, p = 0.004) with MV PCI. In addition, there was a significantly lower risk of recurrent myocardial infarction (RR 0.41, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.75; p = 0.004) and future revascularization (RR 0.37, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.52; p <0.00001). In conclusion, from the RCT data, MV PCI appears to improve outcomes in patients with STEMI and MVCD.

  12. Concomitant cerebral, brachiocephalic trunk, and cardiac revascularization. An unusual case.

    PubMed Central

    Jebara, V A; Tabet, G; Nasnas, R; Rassi, I; Karam, B; Asmar, B; Ashoush, R; el Adem, N

    1995-01-01

    Extensive transthoracic brachiocephalic revascularization is rarely performed. Instances of this operation performed concomitantly with cardiac revascularization and carotid endarterectomy have been reported in fewer than 10 cases in the literature. We report the case of a patient requiring complex brachiocephalic revascularization associated with coronary bypass grafting and a left carotid endarterectomy. Images PMID:7787477

  13. Time trends in coronary revascularization procedures among people with COPD: analysis of the Spanish national hospital discharge data (2001–2011)

    PubMed Central

    de Miguel-Díez, Javier; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; Hernández-Barrera, Valentín; Carrasco-Garrido, Pilar; Bueno, Héctor; Puente-Maestu, Luis; Jimenez-Trujillo, Isabel; Alvaro-Meca, Alejandro; Esteban-Hernandez, Jesús; de Andrés, Ana López

    2015-01-01

    Background People with COPD suffering from coronary artery disease are frequently treated with revascularization procedures. We aim to compare trends in the use and outcomes of these procedures in COPD and non-COPD patients in Spain between 2001 and 2011. Methods We identified all patients who had undergone percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) and coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgeries, using national hospital discharge data. Discharges were grouped into: COPD and no COPD. Results From 2001 to 2011, 428,516 PCIs and 79,619 CABGs were performed. The sex and age-adjusted use of PCI increased by 21.27% per year from 2001 to 2004 and by 5.47% per year from 2004 to 2011 in patients with COPD. In-hospital mortality (IHM) among patients with COPD who underwent a PCI increased significantly from 2001 to 2011 (odds ratio 1.11; 95% confidence interval 1.03–1.20). Among patients with COPD who underwent a CABG, the sex and age-adjusted CABG incidence rate increased by 9.77% per year from 2001 to 2003, and then decreased by 3.15% through 2011. The probability of dying during hospitalization in patients who underwent a CABG did not change significantly in patients with and without COPD (odds ratio, 1.06; 95% confidence interval 0.96–1.17). Conclusion The annual percent change in PCI procedures increased in COPD and non-COPD patients. We found a decrease in the use of CABG procedures in both groups. IHM was higher in patients with COPD who underwent a PCI than in those without COPD. However, COPD did not increase the probability of dying during hospitalization in patients who underwent a CABG. PMID:26543361

  14. Anomalous Single Coronary Artery Presenting with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Padmakumar; Krishnan, Anand Muthu; Chowdary, Ravella Keerthika; Malpe, Umesh Pai

    2016-01-01

    The anomalous origin of the entire coronary system from the right coronary sinus is a very rare anomaly. Here a patient with this rare anomaly, who developed acute coronary syndrome, requiring revascularization, is presented and treated successfully. His coronary angiographic findings are also discussed. We would like to highlight the rarity of the origin of all 3 coronary arteries from a single coronary trunk. The case also highlights the importance of using Amplantzer AR1 guiding catheter for such anatomical variations arising in the right coronary cusp. PMID:28208910

  15. One-year outcomes after successful chronic total occlusion percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Wilson, W M; Walsh, S J; Bagnall, A; Yan, A T; Hanratty, C G; Egred, M; Smith, E; Oldroyd, K G; McEntegart, M; Irving, J; Douglas, H; Strange, J; Spratt, J C

    2017-03-15

    We aimed to determine clinical outcomes 1 year after successful chronic total occlusion (CTO) PCI and, in particular, whether use of dissection and re-entry strategies affects clinical outcomes. Hybrid approaches have increased the procedural success of CTO percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) but longer-term outcomes are unknown, particularly in relation to dissection and re-entry techniques. Data were collected for consecutive CTO PCIs performed by hybrid-trained operators from 7 United Kingdom (UK) centres between 2012 and 2014. The primary endpoint (death, myocardial infarction, unplanned target vessel revascularization) was measured at 12 months along with angina status. One-year follow up data were available for 96% of successful cases (n = 805). In total, 85% of patients had a CCS angina class of 2-4 prior to CTO PCI. Final successful procedural strategy was antegrade wire escalation 48%; antegrade dissection and re-entry (ADR) 21%; retrograde wire escalation 5%; retrograde dissection and re-entry (RDR) 26%. Overall, 47% of CTOs were recanalized using dissection and re-entry strategies. During a mean follow up of 11.5 ± 3.8 months, the primary endpoint occurred in 8.6% (n = 69) of patients (10.3% (n = 39/375) in DART group and 7.0% (n = 30/430) in wire-based cases). The majority of patients (88%) had no or minimal angina (CCS class 0 or 1). ADR and RDR were used more frequently in more complex cases with greater disease burden, however, the only independent predictor of the primary endpoint was lesion length. CTO PCI in complex lesions using the hybrid approach is safe, effective and has a low one-year adverse event rate. The method used to recanalize arteries was not associated with adverse outcomes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Successful Treatment of Resistant Hypertension by Means of Chronic Renal Artery Occlusion Revascularization in a Fragile Patient

    PubMed Central

    Spezia, Laura; Perandini, Simone; Augelli, Raffaele; Puppini, Giovanni; Montemezzi, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Renal artery stenosis is a common cause of secondary hypertension refractory to medical therapy. Percutaneous angioplasty along with metallic stent placement has been described as an effective treatment for revascularization of the renal artery. Case Report A 54-year-old woman affected by paranoid schizophrenia with a history of hypertension and chronic renal failure due to renal artery occlusion was treated by endovascular recanalization and stent placement that resulted in improvement of renal function and control of hypertension. Laboratory studies 4 months after the revascularization revealed blood creatinine decrease gradually from 8.57 mg/dL to 3 mg/dL. Conclusions Revascularization with stenting has proven to be a safe and effective procedure in the treatment of total renal artery occlusion which also led to a significant relief at a psychological level. PMID:27882189

  17. ACC/AATS/AHA/ASE/ASNC/SCAI/SCCT/STS 2016 Appropriate Use Criteria for Coronary Revascularization in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndromes : A Report of the American College of Cardiology Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force, American Association for Thoracic Surgery, American Heart Association, American Society of Echocardiography, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons.

    PubMed

    Patel, Manesh R; Calhoon, John H; Dehmer, Gregory J; Grantham, James Aaron; Maddox, Thomas M; Maron, David J; Smith, Peter K

    2017-03-06

    The American College of Cardiology, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Thoracic Surgeons, and American Association for Thoracic Surgery, along with key specialty and subspecialty societies, have completed a 2-part revision of the appropriate use criteria (AUC) for coronary revascularization. In prior coronary revascularization AUC documents, indications for revascularization in acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and stable ischemic heart disease were combined into 1 document. To address the expanding clinical indications for coronary revascularization, and in an effort to align the subject matter with the most current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines, the new AUC for coronary artery revascularization were separated into 2 documents addressing ACS and stable ischemic heart disease individually. This document presents the AUC for ACS. Clinical scenarios were developed to mimic patient presentations encountered in everyday practice and included information on symptom status, presence of clinical instability or ongoing ischemic symptoms, prior reperfusion therapy, risk level as assessed by noninvasive testing, fractional flow reserve testing, and coronary anatomy. This update provides a reassessment of clinical scenarios that the writing group felt to be affected by significant changes in the medical literature or gaps from prior criteria. The methodology used in this update is similar to the initial document but employs the recent modifications in the methods for developing AUC, most notably, alterations in the nomenclature for appropriate use categorization. A separate, independent rating panel scored the clinical scenarios on a scale of 1 to 9. Scores of 7 to 9 indicate that revascularization is considered appropriate for the clinical scenario presented. Scores of 1 to 3 indicate that revascularization is considered rarely appropriate for the clinical scenario, whereas scores in the mid-range (4 to 6

  18. On-pump versus off-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery among patients with type 2 diabetes in the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes trial†

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ashima; Schaff, Hartzell V.; Mori Brooks, Maria; Hlatky, Mark A.; Wisniewski, Stephen R.; Frye, Robert L.; Sako, Edward Y.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Conclusive evidence is lacking regarding the benefits and risks of performing off-pump versus on-pump coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) for patients with diabetes. This study aims to compare clinical outcomes after off-pump and on-pump procedures for patients with diabetes. METHODS The Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) trial enrolled patients with type 2 diabetes and documented coronary artery disease, 615 of whom underwent CABG during the trial. The procedural complications, 30-day outcomes, long-term clinical and functional outcomes were compared between the off-pump and on-pump groups overall and within a subset of patients matched on propensity score. RESULTS On-pump CABG was performed in 444 (72%) patients, and off-pump CABG in 171 (28%). The unadjusted 30-day rate of death/myocardial infarction (MI)/stroke was significantly higher after off-pump CABG (7.0 vs 2.9%, P = 0.02) despite fewer complications (10.3 vs 20.7%, P = 0.003). The long-term risk of death [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR): 1.41, P = 0.2197] and major cardiovascular events (death, MI or stroke) (aHR: 1.47, P = 0.1061) did not differ statistically between the off-pump and on-pump patients. Within the propensity-matched sample (153 pairs), patients who underwent off-pump CABG had a higher risk of the composite outcome of death, MI or stroke (aHR: 1.83, P = 0.046); the rates of procedural complications and death did not differ significantly, and there were no significant differences in the functional outcomes. CONCLUSIONS Patients with diabetes had greater risk of major cardiovascular events long-term after off-pump CABG than after on-pump CABG. PMID:25968885

  19. CT Angiography for Revascularization of CTO: Crossing the Borders of Diagnosis and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Opolski, Maksymilian P; Achenbach, Stephan

    2015-07-01

    Coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) is increasingly used to diagnose and rule out coronary artery disease. Beyond stenosis detection, the ability of CTA to visualize and characterize coronary atherosclerotic plaque, as well as to obtain 3-dimensional coronary vessel trajectories, has generated considerable interest in the context of pre-procedural planning for revascularization of chronic total occlusions (CTOs). Coronary CTA can characterize features that influence the success rate of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for CTOs such as the extent of calcification, vessel tortuosity, stump morphology, presence of multiple occlusions, and lesion length. Single features and combined scoring systems based on CTA may be used to grade the level of difficulty of the CTOs before PCI and have been shown to predict procedural success rates in several trials. In addition, the procedure itself may be facilitated by real-time integration of 3-dimensional CTA data and fluoroscopic images in the catheterization laboratory. Finally, the ability of coronary CTA to assess anatomy, perfusion, and viability in 1 single examination makes it a potential "one stop shop" that predicts not only the likelihood of successful PCI but also the clinical benefit of CTO revascularization. Further research is clearly needed, but many experienced sites have already integrated coronary CTA into the routine planning and guiding of CTO procedures.

  20. Procedural and follow-up outcomes among patients undergoing successful recanalisation of coronary chronic total occlusions using biolimus drug-eluting stents.

    PubMed

    Saraf, S; Cockburn, J; Ferreira, I; Hopkins, S; Hildick-Smith, D

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the outcome of Biolimus eluting stent (BES) implantation in the treatment of chronic total coronary occlusions (CTO). We identified patients who underwent successful angioplasty for a CTO lesion with ≥1 BES between June 2008 and March 2012. All patients were followed up for major adverse cardiac events (MACE), which comprised death, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), cerebrovascular accident, target vessel revascularization (TVR), target lesion revascularization (TLR) and stent thrombosis. 125 patients underwent successful CTO angioplasty with ≥1 Biolimus-eluting stents. Mean age was 63.8 ± 12.0 years, and 82.4 % were males. Lesion location was right coronary artery (n = 80, 64 %), left anterior descending artery (n = 35, 28 %) and left circumflex artery (n = 10, 8 %). During follow-up of 579 ± 293 days, all cause mortality was n = 8 (6.4 %) patients, non-fatal MI was n = 3 (2.4 %), TVR was n = 3 (2.4 %) and TLR was n = 1 (0.8 %). Overall MACE was, therefore, n = 15 (12 %). BES is safe and effective in treatment of CTO lesions, with a low rate of major adverse cardiovascular events during follow-up.

  1. Staged versus One-Time Complete Revascularization with Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in STEMI Patients with Multivessel Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qingqing; Chen, Xiaomin

    2017-01-01

    Introduction In patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), the preferred intervention is percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).Whether staged PCI (S-PCI) or one-time complete PCI (MV-PCI) is more beneficial and safer in terms of treating the non-culprit vessel during the primary PCI procedure is unclear. We performed a meta-analysis of all randomized and non-randomized controlled trials comparing S-PCI with MV-PCI in patients with acute STEMI and MVD. Methods Studies of STEMI with multivessel disease receiving primary PCI were searched in PUBMED, EMBASE and The Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials from January 2004 to December 2014. The primary end points were long-term rates of major adverse cardiovascular events and their components—mortality, reinfarction, and target-vessel revascularization. Data were combined using a fixed-effects model. Results Of 507 citations, 10 studies (4 randomized, 6 nonrandomized; 820 patients, 562 staged PCI and 347 one-time, complete multi-vessel PCI) were included. S-PCI compared to MV-PCI significantly reduced mortality both long-term (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.29–0.66, P<0.0001, I2 = 0%) and short-term (OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.1–0.51, P = 0.0003, I2 = 0%). There was a trend toward reduced risk of MACE with s-PCI compared with MV-PCI (OR 0.83, 0.62–1.12, P = 0.22, I2 = 0%). No difference between S-PCI and MV-PCI was observed in reinfarction (OR 0.97, 0.61–1.55, P = 0.91, I2 = 0%), or target vessel revascularization (OR1.17, 95% CI 0.81–1.69, P = 0.40, I2 = 8%). Conclusions The staged strategy for non-culprit lesions improved short- and long-term survival and should remain the standard approach to primary PCI in patients with STEMI; one-time complete multivessel PCI may be associated with greater mortality risk. However, additional large, randomized trials are required to confirm the optimal timing of a staged procedure on the non-culprit vessel in STEMI. PMID:28107455

  2. The significance of coronary topography for operative technique and tactics in multiple myocardial revascularization with jump-grafts.

    PubMed

    Eschenbruch, E M; Pabst, F; Tollenaere, P; Roskamm, H; Schmuziger, M

    1981-08-01

    Aortocoronary bypass procedures for proximal lesions are accepted with widely documented excellent results, but are still controversial in their application for diffuse disease. However, failures of the single graft technique to small coronary branches with marginal flows are markedly reduced by the jump technique. In our experience with 447 angiographic controls from April 1978 to December 1980, the jump-graft patency rate was 87.8% versus 84.9% for single grafts, and as high as 96.3% in the subgroup of multiple jumps (sequential grafts). The sequence of the anastomoses as far as the individual flow is concerned significantly influences the results of the jump-graft technique.

  3. Does off-pump coronary revascularization confer superior organ protection in re-operative coronary artery surgery? A meta-analysis of observational studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery (OPCAB) has been hypothesised to be beneficial in the high-risk patient population undergoing re-operative coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). In addition, this technique has been demonstrated to provide subtle benefits in end-organ function including heart, lungs and kidney. The aims of this study were to assess whether OPCAB is associated with a lower incidence of major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) and other adverse outcomes in re-operative coronary surgery. Twelve studies, incorporating 3471 patients were identified by systematic literature review. These were meta-analysed using random-effects modelling. Primary endpoints were MACCE and other adverse outcomes including myocardial infarction, stroke, renal dysfunction, low cardiac output state, respiratory failure and atrial fibrillation. A significantly lower incidence of myocardial infarction, stroke, renal dysfunction, low cardiac output state, respiratory failure and atrial fibrillation was observed with OPCAB (OR 0.58; 95% CI (confidence interval) [0.39-0.87]; OR 0.37; 95% CI [0.17-0.79]; OR 0.39; 95% CI [0.24-0.63]; OR 0.14; 95% CI [0.04-0.56]; OR 0.36; 95% CI [0.24-0.54]; OR 0.41; 95% CI [0.22-0.77] respectively). Sub-group analysis using sample size, matching score and quality score was consistent with and reflected these significant findings. Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting reduces peri-operative and short-term major adverse outcomes in patients undergoing re-operative surgery. Consequently we conclude that OPCAB provides superior organ protection and a safer outcome profile in re-operative CABG. PMID:24961148

  4. Biocorrodible metals for coronary revascularization: Lessons from PROGRESS-AMS, BIOSOLVE-I, and BIOSOLVE-II

    PubMed Central

    Bouchi, Yasir H.; Gogas, Bill D.

    2015-01-01

    The impetus for developing drug-eluting bioresorbable scaffolds (BRS) has been driven by the need for elastic and transient platforms instead of stiff and permanent metallic implants in diseased coronary anatomies. This endeavor would prevent acute recoil or occlusion, allow sealing of post-procedural dissections following acute barotrauma, provide inhibition of in-segment restenosis through efficient drug-elution and would further prepare the vessel to enter a reparative phase following scaffold resorption. Biocorrodible metallic platforms have been introduced as alternatives to bioresorbable polymeric scaffolds for the treatment of significant atherosclerosis and in view of the body of evidence derived from recent clinical trials we elaborate on the clinical safety and efficacy of these devices in interventional cardiology. PMID:26925408

  5. Biocorrodible metals for coronary revascularization: Lessons from PROGRESS-AMS, BIOSOLVE-I, and BIOSOLVE-II.

    PubMed

    Bouchi, Yasir H; Gogas, Bill D

    2015-01-01

    The impetus for developing drug-eluting bioresorbable scaffolds (BRS) has been driven by the need for elastic and transient platforms instead of stiff and permanent metallic implants in diseased coronary anatomies. This endeavor would prevent acute recoil or occlusion, allow sealing of post-procedural dissections following acute barotrauma, provide inhibition of in-segment restenosis through efficient drug-elution and would further prepare the vessel to enter a reparative phase following scaffold resorption. Biocorrodible metallic platforms have been introduced as alternatives to bioresorbable polymeric scaffolds for the treatment of significant atherosclerosis and in view of the body of evidence derived from recent clinical trials we elaborate on the clinical safety and efficacy of these devices in interventional cardiology.

  6. [Ability to Overcome the Thrombocyte Resistance to Acetylsalicylic Acid in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease After Myocardial Revascularization With Coronary Stenting].

    PubMed

    Pershukov, I V; Ostaschenko, S L; Kuznetsova, T N; Scherbo, S N; Karben, Z A; Sokryukina, E V; Omarov, A A; Ramazanov, D M; Bosak, N V; Shulzhenko, L V; Kalmatov, R K; Batyraliev, T A; Sidorenko, B A

    2016-07-01

    Resistance to acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) in patients with coronary artery disease is a poor predictor for the development of atherothrombotic complications. In 277 patients with coronary artery disease suffered uncomplicated coronary angioplasty with stent implantation, we was estimated arachidon-induced platelet aggregation during treatment with acetylsalicylic acid by bedside VerifyNow Assay test at 28-90 days after the intervention. It was found that 18.9% of the 144 patients receiving a combination of ASA 75 mg with 15.2 mg of magnesium hydroxide had true (laboratory) resistance to ASA. At the same time on the original enteric coated ASA 100 mg, we can found only 0.8% resistance to ASA among 129 patients. We made switch from combination of ASA 75 mg with 15.2 mg of magnesium hydroxide to original enteric coated ASA 100 mg and repeat VerifyNow Assay test at 2-4 days and found lost of resistance in 92% of 28 patients. Thus, resistance to the ASA is not constant, it depends on the form and the applied dose of ASA, and eliminating more than 92% when ASA changes from ineffective to effective form.

  7. Does Remote Ischaemic Preconditioning Protect Kidney and Cardiomyocytes After Coronary Revascularization? A Double Blind Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Nouraei, Seyed Mahmoud; Baradari, Afshin Gholipour; Jazayeri, Asieh

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate efficacy of remote ischaemic preconditioning on reducing kidney injury and myocardial damage after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG). Background: Ischaemic preconditioning of a remote organ reduces ischaemia-reperfusion injury of kidney and myocardium after CABG. Method: To reduce myocardial damage and kidney injury by applying Remote Ischaemic Preconditioning we recruited 100 consecutive patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. We applied three cycles of lower limb tourniquet, inflated its cuff for 5 minutes in study group or left un-inflated (sham or control group) before the procedure. The primary outcome was serum creatinine, creatinine clearance and troponin-I Levels at time 0, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h. Secondary outcomes were serum C-reactive protein, inotrope score, ventilation time and ICU stay. Data’s were analyzed by MedCalc (MedCalc Software bvba, Acacialaan, Belgium). We compared the two group by student t test, chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests. Results: The two groups were not statistically different in terms of age, gender, smoking habits, drug use, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and diabetes mellitus. This study showed a higher CRP level in study group comparing with control group (P=0.003), creatinine clearance was slightly higher in study group specially 24 h after procedure but was not statistically significant (p=0.11). Troponin-I level was significantly lower in study group (p=0.001). Conclusion: This study showed a lower Troponin-I level in study group which suggest a cardio-myocyte protective function of RIPC. It also showed slightly lower Creatinine clearance in control group, gap between two group increases significantly 24 hours after procedure which may suggest a potential kidney protection by RIPC. Serum CRP level was higher in study group. A multi-center randomized controlled trial with a longer time for creatinine clearance measurement may show the potential effectiveness of

  8. A Report of Successful Procedural, Clinical, and Angiographic Outcomes with a Tapered Stent of a Patient in Naturally Tapered Coronary Vessel

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Yerra Shiv

    2017-01-01

    In cases involving stenosis or occlusions in major parts of a long vessel, natural tapering of coronary vessels may create dilemma in deciding the optimal stent size during percutaneous coronary intervention. In this regard, tapered stents have been developed recently. Herein, we present a case of 67-year-old male patient with triple vessel disease including two tandem lesions in naturally tapered Left Anterior Descending (LAD) artery. The patient received a 3.0–2.5x60 mm Sirolimus-eluting BioMime Morph stent (Meril life Sciences, Gujarat, India) in the mid-distal LAD lesion along with conventional stent implantations in other two lesions. The procedure was successful and good coronary flow was obtained after revascularization. The patient remained asymptomatic thereafter. At one year, angiographic follow-up revealed good flow and no restenosis in the LAD vessel. We are of opinion that using tapered stents with decremented diameter may offer the advantages of excellent adaptation to vessel size, vessel tapering, and good apposition in patients with long coronary lesions in tapered vessels. PMID:28273994

  9. Successful embolization of iatrogenic ruptured coronary artery using Onyx: a new technique.

    PubMed

    Asouhidou, I; Katsaridis, V

    2014-12-01

    Iatrogenic perforation of coronary artery is rare during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI); however the complications are life-threatening. Patients in this clinical setting may be treated either by stent placement, closure of the perforation with fibrin glue or coils, or with emergency bypass surgery. Onyx, a new material that has been used successfully in cerebral arteries, represents a new and safe alternative. The advantage of Onyx is that it is easily injected through a microcatheter and it allows for a longer injection time having also the ability to reach difficult anatomical locations. We present the first case of successful embolization of a right coronary artery perforation during coronary angiography using Onyx.

  10. Coronary-to-Bronchial Artery Communication: Report of Two Patients Successfully Treated by Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Jarry, Genevieve; Bruaire, Jean-Pierre; Commeau, Philippe; Hermida, Jean-Sylvain; Leborgne, Laurent; Auquier, Marie-Anne; Delonca, Jean; Quiret, Jean-Claude; Remond, Alexandre

    1999-05-15

    We report two cases of coronary-to-bronchial artery communication responsible for coronary steal. In both cases the anastomosis originated from the proximal circumflex artery and developed because of bronchiectasis. In both cases closure of the anastomosis was achieved successfully by embolization. To date, the patients remained free from symptoms.

  11. Woven Coronary Artery Disease Successfully Managed with Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A New Case Report.

    PubMed

    Alsancak, Yakup; Sezenoz, Burak; Turkoglu, Sedat; Abacı, Adnan

    2015-01-01

    Woven coronary artery is relatively rare and can be complicated in both acute and chronic phases. A few case reports have been published until now. Herein we report a case with right woven coronary artery managed with drug-eluted stent implantation without complication.

  12. [Percutaneous myocardial laser revascularization (PMR)].

    PubMed

    Lauer, B; Stahl, F; Bratanow, S; Schuler, G

    2000-09-01

    In patients with severe angina pectoris due to coronary artery disease, who are not candidates for either percutaneous coronary angioplasty or coronary artery bypass surgery, transmyocardial laser revascularization (TMR) often leads to improvement of clinical symptoms and increased exercise capacity. One drawback of TMR is the need for surgical thoracotomy in order to gain access to the epicardial surface of the heart. Therefore, a catheter-based system has been developed, which allows creation of laser channels into the myocardium from the left ventricular cavity. Between January 1997 and November 1999, this "percutaneous myocardial laser revascularization" (PMR) has been performed in 101 patients at the Herzzentrum Leipzig. In 63 patients, only 1 region of the heart (anterior, lateral, inferior or septal) was treated with PMR, in 38 patients 2 or 3 regions were treated in 1 session. There were 12.3 +/- 4.5 (range 4 to 22) channels/region created into the myocardium. After 3 months, the majority of patients reported significant improvement of clinical symptoms (CCS class at baseline: 3.3 +/- 0.4, after 6 months: 1.6 +/- 0.8) (p < 0.001) and an increased exercise capacity (baseline: 397 +/- 125 s, after 6 months: 540 +/- 190 s) (p < 0.05). After 2 years, the majority of patients had experienced sustained clinical benefit after PMR, the CCS class after 2 years was 1.3 +/- 0.7, exercise capacity was 500 +/- 193 s. However, thallium scintigraphy failed to show increased perfusion in the PMR treated regions. The pathophysiologic mechanisms of myocardial laser revascularization is not yet understood. Most of the laser channels are found occluded after various time intervals after intervention. Other possible mechanisms include myocardial denervation or angioneogenesis after laser revascularization, however, unequivocal evidence for these theories is not yet available. In conclusion, PMR seems to be a safe and feasible new therapeutic option for patients with refractory

  13. Complete Revascularization of Simultaneous Multiple Culprit Lesions in a Septuagenarian with ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Ifedili, Ikechukwu A.; Bob-Manuel, Tamunoinemi; Bolorunduro, Oluwaseyi; Askari, Raza; Ibebuogu, Uzoma N.

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Female, 74 Final Diagnosis: Multiple culprit lesions in ST-elevation myocardial infarction Symptoms: Chest pain • shortness of breath Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Cardiac catheterization Specialty: Cardiology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is usually caused by rupture of unstable plaque with thrombus formation and abrupt cessation of blood flow through a single coronary artery that is deemed the culprit. The simultaneous thrombotic occlusions of multiple coronary arteries in the setting of STEMI is a rare occurrence with implications for patient management and outcome not fully addressed in the current STEMI guidelines, although more recent studies suggest a benefit of complete revascularization compared to culprit vessel-only treatment in the setting of STEMI. Case Report: A 74-year-old female presented with STEMI. Coronary angiography revealed simultaneous multiple coronary thrombotic occlusions involving the right coronary, left circumflex, and ramus intermedius arteries successfully treated with primary percutaneous revascularization at the same setting with good outcome and short hospital length of stay. Conclusions: Although the most appropriate timing to treat simultaneous multiple culprit lesions has yet to be definitively defined, multi-vessel percutaneous coronary intervention in the setting of a STEMI with multiple culprit lesions is feasible with good outcome as shown by our index case. PMID:28035135

  14. Applied Pathology for Interventions of Coronary Chronic Total Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Phillip; Phan, Hung; Shah, Sara R; Latif, Faisal; Nguyen, Thach

    2015-01-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention of chronically occluded vessels can result in significant improvement in symptoms, relieve myocardial ischemia, and affect a reduction in major adverse cardiac events. Likelihood of achieving successful revascularization can be significantly enhanced with a thorough understanding of the pathology of these occluded coronary arteries. In this chapter, various steps and techniques to cross the CTO lesion and recanalize it are discussed in details.

  15. [Acute coronary syndrome and cancer: which therapeutic option first?].

    PubMed

    Vicinelli, Paolo; Martinoni, Alessandro; Villani, Camillo; Zuccari, Marco; Morra, Sergio; Di Credico, Germano; D'Urbano, Maurizio

    2015-05-01

    Cardiovascular disease and cancer are the leading causes of mortality worldwide. We report our experience in a cancer patient with acute coronary syndrome successfully treated by hybrid revascularization, i.e. off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting, followed by surgical removal of the tumor and percutaneous coronary intervention. The concomitant presence of cancer and acute coronary syndrome is not rare, ranging from 1.9% to 4.2%. Usually, the most life-threatening disease should be treated first, more frequently coronary artery disease. There are several therapeutic approaches to patients with cancer and coronary artery disease and cancer, including percutaneous coronary intervention, surgical treatment of cancer, or coronary artery bypass grafting. Each of these options should consider the severity of cardiac disease, the stage of malignancy and the clinical conditions of the patient.

  16. Successful angioplasty of three cases of coronary artery dissections using hydrophilic wires

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Rajeev; Kapadia, Anuj

    2014-01-01

    Three cases of successful angioplasty of high-grade coronary dissections using hydrophilic wires were reported. Our first case had edge dissection after a stent deployed in the left anterior descending artery, after which we found it impossible to track the second stent over the regular wires, and which was successful when we tried with a stiffer hydrophilic wire. The second had spontaneous coronary artery dissections (SCAD), and the third case was a complicated plaque with multiple stenotic and ectatic segments along with dissection and successful angioplasty carried out using the same wires and without additional hardware. These wires also provided adequate support in tracking the required balloons and stents PMID:25489325

  17. Delayed aortic regurgitation caused by a right coronary stent protruding into the aorta.

    PubMed

    Quintana, Eduard; Mestres, Carlos A; Congiu, Stefano; Josa, Miguel; Cartañá, Ramon

    2009-11-01

    Aortic valve perforation is an extremely rare complication after percutaneous coronary intervention. The case is presented of a 49-year-old male with aortic valve regurgitation secondary to the intra-aortic protrusion of a right coronary stent. The patient had undergone an apparently successful rescue percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty with a drug-eluting stent following failed fibrinolysis, but one month later was readmitted for acute pulmonary edema. Further investigations demonstrated new-onset aortic regurgitation. Medical stabilization was achieved and an elective aortic valve replacement and coronary revascularization performed. Intraoperatively, the stent was found to be partially deployed within the aortic lumen, causing perforation to the non-coronary cusp.

  18. Functional Testing Underlying Coronary Revascularisation

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-04

    Multivessel Coronary Artery Disease; Vessel Disease; Stable Angina; Unstable Angina or Stabilized Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction; Patients With ST-elevated Myocardial Infarction; Revascularization of Culprit Coronary Artery

  19. Current State of Surgical Myocardial Revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Sellke, Frank W.; Chu, Louis M.; Cohn, William E.

    2016-01-01

    Despite increasing competition from percutaneous interventions and other novel methods of non-surgical coronary revascularization, coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) remains one of the most definitive and durable treatments for coronary artery disease, especially for those patients with extensive and diffuse disease. In recent years the CABG procedure itself has undergone innovation and evolution. This review article provides a brief historical perspective on the procedure, and examines the current state of modern variations including off-pump, limited-access, and robotic-assisted CABG. PMID:20467145

  20. Transmyocardial laser revascularization: surgical experience overview.

    PubMed

    Allen, K B; Shaar, C J

    2000-06-01

    Transmyocardial revascularization (TMR) using holmium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet (YAG) and carbon dioxide lasers has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of medically refractory angina in patients without conventional options. In prospective, randomized trials, patients who received TMR experienced improved angina, better-event free survival, and reduction in cardiac-related rehospitalizations when compared to patients remaining on medical therapy alone. In addition, TMR as an adjunct to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has resulted in improved clinical status for patients who would not be completely revascularized by CABG alone.

  1. Left main coronary artery atresia and associated cardiac defects: report on concomitant surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Jatene, Marcelo; Juaneda, Ignacio; Miranda, Rogerio Dos Anjos; Gato, Rafaella; Marcial, Miguel Lorenzo Barbero

    2011-10-01

    A 9-year-old boy with congenital atresia of the left main coronary artery underwent myocardial revascularization. Coarctation of the aorta and ventricular septal defect were diagnosed at the age of 1 year. At age 7 years, the child presented with syncope while exercising. Preoperative evaluation included cardiac catheterization which revealed the unexpected finding of congenital atresia of the left main coronary artery with origin of the circumflex artery from the right coronary artery. Surgical correction included myocardial revascularization by means of left internal mammary artery graft to the anterior descending coronary artery, coarctation resection, and ventricular septal defect repair. The patient recovered uneventfully. We report the details of this extremely rare case with successful concomitant surgical management of the congenital coronary artery anomaly and the associated structural heart disease.

  2. Has multivessel angioplasty displaced surgical revascularization?

    PubMed

    King, S B; Ivanhoe, R J

    1990-01-01

    Over the years, PTCA has been proved a safe and effective therapy for single-vessel CAD. Given the record of favorable results for single-vessel angioplasty, the extension of angioplasty to multivessel CAD soon followed. The successful application of PTCA to multivessel disease has been facilitated by developments in balloon, guidewire, and guide catheter technology. Success rates have been satisfactory, and complications have remained acceptable. Furthermore, as an outgrowth of an understanding of the mechanism and effect of PTCA, guidelines have been developed to aid case selection. As emphasized earlier, these guidelines should weigh heavily in deciding whether to select PTCA as a treatment modality. Presently, in our opinion, PTCA has not yet completely displaced surgery for multivessel CAD. Surgical standby is required for safe PTCA, because emergency surgery can be lifesaving and limit myocardial infarction after failed angioplasty. It is doubtful that surgery will ever relinquish its position as the treatment of choice for left main coronary artery disease. Nor will elective surgery find wide application in single-vessel disease. Whether one mode of revascularization will emerge as the most efficacious for multivessel disease related to long-term survival, limitation of cardiac events, and cost will be addressed in the analysis of the ongoing randomized trials of surgery versus angioplasty. Andreas Gruentzig established that it was possible to work within the coronary artery in an alert and comfortable patient. Interventional cardiology has experienced rapid technologic growth. Many patients formerly treated with bypass surgery can be managed effectively with angioplasty. If effective bail-out methods for acute closure are proven effective and restenosis is limited to a small percentage of patients, angioplasty in some form will further displace CABG. Until those ultimate goals are achieved, the value of angioplasty compared with bypass surgery must rest

  3. Usefulness of diastolic color kinesis imaging at rest in the diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Odo, Takafumi; Muro, Takashi; Odo, Kyoko; Kikuda, Kenji; Tamimoto, Ayako; Najima, Chiyo; Sakaino, Naritsugu; Yoshiyama, Minoru

    2009-04-01

    The authors report two cases of acute coronary syndrome diagnosed by diastolic color kinesis imaging (CKI), an echocardiographic technique facilitating regional left ventricular wall motion analysis. Although both patients had experienced chest pain within the previous several days, the pain had remitted prior to visiting the clinic. In addition, neither electrocardiography nor routine echocardiography revealed ischemic changes. However, diastolic CKI clearly showed regional diastolic asynchrony of the left ventricle. Coronary angiography revealed significant stenosis compatible with the region of diastolic asynchrony observed on diastolic CKI. The patients underwent successful coronary revascularization, and diastolic asynchrony disappeared after revascularization. These findings suggest that diastolic CKI is useful for the diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome, even at rest and in the absence of chest pain.

  4. Unstable angina pectoris secondary to multiple calcified coronary artery masses. Successful treatment with coronary artery bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Przybojewski, J Z; Barnard, P M; Van der Walt, J J; Botha, J A

    1986-05-24

    A 31-year-old doctor's wife suffered from severe unstable angina pectoris (AP) due to two large, heavily calcified masses involving the right coronary artery and the left anterior descending branch of the left coronary artery. The causes of the masses could not be determined with certainty, but in view of the history (which included the ingestion of large quantities of raw boerewors (traditional spiced sausage) and histopathological findings, we believe that they were coronary artery aneurysms which developed secondary to coronary arteritis many years previously. The possibility of echinococcal (hydatid) infection is also discussed. Cardiac surgery entailed total excision of both masses, together with sections of their accompanying coronary arteries which had become fibrotic as a result of the arteritis, and reestablishment of coronary blood flow by the insertion of two saphenous vein coronary artery bypass grafts. Her AP was dramatically relieved and she continues to be asymptomatic without taking anti-anginal drugs.

  5. Percutaneous transvenous mitral commissurotomy (PTMC) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) successfully applied in one patient in same sitting.

    PubMed

    Sial, Jawaid Akbar; Farman, Muhammad Tariq; Saghir, Tahir; Zaman, Khan Shah

    2011-01-01

    Sixty years old male with severe rheumatic mitral stenosis (MS), presented with dyspnoea New York Heart Association (NHYA) class III to IV. Coronary angiogram revealed severe occlusive coronary artery disease in left anterior coronary artery (LAD). Percutaneous Transvenous Mitral Commissurotomy (PTMC) and Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) of Left Anterior Descurery (LAD) were done in same sitting. Both procedures were successful and ended without complication. After, half an hour while shifting to coronary care unit (CCU) patient developed cardiac tamponade, which was managed successfully. Patient was followed up for three month, he is doing well and recent echocardiogram showed mild mitral stenosis with normal left ventricular function. This case demonstrates the feasibility of the combined appliance on interventional techniques in selected patients as an alternative to cardiac surgery.

  6. Association between cholesterol efflux capacity and coronary restenosis after successful stent implantation.

    PubMed

    Imaizumi, Satoshi; Miura, Shin-Ichiro; Takata, Kohei; Takamiya, Yosuke; Kuwano, Takashi; Sugihara, Makoto; Ike, Amane; Iwata, Atsushi; Nishikawa, Hiroaki; Saku, Keijiro

    2016-08-01

    The measurement of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) functionality could be useful for identifying patients who have an increased risk of coronary restenosis after stent implantation. In the present study, we elucidates whether HDL functionality can predict restenosis. The participants included 48 consecutive patients who had stable angina and were successfully implanted with a drug-eluting stent (DES) or bare-metal stent. Follow-up coronary angiography was performed after 6-8 months of stenting. Cholesterol efflux and the anti-inflammatory capacity of HDL were measured before stenting (at baseline) and at follow-up. The mean age was 64 ± 11 years and the body mass index was 24 ± 3 kg/m(2). While HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) significantly increased from baseline to follow-up, there was no significant association between HDL-C level at baseline and in-stent late loss. Cholesterol efflux capacity was significantly increased from baseline to follow-up. The efflux capacity at baseline was negatively correlated with in-stent late loss, whereas the anti-oxidative activity of HDL at baseline was not associated with in-stent late loss. We analyzed the predictors of in-stent late loss using independent variables (efflux capacity and anti-oxidative capacity at baseline in addition to age, gender, HDL-C and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol at baseline, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, lesion length and DES implantation, history of myocardial infarction and prior percutaneous coronary intervention) by a multiple regression analysis. The efflux capacity at baseline was only independently associated with in-stent late loss. In conclusion, cholesterol efflux capacity at baseline could predict coronary restenosis in patients with successful stent implantation.

  7. CT Imaging of Coronary Stents: Past, Present, and Future

    PubMed Central

    Mahnken, Andreas H.

    2012-01-01

    Coronary stenting became a mainstay in coronary revascularization therapy. Despite tremendous advances in therapy, in-stent restenosis (ISR) remains a key problem after coronary stenting. Coronary CT angiography evolved as a valuable tool in the diagnostic workup of patients after coronary revascularization therapy. It has a negative predictive value in the range of 98% for ruling out significant ISR. As CT imaging of coronary stents depends on patient and stent characteristics, patient selection is crucial for success. Ideal candidates have stents with a diameter of 3 mm and more. Nevertheless, even with most recent CT scanners, about 8% of stents are not accessible mostly due to blooming or motion artifacts. While the diagnosis of ISR is currently based on the visual assessment of the stent lumen, functional information on the hemodynamic significance of in-stent stenosis became available with the most recent generation of dual source CT scanners. This paper provides a comprehensive overview on previous developments, current techniques, and clinical evidence for cardiac CT in patients with coronary artery stents. PMID:22997590

  8. Complete heart block in late presentation of inferior STEMI successfully treated with percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Liang, Michael; Chin, John; Pasupati, Sanjeevan

    2011-09-01

    A 55-year-old female presented with 4-day history of fatigue and exertional shortness of breath. A late presentation inferior ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) was diagnosed based on ST elevation in the inferior leads of electrocardiography and elevated cardiac troponin T (TnT). She developed complete heart block 1 day after admission to the hospital and remained hemodynamically stable. She was taken to the catheterization laboratory for a temporary pacing wire insertion. Coronary angiogram at the same time showed an occluded right coronary artery at the mid-section. The lesion was successfully opened. Within 24 hours, the patient's heart rhythm returned to sinus with first-degree atrioventricular block (AVB), thus avoiding the need for a permanent pacemaker. Current guidelines recommend medical management for late presentation hemodynamically stable STEMI of more than 72 H onset. Current ACC/AHA/HRS Pacemaker Guidelines recommend reperfusion strategy for acute presentation inferior STEMI associated with AVB. However, no clear strategy exists in the case of late presentation inferior STEMI with advanced AVB. Our case report suggests that late coronary intervention could be a management strategy in such a scenario in order to avoid a permanent pacemaker.

  9. [Revascularization: a new treatment method in endodontics].

    PubMed

    Wigler, R; Kaufman, A Y; Steinbock, N; Lin, S

    2012-07-01

    Recently a number of published articles concerning a new treatment method in traumatized young permanent teeth with a wide open apex that have lost vitality, with or without periapical lesions have shown success. This new treatment is entitled "Revascularization" and its aim is to promote root maturation in infected immature teeth with open apices. This procedure stimulates the formation of hard tissue as well as elongation and thickening of the dentinal walls and closure of the root apex. Sometimes the vitality of the teeth is regained. The aim of the present publication is to describe the revascularization technique and to clarify the indications of its use.

  10. Early detection of restenosis after successful percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty by exercise-redistribution thallium scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Wijns, W.; Serruys, P.W.; Reiber, J.H.; de Feyter, P.J.; van den Brand, M.; Simoons, M.L.; Hugenholtz, P.G.

    1985-02-01

    The value of exercise testing and thallium scintigraphy in predicting recurrence of angina pectoris and restenosis after a primary successful transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) was prospectively evaluated. In 89 patients, a symptom-limited exercise electrocardiogram (ECG) and thallium scintigraphy were performed 4 weeks after they had undergone successful PTCA. Thereafter, the patients were followed for 6.4 +/- 2.5 months (mean +/- standard deviation) or until recurrence of angina. They all underwent a repeat coronary angiography at 6 months or earlier if symptoms recurred. PTCA was considered successful if the patients had no symptoms and if the stenosis was reduced to less than 50% of the luminal diameter. Restenosis was defined as an increase of the stenosis to more than 50% luminal diameter. The ability of the thallium scintigram (presence of a reversible defect) to predict recurrence of angina was 66%, vs 38% for the exercise ECG (ST-segment depression or angina at peak workload). Restenosis was predicted in 74% of patients by thallium scintigraphy, but only in 50% of patients by the exercise ECG. Thus, thallium scintigraphy was highly predictive but the exercise ECG was not (p less than 0.005). These results suggest that restenosis had occurred to some extent already at 4 weeks after the PTCA in most patients in whom it was going to occur.

  11. Tissue engineering in endodontics: root canal revascularization.

    PubMed

    Palit Madhu Chanda; Hegde, K Sundeep; Bhat, Sham S; Sargod, Sharan S; Mantha, Somasundar; Chattopadhyay, Sayan

    2014-01-01

    Root canal revascularization attempts to make necrotic tooth alive by the use of certain simple clinical protocols. Earlier apexification was the treatment of choice for treating and preserving immature permanent teeth that have lost pulp vitality. This procedure promoted the formation of apical barrier to seal the root canal of immature teeth and nonvital filling materials contained within root canal space. However with the success of root canal revascularization to regenerate the pulp dentin complex of necrotic immature tooth has made us to rethink if apexification is at the beginning of its end. The objective of this review is to discuss the new concepts of tissue engineering in endodontics and the clinical steps of root canal revascularization.

  12. Effect of Late Revascularization of a Totally Occluded Coronary Artery After Myocardial Infarction on Mortality Rates in Patients with Renal Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Hastings, Ramin; Hochman, Judith S.; Dzavik, Vladimir; Lamas, Gervasio A.; Forman, Sandra A.; Schiele, Francois; Michalis, Lampros K.; Nikas, Dimitris; Jaroch, Joanna; Reynolds, Harmony R.

    2012-01-01

    Renal dysfunction is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events and a negative prognostic indicator after myocardial infarction (MI). Randomized data comparing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to medical therapy in MI patients with renal insufficiency are needed. The Occluded Artery Trial (OAT) compared optimal medical therapy alone to PCI with optimal medical therapy in 2201 high risk patients with an occluded infarct artery >24 hours post-MI with serum creatinine ≤2.5 mg/dl. The primary endpoint was a composite of death, MI, and class IV heart failure (HF). Analyses were carried out utilizing estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) as a continuous variable and by eGFR categories. Long term follow up data (maximum 9 years) were used for this analysis. Lower eGFR (ml/min/1.73m2) was associated with development of the primary outcome (6-year life-table rate 16.9% in eGFR>90; 19.2% in eGFR 60–89; 34.9% in eGFR<60; p-value <0.0001), death, and class IV HF, with no difference in rates of reinfarction. On multivariable analysis, eGFR was an independent predictor of death and HF. There was no effect of treatment assignment on the primary endpoint regardless of eGFR, and there was no significant interaction between eGFR and treatment assignment on any outcome. In conclusion, lower eGFR at enrollment was independently associated with death and HF in OAT participants. Despite this increased risk, the lack of benefit from PCI in the overall trial was also seen in patients with renal dysfunction and persistent occlusion of the infarct artery in the subacute phase post MI. PMID:22728005

  13. Initial Experience and Feasibility of the New Low-Profile Stingray Catheter as Part of the Antegrade Dissection and Re-Entry Revascularization Strategy for Coronary Chronic Total Occlusions

    PubMed Central

    Maeremans, Joren; Palmers, Pieter-Jan; Dens, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Case series Patient: Male, 77 • Male, 57 • Male, 73 Final Diagnosis: Coronary chronic total occlusion Symptoms: Angina pectoris Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Percutaneous coronary intervention of coronary chronic total occlusions Specialty: Cardiology Objective: Unusual setting of medical care Background: During antegrade dissection re-entry (ADR) of chronic total occlusions (CTO), the first-generation Stingray catheter requires the use of large-bore guides (sheathless 7.5 Fr or 8 Fr), which increases the risk for access site-related complications and compromises radial approaches. Smaller guiding sizes necessitate long guidewires (e.g., 300 cm) or guidewire extensions for catheter advancement or removal. However, friction between guides and the Stingray catheter can result in unstable guidewire position or unintentional removal. Furthermore, failure to deliver the catheter at the distal re-entry zone is a common problem. To overcome issues of deliverability and reduce the need for pre-dilatations, with its inherent risk of creating subintimal hematomas, the Stingray low-profile (LP) balloon catheter was developed. Case Report: We describe 3 cases of successful application of the novel Stingray LP catheter during ADR. In all cases, 7 Fr guiding catheters were successfully used in combination with the device. The lower profile facilitated a good exchange and delivery of the device, without the need for balloon pre-dilatations in 2 cases. This resulted in a limited subintimal plane, enabling a smooth puncture into the true lumen. One case presented with extreme levels of calcification and tortuosity, resulting in a high degree of friction, despite the lower catheter profile. No in-hospital coronary or access site-related complications occurred. Conclusions: This case report illustrates the feasibility of the Stingray LP catheter for the treatment of CTOs via the ADR technique. The lower profile of the catheter potentially increases the deliverability

  14. Successful management of grade III coronary perforation after percutaneous angioplasty in a high-risk patient: a case report.

    PubMed

    Coloma Araniya, Ricardo; Beas, Renato; Maticorena-Quevedo, Jesús; Anduaga-Beramendi, Alexander; Pastrana Castillo, Marco Antonio

    2016-03-03

    Coronary perforation is a rare complication in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary angioplasty. The mortality of this complication varies depending on factors related to the patient and the procedure performed, reaching 44% in patients with Ellis type III perforation. We report the case of an 81 year old male with multiple cardiovascular risk factors, who underwent percutaneous angioplasty for unstable angina management. The patient developed grade III coronary perforation in the anterior descending artery, which was successfully managed with balloon inflation to 6 atmospheres for 10 minutes twice in the affected area, with an interval of 5 minutes between each dilatation. The patient improved and was discharged.

  15. Pooled Analysis Comparing the Efficacy of Intracoronary Versus Intravenous Abciximab in Smokers Versus Nonsmokers Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Revascularization for Acute ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Piccolo, Raffaele; Galasso, Gennaro; Eitel, Ingo; Dominguez-Rodriguez, Alberto; Iversen, Allan Zeeberg; Gu, Youlan L; Abreu-Gonzalez, Pedro; de Smet, Bart J G L; Esposito, Giovanni; Windecker, Stephan; Thiele, Holger; Piscione, Federico

    2016-12-15

    Cigarette smokers with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) may present different response to potent antithrombotic therapy compared to nonsmokers. We assessed the impact of smoking status and intracoronary abciximab in patients with STEMI undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We pooled data from 5 randomized trials comparing intracoronary versus intravenous abciximab bolus in patients undergoing primary PCI. The primary end point was the composite of death or reinfarction at a mean follow-up of 292 ± 138 days. Of 3,158 participants, 1,369 (43.3%) were smokers, and they had a lower risk of the primary end point in crude, but not in adjusted analyses (hazard ratio [HR] 0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.63 to 1.21, p = 0.405). Intracoronary versus intravenous abciximab was associated with a significant reduction in the risk of primary end point among smokers (3.6% vs 8.0%; HR 0.43, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.72, p = 0.001), but not in nonsmokers (10.2% vs 9.9%; HR 0.99, 95% CI 0.72 to 1.36, p = 0.96), with a significant interaction (p = 0.009). Furthermore, intracoronary abciximab decreased the risk of reinfarction in smokers (HR 0.30, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.62, p = 0.001), with no difference in nonsmokers (HR 1.20, 95% CI 0.71 to 2.01, p = 0.50). Stent thrombosis was lowered by intracoronary abciximab in smokers (HR 0.28, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.66, p = 0.009), but was ineffective in nonsmokers (HR 1.04, 95% CI 0.54 to 2.00, p = 0.903). Interaction testing showed heterogeneity in treatment effect for reinfarction (p = 0.002) and stent thrombosis (p = 0.018) according to smoking status. In conclusion, among patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI, smoking status did not affect the adjusted risk of clinical events. Intracoronary abciximab bolus improved clinical outcomes by reducing the risk of death or reinfarction.

  16. Successful catheter ablation of a left anterior accessory pathway from the non-coronary cusp of the aortic valve.

    PubMed

    Laranjo, Sérgio; Oliveira, Mário; Trigo, Conceição

    2015-08-01

    Left anterior accessory pathways are considered to be rare findings. Catheter ablation of accessory pathways in this location remains a challenging target, and few reports about successful ablation of these accessory pathways are available. We describe our experience regarding a case of a manifest left anterior accessory pathway ablation using radiofrequency energy at the junction of the left coronary cusp with the non-coronary cusp.

  17. Balloon angioplasty in acute and chronic coronary artery disease

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, D.R. Jr.; Vlietstra, R.E. )

    1989-04-14

    Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty has grown exponentially since its introduction. Currently, selection criteria include single-vessel and multivessel disease, stable and unstable angina, and acute infarction. The outcome depends on specific patient and antiographic characteristics. In ideal lesions, success rates should be greater than 90%, with low morbidity and mortality. With more severe and diffuse multivessel disease, success rates are lower and complication rates are higher. In these cases, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty still offers a reasonable option, provided complete revascularization can be achieved or the angina-producing lesion dilated. Numerous issues remain unresolved, including (1) the role of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty vs coronary surgery (currently being tested), (2) restenosis, which occurs in approximately 30% of treated lesions, and (3) organizational adjustments such as training and certification to maintain high standards of care.

  18. Experimental study of myocardial revascularization by CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Mingying; Li, Gongsong; Li, Junheng

    1993-03-01

    The coronary lesions are usually diffuse, so bypass and PTCA are indicated in only a limited proportion of coronary patients. Revascularization with laser was studied in our laboratory. Fifteen dogs with mimic myocardial ischemia by multiple coronary artery ligation were divided into two groups, five acting as a control group. In 10, CO2 laser was adopted in making a series of channels in the myocardium. We aimed to evaluate the effect of laser in revascularization, and to document long-term follow up. Our experiment demonstrated that laser-producing channels protect myocardium from ischemic events. Postoperative improvement of ventricular function and increased regional myocardial perfusion were observed. Microscopic and SEM examination at intervals of 3 days to 3 months showed the patency of channels and development of collateral circulation.

  19. Is there a role for robotic totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass in patients with a colostomy?

    PubMed

    Gibber, Marc; Lehr, Eric J; Kon, Zachary N; Wehman, P Brody; Griffith, Bartley P; Bonatti, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Preoperative colostomy presents a significant risk of sternal wound complications, mediastinitis, and ostomy injury in patients requiring coronary artery bypass grafting. Less invasive procedures in coronary surgery have a potential to reduce the risk of sternal wound healing problems. Robotic totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with a colostomy has not been reported. We describe a case of completely endoscopic coronary surgery using the da Vinci Si system in a patient with a transverse colostomy. Single left internal mammary artery grafting to the left anterior coronary artery was performed successfully on the beating heart. We regard this technique as the least invasive method of surgical coronary revascularization with a potential to reduce the risk of surgical site infection and mediastinitis in patients with a colostomy.

  20. Conduit options in coronary artery bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Canver, C C

    1995-10-01

    The choice of graft conduit is crucial to the success of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) because the patency of a coronary conduit is closely associated with an uneventful postoperative course and a better long-term patient survival. The standard conduits used for CABG are the greater saphenous vein (GSV) and the internal thoracic artery (ITA). An excellent substitute conduit for coronary bypass operations that can be taken "off the shelf" is certainly the dream of every practicing cardiac surgeon. However, virtually every synthetic and biologic alternative to arterial conduits or autologous fresh saphenous vein has proved disappointing. Fortunately, patients with absolutely no autologous conduit alternatives are uncommon. Circumstances exist, however, that often necessitate the use of alternative conduits such as young hyperlipemic patients, absent or unsuitable autologous ITAs and GSV as a result of previous myocardial revascularization, peripheral arterial reconstruction, and varicose vein ligation procedures. This review provides an update on the clinical work done with all coronary conduits available for myocardial surgical revascularization.

  1. Acute right ventricular failure caused by concomitant coronary and pulmonary embolism: successful treatment with endovascular coronary and pulmonary thrombectomy

    PubMed Central

    Koul, Sasha; Roijer, Anders; Holmqvist, Jasminka; Keussen, Inger; Cwikiel, Wojciech; Öhlin, Bertil; Erlinge, David

    2013-01-01

    Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is present in approximately 25% of the general population. PFO is characterized by intermittent shunting of blood from the right to the left atrium, especially in the context of increased right-sided filling pressures, with risk of paradoxical embolism. We describe a 69-year-old woman presenting with acute chest pain, severe dyspnoea, and acute inferolateral ST-segment elevation on the electrocardiogram. The patient was diagnosed with myocardial infarction and failure of the right cardiac ventricle, which was considered to be secondary to extensive pulmonary embolism leading to increased filling pressures and paradoxical coronary embolism. The patient underwent emergent percutaneous interventions with coronary thrombus extraction and pulmonary thrombus fragmentation and local thrombolysis. The patient was free of symptoms at follow up 6 months later and echocardiography showed substantially improved right ventricular function. We discuss issues related to the diagnosis, treatment, and secondary prevention for patients with concomitant pulmonary and coronary arterial thrombosis. PMID:24222822

  2. Transmyocardial laser revascularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aretz, H. Thomas

    1996-09-01

    Transmyocardial laser revascularization (TMR) for the treatment of medically unresponsive angina pectoris has been shown to be clinically effective. The mechanism of its action, however, is not quite understood. Over the last five years my collaborators and I have conducted a variety of in vivo and in vitro studies using different animal models, lasers and experimental protocols. The results seem to indicate that the mechanism of action of TMR is related to neovascularization rather than chronically patent channels, as originally proposed.

  3. Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffolds for Coronary Revascularization.

    PubMed

    Kereiakes, Dean J; Onuma, Yoshinobu; Serruys, Patrick W; Stone, Gregg W

    2016-07-12

    Contemporary metallic drug-eluting stents are associated with very good 1-year outcomes but an ongoing risk of stent-related adverse events (thrombosis, myocardial infarction, restenosis) after 1 year. The pathogenesis of these very late events is likely related to the permanent presence of the metal stent frame or polymer. Bioresorbable scaffolds have been developed to provide drug delivery and mechanical support functions similar to metallic drug-eluting stents, followed by complete resorption with recovery of more normal vascular structure and function, potentially improving very late clinical outcomes. A first-generation bioresorbable scaffold has been demonstrated to be noninferior to a contemporary metallic drug-eluting stents for overall 1-year patient-oriented and device-oriented outcomes. Increased rates of scaffold thrombosis and target vessel-related myocardial infarction were noted that may be mitigated by improved patient and lesion selection, procedural technique, and device iteration. Large-scale, randomized, clinical trials are ongoing to determine the long-term relative efficacy and safety of bioresorbable scaffolds compared with current metallic drug-eluting stents.

  4. Comparison of ESC and ACC/AHA guidelines for myocardial revascularization.

    PubMed

    Stirrup, Jim; Velasco, Alejandro; Hage, Fadi G; Reyes, Eliana

    2017-02-21

    In 2014, the Task Force on Myocardial Revascularization of the European Society of Cardiology and the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery with the special contribution of the European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions published a comprehensive set of recommendations on myocardial revascularization in patients presenting with acute or chronic coronary artery disease. In the United States, pertinent guidance on this topic has been published by the American College of Cardiology, American Heart Association and other relevant societies in multiple guideline documents that have been published in recent years. This document brings together European and American recommendations on myocardial revascularization with a focus on the role of cardiac imaging.

  5. Graft selection in cerebral revascularization.

    PubMed

    Baaj, Ali A; Agazzi, Siviero; van Loveren, Harry

    2009-05-01

    Cerebral revascularization constitutes an important treatment modality in the management of complex aneurysms, carotid occlusion, tumor, and moyamoya disease. Graft selection is a critical step in the planning of revascularization surgery, and depends on an understanding of graft and regional hemodynamics, accessibility, and patency rates. The goal of this review is to highlight some of these properties.

  6. Excimer laser debulking for percutaneous coronary intervention in left main coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Topaz, On; Polkampally, Pritam R; Mohanty, Pramod K; Rizk, Maged; Bangs, Julie; Bernardo, Nelson L

    2009-11-01

    Excimer laser has been successfully applied to complex atherosclerotic plaques in acute coronary syndromes; however, its role in debulking in left main coronary artery disease has not been fully explored. Details of a series of 20 patients who underwent excimer laser revascularization of a spectrum of left main coronary artery lesions are presented. Twenty symptomatic patients who received excimer laser debulking were examined for procedural outcome and follow up results. The left main coronary artery was characterized as protected, semi-protected, poorly protected, or unprotected, depending on the presence or absence of patent bypass grafts to the left anterior descending (LAD) and circumflex (CX) arteries. A fully protected left main coronary artery (LMCA) was present in only 20% of the patients. The target lesions included 11(55%) distal LMCA stenoses, six (30%) ostial stenoses, and one (5%) mid-portion lesions. Two (10%) patients had in-stent re-stenosis of the entire length of the LMCA. Small (0.7 mm-1.4 mm) excimer laser catheters were mostly used. A relatively high number of laser energy pulses (1,334 +/- 643) were required to achieve adequate debulking. Successful LMCA intervention was performed in 19 (95%) patients, while in-hospital complications occurred in only one (5%) patient. Subacute/late stent thrombosis developed 3 months after the procedure in one patient, and two patients died from non-cardiac causes during follow-up. Lesions in LMCAs can be revascularized in selected patients by laser debulking and adjunct stenting. Inadequate protection by bypass grafts and decreased left ventricular function do not contradict utilization of excimer laser. Small laser catheters and high energy levels are required during laser debulking of stenoses of left main coronary arteries.

  7. Revascularization alone or combined with suture annuloplasty for ischemic mitral regurgitation. Evaluation by color Doppler echocardiography.

    PubMed Central

    Czer, L S; Maurer, G; Bolger, A F; DeRobertis, M; Chaux, A; Matloff, J M

    1996-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of revascularization alone or combined with mitral valve repair for ischemic mitral regurgitation, we performed color Doppler echocardiography intraoperatively before and after cardiopulmonary bypass in 49 patients (mean age, 70 +/- 9 years) with concomitant mitral regurgitation and coronary artery disease (triple vessel or left main in 88%; prior infarction in 90%). After revascularization alone (n = 25), the mitral annulus diameter (2.88 +/- 0.44 cm vs 2.88 +/- 0.44 cm), leaflet-to-annulus ratio (1.44 +/- 0.30 vs 1.44 +/- 0.29), and mitral regurgitation grade (1.7 +/- 0.9 vs 1.8 +/- 0.7) remained unchanged (p = NS, postpump vs prepump); mitral regurgitation decreased by 2 grades in only 1 patient (4%). After combined revascularization and mitral valve suture annuloplasty (Kay-Zubiate; n = 24), the annulus diameter decreased (to 2.57 +/- 0.45 cm from 3.11 +/- 0.43 cm), the leaflet-to-annulus ratio increased (to 1.46 +/- 0.25 from 1.20 +/- 0.21), and the mitral regurgitation grade decreased significantly (to 0.9 +/- 0.9 from 2.8 +/- 1.0) (p < 0.01); mitral regurgitation decreased by 2 grades or more (successful repair) in 75%. The origin of the jet correlated with the site of prior infarction (p < 0.05), being inferior in cases of posterior or inferior infarction (67%), and central or broad in cases of combined anterior and inferior infarction (70%). Despite a slightly higher 30-day mortality in the repair group (p = 0.10), there was no significant difference in survival between the 2 surgical groups at 5 years or 8 years. Therefore, in this study of patients with mitral regurgitation and coronary artery disease, reduction in regurgitation grade with revascularization alone was infrequent. Concomitant suture annuloplasty significantly reduced regurgitation by reestablishing a more normal relationship between the leaflet and annulus sizes. The failure rate after suture annuloplasty was 25%; alternative repair techniques such as ring

  8. Off-Pump Myocardial Revascularization in a High-Risk Patient with Essential Thrombocythemia

    PubMed Central

    Darwazah, Ahmad K.; Madi, Hamad; Zagha, Rami; Hawash, Yahia

    2014-01-01

    Essential thrombocythemia is a rare type of myeloproliferative disorder. Cerebral, myocardial, and peripheral thrombosis are all frequent complications of the disease. A 71-year-old man presented with severe coronary artery disease, associated with cerebral vascular ischemic changes and erythromelalgia. His platelet count was 1,486 ×103/μL. The patient underwent successful myocardial revascularization by means of an off-pump technique after his platelet count had been reduced by hydroxycarbamide administration. We conclude that the use of off-pump cardiopulmonary bypass in high-risk patients with essential thrombocythemia is safe. Reducing platelet count via the administration of hydroxycarbamide and the careful balancing of antiplatelets and anticoagulants is crucial in determining the outcome of surgery. PMID:25425991

  9. Concomitant aortic valve replacement and myocardial revascularization.

    PubMed Central

    Craver, J M; Jones, E L; Hatcher, C R; Farmer, J H

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-six consecutive patients underwent combined aortic valve replacement and myocardial revascularization at the Emory University Affiliated Hospitals between May, 1973 and March, 1976. Acute myocardial infarction resulted in two operative deaths (8%). There have been four late deaths, all Class IV preoperative. The age range was 37 to 79 years with an average age of 60. Preoperatively all patients were Class IV or late Class III. Twenty-three patients had symptoms of angina pectoris; congestive heart failure was evident in 56%. Postoperatively, 70% are now Class 1 or II. Single coronary bypass was performed in 16 patients, double in 6, and triple in three. Double bypass plus mitral valve replacement was required in two with aneurysmectomy in one. The rate of intraoperative infarction was 27% for the series but only 7% in the last year. The methods of intraoperative myocardial preservation and the technical approach for the operative procedures were variable. Results with each method are correlated, and currently preferred techniques are presented and discussed. Best results were obtained in patients who presented early in their symptomatic course with isolated proximal coronary lesions and good renoff vessels. Excellent results could be achieved despite advanced age of patients, requirement for multiple bypass grafts, and correction of other associated cardiac lesions. Poorest results were obtained when long-standing ventricular failure was combined with poor vessels distal to coronary stenoses. PMID:860881

  10. The history of arterial revascularization: from Kolesov to Tector and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Galvin, Sean D.

    2013-01-01

    Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is the one of the most effective revascularization strategies for patients with obstructive coronary artery disease. Total arterial revascularization using one or both internal thoracic and radial arteries has been shown to improve early outcomes and reduce long-term cardiovascular morbidity. Although CABG has evolved from an experimental procedure in the early 1900’s to become one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures, there is still significant variation in grafting strategies amongst surgeons. We review the history and development of CABG with a particular emphasis on the early pioneers and the evolution of arterial grafting. PMID:23977617

  11. Off-pump coronary artery bypass: techniques, pitfalls, and results.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Steven J

    2009-01-01

    In an attempt to advance the surgical treatment of coronary artery disease, surgeons sought a way to offer the proven benefits of coronary revascularization and avoid the side effects of cardiopulmonary bypass by performing revascularization in the beating heart (off-pump coronary artery bypass). This review will describe the development and refinement of the technique, pitfalls to its widespread adoption, and an up-to-date assessment of current results.

  12. Transmyocardial Laser Revascularization

    MedlinePlus

    ... came up with the idea for TMLR by studying the hearts of alligators and snakes, where blood to feed the heart muscle goes straight from the ventricle and into the muscle, not through coronary arteries. Doctors thought this might work in human hearts, too. TMLR is surgery, but ...

  13. Coronary Embolization Caused by Pleomorphic Lung Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Murai, Tadashi; Yonetsu, Taishi; Isobe, Mitsuaki; Kakuta, Tsunekazu

    2016-01-01

    A 73-year-old man who had been transferred to our emergency room due to sudden chest pain was diagnosed with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Primary percutaneous coronary intervention was performed. A long, white object which looked like a parasitic worm was retrieved via intracoronary aspiration and revascularization was successfully completed. Contrast computed tomography revealed a huge 7×6 cm mass in the right upper pulmonary lobe with direct pulmonary vein invasion. Histopathologic examination of the aspirated coronary object revealed pleomorphic lung carcinoma. This is an unusual case of STEMI caused by lung tumor embolization via direct pulmonary vein invasion to the left side of the heart. PMID:27980261

  14. Initial Experience and Feasibility of the New Low-Profile Stingray Catheter as Part of the Antegrade Dissection and Re-Entry Revascularization Strategy for Coronary Chronic Total Occlusions.

    PubMed

    Maeremans, Joren; Palmers, Pieter-Jan; Dens, Joseph

    2017-01-31

    BACKGROUND During antegrade dissection re-entry (ADR) of chronic total occlusions (CTO), the first-generation Stingray catheter requires the use of large-bore guides (sheathless 7.5 Fr or 8 Fr), which increases the risk for access site-related complications and compromises radial approaches. Smaller guiding sizes necessitate long guidewires (e.g., 300 cm) or guidewire extensions for catheter advancement or removal. However, friction between guides and the Stingray catheter can result in unstable guidewire position or unintentional removal. Furthermore, failure to deliver the catheter at the distal re-entry zone is a common problem. To overcome issues of deliverability and reduce the need for pre-dilatations, with its inherent risk of creating subintimal hematomas, the Stingray low-profile (LP) balloon catheter was developed. CASE REPORT We describe 3 cases of successful application of the novel Stingray LP catheter during ADR. In all cases, 7 Fr guiding catheters were successfully used in combination with the device. The lower profile facilitated a good exchange and delivery of the device, without the need for balloon pre-dilatations in 2 cases. This resulted in a limited subintimal plane, enabling a smooth puncture into the true lumen. One case presented with extreme levels of calcification and tortuosity, resulting in a high degree of friction, despite the lower catheter profile. No in-hospital coronary or access site-related complications occurred. CONCLUSIONS This case report illustrates the feasibility of the Stingray LP catheter for the treatment of CTOs via the ADR technique. The lower profile of the catheter potentially increases the deliverability, safety, and exchangeability of the device.

  15. Recovery of regional myocardial dysfunction after successful coronary angioplasty early after a non-Q wave myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Suryapranata, H.; Serruys, P.W.; Beatt, K.; De Feyter, P.J.; van den Brand, M.; Roelandt, J. )

    1990-08-01

    More aggressive therapy has been suggested for patients who have a non-Q wave myocardial infarction (MI) because of the frequency of subsequent unstable angina, recurrent MI, and high mortality rate compared to patients with Q wave MI. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of coronary angioplasty on regional myocardial function of the infarct zone in patients with angina early after a non-Q wave MI. The study population consisted of 36 patients undergoing successful coronary angioplasty within 30 days of a non-Q wave MI, in whom sequential left ventricular angiograms of adequate quality were obtained before the initial procedure and at follow-up angiography. The global ejection fraction increased significantly from 60 +/- 9% to 67 +/- 6% (p = 0.0003). This significant increase in the global ejection fraction was primarily due to a significant improvement in the regional myocardial function of the infarct zone. The results of the present study show not only that ischemic attacks early after a non-Q wave MI may lead to prolonged regional myocardial dysfunction but more important that this depressed myocardium has the potential to achieve normal contraction after successful coronary angioplasty.

  16. Indications, algorithms, and outcomes for coronary artery bypass surgery in patients with acute coronary syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Yerokun, Babatunde A.; Williams, Judson B.; Gaca, Jeffrey; Smith, Peter K.; Roe, Matthew T.

    2016-01-01

    For patients with a non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS), guideline recommendations and treatment pathways focus on revascularization for definitive treatment if the patient is an appropriate candidate. Despite the widespread use of revascularization for NSTE-ACS, most patients undergo a percutaneous coronary intervention, whereas a minority of patients undergo coronary artery bypass grafting. Focusing specifically on the USA, the contemporary utilization, preoperative and perioperative considerations, and outcomes of NSTE-ACS patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting have not been comprehensively reviewed. PMID:26945187

  17. Revascularization in severe left ventricular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Velazquez, Eric J; Bonow, Robert O

    2015-02-17

    The highest-risk patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction are those with ischemic cardiomyopathy and severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction (ejection fraction≤35%). The cornerstone of treatment is guideline-driven medical therapy for all patients and implantable device therapy for appropriately selected patients. Surgical revascularization offers the potential for improved survival and quality of life, particularly in patients with more extensive multivessel disease and the greatest degree of left ventricular systolic dysfunction and remodeling. These are also the patients at greatest short-term risk of mortality with coronary artery bypass graft surgery. The short-term risks of surgery need to be balanced against the potential for long-term benefit. This review discusses the evolving data on the role of surgical revascularization, surgical ventricular reconstruction, and mitral valve surgery in this high-risk patient population.

  18. Sequential thallium-201 myocardial perfusion studies after successful percutaneous transluminal coronary artery angioplasty: delayed resolution of exercise-induced scintigraphic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Manyari, D.E.; Knudtson, M.; Kloiber, R.; Roth, D.

    1988-01-01

    To characterize the sequential changes of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) after complete revascularization, 43 patients underwent exercise thallium-201 (/sup 201/Tl) myocardial perfusion scintigraphy before and at 9 +/- 5 days, 3.3 +/- 0.6, and 6.8 +/- 1.2 months after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). Only patients with single-vessel CAD, without previous myocardial infarction, and without evidence of restenosis at 6 to 9 months after PTCA were included. Perfusion scans were analyzed blindly with the use of a new quantitative method to define regional myocardial perfusion in the topographic distribution of each coronary artery, which was shown to be reproducible (r = .94 or higher and SEE of 7% or less, between repeated measures by one and two operators). At 4 to 18 days after PTCA, the mean treadmill walking time increased by 123 +/- 42 sec, mean exercise-induced ST segment depression decreased by 0.6 +/- 0.3 mm, group maximal heart rate increased by 20 +/- 9 beats/min, and group systolic blood pressure at peak exercise increased by 24 +/- 10 mm Hg, compared with pre-PTCA values (p less than .001). However, no group differences were noted in these variables between the three post-PTCA stages. Myocardial perfusion in the distribution of the affected (dilated) coronary artery, on the other hand, improved progressively. In the 45 degree left anterior oblique view for instance, myocardial perfusion increased at 9 days after PTCA (from 68 +/- 24% before PTCA to 91 +/- 9%, p less than .001) and at 3.3 months after PTCA (101 +/- 8%, p less than .05 vs 9 days after PTCA), but no further significant changes were seen at 6.8 months after PTCA (102 +/- 8%). Similar changes were noted in the other two views. No relationship between minor complications during PTCA and delayed improvement on the /sup 201/Tl was observed.

  19. Adjunctive strategies in the management of resistant, 'undilatable' coronary lesions after successfully crossing a CTO with a guidewire.

    PubMed

    Fairley, Sara L; Spratt, James C; Rana, Omar; Talwar, Suneel; Hanratty, Colm; Walsh, Simon

    2014-05-01

    Successful revascularisation of chronic total occlusions (CTOs) remains one of the greatest challenges in the era of contemporary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Such lesions are encountered with increasing frequency in current clinical practice. A predictable increase in the future burden of CTO management can be anticipated given the ageing population, increased rates of renal failure, graft failure and diabetes mellitus. Given recent advances and developments in CTO PCI management, successful recanalisation can be anticipated in the majority of procedures undertaken at high-volume centres when performed by expert operators. Despite advances in device technology, the management of resistant, calcific lesions remains one of the greatest challenges in successful CTO intervention. Established techniques to modify calcific lesions include the use of high-pressure non-compliant balloon dilation, cutting-balloons, anchor balloons and high speed rotational atherectomy (HSRA). Novel approaches have proven to be safe and technically feasible where standard approaches have failed. A step-wise progression of strategies is demonstrated, from well-recognised techniques to techniques that should only be considered when standard manoeuvres have proven unsuccessful. These methods will be described in the setting of clinical examples and include use of very high-pressure non-compliant balloon dilation, intentional balloon rupture with vessel dissection or balloon assisted micro-dissection (BAM), excimer coronary laser atherectomy (ECLA) and use of HSRA in various 'offlabel' settings.

  20. Adjunctive Strategies in the Management of Resistant, ‘Undilatable’ Coronary Lesions After Successfully Crossing a CTO with a Guidewire

    PubMed Central

    Fairley, Sara L.; Spratt, James C.; Rana, Omar; Talwar, Suneel; Hanratty, Colm; Walsh, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Successful revascularisation of chronic total occlusions (CTOs) remains one of the greatest challenges in the era of contemporary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Such lesions are encountered with increasing frequency in current clinical practice. A predictable increase in the future burden of CTO management can be anticipated given the ageing population, increased rates of renal failure, graft failure and diabetes mellitus. Given recent advances and developments in CTO PCI management, successful recanalisation can be anticipated in the majority of procedures undertaken at high-volume centres when performed by expert operators. Despite advances in device technology, the management of resistant, calcific lesions remains one of the greatest challenges in successful CTO intervention. Established techniques to modify calcific lesions include the use of high-pressure non-compliant balloon dilation, cutting-balloons, anchor balloons and high speed rotational atherectomy (HSRA). Novel approaches have proven to be safe and technically feasible where standard approaches have failed. A step-wise progression of strategies is demonstrated, from well-recognised techniques to techniques that should only be considered when standard manoeuvres have proven unsuccessful. These methods will be described in the setting of clinical examples and include use of very high-pressure non-compliant balloon dilation, intentional balloon rupture with vessel dissection or balloon assisted micro-dissection (BAM), excimer coronary laser atherectomy (ECLA) and use of HSRA in various ‘offlabel’ settings. PMID:24694106

  1. Novel anaesthetic approach for surgical access and haemodynamic management during off-pump coronary artery bypass through a left thoracotomy.

    PubMed

    Maddali, Madan Mohan; Al-Jadidi, Abdullah M; Zacharias, Sunny

    2012-01-01

    For myocardial revascularization on a beating heart through a thoracotomy, a properly deployed endobronchial blocker (EBB) provides ideal conditions for surgical access. In addition, adequate volume replacement to achieve optimal cardiac performance is a primary goal of haemodynamic management in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. To achieve both these ends, this case report describes the combined use of a left-sided EBB along with a volumetric pulmonary artery catheter in a patient who underwent a successful off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery through an anterolateral thoracotomy.

  2. [Hyperkalemia after arterial revascularization in a patient undergoing arm replantation].

    PubMed

    Imanaka, Norie; Nakasuji, Masato; Nomura, Masataka; Yoshioka, Miwako; Miyata, Taeko; Tanaka, Masuji

    2014-12-01

    A 25-year-old man was admitted for arm replantation. His left upper arm was completely amputated by conveyer belt Anesthesia was induced with propofol (80 mg), rocuronium (50 mg), remifentanil (0.15 μg x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and maintained with sevoflurane (1-2%) and remifentanil (0.1-0.3 μg x kg(-1) x min(-1)). The plastic surgeons revascularized subclavian artery quickly but blood pressure decreased to 40-50 mmHg because of massive bleeding and plasma potassium concentration reached 5.8 mEq x l(-1). Noradrenaline (0.3 μg x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and massive albumin on behalf of red blood cells were administered. After we treated hyperkalemia and hypotension, the subclavian vein was successfully revascularized. We should maintain low potassium concentration before revascularization in patients undergoing arm replantation.

  3. Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting in a patient with AIDS, acute myocardial infarction, and severe left main coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Bittner, H B; Fogelson, B G

    2003-02-01

    A 48-year-old male patient with AIDS presented with postinfarct unstable angina, decreased left ventricular function (EF 35%), significant left main coronary artery disease, and total occlusion of the proximal left anterior descending and right coronary arteries. In order to avoid the potential immunosuppressive effect of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in an already compromised host with an already low CD4+ helper/inducer T cell count (180/microL) and high retroviral load (165,000 copies/mL), the application of beating-heart technology and off-pump coronary bypass grafting was an ideal indication. The patient underwent successfully off-pump/CPB coronary revascularization. The triple drug combination of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was resumed postoperatively. The patient was discharged from the hospital on the 7(th) postoperative day. The CD4+ count was 142/microL and the viral load decreased to 450 copies/mL. Seven months post-operatively the patient was free of angina and without shortness of breath. The CD4+ count was 160/(m)L and the viral load undetectable. Improved survival of HIV positive patients has resulted in a shift from caring for terminally ill patients to caring for patients with chronic illness. While protease inhibitors have positively affected survival, they may also cause plasma lipid abnormalities, which can lead to severe premature coronary artery disease. Therefore, an increasing population of AIDS and HIV positive patients with coronary artery disease may require cardiac interventions in the near future. Coronary revascularization without CPB and its potential immunocompromising effect may play an important role in patients with severe coronary artery disease and AIDS.

  4. Successful recanalization of a left circumflex artery jailed with a polytetrafluoroethylene-covered stent after coronary perforation during stent implantation in the left main bifurcation.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Norimasa; Takahashi, Akihiko; Mizuguchi, Yukio; Yamada, Takeshi; Hata, Tetsuya; Nakajima, Shunsuke

    2015-01-01

    An 88-year-old woman underwent emergency percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to treat circulatory collapse with severe stenosis in the distal left main coronary artery (LMCA). After 3.5/18-mm stent deployment from the LMCA to the left anterior descending artery (LAD), coronary perforation occurred in the LAD ostium. Therefore, we implanted a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)-covered stent crossing over the left circumflex artery (LCX), and achieved successful hemostasis. Additional PCI was undertaken to recanalize the LCX. A Confienza 8-20 guidewire was able to penetrate the wall of the PTFE-covered stent, and coronary flow was successfully recovered after deployment of a 2.5/8-mm stent in the proximal LCX.

  5. What’s Age Got to do with it? A Review of Contemporary Revascularization in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Vandermolen, Sebastian; Abbott, Jane; Silva, Kalpa De

    2015-01-01

    Currently a quarter of all patients treated with percutanous coronary intervention (PCI) are aged >75 years, with this proportion steadily growing. This subset of patients have a number of unique characteristics, such as a greater number of cardiovascular risk factors and frequently a larger burden of coronary artery disease, when compared to younger patients, therefore potentially deriving increased benefit from revascularization. Nonetheless this population are also more likely to experience procedural complications, secondary to age-related physiological alterations, increased frailty and increased prevalence of other co-morbidities. This article reviews the various aspects and data available to clinicians pertaining to and guiding revascularization in the elderly, including the use of adjuvant pharmacotherapy, specific considerations when considering age-related physiology, and revascularization in acute coronary syndromes. PMID:25329923

  6. Intraoperative evaluation of revascularization effect on ischemic muscle hemodynamics using near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Guoqiang; Shang, Yu; Zhao, Youquan; Cheng, Ran; Dong, Lixin; Saha, Sibu P.

    2011-02-01

    Arterial revascularization in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) reestablishes large arterial blood supply to the ischemic muscles in lower extremities via bypass grafts or percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA). Currently no gold standard is available for assessment of revascularization effects in lower extremity muscles. This study tests a novel near-infrared diffuse correlation spectroscopy flow-oximeter for monitoring of blood flow and oxygenation changes in medial gastrocnemius (calf) muscles during arterial revascularization. Twelve limbs with PAD undergoing revascularization were measured using a sterilized fiber-optic probe taped on top of the calf muscle. The optical measurement demonstrated sensitivity to dynamic physiological events, such as arterial clamping/releasing during bypass graft and balloon inflation/deflation during PTA. Significant elevations in calf muscle blood flow were observed after revascularization in patients with bypass graft (+48.1 +/- 17.5%) and patients with PTA (+43.2 +/- 11.0%), whereas acute post-revascularization effects in muscle oxygenation were not evident. The decoupling of flow and oxygenation after revascularization emphasizes the need for simultaneous measurement of both parameters. The acute elevations/improvements in calf muscle blood flow were associated with significant improvements in symptoms and functions. In total, the investigation corroborates potential of the optical methods for objectively assessing the success of arterial revascularization.

  7. Revascularization in Maxillofacial Bone Healing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-11-21

    administration of cortisone or acetylsalicylic acid did not affect giant cell or capsule formation around the particles. Therefore, this reparative granuloma was...other aspects of healing have special requirements. Thus sulfur-containing amino acids are important for granulation tissue formation (Edwards and...Dunphy, 1957). Capillary endothelium and collagen fibril formation, essential to revascularization, are decreased by ascorbic acid deficiency; the latter

  8. Pulp revascularization for immature replanted teeth: a case report.

    PubMed

    Nagata, J Y; Rocha-Lima, T F; Gomes, B P; Ferraz, C C; Zaia, A A; Souza-Filho, F J; De Jesus-Soares, A

    2015-09-01

    Immature avulsed teeth are not usually treated with pulp revascularization because of the possibility of complications. However, this therapy has shown success in the treatment of immature teeth with periapical lesions. This report describes the case of an immature replanted tooth that was successfully treated by pulp revascularization. An 8-year-old boy suffered avulsion on his maxillary left lateral incisor. The tooth showed incomplete root development and was replanted after 30 minutes. After diagnosis, revascularization therapy was performed by irrigating the root canal and applying a calcium hydroxide paste and 2% chlorhexidine gel for 21 days. In the second session, the intracanal dressing was removed and a blood clot was stimulated up to the cervical third of the root canal. Mineral trioxide aggregate was placed as a cervical barrier at the entrance of the root canal and the crown was restored. During the follow-up period, periapical repair, apical closure and calcification in the apical 4 mm of the root canal was observed. An avulsed immature tooth replanted after a brief extra-alveolar period and maintained in a viable storage medium may be treated with revascularization.

  9. Successful Covering of a Hepatic Artery Aneurysm with a Coronary Stent Graft

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Hidetsugu; Urasawa, Kazushi; Oyama, Naotsugu; Kitabatake, Akira

    2004-09-15

    In a 54-year-old woman with liver cirrhosis who underwent orthotopic liver transplantation, the postoperative course was complicated by aneurysm formation in the hepatic artery. Abdominal ultrasonography showed a daily increase in the size of the aneurysm in spite of careful management including strict rest and continuous intravenous infusion of antihypertensive agents. Since the patient's poor systemic status was a major obstruction to operative resection, transcatheter therapy was thought more preferable. We evaluated the lesion with intravascular ultrasonography as an adjunct to angiography and a dissection with a flap was well visualized. The aneurysm was covered with a commercially available stent-graft, designed for treatment of the coronary artery. This is a rare case in which a Jostent was implanted into the hepatic artery after liver transplantation.

  10. Remote revascularization of abdominal wall transplants using the forearm.

    PubMed

    Giele, H; Bendon, C; Reddy, S; Ramcharan, R; Sinha, S; Friend, P; Vaidya, A

    2014-06-01

    Primary abdominal wall closure following small bowel transplantation is frequently impossible due to contraction of the abdominal domain. Although abdominal wall transplantation was reported 10 years ago this, technique has not been widely adopted, partly due to its complexity, but largely because of concerns that storing the abdominal allograft until the end of a prolonged intestinal transplant procedure would cause severe ischemia-reperfusion injury. We report six cases of combined small bowel and abdominal wall transplantation where the ischemic time was minimized by remotely revascularizing the abdominal wall on the forearm vessels, synchronous to the intestinal procedure. When the visceral transplant was complete, the abdominal wall was removed from the forearm and revascularized on the abdomen (n = 4), or used to close the abdomen while still vascularized on the forearm (n = 2). Primary abdominal wall closure was achieved in all. Mean cold ischemia was 305 min (300-330 min), and revascularization on the arm was 50 min (30-60 min). Three patients had proven abdominal wall rejection, all treated successfully. Immediate revascularization of the abdominal wall allograft substantially reduces cold ischemia without imposing constraints on the intestinal transplant. Reducing storage time may also have benefits with respect to ischemia-reperfusion-related graft immunogenicity.

  11. Successful Corticosteroid Treatment of Refractory Spontaneous Vasoconstriction of Extracranial Internal Carotid and Coronary Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Kozue; Kajimoto, Katsufumi; Nagatsuka, Kazuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Spontaneous vasoconstriction of the extracranial internal carotid artery (SVEICA) is a rare cause of cerebral infarction. Most patients with SVEICA suffer recurrent attacks of vasoconstriction. The standard treatment for this condition has not been established and its long-term prognosis is unclear. Case Report: A 25-year-old man with a history of refractory vasospasm angina presented with transient alternating hemiplegia in both the right and left side. Serial carotid ultrasonography examinations showed severe transient stenosis or occlusion of cervical internal carotid arteries on 1 or both sides, with and without neurological symptoms. This condition resolved completely within 1 day to 1 week. The patient did not present any other risk factors for atherosclerosis and was diagnosed with SVEICA. The treatment with calcium antagonists and nitrates did not prevent the attacks. Administration of a corticosteroid substantially reduced the vasospasm attacks. Conclusions: SVEICA is intractable and difficult to diagnose. It has been reported that SVEICA sometimes complicates coronary artery disease, as observed in this case. The present case demonstrated the effectiveness of corticosteroid treatment against this disease. Serial ultrasonography examinations helped us to diagnose and follow-up the vasospasm attacks. PMID:27348139

  12. Success and Challenges of a Community Healthy Lifestyles Intervention in Merseyside (UK) to Target Families at Risk from Coronary Heart Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peerbhoy, D.; Majumdar, A. J.; Wightman, N. A.; Brand, V. L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To document the lifestyle health impacts (activity, diet and physiological), along with the operational success and challenges, of a programme for families presenting one or more coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factor. Design: Data are based on a wider evaluation of a government-funded community initiative conducted in a deprived area…

  13. Early statin therapy in acute coronary syndromes: the successful cycle of evidence, guidelines, and implementation.

    PubMed

    Waters, David D; Ku, Ivy

    2009-10-06

    That statins should be prescribed for patients before hospital discharge after an episode of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a Level of Evidence: 1A recommendation of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Joint Task Force. This level of recommendation is based upon 2 clinical trials: the MIRACL (Myocardial Ischemia Reduction with Aggressive Cholesterol Lowering) and PROVE-IT (Pravastatin or Atorvastatin Evaluation and Infection Therapy) trials. In the MIRACL trial, 3,086 patients with unstable angina or non-Q-wave myocardial infarction were randomized within 4 days of the event to atorvastatin 80 mg/day or to placebo and followed for 16 weeks. The primary composite end point occurred in 14.8% of atorvastatin patients and 17.4% of placebo patients, a 16% relative risk reduction (p = 0.048). In the PROVE-IT trial, 4,162 patients hospitalized with an ACS within the preceding 10 days were randomized to atorvastatin 80 mg/day or pravastatin 40 mg/day and were followed for a mean of 24 months. The primary event rate was 22.4% in the atorvastatin group and 26.3% in the pravastatin group, a 16% relative risk reduction (p = 0.005). A strong trend toward a reduction in total mortality was seen in the atorvastatin group (2.2% vs. 3.2%, p = 0.07). Using a composite end point of death, myocardial infarction, and rehospitalization for ACS, the difference between the treatment groups is already statistically significant at 30 days and remains so throughout the follow-up period. Comprehensive treatment programs in ACS patients that include initiation of statins before hospital discharge have been shown to improve outcomes such as recurrent myocardial infarction and total mortality at 1 year. Guidelines prove their utility when their implementation improves outcomes across a broad population at risk, such as in this instance.

  14. Current options for treatment of chronic coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Prapas, Sotirios N.; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Tsiouda, Theodora; Sakkas, Antonios; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    The primary issues must be discussed regarding the decision making of treating a patient with chronic coronary artery disease (CAD), are the appropriateness of revascularization and the method which will be applied. The criteria will be the symptoms, the evidence of ischemia and the anatomical complexity of the coronary bed. Main indications are persistence of symptoms, despite oral medical treatment and the prognosis of any intervention. The prognosis is based on left ventricular function, on the number of coronary arteries with significant stenosis and the ischemic burden. For patients with symptoms and no evidence of ischemia, there is no benefit from revascularization. If ischemia is proven, revascularization is beneficial. If revascularization is decided, the next important issue must be taken under consideration is the choice of the appropriate method to be applied, surgical or interventional approach. Current treatment options will be presented. PMID:24672695

  15. Endovascular revascularization and free tissue transfer for lower limb salvage.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chieh-Chi; Chang, Chien-Hwa; Hsu, Honda; Mark Chiu, Chih-Hung; Lin, Chih-Ming; Lee, Jiunn-Tat; Chien, Sou-Hsin

    2014-10-01

    Combined bypass surgery with free flap reconstruction is an established method for lower limb salvage. But the success of the combination of endovascular revascularization together with free tissue transfer has so far not been well established. A retrospective review of all patients who had undergone endovascular revascularization and reconstructed with free tissue transfer for lower limb salvage at Tzu Chi Dalin General Hospital between 2008 and 2012 was performed. A total of 26 legs underwent limb salvage in 24 patients. There were 10 male and 14 female patients. Their average age was 71.4 years. The average time interval between endovascular intervention and free tissue transfer was 8 days. There was 100% flap survival but partial flap necrosis was seen in three patients. A high rate of wound infection was seen in eight patients, all requiring further debridement. The total limb salvage rate at 1-year follow-up was 96% and 92% at the 2-year follow-up. In conclusion, the success rate of lower limb salvage using a combination of endovascular revascularization and free tissue reconstruction is comparable to using a combination of bypass surgery and free tissue transfer. It is associated with a high flap success rate and a high limb salvage rate. It provides physicians with a further treatment option in the management of ischemic lower limbs with extended tissue loss.

  16. Challenges in coronary CTO intervention after TAVR: a case report and discussion.

    PubMed

    Murarka, Shishir; Pershad, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Progression of coronary arteries after transcatheter aortic valve replacement is an important issue. Coronary revascularization in these patients can be challenging because of potential hindrance posed by the artificial valve structure in getting access to the coronary ostium. This gets even more difficult in chronic total occlusions (CTOs) that represent the most complex subset of coronary lesions. We report the first case of coronary CTO revascularization in a patient who underwent TAVR a few months prior and discuss the complexities involved in intervening such lesions.

  17. Open perilunate injury with lunate revascularization after complete ligamentous avulsion

    PubMed Central

    Arango, Dillon; Tiedeken, Nathan C.; Ayzenberg, Mark; Raphael, James

    2014-01-01

    Perilunate dislocations are a devastating injury to the carpus that carry a guarded long-term prognosis. Mayfield type 4 perilunate dislocations are rare, high-energy injuries that carry a risk for avascular necrosis (AVN) of the lunate. When AVN ensues and the carpus collapses, primary treatment with a proximal row carpectomy or arthrodesis has been advocated. This case reports a successful clinical result and revascularization of an extruded lunate with open reduction and internal fixation. This type 4, Gustilo grade 1 open perilunate dislocation exhibited complete avulsion of all lunate ligamentous attachments. Management included open reduction and internal fixation as well as carpal tunnel release through a combined dorsal and volar approach. Despite concerns for lunate AVN due to complete disruption of lunate vascularity, a 10-month postoperative clinical and radiographic examination demonstrated no pain with activities of daily living as well as a revascularized lunate. PMID:24876511

  18. Successful outcome of emergency coronary artery bypass grafting and retrieval of entrapped stent, angioplasty balloon, and guidewire.

    PubMed

    Karthik, Shishir; Silverton, Paul; Blaxill, Jonathan A; O'Regan, David J

    2005-03-01

    A 42-year-old man presented with worsening of angina after a recent angioplasty and stenting. Repeat angiography revealed further untreated lesions in the left anterior descending coronary artery. The patient underwent re-angioplasty and stenting. After stent deployment, the guidewire and balloon got entrapped in the left anterior descending coronary artery, which was associated with hypotension and ischemic changes of the anterolateral wall on electrocardiogram. The patient was stabilized with the insertion of an intraaortic balloon pump, and he underwent emergency coronary artery bypass grafting and removal of the entrapped equipment. He had an uneventful postoperative recovery.

  19. Reversible segmental left ventricular dysfunction after coronary angioplasty.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, E K; Popma, J J; Dehmer, G J; Snow, F R; Lewis, S A; Vetrovec, G W; Nixon, J V

    1990-04-01

    Patients with chronic segmental myocardial dysfunction may demonstrate improvement after coronary revascularization. To evaluate the early effects of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) on resting left ventricular segmental function, we obtained serial two-dimensional echocardiograms 1.1 +/- 0.9 days before and 3.1 +/- 2 days after elective PTCA in 40 patients. Echocardiograms were reviewed in a blind fashion; left ventricular segmental wall motion was analyzed in four short-axis views, and a score was assigned to each region (0, normal; 1, hypokinetic; and 2, akinetic). Abnormal regional wall motion was present in 20 of the patients before PTCA. Summed segment scores in these 20 patients showed an improvement in regional wall motion from 4.5 +/- 2.5 to 1.6 +/- 2.1 (p less than 0.01) after successful PTCA. Similar results were obtained when the patients were divided into those with or without a previous myocardial infarction. Improvement occurred in the seven patients without a previous myocardial infarction; the summed segment score decreased from 4.2 +/- 3.4 to 0.86 +/- 1.6 (p less than 0.05) after PTCA. Ten of the 13 patients with a prior myocardial infarction demonstrated improvement in wall motion after PTCA; the summed segment scores decreased 54% (p less than 0.001). Of the 260 segments analyzed in the study, 180 were normal before and after PTCA. Forty-nine of the 69 hypokinetic segments were normal, and 10 of 12 akinetic segments were hypokinetic after successful coronary revascularization. There was no deterioration in wall motion after PTCA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. [Myocardial revascularization surgery without extracorporeal circulation. (Preliminary experience)].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Zambrano, C A; Croston, J A; Tuñón, L

    1998-01-01

    Two hundred and three (203) open heart surgical procedures have been performed at the Complejo Hospitalario Metropolitano, from January 1997 to august 1998; Hundred and twenty-three (123) were of myocardial revascularization and twenty-four (24) of these patients were selected for revascularization without the assistance of the extracorporeal circulation machine. They were patients with chronic stable angina and had lesions of more than 95% in the descending anterior artery, high ventriculo-lateral branch and right coronary artery up to the crux cordis. In nineteen (19) patients the surgical approach was though a medical sternotomy; in four (4) through a left anterolateral thoracostomy and in three (3) of these patients a transverse sternotomy was added. There were no deaths perioperatively and at thirty (30) days there were no evidences of new Q waves or residual angina. With this technique, the time in the Intensive Care Unit and in the hospital has diminished; the patients also required less time in mechanical ventilation; less vasoactive amines are needed. In the operating room less equipment is necessary and the costs are significantly lower.

  1. Report of successful use of argatroban as an alternative anticoagulant during coronary stent implantation in a patient with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lewis, B E; Iaffaldano, R; McKiernan, T L; Rao, L; Donkin, J; Wallenga, J M

    1996-06-01

    Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis syndrome (HITTS) is a severe complication of heparin caused by an antibody response to the heparin-platelet factor 4 complex which results in severe thrombosis. Heparin rechallenge in HITTS patients carries a high risk of inducing thrombosis. Antithrombin agents represent treatment alternatives in HITTS patients who require anticoagulation. We report successful coronary stent implantation in a HITTS patient using the antithrombin agent argatroban.

  2. Successful use of an extra-long hydrophilic-coated sheath in enlarged aorta to overcome extreme tortuosity of right subclavian artery via transradial approach during coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Tomassini, Francesco; Gagnor, Andrea; Varbella, Ferdinando

    2011-03-01

    The transradial approach (TRA) has gained popularity in recent years mainly because of the significantly decreased access-site complications and the greater patient comfort it offers. In this paper, we describe the successful use of an extra-long hydrophilic-coated sheath for coronary angiography via the TRA in the presence of a severely dilated ascending aorta in a patient with severe tortuosity of the right subclavian artery.

  3. High-Intensity Inspiratory Protocol Increases Heart Rate Variability in Myocardial Revascularization Patients

    PubMed Central

    Caruso, Flavia Cristina Rossi; Simões, Rodrigo Polaquini; Reis, Michel Silva; Guizilini, Solange; Alves, Vera Lucia dos Santos; Papa, Valeria; Arena, Ross; Borghi-Silva, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate heart rate variability during an inspiratory muscle endurance protocol at three different load levels [30%, 60% and 80% of maximal inspiratory pressure], in patients who had previously undergone coronary artery bypass grafting. Methods: Nineteen late postoperative myocardial revascularization patients participating in a cardiovascular rehabilitation program were studied. Maximal inspiratory pressure maneuvers were performed. An inspiratory muscle endurance protocol at 30%, 60% and 80% of maximal inspiratory pressure was applied for four minutes each, in random order. Heart rate and RR intervals were recorded and heart rate variability was analyzed by time (RMSSD-the mean of the standard deviations for all R-R intervals, and RMSM-root-mean square differences of successive R-R intervals) and frequency domains indices (high and low frequency) in normalized units. ANOVA for repeated measurements was used to compare heart rate variability indices and Student t-test was used to compare the maximal inspiratory pressure and maximal expiratory pressure values. Results: Heart rate increased during performance of maximal respiratory pressures maneuvers, and the maximal inspiratory pressure and maximal expiratory pressure mean values were significantly lower than predicted values (P<0.05). RMSSD increased significantly at 80% in relation to rest and 30% of maximal inspiratory pressure and RMSM decreased at 30% and 60% of maximal inspiratory pressure in relation to rest (P<0.05). Additionally, there was significant and progressive decrease in low frequency and increase in high frequency at 30%, 60% and 80% of maximal inspiratory pressure in relation to the resting condition. Conclusion: These results suggest that respiratory muscle training at high intensities can promote greater parasympathetic activity and it may confer important benefits during a rehabilitation program in post-coronary artery bypass grafting. PMID:27074273

  4. Physiological impact of CTO recanalization assessed by coronary pressure measurement: a case report.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Hitoshi; Kawase, Yoshiaki

    2013-10-01

    In this case report, physiological changes of myocardial perfusion in the collateral recipient right coronary artery (RCA) and the collateral donor left anterior descending artery (LAD) with an intermediate lesion were assessed using intracoronary pressure measurement, before and after revascularization of chronic total occlusion (CTO). A 44-year-old male was referred for a catheter examination due to silent myocardial ischemia. An invasive coronary angiogram revealed diffuse narrowing of the RCA with focal occlusive segments in addition to intermediate stenosis in the LAD. A well developed collateral channel from the LAD to the RCA was also confirmed. Fractional flow reserve (FFRmyo) of the LAD before opening the RCA was 0.81. After successful revascularization of the RCA, FFRmyo of the LAD and the RCA were measured with and without an RCA balloon occlusion. Because collateral fractional flow reserve (FFRcoll) of the RCA could be regarded as FFRmyo before revascularization, FFRmyo of the RCA increased from 0.67 to 0.90, meaning a 23% increase of maximum flow by intervention. Interestingly, improvement of FFRmyo of the LAD from 0.81 to 0.93 was also observed, which means a 12% increase of maximum flow. Coronary steal in the LAD was reconfirmed by dramatic worsening of FFRmyo from 0.93 to 0.77 by an RCA balloon occlusion. This phenomenon may be explained by an immediate recruitment of collateral channels. This case clearly demonstrated that CTO opening improves perfusion in not only myocardium supplied by the CTO vessel, but also in that which is supplied by a contralateral collateral donor artery.

  5. Coronary artery disease and diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Aronson, Doron; Edelman, Elazer R.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a major determinant of the long-term prognosis among patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). DM is associated with a 2 to 4-fold increased mortality risk from heart disease. Furthermore, in patients with DM there is an increased mortality after MI, and worse overall prognosis with CAD. Near-normal glycemic control for a median of 3.5 to 5 years does not reduce cardiovascular events. Thus, the general goal of HbA1c <7% appears reasonable for the majority of patients. Iatrogenic hypoglycemia is the limiting factor in the glycemic management of diabetes, and is an independent cause of excess morbidity and mortality. Statins are effective in reducing major coronary events, stroke, and the need for coronary revascularization. Selection of the optimal myocardial revascularization strategy for patients with DM and multivessel coronary artery disease is crucial and requires a multidisciplinary team approach (‘heart team’). Large scale clinical trials have shown that for many patients with 1- or 2-vessel coronary artery disease, there is little prognostic benefit from any intervention over optimal medical therapy (OMT). PCI with drug-eluting or bare metal stents is appropriate for patients who remain symptomatic with OMT. Randomized trials comparing multivessel PCI to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) have consistently demonstrated the superiority of CABG in reducing mortality, myocardial infarctions and need for repeat revascularizations. PMID:25091969

  6. Ablation velocity and thermal damage of myocardial tissue using a CO2 laser for transmyocardial laser revascularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachinopoulou, Anna; Beek, Johan F.; van Leeuwen, Ton G. J. M.; Beek, W. J.

    1999-02-01

    Transmyocardial Laser Revascularization (TMLR) is a new experimental method for relief of angina pectoris in patients with severe coronary artery disease. TMLR aims at revascularizing chronic hibernating myocardium by creating transmural channels. One of the working mechanism hypotheses is that the endocardial side of the channels remains open, enabling perfusion of the hibernating myocardium directly from the left ventricle. Although the working mechanism of TMLR is still unknown (perfusion through patent channels, induction of angiogenesis, relief of angina through destruction of sympatic innervation, others?), first clinical studies are successful. Currently, the Heart LaserTM and other CO2 lasers, XeCl Excimer laser and Ho:YAG laser are under investigation for TMLR. The initial attempts of TMR with needles were soon replaced by laser induced channels. Efforts were focused on developing a CO2 laser that could penetrate a beating heart during its relaxation phase. Later, the position of the beam could be fixed in the myocardial wall using lasers with fiber delivery systems and perforation was achieved within multiple cycles. Various researchers reported on both patent and non-patent channels after TMLR. Our belief is that the extent of laser induced thermal damage is one of the factors that determine the clinical outcome and the extent of angiogenesis (and, possibly, the patency of the channel). The purpose of this study is to present a simple theoretical model to predict the extent of thermal damage around a transmyocardial channel. In vitro experiments were performed on myocardial bovine tissue and damage was assessed. The results were used to determine the final parameters of the approximating theoretical equation. To evaluate our results, we compared our results to in vitro data using the Heart LaserTM from the literature. Ablation velocities were also measured and the results were compared to ablation velocity calculations using a model described by Ostegar

  7. Successful Ventricular Remodeling with Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting and Mitral Valve Repair in a Patient with Severe Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Letsou, George V.; Frazier, O. H.

    2006-01-01

    Left ventricular remodeling is becoming a frequent treatment for severe heart failure, but its use in combination with other surgical techniques is controversial. We report a case in which left ventricular remodeling was combined with coronary artery bypass grafting and mitral valve repair to treat a patient with severely depressed ejection fraction, mitral insufficiency, coronary artery disease, and a recent history of myocardial infarction. Cardiac function improved after the combined treatment. This case suggests that left ventricular remodeling can be used safely and effectively in conjunction with other surgical techniques. PMID:16878634

  8. Long-Term Follow-Up of a Revascularized Immature Necrotic Tooth Evaluated by CBCT

    PubMed Central

    She, C. M. L.; Cheung, G. S. P.; Zhang, C. F.

    2016-01-01

    This case study reports the successful treatment of an immature upper premolar with periapical pathosis and sinus tract using revascularization technique. Clinical and radiographic examination demonstrated the recovery of vitality, continued root development, and periapical healing at the 7-month follow-up. In addition, severe calcification of the canal was noted at the 36-month follow-up. At the 66-month follow-up, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) revealed complete periapical healing, apical closure, increase in root length and thickness of dentin, and severe calcification of the root canal. Even though the nature of tissue within the root canal is unknown, revascularization appears to give good clinical and radiographic success. This case report highlights that severe calcification of the canal is one of the long-term outcomes of revascularized root canals. PMID:26949550

  9. Does heart rate variability correlate with long-term prognosis in myocardial infarction patients treated by early revascularization?

    PubMed Central

    Compostella, Leonida; Lakusic, Nenad; Compostella, Caterina; Truong, Li Van Stella; Iliceto, Sabino; Bellotto, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    AIM To assess the prevalence of depressed heart rate variability (HRV) after an acute myocardial infarction (MI), and to evaluate its prognostic significance in the present era of immediate reperfusion. METHODS Time-domain HRV (obtained from 24-h Holter recordings) was assessed in 326 patients (63.5 ± 12.1 years old; 80% males), two weeks after a complicated MI treated by early reperfusion: 208 ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients (in which reperfusion was successfully obtained within 6 h of symptoms in 94% of cases) and 118 non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) patients (percutaneous coronary intervention was performed within 24 h and successful in 73% of cases). Follow-up of the patients was performed via telephone interviews a median of 25 mo after the index event (95%CI of the mean 23.3-28.0). Primary end-point was occurrence of all-cause or cardiac death; secondary end-point was occurrence of major clinical events (MCE, defined as mortality or readmission for new MI, new revascularization, episodes of heart failure or stroke). Possible correlations between HRV parameters (mainly the standard deviation of all normal RR intervals, SDNN), clinical features (age, sex, type of MI, history of diabetes, left ventricle ejection fraction), angiographic characteristics (number of coronary arteries with critical stenoses, success and completeness of revascularization) and long-term outcomes were analysed. RESULTS Markedly depressed HRV parameters were present in a relatively small percentage of patients: SDNN < 70 ms was found in 16% and SDNN < 50 ms in 4% of cases. No significant differences were present between STEMI and NSTEMI cases as regards to their distribution among quartiles of SDNN (χ2 =1.536, P = 0.674). Female sex and history of diabetes maintained a significant correlation with lower values of SDNN at multivariate Cox regression analysis (respectively: P = 0.008 and P = 0.008), while no correlation was found between depressed SDNN

  10. Radiographic and Clinical Outcomes of the Treatment of Immature Permanent Teeth by Revascularization or Apexification: A Pilot Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Alobaid, Adel S.; Cortes, Lina M.; Lo, Jeffery; Nguyen, Thuan T.; Albert, Jeffery; Abu-Melha, Abdulaziz S; Lin, Louis M.; Gibbs, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This retrospective cohort study compared clinical and radiographic outcomes of endodontic treatment performed in immature non-vital permanent teeth, by apexification (calcium hydroxide or apical barrier with Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA)), versus revascularization. Methods A comprehensive chart review was performed to obtain a cohort of sequential previously completed cases with recalls. Clinical and radiographic data were collected for 31 treated teeth (19 revascularization and 12 apexification) with an average follow up time of 17 months and a recall rate of 63%. Tooth survival, success rate, and adverse events were analyzed. Changes in radiographic root length, width and area were quantified. Results The majority of treated teeth survived throughout the study period with 30/31 (97%) teeth surviving (18/19 (95%) revascularization, 12/12 apexification). Most cases were also clinically successful with 27/31 (87%) meeting criteria for success, (15/19 (78%) revascularization and 12/12 apexification; non-significant difference). A greater incidence of adverse events was observed in the revascularization group (8/19 (42%) versus 1/12 (11%) in apexification (Risk Ratio= 5.1, p=0.04, 95%CI (0.719, 35.48)). Although more revascularization cases than apexification cases demonstrated an increase in radiographic root area and width, the effect was not statistically significant. Conclusion In this study, revascularization was not superior to other apexification techniques in either clinical or radiographic outcomes. Studies with large subject cohorts, and long follow up periods are needed to evaluate outcomes of revascularization and apexification, while accounting for important co-variants relevant to clinical success. PMID:25069909

  11. [Absorbable coronary stents. New promising technology].

    PubMed

    Erbel, Raimund; Böse, Dirk; Haude, Michael; Kordish, Igor; Churzidze, Sofia; Malyar, Nasser; Konorza, Thomas; Sack, Stefan

    2007-06-01

    revascularization rate of 23.8% which was below the 30% cut point of the study protocol. No myocardial Q wave infarction or death were reported. The primary endpoint was reached. During the follow-up period, vasomotion was tested in some of the patients. The proof of principle was confirmed: restoration of vasomotion during acetylcholine testing. The development of the absorbable magnesium stent, which was pushed forward by B. Heublein, Hanover, Germany, has been successful and opens new possibilities for treatment of coronary arteries. Permanent foreign-body implantation is avoided allowing further revascularization procedures in the future, bypass grafting, and restoration of vasomotion. Even prophylactic stenting in nonsignificant stenosis, like vulnerable lesions, may become a regular procedure. Noninvasive coronary imaging by CT and MRI is now possible. Stenting of children and in peripheral arteries may become a standard procedure. Currently, the degradation process of the magnesium stent has to be prolonged, and the neointima proliferation rate has to be reduced so that the DREAM (Drug-Eluting Absorbable Magnesium Stent) concept of Ron Waksman, Washington, DC, USA, can be realized.

  12. Coronary collateral circulation: its relevance.

    PubMed

    Karrowni, Wassef; El Accaoui, Ramzi N; Chatterjee, Kanu

    2013-11-15

    The interest in coronary collateral circulation (CCC) as "natural bypasses" is growing, especially in patients in whom the extent of coronary atherosclerosis is too severe to allow for conventional revascularization. The anatomic foundation of CCC has been recognized for long time. Recently, reliable methods have become available for the assessment of the adequacy of collateral flow. However, the debate regarding the importance of CCC in the different clinical settings continues. In this article, we present the recent progress in the understanding of anatomy and physiology of the CCC and focus on the studies addressing their functional significance in acute, subacute, and chronic coronary artery disease. In addition, we provide a focused update on the essential role of collateral circulation in the management of coronary chronic total occlusions.

  13. Management of Traumatized Permanent Incisors. Revascularization and Delayed Replantation.

    PubMed

    Gharechahi, Maryam; Shojaeian, Shiva

    2016-01-01

    This article reports a clinical case of a 9-year-old boy with a traumatic injury to the maxillary central incisors 24 hours after a fall in his schoolyard. The upper left central incisor was avulsed and was kept in saliva for four hours from the moment of trauma until its replantation. The right one was necrotized after one month. We describe successful revascularization treatment of right necrotic immature upper incisor and delayed replantation of left one. After 18 months, radiolucent lesions in the periapical areas of both maxillary central incisors had healed, and root apex development was noted with thickening of the walls in tooth #8.

  14. Risky Cerebrovascular Anatomic Orientation: Implications for Brain Revascularization.

    PubMed

    Nagm, Alhusain; Horiuchi, Tetsuyoshi; Yanagawa, Takao; Hongo, Kazuhiro

    2016-12-01

    This study documents a risky vascular anatomic orientation that might play an important role in the postoperative hemodynamics following anterior cerebral artery (ACA) revascularization. A 71-year-old woman presented with uncontrollable frequent right lower limb transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) attributed to a left cerebral ischemic lesion due to severe left ACA stenosis. She underwent successful left-sided superficial temporal artery-ACA bypass using interposed vascular graft. The patient awoke satisfactory from anesthesia; however, on postoperative day 1, she developed right-sided hemiparesis. Extensive postoperative investigations disclosed that watershed shift infarction was considered the etiology for this neurologic deterioration.

  15. Off-pump revascularization for significant left ventricular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Woo, Y Joseph; Grand, Todd J; Liao, George P; Panlilio, Corinna M

    2006-08-01

    Left ventricular dysfunction is a predictor of perioperative morbidity and mortality in on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. Obligatory global myocardial ischemia and injury induced during crossclamping as well as adverse systemic effects of cardiopulmonary bypass may induce a disproportionately greater overall physiologic insult in patients with poor ventricular function. All patients undergoing nonemergency off-pump coronary artery bypass by a single surgeon during an 18-month period were retrospectively analyzed. Two groups with preoperative ejection fraction classified as poor (10%-35%; n = 31) or normal (55%-80%; n = 60) were compared. The mean ejection fractions were 26% +/- 1% and 63% +/- 1% respectively, p < 0.000001. In those with significant left ventricular dysfunction, there were 2.8 +/- 0.1 grafts per patient, time to extubation was 8.4 +/- 1.2 hours, and discharge was after 4.9 +/- 0.6 days. These results were statistically equivalent to those in the group with normal left ventricular function. There was no intraaortic balloon pump insertion or mortality in either group. This technique provides an effective means of safely revascularizing patients with significant left ventricular dysfunction, and it may provide a valuable alternative approach in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy.

  16. Successful staged repair for a rare type of truncus arteriosus with interruption of the aortic arch and abnormal origin of the left coronary artery

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We report a successful staged repair for a quite rare combination of truncus arteriosus (TA), Van Praagh type A4, and abnormal origin of the left coronary artery (CA). Furthermore, the case was complicated by a variant of the chromosomal anomaly in cat-cry syndrome. The presence of interruption of the aortic arch (IAA) and abnormal CA origin has been previously reported to increase mortality. To decrease the risk of bronchomalacia in infants, bilateral pulmonary artery banding (PAB) was performed as the first stage procedure for adjusting the pulmonary flow. Staged repair is a useful strategy for infants with complex TA. PMID:23714656

  17. Successful staged repair for a rare type of truncus arteriosus with interruption of the aortic arch and abnormal origin of the left coronary artery.

    PubMed

    Uchita, Shunji; Harada, Yorikazu; Honda, Kentaro; Toguchi, Koji; Nishimura, Yoshiharu; Suenaga, Tomohiro; Takeuchi, Takashi; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Okamura, Yoshitaka

    2013-05-28

    We report a successful staged repair for a quite rare combination of truncus arteriosus (TA), Van Praagh type A4, and abnormal origin of the left coronary artery (CA). Furthermore, the case was complicated by a variant of the chromosomal anomaly in cat-cry syndrome. The presence of interruption of the aortic arch (IAA) and abnormal CA origin has been previously reported to increase mortality. To decrease the risk of bronchomalacia in infants, bilateral pulmonary artery banding (PAB) was performed as the first stage procedure for adjusting the pulmonary flow. Staged repair is a useful strategy for infants with complex TA.

  18. Acute and long-term outcome after Palmaz-Schatz stenting: analysis from the New Approaches to Coronary Intervention (NACI) registry.

    PubMed

    Carrozza, J P; Schatz, R A; George, C J; Leon, M B; King, S B; Hirshfeld, J W; Curry, R C; Ivanhoe, R J; Buchbinder, M; Cleman, M W; Goldberg, S; Ricci, D; Popma, J J; Safian, R D; Baim, D S

    1997-11-20

    The randomized Stent Restenosis Study (STRESS) and Belgium Netherlands Stent (Benestent) trials established that elective use of Palmaz-Schatz stents (PSSs) in native coronary arteries with de novo lesions is associated with increased procedural success and reduced restenosis. However there are other clinical indications for which stents are commonly used (unplanned use, vein grafts, restenosis lesions) that are not addressed in these studies. From 1990-1992, 688 lesions in 628 patients were treated with PSSs in the New Approaches to Coronary Intervention (NACI) registry. Angiographic core laboratory readings were available for 543 patients (595 lesions, of which 106 were stented for unplanned indications, 239 were in saphenous vein bypass grafts, and 296 were previously treated). The cohort of patients in whom stents were placed for unplanned indications had more women, current smokers, and had a higher incidence of recent myocardial infarction (MI). Patients who underwent stenting of saphenous vein grafts were older, had a higher incidence of diabetes mellitus, unstable angina, prior MI, and congestive heart failure. Lesion success was similar in all cohorts (98%), but procedural success was significantly higher for planned stenting (96% vs 87%; p < 0.01). Predictors of adverse events in-hospital were presence of a significant left main stenosis and stenting for unplanned indication. The incidence of target lesion revascularization by 30 days was significantly higher for patients undergoing unplanned stenting due to a higher risk for stent thrombosis. Recent MI, stenting in native lesion, and small postprocedural minimum lumen diameter independently predicted target lesion revascularization at 30 days. Independent predictors of death, Q-wave myocardial infarction, or target lesion revascularization at 1 year included severe concomitant disease, high risk for surgery, left main disease, stenting in the left main coronary artery, and low postprocedure minimum lumen

  19. Fractional Flow Reserve-Guided Deferred Versus Complete Revascularization in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Mark W; Hermanides, Rik S; Kaplan, Emel; Hemradj, Veemal; Fabris, Enrico; Koopmans, Petra C; Dambrink, Jan-Henk E; Gosselink, A T Marcel; Van't Hof, Arnoud W J; Ottervanger, Jan Paul; Roolvink, Vincent; Remkes, Wouter S; van der Sluis, Aize; Suryapranata, Harry; Kedhi, Elvin

    2016-11-01

    To assess the safety and efficacy of deferred versus complete revascularization using a fractional flow reserve (FFR)-guided strategy in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), we analyzed all DM patients who underwent FFR-guided revascularization from January 1, 2010, to December 12, 2013. Patients were divided into 2 groups: those with ≥1 remaining FFR-negative (>0.80) medically treated lesions [FFR(-)MT] and those with only FFR-positive lesions (≤0.80) who underwent complete revascularization [FFR(+)CR] and were followed until July 1, 2015. The primary end point was the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), a composite of death, myocardial infarction (MI), target lesion (FFR assessed) revascularization, and rehospitalization for acute coronary syndrome. A total of 294 patients, 205 (69.7%) versus 89 (30.3%) in FFR(-)MT and FFR(+)CR, respectively, were analyzed. At a mean follow-up of 32.6 ± 18.1 months, FFR(-)MT was associated with higher MACE rate 44.0% versus 26.6% (log-rank p = 0.02, Cox regression-adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 2.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.21 to 3.33, p <0.01), and driven by both safety and efficacy end points: death/MI (HR 2.02, 95% CI 1.06 to 3.86, p = 0.03), rehospitalization for acute coronary syndrome (HR 2.06, 95% CI 1.03 to 4.10, p = 0.04), and target lesion revascularization (HR 3.38, 95% CI 1.19 to 9.64, p = 0.02). Previous MI was a strong effect modifier within the FFR(-)MT group (HR 1.98, 95% CI 1.26 to 3.13, p <0.01), whereas this was not the case in the FFR(+)CR group (HR 0.66, 95% CI 0.27 to 1.62, p = 0.37). Significant interaction for MACE was present between FFR groups and previous MI (p = 0.03). In conclusion, in patients with DM, particularly those with previous MI, deferred revascularization is associated with poor medium-term outcomes. Combining FFR with imaging techniques may be required to guide our treatment strategy in these patients with high-risk, fast-progressing atherosclerosis.

  20. [Oxygen-transporting function of the blood circulation system in sevoflurane anesthesia during myocardial revascularization under extracorporeal circulation].

    PubMed

    Skopets, A A; Lomivorotov, V V; Karakhalis, N B; Makarov, A A; Duman'ian, E S; Lomivorotova, L V

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficiency of oxygen-transporting function of the circulatory system under sevoflurane anesthesia during myocardial revascularization operations under extracorporeal circulation. Twenty-five patients with coronary heart disease were examined. Mean blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac index, total peripheral vascular resistance index, pulmonary pressure, pulmonary wedge pressure, and central venous pressure were measured. Arterial and mixed venous blood oxygen levels, oxygen delivery and consumption index, arteriovenous oxygen difference, and glucose and lactate concentrations were calculated. The study has demonstrated that sevoflurane is an effective and safe anesthetic for myocardial revascularization operations in patients with coronary heart disease. The use of sevoflurane contributes to steady-state oxygen-transporting function of the circulatory system at all surgical stages.

  1. Endovascular revascularization of symptomatic chronic middle cerebral artery occlusions: Two case reports

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Yue; Lo, Wai-Ting; Liu, Yang-Xia

    2016-01-01

    For patients with chronic middle cerebral artery occlusions who have recurrent ischemic symptoms despite antiplatelet therapy and vascular risk factor control, treatment options are limited. Because of concerns about the safety of endovascular revascularization of these occlusions and the technical skills required, these procedures have not been widely performed. We report on two patients with successful endovascular revascularization of the chronic middle cerebral artery occlusion with impaired cerebral hemodynamics, with vessel patency maintained on follow-up imaging and no recurrence of stroke. A literature review of treatment options for such patients was performed. Revascularization is technically feasible and can be considered an option for carefully selected chronic middle cerebral artery occlusion patients with recurrent ischemic symptoms despite medical therapy. PMID:26647227

  2. Revascularization of Transplanted Pancreatic Islets and Role of the Transplantation Site

    PubMed Central

    Pepper, Andrew R.; Ziff, Oliver; Shapiro, A. M. James

    2013-01-01

    Since the initial reporting of the successful reversal of hyperglycemia through the transplantation of pancreatic islets, significant research efforts have been conducted in elucidating the process of revascularization and the influence of engraftment site on graft function and survival. During the isolation process the intrinsic islet vascular networks are destroyed, leading to impaired revascularization after transplant. As a result, in some cases a significant quantity of the beta cell mass transplanted dies acutely following the infusion into the portal vein, the most clinically used site of engraftment. Subsequently, despite the majority of patients achieving insulin independence after transplant, a proportion of them recommence small, supplemental exogenous insulin over time. Herein, this review considers the process of islet revascularization after transplant, its limiting factors, and potential strategies to improve this critical step. Furthermore, we provide a characterization of alternative transplant sites, analyzing the historical evolution and their role towards advancing transplant outcomes in both the experimental and clinical settings. PMID:24106517

  3. [Coronary angioplasty of multiple vessels and lesions in unstable functional class-IV angina].

    PubMed

    Frutos Rangel, E; García García, R; Fernández Valadez, E; Zúñiga Sedano, J; Verduzco Bazavilvazo, S; Siordia Zamorano, R; García y Otero, J M

    1991-01-01

    A select group of 26, class IV unstable angina patients that had multiple lesions or multivessel disease were treated with percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). Complete revascularization was the endpoint in all patients. Seventy lesions were dilated (mean = 2.6 lesions per patient). In the tandem multi-lesion group (13 patients) 2.23 lesions per patient were approached (Range 2-3) and in the multivessel disease group (13 patients) a mean of 3.15 lesions per patient were attempted (Range 2-6). An overall success rate of 96% per patient (25/26 patients) and 95.7% primary success per lesion were achieved with no mortality. We report the results of a select group of unstable angina patients with multi-lesion or multivessel disease who underwent PTCA. A careful performance was associated with high primary success in the high risk group achieving clinical and angiographic improvement.

  4. Platelet-rich plasma supplemented revascularization of an immature tooth associated with a periapical lesion in a 40-year-old man.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Ganesh Ranganath; Shah, Naseem; Logani, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    The present case report is the first of its kind that documents the successful outcome of "revascularization," a regeneration-based treatment protocol in a mature adult patient. It belies the myth that "revascularization" should only be done in children and young, adolescent patients. The misconception that stem cells number as well as viability in older age group patients will not allow revascularization to be successful is also contradicted by this case. The paper highlights all the mechanisms that come into play and the enhancing of regenerative response by supplementation with platelet-rich plasma (PRP).

  5. Assessment of coronary blood flow in the cardiac catheterization laboratory.

    PubMed

    Blair, John E A; Ricciardi, Mark J

    2014-06-01

    Coronary blood flow is tightly autoregulated but is subject to epicardial and microvascular obstruction, primarily owing to coronary atherosclerosis. Because coronary flow limitation underlies ischemic heart disease, an understanding of coronary physiology is paramount. Measurement of coronary blood flow, once relegated to the research laboratory is now easily performed in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. In particular, the measurement of fractional flow reserve has been extensively studied and is an important adjunct to clinical decision making. Measurement of coronary flow informs clinicians of prognosis, guides revascularization therapy, and forms the basis of ongoing research in treatment of complex myocardial disease processes. Newer methods of assessing coronary flow measurements are undergoing validation for clinical use and should further enhance our ability to assess the importance of coronary flow in clinical disease.

  6. Holmium:YAG laser coronary angioplasty: results of a multicenter registry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topaz, On

    1994-07-01

    To date, 1201 symptomatic patients with significant coronary artery disease were treated with the mid IR holmium:YAG (2.1 micron) laser in a multicenter study. Updated results of this study, as presented herein, substantiate the important role of this laser in treatment of lesions not ideal for conventional balloon angioplasty. This device is a safe and effective means of coronary revascularization.

  7. Improvement of left ventricular exercise hemodynamic function after aorta-coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Vlietstra, R E; Chesebro, J H; Frye, R L; Wallace, R B

    1981-01-01

    In 39 patients with coronary artery disease and angina pectoris, exercise hemodynamic evaluation, left ventriculography, and coronary arteriography were performed both before and 3 to 36 months (mean 17 months) after aorta-coronary artery bypass grafting. Of the 32 patients with abnormal exercise hemodynamic responses before operation, 11 returned to normal at the postoperative study (Group N) and 21 remained abnormal (Group A). Preoperative characteristics (mean age, functional class, prior myocardial infarction, left ventriculographic appearance, mean ejection fraction, and mean number of vessels diseased) were similar in the two groups. Of the perioperative and postoperative characteristics examined (mean number of grafts, operative myocardial infarction, postoperative functional class, treadmill test result, and adequacy of left coronary artery revascularization), only the adequacy of left coronary artery revascularization differed between Groups N and A. Eight of 11 Group N and only three of 20 Group A patients had complete revascularization, with patent grafts, of the left coronary artery. We conclude that improved exercise hemodynamic function does occur in some patients after aorta-coronary artery bypass operations. Such improvement is most likely when all major lesions of the left coronary artery are completely revascularized.

  8. Coronary Arteries

    MedlinePlus

    ... and animations for grades K-6. The Coronary Arteries Coronary Circulation The heart muscle, like every other ... into two main coronary blood vessels (also called arteries). These coronary arteries branch off into smaller arteries, ...

  9. How revascularization on the beating heart with cardiopulmonary bypass compares to off-pump? A meta-analysis of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Sepehripour, Amir H; Chaudhry, Umar A; Suliman, Amna; Kidher, Emaddin; Sayani, Nusrat; Ashrafian, Hutan; Harling, Leanne; Athanasiou, Thanos

    2016-01-01

    Off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery has been a controversial area of debate and the outcome profile of the technique has been thoroughly investigated. Scepticism regarding the reported outcomes and the conduct of the randomized trials comparing this technique with conventional on-pump coronary artery bypass surgery has been widely voiced, and the technique of off-pump surgery remains as an infrequently adopted approach to myocardial revascularization worldwide. Criticisms of the technique are related to lower rates of complete revascularization and its unknown long-term consequences, the significant detrimental effects on mortality and major adverse events when emergency conversion is required, and the significant lack of long-term survival and morbidity data. The hybrid technique of myocardial revascularization on the beating heart with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass may theoretically provide the beneficial effects of off-pump surgery in terms of myocardial protection and organ protection, while providing the safety and stability of on-pump surgery to allow complete revascularization. Large randomized comparison to support evidence-based choices is currently lacking. In this article, we have meta-analysed the outcomes of on-pump beating heart surgery in comparison with off-pump surgery focusing on major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular adverse events (MACCE) including mortality, stroke and myocardial infarction and the degree of revascularization and number of bypass grafts performed. It was demonstrated that the beating heart on-pump technique allows a significantly higher number of bypass grafts to be performed, resulting in significantly higher degree of revascularization. We have also demonstrated a slightly higher rate of 30-day mortality and MACCE with the technique although not at a statistically significant level. These results should be considered alongside the population risk profile, where a significantly higher risk cohort had

  10. Comparison of baseline characteristics and one-year outcomes between African-Americans and Caucasians undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Leborgne, Laurent; Cheneau, Edouard; Wolfram, Roswitha; Pinnow, Ellen E; Canos, Daniel A; Pichard, Augusto D; Suddath, William O; Satler, Lowell F; Lindsay, Joseph; Waksman, Ron

    2004-02-15

    The objectives of this study were to determine whether there are race-based differences in baseline characteristics and in short- or long-term outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). African-Americans have a higher incidence of coronary artery disease but are less likely to undergo coronary revascularization than Caucasians. Little is known about the profiles and outcomes of African-Americans who undergo PCI. Consecutive series of 1,268 African-Americans and 10,561 Caucasians with symptomatic coronary artery disease who underwent PCI between January 1994 and June 2001 were analyzed. Patients hospitalized for acute myocardial infarction were excluded. African-Americans were older, were more likely to be women, and had more co-morbid baseline conditions compared with Caucasians. Preprocedure lesion characteristics were similar with regard to vessel size, length, and complexity. The rate of clinical success did not differ between the groups. African-Americans experienced more in-hospital combined events of death and Q-wave myocardial infarction (p = 0.03). After propensity score adjustment, African-American race was not an independent predictor for in-hospital events. At 1 year, African-Americans had a slightly lower rate of target lesion revascularization and a 50% higher rate of death (9.8% vs. 6.4%, p <0.001), with a relative risk of 1.52 (95% confidence interval 1.22 to 1.89). In multivariate analysis, African-American race remained a significant predictor of increased 1-year mortality (hazard ratio 1.35, 95% confidence interval 1.06 to 1.71, p = 0.01). African-Americans undergoing angioplasty have more co-morbid baseline conditions than Caucasians. Despite similar clinical success, 1-year outcomes are impaired in African-Americans.

  11. Single Coronary Artery with Aortic Regurgitation

    SciTech Connect

    Katsetos, Manny C. Toce, Dale T.

    2003-11-15

    An isolated single coronary artery can be associated with normal life expectancy; however, patients are at an increased risk of sudden death. A case is reported of a 54-year-old man with several months of chest pressure with activity. On exercise Sestamibi stress testing, the patient developed a hypotensive response with no symptoms and minimal electrocardiographic changes. Nuclear scanning demonstrated reversible septal and lateral perfusion defects consistent with severe ischemia. Coronary angiography revealed a single coronary artery with the right coronary artery arising from the left main. There were high-grade stenotic lesions in the left anterior descending and circumflex arteries with only moderate atherosclerotic disease in the right coronary artery. An aortogram showed 2-3+ aortic regurgitation, with an ejection fraction of 45% on ventriculography. The patient underwent four-vessel revascularization and aortic valve replacement and did well postoperatively.

  12. Revascularization Treatment of Emergency Patients with Acute ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction in Switzerland: Results from a Nationwide, Cross-Sectional Study in Switzerland for 2010-2011

    PubMed Central

    Berlin, Claudia; Jüni, Peter; Endrich, Olga; Zwahlen, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide and in Switzerland. When applied, treatment guidelines for patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) improve the clinical outcome and should eliminate treatment differences by sex and age for patients whose clinical situations are identical. In Switzerland, the rate at which STEMI patients receive revascularization may vary by patient and hospital characteristics. Aims To examine all hospitalizations in Switzerland from 2010–2011 to determine if patient or hospital characteristics affected the rate of revascularization (receiving either a percutaneous coronary intervention or a coronary artery bypass grafting) in acute STEMI patients. Data and Methods We used national data sets on hospital stays, and on hospital infrastructure and operating characteristics, for the years 2010 and 2011, to identify all emergency patients admitted with the main diagnosis of acute STEMI. We then calculated the proportion of patients who were treated with revascularization. We used multivariable multilevel Poisson regression to determine if receipt of revascularization varied by patient and hospital characteristics. Results Of the 9,696 cases we identified, 71.6% received revascularization. Patients were less likely to receive revascularization if they were female, and 80 years or older. In the multivariable multilevel Poisson regression analysis, there was a trend for small-volume hospitals performing fewer revascularizations but this was not statistically significant while being female (Relative Proportion = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.86 to 0.97) and being older than 80 years was still associated with less frequent revascularization. Conclusion Female and older patients were less likely to receive revascularization. Further research needs to clarify whether this reflects differential application of treatment guidelines or limitations in this kind of routine data. PMID:27078262

  13. Pulp Revascularization on Permanent Teeth with Open Apices in a Middle-aged Patient.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Zhu, Xiaofei; Zhang, Chengfei

    2015-09-01

    Pulp revascularization is a promising procedure for the treatment of adolescents' immature permanent teeth with necrotic pulp and/or apical periodontitis. However, the ability to successfully perform pulp revascularization in a middle-aged patient remains unclear. A 39-year-old woman was referred for treatment of teeth #20 and #29 with necrotic pulp, extensive periapical radiolucencies, and incomplete apices. Pulp revascularization procedures were attempted, including root canal debridement, triple antibiotic paste medication, and platelet-rich plasma transplantation to act as a scaffold. Periapical radiographic and cone-beam computed tomographic examinations were used to review the changes in the apical lesions and root apex configuration. The patient remained asymptomatic throughout the 30-month follow-up. Periapical radiographic examination revealed no change in the apical lesions of either tooth at 8 months. The periapical radiolucency disappeared on tooth #20 and significantly decreased on tooth #29 by the 30-month follow-up, findings that were also confirmed by cone-beam computed tomographic imaging. No evidence of root lengthening or thickening was observed. Successful revascularization was achieved in a middle-aged patient's teeth.

  14. Endovascular Therapy as a Primary Revascularization Modality in Acute Mesenteric Ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Kärkkäinen, Jussi M.; Lehtimäki, Tiina T. Saari, Petri; Hartikainen, Juha; Rantanen, Tuomo Paajanen, Hannu; Manninen, Hannu

    2015-10-15

    PurposeTo evaluate endovascular therapy (EVT) as the primary revascularization method for acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI).MethodsA retrospective review was performed on all consecutive patients treated for AMI during a 5-year period (January 2009 to December 2013). EVT was attempted in all patients referred for emergent revascularization. Surgical revascularization was performed selectively after failure of EVT. Patient characteristics, clinical presentation, and outcomes were studied. Failures and complications of EVT were recorded.ResultsFifty patients, aged 79 ± 9 years (mean ± SD), out of 66 consecutive patients with AMI secondary to embolic or thrombotic obstruction of the superior mesenteric artery were referred for revascularization. The etiology of AMI was embolism in 18 (36 %) and thrombosis in 32 (64 %) patients. EVT was technically successful in 44 (88 %) patients. Mortality after successful or failed EVT was 32 %. The rates of emergency laparotomy, bowel resection, and EVT-related complication were 40, 34, and 10 %, respectively. Three out of six patients with failure of EVT were treated with surgical bypass. EVT failure did not significantly affect survival.ConclusionsEVT is feasible in most cases of AMI, with favorable patient outcome and acceptable complication rate.

  15. Successful technical and clinical outcome using a second generation balloon expandable coronary stent for transplant renal artery stenosis: Our experience

    PubMed Central

    Salsamendi, Jason; Pereira, Keith; Baker, Reginald; Bhatia, Shivank S; Narayanan, Govindarajan

    2015-01-01

    Transplant renal artery stenosis (TRAS) is a vascular complication frequently seen because of increase in the number of renal transplantations. Early diagnosis and management is essential to optimize a proper graft function. Currently, the endovascular treatment of TRAS using angioplasty and/or stenting is considered the treatment of choice with the advantage that it does not preclude subsequent surgical correction. Treatment of TRAS with the use of stents, particularly in tortuous transplant renal anatomy presents a unique challenge to an interventional radiologist. In this study, we present three cases from our practice highlighting the use of a balloon-expandable Multi-Link RX Ultra coronary stent system (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Illinois, USA) for treating high grade focal stenosis along very tortuous renal arterial segments. Cobalt–Chromium alloy stent scaffold provides excellent radial force, whereas the flexible stent design conforms to the vessel course allowing for optimal stent alignment. PMID:26629289

  16. Optimal Timing of Surgical Revascularization for Myocardial Infarction and Left Ventricular Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rong; Cheng, Nan; Xiao, Cang-Song; Wu, Yang; Sai, Xiao-Yong; Gong, Zhi-Yun; Wang, Yao; Gao, Chang-Qing

    2017-01-01

    Background: The optimal timing of surgical revascularization for patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and impaired left ventricular function is not well established. This study aimed to examine the timing of surgical revascularization after STEMI in patients with ischemic heart disease and left ventricular dysfunction (LVD) by comparing early and late results. Methods: From January 2003 to December 2013, there were 2276 patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in our institution. Two hundred and sixty-four (223 male, 41 females) patients with a history of STEMI and LVD were divided into early revascularization (ER, <3 weeks), mid-term revascularization (MR, 3 weeks to 3 months), and late revascularization (LR, >3 months) groups according to the time interval from STEMI to CABG. Mortality and complication rates were compared among the groups by Fisher's exact test. Cox regression analyses were performed to examine the effect of the time interval of surgery on long-term survival. Results: No significant differences in 30-day mortality, long-term survival, freedom from all-cause death, and rehospitalization for heart failure existed among the groups (P > 0.05). More patients in the ER group (12.90%) had low cardiac output syndrome than those in the MR (2.89%) and LR (3.05%) groups (P = 0.035). The mean follow-up times were 46.72 ± 30.65, 48.70 ± 32.74, and 43.75 ± 32.43 months, respectively (P = 0.716). Cox regression analyses showed a severe preoperative condition (odds ratio = 7.13, 95% confidence interval 2.05–24.74, P = 0.002) rather than the time interval of CABG (P > 0.05) after myocardial infarction was a risk factor of long-term survival. Conclusions: Surgical revascularization for patients with STEMI and LVD can be performed at different times after STEMI with comparable operative mortality and long-term survival. However, ER (<3 weeks) has a higher incidence of postoperative low cardiac

  17. Chronic response to direct myocardial revascularization: a preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittaker, Peter; Zheng, Shi-Ming; Kloner, Robert A.

    1993-06-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that laser revascularization has long-term benefits on tissue perfusion, perhaps by stimulating angiogenesis. To test this hypothesis, we made 6 transmural channels in rat hearts randomized to either; (1) laser: channels made using a 500 micrometers diameter optic fiber coupled to a holmium:YAG laser, (2) needle: channels made using a 500 micrometers diameter needle, or (3) control: no channels made. Two months later, the rats underwent 90 minutes of coronary artery occlusion followed by 41/2 hours of reperfusion. Prior to the end of the experiment, the artery was reoccluded and the heart perfused with blue dye to detect collateral perfusion within the risk region. Microscopic analysis revealed more dye-containing vessels in needle-treated hearts than in laser or control groups (12 +/- 6*, 3 +/- 1, 2 +/- 1 vessels per field of view, * p < 0.05). Needle channels also appeared to limit necrosis: infarct size was 41 +/- 6* (needle), 61 +/- 6 (laser), 70 +/- 5 (control) % of the risk region in the three groups (*p < 0.05 versus control). Thus, needle- treatment may be capable of reducing infarct size by supplying blood via a collateral circulation apparently stimulated by the channels making process.

  18. Comprehensive assessment of coronary fractional flow reserve

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Xiaolong; Fan, Guoxin; Zhu, Deqiu; Ma, Wanrong

    2015-01-01

    Fractional flow reserve (FFR) is considered nowadays as the gold standard for invasive assessment of physiologic stenosis significance and an indispensable tool for decision-making in coronary revascularization. Robust studies have shown that FFR is more effective in accurately identifying which lesions should be stented, and revascularization guided by FFR improves the outcome of coronary artery disease in patients. Therefore, FFR has been upgraded to a class A recommendation in current guidelines when the ischemic potential for specific target lesions is controversial. This article reviews the laboratory practice, functional evaluation of FFR as a gold standard and its emerging clinical application. In addition, novel noninvasive technologies of FFR measurement are discussed in depth. PMID:26170840

  19. [Percutaneous myocardial laser revascularization (PMR), a new therapeutic procedure for patients with refractory angina pectoris].

    PubMed

    Lauer, B; Stahl, F; Bratanow, S; Schuler, G

    2000-01-01

    In patients with severe angina pectoris due to coronary artery disease, who are not candidates for either percutaneous coronary angioplasty or coronary artery bypass surgery, transmyocardial laser revascularization (TMR) often leads to improvement of clinical symptoms and increased exercise capacity. One drawback of TMR is the need for surgical thoracotomy in order to gain access to the epicardial surface of the heart. Therefore, a catheter-based system has been developed, which allows creation of laser channels into the myocardium from the left ventricular cavity. Between January 1997 and November 1999, this "percutaneous myocardial laser-revascularization" (PMR) was performed in 85 patients at the Herzzentrum Leipzig. In 43 patients, only one region of the heart (anterior, lateral, inferior or septal) was treated with PMR; in 42 patients two or three regions were treated in one session. 12.3 +/- 4.3 (range 4-22) channels/region were created into the myocardium. Six months after PMR, the majority of patients reported significant improvement of clinical symptoms (CCS class at baseline: 3.3 +/- 0.4; after 6 months: 1.6 +/- 0.9) (p < 0.001) and an increased exercise capacity (baseline: 349 +/- 138 s; after 6 months: 470 +/- 193 s) (p < 0.05); however, thallium scintigraphy failed to show increased perfusion in the PMR treated regions. PMR seems to be a safe and feasible new therapeutic option for patients with refractory angina pectoris due to end-stage coronary artery disease. The first results indicate improvement of clinical symptoms and increased exercise capacity; evidence of increased perfusion in the laser-treated regions is still lacking.

  20. Infarct related artery only versus complete revascularization in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and multi vessel disease: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Devarapally, Santhosh R.; Arora, Sameer

    2017-01-01

    Background The 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association (ACCF/AHA) focused update on primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) only gives a class II b (weak) indication for non-infarct artery intervention at the time of primary PCI. Recent randomized controlled trials, however, suggest strong evidence supporting complete revascularization. Methods A systematic search was conducted in PUBMED, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane central register for randomized controlled trials comparing complete versus infarct artery (IRA) only revascularization in patients with STEMI. A meta-analysis was performed using the data extracted from each study. Summary risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for five outcomes. Results Six trials fulfilled the inclusion criteria yielding 1,792 patients. Follow up ranged from 6 months to 2.5 years. The incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) was significantly lower in the complete revascularization group compared to the IRA only revascularization (13.8% vs. 25.1%, RR =0.51; 95% CI: 0.41–0.64, P<0.00001). It was attributed to significantly lower repeat revascularization rate in the complete revascularization group (8.2% vs. 18.9%, RR =0.41; 95% CI: 0.31–0.54, P<0.00001). This meta-analysis also showed a significant reduction in cardiovascular mortality (2.0% vs. 4.6%, RR =0.42; 95% CI: 0.24–0.74; P=0.003), non-fatal myocardial infarction (4.37% vs. 5.76%, RR =0.64; 95% CI: 0.34–1.20; P=0.16) and all-cause mortality rates [(4.6% vs. 6%), RR =0.75; 95% CI: 0.49–1.14, P=0.17] in the complete revascularization group, compared to the IRA revascularization group. Conclusions In patients who present with STEMI, complete revascularization is associated with lower rates of MACE and cardiovascular deaths as compared to revascularization of the IRA alone. Even though the outcomes of all-cause mortality and

  1. Outcomes of coronary artery bypass grafting versus percutaneous coronary intervention with second-generation drug-eluting stents for patients with multivessel and unprotected left main coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulos, Kyriacos; Lekakis, Ioannis; Nicolaides, Evagoras

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the efficacy and safety of percutaneous coronary intervention using second-generation drug-eluting stents with those of coronary artery bypass grafting among patients with multivessel disease and/or unprotected left main coronary artery disease in terms of mortality, myocardial infarction, repeat revascularization, and angina. Background: Although coronary artery disease is a leading cause of death in the Western world and in many developing countries, its optimal treatment is still a matter of controversy. Several studies have examined the clinical safety and efficacy of percutaneous coronary intervention using first-generation drug-eluting stents over coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with multivessel disease and/or unprotected left main coronary artery disease. However, this study compared the efficacy of percutaneous coronary intervention using second-generation drug-eluting stents to that of coronary artery bypass grafting for multivessel disease and/or unprotected left main coronary artery disease. Methods: This was a prospective single-center cohort study conducted from September 2012 to November 2014 at the Nicosia General Hospital. In total, 140 patients (94% men and 6% women) with chronic coronary artery disease undergoing revascularization with either percutaneous coronary intervention using second-generation drug-eluting stents or coronary artery bypass grafting were evaluated. We examined the differences in clinical outcomes between coronary artery bypass grafting and percutaneous coronary intervention at 1-year follow-up. Results: Percutaneous coronary intervention with second-generation drug-eluting stents as opposed to coronary artery bypass grafting resulted in similar rates of mortality (5.7% vs 11.4%, respectively; p = 0.135), myocardial infarction (0% vs 4.3%, respectively), repeat revascularization (4.3% vs 8.6%, respectively; p = 0.115) and angina (10% vs 18.6%, respectively; p = 0.153). Conclusion

  2. Percutaneous coronary intervention for acute myocardial infarction in a pediatric patient with coronary aneurysm and stenosis due to Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Drossner, David M; Chappell, Clay; Rab, Tanveer; Kim, Dennis

    2012-06-01

    We report the case of an acutely ill 3-year-old female, with a previous medical history of Kawasaki disease, who presented to care with an acute myocardial infarction. We describe the coordinated therapies employed by pediatric and adult cardiologists aimed to establish coronary revascularization.

  3. A randomized comparative study of patients undergoing myocardial revascularization with or without cardiopulmonary bypass surgery: The MASS III Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hueb, Whady; Lopes, Neuza HM; Gersh, Bernard J; Castro, Cláudio C; Paulitsch, Felipe S; Oliveira, Sergio A; Dallan, Luis A; Hueb, Alexandre C; Stolf, Noedir A; Ramires, José AF

    2008-01-01

    The MASS III Trial is a large project from a single institution, The Heart Institute of the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil (InCor), enrolling patients with coronary artery disease and preserved ventricular function. The aim of the MASS III Trial is to compare medical effectiveness, cerebral injury, quality of life, and the cost-effectiveness of coronary surgery with and without of cardiopulmonary bypass in patients with multivessel coronary disease referred for both strategies. The primary endpoint should be a composite of cardiovascular mortality, cerebrovascular accident, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and refractory angina requiring revascularization. The secondary end points in this trial include noncardiac mortality, presence and severity of angina, quality of life based on the SF-36 Questionnaire, and cost-effectiveness at discharge and at 5-year follow-up. In this scenario, we will analyze the cost of the initial procedure, hospital length of stay, resource utilization, repeat hospitalization, and repeat revascularization events during the follow-up. Exercise capacity will be assessed at 6-months, 12-months, and the end of follow-up. A neurocognitive evaluation will be assessed in a subset of subjects using the Brain Resource Center computerized neurocognitive battery. Furthermore, magnetic resonance imaging will be made to detect any cerebral injury before and after procedures in patients who undergo coronary artery surgery with and without cardiopulmonary bypass. Clinical Trial registration information ISRCTN59539154 Off-pump vs. on-pump surgery in patients with Stable CAD MASS III PMID:18755039

  4. Recanalization of failed autogenous conduit utilizing laser revascularization.

    PubMed

    Chander, Rajiv K; Oza, Parind; Patel, Mayank; Balar, Nilesh

    2011-10-01

    The traditional approach for the treatment of restenosis of autogenous vein bypass has been revision of bypass with vein patch angioplasty, interposition jump graft, or thrombectomy procedures for those patients with extensive occlusive disease and limb-threatening ischemia. Endovascular intervention traditionally involves angioplasty of the graft; however, vessels with diffuse disease or extensive longitudinal lesions are generally difficult to revascularize utilizing this technique. Surgical revision of a threatened autogenous vein graft may carry a morbidity rate as high as 13.6%. We present a series of cases in which excimer laser atherectomy (LA) was used to recanalize an occluded autogenous saphenous vein bypass. Of the occluded vein bypasses failed angioplasty and were successfully atherectomized with LA measuring lengths of 35 and 30 cm, respectively. The infrainguinal has a 6-month follow-up, while the infragencular has a follow-up of 1 year, with resolution of presenting symptoms.

  5. Mechanical Revascularization for Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Single-Center, Retrospective Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jeromel, Miran Milosevic, Z. V. Kocijancic, I. J. Lovric, D.; Svigelj, V. Zvan, B.

    2013-04-15

    BackgroundEndovascular mechanical revascularization (thrombectomy) is an increasingly used method for intracranial large vessel recanalization in acute stroke. The purpose of the study was to analyze the recanalization rate, clinical outcome, and complication rate in our stroke patients treated with mechanical revascularization. A total of 57 patients with large vessel stroke (within 3 h for anterior and 12 h for posterior circulation) were treated with mechanical revascularization at a single center during 24 months. The primary goal of endovascular treatment using different mechanical devices was recanalization of the occluded vessel. Recanalization rate (reported as thrombolysis in cerebral infarction [TICI] score), clinical outcome (reported as National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale [NIHSS] score and modified Rankin scale [mRS] score), as well as periprocedural complications were analyzed. The mean age of the patients was 63.1 {+-} 12.9 years, with baseline median NIHSS score of 14 (interquartile range, 9.5-19). Successful recanalization (TICI 2b or 3) was achieved in 41 (72 %) patients. Twenty patients (35 %) presented with favorable outcome (mRS {<=}2) 30 days after stroke. Overall, significant neurological improvement ({>=}4 NIHSS point reduction) occurred in 36 (63 %) patients. A clinically significant procedure-related adverse events (vessel disruption, peri/postprocedural intracranial bleeding) defined with decline in NIHSS of {>=}4 or death occurred in three (5 %) patients. The study showed a high recanalization rate with improved clinical outcome and a low rate of periprocedural complications in our stroke patients treated with mechanical revascularization. Therefore, we could conclude that endovascular revascularization (primary or in combination with a bridging thrombolysis) was an effective and safe procedure for intracranial large vessel recanalization in acute stroke.

  6. Pulp revascularization of immature permanent teeth: a review of the literature and a proposal of a new clinical protocol.

    PubMed

    Namour, Mélanie; Theys, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Tissue engineering is a growing field. In the near future, it will probably be possible to generate a complete vital tooth from a single stem cell. Pulp revascularization is dependent on the ability of residual pulp and apical and periodontal stem cells to differentiate. These cells have the ability to generate a highly vascularized and a conjunctive rich living tissue. This one is able to colonize the available pulp space. Revascularization is a new treatment method for immature necrotic permanent teeth. Up to now, apexification procedures were applied for these teeth, using calcium dihydroxide or MTA to produce an artificial apical barrier. However, the pulp revascularization allows the stimulation of the apical development and the root maturation of immature teeth. Two pulp revascularization techniques are used in the literature, one using calcium dihydroxide and the second using a triple antibiotic paste. Based on these two different pulp revascularization protocols, which obtain the desired therapeutic success, the literature will be reviewed and analyzed according to the relevance of their choice of materials. Based on the literature, we propose a new relevant protocol and a new mixture of antibiotics.

  7. Pulp Revascularization of Immature Permanent Teeth: A Review of the Literature and a Proposal of a New Clinical Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Namour, Mélanie

    2014-01-01

    Tissue engineering is a growing field. In the near future, it will probably be possible to generate a complete vital tooth from a single stem cell. Pulp revascularization is dependent on the ability of residual pulp and apical and periodontal stem cells to differentiate. These cells have the ability to generate a highly vascularized and a conjunctive rich living tissue. This one is able to colonize the available pulp space. Revascularization is a new treatment method for immature necrotic permanent teeth. Up to now, apexification procedures were applied for these teeth, using calcium dihydroxide or MTA to produce an artificial apical barrier. However, the pulp revascularization allows the stimulation of the apical development and the root maturation of immature teeth. Two pulp revascularization techniques are used in the literature, one using calcium dihydroxide and the second using a triple antibiotic paste. Based on these two different pulp revascularization protocols, which obtain the desired therapeutic success, the literature will be reviewed and analyzed according to the relevance of their choice of materials. Based on the literature, we propose a new relevant protocol and a new mixture of antibiotics. PMID:25383384

  8. Myocardial ischemia is a key factor in the management of stable coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Kohichiro

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that coronary revascularization, especially percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), does not significantly decrease the incidence of cardiac death or myocardial infarction in patients with stable coronary artery disease. Many studies using myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) showed that, for patients with moderate to severe ischemia, revascularization is the preferred therapy for survival benefit, whereas for patients with no to mild ischemia, medical therapy is the main choice, and revascularization is associated with increased mortality. There is some evidence that revascularization in patients with no or mild ischemia is likely to result in worsened ischemia, which is associated with increased mortality. Studies using fractional flow reserve (FFR) demonstrate that ischemia-guided PCI is superior to angiography-guided PCI, and the presence of ischemia is the key to decision-making for PCI. Complementary use of noninvasive MPI and invasive FFR would be important to compensate for each method’s limitations. Recent studies of appropriateness criteria showed that, although PCI in the acute setting and coronary bypass surgery are properly performed in most patients, PCI in the non-acute setting is often inappropriate, and stress testing to identify myocardial ischemia is performed in less than half of patients. Also, some studies suggested that revascularization in an inappropriate setting is not associated with improved prognosis. Taken together, the presence and the extent of myocardial ischemia is a key factor in the management of patients with stable coronary artery disease, and coronary revascularization in the absence of myocardial ischemia is associated with worsened prognosis. PMID:24772253

  9. Pulp Revascularization in Immature Permanent Tooth with Apical Periodontitis Using Mineral Trioxide Aggregate

    PubMed Central

    Saeki, Katsura; Shiono, Yasuhiro; Maki, Kenshi

    2014-01-01

    Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is a material that has been used worldwide in several clinical applications, such as apical barriers in teeth with immature apices, repair of root perforations, root-end filling, pulp capping, and pulpotomy. The purpose of this case report was to describe successful revascularization treatment of an immature mandibular right second premolar with apical periodontitis in a 9-year-old female patient. After preparing an access cavity without anesthesia, the tooth was isolated using a rubber dam and accessed. The canal was gently debrided using 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and 3% hydrogen peroxide irrigant. And then MTA was packed into the canal. X-ray photographic examination showed the dentin bridge 5 months after the revascularization procedure. Thickening of the canal wall and complete apical closure were confirmed 10 months after the treatment. In this case, MTA showed clinical and radiographic success at revascularization treatment in immature permanent tooth. The successful outcome of this case suggests that MTA is reliable and effective for endodontic treatment in the pediatric dentistry. PMID:24959181

  10. Transmyocardial laser revascularization with a high-power (800 W) CO2 laser: clinical report with 50 cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Zheng; Zhang, Zhaoguang; Ye, Jianguang; Yu, Jianbo

    1999-09-01

    This paper reports the clinical experience in transmyocardial laser revascularization (TMLR) with high power CO2 laser and evaluates the preliminary results of TMLR. TMLR may improve angina pectoris and myocardial perfusion significantly. To switch on the laser in proper order may be helpful to shorten duration of surgery. A gentle removal of fat on the apex may increase the successful transmyocardial penetration.

  11. Neurobehavioral and Life-Quality Changes after Cerebral Revascularization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Anne Dull; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Studied neuropsychological and life-quality changes six months after carotid endarterectomy, superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery bypass, multiple revascularization, and vertebrobasilar revascularization procedures. Compared changes with those in patients with recent severe spinal complaints and in patients for whom…

  12. Meta-analysis of organ damage after conversion from off-pump coronary artery bypass procedures.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Dayal; Rao, Christopher; Ibrahim, Michael; Ahmed, Kamran; Ashrafian, Hutan; Protopapas, Aristotle; Darzi, Ara; Athanasiou, Thanos

    2011-08-01

    The relative efficacy of off-pump and on-pump coronary revascularization is uncertain. A complication of off-pump surgery which is rarely considered is intraoperative conversion to cardiopulmonary bypass. Consequently, meta-analysis was performed of studies comparing morbidity after converted and nonconverted off-pump coronary revascularization. There were significant increases in the likelihood of stroke, myocardial injury, bleeding, renal failure, wound infection, intraaortic balloon pump requirement, transfusion, and respiratory and gastrointestinal complications after conversion. The underlying mechanisms need to be urgently elucidated. Prevention and treatment protocols for conversion warrant serious consideration and the risk of conversion may need to be discussed when obtaining informed patient consent.

  13. Thirty Years Later: Evolution of Treatment for Acute Left Main Coronary Artery Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Dov, Nissan; Karkabi, Basheer; Jaffe, Ronen

    2016-01-01

    Acute occlusion of left main coronary artery is a catastrophic event. We describe two patients with acute occlusion of the left main coronary artery treated thirty years apart. The first patient was treated in 1982 and survived the event without revascularization but developed severe heart failure. His survival was so unusual that it merited a case report at that time. The second patient was treated at the end of 2015. Early revascularization resulted in myocardial reperfusion and near normal left ventricular function. These patients exemplify the progress in therapeutic cardiology over the last 30 years. PMID:28078145

  14. Costs of revascularization over eight years in the randomized and eligible patients in the Emory Angioplasty versus Surgery Trial (EAST).

    PubMed

    Weintraub, W S; Becker, E R; Mauldin, P D; Culler, S; Kosinski, A S; King, S B

    2000-10-01

    The Emory Angioplasty versus Surgery Trial (EAST) was a randomized trial that compared, by intention to treat, the clinical outcome and costs of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) and coronary bypass grafting (CABG) for multivessel coronary artery disease. We present the findings of the economic analysis of EAST through 8 years of follow-up and compare the cost and outcomes of patients randomized in EAST versus patients eligible but not randomized (registry patients). Charges were assessed from hospital UB82 and UB92 bills and professional charges from the Emory Clinic. Hospital charges were reduced to cost through step-down accounting methods. All costs and charges were inflated to 1997 dollars. Costs were assessed for initial hospitalization and for cumulative costs of the initial hospitalization and additional revascularization procedures up to 8 years. Total 8-year costs were $46,548 for CABG and $44,491 for PTCA (p = 0.37). Cost of CABG in the eligible registry group showed a pattern similar to that for randomized patients, but total cost of PTCA was lower for registry patients than for randomized patients. Thus, the primary procedural costs of CABG are more than those for PTCA; this cost advantage, given the limits of measurement, is largely or even completely lost for randomized patients over the course of 8 years because of additional procedures after a first revascularization by PTCA.

  15. Clinical outcomes of compromised side branch (stent jail) after coronary stenting with the NIR stent.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, B; Waksman, R; Lansky, A J; Kornowski, R; Mehran, R; Leon, M B

    2001-11-01

    Acute side-branch (SB) compromise or occlusion stent jail after native coronary stenting is a matter of concern. Attempts at maintaining SB patency can be a technical challenge. The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical impact of SB compromise or occlusion in patients undergoing stenting of parent vessel lesions. We evaluated in-hospital and long-term clinical outcomes (death, Q-wave myocardial infarction, and repeat revascularization rates at 6 months) in 318 consecutive patients undergoing NIR stent implantation across an SB. Based on independent angiographic analysis, 218 (68.6%) patients had no poststent SB compromise, 85 (26.7%) patients had narrowed SB (> 70% narrowing, without total occlusion), and 15 (4.7%) patients had an occluded SB after stent implantation. The baseline patient and lesion characteristics were similar between the groups. Procedural success was 100%. Patients with SB occlusion had a higher stents/lesion ratio (P < 0.006). Side-branch occlusion was associated with higher in-hospital ischemic complications (Q-wave myocardial infarction, 7%; non-Q-wave myocardial infarction, 20%; P < 0.05) compared to patients with SB compromise or normal SB. At 6-month follow-up, there was a trend for more myocardial infarctions in the group with SB occlusion during the index procedure (Q-wave myocardial infarction, 7% vs. 1% in the narrowed and 0% in normal SB; P = 0.09). However, late target lesion revascularization and mortality were similar in the three groups (P = 0.91). SB occlusion after parent vessel stenting is associated with more frequent in-hospital Q-wave and non-Q-wave myocardial infarctions. However, with the NIR stent, side-branch compromise or occlusion does not influence late (6 month) major adverse events, including death, myocardial infarction, or need for repeat revascularization.

  16. Vital Pulp Therapy—Current Progress of Dental Pulp Regeneration and Revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weibo; Yelick, Pamela C.

    2010-01-01

    Pulp vitality is extremely important for the tooth viability, since it provides nutrition and acts as biosensor to detect pathogenic stimuli. In the dental clinic, most dental pulp infections are irreversible due to its anatomical position and organization. It is difficult for the body to eliminate the infection, which subsequently persists and worsens. The widely used strategy currently in the clinic is to partly or fully remove the contaminated pulp tissue, and fill and seal the void space with synthetic material. Over time, the pulpless tooth, now lacking proper blood supply and nervous system, becomes more vulnerable to injury. Recently, potential for successful pulp regeneration and revascularization therapies is increasing due to accumulated knowledge of stem cells, especially dental pulp stem cells. This paper will review current progress and feasible strategies for dental pulp regeneration and revascularization. PMID:20454445

  17. Apexogenesis and revascularization treatment procedures for two traumatized immature permanent maxillary incisors: a case report.

    PubMed

    Forghani, Maryam; Parisay, Iman; Maghsoudlou, Amir

    2013-08-01

    Traumatic injuries to an immature permanent tooth may result in cessation of dentin deposition and root maturation. Endodontic treatment is often complicated in premature tooth with an uncertain prognosis. This article describes successful treatment of two traumatized maxillary central incisors with complicated crown fracture three months after trauma. The radiographic examination showed immature roots in maxillary central incisors of a 9-year-old boy with a radiolucent lesion adjacent to the right central incisor. Apexogenesis was performed for the left central incisor and revascularization treatment was considered for the right one. In 18-month clinical and radiographic follow-up both teeth were asymptomatic, roots continued to develop, and periapical radiolucency of the right central incisor healed. Considering the root development of these contralateral teeth it can be concluded that revascularization is an appropriate treatment method in immature necrotic teeth.

  18. Apexogenesis and revascularization treatment procedures for two traumatized immature permanent maxillary incisors: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Forghani, Maryam; Maghsoudlou, Amir

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic injuries to an immature permanent tooth may result in cessation of dentin deposition and root maturation. Endodontic treatment is often complicated in premature tooth with an uncertain prognosis. This article describes successful treatment of two traumatized maxillary central incisors with complicated crown fracture three months after trauma. The radiographic examination showed immature roots in maxillary central incisors of a 9-year-old boy with a radiolucent lesion adjacent to the right central incisor. Apexogenesis was performed for the left central incisor and revascularization treatment was considered for the right one. In 18-month clinical and radiographic follow-up both teeth were asymptomatic, roots continued to develop, and periapical radiolucency of the right central incisor healed. Considering the root development of these contralateral teeth it can be concluded that revascularization is an appropriate treatment method in immature necrotic teeth. PMID:24010086

  19. Supraventricular tachyarrhythmias after myocardial revascularization: a randomized trial of prophylactic digitalization.

    PubMed

    Tyras, D H; Stothert, J C; Kaiser, G C; Barner, H B; Codd, J E; Willman, V L

    1979-02-01

    The success of prophylactic digitalization in reducing the incidence of supraventricular tachyarrhythmias (SVT) was studied in 140 randomly grouped, consecutive patients undergoing myocardial revascularization operations. The test group received either 1 or 1.5 mg. of digoxin the day before operation and were maintained postoperatively on 0.25 mg. of digoxin daily. There was a significant increase (p less than 0.05) in the incidence of SVT in the treated patients (17 of 61 or 27.8 percent) vs. the untreated patients (nine of 79 or 11.4 percent). There was no significant difference in SVT with the two digitalization dosage levels (31.6 percent with 1 mg. vs. 21.7 percent with 1.5 mg.). Prophylactic digitalization demonstrates no benefit in the prevention of SVT following myocardial revascularization and may, in fact, predispose the patient to these arrhythmias.

  20. FFR guided PCI on long coronary lesions: 2-year clinical results with 2nd or newer generation DES

    PubMed Central

    Arvydas, Baranauskas; Vilhelmas, Bajoras; Povilas, Budrys; Aleksandras, Laucevičius; Giedrius, Davidavičius

    2016-01-01

    Background. Despite improvements in drug-eluting stent (DES) technology, treatment strategies for long coronary artery lesions remain a controversial issue. The aim of our study was to evaluate the long-term clinical results after FFR guided PCI on long coronary lesions. Materials and methods. A total of 74 consecutive patients with significant (mean FFR 0.61 ± 0.11) coronary artery lesions ≥30 mm in length were included in the prospective study. All patients were treated with FFR guided PCI implanting newer generation Biolimus, Everolimus or Zotarolimus eluting stents. Clinical endpoints – target vessel revascularization (TVR) and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) – were recorded at 1 and 2 years. Results. 100% angiographic procedure success was achieved, the mean post procedural FFR was 0.88 ± 0.06. At 2-year follow-up, 6 (8.1%) patients had ischemia driven TVR, all within the first 12 months. There were no target vessel related acute coronary syndromes and definite stent thromboses in the study group. At 2 years, the total MACE rate was 29.7%. There was a trend towards a higher TVR rate in patients with overlapping DES vs single DES implanted (9.6 vs 4.5%, p = 0.6). On regression analysis, the total stent length had no influence on the TVR rate. Conclusions. At 2 years after stenting long coronary lesions with newer generation DES the TVR rate was 8.1%, which is acceptable in the high cardiovascular risk population with diffuse coronary artery disease. The total stent length did not affect the long-term clinical outcomes. PMID:28356786

  1. Transmyocardial revascularization by a 1000-watt CO2 laser: sole therapy (Abstract Only)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crew, John R.; Dean, Marilyn; Jones, Reinold; Fisher, John C.

    1993-05-01

    The concept of transmyocardial revascularization (TMR) providing blood flow to the left heart muscle based on the reptilian heart model has now been extended from an adjunctive procedure with coronary artery bypass to sole therapy. At Seton Hospital and Medical Center TMR is now being performed for the first time in clinical trials with patients who have no other mechanism of perfusion and a history of either failed PTCA or coronary artery bypass, with angina already under maximum medical therapy with a demonstrable ischemic muscle target. Longevity and reperfusion by tomographic thallium of these laser-drilled holes has been previously demonstrated but effectiveness of these channels for primary perfusion (sole therapy) apart from normal coronary bypass collateral supply is under investigation. Phase I of the FDA study has been completed with 15 cases and now Phase II includes three other beta test sites along with alternative therapy in marginal cases as the investigational format for the next 50 cases. More than 2 year followup in the first 15 cases is presented.

  2. How Do Hospitals Respond to Market Entry? Evidence from a Deregulated Market for Cardiac Revascularization.

    PubMed

    Li, Suhui; Dor, Avi

    2015-08-01

    Regulatory entry barriers to hospital service markets, namely Certificate of Need (CON) regulations, are enforced in many US states. Policy makers in other states are considering reinstating CON policies in tandem with service expansions mandated under the Affordable Care Act. Although previous studies examined the volume effects of CON, demand responses to actual entry into local hospital markets are not well understood. In this paper, we empirically examine the demand-augmenting, demand-redistribution, and risk-allocation effects of hospital entry by studying the cardiac revascularization markets in Pennsylvania, a state in which dynamic market entry occurred after repeal of CON in 1996. Results from interrupted time-series analyses indicate demand-augmenting effects for coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) and business-stealing effects for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) procedures: high entrant market share mitigated the declining incidence of CABG, but it had no significant effect on the rising trend in PCI use, among patients with coronary artery disease. We further find evidence that entry by new cardiac surgery centers tended to sort high-severity patients into the more invasive CABG procedure and low-severity patients into the less invasive PCI procedures. These findings underscore the importance of considering market-level strategic responses by hospitals when regulatory barriers are rescinded.

  3. Percutaneous Coronary Intervention of Hidden Coronary Artery-Unusual Type of Isolated Single Coronary Artery

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Shivanand; Ramalingam, Rangaraj; Manjunath, Cholenahally Nanjappa; Subramanyam, Kasamsetty

    2016-01-01

    Single coronary artery is a rare congenital coronary artery anomaly, the incidence of which is 0.024-0.066% as described in literature. Report of cases having single coronary artery along with acute myocardial infarction are scanty and reports of percutaneous intervention in such a situation are even fewer, technically challenging and potentially cataclysmic. As single coronary artery supplies the entire myocardium, occlusion of this can result in significant ischemic insult, resulting in severe biventricular dysfunction. Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) of single coronary artery is technically challenging and carries high risk which may be equated to left main intervention. We report a rare interesting case of L1 variety of single coronary artery which presented as acute inferoposterior myocardial infarction with successful rescue PCI to Left Circumflex Artery (LCx). PMID:27656488

  4. Acute myocardial infarction in a patient with anomalous origin of the right coronary artery: depiction at whole-heart coronary magnetic resonance angiography and delayed-enhanced imaging.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Mitsuru; Sato, Yuichi; Matsumoto, Naoya; Kunimasa, Taeko; Tani, Shigemasa; Tachibana, Eizo; Kikushima, Kimio; Nagao, Ken; Saito, Satoshi; Hirayama, Atsushi

    2008-12-17

    A 71-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of anterior chest pain. His electrocardiogram showed ST-segment depression and cardiac enzymes were normal. Non-ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction was suspected and whole-heart magnetic resonance imaging was performed. Whole-heart coronary magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) showed an anomalous origin of the right coronary artery from the left sinus of Valsalva and delayed-enhanced imaging showed transmural hyperenhancement of the inferior wall. Coronary angiography revealed the anomalous origin of the right coronary artery (RCA) from the left sinus of Valsalva and occlusion in the proximal portion of the RCA. Coronary revascularization was achieved by intracoronary thrombolysis followed by stent implantation. Whole-heart coronary MRA and delayed-enhanced imaging allows simultaneous assessment of coronary artery anomaly and extent of myocardial infarction.

  5. Fatal derecruitment of occluded left anterior descending collaterals after left circumflex revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Boukhris, Marouane; Tomasello, Salvatore D.; Galassi, Alfredo R.

    2015-01-01

    Coronary arteries are not definitely functionally terminal arteries, as previously thought; indeed, they are linked and interconnected by a rich network of collaterals. Chronic total occlusions (CTOs) represent a subset of frequent lesions encountered in everyday catheterization laboratory practice, generally associated with a developed system of collateral connections. These latter have the capacity to prevent myocardial necrosis and may even uphold metabolic supply to the ischemic territory to maintain its contractile capacity. Authors have reported a rapid and progressive reduction of collateral function and their decline after antegrade flow restoration, resulting in higher myocardial susceptibility to ischemia in the CTO territory. Here, we report the case of a fatal derecruitment of collaterals for a left anterior descending CTO not reopened, after left circumflex subocclusion revascularization. PMID:26778906

  6. Reconstruction of esophageal defects with microsurgically revascularized jejunal segments: a report of 13 cases.

    PubMed

    Chang, T S; Hwang, O L; Wang-Wei

    1980-12-01

    Experimental free transfer of a jejunal segment to a recipient bed in the neck was successfully performed in 5 mongrel dogs. This was followed by clinical application of 2 different microvascular procedures in 13 patients for repair of esophageal defects. In 7 of these patients a free jejunal transfer was used; in 6 of these patients a pedicled jejunal graft with revascularization of its distal end by microvascular anastomosis was used. The esophageal defects were located in the cervical portion in 7 cases, the cervicothoracic portion in 5 cases, and the thoracic portion in 1 case. Ten (77%) of the 13 procedures were successful.

  7. Novel oral anticoagulants in acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Costopoulos, Charis; Niespialowska-Steuden, Maria; Kukreja, Neville; Gorog, Diana A

    2013-09-10

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide with a prevalence that has now reached pandemic levels as a consequence of the rapid modernization of the developing world. Its presentation as an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a frequent reason for hospital admission and of profound implications for personal, societal and global health. Despite improvements in the management of ACS with anti-platelet and anticoagulant therapy and revascularization techniques, many patients continue to suffer recurrent ischemic events. The need to reduce future cardiovascular events has led to the development of novel therapies to prevent coronary thrombosis, targeting thrombin-mediated pathways. These include direct Xa inhibitors (apixaban, rivaroxaban and darexaban), direct thrombin inhibitors (dabigatran) and PAR 1 antagonists (vorapaxar and atopaxar). This article critically reviews the comparative mechanisms of action, the risks and benefits, together with the clinical evidence base for the use of these novel oral agents in the management of ACS patients.

  8. Revascularization for acute regional infarct: superior protection with warm blood cardioplegia.

    PubMed

    Horsley, W S; Whitlark, J D; Hall, J D; Gott, J P; Pan-Chih; Huang, A H; Park, Y; Jones, D P; Guyton, R A

    1993-12-01

    Continuous retrograde warm blood cardioplegia was compared with two widely used hypothermic myocardial protection techniques in a canine model of acute regional myocardial ischemia with subsequent revascularization. Animals (n = 30) underwent 45 minutes of left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion then cardioplegic arrest (60 minutes), followed by separation from cardiopulmonary bypass and data collection. The cold oxygenated crystalloid cardioplegia group (CC; n = 8) and the cold blood cardioplegia group (CC; n = 10) had cardiopulmonary bypass at 28 degrees C, antegrade arrest, and intermittent retrograde delivery. The warm blood cardioplegia group (WB; n = 12) had normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass, antegrade arrest, and continuous retrograde delivery. Overall ventricular function (preload recruitable stroke work relationship; ergs x 10(3)/mL) was significantly (p < 0.001) better for WB (WB, 80 +/- 11; CB, 67 +/- 13; CC, 57 +/- 12). Systolic function (maximum elastance relationship; mm Hg/mL) was also significantly (p < 0.001) better for WB (WB, 11.6 +/- 3.6; CB, 8.6 +/- 2.7; CC, 6.2 +/- 1.3). Diastolic function (stress-strain relationship; dynes x 10(3)/cm2) revealed significantly (p < 0.001) decreased compliance for CC (WB, 20 +/- 6; CB, 19 +/- 7; CC, 27 +/- 11). Left anterior descending coronary artery regional adenosine triphosphate/adenosine diphosphate ratios were significantly (p = 0.02) worse for CC (WB, 10.2 +/- 2.3; CB, 9.4 +/- 2.6; CC, 5.6 +/- 1.5). Myocardial edema significantly (p = 0.03) increased over time only in the CC animals (WB, 0.4% +/- 2.3%; CB, -0.3% +/- 3.6%; CC, 5.5% +/- 2.3%). In this model of acute regional myocardial ischemia and revascularization, continuous retrograde warm aerobic blood cardioplegia provided superior myocardial protection compared with cold oxygenated crystalloid cardioplegia with intermediate results for cold blood cardioplegia.

  9. Acute Myocardial Infarction Due to Coronary Artery Embolism in a 22-Year-Old Woman with Mitral Stenosis with Atrial Fibrillation Under Warfarinization: Successful Management with Anticoagulation.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Santosh Kumar; Jha, Mukesh Jitendra; Razi, Mahmadula; Chaturvedi, Vikash; Erappa, Yatish Besthenahalli; Singh, Shravan; Mishra, Vikas; Khanra, Dibbendhu; Singh, Karandeep

    2017-04-07

    BACKGROUND Coronary artery embolization is an exceedingly rare cause of myocardial infarction, but a few cases in association with prosthetic mechanical valves have been reported. We report a case of embolic myocardial infarction caused by a thrombus in the left atrium with deranged coagulation profile in a patient with critical mitral stenosis under warfarinization. CASE REPORT A 22-year-old woman was taken to the catheterization lab for early coronary intervention in lieu of non-ST elevation myocardial infarction. Electrocardiography showed T↓ in V1 to V4, and atrial fibrillation with controlled ventricular rate. Coronary angiography showed total occlusion of the mid-left anterior descending artery with thrombus. After upstream treatment with tirofiban, the apparent thrombus was dislodged distally while passing a BMW wire. No abnormalities were seen by intravascular ultrasound study. Echocardiography revealed critical mitral stenosis, and left atrial clot with mild left ventricular dysfunction. Coagulation profile revealed sub-therapeutic international normalized ratio levels. The sequential angiographic images, normal intravascular ultrasound study, and presence of atrial fibrillation are confirmatory of coronary embolism as the cause of myocardial infarction. Anticoagulation and treatment of acute coronary syndrome were initiated and she was referred for closed mitral valvulotomy. CONCLUSIONS Coronary artery thromboembolism as a nonatherosclerotic cause of acute coronary syndrome is rare. The treatment consists of aggressive anticoagulation, antiplatelet therapy, and interventional options, including simple wiring when possible. In this context, primary prevention in the form of patient education on optimal anticoagulation with oral vitamin K antagonist and medical advice about imminent thromboembolic risks are of extreme importance.

  10. Spontaneous left main coronary artery dissection complicated by pseudoaneurysm formation in pregnancy: role of CT coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Shahid; Abdul-Waheed, Mohammed; Helmy, Tarek; Huffman, Lynn C; Koshal, Vipin; Guitron, Julian; Merrill, Walter H; Lewis, David F; Dunlap, Stephanie; Shizukuda, Yukitaka; Weintraub, Neal L; Meyer, Christopher; Cilingiroglu, Mehmet

    2009-04-01

    We report a case of a 26-year-old female, who presented at 34 weeks of an uncomplicated pregnancy with an acute ST elevation anterior wall myocardial infarction. Cardiac catheterization suggested a left main coronary artery dissection with pseudoaneurysm formation. The patient's course was complicated by congestive heart failure. She was initially managed conservatively by a multidisciplinary team including heart failure specialists, obstetricians, and cardiovascular surgeons. 4 days after admission, her LMC was imaged by dual-source 64 slice Cardiac computed tomography, coronary dissection was identified extending to the lumen, and the presence of pseudoaneurysm was confirmed. She underwent subsequently a staged procedure, which included placement of an intra-aortic balloon pump, cesarean section, and coronary artery bypass grafting. This case illustrates the utility of coronary artery CT imaging to assess the complexity and stability of coronary artery dissections, thereby helping to determine the need for, and timing of revascularization procedures.

  11. Developing practice recommendations for endovascular revascularization for acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Lazzaro, Marc A.; Alexandrov, Andrei V.; Darkhabani, Ziad; Edgell, Randall C.; English, Joey; Frei, Donald; Jamieson, Dara G.; Janardhan, Vallabh; Janjua, Nazli; Janjua, Rashid M.; Katzan, Irene; Khatri, Pooja; Kirmani, Jawad F.; Liebeskind, David S.; Linfante, Italo; Nguyen, Thanh N.; Saver, Jeffrey L.; Shutter, Lori; Xavier, Andrew; Yavagal, Dileep; Zaidat, Osama O.

    2012-01-01

    Guidelines have been established for the management of acute ischemic stroke; however, specific recommendations for endovascular revascularization therapy are lacking. Burgeoning investigation of endovascular revascularization therapies for acute ischemic stroke, rapid device development, and a diverse training background of the providers performing the procedures underscore the need for practice recommendations. This review provides a concise summary of the Society of Vascular and Interventional Neurology endovascular acute ischemic stroke roundtable meeting. This document was developed to review current clinical efficacy of pharmacologic and mechanical revascularization therapy, selection criteria, periprocedure management, and endovascular time metrics and to highlight current practice patterns. It therefore provides an outline for the future development of multisociety guidelines and recommendations to improve patient selection, procedural management, and organizational strategies for revascularization therapies in acute ischemic stroke. PMID:23008406

  12. Staged High-Risk Percutaneous Coronary Intervention with Impella Support after On-Pump Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Bahekar, Amol A.

    2016-01-01

    The management of concomitant obstructive coronary artery disease and severe aortic stenosis in poor surgical candidates is an evolving topic. Although the typical current practice is to perform percutaneous revascularization before transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), some data have emerged regarding revascularization after performing TAVR. We present the case of a 90-year-old man with multivessel coronary artery disease who was at prohibitive risk for surgical aortic valve replacement. We first performed TAVR with use of hemodynamic support, then Impella-assisted multivessel percutaneous coronary intervention on the patient's unprotected left main coronary artery. We describe this complex case and review the medical literature on percutaneous coronary intervention after TAVR PMID:27777528

  13. [Usefulness of the residual SYNTAX score to predict long term outcome in acute coronary syndrome patients underwent percutaneous coronary intervention].

    PubMed

    Song, Y; Xu, J J; Tang, X F; Ma, Y L; Yao, Y; He, C; Wang, H H; Liu, R; Xu, N; Jiang, P; Jiang, L; Zhao, X Y; Gao, Z; Gao, R L; Qiao, S B; Yang, Y J; Xu, B; Yuan, J Q

    2017-02-21

    Objective: To quantify the extent and complexity of residual coronary stenosis following PCI by the residual SYNTAX score, and to evaluate its impact on adverse ischemic outcomes in acute coronary syndrome(ACS) patients. Methods: From January 2013 to December 2013, a total of 1 414 consecutive moderate- and high-risk ACS patients who underwent any PCI with multi-vessel coronary artery disease were evaluated.Patients were stratified by rSS quartiles and their outcomes were compared. Results: The rSS was 4.8±6.7. 591 patients (41.8%) had rSS=0(CR), 233 patients (16.5%) had rSS>0 but ≤ 3, 296 patients (20.9%) had rSS>3 but ≤8 and 294 patients (20.8%) had rSS>8.Clinical risk factors were more frequent in patients with incomplete revascularization(IR) compared with complete revascularization(CR). The 2-year rates of all-caused death(1.2% vs 0.4%, 2.0%, 4.4%, P=0.003), cardiac death, revascularization and MACCE were significantly higher in high rSS group, compared to other groups.By multivariable analysis, rSS was a strong independent predictor of ischemic outcomes at 2-year, including all-cause mortality (HR=1.05, 95%CI 1.01-1.09, P=0.019), cardiac death, revascularization and MACCE. Conclusions: The rSS is a strong independent predictor of all-caused death, cardiac death, revascularization and MACCE and has moderated predictive ability for those ischemic outcomes.

  14. A draping technique for prevention of coronary bypass graft kinking and suture-line oozing.

    PubMed

    Canver, C C

    1996-01-01

    Acute kinking of coronary bypass grafts and postoperative hemorrhage due to oozing from the anastomotic suture lines are uncommon but devastating complications of myocardial revascularization. Routine draping of arterial and venous coronary bypass grafts just prior to sternal closure by use of thrombin-soaked oxidized regenerated cellulose may help to avoid these potentially lethal complications. This practice appears to be devoid of any immediate or long-term sequela to the patient.

  15. Insulin-treated diabetes mellitus: An important, actionable risk marker after coronary stenting.

    PubMed

    Hillegass, William B

    2016-01-01

    Insulin treatment for diabetes is a simple but important risk marker for doubled adjusted death and myocardial infarction rates and tripled stent thrombosis risk after coronary stenting. Insulin treatment does not predict meaningfully increased major bleeding or additional revascularization procedures after drug eluting coronary stent implantation. Third generation P2 Y12 receptor antagonists substantially lower risk of events in diabetics after stenting with insulin treated diabetics having twice the magnitude of benefit of diabetics not needing insulin.

  16. [Revascularization of the carotid and vertebral arteries in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Illuminati, G; Bezzi, M; D'Urso, A; Giacobbi, D; Ceccanei, G; Vietri, F

    2004-01-01

    From January 1994 to July 2004, 323 patients underwent 348 revascularization of carotid bifurcation for atherosclerotic stenoses. Eighty eight patients (group A) were 75 year-old or older, whereas 235 (group B) were younger than 75 years. Postoperative mortality/neurologic morbidity rate was 1% in group A, and 1.4% in group B. At 5 years, patency and freedom from symptoms/stroke were, respectively, 91% and 92% in group A, and 89% and 91% in group B. None of these differences was statistically significant. In the same time period, 26 internal carotid arteries were revascularized in 24 patients, 75 or more aged, for a symptomatic kinking. Postoperative mortality/morbidity rate was absent, whereas, at 5 years, patency and freedom from symptoms/stroke were, respectively, 88% and 92%. Twelve vertebral arteries were revascularized in 12 patients, 75 or more aged, for invalidating symptoms of vertebrobasilar insufficiency. Postoperative mortality/neurologic morbidity rate was absent. In one case postoperative recurrence of symptoms occurred, despite a patent revascularization. Patency and freedom from symptoms/stroke were 84% and 75%, at 5 years. Revascularization of carotid and vertebral arteries in the elderly can be accomplished with good results, superposable to those of standard revascularization of carotid bifurcation in a younger patients' population.

  17. Apical Revascularization after Delayed Tooth Replantation: An Unusual Case

    PubMed Central

    Nelson-Filho, Paulo; Silva, Lea Assed Bezerra; Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra; de Carvalho, Fabricio Kitazono; de Queiroz, Alexandra Mussolino

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the clinical and radiological outcome of the treatment involving a delayed tooth replantation after an avulsed immature permanent incisor, with a follow-up of 1 year and 6 months. An 8-year-old boy was referred after dental trauma that occurred on the previous day. The permanent maxillary right central incisor (tooth 11) had been avulsed. The tooth was hand-held during endodontic therapy and an intracanal medication application with calcium hydroxide-based paste was performed. An apical plug with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) was introduced into the apical portion of the canal. When the avulsed tooth was replanted with digital pressure, a blood clot had formed within the socket, which moved the MTA apical plug about 2 mm inside of the root canal. These procedures developed apical revascularization, which promoted a successful endodontic outcome, evidenced by apical closure, slight increase in root length, and absence of signs of external root resorption, during a follow-up of 1 year and 6 months. PMID:27882250

  18. Physiologic assessment of coronary artery fistula

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, N.C.; Beauvais, J. )

    1991-01-01

    Coronary artery fistula is an uncommon clinical entity. The most common coronary artery fistula is from the right coronary artery to the right side of the heart, and it is less frequent to the pulmonary artery. The effect of a coronary artery fistula may be physiologically significant because of the steal phenomenon resulting in coronary ischemia. Based on published reports, it is recommended that patients with congenital coronary artery fistulas be considered candidates for elective surgical correction to prevent complications including development of congestive heart failure, angina, subacute bacterial endocarditis, myocardial infarction, and coronary aneurysm formation with rupture or embolization. A patient is presented in whom treadmill-exercise thallium imaging was effective in determining the degree of coronary steal from a coronary artery fistula, leading to successful corrective surgery.

  19. Young male survivor of a spontaneous left main coronary artery dissection treated with surgery

    PubMed Central

    Endara, Santiago A.; Ayala, Andres V.; Davalos, Gerardo A.; Moscoso, Juan; Montero, R. Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous dissection of the coronary arteries is a rare disease with a wide range of clinical presentations ranging from angina to myocardial infarction (MI); its pathophysiology has not yet been fully established. In this paper, we present the case of a 31-year-old male with an acute coronary syndrome. The initial results of the electrocardiogram and cardiac enzymes were consistent with MI. However, a coronary angio-tomography revealed a dissection of the left main coronary artery and the patient underwent emergent surgery with coronary artery bypass grafting. The treatment of spontaneous dissection of the coronary arteries depends on the anatomical location and the patient's clinical presentation. Coronary revascularization is associated with good results. PMID:24964467

  20. Effects of residual coronary artery disease on results of coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Iskandrian, A S; Hakki, A H; Nestico, P F; DePace, N L; Goel, I P; Kane, S

    1984-10-01

    To assess the effects of residual coronary artery disease (non-revascularized coronary vessels) after coronary artery bypass grafting on symptoms and exercise left ventricular function, we categorized 77 patients into 3 groups according to the extent of residual coronary artery disease: group I (n = 17) had no residual coronary artery disease (residual score = 0); group II (n = 30) had light residual coronary artery disease (score of 1 to 9, mean 4.7); and group III (n = 30) had moderate residual coronary artery disease (score greater than or equal to 10, mean 23). Sixty patients were asymptomatic after coronary artery bypass grafting (14 in group I, 24 in group II, and 22 in group III), but the remaining patients had occasional angina pectoris. The resting left ventricular ejection fraction was significantly higher in group I than in the remaining 2 groups (56 +/- 18% in group I, 47 +/- 19% in group II, and 43 +/- 16% in group III, P less than 0.05). The exercise left ventricular ejection fraction was also significantly higher in group I (61 +/- 16% in group I, 51 +/- 18% in group II and 45 +/- 18% in group III, P less than 0.01). The ejection fraction response to exercise was abnormal in 5 patients in group I, 15 patients in group II, and 19 patients in group III. Thus, coronary artery bypass grafting results in symptomatic improvement, even in patients with residual coronary artery disease. The presence of residual coronary artery disease, however, may be a determinant of exercise left ventricular function in these patients.

  1. Bilateral internal thoracic artery grafting during David procedure complicated with coronary insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Ohira, Suguru; Doi, Kiyoshi; Yaku, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT A 47-year-old woman diagnosed with Marfan syndrome underwent valve-sparing aortic root replacement for aortic regurgitation and annulo-aortic ectasia. Her cardiac function was normal. Preoperative coronary angiography did not demonstrate any stenosis. The David reimplantation procedure with a 28-mm Valsalva graft was performed. Both coronary orifices were reconstructed in a button fashion with Teflon felt reinforcement. After aortic declamping, marked bleeding was noted from the left coronary button, requiring a second pump run. Graft interposition using the great saphenous vein was performed for left coronary artery reconstruction. The reconstructed right coronary button was also damaged due to the fragile tissue, and interposed by the vein graft in the same fashion. After the aorta was declamped, the global left ventricular wall motion was significantly impaired, and did not improve with time. Coronary insufficiency was considered. Beating-heart coronary artery bypass grafting with the in-situ bilateral internal thoracic arteries was performed. After revascularization, the left ventricular function was improved. In certain emergent situations compromised with coronary insufficiency, this procedure could be an option to revascularize the coronary arteries. PMID:26412900

  2. The Effect of Elective Percutaneous Coronary Intervention of the Right Coronary Artery on Right Ventricular Function

    PubMed Central

    Nikdoust, Farahnaz; Tabatabaei, Seyed Abdolhosein; Shafiee, Akbar; Mostafavi, Atoosa; Mohamadi, Maryam; Mohammadi, Sareh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Right Ventricular (RV) dysfunction has been introduced as a predictor of mortality in acute myocardial infarction. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the effect of right coronary revascularization on systolic and diastolic RV dysfunction. Patients and Methods: This study was conducted on unstable angina patients who were candidate for elective Percutaneous Revascularization Intervention (PCI) on the right coronary artery. The participants were initially evaluated by transthoracic echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging prior to PCI and the RV function parameters were assessed. Echocardiography was repeated two months after PCI and the results were compared with baseline. Paired t-test was used to compare the pre- and post-procedural measurements. Besides, Pearson’s correlation was used to find out the linear association between the RV function parameters and Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction (LVEF). P value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: This study was conducted on 30 patients (mean age = 60.00 ± 8.44 years; 24 [80%] males). In the pre-procedural echocardiography, 15 patients (50%) had normal RV function, 14 patients (46.7%) had grade-1 RV dysfunction, and only 1 patient (3.3%) had grade-2 RV dysfunction. Following PCI, however, all the patients had normal systolic and diastolic RV functions. Comparison of echocardiographic RV function parameters showed an improvement in both systolic and diastolic functional parameters of the RV. Nonetheless, no significant correlation was observed between these parameters and Left Ventricular (LV) function. Conclusions: A significant improvement was found in RV function, but not LV function, after right coronary PCI. Revascularization of the right coronary artery may be beneficial for the patients who suffer from RV failure due to ischemia. PMID:25614857

  3. [Revascularization? Only as the last resort!].

    PubMed

    Slutzky-Goldberg, I; Heling, I

    2013-07-01

    Revascularization has been suggested for treatment of necrotic immature permanent teeth. The desirable outcome of the treatment is continuous growth of the root, maturation of the dentin walls underneath the cervical seal and apical closure. Despite of increasing numbers of case reports, a uniform treatment protocol has not been set. This procedure has many shortcomings of which tooth discoloration is the most prevalent and easy to observe. The severe discoloration is attributed to the use of Mincocycline in the antibiotic dressing, or to the use of MTA for the seal. The maturation of the root is not predictable and does not always occur. The outcome should be evaluated radiographically and clinically. Sensibility testing may not be possible due to the large MTA plug in the root canal. It is recommended only when alternative procedures such as apexificaiton, pulpotomy or pulp capping are impossible. The patient and his parents should be aware of the potential discoloration and must be committed to routine follow ups. Currently, this procedure should be limited to incisor or premolar teeth in which the crown is longer than the root, or the canal's width is larger than that of the dentinal wall.

  4. Management of Coronary Artery Calcium and Coronary CTA Findings.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Dustin M; Divakaran, Sanjay; Villines, Todd C; Nasir, Khurram; Shah, Nishant R; Slim, Ahmad M; Blankstein, Ron; Cheezum, Michael K

    Coronary artery calcium (CAC) testing and coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) have significant data supporting their ability to identify coronary artery disease (CAD) and classify patient risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Evidence regarding CAC use for screening has established an excellent prognosis in patients with no detectable CAC, and the ability to risk re-classify the majority of asymptomatic patients considered intermediate risk by traditional risk scores. While data regarding the ideal management of CAC findings are limited, evidence supports statin consideration in patients with CAC > 0 and individualized aspirin therapy accounting for CAD risk factors, CAC severity, and factors which increase a patient's risk of bleeding. In patients with stable or acute symptoms undergoing coronary CTA, a normal CTA predicts excellent prognosis, allowing reassurance and disposition without further testing. When CTA identifies nonobstructive CAD (<50 % stenosis), observational data support consideration of statin use/intensification in patients with extensive plaque (at least four coronary segments involved) and patients with high-risk plaque features. In patients with both nonobstructive and obstructive CAD, multiple studies have now demonstrated an ability of CTA to guide management and improve CAD risk factor control. Still, significant under-treatment of cardiovascular risk factors and high-risk image findings remain, among concerns that CTA may increase invasive angiography and revascularization. To fully realize the impact of atherosclerosis imaging for ASCVD prevention, patient engagement in lifestyle changes and the modification of ASCVD risk factors remain the foundation of care. This review provides an overview of available data and recommendations in the management of CAC and CTA findings.

  5. Percutaneous Coronary Intervention versus Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting in Patients with Diabetic Nephropathy and Left Main Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hsin-Ru; Hsu, Chiao-Po; Sung, Shih-Hsien; Shih, Chun-Che; Lin, Shing-Jong; Chan, Wan-Leong; Wu, Cheng-Hsueh; Lu, Tse-Min

    2017-01-01

    Background Patients with diabetic nephropathy and unprotected left main (LM) coronary artery disease suffer from high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although surgical revascularization is currently recommended in this special patient population, the optimal revascularization method for this distinct patient group has remained unclear. Methods We collected 99 consecutive patients with unprotected LM disease and diabetic nephropathy, including 46 patients who had undergone percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and 53 who had coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), with a mean age of 72 ± 10; with 80.8% male. Diabetic nephropathy was defined as overt proteinuria (proteinuria > 500 mg/day) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) by the modified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation of less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. The baseline characteristics, angiographic results and long-term clinical outcomes were retrospectively analyzed. Results The baseline characteristic of all patients were similar except for smokers, low density lipoprotein (LDL) level and extension of coronary artery disease involvement. The median follow-up period was 3.8 years. There were 73 patients (74%) considered as high risk with additive European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE) ≥ 6. During follow-up period, the long term rate of all-cause death (PCI vs. CABG: 45.7% vs. 58.5%, p = 0.20) and all-cause death/myocardial infarction (MI)/stroke (PCI vs. CABG: 52.2% vs. 60.4%, p = 0.41) were comparable between the PCI and CABG group, whereas the repeat revascularization rate was significantly higher in the PCI group (PCI vs. CABG: 32.6% vs. 9.4%, p < 0.01). eGFR remained an independent predictor for all-cause death [hazard ratio: 0.97, 95% confidence interval: 0.96 to 0.99; p = 0.002] in multivariate logistic regression. Conclusions In the real-world practice of high-risk patients with unprotected LM disease and diabetic nephropathy, we found

  6. Minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting versus stenting for patients with proximal left anterior descending coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Kazuyuki; Lansky, Alexandra J; Mehran, Roxana; Dangas, George D; Costantini, Costantino O; Fahy, Martin; Slack, Steven; Mintz, Gary S; Stone, Gregg W; Leon, Martin B

    2004-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of stenting and minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting (MIDCAB) in patients with proximal left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery disease. The Patency, Outcome, Economics of Minimally invasive direct coronary bypass (POEM) study demonstrated that MIDCAB had similar safety and long-term efficacy for LAD revascularization compared with conventional coronary artery bypass grafting. Although LAD stenting is superior to conventional balloon angioplasty, whether it is comparable to MIDCAB is not known. We identified a matched population of 429 consecutive patients with 1-vessel disease who underwent elective proximal LAD stenting and compared their clinical outcomes with those of the 152 patients in the MIDCAB group of the POEM study. The in-hospital event rate was similar in both groups, except for a shorter length of hospital stay with LAD stenting compared with MIDCAB (2.68 vs 4.07 days, p <0.0001). At 6-month follow-up, the incidence of death and Q-wave myocardial infarction or that of cerebrovascular accident was not significantly different between these 2 groups. However, target vessel revascularization was significantly higher with LAD stenting than MIDCAB (13.3% vs 6.6%, p = 0.045). In the subgroup of patients without diabetes, all clinical events were similar in both groups, and the benefit of a shorter hospital stay associated with stenting was maintained. Compared with MIDCAB, LAD stenting is associated with higher repeat revascularization rates but offers the advantage of shorter hospitalization. For nondiabetics with proximal LAD disease, stenting may be the revascularization strategy of choice.

  7. Flying solo: a single year-single surgeon community hospital replantation/ revascularization experience.

    PubMed

    Isenberg, J Scott

    2002-08-01

    A recent 12-month review of the emergent replantation/revascularization experience of a solo practice microsurgeon in a community hospital environment is presented. A total of 67 digits and/or hands/limbs were operated on in 51 patients with a success rate of 87 percent. There were nine failures, all in digits with crush-avulsion etiologies. These results support the position that the single microsurgeon practicing in a community hospital environment can provide levels of care for patients with amputated or devascularized digits and parts comparable to tertiary medical centers.

  8. Cangrelor: Pharmacology, Clinical Data, and Role in Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Price, Matthew J

    2017-01-01

    In clinical trials that assessed the safety and efficacy of cangrelor during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), cangrelor was administered as a 30-μg/kg bolus followed by a 4-μg/kg/min infusion for at least 2 hours or the duration of the PCI, whichever was longer. Cangrelor is currently indicated as an adjunct to PCI to reduce the risk of myocardial infarction, repeat coronary revascularization, and stent thrombosis in patients who have not been treated with a P2Y12 platelet inhibitor and are not being given a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor.

  9. The MGuard coronary stent: safety, efficacy, and clinical utility

    PubMed Central

    Gracida, Montserrat; Romaguera, Rafael; Jacobi, Francisco; Gómez-Hospital, Joan A; Cequier, Angel

    2015-01-01

    Atheromatous and thrombotic embolization during percutaneous coronary revascularization is a feared complication that may cause impaired myocardial reperfusion even with a patent epicardial vessel. The MGuard stent is a cobalt chromium bare metal stent with a porous net attached to its outer surface that has been designed to prevent thrombus fragmentation and distal embolization during stent implantation. This review summarizes the available evidence supporting the use of the MGuard stent in different scenarios such as lesions with high thrombus burden, saphenous vein graft interventions, coronary perforations, or carotid lesions. PMID:26425097

  10. Long-term clinical outcomes of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and concomitant coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Spartera, Marco; Godino, Cosmo; Baldissera, Elena; Campochiaro, Corrado; La Spina, Ketty; Aiello, Patrizia; Salerno, Anna; Cera, Michela; Magni, Valeria; Jabbour, Richard J; Dagna, Lorenzo; Tresoldi, Moreno; Cappelletti, Alberto; Alfieri, Ottavio; Colombo, Antonio; Sabbadini, Maria Grazia; Margonato, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with high morbidity and mortality predominately due to increased cardiovascular risk. Few reports are available regarding the management of coronary artery disease (CAD) in RA patients and the long-term clinical outcomes after coronary revascularization. Methods and results: All consecutive patients with RA were identified by retrospective review at a rheumatology tertiary center in Milan, Italy between 2001 and 2013. RA patients affected by significant CAD (RA-CAD+) were prospectively followed for major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) after percutaneous coronary revascularization (RA-PCI), coronary artery bypass grafting (RA-CABG) or medical therapy (RA-MT). Among 936 patients with RA, the presence of clinically significant CAD was found in 5.6% (53 patients, RA-CAD+). Of these, 32 patients (60%) underwent PCI (RA-PCI), 10 patients (19%) underwent CABG (RA-CABG) and 11 patients (21%) treated with MT (RA-MT). After a mean follow-up of 9±7 years, the rate of MACCE was 56% in RA-PCI patients, 50% in RA-CABG and 27% in RA-MT patients (P=0.184). The high MACCE rate was mainly driven by repeat coronary revascularization (47%) in the RA-PCI group and high rate of strokes (30%) in RA-CABG patients. Conclusion: In patients with rheumatoid arthritis and concomitant coronary artery disease (RA-CAD+), we observed at long-term follow-up a high MACCE rate, predominantly in those who underwent coronary revascularization PMID:28337386

  11. Experimental osteonecrosis of the lunate. Revascularization may cause collapse.

    PubMed

    Aspenberg, P; Wang, J S; Jonsson, K; Hagert, C G

    1994-10-01

    Is lunate collapse in Kienböck's disease a consequence of spontaneous revascularization, leading to focal osteolysis? A literature review of osteonecrosis in other locations such as the femoral head and bone allografts showed clearly that the loss of mechanical integrity is due to cellular processes which follow the spontaneous restoration of blood supply. We found no evidence in the literature that the lunate has been shown to be avascular at the time of collapse. On the contrary, increased osteoclastic activity has been reported. We excised and reimplanted the lunate in two monkeys, and found spontaneous revascularization, leading to increased osteoblastic activity. Other parts of the bone were destroyed by osteoclasts, leading to collapse. This histological example suggests that it may be possible to make an analogy with osteonecrosis in other locations. Thus, changes on plain radiography may indicate that the bone is revascularized spontaneously. Before performing operative revascularization of the lunate, one should consider that revascularization is a probable cause for collapse.

  12. Lower Extremity Revascularization in End-Stage Renal Disease.

    PubMed

    Jones, Douglas W; Dansey, Kirsten; Hamdan, Allen D

    2016-11-01

    Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who present with critical limb ischemia (CLI) have become an increasingly common and complex treatment problem for vascular surgeons. Dialysis patients have high short-term mortality rates regardless of whether revascularization is pursued. ESRD patients with CLI can be managed with: local wound care, endovascular or surgical revascularization, or amputation. Some patients may heal small foot wounds with local wound care alone, even if distal perfusion is marginal, as long as any infectious process has been controlled. Surgical revascularization has a mortality rate of 5-10% but has a high chance of limb salvage. However, overall 5-year survival may be as low as 28%. Endovascular therapy also carries a high perioperative mortality risk in this population with similar limb salvage rates. Amputation is indicated in patients with advanced stage CLI, as described by the Society for Vascular Surgery's Wound, Ischemia and foot Infection (WIfI) system. Statistical models predict that endovascular or surgical revascularization strategies are less costly and more functionally beneficial to patients than primary amputation alone. Decisions on how to manage ESRD patients with CLI are complex but revascularization can often result in limb salvage, despite limited overall survival. Dialysis patients with good life expectancy and good quality conduit may benefit most from surgical bypass.

  13. Coronary Calcium Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Scan Coronary Calcium Scan Related Topics Angina Atherosclerosis Coronary Heart Disease Electrocardiogram Heart Attack Send a link to NHLBI ... calcium, or calcifications, are a sign of atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, or coronary microvascular disease. A coronary calcium scan ...

  14. High coronary calcium score and post-procedural CK-MB are noninvasive predictors of coronary stent restenosis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Beom; Choi, Yun-Seok; Chung, Woo-Baek; Kwon, Ami; Park, Chul-Soo; Lee, Man-Young

    2017-01-01

    Purpose High coronary calcium score (CCS) and post-procedural cardiac enzyme may be related with poor outcomes in patients with coronary stent implantation. Methods A total of 1,072 patients (63.2% male, mean age: 61.7±10.3 years) who underwent coronary multi-detect computed tomography at index procedure and follow-up coronary angiography (CAG) after drug-eluting stent (DES) were divided into two groups: those with and without target lesion revascularization (TLR; >50% reduction in luminal stent diameter or angina symptoms on follow-up CAG). The CCSs for predicting stent revascularization were elucidated. Results There were no significant differences between the two groups with regard to risk factors. The initial CCS was significantly higher in the TLR group (1,102.4±743.7 vs 345.8±51.05, P=0.04). After adjustment of significant factors for TLR, only CCS and post-procedural creatine kinase MB form (CK-MB) elevation were significant predictors of coronary artery TLR. Receiver operation curve revealed that >800 in CCS had 69% in sensitivity and 88% in specificity about predicting the TLR. Conclusion High CCS with post-procedural CK-MB might be the useful predictors for TLR after DES implantation. PMID:28255235

  15. Analysis of the Use of Extracorporeal Circulation on the In-Hospital Outcomes of Dialytic Patients Who Underwent Myocardial Revascularization Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Matheus; Branco, João Nelson Rodrigues; Vargas, Guilherme Flora; Hossne Jr, Nelson Americo; Yoshimoto, Michele Costa; da Fonseca, José Honorio de Almeida Palma; Pestana, José Osmar Medina de Abreu; Buffolo, Enio

    2016-01-01

    Background Myocardial revascularization surgery is the best treatment for dyalitic patients with multivessel coronary disease. However, the procedure still has high morbidity and mortality. The use of extracorporeal circulation (ECC) can have a negative impact on the in-hospital outcomes of these patients. Objectives To evaluate the differences between the techniques with ECC and without ECC during the in-hospital course of dialytic patients who underwent surgical myocardial revascularization. Methods Unicentric study on 102 consecutive, unselected dialytic patients, who underwent myocardial revascularization surgery in a tertiary university hospital from 2007 to 2014. Results Sixty-three patients underwent surgery with ECC and 39 without ECC. A high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors was found in both groups, without statistically significant difference between them. The group "without ECC" had greater number of revascularizations (2.4 vs. 1.7; p <0.0001) and increased need for blood components (77.7% vs. 25.6%; p <0.0001) and inotropic support (82.5% vs 35.8%; p <0.0001). In the postoperative course, the group "without ECC" required less vasoactive drugs, (61.5% vs. 82.5%; p = 0.0340) and shorter time of mechanical ventilation (13.0 hours vs. 36,3 hours, p = 0.0217), had higher extubation rates in the operating room (58.9% vs. 23.8%, p = 0.0006), lower infection rates (7.6% vs. 28.5%; p = 0.0120), and shorter ICU stay (5.2 days vs. 8.1 days; p = 0.0054) as compared with the group with ECC surgery. No difference in mortality was found between the groups. Conclusion Myocardial revascularization with ECC in patients on dialysis resulted in higher morbidity in the perioperative period in comparison with the procedure without ECC, with no difference in mortality though.

  16. Management of a Nonvital Young Permanent Tooth by Pulp Revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Chandran, Vidya; Sivadas, G

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT% This report presents the case of a 10-year-old patient with a nonvital young permanent tooth which was managed by pulp revascularization. Following disinfection of the canal by irrigation with NaOCl and use of a triantibiotic paste, a scaffold was created by inducing the formation of a blood clot within the canal. At the subsequent follow-up visits, the patient was asymptomatic, with normal response to percussion, normal periodontal probing depths, and no abnormal mobility. The radiographs showed evidence of continued apical root development with increase in root length, signs of apical closure and increase in thickness of dentinal walls. Thus, this case adds to the growing evidence supporting the revascularization approach as an option for management of nonvital young permanent teeth. How to cite this article: Chandran V, Chacko V, Sivadas G. Management of a Nonvital Young Permanent Tooth by Pulp Revascularization. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(3):213-216. PMID:25709305

  17. Pulp revascularization in an immature necrotic tooth: a case report.

    PubMed

    Gelman, Richard; Park, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Immature permanent teeth damaged by caries or trauma can present a challenge to dentistry. Currently, triple antibiotic paste (TAP) containing ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, and minocycline is used to attempt revascularization in necrotic immature teeth. Therefore, the purpose of this report was to present a case of pulp revascularization in an immature necrotic tooth. An 8-year-old male presented with trauma to the permanent maxillary left and right central incisors. Upon clinical and radiographic examination, the left central incisor was deemed necrotic. Revascularization therapy was performed over multiple visits. At 11 months follow-up, healing of the periapical area and apexogenesis were found to be complete. With an increasing breadth of clinical evidence and practitioner acceptance, regenerative techniques may become a standard technique in treating immature necrotic permanent teeth.

  18. Clinical complications in the revascularization of immature necrotic permanent teeth.

    PubMed

    Dabbagh, Basma; Alvaro, Emanuel; Vu, Duy-Dat; Rizkallah, Jean; Schwartz, Stephane

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this case series was to report on the use of a technique of revascularization for necrotic immature permanent teeth, several problems encountered, and solutions to those problems. Eighteen pulp revascularizations were performed in 2009 using the original protocol of revascularization (adapted from the AAE/AAPD joint meeting in 2007 in Chicago). The protocol consisted of opening the canal and disinfecting it with sodium hypochlorite, sealing in a triple antibiotic paste for 2-6 weeks, re-opening, re-irrigating, creating a blood clot in the canal, and sealing with an MTA barrier over the clot. Three problems were encountered during the treatment: (1) bluish discoloration of the crown; (2) failure to produce bleeding; and (3) collapse of the mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) material into the canal. Modifications to solve these problems included: changing one of the antibiotics, using a local anesthesia without epinephrine, and adding collagen matrix to the blood clot.

  19. Sequential vs. kissing balloon angioplasty for stenting of bifurcation coronary lesions.

    PubMed

    Brueck, Martin; Scheinert, Dierk; Flachskampf, Frank A; Daniel, Werner G; Ludwig, Josef

    2002-04-01

    Coronary angioplasty of bifurcation lesions remains a technical challenge and is believed to result in low procedural success associated with the risk of side-branch occlusion. Furthermore, long-term results are associated with a high rate of reintervention. The aim of the study was to evaluate the immediate and long-term clinical and angiographic results of sequential vs. simultaneous balloon angioplasty (kissing balloon technique) for stenting of bifurcation coronary lesions. Between December 1999 and January 2001, 59 patients underwent coronary angioplasty because of symptomatic bifurcation lesions type III (i.e., side branch originates from within the target lesion of the main vessel, and both main and side branch are angiographically narrowed more than 50%). Twenty-six patients were treated with simultaneous and 33 patients with sequential balloon angioplasty. Main-vessel stent placement was mandatory; side-branch stenting and platelet IIb/IIIa antagonists were allowed at the discretion of the operator. Kissing balloon technique offered no advantage in terms of procedural success or need for repeat target vessel revascularization due to restenosis at 6-month follow-up. Using sequential balloon angioplasty, permanent or transient side-branch compromise rate (TIMI flow < 3) was significantly higher than after kissing balloon technique (33% vs. 0%, respectively; P = 0.003). Major clinical events in-hospital or at 6-month follow-up, however, showed no significant differences. Kissing balloon angioplasty reduces the rate of transient side-branch occlusion compared to sequential PTCA but does not improve immediate or long-term outcome compared to sequential PTCA for stenting of bifurcation lesions.

  20. Impact of myocardial bridge on clinical outcome after coronary stent placement.

    PubMed

    Tsujita, Kenichi; Maehara, Akiko; Mintz, Gary S; Doi, Hiroshi; Kubo, Takashi; Castellanos, Celia; Liu, Jian; Yang, Junqing; Oviedo, Carlos; Franklin-Bond, Theresa; Sugirtharaj, Dorcas Deborah; Dangas, George D; Lansky, Alexandra J; Stone, Gregg W; Moses, Jeffrey W; Leon, Martin B; Mehran, Roxana

    2009-05-15

    Most intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-identifiable myocardial bridges (MBs) were not appreciated angiographically, especially when they occurred adjacent to fixed proximal obstructive disease. The impact of MB stent placement on clinical outcome was determined in 317 consecutive patients with obstructive left anterior descending coronary artery lesions undergoing coronary stent placement. In these patients, IVUS identified 70 MBs, defined as a segment of coronary artery with both systolic compression and perivascular echolucent muscle. IVUS showed that the stent extended into the MB segment beyond the obstructive lesion in 24 patients (34%; MB stent group), although significant plaque was not observed within any MB segment. In the remaining 46 patients, the left anterior descending artery stent was implanted in only the obstructive lesion, avoiding the distal MB segment (non-MB stent group). Minimum stent area was significantly smaller in the MB stent group than non-MB stent group (4.8 +/- 1.1 vs 5.8 +/- 1.8 mm(2); p = 0.02). Rates of target-lesion revascularization, target-vessel revascularization, and composite end point (death/myocardial infarction/target-lesion revascularization/target-vessel revascularization, evaluated at a mean follow-up of 358 +/- 252 days) were more common in patients with versus without MB stent placement. Specifically, target-lesion revascularization rates were 24% versus 3%, respectively (log-rank p = 0.003). In-stent restenosis occurred within the stented MB segment in 3 of 5 MB stent group patients who required target-lesion revascularization (60%). In conclusion, inadvertent MB stent placement in left anterior descending artery lesions occurred commonly and may have been associated with an increased incidence of late events.

  1. The future of off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting: a North American perspective

    PubMed Central

    Yanagawa, Bobby; Nedadur, Rashmi

    2016-01-01

    Off-pump coronary artery bypass graft (OPCAB) is currently performed routinely in a minority of specialized centers and in many more centers, utilized only when a porcelain aorta mandates a no-touch aortic technique. The OPCAB literature can be summarized as follows: (I) large-scale randomized trials in relatively low risk patients that include surgeons with a range of experience demonstrating no consistent beneficial differences in major cardiovascular and cerebrovascular outcomes but lower transfusion rates and shorter length of stay, tempered by some reports of higher rates of incomplete revascularization and lower rates of long term graft patency; (II) smaller randomized controlled trials (RCTs) from highly specialized programs demonstrating equivalent or superior outcomes with OPCAB and similar completeness of revascularization and graft patency; and (III) observational data from large databases demonstrating a consistent benefit of OPCAB, especially in higher-risk patient subsets. Our rationale for OPCAB remains that if complete and precise revascularization can be safely and routinely accomplished, then the patient should benefit by avoiding the morbidities that can be attributed to aortic cannulation/clamping, cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), hemodilution, hypothermia and global myocardial ischemia/cardioplegia. We further believe that OPCAB procedures should emphasize the use of arterial grafts to optimize long term patency and minimize aortic manipulation to limit the risk of stroke. Moving forward, the off-pump surgical community and specialty societies must address the challenge of training surgeons and their teams to master this technically demanding procedure. Furthermore, OPCAB opens the door to minimally-invasive surgical revascularization via hybrid coronary revascularization (HCR). A large NIH-funded RCT is currently underway to determine whether hybrid revascularization can offer a superior alternative to multi-vessel percutaneous coronary

  2. Revascularization/Regeneration performed in immature molars: case reports.

    PubMed

    Sönmez, I S; Akbay Oba, A; Erkmen Almaz, M

    2013-01-01

    These 3 case reports the outcome of revascularization treatment in necrotic immature molars. During treatment, a tri antibiotic mix was used to disinfect the pulp for 2 weeks. Then a blood clot was created in the canal, over which mineral trioxide aggregate was placed. After 24 months, the immature molars showed continuation of root development. The patients were asymptomatic, no sinus tracts were evident and apical periodontitis was resolved Results from these cases show that revascularization/regeneration using 3Mix-MP method could be effective for managing immature permanent molar teeth with pulpal necrosis.

  3. Infarct tissue characteristics of patients with versus without early revascularization for acute myocardial infarction: a contrast-enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Olimulder, M A G M; Kraaier, K; Galjee, M A; Scholten, M F; van Es, J; Wagenaar, L J; van der Palen, J; von Birgelen, C

    2012-05-01

    Histopathological studies have suggested that early revascularization for acute myocardial infarction (MI) limits the size, transmural extent, and homogeneity of myocardial necrosis. However, the long-term effect of early revascularization on infarct tissue characteristics is largely unknown. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging with contrast enhancement (CE) allows non-invasive examination of infarct tissue characteristics and left ventricular (LV) dimensions and function in one examination. A total of 69 patients, referred for cardiac evaluation for various clinical reasons, were examined with CE-CMR >1 month (median 6, range 1-213) post-acute MI. We compared patients with (n = 33) versus without (n = 36) successful early revascularization for acute MI. Cine-CMR measurements included the LV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes (ESV), LV ejection fraction (LVEF, %), and wall motion score index (WMSI). CE images were analyzed for core, peri, and total infarct size (%), and for the number of transmural segments. In our population, patients with successful early revascularization had better LVEFs (46 ± 16 vs. 34 ± 14%; P < 0.01), superior WMSIs (0.53, range 0.00-2.29 vs. 1.42, range 0.00-2.59; P < 0.01), and smaller ESVs (121 ± 70 vs. 166 ± 82; P = 0.02). However, there was no difference in core (9 ± 6 vs. 11 ± 6%), peri (9 ± 4 vs. 10 ± 4%), and total infarct size (18 ± 9 vs. 21 ± 9%; P > 0.05 for all comparisons); only transmural extent (P = 0.07) and infarct age (P = 0.06) tended to be larger in patients without early revascularization. CMR wall motion abnormalities are significantly better after revascularization; these differences are particularly marked later after infarction. The difference in scar size is more subtle and does not reach significance in this study.

  4. Technique of Coronary Transfer for TGA with Single Coronary Artery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Ho; Jung, Jae Jun; Kim, Yong Han; Yang, Ji-Hyuk; Jun, Tae-Gook

    2014-01-01

    An eight-day-old neonate was diagnosed with dextro-transposition of the great arteries, atrial septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus, and a single sinus origin of the coronary arteries. The single coronary artery originated from the left sinus (sinus 2), had a proximal left circumflex arterial branch, and passed anteriorly to the right side of the aorta, further branching into the right coronary and left anterior descending arteries. We successfully performed an arterial switch operation and coronary transfer by tube graft reconstruction with autologous aortic tissue to treat the dextro-transposition of the great arteries and atrial septal defect with a single-sinus origin of the coronary arteries. PMID:25551074

  5. Changes in activated partial thromboplastin time and international normalised ratio after on-pump and off-pump surgical revascularization of the heart.

    PubMed

    Selimović Čeke, Lejla; Imamović, Semir; Ljuca, Farid; Jerkić, Zoran; Imamović, Goran; Hadžimešić, Munevera; Pojskić, Aida; Kovčić, Jasmina

    2014-05-01

    Surgical revascularization of the heart (CABG - coronary artery bypass grafting) is one way of treating coronary heart disease. Bleeding is one of the serious and frequent complications of heart surgery and can result in increased mortality and morbidity. Hemostasis disorder may be secondary consequences of surgical bleeding, preoperative anticoagulant therapy, and the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. Tests used for routine evaluation of the coagulation system are activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and international normalized ratio (INR). The study encountered 60 patients who were hospitalized at the Clinic for Cardiovascular Diseases, University Clinical Center Tuzla. Patients underwent elective coronary artery bypass heart surgery either with cardiopulmonary bypass (on-pump CABG) or without it (off-pump CABG). The aim of this study was to compare the changes in coagulation tests (APTT, INR) in patients who were operated on-pump and patients operated off-pump. Our study showed that the values of APTT and INR tend to increase immediately after surgery. Twenty-four hours after surgery these values are declining and they are approaching the preoperative values in all observed patients (p <0.05). Comparing APTT between the groups we found that postoperative APTT levels are significantly higher in the group of patients who underwent surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (p <0.05). Changes in coagulation tests after surgical revascularization of the heart are more pronounced in patients who were operated with on-pump technique compared to patients operated off-pump technique.

  6. Transradial artery coronary angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Kiemeneij, F; Laarman, G J; de Melker, E

    1995-01-01

    This study explored the feasibility and safety of percutaneous coronary balloon angioplasty (PTCA) with miniaturized PTCA equipment via the radial artery. Coronary angioplasty (PTCA) via the femoral or brachial arteries may be associated with rare vascular complications such as bleeding and damage to the artery and adjacent structures. It was postulated that PTCA via the radial artery with miniaturized angioplasty equipment is feasible and that no major puncture site-related complications occur because hemostasis is obtained easily and because no major structures are near the radial artery. With double blood supply to the hand, radial artery occlusion is well tolerated. In 100 patients with collateral blood supply to the right hand, PTCA was attempted with 6F guiding catheters and rapid-exchange balloon catheters for exertional angina (87 patients) or nonexertional angina (13 patients). Angioplasty was attempted in 122 lesions (type A n = 67 [55%], Type B n = 37 [30%], and type C n = 18 [15%]). Pre- and post-PTCA computerized quantitative coronary analysis was performed. Radial artery function and structure were assessed clinically and with Doppler and two-dimensional ultrasound on the day of discharge. Coronary catheterization via the radial artery was successful in 94 patients (94%). The 6 remaining patients had successful PTCA via the femoral artery (n = 5) or the brachial artery (n = 1). Procedural success (120 of 122 lesions) was achieved in 92 patients (98%) via the radial artery and in 98 patients of the total study population.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Creating accountable care for carotid angioplasty and stenting: A multidisciplinary carotid revascularization board

    PubMed Central

    Kole, Maximilian K.; Khan, Muhib; Marin, Horia; Sanders, William; Shepard, Alexander; Katramados, Angelos M.; Russman, Andrew N.; Gellman, Steven; Nypaver, Timothy; Malik, Ghaus; Mitsias, Panayiotis D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: We tested the feasibility of a mandated multidisciplinary carotid revascularization board (MDCB) to review, approve and monitor all carotid artery and stenting (CAS) procedures and outcomes at our institution. Methods: The board was composed of vascular surgeons, cardiologists, interventional neuroradiologists, neurosurgeons, and neurologists, who met weekly to facilitate an evidence-based, consensus recommendation to ensure appropriate CAS referral. Results: The board successfully reviewed and continues to review and approve all CAS procedures at our center. Of the 69 patients considered high risk for standard surgical treatment, 42 patients were symptomatic and 27 patients were asymptomatic. Their mean age was 70.5-year-old and the median degree of stenosis was 79%. In the 74 procedures, periprocedural complications occurred at the following rates: 2.7% death, 2.7% major stroke, 2.7% minor stroke, and 2.7% myocardial infarction (MI) within 30 days of the procedure. At 1 year the primary endpoints of ipsilateral stroke and neurovascular-related death were observed in 8.1% and 2.7% of the patients, respectively. At mean follow-up of 21 months, 18.8% of the patients (13/69) had died (including all causes), and 14.5% (10/69) experienced stroke (including nontarget strokes). Target vessel revascularization was needed in 2.9% patients. Conclusions: A mandated multidisciplinary carotid revascularization board MDCB is feasible and potentially advantageous in real clinical practice. It establishes a model for accountable care by providing a mechanism for institutional oversight, credentialing operators, quality review, standardizing care, cost containment and eliminating the “subspecialty silo mentality.” PMID:23459852

  8. [Coronary angioplasty today].

    PubMed

    Metzger, J P

    1991-10-01

    The rise of coronary angioplasty has been rapid in the last ten years. It is a method of myocardial revascularisation without thoracotomy or cardiopulmonary bypass and is curative in the absence of restenosis. Recent advances concern the development of the material and the pharmacological support which reduce the risk of coronary thrombosis during the procedure. The primary success rate now approaches 90%, that of emergency bypass surgery less than 5%. The use of autoperfusion catheters and the use of intra-aortic balloon pumping improve the safety of the procedure but surgical stand-by remains a necessity in cases of dilatation of proximal main coronary stenosis. Stable and unstable angina are the main indications of a technique particularly appropriate for elderly patients and the treatment of residual post-thrombolytic stenoses, post-radic stenosis or stenosis of a single functional coronary artery. Restenosis is observed in 30 to 40% of cases during the first six months after the dilatation. Its occurrence is not influenced by any of the drugs tested but it could be reduced by the insertion of an endocoronary stent. Abrasive endocoronary techniques and laser angioplasty are alternative methods of treating coronary stenoses inaccessible to conventional balloon angioplasty but they do not reduce the risk of restenosis.

  9. [Operations of revascularization in surgery of cerebrovascular aneurysms].

    PubMed

    Krylov, V V; Lemenev, V L; Dashyan, V G; Lukyanchikov, V A; Tokarev, A S; Nakhabin, O Yu; Polunina, N A; Senko, I V; Dalibaldyan, V A; Grigorieva, E V; Klimov, A B; Ryabukhin, V E

    2016-01-01

    Surgical revascularization of the brain is one of the most important trends in the development of neurosurgery. Restoration of adequate blood flow through pre- and intracerebral arteries promotes prevention and treatment of ischaemic lesions of the brain in various pathology. The present work was aimed at analysing the experience gained in performing revascularizing operations in patients with cerebral aneurysms at the department of neurosurgery. The authors analysed therapeutic outcomes in a total of 45 patients presenting with giant and complex aneurysms of cerebral arteries and treated from 2009 to 2014. Of the 45 patients with giant and complex aneurysms of cerebral arteries, 31 (68.8%) patients underwent open microsurgical interventions (including 10 patients with the use of different variants of revascularizing operation) and 14 (31.2%) patients were subjected to endovascular exclusion of the aneurysm from the blood flow. It was shown that performing revascularizing operations in patients with complex and giant aneurysms of cerebral arteries makes it possible to compensate circulation in the interested arterial basin and to obtain good functional results.

  10. Prolonged idiopathic gastric dilatation following revascularization for chronic mesenteric ischemia.

    PubMed

    Gauci, Julia L; Stoven, Samantha; Szarka, Lawrence; Papadakis, Konstantinos A

    2014-01-01

    A 71-year-old female presented with nausea, emesis, early satiety, and abdominal distension following revascularization for chronic mesenteric ischemia. Computed tomography angiogram showed gastric dilatation. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, small bowel follow through, and paraneoplastic panel were negative. Gastric emptying was delayed. Despite conservative management, she required a percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy. The development of a prolonged gastroparetic state has not been previously described.

  11. Experimental comparison of bone revascularization by musculocutaneous and cutaneous flaps

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, J.; Wood, M.B.

    1987-01-01

    Revascularization, one of the major components of bone healing, was examined in an experimental model. The radioactive microsphere technique demonstrated that after 4 weeks beneath a musculocutaneous flap, isolated bone segments had significant blood flow, whereas bone beneath a cutaneous flap did not. The muscle flap bone had a blood flow approximately half that of normal control bone. The muscle of the musculocutaneous flap had a blood flow three times that of the skin of the cutaneous flap. The bipedicle cutaneous flap used was designed to have a healthy blood supply, and at 4 weeks it had a blood flow twice that of control skin. Despite this, there was essentially no demonstrable blood flow in the cutaneous flap bone segments at 4 weeks. Only 3 of 17 bone segments underneath cutaneous flaps showed medullary vascularization, whereas 10 of 11 muscle flap bones did. All bone segments underneath muscle flaps showed osteoblasts and osteoclasts at 4 weeks; neither were seen in the cutaneous bone segments. The process of revascularization occurred through an intact cortex and penetrated into the cancellous bone. Because the bone segments were surrounded by an impervious barrier except for one cortical surface, the cellular activity seen is attributed to revascularization by the overlying flap. In this model, a muscle flap was superior to a cutaneous flap in revascularizing isolated bone segments at 4 weeks. This was documented by blood flow measured by the radioactive microsphere technique and by bone histology.

  12. Comparing Coronary Atheroma Progression Rates and Coronary Events in the United States, Canada, Latin America, and Europe.

    PubMed

    Puri, Rishi; Nicholls, Stephen J; St John, Julie; Tuzcu, E Murat; Kapadia, Samir R; Uno, Kiyoko; Kataoka, Yu; Wolski, Kathy; Nissen, Steven E

    2016-12-01

    We explored for geographic variations in coronary atheroma progression rates in the United States compared to other world regions (Canada, Latin America, Western Europe, and Central-Eastern Europe) and sought to ascertain if this associated with regional differences in major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE; cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization). Across 7 randomized trials with a global recruitment pattern, 5,451 participants with angiographic coronary disease underwent serial coronary intravascular ultrasonography during 18 or 24 months, with adjudicated MACE. Change in coronary percent atheroma volume (ΔPAV) and MACE in the United States versus other world regions were assessed. Despite similar baseline angiographic and plaque characteristics across participants and regions, following propensity-weighted and multivariate analysis, US (n = 3,706) versus non-US (n = 1,745) participants demonstrated marginal but significantly greater annualized ΔPAV (least-square means ± SE: 0.27 ± 0.14% vs 0.062 ± 0.14%, p = 0.005). However, MACE rates were disproportionately higher in US compared to non-US participants (23.5% vs 10.9%, p <0.001), driven by a doubling in crude rates of coronary revascularization procedures (16.1% vs 7.8%, p <0.001). The US participants hospitalized with unstable angina demonstrated more significant disease progression than their non-US counterparts (ΔPAV: 0.57 ± 0.19% vs -0.30 ± 0.36%, p = 0.033) and greater MACE (9.1% vs 4.8%, p <0.001). A US geographic disposition independently associated with MACE (hazard ratio 1.53, 95% confidence interval 1.22 to 1.92, p <0.001). In conclusion, in participants with stable coronary disease, coronary atheroma progression rates are modestly higher in US-based compared to non-US-based participants. Elective coronary revascularization rates however are disproportionately greater in US-based participants.

  13. Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin type 9, C-Reactive Protein, Coronary Severity, and Outcomes in Patients With Stable Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian-Jun; Li, Sha; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Rui-Xia; Guo, Yuan-Lin; Zhu, Cheng-Gang; Wu, Na-Qiong; Qing, Ping; Gao, Ying; Sun, Jing; Liu, Geng; Dong, Qian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is suggested as a novel factor associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). However, few studies have comprehensively evaluated plasma PCSK9 with cardiovascular risk till now. Hence, we aimed to prospectively investigate the association between baseline PCSK9 and cardiovascular risk graded with number of risk factors (RFs), coronary severity, and outcomes in patients with stable CAD. Baseline characteristics and biomarkers were measured in 616 consecutive, nontreated patients with stable CAD. Coronary severity was measured using SYNTAX, Gensini, and Jeopardy scoring systems. Patients were then received treatment and followed for a median of 17 months. The primary endpoints were cardiac death, stroke, myocardial infarction (MI), post-discharge revascularization, or unstable angina (UA). Overall, follow-up data were obtained from 603 patients. A total of 72 (11.9%) patients presented with at least 1 major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) (4 cardiac deaths, 4 strokes, 6 MIs, 28 revascularizations, and 30 UAs). At baseline, PCSK9 was increased with an increasing number of RFs and positively associated with coronary severity scores (P < 0.05, all). After follow-up, those with MACE had a higher baseline PCSK9, hs-CRP, and coronary scores than those without (P < 0.05, all). Multivariate analysis showed that PCSK9, hs-CRP, and coronary scores were independently predictive for MACEs (P < 0.05, all). Interestingly, more significant predictive values of PCSK9 in medical-alone-treated population but no such associations in revascularization-treated patients were found. Together, plasma PCSK9, as well as hs-CRP and coronary scores, could independently predict MACEs in patients with stable CAD. PMID:26717403

  14. Coronary Ostial Stenosis after Aortic Valve Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Ziakas, Antonios G.; Economou, Fotios I.; Charokopos, Nicholas A.; Pitsis, Antonios A.; Parharidou, Despina G.; Papadopoulos, Thomas I.; Parharidis, Georgios E.

    2010-01-01

    Coronary ostial stenosis is a rare but potentially serious sequela after aortic valve replacement. It occurs in the left main or right coronary artery after 1% to 5% of aortic valve replacement procedures. The clinical symptoms are usually severe and may appear from 1 to 6 months postoperatively. Although the typical treatment is coronary artery bypass grafting, patients have been successfully treated by means of percutaneous coronary intervention. Herein, we present the cases of 2 patients in whom coronary ostial stenosis developed after aortic valve replacement. In the 1st case, a 72-year-old man underwent aortic valve replacement and bypass grafting of the saphenous vein to the left anterior descending coronary artery. Six months later, he experienced a non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. Coronary angiography revealed a critical stenosis of the right coronary artery ostium. In the 2nd case, a 78-year-old woman underwent aortic valve replacement and grafting of the saphenous vein to an occluded right coronary artery. Four months later, she experienced unstable angina. Coronary angiography showed a critical left main coronary artery ostial stenosis and occlusion of the right coronary artery venous graft. In each patient, we performed percutaneous coronary intervention and deployed a drug-eluting stent. Both patients were asymptomatic on 6-to 12-month follow-up. We attribute the coronary ostial stenosis to the selective ostial administration of cardioplegic solution during surgery. We conclude that retrograde administration of cardioplegic solution through the coronary sinus may reduce the incidence of postoperative coronary ostial stenosis, and that stenting may be an efficient treatment option. PMID:20844624

  15. Sex Differences in Outcomes Following Percutaneous Coronary Intervention According to Age

    PubMed Central

    Epps, Kelly C.; Holper, Elizabeth M.; Selzer, Faith; Vlachos, Helen A.; Gualano, Sarah K.; Abbott, J. Dawn; Jacobs, Alice K.; Marroquin, Oscar C.; Naidu, Srihari S.; Groeneveld, Peter W.; Wilensky, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Women <50 years of age with coronary artery disease (CAD) may represent a group at higher risk for recurrent ischemic events following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI); however, no long-term, multi-center outcomes assessment exists in this population. Methods and Results Using the NHLBI Dynamic Registry we evaluated the association of sex and age on cardiovascular-related outcomes in10,963 patients (3,797 women, 394 <50 years) undergoing PCI and followed for 5 years. Death, myocardial infarction (MI), coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG), and repeat PCI were primary outcomes comprising major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). While procedural success rates were similar by sex, the cumulative rate of MACE at 1 year was higher in young women (27.8 vs. 19.9%, p=0.003) driven largely by higher rates of repeat revascularizations for target vessel or target lesion failure (CABG: 8.9% vs. 3.9%, p<0.001, adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 2.4, 95% CI 1.5-4.0; PCI: 19.0% vs. 13.0%, p=0.005, aHR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.2). At 5 years, young women remained at higher risk for repeat procedures (CABG: 10.7% vs. 6.8%, p=0.04, aHR 1.71, 95% CI 1.01-2.88; repeat PCI [target vessel]: 19.7% vs. 11.8%, p=0.002, aHR 1.8, 95% CI 1.24-2.82). Compared to older women, younger women remained at increased risk of MACE, while all outcome rates were similar in older women and men. Conclusions Young women, despite having less severe angiographic CAD have an increased risk of target vessel and target lesion failure. The causes of this difference deserve further investigation. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00005677. PMID:26908855

  16. Coronary collaterals.

    PubMed

    Gorlin, R

    1976-01-01

    Coronary collaterals are probably enlargements of pre-existing channels which respond to local vasodilators and which function whenever pressure differences exist across them. Thus, in human coronary atherosclerosis collaterals are only seen when there is a severe intervening arterial obstruction (in excess of 75%). Coronary collaterals follow epicardial and intramycardial pathways, and the intermediary connections may be at vessels of highly varying caliber. The flow potential of most collateral pathways in man is possibly adequate for segmental myocardial function at lower than normal demands but clearly is inadequate for most, if not all, stressful interventions. In the last analysis, coronary collaterals in man are more an indication of severe regional ischemia (present or potential) than a sign of biological "compensation'' for a perfusion deficit.

  17. Successful treatment of bleeding large duodenal gastrointestinal stromal tumour in a patient under dual antiplatelet therapy after recent drug-eluting coronary stent implantation

    PubMed Central

    Fukuyama, Keita; Fujikawa, Takahisa; Kuramitsu, Shoichi; Tanaka, Akira

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a 69-year-old man who started dual antiplatelet therapy (APT) with aspirin and clopidogrel after recent implantation of drug-eluting coronary stent and developed massive bleeding due to large duodenal gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST). Following endoscopic haemostasis and discontinuation of dual APT, neoadjuvant chemotherapy with imatinib was started under continuation of ‘single’ APT with aspirin. A good chemotherapeutic response was achieved without recurrence of bleeding, and subsequent less invasive surgical resection of the tumour was performed, while preoperative single APT was continued for prevention of stent thrombosis. The patient recovered well without any thromboembolic or bleeding events. Neoadjuvant imatinib therapy and subsequent less invasive surgery under continuation of APT is one of the preferred approaches for patients with duodenal GIST with severe thromboembolic comorbidities, as in the current case. PMID:24777088

  18. Successful treatment of recurrent carotid in-stent restenosis and drug-eluting balloon failure with a coronary bioresorbable vascular scaffold: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, Arturo; Ferraro, Paolo; Corcione, Nicola; Messina, Stefano; Maresca, Gennaro; Coscioni, Enrico; Biondi-Zoccai, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Carotid in-stent restenosis is associated with substantial risk of recurrent restenosis, even after drug-eluting balloon usage. Presentation of case We hereby report the case of a patient with recurrent carotid in-stent restenosis and drug-eluting balloon failure treated with a coronary bioresorbable vascular scaffold, achieving a satisfactory acute and long-term result, as disclosed by duplex ultrasound scan performed more than 1 year after the procedure. Discussion/conclusion While awaiting for external validation, this clinical vignette supports expanding the armamentarium of endovascular specialists focusing on carotid artery disease, while providing further proof of the safety and efficacy of current bioresorbable vascular scaffolds. PMID:26945488

  19. Tailored PICA Revascularization for Unusual Ruptured Fusiform Vertebro-PICA Origin Aneurysms: Rationale and Case Illustrations.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Andrew P

    2015-11-01

    Ruptured fusiform aneurysms of the vertebral artery involving posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) origin are difficult to manage without sacrificing PICA. In this report, two very unusual cases are described which highlight different revascularization strategies that may be required. The first case initially appeared to be a small saccular PICA origin aneurysm, but detailed angiography showed a serpentine recanalization of a fusiform aneurysm. This was treated with PICA-PICA anastomosis and trapping of the aneurysm. The second case is a dissecting vertebral aneurysm with both PICA and the anterior spinal artery originating from the dome. PICA was found to be a bihemispheric variant, so no in situ bypass was available, and an occipital artery to PICA bypass was performed. The vertebral artery was occluded proximally only and follow-up angiography showed remodeling of the distal vertebral artery with the anterior spinal artery filling by retrograde flow from the distal vertebral artery. These cases illustrate both the anatomic variability of this region as well as the need to be familiar with multiple treatment strategies including revascularization techniques to be able to successfully treat these aneurysms.

  20. Pulp Revascularization- It’s your Future Whether you Know it or Not?

    PubMed Central

    Dudeja, Pooja Gupta; Grover, Shibani; Srivastava, Dhirendra; Sharma, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Pulpal regeneration after tooth injury is not easy to accomplish. In teeth with immature apices and exposed vital pulp tissue, partial or complete pulpotomy is indicated to preserve pulpal function and allow continued root development. In many cases, injury causes loss of pulp vitality and arrested root development leading to a tooth with poor crown root ratio, a root with very thin walls, an open blunderbuss apex and development of apical pathosis. The ideal treatment in such cases would be to obtain further root development and thickening of dentinal walls by stimulating the regeneration of a functional pulp dentin complex. This outcome has been observed after reimplantation in avulsed immature permanent teeth but has been thought impossible in a necrotic infected tooth. This case series evaluates the efficacy of revascularization procedure in immature, non vital permanent teeth. Pulp regeneration was attempted in four patients at Department of Conservative Dentistry, ESIC Dental College, New Delhi using blood clotting approach. The cases were treated and followed up regularly at regular intervals ranging from 6 months to 3 years to assess the treatment response clinically and radiographically. The patients remained clinically asymptomatic with three out of four patients even responding positively to pulp responsiveness tests. Radiographic examination also revealed increased root formation and thickening of dentinal walls. It was concluded that the triad of a disinfected canal, a matrix (blood clot) in to which new tissue could grow and an effective coronal seal produced the desirable environment for successful revascularization. PMID:26023665

  1. Pulp revascularization after repositioning of impacted incisor with a dilacerated root and a detached apex.

    PubMed

    Plakwicz, Paweł; Kapuścińska, Agnieszka; Kukuła, Krzysztof; Czochrowska, Ewa Monika

    2015-06-01

    Severely impacted and dilacerated incisors are rarely considered for surgical exposure because they may not respond favorably to orthodontic extrusion. These incisors are often extracted, resulting in the need for tooth replacement; however, prosthetic solutions are limited in growing patients. Transalveolar autotransplantation of an impacted incisor may be the only method to preserve the natural tooth and maintain the shape of the alveolus. The severely impacted upper central incisor (#9) with a developing root was diagnosed in a 9-year-old girl. The unfavorable tooth position and dilaceration of its root made orthodontic extrusion of the impacted incisor impossible. Initial orthodontic space opening at the recipient site was performed before the surgery. Transalveolar transplantation of the impacted incisor to its normal position was performed to avoid tooth extraction. The incisor was later aligned using fixed orthodontic appliances. At the 5-year follow-up, the transplanted incisor presented features that were typical of a revascularized tooth (ie, obliteration of root canal but a positive response to vitality tests). Healthy periodontal tissues and continued root development were also noted. However, the root apex, which separated from the transplant at the time of the surgery, continued formation in its initial position. Transalveolar transplantation of an unfavorably impacted upper central incisor with a dilacerated root is a successful treatment, which stands the test of time. The early stage of root development allowed revascularization of the tooth despite dilaceration of the root and detachment of its apex.

  2. Pulp Revascularization- It's your Future Whether you Know it or Not?

    PubMed

    Dudeja, Pooja Gupta; Grover, Shibani; Srivastava, Dhirendra; Dudeja, Krishan Kumar; Sharma, Vivek

    2015-04-01

    Pulpal regeneration after tooth injury is not easy to accomplish. In teeth with immature apices and exposed vital pulp tissue, partial or complete pulpotomy is indicated to preserve pulpal function and allow continued root development. In many cases, injury causes loss of pulp vitality and arrested root development leading to a tooth with poor crown root ratio, a root with very thin walls, an open blunderbuss apex and development of apical pathosis. The ideal treatment in such cases would be to obtain further root development and thickening of dentinal walls by stimulating the regeneration of a functional pulp dentin complex. This outcome has been observed after reimplantation in avulsed immature permanent teeth but has been thought impossible in a necrotic infected tooth. This case series evaluates the efficacy of revascularization procedure in immature, non vital permanent teeth. Pulp regeneration was attempted in four patients at Department of Conservative Dentistry, ESIC Dental College, New Delhi using blood clotting approach. The cases were treated and followed up regularly at regular intervals ranging from 6 months to 3 years to assess the treatment response clinically and radiographically. The patients remained clinically asymptomatic with three out of four patients even responding positively to pulp responsiveness tests. Radiographic examination also revealed increased root formation and thickening of dentinal walls. It was concluded that the triad of a disinfected canal, a matrix (blood clot) in to which new tissue could grow and an effective coronal seal produced the desirable environment for successful revascularization.

  3. Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting? Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is ... bypass multiple coronary arteries during one surgery. Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Figure A shows the location of ...

  4. Effect of intraaortic balloon pumping on left ventricular function in patients with persistent ST segment elevation after revascularization for acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Kurisu, Satoshi; Inoue, Ichiro; Kawagoe, Takuji; Ishihara, Masaharu; Shimatani, Yuji; Nishioka, Kenji; Umemura, Takashi; Nakamura, Suji; Yoshida, Masashi

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the impact of intraaortic balloon pumping (IABP) in patients with persistent ST elevation who underwent revascularization within 6 h of their first acute anterior myocardial infarction (AMI). Persistent ST elevation after revascularization was defined as being > or =50% of the initial value on return to the coronary care unit. Twenty-four patients were treated without IABP (control group) and 27 patients were treated with IABP (IABP group). There was no significant difference between the 2 groups in pretreatment left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), end-diastolic volume index or end-systolic volume index. After 137+/-46 days, the change in the LVEF was significantly higher in the IABP group than in the control group (5+/-13% vs 13+/-15%, p=0.04). However, the left ventricular end-diastolic volume index was similar between the 2 groups during follow-up (pretreatment: 77+/-19 ml/m(2) vs 74+/-13 ml/m(2), p=0.54; follow-up: 86+/-22 ml/m(2) vs 83+/-18 ml/m(2), p=0.60). These data suggest that IABP enhances the improvement in LVEF independent of remodeling in AMI patients with persistent ST elevation after revascularization.

  5. [Is coronary artery disease different in women?].

    PubMed

    Schiele, François; Chopard, Romain

    2014-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the primary cause of death in women. Although acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is relatively infrequent in young women, failure to recognize ACS in this population can incur a major risk and registry data show that there is still plenty of room for improvement in this area. Women may suffer from "classical" CAD with development of atherosclerosis with a delay of about 10 years as compared to men, reflecting hormonal protection in women. Besides this classical presentation, angina in women often corresponds to impaired microcirculation, a syndrome known to associate typical angina, demonstrable myocardial ischemia, but no lesions on the coronary angiography. Finally, spasm, spontaneous dissection or coronary thrombosis through endothelial rupture are more frequent in women. The influence of risk factors on the development of CAD is comparable in both women and men. Recent registry studies show that in France, in particular, diabetes, obesity, and smoking are all risk factors that are on the rise in women. In addition, certain other risk factors are more specific to women, namely psycho-social stress. The methods to evaluate risk and detect CAD were mainly developed in male study populations, and these tools thus perform less well in female patients. In case of ACS, women benefit just as much from invasive management, but are at greater risk of iatrogenic complications, particularly with anti-thrombotic therapy or during revascularization procedures.

  6. Non-invasive coronary angiography with multi-detector computed tomography: comparison to conventional X-ray angiography.

    PubMed

    Schoenhagen, Paul; Stillman, Arthur E; Halliburton, Sandy S; Kuzmiak, Stacie A; Painter, Tracy; White, Richard D

    2005-02-01

    Selective coronary angiography introduced clinical coronary imaging in the late 1950s. The angiographic identification of high-grade coronary lesions in patients with acute and chronic symptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD) led to the development of surgical and percutaneous coronary revascularization. However, the fact that CAD remains the major cause of death in North America and Europe demonstrates the need for novel, complementary diagnostic strategies. These are driven by the need to characterize both increasingly advanced disease stages but also early, asymptomatic disease development. Complex revascularization techniques for patients with advanced disease stages will initiate a growing demand for 3-dimensional coronary imaging and integration of imaging modalities with new mechanical therapeutic devices. An emerging focus is atherosclerosis imaging with the goal to identify subclinical disease stages as the basis for pharmacological intervention aimed at disease stabilization or reversal. Non-invasive coronary imaging with coronary multidetector computed tomographic angiography (MDCTA) allows both assessment of luminal stenosis and subclinical disease of the arterial wall. Its complementary role in the assessment of early and advanced stages of CAD is increasingly recognized.

  7. Emergency Stenting of Unprotected Left Main Coronary Artery after Acute Catheter-Induced Occlusive Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Akgul, Ferit; Batyraliev, Talantbek; Besnili, Fikret; Karben, Zarema

    2006-01-01

    Left main coronary artery dissection occurs very rarely during selective coronary angiography, but it generally progresses to complete coronary occlusion. The traditional treatment of occlusive dissection of the unprotected left main coronary artery has been surgical. Percutaneous treatment has been sporadic and controversial. We report a case of iatrogenic occlusive dissection of the unprotected left main coronary artery during diagnostic coronary angiography, followed by successful stenting of the lesion. PMID:17215985

  8. Surgical Revascularization in North American Adults with Moyamoya Phenomenon: Long Term Angiographic Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Eric J.; Dunn, Gavin P.; Washington, Chad W.; Derdeyn, Colin P.; Chicoine, Michael R.; Grubb, Robert L.; Moran, Christopher J.; Cross, DeWitte T.; Dacey, Ralph G.; Zipfel, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    Background North American and Asian forms of moyamoya have distinct clinical characteristics. Asian adults with moyamoya are known to respond better to direct vs. indirect revascularization. It is unclear whether North American adults with moyamoya have a similar long-term angiographic response to direct vs. indirect bypass. Methods A retrospective review of surgical revascularization for adult moyamoya phenomenon was performed. Pre-operative and post-operative cerebral angiograms underwent consensus review, with degree of revascularization quantified as extent of new middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory filling. Results Late angiographic follow up was available in 15 symptomatic patients who underwent 20 surgical revascularization procedures. In 10 hemispheres treated solely with indirect arterial bypass, 3 had 2/3 revascularization, 4 had 1/3 revascularization, and 3 had no revascularization of the MCA territory. In the 10 hemispheres treated with direct arterial bypass (8 as a stand alone procedure; 2 in combination with an indirect procedure), 2 had complete revascularization, 7 had 2/3 revascularization, and 1 had 1/3 revascularization. Direct bypass provided a higher rate of “good” angiographic outcome (complete or 2/3 revascularization) when compared to indirect techniques (p = 0.0198). Conclusions Direct bypass provides a statistically significant, more consistent and complete cerebral revascularization than indirect techniques in this patient population. This is similar to that reported in the Asian literature, which suggests that the manner of presentation (ischemia in North American adults vs. hemorrhage in Asian adults) is likely not a contributor to the extent of revascularization achieved following surgical intervention. PMID:25972283

  9. PERFUSION FOR MYOCARDIAL REVASCULARIZATION WITHOUT AN ARTIFICIAL OXYGENATOR (New Method to Reduce Surgical Morbidity)

    PubMed Central

    De Moraes, Domingos Junqueira; Abilio, Fued Michel; Cunha, Marcos; Feitosa, Lionicio A.; Aragão, Esmeraldino; Cysne, Eumenes; Vieira, Roberto; Glavam, Haroldo C. C.; Zaniolo, Waldomiro; Netto, Mario Salles; Villela, Ronaldo De A.; Labrunie, Pierre

    1979-01-01

    Thirteen patients were submitted to direct myocardial revascularization (saphenous vein graft) without the use of an artificial oxygenator. The perfusion was done by a left ventricle-to-aorta bypass and autogenous oxygenation. Most patients had three grafts implanted plus endarterectomy of the distal right coronary artery. There was one hospital death that was apparently not related to the method used. Perfusion time ranged from 45 minutes to 4 hours. Body temperature during perfusion was kept between 25 and 30° C. Perfusion flow was maintained between 25 to 50 ml per kg of body weight per minute. Ischemic, hypothermic cardiac arrest was employed. We demonstrated for the first time that perfusion for this kind of heart surgery could be done with no artificial oxygenators and, apparently, is safer for the patients. There were no bleeding problems even in perfusions as long as 4 hours. There was no respiratory dysfunction, and artificial respiration was used for only 6 to 12 hours. The patients awoke at the end of surgery with no signs or symptoms of central nervous system damage, and vasopressor drugs were rarely used after surgery. Although the experience is very small, it suggests that many postoperative problems, especially those related to bleeding and respiratory dysfunction may be reduced or eliminated by this new method. PMID:15216319

  10. Clinical and Radiographic Outcomes of Traumatized Immature Permanent Necrotic Teeth after Revascularization/Revitalization Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Saoud, Tarek Mohamed A.; Zaazou, Ashraf; Nabil, Ahmed; Moussa, Sybel; Lin, Louis M.; Gibbs, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Revascularization treatment is rapidly becoming an accepted alternative for the management of endodontic pathology in immature permanent teeth with necrotic dental pulps. However, the success and timing of clinical resolution of symptoms and of radiographic outcomes of interest, such as continued hard tissue deposition within the root, are largely unknown. Methods In this prospective cohort study, 20 teeth were treated with a standardized revascularization treatment protocol, and monitored for clinical and radiographic changes for one year. Standardized radiographs were collected at regular intervals and radiographic changes were quantified. Results All 20 treated teeth survived during the 12 month follow up period and all 20 also met the clinical criteria for success at 12 months. As a group, the treated teeth demonstrated a statistically significant increase in radiographic width and length, and a decrease in apical diameter, although the changes in many cases were quite small such that the clinical significance is unclear. The within-case percent change in apical diameter after 3 months was 16% and had increased to 79% by 12 months, with 55% (11/20) showing complete apical closure. The within-case percent change in root length averaged less than 1% at 3 months and increased to 5% at 12 months. The within-case percent change in root thickness averaged 3% at 3 months and 21% at 12 months. Conclusions Although clinical success was highly predictable with this procedure, clinically meaningful radiographic root thickening and lengthening is less predictable at one year of follow up. Apical closure is the most consistent radiographic finding. PMID:25443280

  11. Fractional flow reserve-guided percutaneous coronary intervention: where to after FAME 2?

    PubMed Central

    van de Hoef, Tim P; Meuwissen, Martijn; Piek, Jan J

    2015-01-01

    Fractional flow reserve (FFR) is a well-validated clinical coronary physiological parameter derived from the measurement of coronary pressures and has drastically changed revascularization decision-making in clinical practice. Nonetheless, it is important to realize that FFR is a coronary pressure-derived estimate of coronary blood flow impairment. It is thereby not the same as direct measures of coronary flow impairment that determine the occurrence of signs and symptoms of myocardial ischemia. This consideration is important, since the FAME 2 study documented a limited discriminatory power of FFR to identify stenoses that require revascularization to prevent adverse events. The physiological difference between FFR and direct measures of coronary flow impairment may well explain the findings in FAME 2. This review aims to address the physiological background of FFR, its ambiguities, and its consequences for the application of FFR in clinical practice, as well as to reinterpret the diagnostic and prognostic characteristics of FFR in the light of the recent FAME 2 trial outcomes. PMID:26673639

  12. Use of Drug-Eluting Stents in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease and Renal Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    El-Menyar, Ayman A.; Al Suwaidi, Jassim; Holmes, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Renal insufficiency (RI) has been shown to be associated with increased major adverse cardiovascular events after percutaneous coronary intervention. We reviewed the impact of RI on the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease and outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention in the form of drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation in these high-risk patients. We searched the English-language literature indexed in MEDLINE, Scopus, and EBSCO Host research databases from 1990 through January 2009, using as search terms coronary revascularization, drug-eluting stent, and renal insufficiency. Studies that assessed DES implantation in patients with various degrees of RI were selected for review. Most of the available data were extracted from observational studies, and data from randomized trials formed the basis of a post hoc analysis. The outcomes after coronary revascularization were less favorable in patients with RI than in those with normal renal function. In patients with RI, DES implantation yielded better outcomes than did use of bare-metal stents. Randomized trials are needed to define optimal treatment of these high-risk patients with coronary artery disease. PMID:20118392

  13. Techniques of protection and revascularization of the bronchial anastomosis

    PubMed Central

    Diso, Daniele; Anile, Marco; Rendina, Erino A.

    2016-01-01

    Airway anastomosis has been traditionally considered at risk for the onset of complications, particularly dehiscence with consequent infection and erosion in the adjacent vessels. Although the modifications and improvements of the surgical technique has contributed to reduce the incidence of complications, the protection and revascularization of the anastomotic site is still considered mandatory at many centers Many techniques have been proposed for encircling the bronchial anastomosis. PMID:26981269

  14. Holmium:YAG laser coronary angioplasty in acute myocardial infarction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topaz, On; Luxenberg, Michael; Schumacher, Audrey

    1994-07-01

    Patients who sustain complicated acute myocardial infarction in whom thrombolytic agents either fail or are contraindicated often need mechanical revascularization other than PTCA. In 24 patients with acute infarction complicated by continuous chest pain and ischemia who either received lytics or with contraindication to lytics, a holmium:YAG laser (Eclipse Surgical Technologies, Palo Alto, CA) was utilized for thrombolysis and plaque ablation. Clinical success was achieved in 23/24 patients, with 23 patients (94%) surviving the acute infarction. Holmium:YAG laser is very effective and safe in thrombolysis and revascularization in this complicated clinical setting.

  15. Good visibility of TITAN-2 coronary stents demonstrable on cardiac computer tomographic angiography: a report of 2 cases.

    PubMed

    Ong, Paul Jau; Jau, Ong Paul; Ho, Hee Hwa; Hwa, Ho Hee; Jafary, Fahim Haider; Haider, Jafary Fahim; Loh, Kwok Kong; Kong, Loh Kwok; Ooi, Yau Wei; Wei, Ooi Yau; Wong, Chun Pong; Pong, Wong Chun; Foo, David; David, Foo

    2011-09-01

    Numerous studies have sought to assess stent patency by cardiac computer tomographic angiography (CCTA) in comparison with invasive coronary angiography in patients who had undergone percutaneous coronary stenting. Even with newer generation scanners, CCTA has been of limited value in the assessment of the revascularized patient. The main reason being blooming artifact from metallic stents often obscures stent luminal dimension, making the stented segment unassessable. We report on a novel finding of good visibility of TITAN-2 coronary stents demonstrable on CCTA for 2 patients and discuss the possible mechanism and potential implications of this observation.

  16. Effects of transmyocardial laser revascularization using a prototype pulsed CO2 laser on contractility and perfusion of chronically ischemic myocardium in a porcine model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadia, Yasmin; Khaki, Ali; Kajitani, Michio; Mori, Yoshiki; Irvine, Timothy; Sahn, David; Yessik, Michael J.; Bahlman, Deborah T.; Furnary, Anthony; Gregory, Kenton W.

    1999-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a new prototype pulsed CO2 laser to be used for transmyocardial laser revascularization (TMR). We want to determine whether it can reduce thermal damage and mitigate induced ischemia with improvement in contractile reserve of the heart as evidenced by contrast echocardiography at rest and under dobutamine stress. TMR is an emerging surgical strategy for treatment of myocardial ischemia not amenable to conventional percutaneous or surgical revascularization. Eleven pigs underwent amaroid occulder placement on the origin of the circumflex coronary artery. Six weeks laser occlusion of the circumflex coronary artery was documented. TMR was then done on ten pigs using a prototype pulsed CO2 laser that delivered 8-12 joules energy in 1.5ms with a spot sizes of 1mm. Six weeks after TMR the pigs were restudied and sacrificed. The animals developed significant ischemia after six weeks of ameroid occlusion, at rest (p=0.01) and at peak stress (p=0.004). Wall motion for the ischemic segments improved significantly six weeks after TMR at peak stress (p=0.02). TMR results in an improvement in wall motion in our model of chromic ischemia and improves WMSI significantly during induced stress than at rest.

  17. T-cadherin Is Essential for Adiponectin-mediated Revascularization*

    PubMed Central

    Parker-Duffen, Jennifer L.; Nakamura, Kazuto; Silver, Marcy; Kikuchi, Ryosuke; Tigges, Ulrich; Yoshida, Sumiko; Denzel, Martin S.; Ranscht, Barbara; Walsh, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue secretes protein factors that have systemic actions on cardiovascular tissues. Previous studies have shown that ablation of the adipocyte-secreted protein adiponectin leads to endothelial dysfunction, whereas its overexpression promotes wound healing. However, the receptor(s) mediating the protective effects of adiponectin on the vasculature is not known. Here we examined the role of membrane protein T-cadherin, which localizes adiponectin to the vascular endothelium, in the revascularization response to chronic ischemia. T-cadherin-deficient mice were analyzed in a model of hind limb ischemia where blood flow is surgically disrupted in one limb and recovery is monitored over 28 days by laser Doppler perfusion imaging. In this model, T-cadherin-deficient mice phenocopy adiponectin-deficient mice such that both strains display an impaired blood flow recovery compared with wild-type controls. Delivery of exogenous adiponectin rescued the impaired revascularization phenotype in adiponectin-deficient mice but not in T-cadherin-deficient mice. In cultured endothelial cells, T-cadherin deficiency by siRNA knockdown prevented the ability of adiponectin to promote cellular migration and proliferation. These data highlight a previously unrecognized role for T-cadherin in limb revascularization and show that it is essential for mediating the vascular actions of adiponectin. PMID:23824191

  18. The role of endoglin in post-ischemic revascularization.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Gómez, Elena; Pericacho, Miguel; Ollauri-Ibáñez, Claudia; Bernabéu, Carmelo; López-Novoa, José M

    2017-02-01

    Following arterial occlusion, blood vessels respond by forming a new network of functional capillaries (angiogenesis), by reorganizing preexisting capillaries through the recruitment of smooth muscle cells to generate new arteries (arteriogenesis) and by growing and remodeling preexisting collateral arterioles into physiologically relevant arteries (collateral development). All these processes result in the recovery of organ perfusion. The importance of endoglin in post-occlusion reperfusion is sustained by several observations: (1) endoglin expression is increased in vessels showing active angiogenesis/remodeling; (2) genetic endoglin haploinsufficiency in humans causes deficient angiogenesis; and (3) the reduction of endoglin expression by gene disruption or the administration of endoglin-neutralizing antibodies reduces angiogenesis and revascularization. However, the precise role of endoglin in the several processes associated with revascularization has not been completely elucidated and, in some cases, the function ascribed to endoglin by different authors is controversial. The purpose of this review is to organize in a critical way the information available for the role of endoglin in several phenomena (angiogenesis, arteriogenesis and collateral development) associated with post-ischemic revascularization.

  19. Coronary perforation and covered stents: an update and review.

    PubMed

    Al-Mukhaini, Mohammed; Panduranga, Prashanth; Sulaiman, Kadhim; Riyami, Abdulla Amour; Deeb, Mohammed; Riyami, Mohamed Barkat

    2011-04-01

    Coronary perforation is a rare complication of percutaneous coronary intervention. We present two different types of coronary intervention, but both ending with coronary perforation. However, these perforations were tackled successfully by covered stents. This article reviews the incidence, causes, presentation, and management of coronary perforation in the present era of aggressive interventional cardiology. Coronary perforations are classified as type I (extraluminal crater), II (myocardial or pericardial blushing), and III (contrast streaming or cavity spilling). Types I and II coronary perforations are caused by stiff or hydrophilic guidewires. Type I has a benign prognosis, whereas type II coronary perforations have the potential to progress to tamponade. Type III coronary perforations are caused by balloons, stents, or other intracoronary devices and commonly lead to cardiac tamponade necessitating pericardial drainage. However, type III perforations can be managed with covered stents without need for surgical intervention.

  20. Pantaloon vein graft technique in tibial revascularization with arteriovenous fistula for limb salvage.

    PubMed

    Sogaro, F; Galeazzi, E; Amroch, D; Ganassin, L

    1996-06-01

    Graft patency and limb salvage in 91 successive patients operated upon between April 1989 and April 1994 with a human umbilical vein graft combined with an adjunctive arteriovenous fistula at the distal anastomosis of the prosthetic graft in a single limb were evaluated. All the patients operated on were in the 'limb salvage' category. On discharge from hospital 91% of the revascularized limbs were salvaged. Secondary cumulative patency at 57 months was 57.3% with a 61.5% limb salvage rate. This technique, which has anatomical and haemodynamic advantages, results in improved graft patency and foot salvage rates in patients with critical leg ischaemia and poor distal run-off when autologous saphenous vein is absent or cannot be used.

  1. Evaluation of Previously Cannulated Radial Arteries as Patent Coronary Artery Bypass Conduits.

    PubMed

    Watson, Timothy; Pope, Adele; van Pelt, Niels; Ruygrok, Peter N

    2015-10-01

    In coronary artery bypass grafting, good-quality conduits are needed to maximize the potential for long-term patency. Revascularization has traditionally been achieved with use of the saphenous vein and the internal thoracic arteries. In recent years, total arterial revascularization with use of the radial arteries has been promoted. Meanwhile, use of the transradial approach for coronary angiography has also increased. The long-term effects of previous cannulation in radial artery bypass grafts are not known. Therefore, we used multidetector computed tomographic angiography to investigate radial-artery graft patency in a small series of patients who had undergone transradial angiography. We found a high patency rate, and we discuss those findings here.

  2. Coronary air embolism treated with aspiration catheter

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, M S; Kiemeneij, F

    2005-01-01

    Coronary air embolism remains a recognised complication of coronary catheterisation despite a strong emphasis on prevention. Current treatment consists of supportive measures with 100% oxygen and analgesia. Recent case reports describe the use of mechanical treatments aimed at dispersing or removing the air embolus with variable success. A case of coronary air embolism causing an acute coronary syndrome is described that was definitively treated with an aspiration system. The effectiveness of the aspiration system in the distal section of an obtuse marginal artery indicates that such dedicated aspiration systems may prove useful in the standard treatment of air embolism. PMID:15831621

  3. Coronary air embolism treated with aspiration catheter.

    PubMed

    Patterson, M S; Kiemeneij, F

    2005-05-01

    Coronary air embolism remains a recognised complication of coronary catheterisation despite a strong emphasis on prevention. Current treatment consists of supportive measures with 100% oxygen and analgesia. Recent case reports describe the use of mechanical treatments aimed at dispersing or removing the air embolus with variable success. A case of coronary air embolism causing an acute coronary syndrome is described that was definitively treated with an aspiration system. The effectiveness of the aspiration system in the distal section of an obtuse marginal artery indicates that such dedicated aspiration systems may prove useful in the standard treatment of air embolism.

  4. Anomalous right coronary artery arising next to the left coronary ostium: unambiguous detection of the anatomy by computed tomography and evaluation of functional significance by cardiovascular magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Korosoglou, Grigorios; Heye, Tobias; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Hosch, Waldemar; Kauczor, Hans U; Katus, Hugo A

    2010-11-19

    Herein we report on the diagnostic potential of multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) combined with cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) for the diagnostic workup in an adult patient with a rare coronary anomaly. MDCT unambiguously detected the anomalous right coronary artery (RCA), which originated next to the left coronary ostium and coursed inter-arterially between the ascending aorta and the pulmonary trunk. The intramural proximal intussusception of the ectopic RCA could be clearly appreciated on MDCT images, while multiple mixed plaques were detected in the left anterior descending (LAD), resulting in moderate stenosis of this vessel. CMR during adenosine infusion ruled-out inducible ischemia, yielding normal perfusion patterns both in the RCA and in the LAD coronary territory. Since ischemia was not demonstrated by stress CMR, revascularization was not performed.

  5. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection with Cardiac Tamponade.

    PubMed

    Goh, Anne C H; Lundstrom, Robert J

    2015-10-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is a rare cause of acute coronary syndrome. Clinical presentation ranges from chest pain alone to ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction, ventricular fibrillation, and sudden death. The treatment of patients with spontaneous coronary artery dissection is challenging because the disease pathophysiology is unclear, optimal treatment is unknown, and short- and long-term prognostic data are minimal. We report the case of a 70-year-old woman who presented with an acute ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction secondary to a spontaneous dissection of the left anterior descending coronary artery. She was treated conservatively. Cardiac tamponade developed 16 hours after presentation. Repeat coronary angiography revealed extension of the dissection. Medical therapy was continued after the hemopericardium was aspirated. The patient remained asymptomatic 3 years after hospital discharge. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of spontaneous coronary artery dissection in association with cardiac tamponade that was treated conservatively and had a successful outcome.

  6. Interposition vein graft for giant coronary aneurysm repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firstenberg, M. S.; Azoury, F.; Lytle, B. W.; Thomas, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    Coronary aneurysms in adults are rare. Surgical treatment is often concomitant to treating obstructing coronary lesions. However, the ideal treatment strategy is poorly defined. We present a case of successful treatment of a large coronary artery aneurysm with a reverse saphenous interposition vein graft. This modality offers important benefits over other current surgical and percutaneous techniques and should be considered as an option for patients requiring treatment for coronary aneurysms.

  7. Coronary arteriography and angioplasty

    SciTech Connect

    King, S.B.; Douglas, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    This book explores biomedical radiography of the heart. Topics considered include six bench marks in the history of cardiac catheterization; normal coronary anatomy; anomalies of the coronary arteries; pathoanotomy of the coronary arteries and complications; indications, limitations, and risks of coronary arteriography and left ventriculography; catheterization techniques in coronary arteriography and left ventriculography: the Sones technique; catheterization techniques in coronary arteriography and left ventriculography: the Judkins technique; modification of Judkins catheters; catheterization techniques in coronary arteriography and left ventriculography multipurpose technique; new views in coronary arteriography; quantitative evaluation of left ventricular function; complications of coronary arteriography: management during and following the procedure; interpretation of coronary arteriograms and left ventriculograms; prevalence and distribution of disease in patients catheterized for suspected coronary disease at Emory University Hospital; the Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory; selection for surgery or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty; intracoronary thrombolysis; and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty.

  8. The Duration of Impella 2.5 Circulatory Support and Length of Hospital Stay of Patients Undergoing High-risk Percutaneous Coronary Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Anusionwu, Obiora; Fischman, Daniel; Cheriyath, Pramil

    2012-01-01

    Background To evaluate the impact of duration of Impella 2.5 support (Abiomed, Danvers, MA) on hospitalization of patients after high-risk percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). There has been a continuous increase in prevalence of coronary artery disease with more patients needing PCI during acute myocardial infarction. Some of these patients have to undergo high-risk revascularization with circulatory support like the Impella 2.5 device. Methods This study was a single center retrospective study of patients admitted to our hospital who required Impella circulatory support during percutaneous coronary intervention. Patients’ medical records, cardiac catheterization laboratory and 2-D echocardiography reports were reviewed to ascertain left ventricular ejection fraction, duration of Impella support, Coronary Care Unit (CCU) days and the length of stay in the hospital. A P-value of ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Over a 15-month period, we had 25 patients with 19 males and 6 females. Mean age of the patient cohort was 68 ± 10 years. Mean LVEF of the group was 32 ± 16%. Mean length of hospital stay was 8 ± 8 days and mean CCU stay was 4 ± 4 days. The Impella was successfully inserted in all cases with a median duration of support of 70 minutes (range, 4 - 5760 minutes). Bleeding complication occurred in 8%. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient between the duration of Impella support and hospital stay was 0.49 (P = 0.023) while it was 0.71 (P = 0.001) between Impella support duration and CCU days. Conclusions Our study suggests that there is a positive correlation between the duration of Impella 2.5 circulatory support and hospital stay and/or CCU days. The correlation seems to be stronger with CCU days.

  9. Optimal Revascularization Strategy on Medina 0,1,0 Left Main Bifurcation Lesions in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xuwei; Peng, Hongyu; Zhao, Donghui; Ma, Qin; Fu, Kun; Chen, Guo

    2016-01-01

    Aim. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The implications of a diagnosis of DM are as severe as the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. For many patients with complex coronary artery disease, optimal revascularization strategy selection and optimal medical therapy are equally important. In this study, we compared the hemodynamic results of different stenting techniques for Medina 0,1,0 left main bifurcation lesions. Methods. We use idealized left main bifurcation models and computational fluid dynamics analysis to evaluate hemodynamic parameters which are known to affect the risk of restenosis and thrombosis at stented bifurcation. The surface integrals of time-averaged wall shear stress (TAWSS) and oscillatory shear index (OSI) at bifurcation site were quantified. Results. Crossover stenting without final kissing balloon angioplasty provided the most favorable hemodynamic results (integrated values of TAWSS = 2.96 × 10−4 N, OSI = 4.75 × 10−6 m2) with bifurcation area subjected to OSI values >0.25, >0.35, and >0.45 calculated as 0.39 mm2, 0.06 mm2, and 0 mm2, respectively. Conclusion. Crossover stenting only offers hemodynamic advantages over other stenting techniques for Medina 0,1,0 left main bifurcation lesions and large bifurcation angle is associated with unfavorable flow profiles. PMID:27777957

  10. Prognostic Value of Gai's Plaque Score and Agatston Coronary Artery Calcium Score for Functionally Significant Coronary Artery Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chuang; Yang, Shuang; Gai, Lu-Yue; Han, Zhi-Qi; Xin, Qian; Yang, Xiao-Bo; Yang, Jun-Jie; Jin, Qin-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Background: The prognostic values of the coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) score for predicting future cardiovascular events have been previously demonstrated in numerous studies. However, few studies have used the rich information available from CCTA to detect functionally significant coronary lesions. We sought to compare the prognostic values of Gai's plaque score and the coronary artery calcium score (CACS) of CCTA for predicting functionally significant coronary lesions, using fractional flow reserve (FFR) as the gold standard. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 107 visually assessed significant coronary lesions in 88 patients (mean age, 59.6 ± 10.2 years; 76.14% of males) who underwent CCTA, invasive coronary angiography, and invasive FFR measurement. An FFR <0.80 indicated hemodynamically significant coronary stenosis. Lesions were divided into two groups using an FFR cutoff value of 0.80. We compared Gai's plaque scores and CACS between the two groups and evaluated the correlations of these scores with FFR. The statistical methods included unpaired t-test, Mann-Whitney U-test, and Spearman's correlation coefficients. Results: Coronary lesions with FFR <0.80 had higher Gai's scores than those with FFR ≥0.80. Gai's score had the strongest correlation with FFR (r = −0.48, P < 0.01) and had a greater area under the curve = 0.72 (95% confidence interval: 0.61–0.82; P < 0.01) than the CACS of whole arteries and a single artery. Conclusions: Both CACS in a single artery and Gai's plaque score demonstrated a good capacity to assess functionally significant coronary artery stenosis when compared to the gold standard FFR. However, Gai's plaque score was more predictive of FFR <0.80. Gai's score can be easily calculated in daily clinical practice and could be used when considering revascularization. PMID:27900990

  11. Transradial approach for coronary angiography and interventions in patients with coronary bypass grafts: tips and tricks.

    PubMed

    Burzotta, Francesco; Trani, Carlo; Hamon, Martial; Amoroso, Giovanni; Kiemeneij, Ferdinand

    2008-08-01

    Among patients undergoing coronary procedures, patients with coronary artery bypass grafts represent an important, high risk subgroup. Routine transradial approach may be successfully adopted in these patients to reduce access-site complications. However, transradial cannulation of the grafts may result technically demanding. In this article we discuss the specific technical issues and we present a series of tips and tricks which may facilitate angiography and interventions on both internal mammary and aorto-coronary grafts.

  12. Cangrelor: A Review in Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Keating, Gillian M

    2015-08-01

    Cangrelor (Kengrexal(®), Kengreal(™)) is an intravenously administered P2Y12 receptor inhibitor. It is direct-acting and reversible, with a very rapid onset and offset of action. The randomized, double-blind, multinational, phase III CHAMPION PHOENIX trial compared the efficacy of intravenous cangrelor with that of oral clopidogrel in patients requiring percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for stable angina pectoris, a non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome or ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (MI). The primary composite efficacy endpoint of death from any cause, MI, ischaemia-drive revascularization or stent thrombosis in the 48 h following randomization occurred in significantly fewer cangrelor than clopidogrel recipients. The rate of severe or life-threatening non-coronary artery bypass graft-related, GUSTO-defined bleeding at 48 h did not significantly differ between cangrelor and clopidogrel recipients. In conclusion, intravenous cangrelor is an important new option for use in patients undergoing PCI who have not been treated with oral P2Y12 inhibitors.

  13. Simultaneously performed off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting and colectomy: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    This is written so as to report the case of a 71-year-old male with a diagnosis of sigmoid adenocarcinoma accompanied by severe coronary artery disease and unstable angina, which was subject to simultaneous surgical treatment. The patient initially underwent an off-pump coronary artery revascularization in order to avoid the complications of cardiopulmonary bypass, providing the opportunity of a colectomy at the same time with the use of safe surgical means. Our case suggests that performing an off-pump bypass procedure prior to cancer surgery can be an appropriate course of action in carefully selected cases. PMID:20550688

  14. Early Surgery after Coronary Revascularization: A Fine Line Between Bleeding and Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    De Biase, C; Capuano, E; De Luca, S; D’Anna, C; Luciano, R; Piscione, F; Trimarco, B; Galasso, G

    2015-01-01

    Management of PCI patients undergoing early surgery is still a matter of debate. Noteworthy, PCI patients require a dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT), with aspirine and a thienopiridine (clopidogrel, prasugrel, ticagrelor), because of the high risk of stent thrombosis (ST), myocardial infarction (MI) and death, especially within the first month. Indeed, the number of surgical interventions after PCI is actually increasing, and physicians are looking for the best antiplatelet therapy management, in order to reduce both, bleeding and thrombosis risk. In this paper, current guidelines therapy management and new optional strategies to reduce the cardiovascular risk, related to early surgery, are discussed. PMID:25674544

  15. Coronary artery bypass grafting in the octogenarian. Is complete revascularization always necessary?

    PubMed

    Concistrè, Giovanni; Dell'Aquila, Angelo Maria; Gallo, Alina; Pansini, Stefano; Piccardo, Alessandro; Rapetto, Filippo; Passerone, Giancarlo; Regesta, Tommaso

    2015-01-01

    La rivascolarizzazione miocardica completa è importante nei pazienti giovani sottoposti ad intervento di bypass aortocoronarico (CABG), ma questo principio resta poco chiaro nei pazienti anziani. Lo scopo del nostro studio è valutare se la completezza della rivascolarizzazione influenzi gli outcomes negli ultraottantenni. Abbiamo analizzato retrospettivamente 130 pazienti ultraottantenni (età media: 82 ± 10 anni; range: 80-90 anni) sottoposti presso il nostro Istituto a CABG tra Gennaio 2003 e Settembre 2010. In accordo con la strategia operatoria utilizzata, i pazienti sono stati suddivisi in 2 gruppi: pazienti sottoposti a rivascolarizzazione completa (Gruppo RC) (96 pazienti) e pazienti sottoposti a rivascolarizzazione incompleta (Gruppo RI) (34 pazienti). Per rivascolarizzazione incompleta si è inteso l’assenza di bypass su un territorio miocardico vascolarizzato da una coronaria con una stenosi ≥ 50%. Il follow-up è stato completato al 98% (medio: 30 ± 25 mesi; range: 3 mesi – 7.5 anni). La mortalità intraospedaliera complessiva è stata del 13% ed è stata simile nei 2 gruppi (p=0.0553). L’analisi multivariata ha identificato la frazione di eiezione preoperatoria ≤ 40% (p=0.0060; OR=0.19) e la classe NYHA > II (p=0.0042; OR=0.17) fattori di rischio di mortalità intraospedaliera. L’analisi di Cox non ha identificato la rivascolarizzazione incompleta come fattore di rischio di mortalità precoce e tardiva (p=0.1381 e p=0.8865). Non sono state riscontrate differenze tra i 2 gruppi in termini di sopravvivenza a 5 anni e libertà da eventi cardiaci e cerebrovascolari maggiori (MACCE) (p=0.8865 e p=0.6283). Probabilmente i maggiori benefici di una rivascolarizzazione completa si hanno nei pazienti più giovani, che hanno un’aspettativa di vita maggiore. In conclusione il nostro studio mostra che, seppur con una limitata coorte di pazienti, negli ultraottantenni sottoposti a CABG la rivascolarizzazione incompleta non influenza la sopravvivenza e la libertà da MACCE. Le condizioni preoperatorie del paziente determinano sicuramente gli outcomes precoci e tardivi.

  16. Coronary Artery Bypass

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview Aneurysm Repair Balloon Angioplasty and Stents Carotid Artery Angioplasty and Stents Carotid Endarterectomy Catheter Ablation Heart ... Limited-Access Heart Surgery Maze Surgery Pacemakers Radial Artery Access Transmyocardial Laser Revascularization Valve Repair or Replacement ...

  17. Myocutaneous revascularization following graded ischemia in lean and obese mice

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Ross M; Coffman, Brittany; McGuire, Paul G; Howdieshell, Thomas R

    2016-01-01

    Background Murine models of diabetes and obesity have provided insight into the pathogenesis of impaired epithelialization of excisional skin wounds. However, knowledge of postischemic myocutaneous revascularization in these models is limited. Materials and methods A myocutaneous flap was created on the dorsum of wild type (C57BL/6), genetically obese and diabetic (ob/ob, db/db), complementary heterozygous (ob+/ob−, db+/db−), and diet-induced obese (DIO) mice (n=48 total; five operative mice per strain and three unoperated mice per strain as controls). Flap perfusion was documented by laser speckle contrast imaging. Local gene expression in control and postoperative flap tissue specimens was determined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Image analysis of immunochemically stained histologic sections confirmed microvascular density and macrophage presence. Results Day 10 planimetric analysis revealed mean flap surface area necrosis values of 10.8%, 12.9%, 9.9%, 0.4%, 1.4%, and 23.0% for wild type, db+/db−, ob+/ob−, db/db, ob/ob, and DIO flaps, respectively. Over 10 days, laser speckle imaging documented increased perfusion at all time points with revascularization to supranormal perfusion in db/db and ob/ob flaps. In contrast, wild type, heterozygous, and DIO flaps displayed expected graded ischemia with failure of perfusion to return to baseline values. RT-PCR demonstrated statistically significant differences in angiogenic gene expression between lean and obese mice at baseline (unoperated) and at day 10. Conclusion Unexpected increased baseline skin perfusion and augmented myocutaneous revascularization accompanied by a control proangiogenic transcriptional signature in genetically obese mice compared to DIO and lean mice are reported. In future research, laser speckle imaging has been planned to be utilized in order to correlate spatiotemporal wound reperfusion with changes in cell recruitment and gene expression to

  18. Recent advances in the management of chronic stable angina II. Anti-ischemic therapy, options for refractory angina, risk factor reduction, and revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Kones, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The objectives in treating angina are relief of pain and prevention of disease progression through risk reduction. Mechanisms, indications, clinical forms, doses, and side effects of the traditional antianginal agents – nitrates, β-blockers, and calcium channel blockers – are reviewed. A number of patients have contraindications or remain unrelieved from anginal discomfort with these drugs. Among newer alternatives, ranolazine, recently approved in the United States, indirectly prevents the intracellular calcium overload involved in cardiac ischemia and is a welcome addition to available treatments. None, however, are disease-modifying agents. Two options for refractory angina, enhanced external counterpulsation and spinal cord stimulation (SCS), are presented in detail. They are both well-studied and are effective means of treating at least some patients with this perplexing form of angina. Traditional modifiable risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) – smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and obesity – account for most of the population-attributable risk. Individual therapy of high-risk patients differs from population-wide efforts to prevent risk factors from appearing or reducing their severity, in order to lower the national burden of disease. Current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines to lower risk in patients with chronic angina are reviewed. The Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive Drug Evaluation (COURAGE) trial showed that in patients with stable angina, optimal medical therapy alone and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with medical therapy were equal in preventing myocardial infarction and death. The integration of COURAGE results into current practice is discussed. For patients who are unstable, with very high risk, with left main coronary artery lesions, in whom medical therapy fails, and in those with acute coronary syndromes, PCI is indicated. Asymptomatic

  19. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection

    MedlinePlus

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Spontaneous coronary artery dissection — sometimes referred to as SCAD — is an ... the blood vessels in the heart. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) can slow or block blood flow ...

  20. Coronary artery fistula

    MedlinePlus

    Congenital heart defect - coronary artery fistula; Birth defect heart - coronary artery fistula ... A coronary artery fistula is often congenital, meaning that it is present at birth. It generally occurs when one of the ...

  1. Chronic mesenteric ischemia: Time to remember open revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Keese, Michael; Schmitz-Rixen, Thomas; Schmandra, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Chronic mesenteric ischemia is caused by stenosis or occlusion of one or more visceral arteries. It represents a therapeutic challenge and diagnosis and treatment require close interdisciplinary cooperation between gastroenterologist, vascular surgeon and radiologist. Although endovascular treatment modalities have been developed, the number of restenoses ultimately resulting in treatment failure is high. In patients fit for open surgery, the visceral arteries should be revascularized conventionally. These patients will then experience long term relief from the symptoms, a better quality of life and a better overall survival. PMID:23539677

  2. Reoperative lower extremity revascularization with cadaver vein for limb salvage.

    PubMed

    Bannazadeh, Mohsen; Sarac, Timur P; Bena, James; Srivastava, Sunita; Ouriel, Kenneth; Clair, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated our experience using cryopreserved cadaver vein allografts (CVGs) for infrageniculate revascularization in patients with a history of failed bypass or no suitable autogenous vein. Records of all patients who underwent lower extremity revascularization with CVG for critical limb ischemia were reviewed. Patient demographics, vessel treated, and postoperative course were analyzed. Patients who had a redo cadaver vein bypass were compared to those with a first-time cadaver vein bypass. Cumulative patency rates, limb salvage, mortality, and factors associated with outcomes were determined using the Kaplan-Meier method with Cox proportional hazards. Between January 2000 and December 2006, 66 CVGs were done in 56 patients out of 1,726 total bypasses. There were 36 men and 20 women, and the mean age was 71.67 +/- 10.50 years. Mean follow-up was 12.12 +/- 14.16 months. Seventy-eight percent of patients had previous bypasses, and 50% of all failed bypasses were failed expanded polytetrafluoroethylene bypasses. Operative indications were tissue loss (73%) and ischemic rest pain (27%). The mean preoperative ankle-brachial index was 0.43 +/- 0.16, and this increased to 0.89 +/- 0.18 at 30 days (p = 0.001). Procedure-related complications included graft infection (3, 4%), graft thrombosis (3, 4%), pseudoaneurysm (3, 4%), and bleeding (2, 3%). Cumulative 1-year primary, primary assisted, secondary patencies, limb salvage, and survival rates with confidence intervals were 0.19 (0.10-0.36), 0.29 (0.18-0.47), 0.42 (0.29-0.60), 0.73 (0.62-0.86), and 0.77 (0.65-0.90). Reoperative procedures fared the same as primary procedures. Multivariable analysis showed that predictors for increased risk of secondary patency loss were age >70 (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.13, p = 0.009) and patients with secondary revascularization (HR = 3.36, p = 0.015). Older patients (HR = 2.92, p = 0.042) and those with renal insufficiency (HR = 2.92, p = 0.019) were at increased risk of mortality. CVG

  3. Carotid and coronary disease management prior to open and endovascular aortic surgery. What are the current guidelines?

    PubMed

    Thompson, J P

    2014-04-01

    Several bodies produce broadly concurring and updated guidelines for the evaluation and treatment of cardiovascular disease in both surgical and non-surgical patients. Recent developments include revised recommendations on preoperative stress testing, referral for possible coronary revascularization and medical management. It is recognized that non-invasive cardiac tests are relatively poor at predicting perioperative risk, and "prophylactic" coronary revascularization has a limited role. The planned aortic intervention (open or endovascular repair) also influences preoperative management. Patients presenting for elective abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair should only be referred for cardiological testing if they have active symptoms of coronary artery disease (CAD), known CAD and poor functional exercise capacity, or multiple risk factors for CAD. Coronary revascularization before AAA surgery should be limited to patients with established indications, so cardiac stress testing should only be performed if it would change management i.e. the patient is a candidate for and would benefit from coronary revascularization. When endovascular aortic repair is planned, it is reasonable to proceed to surgery without further cardiac stress testing or evaluation unless otherwise indicated. All non-emergency patients require medical optimization, but perioperative beta blockade benefits only certain patients. Some of the data informing recent guidelines have been questioned and some guidelines are being revised. Current guidelines do not specifically address the management of patients with known or suspected carotid artery disease who may require aortic surgery. For these patients, an individualized approach is required. This review considers recent guidelines. Algorithms for investigation and management based on their recommendations are included.

  4. [Radionuclide methods of diagnosis in assessment of interrelationship between the function of the cardiovascular system and kidneys in patients with previously endured myocardial revascularization].

    PubMed

    Vesnina, Zh V; Arsen'eva, Iu A; Lishmanov, Iu B

    2008-01-01

    A steady increase in the number of patients diagnosed with chronic cardiac insufficiency determines the importance of studying in such patients the renal function for comprehen sive analysis of the incidence rate and mechanisms of the cardiorenal continuum. Radionuclide methods of diagnosis make it possible to obtain versatile information about the functional state of both the cardiovascular and urinary systems of the body. Radionuclide methods of study were used to prospectively assess the state of the cardiopulmonary haemodynamics and renal functional activity in patients with CAD after previously endured myocardial revascularization. The authors examined a total of twenty-nine patients suffering from coronary artery disease (CAD) (mean age 51.97 +/- 1.32 years) and having developed the NYHA functional class II-III circulatory insufficiency. All the patients were subjected to radiocardiopulmonography (RCPG) with 99mTc-pertechnetate and to dynamic radionuclide renoscintigraphy with 99mTc-DTPA before and after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Fourteen patients were examined 13.0 +/- 0.4 months after surgical management. Prior to CABG, the parameters of the cardiopulmonary haemodynamics in the examined patients had considerable deviations from the normal values, resulting from a decrease in the pumping function of the heart. Prior to surgical management, 83% of the patients were found to have a various-degree decrease in the glomerular filtration rate. Restoration of the coronary blood flow at early terms following CABG along with improved perfusion in the examined patients was accompanied and followed by a positive change in a series of parameters of the cardiopulmonary haemodynamics. One year after direct myocardial revascularization, the patients with circulatory insufficiency were found to have certain relationship between the impairments of the central haemodynamics parameters and the development of renal function impairment. Hence, radionuclide methods

  5. The ‘Perfect Storm’ and Acute Coronary Syndrome Onset: Do Psychosocial Factors Play a Role?

    PubMed Central

    Burg, Matthew M.; Edmondson, Donald; Shimbo, Daichi; Shaffer, Jonathan; Kronish, Ian M.; Whang, William; Alcántara, Carmela; Schwartz, Joseph E.; Muntner, Paul; Davidson, Karina W.

    2013-01-01

    The revolution in cardiac care over the past two decades, characterized by emergent revascularization, drug eluting stents, anti-platelet medications, and advanced imaging has had little impact on overall ACS recurrence, or ACS prevention. The “Perfect Storm” refers to a confluence of events and processes, including atherosclerotic plaque, coronary flow dynamics, hemostatic and fibrinolytic function, metabolic and inflammatory conditions, neurohormonal dysregulation, and environmental events that give rise to, and result in an ACS event. In this article we illustrate the limits of the traditional main effect research model, giving a brief description of the current state of knowledge regarding the development of atherosclerotic plaque and the rupturing of these plaques that defines an ACS event. We then apply the Perfect Storm conceptualization to describe a program of research concerning a psychosocial vulnerability factor that contributes to increased risk of recurrent ACS and early mortality, and that has defied our efforts to identify underlying pathophysiology and successfully mount efforts to fully mitigate this risk. PMID:23621970

  6. Drug-eluting stents in unprotected left main coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Bernelli, Chiara

    2014-11-01

    Though coronary bypass graft surgery (CABG) has traditionally been the cornerstone of therapy in patients with unprotected left main coronary artery (ULMCA) disease, recent evidence supports the use of percutaneous coronary intervention in appropriate patients. Indeed in patients with ULMCA disease, drug-eluting stents (DES) have shown similar incidence of hard end points, fewer periprocedural complications and lower stroke rates compared with CABG, though at the cost of increased revascularization with time. Furthermore, the availability of newer efficacious and safer DES as well as improvements in diagnostic tools, percutaneous techniques and, importantly, a better patient selection, allowed percutaneous coronary intervention a viable alternative to CABG of left main-patients with low disease complexity; however, even in this interventional era characterized by efficacious DES, patients with ULMCA disease remain a challenging high-risk population where outcomes strongly depend on clinical characteristics, anatomical disease complexity and extension and operator's experience. This review summarizes the role of DES in ULMCA disease patients.

  7. Bioresorbable Scaffolds: Current Evidences in the Treatment of Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Percutaneous coronary revascularization strategies have gradually progressed over a period of last few decades. The advent of newer generation drug-eluting stents has significantly improved the outcomes of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) by substantially reducing in-stent restenosis and stent thrombosis. However, vascular inflammation, restenosis, thrombosis, and neoatherosclerosis due to the permanent presence of a metallic foreign body within the artery limit their usage in complex Coronary Artery Disease (CAD). Bioresorbable Scaffolds (BRS) represent a novel approach in coronary stent technology. Complete resorption of the scaffold liberates the treated vessel from its cage and restores pulsatility, cyclical strain, physiological shear stress, and mechanotransduction. In this review article, we describe the advances in this rapidly evolving technology, present the evidence from the pre-clinical and clinical evaluation of these devices, and provide an overview of the ongoing clinical trials that were designed to examine the effectiveness of BRS in the clinical setting. PMID:27891384

  8. Management of a subclavian artery thrombosis causing acute anterior wall infarction and concurrent left arm ischemia in a patient with prior coronary bypass.

    PubMed

    Akgüllü, Çağdaş; Eryılmaz, Ufuk; Zencir, Cemil; Güngör, Hasan

    2014-12-01

    We report a 57-year-old patient with acute anterior wall infarction with a history of a coronary baypass graft operation in 2007. He also had concurrent left arm cyanosis and severe pain. He had received diagnosis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma one month previously and had had his first chemotherapy in the previous week with gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil. After the angiography, a giant thrombus was detected in the proximal left subclavian artery, deteriorating the flows of both left internal mammarian artery (LIMA) to left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery graft, as well as the left brachial artery. The proximal subclavian artery was stented and good flow was achieved. Through the LIMA, the distal part of LAD, which was totally obstructed with probable distal thrombus embolization, was reached and a percutaneous balloon angioplasty performed. However, the no-reflow phenomenon was observed in distal LAD. A Fogarty traction of thrombus was performed successfully for the revascularization of the left arm. Approximately 30 minutes after the procedure, both angina and ST segment elevation in ECG were resolved under unfractioned heparin and nitroglycerin infusion. However, the patient died due to sepsis seven days after admission to hospital. In the literature, there are only a few previous reports on this rare clinical entity. The eitology, presentation, and the possible management strategies of this clinical entity is presented in this report.

  9. Myocardial revascularization with both internal thoracic arteries 25 years after delayed repair for aortic coarctation.

    PubMed

    Gaudino, Mario; Farina, Piero; Cammertoni, Federico; Massetti, Massimo

    2015-02-01

    Aortic coarctation has been reported to cause alterations in the internal thoracic arteries that make these vessels unsuitable to be used as grafts for myocardial revascularization, especially if coarctation repair was performed in adulthood. This is the first reported bilateral internal thoracic grafting for myocardial revascularization in a patient who had undergone aortic coarctation repair 25 years earlier.

  10. A randomised controlled trial of mini incision or conventional incision for saphenous vein harvesting in patients undergoing myocardial revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Gontijo de Deus, Kleber; Diogo Filho, Augusto; Cesar Santos, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Objective Compare the evolution regarding the complications concerning two types of incision (conventional × mini-incision), for saphenectomy in patients that go under myocardial revascularization or otherwise known as coronary artery bypass surgery. Methods In January 2012 to August 2013, 66 patients were prospectively selected for coronary artery bypass with cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. These were divided into two groups: Conventional and Mini-Incision, with 33 patients in each group chosen in a random fashion and with knowledge of which technique to be used being presented only at the start of the surgery. In the conventional group, the patients received an incision to the lower member of 7–10 cm. The patients in the Mini-Incision group received an incision to the lower member of 3–4 cm, both performed without the use of any special material. Results The groups were similar in terms of clinical data and in the preoperative period. Males made up a greater part of the group with 63.7% and 81.9% in groups C and M, respectively. Among the complications analysed, edema (p = 0.011), hematoma (p = 0.020), dehiscence (p = 0.012) and infection (p = 0.012), were significantly greater in group C when compared to group M. When the matter comes to the variable in relation to the risk of Surgical Site Infections (SSI), no difference was found between the groups. Conclusion Coronary artery bypass surgery with mini-incision for saphenectomy, demonstrated a lower rate for preoperative complications when compared to saphenectomy under conventional incision procedures. PMID:27006766

  11. Dissection of the right coronary artery following blunt cardiac injury

    PubMed Central

    Vogiatzis, I; Dapcevic, I

    2015-01-01

    Background Coronary artery dissection is a rare complication of blunt thoracic trauma which can become rapidly lethal necessitating prompt diagnosis and treatment. Most reported cases of coronary artery injury, including dissection, involve the left anterior descending coronary artery, given its anatomical location in relation to the impact. Description of case A 72-year-old male, who was involved in a vehicular accident, sustained blunt thoracic trauma which resulted in isolated right coronary artery dissection and acute myocardial infarction. The culprit lesion was found in coronary angiography in the proximal right coronary artery and was successfully repaired with percutaneous coronary intervention and one drug-eluting stent placement. Conclusion Traumatic dissection of coronary arteries must be suspected in blunt thoracic trauma. It can be treated with interventional management and results in a fairly good prognosis. Hippokratia 2015; 19 (3): 278-280. PMID:27418793

  12. Immediate- and short-term outcome following recanalization of long chronic total occlusions (> 50 mm) of native coronary arteries with the Frontrunner catheter.

    PubMed

    Loli, Akil; Liu, Rex; Pershad, Ashish

    2006-06-01

    Thirty percent of diagnostic angiograms have at least 1 chronic total occlusion (CTO). The 10-year survival of patients with a CTO is improved if they have the CTO successfully recanalized. The success of recanalization with conventional wires is 50% and the impact of new technology on recanalization is unknown. This abstract reports a single center experience with one such new device, the Lumend Frontrunner catheter in revascularization of this difficult lesion subset. A consecutive series of 18 patients with CTO's of native coronary arteries were enrolled in this single center, single operator series. The mean age of the CTO was 5.3 years. The indication for attempt at recanalization was ischemia in the territory of the CTO on SPECT imaging. Success was defined as TIMI flow restoration and < 40% residual stenosis. Primary success (defined as TIMI 3 Flow restoration and < 40% residual stenosis) was achieved in 77% of patients. At 30 days and out to 6 months, clinical TVR was 11% (2/18) in this difficult lesion subset. Conventional predictors of failure to recanalize CTOs do not appear to hold true with the use of the Frontrunner catheter. In this small series, dual cusp injections and use of the Microglide catheter appears to correlate with favorable outcomes. Fluoroscopy times and contrast use are high when attempting recanalization of CTOs with this technology.

  13. Revascularization of immature permanent incisors after severe extrusive luxation injury.

    PubMed

    Cehreli, Zafer C; Sara, Sezgi; Aksoy, Burak

    2012-07-01

    Pulp necrosis is an uncommon sequel to extrusive luxation in immature teeth with incomplete apical closure. In this report, we describe the management of severely extruded immature maxillary incisors and the outcome of revascularization to treat subsequent pulp necrosis. An 8.5-year-old boy with severe dentoalveolar trauma to the anterior maxillary region as a result of a fall was provided emergency treatment consisting of reduction of the dislodged labial cortical bone and repositioning of the central incisors, which had suffered extrusive luxation. When he presented with spontaneous pain involving the traumatized incisors a week later, the teeth were treated via a revascularization protocol using sodium hypochlorite irrigation followed by 3 weeks of intracanal calcium hydroxide, then a coronal seal of mineral trioxide aggregate and resin composite. Complete periradicular healing was observed after 3 months, followed by progressive thickening of the root walls and apical closure. Follow-up observations confirmed the efficacy of the regenerative treatment as a viable alternative to conventional apexification in endodontically involved, traumatized immature teeth.

  14. Pulp revascularization of immature dog teeth with apical periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Thibodeau, Blayne; Teixeira, Fabricio; Yamauchi, Mitsuo; Caplan, Daniel J; Trope, Martin

    2007-06-01

    This study examined the ability of a collagen solution to aid revascularization of necrotic-infected root canals in immature dog teeth. Sixty immature teeth from 6 dogs were infected, disinfected, and randomized into experimental groups: 1: no further treatment; 2: blood in canal; 3: collagen solution in canal, 4: collagen solution + blood, and 5: negative controls (left for natural development). Uncorrected chi-square analysis of radiographic results showed no statistical differences (p >or= 0.05) between experimental groups regarding healing of radiolucencies but a borderline statistical difference (p = 0.058) for group 1 versus group 4 for radicular thickening. Group 2 showed significantly more apical closure than group 1 (p = 0.03) and a borderline statistical difference (p = 0.051) for group 3 versus group 1. Uncorrected chi-square analysis revealed that there were no statistical differences between experimental groups for histological results. However, some roots in each of groups 1 to 4 (previously infected) showed positive histologic outcomes (thickened walls in 43.9%, apical closure in 54.9%, and new luminal tissue in 29.3%). Revascularization of disinfected immature dog root canal systems is possible.

  15. Revascularization of immature permanent incisors after severe extrusive luxation injury.

    PubMed

    Cehreli, Zafer C; Sara, Sezgi; Aksoy, Burak

    2012-01-01

    Pulp necrosis is an uncommon sequel to extrusive luxation in immature teeth with incomplete apical closure. In this report, we describe the management of severely extruded immature maxillary incisors and the outcome of revascularization to treat subsequent pulp necrosis. An 8.5-Year-old boy with severe dentoalveolar trauma to the anterior maxillary region as a result of a fall was provided emergency treatment consisting of reduction of the dislodged labial cortical bone and repositioning of the central incisors, which had suffered extrusive luxation. When he presented with spontaneous pain involving the traumatized incisors a week later, the teeth were treated via a revascularization protocol using sodium hypochlorite irrigation followed by 3 weeks of intracanal calcium hydroxide, then a coronal seal of mineral trioxide aggregate and resin composite. Complete periradicular healing was observed after 3 Months, followed by progressive thickening of the root walls and apical closure. Follow-up observations confirmed the efficacy of the regenerative treatment as a viable alternative to conventional apexification in endodontically involved, traumatized immature teeth.

  16. Critical appraisal of surgical revascularization for critical limb ischemia.

    PubMed

    Conte, Michael S

    2013-02-01

    Peripheral artery disease is growing in global prevalence and is estimated to afflict between 8 and 12 million Americans. Its most severe form, critical limb ischemia (CLI), is associated with high rates of limb loss, morbidity, and mortality. Revascularization is the cornerstone of limb preservation in CLI, and has traditionally been accomplished with open surgical bypass. Advances in catheter-based technologies, coupled with their broad dissemination among specialists, have led to major shifts in practice patterns in CLI. There is scant high-quality evidence to guide surgical decision making in this arena, and market forces have exerted profound influences. Despite this, available data suggest that the expected outcomes for both endovascular and open surgery in CLI are strongly dependent on definable patient factors such as anatomic distribution of disease, vein quality, and comorbidities. Optimal patient selection is paramount for maximizing benefit with each technique. This review summarizes some of the existing data and suggests a selective approach to revascularization in CLI, which continues to rely on vein bypass surgery as a primary option in appropriately selected patients.

  17. [Management of coronary artery disease in diabetic patients with lower limb critical ischaemia: assessment of operational risk, drug therapy and indications for interventions].

    PubMed

    Dedov, I I; Kalashnikov, V Iu; Terekhin, S A; Melkozerov, K V

    2012-01-01

    Despite obvious progress in management of diabetes mellitus, the DM-related complications rate remains inadmissibly high. Macroangiopathy is known to rank first amongst complications of diabetes mellitus, and coronary artery disease remains to be the major cause of death. Analysed herein are peculiarities of the clinical course in diabetic patients presenting with coronary artery disease and lower limb critical ischaemia, followed by discussing the issues concerning drug therapy, preoperative examination, and methods of diagnosis in this cohort of patients prior to vascular operations, assessment of the preoperative risk, indications for coronarography and myocardial revascularization. Also presented are the results of the main clinical trials dedicated to preoperative myocardial revascularization, including those in diabetic patients with limb critical ischaemia, and finally highlighting current importance of optimizing approaches to managing and working out algorithms of treatment policy for diabetic patients with a combination of coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, and critical limb ischaemia.

  18. New Treatment Applying Low Level Laser Therapy for Acute Dehiscence Saphenectomy in Post Myocardial Revascularization.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Nathali Cordeiro; Shoji, Nara; Junior, Mauro Favoretto; Muramatso, Mikiya; Chavantes, Maria Cristina; Stolf, Noedir A. G.

    2008-04-01

    Introduction: In Brazil, the main cause of death is the coronary heart disease and the surgical treatment applied in such cases is the Myocardial Revascularization (MR). Patients undergoing to MR through saphenous vein bypass development dehiscence in 10% of the cases. Dehiscence of surgical incision through Biomodulation treatment with Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) in patients who underwent to MR seems to be an unprecedented new therapy and a less invasive technique, which can benefit patients and Institutions, reducing costs. Methodology: It was analyzed 7 diabetic patients, mean age 51, 8 years old that post MR surgery presented dehiscence of the saphenectomy incision on lower limb with erithema, edema and pain. The wounds area varies from 2,2 until 34,8 cm and deep from 0,1 until 1,1 cm. It was used only Diode Laser C.W. (655 nm wavelength), Power = 25 mW, Time = 30 s, Fluence = 4 J/cm2 applied punctually around surgical wound's sore, by 2 cm distance. Results: It was observed granulated tissue all around the incision, as well as decreased inflammatory process, reduction fibrin and wound's size, besides analgesic effect since the first application. It was required in superficial wounds only 3 applications, while in the extensive wounds 8-10 applications were necessary. The LLLT has shown a remarkable role as a wound healing facilitated agent, reflecting the reduction of inflammatory process and improving analgesia. Conclusion: LLLT assisted dehiscence post saphenectomy showed a substantial improvement to the patient's quality of life, with a cost-effectiveness treatment that can benefit both patients and Institutions as an effective and less invasive therapy.

  19. Syphilitic Coronary Artery Ostial Stenosis Resulting in Acute Myocardial Infarction Treated by Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Nakazone, Marcelo A.; Machado, Maurício N.; Barbosa, Raphael B.; Santos, Márcio A.; Maia, Lilia N.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular abnormalities are well-known manifestations of tertiary syphilis infections which although not frequent, are still causes of morbidity and mortality. A less common manifestation of syphilitic aortitis is coronary artery ostial narrowing related to aortic wall thickening. We report a case of a 46-year-old male admitted due to acute anterior ST elevation myocardial infarction submitted to primary percutaneous coronary intervention successfully. Coronary angiography showed a suboccluded ostial lesion of left main coronary artery. VDRL was titrated to 1/512. The patient was discharged with treatment including benzathine penicillin. Previous case reports of acute myocardial infarction in association with syphilitic coronary artery ostial stenosis have been reported, but the fact that the patient was treated by percutaneous coronary intervention is unique in this case. PMID:21052501

  20. Coronary endarterectomy in left anterior descending artery combined with coronary artery bypass grafting – midterm mortality and morbidity

    PubMed Central

    Domaradzki, Wojciech; Krauze, Jolanta; Kinasz, Leszek; Jankowska-Sanetra, Justyna; Świątkiewicz, Małgorzata; Paradowski, Krzysztof; Cisowski, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Completeness of myocardial revascularization is essential in surgical treatment of coronary artery disease. The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of coronary endarterectomy as an adjunct to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in the most difficult cases. Material and methods Among 1559 patients who had CABG in our department, the cases of 17 who underwent an adjunct left anterior descending endarterectomy were analyzed. All procedures were performed with median sternotomy, extracorporeal circulation and in mild hypothermia (34°C), by the same surgeon. No coronary artery endarterectomy was planned before surgery. Results There was no infarction or cardiac arrest during hospitalization. Only one patient required mechanical circulatory support (intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation). Each patient was contacted and investigation for major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) was performed. Eleven patients (65%) already underwent midterm clinical evaluation. There was no death, myocardial infarction or cerebrovascular incident during the entire period (mean follow-up at 15.3 months). One patient required urgent coronarography due to chest pain. No other patient had chest pain or significant deterioration of ventricular function in echocardiography. Conclusions Outcomes and potential indications for performing left anterior descending coronary endarterectomy as an adjunct to CABG are discussed. PMID:26855644

  1. Percutaneous coronary intervention for acute myocardial infarction with mitral regurgitation

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Yan; Zeng, Qing-Chun; Huang, Ying; Li, Jian-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) is a common complication of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Current evidences suggest that revascularization of the culprit vessels with percutaneous coronary artery intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting can be beneficial for relieving IMR. A 2.5-year follow-up data of a 61-year-old male patient with ST-segment elevation AMI complicated with IMR showed that mitral regurgitation area increased five days after PCI, and decreased to lower steady level three months after PCI. This finding suggest that three months after PCI might be a suitable time point for evaluating the possibility of IMR recovery and the necessity of surgical intervention of the mitral valve for AMI patient. PMID:27582769

  2. Characterization of coronary atherosclerosis by intravascular imaging modalities

    PubMed Central

    Honda, Satoshi; Kanaya, Tomoaki; Noguchi, Teruo; Ogawa, Hisao; Yasuda, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is highly prevalent in Western countries and is associated with morbidity, mortality, and a significant economic burden. Despite the development of anti-atherosclerotic medical therapies, many patients still continue to suffer from coronary events. This residual risk indicates the need for better risk stratification and additional therapies to achieve more reductions in cardiovascular risk. Recent advances in imaging modalities have contributed to visualizing atherosclerotic plaques and defining lesion characteristics in vivo. This innovation has been applied to refining revascularization procedure, assessment of anti-atherosclerotic drug efficacy and the detection of high-risk plaques. As such, intravascular imaging plays an important role in further improvement of cardiovascular outcomes in patients with CAD. The current article reviews available intravascular imaging modalities with regard to its method, advantage and disadvantage. PMID:27500094

  3. A Rare Case of Angina Pectoris with the Longest Ectopic Left Main Coronary Artery Arising from Right Sinus of Valsalva and a Prepulmonic Course

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Vikas; Abdali, Nasar; Singh, Karandeep; Jha, Mukesh Jitendra; Kumar, Ashutosh

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge of the morphoanatomical characteristics of the main trunk of the left coronary artery as well as its variations is cornerstone of hemodynamic, correct interpretation of coronary angiogram and for revascularization purpose. The left main coronary artery (LMCA) ranges from 3 to 6 mm in diameter and may be up to 10 to 15 mm in length in humans. We here report a case of the longest anomalous LMCA (56 mm) reported so far in a 35-year-old man with chronic stable angina arising from right sinus of valsalva as seen on conventional angiogram and multidetector computerized tomogram (MDCT). PMID:28182111

  4. Angiotensin-Converting-Enzyme Inhibition in Stable Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are effective in reducing the risk of heart failure, myocardial infarction, and death from cardiovascular causes in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction or heart failure. ACE inhibitors have also been shown to reduce atherosclerotic complications in patients who have vascular disease without heart failure. METHODS In the Prevention of Events with Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibition (PEACE) Trial, we tested the hypothesis that patients with stable coronary artery disease and normal or slightly reduced left ventricular function derive therapeutic benefit from the addition of ACE inhibitors to modern conventional therapy. The trial was a double-blind, placebo-controlled study in which 8290 patients were randomly assigned to receive either trandolapril at a target dose of 4 mg per day (4158 patients) or matching placebo (4132 patients). RESULTS The mean (±SD) age of the patients was 64±8 years, the mean blood pressure 133±17/78±10 mm Hg, and the mean left ventricular ejection fraction 58±9 percent. The patients received intensive treatment, with 72 percent having previously undergone coronary revascularization and 70 percent receiving lipid-lowering drugs. The incidence of the primary end point — death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, or coronary revascularization — was 21.9 percent in the trandolapril group, as compared with 22.5 percent in the placebo group (hazard ratio in the trandolapril group, 0.96; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.88 to 1.06; P=0.43) over a median follow-up period of 4.8 years. CONCLUSIONS In patients with stable coronary heart disease and preserved left ventricular function who are receiving “current standard” therapy and in whom the rate of cardiovascular events is lower than in previous trials of ACE inhibitors in patients with vascular disease, there is no evidence that the addition of an ACE inhibitor provides further benefit in

  5. Effect of Fractional Flow Reserve (≤0.90 vs >0.90) on Long-Term Outcome (>10 Years) in Patients With Nonsignificant Coronary Arterial Narrowings.

    PubMed

    Badoz, Marc; Chatot, Marion; Hechema, Rémy; Chopard, Romain; Meneveau, Nicolas; Schiele, François

    2016-08-15

    We assessed the long-term (>10 years) clinical course of patients with documented coronary lesions deemed nonsignificant according to fractional flow reserve (FFR) assessment and investigated whether the initial FFR value impacted on prognosis. From January 2000 to October 2003, all patients submitted to coronary angiography with FFR measurement were included in a single-center, prospective registry. Patients with an FFR value >0.80 were treated medically without revascularization. Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) (death, acute coronary syndrome (ACS), or coronary revascularization) were compared according to initial FFR value (absolute value and by category, ≤0.90 vs >0.90). Analyses were performed using a multivariable Cox model and propensity score matching. Among 257 patients (332 lesions) treated medically initially, 131 (51%, 143 lesions) had FFR ≤0.90 and 126 (49%, 189 lesions) >0.90. During follow-up (median duration, 11.6 years), 82 (31.9%) had a MACE, 38 (14.8%) died, 17 (6.6%) had ACS, 93 (36.2%) had repeat coronary angiography, and 27 (10.5%) had revascularization. There was no clinical, biologic or angiographic difference between patients with initial FFR value ≤0.90 versus >0.90. Adjusted Cox model showed no difference in relative risk of MACE, death, ACS, or revascularization. Coronary angiographies were numerically more frequent in patients with FFR ≤0.90, versus FFR >0.90. These findings were confirmed by propensity score-matched comparison. In patients with coronary narrowings left unrevascularized based on FFR, an FFR value between 0.80 and 0.90 has no impact on long-term outcome compared with those with FFR >0.90. In conclusion, patients with high FFR values should not be considered as having a lower risk of coronary event.

  6. Use of fractional flow reserve in patients with coronary artery disease: The right choice for the right outcome.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae Yoon; Lerman, Amir; Herrmann, Joerg

    2017-02-01

    Despite advances in therapy, coronary artery disease (CAD) remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Over the past years, the utilization of revascularization procedures has been refined, and in the best interest of the patient and to reduce the healthcare burden of CAD, it is paramount that patients are appropriately selected for therapies aiming at improving their symptoms and prognosis. Fractional flow reserve (FFR) is the current invasive standard test to identify hemodynamically significant coronary artery stenoses with resultant implications for revascularization and clinical outcomes. In this review, we discuss the current evidence behind the use of FFR as well as new trends in the application of this technique to help guide clinicians in making the best management decisions for patients with CAD.

  7. Percutaneous Device to Narrow the Coronary Sinus: Shifting Paradigm in the Treatment of Refractory Angina? A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Benedetto, Daniela; Abawi, Masieh; Stella, Pieter R.; Nijhoff, Freek; Lakemeier, Maxime D. M.; Kortlandt, Friso; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Agostoni, Pierfrancesco

    2016-01-01

    Refractory angina pectoris is defined as a chronic debilitating condition characterized by the presence of chronic anginal symptoms due to a severe obstructive and/or diffuse coronary artery disease that cannot be controlled by the combination of medical therapy and/or revascularization (percutaneous or surgical). In addition, the presence of myocardial ischemia as a cause of the symptoms must have been documented. The coronary sinus reducer (CSR) is a recently introduced percutaneous device to treat patients with severe anginal symptoms refractory to optimal medical therapy and not amenable to conventional revascularization. The purpose of this review is to describe the current evidence from available studies measuring the clinical effect of the CSR implantation on the health and well-being of patients with refractory angina. PMID:27818991

  8. Coronary artery aneurysms in acute coronary syndrome: case series, review, and proposed management strategy.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Nathan; Gupta, Rajesh; Schevchuck, Alex; Hindnavis, Vindhya; Maliske, Seth; Sheldon, Mark; Drachman, Douglas; Yeghiazarians, Yerem

    2014-06-01

    Coronary artery aneurysm (CAA) is an uncommon clinical finding, with an incidence varying from 1.5%-4.9% in adults, and is usually considered a variant of coronary artery disease (CAD). CAA identified in the context of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) represents a unique management challenge, particularly if the morphology of the CAA is suspected to have provoked the acute clinical syndrome. CAA is associated with thrombus formation due to abnormal laminar flow, as well as abnormal platelet and endothelial-derived pathophysiologic factors within the CAA. Once formed, mural thrombus may potentiate the deposition of additional thrombus within aneurysmal segments. Percutaneous revascularization of CAA has been associated with complications including distal embolization of thrombus, no-reflow phenomenon, stent malapposition, dissection, and rupture. Presently, there are no formal guidelines to direct the management of CAA in patients presenting with ACS; controversies exist whether conservative, surgical, or catheter-based management should be pursued. In this manuscript, we present an extensive review of the existing literature and associated clinical guidelines, and propose a management algorithm for patients with this complex clinical scenario. Armed with this perspective, therapeutic decisions may be tailored to synthesize patient factors and preferences, individualized clinical assessment, and existing American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology guidelines for management of ACS.

  9. [Screening and management of coronary artery disease in diabetic patients].

    PubMed

    Kraiem, Sondos; Abassi, Chedly; Annabi, Nizar; Smaali, Ibtissem; Issaa, Inès; Wali, Mouin; Malou, Monia; Hannachi, Sofiane; Longo, Selma; Battikh, Kaies; Slimane, Mohamed Lotfi

    2006-10-01

    Diabetes represents as independent risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD) and the prognosis in term of survival rates is worse for diabetic patients who have CAD with report to those with CAD but no diabetes. The coronary artery disease in diabetes has specificities and, in particular, more extensive atherosclerosis. Diabetic patients are also more frequently asymptomatic. Due to the extreme complexity of ischemic vascular disease in patients with diabetes, an optimal therapeutic strategy is based on the correction of elevated blood glucose and lipid levels, of blood pressure, of platelet and coagulation abnormalities. Diabetic patients benefit from secondary prevention by drug therapy(aspirin, lipid lowering with statines, beta blocker and ACE inhibitors) to the same extent as, or more than, non-diabetic patients. Both percutaneous and surgical myocardial revascularization have been proved equally effective for CAD treatment in diabetes. A recent randomized trial has shown a significantly improved outcome after surgical revascularization. But, the effects of drug-eluting stents, which dramatically decrease the incidence of re-stenosis, seem promising.

  10. Ulcer healing after peripheral intervention-can we predict it before revascularization?

    PubMed

    Azuma, Nobuyoshi; Koya, Atsuhiro; Uchida, Daiki; Saito, Yukihiro; Uchida, Hisashi

    2014-01-01

    Complete ulcer healing is one of the most important goals of treatment for critical limb ischemia; however, it is still difficult to inform patients of the time to ulcer healing before performing revascularization. The time to ulcer healing has a great impact on the cost of treatment and patient's quality of life. To predict it, the factors that influence delayed ulcer healing should be explored. According to a review of the literature investigating ulcer healing after revascularization, the influential factors can be classified into 5 categories: (1) systemic factors; (2) clinical state of tissue defect; (3) infection; (4) wound management strategy; and (5) revascularization strategy (endovascular or open repair, the angiosome concept). It is also important to ensure sufficient blood supply to predict ulcer healing probability in the individual patient. Several new methodologies, such as measuring tissue circulation around the tissue defect and intraoperative imaging techniques, have been reported. Because the status of ischemic tissue loss and wound healing ability can affect the decision-making process in selecting the revascularization strategy, understanding the many factors that influence ulcer healing after revascularization is indispensable for physicians performing revascularization. Accumulating ulcer healing data via well-designed clinical research can help to establish a new paradigm for the revascularization strategy from the viewpoint of ulcer healing.

  11. Coronary magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Manning, Warren J; Nezafat, Reza; Appelbaum, Evan; Danias, Peter G; Hauser, Thomas H; Yeon, Susan B

    2007-02-01

    This article highlights the technical challenges and general imaging strategies for coronary MRI. This is followed by a review of the clinical results for the assessment of anomalous CAD, coronary artery aneurysms, native vessel integrity, and coronary artery bypass graft disease using the more commonly applied MRI methods. It concludes with a brief discussion of the advantages/disadvantages and clinical results comparing coronary MRI with multidetector CT (MDCT) coronary angiography.

  12. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for cardiac arrest during moyamoya cerebral revascularization surgery: case report.

    PubMed

    Choudhri, Omar; Shah, Aatman; Basarab-Tung, Jennifer; Jaffe, Richard A; Steinberg, Gary K

    2015-09-01

    The authors describe the case of a 51-year-old man with bilateral moyamoya disease and prior strokes who developed an asystolic cardiac arrest while undergoing revascularization surgery under mild hypothermia. The patient was successfully treated with venoarterial (VA) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) after manual cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was unsuccessful for 45 minutes. ECMO is a cardiopulmonary support system that is indicated for respiratory failure in pediatric and adult patients. It is increasingly being used as an extension to mechanical CPR for patients who have suffered cardiac arrest if the underlying cause of cardiac arrest is thought to be reversible. Identifying which patients should be placed on emergency ECMO after cardiac arrest is controversial given its high morbidity and mortality. ECMO in neurosurgical settings has associated risks of intracranial hemorrhage and neurological compromise, while resource utilization is paramount given the high costs of this treatment. This paper is significant because it describes the use of ECMO in an unindicated setting. Limited data are available for ECMO usage after cardiac arrest with baseline cerebral ischemia. Furthermore, this paper raises important considerations for extracorporeal CPR use in a patient who had recently undergone craniotomy. The patient in this report remained on ECMO for 48 hours, after which he was successfully weaned. He developed a pericardial effusion and compartment syndrome from the ECMO but made a complete neurological recovery. Use of ECMO emergently in an appropriately chosen neurosurgical patient is safe, even in the setting of baseline cerebral ischemia and recent craniotomy.

  13. Coronary Stents in Patients with ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction and Chronic Kidney Disease Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Khurshid; Chakraborty, Rabin; Ahmed, Sumera; Hong, Young Joon; Sim, Doo Sun; Park, Keun Ho; Kim, Ju Han; Ahn, Youngkeun; Kang, Jung Chaee; Cho, Myeong Chan; Kim, Chong Jin; Kim, Young Jo

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with poor outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We sought to compare different coronary stents used during primary PCI in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and CKD. Subjects and Methods We selected 2408 consecutive STEMI patients with CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2) undergoing primary PCI and divided them into 5 groups based on the type of stent implanted: 1) bare metal stent (BMS), 2) paclitaxel-eluting stent (PES), 3) sirolimus-eluting stent (SES), 4) zotarolimus-eluting stent (ZES), or 5) everolimus-eluting stent (EES). The study endpoint was the number of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) at 12 months. Results There was no significant difference in the incidence of 12-month myocardial infarction, target lesion revascularization, or target vessel revascularization between stent groups; however, the overall rate of repeat revascularization differed significantly between groups. All-cause death differed significantly among the groups. The incidence of 12-month MACE in BMS, PES, SES, ZES, and EES was 8.3%, 9.8%, 8.6%, 5.5%, and 2.6%, respectively (p<0.001). Kaplan-Meier analysis did not show a significant differences in 12-month MACE-free survival among the groups (log-rank p=0.076). This finding remained the same after adjusting for multiple confounders (p=0.147). Conclusion Any of the 5 stents can be used to treat STEMI patients with CKD undergoing primary PCI; all have similar risk of 12-month MACE. This result is hypothesis-generating and warrants further evaluation with a long-term randomized study. PMID:23323121

  14. [Clinical profile and treatment of left main coronary artery disease in a real-world practice].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, V A; Bessonov, I S; Zyrianov, I P; Samoĭlova, E P; Gorbatenko, E A; Ignatov, D I

    2014-01-01

    Aim of this study was to assess clinical profile, treatment and long-term results in patients with left main coronary artery disease in a real-world practice. 225 cases were analyzed. Long-term results were evaluated from 213 (97.7%) patients. Median follow-up period was 49 months. Fifty two (23.9%) patients received nonsurgical treatment, coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) was performed in 106 (48.6%) patients, percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) in 60 (27.5%) patients. Patients of nonsurgical group had more severe clinical profile compared with PCI group. There was no differences between nonsurgical and CABG groups as well as between CABG and PCI groups in clinical profile. Major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular event rate was higher in nonsurgical group. There was no difference between CABG and PCI groups. Survival in CABG and PCI groups was higher compared with nonsurgical group. Survival effect of revascularization was observed immediately (before 6 months) and continued long-term (more than 60 months). Revascularization was independent predictor of improved long-term survival. After diagnosis of left main coronary artery stenosis PCI was performed more quickly than CABG.

  15. The direct potential of the intestinal wall. Its change in ischemia and revascularization. An experimental study in the rat.

    PubMed

    Campos, S T; Timo-Iaria, C

    1975-01-01

    The DC otential between the jejunal mucosa and the skin of the tail's root was measured in 29 rats. In twenty animals the superior mesenteric artery was clamped during up to VBJ minutes and recording of the DC potential was performed before vascular obstruction, during the period of ischaemia, and after revascularization was resumed when the clamp was removed. Prolonged ischaemia of the jejunum led to increasing reduction of the DC potential but recovery occurred about 75% of the rats when revascularization was established. The remaining 25% did not recover from vascular occlusion due to thrombosis or mechanical damage to the arterial wall. After removal of the elctrodes from the former group functional recovery of the intestinal function occurred in all the animals in which the removal was successful and no perforation of the intestinal wall was produced. Measuring transmural potential may be a convenient method to assess the viability of an infarcted intestine, thus aiding in selecting the appropriate therapeutic measures and in prognostic evaluation.

  16. [Noninvasive diagnostic of coronary artery disease].

    PubMed

    Zuber, Michel; Zellweger, Michael; Bremerich, Jens; Auf der Mauer, Christoph; Buser, Peter T

    2009-04-01

    Noninvasive imaging of coronary artery disease has extensively evolved during the last decade. Today, at least four imaging techniques with excellent image quality such as echocardiography, myocardial perfusion scintigraphy and PET, cardiac magnetic resonance and cardiac CT are widely available in order to estimate the risk for future ischemic events, to corroborate the suspected diagnosis of coronary artery disease, to demonstrate the extent and localisation of myocardial ischemia, to diagnose myocardial infarction and measure it's size, to identify the myocardium at risk during acute ischemia, to differentiate between viable and nonviable myocardium and thereby provide the basis for indications of revascularisations, to follow revascularized patients over long time, to assess the risk for sudden cardiac death and the development of heart failure after myocardial infarction and to depict atheromatosis and atherosclerosis of the coronary artery tree. Echocardiography is the most widely used imaging method in cardiology. It provides excellent information on morphology and function of nearly all cardiac structures. Stress echocardiography has been proven to be a reliable tool for the demonstration of myocardial ischemia and for the acquisition of prognostic data. Newer ultrasound techniques may further improve investigator dependence and thereby reproducibility. The completeness of echocardiography will always depend on acoustic windows, which are given in a specific patient. Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy provides the largest database especially on prognosis in coronary artery disease. It has been the for the depictions of ischemic and infarcted myocardium. Radiation exposure will always be an issue. Newer hybrid techniques combining nuclear methods with cardiac CT may add arguments, which will be needed for clinical decision-making. Cardiac magnetic resonance has evolved as an important tool in the diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases. It is

  17. Clinical Outcome of Double Kissing Crush Versus Provisional Stenting of Coronary Artery Bifurcation Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Santoso, Teguh; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Ye, Fei; Xu, Ya-Wei; Fu, Qiang; Kan, Jing; Zhang, Feng-Fu; Zhou, Yong; Xie, Du-Jiang; Kwan, Tak W.

    2017-01-01

    Background— Provisional stenting is effective for anatomic simple bifurcation lesions. Double kissing crush stenting reduces the 1-year rate of target lesion revascularization. This study aimed to investigate the 5-year clinical results of the DKCRUSH-II study (Randomized Study on Double Kissing Crush Technique Versus Provisional Stenting Technique for Coronary Artery Bifurcation Lesions). Methods and Results— A total of 370 patients with coronary bifurcation lesions who were randomly assigned to either the double kissing crush or provisional stenting group in the DKCRUSH-II study were followed for 5 years. The primary end point was the occurrence of a major adverse cardiac event at 5 years. Patients were classified by simple and complex bifurcation lesions according to the DEFINITION criteria (Definitions and Impact of Complex Bifurcation Lesions on Clinical Outcomes After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Using Drug-Eluting Stents). At 5 years, the major adverse cardiac event rate (23.8%) in the provisional stenting group was insignificantly different to that of the double kissing group (15.7%; P=0.051). However, the difference in the target lesion revascularization rate between 2 groups was sustained through the 5-year follow-up (16.2% versus 8.6%; P=0.027). The definite and probable stent thrombosis rate was 2.7% in each group (P=1.0). Complex bifurcation was associated with a higher rate of target lesion revascularization (21.6%) at 5 years compared with 11.1% in patients with a simple bifurcation (P=0.037), with an extremely high rate in the provisional stenting group (36.8% versus 12.5%, P=0.005) mainly because of final kissing balloon inflation (19.4% versus 5.2%; P=0.036). Conclusions— The double kissing crush stenting technique for coronary bifurcation lesions is associated with a lower rate of target lesion revascularization. The optimal stenting approach based on the lesions’ complexity may improve the revascularization for patients with

  18. Internal mammary artery dilatation in a patient with aortic coarctation, aortic stenosis, and coronary disease. Case report.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Jose Rubio; Lopez, Laura Reija; Quiroga, Juan Sierra; Martinez Comendador, Jose M; Martinez-de-Alegria, Anxo; Martinez Cereijo, Jose M; Dominguez, Cristian Delgado

    2011-04-17

    The ideal surgical approach is unclear in adult patients with coarctation of the aorta that is associated with other cardiovascular pathologies that require intervention. Standard median sternotomy allows simultaneous, coronary revascularization surgery, valve replacement and repair of aortic coarctation. However the collateral circulation and the anatomy of the mammary arteries must be determined, to avoid possible complications. We report a case of a 69 year-old man with aortic coarctation, aortic stenosis, coronary artery disease and internal mammary artery dilatation who underwent concomitant surgical procedures through a median sternotomy.

  19. Suture-induced right coronary artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Seltmann, Martin; Achenbach, Stephan; Muschiol, Gerd; Feyrer, Richard

    2010-01-01

    An 82-year-old patient developed right heart failure in the days after surgical aortic valve replacement. Coronary CT angiography showed a high-grade stenosis of the mid-right coronary artery. Adjacent suture material seen on noncontrast CT suggested that the lesion was related to surgical closure of the right atrial cannulation site. Invasive angiography confirmed the stenosis, and percutaneous intervention was successfully performed.

  20. [The practical clinical guidelines of the Sociedad Española de Cardiología on coronary surgery].

    PubMed

    Alonso, J J; Azpitarte, J; Bardají, A; Cabadés, A; Fernández, A; Palencia, M; Permanyer, C; Rodríguez, E

    2000-02-01

    Surgery in coronary disease, including myocardial revascularization and the surgery of mechanical complications of acute myocardial infarction, has shown to improve the symptoms, quality of life and/or prognosis in certain groups of patients. The expected benefit in each patient depend on many well-known factors among which the appropriateness of the indication for surgery is fundamental. The objective of these guidelines is to review current indications for cardiac surgery in patients with coronary heart disease through an evaluation of the degree of evidence of effectiveness in the light of current knowledge (systematic review of bibliography) and expert opinion gathered from various reports. Indications and the degree of recommendation for conventional coronary artery bypass grafting have been established for each of the most frequent anatomo-clinical situations defined by clinical symptoms (stable angina, unstable angina and acute myocardial infarction) as well as by left ventricular function and extend of coronary disease. Furthermore, the subgroups with the greatest surgical risk and stratification models are described to aid the decision making process. Also we analyse the rational basis and indication for the new surgical techniques such as minimally invasive coronary surgery and total arterial revascularization. Finally, the indication and timing of surgery in patients with mechanical complications of acute myocardial infarction are considered.

  1. Impact of an absorbent silver-eluting dressing system on lower extremity revascularization wound complications.

    PubMed

    Childress, Beverly B; Berceli, Scott A; Nelson, Peter R; Lee, W Anthony; Ozaki, C Keith

    2007-09-01

    Surgical wounds for lower extremity revascularization are prone to infection and dehiscence. Acticoat Absorbent, an antimicrobial dressing, offers sustained release of ionic silver. We hypothesized that immediate application of Acticoat as a postoperative dressing would reduce wound complications in patients undergoing leg revascularization. All infrainguinal revascularization cases involving leg incisions at a single Veterans Administration Medical Center were identified from July 1, 2002, to September 30, 2005. The control group received conventional dressings, while the treatment group received an Acticoat dressing. Wound complication rates were captured via National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data. Patient characteristics and procedure distributions were similar between groups. The wound complication rate fell 64% with utilization of the Acticoat-based dressing (control 14% [17/118], treatment 5% [7/130]; P = 0.016). An Acticoat-based dressing system offers a potentially useful, cost-effective adjunct to reduce open surgical leg revascularization wound complications.

  2. Root canal revascularization. The beginning of a new era in endodontics.

    PubMed

    Alrahabi, Mothanna K; Ali, Mahmoud M

    2014-05-01

    Endodontic management of immature anterior teeth with necrotic pulps is a great challenge. Although there are different treatment procedures to deal with this problem such as apexification by using calcium hydroxide dressings or applying a barrier of mineral trioxide aggregate and gutta-percha obturation, the outcomes are still unsatisfactory and the root might still be weak. Recently, a new treatment protocol by revascularization of immature non-vital, infected teeth was introduced to regenerate dental structure and complete the root maturation. However, larger case series with longer follow-up periods are required to accept revascularization as the standard protocol for management of immature non-vital, infected teeth. In this review, we discuss the concept of root canal revascularization, revascularization mechanisms, and the structure of the regenerated tissues.

  3. [Return to work after coronary artery bypass surgery].

    PubMed

    Vasiliauskas, Donatas; Raugaliene, Rasa; Grizas, Vytautas; Marcinkeviciene, Jolanta; Jasiukeviciene, Lina; Kubilius, Raimondas; Barsys, Vygantas

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the possible reasons for not returning to work after coronary artery bypass surgery. A total of 134 patients (aged 65 years and younger) who underwent coronary bypass surgery in 2003 were examined. The analysis was performed in three groups of the patients: Group I, patients who were employed before surgery and returned to work after it (n=51); Group II, patients who were employed before surgery but did not return to work after surgery (n=55); and Group III, patients who were unemployed before and remained unemployed after surgery due to health problems (n=28). Number of injured coronary arteries, the extent of operation, postoperative complications, risk factors for ischemic heart disease, clinical status of patients (angina pain and heart failure), physical tolerance, and return to work within one year after coronary bypass surgery were analyzed. It was found that 48.1% of patients who were employed before surgery returned to work after myocardial revascularization. About 30% of patients experienced recurrent symptoms of angina after 12 months. Logistic regression analysis revealed that return to work was significantly influenced by female gender, physical pattern of work, age, and severity of heart failure.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging in the assessment of revascularization in Kienbock's disease. A preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Viegas, S F; Amparo, E

    1989-12-01

    A 25-year-old man with stage II Kienbock's disease of his left lunate underwent an initial period of immobilization. He was subsequently treated by ulnar lengthening, with a good outcome. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was utilized to demonstrate the lack of improvement with cast immobilization and the revascularization that followed surgical treatment. This new application of MRI in cases of avascular necrosis of the lunate may be helpful in the early identification of revascularization.

  5. Global Positioning System Use in the Community to Evaluate Improvements in Walking After Revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Gernigon, Marie; Le Faucheur, Alexis; Fradin, Dominique; Noury-Desvaux, Bénédicte; Landron, Cédric; Mahe, Guillaume; Abraham, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Revascularization aims at improving walking ability in patients with arterial claudication. The highest measured distance between 2 stops (highest-MDCW), the average walking speed (average-WSCW), and the average stop duration (average-DSCW) can be measured by global positioning system, but their evolution after revascularization is unknown. We included 251 peripheral artery diseased patients with self-reported limiting claudication. The patients performed a 1-hour stroll, recorded by a global positioning system receiver. Patients (n = 172) with confirmed limitation (highest-MDCW <2000m) at inclusion were reevaluated after 6 months. Patients revascularized during the follow-up period were compared with reference patients (ie, with unchanged lifestyle medical or surgical status). Other patients (lost to follow-up or treatment change) were excluded (n = 89). We studied 44 revascularized and 39 reference patients. Changes in highest-MDCW (+442 vs. +13 m) and average-WSCW (+0.3 vs. −0.2 km h−1) were greater in revascularized than in reference patients (both P < 0.01). In contrast, no significant difference in average-DSCW changes was found between the groups. Among the revascularized patients, 13 (29.5%) had a change in average-WSCW, but not in highest-MDCW, greater than the mean + 1 standard deviation of the change observed for reference patients. Revascularization may improve highest-MDCW and/or average-WSCW. This first report of changes in community walking ability in revascularized patients suggests that, beyond measuring walking distances, average-WSCW measurement is essential to monitor these changes. Applicability to other surgical populations remains to be evaluated. Registration: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01141361 PMID:25950694

  6. Ancillary studies in the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) Trial: Synergies and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Sobel, Burton E

    2006-06-19

    The definitive power of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to characterize the efficacy of putative therapeutic approaches cannot be overestimated. Such trials are expensive, and their implementation requires prolonged and intensive commitments by both investigators and subjects. Accordingly, enhancing their value, in a sense increasing the "scientific return on investment," is a laudatory objective. Ancillary studies afford a great opportunity to do so. They permit acquisition of new knowledge, elucidation of cause/consequence relation, and delineation of pathogenetic mechanisms at a much lower cost than would be possible if they were performed independently of the parent RCTs. In addition, their utility is enhanced by internal consistency under the rubric of the parent trial and the presumed external validation of the parent trial. Several ancillary studies undertaken in conjunction with the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) trial provide cogent examples. They seek to delineate causal connections linking the accelerated coronary disease typical of diabetes with phenomena such as genetic predisposition to altered expression of cytokines and fibrinolytic system proteins, inflammation, procoagulation, insulin-induced impairment of fibrinolysis, insulin resistance, and the response to insulin-sensitizing and insulin-providing treatment strategies.

  7. The Defense Mechanisms of Coronary Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peglar, Marian; Borgen, Fred H.

    1984-01-01

    Tested 73 male inpatients with coronary heart disease on the Defense Mechanisms Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and a perception of health measure. Subjects were followed for five years. Principalization was discovered to be the most successful and projection the least successful defense. (JAC)

  8. Fractional flow reserve-guided management in stable coronary disease and acute myocardial infarction: recent developments.

    PubMed

    Berry, Colin; Corcoran, David; Hennigan, Barry; Watkins, Stuart; Layland, Jamie; Oldroyd, Keith G

    2015-12-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a leading global cause of morbidity and mortality, and improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of CAD can reduce the health and economic burden of this condition. Fractional flow reserve (FFR) is an evidence-based diagnostic test of the physiological significance of a coronary artery stenosis. Fractional flow reserve is a pressure-derived index of the maximal achievable myocardial blood flow in the presence of an epicardial coronary stenosis as a ratio to maximum achievable flow if that artery were normal. When compared with standard angiography-guided management, FFR disclosure is impactful on the decision for revascularization and clinical outcomes. In this article, we review recent developments with FFR in patients with stable CAD and recent myocardial infarction. Specifically, we review novel developments in our understanding of CAD pathophysiology, diagnostic applications, prognostic studies, clinical trials, and clinical guidelines.

  9. Treatment of in-stent restenosis with excimer laser coronary angioplasty: benefits over scoring balloon angioplasty alone.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Shunsuke; Ashikaga, Takashi; Hatano, Yu; Yoshikawa, Shunji; Sasaoka, Taro; Maejima, Yasuhiro; Isobe, Mitsuaki

    2016-11-01

    Treatment of in-stent restenosis (ISR) is associated with a high incidence of recurrence. This study evaluated the clinical safety and 6-month efficacy of excimer laser coronary angioplasty (ELCA) before scoring balloon dilatation for the treatment of ISR. Twenty-three patients with ISR were included and treatment strategy of ISR was dependent on each operator. Twelve patients among those were treated with ELCA before scoring balloon dilatation (ELCA group) and 11 patients were treated with scoring balloon alone (non-ELCA group). Acute procedural results were evaluated by quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) and frequency domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT). Follow-up angiography was performed in all patients and the incidence of recurrent ISR and target lesion revascularization (TLR) was determined at 6 months after initial ISR treatment. Procedural success was achieved in all patients. Baseline clinical and angiographic characteristics were similar between groups. Maximum dilatation pressure of scoring balloon was significantly lower in the ELCA group than in the non-ELCA group (9.0 ± 3.1 vs. 14.9 ± 4.3 atm, p = 0.001). In follow-up angiography, the occurrence of TLR was similar between groups (16.7 vs. 45.5 %, p = 0.09), but the late luminal loss was significantly lower in the ELCA group (0.7 ± 0.6 vs. 1.3 ± 0.7 mm, p = 0.03). ELCA is a safe and feasible technique for the treatment of ISR and associated with a relatively low recurrent restenosis in comparison with scoring balloon dilatation alone.

  10. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection causing acute coronary syndrome in a young patient without risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Chevli, Parag; Kelash, Fnu; Gadhvi, Pragnesh; Grandhi, Sreeram; Syed, Amer

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a rare cause of acute myocardial infarction that is more common in younger patients (under age 50) and in women. Although the etiology is not known, some predisposing conditions to SCAD are well known and include Marfan syndrome, pregnancy and peripartum state, drug abuse, and some anatomical abnormalities of the coronary arteries such as aneurysms and severe kinking. We describe a case of SCAD in a young woman who presented with sudden onset of chest pain and was admitted for the treatment of acute coronary syndrome. The coronary angiography showed dissection of the left anterior descending artery. The patient underwent successful percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and stent placement. PMID:25317268

  11. Coronary artery disease

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... heart muscle itself. Damage to or blockage of a coronary artery can result in injury to the heart. Normally, blood flows through a coronary artery unimpeded. However, a process called atherosclerosis ...

  12. Coronary heart disease

    MedlinePlus

    Heart disease, Coronary heart disease, Coronary artery disease; Arteriosclerotic heart disease; CHD; CAD ... buildup of plaque in the arteries to your heart. This may also be called hardening of the ...

  13. Counseling the Coronary Patient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semmler, Caryl; Semmler, Maynard

    1974-01-01

    The article discusses counseling sessions designed to a) help the coronary patient adjust to cardiovascular disease, b) diminish patient anxieties and fears, and c) educate the patient and family members on controlling risk factors to deter another coronary attack. (JS)

  14. Clinical and economic studies of eptifibatide in coronary stenting.

    PubMed

    Pasala, Tilak; Sattayaprasert, Prasongchai; Bhat, Pradeep K; Athappan, Ganesh; Gandhi, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Platelet adhesion and aggregation at the site of coronary stenting can have catastrophic clinical and economic consequences. Therefore, effective platelet inhibition is vital during and after percutaneous coronary intervention. Eptifibatide is an intravenous antiplatelet agent that blocks the final common pathway of platelet aggregation and thrombus formation by binding to glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptors on the surface of platelets. In clinical studies, eptifibatide was associated with a significant reduction of mortality, myocardial infarction, or target vessel revascularization in patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. However, recent trials conducted in the era of dual antiplatelet therapy and newer anticoagulants failed to demonstrate similar results. The previously seen favorable benefit of eptifibatide was mainly offset by the increased risk of bleeding. Current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines recommend its use as an adjunct in high-risk patients who are undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with traditional anticoagulants (heparin or enoxaparin), who are not otherwise at high risk of bleeding. In patients receiving bivalirudin (a newer safer anticoagulant), routine use of eptifibatide is discouraged except in select situations (eg, angiographic complications). Although older pharmacoeconomic studies favor eptifibatide, in the current era of P2Y12 inhibitors and newer safer anticoagulants, the increased costs associated with bleeding make the routine use of eptifibatide an economically nonviable option. The cost-effectiveness of eptifibatide with the use of strategies that decrease the bleeding risk (eg, transradial access) is unknown. This review provides an overview of key clinical and economic studies of eptifibatide well into the current era of potent antiplatelet agents, novel safer anticoagulants, and contemporary percutaneous coronary intervention.

  15. Spontaneous healing of spontaneous coronary artery dissection.

    PubMed

    Almafragi, Amar; Convens, Carl; Heuvel, Paul Van Den

    2010-01-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a rare cause of acute coronary syndrome and sudden cardiac death. It should be suspected in every healthy young woman without cardiac risk factors, especially during the peripartum or postpartum periods. It is important to check for a history of drug abuse, collagen vascular disease or blunt trauma of the chest. Coronary angiography is essential for diagnosis and early management. We wonder whether thrombolysis might aggravate coronary dissection. All types of treatment (medical therapy, percutaneous intervention or surgery) improve the prognosis without affecting survival times if used appropriately according to the clinical stability and the angiographic features of the involved coronary arteries. Prompt recognition and targeted treatment improve outcomes. We report a case of SCAD in a young female free of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, who presented six hours after thrombolysis for ST elevation myocardial infarction. Coronary angiography showed a dissection of the left anterior descending and immediate branch. She had successful coronary artery bypass grafting, with complete healing of left anterior descending dissection.

  16. Chromosome 9p21 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms are Not Associated with Recurrent Myocardial Infarction in Patients with Established Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Virani, Salim S.; Brautbar, Ariel; Lee, Vei-Vei; Elayda, MacArthur; Morrison, Alanna C.; Grove, Megan L.; Nambi, Vijay; Frazier, Lorraine; Wilson, James M.; Willerson, James T.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Ballantyne, Christie M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Chromosome 9p21 single-nucleotide-polymorphisms (SNPs) have shown to be associated with coronary heart disease in multiple studies. We aimed to identify whether these SNPs are associated with recurrent myocardial infarction (MI), revascularization, or death in acute-coronary-syndromes (ACS) patients or those undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Methods and Results TexGen registry participants with ACS (n=2,067) or CABG (n=1,176) were evaluated. We assessed whether 9p21 SNPs (rs1333049, rs2383206, rs10757278, rs10757274) were associated with recurrent MI (primary outcome), recurrent revascularization, or death (secondary outcomes) at ≈ 3.2 years of follow-up. Carriers of risk allele (C) for rs1333049 presented at an earlier age (62 vs. 63.5 years in non-carriers, p=0.0004) with more extensive disease (number of vessels with significant stenosis =1.9 vs. 1.7 in non-carriers, p=0.001) in the ACS group. In adjusted models, C allele was not associated with recurrent MI (HR 1.01, 95%CI 0.74–1.38), recurrent revascularization (HR 0.98, 95%CI 0.78–1.23), or death (HR 0.91, 95%CI 0.69–1.18) in ACS or CABG group (HR 0.64, 95%CI 0.40–1.05 for recurrent MI; HR 0.98, 95%CI 0.61–1.55 for recurrent revascularization; and HR 0.89, 95%CI 0.61–1.30 for death). Results were similar for the other 3 SNPs. Conclusions 9p21 SNPs were not associated with recurrent MI, revascularization, or mortality after ACS or CABG. However, individuals with the rs1333049 C allele may present with earlier and more extensive disease. PMID:22322877

  17. Comparison of catheterization laboratory initiated abciximab and eptifibatide during percutaneous coronary intervention in acute coronary syndromes (an ACUITY substudy).

    PubMed

    Kirtane, Ajay J; Parise, Helen; Mehran, Roxana; Moses, Jeffrey W; Fahy, Martin; Bertrand, Michel E; Ohman, E Magnus; White, Harvey D; Feit, Frederick; Colombo, Antonio; McLaurin, Brent T; Cox, David A; Ware, James H; Pocock, Stuart J; Lansky, Alexandra J; Stone, Gregg W

    2010-07-15

    Abciximab and eptifibatide have been shown to reduce ischemic complications compared with heparin alone in patients with acute coronary syndromes who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention. Whether 1 agent is safer and/or more effective has not been prospectively examined. The aim of this study was to assess the outcomes related to downstream glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor treatment selection during percutaneous coronary intervention in 2,211 patients with moderate and high-risk acute coronary syndromes in the prospective multicenter Acute Catheterization and Urgent Intervention Triage Strategy (ACUITY) trial. The protocol permitted operator selection of abciximab (n = 835) or eptifibatide (n = 1,376) for routine use in the trial. Multivariate and propensity-based adjustments were used to assess the independent association of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor treatment selection with prespecified study end points. Compared to patients receiving eptifibatide, those administered abciximab were older, more likely to be enrolled outside of North America, more frequently had biomarker elevations and ST-segment deviation, but had fewer baseline cardiac risk factors and previous revascularization procedures. After multivariate propensity-based adjustment, abciximab was independently associated with significantly fewer net clinical adverse events (odds ratio 0.61, 95% confidence interval 0.42 to 0.90, p = 0.01), mediated by composite ischemia (odds ratio 0.61, 95% confidence interval 0.38 to 0.98, p = 0.04) and major bleeding (odds ratio 0.58, 95% confidence interval 0.34 to 1.00, p = 0.051). In conclusion, in this prespecified but nonrandomized comparison in patients with acute coronary syndromes who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention with catheterization laboratory initiation of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors, the use of abciximab rather than eptifibatide was associated with improved clinical outcomes at 30 days. These findings should be viewed as

  18. Stroke prevention by direct revascularization for patients with adult-onset moyamoya disease presenting with ischemia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tackeun; Oh, Chang Wan; Kwon, O-Ki; Hwang, Gyojun; Kim, Jeong Eun; Kang, Hyun-Seung; Cho, Won-Sang; Bang, Jae Seung

    2016-06-01

    OBJECT Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a progressive disease that can cause recurrent stroke. The authors undertook this retrospective case-control study with a large sample size in an attempt to assess the efficacy of direct or combined revascularization surgery for ischemia in adults with MMD. METHODS The authors investigated cases involving patients with moyamoya disease presenting with ischemia who visited Seoul National University Bundang Hospital and Seoul National University Hospital between 2000 and 2014. Among 441 eligible patients, 301 underwent revascularization surgery and 140 were treated conservatively. Variables evaluated included age at diagnosis, sex, surgical record, Suzuki stage, and occurrence of stroke. Patients were stratified into 2 groups based on whether or not they had undergone revascularization surgery. Actuarial 1-, 5-, and 10-year stroke rates were calculated using the life table method. Risk factor analysis for 5-year stroke occurrence was conducted with multivariate regression. RESULTS Of the 441 patients, 301 had been surgically treated (revascularization group) and 140 had not (control group). The mean follow-up durations were 45 and 77 months, respectively. The actuarial 10-year cumulative incidence rate for any kind of stroke was significantly lower in the revascularization group (9.4%) than in the control group (19.6%) (p = 0.041); the relative risk reduction (RRR) was also superior (52.0%) in the revascularization group, and the number needed to treat was 10. The 10-year rate of ischemic stroke was greater (13.3%) in the control group than in the revascularization group (3.9%) (p = 0.019). The RRR for ischemic stroke in the revascularization group was 70.7%, and the number needed to treat was 11. However, the actuarial 1- and 5-year rates of ischemic stroke did not significantly differently between the groups. Overall, revascularization surgery was shown to be an independent protective factor, as revealed by multivariate analysis

  19. Design of the Carotid Revascularization Endarterectomy vs. Stenting Trial (CREST)

    PubMed Central

    Sheffet, Alice J.; Roubin, Gary; Howard, George; Howard, Virginia; Moore, Wesley; Meschia, James F.; Hobson, Robert W.; Brott, Thomas G.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and medical therapy were shown superior to medical therapy alone for symptomatic (≥50%) and asymptomatic (≥60%) stenosis. Carotid angioplasty stenting (CAS) offers a less invasive alternative. Establishing safety, efficacy, and durability of CAS requires rigorous comparison with CEA in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. Aims The objective is to compare the efficacy of CAS versus CEA in patients with symptomatic (≥50%) or asymptomatic (≥60%) extracranial carotid stenosis. Design The Carotid Revascularization Endarterectomy vs. Stenting Trial (CREST) is a prospective, randomized, parallel, two-arm, multi-center trial with blinded endpoint adjudication. Primary endpoints are analyzed using standard time-to-event statistical modeling with adjustment for major baseline covariates. Primary analysis is on an intent-to-treat basis. Study Outcomes The primary outcome is the occurrence of any stroke, myocardial infarction, or death during a 30-day peri-procedural period, and ipsilateral stroke during follow-up of up to four years. Secondary outcomes include restenosis and health-related quality of life. PMID:20088993

  20. Perioperative myocardial infarction in patients undergoing myocardial revascularization surgery

    PubMed Central

    Pretto, Pericles; Martins, Gerez Fernandes; Biscaro, Andressa; Kruczan, Dany David; Jessen, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Perioperative myocardial infarction adversely affects the prognosis of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft and its diagnosis was hampered by numerous difficulties, because the pathophysiology is different from the traditional instability atherosclerotic and the clinical difficulty to be characterized. Objective To identify the frequency of perioperative myocardial infarction and its outcome in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft. Methods Retrospective cohort study performed in a tertiary hospital specialized in cardiology, from May 01, 2011 to April 30, 2012, which included all records containing coronary artery bypass graft records. To confirm the diagnosis of perioperative myocardial infarction criteria, the Third Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction was used. Results We analyzed 116 cases. Perioperative myocardial infarction was diagnosed in 28 patients (24.1%). Number of grafts and use and cardiopulmonary bypass time were associated with this diagnosis and the mean age was significantly higher in this group. The diagnostic criteria elevated troponin I, which was positive in 99.1% of cases regardless of diagnosis of perioperative myocardial infarction. No significant difference was found between length of hospital stay and intensive care unit in patients with and without this complication, however patients with perioperative myocardial infarction progressed with worse left ventricular function and more death cases. Conclusion The frequency of perioperative myocardial infarction found in this study was considered high and as a consequence the same observed average higher troponin I, more cases of worsening left ventricular function and death. PMID:25859867

  1. Complete rupture of the anterolateral papillary muscle caused by coronary spasm.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Masataka; Fukui, Toshihiro; Mahara, Keitaro; Takanashi, Shuichiro

    2015-12-01

    Papillary muscle rupture usually occurs as a catastrophic complication of acute myocardial infarction in patients with coronary artery stenosis; it is therefore less common in patients without coronary artery stenosis. We report the case of a 67-year old woman without coronary artery stenosis who suffered an acute anterolateral papillary muscle rupture and was successfully treated with mitral valve replacement. Evidence of coronary spasm was found on a coronary vasomotion test, suggesting that a high sensitivity to coronary spasm may explain a mechanism of isolated papillary muscle infarction.

  2. Restenosis of the coronary stenotic lesions treated by holmium:YAG laser coronary angioplasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Shunichi; Nonogi, Hiroshi; Goto, Yoichi; Itoh, Akira; Ozono, Keizaburo; Daikoku, Satoshi; Haze, Kazuo

    1994-07-01

    Clinical efficacy of newly developed Holmium YAG laser coronary angioplasty (HLCA) was assessed for 30 patients with angina. There were 12 near left main trunk (LMT) lesions and 4 aorto- ostial lesions. Adjunctive balloon angioplasty was performed for 25 of 30 lesions. Delivered energy ranged from 1.5 to 2.5 watts/pulse and the total exposure time ranged from 6 to 55 seconds. External diameter of laser catheter was 1.5 mm for 13 lesions, 1.4 mm for 17 lesions, and 1.7 mm for 5 lesions. Laser success, defined as 20% reduction of stenotic ratio, was obtained in 21 of 30 (70%) and overall procedural success rate was 93%. There were 3 cases with acute coronary occlusions relieved by adjunctive balloon angioplasty and one coronary perforation without manifestation of cardiac tamponade. There were no large coronary dissection which involved more than 5 mm of the coronary artery. Follow up coronary angiography after 3 months showed restenosis in 14 of 27 patients (52%). Percent stenosis after lasering (56%) was similar to that at 3 months after (62%). HLCA is acutely effective treatment for lesions near LMT, because of low incidence of large coronary dissection. However, angiographical restenosis rate is high at 3 months after HLCA. This may be attributed to the relatively large residual stenosis after the procedure and vessel injury caused by shock wave.

  3. Combined Bilateral Lung Transplantation and Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Do, Young Woo; Jung, Hee Suk; Lee, Chang Young; Lee, Jin Gu; Youn, Young-Nam; Paik, Hyo Chae

    2016-01-01

    Coronary artery disease has historically been a contraindication to lung transplantation. We report a successful combined bilateral lung transplantation and off-pump coronary artery bypass in a 62-year-old man. The patient had a progressive decline in lung function due to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and a history of severe occlusive coronary artery disease. PMID:27965924

  4. Transposition with atypical coronary pattern: the Aubert technique.

    PubMed

    Pita-Fernández, Ana; González-López, María T; Gil-Jaurena, Juan M

    2017-03-06

    The arterial switch operation is currently the gold standard technique for repair of transposition of the great arteries. Some atypical coronary patterns such as intramural, interarterial, and a unique posterior button are associated with more complexity and surgical risk. We report a successful Aubert operation for transposition of the great arteries associated with a single and interarterial coronary artery arising from a posterior sinus.

  5. Correlation between Patient-Reported Symptoms and Ankle-Brachial Index after Revascularization for Peripheral Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Je, Hyung Gon; Kim, Bo Hyun; Cho, Kyoung Im; Jang, Jae Sik; Park, Yong Hyun; Spertus, John

    2015-01-01

    Improvement in quality of life (QoL) is a primary treatment goal for patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). The current study aimed to quantify improvement in the health status of PAD patients following peripheral revascularization using the peripheral artery questionnaire (PAQ) and ankle-brachial index (ABI), and to evaluate possible correlation between the two methods. The PAQ and ABI were assessed in 149 symptomatic PAD patients before, and three months after peripheral revascularization. Mean PAQ summary scores improved significantly three months after revascularization (+49.3 ± 15 points, p < 0.001). PAQ scores relating to patient symptoms showed the largest improvement following revascularization. The smallest increases were seen in reported treatment satisfaction (all p’s < 0.001). As expected the ABI of treated limbs showed significant improvement post-revascularization (p < 0.001). ABI after revascularization correlated with patient-reported changes in the physical function and QoL domains of the PAQ. Twenty-two percent of PAD patients were identified as having a poor response to revascularization (increase in ABI < 0.15). Interestingly, poor responders reported improvement in symptoms on the PAQ, although this was less marked than in patients with an increase in ABI > 0.15 following revascularization. In conclusion, data from the current study suggest a significant correlation between improvement in patient-reported outcomes assessed by PAQ and ABI in symptomatic PAD patients undergoing peripheral revascularization. PMID:25993299

  6. Understanding the Outcome of Randomized Trials with Drug-Eluting Stents and Coronary Artery Bypass Graft in Patients with Multivessel Disease: A Review of a 25-Year Journey

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Alfredo E.; Pavlovsky, Hernán; Del Pozo, Juan Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) with first- and second-generation drug-eluting stents (DESs) confirmed the superiority of coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) in patients with multiple vessel disease. In spite of different DES designs, investigators in these trials used similar percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) strategies hoping to achieve complete revascularization, meaning that all intermediate lesions would be stented. One of these studies also included small vessels in the revascularization policy. On this revision, authors searched for a potential explanation of these intriguing findings and also for solutions to this problem, not seen years ago when other RCTs compared CABG with PCI in the previous DES era. After they revised old and new scientific data, they concluded that improved DES design is not itself enough to narrow the gap between PCI and CABG and that in the future RCTs we should institute more conservative strategies avoiding unnecessary multiple DES implantation. PMID:27980442

  7. Coronary artery bypass grafting in an achondroplastic dwarf.

    PubMed

    Balaguer, J M; Perry, D; Crowley, J; Moran, J M

    1995-01-01

    To our knowledge, coronary bypass for complications of coronary artery disease in achondroplasia has not previously been described. Achondroplasia, in and of itself, is not a contraindication to coronary bypass. Although the anatomic reserve of saphenous vein is less in achondroplastic dwarfs than in people of normal stature, that vessel and the internal mammary artery can be harvested in routine fashion. A 60-year-old woman with several risk factors for coronary artery disease underwent successful bypass surgery, which included the use of both a saphenous vein and the left internal mammary artery.

  8. Prevention and management of coronary artery disease in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Majid, Abdul

    2009-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common medical problem and a major risk factor for the development of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD). Coronary artery disease is highly prevalent and is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Patients with CAD and prediabetic states should undergo lifestyle modifications aimed at preventing DM. In patients with CAD and DM, routine use of aspirin and an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE-I)-unless contraindicated or not tolerated-and strict glycemic, blood pressure, and lipid control are strongly recommended. Intense insulin therapy might be needed for glycemic control, and high-dose statin therapy might be needed for lipid control. For blood pressure control, ACE-Is and angiotensin receptor blockers are considered as first-line therapy. The outcomes after revascularization in diabetic patients are usually worse compared with non-diabetic patients. Advances in PCI include the use of drug-eluting stents and adjunctive drug therapies, such as abciximab. Glycemic control is an important determinant of outcome after revascularization in diabetic patients. Improvements in PCI and coronary artery bypass graft surgery are leading to better results in diabetic patients, and clinical trials are presently comparing contemporary PCI with surgery.

  9. Optimal use of available claims to identify a Medicare population free of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Kent, Shia T; Safford, Monika M; Zhao, Hong; Levitan, Emily B; Curtis, Jeffrey R; Kilpatrick, Ryan D; Kilgore, Meredith L; Muntner, Paul

    2015-11-01

    We examined claims-based approaches for identifying a study population free of coronary heart disease (CHD) using data from 8,937 US blacks and whites enrolled during 2003-2007 in a prospective cohort study linked to Medicare claims. Our goal was to minimize the percentage of persons at study entry with self-reported CHD (previous myocardial infarction or coronary revascularization). We assembled 6 cohorts without CHD claims by requiring 6 months, 1 year, or 2 years of continuous Medicare fee-for-service insurance coverage prior to study entry and using either a fixed-window or all-available look-back period. We examined adding CHD-related claims to our "base algorithm," which included claims for myocardial infarction and coronary revascularization. Using a 6-month fixed-window look-back period, 17.8% of participants without claims in the base algorithm reported having CHD. This was reduced to 3.6% using an all-available look-back period and adding other CHD claims to the base algorithm. Among cohorts using all-available look-back periods, increasing the length of continuous coverage from 6 months to 1 or 2 years reduced the sample size available without lowering the percentage of persons with self-reported CHD. This analysis demonstrates approaches for developing a CHD-free cohort using Medicare claims.

  10. Recurrent chest pain after treatment of spontaneous coronary artery dissection: An enigma.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Dheeraj D; Kachru, Ranjan; Gupta, Sanjay; Kaul, Upendra

    2015-12-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a rare entity. It has been described in various settings like pregnancy, collagen vascular diseases, cocaine abuse, heavy exercise, variant angina, eosinophilic arteritis, or fibro muscular dysplasia. It is also easy to miss a dissection during angiography, as the typical radiolucent lumen seen in coronary angiography may be absent in many cases. In this report, we describe the case of a 35-year-old female who presented with acute ST elevation myocardial infarction due to spontaneous coronary dissection. She had been having episodic chest pain for one year and had been seen by two different cardiologists but was thought to have non-cardiac symptoms. Even during the index hospitalization, she underwent coronary angiography three times before coronary dissection could be identified as the cause of her symptoms. She underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery uneventfully. However, even after myocardial revascularization, she has had multiple episodes of chest pain requiring hospitalization. However, we have not been able to find a specific cause for it and the cause of her recurrent chest pain remains an enigma. This case highlights the problems, which arise while managing a case of SCAD. More research is needed to find the exact etiology and long-term prognosis of this condition.

  11. Recent advances in coronary angioscopy.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Yasumi

    2011-01-01

    Angioscopy enables macroscopic pathological diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases from the inside. This imaging modality has been intensively directed to characterizing vulnerable coronary plaques. Scoring of plaque color was developed, and based on prospective studies; dark yellow or glistening yellow plaques were proposed as vulnerable ones. Colorimetry apparatus was developed to assess the yellow color of the plaques quantitatively. The effects of lipid-lowering therapies on coronary plaques were confirmed by angioscopy. However, since observation is limited to surface color and morphology, pitfalls of this imaging technology became evident. Dye-staining angioscopy and near-infrared fluorescence angioscopy were developed for molecular imaging, and the latter method was successfully applied to patients. Color fluorescence angioscopy was also established for molecular and chemical basis characterization of vulnerable coronary plaques in both in vitro and in vivo. Drug-eluting stents (DES) reduce coronary restenosis significantly, however, late stent thrombosis (LST) occurs, which requires long-term antiplatelet therapy. Angioscopic grading of neointimal coverage of coronary stent struts was established, and it was revealed that neointimal formation is incomplete and prevalence of LST is higher in DES when compared to bare-metal stent. Many new stents were devised and they are now under experimental or clinical investigations to overcome the shortcomings of the stents that have been employed clinically. Endothelial cells are highly anti-thrombotic. Neoendothelial cell damage is considered to be caused by friction between the cells and stent struts due to the thin neointima between them that might act as a cushion. Therefore, development of a DES that causes an appropriate thickness (around 100 μm) of the neointima is a potential option with which to prevent neoendothelial cell damage and consequent LST while preventing restenosis.

  12. The "buddy-in-jail" technique-a novel method for increasing support during percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Bagnall, Alan J; Spratt, James C

    2009-10-01

    The "buddy-in-jail" technique is a novel method for increasing support during percutaneous coronary intervention. We report two case-based examples of successful coronary stent delivery using the jailed buddy wire technique.

  13. Regeneration of the dentine-pulp complex with revitalization/revascularization therapy: challenges and hopes.

    PubMed

    Lin, L M; Ricucci, D; Huang, G T-J

    2014-08-01

    The concept of regenerative endodontics has gained much attention in clinical endodontics in the past decade. One aspect of this discipline is the application of revitalization/revascularization therapies for infected and/or necrotic immature pulps in permanent teeth. Following the publication of a case report (Iwaya et al. ), investigators have been rigorously examining the types of tissues formed in the canals as well as exploring strategies to regenerate the pulp-dentine complex in revitalized teeth. This review will provide an update on the types of tissues generated in the canals after revitalization/revascularization therapy in both animal and human studies. The understanding of the role of stem cells and microenvironment in the process of wound healing resulting in either regeneration or repair will be thoroughly discussed. Stem cells and microenvironmental cues introduced into the canal during revitalization/revascularization procedures will be examined. In addition, requirement of a sterile microenvironment in the canal and vital tissue generation in revitalization/revascularization therapy will be emphasized. The challenges that we face and the hopes that we have in revitalization/revascularization therapy for regenerative endodontics will be presented.

  14. Short-Term and Long-Term Outcomes After Polytetrafluoroethylene-Covered Stent Implantation for the Treatment of Coronary Perforation.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Hiroyoshi; Tanaka, Kentaro; Ruparelia, Neil; Takagi, Kensuke; Yabushita, Hiroto; Watanabe, Yusuke; Mitomo, Satoru; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Naganuma, Toru; Fujino, Yusuke; Ishiguro, Hisaaki; Tahara, Satoko; Kurita, Naoyuki; Nakamura, Shotaro; Hozawa, Koji; Nakamura, Sunao

    2015-12-15

    This study sought to evaluate the short-term and 3-year outcomes of polytetrafluoroethylene-covered stent (PCS) for patients with coronary perforation. Implantation of a PCS has improved the immediate clinical outcomes of patients with coronary perforation. However, there are few reports regarding long-term outcomes. We evaluated a total of 57 patients who were treated with PCS for coronary perforation from April 2004 to March 2015 at a single high-volume center in Japan. Landmark analysis was performed at 30 days to determine short-term and long-term outcomes. Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were defined as death, myocardial infarction, target vessel revascularization, and requirement for surgical repair. Of 285 patients who experienced coronary perforation, 57 patients (20%) were treated with PCS. The MACE rates were 28% at 30 days, 22% at 1 year, and 38% at 3 years. 30-day MACE was mainly driven by high rates of myocardial infarction (18%) and surgical repair (16%). The rates of target lesion revascularization were 8% and 12% at 1 and 3 years, respectively. Definite stent thrombosis was reported in 2 patients during the follow-up period. In conclusion, despite the relatively high incidence of MACE during early stage of follow-up, implantation of a PCS provides acceptable late clinical outcomes.

  15. Distal coronary perforation in patients with prior coronary artery bypass graft surgery: The importance of early treatment.

    PubMed

    Karatasakis, Aris; Akhtar, Yasir N; Brilakis, Emmanouil S

    2016-09-01

    In patients with prior coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, distal coronary perforations are commonly considered to be at low risk for causing cardiac tamponade due to a potential protective role of pericardial adhesions, which obliterate the pericardial space. Loculated effusions can however form in such patients, compressing various cardiac structures and causing hemodynamic compromise. We present two cases of distal coronary perforation in prior CABG patients undergoing chronic total occlusion percutaneous coronary intervention. In the first case a distal coronary perforation was initially observed, resulting in a loculated pericardial effusion that caused ST-segment elevation and death, despite successful sealing of the perforation. In the second case a similar perforation was immediately sealed with a covered stent, followed by uneventful patient recovery. A literature review of coronary perforation leading to hemodynamic compromise in patients with prior CABG surgery revealed high mortality (22%), suggesting that prompt sealing of the perforation is critical in these patients.

  16. Emergent revascularization of acute tandem vertebrobasilar occlusions: Endovascular approaches and technical considerations-Confirming the role of vertebral artery ostium stenosis as a cause of vertebrobasilar stroke.

    PubMed

    Cohen, José E; Leker, Ronen R; Gomori, J Moshe; Eichel, Roni; Rajz, Gustavo; Moscovici, Samuel; Itshayek, Eyal

    2016-12-01

    Patients suffering from acute atherothrombotic occlusion of the proximal vertebral artery (VA) and concomitant basilar artery (BA) occlusion present a grim prognosis. We describe our experience in the endovascular recanalization of tandem vertebrobasilar occlusions using endovascular techniques. The BA was accessed through the normal VA (clean-road) or the occluded, thrombotic VA (dirty-road), and stentriever-based thrombectomy was performed using antegrade or reverse revascularization variants. Seven patients underwent successful stentriever-assisted mechanical thrombectomy of the BA and five sustained concomitant VA revascularization. Stroke onset to endovascular intervention initiation (time-to-treatment) ranged from 4.5-13hours (mean 8.6). In two of seven patients, the BA occlusion was approached with a 'clean-road' approach via the contralateral VA; in five of seven patients, a 'dirty-road' approach via the occluded VA was used. Mean time-to-recanalization was 66minutes (range 55-82). There were no perforations, iatrogenic vessel dissections, or other technical complications. Four patients presented mild-to-moderate disability (modified Rankin Scale [mRS] 0-3) at 3months, one remained with moderate-to-severe disability (mRS 4), and two patients died on days 9 and 23 after their strokes. Follow-up ranged from 6-45months (mean 24months). In selected patients with acute VA-BA occlusion, stentriever-based thrombectomy performed through either the patent or the occluded VA, may be feasible, effective, and safe. Clinical outcomes in these patients seem to equipoise the neurological outcome of patients with successful revascularization for isolated BA occlusion. This unique pair of occlusions confirms the role of VA ostium stenosis as a cause of vertebrobasilar stroke.

  17. Effectiveness of Drug-Eluting Stents versus Bare-Metal Stents in Large Coronary Arteries in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Doo Sun; Ahn, Youngkeun; Kim, Young Jo; Chae, Shung Chull; Hong, Taek Jong; Seong, In Whan; Chae, Jei Keon; Kim, Chong Jin; Cho, Myeong Chan; Seung, Ki Bae; Park, Seung Jung

    2011-01-01

    This study compared clinical outcomes of drug-eluting stents (DES) versus bare-metal stents (BMS) in large coronary arteries in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI). A total of 985 patients who underwent single-vessel percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in large coronary arteries (≥ 3.5 mm) in lesions < 25 mm were divided into DES group (n = 841) and BMS group (n = 144). Clinical outcomes during 12 months were compared. In-hospital outcome was similar between the groups. At six months, death/MI rate was not different. However, DES group had significantly lower rates of target-lesion revascularization (TLR) (1.7% vs 5.6%, P = 0.021), target-vessel revascularization (TVR) (2.2% vs 5.6%, P = 0.032), and total major adverse cardiac events (MACE) (3.4% vs 11.9%, P = 0.025). At 12 months, the rates of TLR and TVR remained lower in the DES group (2.5% vs 5.9%, P = 0.032 and 5.9% vs 3.1%, P = 0.041), but the rates of death/MI and total MACE were not statistically different. The use of DES in large vessels in the setting of acute MI is associated with lower need for repeat revascularization compared to BMS without compromising the overall safety over the course of one-year follow-up. PMID:21468259

  18. The role of eptifibatide in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Zeymer, Uwe

    2007-06-01

    Glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa receptor antagonists inhibit the binding of ligands to activated platelet GP IIb/IIIa receptors and, therefore, prevent the formation of platelet thrombi. They have been extensively studied in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Eptifibatide, one of the approved GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors, is a small heptapeptide that is highly selective and rapidly dissociates from its receptor after cessation of therapy. In clinical studies, concomitant administration of eptifibatide in patients undergoing elective PCI reduced thrombotic complications in the IMPACT-II (Integrilin to Minimize Platelet Aggregation and Prevent Coronary Thrombosis II) and ESPRIT (Enhanced Suppression of the Platelet IIb/IIIa Receptor with Integrilin Therapy) trials. In the PURSUIT (Platelet Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa in Unstable Angina: Receptor Suppression Using Integrilin Therapy) trial, which included 10,948 patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes, eptifibatide significantly reduced the primary end point of death and non-fatal myocardial infarction at 30 days compared with placebo. In patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), eptifibatide has been studied as adjunct to primary PCI and improved epicardial flow and tissue reperfusion. Studies are now evaluating eptifibatide in high-risk patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS) and a planned early invasive strategy in the EARLY-ACS (Eptifibatide Administration prior to Diagnostic Catherization and Revascularization to Limit Myocardial Necrosis in Acute Coronary Syndrome) trial and in patients with primary PCI for STEMI in comparison to abciximab in the EVA-AMI (Eptifibatide versus Abciximab in Primary PCI for Acute Myocardial Infarction) trial. After the completion of these trials, the value of etifibatide in patients undergoing PCI in different indications can be determined.

  19. Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: The Past, Present, and Future of Myocardial Revascularisation

    PubMed Central

    Chedrawy, Edgar G.

    2014-01-01

    The development of the heart-lung machine ushered in the era of modern cardiac surgery. Coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) remains the most common operation performed by cardiac surgeons today. From its infancy in the 1950s till today, CABG has undergone many developments both technically and clinically. Improvements in intraoperative technique and perioperative care have led to CABG being offered to a more broad patient profile with less complications and adverse events. Our review outlines the rich history and promising future of myocardial revascularization. PMID:25374960

  20. Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Is More Beneficial Than Optimal Medical Therapy in Elderly Patients with Angina Pectoris

    PubMed Central

    Won, Hoyoun; Her, Ae-Young; Kim, Byeong-Keuk; Kim, Yong Hoon; Shin, Dong-Ho; Kim, Jung-Sun; Ko, Young-Guk; Choi, Donghoon; Kwon, Hyuck Moon; Jang, Yangsoo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Data comparing the clinical benefits of medical treatment with those of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in an elderly population with angina pectoris are limited. Therefore, we evaluated the efficacy of elective PCI versus optimal medical treatment (OMT) in elderly patients (between 75 and 84 years old) with angina pectoris. Materials and Methods One hundred seventy-seven patients with significant coronary artery stenosis were randomly assigned to either the PCI group (n=90) or the OMT group (n=87). The primary outcome was a composite of major adverse events in the 1-year follow-up period that included cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, and stroke. Results Major adverse events occurred in 5 patients (5.6%) of the PCI group and in 17 patents (19.5%) of the OMT group (p=0.015). There were no significant differences between the PCI group and the OMT group in cardiac death [hazard ratio (HR) for the PCI group 0.454; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.041–5.019, p=0.520], myocardial infarction (HR 0.399; 95% CI 0.039–4.050, p=0.437), or stroke (HR 0.919; 95% CI 0.057–14.709, p=0.952). However, the PCI group showed a significant preventive effect of the composite of major adverse events (HR 0.288; 95% CI 0.106–0.785, p=0.015) and against the need for coronary revascularization (HR 0.157; 95% CI 0.035–0.703, p=0.016). Conclusion Elective PCI reduced major adverse events and was found to be an effective treatment modality in elderly patients with angina pectoris and significant coronary artery stenosis, compared to OMT. PMID:26847290

  1. Drug-coated balloons for coronary and peripheral interventional procedures.

    PubMed

    Wöhrle, Jochen

    2012-10-01

    Paclitaxel-coated balloon (PCB) angioplasty reduces neointimal proliferation, restenosis, and clinical need for target lesion revascularization (TLR). PCB was superior for coronary restenosis in bare-metal and drug-eluting stents compared with uncoated balloon angioplasty and was noninferior compared with paclitaxel-eluting stents. PCB angioplasty should be considered for treatment of coronary in-stent restenosis. For de novo lesions, PCB plus endothelial progenitor cell capturing stents reduced restenosis and TLR in early reports. Among patients with de novo lesions and diabetes, the combination of PCB plus bare-metal stent revealed similar results in lesions compared with paclitaxel-eluting stents. The early results for PCB in small vessels are also very encouraging. Dual antiplatelet therapy duration may be shorter with PCB angioplasty compared with drug-eluting stents. Nevertheless, the risk for thrombotic vessel occlusion is minimized. Considering peripheral arterial disease, PCB angioplasty for femoropopliteal lesions was superior to uncoated balloon angioplasty. Registries indicate PCB to also be effective in lesions below the knee. Since there is no certain class effect, efficacy and safety have to be demonstrated for different types of PCB for coronary and peripheral interventions.

  2. Myocardial Perfusion SPECT Imaging in Patients after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Georgoulias, Panagiotis; Valotassiou, Varvara; Tsougos, Ioannis; Demakopoulos, Nikolaos

    2010-05-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most prevalent form of cardiovascular disease affecting about 13 million Americans, while more than one million percutaneous transluminal intervention (PCI) procedures are performed annually in the USA. The relative high occurrence of restenosis, despite stent implementation, seems to be the primary limitation of PCI. Over the last decades, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), has proven an invaluable tool for the diagnosis of CAD and patients' risk stratification, providing useful information regarding the decision about revascularization and is well suited to assess patients after intervention. Information gained from post-intervention MPI is crucial to differentiate patients with angina from those with exo-cardiac chest pain syndromes, to assess peri-intervention myocardial damage, to predict-detect restenosis after PCI, to detect CAD progression in non-revascularized vessels, to evaluate the effects of intervention if required for occupational reasons and to evaluate patients' long-term prognosis. On the other hand, chest pain and exercise electrocardiography are largely unhelpful in identifying patients at risk after PCI.Although there are enough published data demonstrating the value of myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging in patients after PCI, there is still debate on whether or not these tests should be performed routinely.

  3. Contemporary sex differences among patients with acute coronary syndrome treated by emergency percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Wada, Hideki; Ogita, Manabu; Miyauchi, Katsumi; Tsuboi, Shuta; Konishi, Hirokazu; Shitara, Jun; Kunimoto, Mitsuhiro; Sonoda, Taketo; Iso, Takashi; Ebina, Hideki; Aoki, Eriko; Kitamura, Kenichi; Tamura, Hiroshi; Suwa, Satoru; Daida, Hiroyuki

    2016-08-08

    Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in the general population. Recent advances in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and optimal medical treatment have helped to improve the prognosis of patients with ACS. The previous reports indicated that women with ACS have a higher risk of adverse outcomes. However, sex differences in clinical outcomes with contemporary coronary revascularization and medical therapy for ACS have not been elucidated. We analyzed data from 676 consecutive patients with ACS (female, n = 166; male, n = 510) who were treated by emergency PCI between 2011 and 2014 at Juntendo Shizuoka Hospital. The patients were grouped according to sex. We defined major adverse cardiovascular events as a composite of all-cause death and ACS recurrence at 1 year and compared rates of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) between the groups. Women were older (75.4 ± 11.0 vs. 66.2 ± 12.2 years) and had a higher rate of multi-vessel disease, chronic kidney disease, and Killip IV at presentation. The cumulative rate of MACE at 1 year was significantly higher among women than men (17.5 vs. 10.2 %, p = 0.02, log-rank test). However, the association between women and a higher risk of MACE was attenuated after adjusting for age (HR 1.25, 95 % CI 0.77-2.00, p = 0.36) and other variables (HR 0.93, 95 % CI 0.36-2.44, p = 0.88). Adjustment for age and other risk factors attenuated sex differences in mid-term clinical outcomes among patients with ACS after emergency PCI.

  4. The role of endothelial cells on islet function and revascularization after islet transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Del Toro-Arreola, Alicia; Robles-Murillo, Ana Karina; Daneri-Navarro, Adrian; Rivas-Carrillo, Jorge David

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Islet transplantation has become a widely accepted therapeutic option for selected patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. However, in order to achieve insulin independence a great number of islets are often pooled from 2 to 4 pancreata donors. Mostly, it is due to the massive loss of islets immediately after transplant. The endothelium plays a key role in the function of native islets and during the revascularization process after islet transplantation. However, if a delayed revascularization occurs, even the remaining islets will also undergo to cell death and late graft dysfunction. Therefore, it is essential to understand how the signals are released from endothelial cells, which might regulate both differentiation of pancreatic progenitors and thereby maintenance of the graft function. New strategies to facilitate islet engraftment and a prompt revascularization could be designed to intervene and might lead to improve future results of islet transplantation. PMID:27002241

  5. Impact of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Chronic Total Occlusion in Non-Infarct-Related Arteries in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction (from the COREA-AMI Registry).

    PubMed

    Choi, Ik Jun; Koh, Yoon-Seok; Lim, Sungmin; Choo, Eun Ho; Kim, Jin Jin; Hwang, Byung-Hee; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Seo, Suk Min; Kim, Chan Joon; Park, Mahn-Won; Shin, Dong Il; Choi, Yun-Seok; Park, Hun-Jun; Her, Sung-Ho; Kim, Dong-Bin; Park, Chul Soo; Lee, Jong-Min; Moon, Keon Woong; Chang, Kiyuk; Kim, Hee Yeol; Yoo, Ki-Dong; Jeon, Doo Soo; Chung, Wook-Sung; Ahn, Youngkeun; Jeong, Myung Ho; Seung, Ki-Bae; Kim, Pum-Joon

    2016-04-01

    Chronic total occlusion (CTO) in a non-infarct-related artery (IRA) is an independent predictor of clinical outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This study evaluated the impact of successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for CTO of a non-IRA on the long-term clinical outcomes in patients with AMI. A total of 4,748 patients with AMI were consecutively enrolled in the Convergent Registry of Catholic and Chonnam University for AMI registry from January 2004 to December 2009. We enrolled 324 patients with CTO in a non-IRA. To adjust for baseline differences, propensity matching (96 matched pairs) was used to compare successful PCI and occluded CTO for the treatment of CTO in non-IRA. The primary clinical end points were all-cause mortality and a composite of the major adverse cardiac events, including cardiac death, MI, stroke, and any revascularization during the 5-year follow-up. Patients who received successful PCI for CTO of non-IRA had lower rates of all-cause mortality (16.7% vs 32.3%, hazard ratio 0.459, 95% CI 0.251 to 0.841, p = 0.012) and major adverse cardiac events (21.9% vs 55.2%, hazard ratio 0.311, 95% CI 0.187 to 0.516, p <0.001) compared with occluded CTO group. Subgroup analyses revealed that successful PCI resulted in a better mortality rate in patients with normal renal function compared to patients with chronic kidney disease (p = 0.010). In conclusion, successful PCI for CTO of non-IRA is associated with improved long-term clinical outcomes in patients with AMI.

  6. Prognostic Value of Coronary Computed Tomography Imaging in Patients at High Risk Without Symptoms of Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Dedic, Admir; Ten Kate, Gert-Jan R; Roos, Cornelis J; Neefjes, Lisan A; de Graaf, Michiel A; Spronk, Angela; Delgado, Victoria; van Lennep, Jeanine E Roeters; Moelker, Adriaan; Ouhlous, Mohamed; Scholte, Arthur J H A; Boersma, Eric; Sijbrands, Eric J G; Nieman, Koen; Bax, Jeroen J; de Feijter, Pim J

    2016-03-01

    At present, traditional risk factors are used to guide cardiovascular management of asymptomatic subjects. Intensified surveillance may be warranted in those identified as high risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study aims to determine the prognostic value of coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography (CCTA) next to the coronary artery calcium score (CACS) in patients at high CVD risk without symptoms suspect for coronary artery disease (CAD). A total of 665 patients at high risk (mean age 56 ± 9 years, 417 men), having at least one important CVD risk factor (diabetes mellitus, familial hypercholesterolemia, peripheral artery disease, or severe hypertension) or a calculated European systematic coronary risk evaluation of >10% were included from outpatient clinics at 2 academic centers. Follow-up was performed for the occurrence of adverse events including all-cause mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction, unstable angina, or coronary revascularization. During a median follow-up of 3.0 (interquartile range 1.3 to 4.1) years, adverse events occurred in 40 subjects (6.0%). By multivariate analysis, adjusted for age, gender, and CACS, obstructive CAD on CCTA (≥50% luminal stenosis) was a significant predictor of adverse events (hazard ratio 5.9 [CI 1.3 to 26.1]). Addition of CCTA to age, gender, plus CACS, increased the C statistic from 0.81 to 0.84 and resulted in a total net reclassification index of 0.19 (p <0.01). In conclusion, CCTA has incremental prognostic value and risk reclassification benefit beyond CACS in patients without CAD symptoms but with high risk of developing CVD.

  7. Major lower extremity amputation after multiple revascularizations: was it worth it?

    PubMed

    Reed, Amy B; Delvecchio, Cindy; Giglia, Joseph S

    2008-01-01

    Lower extremity revascularization is often described as excessively lesion-centric, with insufficient focus on the patient. We investigated patients' perspectives of multiple procedures for limb salvage that culminated in major lower extremity amputation. A prospective vascular surgery database was queried from January 2000 to December 2005 for patients who had undergone below-knee (BKA) or above-knee (AKA) amputation after failed lower extremity revascularization. Patients were surveyed via telephone by a vascular nurse regarding thoughts on undergoing multiple procedures for limb salvage, involvement in decision making, functional status (work, meal preparation, shopping, driving), use of prosthesis, and independence. The Social Security Death Index was utilized to verify patient survival. Amputations for infection were excluded. Seventy-eight patients underwent AKA or BKA after failed revascularization. Forty-six patients (59%) were alive at 5 years. Thirteen patients were lost to follow-up, leaving 33 available for survey. A total of 142 lower extremity revascularizations (median = 4/patient) were performed on these patients including 94 surgical bypasses (median = 3/patient) and 48 percutaneous interventions (median = 1/patient). Eighty-five percent (28 of 33 patients) of amputees surveyed would do everything to save the leg if faced with a similar scenario, regardless of the number of procedures. Fifty-four percent (18/33) of patients actively used a prosthesis, and 91% (30/33) resided at home. In retrospect, patients are willing to undergo multiple revascularizations--percutaneous or open--to attempt limb salvage even if the eventual result is major amputation. Independence and functional status appear to be obtainable in a majority of patients. Patient-oriented outcomes are necessary to guide revascularization, whether it is by a percutaneous or open technique.

  8. What Causes Coronary Microvascular Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Angina Atherosclerosis Coronary Heart Disease Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors ... Microvascular Disease? The same risk factors that cause atherosclerosis may cause coronary microvascular disease. Atherosclerosis is a ...

  9. Coronary revascularisation in women

    PubMed Central

    Mikhail, G W

    2006-01-01

    Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death in men and women worldwide. It is still considered a disease of men and there has been little recognition of its importance in women. Gender differences exist in acute and chronic ischaemia in terms of clinical manifestations, investigations and treatment. There are clear gender differences in coronary revascularisation with a higher mortality seen in women. At the time a woman presents with coronary artery disease she is older and has more co‐morbid factors. Furthermore, women have smaller coronary arteries making them more difficult to revascularise. In recent years there has been a general trend towards improved outcomes in women undergoing both surgical and percutaneous coronary intervention. The increasing use of drug eluting stents and adjunctive medical treatment as well as the use of off‐pump bypass surgery needs further evaluation in terms of gender differences. This article reviews the current literature on coronary revascularisation in women. PMID:16614263

  10. Prognostic value of coronary computed tomographic angiography among 1,125 consecutive military health care beneficiaries without known coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Gore, Rosco; Hulten, Edward; Cheezum, Michael K; Goyal, Manju; Fischer, Collin; Nguyen, Binh; Surry, Luke; Villines, Todd C

    2012-09-01

    We sought to assess the prognostic value of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) among military health care system beneficiaries. We identified 1,125 consecutive symptomatic patients without known coronary artery disease (CAD) referred for 64-slice CCTA (2006-2010) at a single center. CAD was assessed as none, < 50%, or > or = 50% (obstructive) coronary stenosis. A combined endpoint of major adverse events (death, myocardial infarction [MI], coronary revascularization > 90 days after CCTA) was assessed by Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards. The mean age was 50 +/- 12 years, 59% were male, and 617 (55%) had no CAD, 411 (37%) nonobstructive CAD, and 97 (9%) obstructive CAD on CCTA. During 2.0 +/- 1.1-year follow-up, there were 6 deaths, 3 MIs, and 6 revascularizations. There was 1 event in the no-CAD group (0.08%/year), 4 events in the nonobstructive group (0.5%/year), and 9 events in patients with obstructive CAD (4.5%/year) (p < 0.001). Patients with obstructive CAD had significantly increased combined adverse events. Increasing angina typicality and risk factors (hazard ratio [HR] 1.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.46; p = 0.01) and obstructive CAD (HR 12.1, 95% CI 3.99-36.9; p < 0.001) were independently predictive of events. Absence of CAD was associated with very low event rates, providing military health care system patients and providers confidence in regards to cardiovascular risk, future deployments, and occupational assignments.

  11. Bypass flap reconstruction, a novel technique for distal revascularization: outcome of first 10 clinical cases.

    PubMed

    Malikov, Serguei; Magnan, Pierre-Edouard; Casanova, Dominique; Lepantalo, Mauri; Valerio, Nicolas; Ayari, Raouf; Champsaur, Pierre; Branchereau, Alain

    2009-01-01

    Combined distal venous bypass grafting and free flap transfer can achieve successful treatment of soft tissue defects due to advanced leg ischemia. However, this combined approach is a complex technique involving multiple anastomoses on the same arterial axis with an increased risk of thrombosis. To reduce this risk, we have proposed a new bypass-flap (BF) reconstruction technique using an arterial graft and a free flap supplied by a collateral branch of the graft. The purpose of this report is to document the outcome in the first 10 patients treated using the BF reconstruction technique. From 2002 to 2004, a total of 10 patients with a mean age of 67 years (range 55-78) were treated using a BF. All patients presented critical ischemia with soft tissue defects resulting in exposure of tendons and muscles on the foot or ankle. Distal anastomosis was made between the distal branch of the BF and the pedal artery in five cases, the posterior tibial artery or plantar artery in four cases, and the peroneal artery in one case. In six cases proximal anastomosis was performed between the leg artery and arterial autograft. In the remaining four cases proximal anastomosis required extension of the bypass using a venous graft. The mean duration of hospitalization was 25 days. During the postoperative period, one patient died due to stercoral peritonitis and one patient required major amputation due to unrelenting sepsis. Bypass occlusion was not observed. Mean follow-up was 24 months (range 14-36). No patient was lost to follow-up and no patient died after the first 30 postoperative days. Follow-up examinations including clinical assessment and Doppler ultrasound imaging were performed at 3 months and every 6 months thereafter. Findings demonstrated bypass patency and healing of the covered defect in all cases. Outcome in this initial series demonstrates the clinical feasibility of the new BF reconstruction technique, which allows revascularization and coverage of tissue

  12. Assessment of coronary thrombolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Geltman, E.M.; Abendschein, D.R.; Devries, S.R.

    1987-02-01

    The efficacy of coronary thrombolysis may be assessed by several invasive and noninvasive means, including coronary angiography, contrast and radionuclide angiography, thallium 201 or /sup 99m/Tc-pyrophosphate scintigraphy, positron emission tomography, cardiac ultrasonography, electrocardiography, and analysis of plasma creatine kinase activity. Each technique has its own strengths and limitations, but when used in concert these methods may provide insight into the physiology of coronary reperfusion and the efficacy of reperfusion in individual patients and populations. 104 references.

  13. Long term prognosis of acute coronary syndrome with chronic renal dysfunction treated in different therapy units at department of cardiology: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Fu, Cong; Sheng, Zulong; Yao, Yuyu; Wang, Xin; Yu, Chaojun; Ma, Genshan

    2015-01-01

    Coronary care unit is common in hospitals and clinical centers which offer intensive care and therapy for severe coronary artery disease patients. However, if coronary care unit could improve the long term prognosis of acute coronary syndrome patients with renal dysfunction remain unknown. Accordingly, we designed this study to evaluate the differences of incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events for acute coronary syndromes patients with renal dysfunction who treated in coronary care unit or normal unit. The primary end point was all cause mortality. A total of 414 acute coronary syndromes patients with renal dysfunction involved in the study. The results showed that during 12-48 months follow-up, death of any cause occurred in 1.8% patients (4 of 247) in coronary care unit group, as compared with 1.8% in the normal group (3 of 167) (hazard ratio, 1.098; 95% confidence interval, 0.246 to 4.904; P=0.903). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that there were no significant differences between the two groups with respect to the risk of death (P=0.903), revascularization (P=0.948), stroke (P=0.542), heart failure (P=0.198). This trial firstly revealed that acute coronary syndromes patients with renal dysfunction treated in coronary care unit and normal units. Our study showed that acute coronary syndromes patients with renal dysfunction treated in coronary care unit obtained no significant benefits compared with patients in normal units, although there was a declining tendency of the risk of major adverse cardiovascular effectswith patients in coronary care unit.

  14. Long term prognosis of acute coronary syndrome with chronic renal dysfunction treated in different therapy units at department of cardiology: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Cong; Sheng, Zulong; Yao, Yuyu; Wang, Xin; Yu, Chaojun; Ma, Genshan

    2015-01-01

    Coronary care unit is common in hospitals and clinical centers which offer intensive care and therapy for severe coronary artery disease patients. However, if coronary care unit could improve the long term prognosis of acute coronary syndrome patients with renal dysfunction remain unknown. Accordingly, we designed this study to evaluate the differences of incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events for acute coronary syndromes patients with renal dysfunction who treated in coronary care unit or normal unit. The primary end point was all cause mortality. A total of 414 acute coronary syndromes patients with renal dysfunction involved in the study. The results showed that during 12-48 months follow-up, death of any cause occurred in 1.8% patients (4 of 247) in coronary care unit group, as compared with 1.8% in the normal group (3 of 167) (hazard ratio, 1.098; 95% confidence interval, 0.246 to 4.904; P=0.903). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that there were no significant differences between the two groups with respect to the risk of death (P=0.903), revascularization (P=0.948), stroke (P=0.542), heart failure (P=0.198). This trial firstly revealed that acute coronary syndromes patients with renal dysfunction treated in coronary care unit and normal units. Our study showed that acute coronary syndromes patients with renal dysfunction treated in coronary care unit obtained no significant benefits compared with patients in normal units, although there was a declining tendency of the risk of major adverse cardiovascular effectswith patients in coronary care unit. PMID:26770436

  15. On Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Versus Off Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Mohammad Yousuf-ul; Ahmed, Muhammad Umer; Khan, Muhammad Shahzeb; Bawany, Faizan Imran; Khan, Asadullah; Arshad, Mohammad Hussham

    2014-01-01

    There are two basic ways of performing coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG): on pump CABG and off pump CABG. Off pump CABG is relatively a newer procedure to on-pump CABG and does not require the use of the cardiopulmonary bypass machine. On pump CABG is the more traditional method of performing bypass surgery. However its resultant inflammatory effects cause renal dysfunction, gastrointestinal distress and cardiac abnormalities which have forced the surgeons to look for alternatives to the procedure. An extensive literature search revealed that on pump CABG causes better revascularization as compared to off pump CABG while off pump CABG has a much lower post operative morbidity and mortality especially in high risk patients. We suggest that the technique used should depend on the ease of the surgeon doing the operation as both the methods seem almost equally efficient according to the review. PMID:24762361

  16. Adjunctive intra-coronary imaging for the assessment of coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Nikunj; Ussen, Bassey

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerotic coronary artery disease remains a leading cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality. Invasive angiography currently remains the gold standard method of diagnosing and treating coronary disease; however, more sophisticated adjunctive interventional technologies have been developed to combat the inter and intra-observer variability frequently encountered in the assessment of lesion severity. Intravascular imaging now plays a key role in optimising percutaneous coronary interventions and provides invaluable information as part of the interventional cardiologist’s diagnostic arsenal. The principles, technical aspects and uses of two modalities of intracoronary imaging, intravascular ultrasound and optical coherence tomography, are discussed. We additionally provide examples of cases where the adjunctive intracoronary imaging was superior to angiography alone in successfully identifying and treating acute coronary syndromes. PMID:27540480

  17. Sirolimus-Eluting Stents vs Uncoated Stents for the Treatment of Proximal Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Valencia, José; Mainar, Vicente; Bordes, Pascual; Berenguer, Alberto; Ruiz-Nodar, Juan Miguel; Pineda, Javier; Gomez, Silvia; Sogorb, Francisco; Caturla, Juan

    2007-01-01

    Sirolimus-eluting stents (SES) have demonstrated low incidence of target vessel revascularizations in several anatomic scenarios, including proximal left anterior descending coronary artery (pLAD) lesions. The aim of present study was to compare the efficacy of SES with bare metal stents (BMS) for the treatment of such lesions. 96 patients with severe pLAD stenosis treated with SES were included. Clinical follow-up were performed during a 24 month period. A 98 patient sample with pLAD lesions treated with BMS was taken as control group. Death, angiographic restenosis, new target lesion revascularization (TLR) and target vessel failure (TVF) were registered. Clinical, angiographic and procedural variables were analysed to identify predictors of TVF and TLR. Angiographic procedural success was 100% in SES group vs 99% in BMS group (p=1.0). At 2.5 years, the cumulative rate of TVF was 9.4% in SES group vs 16.3% in BMS group (p=0.15), and the rate of TLR was 5.2% in SES group vs 12.2% in control group (p=0.08). The probabilities of cumulative TVF and TLR free survival were in BMS group 83.7% and 87.8%, and in SES group 90.6% and 94.8%, respectively. After multivariate analysis only SES utilization was found as independent protective factor against TVF and TLR (HR 0.38, 95%CI [0.15-0.94] p=0.037 and HR 0.21, 95%CI [0.06-0.66] p=0.008, respectively), and diabetes as independent predictor of TFV and TLR (HR 2.37, 95%CI [1.07-5.24] p=0.034 and HR 3.57, 95%CI [1.29-9.87] p=0.014, respectively). This study demonstrates that SES utilization is safe and effective in the tretament of pLAD lesions with a better clinical outcome than BMS in a long-term follow-up. PMID:23675052

  18. Clinical Relevance of Coronary Fractional Flow Reserve: Art-of-state

    PubMed Central

    Adiputra, Yohanes; Chen, Shao-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to delineate the current knowledge of fractional flow reserve (FFR) in terms of definition, features, clinical applications, and pitfalls of measurement of FFR. Data Sources: We searched database for primary studies published in English. The database of National Library of Medicine (NLM), MEDLINE, and PubMed up to July 2014 was used to conduct a search using the keyword term “FFR”. Study Selection: The articles about the definition, features, clinical application, and pitfalls of measurement of FFR were identified, retrieved, and reviewed. Results: Coronary pressure-derived FFR rapidly assesses the hemodynamic significance of individual coronary artery lesions and can readily be performed in the catheterization laboratory. The use of FFR has been shown to effectively guide coronary revascularization procedures leading to improved patient outcomes. Conclusions: FFR is a valuable tool to determine the functional significance of coronary stenosis. It combines physiological and anatomical information, and can be followed immediately by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) if necessary. The technique of FFR measurement can be performed easily, rapidly, and safely in the catheterization laboratory. By systematic use of FFR in dubious stenosis and multi-vessel disease, PCI can be made an even more effective and better treatment than it is currently. The current clinical evidence for FFR should encourage cardiologists to use this tool in the catheterization laboratory. PMID:25963364

  19. Nanoparticle Drug- and Gene-eluting Stents for the Prevention and Treatment of Coronary Restenosis

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Rui-Xing; Yang, De-Zhai; Wu, Jin-Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has become the most common revascularization procedure for coronary artery disease. The use of stents has reduced the rate of restenosis by preventing elastic recoil and negative remodeling. However, in-stent restenosis remains one of the major drawbacks of this procedure. Drug-eluting stents (DESs) have proven to be effective in reducing the risk of late restenosis, but the use of currently marketed DESs presents safety concerns, including the non-specificity of therapeutics, incomplete endothelialization leading to late thrombosis, the need for long-term anti-platelet agents, and local hypersensitivity to polymer delivery matrices. In addition, the current DESs lack the capacity for adjustment of the drug dose and release kinetics appropriate to the disease status of the treated vessel. The development of efficacious therapeutic strategies to prevent and inhibit restenosis after PCI is critical for the treatment of coronary artery disease. The administration of drugs using biodegradable polymer nanoparticles as carriers has generated immense interest due to their excellent biocompatibility and ability to facilitate prolonged drug release. Despite the potential benefits of nanoparticles as smart drug delivery and diagnostic systems, much research is still required to evaluate potential toxicity issues related to the chemical properties of nanoparticle materials, as well as to their size and shape. This review describes the molecular mechanism of coronary restenosis, the use of DESs, and progress in nanoparticle drug- or gene-eluting stents for the prevention and treatment of coronary restenosis. PMID:24465275

  20. Combination of low molecular weight heparins with antiplatelet agents in non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes: an update.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Marc

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews the use of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) and antiplatelet agents in the treatment of unstable angina and non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), which together account for 1 million hospitalisations annually in the US alone. Mortality and recurrent myocardial infarction (MI) in these conditions is currently approximately 8 to 16% at 1 month, and there is a need to optimise treatment further. Since their introduction, LMWHs have been shown to be successful and well tolerated in the treatment of unstable angina and NSTEMI, but differences have been seen in their efficacy compared with the parent compound, unfractionated heparin (UFH). A meta-analysis of all LMWHs, grouped, versus UFH showed equivalent efficacy and safety. The LMWHs dalteparin sodium and nadroparin calcium have independently been shown to be as effective as UFH. However, enoxaparin sodium has been shown to have greater clinical efficacy than UFH in patients with unstable angina (UA)/NSTEMI. One area of new research is patients with UA/NSTEMI who later undergo percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI), and early data suggest enoxaparin can be safely used as an anticoagulant instead of UFH in these patients. There is a wealth of data for glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa receptor antagonists (abciximab, eptifibatide, lamifiban, and tirofiban), although some are conflicting. Recent meta-analyses suggest that some benefit is conferred by using these compounds, particularly in patients who undergo PCI. Recent trials have focussed on combining GP IIb/IIIa antagonists with LMWH, and although data is still scant, the ACUTE (Anti-thrombotic Combination Using Tirofiban and Enoxaparin) and ACUTE II studies indicate the safety and potential clinical benefit of combining enoxaparin with tirofiban in patients with UA/NSTEMI not undergoing PCI, compared with UFH and tirofiban. The NICE (National Investigators Collaborating on Enoxaparin) 4 study collected data on the combination

  1. Progress in coronary angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Silverton, P

    1986-10-01

    Angioplasty offers an alternative to bypass grafting for an increasing number of patients with coronary artery disease. Improvements in catheter design and manufacture have been responsible for an enlargement of the indications which now include patients with multiple vessel coronary artery disease and those with acute evolving myocardial infarction. The application of laser technology may assist in the reopening of chronically occluded arteries.

  2. Coronary Heart Disease in Women: A Challenge for the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Solimene, Maria Cecília

    2010-01-01

    Heart disease is the first killer of women in the modern era, regardless of age, race and of ethnicity, although its prevalence rises after menopause. Modern women have professional and housewife responsibilities, consume excess of fat and carbohydrates, smoke, do not exercise regularly and do not have enough time to rest. This situation leads to overweight, dyslipidemia, arterial hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes. Women do not often participate in preventive studies and still undergo less intensive and invasive evaluation and treatment for chest pain when compared to men. However, the rate of coronary death is twice higher in women than in men after myocardial infarction and revascularization procedures. The objective of this review is to analyze the main gender differences regarding symptoms, diagnosis, management and prognosis of coronary heart disease and to discuss the influence of hormonal replacement therapy in the prevention of cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women. PMID:20126352

  3. Antithrombotic therapy in acute coronary syndromes: guidelines translated for the clinician.

    PubMed

    Gharacholou, S Michael; Lopes, Renato D; Washam, Jeffrey B; Newby, L Kristin; James, Stefan K; Alexander, John H

    2010-05-01

    The use of anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy during the management of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) has been associated with improvements in short- and long-term clinical outcomes, regardless of whether patients are managed conservatively or with acute coronary revascularization. Translating the existing evidence for selection of the most appropriate antithrombotic strategy has been summarized in available guideline recommendations. Given the breadth of antithrombotic recommendations across existing U.S. and European guidelines, synthesis of these recommendations for practicing clinicians who treat patients with ACS are increasingly desired. Providing a summary of the similarities across guidelines while noting the areas where divergence exists becomes an important facet in translating optimal antithrombotic management in ACS for the treating clinician. This review highlights the important aspects of clinical practice guidelines that practicing physicians should consider when selecting antithrombotic therapies to reduce ischemic risk while minimizing hemorrhagic risk across all ACS subtypes.

  4. Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting in high-risk patients: a review

    PubMed Central

    Chivasso, Pierpaolo; Fudulu, Daniel; Rapetto, Filippo; Sedmakov, Christo; Marsico, Roberto; Zakkar, Mustafa; Bryan, Alan J.; Angelini, Gianni D.

    2016-01-01

    The role of off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) grafting in high risk patients remains controversial. While there have been studies showing the potential benefits of it, there is still a lot to be learned from the application of this technique in this sub-group of patients. The results of the different trials and papers that we reviewed seem to indicate a benefit in the OPCAB group. Despite of the fact that trials were significantly different in methodology, especially when choosing the risk score stratification tool or the cut-off to define high risk the literature seems to suggest a benefit from the use of OPCAB surgery. Here, we present a review which focussed on early and late outcome in high risk patients undergoing on- and off-pump coronary revascularization. PMID:27942397

  5. Effect of Revascularization on Headache Associated with Moyamoya Disease in Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Bohara, Manoj; Sugata, Sei; Nishimuta, Yosuke; Karki, Prasanna; Nagayama, Tetsuya; Sakamoto, Shigeyuki; Tokimura, Hiroshi; Arita, Kazunori

    2015-09-01

    Episodic headache is common in childhood moyamoya disease (MMD). The onset, mechanism, cause of headache and the effect of revascularization surgery on headache are not yet clear. We studied 10 cases of children (7 boys and 3 girls) younger than 18 years who underwent revascularization for MMD between 2009 and 2013. We evaluated frequency of headache and cerebral blood flow changes by single photon emission computed tomography brain imaging with [I123]-labeled iofetamine (IMP-SPECT) before and after surgery. Patients' ages ranged from 0 to 15 years at onset and 2 to 17 years at the time of surgery, mean age being 6.7 and 8.0 years respectively. 9 of 10 patients presented with ischemic symptoms and 8 had headache. 5 patients underwent indirect bypass and 5 underwent combined direct and indirect bypass. Cerebral blood flow improvement was obtained in 14 of the 15 cerebral hemispheres revascularized. The mean follow-up duration was 32.9 months. All the patients had good outcomes with improvement of ischemic neurological deficits. Headache improved in 7 (87.5%) of 8 patients. Headache in pediatric moyamoya disease is associated with change in cerebral hemodynamics. Revascularization including combined direct bypass and indirect techniques may be required to reduce headache in patients with MMD.

  6. Conventional apexification and revascularization induced maturogenesis of two non-vital, immature teeth in same patient: 24 months follow up of a case.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Vivek; Miglani, Sanjay; Singla, Mamta

    2012-01-01

    Various authors have demonstrated the regenerative process in immature, non vital teeth by revascularization induced maturogenesis. The aim of this case report is to compare calcium hydroxide apexification and pulp revascularization induced maturation procedures in the same patient, in two different teeth. The right maxillary central incisor in this individual was treated with conventional calcium hydroxide induced apexification procedure followed by guttaperchaobturation, and the left maxillary central incisor was treated by pulp revascularization induced maturation procedures. 24 months follow-up shows root elongation and apical closure in the tooth treated with revascularization induced maturation procedures. Revascularization induced maturogenesis, where indicated, can provide several advantages over conventional apexification procedures.

  7. Pathophysiology of coronary collaterals.

    PubMed

    Stoller, Michael; Seiler, Christian

    2014-02-01

    While the existence of structural adaptation of coronary anastomoses is undisputed, the potential of coronary collaterals to be capable of functional adaptation has been questioned. For many years, collateral vessels were thought to be rigid tubes allowing only limited blood flow governed by the pressure gradient across them. This concept was consistent with the notion that although collaterals could provide adequate blood flow to maintain resting levels, they would be unable to increase blood flow sufficiently in situations of increased myocardial oxygen demand. However, more recent studies have demonstrated the capability of the collateral circulation to deliver sufficient blood flow even during exertion or pharmacologic stress. Moreover, it has been shown that increases in collateral flow could be attributed directly to collateral vasomotion. This review summarizes the pathophysiology of the coronary collateral circulation, ie the functional adapation of coronary collaterals to acute alterations in the coronary circulation.

  8. Pathophysiology of Coronary Collaterals#

    PubMed Central

    Stoller, Michael; Seiler, Christian

    2014-01-01

    While the existence of structural adaptation of coronary anastomoses is undisputed, the potential of coronary collaterals to be capable of functional adaptation has been questioned. For many years, collateral vessels were thought to be rigid tubes allowing only limited blood flow governed by the pressure gradient across them. This concept was consistent with the notion that although collaterals could provide adequate blood flow to maintain resting levels, they would be unable to increase blood flow sufficiently in situations of increased myocardial oxygen demand. However, more recent studies have demonstrated the capability of the collateral circulation to deliver sufficient blood flow even during exertion or pharmacologic stress. Moreover, it has been shown that increases in collateral flow could be attributed directly to collateral vasomotion. This review summarizes the pathophysiology of the coronary collateral circulation, ie the functional adapation of coronary collaterals to acute alterations in the coronary circulation. PMID:23701025

  9. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein Gene And Recurrent Coronary Heart Disease or Mortality in Patients with Established Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Virani, Salim S.; Lee, Vei-Vei; Brautbar, Ariel; Grove, Megan L.; Nambi, Vijay; Alam, Mahboob; Elayda, MacArthur; Wilson, James M.; Willerson, James T.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Ballantyne, Christie M.

    2013-01-01

    It is not known whether genetic variants in the cholesteryl-ester-transfer-protein (CETP) gene are associated with recurrent coronary heart disease events or mortality in secondary prevention patients. Among 3717 acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) patients enrolled in a prospective genetic registry; we evaluated whether CETP gene variants previously shown to be associated with reduced CETP activity and high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol increase (“A” allele for both TaqIB [rs708272] and rs12149545) are associated with a reduction in recurrent myocardial infarction [MI], recurrent revascularization or death. At 4.5 years of follow-up; 439 recurrent MI, 698 recurrent revascularizations and 756 deaths occurred. Using an additive model of inheritance, the “A” allele for rs708272 was not associated with recurrent MI (HR 0.95, 95% CI 0.78-1.17 for AG; HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.67-1.19 for AA; compared with GG genotype), recurrent revascularization (HR 1.13, 95% CI 0.95-1.33 for AG; HR 1.05, 95% CI 0.84-1.32 for AA) or mortality (HR 1.02, 95% CI 0.86-1.19 for AG; HR 1.11, 95% CI 0.91-1.37 for AA) in the overall cohort. Similar results were seen for the “A” allele for rs12149545. In the CABG subgroup, AG genotype for rs708272 was associated with an increased mortality (HR 1.38, 95% CI 1.06-1.79) compared to GG genotype. Results remained consistent using dominant model of inheritance. In conclusion, genetic CETP variants were not associated with recurrent MI or recurrent revascularization in overall cohort with a possible mortality increase in CABG patients. PMID:23891427

  10. Coronary plaque imaging by coronary computed tomography angiography

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) has become the useful noninvasive imaging modality alternative to the invasive coronary angiography for detecting coronary artery stenoses in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). With the development of technical aspects of coronary CTA, clinical practice and research are increasingly shifting toward defining the clinical implication of plaque morphology and patients outcomes by coronary CTA. In this review we discuss the coronary plaque morphology estimated by CTA beyond coronary angiography including the comparison to the currently available other imaging modalities used to examine morphological characteristics of the atherosclerotic plaque. Furthermore, this review underlies the value of a combined assessment of coronary anatomy and myocardial perfusion in patients with CAD, and adds to an increasing body of evidence suggesting an added diagnostic value when combining both modalities. We hope that an integrated, multi-modality imaging approach will become the gold standard for noninvasive evaluation of coronary plaque morphology and outcome data in clinical practice. PMID:24876919

  11. In-Hospital and One-Year Clinical Outcome of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in a Tertiary Hospital in Oman: Oman PCI Registry

    PubMed Central

    Panduranga, Prashanth; Al-Rashidi, Majdah; Al-Hajri, Fatma

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to investigate the in-hospital and one-year clinical outcome of patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in a tertiary hospital in Oman. Methods We conducted a retrospective, single-center, observational study looking at patients > 18 years old who underwent a PCI from 1 January to 31 December 2013. The primary end point was the occurrence of a major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE), defined as death, any myocardial infarction (MI), cerebrovascular accident (CVA), and target vessel revascularization (TVR) with either repeat PCI or coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). Secondary end-points included procedural success rate, angina status, stent thrombosis, and the rate of redo-PCI/CABG for in-stent restenosis. Results A total of 1 045 consecutive patients were analyzed. The mean age of the cohort was 58.2±11.2 years. Hyperlipidemia (66.8%), hypertension (55.1%), and diabetes mellitus (45.9%) were the predominant risk factors. Stable angina, ST-elevation MI, non-ST-elevation MI, and post-acute coronary syndrome (ACS) were common indications (approximately 20.0% each). The angiographic and procedural success rate was 95.0%. Forty-six percent of patients had single-vessel disease, 34.4% had double vessel disease, and triple vessel disease was seen in 19.1% of patients. Ninety-eight percent had balloon angioplasty with stenting, and only 1.9% of patients had balloon angioplasty without stenting. The majority of patients had single-vessel stenting (81.3%). A drug-eluting stent was used in 88.4% of patients, and a bare-metal stent in 11.6%. In-hospital MACE was 3.6%. There were 19 in-hospital deaths (1.8%), and four patients (0.4%) had CVA/MI. Out of 1 026 patients discharged, 100 patients were lost to follow-up. Among the 926 patients followed-up, 673 patients (72.7%) were asymptomatic. One-year MACE was 17.0%, including 5.0% death and 6.0% MI. Repeat revascularization was performed in 53 patients (5

  12. The potential cost-effectiveness of the Diamondback 360® Coronary Orbital Atherectomy System for treating de novo, severely calcified coronary lesions: an economic modeling approach

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Jeffrey; Généreux, Philippe; Lee, Arthur; Lewin, Jack; Young, Christopher; Crittendon, Janna; Mann, Marita; Garrison, Louis P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patients who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for severely calcified coronary lesions have long been known to have worse clinical and economic outcomes than patients with no or mildly calcified lesions. We sought to assess the likely cost-effectiveness of using the Diamondback 360® Orbital Atherectomy System (OAS) in the treatment of de novo, severely calcified lesions from a health-system perspective. Methods and results: In the absence of a head-to-head trial and long-term follow up, cost-effectiveness was based on a modeled synthesis of clinical and economic data. A cost-effectiveness model was used to project the likely economic impact. To estimate the net cost impact, the cost of using the OAS technology in elderly (⩾ 65 years) Medicare patients with de novo severely calcified lesions was compared with cost offsets. Elderly OAS patients from the ORBIT II trial (Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of OAS in Treating Severely Calcified Coronary Lesions) [ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01092426] were indirectly compared with similar patients using observational data. For the index procedure, the comparison was with Medicare data, and for both revascularization and cardiac death in the following year, the comparison was with a pooled analysis of the Harmonizing Outcomes with Revascularization and Stents in Acute Myocardial Infarction (HORIZONS-AMI)/Acute Catheterization and Urgent Intervention Triage Strategy (ACUITY) trials. After adjusting for differences in age, gender, and comorbidities, the ORBIT II mean index procedure costs were 17% (p < 0.001) lower, approximately US$2700. Estimated mean revascularization costs were lower by US$1240 in the base case. These cost offsets in the first year, on average, fully cover the cost of the device with an additional 1.2% cost savings. Even in the low-value scenario, the use of the OAS is cost-effective with a cost per life-year gained of US$11,895. Conclusions: Based on economic modeling

  13. Visualization of Coronary Arteries from Intravenous Angiograms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selzer, Robert H.

    1985-01-01

    Under most circumstances, the coronary arteries are not satisfactorily visualized in intravenous angiograms. The objective of this study is to develop computer image enhancement methods that will improve the quality of the latent coronary images to a degree sufficient to detect an obstructive lesion. Such a technique, if successful, could be used as a first step alternative to conventional coronary angiography for individuals with ambiguous noninvasive cardiac tests. The determination of no lesion from the intravenous procedure would relieve the need for the conventional angiogram, while verification of an obstructive lesion could be followed by a conventional angiogram. The nature of the imaging problem and a description of the methods and initial processing results are described in this paper.

  14. Technical Considerations of Giant Right Coronary Artery Aneurysm Exclusion

    PubMed Central

    Barr, James; Kourliouros, Antonios

    2016-01-01

    Giant coronary artery aneurysms are rare clinical entities. We report the case of a 49-year-old man who presented with dyspnoea and exertional chest pain. Investigations confirmed an aneurysmal right coronary artery measuring 4 cm with a fistulous communication to the right atrium. Following right atriotomy, the fistula was oversewn and the aneurysmal right coronary artery ligated at its origin and at several points along its course. A saphenous vein graft was anastomosed to the posterior descending artery. Persistent ventricular fibrillation occurred upon chest closure, attributed to ischaemia following ligation of the aneurysmal coronary artery. Emergent resternotomy and internal defibrillation were successfully performed. The sternum was stented open to reduce right ventricular strain and closed the following day. The patient made an unremarkable recovery. We here address the technical challenges associated with surgical repair of right coronary aneurysms and the physiology and management of potential complications. PMID:28018699

  15. Intravascular ultrasound guidance of percutaneous coronary intervention in ostial chronic total occlusions: a description of the technique and procedural results.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Nicola; Gonzalo, Nieves; Dingli, Philip; Cruz, Oscar Vedia; Jiménez-Quevedo, Pilar; Nombela-Franco, Luis; Nuñez-Gil, Ivan; Trigo, María Del; Salinas, Pablo; Macaya, Carlos; Fernandez-Ortiz, Antonio; Escaned, Javier

    2017-02-14

    Inability to cross the lesion with a guidewire is the most common reason for failure in percutaneous revascularization (PCI) of chronic total occlusions (CTOs). An ostial or stumpless CTO is an acknowledged challenge for CTO recanalization due to difficulty in successful wiring. IVUS imaging provides the opportunity to visualize the occluded vessel and to aid guidewire advancement. We review the value of this technique in a single-centre experience of CTO PCI. This series involves 22 patients who underwent CTO-PCI using IVUS guidance for stumpless CTO wiring at our institution. CTO operators with extensive IVUS experience in non-CTO cases carried out all procedures. Procedural and outcome data was prospectively entered into the institutional database and a retrospective analysis of clinical, angiographic and technical data performed. 17 (77%) of the 22 procedures were successful. The mean age was 59.8 ± 11.5 years, and 90.9% were male. The most commonly attempted lesions were located in the left anterior descending 36.4% (Soon et al. in J Intervent Cardiol 20(5):359-366, 2007) and Circumflex artery (LCx) 31.8% (Mollet et al. in Am J Cardiol 95(2):240-243, 2005). Mean JCTO score was 3.09 ± 0.75 (3.06 ± 0.68, 3.17 ± 0.98 in the successful and failed groups respectively p = 0.35). The mean contrast volume was 378.7 ml ± 114.7 (389.9 ml ± 130.5, 349.2 ml ± 52.2 p = 0.3 in the successful and failed groups respectively). There was no death, coronary artery bypass grafting or myocardial infarction requiring intervention in this series. When the success rates were analyzed taking into account the date of adoption of this technique, the learning curve had no significant impact on CTO-PCI success. This series describes a good success rate in IVUS guided stumpless wiring of CTOs in consecutive patients with this complex anatomical scenario.

  16. Colchicine to Reduce Atrial Fibrillation in the Postoperative Period of Myocardial Revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Zarpelon, Camila Stuchi; Netto, Miguel Chomiski; Jorge, José Carlos Moura; Fabris, Cátia Carolina; Desengrini, Dieli; Jardim, Mariana da Silva; da Silva, Diego Guedes

    2016-01-01

    Background The high prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) in the postoperative period of myocardial revascularization surgery increases morbidity and mortality. Objective To assess the efficacy of colchicine to prevent AF in the postoperative period of myocardial revascularization surgery, the impact of AF on hospital length of stay and death, and to identify its risk factors. Methods Between May 2012 and November 2013, 140 patients submitted to myocardial revascularization surgery were randomized, 69 to the control group and 71 to the colchicine group. Colchicine was used at the dose of 1 mg orally, twice daily, preoperatively, and of 0.5 mg, twice daily, until hospital discharge. A single dose of 1 mg was administered to those admitted 12 hours or less before surgery. Results The primary endpoint was AF rate in the postoperative period of myocardial revascularization surgery. Colchicine group patients showed no reduction in AF incidence as compared to control group patients (7.04% versus 13.04%, respectively; p = 0.271). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups regarding death from any cause rate (5.6% versus 10.1%; p = 0,363) and hospital length of stay (14.5 ± 11.5 versus 13.3 ± 9.4 days; p = 0.490). However, colchicine group patients had a higher infection rate (26.8% versus 8.7%; p = 0.007). Conclusion The use of colchicine to prevent AF after myocardial revascularization surgery was not effective in the present study. Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials number RBR-556dhr. PMID:27223641

  17. Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Left Main Coronary Artery Disease — A Single Hospital Experience without On-Site Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Hsiao-Yang; Wang, Kuang-Te; Lin, Wen-Hsiung; Tsai, Jui-Peng; Chen, Yung-Tzi

    2015-01-01

    Background To investigate the safety and outcome of percutaneous coronary intervention for left main coronary artery disease in hospital without on-site cardiac surgery. Methods Between January 2007 and December 2010, all patients diagnosed with left main coronary artery disease and refused coronary artery bypass graft surgery in our hospital or a tertiary center, were enrolled. Data including clinical course, angiographic characteristics, and 1- and 3-years outcomes were recorded and analyzed. Results Seventy patients (mean age 73.4 ± 10.2 years, 47 male, 23 females) were treated with a mean SYNTAX score of 34.8 ± 12.6 and EuroSCORE of 6.7 ± 3.3. Thirty-two (45.7%) patients had stable angina, 35 (50.0%) had unstable angina/non ST-elevation myocardial infarction, and 3 (4.3%) had ST-elevation Myocardial infarction. Forty-three (61.4%) patients received a single-stent, 26 (37.1%) received two-stents, and 1 (1.4%) received balloon angioplasty. No procedure-related mortalities were noted and no emergency coronary artery bypass graft surgery was required. In the 3-year follow-up period, 2 (2.9%) patients had non-fetal myocardial infarction, 11 (15.7%) had left main target lesion revascularization. The major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events rates were 24.3% at 1 year and 37.1% at 3-years. The all-cause mortality rate was 41.4% (29 patients), including 18 (25.7%) cases of septic shock, 7 (10.0%) of sudden cardiac death, 2 (2.8%) of hypovolemic shock due to upper gastrointestinal bleeding, 1 (1.4%) of terminal stage malignancy, and 1 (1.4%) of suffocation at 3 years. Conclusions Percutaneous coronary intervention for patients with left main coronary artery disease was found to be a safe and effective strategy in our hospital without on-site cardiac surgery. PMID:27122882

  18. Meta-analysis of the effect of percutaneous coronary intervention on chronic total coronary occlusions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose Coronary chronic total occlusion (CTO) is the last stage of coronary artery atherosclerosis. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a therapeutic procedure used to recanalize vessels with total occlusion. However, successful recanalization of CTO is still not optimal, and the key influence factors are still uncertainty. Therefore, a scientific evaluation on the effective of PCI for CTO treatment is necessary. Methods Relevant studies of PCI treatment for CTO were examined. Data were extracted and assessed by two independent clinical experts. Embase, PubMed and Medline et al. were used as database. The main research key words include “CTO”, “PCI”, “Stent”, “Reopen”, “long-term”, “follow-up” and “outcome”. Quality assessment was carried out according to the Cochrane Handbook. The selected data were pooled and analyzed using fixed-effect model and random-effect model. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I2 test, Q test, L’abbe and Galbraith. Comprehensive Meta -Analysis 2.0 and Metanalysis 1.0 were used for statistics analysis in this research. Results A total of 16 articles involving 6695 cases in successful CTO recanalization (CTO success group) and 2370 cases in failed CTO recanalization(CTO failure group) were included in this research. Low CTO success was associated with elder age, previous coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) history, multi-vessel diseases and right coronary artery disease lesion. Six follow-up variables including major adverse cardiac events (MACE), recurrent myocardial infarction (MI), all-cause death, incidence of angina, subsequent CABG and cumulative survival rate were found significantly reduced associated with CTO success. Conclusions Clinical baseline characteristics such as age, previous CABG history and lesion baseline characteristics such as lesion length, multi-vessel diseases might be important factors influencing the successful rate of CTO recanalization. Compared to

  19. [Pregnancy and coronary artery dissection].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Quintana, Efrén; Rodríguez-González, Fayna

    2015-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction during pregnancy is associated with high maternal and fetal mortality. Coronary atherosclerosis is the most common cause due to an increase in the age of the patients and the association with cardiovascular risk factors such as smoking, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, preeclampsia, and the existence of family history of coronary disease. However, thrombosis, coronary dissection or coronary vasospasms are other causes that may justify it. We report the case of a 33 weeks pregnant first-time mother, without cardiovascular risk factors, who presented an acute coronary event in the context of atherosclerotic disease and coronary dissection after percutaneous coronary intervention.

  20. Recurrent post-partum coronary artery dissection

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Coronary artery dissection is a rare but well-described cause for myocardial infarction during the post-partum period. Dissection of multiple coronary arteries is even less frequent. Here we present a case of recurrent post-partum coronary artery dissections. This unusual presentation poses unique problems for management. A 35 year-old female, gravida 3 para 2, presented with myocardial infarction 9 weeks and 3 days post-partum. Cardiac catheterization demonstrated left anterior descending (LAD) dissection but an otherwise normal coronary anatomy. The lesion was treated with four everolimus eluting stents. Initially the patient made an unremarkable recovery until ventricular fibrillation arrest occurred on the following day. Unsynchronized cardioversion restored a normal sinus rhythm and repeat catheterization revealed new right coronary artery (RCA) dissection. A wire was passed distally, but it was unclear whether this was through the true or false lumen and no stents could be placed. However, improvement of distal RCA perfusion was noted on angiogram. Despite failure of interventional therapy the patient was therefore treated conservatively. Early operation after myocardial infarction has a significantly elevated risk of mortality and the initial dissection had occurred within 24 hours. This strategy proved successful as follow-up transthoracic echocardiography after four months demonstrated a preserved left ventricular ejection fraction of 55-60% without regional wall motion abnormalities. The patient remained asymptomatic from a cardiac point of view. PMID:20932332

  1. Recurrent post-partum coronary artery dissection.

    PubMed

    Rajab, Taufiek K; Khalpey, Zain; Kraemer, Bernhard; Resnic, Frederic S; Gallegos, Robert P

    2010-10-09

    Coronary artery dissection is a rare but well-described cause for myocardial infarction during the post-partum period. Dissection of multiple coronary arteries is even less frequent. Here we present a case of recurrent post-partum coronary artery dissections. This unusual presentation poses unique problems for management. A 35 year-old female, gravida 3 para 2, presented with myocardial infarction 9 weeks and 3 days post-partum. Cardiac catheterization demonstrated left anterior descending (LAD) dissection but an otherwise normal coronary anatomy. The lesion was treated with four everolimus eluting stents. Initially the patient made an unremarkable recovery until ventricular fibrillation arrest occurred on the following day. Unsynchronized cardioversion restored a normal sinus rhythm and repeat catheterization revealed new right coronary artery (RCA) dissection. A wire was passed distally, but it was unclear whether this was through the true or false lumen and no stents could be placed. However, improvement of distal RCA perfusion was noted on angiogram. Despite failure of interventional therapy the patient was therefore treated conservatively. Early operation after myocardial infarction has a significantly elevated risk of mortality and the initial dissection had occurred within 24 hours. This strategy proved successful as follow-up transthoracic echocardiography after four months demonstrated a preserved left ventricular ejection fraction of 55-60% without regional wall motion abnormalities. The patient remained asymptomatic from a cardiac point of view.

  2. Nine-year clinical outcomes of drug-eluting stents vs. bare metal stents for large coronary vessel lesions

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Dong; Li, Jia; Yang, Yue-Jin; Wang, Yang; Zhao, Yan-Yan; You, Shi-Jie; Qiao, Shu-Bin; Xu, Bo; Dou, Ke-Fei

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the very long-term safety and effectiveness of drug-eluting stents (DES) compared to bare-metal stents (BMS) for patients with large coronary vessels. Methods From April 2004 to October 2006, 2407 consecutive patients undergoing de novo lesion percutaneous coronary intervention with reference vessel diameter greater than or equal to 3.5 mm at Fu Wai Hospital in Beijing, China, were prospectively enrolled into this study. We obtained 9-year clinical outcomes including death, myocardial infarction (MI), thrombosis, target lesion revascularization (TLR), target vessel revascularization (TVR), and major adverse cardiac events (MACE, the composite of death, MI, and TVR). We performed Cox's proportional-hazards models to assess relative risks of all the outcome measures after propensity match. Results After propensity scoring, 514 DES-treated patients were matched to 514 BMS-treated patients. The patients treated with BMS were associated with higher risk of TLR (HR: 2.55, 95%CI: 1.520–4.277, P = 0.0004) and TVR (HR: 1.889, 95%CI: 1.185–3.011, P = 0.0075), but the rates of death/MI and MACE were not statistically different. All Academic Research Consortium definition stent thrombosis at 9-year were comparable in the two groups. Conclusions During long-term follow-up through nine years, use of DES in patients with large coronary arteries was still associated with significant reductions in the risks of TLR and TVR.

  3. Pedal-plantar loop technique for a challenging below-the-knee chronic total occlusion: a novel approach to percutaneous revascularization in critical lower limb ischemia.

    PubMed

    Fusaro, Massimiliano; Dalla Paola, Luca; Biondi-Zoccai, Giuseppe

    2007-02-01

    Arterial revascularization by means of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) is a mainstay in the management of patients with peripheral artery disease and critical limb ischemia (CLI). However, when employing standard approaches, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) of below-the-knee arteries may fail in up to 20% of cases. In the present article, we report on a novel interventional strategy, the pedal-plantar loop technique, which we successfully employed in a patient with critical lower limb ischemia. This technique may sensibly increase success rates of PTA in very challenging total occlusions of below-the-knee arteries (e.g., those lacking a proximal occlusion stump). Technical points pertinent to this case are clearly illustrated, including the need to accurately choose guidewires and balloons of appropriate length, and the extensive use of the subintimal angioplasty technique.

  4. Sex differences in coronary catheterization and revascularization following acute myocardial infarction: time trends from 1994 to 2003 in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Sedlak, Tara L; Pu, Aihua; Aymong, Eve; Gao, Min; Khan, Nadia; Quan, Hude; Humphries, Karin H

    2010-01-01

    HISTORIQUE : Les études menées au tournant du siècle faisaient état de différences de taux d'interventions selon les sexes. On ne sait pas si ces différences persistent. OBJECTIFS : Examiner les tendances dans le temps et les différences selon les sexes du cathétérisme coronarien et de la revascularisation après un infarctus aigu du myocarde (IAM). MÉTHODOLOGIE : Les chercheurs ont procédé à une analyse rétrospective de tous les patients de 20 ans ou plus hospitalisés en Colombie-Britannique en raison d'un IAM entre le 1 avril 1994 et le 31 mars 2003. L'analyse de régression segmentée a permis d'examiner le point d'inflexion de la tendance dans le temps des taux de cathétérisme 90 jours après un IAM. Le modèle de régression de Cox multivariable a permis d'évaluer les différences d'administration de cathétérisme et de revascularisation selon les sexes après un IAM. RÉSULTATS : Les taux de cathétérismes coronaires au bout de 90 jours ont considérablement augmenté pendant la période de l'étude, tant chez les hommes que chez les femmes (P<0,0001 en matière de tendance), l'augmentation étant plus marquée à compter de septembre 2000. Les femmes étaient moins susceptibles de subir un cathétérisme que les hommes, même après rajustement des différences de départ. Cet effet attribuable au sexe changeait selon l'âge et les soins à l'unité de soins intensifs ou de soins cardiaques (USI-USC). Notamment, l'hospitalisation à l'USI-USC éliminait la différence selon les sexes chez les patients de moins de 65 ans. Sous réserve d'avoir reçu un cathétérisme cardiaque après l'IAM, le sexe féminin ne s'associait pas à une diminution de la probabilité d'avoir reçu une revascularisation au bout d'un an (FC 0,96; 95 % IC 0,91 à 1,02). CONCLUSIONS : Malgré l'augmentation récente du taux de cathétérisme après un IAM, les femmes étaient moins susceptibles de subir un cathétérisme que les hommes. Fait intéressant, l'accès à l'USI-USC faisait disparaître la différence d'accès au cathétérisme chez les patients de moins de 65 ans.

  5. Comments on the 2015 ESC Guidelines for the Management of Acute Coronary Syndromes in Patients Presenting Without Persistent ST-segment Elevation.

    PubMed

    Barrabes, J

    2015-12-01

    Patients who have undergone angioplasty with stenting can be reintegrated into normal life at an early stage, thanks to the absence of sequelae associated with the procedure itself. Consequently, these patients can be involved earlier in the second stage of cardiac rehabilitation. Although rehabilitation for coronary patients follows the general guidelines used for all patients, which were developed with the secondary prevention of coronary artery atherosclerosis in mind, the specific form of rehabilitation adopted for each individual with ischemic heart disease will depend on the patient's circumstances, including the revascularization technique used. Regular physical exercise (i.e. physical training), in itself, has substantial cardiovascular benefits for both primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention. In patients who have had a myocardial infarction, training decreases mortality, increases functional capacity and improves ventricular function and remodeling. It is also thought to boost the collateral circulation. In addition, training improves endothelial function and stimulates the circulation of stem cells. It has been shown that physical training after percutaneous revascularization decreases the number of cardiac events. Moreover, in patients with stable angina, it results in fewer events than percutaneous revascularization.

  6. Coronary atherectomy: report of the first experience in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Shen, E N; Chen, R; Ashmore, R; Kai, W; White, R; Scully, N; Grattan, M

    1992-12-01

    Since Andreas Gruentzig first introduced percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) in 1977, the ability to revascularize occluded coronary vessels with a catheter has enjoyed an explosive and unimaginable growth. As the equipment and operator experience improved, the possibilities appeared boundless. However, balloon angioplasty is hampered by a significant restenosis rate in the dilated vessel (approximately 30%), which is higher in selected locations (up to 60% in the proximal left anterior descending artery), even in the best of hands. This fundamental limitation may in part be due to the actual nature of the technique itself--stretching the vessel and fissuring the plaque causing remodeling without removal. The uneven, exposed vessel surface post-plaque rupture may contribute to activation of the hemostatic system, with acute thrombosis and release of various platelet and endothelial-derived growth factors, leading to long-term tissue proliferation and restenosis. Atherectomy, the mechanical removal of plaque from the vessel wall, appears to be an answer. This process actually debulks the culprit tissue and leaves behind a smoother, presumably less thrombogenic surface. We wish to report our first experience with a specific form of this technique in 4 consecutive patients, with a brief discussion of its promises and limitations.

  7. Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting in octogenarians

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced life expectancy has confronted cardiac surgery with a rapidly growing population of octogenarians needing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Octogenarians are deemed a high-risk patient population with increased postoperative morbidity and mortality following conventional CABG using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). In such patients reducing the invasiveness of the surgical procedure by avoiding CPB may be tried in an attempt to improve outcomes. The increasing performance of off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) grafting within certain centers reflects surgeon preference to avoid the inherent risks of CPB and cardioplegic arrest including hemodilution, nonpulsatile arterial flow, global myocardial ischemia, atherosclerotic embolization from aortic manipulation, and systemic inflammatory response. Although OPCAB grafting is a well-established surgical myocardial revascularization strategy, its actual benefits in terms of morbidity and mortality remain questionable in the general population. In the higher risk octogenarian patients, however, there is a potential for more tangible clinical benefits when CPB is avoided. This review article provides an overview of the impact of OPCAB grafting on postoperative mortality and morbidity in octogenarians. PMID:27942398

  8. Coronary Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common type of heart disease. It is the leading cause of death ... both men and women. CAD happens when the arteries that supply blood to heart muscle become hardened ...

  9. Coronary artery fistulas

    PubMed Central

    Said, S.A.M.; Thiadens, A.A.H.J.; Fieren, M.J.C.H.; Meijboom, E.J.; van der Werf, T.; Bennink, G.B.W.E.

    2002-01-01

    The aetiology of congenital coronary artery fistulas remains a challenging issue. Coronary arteries with an anatomically normal origin may, for obscure reasons, terminate abnormally and communicate with different single or multiple cardiac chambers or great vessels. When this occurs, the angiographic morphological appearance may vary greatly from discrete channels to plexiform network of vessels. Coronary arteriovenous fistulas (CAVFs) have neither specific signs nor pathognomonic symptoms; the spectrum of clinical features varies considerably. The clinical presentation of symptomatic cases can include angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, fatigue, dyspnoea, CHF, SBE, ventricular and supraventricular tachyarrhythmias or even sudden cardiac death. CAVFs may, however, be a coincidental finding during diagnostic coronary angiography (CAG). CAG is considered the gold standard for diagnosing and delineating the morphological anatomy and pathway of CAVFs. There are various tailored therapeutic modalities for the wide spectrum of clinical manifestations of CAVFs, including conservative pharmacological strategy, percutaneous transluminal embolisation and surgical ligation. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:25696067

  10. Acute Coronary Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... angina? This content was last reviewed July 2015. Heart Attack • Home • About Heart Attacks Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) ... Recovery FAQs • Heart Attack Tools & Resources • Support Network Heart Attack Tools & Resources What Is a Heart Attack? How ...

  11. Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    MedlinePlus

    ... to open coronary arteries that are narrowed or blocked by the buildup of atherosclerotic plaque. PCI may ... that will highlight the blockage. To open a blocked artery, your doctor will insert another catheter over ...

  12. Coronary artery spasm

    MedlinePlus

    ... blocker or a long-acting nitrate long-term. Beta-blockers are another type of medicine that is used with other coronary artery problems. However, beta-blockers may make this problem worse. They should be ...

  13. Five-Year Outcomes after Off-Pump or On-Pump Coronary-Artery Bypass Grafting.

    PubMed

    Lamy, André; Devereaux, P J; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Taggart, David P; Hu, Shengshou; Straka, Zbynek; Piegas, Leopoldo S; Avezum, Alvaro; Akar, Ahmet R; Lanas Zanetti, Fernando; Jain, Anil R; Noiseux, Nicolas; Padmanabhan, Chandrasekar; Bahamondes, Juan-Carlos; Novick, Richard J; Tao, Liang; Olavegogeascoechea, Pablo A; Airan, Balram; Sulling, Toomas-Andres; Whitlock, Richard P; Ou, Yongning; Gao, Peggy; Pettit, Shirley; Yusuf, Salim

    2016-12-15

    Background We previously reported that there was no significant difference at 30 days or at 1 year in the rate of the composite outcome of death, stroke, myocardial infarction, or renal failure between patients who underwent coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG) performed with a beating-heart technique (off-pump) and those who underwent CABG performed with cardiopulmonary bypass (on-pump). We now report the results at 5 years (the end of the trial). Methods A total of 4752 patients (from 19 countries) who had coronary artery disease were randomly assigned to undergo off-pump or on-pump CABG. For this report, we analyzed a composite outcome of death, stroke, myocardial infarction, renal failure, or repeat coronary revascularization (either CABG or percutaneous coronary intervention). The mean follow-up period was 4.8 years. Results There were no significant differences between the off-pump group and the on-pump group in the rate of the composite outcome (23.1% and 23.6%, respectively; hazard ratio with off-pump CABG, 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.87 to 1.10; P=0.72) or in the rates of the components of the outcome, including repeat coronary revascularization, which was performed in 2.8% of the patients in the off-pump group and in 2.3% of the patients in the on-pump group (hazard ratio, 1.21; 95% CI, 0.85 to 1.73; P=0.29). The secondary outcome for the overall period of the trial - the mean cost in U.S. dollars per patient - also did not differ significantly between the off-pump group and the on-pump group ($15,107 and $14,992, respectively; between-group difference, $115; 95% CI, -$697 to $927). There were no significant between-group differences in quality-of-life measures. Conclusions In our trial, the rate of the composite outcome of death, stroke, myocardial infarction, renal failure, or repeat revascularization at 5 years of follow-up was similar among patients who underwent off-pump CABG and those who underwent on-pump CABG. (Funded by the Canadian

  14. Treatment of inoperable coronary disease and refractory angina: spinal stimulators, epidurals, gene therapy, transmyocardial laser, and counterpulsation.

    PubMed

    Svorkdal, Nelson

    2004-03-01

    Intractable angina from refractory coronary disease is a severe form of myocardial ischemia for which revascularization provides no prognostic benefit. Inoperable coronary disease is also accompanied by a "vicious cycle" of myocardial dystrophy from a chronic alteration of the cardiac sympathetic tone and sensitization of damaged cardiac tissues. Several adjunctive treatments have demonstrated efficacy when revascularization is either unsuccessful or contraindicated. Spinal cord stimulation modifies the neurologic input and output of the heart by delivering a very low dose of electrical current to the dorsal columns of the high thoracic spinal cord. Neural fibers then release CGRP and other endogenous peptides to the coronary circulation reducing myocardial oxygen demand and enhancing vasodilation of collaterals to improve the myocardial blood flow of the most diseased regions of the heart. Randomized study has shown the survival data at five years is comparable to bypass for high-risk patients. Transmyocardial laser revascularization creates small channels into ischemic myocardium in an effort to enhance flow though studies have shown no improvement in prognosis over medical therapy alone. Enhanced external counterpulsation uses noninvasive pneumatic compression of the legs to improve diastolic filling of the coronary vessels and promote development of collateral flow. The compressor regimen requires thirty-five hours of therapy over a seven-week treatment period. Therapeutic angiogenesis requires injection of cytokines to promote neovascularization and improve myocardial perfusion into the regions affected by chronic ischemia. Phase 3 trials are pending. High thoracic epidural blockade produces a rapid and potent sympatholysis, coronary vasodilation and reduced myocardial oxygen demand in refractory coronary disease. This technique can be used as an adjunct to bypass surgery or medical therapy in chronic or acute unstable angina. Epidurals are easy to perform and

  15. Huge Left Atrial Myxoma and Concomitant Silent Coronary Artery Disease in a Young Man

    PubMed Central

    Gennari, Marco; Rubino, Mara; Andreini, Daniele; Polvani, Gianluca; Agrifoglio, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Severe but silent coronary artery disease may rarely exist in young patients with a low-risk profile but with a family history of coronary artery disease. We describe the case of a 33-year-old Caucasian male with progressive shortness of breath caused by a huge left atrial myxoma who was diagnosed to have significant coronary artery disease in the preoperative assessment. After investigations, the patient underwent resection of the left atrial tumor and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with a successful outcome. Even in the case of a young male, it may be prudent to investigate silent coronary artery disease in the presence of cardiovascular risk factors and family history of coronary artery disease. The learning objective of this case is to debate about the usefulness of a preoperative coronary study even in the young population with cardiac nonischemic pathologies (ie, valve pathology, cardiac tumors, etc.). PMID:28096692

  16. Coronary Artery Fistula

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    Figure 1A; oblique, Figure 1B), the left circumflex artery was identified by its black central lumen and noted to arise normally from the left main...but the mid left circumflex coronary artery was less well seen because of volume averaging with the left atrium and pulmonary venous confluence which...Figures 1C-D. Select oblique conventional x-ray views (C, early phase; D, late phase) from a coronary catheterization study following injection of

  17. Percutaneous Coronary Intervention, Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery and the SYNTAX score: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bundhun, Pravesh Kumar; Yanamala, Chandra Mouli; Huang, Feng

    2017-01-01

    The SYNTAX [Synergy Between percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) With Taxus and coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG)] score is a decision-making tool in interventional cardiology. However, several facts still remain to be addressed: What about PCI or CABG with a low versus a high score respectively? And what about PCI with a low score versus CABG with a high score? Electronic databases were carefully searched for relevant publications. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated and the analysis was carried out by RevMan 5.3. Eleven studies with a total number of 11,037 patients were included. In terms of clinical outcomes, this analysis showed PCI to have significantly favored patients with a low versus a high SYNTAX score. In patients who were re-vascularized by CABG, mortality and major adverse cardiac events were significantly lower with a low SYNTAX score. However, when PCI with a low SYNTAX score was compared with CABG with a high SYNTAX score, no significant difference in mortality and combined death/stroke/myocardial infarction were observed. In conclusion, the SYNTAX score might be considered useful in interventional cardiology. Nevertheless, the fact that it has limitations when compared to newer tools should also not be ignored. PMID:28252019

  18. [Scanning electron microscopy analysis of peroperative injury at the junctions of the vasa vasorum and the collateral veins of venous autografts prepared for myocardial revascularization].

    PubMed

    Jelić, I; Leskovar, T; Mijić, A; Bulajić, M

    1989-01-01

    The authors' objective was to determine the peroperative changes in affluences of collateral veins and vasa vasorum of venous autografts prepared for a coronary bypass by standard and proposed methods. The investigations were carried out on dogs. In control group, the veins were prepared by the standard method where the vein is presented by several minor incisions with "skin bridges" planted in between. In the second group, the veins were prepared by the method developed by the authors, where the vein is presented by a long incision, maintaining perfusion with its own blood throughout surgery. The scanning electron microscope analysis has shown that the standard method of vein preparation causes significant damage in collateral veins and vasa vasorum affluences which are actually part of an internal surface of future venous autograft prepared for myocardium revascularization. The proposed surgical method considerably reduces possible peroperative damage of the vasa vasorum and collateral vein affluence sites forming a portion of the internal surface of the venous autograft. Therefore, based on the obtained results, this method is recommended for clinical application.

  19. Application of drug-coated balloon in coronary artery intervention: challenges and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    GAO, Lei; CHEN, Yun-Dai

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, the outcomes of coronary heart disease (CHD) have markedly improved, which can be partly attributed to the use of novel drugs (especially statins and antiplatelet drugs) and partly to the evolution of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). From percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty to bare-metal stent and then to drug-eluting stent, every step of PCI is attractive to interventional cardiologist, great progress has been made for patients with CHD. In the past few years, some successor devices for treating CHD have emerged. Undoubtedly, drug-coated balloon (DCB), which was recommended by 2014 ESC Guidelines on myocardial revascularization, is a “shining star” among them. DCB involves a semi-compliant angioplasty balloon coated with an anti-proliferative agent that can exert antirestenotic efficacy by permeating into the vessel wall during balloon contact. This review discusses the conception and merits, preclinical data, emerging clinical indications, and results from clinical trials of this novel interventional technology. Although DCB has shown authentic efficacy in the treatment of in-stent restenosis, its use in de novo coronary lesions is still in dispute. Hence, concerns and the future direction of DCB are also covered in this paper. PMID:28133467

  20. Narrowing of the Coronary Sinus: A Device-Based Therapy for Persistent Angina Pectoris.

    PubMed

    Konigstein, Maayan; Verheye, Stefan; Jolicœur, E Marc; Banai, Shmuel

    2016-01-01

    Alongside the remarkable advances in medical and invasive therapies for the treatment of ischemic heart disease, an increasing number of patients with advanced coronary artery disease unsuitable for revascularization continue to suffer from angina pectoris despite optimal medical therapy. Patients with chronic angina have poor quality of life and increased levels of anxiety and depression. A considerable number of innovative therapeutic modalities for the treatment of chronic angina have been investigated over the years; however, none of these therapeutic options has become a standard of care, and none are widely utilized. Current treatment options for refractory angina focus on medical therapy and secondary risk factor modification. Interventions to create increased pressure in the coronary sinus may alleviate myocardial ischemia by forcing redistribution of coronary blood flow from the less ischemic subepicardium to the more ischemic subendocardium, thus relieving symptoms of ischemia. Percutaneous, transvenous implantation of a balloon expandable, hourglass-shaped, stainless steel mesh in the coronary sinus to create a fixed focal narrowing and to increase backwards pressure, may serve as a new device-based therapy destined for the treatment of refractory angina pectoris.

  1. Revascularization of immature mandibular premolar with pulpal necrosis - a case report.

    PubMed

    Raju, S Murali Krishna; Yadav, Sarjeev Singh; Kumar M, Sita Rama

    2014-09-01

    This case report describes the Revascularization of a Permanent Immature Mandibular Premolar with Pulp Necrosis and apical periodontitis. Access opening was done & the canal was disinfected with copious irrigation using 2.5% NaOCl and triple antibiotic paste (Ciprofloxacin, Metronidazole, and Minocycline) as intracanal medicament. After the disinfection protocol is complete, it is followed by revascularization procedure. The apex was mechanically irritated to initiate bleeding into the canal to produce a blood clot to the level just below the level of cementoenamel junction. Mineral trioxide aggregate was placed over the blood clot followed by bonded resin restoration above it. After one year follow up; the patient was asymptomatic, no sinus tract was evident. Apical periodontitis was resolved, and there was radiographic evidence of continuing thickness of dentinal walls.

  2. Ultrasonographic Changes after Indirect Revascularization Surgery in Pediatric Patients with Moyamoya Disease.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Shin-Joe; Tang, Sung-Chun; Tsai, Li-Kai; Chen, Ya-Fang; Liu, Hon-Man; Chen, Ying-An; Hsieh, Yu-Lin; Yang, Shih-Hung; Tien, Yu-Hsuan; Yang, Chi-Cheng; Kuo, Meng-Fai; Jeng, Jiann-Shing

    2016-12-01

    The marked cerebral hypoperfusion of moyamoya disease (MMD) can be treated with encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis (EDAS), an indirect revascularization surgery. Collateral establishment after the surgery is a gradual process; thus, easy access to serial assessment is of great importance. We prospectively recruited 15 pediatric moyamoya patients who underwent EDAS surgeries on a total of 19 hemispheres. Ultrasonography of extracranial and intracranial arteries was performed pre-operatively and post-operatively at 1, 3 and 6 mo. Among the extracranial arteries, the superficial temporal artery had the most pronounced increase in flow velocity and decrease in flow resistance from 1 mo post-surgery (p < 0.01). Among the large intracranial arteries, a significant increase in peak systolic velocity was observed in the anterior cerebral artery from 3 mo post-surgery (p < 0.05). These findings indicate significant hemodynamic changes on ultrasonography in pediatric moyamoya patients after indirect revascularization surgery.

  3. Revascularization of Immature Mandibular Premolar with Pulpal Necrosis - A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Sarjeev Singh; Kumar M, Sita Rama

    2014-01-01

    This case report describes the Revascularization of a Permanent Immature Mandibular Premolar with Pulp Necrosis and apical periodontitis. Access opening was done & the canal was disinfected with copious irrigation using 2.5% NaOCl and triple antibiotic paste (Ciprofloxacin, Metronidazole, and Minocycline) as intracanal medicament. After the disinfection protocol is complete, it is followed by revascularization procedure. The apex was mechanically irritated to initiate bleeding into the canal to produce a blood clot to the level just below the level of cementoenamel junction. Mineral trioxide aggregate was placed over the blood clot followed by bonded resin restoration above it. After one year follow up; the patient was asymptomatic, no sinus tract was evident. Apical periodontitis was resolved, and there was radiographic evidence of continuing thickness of dentinal walls. PMID:25386542

  4. Hybrid aortoiliac revascularization to avoid nonautogenous groin reconstruction in an intravenous drug abuser.

    PubMed

    Kanka, Kristin C; Pak, Jimmy J; Hadley, Douglas; Alexander, Jason Q

    2011-04-01

    Traditional methods for revascularization of an occluded aortoiliac system have necessitated either in-line aortic reconstruction through an aortobifemoral bypass or extra-anatomic bypass. However, both these approaches require artificial material to be placed in the groin. The consequence of groin infection can be devastating leading to high rates of both limb loss and mortality. One of the most feared patient populations presenting with groin complications is that of the intravenous drug abuser. We present the case of a patient with a long history of intravenous drug abuse with severe aortoiliac disease. Instead of resorting to a more traditional open surgical approach necessitating artificial reconstruction in the groin, we chose to proceed with a hybrid open and endovascular procedure through a direct open surgical access to the aortic bifurcation. This allowed for revascularization without the placement of artificial material in the groin.

  5. Perioperative iloprost and endothelial progenitor cells in uremic patients with severe limb ischemia undergoing peripheral revascularization.

    PubMed

    Coppolino, Giuseppe; Buemi, Antoine; Bolignano, Davide; Lacquaniti, Antonio; La Spada, Michele; Stilo, Francesco; De Caridi, Giovanni; Benedetto, Francesco; Loddo, Saverio; Buemi, Michele; Spinelli, Francesco

    2009-11-01

    The incidence of severe limb ischemia (SLI) is high among haemodialysis (HD) patients. Limb rescue rate after surgical revascularization is relatively poor compared with patients with normal renal function. Prostanoids are an interesting category as adjuvants to revascularization. New vessel growth develops not exclusively by proliferation of endothelial cells in vascular extremities but also by cells mobilized from the bone marrow (HSC), transformed into endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) contributing to both re-endothelialization and neovascularization. Basal number of HSC and EPC is significantly reduced in HD patients and correlated with a subsequent defective neovascularization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of perioperative treatment with iloprost in uremic patients with acute ischemia of lower limbs, undergoing surgical revascularization, on endothelial progenitor cells, hypothesizing a possible biological mechanism induced by the prostanoids. A search was also made for vascular remodeling processes through the analysis of the concentrations of soluble adhesion molecules (i-CAM, v-CAM, e-selectin), biochemical markers of endothelial activation. Thirty HD patients with SLI undergoing peripheral revascularization were enrolled (15 were treated with iloprost and 15 with a placebo). Iloprost was administered as an intra-arterial bolus of 3000 ng over 1 to 3 min immediately after revascularization and in the same affected artery. Serum samples were taken before revascularization (T0), at 6 (T6) and 24 h (T24) after infusion to measure sICAM-1, sE-selectin, and sVCAM-1, and for quantification of HSC and EPC. Progenitors were identified by specific surface markers CD34+, CD133+ and VEGFR2+. Count was conducted using PROCOUNT performed in a TRUCOUNT tube and with a FACSort flow cytometer. Before revascularization, all patients showed a decreased number of HSC and EPC. After 6 h, HSC augmented significantly compared with T0 in both groups. The

  6. [Long-term (33 years) result of revascularization of subtotally amputated upper arm].

    PubMed

    Kaczmarzyk, Janusz; Kocieba, Ryszard; Jabłecki, Jerzy

    2008-01-01

    Replantations and revascularizations on the level of the arm are performed in the smallest number. The achieved functional results are poor. The paper presents a result achieved in a patient who sustained an avulsion amputation of an upper arm in the year 1974. The first long-term control was made 11 years after the revascularization of the limb which rated the result as III acc. to Chen's score system. The patient was steadily highly motivated for hand rehabilitation process. The second control performed 33 years after the accident proved the increase of sensibility, muscle strength as well as the range of movements. The result was up-graded as II (good). No degenerative changes in hand bones of mutilated hand were found.

  7. Is endovascular therapy the right choice for treatment of functional compression of anomalous right coronary artery arising from left coronary sinus with interarterial course?

    PubMed Central

    Vadivelu, Ramalingam; Bagga, Shiv

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for reversible ischaemia owing to an anomalous right coronary artery arising from the left coronary sinus with malignant interarterial course and not associated with obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). PCI for treatment of functional compression of the ostioproximal intramural segment of the anomalous vessel, though described in the literature, is technically challenging, requiring appropriate hardware selection; the peculiar anatomical milieu, in the absence of atherosclerotic CAD, lends itself to an uncertain long-term outcome following endovascular therapy with stenting. PMID:23362062

  8. Tissue characterization following revascularization of immature dog teeth using different disinfection pastes.

    PubMed

    Pagliarin, Claudia Medianeira Londero; Londero, Clacir de Lourdes Dotto; Felippe, Mara Cristina Santos; Felippe, Wilson Tadeu; Danesi, Cristiane Cademartori; Barletta, Fernando Branco

    2016-08-18

    Revascularization of immature teeth with necrotic pulps traditionally involves the use of triple antibiotic paste, which may sometimes lead to undesirable complications. The objective of this study was to assess tissue repair in immature dog teeth with apical periodontitis subjected to revascularization, comparing two different pastes used for root canal disinfection. Apical periodontitis was induced in 30 dog premolars. Teeth were randomly divided into three experimental groups: root canals filled with triple antibiotic paste (n = 10); root canals filled with 1% propolis paste (n = 10); and no medication (n = 10). An additional group (n = 10, no intervention) was used as control. After 7 months, the jaws were histologically evaluated for the following variables: newly formed mineralized tissue (present/absent); vital tissue in the canal space (absent/periodontal ligament-like/pulp-like); apical extension of root (present/absent); and severity of inflammatory process (absent/mild/moderate/severe). There were no statistically significant differences among the experimental groups in new mineralized tissue formation and apical root development. The formation of vital tissue in the canal space, in turn, was statistically different between the triple paste and propolis groups: vital tissues were present in all revascularized teeth disinfected with propolis paste (100%), compared to 71% of those disinfected with the triple paste. Severity of inflammatory process was different between the triple paste and no medication groups. The new tissues formed onto canal walls and in the root canal space showed characteristics of cementum and periodontal ligament, respectively. Propolis may have some advantages over the triple paste for the revascularization of immature teeth.

  9. Pulp revascularization of replanted immature dog teeth after different treatment methods.

    PubMed

    Yanpiset, K; Trope, M

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of topical treatment with doxycycline and/or the application of unfilled resin to the anatomical crown on the occurrence of revascularization in reimplanted dog teeth. Ninety-six teeth in 4 young mongrel dogs were used. Eighty one teeth were atraumatically extracted and divided into four groups. Group 1, 17 teeth were kept dry for 5 min and then replanted. Group 2, 21 teeth were soaked with a freshly prepared solution of doxycycline (1 mg/20 mL saline) for 5 min before replantation. Group 3, 23 teeth were soaked with the doxycycline solution for 5 min, and then replanted. The crowns were coated with 2 layers of light cured unfilled resin. Group 4, 20 teeth were kept dry for 5 min, and then replanted. The crowns were treated as with the teeth in Group 3. Three months after surgery, radiographic evaluation revealed that 27 teeth had continued root development and 32 teeth showed arrested root development with periradicular pathosis. The remaining 17 teeth, which had arrested root development but no signs of periradicular pathosis, were all histologically evaluated for final assessment. The occurrence of revascularization according to treatment group was 29.4%, 60%, 60%, 36.8% in Group 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. A multiple logistic regression analysis in SAS indicated there was no significant association between vitality and dog (P = 0.7564). Soaking for 5 min in doxycycline significantly increased the revascularization rate (P = 0.024) while the addition of resin to the crown did not result in an increased incidence of pulp revascularization (P = 0.823).

  10. Outcome of revascularization in moyamoya disease: Evaluation of a new angiographic scoring system

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Siddhartha Shankar; Suri, Ashish; Bansal, Sumit; Devarajan, S. Leve Joseph; Sharma, Bhawani Shankar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a chronic progressive cerebrovascular occlusive disease affecting commonly the anterior circle of Willis. Matushima grade inadequately reflects the angiographic changes postrevascularization procedure. Aims: To analyze the clinical and angiographic outcome of revascularization procedures (direct [ST-middle cerebral artery (MCA) anastomosis] and indirect [encephalo-duro-arterio-myo-synangiosis (EDAMS)]) in MMD and validate a new angiographic scoring system. Materials and Methods: Retrospective study included symptomatic patients of MMD who underwent revascularization; both indirect and combined methods between January 2002 and April 2012. Follow-up angiography was done after at least 3 months. We devised a novel scoring system the “angiographic outcome score” (AOS) including reformation of distal MCA and anterior cerebral artery, regression of basal moyamoya vessels, leptomeningeal collaterals and overall perfusion. AOS was applied to the angiograms independently by a neuroradiologist and a neurosurgeon that were blinded toward its preoperative or postoperative status. Results: Totally 33 patients underwent 36 EDAMS and 4 combined procedures (EDAMS + ST-MCA bypass). The mean follow-up was 20 months. None had recurrent transient ischemic attack or fresh infarct. Postoperative AOS was significantly higher than preoperative AOS. The Spearman rho showed positive correlation between Matushima grade and postoperative AOS. Significant regression of basal moyamoya vessels and increase in number of loci of transdural collaterals was seen. Conclusions: EDAMS is a simple yet effective method of revascularization in both pediatric as well as adult age groups. AOS is a simple, precise and easily reproducible scoring system, which reflects the favorable angiographic changes after revascularization. PMID:26425151

  11. Treatment of acute cervical internal carotid artery dissection using the Solitaire FR revascularization device.

    PubMed

    To, Chiu Yuen; Badr, Yaser; Richards, Boyd

    2013-11-01

    During treatment of a right internal carotid artery terminus aneurysm, an acute iatrogenic flow limiting dissection was caused in the cervical internal carotid. The true lumen was catheterized using a Mirage 0.008 microwire over an Excelsior SL-10 microcatheter, which was exchanged for a Marksman microcatheter. A 6 mm × 30 mm Solitaire FR revascularization device was then deployed across the dissection as a salvage technique.

  12. Treatment of acute cervical internal carotid artery dissection using the Solitaire FR revascularization device.

    PubMed

    To, Chiu Yuen; Badr, Yaser; Richards, Boyd

    2012-12-19

    During treatment of a right internal carotid artery terminus aneurysm, an acute iatrogenic flow limiting dissection was caused in the cervical internal carotid. The true lumen was catheterized using a Mirage 0.008 microwire over an Excelsior SL-10 microcatheter, which was exchanged for a Marksman microcatheter. A 6 mm×30 mm Solitaire FR revascularization device was then deployed across the dissection as a salvage technique.

  13. Polyacrylonitrile hemofiltration for the adsorption myoglobin in tardy revascularization syndrome: in vitro assessment.

    PubMed

    Cavicchioni, C; Ceriati, F; Marino, I R; Marta, M; Pomponi, M; Vernole, P

    1983-09-01

    The Authors examine the behavior of P.A.N. membranes hemoperfusion combined with district hemodialysis in the prevention of tardy revascularization syndrome. Their experience "in vitro" seems to confirm the use of P.A.N. membrane is advisable whenever an increase of the myoglobin concentration occurs and they also envisage the use of the P.A.N. membrane in the prevention of T.R.S.

  14. Lengthening of replanted or revascularized lower limbs: is length discrepancy a contraindication for limb salvage?

    PubMed

    Parmaksizoglu, Fatih; Beyzadeoglu, Tahsin

    2002-08-01

    Some replantation cases require substantial bone shortening for primary closure. Leg-length discrepancy can be restored by lengthening of the replanted or revascularized extremities. Between 1991 and 2000, four patients with four total and two subtotal below-knee amputations had replantation or revascularization for their severely damaged extremities. All of them had extensive debridement, vascular repair, bone shortening and nerve repair for sensibility of their soles. One of the replanted extremities failed and had to undergo below-knee amputation because of sepsis. No other infection or vascular complications were encountered following the replantations or revascularizations. After bony consolidation, four legs were lengthened; for elimination of length discrepancy in three cases, and for obtaining balanced body proportion in one case in which the other leg was also amputated. In all procedures, a unilateral dynamic axial external fixator was used. The lengthening was performed from the proximal tibial metaphysis, with a subperiosteal osteotomy. Evaluation of injury according to the Mangled Extremity Severity Score (MESS) would encourage the surgeon to avoid salvage surgery with a shortened extremity, because of the required debridement of soft tissue and bone. These authors think the amount of limb shortening is not a major criterion in evaluating a traumatic total or subtotal below-knee amputation for salvage replantation or revascularization. A knee that has stable joint motion and the possibility of preservation of sensibility of the sole broadens the scope of indications for limb salvage, even with deliberate shortening that can be restored by lengthening; length discrepancy is not a contraindication for limb salvage.

  15. [Extended surgery in locally invasive pancreatic cancer. An original revascularization technique].

    PubMed

    Fradique, Caldeira; Azevedo, Vaz; Vasconcelos, Vasco; Pupo, Alexandra; Quaresma, Luísa; Carreira, Noémia

    2002-01-01

    The end results of surgery for pancreatic tumors remains very poor. In patients with locally invasive tumors a by-pass type of surgery is usually performed with low survival and poor life quality. Seven patients with locally invasive pancreatic tumors were operated by the authors and extensive radical surgery was done with good results. An original revascularization technique of the hepatic artery is described.

  16. Diabetic revascularization: endovascular versus open bypass--do we have the answer?

    PubMed

    Conte, Michael S

    2012-06-01

    Diabetes is an independent risk factor for peripheral arterial disease and, when advanced peripheral arterial disease develops in the setting of diabetes, it portends a greatly increased threat to both life and limb. The management of severe limb ischemia in diabetic patients, particularly those with tissue loss and infection, remains a major surgical challenge in the new millennium. However, advances in multidisciplinary care, including an aggressive revascularization approach, can avoid major amputation in a large percentage of patients. The unique pattern of lower extremity atherosclerosis in diabetes is a critical determinant of the revascularization strategy. Most diabetics with critical ischemia have popliteal/tibial occlusions requiring below-the-knee intervention or bypass grafting. Bypass surgery with vein to crural or pedal arteries remains the gold standard of revascularization, but may be limited by patient risk, conduit availability, and a suitable target. Infrapopliteal angioplasty can have acceptable results for suitable lesions, particularly when there is not extensive tissue loss in the foot. However, restenosis rates after endovascular intervention in these vessels are high, and recent advances in drug-eluting balloons and stents have promise but remain largely unproven. There is limited high-quality evidence to support treatment choices in this arena, with only one randomized clinical trial to date. The available data suggest that patients with life expectancy of at least 2 years and more extensive disease have superior outcomes with open reconstruction. A selective revascularization strategy is advocated, using autogenous vein bypass as the initial approach in a significant percentage of patients, based on its greater overall efficacy and proven durability. However, endovascular therapies have an important role in current practice, which will increase further if restenosis can be overcome. Vascular specialists should understand and be able to

  17. A Prospective Evaluation of Systemic Biomarkers and Cognitive Function Associated with Carotid Revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Zuniga, Mary C.; Tran, Thuy B.; Baughman, Brittanie D.; Raghuraman, Gayatri; Hitchner, Elizabeth; Rosen, Allyson; Zhou, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Objective To determine factors affecting cognition and identify predictors of long-term cognitive impairment following carotid revascularization procedures. Background Cognitive impairment is common in older patients with carotid occlusive diseases. Methods Patients undergoing carotid intervention for severe occlusive diseases were prospectively recruited. Patients received neurocognitive testing before, 1, and 6 months after carotid interventions. Plasma samples were also collected within 24 hours after carotid intervention and inflammatory cytokines were analyzed. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to identify risk factors associated with significant cognitive deterioration (>10% decline). Results A total of 98 patients (48% symptomatic) were recruited, including 55 patients receiving carotid stenting and 43 receiving endarterectomy. Mean age was 69 (range 54–91 years). Patients had overall improvement in cognitive measures 1 month after revascularization. When compared with carotid stenting, endarterectomy patients demonstrated postoperative improvement in cognition at 1 and 6 months compared with baseline. Carotid stenting (odds ratio 6.49, P = 0.020) and age greater than 80 years (odds ratio 12.6, P = 0.023) were associated with a significant long-term cognitive impairment. Multiple inflammatory cytokines also showed significant changes after revascularization. On multivariate analysis, after controlling for procedure and age, IL-12p40 (P = 0.041) was associated with a higher risk of significant cognitive impairment at 1 month; SDF1-α (P = 0.004) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (P = 0.006) were independent predictors of cognitive impairment, whereas interleukin-6 (P = 0.019) demonstrated cognitive protective effects at 6 months after revascularization. Conclusions Carotid interventions affect cognitive function. Systemic biomarkers can be used to identify patients at risk of significant cognitive decline postprocedures that

  18. Results of distal revascularization in elderly patients for critical ischemia of the lower limbs.

    PubMed

    Illuminati, G; Calio, F G; Bertagni, A; Piermattei, A; Vietri, F; Martinelli, V

    1999-04-01

    Thirty eight patients over 75 years of age were operated upon of 40 distal arterial revascularizations for critical ischaemia of the lower limbs. Arterial reconstruction was proposed to ambulatory, self sufficient patients, with a patent artery of the leg or the foot in continuity with pedal arch, at arteriography. The revascularized artery was the peroneal in 14 cases, the anterior tibial in 11, the posterior tibial in 9, the dorsalis pedis in 5, and the external plantar artery in 1 case. Postoperative mortality was 2.6%. No postoperative arterial occlusion occurred and no postoperative amputation needed to be performed. The mean follow-up of 37 patients surviving operation was 21 months (ext. 2-52 months). At 36 months interval, patients' survival was 43%, primary patency rate was 57%, and limb salvage rate was 76%, at life-table analysis. Distal revascularization enables a good number of elderly patients in critical ischaemia of the lower limb, to enjoy an active, independent life, with a viable limb.

  19. Does concomitant aortic bypass and renal artery revascularization using the retroperitoneal approach increase perioperative risk?

    PubMed

    Darling, R C; Shah, D M; Chang, B B; Leather, R P

    1995-08-01

    While elective repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms and aortoiliac occlusive disease is associated with an acceptable (3%) mortality rate, combined aortic and renal revascularization has usually been reported to have a higher perioperative mortality. Over the past 5 years, 785 elective aortic procedures have been performed at the authors' medical center. During the same period, 77 renal artery reconstructions have been performed in 73 patients in conjunction with aortic procedures. All were done using the retroperitoneal approach to the aorta and renal arteries. Indication for concomitant renal artery revascularization included 79% (61 of 77 patients) for either significant stenosis or anatomic involvement, 18% for renovascular hypertension (14 of 73) and 3% (two of 73) for renal impairment. The demographics and risk factors were similar in both groups. Operative mortality rate was 2.9% (23 of 785) in the aortic group and 3% (two of 73) in the combined group. Complications in the combined group were one stroke (1.4%), one re-exploration for bleeding (1.4%), two pulmonary pneumonia (2.7%) and five patients had elevated serum creatinine (> 350 mumol/l) after operation. Of these patients two died, one had an occluded graft and two eventually improved. There was one early graft thrombosis and one late thrombosis. In the authors' experience, concomitant aortic bypass and renal artery revascularization can be performed with an acceptable mortality and morbidity using the retroperitoneal approach.

  20. Early severe coronary artery disease and aortic coarctation in a child with familial hypercholesterolaemia.

    PubMed

    Labib, Dina; Soliman, Haytham; Said, Kareem; Sorour, Khaled

    2016-11-30

    An 1