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Sample records for suckling rats reared

  1. Body Weight Gain During a Discrete Nursing Episode in Suckling Rats Reared at 1.5-g or 1.5-g Exceeds that of 1.0-g Controls and is Independent of Material Hypergravity Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronca, April E.; Baer, Lisa A.; Plaut, Karen; Wade, Charles E.; Sun, Sid (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We recently reported that body weights of suckling rats reared during 1.5-g centrifugation are approximately 10% lower than those of 1.0-g controls. This finding raises the possibility that hypergravity exposed pups ingest less milk than controls due to either impairments in their ability to acquire milk from the nipple, or to decreased availability or palatability of their mother's milk. In the present study, we analyzed body weight gain in suckling rats reared during a discrete nursing episode following rearing at either 1.75-g, 1.5-g or 1.0-g. On Gestational day (G) 10 of the rats' 22-day pregnancy, time-bred SD rat dams were 1:1 matched based on body weight and assigned to either Hypergravity (HG) or Stationary Yoked Control (SYC) conditions and to either 1.75-g or 1.5-g conditions. Beginning on G11, HG dams and litters were exposed to 26 days of continuous centrifugation with brief daily stops for veterinary inspection and animal maintenance. On the day following birth (Postnatal day), litters were pooled within each condition then randomly re-assigned in equivalent proportions to HG and SYC dams. On P15, HG litters were removed from their mother's and placed in an incubator (33 C). Following a 4hr deprivation period, four neonates were tested from each litter, with two pups placed with either their own dam or the SYC dam; two pups from the yoked mother were paired with the HG pups. Pups were individually weighed, permitted to suckle for 75 min, then re-weighed. At the start of the test, the body weights of HG pups were significantly less than those of SYC pups (p less than 0.05). Relative to SYC pups, BG pups showed significantly greater proportional body weight gain (p less than 0.05), possibly due to augmented post-centrifugation feeding. Pup weight gain was independent of maternal hypergravity exposure. Neither impairments in milk acquisition nor milk availability or palatibility of hypergravity-exposed dams cannot account for reduced body mass of

  2. Body Weight Gain During a Discrete Nursing Episode in Suckling Rats Reared at 1.5-g or 1.5-g Exceeds that of 1.0-g Controls and is Independent of Material Hypergravity Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronca, April E.; Baer, Lisa A.; Plaut, Karen; Wade, Charles E.; Sun, Sid (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We recently reported that body weights of suckling rats reared during 1.5-g centrifugation are approximately 10% lower than those of 1.0-g controls. This finding raises the possibility that hypergravity exposed pups ingest less milk than controls due to either impairments in their ability to acquire milk from the nipple, or to decreased availability or palatability of their mother's milk. In the present study, we analyzed body weight gain in suckling rats reared during a discrete nursing episode following rearing at either 1.75-g, 1.5-g or 1.0-g. On Gestational day (G) 10 of the rats' 22-day pregnancy, time-bred SD rat dams were 1:1 matched based on body weight and assigned to either Hypergravity (HG) or Stationary Yoked Control (SYC) conditions and to either 1.75-g or 1.5-g conditions. Beginning on G11, HG dams and litters were exposed to 26 days of continuous centrifugation with brief daily stops for veterinary inspection and animal maintenance. On the day following birth (Postnatal day), litters were pooled within each condition then randomly re-assigned in equivalent proportions to HG and SYC dams. On P15, HG litters were removed from their mother's and placed in an incubator (33 C). Following a 4hr deprivation period, four neonates were tested from each litter, with two pups placed with either their own dam or the SYC dam; two pups from the yoked mother were paired with the HG pups. Pups were individually weighed, permitted to suckle for 75 min, then re-weighed. At the start of the test, the body weights of HG pups were significantly less than those of SYC pups (p less than 0.05). Relative to SYC pups, BG pups showed significantly greater proportional body weight gain (p less than 0.05), possibly due to augmented post-centrifugation feeding. Pup weight gain was independent of maternal hypergravity exposure. Neither impairments in milk acquisition nor milk availability or palatibility of hypergravity-exposed dams cannot account for reduced body mass of

  3. The effect of ACTH on suckling rats.

    PubMed

    Sato, Y

    1984-01-01

    In the present study, the causes of brain shrinkage induced by synthetic ACTH treatment in epileptic children were investigated using suckling rats. Synthetic ACTH was injected subcutaneously once a day for 5 days into suckling rats aged 15 days. Saline was injected into control subjects in the same way. Rats were sacrificed before the injection, immediately after the repeated injections, and 5 and 14 days from the end of the course of repeated injections. The weight, volume and water content of the brains were measured and the protein, DNA, sodium and potassium contents of the brains were also determined. The mean weight and volume of the brains after 5-day injection of ACTH were slightly smaller compared to those of control rats. No natural increase in brain protein with growth was found from the start of ACTH injections to 14 days after finishing the course of repeated injections. The DNA, sodium and potassium contents of the brains significantly increased immediately after the repeated injections of 5 days. It was suggested that the brain shrinkage of epileptics induced by ACTH treatment might be caused by decreased water content and not cellular degradation.

  4. Luminal digestion of lactoferrin in suckling and weanling rats

    SciTech Connect

    Britton, J.R.; Koldovsky, O.

    1987-09-01

    The development of luminal digestion of lactoferrin was evaluated in vitro by incubating /sup 125/I-labeled lactoferrin with fluid flushed from the stomach and small intestine of 12-day-old suckling and 31-day-old weanling rats, followed by measurement of radioactivity in trichloroacetic acid-soluble material. Gastric hydrolysis of lactoferrin at pH 3.2 in the weanling was 20-fold greater than that in the suckling. In the small intestine at neutral pH, luminal degradation of lactoferrin was minimal in the suckling but increased significantly after weaning, with maximal degradative capacity demonstrable in the midjejunum. Sephadex G-75 chromatography of intestinal acid-soluble breakdown products revealed two peaks of radioactivity, each comprising 40-45% of the total product; analysis of intestinal acid-precipitable products by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis yielded several discrete lower molecular weight species. Food deprivation for 12 h/100 g body wt decreased lactoferrin degradation in the weanling jejunum and midjejunum. The findings suggest that lactoferrin digestion may vary with respect to postnatal age of the organism, segment of the gastrointestinal tract, and dietary state. In the young animal, lactoferrin degradation is minimal, and consequently its potential for biological function may be high.

  5. Protein turnover in skeletal muscle of suckling rats.

    PubMed

    Davis, T A; Fiorotto, M L; Nguyen, H V; Reeds, P J

    1989-11-01

    To determine the normal changes in protein turnover of skeletal muscle in vivo during the suckling period of rats, protein synthesis was measured in soleus, plantaris, anterior tibialis, and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles of 1- to 28-day-old rats using a flooding dose of L-[4-3H]phenylalanine. Protein mass of hind-limb muscles increased nearly 100-fold, and RNA increased approximately 20-fold between 1 and 28 days of age. The total amount of protein synthesized per day increased 34-fold. Fractional protein synthesis rates (Ks) decreased two- to threefold between 1 and 28 days postpartum as a result of a decrease in protein synthetic capacity (RNA/protein). Protein synthetic efficiency (total protein synthesized/RNA) increased during this period. Ks were similar among the four muscles at 1-10 days. At 16 days, Ks increased in soleus and plantaris as a result of increases in protein synthetic efficiency; Ks did not increase in anterior tibialis and EDL. These data suggest that, during the suckling period, protein synthetic capacity in skeletal muscles of rats declines, while protein synthetic efficiency increases. The increase in translational efficiency occurred earlier in weight-bearing muscles (soleus, plantaris) than in non-weight-bearing muscles (anterior tibialis and EDL) and was associated with the appearance of mobility.

  6. Adverse effects of lactational exposure to chlorpyrifos in suckling rats.

    PubMed

    Mansour, S A; Mossa, A H

    2010-02-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the oxidative damage, biochemical and histopathological alterations in sucking rats whose mothers were exposed to the insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF). Dams were administered CPF, via oral route. Doses equalled 0.01 mg kg(-1) body weight (b.wt.; acceptable daily intake, ADI), 1.00 mg kg(-1) b.wt. (no observed adverse effects level, NOAEL) and 1.35 mg kg(-1) b.wt. (1/100 lethal dose [LD(50)]) from postnatal day 1 until day 20 after delivery. At two high doses of CPF, the body weight gain and relative liver and kidney weight of suckling pups were significantly decreased. Exposure of the mothers to CPF caused increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO) and decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione-s-transferase (GST) in lactating pups. CPF altered the level of the marker parameters related to the liver and kidneys. Consistent histological changes were found in the liver and kidneys of the subjected pups, especially at the higher doses. The results suggested that the transfer of CPF intoxication through the mother's milk has resulted in oxidative stress and biochemical and histopathological alterations in the suckling pups. The data of this study may be considered as a contribution to the problem of lactational transfer of the relatively less persistent OP pesticides, such as CPF.

  7. Large molecule protein feeding during the suckling period is required for the development of pancreatic digestive functions in rats.

    PubMed

    Kinouchi, Toshi; Koyama, Satomi; Harada, Etsumori; Yajima, Takaji

    2012-12-15

    We examined if large molecule protein feeding during the suckling period is prerequisite for the proper development of pancreatic digestive functions. Most amino acids in breast milk exist as the constituent of large proteins and not as oligopeptides or free amino acids. Accumulating evidence indicates the nutritional importance of large protein feeding for suckling infants; however, evidence on the physiological significance remains small. We thus artificially reared rat pups on a standard rat formula with milk protein or a formula with milk protein hydrolysate from 7 to 21 days of age, and thereafter, fed a standard solid diet until 42 days of age. Pancreas weight and the stock of pancreatic digestive enzymes in the hydrolysate-fed rats were significantly lower than those in the protein-fed rats during and also after the suckling period. Plasma insulin, a stimulator of amylase synthesis, was also significantly low in the hydrolysate-fed rats compared with the protein-fed rats. At 28 days of age, we evaluated the pancreatic secretory ability in response to dietary protein and cholecystokinin (CCK) by means of pancreatic duct cannulation. Pancreatic secretion stimulated by dietary protein in the hydrolysate-fed rats was significantly weaker than that in the protein-fed rats. No significant difference was observed in the increasing rate of pancreatic enzyme secretion in response to CCK between the two groups. These results suggest that the presence of large proteins in breast milk is significant for the development of pancreatic digestive functions and the outcomes could remain even later on in life.

  8. 26Al incorporation into the tissues of suckling rats through maternal milk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumoto, S.; Nagai, H.; Kobayashi, K.; Tada, W.; Horikawa, T.; Matsuzaki, H.

    2004-08-01

    Aluminium (Al) is highly neurotoxic and inhibits prenatal and postnatal development of the brain in humans and experimental animals. However, Al incorporation into the brain of sucklings through maternal milk has not yet been well clarified because Al lacks a suitable isotope for radioactive tracer experiments. Using 26Al as a tracer, we measured 26Al incorporation into the brain of suckling rats by accelerator mass spectrometry. Lactating rats were subcutaneously injected with 26AlCl3 from day 1 to day 20 postpartum. Suckling rats were weaned from day 21 postpartum. From day 5 to day 20 postpartum, the 26Al levels measured in the brain, liver, kidneys and bone of suckling rats increased significantly. After weaning, the amounts of 26Al in the liver and kidneys decreased remarkably. However, the 26Al amount in the brain had diminished only slightly up to 140 days after weaning.

  9. Glutamine as a major nitrogen carrier to the liver in suckling rat pups.

    PubMed Central

    Casado, J; Felipe, A; Pastor-Anglada, M; Remesar, X

    1988-01-01

    We measured the amino acid concentrations in the afferent and efferent vessels of the liver in anaesthetized fed adult rats and in fed suckling rat pups. A much higher content of glutamine in the portal vein and the aorta than in hepatic veins suggests that this amino acid is actively taken up by the liver of fed suckling rat pups, conversely to what is found in adult rats. In an attempt to characterize further the mechanism(s) contributing to this enhanced glutamine uptake, we monitored the time course of 1 mM-glutamine transport into plasma-membrane vesicles purified from the livers of either adult or suckling rats. The concentrative Na+-dependent uptake of glutamine was lower in those vesicles obtained from pups than in those obtained from adult rats. Glutaminase and glutamine synthetase activities in livers from both experimental groups were also measured. Glutaminase and glutamine synthetase activities in suckling rats were about 3-fold higher and 2-fold lower respectively than those in adult rats. It is concluded that glutamine is a main nitrogen carrier to the liver in fed suckling rats. A high availability of this amino acid and an enzyme imbalance between glutamine-synthesizing and -degrading activities may account for the net uptake found in vivo. PMID:2906242

  10. Response of muscle protein synthesis to fasting in suckling and weaned rats.

    PubMed

    Davis, T A; Fiorotto, M L; Nguyen, H V; Burrin, D G; Reeds, P J

    1991-12-01

    Protein synthetic efficiency (KRNA) is low in immature skeletal muscle of suckling rats and increases toward the end of the suckling period. To determine whether immature skeletal muscle is able to further reduce KRNA in response to fasting, suckling (5, 10, and 16 days of age) and weaned (28 days of age) rats were fed, fasted for 10 h, or fasted for 18 h and injected with a flooding dose of L-[4-3H]phenylalanine for measurement of muscle protein synthesis in vivo. In fed rats, fractional rates of protein synthesis (KS) and protein synthetic capacity decreased during the suckling period. KRNA increased toward the end of the suckling period. In 5-day-old rats, fasting for 10 h produced a 50% decline in KS of extensor digitorum longus and plantaris muscles, but KS did not change further after 18 h of fasting. In older suckled and weaned rats, 10 h of fasting decreased KS of extensor digitorum longus and plantaris muscles 30%; after 18 h of fasting, values had declined to 50% of those in fed animals. The reductions in KS in soleus muscles with 10 and 18 h of fasting were similar to those in other muscles at 5 and 10 days but were less than those in other muscles at 16 and 28 days. Changes in KRNA were similar to those for KS in all muscles from all age groups fasted for 10 and 18 h. Protein synthetic capacity decreased approximately 12% after 18 h of fasting, but this effect did not differ between age groups or muscle types.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Mucosal IgA increase in rats by continuous CLA feeding during suckling and early infancy.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Ramírez-Santana, Carolina; Molero-Luís, Marta; Castell, Margarida; Rivero, Montserrat; Castellote, Cristina; Franch, Angels

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this work was to establish the effect of the cis9,trans11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomer on mucosal immunity during early life in rats, a period when mucosal immunoglobulin production is poorly developed, as is also the case in humans. CLA supplementation was performed during three life periods: gestation, suckling, and early infancy. The immune status of supplemented animals was evaluated at two time points: at the end of the suckling period (21-day-old rats) and 1 week after weaning (28-day-old rats). Secretory IgA was quantified in intestinal washes from 28-day-old rats by ELISA technique. IgA, TGFbeta, and PPARgamma mRNA expression was measured in small intestine and colon by real time PCR, using Taqman specific probes and primers. IgA mucosal production was enhanced in animals supplemented with CLA during suckling and early infancy: in 28-day-old rats, IgA mRNA expression was increased in small intestine and colon by approximately 6- and 4-fold, respectively, and intestinal IgA protein by approximately 2-fold. TGFbeta gene expression was independent of age and type of tissue considered, and was not modified by dietary CLA. Gene expression of PPARgamma, a possible mediator of CLA's effects was also upregulated in animals receiving CLA during early life. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with CLA during suckling and extended to early infancy enhances development of the intestinal immune response in rats.

  12. Effects of the rearing season on carcass and meat quality of suckling Apennine light lambs.

    PubMed

    Mazzone, G; Giammarco, M; Vignola, G; Sardi, L; Lambertini, L

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the rearing season (autumn vs winter) on the carcass and meat quality of light lambs, obtained according to the traditional farming system usual in central Italy. Eighty carcasses from 60 d+/-3 old unweaned Apennine single birth male lambs, permanently reared indoor, half in autumn (receiving milk from ewes permanently pastured) and half in winter (which dams did never acceded to pasture), were weighed, classified according to the EU classification system for light lambs, and their Longissimus lumborum meat was analysed for pH, colour, drip and cooking losses, proximate composition and fatty acids profile of intramuscular fat. Most of the carcasses fully responded to the 1st quality EU requirements and no effects of the rearing season was evident on carcass characteristics. On the contrary, L. lumborum of lambs born and reared in autumn, receiving milk from ewes permanently pastured, evidenced a lower Lightness L* (P=0.02), a higher Chroma C* (P=0.01), with a higher fat content (P=0.04) than lambs reared in winter, which dams were permanently stall-fed. Moreover the intramuscular fat of the former was characterized by a greater PUFA concentration (P=0.01), a more favourable n-6/n-3 ratio (P<0.001), and a higher CLA content (P<0.001) than the latter, as a result of the difference related to the sheep traditional feeding system. Copyright (c) 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cellular transfer of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis employing suckling and adult Lewis rats.

    PubMed

    Fujinami, R S; Paterson, P Y

    1981-07-01

    Experiments designed to assess the importance of age of donors and recipients in cellular transfer of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) in inbred Lewis rats indicate: (a) that lymph node cells (LNC) of suckling rats sensitized to neuroantigen-adjuvant are just as effective in transfer of the disease to adult recipients as LNC from similarly sensitized adult donors, (b) that EAE can be transferred to suckling rats just as well as adults using lymphoid cells from either suckling or adult donors, and (c) while relatively low numbers of sensitized splenocytes from suckling or adult donors may transfer EAE, relatively large numbers of spleen cells do not. Based on additional EAE transfer experiments, in which recipients received combinations of sensitized LNC and normal splenocytes, no evidence could be secured that the spleen exerts a suppressive influence on cellular transfer of the disease in Lewis s may transfer EAE, relatively large numbers of spleen cells do not. Based on additional EAE transfer experiments, in which recipients received combinations of sensitized LNC and normal splenocytes, no evidence could be secured that the spleen exerts a suppressive influence on cellular transfer of the disease in Lewis s may transfer EAE, relatively large numbers of spleen cells do not. Based on additional EAE transfer experiments, in which recipients received combinations of sensitized LNC and normal splenocytes, no evidence could be secured that the spleen exerts a suppressive influence on cellular transfer of the disease in Lewis rats.

  14. Early postnatal ibuprofen and indomethacin effects in suckling and weanling rat kidneys.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Jamal; Beharry, Kay D; Gharraee, Zahra; Stavitsky, Yuri; Abad-Santos, Patricia; Abad-Santos, Matthew; Aranda, Jacob V; Modanlou, Houchang D

    2008-03-01

    The use of indomethacin in preterm newborn infants with symptomatic patent ductus arteriosus is associated with compromised renal function. Ibuprofen has been shown to be as effective as indomethacin with fewer renal side effects. We examined the hypothesis that early postnatal ibuprofen has less adverse effects on neonatal rat renal prostanoids, COX-2 expression, and angiotensin II than indomethacin. Newborn rats received IP injections of human therapeutic doses of ibuprofen or indomethacin on the first 3 days of life. Control rats were treated with equivalent volume saline. Kidneys were assessed in suckling and weanling rats for prostanoids, COX-2 expression, and angiotensin II. In suckling rats, indomethacin suppressed PGE(2) and COX-2 expression, and increased PGF(2alpha), whereas ibuprofen increased COX-2 and angiotensin II. Although both NSAIDs suppressed 6-ketoPGF(1alpha) and TxB(2) levels in suckling rats, the effect was sustained in weanling rats with indomethacin. Our findings demonstrate that indomethacin exhibits more potent suppressive effects on renal COX-2 and vasodilator prostanoids which are important regulators of renal development and function. These long-term, sustained effects may explain in part, why indomethacin exerts more severe adverse renal effects than ibuprofen, when administered during early postnatal life.

  15. Milk yield, suckling behaviour and milk ejection in the lactating rat nursing litters of different sizes.

    PubMed Central

    Russell, J A

    1980-01-01

    1. The quantitative relationship between the suckling stimulus and several suckling-dependent variables was studied in lactating rats. 2. The intensity of the suckling stimulus, measured as the product of duration and number of pups suckling was in proportion to litter size for litters of one, ten or twenty-two pups. 3. Pups in the litters of ten grew fastest. Single-pup litters grew most slowly, some not at all. Litter weight gain, corrected for inevitable losses, was used to estimate milk yield. Total milk yield was greater for litters of twenty-two to twenty-four pups than for litters of ten pups only in the first week. Milk yield for single pups was up to 7% of the yield for ten pups. Milk yield per mammary gland sucked was similar for the larger litters but less for single pups. 4. The number of milk ejections, measured as pup stretch reactions, in observation periods of 225 min, was similar for litters of ten and twenty-two to twenty-four pups, but less for single-pup litters. 5. The suckling stimulus applied by single-pup litters inhibited ovarian growth less effectively than did the stimulus applied by larger litters. 6. There was no change in serum osmolality during lactation. 7. It is concluded that litters of ten or twenty-two to twenty-four pups applied suckling stimuli of different intensities, but these had similar effects on the daily secretion rate of oxytocin, milk production and suppression of ovarian growth. Single-pup litters were less effective. PMID:7431242

  16. Transplacental passage of 26Al from pregnant rats to fetuses and 26Al transfer through maternal milk to suckling rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumoto, S.; Nagai, H.; Matsuzaki, H.; Kobayashi, T.; Tada, W.; Ohki, Y.; Kakimi, S.; Kobayashi, K.

    2000-10-01

    Aluminium (Al) is toxic to the growth of fetuses and sucklings. However, the incorporation of Al into fetuses and sucklings in the periods of gestation and lactation has not been well clarified because Al lacks a suitable isotope for a tracer experiment. In this study, we used 26Al (a radioisotope of Al with half-life of 716,000 yr) as a tracer, and measured 26Al incorporation into fetuses and sucklings by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). To investigate Al incorporation into fetuses through transplacental passage, 26Al ( 26AlCl 3) was subcutaneously injected into pregnant rats on day 15 of gestation. 26Al was also subcutaneoulsy injected into lactating rats from day 1 to day 20 postpartum. By day 20 of gestation, 0.2% of the 26Al injected into a pregnant rat had been transferred to the fetuses, and 26Al was detected in the brain and liver of the fetuses. On day 9 postpartum, high levels of 26Al were demonstrated in the brain, liver, kidneys and blood of suckling rats. It is concluded that 26Al subcutaneously injected into pregnant rats and/or lactating rats is incorporated into their offspring through transplacental passage and/or maternal milk.

  17. The Suckling Rat as a Model for Immunonutrition Studies in Early Life

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Cano, Francisco J.; Franch, Àngels; Castellote, Cristina; Castell, Margarida

    2012-01-01

    Diet plays a crucial role in maintaining optimal immune function. Research demonstrates the immunomodulatory properties and mechanisms of particular nutrients; however, these aspects are studied less in early life, when diet may exert an important role in the immune development of the neonate. Besides the limited data from epidemiological and human interventional trials in early life, animal models hold the key to increase the current knowledge about this interaction in this particular period. This paper reports the potential of the suckling rat as a model for immunonutrition studies in early life. In particular, it describes the main changes in the systemic and mucosal immune system development during rat suckling and allows some of these elements to be established as target biomarkers for studying the influence of particular nutrients. Different approaches to evaluate these immune effects, including the manipulation of the maternal diet during gestation and/or lactation or feeding the nutrient directly to the pups, are also described in detail. In summary, this paper provides investigators with useful tools for better designing experimental approaches focused on nutrition in early life for programming and immune development by using the suckling rat as a model. PMID:22899949

  18. The suckling rat as a model for immunonutrition studies in early life.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Franch, Àngels; Castellote, Cristina; Castell, Margarida

    2012-01-01

    Diet plays a crucial role in maintaining optimal immune function. Research demonstrates the immunomodulatory properties and mechanisms of particular nutrients; however, these aspects are studied less in early life, when diet may exert an important role in the immune development of the neonate. Besides the limited data from epidemiological and human interventional trials in early life, animal models hold the key to increase the current knowledge about this interaction in this particular period. This paper reports the potential of the suckling rat as a model for immunonutrition studies in early life. In particular, it describes the main changes in the systemic and mucosal immune system development during rat suckling and allows some of these elements to be established as target biomarkers for studying the influence of particular nutrients. Different approaches to evaluate these immune effects, including the manipulation of the maternal diet during gestation and/or lactation or feeding the nutrient directly to the pups, are also described in detail. In summary, this paper provides investigators with useful tools for better designing experimental approaches focused on nutrition in early life for programming and immune development by using the suckling rat as a model.

  19. Increased Litter Size and Suckling Intensity Stimulate mRNA of RFamide-related Peptide in Rats.

    PubMed

    Noroozi, Atefeh; Jafarzadeh Shirazi, Mohammad Reza; Tamadon, Amin; Moghadam, Ali; Niazi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    RFamide-related peptide-3 (RFRP-3) inhibits gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion in rats. This study evaluates the effects of litter size and suckling intensity on RFRP mRNA expression in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH) of rats. A total of 32 pregnant and 4 non-lactating ovariectomized (control group) Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this experimental study. Lactating rats were allotted to 8 equal groups. In 3 groups, the litter size was adjusted to 5, 10, or 15 pups upon parturition. Dams were allowed to suckle their pups continuously until 8 days postpartum. In the other 3 groups, the litter size was adjusted to 5 pups following birth. These pups were separated from the dams for 6 hours on day 8 postpartum, after which the pups were allowed to suckle for 2.5, 5, or 7.5 minutes prior to killing the dams. In 2 groups, lactating rats with 10 and 15 pups were separated from their pups for 6 hours on day 8 postpartum. In these groups, the pups were allowed to suckle their dams for 5 minutes before the dams were killed. All rats were killed on day 8 postpartum and the DMH was removed from each rat. We evaluated RFRP mRNA expression using realtime polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The expression of RFRP mRNA in the DMH increased with increased litter size and suckling intensity compared to the controls. The effect of suckling intensity on the expression of RFRP mRNA was more pronounced compared to the litter size. Increased litter size and suckling intensity stimulated RFRP mRNA expression in the DMH which might contribute to lactation anestrus in rats.

  20. Increased Litter Size and Suckling Intensity Stimulate mRNA of RFamide-related Peptide in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Noroozi, Atefeh; Jafarzadeh Shirazi, Mohammad Reza; Tamadon, Amin; Moghadam, Ali; Niazi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background RFamide-related peptide-3 (RFRP-3) inhibits gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion in rats. This study evaluates the effects of litter size and suckling intensity on RFRP mRNA expression in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH) of rats. Materials and Methods A total of 32 pregnant and 4 non-lactating ovariectomized (control group) Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this experimental study. Lactating rats were allotted to 8 equal groups. In 3 groups, the litter size was adjusted to 5, 10, or 15 pups upon parturition. Dams were allowed to suckle their pups continuously until 8 days postpartum. In the other 3 groups, the litter size was adjusted to 5 pups following birth. These pups were separated from the dams for 6 hours on day 8 postpartum, after which the pups were allowed to suckle for 2.5, 5, or 7.5 minutes prior to killing the dams. In 2 groups, lactating rats with 10 and 15 pups were separated from their pups for 6 hours on day 8 postpartum. In these groups, the pups were allowed to suckle their dams for 5 minutes before the dams were killed. All rats were killed on day 8 postpartum and the DMH was removed from each rat. We evaluated RFRP mRNA expression using realtime polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results The expression of RFRP mRNA in the DMH increased with increased litter size and suckling intensity compared to the controls. The effect of suckling intensity on the expression of RFRP mRNA was more pronounced compared to the litter size. Conclusion Increased litter size and suckling intensity stimulated RFRP mRNA expression in the DMH which might contribute to lactation anestrus in rats. PMID:26644862

  1. Transepithelial transport of epidermal growth factor by absorptive cells of suckling rat ileum.

    PubMed Central

    Gonnella, P A; Siminoski, K; Murphy, R A; Neutra, M R

    1987-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF), an acid-stable peptide present in rodent and human milk, is absorbed and promotes intestinal growth when fed to suckling rats. To determine whether absorptive cells of suckling rat ileum conduct selective transepithelial transport of EGF, we followed uptake of 125I-EGF from ileal loops by autoradiography and biochemical methods. Specific binding sites for 125I-EGF were localized by electron microscope autoradiography on apical membranes of ileal epithelial sheets in vitro. During uptake in vivo, radiolabeled molecules were concentrated in apical endosomal compartments and were also associated with lysosomal vacuoles, basolateral cell surfaces, and lamina propria. Excess cold EGF reduced basolateral label by 44% and TCA precipitable serum label by 38%. After 30 and 60 min of continuous uptake, radiolabeled molecules in epithelium, denuded mucosa, blood, and liver were analyzed under reducing conditions by reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Although considerable degradation of 125I-EGF occurred after uptake from the lumen, a portion of radiolabel in epithelium and mucosa represented 125I-EGF which eluted somewhat more rapidly from C18 HPLC columns and showed a slight decrease in apparent molecular weight by SDS-PAGE. All radiolabel in blood and liver represented breakdown products. Thus, EGF is selectively transported across the ileal epithelium in suckling rats but is modified during transport. Milk EGF may accumulate in the lamina propria where it could influence growth and maturation of the suckling intestine. Images PMID:3496363

  2. Suckling and sucrose ingestion suppress persistent hyperalgesia and spinal Fos expression after forepaw inflammation in infant rats.

    PubMed

    Ren, K; Blass, E M; Zhou, Q; Dubner, R

    1997-02-18

    Sweet taste and nonnutritive suckling produce analgesia to transient noxious stimuli in infant rats and humans. The present study evaluated the pain-modulating effects of sucrose and suckling in a rat model of persistent pain and hyperalgesia that mimics the response to tissue injury in humans. Fore- and hindpaw withdrawal latencies from a 30 degrees or 48 degrees C brass stylus were determined in 10-day-old rats following paw inflammation induced by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA; 1:1 injected s.c. in a 0.01 ml volume). CFA markedly decreased escape latencies to both 48 degrees and 30 degrees C stimulation, thereby demonstrating thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia. The combination of nonnutritive suckling and sucrose (7.5%, 0.01-0.06 ml/min) infusion markedly increased escape latencies to forepaw stimulation in both CFA-treated and control rats. In contrast, intraoral sucrose and suckling did not increase hindpaw withdrawal latencies in either control or CFA-inflamed rats. The effect was specific to sweet taste because neither water nor isotonic saline infusion affected forepaw escape latencies. Parallel findings were obtained for CFA-induced Fos-like immunoreactivity (Fos-LI), a marker of neuronal activation. Fos-LI was selectively induced in cervical and lumbar regions ipsilateral to forepaw and hindpaw inflammation, respectively. Suckling-sucrose treatment significantly reduced Fos-LI at the cervical but not at the lumbar regions. These findings demonstrate: (i) the development of persistent pain and hyperalgesia in 10-day-old rats that can be attenuated by endogenous pain-modulating systems activated by taste and nonnutritive suckling; (ii) the mediation of the sucrose-suckling analgesia and antihyperalgesia at the spinal level; and (iii) a differential rostrocaudal maturation of descending pain-modulating systems to the spinal cord of 10-day-old rats. These findings may provide new clinical approaches for engaging endogenous analgesic mechanisms in

  3. Increased litter size and suckling intensity inhibit KiSS-1 mRNA expression in rat arcuate nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Noroozi, Atefeh; Shirazi, Mohammad Reza Jafarzadeh; Zamiri, Mohammad Javad; Tamadon, Amin; Akhlaghi, Amir; Tanideh, Nader; Niazi, Ali; Moghadam, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): The effect of litter size and suckling intensity on the expression of KiSS-1 mRNA in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of rats were evaluated. Materials and Methods: Thirty two pregnant and four non-lactating ovariectomized (as control group) rats were used in this experiment. Lactating rats were allotted to eight equal groups. In three groups, litter size was adjusted to 5, 10, or 15 pups upon parturition and allowed to suckle their pups continuously by 8 days postpartum. In the other three groups, litter size was adjusted to five upon birth; the pups were separated from the dams for 6 hr on day 8 postpartum, after which the pups were allowed to suckle their dams for 2.5, 5, or 7.5 min prior to killing the dams. Two groups of lactating rats with either 10 or 15 pups were separated from their pups for 6 hr on day 8 postpartum, after which the pups were allowed to suckle their dams for 5 min before the dams were killed on day 8 postpartum. The ARC was removed and the expression of KiSS-1 mRNA was evaluated, using real-time PCR. Results: The expression of KiSS-1 mRNA in the ARC was decreased as the litter size and intensity of suckling stimulus were increased. The effect of suckling intensity on the expression of KiSS-1 mRNA was more pronounced than that of litter size. Conclusion: Increased litter size and suckling intensity decreased KiSS-1 mRNA expression in the ARC which may contribute to lactation anestrus in rat. PMID:25422754

  4. Mercury Disposition in Suckling Rats: Comparative Assessment Following Parenteral Exposure to Thiomersal and Mercuric Chloride

    PubMed Central

    Blanuša, Maja; Orct, Tatjana; Vihnanek Lazarus, Maja; Sekovanić, Ankica; Piasek, Martina

    2012-01-01

    Due to the facts that thiomersal-containing vaccine is still in use in many developing countries, and all forms of mercury have recognised neurotoxic, nephrotoxic, and other toxic effects, studies on disposition of ethylmercury and other mercury forms are still justified, especially at young age. Our investigation aimed at comparing mercury distribution and rate of excretion in the early period of life following exposure to either thiomersal (TM) or mercuric chloride (HgCl2) in suckling rats. Three experimental groups were studied: control, TM, and HgCl2, with 12 to18 pups in each. Both forms of mercury were administered subcutaneously in equimolar quantities (0.81 μmol/kg b.w.) three times during the suckling period (on the days of birth 7, 9, and 11) to mimic the vaccination regimen in infants. After the last administration of TM or HgCl2, total mercury retention and excretion was assessed during following six days. In TM-exposed group mercury retention was higher in the brain, enteral excretion was similar, and urinary excretion was much lower compared to HgCl2-exposed sucklings. More research is still needed to elucidate all aspects of toxicokinetics and most harmful neurotoxic potential of various forms of mercury, especially in the earliest period of life. PMID:22899883

  5. Hepatic protein synthesis in suckling rats: effects of stage of development and fasting.

    PubMed

    Burrin, D G; Davis, T A; Fiorotto, M L; Reeds, P J

    1992-03-01

    We studied the developmental changes in hepatic protein synthesis in suckling rats between postpartum d 1 and 28 and investigated the effect of fasting for 10 or 18 h on hepatic protein turnover at postpartum d 5, 10, 16, and 28. Fractional protein synthesis rates (KS, %/d) were measured in vivo using a flooding dose of L-[4-3H]phenylalanine. Although hepatic KS and translation efficiency (protein synthesis/unit RNA) were significantly higher at postpartum d 28 than d 1, the pattern of change was biphasic: KS and translational efficiency were higher at d 10 and 28 than at d 5 and 16. The largest increase in KS and translational efficiency occurred during the period normally associated with weaning (between postpartum d 16 and 28). At all stages of development, the KS and translational efficiency in fasted rats were significantly lower than those in control (fed) rats, although the relative decline in both measurements was largest at postpartum d 10. The absolute rates of hepatic protein synthesis declined to similar levels on d 5, 10, and 16 after 10 h of fasting and changed little after 18 h of fasting; this level was significantly higher at postpartum d 28. Our results suggest that postnatal development in suckling rats was marked by a biphasic pattern in the rates of hepatic protein synthesis, which increased during the neonatal and weaning periods. The relative changes in the synthesis and loss of hepatic protein in response to fasting were greater during the neonatal than during the late suckling and weaning periods.

  6. Cobalt chloride induces hepatotoxicity in adult rats and their suckling pups.

    PubMed

    Garoui, El Mouldi; Fetoui, Hamadi; Ayadi Makni, Fatma; Boudawara, Tahia; Zeghal, Najiba

    2011-01-01

    To assess liver damages in pregnant and lactating rats and in their suckling pups, wistar female rats were given through drinking water 350 ppm of CoCl(2) (157 ppm Co(2+)) from the 14th day of pregnancy until day 14 after delivery. The effects of cobalt chloride on lipid peroxidation levels, antioxidant enzyme activities, lipid profile and histopathology aspects of liver were evaluated. Biochemical results showed that lipid peroxidation increased significantly in Co-treated rats, as evidenced by high liver thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) levels. Alteration of the antioxidant system in treated group was confirmed by the significant decline of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and reduced glutathione (GSH) content in liver of suckling pups and their mothers. Moreover, CoCl(2) exposure induced an increase in the activities of the aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), lactate deshydrogenase (LDH) and bilirubin levels in pups and their mothers while liver LDH activity and plasma albumin level were significantly decreased. On the other hand, cobalt chloride induced a marked hypoglycemia, a significant decline in triglycerides and total cholesterol levels. Histological studies showed an infiltration of mononuclear cells and vascular congestion in liver of pups and their mothers. Based on the present findings, exposure of rats to CoCl(2) during late pregnancy and early postnatal period affects antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation indicating liver damage in mothers and their offspring.

  7. Intestinal folate binding protein (FBP) and folate absorption in the suckling rat

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, J.B.; Selhub, J.

    1986-03-01

    The folate in milk is bound to high affinity FBPs but it is unknown whether this binding affects intestinal transport of milk folate in the suckling rat. The authors examined the FBP activity of segments of the GI tract in fed and fasting states. Under fed conditions, the FBP activity in the mucosa of the stomach and proximal small intestine were similar (0.28 and 0.32 pMole folic acid binding/mg protein, N.S.). Both demonstrated less activity than the mucosa of the distal small intestine (1.31 pMole/mg protein, P < .001). A 6 hr fast produced no change in the FBP activity in the stomach or proximal small intestine but resulted in a 42% decrease in the distal small intestine (p < .01). Intestinal transport of unbound and FB-bound H/sup 3/pteryolmonoglutamate (H/sup 3/PGA) was examined in suckling rats by the intestinal loop model. Unbound H/sup 3/PGA demonstrated greater lumenal disappearance in the proximal segment of the small intestine compared to the distal segment (79% vs. 56%, P < .001) whereas the bound H/sup 3/PGA demonstrated greater lumenal disappearance in the distal segment (36% vs. 21%, p < .005). That porton of FBP activity in the distal small intestine that disappears with fasting may represent FBP absorbed from the lumen of the intestine. The FBP-bound folate in milk appears to be absorbed in the suckling rat by a mechanism that favors the distal small intestine and is different from the mechanism responsible for absorption of the unbound folate.

  8. Ontogeny of analgesia elicited by non-nutritive suckling in acute and persistent neonatal rat pain models.

    PubMed

    Anseloni, V; Ren, K; Dubner, R; Ennis, M

    2004-06-01

    Significant analgesic and calming effects in human infants and neonatal rodents are produced by orogustatory and orotactile stimuli associated with nursing. These naturally occurring analgesic stimuli may help to protect the vulnerable developing nervous system from the long-term effects of neonatal tissue injury. However, the efficacy of orotactile-induced analgesia across the pre-weaning period, as well as its effects on persistent inflammatory pain, is unknown. Here, we investigated the developmental profile of analgesia produced by orotactile stimulation during non-nutritive suckling in rats. The effects of suckling, as compared to non-suckling littermates, on nocifensive withdrawal responses to thermal and mechanical stimuli were examined at postnatal (P) days P0, P3, P10, P17 and P21. In some rats, Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) was injected in a fore- or hindpaw to produce inflammation. For thermal stimuli, suckling significantly increased forepaw withdrawal latencies at P3, P10 and P17, while hindpaw responses were increased at P3 and P10, but not at P17. In inflamed pups, suckling increased fore- and hindpaw response latencies at P10 and P17, but not at P0 or P21. Suckling-induced analgesia was naloxone-insensitive. For mechanical stimuli, suckling-induced analgesia was present at P3, P10 and P17, but not at P21, for both fore- and hindpaws in naïve and inflamed animals. Additionally, suckling had a small but significant effect at P0 for the forepaw in inflamed pups. In nearly all experiments, the peak effect of suckling for thermal and mechanical stimuli occurred at P10. These results indicate that orotactile analgesia, like orogustatory analgesia, is absent or minimal at P0, appears consistently at approximately P3 and is maximal at P10. Unlike gustatory analgesia in rats however, orotactile analgesia persists at least to P17. Orotactile stimulation during suckling effectively reduces transient pain elicited by thermal and mechanical stimuli, as well

  9. Copper absorption from human milk, cow's milk, and infant formulas using a suckling rat model

    SciTech Connect

    Loennerdal, B.B.; Bell, J.G.; Keen, C.L.

    1985-11-01

    Since copper deficiency is known to occur during infancy, it becomes important to assess copper uptake from various infant diets. The authors have investigated the uptake of copper from human milk, cow's milk, cow's milk formulas, cereal/milk formula and soy formula, compensating for the decay of /sup 64/Cu and using the suckling rat as a model. Radiocopper was added to the diet in trace amounts. Ultracentrifugation, ultrafiltration, and gel filtration were used to show that the added /sup 64/Cu bound to milk fractions and individual binding compounds in a manner analogous to the distribution of native copper, thus validating the use of extrinsically labeled diets. Labeled diets were intubated into 14-day-old suckling rats. Animals were killed after 6 h and tissues removed and counted. Liver copper uptake was 25% from human milk, 23% from cow's milk formula, 18% from cow's milk, 17% from premature (cow's milk based) infant formula, 17% from cereal/milk formula and 10% from soy formula. These results show that the rat pup model may provide a rapid, inexpensive, and sensitive method to assay bioavailability of copper from infant foods.

  10. Characterization of clinical and immune response in a rotavirus diarrhea model in suckling Lewis rats.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Castell, Margarida; Castellote, Cristina; Franch, Angels

    2007-12-01

    Group A rotaviruses (RVs) are the leading pathogens causing diarrhea in children and animals. The present study was designed to establish an experimental model of RV infection and immune response in suckling rats. Wistar (W) and Lewis (L) suckling rats were inoculated orally with two different doses of a simian RV SA-11 strain. RV infection was evaluated by growth rate and clinical indexes. Virus-shedding and serum anti-RV antibodies were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Mucosal interferon-gamma (IFN gamma), specific splenocyte proliferation, and spleen and intestinal intraepithelial lymphocyte (IEL) phenotype were analyzed. No diarrhea was observed in any inoculated Ws. All Ls developed acute moderate diarrhea, and a high score and incidence of diarrhea were found in rats infected with higher titers of RV. Specific humoral and cell systemic immune response was confirmed by splenocyte proliferation and by the presence of serum anti-RV antibodies. Moreover, RV infection induced changes in IEL composition, which showed an increase in the proportion of innate immune cells with respect to cells involved in acquired immunity. This acute moderate diarrhea process constitutes a good experimental model that also provides some immune biomarkers that may allow establishing modulation by drugs or diet components.

  11. Bovine whey protein concentrate supplementation modulates maturation of immune system in suckling rats.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Marín-Gallén, Silvia; Castell, Margarida; Rodríguez-Palmero, María; Rivero, Montserrat; Franch, Angels; Castellote, Cristina

    2007-10-01

    During neonatal life, challenges from breast milk and microbial flora promote immune system maturation. Immunonutrition in these stages may become an important way to increase natural defence systems. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a daily bovine milk whey protein concentrate (WPC) supplement on the intestinal and systemic immune systems in suckling rats. The composition of intraepithelial and lamina propria lymphocytes (IEL and LPL) was analysed by flow cytometry. Systemic and intestinal humoral immune responses were determined by sera Ig levels and Ig-secreting cell quantification by ELISA and ELISPOT, respectively. From birth, suckling Wistar rats were supplemented with WPC or standard infant formula (SIF). The WPC group showed the same proportion of most of the main mucosal cell subsets as the reference animals. However, in the first days of life WPC enhanced the innate immunity by increasing the NK cell proportion in both epithelial and lamina propria (LP) compartments. A rise in intestinal CD8alphaalpha+ IEL was also induced by WPC supplementation. A time-course of sera Ig levels and spontaneous IgA, IgM and IgG production by LPL and mononuclear cells from blood and spleen, in the WPC group, exhibited a similar pattern to those pups fed only by dam's milk. In summary, the present results show the effects of WPC on enhancing mucosal innate immunity during early life.

  12. Identification of an endosomal antigen specific to absorptive cells of suckling rat ileum

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    A membrane fraction enriched in apical endosomal tubules was isolated from absorptive cells of suckling rat ileum and used as an immunogen to generate anti-endosome monoclonal antibodies. By immunofluorescence, one of these antibodies bound exclusively to the region of the apical endocytic complex in ileal absorptive cells, but not to other cell types. Immunoblot analysis showed the antigen as a diffuse 55-61-kD band which was highly enriched in the endosome fraction over whole-cell homogenate. The antigen appears to be an intramembrane glycoprotein: it partitioned primarily in the detergent phase after TX-114 extraction, and shifted to 44 kD after chemical deglycosylation. EM immunocytochemistry showed that the antibody bound to the luminal side of endosomal tubule membranes, a portion of endosomal vesicle membranes, and in endocytic pits of apical plasma membranes. However, it did not bind to multivesicular bodies, the giant lysosome, or other organelles. Immunocytochemistry after uptake with adsorbed or soluble tracer proteins showed that the antigen labeled portions of both prelysosomal pathways previously described in these cells (Gonnella, P.A., and M. R. Neutra, 1984, J. Cell Biol., 99:909-917). The function of this glycoprotein is not known, but inasmuch as it has been detected only in absorptive cells of suckling rat ileum, it may serve a function specific to these cells. Nevertheless, this endosomal antigen, designated glycoprotein (gp) 55-61, will serve as a useful marker for exploring membrane dynamics in early stages of the endocytic pathway. PMID:3305521

  13. Stage of development and fasting affect protein synthetic activity in the gastrointestinal tissues of suckling rats.

    PubMed

    Burrin, D G; Davis, T A; Fiorotto, M L; Reeds, P J

    1991-07-01

    We studied suckling rats from 1 to 28 d of age to determine the normal developmental changes in the protein synthetic activity of gastrointestinal tissue. We also studied the changes that occurred in response to 10 or 18 h of fasting at 5, 10, 16 and 28 d of age. Protein synthesis was measured in vivo using a flooding dose of L-[4-3H]phenylalanine. Fractional protein synthesis rates (FSR, %/d) of stomach and small intestines increased nearly 80% during the period normally associated with weaning (d 18 to 28). Between birth and 28 d, the pancreas FSR increased approximately 6.5-fold from 46 to 302%/d. The increases in stomach, small intestinal and pancreatic FSR were largely due to increases in translational efficiency (gram protein synthesized per gram RNA). At 5, 10, 16 and 28 d postpartum, both the FSR and translational efficiency in pancreatic and small intestinal tissues were decreased after 10 h of fasting; however, measures in stomach tissue were largely unaffected. The magnitude of decline in FSR and translational efficiency in response to fasting was greater during the earlier than in the later stages of development. The results suggest that the FSR in the pancreas, small intestines and stomach of suckling rats increase during the period of development associated with weaning. Fasting affected protein synthetic activity more profoundly in pancreatic and small intestinal tissue in the early stages of development.

  14. Dimethoate effects on thyroid function in suckling rats.

    PubMed

    Mahjoubi-Samet, A; Hamadi, F; Soussia, L; Fadhel, G; Zeghal, N

    2005-04-01

    The aim of our work is to study dimethoate effects on thyroid function given in drinking water (40 mg/kg body weight, equivalent to 0.2 g/L) to mothers from day zero until the 10th day after delivery. Pups and their mothers were sacrificed on day ten after parturition. Compared to a control group, dimethoate-treated pups showed a 48% decrease in body weight which could be attributed to a defect in thyroid hormones. Indeed, after treatment by dimethoate, plasma rates of free T4 and T3 decreased by 56% and 40% in the young and by 27% and 15% in dams respectively. We can attribute the reduction in plasma thyroxine and triiodothyronine rates to a decrease in thyroid iodine levels (-75%) in the young and (-24%) in their mothers. The decrease in production of thyroid hormones after dimethoate treatment affect thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. In fact, plasma TSH levels were multiplied in dimethoate-treated group by factors of 2.31 in dams and 1.96 in their offspring. These biochemical modifications confirmed the histological thyroid aspects of pups and dams. In fact, in dimethoate-treated rats, some thyroid follicles of pups presented vesicular cavities without colloid; others contained colloid. However in dams, thyroid follicles presented cubical epithelial cells which surrounded empty vesicular cavities.

  15. Oxidative damage in erythrocytes of adult rats and their suckling pups exposed to gibberellic acid.

    PubMed

    Troudi, Afef; Soudani, Nejla; Amara, Ibtissem Ben; Bouaziz, Hanen; Ayadi, Fatma Makni; Zeghal, Najiba

    2012-10-01

    Gibberellic acid (GA(3)) is a plant growth regulator used in agriculture worldwide. The present study investigated the propensity of GA(3) to induce hematological disorders. Pregnant Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: group I served as controls; group II received orally GA(3) (200 ppm) from the 14th day of pregnancy until day 14 after delivery. GA(3) reduced the number of red blood cells, hemoglobin concentration, and hematocrit in suckling rats, while these parameters remained unchanged in their mothers. White blood cells increased in mothers and were unchanged in their pups. Several studies have associated these hematological disorders with oxidative stress. In fact, GA(3) treatment revealed in erythrocytes a significant increase in malondialdehyde levels and a decrease in antioxidant enzyme activities such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. Moreover, a significant decline was observed in acetylcholinesterase activity, glutathione, nonprotein thiols, and vitamin C levels.

  16. Regulation by endogenous opioids of suckling-induced prolactin secretion in pregnant and lactating rats: role of ovarian steroids.

    PubMed

    Soaje, M; de Di Nasso, E G; Deis, R P

    2002-02-01

    Evidence suggests that endogenous opioid peptides are implicated in the suckling-induced prolactin rise. We explored the role of the opioid system and the participation of ovarian hormones in the regulation of prolactin induced by the suckling stimulus at the end of pregnancy in rats with developed maternal behavior, and during lactation. Suckling for 24 h induced a significant increase in serum prolactin on day 19 of pregnancy, which was increased more than three times when naloxone (2 mg/kg s.c.) or mifepristone (2 mg/kg) was administered. The combination of naloxone and mifepristone did not increase serum prolactin more than either compound alone. Administration of tamoxifen (500 microg/kg orally) on days 14 and 15 of pregnancy completely abolished the effect of naloxone, indicating a role for estrogens in establishing this inhibitory role of opioids. To examine the participation of the opioid system during lactation, we used groups of rats on days 1, 3, 5, 12 and 19 postpartum either (i) isolated from the pups for 4 h, or (ii) isolated from the pups for 3.5 h and reunited with them and suckled for 30 min. Naloxone, given just before replacing the pups, prevented the increase in serum prolactin levels observed in the suckled group of rats but had no effect on the basal levels of the isolated rats. To examine whether the participation of the opioid system in the release of prolactin is dependent on the variation of progesterone levels, rats on day 20 of pregnancy were implanted with two cannulae containing progesterone (that blocked postpartum ovulation) or cholesterol, and cesarean surgery was performed on day 21. To maintain lactation, pups (1-3 days old) were replaced every 24 h, and 4 days after the cesarean eight pups were placed in the cage at 1800 h to maintain a strong suckling stimulus during the following 24 h. Naloxone administration significantly reduced serum prolactin levels in control (cholesterol) rats but progesterone implants prevented the

  17. Dab2, megalin, cubilin and amnionless receptor complex might mediate intestinal endocytosis in the suckling rat.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Carretero, María D; Palomo, Marta; García-Miranda, Pablo; Sánchez-Aguayo, Inmaculada; Peral, María J; Calonge, María L; Ilundain, Anunciación A

    2014-03-01

    We previously proposed that Dab2 participates in the endocytosis of milk macromolecules in rat small intestine. Here we investigate the receptors that may mediate this endocytosis by studying the effects of age and diet on megalin, VLDLR, and ApoER2 expression, and that of age on the expression of cubilin and amnionless. Of megalin, VLDLR and ApoER2, only the megalin expression pattern resembles that of Dab2 previously reported. Thus the mRNA and protein levels of megalin and Dab2 are high in the intestine of the suckling rat, down-regulated by age and up-regulated by milk diet, mainly in the ileum. Neither age nor diet affect ApoER2 mRNA levels. The effect of age on VLDLR mRNA levels depends on the epithelial cell tested but they are down-regulated by milk diet. In the suckling rat, the intestinal expressions of both cubilin and amnionless are similar to that of megalin and megalin, cubilin, amnionless and Dab2 co-localize at the microvilli and in the apical endocytic apparatus. Co-localization of Dab2 with ApoER2 and VLDLR at the microvilli and in the apical endocytic apparatus is also observed. This is the first report showing intestinal co-localization of: megalin/cubilin/amnionless/Dab2, VLDLR/Dab2 and ApoER2/Dab2. We conclude that the megalin/cubilin/amnionless/Dab2 complex/es participate in intestinal processes, mainly during the lactation period and that Dab2 may act as an adaptor in intestinal processes mediated by ApoER2 and VLDLR.

  18. The influence of enteral obestatin administration to suckling rats on intestinal contractility.

    PubMed

    Słupecka, M; Grzesiak, P; Kwiatkowski, J; Gajewska, M; Kuwahara, A; Kato, I; Woliński, J

    2017-07-01

    This study investigated the effect of enteral administration of obestatin on the contractility of whole-thickness preparations of duodenum and middle jejunum, as well as on the morphology of the enteric nervous system (ENS). Suckling rats were assigned to 3 groups (n=12) treated with: C-saline solution; LO-obestatin (125nmol/kgb.wt); HO-obestatin (250nmol/kgb.wt). Saline solution or obestatin were administered twice daily, from the 14th to the 21st day of life. Sections were studied in an organ bath, for isometric recording in the presence of acetylocholine (ACh), atropine (ATR) and tetradotoxin (TTX). Thickness of intestinal muscularis layer, the number of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) were measured in the paraffin sections. The immunodetection of Muscarinic Acetylocholine Receptor 2 (M2 receptor) was performed in the intestinal segments. In both intestinal segments HO treatment decreased the amplitude of spontaneous contraction compared to that observed in the C group. In the middle jejunum, the LO treatment also decreased the amplitude. TTX and ATR had no effect on amplitude of spontaneous contraction in the jejunum of LO and HO-treated animals. Compared to the C group, duodenal sections from HO animals and middle jejunum sections from LO and HO groups displayed a lower amplitude in response to ACh and EFS evoked contraction. An increase in the thickness of the muscularis layer was observed in the duodenum of LO and HO groups whereas the number ICC did not change significantly after treatment with obestatin. Moreover, the enteral administration of obestatin did not effect significantly on the cytoplasmic expression of M2 receptor in the jejunum. Our study demonstrated that enteral administration of obestatin to suckling rats influences small intestine contractility in the segment specific manner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Dietary selenium addition improves cerebrum and cerebellum impairments induced by methimazole in suckling rats.

    PubMed

    Ben Amara, Ibtissem; Fetoui, Hamadi; Guermazi, Fadhel; Zeghal, Najiba

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the improving effects of selenium (Se) on cerebrum and cerebellum impairments induced by methimazole (MMI) in suckling rats. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of six each: group I served as control which received standard diet; group II received only MMI (250 mg L(-1)(,) orally); group III received both MMI (250 mg L(-1), orally) and Se (0.5 mg kg(-1) of diet); group IV served as a positive control and received Se (0.5 mg kg(-1) of diet) as sodium selenite (Na(2)SeO(3)). Treatments were started from the 14th day of pregnancy until day 14 after delivery. In the MMI-treated group, plasma-free thyroid hormone levels (FT(3) and FT(4)), protein, DNA and RNA contents in cerebrum and cerebellum decreased when compared to control. Co-treatment with Se ameliorated these parameters. In the MMI-treated group, antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) significantly decreased, while malonaldialdehyde (MDA) levels in cerebrum and cerebellum increased. Co-administration of Se through the diet restored these parameters to near normal values. The biochemical modifications are correlated histologically with the abnormal development of an external granular layer, indicating a delay of granular cells migration towards the molecular layer in the MMI-treated group. Our results showed that Se improved cerebrum and cerebellum MMI-induced damages in suckling rats. Moreover, we concluded that Se is an important neuroprotective element that may be used as a dietary supplement against brain impairments.

  20. Dietary fructose during the suckling period increases body weight and fatty acid uptake into skeletal muscle in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Minh; Luiken, Joost J J P; Coumans, Will; Bell, Rhonda C

    2008-08-01

    The suckling period is one potentially "critical" period during which nutritional intake may permanently "program" metabolism to promote increased adult body weight and insulin resistance in later life. This study determined whether fructose introduced during the suckling period altered body weight and induced changes in fatty acid transport leading to insulin resistance in adulthood in rats. Pups were randomly assigned to one of four diets: suckle controls (SCs), rat milk substitute formula (Rat Milk Substitute), fructose-containing formula (Fructose), or galactose-containing formula (Galactose). Starting at weaning, all pups received the same diet; at 8 weeks of age, half of the SC rats began ingesting a diet containing 65% kcal fructose (SC-Fructose). This continued until animals were 12 weeks old and the study ended. At weeks 8, 10, and 11, the Fructose group weighed more than SC and SC-Fructose groups (P < 0.05). At weeks 8 and 10 of age, the Fructose group had significantly higher insulin concentrations vs. rats in the SC-Fructose group. (3)H-Palmitate transport into vesicles from hind limb skeletal muscle was higher in Fructose vs. SC rats (P < 0.05). CD36 expression was increased in the sarcolemma but not in whole tissue homogenates from skeletal muscle from Fructose rats (P < 0.05) suggesting a redistribution of this protein associated with fatty acid uptake across the plasma membrane. This change in subcellular localization of CD36 is associated with insulin resistance in muscle. Consuming fructose during suckling may result in lifelong changes in body weight, insulin secretion, and fatty acid transport involving CD36 in muscle and ultimately promote insulin resistance.

  1. Hormone induced expression of brush border lactase in suckling rat intestine.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Kamaljit Kaur; Mahmood, Safrun; Mahmood, Akhtar

    2008-05-01

    The postnatal development of intestine is associated with a decline in brush border lactase activity in rodents. This is similar to adulthood hypolactasia, a phenomenon prevalent in humans worldwide. In the present study, the effect of luminal proteases from adult rat intestine was studied in vitro on intestinal lactase activity in saline control, thyroxine, insulin and cortisone treated rat pups. Lactase levels were determined by enzyme analysis and Western blotting. mRNA levels encoding lactase were determined by Northern blotting. Administration of thyroxine for 4 days reduced (P<0.05) lactase activity, but insulin treatment had no effect in 8-day-old rat intestine. However, cortisone administration augmented (P<0.01) lactase activity, under these conditions. Western blot analysis showed decreased lactase signal corresponding to 220-kDa protein band in thyroxine treated animals. However, the intensity of lactase signal was high in cortisone treated animals compared to controls. mRNA levels encoding lactase showed a 6.8-kb mRNA transcript in saline and hormone treated rats. mRNA levels encoding lactase were increased in cortisone treated animals but were reduced in thyroxine injected pups compared to controls. Microvillus membranes from saline (P<0.01) and thyroxine (P<0.05) or insulin (P<0.01) treated rats upon incubation with luminal wash from adult rat intestine showed a significant decline in lactase activity. These findings suggest that thyroxine, insulin or cortisone induced changes in lactase expression in suckling rat intestine make it susceptible to luminal proteases, which may in part be responsible for observed maturational decline in lactase activity in adult rat intestine.

  2. Fructose feeding in the suckling-weaning transition in rats: effects on hyperlipidemia in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Bell, R C; Hoedl, A; Turchinsky, J

    2003-02-01

    The sucking-weaning transition is characterized by high rates of growth and development and may be a sensitive period during which dietary intake could program metabolism to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes in adulthood. Intake of a high fructose (FR) diet is known to induce hypertriglyceridemia and insulin resistance in rats when they are consuming this diet. We examined whether a FR diet fed early in life produces detrimental changes in lipid and glucose metabolism that persist to adulthood. Weanling rats were fed 65% FR (wt/wt), a purified control diet (CNTL) or standard chow (CHOW) for 5 weeks. Beyond 9 weeks of age, all rats were fed CHOW. During FR feeding, plasma triglycerides (TG) were significantly elevated in the FR group (FR = 217 +/- 20; CNTL = 163 +/- 17; chow = 156 +/- 10). At 21 wks of age, TG's were similar in rats fed FR or CNTL versus CHOW at weaning (p > 0.87). Hepatic fatty acid synthase (FAS) activity was elevated in FR and CNTL groups vs. CHOW (65 +/- 7, 72 +/- 6 vs. 48 +/- 4 nmol NADPH/mg protein/min, p < 0.01). There were no differences in indices of glucose homeostasis at 21 weeks of age. Early exposure to a diet high in simple sugars (FR or CNTL) and/or low in fiber during the suckling-weaning transition may contribute to modest dyslipidemia later in life. Together, changes observed in this study may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood.

  3. Ketogenic mitochondrial 3-hydroxy 3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase gene expression in intestine and liver of suckling rats.

    PubMed

    Serra, D; Asins, G; Hegardt, F G

    1993-03-01

    The ketogenic mitochondrial 3-hydroxy 3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) synthase gene is expressed in intestine of suckling rats, its mRNA levels changing with age. Intestine mitochondrial mRNA values reach maximum levels on the 12th postnatal day and then decrease smoothly. Mother's milk may influence the intestine expression, since mRNA levels at birth are very low, increasing after the first lactation. Moreover, rats weaned at either Day 18 or 21 decrease their mRNA levels dramatically and there is no expression in adult rats. Mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase is also expressed in liver of suckling rats but the developmental pattern of mRNAs is different from that in intestine, showing the highest values at Day 3 of life. mRNA levels in liver are lower than in intestine for most of the suckling period, suggesting the physiological relevance of the intestine for the ketogenic process of the whole body. Liver mRNA levels on weaning and in adult rats are high enough to sustain hepatic ketogenesis.

  4. Rats socially-reared and full fed learned an autoshaping task, showing less levels of fear-like behaviour than fasted or singly-reared rats.

    PubMed

    Molina-Hernández, Miguel; Téllez-Alcántara, N Patricia

    2004-07-01

    During the learning of instrumental tasks, rats are usually fasted to increase reinforced learning. However, fasting produces several undesirable side effects. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that control rats, i.e. full-fed and group-reared rats, will learn an autoshaping task to the same level as fasted or singly-reared rats. The interaction between fasting and single-rearing of rats was also tested. Results showed that control rats and fasted rats acquired the autoshaping task similarly, independently of rearing condition or gender. However, fasted or singly-reared rats produced fear-like behaviour, since male rats group-reared and fasted (85% body/wt, P <0.05), male rats singly-reared (full fed, P <0.05; 12 h fasted, P <0.05; 85% body/wt, P <0.05), female rats group-reared (12 h fasted, P <0.05; 85% body/wt, P <0.05) and female rats singly reared (full fed, P <0.05; 12 h fasted, P <0.05; 85% body/wt, P <0.05) displayed reduced amounts of time exploring the open arms of the elevated plus-maze. In conclusion, control rats learned the autoshaping task to the same level as fasted or singly-reared rats. However, fasting or single-rearing produced fear-like behaviour. Thus, the training of control rats in autoshaping tasks may be an option that improves animal welfare.

  5. Ascorbic acid supplementation does not improve efficacy of meso-dimercaptosuccinic acid treatment in lead-exposed suckling rats.

    PubMed

    Varnai, Veda Marija; Piasek, Martina; Blanusa, Maja; Juresa, Dijana; Sarić, Marija; Kostial, Krista

    2003-10-01

    It was suggested that ascorbic acid as a natural chelating agent can influence lead toxicokinetics and improve chelating properties of dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) in adult rats. In this paper potential benefits of ascorbic acid supplementation, alone or combined with DMSA, in decreasing lead retention in suckling rats were evaluated. Such data in young mammals are not available. L-Ascorbic acid (daily dose 650 mg/kg b.wt.) and/or DMSA (daily dose 91 mg/kg b.wt.) were administered orally to suckling Wistar rats either during ongoing 8-day oral lead exposure (as acetate; daily dose 2 mg lead/kg b.wt.) or after 3-day lead exposure (total dose 12 mg lead/kg b.wt.). Lead concentrations were analysed in the carcass (skeleton), liver, kidneys and brain by atomic absorption spectrometry. By ascorbic acid supplementation lead retention was not reduced under either lead exposure condition. Lead concentration was even increased in the carcass. Treatment with DMSA under both exposure conditions significantly reduced lead in all analysed tissues. Combined treatment with ascorbic acid and DMSA during ongoing lead exposure was substantially less effective than DMSA treatment alone, and did not affect DMSA efficacy when administered after lead exposure. It was concluded that ascorbic acid administered either during or after lead exposure in suckling rats has no beneficial effect on either lead retention or DMSA chelation effectiveness.

  6. Oxidative stress induced by gibberellic acid in bone of suckling rats.

    PubMed

    Troudi, Afef; Ben Amara, Ibtissem; Soudani, Nejla; Bouaziz, Hanen; Boudawara, Tahia; Zeghal, Najiba

    2011-05-01

    The present study investigates the bone maturity of suckling rats whose mothers were treated with gibberellic acid (GA(3)). Female Wistar rats were divided into two groups: group I that served as controls and group II that received orally GA(3) (200 ppm) from the 14th day of pregnancy until day 14 after delivery. In the GA(3) group, an increase in body and femur weights as well as in femur length of pups was noted when compared to controls. Lipid peroxidation was demonstrated by high femur malondialdehyde levels, while superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase activities, glutathione and vitamin C levels in femur decreased. GA(3) caused a decrease in calcium and phosphorus levels in bone. The calcium concentration in plasma increased and the phosphorus concentration decreased, while urinary levels of calcium decreased and those of phosphate increased. Moreover, plasma total tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and total alkaline phosphatase increased. Bone disorders were confirmed by femur histological changes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Maternal dietary fat affects milk fatty acid profile and impacts on weight gain and thermogenic capacity of suckling rats.

    PubMed

    Priego, Teresa; Sánchez, Juana; García, Ana Paula; Palou, Andreu; Picó, Catalina

    2013-05-01

    We aimed to assess the effects of maternal supplementation with the main fat sources used in the human Western diet (olive oil, butter, margarine) on milk FA composition and on plasma FA profile of offspring, and to determine whether it may influence body-weight-gain (BWG) and adiposity of offspring during the suckling period. Wistar rats were supplemented with the different fat sources from day 14 of gestation and throughout lactation. Olive oil-supplemented dams showed the highest proportion of oleic-acid in milk, with no changes in plasma. Their offspring also showed the highest proportion of this FA in plasma, lower BWG during the suckling period, and higher levels of UCP1 in brown adipose tissue (BAT) at weaning. Margarine-supplemented dams showed the highest percentage of PUFA in milk, and a similar tendency was found in plasma of their offspring. Butter-supplemented dams displayed higher proportion of saturated FA (SFA) in milk compared to other fat-supplemented dams, but lower than controls. Control offspring also showed higher proportion of SFA in plasma and greater BWG during the suckling period than fat-supplemented groups. Significant correlations were found between the relative content of some milk FA and BWG of offspring, in particular, oleic-acid levels correlated negatively with BWG and positively with UCP1 levels. These results show that maternal dietary source of fat affects milk FA composition and circulating FA profile, as could be expected, but also BWG and thermogenic capacity of offspring during the suckling period. An effect of oleic-acid stimulating BAT thermogenic capacity of suckling pups is proposed.

  8. Supplementing suckling rats with whey protein concentrate modulates the immune response and ameliorates rat rotavirus-induced diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Marín-Gallén, Silvia; Castell, Margarida; Rodríguez-Palmero, María; Rivero, Montserrat; Castellote, Cristina; Franch, Angels

    2008-12-01

    Group A rotaviruses (RV) are the most common causative agents of acute gastroenteritis in children <2 y. The present study was designed to establish the effect of a bovine whey protein concentrate (WPC) in a RV infection model in suckling rats. From d 3 of life, suckling Lewis rats received daily supplements of WPC, WPC plus lactoferrin (LF), standard infant formula (SIF), or water (RV-infected group and an untreated, uninfected reference group). On d 8 of life, heterologous simian RV SA-11 was inoculated orally in the WPC-RV, WPC+LF-RV, SIF-RV, and RV groups. WPC and WPC+LF reduced diarrhea incidence from approximately 90% in RV group to approximately 60% in WPC-RV and WPC+LF-RV groups (P < 0.05), whereas the area under the curve (AUC) of severity along time diminished from approximately 10 AUC in the RV group to approximately 6 AUC in both supplemented groups (P < 0.05). Serum levels of anti-RV antibodies, splenocyte proliferation, and interferon-gamma secretion after specific stimulation were significantly lower in the WPC-RV and WPC+LF-RV groups than in the SIF-RV and RV groups. In the intraepithelial intestinal compartment, RV infection increased the proportion of typical mucosal T cells (IE-T CD8alphaalpha+); however, this modification was controlled by WPC and WPC+LF supplementation. In general, for most of the parameters studied, the SIF-RV and RV groups did not differ. In summary, daily supplementation with WPC or WPC+LF in early life considerably reduces the severity of RV-induced acute gastroenteritis and modulates the immune response against the pathogen.

  9. Combined chelation therapy in reducing tissue lead concentrations in suckling rats.

    PubMed

    Kostial, K; Blanusa, M; Piasek, M; Restek-Samarzija, N; Jones, M M; Singh, P K

    1999-01-01

    The very young are more prone to lead poisoning than adults, and the treatment with chelating agents, either as monotherapy or combined treatment, is still a matter of dispute. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of three chelating agents administered either as monotherapies or as combined treatments in sucklings. Lead acetate (5 mg Pb kg(-1) i.p.) was administered to the 7-day-old rat pups in eight litters on experimental day 1 and chelating agents on experimental days 2 and 3. Pups were divided into six groups: (1) untreated control; (2) EDTA (calcium disodium ethylendiaminetetraacetate, 0.3 mmol kg(-1) i.p. at 4 p.m.); (3) meso-DMSA (meso-2,3-dimeracaptosuccinic acid, 0.5 mmol kg(-1) p.o. at 10 a.m.); (4) rac-DMSA (racemic-2,3-dimeracaptosuccinic acid, 0.5 mmol kg(-1) p.o. at 10 a.m.); (5) EDTA+meso-DMSA; and (6) EDTA+rac-DMSA. Rats were killed on experimental day 5. Tissue element concentrations were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Treatment with EDTA did not affect tissue Pb, but it reduced Zn in the carcass and liver. Meso-DMSA reduced Pb in the kidneys and brain, and it did not affect organ essential elements. Rac-DMSA most efficiently reduced Pb concentrations in the carcass, kidneys and brain, but it also reduced Zn and Cu in the liver and Zn in the kidneys. Combined treatments with EDTA never improved the efficiency of either DMSA isoform in decreasing tissue Pb but they did reduce tissue Zn concentrations. All treatments caused the same decrease in the carcass Ca concentrations. The results do not support combined treatment in this age group, which is especially sensitive to trace element deficiencies, and suggest that meso-DMSA might be the treatment of choice in acute lead poisoning in infants.

  10. RETICULOCYE ENRICHMENT AND IMPROVED SENSITIVITY OF ZINC PROTOPORPHYRIN/HEME RATIOS IN HUMAN CORD BLOOD AND SUCKLING RATS

    PubMed Central

    Blohowiak, Sharon E.; Chen, Melinda E.; Repyak, Kristin S.; Carlton, David P.; Georgieff, Michael K.; Crenshaw, Thomas D.; Kling, Pamela J.

    2010-01-01

    In infants and children, whole blood ZnPP/H ratios measure iron-deficient erythropoiesis. Because immature erythrocytes are less dense than mature erythrocytes, we hypothesized that the sensitivity of ZnPP/H is improved if measured in the least dense cells. Blood was collected from control suckling, mild and severe iron-deficient (ID) suckling rats. Cord blood was collected after uncomplicated (control), diabetic (severe ID) and intermediate iron status pregnancies (mild ID). ZnPP/H was measured before and after density centrifugation. ZnPP/H in the lightest cells, the top fraction, was reproducible. The difference between whole and top fraction was defined as Δ ZnPP/H. In rats, although the whole blood or top ZnPP/H differed by postnatal age, P<0.0001, Δ ZnPP/H was greatest after the interval with least body iron accrual, P<0.0001. In mild ID rats, whole blood ZnPP/H was similar to, but Δ ZnPP/H was greater than controls, P<0.005. In humans with mild ID, whole blood ZnPP/H was similar to, but Δ ZnPP/H was relatively greater than controls, P<0.001. In rats and newborn humans, Δ ZnPP/H is more sensitive than whole blood ZnPP/H in identifying conditions associated with impaired erythrocyte iron delivery and may become a useful tool in measuring erythrocyte iron incorporation in early development. PMID:18360311

  11. Effect of phenylalanine metabolites on the activities of enzymes of ketone-body utilization in brain of suckling rats.

    PubMed Central

    Benavides, J; Gimenez, C; Valdivieso, F; Mayor, F

    1976-01-01

    1. The effects of phenylalanine and its metabolites (phenylacetate, phenethylamine, phenyl-lactate, o-hydroxyphenylacetate and phenylpyruvate) on the activity of 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.30) 3-oxo acid CoA-transferase (EC 2.8.3.5) and acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase (EC 2.3.1.9) in brain of suckling rats were investigated. 2. The 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase from the brain of suckling rats had a Km for 3-hydroxybutyrate of 1.2 mM. Phenylpyruvate, phenylacetate and o-hydroxyphenylacetate inhibited the enzyme activity with Ki values of 0.5, 1.3 and 4.7 mM respectively. 3. The suckling-rat brain 3-oxo acid CoA-transferase activity had a Km for acetoacetate of 0.665 mM and for succinyl (3-carboxypropionyl)-CoA of 0.038 mM. The enzyme was inhibited with respect to acetoacetate by phenylpyruvate (Ki equals 1.3 mM) and o-hydroxyphenylacetate (Ki equals 4.5 mM). The reaction in the direction of acetoacetate was also inhibited by phenylpyruvate (Ki equals 1.6 mM) and o-hydroxyphenylacetate (Ki equals 4.5 mM). 4. Phenylpyruvate inhibited with respect to acetoacetyl-CoA both the mitochondrial (Ki equals 3.2 mM) and cytoplasmic (Ki equals 5.2 mM) acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase activities. 5. The results suggest that inhibition of 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase and 3-oxo acid CoA-transferase activities may impair ketone-body utilization and hence lipid synthesis in the developing brain. This suggestion is discussed with reference to the pathogenesis of mental retardation in phenylketonuria. PMID:12750

  12. Binding and the effect of the red kidney bean lectin, phytohaemagglutinin, in the gastrointestinal tract of suckling rats.

    PubMed

    Linderoth, Ann; Prykhod'ko, Olena; Ahrén, Bo; Fåk, Frida; Pierzynowski, Stefan G; Weström, Björn R

    2006-01-01

    Enteral exposure of suckling rats to phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) has been shown to induce growth and precocious functional maturation of the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of the present study was to explore the mechanism of this action. Suckling rats, 14 d old, were fed a single dose of PHA (0.05 mg/g body weight) or saline. The binding of PHA to the gut epithelium and its effect on the morphology and functional properties of the gut and pancreas were studied up to 3 d after treatment. Initially, at 1-24 h, the PHA bound along the gut mucosal lining, resulting in disturbed gut morphology with villi shortening and rapid decreases in disaccharidase activities and macromolecular absorption capacity. During a later phase, between 1 and 3 d, the PHA binding had declined, and an uptake by enterocytes was observed. An increase in crypt cell proliferation and gut growth became evident during this period, together with a functional maturation, as indicated by increases in disaccharidase (maltase and sucrase) activities and the low macromolecular absorption capacity. Pancreas growth also increased, as did its content of digestive enzymes. We conclude that enteral exposure to PHA in suckling rats temporarily causes mucosal disarrangement and functional impediment of the gut, which may be explained by binding to and disruption of the gut mucosa and a two-fold increase in the plasma corticosterone concentration. These findings may lead to a better understanding of the role of diet in gastrointestinal maturation and may constitute a basis for the treatment of mammals having an immature gut.

  13. Effects of cobalt on membrane ATPases, oxidant, and antioxidant values in the cerebrum and cerebellum of suckling rats.

    PubMed

    Garoui, Elmouldi; Ben Amara, Ibtissem; Driss, Dorra; Elwej, Awatef; Chaabouni, Semia Ellouze; Boudawara, Tahia; Zeghal, Najiba

    2013-09-01

    Chronic overexposure to cobalt (Co) may result in neurotoxic effects, but the mechanism of Co-induced neurotoxicity is not yet well established. Our study was conducted to determine whether Co is associated to the induction of central nervous system damage in pregnant rats and their progeny. Twelve pregnant female rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: group I served as controls and group II received Co (350 mg/L, orally). Treatments started from the 14th day of pregnancy until day 14 after delivery. Co concentration in plasma was higher in the treated groups than in the controls. Exposure to Co also increased the levels of MDA, PCO, H2O2, and AOPP, while Na(+)K(+)-ATPase and Mg(2+)-ATPase, AChE, and BuChE activities decreased in the cerebrum and cerebellum of suckling pups. A smear without ladder formation on agarose gel was also shown in the cerebrum and cerebellum, indicating random DNA degradation. A reduction in GPx, SOD, CAT, GSH, NPSH, and vitamin C values was observed. The changes were confirmed by histological results. In conclusion, these data showed that the exposure of pregnant and lactating rats to Co resulted in the development of oxidative stress and the impairment of defense systems in the cerebrum and cerebellum of their suckling pups.

  14. Differential incorporation of dietary conjugated linolenic and linoleic acids into milk lipids and liver phospholipids in lactating and suckling rats.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ying; Chen, Jingnan; Yang, Lin; Chen, Zhen-Yu

    2009-09-01

    Interest in health benefits of conjugated fatty acids is growing. The present study compared the incorporation pattern of dietary conjugated linolenic acids (CLnA) into milk with that of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA). Lactating Sprague-Dawley rats (Day 1) were divided into five groups fed the control diet (n=4) or one of four experimental diets supplemented with 1-2% CLA or CLnA mixture (n=8 each). Supplementation of 1% and 2% CLA led to enrichment of 4.17% and 8.57% CLA, respectively, while supplementation of 1% and 2% CLnA resulted in enrichment of only 0.98% and 1.71% CLnA in the milk lipids, demonstrating the transfer of CLnA from maternal diet to milk was discriminated. When the lactating rats were given a diet containing a CLnA mixture of 9t,11t,13t-, 9c,11t,13t- and 9c,11t,13c-CLnA isomers, two CLA isomers, namely, 9t,11t (0.59-0.90%) and 9c,11t (1.21-1.96%), were found in the milk, suggesting that three CLnA isomers were Delta-13 saturated. Dietary CLnA at 1-2% had no effect on liver phospholipid (PL) fatty acid composition of both maternal and suckling rats, whereas dietary CLA increased docosahexaenoic acid (4c,7c,10c,13c,16c,19c-22:6) and palmitic acid (16:0) proportionally in the PL of maternal rats, but it suppressed 16:0 in the PL of suckling rats. It is concluded that maternal rats incorporate CLnA isomers into milk differently from that of CLA isomers. Most interesting is that maternal rats can metabolically convert CLnA to CLA.

  15. Neither Milk Production, Milk Transfer Nor Pup Growth Hormone Account for Reduced Body Weights of Rat Pups Reared In Hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bear, L. A.; Chowdhury, J. H.; Grindeland, R. E.; Wade, C. E.; Ronca, A. E.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Studies spanning the gravity continuum from 0 to 2-g are revealing new insights into how mammalian reproduction and development may proceed in the microgravity of space. Rat pups reared from either conception or midgestation in hypergravity (hg) weigh 6-15% less than 1-g controls. In the present study we analyzed maternal and pup factors that may account for reduced body weight of hg reared pups. Beginning on Gestational day (G)11 of the rats' 22 day pregnancy, rat dams and their litters were continuously exposed to either 1.5-g, 1.75-g or 2.0-g. Prolaction (Prl) and oxytocin (OT) were measured in hg-exposed dams during either pregnancy (G20) or lactation (Postnatal day [P] 10). Gravity related differences in Prl were not observed whereas OT was depressed during lactation in hg dams relative to controls (p less than 0.05). Milk transfer measured during a discrete suckling episode was actually increased in hg-reared litters and comparable numbers of milk-letdowns were observed in the two conditions. Recent reports using dwarfing phenotypes in mouse mutants have provided evidence for postnatal dependence on growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs). Plasma GH measured in P10 pups using enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was significantly elevated in hg pups relative to 1-g controls (mean +/- sd., ng/ml: 2.0-g, 10.6 [3.0], 1.5-g 8.9 [4.0], 1.0-g, 7.95 [3.1]). Together, these findings suggest that neither milk production, milk transfer nor pup GH play significant roles in reduced body weights of hg-reared pups. Studies underway are focused on insulin-like growth factors.

  16. Neither Milk Production, Milk Transfer Nor Pup Growth Hormone Account for Reduced Body Weights of Rat Pups Reared In Hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bear, L. A.; Chowdhury, J. H.; Grindeland, R. E.; Wade, C. E.; Ronca, A. E.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Studies spanning the gravity continuum from 0 to 2-g are revealing new insights into how mammalian reproduction and development may proceed in the microgravity of space. Rat pups reared from either conception or midgestation in hypergravity (hg) weigh 6-15% less than 1-g controls. In the present study we analyzed maternal and pup factors that may account for reduced body weight of hg reared pups. Beginning on Gestational day (G)11 of the rats' 22 day pregnancy, rat dams and their litters were continuously exposed to either 1.5-g, 1.75-g or 2.0-g. Prolaction (Prl) and oxytocin (OT) were measured in hg-exposed dams during either pregnancy (G20) or lactation (Postnatal day [P] 10). Gravity related differences in Prl were not observed whereas OT was depressed during lactation in hg dams relative to controls (p less than 0.05). Milk transfer measured during a discrete suckling episode was actually increased in hg-reared litters and comparable numbers of milk-letdowns were observed in the two conditions. Recent reports using dwarfing phenotypes in mouse mutants have provided evidence for postnatal dependence on growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs). Plasma GH measured in P10 pups using enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was significantly elevated in hg pups relative to 1-g controls (mean +/- sd., ng/ml: 2.0-g, 10.6 [3.0], 1.5-g 8.9 [4.0], 1.0-g, 7.95 [3.1]). Together, these findings suggest that neither milk production, milk transfer nor pup GH play significant roles in reduced body weights of hg-reared pups. Studies underway are focused on insulin-like growth factors.

  17. Large litters rearing changes brain expression of GLUT3 and acetylcholinesterase activity in adult rats.

    PubMed

    de Vasconcelos, Vivian Sarmento; Machado, Sonia Salgueiro; Guedes, Rubem Carlos Araújo; Bandeira, Bruno Carneiro; Ximenes-da-Silva, Adriana

    2012-09-06

    Effects of malnutrition in the brain are more pronounced during the period of growth spurt, corresponding to the suckling in rodents. Neuronal glucose transporter GLUT3 expression and acetylcholinesterase activity were studied in the brain of adult young rats (84 days old) suckled in litters formed by 6 (control group) or 12 pups (malnourished group). In the adult rats, brain weight, blood glucose levels and GLUT3 expression were decreased in malnourished group (5%, 18%, 58%, respectively, P<0.001, Student's t test) compared to the control. Increased activity of acetylcholinesterase was found in cerebral cortex homogenates and a significant interaction (P=0.019, ANOVA two-way, Tukey's test) was found between nutritional state and homogenate fraction. In summary, malnutrition during suckling period decreased GLUT3 expression and increased acetylcholinesterase activity in the rat brain that could contribute to possible cognitive deficits and changes of brain metabolic activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) Expression is Differentially Regulated in the Hypothalamic Para ventricular Nucleus of Lactating Rats Exposed to Suckling or Cold Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Edith; Fekete, Csaba; Lechan, Ronald M.; Joseph-Bravo, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Neural stimuli, such as suckling or cold exposure, increase TRH mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the rat hypothalamus, yet only suckling induces prolactin secretion. As TRH co-localizes with cocaine-and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in hypophysiotropic neurons of the PVN, and CART inhibits TRH-induced prolactin release but not TRH-induced TSH release in adenohypophyseal cell cultures, we raised the possibility that differential regulation of CART gene expression in the PVN may explain the differences in prolactin secretion following each of the two stimuli. Primiparous female rats were mated and handled daily during the pre- and postpartum periods. After delivery, the litter was adjusted to 8 pups and at mid-lactation, dams were separated from their pups for 8 hours and exposed to either 1h of cold or 30 min of suckling. Long term effects of suckling were studied by separating pups from their mothers for 24h, followed by a 12h period of continuous suckling. Serum TSH levels increased in response to cold exposure, while prolactin levels were increased by suckling and diminished by cold exposure. CART mRNA levels increased in rostral and mid parts of the medial parvocellular PVN following cold exposure but not after suckling stimulation. These data demonstrate a differential regulation of CART gene expression in hypophysiotropic neurons in response to stimuli that increase TRH mRNA levels, and suggest that CART activation in the PVN may contribute to the decrease in PRL release when the thyroid axis is activated by cold exposure. Section: Regulatory systems PMID:17174283

  19. Isolation rearing induced fear-like behavior without affecting learning abilities of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Molina-Hernandez, M; Tellez-Alcantara, P; Perez-Garcia, J

    2001-07-01

    1. Isolation-reared rats display fear-like behavior and depressive-like behavior in several behavioral tasks, suggesting that isolation rearing may model certain aspects of human psychopathologies. 2. After weaning (20 days old), male and female Wistar rats were isolation-reared during 20, 50 or 70 days. After that, they were tested in the elevated plus maze test, and in the open field test. Another group of isolation-reared rats (70 days of isolation) were tested in an auto-shaping task. 3. Isolation-reared rats displayed high levels of fear-like behavior in the elevated plus-maze test, and hyperlocomotion in the open field test. But, isolation-reared rats learned an auto-shaping task. 4. In conclusion, isolation rearing induced fear-like behavior, without affect learning abilities of rats.

  20. Gene expression profiles in rat mesenteric lymph nodes upon supplementation with Conjugated Linoleic Acid during gestation and suckling

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Diet plays a role on the development of the immune system, and polyunsaturated fatty acids can modulate the expression of a variety of genes. Human milk contains conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a fatty acid that seems to contribute to immune development. Indeed, recent studies carried out in our group in suckling animals have shown that the immune function is enhanced after feeding them with an 80:20 isomer mix composed of c9,t11 and t10,c12 CLA. However, little work has been done on the effects of CLA on gene expression, and even less regarding immune system development in early life. Results The expression profile of mesenteric lymph nodes from animals supplemented with CLA during gestation and suckling through dam's milk (Group A) or by oral gavage (Group B), supplemented just during suckling (Group C) and control animals (Group D) was determined with the aid of the specific GeneChip® Rat Genome 230 2.0 (Affymettrix). Bioinformatics analyses were performed using the GeneSpring GX software package v10.0.2 and lead to the identification of 89 genes differentially expressed in all three dietary approaches. Generation of a biological association network evidenced several genes, such as connective tissue growth factor (Ctgf), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (Timp1), galanin (Gal), synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1), growth factor receptor bound protein 2 (Grb2), actin gamma 2 (Actg2) and smooth muscle alpha actin (Acta2), as highly interconnected nodes of the resulting network. Gene underexpression was confirmed by Real-Time RT-PCR. Conclusions Ctgf, Timp1, Gal and Syt1, among others, are genes modulated by CLA supplementation that may have a role on mucosal immune responses in early life. PMID:21481241

  1. Transforming growth factor-alpha in vivo stimulates epithelial cell proliferation in digestive tissues of suckling rats.

    PubMed Central

    Hormi, K; Lehy, T

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role that exogenous transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) may exert on cell proliferation in vivo is poorly understood. AIM: To investigate the effect of rat TGF-alpha on epithelial cell proliferation in all suckling rat digestive tissues and to compare it with that of rat epidermal growth factor (EGF). ANIMAL AND METHODS: TGF-alpha and EGF were given three times daily either subcutaneously (10 or 20 micrograms/kg) or intraperitoneally (100 micrograms/kg) to rats from the ninth postnatal day. Cell proliferation was assessed through 5-bromo- 2-deoxyuridine incorporation and estimation of labelling indices. RESULTS: For both growth factors, the highest dose given for only two days significantly increased stomach and intestinal weights compared with controls (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). The proliferative responded depended on the dose given, colonic mucosa being the most sensitive whereas oxyntic mucosa remained unresponsive. TGF-alpha was as potent as EGF in stimulating epithelial cell proliferation in antral, duodenal, and colonic mucosae. However, EGF was more active on oesophageal and jejunal cell proliferation whereas TGF-alpha was more active on pancreatic exocrine cell proliferation and the differences between the two growth factor treated groups were significant. CONCLUSIONS: These results prove for the first time the stimulating effect in vivo of exogenous rat TGF-alpha on epithelial cell proliferation in rat digestive tissues during the developmental period and support a functional role for TGF-alpha at that time. PMID:8944561

  2. The Ingestion of Proteins and Colloidal Materials by Columnar Absorptive Cells of the Small Intestine in Suckling Rats and Mice

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Sam L.

    1959-01-01

    Proteins and colloidal materials, administered orally to suckling rats and mice, were ingested by columnar absorptive cells of the jejunum and ileum, but not of the duodenum. Bovine gamma globulin and ovalbumin were identified in the apical cytoplasm by staining with fluorescent antibody; trypan blue, Evans blue, saccharated iron oxide, and colloidal gold were detected intracellularly by their color, specific staining, and appearance in the electron microscope. Each substance was segregated in membrane-enclosed vacuoles, apparently part of a system of potentially interconnecting vacuoles and tubules in the apical cytoplasm which is continuous in places with the apical cell membrane. We postulate that ingestion of foreign materials was accomplished by pinocytosis, that is, by invagination of the apical cell membrane to form vacuoles containing material from the intestinal lumen. Approximately 18 days after birth columnar absorptive cells lost the ability to ingest proteins and colloids, and no longer contained large vacuoles and numerous tubules. At this age rats and mice lose the ability to absorb antibodies from the intestine in an immunologically intact form, and we conclude that cellular ingestion is part of the mechanism of absorption of intact proteins in suckling animals. Particulate fat apparently is absorbed in both newborn and adult animals by micropinocytosis. Thus adult animals may not have lost the capacity for pinocytosis, but rather have become selective as to what substances provoke it. Cortisone acetate, administered subcutaneously to rats 8 to 10 days old alters the columnar absorptive cells within 72 hours so that they resemble the cells in adult animals and no longer ingest proteins. PMID:13630932

  3. Effect of the addition of calcium soap to ewes' diet on fatty acid composition of ewe milk and subcutaneous fat of suckling lambs reared on ewe milk.

    PubMed

    Lurueña-Martínez, M A; Palacios, C; Vivar-Quintana, A M; Revilla, I

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of the inclusion of calcium soap (CS) in ewes' diet on the fatty acid profile of suckling lambs. Sixty suckling lambs of three breeds (Castellana, Churra and Assaf) were divided into two equal groups. One group was fed with a diet composed of beetroot pulp, alfalfa, barley, corn, soy, cotton and 4% of CS, and the other with a control diet without CS. The fatty acid profiles of the ewe's milk samples collected on the day before slaughter and of the lamb subcutaneous fat collected from the back of the carcasses were analysed. The addition of calcium soap to the ewe's diet did not change the milk fatty acid profile but significantly increased SFA and decreased both the PUFA and MUFA levels of suckling lamb fat. PCA analysis revealed a good separation of the lamb samples according to the diet of the mothers, showing that diet is more important than breed in explaining sample variability. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of addition of different vegetable oils to lactating dairy ewes' diet on meat quality characteristics of suckling lambs reared on the ewes' milk.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Ceferina; Fernández-Diez, Ana; Mateo, Javier; Bodas, Raul; Soto, Sergio; Manso, Teresa

    2012-07-01

    The effect of different vegetable oils used in the diet of lactating ewes on the meat quality of their suckling lambs has been evaluated. Lambs (males and females) were slaughtered at 11 kg. Fortyeight lactating Churra ewes (prolificacy 1.5) and their suckling lambs were assigned to four treatments according to the oil added (3% on weight basis) to the ewes' daily ration: palm oil as control (CON); olive oil (OLI); soybean oil (SOY); and linseed oil (LIN). Analyses of pH, colour, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), tocopherol levels, volatile compounds and a sensory evaluation were carried out on suckling lambs' meat. Results showed no substantial effect on pH, colour, TBARS and tocopherol levels. Volatiles typically derived from lipid oxidation were higher in SOY group. However, panellists were only able to correctly identify samples from LIN group. Furthermore, the meat from LIN group showed lower scores towards odour and flavour quality and overall liking than that from the rest of treatments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Characteristics of early- and late-recruited oxytocin bursting cells at the beginning of suckling in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Moos, F; Richard, P

    1988-01-01

    1. Paired or single recordings of paraventricular and/or supraoptic oxytocin cells at the beginning of suckling in urethane-anaesthetized rats enabled us to study cell recruitment and compare the characteristics of the early- and late-recruited cells. This was done under different experimental conditions, i.e. when the reflex was triggered in less than 1 h suckling (control), and when its triggering was facilitated either by the intraventricular (i.c.v.) injection of oxytocin, of apomorphine (a dopamine agonist) or by the intravenous (i.v.) injection of propranolol (a beta-adrenoceptor antagonist) into suckled rats with no milk ejection. 2. Under control conditions, the amplitude (total number of spikes) of the successive bursts of the early-recruited cells progressively increased, generally reaching maximum by the 6th burst. This increase was more rapid and greater after oxytocin than under control conditions or after apomorphine injection, and was delayed and reduced after propranolol. The burst frequency was higher after oxytocin and apomorphine injections than under control conditions and very low after propranolol. 3. Late-recruited cells were observed under all experimental conditions, except after oxytocin injection, since all cells displayed bursts right away. Moreover, when injected during the recruitment period of a control reflex, oxytocin greatly speeded up the recruitment of the late-recruited cells. These cells generally displayed smaller amplitude bursts than the early-recruited cells. Moreover, the increase in burst amplitude was less marked for the late- than for the early-recruited cells and often was not sustained. 4. Neither the likelihood of recruitment of an oxytocin cell nor its burst amplitude could be correlated with background activity level and there was no clear relationship between the recruitment period or the bursting characteristics on one hand and the background activity on the other. 5. In conclusion, the differences between the

  6. Ingestion, suckling, and the problem of identity: using criteria in the classification of ingestive behavior.

    PubMed

    Blass, Elliott M

    2002-06-01

    The data reported by Nizhnikov et al. [Newborn rats first suckling experience: taste differentiation and suckling plasticity (2002)] do not support the authors' claim that they shed light on suckling mechanisms. A number of accepted criteria for identifying suckling are discussed in this review. The ingestion of various fluids through a plastic tube by neonatal or other rats does not meet any of these criteria. Thus, while the data reported by Nizhnikov et al. [Newborn rats first suckling experience: taste differentiation and suckling plasticity (2002)] are of interest from the perspective of infant capabilities, they do not shed light on the determinants of actual nipple attachment or suckling as they may naturally occur.

  7. Fasting for 3 days during the suckling-weaning transient period in male rats induces metabolic abnormalities in the liver and is associated with impaired glucose tolerance in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Misa; Honma, Kazue; Mochizuki, Kazuki; Goda, Toshinao

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies suggest that nutritional status during developmental periods is associated with subsequent development of metabolic abnormalities. In this study, we examined whether malnutrition by fasting for 3 days during the suckling-weaning transient period induces subsequent development of metabolic abnormalities in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fasted for 3 days during the suckling-weaning transient period. They are subsequently fed a high-fat, high-sucrose (HF) or low-fat, high-starch (LF) diet for 14 weeks from 17 weeks of age, and the liver and blood samples were collected for measuring mRNA and protein levels of metabolic genes and blood concentrations of glucose and insulin, respectively. Fasting for 3 days during the suckling-weaning transient period induced impaired glucose tolerance in rats fed the LF diet in adulthood. Liver triglycerides in rats fed the HF diet in adulthood increased to 140 % in rats fasted for 3 days during the suckling-weaning transient period compared with those non-fasted. Furthermore, liver expression of FBP1 and ACCα genes in adult rats fed the LF diet increased to 125 and 145 %, respectively, in rats fasted for 3 days during the suckling-weaning transient period compared to non-fasted rats. PEPCK1 protein expression levels in rats fed the LF diet were higher in rats fasted for 3 days during the suckling-weaning transient period than in non-fasted rats. Fasting for 3 days in rats during the suckling-weaning transient period enhances metabolic abnormalities in animals fed a HF or LF diet in adulthood by confounding metabolism of lipid and sugar in the liver.

  8. Isolation rearing effects on probabilistic learning and cognitive flexibility in rats.

    PubMed

    Amitai, Nurith; Young, Jared W; Higa, Kerin; Sharp, Richard F; Geyer, Mark A; Powell, Susan B

    2014-03-01

    Isolation rearing is a neurodevelopmental manipulation that produces neurochemical, structural, and behavioral alterations in rodents that in many ways are consistent with schizophrenia. Symptoms induced by isolation rearing that mirror clinically relevant aspects of schizophrenia, such as cognitive deficits, open up the possibility of testing putative therapeutics in isolation-reared animals prior to clinical development. We investigated what effect isolation rearing would have on cognitive flexibility, a cognitive function characteristically disrupted in schizophrenia. For this purpose, we assessed cognitive flexibility using between- and within-session probabilistic reversal-learning tasks based on clinical tests. Isolation-reared rats required more sessions, though not more task trials, to acquire criterion performance in the reversal phase of the task, and were slower to adjust their task strategy after reward contingencies were switched. Isolation-reared rats also completed fewer trials and exhibited lower levels of overall activity in the probabilistic reversal-learning task than did the socially reared rats. This finding contrasted with the elevated levels of unconditioned investigatory activity and reduced levels of locomotor habituation that isolation-reared rats displayed in the behavioral pattern monitor. Finally, isolation-reared rats also exhibited sensorimotor gating deficits, reflected by decreased prepulse inhibition of the startle response, consistent with previous studies. We concluded that isolation rearing constitutes a valuable, noninvasive manipulation for modeling schizophrenia-like cognitive deficits and assessing putative therapeutics.

  9. The decrease in hypothalamic dopamine secretion induced by suckling: comparison of voltammetric and radioisotopic methods of measurement. [Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Plotsky, P.M.; Neill, J.D.

    1982-03-01

    Previous in situ voltammetric microelectrode measurements of median eminence dopamine release during mammary nerve stimulation of anesthetized lactating rats revealed a transient (1-3 min) 70% decline of dopamine concentrations. This dopamine was believed to be destined for secretion into the hypophysial portal circulation, but direct experimental support for this supposition was lacking. Thus, in the present study, (3H)dopamine release into brief sequential samples of hypophysial portal blood was compared with dopamine release in the median eminence measured by voltammetry. Lactating female rats were urethane anesthetized, and the median eminence pituitary region was exposed. (3H)Tyrosine was injected into a jugular cannula (100 microCi) followed by continuous infusion (5 microCi/min). In a preliminary experiment, this regimen produced a steady state level of (3H)dopamine in the portal blood within 45 min. In subsequent experiments, portal blood was collected as sequential 3-min samples, and electrochemical sampling from a microelectrode placed in the median eminence occurred at 1-min intervals. Electrochemical current resulting from the oxidation of dopamine in the medial median eminence was unvarying throughout the 75-min experiment in control rats (n . 4) and during the 30-min control period preceding mammary nerve stimulation in the other group (n . 4). These results were paralled by (3H) dopamine levels in portal blood during the same periods of time. All animals showed simultaneous decreases in oxidation current and (3H)dopamine levels within 1-4 min after initiation of mammary nerve stimulation. These and earlier results demonstrate that mammary nerve stimulation (and by extension, suckling) induces a momentary, but profound, decrease in hypothalamic dopamine secretion which precedes or accompanies the rise in PRL secretion evoked by the same stimulus.

  10. In vivo digestomics of milk proteins in human milk and infant formula using a suckling rat pup model.

    PubMed

    Wada, Yasuaki; Phinney, Brett S; Weber, Darren; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2017-02-01

    Human milk is the optimal mode of infant feeding for the first several months of life, and infant formulas serve as an alternative when breast-feeding is not possible. Milk proteins have a balanced amino acid composition and some of them provide beneficial bioactivities in their intact forms. They also encrypt a variety of bioactive peptides, possibly contributing to infant health and growth. However, there is limited knowledge of how milk proteins are digested in the gastrointestinal tract and bioactive peptides are released in infants. A peptidomic analysis was conducted to identify peptides released from milk proteins in human milk and infant formula, using a suckling rat pup model. Among the major milk proteins targeted, α-lactalbumin and β-casein in human milk, and β-lactoglobulin and β-casein in infant formula were the main sources of peptides, and these peptides covered large parts of the parental proteins' sequences. Release of peptides was concentrated to specific regions, such as residues 70-92 of β-casein in human milk, residues 39-55 of β-lactoglobulin in infant formula, and residues 57-96 and 145-161 of β-CN in infant formula, where resistance to gastrointestinal digestion was suggested. In the context of bioactive peptides, release of fragments containing known bioactive peptides was confirmed, such as β-CN-derived opioid and antihypertensive peptides. It is therefore likely that these fragments are of biological significance in neonatal health and development.

  11. Inhibitory effects of phytic acid and other inositol phosphates on zinc and calcium absorption in suckling rats.

    PubMed

    Lönnerdal, B; Sandberg, A S; Sandström, B; Kunz, C

    1989-02-01

    While it is known that phytic acid, inositol hexaphosphate, has a negative effect on zinc and calcium absorption, the effects of inositol which is phosphorylated to a lesser extent are less known. We have prepared inositol triphosphate (IP-3), tetraphosphate (IP-4), pentaphosphate (IP-5) and hexaphosphate (IP-6) by hydrolysis of sodium phytate and separation by ion-exchange chromatography and have studied their effect on zinc and calcium absorption. Using a suckling rat pup model, we found that liver uptake of 65Zn after 6 h was 5% of the total dose from solutions of IP-6, 19% from IP-5, 28% from IP-4, 29% from IP-3 and 31% from ZnCl2 (control). Non-absorbed calcium was 17%, 1.4%, 0.5%, 0.5% and 0.5% of the given dose of 45Ca, respectively. Thus, at a high degree of phosphorylation (IP-6, IP-5), zinc and calcium uptake was inhibited, while no effect was observed for the other phosphates. Consequently, total "phytate" analysis, which includes inositol phosphates with varying degrees of phosphorylation, can give misleading information with regard to mineral availability. In addition, even limited dephosphorylation of inositol hexaphosphate can have a positive effect on mineral absorption.

  12. Folate-binding protein and the absorption of folic acid in the small intestine of the suckling rat

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, J.B.; Selhub, J.

    1988-09-01

    The folate in milk is largely bound to high-affinity folate-binding protein (FBP). With an in vivo intestinal loop technique, we examined the absorption of folic acid bound to FBP (FA-FBP) in the small intestine of the suckling rat. In contrast to unbound folic acid (FA), FA-FBP is absorbed more avidly in the ileum than in the jejunum (p less than 0.025) and its absorption is not inhibited by 1 mmol sulfasalazine/L. Folate-binding activities in the mucosa of the proximal (duodenum and jejunum combined) and distal (ileum) small intestine were also examined and found to be 0.32 and 1.31 pmol/mg protein, respectively (p less than 0.001). A 6-h fast produced a 42% decrease in folate-binding activity in the distal small intestine (p less than 0.01) but did not change activity in the proximal portion. Collectively, these observations suggest that FA-FBP is absorbed by a mechanism that is distinct from that responsible for the absorption of FA and that absorption does not require prior dissociation of the vitamin-binding protein complex.

  13. Fenthion, an organophosphorus pesticide, induces alterations in oxidant/antioxidant status and histopathological disorders in cerebrum and cerebellum of suckling rats.

    PubMed

    Ben Amara, Ibtissem; Sefi, Mediha; Troudi, Afef; Soudani, Nejla; Boudawara, Tahia; Zeghal, Najiba

    2014-08-01

    Fenthion (FEN) is an organophosphorus pesticide known for its wide toxic manifestations. In this study, the effects of FEN were evaluated on the cerebrum and cerebellum oxidant/antioxidant status and histopathological disorders in the suckling rats. Pregnant rats were divided into two groups: control group received pure water, while FEN group received daily by their drinking water 551 ppm of FEN from the 14th day of pregnancy until day 14 after delivery. Acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity was inhibited in both the cerebrum and cerebellum of suckling rats whose mothers were treated with FEN. The cerebrum and cerebellum oxidative damage was demonstrated by a significant increase of malondialdehyde (MDA), advanced oxidation protein product and glutathione (GSH) levels and disturbance in the antioxidant enzyme activities. A significant decline of non-protein thiol and vitamin C levels was also observed. These changes were confirmed by histopathological observations which were marked by pyknotic neurons in the cerebrum and apoptotic cells in the cerebellum of FEN-treated rats. In the cerebellum of FEN-treated rats, the most conspicuous damage was the absence of external granular layer, indicating growth retardation. These data suggested that exposure of pregnant and lactating rats to FEN induced oxidative stress and histopathological disorders in the cerebrum and cerebellum of their pups. Thus, the use of FEN must be under strict control, especially for pregnant and lactating mothers.

  14. Fasting during the suckling-weaning transient period of rats induces inflammatory gene expression in the adipose tissue and peripheral leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Honma, Kazue; Mawatari, Riko; Iikeda, Misa; Mochizuki, Kazuki; Goda, Toshinao

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional deficiency during developmental stages could be associated with subsequent development of inflammation-related metabolic abnormalities. In this study, we examined the effects of a 3-d fast during the suckling-weaning transient period of rats, and subsequent intake of high-fat-high-sucrose (HF) and low-fat-high-starch (LF) diets in adulthood, on the expression of inflammatory genes in adipose tissue and peripheral leukocytes. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were deprived of food for 3 d during the suckling-weaning transient period, and were subsequently fed an HF or LF diet for 14 wk from 17 wk of age. Serum monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) concentration and mRNA levels of inflammatory genes in mesenteric adipose tissues were assessed at 31 wk of age. The mRNA levels of inflammatory genes at 0 h and 2 h after oral glucose load at 30 wk of age in peripheral leukocytes were measured. Fasting induced circulating MCP-1 protein in rats fed an LF diet but not an HF diet. The HF diet induced high mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and S100 proteins in peripheral leukocytes at 2 h after glucose load in fasted rats when compared with controls. Expression of CD11c, an activated macrophage marker, was induced in the fasted group given an HF diet during adulthood. Fasting rats during the suckling-weaning transient period and an HF diet intake during adulthood enhance inflammation by promoting the expression of inflammatory genes in adipose tissue and peripheral leukocytes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Emotional learning enhances stimulus-specific top-down modulation of sensorimotor gating in socially reared rats but not isolation-reared rats.

    PubMed

    Du, Yi; Wu, Xihong; Li, Liang

    2010-01-20

    Prepulse inhibition (PPI), the suppression of the startle reflex by a preceding sensory stimulus (prepulse), can be top-down modulated in both humans and rats. This study investigated whether emotional-learning-induced enhancement of PPI in rats is prepulse specific. The results show that in socially reared rats, PPI elicited by a narrowband-noise prepulse on the broadband-noise background (masker) was enhanced after the prepulse became fear conditioned. This fear-conditioning-modulated PPI was further enhanced by introducing a perceived spatial separation between the conditioned prepulse and the broadband-noise masker. However, these PPI enhancements disappeared if the conditioned prepulse was replaced by a different narrowband-noise prepulse that was not fear conditioned. In isolation-reared rats, who had both enhanced baseline startle and reduced PPI before conditioning, neither fear conditioning of the prepulse nor perceived spatial separation between the conditioned prepulse and noise masker could enhance PPI. Thus, the emotional-learning-induced enhancement of PPI in socially reared rats is prepulse specific, indicating that auditory processing interacts with mnemonic signaling in the formation of top-down modulation of PPI. Since the deficiency of attentional modulation of PPI in schizophrenic patients is correlated with the symptom severity, the deficiency of top-down modulations of PPI in isolation-reared rats is useful for modeling schizophrenia.

  16. DMXB, an alpha7 nicotinic agonist, normalizes auditory gating in isolation-reared rats.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Heidi C; Rieger, Kate; Kem, William R; Stevens, Karen E

    2003-09-01

    Impaired auditory gating is common in schizophrenic patients. Evidence suggests that this deficit is related to a reduced number of alpha(7) nicotinic receptors and therefore treatment with alpha(7) nicotinic agonists may improve this condition. 3-(2,4)-Dimethoxybenzylidine anabaseine (DMXB; also known as GTS-21) is such an agonist and has shown efficacy in mice both orally and intraperitoneally. Rats reared in social isolation post weaning have demonstrated a deficit in auditory gating similar to that seen in schizophrenia patients. The current study determined the effects of DMXB on auditory gating in awake, freely moving rats, comparing a group born and raised in-house and reared in isolation post-weaning (isolation reared) with a group shipped from the supplier as adults and housed in groups prior to surgery (controls). Ten unmedicated, baseline recordings were obtained following surgical implantation of a recording electrode. All control group rats and the isolation-reared rats that showed deficient gating at baseline were treated with 1.0, 3.33, 10 or 33 mg/kg DMXB, IP, to determine the drug's impact on auditory gating. Isolation-reared rats had significantly improved auditory gating at the 3.33, 10 and 33 mg/kg doses, while control rats had a significant impairment in their auditory gating at the 33 mg/kg dose. DMXB improved the auditory gating deficit seen in isolation-reared rats. As previously observed in another model, the change was produced through a decrease in the test amplitude in isolation-reared animals. Control animals had a significant reduction in conditioning amplitude at the high dose, which produced the loss of auditory gating. The results in the isolation-reared rats are in concert with previous studies which found similar improvement in auditory gating following administration of DMXB to DBA mice, the only differences being in the duration of the effect.

  17. An experimental model of postnatal jaundice in the suckling rat. Suppression of induced hyperbilirubinemia by Sn-protoporphyrin.

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, G S; Kappas, A

    1984-01-01

    A model of experimental postnatal hyperbilirubinemia in the rat has been developed utilizing the heme precursor delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) to produce jaundice during a selective time period after birth. This time period is defined as that between 7 d postnatally, when the initial postpartum alterations of serum bilirubin and heme metabolism in the neonate have subsided, and 21 d, when the hepatic conjugation mechanism for the bile pigment appears fully developed. Administration of ALA in this time period led to a rapid, consistent, and significant dose-dependent increase in serum bilirubin levels in the newborn animals. Heme administration produced a qualitatively similar but enhanced effect. Both compounds, in addition, induced a dose-dependent increase in hepatic heme oxygenase activity concomitant with the increase in serum bilirubin levels. Neither compound increased serum bilirubin levels significantly when administered at or after 21 d postnatally. Administration of the synthetic metalloporphyrin, Sn-protoporphyrin, to ALA-treated neonates resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in serum bilirubin levels and hepatic heme oxygenase activity. Mn- and Zn-protoporphyrin in comparable doses did not significantly inhibit ALA-induced hyperbilirubinemia. Sn-protoporphyrin also inhibited the hyperbilirubinemia produced by heme in the suckling animals. ALA administration to newborn rats during the specific postnatal period described provides a simple and convenient model of experimental jaundice in the developing neonate which permits an examination of the potential ability of synthetic metalloporphyrins or other compounds to suppress induced hyperbilirubinemia in the newborn animal. The ability to induce a consistent and significant degree of jaundice in the postnatal rat by the method described may also be useful for other types of studies concerned with the biological disposition and effects of endogenously formed bilirubin in the neonate. The results of this

  18. Effects of Hypergravity Rearing on Growth Hormone and Insulin-Like Growth Factor in Rat Pups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer, L. A.; Chowdhury, J. H.; Grindeland, R. E.; Wade, C. E.; Ronca, A. E.

    2003-01-01

    Body weights of rat pups reared during exposure to hypergravity (hg) are significantly reduced relative to 1 g controls. In the present study, we examined in hg-reared rat pups two major contributors to growth and development, namely growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Beginning on Gestational day (G)11 of the rats 22 day pregnancy, rat dams and their litters were continuously exposed to either 1.5-g or 2.0-g. On Postnatal day (P)l0, plasma GH and IGF-1 were analyzed using radioimmunoassay (RIA). Both hormones were significantly elevated in hg pups relative to 1-g control pups. Together, these findings suggest that GH and IGF-1 are not primary determinants of reduced body weights observed in hg-reared pups. The significant elevations in pup GH and IGF-1 may be related to increased physical stimulation in hypergravity.

  19. Effects of Hypergravity Rearing on Growth Hormone and Insulin-Like Growth Factor in Rat Pups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer, L. A.; Chowdhury, J. H.; Grindeland, R. E.; Wade, C. E.; Ronca, A. E.

    2003-01-01

    Body weights of rat pups reared during exposure to hypergravity (hg) are significantly reduced relative to 1 g controls. In the present study, we examined in hg-reared rat pups two major contributors to growth and development, namely growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Beginning on Gestational day (G)11 of the rats 22 day pregnancy, rat dams and their litters were continuously exposed to either 1.5-g or 2.0-g. On Postnatal day (P)l0, plasma GH and IGF-1 were analyzed using radioimmunoassay (RIA). Both hormones were significantly elevated in hg pups relative to 1-g control pups. Together, these findings suggest that GH and IGF-1 are not primary determinants of reduced body weights observed in hg-reared pups. The significant elevations in pup GH and IGF-1 may be related to increased physical stimulation in hypergravity.

  20. Lack of evidence for a role for either the in utero or suckling periods in the exaggerated salt preference of the spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    PubMed

    Di Nicolantonio, Robert; Westcott, Kerryn T; Koutsis, Kathy; Wlodek, Mary E

    2005-11-15

    When offered as a choice with drinking water in two-bottle preference tests, the spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) of the Okamoto strain exhibit a marked preference for saline solutions. While this behaviour is thought to be in part genetically determined, the role of environmental influences-in particular, perinatal ones-are poorly understood. In this study, we have used combined embryo transfer and cross-fostering techniques between SHR and normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats to delineate the relative roles of the prenatal and postnatal, suckling environment on the exaggerated saline preference of male SHR and WKY offspring at 20 weeks of age. We found, using two-bottle preference tests using water and 140 mmol/l sodium chloride solution, that neither the in utero period nor the postnatal, suckling period played a role in the development of the much larger total fluid intake (water plus saline) or saline preference (proportion of the total fluid intake taken as saline) of the SHR. We thus conclude that maternal and perinatal environmental factors do not play a major role in this behaviour and that the exaggerated saline preference of the SHR is probably largely genetically determined.

  1. Neural activity in the prelimbic and infralimbic cortices of freely moving rats during social interaction: Effect of isolation rearing

    PubMed Central

    Minami, Chihiro; Shimizu, Tomoko

    2017-01-01

    Sociability promotes a sound daily life for individuals. Reduced sociability is a central symptom of various neuropsychiatric disorders, and yet the neural mechanisms underlying reduced sociability remain unclear. The prelimbic cortex (PL) and infralimbic cortex (IL) have been suggested to play an important role in the neural mechanisms underlying sociability because isolation rearing in rats results in impairment of social behavior and structural changes in the PL and IL. One possible mechanism underlying reduced sociability involves dysfunction of the PL and IL. We made a wireless telemetry system to record multiunit activity in the PL and IL of pairs of freely moving rats during social interaction and examined the influence of isolation rearing on this activity. In group-reared rats, PL neurons increased firing when the rat showed approaching behavior and also contact behavior, especially when the rat attacked the partner. Conversely, IL neurons increased firing when the rat exhibited leaving behavior, especially when the partner left on its own accord. In social interaction, the PL may be involved in active actions toward others, whereas the IL may be involved in passive relief from cautionary subjects. Isolation rearing altered social behavior and neural activity. Isolation-reared rats showed an increased frequency and decreased duration of contact behavior. The increased firing of PL neurons during approaching and contact behavior, observed in group-reared rats, was preserved in isolation-reared rats, whereas the increased firing of IL neurons during leaving behavior, observed in group-reared rats, was suppressed in isolation-reared rats. This result indicates that isolation rearing differentially alters neural activity in the PL and IL during social behavior. The differential influence of isolation rearing on neural activity in the PL and IL may be one of the neural bases of isolation rearing-induced behavior. PMID:28459875

  2. Behavioral variability in SHR and WKY rats as a function of rearing environment and reinforcement contingency.

    PubMed Central

    Hunziker, M H; Saldana, R L; Neuringer, A

    1996-01-01

    The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) may model aspects of human attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). For example, just as responses by children with ADHD tend to be variable, so too SHRs often respond more variably than do Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) control rats. The present study asked whether behavioral variability in the SHR strain is influenced by rearing environment, a question related to hypotheses concerning the etiology of human ADHD. Some rats from each strain were reared in an enriched environment (housed socially), and others were reared in an impoverished environment (housed in isolation). Four groups--enriched SHR, impoverished SHR, enriched WKY, and impoverished WKY--were studied under two reinforcement contingencies, one in which reinforcement was independent of response variability and the other in which reinforcement depended upon high variability. The main finding was that rearing environment did not influence response variability (enriched and impoverished subjects responded similarly throughout). However, rearing environment affected body weight (enriched subjects weighted more than impoverished subjects) and response rate (impoverished subjects generally responded faster than enriched subjects). In addition, SHRs tended to respond variably throughout the experiment, whereas WKYs were more sensitive to the variability contingencies. Thus, behavioral variability was affected by genetic strain and by reinforcement contingency but not by the environment in which the subjects were reared. PMID:8583193

  3. Early Adolescent Emergence of Reversal Learning Impairments in Isolation-Reared Rats

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Susan B.; Khan, Asma; Young, Jared W.; Scott, Christine N.; Buell, Mahalah R.; Caldwell, Sorana; Tsan, Elisa; de Jong, Loek A.W.; Acheson, Dean T.; Lucero, Jacinta; Geyer, Mark A.; Behrens, M. Margarita

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairments appear early in the progression of schizophrenia, often preceding the symptoms of psychosis. Thus, the systems subserving these functions may be more vulnerable to, and mechanistically linked with, the initial pathology. Understanding the trajectory of behavioral and anatomical abnormalities relevant to the schizophrenia prodrome and their sensitivity to interventions in relevant models will be critical to identifying early therapeutic strategies. Isolation rearing of rats is an environmental perturbation that deprives rodents of social contact from weaning through adulthood and produces behavioral and neuronal abnormalities that mirror some pathophysiology associated with schizophrenia, e.g. frontal cortex abnormalities and prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle deficits. Previously, we showed that PPI deficits in isolation-reared rats emerge in mid-adolescence (4 weeks after weaning; approx. postnatal day 52) but are not present when tested at 2 weeks after weaning (approx. postnatal day 38). Because cognitive deficits are reported during early adolescence, are relevant to the prodrome, and are linked to functional outcome, we examined the putative time course of reversal learning deficits in isolation-reared rats. Separate groups of male Sprague Dawley rats were tested in a two-choice discrimination task at 2 and 8 weeks after weaning, on postnatal day 38 and 80, respectively. The isolation-reared rats displayed impaired reversal learning at both time points. Isolation rearing was also associated with deficits in PPI at 4 and 10 weeks after weaning. The reversal learning deficits in the isolated rats were accompanied by reductions in parvalbumin immunoreactivity, a marker for specific subpopulations of GABAergic neurons, in the hippocampus. Hence, isolation rearing of rats may offer a unique model to examine the ontogeny of behavioral and neurobiological alterations that may be relevant to preclinical models of prodromal psychosis. PMID

  4. Is the onset of obesity in suckling fa/fa rats linked to a potentially larger milk intake?

    PubMed

    Buchberger, P; Schmidt, I

    1996-08-01

    We wanted to find out whether fatty (fa/fa) sucklings show abnormal intake when given access to an abundant milk reservoir. To do this, we gravimetrically determined the milk ingested by small groups (4-5 pups) of 5- to 15-day-old lean (+/fa) and fatty littermates allowed to suckle for 30 min after their mother had not been nursing for periods of between 1 and 7 h. The pups were grouped randomly and their phenotypes retrospectively identified. Within both genotypes, the intakes of simultaneously tested pups were significantly higher in pups deprived for longer periods. Deprived and undeprived fa/fa pups ingested, however, slightly but significantly less milk than +/fa littermates did in the same nursing bout. In the first 2 wk of life, when fa/fa pups deposit nearly twice as much body fat as their +/fa littermates do, fa/fa pups will thus suckle less rather than more milk. This extends previous findings showing that the onset of fa/fa obesity is independent of larger intakes and thus questions that fa impairs a receptor primarily controlling food intake.

  5. Negative visuospatial priming in isolation-reared rats: Evidence of resistance to the disruptive effects of amphetamine.

    PubMed

    Amitai, Nurith; Powell, Susan; Weber, Martin; Swerdlow, Neal R; Young, Jared W

    2015-12-01

    Negative visuospatial priming (NP) represents a quantifiable measure of inhibitory information processing that is disrupted in several neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. We developed a novel rodent NP task to investigate mechanisms underlying NP and its role in various disorders, and to test potential therapeutics. In the present studies, we further characterized this novel paradigm by investigating whether NP is disrupted in rats reared in isolation, a developmental manipulation that produces a range of abnormalities in behavior, neurochemistry, and brain structure that mirror aspects of schizophrenia pathology. We also further explored the role of monoaminergic signaling in NP and the effects of isolation rearing by challenging both socially reared and isolation-reared rats with D-amphetamine during the NP task. Although fewer isolation-reared animals learned the complex NP task, those that learned exhibited unaffected NP compared with socially reared rats. Consistent with previous reports, D-amphetamine impaired NP and increased motor impulsivity in socially reared rats. In contrast, D-amphetamine did not affect NP or motor impulsivity in isolation-reared rats. These data confirm a monoaminergic influence on NP behavior and indicate that rats reared in isolation have altered dopaminergic sensitivity.

  6. Negative visuospatial priming in isolation-reared rats: Evidence of resistance to the disruptive effects of amphetamine

    PubMed Central

    Amitai, Nurith; Powell, Susan; Weber, Martin; Swerdlow, Neal R.

    2015-01-01

    Negative visuospatial priming (NP) represents a quantifiable measure of inhibitory information processing that is disrupted in several neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. We developed a novel rodent NP task to investigate mechanisms underlying NP and its role in various disorders, and to test potential therapeutics. In the present studies, we further characterized this novel paradigm by investigating whether NP is disrupted in rats reared in isolation, a developmental manipulation that produces a range of abnormalities in behavior, neurochemistry, and brain structure that mirror aspects of schizophrenia pathology. We also further explored the role of monoaminergic signaling in NP and the effects of isolation rearing by challenging both socially reared and isolation-reared rats with D-amphetamine during the NP task. Although fewer isolation-reared animals learned the complex NP task, those that learned exhibited unaffected NP compared with socially reared rats. Consistent with previous reports, D-amphetamine impaired NP and increased motor impulsivity in socially reared rats. In contrast, D-amphetamine did not affect NP or motor impulsivity in isolation-reared rats. These data confirm a monoaminergic influence on NP behavior and indicate that rats reared in isolation have altered dopaminergic sensitivity. PMID:26220402

  7. Administration of N-nitrosodimethylamine, N-nitrosopyrrolidine, or N'-nitrosonornicotine to nursing rats: their interactions with liver and kidney nucleic acids from sucklings

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz Gomez, M.I.; Tamayo, D.; Castro, J.A.

    1986-06-01

    When nursing Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with (/sup 14/C)N-nitrosodimethylamine ((NDMA) CAS: 62-75-9), N-nitrosopyrrolidine (CAS:930-55-2), or N'-nitrosonornicotine (CAS: 16543-55-8), the liver and kidney DNA from their 14-day-old offspring that had been nursed over a 24-hour period became labeled. Upon analysis, liver DNA from sucklings whose nursing mothers were treated with (/sup 14/C)NDMA showed N7-methylguanine- and O6-methylguanine-altered bases. The results suggest that these nitrosamines, which are present in food, tobacco smoke, and in different environmental sources, are a risk not only for lactating mothers but also for the nursing infants.

  8. Effects of Hypergravity Rearing on Growth Hormone (GH) Secretion In Preweanling Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer, L. A.; Chowdhury, J. H.; Wade, C. E.; Ronca, A. E.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We previously reported that rat pups reared at 1.5-g, 1.75 or 2.0-g hypergravity weigh 6-15% less than 1.0-g controls. To account for these findings. we measured the lactational hormones, prolaction (Prl) and oxytocin (OT), in the pups' mothers. Gravity related differences in Prl were not observed whereas OT of lactating dams was significantly reduced relative to controls. Milk transfer from dam to pup was not impaired in hypergravity-reared litters tested at 1-g. Together, these findings suggest that impaired lactation and milk transfer do not account for reduced body masses of postnatal rats reared in hypergravity. In the present study, we analyzed growth hormone (GH) secretion and maternal licking in pups reared in hypergravity and in 1.0-g controls. Recent reports using dwarfing phenotypes in mouse mutants have provided evidence for postnatal dependence on GH and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs). Beginning on Gestational day (G)11 of the rats' 22 day pregnancy, rat dams and their litters were exposed to either 1.5-g, 1.75-g or 2.0-g. On Postnatal day (P)10, we measured plasma GH using enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Contrary to our hypothesis, GH was significantly elevated in pups reared at 2.0-g relative to 1.0-g controls. Pup-oriented behaviors of the hypergravity dams were also changed, possibly accounting for the increase in pup GH. GH alone does not appear to play a role in reduced body weights of hypergravity-reared pups.

  9. Effects of Hypergravity Rearing on Growth Hormone (GH) Secretion In Preweanling Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer, L. A.; Chowdhury, J. H.; Wade, C. E.; Ronca, A. E.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We previously reported that rat pups reared at 1.5-g, 1.75 or 2.0-g hypergravity weigh 6-15% less than 1.0-g controls. To account for these findings. we measured the lactational hormones, prolaction (Prl) and oxytocin (OT), in the pups' mothers. Gravity related differences in Prl were not observed whereas OT of lactating dams was significantly reduced relative to controls. Milk transfer from dam to pup was not impaired in hypergravity-reared litters tested at 1-g. Together, these findings suggest that impaired lactation and milk transfer do not account for reduced body masses of postnatal rats reared in hypergravity. In the present study, we analyzed growth hormone (GH) secretion and maternal licking in pups reared in hypergravity and in 1.0-g controls. Recent reports using dwarfing phenotypes in mouse mutants have provided evidence for postnatal dependence on GH and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs). Beginning on Gestational day (G)11 of the rats' 22 day pregnancy, rat dams and their litters were exposed to either 1.5-g, 1.75-g or 2.0-g. On Postnatal day (P)10, we measured plasma GH using enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Contrary to our hypothesis, GH was significantly elevated in pups reared at 2.0-g relative to 1.0-g controls. Pup-oriented behaviors of the hypergravity dams were also changed, possibly accounting for the increase in pup GH. GH alone does not appear to play a role in reduced body weights of hypergravity-reared pups.

  10. Zinc absorption from low phytic acid genotypes of maize (Zea mays L.), Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), and Rice (Oryza sativa L.) assessed in a suckling rat pup model.

    PubMed

    Lönnerdal, Bo; Mendoza, Concepcion; Brown, Kenneth H; Rutger, J Neil; Raboy, Victor

    2011-05-11

    Dietary phytic acid is a major causative factor for low Zn bioavailability in many cereal- and legume-based diets. The bioavailability of Zn in seed of low phytic acid (lpa) variants of maize ( Zea mays L.), rice ( Oryza sativa L.), and barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) was evaluated using a suckling rat pup model. Suckling rat pups (14 days old, n = 6-8/treatment) were fasted for 6 h and intubated with (65)Zn-radiolabeled suspensions prepared using seed produced by either wild-type (normal phytic acid) or lpa genotypes of each cereal. Test solutions were radiolabeled overnight (all genotypes) or immediately prior to intubation (barley genotypes). Pups were killed 6 h postintubation and tissues removed and counted in a gamma counter. Zn absorption was low from wild-type genotypes of maize (21, 33%) and rice (26%), and phytic acid reduction resulted in significantly higher Zn absorption, 47-52 and 35-52%, respectively. Zn absorption from wild-type barley incubated overnight was high (86-91%), and phytate reduction did not improve Zn absorption (84-90%), which is likely due to endogenous phytase activity. When the wild-type barley solutions were prepared immediately before intubation, Zn absorption was significantly lower (63, 78%) than from the lpa cultivars (92, 96%). Variation in seed or flour phenolic acid levels did not affect Zn absorption. Differences in seed Zn levels did not substantially affect Zn absorption. Thus, when phytic acid is abundant in a diet, it has a larger effect on Zn absorption than the level of Zn. Therefore, reducing the phytic acid content of staple cereal grains may contribute to enhancing Zn nutrition of populations consuming these staple foods.

  11. Deficits in parvalbumin and calbindin immunoreactive cells in the hippocampus of isolation reared rats.

    PubMed

    Harte, M K; Powell, S B; Swerdlow, N R; Geyer, M A; Reynolds, G P

    2007-07-01

    Post-mortem studies have provided evidence for abnormalities of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic system in schizophrenia. The calcium-binding proteins (CBPs), parvalbumin (PV), calbindin (CB) and calretinin (CR) can be used as markers for specific subpopulations of GABAergic neurons in the brain. Isolation rearing of rats is a non-pharmacological, non-lesion manipulation that leads to deficits in prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex (PPI) and other behavioural and neurochemical alterations reminiscent of schizophrenia. Female rats were reared in social housing (groups of three) or singly for 11 weeks post weaning and PPI was measured. Brains were removed and hippocampal CBP- containing neurons determined following immunocytochemical staining. Compared to socially housed rats, isolated rats exhibited PPI deficits and reductions in PV and CB-immunoreactive cells in the hippocampus, with no significant change in CR. These findings demonstrate selective abnormalities of sub-populations of GABAergic interneurons in the hippocampus of isolation reared rats, which resemble the neuronal deficits seen in this region in schizophrenia.

  12. Exposure of neonatal rats to maternal cafeteria feeding during suckling alters hepatic gene expression and DNA methylation in the insulin signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Zoe C; Akyol, Asli; McMullen, Sarah; Langley-Evans, Simon C

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition in early life is a determinant of lifelong physiological and metabolic function. Diseases that are associated with ageing may, therefore, have their antecedents in maternal nutrition during pregnancy and lactation. Rat mothers were fed either a standard laboratory chow diet (C) or a cafeteria diet (O) based upon a varied panel of highly palatable human foods, during lactation. Their offspring were then weaned onto chow or cafeteria diet giving four groups of animals (CC, CO, OC, OO n = 9-10). Livers were harvested 10 weeks post-weaning for assessment of gene and protein expression, and DNA methylation. Cafeteria feeding post-weaning impaired glucose tolerance and was associated with sex-specific altered mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma and components of the insulin signalling pathway (Irs2, Akt1 and IrB). Exposure to the cafeteria diet during the suckling period modified the later response to the dietary challenge. Post-weaning cafeteria feeding only down-regulated IrB when associated with cafeteria feeding during suckling (group OO, interaction of diet in weaning and lactation P = 0.041). Responses to cafeteria diet during both phases of the experiment varied between males and females. Global DNA methylation was altered in the liver following cafeteria feeding in the post-weaning period, in males but not females. Methylation of the IrB promoter was increased in group OC, but not OO (P = 0.036). The findings of this study add to a growing evidence base that suggests tissue function across the lifespan a product of cumulative modifications to the epigenome and transcriptome, which may be both tissue and sex-specific.

  13. Prevention of cataracts in pink-eyed RCS rats by dark rearing.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, T L; Hess, H H; Zigler, J S; Kuwabara, T; Knapka, J J

    1990-11-01

    Royal College of Surgeons rats have hereditary retinal degeneration and associated posterior subcapsular opacities (PSO) of the lens, detectable by slitlamp at 7-8 postnatal weeks in both pink- and black-eyed rats. The retinal degeneration is intensified by light, especially in pink-eyed rats. A fourth of pink-eyed rats developed mature cataracts by 9-12 months of age, but black-eyed rats whose retinas are protected from light by pigmented irises and pigment epithelium rarely have mature cataracts (3% or less), indicating light may be a factor in cataractogenesis. Prior work had shown that dark rearing reduced the rate of retinal degeneration in pink- but not black-eyed rats, but cataracts were not studied. In the present work, pregnant pink-eyed females were placed in a darkroom 1 week before parturition. Pups were removed over intervals at 20-85 postnatal days for: (a) microscopic study of fresh lenses and of fixed, stained retina and lens, and (b) counts of cells mm-2 of the web-like vitreous cortex after it had been dissected free. The macrophage-like cells are a quantitative index of immune reaction to retinal damage. At 50-53 postnatal days, in pink-eyed cyclic light reared RCS, the mean number of macrophages was 4.6-fold that in congenic controls, but in those that were dark reared it was only 1.4-fold. This was less than the increase in cyclic light reared black-eyed RCS (2.3-fold that in congenic black-eyed controls). Total absence of light reduced retinal degeneration and the number of macrophages, and prevented PSO detectable microscopically.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Interaction between isolation rearing and social development on exploratory behavior in male rats.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Hiroyuki

    2005-11-01

    The effect of isolation on exploratory behavior has been shown to differ depending on the developmental stages of male rats. However, there has been little systematic comparison of the frequencies and the patterns of exploratory behavior across the developmental stages. The present study assessed the frequencies of exploration using the emergence test and exploratory patterns in the open-field test in three developmental stages of male rats: juvenile, post-puberty, and adult. A lower propensity for exploration was observed in rats isolated during the juvenile stage, as assessed by increased latency and decreased duration of exploratory behaviors compared to pair-reared rats, and this tendency was maintained in adulthood. Altered patterns of exploratory behavior were demonstrated both in rats isolated in adulthood, who showed an increased active pattern, and those pair-reared following puberty, who shifted to a more passive pattern. However, rats isolated during the juvenile stage did not change their exploratory patterns following puberty. These results suggest that the changes in the exploratory pattern, which can be observed in adulthood, are associated with the emergence of adult-like dominance relationships. Juvenile-isolated rats did not show these changes following puberty, suggesting the importance of social interaction as juveniles for the ontogenetic emergence of behavioral flexibility implicated in the regulation of exploratory patterns.

  15. Behavioral effects of repeated handling differ in rats reared in social isolation and environmental enrichment.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, L M; Van Kempen, T A; Zimmerberg, B

    2013-03-01

    The post-weaning social environment has profound effects on behavior and physiology in rodents. Social isolation increases anxiety-like behaviors and novelty-induced locomotor activity, while environmental enrichment decreases these behaviors. In some cases, the effects of social isolation are ameliorated by repeated handling. The goal of the present study was to determine whether the effects of handling differ in rats reared in social isolation and those reared in an enriched environment. After weaning, male Long-Evans rats were housed individually (ISO)(3) or in groups in an enriched environment (EE). During adulthood, rats from each housing condition received four, once-daily, brief handling sessions or remained undisturbed in the home cage. All rats were then tested in the open field, elevated plus maze, and for behavioral responses to d-amphetamine (1.0mg/kg). EE rats spent more time on the open arms of the elevated plus maze and were more likely than ISO rats to emerge from the start box in the open field, suggesting lower anxiety. Handling significantly decreased open arm time in EE rats and marginally increased open arm time in ISO rats. Housing condition did not affect amphetamine-stimulated locomotor activity, but handling altered the time course of the amphetamine response. ISO rats exhibited significantly fewer stereotyped behaviors than did EE rats, but repeated handling eliminated this difference. These findings support previously published studies that suggest brief handling of adult rats may at least partially ameliorate the effects of post-weaning social isolation on anxiety-like behaviors and psychostimulant sensitivity. Furthermore, there are complex interactions between the effects of housing environment and handling, suggesting that handling may be perceived and/or processed differently, depending on the animal's housing environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Neonatal L-glutamine modulates anxiety-like behavior, cortical spreading depression, and microglial immunoreactivity: analysis in developing rats suckled on normal size- and large size litters.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Denise Sandrelly Cavalcanti; Francisco, Elian da Silva; Lima, Cássia Borges; Guedes, Rubem Carlos Araújo

    2017-02-01

    In mammals, L-glutamine (Gln) can alter the glutamate-Gln cycle and consequently brain excitability. Here, we investigated in developing rats the effect of treatment with different doses of Gln on anxiety-like behavior, cortical spreading depression (CSD), and microglial activation expressed as Iba1-immunoreactivity. Wistar rats were suckled in litters with 9 and 15 pups (groups L 9 and L 15; respectively, normal size- and large size litters). From postnatal days (P) 7-27, the animals received Gln per gavage (250, 500 or 750 mg/kg/day), or vehicle (water), or no treatment (naive). At P28 and P30, we tested the animals, respectively, in the elevated plus maze and open field. At P30-35, we measured CSD parameters (velocity of propagation, amplitude, and duration). Fixative-perfused brains were processed for microglial immunolabeling with anti-IBA-1 antibodies to analyze cortical microglia. Rats treated with Gln presented an anxiolytic behavior and accelerated CSD propagation when compared to the water- and naive control groups. Furthermore, CSD velocity was higher (p < 0.001) in the L 15 compared to the L 9 condition. Gln treatment increased Iba1 immunolabeling both in the parietal cortex and CA1 hippocampus, indicating microglial activation. The Gln effect was dose-dependent for anxiety-like behavior and CSD in both litter sizes, and for microglial activation in the L 15 groups. Besides confirming previous electrophysiological findings (CSD acceleration after Gln), our data demonstrate for the first time a behavioral and microglial activation that is associated with early Gln treatment in developing animals, and that is possibly operated via changes in brain excitability.

  17. Effect of warm-rearing and heat acclimation on pituitary-gonadal axis in male rats.

    PubMed

    Kurowicka, B; Gajewska, A; Amarowicz, R; Kotwica, G

    2008-12-01

    Plasma gonadotrophic and testicular hormones concentrations in both immature and adult male rats exposed to 34 degrees C of ambient temperature were determined. In vitro steroidogenic ability of interstitial cells from experimental rats was also studied. Four groups of rats (n = 45) were used. Warm-reared (WR) males were housed in 34 degrees C and control-reared rats in 20 degrees C from birth to adulthood. The other groups were acclimated to 34 degrees C [warm-acclimated (WA) group] or 20 degrees C [deacclimated (DA) group] as adults. Decreased body weight and testis weight (p < 0.05) was found in heat-exposed groups, but relative testis weight was unchanged in WA and increased (p < 0.05) in WR and DA males. Plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) concentration increased in WA and DA males. Increased (p < 0.05) follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and prolactin plasma levels were found in DA and WR groups respectively. WA males had decreased testosterone (T) and WR rats androstenedione (A(4)) plasma concentration (p < 0.05). Interstitial cells (43% of them were Leydig cells by 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity) from heat-exposed males secreted less (p < 0.05) T compared with the control group when incubated without LH (basal conditions). Androstenedione secretion decreased (p < 0.05) in WA rats. Secretion of estradiol-17beta (E(2)) was higher in WR and lower in DA cells under basal conditions. Weaker responsiveness to LH was observed in WR cells. Androgen synthesis from pregnenolone by interstitial cells increased (p < 0.05) in the WA group. We concluded that heat exposure of neonatal and adult male rats caused different pituitary-testicular axis adjustments. It seemed that long-term heat exposure of neonatal rats is less deleterious concerning the activity of pituitary-testicular axis than heat acclimation of adults.

  18. Maternal and affective behaviors of lactating rats reared in overlapping litters.

    PubMed

    Uriarte, Natalia; Fernández, María Victoria; Agrati, Daniella; Zuluaga, María José; Ferreño, Marcela; Ferreira, Annabel

    2014-01-01

    Postpartum mating in rats gives rise to complex family units consisting of the mother and two overlapping litters. As a consequence, newborn pups of the second litter, since the moment they are born, acquire experience not only from interaction with the mother and age-matched littermates but also from interaction with older siblings. Newborn pups reared in overlapping litters (OLs) receive a different pattern of maternal stimulation compared to those reared in single litters (SL: one litter of same aged pups), as the mothers reduce some maternal behavior components and juvenile pups from the first litter develop maternal behavior. Since there is strong evidence showing that variations in maternal behavior are transmitted throughout generations, we hypothesized that the altered pattern of maternal stimulation received by OL reared females would modify their behavior during motherhood. To test this hypothesis maternal behavior, maternal aggression and experimental anxiety of dams reared under OL and SL conditions during the first postpartum week were compared. No differences were found between the groups in their maternal behavior and aggression. This result may be explained by the maternal behavior of the juveniles that could compensate for the deficits in the caregiving behaviors received by OL litters. However, a subtle temporal reorganization of the licking behavior was found in OL reared mothers, together with an increased anxiety-related behavior in the plus maze test. These results suggest dissociation in the effects provoked by early environmental alterations on different behavioral systems, and more importantly, that independently of their early family composition, both groups can cope effectively with the changing demands of the pups.

  19. Glutamine supplementation and deprivation: effect on artificially reared rat small intestinal morphology.

    PubMed

    Potsic, Bradley; Holliday, Nicolette; Lewis, Pat; Samuelson, Donald; DeMarco, Vincent; Neu, Josef

    2002-09-01

    The mechanisms of how glutamine benefits critically ill patients have not been established. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of dietary and endogenously produced glutamine on small intestinal morphology using light and transmission electron microscopy in artificially reared rat pups. It was hypothesized that deprivation of dietary glutamine leads to intestinal disease that is exacerbated by inhibition of glutamine synthetase by methionine sulfoximine (MS). Rat pups were placed into five different test groups: The first was a reference group that was reared by their mother. The other four groups were reared artificially and received a 10% Travasol amino acid solution at 5 g/kg per day, which does not contain glutamine, added to a mixture containing carbohydrates, lipids, and vitamins. This dose was chosen because it represents an approximation of the amount of glutamine these rats would be receiving in a normal rat diet (approximately 40 g/kg per day total protein, 10 to 15% of which is glutamine + glutamate). The glutamine was manipulated by adding glutamine (Q) or MS or both. The four groups were as follows: MS-Q-, MS-Q+, MS+Q-, and MS+Q+. Light microscopy revealed the greatest blunting of villus height in the ileum of rats from the MS+Q- group when compared with the MS-Q+ group (123 +/- 48.9 micro m versus 207 +/- 36 microm, p < 0.05). The other two groups exhibited intermediate villus heights, but all were shorter than the villi from the mother-reared animals. The number of villi per unit length of bowel was also lowest in the animals that were treated with MS and not provided with dietary glutamine. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated breakdown of the epithelial junctions in the glutamine-deprived and glutamine synthetase-inhibited intestines. Glutamine-deprived animals also displayed sloughing of microvilli, decreased actin cores, and degeneration of the terminal web. In summary, these studies support the hypothesis that

  20. Short-term contextual sensitisation and conditioned hyperkinesia produced by cocaine in suckling rats aged 4-10 days and 14-20 days.

    PubMed

    Tirelli, E

    2001-06-01

    It was hypothesised that the failure to generate sensitisation to the behavioural effects of a motor stimulant in suckling rats was mainly due to not pairing the drug with the test context during chronic pretreatment. This study probed the capabilities of neonatal and infant rat pups to show short-term context-specific sensitisation and conditioned drug activity produced by cocaine. Two similar experiments were conducted on rat pups aged 4-10 days or 14-20 days, each experiment comprising three phases: a sensitisation phase (days 4-8 and days 14-18 of age), a test session under cocaine for context specificity of sensitisation (day 9 and day 19 of age) and a test session under saline for conditioned drug effects (day 10 and day 20 of age). Over five daily sessions, pups first received an injection of either 16 mg/kg cocaine (paired group) or saline (unpaired group) in test chambers, and 110 min later the converse injections in the vivarium (in a cage that was different from the home cage). A third group received saline in both contexts. Behaviour was scored using videotapes. Sensitisation developed in the paired groups at both ages. In 4- to 10-day-old pups, sensitisation was expressed via locomotion (matrix crosses) and also horizontal and vertical activities (categories comprising several age-specific movements). In 14- to 18-day-old pups, it was displayed by increases in head movements and vertical activity, and by a decline in stationary position. These effects were confirmed to be context specific on the test sessions (day 9 or day 19), the paired groups producing by far the greatest values. On the conditioning test, the paired groups also produced the greatest amounts of the above-mentioned behaviours, revealing a conditioned drug effect. Additionally, the conditioned effect scores were higher than those of two additional groups that had been treated similarly to the others but outside the chamber until the two tests (controlling for a withdrawal effect and

  1. Neonatal taurine and alanine modulate anxiety-like behavior and decelerate cortical spreading depression in rats previously suckled under different litter sizes.

    PubMed

    Francisco, Elian da Silva; Guedes, Rubem Carlos Araújo

    2015-11-01

    The amino acids taurine and alanine play a role in several physiological processes, including behavior and the electrical activity of the brain. In this study, we investigated the effect of treatment with taurine or alanine on anxiety-like behavior and the excitability-dependent phenomenon known as cortical spreading depression (CSD), using rats suckled in litters with 9 and 15 pups (groups L9 and L15). From postnatal days 7 to 27, the animals received per gavage 300 mg/kg/day of taurine or alanine or both. At 28 days, we tested the animals in the elevated plus maze, and at 33-35 days, we recorded CSD and analyzed its velocity of propagation, amplitude, and duration. Compared with water-treated controls, the L9 groups treated with taurine or alanine displayed anxiolytic behavior (higher number of entries in the open arms; p < 0.05), and reduced CSD velocity (p < 0.001). The effect of both amino acids on CSD was also found in the L15 groups and in five additional L9 groups (naïve, water, taurine, alanine, or both) treated at adulthood (90-110 days). The L15 condition resulted in smaller durations and higher CSD velocities compared with the L9 condition. Besides reinforcing previous evidence of behavioral modulation by taurine and alanine, our data are the first confirmation that treatment with these amino acids decelerates CSD regardless of lactation conditions (normal versus unfavorable lactation) or age at amino acid administration (young versus adult). The results suggest a modulating role for both amino acids on anxiety behavior and neuronal electrical activity.

  2. Rapid acquisition of operant conditioning in 5-day-old rat pups: a new technique articulating suckling-related motor activity and milk reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Arias, Carlos; Spear, Norman E; Molina, Juan Carlos; Molina, Agustin; Molina, Juan Carlos

    2007-09-01

    Newborn rats are capable of obtaining milk by attaching to a surrogate nipple. During this procedure pups show a gradual increase in head and forelimb movements oriented towards the artificial device that are similar to those observed during nipple attachment. In the present study the probability of execution of these behaviors was analyzed as a function of their contingency with intraoral milk infusion using brief training procedures (15 min). Five-day-old pups were positioned in a smooth surface having access to a touch-sensitive sensor. Physical contact with the sensor activated an infusion pump which served to deliver intraoral milk reinforcement (Paired group). Yoked controls received the reinforcer when Paired neonates touched the sensor. Paired pups trained under a continuous reinforcement schedule emitted significantly more responses than Yoked controls following two (Experiment 1) or one training session (Experiment 2). These differences were also observed during an extinction session conducted immediately after training. The level of maternal deprivation before training (3 or 6 hr) or the volume of milk delivered (1.0 or 1.5 microl per pulse) did not affect acquisition or extinction performances. In addition, it was observed that the rate of responding of Paired pups during the early phase of the extinction session significantly predicted subsequent levels of acceptance of the reinforcer. These results indicate that the frequency of suckling-related behaviors can be rapidly modified by means of associative operant processes. The operant procedure here described represents an alternative tool for the ontogenetic analysis of self-administration or behavior processes of seeking.

  3. Effects of maternal marginal zinc deficiency on myelin protein profiles in the suckling rat and infant rhesus monkey.

    PubMed

    Liu, H; Oteiza, P I; Gershwin, M E; Golub, M S; Keen, C L

    1992-07-01

    In the current study, the effects of marginal Zn deficiency on myelin protein profiles in neonatal rats and rhesus monkeys were investigated. Following mating, rats were fed a Zn-adequate diet, ad libitum (50 micrograms Zn/g; 50 Zn AL), or a marginal Zn diet (10 micrograms Zn/g) from day 0 (10 Zn d0) or day 14 (10 Zn d14) of gestation to day 20 postnatal. An additional group of dams was restricted-fed the control diet to the food intake of the 10 Zn d0 group (50 Zn RF). Day 20 pup plasma and liver Zn concentrations in the 10 Zn groups were lower than in the 50 Zn groups. In a parallel experiment, rhesus monkeys were fed a Zn-adequate ad libitum diet (100 micrograms Zn/g) or a marginal Zn diet (4 micrograms Zn/g diet; MZD) throughout gestation and lactation. Day 30 monkey infant plasma and liver Zn levels were similar in the MZD and control groups. Rat brain and monkey brain cortex weights were similar among the dietary groups. The amount of myelin recovered (mg protein/g brain) from day 20 rat pups from the 10 Zn groups was lower than that recovered from the 50 Zn rat pups. Myelin recovery from the MZD and control monkey infants was similar. When myelin protein profiles were characterized, it was found that the percentages of high-molecular-weight (HMW) proteins and Wolfgram protein were higher, whereas the percentages of small and large basic proteins were lower in myelin from the 10 Zn d0 and 50 Zn RF pups compared to the distribution in the 50 Zn AL rat pups. Results for the 10 Zn d0 and 10 Zn d14 pups were similar for all of the parameters studied. The percentage of HMW proteins was higher and that of basic protein lower in myelin from MZD monkey infants compared to the percentage of these proteins in myelin from controls. Although the interpretation of the rat data is complicated because of the anorexia associated with Zn deficiency, the observed changes in monkey myelin protein profiles provide strong evidence that maternal Zn deficiency affects myelination

  4. Isolation rearing impairs wound healing and is associated with increased locomotion and decreased immediate early gene expression in the medial prefrontal cortex of juvenile rats.

    PubMed

    Levine, J B; Leeder, A D; Parekkadan, B; Berdichevsky, Y; Rauch, S L; Smoller, J W; Konradi, C; Berthiaume, F; Yarmush, M L

    2008-01-24

    In addition to its maladaptive effects on psychiatric function, psychosocial deprivation impairs recovery from physical illness. Previously, we found that psychosocial deprivation, modeled by isolation rearing, depressed immediate early gene (IEG) expression in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and increased locomotion in the open field test [Levine JB, Youngs RM, et al. (2007) Isolation rearing and hyperlocomotion are associated with reduced immediate early gene expression levels in the medial prefrontal cortex. Neuroscience 145(1):42-55]. In the present study, we examined whether similar changes in behavior and gene expression are associated with the maladaptive effects of psychosocial deprivation on physical injury healing. After weaning, anesthetized rats were subjected to a 20% total body surface area third degree burn injury and were subsequently either group or isolation reared. After 4 weeks of either isolation or group rearing (a period that encompasses post-wearing and early adolescence), rats were killed, and their healing and gene expression in the mPFC were assessed. Locomotion in the open field test was examined at 3 weeks post-burn injury. We found that: 1) gross wound healing was significantly impaired in isolation-reared rats compared with group-reared rats, 2) locomotion was increased and IEG expression was suppressed for isolation-reared rats during burn injury healing, 3) the decreased activity in the open field and increased IEG expression was greater for burn injury healing group-reared rats than for uninjured group-reared rats, 4) the degree of hyperactivity and IEG suppression was relatively similar between isolation-reared rats during burn injury compared with uninjured isolation-reared rats. Thus, in the mPFC, behavioral hyperactivity to novelty (the open field test) along with IEG suppression may constitute a detectable biomarker of isolation rearing during traumatic physical injury. Implications of the findings for understanding

  5. Rearing conditions differently affect the motor performance and cerebellar morphology of prenatally stressed juvenile rats.

    PubMed

    Ulupinar, Emel; Erol, Kevser; Ay, Hakan; Yucel, Ferruh

    2015-02-01

    The cerebellum is one of the most vulnerable parts of the brain to environmental changes. In this study, the effect of diverse environmental rearing conditions on the motor performances of prenatally stressed juvenile rats and its reflection to the cerebellar morphology were investigated. Prenatally stressed Wistar rats were grouped according to different rearing conditions (Enriched=EC, Standard=SC and Isolated=IC) after weaning. Six weeks later, male and female offspring from different litters were tested behaviorally. In rotarod and string suspension tests, females gained better scores than males. Significant gender and housing effects were observed especially on the motor functions requiring fine skills with the best performance by enriched females, but the worst by enriched males. The susceptibility of cerebellar macro- and micro-neurons to environmental conditions was compared using stereological methods. In female groups, no differences were observed in the volume proportions of cerebellar layers, soma sizes and the numerical densities of granule or Purkinje cells. However, a significant interaction between housing and gender was observed in the granule to Purkinje cell ratio of males, due to the increased numerical densities of the granule cells in enriched males. These data imply that proper functioning of the cerebellum relies on its well organized and evolutionarily conserved structure and circuitry. Although early life stress leads to long term behavioral and neurobiological consequences in the offspring, diverse rearing conditions can alter the motor skills of animals and synaptic connectivity between Purkinje and granular cells in a gender dependent manner. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The effects of crude aqueous and alcohol extracts of Aloe vera on growth and abdominal viscera of suckling rats.

    PubMed

    Beya, Wabeya; Davidson, Bruce; Erlwanger, Kennedy H

    2012-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract of neonates is sensitive to dietary manipulations. When nursing mothers use Aloe vera, their babies are at risk of indirect exposure to Aloe vera via breast feeding or directly as health supplements. The effects of orally administered extracts of Aloe vera in unweaned rats were investigated. Six day old Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged with aqueous or alcohol extracts of Aloe vera (low dose 50mg. kg⁻¹ or high dose 500mg. kg⁻¹) daily for eight days. All data were expressed as mean ± SD and analyzed by one way ANOVA. Pups receiving high doses of either extract had a significantly higher body mass gain than the group receiving lower dose (p < 0.05). Tibial length was significantly increased in the high dose aqueous extract group (15-26%). The differences in growth could not be attributed to circulating insulin-like growth factor-1 as the levels were not significantly different. The caecum was significantly enlarged in the rats that received the high doses of both extracts. Although, there was no significant difference in the non-fasting plasma concentration of glucose and triglycerides, the hepatic lipid and glycogen content were significantly higher (p < 0.001) for the high dose aqueous extract group. The plasma alanine transaminase was not affected by the treatments, however the high doses of the extracts significantly increased plasma alkaline phosphatase activity. Short term administration of Aloe vera extracts resulted in growth promotion, enhanced hepatic storage of metabolic substrates, increased ALP possibly in relation to bone growth and caused hypertrophy of the caecum of neonatal rats. These effects need to be explored further to enhance animal production and health.

  7. Contractile properties and myosin expression in rats born and reared in hypergravity.

    PubMed

    Picquet, F; Bouet, V; Canu, M H; Stevens, L; Mounier, Y; Lacour, M; Falempin, M

    2002-06-01

    The effects of hypergravity (HG) on soleus and plantaris muscles were studied in Long Evans rats aged 100 days, born and reared in 2-g conditions (HG group). The morphological and contractile properties and the myosin heavy chain (MHC) content were examined in whole muscles and compared with terrestrial control (Cont) age-paired rats. The growth of HG rats was slowed compared with Cont rats. A decrease in absolute muscle weight was observed. An increase in fiber cross-sectional area/muscle wet weight was demonstrated, associated with an increase in relative maximal tension. The soleus muscle changed into a slower type both in contractile parameters and in MHC content, since HG soleus contained only the MHC I isoform. The HG plantaris muscle presented a faster contractile behavior. Moreover, the diversity of hybrid fiber types expressing multiple MHC isoforms (including MHC IIB and MHC IIX isoforms) was increased in plantaris muscle after HG. Thus the HG environment appears as an important inductor of muscular plasticity both in slow and fast muscle types.

  8. Preferential nesting in lemon-scented environment in rats reared on lemon-scented bedding from birth to weaning.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Echandía, E L; Fóscolo, M; Broitman, S T

    1982-07-01

    Newborn rats (males and females) were reared on lemon scented shavings from birth to weaning. The experienced rats (111 animals) and their controls (135 animals) were tested for lemon odor preference at 21, 51, 81, 111 and 141 days of age. The test box consisted of two preference chambers, containing wood shavings, interconnected by a starting compartment. Shavings of one of the preference chambers were sprinkled with natural lemon juice. The preference ratio was obtained on the basis of the chamber selected for nesting. The results clearly show that (1) sex differences occur in both experienced and control groups of rats and (2) rats reared on lemon scented bedding from birth to weaning acquire a permanent preference for nesting in the lemon scented chamber. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that an imprinting-like process takes place.

  9. Effect of neonatal stunting on development of rats: large litter rearing.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, S F; Turkewitz, G

    1979-03-01

    As nurslings, rat pups reared in large litters showed reduced frequencies of returns to their nest from other parts of the home cage and reached maximum levels of nest returns at older ages than control animals from small litters. These differences were not due to differences in activity level or attraction to the nest but appeared to be perceptual in nature. As adults, animals from large litters showed deficits in learning the 1st 2 problems in a series of visual discriminations in a modified version of the Lashley jumping stand technique in which food reinforcement was not used. The deficits were confined to male animals only and were the result of stronger position habits in the early part of training, rather than an inability to make the discriminations. A comparison of these results with those obtained when other methods of stunting animals are employed revealed that different methods of stunting may result in both common and divergent effects on behavior. One long-term consequence of large litter rearing appears to be increased emotional response to noval situations.

  10. RADIOAUTOGRAPHIC STUDIES OF SULFATE-SULFUR (S35) METABOLISM IN THE ARTICULAR CARTILAGE AND BONE OF SUCKLING RATS

    PubMed Central

    Dziewiatkowski, Dominic D.

    1952-01-01

    Fifteen minutes after intraperitoneal injection of sulfur-35 as sodium sulfate to 7-day-old rats the concentration of the isotope was highest in the cartilage at the epiphyseal-diaphyseal junction of long bones but was demonstrable throughout the entire epiphysis. Up to the 24th hour the pattern of deposition did not change as the concentration continued to increase. As centers of secondary ossification developed, there occurred in them an increased concentration of some form of sulfur, insoluble as the barium salt. This sulfur was probably derived from the cartilage which the center of secondary ossification replaced. Up to about the 30th minute after injection the sulfur-35 was deposited transitorily in a high concentration in discrete loci of the bone marrow. Excluding this transitory deposition, the highest concentration of the radioisotope in the bone marrow was seen in the specimens removed 24 hours after administration. In the bone shaft the sulfur-35, in a form which was insoluble in an alkaline solution of barium ions, was deposited diffusely up to the 24th hour after its administration. Thereafter, the radioisotope decreased in concentration in the middle portion of the bone shaft. However, the concentration of a similarly characterized sulfur-35-bearing component in the ends of the diaphysis continued to increase up to at least the 96th hour after injection. PMID:14927801

  11. Effects of Rearing Conditions on Behaviour and Endogenous Opioids in Rats with Alcohol Access during Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Roman, Erika; Nylander, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    Causal links between early-life stress, genes and later psychiatric diagnoses are not possible to fully address in human studies. Animal models therefore provide an important complement in which conditions can be well controlled and are here used to study and distinguish effects of early-life stress and alcohol exposure. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of rearing conditions on behaviour in young rats and if these changes could be followed over time and to examine interaction effects between early-life environment and adolescent alcohol drinking on behaviour and immunoreactive levels of the opioid peptides dynorphin B, met-enkephalin-Arg6Phe7 and beta-endorphin. We employed a rodent model, maternal separation, to study the impact of rearing conditions on behaviour, voluntary alcohol consumption and alcohol-induced effects. The consequences of short, 15 min (MS 15), and long, 360 min (MS 360), maternal separation in combination with adolescent voluntary alcohol consumption on behaviour and peptides were examined. A difference in the development of risk taking behaviour was found between the MS15 and MS360 while the development of general activity was found to differ between intake groups. Beta-endorphin levels in the pituitary and the periaqueductal gray area was found to be higher in the MS15 than the MS360. Adolescent drinking resulted in higher dynorphin B levels in the hippocampus and higher met-enkephalin-Arg6Phe7 levels in the amygdala. Amygdala and hippocampus are involved in addiction processes and changes in these brain areas after adolescent alcohol drinking may have consequences for cognitive function and drug consumption behaviour in adulthood. The study shows that individual behavioural profiling over time in combination with neurobiological investigations provides means for studies of causality between early-life stress, behaviour and vulnerability to psychiatric disorders. PMID:24098535

  12. Effects of rearing conditions on behaviour and endogenous opioids in rats with alcohol access during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Palm, Sara; Daoura, Loudin; Roman, Erika; Nylander, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    Causal links between early-life stress, genes and later psychiatric diagnoses are not possible to fully address in human studies. Animal models therefore provide an important complement in which conditions can be well controlled and are here used to study and distinguish effects of early-life stress and alcohol exposure. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of rearing conditions on behaviour in young rats and if these changes could be followed over time and to examine interaction effects between early-life environment and adolescent alcohol drinking on behaviour and immunoreactive levels of the opioid peptides dynorphin B, met-enkephalin-Arg(6)Phe(7) and beta-endorphin. We employed a rodent model, maternal separation, to study the impact of rearing conditions on behaviour, voluntary alcohol consumption and alcohol-induced effects. The consequences of short, 15 min (MS 15), and long, 360 min (MS 360), maternal separation in combination with adolescent voluntary alcohol consumption on behaviour and peptides were examined. A difference in the development of risk taking behaviour was found between the MS15 and MS360 while the development of general activity was found to differ between intake groups. Beta-endorphin levels in the pituitary and the periaqueductal gray area was found to be higher in the MS15 than the MS360. Adolescent drinking resulted in higher dynorphin B levels in the hippocampus and higher met-enkephalin-Arg(6)Phe(7) levels in the amygdala. Amygdala and hippocampus are involved in addiction processes and changes in these brain areas after adolescent alcohol drinking may have consequences for cognitive function and drug consumption behaviour in adulthood. The study shows that individual behavioural profiling over time in combination with neurobiological investigations provides means for studies of causality between early-life stress, behaviour and vulnerability to psychiatric disorders.

  13. Lacteal immunity to enteric cryptosporidiosis in mice: immune dams do not protect their suckling pups.

    PubMed Central

    Moon, H W; Woodmansee, D B; Harp, J A; Abel, S; Ungar, B L

    1988-01-01

    The susceptibilities of passively immunized principal and nonimmunized control suckling mice to orogastric challenge with Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts were compared. Principals were suckled by dams that had recovered from C. parvum infection. Controls were suckled by dams reared free of C. parvum infection. Principals and controls were equally susceptible to challenge. Principals were susceptible even when their dams were hyperimmunized by oral and parenteral booster inoculations with C. parvum oocysts. Immune dams produced serum antibody against C. parvum, while nonimmune dams did not. Anti-cryptosporidia immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA were demonstrated in whey extracted from the stomachs of principals that had suckled immune dams but not in whey extracted from the stomachs of controls. It was concluded that passive lacteal immunity is not an efficient means of protection against cryptosporidiosis in mice. As in other coccidian infections, protective immunity against cryptosporidiosis may depend more on immune cells than on antibody. PMID:3343052

  14. Lacteal immunity to enteric cryptosporidiosis in mice: immune dams do not protect their suckling pups.

    PubMed

    Moon, H W; Woodmansee, D B; Harp, J A; Abel, S; Ungar, B L

    1988-03-01

    The susceptibilities of passively immunized principal and nonimmunized control suckling mice to orogastric challenge with Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts were compared. Principals were suckled by dams that had recovered from C. parvum infection. Controls were suckled by dams reared free of C. parvum infection. Principals and controls were equally susceptible to challenge. Principals were susceptible even when their dams were hyperimmunized by oral and parenteral booster inoculations with C. parvum oocysts. Immune dams produced serum antibody against C. parvum, while nonimmune dams did not. Anti-cryptosporidia immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA were demonstrated in whey extracted from the stomachs of principals that had suckled immune dams but not in whey extracted from the stomachs of controls. It was concluded that passive lacteal immunity is not an efficient means of protection against cryptosporidiosis in mice. As in other coccidian infections, protective immunity against cryptosporidiosis may depend more on immune cells than on antibody.

  15. Chronic Psychosocial Stress Impairs Bone Homeostasis: A Study in the Social Isolation Reared Rat

    PubMed Central

    Schiavone, Stefania; Morgese, Maria G.; Mhillaj, Emanuela; Bove, Maria; De Giorgi, Angelo; Cantatore, Francesco P.; Camerino, Claudia; Tucci, Paolo; Maffulli, Nicola; Cuomo, Vincenzo; Trabace, Luigia

    2016-01-01

    Chronic psychosocial stress is a key player in the onset and aggravation of mental diseases, including psychosis. Although a strong association between this psychiatric condition and other medical co-morbidities has been recently demonstrated, few data on the link between psychosis and bone homeostasis are actually available. The aim of this study was to investigate whether chronic psychosocial stress induced by 4 or 7 weeks of social isolation in drug-naïve male Wistar rats could alter bone homeostasis in terms of bone thickness, mineral density and content, as well as markers of bone formation and resorption (sclerostin, cathepsin K, and CTX-I). We found that bone mineral density was increased in rats exposed to 7 weeks of social isolation, while no differences were detected in bone mineral content and area. Moreover, 7 weeks of social isolation lead to increase of femur thickness with respect to controls, suggesting the development of a hyperostosis condition. Isolated rats showed no changes in sclerostin levels, a marker of bone formation, compared to grouped animals. Conversely, bone resorption markers were significantly altered after 7 weeks of social isolation in terms of decrease in cathepsin K and increase of CTX-I. No alterations were found after 4 weeks of isolation rearing. Our observations suggest that chronic psychosocial stress might affect bone homeostasis, more likely independently from drug treatment. Thus, the social isolation model might help to identify possible new therapeutic targets to treat the burden of chronic psychosocial stress and to attempt alternative therapy choices. PMID:27375486

  16. Differential Rearing Alters Forced Swim Test Behavior, Fluoxetine Efficacy, and Post-Test Weight Gain in Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Arndt, David L; Peterson, Christy J; Cain, Mary E

    2015-01-01

    Environmental factors play a key role in the etiology of depression. The rodent forced swim test (FST) is commonly used as a preclinical model of depression, with increases in escape-directed behavior reflecting antidepressant effects, and increases in immobility reflecting behavioral despair. Environmental enrichment leads to serotonergic alterations in rats, but it is unknown whether these alterations may influence the efficacy of common antidepressants. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were reared in enriched (EC), standard (SC), or isolated (IC) conditions. Following the rearing period, fluoxetine (10 or 20 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered 23.5 hrs, 5 hrs, and 1 hr before locomotor and FST measures. Following locomotor testing and FST exposure, rats were weighed to assess fluoxetine-, FST-, and environmental condition-induced moderations in weight gain. Results revealed an antidepressant effect of environmental enrichment and a depressant effect of isolation. Regardless of significant fluoxetine effects on locomotor activity, fluoxetine generally decreased swimming and increased immobility in all three environmental conditions, with IC-fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) rats and EC-fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) rats swimming less than vehicle counterparts. Subchronic 20 mg/kg fluoxetine also induced significant weight loss, and differential rearing appeared to moderate weight gain following FST stress. These results suggest that differential rearing has the ability to alter FST behaviors, fluoxetine efficacy, and post-stressor well-being. Moreover, 20 mg/kg fluoxetine, administered subchronically, may lead to atypical effects of those commonly observed in the FST, highlighting the importance and impact of both environmental condition and dosing regimen in common animal models of depression.

  17. Differential Rearing Alters Forced Swim Test Behavior, Fluoxetine Efficacy, and Post-Test Weight Gain in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Arndt, David L.; Peterson, Christy J.; Cain, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental factors play a key role in the etiology of depression. The rodent forced swim test (FST) is commonly used as a preclinical model of depression, with increases in escape-directed behavior reflecting antidepressant effects, and increases in immobility reflecting behavioral despair. Environmental enrichment leads to serotonergic alterations in rats, but it is unknown whether these alterations may influence the efficacy of common antidepressants. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were reared in enriched (EC), standard (SC), or isolated (IC) conditions. Following the rearing period, fluoxetine (10 or 20 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered 23.5 hrs, 5 hrs, and 1 hr before locomotor and FST measures. Following locomotor testing and FST exposure, rats were weighed to assess fluoxetine-, FST-, and environmental condition-induced moderations in weight gain. Results revealed an antidepressant effect of environmental enrichment and a depressant effect of isolation. Regardless of significant fluoxetine effects on locomotor activity, fluoxetine generally decreased swimming and increased immobility in all three environmental conditions, with IC-fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) rats and EC-fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) rats swimming less than vehicle counterparts. Subchronic 20 mg/kg fluoxetine also induced significant weight loss, and differential rearing appeared to moderate weight gain following FST stress. These results suggest that differential rearing has the ability to alter FST behaviors, fluoxetine efficacy, and post-stressor well-being. Moreover, 20 mg/kg fluoxetine, administered subchronically, may lead to atypical effects of those commonly observed in the FST, highlighting the importance and impact of both environmental condition and dosing regimen in common animal models of depression. PMID:26154768

  18. The combined effects of unilateral enucleation and rearing in a 'dim' red light on synapse-to-neuron ratios in the rat visual cortex.

    PubMed Central

    Bedi, K S

    1989-01-01

    One day old rats had their right eyes removed and together with non-enucleated controls were raised in either 'light' or 'dark' (red light) conditions from birth until 39 days of age. This resulted in four groups of animals: light-reared enucleated, light-reared non-enucleated, dark-reared enucleated and dark-reared non-enucleated. All animals were killed by intracardiac perfusion with 2.5% sodium cacodylate-buffered glutaraldehyde at 39 days of age. Pieces of visual cortex (Area 17) from both right and left cerebral hemispheres of each animal were dissected out and processed for electron microscopy. Stereological procedures were used to estimate the synapse-to-neuron ratios in Layers II-III of these cortices. Light-reared non-enucleated rats had about 16,000 synapses per neuron in both right and left visual cortices. Rearing non-enucleated rats in the dark reduced this value to about 11,500. The synapse-to-neuron ratio of unilaterally enucleated rats raised in the light was not significantly different from that observed in light-reared non-enucleated rats. Combined dark-rearing and unilateral enucleation did reduce the synapse-to-neuron ratio but not to any greater extent than did dark-rearing alone. However, there was a suggestion of a differential effect between the right and left cortices in these enucleated, dark-reared animals. These results demonstrate the importance of light stimulation for the normal development of interneuronal connectivity of the visual cortex. They also show that the effects of unilateral enucleation for the visual cortex are not as great as those previously observed for the superior colliculi in the same animals, at least as far as synapse-to-neuron ratios are concerned. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:2630542

  19. Taste differentiation in the context of suckling and independent, adultlike ingestive behavior.

    PubMed

    Kozlov, Andrey P; Petrov, Evgeniy S; Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Norman E

    2006-03-01

    The present study compared intake of sweet (saccharin), bitter (quinine), and neutral (water) tastants available either in the context of suckling behavior through a surrogate nipple or independent adultlike feeding through an intraoral cheek cannula in 3-hr-old newborn rats lacking any suckling experience and 24-hr-old rats with regular experience with the dam's nipple. The new technique of online monitoring of fluid flow was applied for assessment of the temporal patterns of ingestion. Newborn and 1-day-old rats tested in the context of suckling behavior showed extremely low intake of quinine, moderate intake of water, and high intake of saccharin. In the same way, they demonstrated low intake of quinine and high intake of saccharin in the context of independent feeding, but intake of water was also high and comparable to that of saccharin. Suckling rats attained higher efficacy of fluid extraction from nipple than pups drinking from cannula. The differential responsiveness to quinine, saccharin, and water in suckling rats was also manifested through attachment behavior, with pups spending less time on the nipple providing quinine and more time on the nipple with saccharin than on the nipple providing water. These results suggest that neonates show taste differentiation as early as 3 hr after birth, and that this taste differentiation is more pronounced in the context of suckling behavior than in the context of adultlike, independent ingestion.

  20. Deconstructing the function of maternal stimulation in offspring development: Insights from the artificial rearing model in rats.

    PubMed

    Lomanowska, Anna M; Melo, Angel I

    2016-01-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue on "Parental Care". Maternal behavior has an important function in stimulating adequate growth and development of the young. Several approaches have been used in primates and rodents to deconstruct and examine the influence of specific components of maternal stimulation on offspring development. These approaches include observational studies of typical mother-infant interactions and studies of the effects of intermittent or complete deprivation of maternal contact. In this review, we focus on one unique approach using rats that enables the complete control of maternal variables by means of rearing rat pups artificially without contact with the mother or litter, while maintaining stable nutrition, temperature and exposure to stressful stimuli. This artificial rearing model permits the removal and controlled replacement of relevant maternal and litter stimuli and has contributed valuable insights regarding the influence of these stimuli on various developmental outcomes. It also enables the analysis of factors implicated in social isolation itself and their long-term influence. We provide an overview of the effects of artificial rearing on behavior, physiology, and neurobiology, including the influence of replacing maternal tactile stimulation and littermate contact on these outcomes. We then discuss the relevance of these effects in terms of the maternal role in regulating different aspects of offspring development and implications for human research. We emphasize that artificial rearing of rats does not lead to a global insult of nervous system development, making this paradigm useful in investigating specific developmental effects associated with maternal stimulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Chronic blockade of CB(1) receptors reverses startle gating deficits and associated neurochemical alterations in rats reared in isolation.

    PubMed

    Zamberletti, E; Piscitelli, F; Cadeddu, F; Rubino, T; Fratta, W; Fadda, P; Di Marzo, V; Parolaro, D

    2012-12-01

    Pharmacological interventions aimed at restoring the endocannabinoid system functionality have been proposed as potential tools in the treatment of schizophrenia. Based on our previous results suggesting a potential antipsychotic-like profile of the CB(1) receptor inverse agonist/antagonist, AM251, here we further investigated the effect of chronic AM251 administration on the alteration of the sensorimotor gating functions and endocannabinoid levels induced by isolation rearing in rats. Using the post-weaning social isolation rearing model, we studied its influence on sensorimotor gating functions through the PPI paradigm. The presence of alterations in the endocannabinoid levels as well as in dopamine and glutamate receptor densities was explored in specific brain regions following isolation rearing. The effect of chronic AM251 administration on PPI response and the associated biochemical alterations was assessed. The disrupted PPI response in isolation-reared rats was paralleled by significant alterations in 2-AG content and dopamine and glutamate receptor densities in specific brain regions. Chronic AM251 completely restored normal PPI response in isolated rats. This behavioural recovery was paralleled by the normalization of 2-AG levels in all the brain areas analysed. Furthermore, AM251 partially antagonized isolation-induced changes in dopamine and glutamate receptors. These results demonstrate the efficacy of chronic AM251 treatment in the recovery of isolation-induced disruption of PPI. Moreover, AM251 counteracted the imbalances in the endocannabinoid content, specifically 2-AG levels, and partially reversed the alterations in dopamine and glutamate systems associated with the disrupted behaviour. Together, these findings support the potential antipsychotic-like activity of CB(1) receptor blockade. This article is part of a themed section on Cannabinoids. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2012.167.issue-8.

  2. The effects of rearing environment and chronic methylphenidate administration on behavior and dopamine receptors in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Gill, Kathryn E; Beveridge, Thomas J R; Smith, Hilary R; Porrino, Linda J

    2013-08-21

    Rearing young rodents in socially isolated or environmentally enriched conditions has been shown to affect numerous components of the dopamine system as well as behavior. Methylphenidate (MPH), a commonly used dopaminergic agent, may affect animals differently based on rearing environment. Here we examined the interaction between environment and chronic MPH treatment at clinically relevant doses, administered via osmotic minipump. Young Sprague Dawley rats (PND 21) were assigned to environmentally enriched, pair-housed, or socially isolated rearing conditions, and treated with either 0, 2, 4, or 8 mg/kg/day MPH for 3 weeks. At the end of the treatment period, animals were tested for locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior. The densities of D1-like and D2-like receptors were measured in the striatum using in vitro receptor autoradiography. Locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior were increased in isolated animals compared to pair-housed and enriched animals. The density of D1-like receptors was greater in isolated animals, but there were no differences between groups in D2-like receptor density. Finally, there were no effects of MPH administration on any reported measure. This study provides evidence for an effect of early rearing environment on the dopamine system and behavior, and also suggests that MPH administration may not have long-term consequences.

  3. The effects of rearing environment and chronic methylphenidate administration on behavior and dopamine receptors in adolescent rats

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Kathryn E.; Beveridge, Thomas J.R.; Smith, Hilary R.; Porrino, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    Rearing young rodents in socially isolated or environmentally enriched conditions has been shown to affect numerous components of the dopamine system as well as behavior. Methylphenidate (MPH), a commonly used dopaminergic agent, may affect animals differently based on rearing environment. Here we examined the interaction between environment and chronic MPH treatment at clinically relevant doses, administered via osmotic minipump. Young Sprague Dawley rats (PND 21) were assigned to environmentally enriched, pair-housed, or socially isolated rearing conditions, and treated with either 0, 2, 4, or 8 mg/kg/day MPH for three weeks. At the end of the treatment period, animals were tested for locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior. The densities of D1-like and D2-like receptors were measured in the striatum using in vitro receptor autoradiography. Locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior were increased in isolated animals compared to pair-housed and enriched animals. The density of D1-like receptors was greater in isolated animals, but there were no differences between groups in D2-like receptor density. Finally, there were no effects of MPH administration on any reported measure. This study provides evidence for an effect of early rearing environment on the dopamine system and behavior, and also suggests that MPH administration may not have long-term consequences. PMID:23806775

  4. Melatonin administration modifies circadian motor activity under constant light depending on the lighting conditions during suckling.

    PubMed

    Carpentieri, Agata R; Oliva, Clara; Díez-Noguera, Antoni; Cambras, Trinitat

    2015-01-01

    Early lighting conditions have been described to produce long-term effects on circadian behavior, which may also influence the response to agents acting on the circadian system. It has been suggested that melatonin (MEL) may act on the circadian pacemaker and as a scavenger of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Here, we studied the oxidative and behavioral changes caused by prolonged exposure to constant light (LL) in groups of rats that differed in MEL administration and in lighting conditions during suckling. The rats were exposed to either a light-dark cycle (LD) or LL. At 40 days old, rats were treated for 2 weeks with a daily subcutaneous injection of MEL (10 mg/kg body weight) or a vehicle at activity onset. Blood samples were taken before and after treatment, to determine catalase (CAT) activity and nitrite level in plasma. As expected, LL-reared rats showed a more stable motor activity circadian rhythm than LD rats. MEL treatment produced more reactivity in LD- than in LL rats, and was also able to alter the phase of the rhythm in LD rats. There were no significant differences in nitrite levels or CAT activity between the groups, although both variables increased with time. Finally, we also tested depressive signs by means of sucrose consumption, and anhedonia was found in LD males treated with MEL. The results suggest that the lighting conditions in early infancy are important for the long-term functionality of the circadian system, including rhythm manifestation, responses to MEL and mood alterations.

  5. The effect of methylphenidate and rearing environment on behavioral inhibition in adult male rats

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Jade C.; Covarrubias, Pablo; Terry, Joel; Sanabria, Federico

    2012-01-01

    Rationale The ability to withhold reinforced responses—behavioral inhibition—is impaired in various psychiatric conditions including Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Methodological and analytical limitations have constrained our understanding of the effects of pharmacological and environmental factors on behavioral inhibition. Objectives To determine the effects of acute methylphenidate (MPH) administration and rearing conditions (isolated vs. pair-housed) on behavioral inhibition in adult rats. Methods Inhibitory capacity was evaluated using two response-withholding tasks, differential reinforcement of low rates (DRL) and fixed minimum interval (FMI) schedules of reinforcement. Both tasks made sugar pellets contingent on intervals longer than 6 s between consecutive responses. Inferences on inhibitory and timing capacities were drawn from the distribution of withholding times (interresponse times, or IRTs). Results MPH increased the number of intervals produced in both tasks. Estimates of behavioral inhibition increased with MPH dose in FMI and with social isolation in DRL. Nonetheless, burst responding in DRL and the divergence of DRL data relative to past studies, among other limitations, undermined the reliability of DRL data as the basis for inferences on behavioral inhibition. Conclusions Inhibitory capacity was more precisely estimated from FMI than from DRL performance. Based on FMI data, MPH, but not a socially enriched environment, appears to improve inhibitory capacity. The highest dose of MPH tested, 8 mg/kg, did not reduce inhibitory capacity but reduced the responsiveness to waiting contingencies. These results support the use of the FMI schedule, complemented with appropriate analytic techniques, for the assessment of behavioral inhibition in animal models. PMID:22057663

  6. Inhibition of anandamide hydrolysis dampens the neuroendocrine response to stress in neonatal rats subjected to suboptimal rearing conditions.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Ryan Joseph; Verlezza, Silvanna; Gray, Jennifer Megan; Hill, Matthew Nicholas; Walker, Claire-Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to stress during early development can exert profound effects on the maturation of the neuroendocrine stress axis. The endocannabinoid (ECB) system has recently surfaced as a fundamental component of the neuroendocrine stress response; however, the effect of early-life stress on neonatal ECB signaling and the capacity to which ECB enhancement may modulate neonatal stress responses is relatively unknown. The present study assessed whether exposure to early-life stress in the form of limited access to nesting/bedding material (LB) from postnatal (PND) day 2 to 9 alters neuroendocrine activity and hypothalamic ECB content in neonatal rats challenged with a novel immobilization stressor. Furthermore, we examined whether inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the enzyme responsible for the degradation of anandamide (AEA) affects neuroendocrine responses in PND10 pups as a function of rearing conditions. Neonatal rats showed a robust increase in corticosterone (CORT) and adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) secretion in response to immobilization stress, which was significantly blunted in pups reared in LB conditions. Accordingly, LB pups exhibited reduced stress-induced Fos immunoreactivity in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, with no significant differences in hypothalamic ECB content. Administration of the FAAH inhibitor URB597 (0.3 mg/kg, ip) 90 min prior to immobilization stress significantly dampened stress-induced CORT release, but only in pups reared in LB conditions. These results suggest that rearing in restricted bedding conditions dampens the neuroendocrine response to stress, while augmenting AEA mitigates stress-induced alterations in glucocorticoid secretion preferentially in pups subjected to early-life stress.

  7. Differential effect of dark rearing on long-term potentiation induced by layer IV and white matter stimulation in rat visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Salami, M; Fathollahi, Y; Semnanian, S; Atapour, N

    2000-12-01

    In the earlier work, we showed that primed-burst stimulation (PBs) is an effective protocol to induce long-term potentiation (LTP) in layer II/III of adult rat visual cortex in vitro. In the present study, we investigated effects of dark rearing on potentiation of layer II/III responses to stimulation of layer IV or the underlying white matter in the visual cortex in vitro. Long-term potentiation was induced by PBs applied to white matter or layer IV of the cortex in light and dark reared rats. Regardless of the stimulation site, layer II/III field potentials consisted of two components. In general, the latency of responses in dark reared rats was shorter than that in light reared ones. Whereas PBs of layer IV produced LTP of two components in both the groups, that of white matter induced an appreciable potentiation of the second component in both groups and the first component only in dark reared rats. These results indicate that PBs of either white matter or layer IV can gain access to the modifiable synapses that are related to the second component of layer II/III responses in light and dark reared visual cortex, but accessibility of the modifiable synapses that are related to first component depends on the tetanization site. The dark rearing enhances accessibility of the modifiable synapses that are related to the first component following PBs of the white matter. It is suggested that the immaturity of inhibitory circuits and/or better function of excitatory ones in the visual cortex of dark reared rats may contribute to the enhanced accessibility of the first component.

  8. Citalopram attenuates tau hyperphosphorylation and spatial memory deficit induced by social isolation rearing in middle-aged rats.

    PubMed

    Ren, Qing-Guo; Gong, Wei-Gang; Wang, Yan-Juan; Zhou, Qi-Da; Zhang, Zhi-Jun

    2015-05-01

    Social isolation (SI) is considered as a chronic stress. Here, middle-aged rats (8 months) were group or isolation reared for 6 weeks. Following the initial two-week period of rearing, citalopram (10 mg/kg i.p.) was administered for 28 days. Changes in recognition memory, depression and anxiety-like behavior, and phosphorylated tau were investigated. We found that SI did not lead to obvious depression/anxiety-like behavior in middle-aged rats. Memory deficits and increased tau hyperphosphorylation at Tau-1, Ser396 episodes could be almost reversed by citalopram. The level of Ser9-phosphorylated GSK-3β (inactive form) was significantly decreased in the SI group which also could be almost reversed by citalopram, suggesting that the citalopram could prevent GSK-3β from SI-induced overactivation. The melatonin level was decreased in SI group compared with group housed (GH) group, and citalopram could partly restore the level of melatonin. We also found that citalopram could increase MT1 and MT2 in mRNA level. Our results demonstrate that citalopram increases the level of melatonin which negatively regulates GSK-3β and attenuates tau hyperphosphorylation and spatial memory deficit induced by SI in middle-aged rats. Suggesting that SI might constitute a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), and citalopram may represent a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of AD.

  9. Postnatal dietary supplementation with either gangliosides or choline: effects on spatial short-term memory in artificially-reared rats.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, Patricia E; Lomanowska, Anna M; McCutcheon, Dawn; Park, Eek J; Clandinin, M Thomas; Ramanujam, Kalathur S

    2007-01-01

    This study addressed the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with either gangliosides or choline during the brain growth spurt would enhance short-term spatial memory. Male Long-Evans rats were reared artificially from postnatal days (PD) 5-18 and were fed diets containing either (i) choline chloride 1250 mg/l (CHL), (ii) choline chloride 250 mg/l and GD3 24 mg/l (GNG) or (iii) choline chloride 250 mg/l (STD). A fourth group (SCK) was reared normally. Rats were weaned onto AIN 93G diet and on PD 35 were trained on a cued delayed- matching-to-place version of the Morris water maze. All groups learned to swim to the beacon that indicated the platform position on the first trial; similarly, on the second un-cued trial, the distance swam to reach the platform decreased to the same extent in all groups over the five days of training. The groups also responded in the same way to an increase in delay between the first and second trial from 1 min to 1 h, showing an increase in the distance swam, accompanied by a decrease in the number of direct swims to the platform. Thus, all rats were equally proficient at using spatial short-term memory, regardless of the choline or ganglioside content of the preweaning diet.

  10. Alterations to prepulse inhibition magnitude and latency in adult rats following neonatal treatment with domoic acid and social isolation rearing.

    PubMed

    Marriott, Amber L; Tasker, R Andrew; Ryan, Catherine L; Doucette, Tracy A

    2016-02-01

    Deficits in perceptual, informational, and attentional processing are consistently identified as a core feature in schizophrenia and related neuropsychiatric disorders. Neonatal injections of low doses of the AMPA/kainate agonist domoic acid (DOM) have previously been shown to alter various aspects of perceptual and attentional processing in adult rats. The current study investigated the effects of combined neonatal DOM treatment with isolation rearing on prepulse inhibition behaviour and relevant neurochemical measures, to assess the usefulness of these paradigms in modeling neurodevelopmental disorders. Daily subcutaneous injections of DOM (20 μg/kg) or saline were administered to male and female rat pups from postnatal days (PND) 8-14. After weaning, rats were either housed alone or in groups of 4. Both the magnitude and latency of prepulse inhibition were determined in adulthood (approximately 4.5 months of age) and post-mortem brain tissue was assayed using Western blot. Social isolation alone significantly lowered PPI magnitude in male (but not female) rats while DOM treatment appeared to make animals refractory to this effect. Combining social isolation and DOM treatment caused an additive decrease in PPI startle latency. No statistically significant differences were found in the expression of D1, D2, TH, GAD65 or GAD67 protein in either the prefrontal cortex or hippocampus, although some tendencies toward differences were noted. We conclude that both neonatal low-dose DOM and social isolation affect prepulse inhibition in rats but that each paradigm exerts these effects through different neuronal signalling systems.

  11. A fermented milk concentrate and a combination of short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides/long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides/pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides protect suckling rats from rotavirus gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Rigo-Adrover, Mar; Pérez-Berezo, Teresa; Ramos-Romero, Sara; van Limpt, Kees; Knipping, Karen; Garssen, Johan; Knol, Jan; Franch, Àngels; Castell, Margarida; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J

    2017-01-01

    Human milk contains bioactive compounds that confer a protective role against gastrointestinal infections. In order to find supplements for an infant formula able to mimic these benefits of breast-feeding, two different concepts were tested. The products consisted of the following: (1) a Bifidobacterium breve- and Streptococcus thermophilus-fermented formula and (2) a combination of short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides/long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides with pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides. A rotavirus infection suckling rat model was used to evaluate improvements in the infectious process and in the immune response of supplemented animals. Both nutritional concepts caused amelioration of the clinical symptoms, even though this was sometimes hidden by softer stool consistency in the supplemented groups. Both products also showed certain modulation of immune response, which seemed to be enhanced earlier and was accompanied by a faster resolution of the process. The viral shedding and the in vitro blocking assay suggest that these products are able to bind the viral particles, which can result in a milder infection. In conclusion, both concepts evaluated in this study showed interesting protective properties against rotavirus infection, which deserve to be investigated further.

  12. Whole-Genome Sequences and Classification of Streptococcus agalactiae Strains Isolated from Laboratory-Reared Long-Evans Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    PubMed Central

    Dzink-Fox, J.; Feng, Y.; Shen, Z.; Bakthavatchalu, V.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In collaboration with the CDC’s Streptococcus Laboratory, we report here the whole-genome sequences of seven Streptococcus agalactiae bacteria isolated from laboratory-reared Long-Evans rats. Four of the S. agalactiae isolates were associated with morbidity accompanied by endocarditis, metritis, and fatal septicemia, providing an opportunity for comparative genomic analysis of this opportunistic pathogen. PMID:28057750

  13. Growth and development of mice and rats conceived and reared at different G-intensities during chronic centrifugation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oyama, J.; Solgaard, L.; Corrales, J.; Monson, C. B.

    1985-01-01

    Prenatal and postnatal growth of rats conceived and reared at different G-intensities from 1.0G (earth gravity) to a maximum of 2.03G were compared. Prenatal growth was not generally impaired but the lung/body mass ratio of 22-day old fetuses at 2.03G was decreased significantly compared to 1.06 controls. Survival of neonatal rats was substantially reduced at 1.71G and 2.03G. Postnatal growth was decreased at the higher G-intensities and showed smaller or no effects at the lower G-intensities. Comparisons of organ/body mass ratios of hyper-G and 1.0G rats at 9 wks of age showed relatively few differences at the lower G-intensities. Postnatal growth of mice at 2.03G was suppressed during the neonatal period but recovered later so that after 9 wks the body mass of females reached and of males approached controls. Results of this preliminary study clearly show the influence of body mass in scaling the effects of hyper-G on the growth and development of and between different animal species.

  14. Influence of early postnatal rearing conditions on mesocorticolimbic dopamine and behavioural responses to psychostimulants and stressors in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Brake, Wayne G; Zhang, Tie Yuan; Diorio, Josie; Meaney, Michael J; Gratton, Alain

    2004-04-01

    While many experiment with drugs, relatively few individuals develop a true addiction. We hypothesized that, in rats, such individual differences in the actions of addictive drugs might be determined by postnatal rearing conditions. To test this idea, we investigated whether stimulant- and stress-induced activation of nucleus accumbens dopamine transmission and dopamine-dependent behaviours might differ among adults rats that had been either repeatedly subjected to prolonged maternal separation or a brief handling procedure or left undisturbed (non-handled) during the first 14 days of life. We found that, in comparison with their handled counterparts, maternally separated and non-handled animals are hyperactive when placed in a novel setting, display a dose-dependent higher sensitivity to cocaine-induced locomotor activity and respond to a mild stressor (tail-pinch) with significantly greater increases in nucleus accumbens dopamine levels. In addition, maternally separated animals were found to sensitize to the locomotor stimulant action of amphetamine when repeatedly stressed under conditions that failed to sensitize handled and non-handled animals. Finally, quantitative receptor autoradiography revealed a lower density of nucleus accumbens-core and striatal dopamine transporter sites in maternally separated animals. Interestingly, we also found greatly reduced D(3) dopamine receptor binding and mRNA levels in the nucleus accumbens-shell of handled animals. Together, these findings provide compelling evidence that disruptions in early postnatal rearing conditions can lead to profound and lasting changes in the responsiveness of mesocorticolimbic dopamine neurons to stress and psychostimulants, and suggest a neurobiological basis for individual differences in vulnerability to compulsive drug taking.

  15. Rearing in enriched environment increases parvalbumin-positive small neurons in the amygdala and decreases anxiety-like behavior of male rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Early life experiences including physical exercise, sensory stimulation, and social interaction can modulate development of the inhibitory neuronal network and modify various behaviors. In particular, alteration of parvalbumin-expressing neurons, a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neuronal subpopulation, has been suggested to be associated with psychiatric disorders. Here we investigated whether rearing in enriched environment could modify the expression of parvalbumin-positive neurons in the basolateral amygdala and anxiety-like behavior. Results Three-week-old male rats were divided into two groups: those reared in an enriched environment (EE rats) and those reared in standard cages (SE rats). After 5 weeks of rearing, the EE rats showed decreased anxiety-like behavior in an open field than the SE rats. Under another anxiogenic situation, in a beam walking test, the EE rats more quickly traversed an elevated narrow beam. Anxiety-like behavior in the open field was significantly and negatively correlated with walking time in the beam-walking test. Immunohistochemical tests revealed that the number of parvalbumin-positive neurons significantly increased in the basolateral amygdala of the EE rats than that of the SE rats, while the number of calbindin-D28k-positive neurons did not change. These parvalbumin-positive neurons had small, rounded soma and co-expressed the glutamate decarboxylase (GAD67). Furthermore, the number of parvalbumin-positive small cells in the basolateral amygdala tended to positively correlate with emergence in the center arena of the open field and negatively correlated with walking time in the beam walking test. Conclusion Rearing in the enriched environment augmented the number of parvalbumin-containing specific inhibitory neuron in the basolateral amygdala, but not that of calbindin-containing neuronal phenotype. Furthermore, the number of parvalbumin-positive small neurons in the basolateral amygdala was negatively

  16. Expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in cholinergic and dopaminergic amacrine cells in the rat retina and the effects of constant light rearing.

    PubMed

    Fujieda, Hiroki; Sasaki, Hiroshi

    2008-02-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) regulates many aspects of neuronal development, including survival, axonal and dendritic growth and synapse formation. Despite recent advances in our understanding of the functional significance of BDNF in retinal development, the retinal cell types expressing BDNF remains poorly defined. The goal of the present study was to determine the localization of BDNF in the mammalian retina, with special focus on the subtypes of amacrine cells, and to characterize, at the cellular level, the effects of constant light exposure during early postnatal period on retinal expression of BDNF. Retinas from 3-week-old rats reared in a normal light cycle or constant light were subjected to double immunofluorescence staining using antibodies to BDNF and retinal cell markers. BDNF immunoreactivity was localized to ganglion cells, cholinergic amacrine cells and dopaminergic amacrine cells, but not to AII amacrine cells regardless of rearing conditions. Approximately 75% of BDNF-positive cells in the inner nuclear layer were cholinergic amacrine cells in animals reared in a normal lighting condition. While BDNF immunoreactivity in ganglion cells and cholinergic amacrine cells was significantly increased by constant light rearing, which in dopaminergic amacrine cells was apparently unaltered. The overall structure of the retina and the density of ganglion cells, cholinergic amacrine cells and AII amacrine cells were unaffected by rearing conditions, whereas the density of dopaminergic amacrine cells was significantly increased by constant light rearing. The present results indicate that cholinergic amacrine cells are the primary source of BDNF in the inner nuclear layer of the rat retina and provide the first evidence that cholinergic amacrine cells may be involved in the visual activity-dependent regulation of retinal development through the production of BDNF. The present data also suggest that the production or survival of dopaminergic amacrine

  17. Oral leptin treatment in suckling rats ameliorates detrimental effects in hypothalamic structure and function caused by maternal caloric restriction during gestation.

    PubMed

    Konieczna, Jadwiga; García, Ana Paula; Sánchez, Juana; Palou, Mariona; Palou, Andreu; Picó, Catalina

    2013-01-01

    A poor prenatal environment brings about perturbations in leptin surge and hypothalamic circuitry that program impaired ability to regulate energy homeostasis in adulthood. Here, using a rat model of moderate maternal caloric restriction during gestation, we aimed to investigate whether leptin supplementation with physiological doses throughout lactation is able to ameliorate the adverse developmental malprogramming effects exerted in offspring hypothalamus structure and function. Three groups of male and female rats were studied: the offspring of ad libitum fed dams (controls), the offspring of 20% calorie restricted dams during the first part of pregnancy (CR), and CR rats supplemented with physiological doses of leptin throughout lactation (CR-Leptin). Animals were sacrificed on postnatal day 25. Morphometric and immunohistochemical studies on arcuate (ARC) and paraventicular (PVN) nucleus were performed and hypothalamic expression levels of selected genes were determined. In CR males, leptin treatment restored, at least in part, the number of immunoreactive neuropeptide Y (NPY(+)) cells in ARC, the total number of cells in PVN, hypothalamic NPY, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and suppressor of cytokine signalling-3 (SOCS-3) mRNA levels, and plasma leptin levels, which were decreased in CR animals. CR-Leptin males showed higher hypothalamic long-form leptin receptor (ObRb) mRNA levels, compared to control and CR animals. In CR females, leptin treatment reverted the increased number of cells in ARC and cell density in ARC and PVN, and reduced hypothalamic SOCS-3 mRNA expression to levels similar to controls. Leptin treatment also reverted the increased relative area of NPY(+) fibers in the PVN occurring in CR animals. In conclusion, leptin supplementation throughout lactation is able to revert, at least partly, most of the developmental effects on hypothalamic structure and function caused by moderate maternal caloric restriction during

  18. Leptin intake in suckling rats restores altered T3 levels and markers of adipose tissue sympathetic drive and function caused by gestational calorie restriction.

    PubMed

    Konieczna, J; Palou, M; Sánchez, J; Picó, C; Palou, A

    2015-06-01

    Maternal calorie restriction during gestation in rats has been associated with altered white adipose tissue (WAT) sympathetic innervation and function in offspring. Here, we aimed to investigate whether supplementation with oral leptin (a breast milk component) throughout the lactation period may revert the aforementioned adverse programming effects. Three groups of male and female rats were studied at the postnatal day 25: the offspring of control dams, the offspring of 20% calorie-restricted dams during pregnancy (CR) and CR rats supplemented with physiological doses of leptin throughout lactation (CR-Leptin). Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) levels and its immunoreactive area, and mRNA expression levels of lipid metabolism-related genes and of deiodinase iodothyronine type II (Dio2) were determined in WAT. Triiodothyronine (T3) levels were determined in the blood. In CR males, leptin treatment restored the decreased TH levels and its immunoreactive area in WAT, and partially normalized expression levels of genes related to lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation (adipose triglyceride lipase, hormone-sensitive lipase, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha). Leptin treatment also reverted the decreased T3 plasma levels and WAT lipoprotein lipase mRNA levels occurring in CR males and females, and the decreased Dio2 mRNA levels in CR females. Leptin supplementation throughout the lactation period reverts the malprogrammed effects on WAT structure and function induced by undernutrition during pregnancy. These findings support the relevance of the intake of leptin during lactation, bearing clear characteristics of essential nutrient, and provide a strategy to treat and/or prevent the programmed trend to obesity acquired by inadequate fetal nutrition.

  19. Biofortification of rice with zinc: assessment of the relative bioavailability of zinc in a Caco-2 cell model and suckling rat pups.

    PubMed

    Jou, Ming-Yu; Du, Xiaogu; Hotz, Christine; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2012-04-11

    Staple foods, such as rice, can now be enriched in micronutrients through conventional breeding (i.e., biofortification) to enhance dietary intake of vulnerable populations. The objectives of this study were (1) to establish a rapid, high capacity Caco-2 cell model to determine the relative bioavailability of zinc (Zn) from samples of staple food breeding lines for potential use as a guideline for selection/breeding and (2) to determine the relative bioavailability of Zn from conventional rice varieties and one Zn-biofortified type. Polished or undermilled, parboiled rice samples were digested in vitro with pepsin and pH adjustment, and by pancreatic enzymes. Zn uptake from digested samples was measured in Caco-2 cells in culture. A previously validated rat pup model was also used to assess Zn absorption in vivo, using gastric intubation and (65)Zn labeling. Pups were killed after 6 h, and radioactivity in tissues and in small intestine perfusate and cecum-colon contents was used to measure Zn bioavailability. A biofortified rice variety contained substantially more Zn than conventional varieties, with no change in phytate content. Absorbed Zn (μg/g rice) was significantly higher from the new variety in both the in vitro Caco-2 cell model (2.1-fold) and the rat pup model (2.0-fold). Results from the two models were highly correlated, particularly for the polished samples. Biofortification of rice with Zn results in significantly increased Zn uptake in both models. Since results from the Caco-2 cell model correlated well with those from rat pups, this cell model is likely to predict results in human populations and can be used for screening purposes.

  20. Oral Leptin Treatment in Suckling Rats Ameliorates Detrimental Effects in Hypothalamic Structure and Function Caused by Maternal Caloric Restriction during Gestation

    PubMed Central

    Konieczna, Jadwiga; García, Ana Paula; Sánchez, Juana; Palou, Mariona; Palou, Andreu; Picó, Catalina

    2013-01-01

    A poor prenatal environment brings about perturbations in leptin surge and hypothalamic circuitry that program impaired ability to regulate energy homeostasis in adulthood. Here, using a rat model of moderate maternal caloric restriction during gestation, we aimed to investigate whether leptin supplementation with physiological doses throughout lactation is able to ameliorate the adverse developmental malprogramming effects exerted in offspring hypothalamus structure and function. Three groups of male and female rats were studied: the offspring of ad libitum fed dams (controls), the offspring of 20% calorie restricted dams during the first part of pregnancy (CR), and CR rats supplemented with physiological doses of leptin throughout lactation (CR-Leptin). Animals were sacrificed on postnatal day 25. Morphometric and immunohistochemical studies on arcuate (ARC) and paraventicular (PVN) nucleus were performed and hypothalamic expression levels of selected genes were determined. In CR males, leptin treatment restored, at least in part, the number of immunoreactive neuropeptide Y (NPY+) cells in ARC, the total number of cells in PVN, hypothalamic NPY, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and suppressor of cytokine signalling-3 (SOCS-3) mRNA levels, and plasma leptin levels, which were decreased in CR animals. CR-Leptin males showed higher hypothalamic long-form leptin receptor (ObRb) mRNA levels, compared to control and CR animals. In CR females, leptin treatment reverted the increased number of cells in ARC and cell density in ARC and PVN, and reduced hypothalamic SOCS-3 mRNA expression to levels similar to controls. Leptin treatment also reverted the increased relative area of NPY+ fibers in the PVN occurring in CR animals. In conclusion, leptin supplementation throughout lactation is able to revert, at least partly, most of the developmental effects on hypothalamic structure and function caused by moderate maternal caloric restriction during

  1. Isolation rearing attenuates social interaction-induced expression of immediate early gene protein products in the medial prefrontal cortex of male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Wall, Vanessa L; Fischer, Eva K; Bland, Sondra T

    2012-10-10

    Early life adversity and stress in humans have been related to a number of psychological disorders including anxiety, depression, and addiction. The present study used isolation rearing, a well-characterized animal model of early life adversity, to examine its effects on social behavior and immediate early gene (IEG) expression produced by exposure to a novel social experience. Male and female rats were housed in same-sex groups or in isolation for 4 weeks beginning at weaning and were tested during late adolescence. The protein products of the IEGs c-fos and Arc, as well as the neurotrophic factor BDNF were assessed in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) subregions (anterior cingulate, prelimbic and infralimbic) using immunohistochemistry. Aggressive and non-aggressive behaviors during novel social exposure were also assessed. Exposure to a novel conspecific produced increases in Arc and c-fos activation in the mPFC of group reared animals in a sex- and subregion-dependent fashion compared to no social exposure controls, but this increase was blunted or absent in isolated animals. Isolates engaged in more social interactions and more aggressive behavior than group reared rats. Sex differences in some behaviors as well as in Arc and BDNF expression were observed. These results indicate that isolation rearing alters IEG activation in the mPFC produced by exposure to a novel conspecific, in addition to changing social behavior, and that these effects depend in part on sex.

  2. Metabolic effects of different protein intakes after short term undernutrition in artificially reared infant rats.

    PubMed

    des Robert, Clotilde; Li, Nan; Caicedo, Ricardo; Frost, Susan; Lane, Robert; Hauser, Nicholas; Neu, Josef

    2009-01-01

    Early postnatal nutrition is involved in metabolic programming. Small for gestational age and premature babies commonly receive insufficient dietary protein during the neonatal period due to nutrition intolerance, whereas high protein formulas are used to achieve catch up growth. Neither the short term, nor the long term effects of such manipulation of protein intake are known. We hypothesized that high or low protein intake during infancy would induce metabolic alterations both during early-life and in adulthood. Gastrostomized neonatal rat pups received either 50% (P50%), 100% (P100%), or 130% (P130%) of the normal protein content in rat milk from the 7th to the 15th day of life (D7 to D15), when they were either sacrificed or placed with mothers for the long term study. Glucose tolerance tests (GTT) were performed at D230. Long term rats were sacrificed at D250. At D15, weight of P50% pups was lower than P100% and P130% pups. Neither liver and kidney mass, nor islet beta-cell areas were altered. Brain weight (adjusted to body weight) was higher in P50% vs. P130% (p<0.05). Insulin/glucose ratio was lower in P50% vs. P130%. Expression of GLUT4 on adipocyte cell membrane and GLUT2 in liver cytosol was significantly enhanced in P50% vs. P130%. Long term, neither GTT results nor body nor organ weights differed between groups. In neonatal rats, higher protein intakes via the enteral route led to enhanced short term weight gain, insulin resistance, and modified expression of glucose transporters. However, these differences were not sustained.

  3. Large Litter Rearing Improves Leptin Sensitivity and Hypothalamic Appetite Markers in Offspring of Rat Dams Fed High-Fat Diet During Pregnancy and Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Bo; Song, Lin; Tamashiro, Kellie L. K.; Moran, Timothy H.

    2014-01-01

    Maternal high-fat (HF) diet has long-term consequences on the offspring's metabolic phenotype. Here, we determined the effects of large litter (LL) rearing in offspring of rat dams fed HF diet during gestation and lactation. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained on standard chow (CHOW) or HF diet throughout gestation and lactation. Pups were raised in normal litters (NLs) (10 pups/dam) or LLs (16 pups/dam) during lactation, resulting in 4 groups: CHOW-NL, CHOW-LL, HF-NL, and HF-LL. The offspring were weaned onto to either CHOW or HF diet on postnatal day 21. Male and female pups with maternal HF diet (HF-NL) had greater body weight and adiposity, higher plasma leptin levels, impaired glucose tolerance, abnormal hypothalamic leptin signaling pathways (lower leptin receptor-b [OB-Rb] and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, higher suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 mRNA expression) and appetite markers (lower neuropeptide Y and Agouti-related peptide mRNA expression), and reduced phospho-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 level in response to leptin in the arcuate nucleus at weaning, whereas LL rearing normalized these differences. When weaned onto CHOW diet, adult male offspring from HF diet-fed dams continued to have greater adiposity, higher leptin levels, and lower hypothalamic OB-Rb, and LL rearing improved them. When weaned onto HF diet, both adult male and female offspring with maternal HF diet had greater body weight and adiposity, higher leptin levels, impaired glucose tolerance, lower OB-Rb, and higher suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 in hypothalamus compared with those of CHOW dams, whereas LL rearing improved most of them except male OB-Rb expression. Our data suggest that LL rearing improves hypothalamic leptin signaling pathways and appetite markers in an age- and sex-specific manner in this model. PMID:24926823

  4. Large litter rearing improves leptin sensitivity and hypothalamic appetite markers in offspring of rat dams fed high-fat diet during pregnancy and lactation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bo; Song, Lin; Tamashiro, Kellie L K; Moran, Timothy H; Yan, Jianqun

    2014-09-01

    Maternal high-fat (HF) diet has long-term consequences on the offspring's metabolic phenotype. Here, we determined the effects of large litter (LL) rearing in offspring of rat dams fed HF diet during gestation and lactation. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained on standard chow (CHOW) or HF diet throughout gestation and lactation. Pups were raised in normal litters (NLs) (10 pups/dam) or LLs (16 pups/dam) during lactation, resulting in 4 groups: CHOW-NL, CHOW-LL, HF-NL, and HF-LL. The offspring were weaned onto to either CHOW or HF diet on postnatal day 21. Male and female pups with maternal HF diet (HF-NL) had greater body weight and adiposity, higher plasma leptin levels, impaired glucose tolerance, abnormal hypothalamic leptin signaling pathways (lower leptin receptor-b [OB-Rb] and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, higher suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 mRNA expression) and appetite markers (lower neuropeptide Y and Agouti-related peptide mRNA expression), and reduced phospho-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 level in response to leptin in the arcuate nucleus at weaning, whereas LL rearing normalized these differences. When weaned onto CHOW diet, adult male offspring from HF diet-fed dams continued to have greater adiposity, higher leptin levels, and lower hypothalamic OB-Rb, and LL rearing improved them. When weaned onto HF diet, both adult male and female offspring with maternal HF diet had greater body weight and adiposity, higher leptin levels, impaired glucose tolerance, lower OB-Rb, and higher suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 in hypothalamus compared with those of CHOW dams, whereas LL rearing improved most of them except male OB-Rb expression. Our data suggest that LL rearing improves hypothalamic leptin signaling pathways and appetite markers in an age- and sex-specific manner in this model.

  5. Physical exercise is required for environmental enrichment to offset the quantitative effects of dark-rearing on the S-100β astrocytic density in the rat visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Argandoña, Enrike G; Bengoetxea, Harkaitz; Lafuente, José V

    2009-01-01

    After birth, exposure to visual inputs modulates cortical development, inducing numerous changes in all of the components of the visual cortex. Most of the cortical changes thus induced occur during what is called the critical period. Astrocytes play an important role in the development, maintenance and plasticity of the cortex as well as in the structure and function of the vascular network. Visual deprivation induces a decrease in the astroglial population, whereas enhanced experience increases it. Exposure to an enriched environment has been shown to prevent the effects of dark-rearing in the visual cortex. Our purpose was to study the effects of an enriched environment on the density of astrocytes per reference surface at the visual cortex of dark-reared rats, in order to determine if enhanced experience is able to compensate the quantitative effects of visual deprivation and the role of physical exercise on the enrichment paradigm. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were raised in one of the following rearing conditions: control rats with standard housing (12-h light/dark cycle); in total darkness for the dark-rearing experiments; and dark-rearing in conditions of enriched environment without and with physical exercise. The astrocytic density was estimated by immunohistochemistry for S-100β protein. Quantifications were performed in layer IV. The somatosensorial cortex barrel field was also studied as control. The volume of layer IV was stereologically calculated for each region, age and experimental condition. From the beginning of the critical period, astrocyte density was higher in control rats than in the enriched environment group without physical exercise, with densities of astrocytes around 20% higher at all of the different ages. In contrast, when the animals had access to voluntary exercise, densities were significantly higher than even the control rats. Our main result shows that strategies to apply environmental enrichment should always consider the

  6. Physical exercise is required for environmental enrichment to offset the quantitative effects of dark-rearing on the S-100beta astrocytic density in the rat visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Argandoña, Enrike G; Bengoetxea, Harkaitz; Lafuente, José V

    2009-08-01

    After birth, exposure to visual inputs modulates cortical development, inducing numerous changes in all of the components of the visual cortex. Most of the cortical changes thus induced occur during what is called the critical period. Astrocytes play an important role in the development, maintenance and plasticity of the cortex as well as in the structure and function of the vascular network. Visual deprivation induces a decrease in the astroglial population, whereas enhanced experience increases it. Exposure to an enriched environment has been shown to prevent the effects of dark-rearing in the visual cortex. Our purpose was to study the effects of an enriched environment on the density of astrocytes per reference surface at the visual cortex of dark-reared rats, in order to determine if enhanced experience is able to compensate the quantitative effects of visual deprivation and the role of physical exercise on the enrichment paradigm. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were raised in one of the following rearing conditions: control rats with standard housing (12-h light/dark cycle); in total darkness for the dark-rearing experiments; and dark-rearing in conditions of enriched environment without and with physical exercise. The astrocytic density was estimated by immunohistochemistry for S-100beta protein. Quantifications were performed in layer IV. The somatosensorial cortex barrel field was also studied as control. The volume of layer IV was stereologically calculated for each region, age and experimental condition. From the beginning of the critical period, astrocyte density was higher in control rats than in the enriched environment group without physical exercise, with densities of astrocytes around 20% higher at all of the different ages. In contrast, when the animals had access to voluntary exercise, densities were significantly higher than even the control rats. Our main result shows that strategies to apply environmental enrichment should always consider the

  7. Rearing in an enriched environment attenuated hyperactivity and inattention in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats, an animal model of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Botanas, Chrislean Jun; Lee, Hyelim; de la Peña, June Bryan; Dela Peña, Irene Joy; Woo, Taeseon; Kim, Hee Jin; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Cheong, Jae Hoon

    2016-03-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by symptoms of hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity. It is commonly treated with psychostimulants that typically begins during childhood and lasts for an extended period of time. However, there are concerns regarding the consequences of chronic psychostimulant treatment; thus, there is a growing search for an alternative management for ADHD. One non-pharmacological management that is gaining much interest is environmental enrichment. Here, we investigated the effects of rearing in an enriched environment (EE) on the expression of ADHD-like symptoms in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRs), an animal model of ADHD. SHRs were reared in EE or standard environment (SE) from post-natal day (PND) 21 until PND 49. Thereafter, behavioral tests that measure hyperactivity (open field test [OFT]), inattention (Y-maze task), and impulsivity (delay discounting task) were conducted. Additionally, electroencephalography (EEG) was employed to assess the effects of EE on rat's brain activity. Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, the normotensive counterpart of the SHRs, were used to determine whether the effects of EE were specific to a particular genetic background. EE improved the performance of the SHRs and WKY rats in the OFT and Y-maze task, but not the delay discounting task. Interestingly, EE induced significant EEG changes in WKY rats, but not in the SHRs. These findings show that rearing environment may play a role in the expression of ADHD-like symptoms in the SHRs and that EE may be considered as a putative complementary approach in managing ADHD symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Transplant of polymer-encapsulated cells genetically engineered to release nerve growth factor allows a normal functional development of the visual cortex in dark-reared rats.

    PubMed

    Pizzorusso, T; Porciatti, V; Tseng, J L; Aebischer, P; Maffei, L

    1997-09-01

    Visual experience is necessary for the normal development of the visual system. Dark-reared mammals show abnormal vision when reintroduced into a normal environment. The absence of visual experience during the critical period results in reduced and/or inappropriate neural responses in visual cortical neurons. The change in electrical activity induced by dark rearing is probably reflected by the modulation of specific unknown molecules. Neurotrophins are present in the developing visual cortex and their production depends on visually driven electrical activity. Recent findings support the possibility that an important link between electrical activity in the visual pathway and correct development of visual properties is represented by neurotrophins. We advance the hypothesis that the visual abnormalities present in dark-reared animals could be due to a decreased production of a neurotrophin secondary to the lack of visual stimulation. We report that some properties of visual cortical response such as receptive field size, orientation selectivity, adaptation to repeated stimulation, response latency and visual acuity are virtually normal in dark-reared rats transplanted with polymer-encapsulated baby hamster kidney cells genetically engineered to release nerve growth factor.

  9. Spatial memory-related brain activity in normally reared and different maternal separation models in rats.

    PubMed

    Banqueri, María; Méndez, Marta; Arias, Jorge L

    2017-09-08

    Early life stress comprises a wide range of adverse events that can occur in the subject's early developmental stages: from child abuse to rodent repeated maternal separation models. This study used young adult male Wistar rats that were maternally raised (AFR), maternally separated from post-natal day (PND) 1 to PND10 (MS10), or maternally separated from PND1 to PND21 (MS21), to assess the effects of maternal separation on spatial learning and memory using the Morris Water Maze (MWM). We also performed quantitative cytochrome oxidase (COx) histochemistry on some selected brain areas in order to find out whether maternal separation affects brain energy metabolism. We obtained a similar spatial learning pattern in maternally raised and maternally separated subjects, with MS10 showing faster acquisition; however, different brain networks with different energy consumptions were used by each group. MS10 spent more energy to get the same behavioral outputs, whereas MS21 resembled AFR more in term of energy demands. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Post-weaning social isolation rearing influences the expression of molecules related to inhibitory neurotransmission and structural plasticity in the amygdala of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Gilabert-Juan, Javier; Moltó, Maria Dolores; Nacher, Juan

    2012-04-11

    Several lines of evidence indicate that alterations in the structure of neural circuits and inhibitory neurotransmission underlie the physiopathogenesis of schizophrenia. Most of the studies on these parameters have been focused on cortical regions and, despite the crucial role of the amygdala in this psychiatric disorder, there is less information on this region. In order to expand this knowledge, we have studied the expression of molecules related to inhibitory neurotransmission and structural plasticity in rats subjected to post-weaning isolation rearing, an animal model that reproduces several core symptoms of schizophrenia. We have analyzed, using qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, the expression of synaptophysin, GAD65, GAD67, the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), its polysialylated form (PSA-NCAM) and its synthesizing enzymes (St8siaII and St8SiaIV). Isolation-reared rats showed significant increases in the expression of GAD67 protein in the centromedial, medial and basolateral amygdaloid nuclei, but no significant changes in GAD65 or synaptophysin expression were found in these regions. The expression of PSA-NCAM and NCAM was significantly increased in the basolateral and medial nuclei respectively. Our results indicate that isolation-rearing influences positively inhibitory neurotransmission and neuronal structural plasticity in the amygdala, probably through PSA-NCAM. These findings are in contrast to reports describing decreased expression of molecules related to inhibitory neurotransmission in the amygdala of schizophrenic patients. Consequently, although the social isolation rearing model can reproduce some of the behavioral traits of schizophrenics it may fail to reproduce some of the neurobiological features of this disorder, particularly in the amygdala. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of chronic iTBS-rTMS and enriched environment on visual cortex early critical period and visual pattern discrimination in dark-reared rats.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Padilla, Diana V; Funke, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Early cortical critical period resembles a state of enhanced neuronal plasticity enabling the establishment of specific neuronal connections during first sensory experience. Visual performance with regard to pattern discrimination is impaired if the cortex is deprived from visual input during the critical period. We wondered how unspecific activation of the visual cortex before closure of the critical period using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) could affect the critical period and the visual performance of the experimental animals. Would it cause premature closure of the plastic state and thus worsen experience-dependent visual performance, or would it be able to preserve plasticity? Effects of intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) were compared with those of an enriched environment (EE) during dark-rearing (DR) from birth. Rats dark-reared in a standard cage showed poor improvement in a visual pattern discrimination task, while rats housed in EE or treated with iTBS showed a performance indistinguishable from rats reared in normal light/dark cycle. The behavioral effects were accompanied by correlated changes in the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and atypical PKC (PKCζ/PKMζ), two factors controlling stabilization of synaptic potentiation. It appears that not only nonvisual sensory activity and exercise but also cortical activation induced by rTMS has the potential to alleviate the effects of DR on cortical development, most likely due to stimulation of BDNF synthesis and release. As we showed previously, iTBS reduced the expression of parvalbumin in inhibitory cortical interneurons, indicating that modulation of the activity of fast-spiking interneurons contributes to the observed effects of iTBS.

  12. Absence epileptic activity in Wistar Albino Glaxo Rijswijk rat mothers.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Zsolt; Lakatos, Renáta Krisztina; Barna, János; Dobolyi, Árpád

    2017-02-15

    Absence epileptic activity was analyzed during pregnancy, the postpartum period and after weaning to establish alterations of seizures throughout the reproductive cycle. Wistar Albino Glaxo Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rats were used in the study as a model of absence epilepsy and because their seizures do not interfere with rearing offspring. The number of spike-wave discharges (SWDs) was gradually elevated from the 19th pregnancy day to delivery. Meanwhile, the characteristics of individual SWDs did not change suggesting that SWD generation remained the same. In the postpartum and postweaning periods, the number of SWDs was not increased in the absence of pups. However, returning the pups to mothers resulted in a markedly elevated number of SWDs for 1h. If pups were taken away after 30min, the number of SWDs dropped immediately suggesting that the presence of pups increased the SWD number. The time mothers spent with the litter and in kyphosis suckling posture were in correlation with their SWD number further suggesting the importance of interaction with pups in SWD induction. Suckling elevates prolactin levels but surprisingly, its intracerebroventricular injection markedly reduced SWD number in suckled WAG/Rij mothers suggesting that the SWD-inducing effect of suckling is not mediated by prolactin. Rather, the elevated prolactin level may provide some protection against pro-epileptic effects of suckling. In conclusion, we first identified periods within the reproductive cycle with increased absence epileptic activity, implying that more attention should be devoted to epileptic activity changes in mothers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Darkness during early postnatal development is required for normal circadian patterns in the adult rat.

    PubMed

    Cambras, T; Canal, M M; Cernuda-Cernuda, R; García-Fernández, J M; Díez-Noguera, A

    2015-03-01

    Early light experience influences the brain during development. Perinatal light exposure has an important effect on the development of the circadian system, although the role of quantity versus quality of light in this process is still unclear. We tested the development of the circadian rhythm of locomotor activity under constant bright light from the day of weaning, of six groups of rats raised under different light conditions during suckling. Results indicated that when rats received daily darkness during suckling (rats reared under constant darkness or light-dark cycles with dim or bright light) became arrhythmic when exposed to continuous bright light after weaning. However, those rats reared in the absence of darkness (constant dim or bright light, or alternating dim and bright light) developed a circadian rhythm, which was stronger and had a shorter period depending on the quantity of light received during suckling. Vasointestinal polypeptide immunoreactivity in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) was higher in those rats with weaker rhythms. However, no apparent differences among these groups were found in the melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells, which provide the SCN with light input in the photoentrainment process. When bright light was shifted to dim light in three of the groups on day 57 after weaning, all of them generated a circadian rhythm with a longer period in those rats previously arrhythmic. Our results indicate the importance of the amount of light received at the early stages of life in the development of the circadian system and suggest that darkness is needed for the normal development of circadian behaviour.

  14. Laterality of suckling behaviour in three zebra species.

    PubMed

    Pluháček, Jan; Olléová, Michaela; Bartošová, Jitka; Pluháčková, Jana; Bartoš, Luděk

    2013-01-01

    Although side preference while suckling is an easily characterised lateralised behaviour, few studies have been conducted. We observed laterality in suckling behaviour in three captive zebra species to test two hypotheses: laterality affected by the foal (motor laterality) and laterality affected by the mother. In total we observed 35 foals of Grevy's, plains, and mountain zebra in two zoos and recorded 5128 successful suckling bouts and 9095 unsuccessful suckling attempts. At the population level the only factor affecting side preference of suckling bouts and attempts was the identity of the individual foal. Ten foals showed individual preferences: seven foals preferred suckling from the left side of the mother, three preferred suckling from the right side of the mother. The individual preferences increased with increasing age of the foal. Only one foal was refused more often from the opposite side than the preferred side used for suckling whereas three other foals were refused from the preferred side. Foals that preferred suckling either from left or right side were refused by the mare more often than foals which showed non-preference. Thus lateral preferences in suckling behaviour of zebra foals seem to be in line with the motor laterality hypotheses.

  15. Noise exposure of immature rats can induce different age-dependent extra-auditory alterations that can be partially restored by rearing animals in an enriched environment.

    PubMed

    Molina, S J; Capani, F; Guelman, L R

    2016-04-01

    It has been previously shown that different extra-auditory alterations can be induced in animals exposed to noise at 15 days. However, data regarding exposure of younger animals, that do not have a functional auditory system, have not been obtained yet. Besides, the possibility to find a helpful strategy to restore these changes has not been explored so far. Therefore, the aims of the present work were to test age-related differences in diverse hippocampal-dependent behavioral measurements that might be affected in noise-exposed rats, as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of a potential neuroprotective strategy, the enriched environment (EE), on noise-induced behavioral alterations. Male Wistar rats of 7 and 15 days were exposed to moderate levels of noise for two hours. At weaning, animals were separated and reared either in standard or in EE cages for one week. At 28 days of age, different hippocampal-dependent behavioral assessments were performed. Results show that rats exposed to noise at 7 and 15 days were differentially affected. Moreover, EE was effective in restoring all altered variables when animals were exposed at 7 days, while a few were restored in rats exposed at 15 days. The present findings suggest that noise exposure was capable to trigger significant hippocampal-related behavioral alterations that were differentially affected, depending on the age of exposure. In addition, it could be proposed that hearing structures did not seem to be necessarily involved in the generation of noise-induced hippocampal-related behaviors, as they were observed even in animals with an immature auditory pathway. Finally, it could be hypothesized that the differential restoration achieved by EE rearing might also depend on the degree of maturation at the time of exposure and the variable evaluated, being younger animals more susceptible to environmental manipulations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Milk composition of rats feeding restricted litters.

    PubMed Central

    Grigor, M R; Allan, J; Carne, A; Carrington, J M; Geursen, A

    1986-01-01

    Milk samples were taken from rats feeding ten pups and from both the suckled and non-suckled glands of rats feeding two pups. The lipid, protein and lactose concentrations were similar in the milks from the secreting glands, but the fluid from the non-suckled glands contained less lactose and lipid but significantly higher total protein and transferrin concentrations. The fatty acid compositions of the milk from the three sources were very similar. The mammary tissue from the rats feeding ten pups had a higher DNA content/g wet wt. than either the suckled or non-suckled mammary tissue of the rats feeding two pups. The specific activities of several lipogenic enzymes were significantly lower in the non-suckled mammary tissue. PMID:3707536

  17. Artificially reared mice exhibit anxiety-like behavior in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Hidemi; Harauma, Akiko; Kato, Maki; Ootomo, Yuki; Hatanaka, Erisa; Moriguchi, Toru

    2016-01-01

    It is important to establish experimental animal techniques that are applicable to the newborn and infant phases for nutrition and pharmacological studies. Breeding technology using the artificial suckling method without breast milk is very effective for the study of newborn nutrition. Using this method, we separated newborn mice from dams within 48 h of birth and provided them with artificial milk. We evaluated mouse anxiety levels after early postnatal maternal separation. Artificially reared mice were subjected to elevated plus-maze tests to assess emotional behavior at 9 weeks of age. Artificially reared mice showed a significantly lower frequency of entries and dipping into the open arms of the maze compared with dam-reared mice. This result indicates that the anxiety level of artificially reared mice was higher than that of dam-reared mice. Moreover, the concentration of monoamines in the brain was determined after the behavioral experiment. The hippocampal norepinephrine, serotonin, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels in the artificially reared mice were significantly higher than those of the dam-reared mice. These results suggest that maternal-offspring interactions are extremely important for the emotional development of newborn infants during the lactation period. In future studies, it is necessary to consider the environmental factors and conditions that minimize the influence of artificial rearing on emotional behavior. PMID:26948536

  18. Effects of postnatal isolation rearing and antidepressant treatment on the density of serotonergic and noradrenergic axons and depressive behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Kuramochi, M; Nakamura, S

    2009-09-29

    The development of monoaminergic axons is affected by pharmacological and environmental manipulations during early periods of brain development. In addition, it has been proposed that changes in the density of monoaminergic axons are involved in the pathophysiology of depression. The present experiments examined the effects of neonatal treatment with antidepressants on the density of monoaminergic axons containing 5-HT or noradrenaline (NA) and depressive behavior in rats. In this study, clomipramine (CL) was used as an antidepressant, because a large amount of data has been accumulated on the effects of neonatal CL treatment on monoaminergic neurons and depressive behavior. It was also examined whether the effects of neonatal CL treatment could be further modified by environmental conditions. In the present experiments, postweaning isolation rearing (Iso) was examined as an environmental condition, because postweaning Iso is reported to change the density of 5-HT axons in the rat brain. Unexpectedly, neonatal CL treatment alone had no effect on the density of 5-HT or NA axons or depressive behavior. Postweaning social Iso rearing reduced the density of 5-HT axons in the central nucleus and basolateral nucleus of the amygdala and CA3 of the hippocampus. In the prelimbic area and infralimbic area of medial prefrontal cortex and the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, the density of 5-HT axons was not affected by social Iso alone, but was reduced when animals were socially isolated after neonatal CL treatment. Postweaning Iso, but not neonatal CL treatment, increased immobility in the forced swim test in adolescence/early adulthood. These findings suggest that postweaning social Iso alters the density of monoaminergic axons, particularly 5-HT axons, and induces a possible model of depression, while neonatal CL treatment alone has no effect on the density of NA or 5-HT axons or depressive behavior in adolescence/early adulthood.

  19. Effects of neonatal (+)-methamphetamine on path integration and spatial learning in rats: effects of dose and rearing conditions.

    PubMed

    Vorhees, Charles V; Herring, Nicole R; Schaefer, Tori L; Grace, Curtis E; Skelton, Matthew R; Johnson, Holly L; Williams, Michael T

    2008-10-01

    Postnatal day (P)11-20 (+)-methamphetamine (MA) treatment impairs spatial learning and reference memory in the Morris water maze, but has marginal effects on learning in a labyrinthine maze. A subsequent experiment showed that MA treatment on P11-15, but not P16-20, is sufficient to induce Morris maze deficits. Here we tested the effects of P11-15 MA treatment under two different rearing conditions on Morris maze performance and path integration learning in the Cincinnati water maze in which distal cues were unavailable by using infrared illumination. Littermates were treated with 0, 10, 15, 20, or 25mg/kg MA x 4/day (2 h intervals). Half the litters were reared under standard housing conditions and half under partial enrichment by adding stainless steel enclosures. All MA groups showed impaired Cincinnati water maze performance with no significant effects of rearing condition. In the Morris maze, the MA-25 group showed impaired spatial acquisition, reversal, and small platform learning. Enrichment significantly improved Morris maze acquisition in all groups but did not interact with treatment. The male MA-25 group was also impaired on probe trial performance after acquisition and on small platform trials. A narrow window of MA treatment (P11-15) induces impaired path integration learning irrespective of dose within the range tested but impairments in spatial learning are dependent on dose. The results demonstrate that a narrower exposure window (5 days) changes the long-term effects of MA treatment compared to longer exposures (10 days).

  20. Chronic exposure of rats to cognition enhancing drugs produces a neuroplastic response identical to that obtained by complex environment rearing.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Keith J; Foley, Andrew G; O'connell, Alan W; Regan, Ciaran M

    2006-01-01

    Recent data suggest that Alzheimer's patients who discontinue treatment with cholinesterase inhibitors have a significantly delayed cognitive decline as compared to patients receiving placebo. Such observations suggest cholinesterase inhibitors to provide a disease-modifying effect as well as symptomatic relief and, moreover, that this benefit remains after drug withdrawal. Consistent with this suggestion, we now demonstrate that chronic administration of tacrine, nefiracetam, and deprenyl, drugs that augment cholinergic function, increases the basal frequency of dentate polysialylated neurons in a manner similar to the enhanced neuroplasticity achieved through complex environment rearing. While both drug-treated and complex environment reared animals continue to exhibit memory-associated activation of hippocampal polysialylated neurons, the magnitude is significantly reduced suggesting that such interventions induce a more robust memory pathway that can acquire and consolidate new information more efficiently. This hypothesis is supported by our findings of improved learning behavior and enhanced resistance to cholinergic deficits seen following either intervention. Furthermore, the level of enhancement of basal neuroplastic status achieved by either drug or environmental intervention correlates directly with improved spatial learning ability. As a combination of both interventions failed to further increase basal polysialylated cell frequency, complex environment rearing and chronic drug regimens most likely enhanced cognitive performance by the same mechanism(s). These findings suggest that improved memory-associated synaptic plasticity may be the fundamental mechanism underlying the disease modifying action of drugs such as cholinesterase inhibitors. Moreover, the molecular and cellular events underpinning neuroplastic responses are identified as novel targets in the search for interventive drug strategies for the treatment of neurodegenerative and

  1. Alterations of tooth eruption and growth in pups suckling from diabetic dams.

    PubMed

    Villarino, Mariano E; Goya, Juan A; DE Lucca, Romina C; Ubios, Angela M

    2005-10-01

    Several studies have confirmed a decrease in the quality and quantity of milk of mothers with diabetes during lactation. However, it remains unclear how maternal diabetes affects the offspring specifically during lactation. The aim of this study was to evaluate body and mandibular growth and tooth eruption in pups suckling from diabetic dams. The study was performed on 13 Wistar rat pups that were born to dams that were subjected to experimental diabetes on the day of parturition. Body weight and body size were recorded regularly throughout the study. The experimental pups and a group of eight age-matched pups suckling from nondiabetic dams were killed at weaning. Both hemimandibles were excised and fixed. Right hemimandibles were radiographed to assess mandibular growth and tooth eruption. The left hemimandibles were processed to obtain buccolingually oriented sections at the level of the first mesial root of the first lower molar. Histologic and histomorphometric studies were performed. Results showed that body weight and body size were significantly lower in experimental animals at weaning compared with their age-matched controls. Smaller mandible size and reduced tooth eruption in experimental animals compared with controls were observed. The length, width, and bone volume of the developing alveolus were reduced in experimental animals compared with controls. The results obtained in this study allow the conclusion that suckling from diabetic dams results in reduced body, mandible size, and tooth eruption of the pups at weaning.

  2. Kinematics of treadmill locomotion in rats conceived, born, and reared in a hypergravity field (2 g). Adaptation to 1 g.

    PubMed

    Bouët, V; Borel, L; Harlay, F; Gahéry, Y; Lacour, M

    2004-04-02

    The kinematics of treadmill locomotion in rats conceived, born, and raised in a hypergravity environment (HG: 2g) until the age of 3 months was investigated for 5 weeks after their exposition to earth's gravity. The locomotor performance of the HG rats (N=7) was compared to that of age-matched control rats (N=8) housed at 1g for the same period. Kinematic analysis of treadmill locomotion was performed up to 35 days of terrestrial life by an optoelectronic motion analyzer (ELITE system). Results showed that the HG rats exhibited a faster locomotor rhythm (increased number of steps/s), walked closer to the ground, and had a more dorsiflexed foot position. Also, HG rats had shorter steps. The data also highlight a fast adaptation to normal gravity since all the locomotor parameters returned to normal values within 3 weeks. The locomotor modifications may be seen as the persistence of a hypergravity-induced posturo-locomotor adaptation in the centrifuge and/or to more functional changes of sensorimotor systems. Because locomotor performance of HG rats is not severely affected, it is concluded that early development of locomotion processes is highly resistant to gravito-inertial changes.

  3. Late-life effects of chronic methamphetamine exposure during puberty on behaviour and corticostriatal mono-amines in social isolation-reared rats.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Laetitia; Brink, Christiaan B; Möller, Marisa; Stein, Dan J; Harvey, Brian H

    2014-01-01

    Chronic methamphetamine (MA) abuse results in an acute psychosis indistinguishable from paranoid schizophrenia. However, less is known of the interaction between MA use and environmental insults, and how this contributes to late-onset psychopathology. Using social isolation rearing (SIR), a neurodevelopmental animal model of schizophrenia, we investigated the association between changes in corticostriatal mono-amines and putative behaviours related to MA-induced psychosis in isolation and group-housed rats following chronic MA or saline exposure. Weaned male offspring of MA-naive female Wistar rats, either group- or isolation-housed from postnatal day (PND) +21, received saline (2 ml/kg s.c. b.i.d.) or an escalating dose of MA (0.2-6 mg/kg s.c. b.i.d.) for 16 days from PND +35 to +50. On PND +78, offspring were tested for deficits in social interactive behaviour (SIB) and prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle, with frontal cortex and striatum harvested for the assessment of mono-amine concentrations. SIR significantly reduced rearing time, staying together, approaching and anogenital sniffing (outward-directed SIB), but increased self-grooming and locomotor activity (self-directed SIB), and also induced profound deficits in PPI. Pubertal MA exposure in group-housed animals also induced similar alterations in outward- and self-directed SIB and reduced PPI. Combined MA+SIR exposure evoked a similarly intense behavioural response as SIR or MA separately, with no exacerbation evident. Neither treatment separately nor together affected corticostriatal serotonin or noradrenaline levels, although frontal cortical dopamine (DA) levels were significantly increased in SIR and MA+group-housed animals. A trend towards further elevated frontal cortical DA was noted in the MA+SIR treatment group. Striatal DA was unaltered by all treatments. This study provides the first evidence that chronic pubertal MA exposure evokes postpubertal psychosis-like behaviours in rats of similar

  4. Lambs prevented from suckling their mothers display behavioral, immune and endocrine disturbances.

    PubMed

    Napolitano, Fabio; Annicchiarico, Giovanni; Caroprese, Mariangela; De Rosa, Giuseppe; Taibi, Luigi; Sevi, Agostino

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the experiment was to assess the effects of either maternal deprivation or prevented suckling on lambs. Thirty Comisana lambs were assigned to a control dam-suckled group (DS) and two test groups of 10 each. Test lambs were maintained with their mothers 24 to 30 h after parturition and subsequently offered ewe milk from buckets: EM lambs were separated from their mothers, while EM+D animals were reared with their dams but suckling was denied by covering ewe udders with juta bags. Behavioral, immune and cortisol responses of lambs were assessed throughout the experiment. EM+D lambs spent less time (P<.001) on investigative behavior compared to the two other groups. When isolated in a novel environment, EM+D lambs exhibited a shorter duration of movement (P<.01) and a longer latency time compared to DS and EM lambs (P<.001 and P<.05, respectively) as well as a higher number of bleats (P<.01) than EM lambs. EM+D lambs also displayed higher (P<.001) plasma cortisol levels than the other two groups when isolated at 4 days of age. When subjected to discrimination tests, EM+D lambs spent less time near their companions (P<.01) than EM lambs and took a longer time to reach their pen mates (P<.01) than DS and EM lambs. EM+D lambs displayed reduced growth (P<.001) compared to DS animals during the 0-7 and 8-14-day periods. We conclude that frustration arising from maternal feeding deprivation results in altered endocrine and behavioral responses and reduced growth suggesting emotional disturbances of lambs.

  5. Carcass and meat quality characteristics of Churra and Assaf suckling lambs.

    PubMed

    Mateo, J; Caro, I; Carballo, D E; Gutiérrez-Méndez, N; Arranz, J J; Gutiérrez-Gil, B

    2017-10-02

    Suckling lamb meat is traditionally produced in Mediterranean Europe. Breed can affect the quality of the lamb carcass and meat. This study is aimed at comparing the carcass and meat quality between suckling lambs from a local and a non-native dairy breed, Churra and Assaf. Churra is included in the Spanish Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) 'Lechazo de Castilla y León', whereas Assaf is not. However, Assaf breeders have requested the inclusion of the breed in the PGI. Carcasses and meat from 16 male lambs (eight Churra and eight Assaf) were used in this study. The lambs were all raised under an intensive rearing system and fed on a milk substitute to minimise maternal influence. The carcasses were evaluated for conformation, fatness, joint and leg tissue proportions and the meat was analysed for composition (i.e. proximate composition, iron, haematin, fatty acids and volatiles) and technological quality traits (i.e. texture, water holding capacity, colour and lipid stability). Churra carcasses were larger than Assaf carcasses. However, the proportions of commercial joints and main tissues did not differ between breeds. Cavity and intermuscular leg fat, but not total leg fat, were higher in Churra carcasses. Churra meat showed a higher proportion of n-6 fatty acids, higher redness and better colour stability during aerobic storage. In contrast, Assaf lamb was more resistant to lipid oxidation after cooking. This is a preliminary study to measure the influence of breed on a wide range of quality characteristics in Churra and Assaf suckling lamb carcass and meat. It may be of relevance for breeders, consumers and food policy makers, setting the basis for future studies that include larger commercial populations.

  6. Maternal presence and rearing condition affect responses to a live predator in kangaroo rats (Dipodomys heermanni arenae).

    PubMed

    Yoerg, S I; Shier, D M

    1997-12-01

    Experiment 1 compared the responses of wild-caught adult and captive-born adult and juvenile kangaroo rats (Dipodomys heermanni arenae) to a live snake. Wild-caught adult rats were less active and monitored the snake more than during a control condition; captive-born juvenile rats did not behave differently during snake and control tests. Snake-naive adult rats behaved more like the wild-caught adult rats, but not on all measures. In Experiment 2, pups were tested at 25 and 50 days of age in 4 conditions: no-snake control, alone with the snake, with a sibling and the snake, and with the mother and the snake. Pups did not behave differently during control and snake tests, but during tests with the mother, pups faced the snake less and followed the mother. Younger pups were more often near the mother than a sibling and followed the mother more when the snake was present. Development of defensive behavior may depend on both predator experience and maternal influence.

  7. Pro-TRH and pro-CRF expression in paraventricular nucleus of small litter-reared fasted adult rats.

    PubMed

    Aréchiga-Ceballos, F; Alvarez-Salas, E; Matamoros-Trejo, G; Amaya, M I; García-Luna, C; de Gortari, P

    2014-04-01

    Neuroendocrine axes adapt to nutrient availability. During fasting, the function of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis (HPT) is reduced, whereas that of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) is increased. Overfeeding-induced hyperleptinemia during lactation may alter the regulatory set point of neuroendocrine axes and their adaptability to fasting in adulthood. Hyperleptinemia is developed in rodents by litter size reduction during lactation; adult rats from small litters become overweight, but their paraventricular nucleus (PVN) TRH synthesis is unchanged. It is unclear whether peptide expression still responds to nutrient availability. PVN corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) expression has not been evaluated in this model. We analyzed adaptability of HPT and HPA axes to fasting-induced low leptin levels of reduced-litter adult rats. Offspring litters were reduced to 2-3/dam (early-overfed) or maintained at 8/dam (controls, C). At 10 weeks old, a subset of animals from each group was fasted for 48 h and leptin, corticosterone, and thyroid hormones serum levels were analyzed. In brain, expressions of leptin receptor, NPY and SOCS3, were evaluated in arcuate nucleus, and those of proTRH and proCRF in PVN by real-time PCR. ProTRH expression in anterior and medial PVN subcompartments was assayed by in situ hybridization. Early-overfed adults developed hyperphagia and excessive weight, together with decreased proTRH expression in anterior PVN, supporting the anorexigenic effects of TRH. Early-overfed rats presented low PVN proTRH synthesis, whereas fasting did not induce a further reduction. Fasting-induced stress was unable to increase corticosterone levels, contributing to reduced body weight loss in early-overfed rats. We concluded that early overfeeding impaired the adaptability of HPT and HPA axes to excess weight and fasting in adults.

  8. Disruptions of sensorimotor gating, cytokines, glycemia, monoamines, and genes in both sexes of rats reared in social isolation can be ameliorated by oral chronic quetiapine administration.

    PubMed

    Ko, Chih-Yuan; Liu, Yia-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of schizophrenia in patients with metabolic abnormalities remains unclear. Our previous study demonstrated that isolation rearing (IR) induced longitudinal concomitant changes of pro-inflammatory cytokine (pro-CK) levels and metabolic abnormalities with a developmental origin. However, the general consensus, believes that these abnormalities are caused by antipsychotic treatment in schizophrenic patients. The IR paradigm presents with face, construct, and predictive validity for schizophrenia. Therefore, we employed IR rats of both sexes to examine whether chronic quetiapine (QTP, a second-generation antipsychotic medication) treatment induces disruptions of metabolism (body weight, blood pressure, and the glycemic and lipid profiles) or cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1 beta, IL-6, IL-10, interferon-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha], and further, whether it reverses deficits of behaviors [locomotor activity and prepulse inhibition (PPI)] and the expression of monoamines (dopamine and serotonin) and related genes (Htr1a, Htr2a, Htr3a, Drd1a, and Gabbr2). IR induced higher levels of pro-CK, dysglycemia, blood pressure, locomotor activity, and impaired PPI, simultaneously destabilizing cortico-striatal monoamines and relevant genes in both sexes, while QTP demonstrated dose-dependent reversal of these changes, suggesting that QTP might reduce the pro-CKs to regulate these abnormalities. Our data implied that antipsychotics may not be the solitary factor causing metabolic problems in schizophrenia and suggested that inflammatory changes may play a vital role in the developmental pathophysiology of schizophrenia and related metabolic abnormalities.

  9. Effect of restricted suckling on pregnancy rates and calf performance in Brahman cows.

    PubMed

    Bastidas, P; Troconiz, J; Verde, O; Silva, O

    1984-02-01

    Seventy-six Brahman cows and first-calf heifers were assigned to one of two groups: 1) normal suckling (34 cows) or 2) twice-daily suckling (45 minutes of suckling each time; 42 cows). Twice-daily suckling was carried out from 30 days postcalving until weaning (seven months). All animals were maintained under artificial insemination for a four-month breeding period. Mean pregnancy rate was 63.06 +/- 0.06% and was influenced by suckling group (P<0.01) and number of parturitions (P<0.05). The pregnancy rates were 33% higher in twice-daily suckled cows. Forty-four percent of the first calf heifers in the twice-daily suckling group became pregnant compared to 9% in the normal suckling group (P<0.01). Twice-daily suckling improved pregnancy rate without depressing preweaning calf performance.

  10. Learning strategy is influenced by trait anxiety and early rearing conditions in prepubertal male, but not prepubertal female rats.

    PubMed

    Grissom, Elin M; Hawley, Wayne R; Bromley-Dulfano, Sarah S; Marino, Sarah E; Stathopoulos, Nicholas G; Dohanich, Gary P

    2012-09-01

    Rodents solve dual-solution tasks that require navigation to a goal by adopting either a hippocampus-dependent place strategy or a striatum-dependent stimulus-response strategy. A variety of factors, including biological sex and emotional status, influence the choice of learning strategy. In these experiments, we investigated the relationship between learning strategy and anxiety level in male and female rats prior to the onset of puberty, before the activational effects of gonadal hormones influence these processes. In the first experiment, prepubertal male rats categorized as high in trait anxiety at 26days of age exhibited a bias toward stimulus-response strategy at 28days of age, whereas age-matched females exhibited no preference in strategy regardless of anxiety level. In the second experiment, male and female rats were separated from their dams for either 15 or 180min per day during the first 2weeks of life and tested on a battery of anxiety and cognitive tasks between 25 and 29days of age. Prolonged maternal separations for 180min were associated with impaired spatial memory on a Y-maze task in both prepubertal males and females. Furthermore, prolonged maternal separations were linked to elevated anxiety and a bias for stimulus-response strategy in prepubertal males but not females. Alternatively, brief separations from dams for 15min were associated with intact spatial memory, lower levels of anxiety, and no preference for either learning strategy in both sexes. These results provide evidence of sex-specific effects of trait anxiety and early maternal separation on the choice of learning strategy used by prepubertal rodents.

  11. Lactation and suckling behavior in the Iberian lynx.

    PubMed

    Yerga, Javier; Calzada, Javier; Manteca, Xavier; Herrera, Irene; Vargas, Astrid; Rivas, Antonio

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the behavior of endangered species is crucial to improve the management tools to breed animals in captivity and, thus, to increase the success of ex situ conservation programs. In this study, we monitored suckling behavior of 26 cubs born between 2008 and 2012 at "El Acebuche" Iberian Lynx Breeding Centre. The cubs devoted 251 ± 19.7 min (mean ± SE) to lactation on the day of birth, while mothers spent 426 ± 27 min (mean ± SE) nursing their offspring. The time cubs spent suckling decreased exponentially as they grown, until they were fully weaned at 65 ± 2.6 days. The onset of weaning (first intake of solid food) occurred at 54 ± 1.35 days (mean ± SE). Thus, the strict lactation period occupied most of the overall lactation period. Both suckling and maternal behavior were affected by litter size. In twins and triplets, the competition between siblings caused a decrease in the time spent suckling, in spite of the mothers spending more time nursing their young. Finally, no significant differences were found in time spent suckling between littermates or depending on the sex of the cub. Lactation appeared to play a key role in the nutrition of the Iberian lynx and should therefore be conveniently managed in captive breeding programs of this threatened species. Zoo Biol. 35:216-221, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Chronic morphine exposure during puberty decreases postpartum prolactin secretion in adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Byrnes, Elizabeth M

    2005-03-01

    Opiate use in teenage populations has been increasing in recent years. The potential impact of exposure to high levels of opiates at a time when reproductive systems are maturing has not been well studied, especially in females. The present study used an animal model of adolescent opiate abuse in females to examine the potential impact of high levels of opiates during puberty on several reproductive parameters, including suckling-induced prolactin secretion. Two groups of juvenile female rats were administered increasing doses of morphine sulfate or saline (s.c.) from age 30-50 days, beginning with a dose of 2.5 mg/kg and achieving a maximal dose of 50 mg/kg. As adults, these females were mated and reared either their own or foster pups. On either postpartum day 5 or 10, following a 4 h separation, suckling-induced prolactin secretion was measured. In addition, on postpartum day 5 maternal behavior latencies were determined. The results demonstrate reduced suckling-induced prolactin secretion on postpartum day 5 in females previously exposed to morphine during pubertal development. These effects were observed in females rearing either their own or fostered pups. These effects were not due to any differences in maternal behavior latencies, as retrieval or crouching latencies were unaffected. In summary, chronic morphine exposure during puberty results in changes in the regulation of prolactin secretion during early lactation, which are observed several weeks after cessation of drug treatment. These data suggest that prior opiate use during puberty can continue to affect the regulation of prolactin secretion into adulthood.

  13. Suckling-induced activation of neuronal input to the dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus: possible candidates for mediating the activation of DMH neuropeptide Y neurons during lactation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peilin; Smith, M Susan

    2003-09-12

    Activation of the neuropeptide Y (NPY) neuronal system in the dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (DMH) during lactation in the rat is in part due to neural impulses arising from the suckling stimulus. However, the afferent neuronal input to the DMH that is activated during lactation and is responsible for activation of NPY neurons is currently unknown. Previously, using cFos as a marker for neuronal activation, we identified several brain areas in the lactating animals that were activated by the suckling stimulus. Thus, the objective of the present study was to determine if any of these suckling activated areas project directly to the DMH. The retrograde tracer, fluorogold (FG), was injected into the DMH on day 4 postpartum. FG-injected lactating rats were then deprived of their eight-pup litters on day 9 postpartum, and 48 h later, the pups were returned to the females to reinitiate the suckling stimulus for 90 min and induce cFos expression. The animals were then perfused and the brains were subjected to double-label immunohistochemistry to visualize both FG- and cFos-positive cells. Substantial numbers of FG/cFos double-labeled cells were found in forebrain regions, including the preoptic area, lateral septal nucleus, ventral subiculum, and supramammillary nucleus, and in brainstem regions, including the lateral parabrachial nucleus, periaqeductal gray, and ventrolateral medulla. In conclusion, these areas are potentially important candidates for mediating the activation of the NPY neuronal system in the DMH during lactation.

  14. Endocannabinoids, feeding and suckling--from our perspective.

    PubMed

    Mechoulam, R; Berry, E M; Avraham, Y; Di Marzo, V; Fride, E

    2006-04-01

    In this overview we have summarized some aspects of our published work related to the effects of the endocannabinoid system on appetite and suckling. As noted also by several other groups we have found that anandamide, a major endocannabinoid, enhances appetite in mice. On partial or full food deprivation over 24 h the levels of 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG), a second major cannabinoid, are initially elevated in mouse brain; however, partial food deprivation over a longer period causes reduction of 2-AG levels. Blocking the endocannabinoid system with a CB1 antagonist on the 1st day after birth leads to inhibition of suckling; later administration also affects suckling, but does not fully block it.

  15. Continuously recorded suckling behaviour and its effect on lactational amenorrhoea.

    PubMed

    Taylor, H W; Vázquez-Geffroy, M; Samuels, S J; Taylor, D M

    1999-07-01

    The hypothesis that the month-specific rate of return to ovarian cyclicity after childbirth is causally related to suckling pattern was tested for a population of New Mexican women recruited within the service area of New Mexico Highlands University and for a nationwide USA subpopulation of women recruited through membership of the Couple to Couple League (CCL). Survival analysis for time-dependent covariates was used, and significant predictors of the first postpartum menses were found. Important differences were detected in the suckling pattern for the two groups and a 5:2 differential was found in their respective rates of menstrual cycle recovery. Although the two groups were comparable perinatally, daily and time-windowed breast-feeding performance fell off at twice the rate for the New Mexico population when contrasted with the CCL sample. For both populations, the introduction of solid feeds was a strong and significant predictor of returning menstrual cyclicity, independent of suckling pattern.

  16. Prolactin daily rhythm in suckling male rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Pilar; Cardinali, Daniel; Cano, Pilar; Rebollar, Pilar; Esquifino, Ana

    2005-01-01

    Background This study describes the 24-h changes in plasma prolactin levels, and dopamine (DA), serotonin (5HT), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and taurine concentration in median eminence and adenohypophysis of newborn male rabbits. Methods Animals were kept under controlled light-dark cycles (LD 16:8, lights on at 08:00 h), housed in individual metal cages, and fed ad libitum with free access to tap water. On day 1 after parturition, litter size was standardized to 8–9 to assure similar lactation conditions during the experiment. Groups of 6–7 suckling male rabbits were killed by decapitation on day 11 of life at six different time points during a 24-h period. Results Plasma prolactin levels changed significantly throughout the day, showing a peak at the beginning of the active phase (at 01:00 h) and a second maximum during the first part of the resting phase (at 13:00 h). Median eminence DA concentration also changed significantly during the day, peaking at the same time intervals as plasma prolactin. A single maximum (at 13:00 h) was found for adenohypophysial DA concentration. Individual adenohypophysial DA concentrations correlated significantly with their respective plasma prolactin levels. A maximum in median eminence 5HT concentration occurred at 21:00 h whereas adenohypophysial 5HT peaked at 13:00 h. Median eminence 5HT concentration and circulating prolactin correlated inversely. In the median eminence, GABA concentration attained maximal values at 21:00 h, whereas it reached a maximum at 13:00 h in the pituitary gland. Median eminence GABA concentration correlated inversely with circulating prolactin. In the median eminence, taurine values varied in a bimodal way showing two maxima, at the second half of the rest span and of the activity phase, respectively. In the adenohypophysis, minimal taurine levels coincided with the major plasma prolactin peak (at 01:00 h). Circulating prolactin and adenohypophysial taurine levels correlated inversely

  17. The α2C-adrenoceptor antagonist, ORM-10921, has antipsychotic-like effects in social isolation reared rats and bolsters the response to haloperidol.

    PubMed

    Uys, Madeleine; Shahid, Mohammed; Sallinen, Jukka; Dreyer, Walter; Cockeran, Marike; Harvey, Brian H

    2016-11-03

    Early studies suggest that selective α2C-adrenoceptor (AR)-antagonism has anti-psychotic-like and pro-cognitive properties. However, this has not been demonstrated in an animal model of schizophrenia with a neurodevelopmental construct. The beneficial effects of clozapine in refractory schizophrenia and associated cognitive deficits have, among others, been associated with its α2C-AR modulating activity. Altered brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been linked to schizophrenia and cognitive deficits. We investigated whether the α2C-AR antagonist, ORM-10921, could modulate sensorimotor gating and cognitive deficits, as well as alter striatal BDNF levels in the social isolation reared (SIR) model of schizophrenia, comparing its effects to clozapine and the typical antipsychotic, haloperidol, the latter being devoid of α2C-AR-activity. Moreover, the ability of ORM-10921 to augment the effects of haloperidol on the above parameters was also investigated. Animals received subcutaneous injection of either ORM-10921 (0.01mg/kg), clozapine (5mg/kg), haloperidol (0.2mg/kg), haloperidol (0.2mg/kg)+ORM-10921 (0.01mg/kg) or vehicle once daily for 14days, followed by assessment of novel object recognition (NOR), prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle response and striatal BDNF levels. SIR significantly attenuated NOR memory as well as PPI, and reduced striatal BDNF levels vs. social controls. Clozapine, ORM-10921 and haloperidol+ORM-10921, but not haloperidol alone, significantly improved SIR-associated deficits in PPI and NOR, with ORM-10921 also significantly improving PPI deficits vs. haloperidol-treated SIR animals. Haloperidol+ORM-10921 significantly reversed reduced striatal BDNF levels in SIR rats. α2C-AR-antagonism improves deficits in cognition and sensorimotor gating in a neurodevelopmental animal model of schizophrenia and bolsters the effects of a typical antipsychotic, supporting a therapeutic role for α2C-AR-antagonism in schizophrenia. Copyright

  18. Curiosity Rear View, Annotated

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-08-06

    This labeled version of one of the first images taken by a rear Hazard-Avoidance camera on NASA Curiosity rover shows a fin on the radioisotope thermoelectric generator, the rear left wheel and a spring that released the dust cover.

  19. Milk glucosidase activity enables suckled pup starch digestion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Starch requires six enzymes for digestion to free glucose: two amylases (salivary and pancreatic) and four mucosal maltase activities; sucrase-isomaltase and maltase-glucoamylase. All are deficient in suckling rodents. The objective of this study is to test (13)C-starch digestion before weaning by m...

  20. Exposure to ethanol and nicotine during the brain growth spurt: spatial DMP performance in male rats.

    PubMed

    Girard, T A; Xing, H; Ward, G R; Nguyen, H; Wainwright, P E

    2001-03-01

    Male Long-Evans rats were reared artificially and, using a 2x2 design, were exposed from postnatal days (PD) 6-9 to ethanol (ET: 6.5 g kg(-1) day(-1) "binge" exposure) and/or nicotine bitartrate (NIC: 6 mg kg(-1) day(-1) continuous exposure) via gastrostomy tubes. Controls were administered maltose-dextrin in amounts isocaloric to ET and/or sodium bitartrate. A fifth suckled-control group was reared normally. NIC accelerated eye opening on PD 14; whereas ET delayed eye opening and hindlimb support on PD 16. Beginning in postnatal week 7, rats were tested on a spatial delayed matching-to-place (DMP) version of the Morris water maze, which entailed a series of problems, each consisting of search and recall trials, that required the rats to use extra-maze cues to locate a hidden escape platform. In Phase 1 of testing, the ET-exposed groups were impaired in the recall trials, but there was no effect of NIC. A longer encoding time (45 vs. 10 s) improved performance across all groups. In contrast, acute administration of NIC (0.1 mg/kg ip) immediately prior to testing in Phase 2 failed to improve performance in any group. In conclusion, these results confirm previous findings of impaired spatial DMP-task performance in ET-exposed rats and further suggest that these memory deficits are amenable to amelioration.

  1. Oral MSG administration alters hepatic expression of genes for lipid and nitrogen metabolism in suckling piglets.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Yuzhe; Liao, Peng; Li, Tiejun; Chen, Lixiang; Yin, Yulong; Wang, Jinquan; Wu, Guoyao

    2014-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of oral administration of monosodium glutamate (MSG) on expression of genes for hepatic lipid and nitrogen metabolism in piglets. A total of 24 newborn pigs were assigned randomly into one of four treatments (n = 6/group). The doses of oral MSG administration, given at 8:00 and 18:00 to sow-reared piglets between 0 and 21 days of age, were 0 (control), 0.06 (low dose), 0.5 (intermediate dose), and 1 (high dose) g/kg body weight/day. At the end of the 3-week treatment, serum concentrations of total protein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the intermediate dose group were elevated than those in the control group (P < 0.05). Hepatic mRNA levels for fatty acid synthase, acetyl-coA carboxylase, insulin-like growth factor-1, glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase, and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase were higher in the middle-dose group (P < 0.05), compared with the control group. MSG administration did not affect hepatic mRNA levels for hormone-sensitive lipase or carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1. We conclude that oral MSG administration alters hepatic expression of certain genes for lipid and nitrogen metabolism in suckling piglets.

  2. Weekly bull exchange shortens postpartum anestrus in suckled beef cows.

    PubMed

    Miller, V; Ungerfeld, R

    2008-05-01

    The duration of anestrus in cattle was usually shortened when cows were exposed to bulls. The objective of the present experiment was to determine if weekly bull exchange accelerated the resumption of cyclicity in postpartum suckled beef cows. We tested the hypothesis that exposure of postpartum, anestrous, suckled beef cows (extensively managed) to weekly exchange of bulls, accelerates the resumption of cyclicity, compared to continuous exposure to the same bulls. Ninety-one multiparous suckled Hereford and Hereford x Angus cows, <60d postpartum, were assigned to two homogeneous groups. Beginning on December 1st (late spring), the control group (C, n=45) remained with one pair of bulls throughout the breeding period (7 weeks), whereas in the "exchanged" (E, n=46) group two pairs of bulls were exchanged weekly. Based on weekly ultrasonographic examinations of all cows, none had a CL at the start of the experiment and for 2 weeks after the start of bull exposure. However, the accumulated frequency of cows with a CL was greater in group E than in group C cows on week 4 (P=0.024), as well as on weeks 5-7 (P<0.001) after the start of bull exposure. Furthermore, in group E versus group C, there was a higher pregnancy rate 30d after the end of bull exposure (26 of 46, 56.2% vs. 16 of 45, 35.6%; P=0.045). In conclusion, weekly exchange of two pairs of bulls shortened postpartum anestrus in suckled multiparous cows, compared to continuous exposure to a single pair of bulls.

  3. Pathfinder Rear Ramp

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-07-06

    NASA's Mars Pathfinder's rear rover ramp can be seen successfully unfurled in this image, taken at the end of Sol 2 by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP). This ramp was later used for the deployment of the microrover Sojourner, which occurred at the end of Sol 2. Areas of a lander petal and deflated airbag are visible at left. The image helped Pathfinder scientists determine that the rear ramp was the one to use for rover deployment. At upper right is the rock dubbed "Barnacle Bill," which Sojourner will later study. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00627

  4. Milk processing quality of suckled/milked goats: effects of milk accumulation interval and milking regime.

    PubMed

    Högberg, M; Dahlborn, K; Hydbring-Sandberg, E; Hartmann, E; Andrén, A

    2016-05-01

    Milk with a high concentration of fat and casein is required for cheese production, and these components have a major impact for both quality and yield of the curd. Recent observations have shown that suckling can elevate milk fat concentration in goats and our aim was therefore to check the hypothesis that animal welfare and cheese-processing properties of goat milk could be optimised by appropriate management of suckled/milked goats. Twelve Swedish dairy goats were kept together with one kid each in 4 different mixed management-systems (milking combined with partial suckling) in a cross-over design. Two milk accumulation intervals were tested; Short = dams and kids were together for 16 h (T16) and Long = ; dams and kids were together for 8 h (T8 h). In addition, two milking regimes were used; Suckled Before Milking = S and Milked Before Suckling = M. Milk accumulation interval referred to how long dams and kids were separated. The milk yield available for processing (milk offtake), was weighed and analysed from each milking occasion and the suckled milk yield was estimated by a weigh-suckle-weigh method (WSW) in combination with observing the suckling behaviour during the free suckling periods. Milking managements, such as 'suckling before milking (S)', increased milk fat concentration compared to milking before suckling (M) and 'Short accumulation treatments (T16)' gave higher milk fat, casein concentration and individual curd yield (%) compared to the 'Long accumulation treatment (T8)'. The total individual curd yield (g) was the same despite treatment, but the animal welfare was most likely higher in T16 where dams and kids spent more time together.

  5. FACILITY 710, NORTHWEST AND REAR SIDES, SHOWING WINGS IN REAR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 710, NORTHWEST AND REAR SIDES, SHOWING WINGS IN REAR, OBLIQUE VIEW FACING EAST-NORTHEAST. - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Corner-Entry Single-Family Housing Type, Between Bragg & Grime Streets near Williston Avenue, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  6. 9. NORTH FLANK AND (WEST) REAR WITH REAR OF ADMINISTRATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. NORTH FLANK AND (WEST) REAR WITH REAR OF ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, LOOKING SOUTHEAST ACROSS GARDEN FROM TOWER GROVE SOUTH PORCH - Missouri Botanical Garden, Henry Shaw Townhouse, 2345 Tower Grove Avenue, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  7. Hamilton's Store, rear view, with storage building in rear, restaurant ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Hamilton's Store, rear view, with storage building in rear, restaurant to left, officer's row in distance, view southeast - Mammoth Hot Springs-Fort Yellowstone, Grand Loop Road, Mammoth, Park County, WY

  8. 43. FIRST FLOOR, REAR HALL: REAR HALLWAY BEHIND CURVED STAIRS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. FIRST FLOOR, REAR HALL: REAR HALLWAY BEHIND CURVED STAIRS LOOKING NORTH TO 19TH CENTURY ADDITION. Arch defines north wall of original house. - George A. Trenholm Mansion, 172 Rutledge Avenue, Charleston, Charleston County, SC

  9. Toward Communal Child Rearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Rosalind M.

    1973-01-01

    Social work's preoccupation with the preservation of the nuclear family has blinded it to the necessity of finding new ways to care for children. This myopia has impeded recognition of the forces in American life that are bringing social change and new forms of child rearing. This article describes some of these phenomena and concludes that…

  10. Cervical auscultation of suckle feeding in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Vice, F L; Heinz, J M; Giuriati, G; Hood, M; Bosma, J F

    1990-09-01

    The authors recorded the sound signals during suckle feeding of six normal infants within the first two postnatal days. The sounds were recorded onto a cassette tape-recorder from a small microphone attached to the infant's neck, then displayed on an oscilloscope and analysed by digital signal processing techniques. These displays demonstrated acoustic patterns and temporal relationships which are not otherwise audible. The method and findings are described in detail, and the method should be useful in the clinical investigation of feeding and swallowing problems associated with more subtle neurological impairment and preterm birth.

  11. The Experience of Being Born: A Natural Context for Learning to Suckle

    PubMed Central

    Alberts, Jeffrey R.; Ronca, April E.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the developmental origins of congenital capabilities such as sucking is fundamental knowledge that can contribute to improving the clinical management of early feeding and facilitate the onset of oral ingestion. We describe analyses in rats showing that sensory stimulation in utero and during birth establishes the newborn's sucking responses to maternal cues. We mimicked elements of labor and delivery (viz., compressions simulating labor contractions, stroking simulating postnatal maternal licking of the newborn, and postnatal thermal flux), and used them to induce postnatal respiration and nipple attachment in caesarian-delivered pups. We report herein new data showing that, by simulating a fetal rat's experience of being born, specific components of vaginal birth provide sufficient conditions for the odor learning that guides newborn's sucking responses. In contrast, the absence of in utero compressions was associated with poor sucking onset. Knowing how birth stimuli contribute to the first nipple attachment and constitute a context for learning to suckle is an important step toward better management of some early feeding problems. It can serve also as a foundation for understanding the challenges of facilitating sucking by babies born prematurely so that they do not experience the typical contingencies mediating onset of oral ingestion. PMID:23056061

  12. Variable effect of ghrelin administration on pancreatic development in young rats. Role of insulin-like growth factor-1.

    PubMed

    Dembiński, A; Warzecha, Z; Ceranowicz, P; Bielański, W; Cieszkowski, J; Dembiński, M; Pawlik, W W; Kuwahara, A; Kato, I; Konturek, P C

    2005-12-01

    Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, has been primarily isolated from the human and rat stomach. Ghrelin has been shown to stimulate appetite and fat deposition in adult rats and humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ghrelin administration on pancreatic growth in suckling, weaned and peripubertal seven week old rats. Rats were treated with saline or ghrelin (4, 8 or 16 nmol/kg/dose) intraperitoneally twice a day: suckling rats were treated for 7 or 14 days starting from the first postnatal day, three week old weaned rats and seven weeks old rats were treated for 5 days. Treatment with ghrelin did not affect animal weight in suckling or weaned rats, whereas in young seven week old rats, ghrelin caused a significant increase in body weight. Ghrelin decreased food intake in weaned rats; whereas in seven week old rats, food intake was enhanced. In suckling rats, ghrelin decreased the pancreatic weight, pancreatic amylase content, DNA synthesis and DNA content. In contrast, ghrelin increased pancreatic weight, DNA synthesis, DNA content and amylase content in weaned or young seven week old rats. Pancreatic blood flow was not affected by ghrelin in any group of rats tested. Ghrelin increased serum level of growth hormone in all rats. This effect was weak in suckling rats, higher in weaned and the highest in seven week old animals. Ghrelin did not affect serum level of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in suckling rats. In weaned and in seven week old rats, treatment with ghrelin caused increase in serum level of IGF-1. We conclude that ghrelin reduces pancreatic growth in suckling rats; whereas in weaned and young seven week old animals, treatment with ghrelin increases pancreatic growth. This biphasic effect of ghrelin in young animals on pancreatic growth seems to be related to age-dependent changes of the release of anabolic IGF-1.

  13. Maternal exposure to atrazine during lactation suppresses suckling-induced prolactin release and results in prostatitis in the adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Stoker, T E; Robinette, C L; Cooper, R L

    1999-11-01

    The availability of prolactin (PRL) to the neonatal brain is known to affect the development of the tuberoinfundibular (TIDA) neurons and, as a consequence, lead to alterations in subsequent PRL regulation. Without early lactational exposure to PRL (derived from the dam's milk), TIDA neuronal growth is impaired and elevated PRL levels are present in the prepubertal male. These observations, combined with the finding that alterations in PRL secretion (i.e., hyperprolactinemia) in the adult male rat have been implicated in the development of prostatitis, led us to hypothesize that early lactational exposure to agents that suppress suckling-induced PRL release would lead to a disruption in TIDA development, altered PRL regulation, and subsequent prostatitis in the male offspring. To test this hypothesis, suckling-induced PRL release was measured in Wistar dams treated twice daily with the herbicide atrazine (ATR, by gavage, on PND 1-4 at 0, 6.25, 12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg body weight), or twice daily with the dopamine receptor agonist bromocriptine (BROM, sc, at 0.052, 0.104, 0.208, and 0.417 mg/kg); BROM is known to suppress PRL release. Similarly, atrazine has also been reported to suppress PRL in adult females. Serum PRL was measured on PND 3 using a serial sampling technique and indwelling cardiac catheters. A significant rise in serum PRL release was noted in all control females within 10 min of the initiation of suckling. Fifty-mg/kg ATR inhibited suckling-induced PRL release in all females, whereas 25 and 12.5 mg/kg ATR inhibited this measure in some dams and had no discernible effect in others. The 6.25 mg/kg dose of ATR was without effect. BROM, used here as a positive control, also inhibited suckling-induced PRL release at doses of 0.104 to 0.417 mg/kg, with no effect at 0.052 mg/kg. To examine the effect of postnatal ATR and BROM on the incidence and severity of inflammation (INF) of the lateral prostate of the offspring, adult males were examined at 90 and

  14. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester protects 661W cells from H2O2-mediated cell death and enhances electroretinography response in dim-reared albino rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Tran, Julie-Thu A; Anderson, Robert E; Mandal, Md Nawajes A

    2012-01-01

    Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), an active component of honeybee propolis, has a wide range of beneficial properties. The purpose of this study was to test the protective role of CAPE in 661W cells (in vitro) against H(2)O(2)-mediated cell death and in albino rats (in vivo) against various light conditions. The 661W cells were pretreated with CAPE and then stressed with H(2)O(2). Cell death was measured with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay, and mRNA and proteins were analyzed. Sprague Dawley rats were raised on either a control or CAPE (0.02%) diet and exposed to various light conditions for short or long periods. Retinal histology, mRNA, protein, lipid composition, and retinal function by electroretinography (ERG) were measured at the end of feeding. Pretreatment of 661W cells with CAPE reduced H(2)O(2)-mediated cell death in a dose-dependent manner and induced expression of heme oxygenase-1 (Ho1). Albino rats fed with CAPE had greater expression of Ho1 and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (Icam1), less expression of FOS-like antigen (Fosl) and lipoxygenase 12 (Lox12) genes in the retina, less translocation of nuclear factor kappaB protein to the nucleus, and a lower molar ratio of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Further, the ERGs of the retinas of CAPE-fed rats were significantly higher than those of the control-fed rats when raised in dim light. CAPE can activate the antioxidative gene expression pathway in retinal cells in vitro and in vivo. Feeding CAPE to albino rats can enhance ERG responses and change the lipid profile in the rats' retinas.

  15. Involvement of high plasma corticosterone status and activation of brain regional serotonin metabolism in long-term erythrosine-induced rearing motor hyper activity in young adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Dalal, Arindam; Poddar, Mrinal K

    2010-07-01

    Long-term consumption of artificial food color(s) can induce behavioral hyperactivity in human and experimental animals, but no neurobiochemical mechanism is defined. This study investigates the role of brain regional serotonin metabolism including its turnover, MAO-A activity, and plasma corticosterone status in relation to behavioral disturbances due to an artificial food color, erythrosine. Long-term (15 or 30 consecutive days) erythrosine administration with higher dosage (10 or 100 mg/kg/day, p.o.) produced optimal hyperactive state in exploratory behavior (rearing motor activity) after 2 h of last erythrosine administration, in young adult male albino rats. Erythrosine-induced stimulation in brain regional (medulla-pons, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and corpus striatum) serotonin metabolism (measuring steady state levels of 5-HT and 5-HIAA, MAO-A activity), including its turnover (pargyline-induced 5-HT accumulation and 5-HIAA declination rate), as well as plasma corticosterone were also observed depending on dosage(s) and duration(s) of erythrosine administration under similar experimental conditions. The lower dosage of erythrosine (1 mg/kg/day, p.o.) under similar conditions did not affect either of the above. These findings suggests (a) the induction as well as optimal effect of long-term erythrosine (artificial food color) on behavioral hyperactivity in parallel with increase in 5-HT level in brain regions, (b) the activation of brain regional serotonin biosynthesis in accordance with plasma corticosterone status under such behavioral hyperactivity, and (c) a possible inhibitory influence of the enhanced glucocorticoids-serotonin interaction on erythrosine-induced rearing motor hyperactivity in young adult mammals.

  16. Pathfinder Rear Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder's rear rover ramp can be seen successfully unfurled in this image, taken at the end of Sol 2 by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP). This ramp was later used for the deployment of the microrover Sojourner, which occurred at the end of Sol 2. Areas of a lander petal and deflated airbag are visible at left. The image helped Pathfinder scientists determine that the rear ramp was the one to use for rover deployment. At upper right is the rock dubbed 'Barnacle Bill,' which Sojourner will later study.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  17. [Effect of total flavonoids of astragalus on endoplasmic reticulum chaperone, calumenin and connecxin 43 in suckling mouse myocardium with myocarditis caused by coxsackievirus B3].

    PubMed

    Xuan, Li-ying; Tao, Xie-xin; Zhao, Ya-jun; Ge, Hong-yan; Bao, Li-hong; Wang, Da-peng; Zhao, Ming

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effect of total flavonoids of astragalus on the expression of endoplasmic reticulum chaperone, calumenin and connecxin 43 (CX43) in suckling mouse myocardium with myocarditis caused by coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3). The primary culture of suckling mouse myocardium cells were randomly divided into control group, CVB3 infected group and total flavonoids of astragalus group. Firstly, to confirm the identity of the suckling mouse myocardium, α-SMA was monitored by immunohistochemistry method. Then the protein expression changes of endoplasmic reticulum chaperone-glucose regulatory protein 78 ( GRP78), calumenin and CX43 were detected by Western blot. (1) Compared with that of the control group, the GRP78 expression level in CVB3 infected group was improved, the expression levels of calumenin and CX43 were all reduced. (2) Compared with that of CVB3 infected group, GRP78 expression level was decreased, and the expression levels of calumenin and CX43 were increased in total flavonoids of astragalus group. CVB3 infection may cause endoplasmic reticulum stress of rat myocardium cells by increasing the expression of GRP78 and decreasing the expression of calumenin and CX43. On the other hand, total flavonoids of astragalus can reduce the expression of GRP78 and increase the expression of calumenin and CX43.The results of this experiment may be closely related to the effects of anti-arrhythmia with viral myocarditis caused by CVB3.

  18. Dietary L-leucine supplementation enhances intestinal development in suckling piglets.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuli; Wu, Zhenlong; Li, Wei; Zhang, Chen; Sun, Kaiji; Ji, Yun; Wang, Bin; Jiao, Ning; He, Beibei; Wang, Weiwei; Dai, Zhaolai; Wu, Guoyao

    2015-08-01

    L-Leucine is a signaling amino acid in animal metabolism. It is unknown whether supplementing L-leucine to breast-fed neonates may enhance their small-intestinal development. This hypothesis was tested with a piglet model. Seven-day-old sow-reared pigs with an average birth weight of 1.45 kg were assigned randomly to the control or leucine group (n = 30/group). Piglets in the leucine group were orally administrated with 1.4 g L-leucine/kg body weight, whereas piglets in the control group received isonitrogenous L-alanine, twice daily for 14 days. The supplemental L-leucine amounted to 200 % of L-leucine intake from sow's milk by 7-day-old pigs. At the end of the 2-week experiment, tissue samples were collected for determining intestinal morphology, expression of genes for intestinal leucine transporters (real-time RT-PCR and western blot analysis), and plasma metabolites and hormones. L-leucine administration increased (P < 0.05) villus height in the duodenum, an elevated ratio of villus height to crypt depth in the duodenum and ileum, plasma concentrations of leucine, glutamine and asparagine, as well as body-weight gains. mRNA levels for L-leucine transporters (SLC6A14, SLC6A19 and SLC7A9) and the abundance of the ATB(0,+) protein were increased (P < 0.05) but those for SLC7A7 mRNA and the LAT2 protein were decreased (P < 0.05) in the jejunum of leucine-supplemented piglets, compared with the control. Plasma concentrations of ammonia, urea, triglycerides, and growth-related hormones did not differ between the control and leucine groups. Collectively, these results indicate that L-leucine supplementation improves intestinal development and whole-body growth in suckling piglets with a normal birth weight.

  19. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester protects 661W cells from H2O2-mediated cell death and enhances electroretinography response in dim-reared albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hui; Tran, Julie-Thu A.; Anderson, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), an active component of honeybee propolis, has a wide range of beneficial properties. The purpose of this study was to test the protective role of CAPE in 661W cells (in vitro) against H2O2-mediated cell death and in albino rats (in vivo) against various light conditions. Methods The 661W cells were pretreated with CAPE and then stressed with H2O2. Cell death was measured with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay, and mRNA and proteins were analyzed. Sprague Dawley rats were raised on either a control or CAPE (0.02%) diet and exposed to various light conditions for short or long periods. Retinal histology, mRNA, protein, lipid composition, and retinal function by electroretinography (ERG) were measured at the end of feeding. Results Pretreatment of 661W cells with CAPE reduced H2O2-mediated cell death in a dose-dependent manner and induced expression of heme oxygenase-1 (Ho1). Albino rats fed with CAPE had greater expression of Ho1 and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (Icam1), less expression of FOS-like antigen (Fosl) and lipoxygenase 12 (Lox12) genes in the retina, less translocation of nuclear factor kappaB protein to the nucleus, and a lower molar ratio of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Further, the ERGs of the retinas of CAPE-fed rats were significantly higher than those of the control-fed rats when raised in dim light. Conclusions CAPE can activate the antioxidative gene expression pathway in retinal cells in vitro and in vivo. Feeding CAPE to albino rats can enhance ERG responses and change the lipid profile in the rats’ retinas. PMID:22690111

  20. Effects of different sources of fat (calcium soap of palm oil vs. extruded linseed) in lactating ewes' diet on the fatty acid profile of their suckling lambs.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Cortés, P; Gallardo, B; Mantecón, A R; Juárez, M; de la Fuente, M A; Manso, T

    2014-03-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementing lactating ewe diets with extruded linseed on the fatty acid (FA) composition of intramuscular and subcutaneous fat depots of suckling lambs. Twenty-four pregnant Churra ewes were divided into two groups based on the milk production, age, body weight and parity, and assigned to one of two treatments. Each ewe of the Control treatment was supplemented with 70 g/day of FAs from a calcium soap of palm oil, while the other treatment group (Lin) was supplemented with 128 g/day of extruded linseed. All lambs were reared exclusively on milk and were slaughtered when they reached 11 kg live weight. FA profiles of ewe milk, lamb meat and subcutaneous adipose tissue were determined by GC. Lamb performance was not affected by the treatments. Muscle fat and adipose tissue from the Lin treatment showed higher proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The percentages of α-linolenic (C18:3 n-3), docosahexaenoic (C22:6 n-3), vaccenic (trans-11 C18:1) and rumenic (cis-9, trans-11 C18:2) acids in both fat depots were higher in Lin than in Control suckling lambs. Furthermore, meat fat from Lin carcasses displayed a lower n-6/n-3 ratio than Control samples. Intramuscular depots clearly showed a greater content of PUFA, including cis-9, trans-11 C18:2, and a lower n-6/n-3 ratio than subcutaneous fat. The results from this study demonstrate that dietary extruded linseed supplementation of lactating ewes enhances the nutritional quality of suckling lamb fat depots such as intramuscular and subcutaneous fats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Rebound after rear impacts.

    PubMed

    Viano, David C; Parenteau, Chantal S; Burnett, Roger

    2013-01-01

    A number of field accident studies have found that rebound is a source for occupant injury after rear impacts. Sled tests were run to investigate occupant kinematics and rebound, including head velocity and displacement with 3 different seats, 2 conventional seat designs, and 1 all belts to seat (ABTS). Nine rear-end sled tests were run with a belted 50th Hybrid III dummy on a Taurus, Mustang, or Sebring ABTS seat in nominally 16.5, 24.1, and 32.5 km/h rear-end delta Vs. There was no sled braking after the rear acceleration to study rebound from the seat. Dummy kinematics were analyzed from high-speed video and biomechanical responses from triaxial head and chest accelerations, triaxial upper and lower neck loads and moments, and seat belt loads. Peak responses were tabulated during seat back rotation rearward and rebound forward. Ratios of biomechanical and kinematic responses were determined comparing ABTS to conventional seat responses for each delta V. Student's t-test was used to determine significant differences between the ratios of ABTS to conventional seat responses. The rebound velocity of the head varied from 2.9 to 6.8 m/s with respect to the sled. Overall, it was 69 ± 22 percent higher than the sled delta V. It was greatest with ABTS in the highest severity test where seat back yielding absorbed energy and reduced rebound in the conventional seats. The time to maximum forward excursion was significantly shorter with ABTS compared to the conventional seats with a ratio of 0.54 ± 0.34 (t = 6.13, df = 5, P < .001). ABTS seats remain more upright in rear-end crashes and transfer greater load to the occupant during rebound than conventional seats that yield rearward and absorb energy in higher severity crashes. Rebound occurs earlier and at higher velocities with ABTS. This displaces the occupant toward the front interior. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Traffic Injury Prevention to view the

  2. Carcinogens in rat milk. Transfer of ingested diethylnitrosamine into milk by lactating rats.

    PubMed

    Schoental, R; Gough, T A; Webb, K S

    1974-09-01

    Mothers of 5-day old rats were given diethylnitrosamine (DEN) (130 mg/kg body weight) by stomach tube. The milk removed from the stomachs of the suckling young contained 5, 16 and 36 parts/10(6) of DEN at 2, 4 and 6 hours respectively after they started suckling the treated mothers. After 49 hours, DEN was no more detectable in the milk.

  3. Activity patterns within the genioglossus during suckling in domestic dogs and pigs: interspecific and intraspecific plasticity.

    PubMed

    Gordon, K R; Herring, S W

    1987-01-01

    Suckling is universal among terrestrial mammals, but it is not clear whether mechanisms of suckling are the same in mammals of differing morphology or feeding ecology. An evaluation of the literature on tongue movements during suckling suggests that pigs and dogs may use the tongue differently, with humans being intermediate. Electromyographic (EMG) recordings of the middle and posterior portions of genioglossus of pigs and dogs were compared in order to (1) see whether neuromotor patterns for tongue movement during suckling can be recognized and (2) identify interspecific differences in neuromotor patterns if present. A single pattern of coordination was found in dogs, but results from pigs indicated plasticity, both within and between individuals. The literature on humans indicates that, as in pigs, suckling patterns may vary. In addition to the difference in variability, pigs and dogs differed in EMG burst duration and cycle length. The performance of suckling in pigs, dogs and humans, respectively, resembled the tongue movements used in drinking in each species. The greater plasticity of suckling behavior in pigs (and possibly humans) may be related to an ability to acquire milk under a variety of environmental conditions or to a generally variable feeding process characteristic of omnivorous mammals.

  4. Economic impacts of the mortality rate for suckling pigs in the United States.

    PubMed

    Losinger, Willard C

    2005-09-15

    To measure economic impacts attributable to the mortality rate for suckling pigs in the United States. Economic analysis that incorporated data from various sources. Suckling pigs on U.S. swine farms. Economic impacts associated with the mortality rate for suckling pigs during 1995 were estimated from supply-and-demand curves for pork and from an estimate of the elasticity of production for pigs entering the grower-finisher phase of production. A decrease in the mortality rate for suckling pigs would have caused an increase in pork production and a decrease in price and total value of production. Assuming no suckling pigs had died during 1995, consumer surplus would have increased by (mean +/- SE) 430 +/- 160 million dollars, whereas producer surplus would have decreased by 180 +/- 140 million dollars. The total gain to the US economy would have been 250 +/- 30 million dollars. Researchers who attempt to estimate the economic impact of mortality and morbidity rates of livestock should not ignore the influence of demand and the possibility of price adjustments. Consumers would stand to benefit from an increase in pork production associated with a reduction in the mortality rate for suckling pigs, whereas the swine industry would experience an economic loss. Individual producers need to compare the costs of measures intended to reduce the mortality rate for suckling pigs with the anticipated benefits.

  5. Carcass and meat quality of Assaf milk fed lambs: Effect of rearing system and sex.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, A B; Landa, R; Bodas, R; Prieto, N; Mantecón, A R; Giráldez, F J

    2008-10-01

    The effect of sex and rearing system on growth and carcass and meat characteristics of milk fed Assaf lambs was studied. Thirty-six lambs, 18 males and 18 females were used. Twelve lambs remained with their mothers throughout the experiment (NR). Within 24-36h of birth, the rest were housed individually and fed twice a day ad libitum (AAR) or at 70% of ad libitum consumption (RAR) with reconstituted cow's milk. Sex did not affect animal performance, yet females showed higher carcass and non-carcass fat deposits. NR lambs showed greater BWG than AAR fed lambs, and AAR, higher than the RAR. Differences between naturally and artificially reared lambs in CCW and killing out percentage were not significant. Empty digestive tract and mesenteric fat weights were greater for RAR than NR lambs, with the AAR lambs demonstrating intermediate values; conversely, omental fat was greater in NR lambs. Carcass ether extract content was greater for NR lambs, possibly due to the greater growth. Use of ad libitum cow's milk substitute in suckling lambs twice a day resulted in less body weight gain but similar killing out percentages compared to naturally raised lambs. A 70% restricted supply increased the days in suckling and reduced carcass fatness and compactness. Except for water loss, which was less in NR than artificially fed lambs, no differences were found in meat characteristics.

  6. Effect of artificial rearing of piglets on the volume densities of M cells in the tonsils of the soft palate and ileal Peyer's patches.

    PubMed

    Prims, S; Pintens, N; Vergauwen, H; Van Cruchten, S; Van Ginneken, C; Casteleyn, C

    2017-02-01

    The high prolificacy of modern hybrid sows has increased the mean litter size during the last decades. However, rearing large litters is challenging and has increased the use of alternative management strategies such as euthanasia of weak piglets, cross-fostering, supplementing piglets with milk, split-nursing and split-weaning. The latter includes artificial rearing on brooders where piglets have ad libitum access to milk replacer. The effect of this artificial rearing on the immune system of the piglet is the subject of various studies. The present study focused on the M cells in the tonsil of the soft palate and in the ileal Peyer's patch (iPP). These epithelial cells are specialized in antigen sampling and play a pivotal role in the induction of adaptive immune responses. The volume densities of the M cells were assessed by stereological analysis of tissue samples from piglets of 0, 3, 8 and 19days of age. During the first three days, piglets suckled the sow, permitting them to ingest colostrum. At the third day, the piglets were either allowed to continue to suckle the sow or were transferred to brooders. The six experimental groups, each containing six piglets, thus consisted of newborn piglets, 3-day-old sow-suckled piglets, and conventionally and artificially reared piglets of 8 and 19days of age. To identify M cells, tissue samples were immersed in 4% phosphate-buffered paraformaldehyde and paraffin sections were immunohistochemically stained against cytokeratin 18. The volume densities of M cells in both the crypt epithelium of the tonsils of the soft palate and the follicle-associated epithelium of the iPPs did not show any difference between the various age groups of conventionally reared piglets. However, values were twice as high in the iPPs compared to the tonsils of the soft palate. In contrast, a decrease in volume densities of M cells was observed in the iPPs of piglets after they had been transferred to commercial brooders (P=0.05), resulting in

  7. Hydration in non-suckling neonatal Brahman-cross calves.

    PubMed

    Fordyce, G; Olchowy, T W J; Anderson, A

    2015-06-01

    To identify measures that most closely relate to hydration in healthy Brahman-cross neonatal calves that experience milk deprivation. In a dry tropical environment, eight neonatal Brahman-cross calves were prevented from suckling for 2-3 days during which measurements were performed twice daily. Mean body water, as estimated by the mean urea space, was 74±3% of body weight at full hydration. The mean decrease in hydration was 7.3±1.1% per day. The rate of decrease was more than three-fold higher during the day than at night. At an ambient temperature of 39°C, the decrease in hydration averaged 1.1% hourly. Measures that were most useful in predicting the degree of hydration in both simple and multiple-regression prediction models were body weight, hindleg length, girth, ambient and oral temperatures, eyelid tenting, alertness score and plasma sodium. These parameters are different to those recommended for assessing calves with diarrhoea. Single-measure predictions had a standard error of at least 5%, which reduced to 3-4% if multiple measures were used. We conclude that simple assessment of non-suckling Brahman-cross neonatal calves can estimate the severity of dehydration, but the estimates are imprecise. Dehydration in healthy neonatal calves that do not have access to milk can exceed 20% (>15% weight loss) in 1-3 days under tropical conditions and at this point some are unable to recover without clinical intervention. © 2015 Australian Veterinary Association.

  8. VIEW OF SHADED REAR YARDS AND TERRACING, SHOWING REAR OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SHADED REAR YARDS AND TERRACING, SHOWING REAR OF 527 BIRCH CIRCLE ON LEFT. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  9. 37. WEST REAR OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: West rear ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. WEST REAR OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: West rear of powerhouse and car barn, showing the turntable and tracks used to move cars in and out of the building's repair and storage area. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  10. Artificial suckling in Martina Franca donkey foals: effect on in vivo performances and carcass composition.

    PubMed

    De Palo, Pasquale; Maggiolino, Aristide; Milella, Paola; Centoducati, Nicola; Papaleo, Alessandro; Tateo, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest on donkey milk production, on its characteristics, and also on breeding techniques. Donkey milk is characterized by high economic value, although the productive level of jennies is poor. During the milking process, foals are usually separated from their dams, allowing the milk collection in the mammary gland of jennies before milking session. This takes 8 h per day of fastening period for lactating donkey foals. During this period, it could be possible to apply a partial artificial suckling system (artificial suckling during daytime and natural suckling during the night). The aim of the work is the evaluation of the effect of this innovative technique on in vivo performances and on meat production traits of Martina Franca donkey foals. Forty Martina Franca jennies with their foals were used for the trial. After colostrum assumption, 20 foals were partially artificially suckled (AS) during each day, and 20 foals were naturally suckled (NS). From 8.00 to 20.00, both groups were separated from their mothers in order to allow the milking procedures of the jennies. The AS group was in a stall equipped with an automatic calf-suckling machine. For each group, 10 foals were slaughtered at 12 months and 10 foals at 18 months. Artificial suckling system positively affected the growth rate of donkey foals, particularly in the first 6 months from birth, with higher weekly weight gain (P < 0.01), higher final live weight (P < 0.001), and carcass weight (P < 0.01), but no effects were observed on carcass dressing percentage (P > 0.05). Artificial suckling system permitted to extend the time of foal separation from their mothers increasing milk collection time per day, awarding fastening periods in foals.

  11. Suckling behavior and its development in two Yangtze finless porpoise calves in captivity.

    PubMed

    Xian, Yijie; Wang, Kexiong; Xiao, Jianqiang; Wang, Ding

    2012-01-01

    We focally observed the suckling behavior of two Yangtze finless porpoise calves, C05 and C07, in captivity. Between 15 and 730 days postpartum of C05 and between birth and 30 days postpartum of C07, 286.3 (1.9 ± 0.4 hr/day (mean ± standard deviation), n = 148 days) and 18.3 hr (2.0 ± 0.5 hr/day, n = 9 days) of video footage were recorded, in which 429 and 111 suckling events were observed, respectively. We found that the calves made their initial suckling attempts after repeated stroking of the mother's body with their rostrums. The suckling duration was 4.4 ± 1.8 sec and 4.8 ± 2.4 sec, respectively. Before suckling, the calves swam under the mother's genital region (99.1% of number of event, respectively). During suckling, the mother generally turned sideways to facilitate the calves' suckling (80.7 and 76.6%, respectively). The calves almost equally used the two mammary slits [52.2% (left) and 47.8% (right), and 44.1% (left) and 55.9% (right), respectively]. The frequency and proportion of time C05 spent suckling continuously decreased to zero by 483 days postpartum. The two variables for C07 increased following birth, to a peak at 16 days postpartum, and then decreased continuously until 30 days postpartum. We discuss the possible implications of these observations for the management and conservation of this endangered cetacean. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Learned recognition of maternal signature odors mediates the first suckling episode in mice

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Darren W.; Brunet, Lisa J.; Webb, William R.; Cutforth, Tyler; Ngai, John; Stowers, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Soon after birth all mammals must initiate milk suckling to survive. In rodents, this innate behavior is critically dependent on uncharacterized maternally-derived chemosensory ligands. Recently the first pheromone sufficient to initiate suckling was isolated from the rabbit. Identification of the olfactory cues that trigger first suckling in the mouse would provide the means to determine the neural mechanisms that generate innate behavior. Results Here we use behavioral analysis, metabolomics, and calcium imaging of primary sensory neurons and find no evidence of ligands with intrinsic bioactivity, such as pheromones, acting to promote first suckling in the mouse. Instead, we find that the initiation of suckling is dependent on variable blends of maternal ‘signature odors’ that are learned and recognized prior to first suckling. Conclusions As observed with pheromone-mediated behavior, the response to signature odors releases innate behavior. However, this mechanism tolerates variability in both the signaling ligands and sensory neurons which may maximize the probability that this first essential behavior is successfully initiated. These results suggest that mammalian species have evolved multiple strategies to ensure the onset of this critical behavior. PMID:23041191

  13. Effects of in utero or suckling exposure to cerium (citrate) on the postnatal developmental of the mouse

    SciTech Connect

    D'Agostino, R.B.; Lown, B.A.; Morganti, J.B.; Massaro, E.J.

    1982-09-01

    Gravid female mice received either a single subcutaneous dose of cerium citrate (80 mg Ce/kg) or an equivalent (in citrate) dose of sodium citrate on day 7 or 12 of gestation or on day 2 postpartum. To separate effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure, a cross-fostering design was employed. The weight and gross activity of the neonates were assessed on day 8 or 13 postpartum. Open-field behavioral parameters, accelerating rotarod performance, and passive avoidance learning were assessed on day 60-65 postpartum. Maternal offspring retrival latency was measured on day 3 postpartum. Maternal offspring retrieval latency was measured on day 3 postpartum. Analyses revealed that neonatal weight was reduced both in offspring exposed to Ce in utero and in the offspring of mothers receiving Ce during lactation/suckling. Ce also appeared to affect maternal/offspring interaction: pups exposed prenatally to Ce were retrieved in less time than control pups. Except for an increased frequency of rearings in the open field of adult offspring exposed to Ce in utero, Ce exposure had no apparent effect on behavioral parameters, either in neonatal or adult offspring.

  14. Cardiovascular, endocrine and behavioural responses to suckling and permanent separation in goats

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Suckling can be a peaceful or vulnerable event for goats and kids, whereas, separation is suggested as stressful. The aim of this study was to investigate physiology and behaviour in these two different situations in dairy goats. Methods Four studies were performed with seven goats kept with their first-born kid in individual boxes. The goats were videotaped and heart rate and arterial blood pressure were recorded every minute by telemetry from parturition until 24 hours after separation. One to two days after parturition, Study 1 was performed with analyses of heart rate and blood pressure around a suckling. In Study 2, performed 3-5 days after parturition, blood sampling was done before, during and after suckling. Study 3 was performed 4-6 days post partum, with blood sampling before and after a permanent goat and kid separation. In addition, vocalisations were recorded after separation. Blood samples were obtained from a jugular vein catheter and analysed for plasma cortisol, β-endorphin, oxytocin, and vasopressin concentrations. Study 4 was performed during the first (N1) and second nights (N2) after parturition and the nights after Study 2 (N3) and 3 (N4). Heart rate, blood pressure and time spent lying down were recorded. Results The kids suckled 2 ± 0.2 times per hour and each suckling bout lasted 43 ± 15 s. In Study 1, heart rate and blood pressure did not change significantly during undisturbed suckling. In Study 2, plasma cortisol (P ≤ 0.05 during suckling and P ≤ 0.01 five minutes after suckling) and β-endorphin (P ≤ 0.05) concentrations increased during suckling, but oxytocin and vasopressin concentrations did not change. In Study 3, the goats and kids vocalised intensively during the first 20 minutes after separation, but the physiological variables were not affected. In Study 4, heart rate and arterial blood pressure declined gradually after parturition and were lowest during N4 (P ≤ 0.05) when the goats spent longer time lying

  15. Utilization of milk fatty acids by the suckling Iberian piglets.

    PubMed

    Aguinaga, M A; Haro, A; Lara, L; Gómez-Carballar, F; Nieto, R; Aguilera, J F

    2016-11-01

    A total of 16 pure-bred Iberian (IB) sows, all of them suckling six piglets, were used, eight of them in each of the two consecutive trials (1 and 2). Daily milk yield and composition were determined weekly over a 34-day lactation period. Within each litter, one piglet at birth and four piglets on day 35 of life were slaughtered. Milk intake per piglet tended to be greater in trial 2 (832 v. 893 g/day; P=0.066), but piglets grew at 168±3.3 g/day, irrespective of the trial. In the IB sow milk, the linoleic (LA) : linolenic (LNA) acid ratio averaged 14.6 and 15.2 in trial 1 and trial 2, respectively. A fivefold increase in piglet body fat content was observed over lactation (P<0.001). Most of this fat (81.4%) was present in the carcass. After 34 days of lactation, whole-body relative content of palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic and oleic acids were very close to those in the milk consumed, suggesting direct deposition. Daily deposition of LA derivatives and of LNA and its derivatives was found to be extremely low (<0.02 g, on average). Moreover, some of the arachidonic acid (ARA) in tissues of the IB piglet at birth disappeared throughout the lactating period. An overall fractional deposition for total fatty acids (FA) was 0.409. Fractional oxidation (disappearance) rates were 0.939 and 0.926 for n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated FA. The overall rate of disappearance for the major non-essential FA (myristic, palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic and oleic acids), estimated as 1-the overall fractional deposition rate, was 0.546. It is concluded that the high degree of FA unsaturation, high oxidation rate of LA and LNA, and poor synthesis of ARA from LA and of docosahexaenoic acid from LNA found in the suckling piglet might increase the energy cost of whole-body fat accretion, a contributor to the observed low efficiency of use of milk energy for growth.

  16. Intestinal apolipoprotein synthesis and secretion in the suckling pig.

    PubMed

    Black, D D; Davidson, N O

    1989-02-01

    The present studies report characterization of intestinal apolipoprotein (apoLp) synthesis and secretion in the suckling pig. Lipoproteins (d less than 1.006 g/ml) from mesenteric lymph were found to contain both apoB-100 and B-48, in addition to apoA-IV, E, A-I, and Cs. Lymph low density lipoproteins (LDL) and high density lipoproteins (HDL) contained mainly apoB-100 and apoA-I, respectively. Analysis of core cholesteryl ester fatty acid composition suggested filtration from plasma as the major source of lymph LDL and HDL. Dual radioisotope labeling of intestinal and hepatic apoLps in lymph, as well as immunoprecipitation of radiolabeled intestinal mucosa, demonstrated intestinal synthesis of apoB-48, A-IV, and A-I. There was no evidence for apoB-100 synthesis by intestinal mucosa. By contrast, piglet liver synthesized apoB-100, E, A-I, and Cs, but not apoB-48. Newly synthesized intracellular intestinal apoA-I was mainly (basic) isoform 1 (pI 5.58), while lymph and plasma HDL apoA-I were predominantly isoform 3 (pI 5.33), mature apoA-I. Lymph apoB (P less than 0.001) and apoA-I (P less than 0.04) mass output increased significantly during lipid absorption. Studies were subsequently conducted in fasting, fat-fed, bile-diverted, and sham-operated animals to determine the role of both dietary and biliary lipid in regulating intestinal apoLp biosynthesis. Proximal and distal small intestinal loops were pulse-radiolabeled with [3H]leucine, and apoB-48 and A-I were immunoprecipitated from cytosolic supernatants. Although a proximal to distal gradient in intestinal synthesis rates for both apoB and A-I was noted in all groups, the acute absorption of dietary lipid did not significantly increase apoB or A-I synthesis in either location. Complete removal of biliary lipid for 48 hr did not alter synthesis rates in jejunum or ileum. These studies suggest that mesenteric lymph apoLps in the suckling pig are derived both by filtration from plasma and by direct secretion from

  17. Maternal supplementation of seaweed-derived polysaccharides improves intestinal health and immune status of suckling piglets.

    PubMed

    Heim, G; O'Doherty, J V; O'Shea, C J; Doyle, D N; Egan, A M; Thornton, K; Sweeney, T

    2015-01-01

    The experiment investigated the effect of maternal dietary supplementation of seaweed-derived polysaccharides (SDP) (-SDP v. +SDP, n   20) from day 83 of gestation until weaning (day 28) on selected sow faeces and piglet digesta microbiota populations, piglet small-intestinal morphology, and intestinal nutrient transporter and inflammatory cytokine gene expression at birth, 48 h after birth and weaning. The effect of maternal dietary treatment on the piglet gene expression profile of inflammatory cytokines in the colon following a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge was also investigated. Dietary SDP reduced sow faecal Enterobacteriaceae gene numbers at parturition. Small-intestinal morphology, nutrient transporter and cytokine gene expression in newborn piglets did not differ between maternal dietary treatments (P > 0·10). At 48 h after birth, sodium-glucose-linked transporter 1 gene expression was down-regulated in the ileum of piglets suckling the SDP-supplemented sows compared with those suckling the basal sows (P = 0·050). There was a SDP × LPS challenge interaction on IL-1 and IL-6 gene expression in the colon of piglets (P < 0·05). The gene expression of IL-1 and IL-6 was down-regulated in the LPS-challenged colon of piglets suckling the SDP sows compared with those suckling the basal sows (P < 0·05). However, there was no difference in IL-1 and IL-6 gene expression in the unchallenged colon between treatment groups. At weaning, piglets suckling the SDP-supplemented sows had increased villus height in the jejunum and ileum compared with those suckling the basal-fed sows (P < 0·05). In conclusion, maternal dietary SDP supplementation enhanced the immune response of suckling piglets and improved gut morphology, making them more immune competent to deal with post-weaning adversities.

  18. Maternal transfer of the cyanobacterial neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) via milk to suckling offspring.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Marie; Karlsson, Oskar; Bergström, Ulrika; Brittebo, Eva B; Brandt, Ingvar

    2013-01-01

    The cyanobacterial neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) has been implicated in the etiology of neurodegenerative disease and proposed to be biomagnified in terrestrial and aquatic food chains. We have previously shown that the neonatal period in rats, which in humans corresponds to the last trimester of pregnancy and the first few years of age, is a particularly sensitive period for exposure to BMAA. The present study aimed to examine the secretion of (14)C-labeled L- and D-BMAA into milk in lactating mice and the subsequent transfer of BMAA into the developing brain. The results suggest that secretion into milk is an important elimination pathway of BMAA in lactating mothers and an efficient exposure route predominantly for L-BMAA but also for D-BMAA in suckling mice. Following secretion of [(14)C]L-BMAA into milk, the levels of [(14)C]L-BMAA in the brains of the suckling neonatal mice significantly exceeded the levels in the maternal brains. In vitro studies using the mouse mammary epithelial HC11 cell line confirmed a more efficient influx and efflux of L-BMAA than of D-BMAA in cells, suggesting enantiomer-selective transport. Competition experiments with other amino acids and a low sodium dependency of the influx suggests that the amino acid transporters LAT1 and LAT2 are involved in the transport of L-BMAA into milk. Given the persistent neurodevelopmental toxicity following injection of L-BMAA to neonatal rodent pups, the current results highlight the need to determine whether BMAA is enriched mother's and cow's milk.

  19. Maternal Transfer of the Cyanobacterial Neurotoxin β-N-Methylamino-L-Alanine (BMAA) via Milk to Suckling Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Marie; Karlsson, Oskar; Bergström, Ulrika; Brittebo, Eva B.; Brandt, Ingvar

    2013-01-01

    The cyanobacterial neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) has been implicated in the etiology of neurodegenerative disease and proposed to be biomagnified in terrestrial and aquatic food chains. We have previously shown that the neonatal period in rats, which in humans corresponds to the last trimester of pregnancy and the first few years of age, is a particularly sensitive period for exposure to BMAA. The present study aimed to examine the secretion of 14C-labeled L- and D-BMAA into milk in lactating mice and the subsequent transfer of BMAA into the developing brain. The results suggest that secretion into milk is an important elimination pathway of BMAA in lactating mothers and an efficient exposure route predominantly for L-BMAA but also for D-BMAA in suckling mice. Following secretion of [14C]L-BMAA into milk, the levels of [14C]L-BMAA in the brains of the suckling neonatal mice significantly exceeded the levels in the maternal brains. In vitro studies using the mouse mammary epithelial HC11 cell line confirmed a more efficient influx and efflux of L-BMAA than of D-BMAA in cells, suggesting enantiomer-selective transport. Competition experiments with other amino acids and a low sodium dependency of the influx suggests that the amino acid transporters LAT1 and LAT2 are involved in the transport of L-BMAA into milk. Given the persistent neurodevelopmental toxicity following injection of L-BMAA to neonatal rodent pups, the current results highlight the need to determine whether BMAA is enriched mother's and cow's milk. PMID:24194910

  20. Linking suckling biomechanics to the development of the palate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jingtao; Johnson, Chelsey A.; Smith, Andrew A.; Hunter, Daniel J.; Singh, Gurpreet; Brunski, John B.; Helms, Jill A.

    2016-02-01

    Skulls are amongst the most informative documents of evolutionary history but a complex geometry, coupled with composite material properties and complicated biomechanics, have made it particularly challenging to identify mechanical principles guiding the skull’s morphogenesis. Despite this challenge, multiple lines of evidence, for example the relationship between masticatory function and the evolution of jaw shape, nonetheless suggest that mechanobiology plays a major role in skull morphogenesis. To begin to tackle this persistent challenge, cellular, molecular and tissue-level analyses of the developing mouse palate were coupled with finite element modeling to demonstrate that patterns of strain created by mammalian-specific oral behaviors produce complementary patterns of chondrogenic gene expression in an initially homogeneous population of cranial neural crest cells. Neural crest cells change from an osteogenic to a chondrogenic fate, leading to the materialization of cartilaginous growth plate-like structures in the palatal midline. These growth plates contribute to lateral expansion of the head but are transient structures; when the strain patterns associated with suckling dissipate at weaning, the growth plates disappear and the palate ossifies. Thus, mechanical cues such as strain appear to co-regulate cell fate specification and ultimately, help drive large-scale morphogenetic changes in head shape.

  1. Linking suckling biomechanics to the development of the palate

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingtao; Johnson, Chelsey A.; Smith, Andrew A.; Hunter, Daniel J.; Singh, Gurpreet; Brunski, John B.; Helms, Jill A.

    2016-01-01

    Skulls are amongst the most informative documents of evolutionary history but a complex geometry, coupled with composite material properties and complicated biomechanics, have made it particularly challenging to identify mechanical principles guiding the skull’s morphogenesis. Despite this challenge, multiple lines of evidence, for example the relationship between masticatory function and the evolution of jaw shape, nonetheless suggest that mechanobiology plays a major role in skull morphogenesis. To begin to tackle this persistent challenge, cellular, molecular and tissue-level analyses of the developing mouse palate were coupled with finite element modeling to demonstrate that patterns of strain created by mammalian-specific oral behaviors produce complementary patterns of chondrogenic gene expression in an initially homogeneous population of cranial neural crest cells. Neural crest cells change from an osteogenic to a chondrogenic fate, leading to the materialization of cartilaginous growth plate-like structures in the palatal midline. These growth plates contribute to lateral expansion of the head but are transient structures; when the strain patterns associated with suckling dissipate at weaning, the growth plates disappear and the palate ossifies. Thus, mechanical cues such as strain appear to co-regulate cell fate specification and ultimately, help drive large-scale morphogenetic changes in head shape. PMID:26842915

  2. 6. HOUSE REAR EXTERIOR SHOWING UTILITY PORCH AND REAR ENTRANCE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. HOUSE REAR EXTERIOR SHOWING UTILITY PORCH AND REAR ENTRANCE TO DINNING/KITCHEN AREA AT PHOTO CENTER. SMALL RECTANGULAR STRUCTURE ATTACHED TO SIDE OF HOUSE AT PHOTO RIGHT CENTER BELOW SMALL, DOUBLEHUNG, WOOD-FRAME WINDOW IS THE HOT WATER HEATER CABINET. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Big Creek Town, Operator House, Orchard Avenue south of Huntington Lake Road, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

  3. The effect of an exteroceptive stimulus on the concentration of melanocyte-stimulating hormone in the pituitary of lactating rats

    PubMed Central

    Deis, R. P.; Orias, R.

    1968-01-01

    1. A study was made of the effect of an exteroceptive stimulus, produced by a team of lactating rats and of litters while suckling, on the pituitary melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) activity of a group of lactating rats. 2. After being isolated for 9 hr from their litter, one group of lactating rats was killed after being allowed to nurse for 30 min, another group was subjected to the exteroceptive stimulus for 15 min and then killed. Control rats were killed after 9 hr of isolation from the litter without being subjected to either suckling or the exteroceptive stimulus. 3. The group of rats which had suckled their young showed a pituitary MSH activity equal to 35 ± 2·29%, and the group exposed to the exteroceptive stimulus an activity equal to 59·5 ± 3·16% of that in the control animals. 4. When deaf rats were used, only the suckled mother showed a decrease of the pituitary MSH activity which was similar to that obtained with the normal suckled mother, indicating that the exteroceptive stimulus depended on hearing for its effect. 5. A light dose of sodium pentobarbitone was sufficient to block the effect of suckling and the auditory stimuli on the pituitary MSH activity. 6. The role of the central nervous system in this phenomenon and the possibility that MSH is implicated in the process of lactation are discussed. PMID:5691946

  4. Individual coping characteristics, rearing conditions and behavioural flexibility in pigs.

    PubMed

    Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; Schouten, Willem G P; de Leeuw, John A; Schrama, Johan W; Wiegant, Victor M

    2004-07-09

    Several studies suggest that classification of piglets early in life based on the degree of resistance they display in a so-called Backtest may be indicative of their coping style at a later age. In the present study behavioural flexibility was investigated in pigs diverging for Backtest response and housing environment during rearing. Pigs were housed either without a rooting substrate (barren housing, B) or in identical pens enriched with deep straw bedding (enriched housing, E) from birth. During the suckling period piglets were subjected to the Backtest. Each piglet was restrained on its back for 1 min and the resistance (i.e. number of escape attempts) was scored. Pigs classified as 'high-resisting' (HR) or as 'low-resisting' (LR) were subjected to a simple (left/right) spatial discrimination (T-maze) task at 8 weeks of age. The effect of a single, subtle intramaze change was determined after acquisition of the task. In addition, pigs were subjected to reversal learning to assess their ability to modulate established behaviour patterns. Housing and its interaction with Backtest classification influenced the behavioural response to the intramaze change: E pigs were considerably more distracted than B pigs. Housing condition affected LR pigs more than HR pigs, as indicated by the interaction effects on various recorded behaviours. These interactions indicate that behavioural responding of pigs with diverging coping characteristics cannot simply be generalised across rearing conditions. Furthermore, HR pigs were less successful in reversal learning than LR pigs, suggesting that they have a higher propensity to develop inflexible behavioural routines.

  5. Effect of restricted suckling on ovarian activity and uterine involution in Brahman cows.

    PubMed

    Bastidas, P; Trocóniz, J; Verde, O; Silva, O

    1984-04-01

    Seventy-six Brahman cows and first-calf heifers ranging in age from three to five or more years were used to determine the effects of restricted suckling on postpartum ovarian activity and uterine involution. At 30 days postcalving, cows were randomly assigned to one of two groups: 1)normal suckling (34 cows) and 2)twice-daily suckling (42 cows). The cows were examined by rectal palpation weekly from parturition until the onset of the breeding season. The average interval from parturition to the presence of the first follicle larger than 10 mm (PPFI) was 36.0 +/- 1.0 days, and twice-daily suckling decreased PPFI length 8.1 days (P < 0.01); likewise, first- and second-calf heifers tended to have longer PPFI length (P < 0.05) than cows with three or more calvings. The average interval from parturition to first corpus luteum (PPCLI) was 59.0 +/- 2.0 days. PPCLI was affected by the age (P < 0.05) and weight of the cow at 30 days postpartum (P < 0.10). The average interval from parturition to first estrus (PPEI) was 68.0 +/- 5.0 days. PPEI was affected by suckling (P < 0.10) and month of parturition (P < 0.05). The average interval from parturition to uterine involution was 33.0 +/- 1.0 days. Uterine involution was influenced by month of calving (P < 0.01) and age of the cow (P < 0.05).

  6. A cohort study on Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae colonisation in suckling piglets.

    PubMed

    Tobias, T J; Klinkenberg, D; Bouma, A; van den Broek, J; Daemen, A J J M; Wagenaar, J A; Stegeman, J A

    2014-06-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae causes respiratory disease in pigs and despite the use of preventive measures such as vaccination and antimicrobials clinical outbreaks still occur. At weaning often many piglets are not colonised. If differences in prevalence between litters are large and if factors were known that could explain these differences, this may provide an opportunity to raise groups of A. pleuropneumoniae free piglets. To this end, a cohort study was performed on two endemically infected farrow-to-finish farms. Seventy-six of 133 sows were selected using stratified random selection by parity. Farmers complied with a strict hygiene and animal management protocol to prevent transmission between litters. Tonsil brush and serum samples taken three weeks before parturition were tested for antigen with an apxIVA qPCR and antibodies with Apx and Omp ELISAs, respectively. Three days before weaning tonsil brush samples from all piglets (n=871) were collected and tested for antigen. Whereas all sows tested positive both in serology tests as well as qPCR, 0.41 of the litters tested fully negative and 0.73 of all piglets tested negative. The proportion of positively tested piglets in positive litters ranged from 0.08-1.0 (median=0.36). A grouped logistic regression model with a beta binomial distribution of the probability for piglets to become infected was fitted to the data and associations with explanatory variables were explored. To test the possibility that alternatively the clustering was caused by onwards transmission among the piglets, a transmission model was fitted to the data incorporating sow-piglet and piglet-piglet transmission, but this model did not fit better. The results of this study showed that the number of colonised suckling piglets was highly clustered and mainly attributable to the variability of infectiousness of the dam, but no dam related risk factor for colonisation status of litter or piglets within litters could be identified. Copyright

  7. Immunization of suckling pigs against enteric enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection by vaccinating dams with purified pili.

    PubMed

    Nagy, B; Moon, H W; Isaacson, R E; To, C C; Brinton, C C

    1978-07-01

    Pregnant swine (gilts) were vaccinated parenterally with a suspension of purified pili from the porcine enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strain 987 (09:K103::NM). Gilts injected with placebo served as controls. Suckling pigs born to gilts in both groups were challenged intragastrically with virulent strain 987. The percentage of deaths, incidence and duration of diarrhea, numbers of E. coli in the ilea, and E. coli attachment to the villous epithelia were significantly less in suckling pigs of vaccinated gilts than in those of controls. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that pili of some enterotoxigenic E. coli facilitate adhesion to intestinal epithelia. Vaccination of dams with pili appears to be a means of immunizing against diarrheal disease caused by enterotoxigenic E. coli in suckling neonates. This work confirms the role of somatic pili as colonization and virulence factors and provides another example of safe and effective purified pilus vaccines.

  8. Consequences of different suckling systems for reproductive activity and productivity of cattle in tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Galina, C S.; Rubio, I; Basurto, H; Orihuela, A

    2001-05-02

    The late onset of ovarian activity in mature cattle raised under tropical conditions is the major setback impeding a sound reproductive performance needed for the increasing demand of livestock products in the area. The effect of suckling has been circled as one of the most important factors impeding ovarian activity. Farmers in this region have used the most diverse set of management tools to overcome the suckling effect without compromising reproduction, the health of the calf, growth until weaning, milk production and a correct function of the mammary gland.Farmer interventions can be divided in: (1) early weaning (about 1 week of age); (2) weaning at 1, 3 or 5 months; (3) restricted suckling; (4) partial weaning. These systems can be affected by the breed of the animal, the location of the enterprise, infrastructure in the farm, time of the year and system of separation. The advantages and disadvantages of these systems are discussed in this review.

  9. Suckling and genital stroking induces Fos expression in hypothalamic oxytocinergic neurons of rabbit pups.

    PubMed

    Caba, Mario; Rovirosa, Maria J; Silver, Rae

    2003-07-12

    Maternal behaviour in the rabbit is unusual among mammals because the doe visits her litter to nurse once every 24 h. In the present study we examined the consequences of milk intake on oxytocinergic (OT) and vasopressinergic (AVP) neurons of the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei of 7-day-old pups before suckling, after suckling and following anogenital stroking in un-nursed pups. To determine neuronal activation we assessed the expression of the Fos protein combined with antibodies against OT and AVP at two levels in the SON (supraoptic rostral, SOr, and supraoptic retrochiasmatic, SOrch), and three levels in the PVN (anterior, PVab; medial PVm and caudal, PVc). Daily nursing bouts lasted only 228+/-6 s throughout the observed 7 days, and pups ingested up to 34.95+/-9.0% of their body weight in milk on day 7, the day of perfusion. Suckling induced a significant increase in the number of double-labeled Fos/OT cells in both subdivisions of the SON (P<0.01) and in PVab and PVm (P<0.01). The effect in the SON was related to suckling, as it was not seen in stroked, un-nursed pups, which showed Fos increases only in PVab and PVm. All regions in the SON and PVN showed significant increases in the number of Fos/AVP neurons after suckling or stroking but, contrary to OT, the number of double-labeled Fos/AVP cells was very low. In conclusion, our results show that the oxytocinergic system of the SON and PVN is differentially activated by suckling of milk and anogenital stroking, and that the vagal-hypothalamic axis is mature in 7-day-old rabbits.

  10. Behavior and body mass changes of a mother and calf Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) during the suckling period.

    PubMed

    Kastelein, Ronald A; van den Belt, Ivanka; Jennings, Nancy; de Kruijf, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The behavior of a 13-year-old female Pacific walrus and her first calf is described during the first 7 months of the 19-month suckling period. The calf vocalized before 62% of suckling sessions. The mother immediately responded after 84% of vocalizations; after 44% she allowed a suckling session. The number of suckling sessions per 24-h period decreased from on average nine in the second week after birth to two by the thirteenth week. Thereafter, the number of suckling sessions fluctuated between 3 and 5/day. The average suckling session duration increased from 4 min/day to around 17 min/day. The average effective suckling time per session increased from on average 2 to 10 min. The number of breaks decreased during the study period from around 40 to 20 per session. The mother spent on average 47% of her time resting, the calf 44%. The remaining time was spent in locomotion, and suckling, playing, investigating, and looking. Mother and calf spent on average 51% of time indoors. The mother spent 43% of her time in the water, the calf 39%. The calf's body mass at birth was 55 kg; it increased to 178 kg at 27 weeks. The mother did not eat for the first 5 days after delivery, and she ate less than usual during the next 6 days. The mother's mass eventually stabilized at 1024 kg (>before gestation). The calf was not given formula and was weaned onto fish. This is the first detailed description of a captive Pacific walrus's suckling period. It could benefit the husbandry of future captive-born walruses, and may elucidate the behavior of wild walruses during suckling.

  11. Lead transfer in maternal milk, and the absorption, retention, distribution and excretion of lead in suckling mice

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, Charles Arthur

    1980-01-01

    Suckling mice were found to absorb and retain a greater fraction of an oral lead dose than did adult mice. Pinocytotic activity and lead uptake (in vivo) were found to be greatest in the distal small intestinal tissue. Cortisone pretreatment results in precocious cessation of pinocytotic activity in the intestine of suckling mice. Cortisone pretreatment of adult mice had no effect on whole body lead retention or intestinal tissue content of lead following an oral dose. The data indicate that the distal small intestine is the site of active pinocytosis of lead, and that pinocytosis is the major mechanism involved in lead absorption in suckling mice. Developmental differences were also observed in the percentage of lead retained in the whole body. Both groups exhibited dose-independent lead retention, indicating a first-order absorption process for each age group. Lead distribution and elimination from organs also differed between suckling and adult mice. Developmental differences were observed in organ lead concentration for kidneys and brain following oral doses. Relative distribution of lead to the brains of suckling mice were greater than to adult brains. Whole body and bone lead elimination rates were reduced in suckling compared to adult mice. Brain lead elimination rates did not differ in suckling and adult mice. A lactating mouse model was developed to study lead transfer to suckling offspring. Lead was transferred in milk to suckling offspring from mothers which had previously ingested lead in the drinking water. Relative lead transfer to suckled offspring during lactation greatly exceeded transfer to fetuses during gestation. Lactation resulted in an increased rate of maternal lead elimination. Lead concentration in milk exceeded plasma concentration by a factor of approximately 25. (ERB)

  12. Post-release survival of hand-reared and parent-reared Mississippi sandhill cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, David H.; Gee, George F.; Hereford, Scott G.; Olsen, Glenn H.; Chisolm, T. David; Nicolich, Jane M.; Sullivan, Kathleen A.; Thomas, Nancy J.; Nagendran, Meenakshi; Hatfield, Jeff S.

    2000-01-01

    The Mississippi Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis pulla) reintroduction program is the largest crane reintroduction effort in the world. Here we report on a 4-year experiment in which we compared post-release survival rates of 56 hand-reared and 76 parent-reared Mississippi Sandhill Cranes. First-year survival was 80%. Surprisingly, hand-reared cranes survived better than parent-reared birds, and the highest survival rates were for hand-reared juveniles released in mixed cohorts with parent-reared birds. Mixing improved survival most for parent-reared birds released with hand-reared birds. These results demonstrate that hand-rearing can produce birds which survive at least as well as parent-reared birds and that improved survival results from mixing hand-reared and parent-reared birds.

  13. Metabolic programming effects initiated in the suckling period predisposing for adult-onset obesity cannot be reversed by calorie restriction

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Malathi; Mahmood, Saleh

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal rats reared on high-carbohydrate (HC) milk formula developed chronic hyperinsulinemia and adult-onset obesity due to programming of islets and the hypothalamic energy circuitry. In this study, calorie restriction by pair-feeding was imposed on HC male rats (HC/PF) to normalize food intake similar to that of mother-fed (MF) rats from weaning until postnatal day 140. A group of HC/PF rats was switched over to ad libitum feeding (HC/PF/AL) from days 90 to 140. Pair-feeding reduced body weight gains and serum insulin and leptin levels in HC/PF rats compared with HC rats, but these parameters were restored to HC levels in the HC/PF/AL rats after ad libitum feeding. Interestingly, the heightened insulin secretory response of isolated islets from adult HC/PF and HC/PF/ AL rats to glucose, acetylcholine, and oxymetazoline were not significantly different from the responses of islets from HC rats. Similarly, the expression of neuropeptide Y and proopiomelanocortin in the hypothalamus was not significantly different among HC, HC/PF, and HC/PF/AL rats. Expression of the leptin receptor in the hypothalami from the HC, HC/PF, and HC/PF/AL rats mirrored that of serum leptin, whereas suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (Socs3) expression remained high in these three groups. The results indicate that, although calorie restriction resulted in reduction in body weight gain and normalized the serum hormonal pattern, the programed predisposition for the hypersecretory capacity of islets and the hypothalamic hyperphagic response in the HC rats could not be permanently overcome by the pair-feeding imposed on HC rats. PMID:23249696

  14. [Development of the iron supply in suckling pigs under variable iron supplementation with regard to environmental conditions].

    PubMed

    Lemacher, S; Bostedt, H

    1995-10-01

    In this research the effect of different methods of iron supplementation, injection of Fe(III) dextran six or 70 hours post natum, oral Fe(III) dextran treatment or oral application of Fe(II)-Humat, each six hours post natum, was examined for the evaluation of hemoglobin, plasma iron and weight of suckling piglets within the first 24 days of life in different systems of stalling. The oral and parenteral iron dextran application resulted in a remarkable increase of the hemoglobin levels after the third day of life. On day eight the hemoglobin concentrations obtained by early postnatal iron administration were higher than the values after the usual iron injection on the third day of life. The iron incorporation by Fe-Humat was not sufficient for obtaining a rise in hemoglobin values. No significant differences were seen between the oral or parenteral iron dextran treated groups reared on iron containing floor. In the farrowing on plastic grates the piglets supplemented orally with iron dextran showed a decrease of hemoglobin level starting at day 14. At day 24 the values were significantly lower than after iron injection. In all treatment groups there were more anaemic piglets in the group farrowing system than in the separate farrowing system. Weight gain was remarkably worse too. The immediately postnatal treated piglets had significantly higher PI levels on day three than the animals treated at the third day of life. The plasma iron concentration decreased in all treatment groups from day eight, but the decrease was more important in the orally supplemented groups.

  15. Problem solving following neonatal exposure to cocaine, ethanol, or cocaine/ethanol in combination in rats.

    PubMed

    Barron, S; Hansen-Trench, L; Kaiser, D H; Segar, T M

    1996-01-01

    This study examined the effects of neonatal drug exposure on performance in a digging maze. Subjects were Sprague-Dawley rats, artificially reared (AR) and fed through a gastrostomy tube from postnatal days (PND) 4-10. The AR groups included a cocaine group (20 mg/kg/day cocaine hydrochloride), an ethanol group (4 g/kg/day ethanol), a cocaine/ethanol group (20 mg/kg/day cocaine and 4 g/kg/day ethanol), and an AR control group. A suckled control raised by its dam was also included. At approximately PND 55, subjects were tested in a digging maze paradigm. The digging maze required subjects to use a species typical behavior (digging) to solve a novel problem (gaining access to water). While neonatal treatment had no effect on acquisition of a simple runway task for water reward, neonatal exposure to cocaine and ethanol in combination resulted in impaired performance on the digging maze task. None of the other neonatal treatment groups showed impairments on this task. These findings suggest that exposure to these doses of cocaine and ethanol during neonatal development may have more serious effects on problem solving tasks in rats than exposure to either drug alone.

  16. [Effects of different anemia prevention forms on the blood parameters of the suckling piglet].

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, W

    1995-01-01

    The results of this trials confirmed the earlier experience that suckling piglets kept indoors, without iron supplementation, develop iron deficiency after 14 days postpartum. Piglets kept outdoors did not develop iron deficiency because of the daily iron supplementation from the ground. Principally, a single dose of iron either parenteral (injection) or oral (iron paste) would supply the iron requirements of the suckling piglets. However, iron injection provided even results than that of the oral supply where some piglets treated orally, developed anemia because oral treatment runs a greater risk of misapplication. Best results were obtained by use of an iron form which can be scattered on the ground during the whole period of suckling. The piglets would receive their iron requirement freely during this period. Another form of iron-electrolyte solution can be supplied through the drinking automate. However, the results were unfavorable and the piglets developed symptoms of anemia. This could be attributed to the fact that the piglets do not require extra fluids during the suckling period, when they receive enough dam milk.

  17. THE INFLUENCE OF THE QUANTITY OF NUTRITION UPON THE GROWTH OF THE SUCKLING MOUSE

    PubMed Central

    MacDowell, E. C.; Gates, W. H.; MacDowell, C. G.

    1930-01-01

    Under usual conditions, the growth of the suckling mouse is limited by the quantity of mother's milk available. As this limitation is removed the growth curve approaches a parabola, which is abruptly interrupted at the end of the second week, when the natural process of weaning begins. PMID:19872544

  18. Use of the Immunocrit to monitor a split-suckle program in commercial production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Continued survival of neonatal piglets requires that they receive sufficient colostrum from the dam within the first 24 h of life. Many swine producers use split- suckling to optimize access of neonatal piglets to colostrum. However, it can be difficult to optimize the details of the procedures used...

  19. Maternal natural source vitamin E supplementation on suckling calf performance and immune response

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of maternally supplemented natural-source vitamin E (NSVE) on suckling calf performance and immune response. In a two-year study, one hundred twenty-five Angus-cross beef cows (n = 75/year one, 50/year two) initial BW = 607 kg; initial BCS = 5...

  20. Prevention of suckling improves postpartum reproductive responses to hormone treatments in Pelibuey ewes.

    PubMed

    Ronquillo, Julio César Camacho; Martínez, Arturo Pró; Pérez, Carlos Miguel Becerril; Sandoval, Benjamín Figueroa; Martin, Graeme B; Valencia, Javier; Gallegos Sánchez, Jaime

    2008-08-01

    To determine the effects of suckling on postpartum (pp) reproductive efficiency in Pelibuey ewes, two experiments were performed. In Experiment 1, 112 ewes were randomly assigned to one of two groups at parturition: Without restriction of suckling (WRS) 24 h day(-1) for 60 days (n=56), and Weaned Ewes (WE), weaned at 40 days pp (n=56). On Day 30 pp, all ewes were given Prostaglandin (PGF2alpha) and one of four treatments (n=14): T1, intravaginal progestagen (FGA; 40 mg) for 12 days from day 30 pp+equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG; 300 UI) until 2 days before removing FGA; T2, FGA was applied for 12 days; T3, a second application of PGF2alpha was given on day 40 pp+eCG on the same day; T4, a second injection of PGF2alpha was applied on day 40 pp only. In all the analyzed characteristics, the best results were obtained in WE. Within the WE group, the best treatment (P<0.05) was T1 with 85.7% of the ewes in oestrus, 71.4% pregnant and a prolificacy of 1.9. Within the WRS group the best results were observed in T1. In both groups, the lowest results (P<0.05) were obtained in T4. In Experiment 2, 75 ewes were randomly assigned to one of three groups (n=25) immediately after parturition: Group 1, Without restriction of suckling (WRS, as in Experiment 1); Group 2, with restriction of suckling (RS; suckling for 30 min day(-1)); Group 3, Early Weaning (EW: at 7 days pp). All ewes were given PGF2alpha at 30 days pp and the same hormonal treatment, FGA for 12 days+PGF2alpha and eCG 2 days before removing FGA. No differences were observed (P>0.05) between RS and EW for the presentation of oestrus (96% vs. 92%), pregnancy (72% vs. 76%) or prolificacy (1.9 vs. 1.9), although group WRS did not perform (P<0.05) as well as groups RS and EW for any measure of performance. In conclusion, the combination of hormonal treatment (FGA plus eCG) with weaning at 7 or 40 days pp, or restricted suckling, improves postpartum reproductive efficiency in Pelibuey ewes, demonstrating the

  1. Traditional Korean Child Rearing Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Myunghee; Washington, Ernest D.

    This study describes traditional Korean child rearing and its relation to personality, social development, and their implications for education. Topics addressed include the family structure, traditional value orientation, the prenatal period, patterns of interaction in infancy, the baby as a vulnerable being, the baby as a spiritual being, the…

  2. The "Rear View Mirror" Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nord, James R.

    1987-01-01

    The new interactive videodisk systems with augmented audio capabilities have great potential for improving the teaching of foreign languages. At present that potential is unfulfilled because the profession is following a "rear view mirror" approach to media use: first, to fixate current practice; second, to distribute it broadly; and last, to…

  3. The "Rear View Mirror" Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nord, James R.

    1987-01-01

    The new interactive videodisk systems with augmented audio capabilities have great potential for improving the teaching of foreign languages. At present that potential is unfulfilled because the profession is following a "rear view mirror" approach to media use: first, to fixate current practice; second, to distribute it broadly; and last, to…

  4. L-arginine treatment early in life influences NADPH-diaphorase neurons in visual cortex of normal and early-malnourished adult rats.

    PubMed

    Maia, Luciana M S S; Frazão, Marília F; Souza, Thays K M; Silva, Mariana B; Rocha-de-Melo, Ana P; Picanço-Diniz, Cristovam W; Amâncio-dos-Santos, Angela; Guedes, Rubem C A

    2006-02-09

    This study investigated the effects of repeated l-arginine administration during lactation, combined with different suckling conditions, on morphometric parameters of primary visual cortex NADPH-diaphorase-positive neurons. Wistar rat pups reared in "normal-size litters" or "large litters" (N- and L-conditions; litters formed by 6 and 12 pups, respectively) received, from postnatal day 7 to 28, either arginine (300 mg/kg/day, per gavage) or distilled water (control). At 90-120 days of life, they were perfused with saline + formaldehyde, and their brains were processed for histochemical reaction to reveal NADPH-diaphorase-positive neurons (malic enzyme indirect method). Compared to the normal-size litters, L-rats had lower body weights (P < 0.05), confirming the effectiveness of the L-condition in affecting pup development. Concerning NADPH-d histochemistry, arginine treatment was associated with increased (P < 0.05) density of dendrite varicosities and of dendrite branching frequency, suggesting a plastic response of the developing brain to that treatment, even in previously malnourished rats. No difference was seen, however, in dendrite orientation, total number of neurons, soma area and perimeter, as well as dendrite bifurcation points, fractal dimension, and area and volume of dendrite field, suggesting that NADPH-d cells are resistant to arginine and nutritional changes, regarding these features. Data are considered of interest for studies of synaptic plasticity during neural development and its relationships to aggressive agents like malnutrition.

  5. Effect of system of lamb rearing and season on early post-partum fertility of ewes and growth performance of lambs in Katahdin sheep.

    PubMed

    Rastle-Simpson, S; D'Souza, K; Redhead, A; Singh-Knights, D; Baptiste, Q; Knights, M

    2016-07-23

    The effect of season (S), lamb rearing system (RT) and grain supplementation (GS) on post-partum fertility in Katahdin ewes and growth in Katahdin lambs was evaluated. Katahdin ewes were bred to lamb in fall (n = 36) or spring (n = 56) and at approximately 2.5 months post-partum were randomly assigned to be permanently separated or to continue to suckle their lambs for an additional 3 months. All ewes were joined with rams following treatment to synchronize oestrus. Weaned (W, n = 84) and continuously suckled lambs (CSK, n = 88) were fed forage only (n = 84; hay and pasture for fall- and spring-born lambs respectively) or were supplemented (n = 88; 18% crude protein ration ad libitum) and all weighed biweekly. Ewes rebred in the fall had a shorter ram introduction to lambing interval (p < 0.05), higher prolificacy (p = 0.001) and higher lambing rates (p = 0.02); however, the proportion of ewes lambing was not affected by season. The first service lambing rate was lower in ewes continuously suckling lambs in the spring, but not in the fall breeding season (S × RT, p = 0.03). Lambs that continuously suckled their dams and were supplemented grew quicker and gained more (p < 0.001) than their weaned and unsupplemented counterparts. The effect of CSK on growth rate of lambs was greater in the spring (RT × S; p = 0.05), and the effect of supplementation on growth rate of lambs was greater in the fall (GS × S; p < 0.0001). In conclusion, Katahdin lambs achieved higher weight gains from continuous suckling and grain supplementation. Moreover, Katahdin ewes are capable of early rebreeding post-partum while suckling their lambs, which makes them suited for use in accelerated lambing programmes.

  6. Dose-dependent effects of differential rearing on amphetamine-induced hyperactivity.

    PubMed

    Cain, Mary E; Mersmann, Marian G; Gill, Margaret J; Pittenger, Steven T

    2012-12-01

    Differential rearing decreases psychostimulant-induced hyperactivity. In general, environmental enrichment decreases the locomotor response to low unit doses of psychostimuluants, whereas isolation increases the response. It is not clear whether the changes in locomotor activity are due to an enrichment-induced decrease or an isolation-induced increase. Therefore, the current experiments examined the ability of enrichment rearing, as compared with isolation and standard rearing, to attenuate amphetamine-induced hyperactivity following acute administration, repeated administration, and sensitization of a low (0.3 mg/kg) and moderate (1.0 mg/kg) dose of amphetamine. Rats were reared under enriched, isolated, or standard conditions. Enrichment slowed the acquisition of amphetamine-induced hyperactivity and attenuated the expression of amphetamine-induced sensitization, but only at the low unit dose. Enrichment did not protect against the expression of conditioned hyperactivity at either of the doses tested. The behavior of standard condition rats was generally closer to that of isolated condition rats than enriched condition rats, suggesting that the enrichment attenuates the response to amphetamine as opposed to isolation rearing increasing the response to amphetamine. These results suggest that the effects of enrichment are because of enrichment manipulation and not simply a contrast from the effects of isolation.

  7. Manganese-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Studies of Rat Behavior: Transient Motor Deficit in Skilled Reaching, Rears, and Activity in Rats After a Single Dose of MnCl2.

    PubMed

    Alaverdashvili, Mariam; Lapointe, Valerie; Whishaw, Ian Q; Cross, Albert R

    2017-01-01

    Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) has been suggested to be a useful tool to visualize and map behavior-relevant neural populations at large scale in freely behaving rodents. A primary concern in MEMRI applications is Mn(2+) toxicity. Although a few studies have specifically examined toxicity on gross motor behavior, Mn(2+) toxicity on skilled motor behavior was not explored. Thus, the objective of this study was to combine manganese as a functional contrast agent with comprehensive behavior evaluation. We evaluated Mn(2+) effect on skilled reach-to-eat action, locomotion, and balance using a single pellet reaching task, activity cage, and cylinder test, respectively. The tests used are sensitive to the pathophysiology of many neurological and neurodegenerative disorders of the motor system. The behavioral testing was done in combination with a moderate dose of manganese. Behavior was studied before and after a single, intravenous infusion of MnCl2 (48 mg/kg). The rats were imaged at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14 days following infusion. The results show that MnCl2 infusion resulted in detectable abnormalities in skilled reaching, locomotion, and balance that recovered within 3 days compared with the infusion of saline. Because some tests and behavioral measures could not detect motor abnormalities of skilled movements, comprehensive evaluation of motor behavior is critical in assessing the effects of MnCl2. The relaxation mapping results suggest that the transport of Mn(2+) into the brain is through the choroid plexus-cerebrospinal fluid system with the primary entry point and highest relaxation rates found in the pituitary gland. Relaxation rates in the pituitary gland correlated with measures of motor skill, suggesting that altered motor ability is related to the level of Mn circulating in the brain. Thus, combined MEMRI and behavioral studies that both achieve adequate image enhancement and are also free of motor skills deficits are difficult to achieve

  8. Interaction of calf suckling, use of oxytocin and milk yield with reproductive performance of dairy buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Muhammad Subhan; Ahmad, Nazir

    2008-07-01

    Calf suckling and oxytocin injections are commonly used for pre-milking stimulus in dairy buffaloes under field conditions. A study was conducted to investigate effect of these treatments on reproductive performance. Fifty one Nili-Ravi buffaloes were monitored from parturition up to 150 days postpartum through rectal examination. Data on milk yield, body condition score (BCS) and reproductive parameters were recorded weekly. Postpartum ovulation interval (POI) was determined by presence of an ovulation depression or a very soft corpus luteum haemorrhagicum and was confirmed through milk progesterone levels (MPL). Suckling was used to stimulate milk let down, and where the calf had died, injection of oxytocin was resorted to. Milk samples were analyzed for MPL using radioimmunoassay (RIA) and fat; and milk yield was converted to 4% fat corrected milk (FCM). The mean postpartum uterine involution length (PUI) was 34.30+/-1.33 days. Mean POI was 59.37+/-4.76 days and mean postpartum estrus interval (PEI) was 69.03+/-6.03 days. Suckling period averaged 26.40+/-5.57 days and correlated with POI (r=0.19, P<0.01) and PEI (r=0.23, P<0.01). POI was shortest in buffaloes suckled for one month (P<0.05). Oxytocin was used with a mean dosage of 7.50 IU, delaying placental expulsion time (PET) and POI but shortening PEI. BCS shortened PET, POI and PEI (P<0.01). Mean FCM was 14.50+/-0.20, ranging from 2 to 35 kg/d; and was higher in estrus group; correlating positively with POI (r=0.31, P<0.01). MPL were 1.37+/-0.17 ng/ml and increased after ovulation, remaining greater than 1.5 ng/ml from Day 4 to 14 of the estrus cycle, followed by a rapid decline up to next estrus. BCS in buffaloes resuming oestrus was constantly higher than those failing to resume ovarian cyclicity. Live weight, prepartum was 510.0+/-5.9 kg with a loss of 3.7+/-2.12 kg, 30 days postpartum. The present study suggests a lower reproductive efficiency of dairy buffaloes under the peri-urban farming system

  9. A Note on Suckling Behavior and Laterality in Nursing Humpback Whale Calves from Underwater Observations

    PubMed Central

    Zoidis, Ann M.; Lomac-MacNair, Kate S.

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Nursing in large baleen whales and specifically the humpback whale is not well documented and difficult to capture in real time. Using underwater video documentation techniques, we collected digital video footage of humpback whale nursing events. From this, we provide an enhanced descriptive account of humpback whale suckling and recorded milk in the water near a nursing mother and calf column for the first time. As part of our investigation into nursing behaviors, we assessed if humpback calves demonstrated any patterns of laterality during nursing events. A pattern of laterality was noted in that all suckling events had a right side bias. Nursing bouts were short and intermittent, which coincides with what is known of larger terrestrial mammals such as the African elephant and other baleen whales. These shorter nursing periods are likely are due to the energetics of baleen whale milk coupled with the calf′s short respiration cycle before it has to return to the surface to breathe. Our study shows that underwater observations in marine mammal science provide valuable insight into real time events not easily accessible from vessel or aerial platforms. Abstract We investigated nursing behavior on the Hawaiian breeding grounds for first year humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) calves. We observed and video-documented underwater events with nursing behavior from five different whale groups. The observed nursing events include behaviors where a calf positions itself at a 30–45° angle to the midline of the mother’s body, with its mouth touching her mammary slit (i.e., suckling position). On two occasions, milk in the water column was recorded in close proximity to a mother/calf pair, and on one occasion, milk was recorded 2.5 min after suckling observed. Nursing events, where the calf was located in the suckling position, were found to be short in duration with a mean of 30.6 s (range 15.0–55.0, standard deviation (SD) = 16.9). All

  10. Age-dependent variation in innate immune responses to porcine epidemic diarrhea virus infection in suckling versus weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Annamalai, Thavamathi; Saif, Linda J; Lu, Zhongyan; Jung, Kwonil

    2015-12-15

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is an enteric coronaviral infection that causes severe morbidity and mortality in suckling pigs, but less severe disease in older pigs. Consequently, it causes significant economic losses to the pork industry. There are limited studies on the innate immune responses to PED virus (PEDV) in pigs. The aims of our study were to investigate differences in innate immune responses to PEDV infection in suckling and weaned pigs and to examine if disease severity coincides with reduced innate immune responses. Weaned 26-day-old pigs (n=20) and 9-day-old nursing pigs (n=20) were assigned to PEDV inoculated or uninoculated control groups. The pigs were observed daily for clinical signs, virus shedding and were euthanized at post-inoculation days (PIDs) 1 and 5 to assay immune responses. Blood samples were collected at PIDs 1, 3 and 5. The natural killer (NK) cell frequencies, NK cell activities (lysis of target K562 tumor cells in vitro), CD3+CD4+ T cell and CD3+CD8+ T cell frequencies were measured in blood and ileum at PIDs 1 and 5. The PEDV infected suckling pigs showed severe diarrhea and vomiting at PID 1, whereas the PEDV infected weaned pigs showed milder clinical signs starting at PID 3. PEDV infected suckling pigs had significantly higher diarrhea scores, earlier fecal PEDV RNA shedding and significantly higher viremia (viral RNA in serum) compared to weaned pigs. There was no mortality in either infected suckling or infected weaned pigs. The control pigs not inoculated with PEDV did not show any clinical signs and no detectable fecal or serum PEDV RNA. Strikingly, PEDV infected suckling pigs had significantly lower NK cell frequencies, undetectable NK cell activity and lower IFNγ producing NK cells in blood and ileum compared to PEDV infected weaned pigs. Pro-inflammatory cytokine profiles of PEDV infected suckling pigs differed from those of PEDV infected weaned pigs and coincided with onset of fecal PEDV RNA shedding and serum PEDV

  11. A new tool for measuring the suckling stimulus during breastfeeding in humans: the orokinetogram and the Fourier series.

    PubMed

    Voloschin, L M; Althabe, O; Olivé, H; Diena, V; Repezza, B

    1998-11-01

    The Fourier series was used to analyse the oral movements recorded by the orokinetogram during breastfeeding in human babies. This is a new method that allows recording of oral movements without introducing any extrinsic element between the nipple and the mouth of the baby. The advantage of displaying suckling activity after fast Fourier transform (FFT) is that this algorithm allows storage, quantification and frequency analysis of the oral movements throughout a suckling bout, which enables the total oral activity to be measured. Two types of oral movements are found: slow high amplitude (SHA) and fast low amplitude (FLA). FLA movements may be derived from peristaltic movements of the tongue that result in tickling stimuli to the mechanoreceptors of the nipple and milk expression. The frequency bandwidth of oral movements is wider (0-8 Hz) than has been described previously (0-3 Hz) and this is due to the presence of the FLA oral movements. An indirect measurement of the energy of oral movements during suckling is obtained by the pattern of energy distribution used in each individual frequency band by oral movements. This pattern changes in relation to the periods of continuous and intermittent suckling activity. SHA and FLA oral movements are more intense during continuous suckling. Statistical analysis showed a correlation between the energy of SHA and FLA waves throughout the suckling bout, and also that the highest level of energy during suckling activity is displayed during the first 2 min. The novel tools described in this paper allow investigation of the role of suckling stimulus in reflex hormone release and other mother-infant interactions.

  12. The effects of rearing condition on methamphetamine self-administration and cue-induced drug seeking.

    PubMed

    Lü, Xiuyi; Zhao, Chun; Zhang, Li; Ma, Baomiao; Lou, Zhongze; Sun, Yan; Chen, Junfeng; Wu, Wei; Beveridge, Thomas J R; Zhou, Wenhua; Liu, Yu

    2012-08-01

    Little is known about the effect of different rearing conditions on the effects of methamphetamine and whether the introduction of enriched rearing conditions at different stages of development could produce different behavioral outcomes. In Experiment 1, rats were reared in either enriched (EE) or isolated environments (IE) from PND 21 to 60. In Experiment 2, two groups of animals were handled in the same fashion as those in Experiment 1. Additional two groups were housed in IE during the first 20 or 30 days and then housed under EE for the remaining 20 or 10 days respectively. Locomotor activity and Morris Water Maze were tested. The effects of rearing conditions on methamphetamine (METH) self-administration were investigated. IE animals exhibited higher levels of locomotion than EE animals, but EE animals showed enhanced Morris water maze performance. Animals reared in IE for 30 and 40 days more readily acquired METH self-administration, compared to those reared in IE for 20 and in EE for 40 days respectively. However, the effect of rearing conditions was only seen at the lowest dose tested under FR schedule and breakpoints obtained from PR schedule were not significantly affected. Those reared in IE for 20 and EE for 40 days animals produced significantly fewer responses during the extinction and cue-induced reinstatement of METH self-administration, compared with animals reared in IE for 30 and 40 days, respectively. Rearing condition plays a significant role in locomotor activity, spatial memory and behavioral effects of METH. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Intestinal lactase (beta-galactosidase) and other disaccharidase activities of suckling and adult common brushtail possums, Trichosurus vulpecula (Marsupialia:Phalangeridae).

    PubMed

    Crisp, E A; Messer, M; Cowan, P E

    1989-01-01

    Small-intestinal disaccharidase activities of eight suckling T. vulpecula, aged from 34 to 150 days, and of two adult animals were investigated. Intestinal maltase, isomaltase and sucrase activities increased with age, whereas lactase activities decreased. Trehalase activities were relatively high in all animals and showed no obvious age-related changes. Three separate beta-galactosidase activities, one neutral and two acid, acted on lactose. The neutral beta-galactosidase activity appeared to be due to a brush border enzyme similar to that of eutherian mammals, whereas the acid beta-galactosidases were soluble and probably of lysosomal origin. One of these, acid beta-galactosidase-1, had similar properties to the sole intestinal beta-galactosidase of macropodid marsupials, whereas the other, acid beta-galactosidase-2, has not previously been described. Galactosyl oligosaccharides isolated from macropodid milk were readily hydrolysed by both acid beta-galactosidases but not by the neutral beta-galactosidase. The total intestinal lactase activity in animals aged up to 125 days was due mainly to acid beta-galactosidase-1, whereas in older animals it was due mostly to the neutral beta-galactosidase; this suggests that late in lactation the young T. vulpecula change from a macropodid mode of digestion of galactosyl oligosaccharides to a eutherian mechanism for the digestion of lactose. These findings may have implications for the hand-rearing of orphaned T. vulpecula.

  14. Effects of Kudoa septempunctata genotype ST3 isolate from Korea on ddY suckling mice.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yeounghwan; Ahn, Meejung; Bang, Hyojin; Kang, Bongjo

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of Kudoa septempunctata genotype ST3 spores on ddY suckling mice. Purified Kudoa septempunctata spores were administered into the stomachs of the mice at 5 × 10(6) or 5 × 10(7) spores/mouse, with inactivated Kudoa (5 × 10(6) spores/mouse) or vehicle as controls. No abnormal clinical symptoms were observed and there were no variations in fluid accumulation ratio and cytokine gene expression in all groups. In addition, intact Kudoa spores and the 18S rDNA gene were only detected (by microscopy and quantitative PCR, respectively) in the groups administered such spores. This study thus confirms that spores from the ST3 strain of Kudoa septempunctata were excreted in the faeces without infecting the gastrointestinal tract in ddY suckling mice. © Y. Jang et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2016.

  15. Effects of Kudoa septempunctata genotype ST3 isolate from Korea on ddY suckling mice

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yeounghwan; Ahn, Meejung; Bang, Hyojin; Kang, Bongjo

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of Kudoa septempunctata genotype ST3 spores on ddY suckling mice. Purified Kudoa septempunctata spores were administered into the stomachs of the mice at 5 × 106 or 5 × 107 spores/mouse, with inactivated Kudoa (5 × 106 spores/mouse) or vehicle as controls. No abnormal clinical symptoms were observed and there were no variations in fluid accumulation ratio and cytokine gene expression in all groups. In addition, intact Kudoa spores and the 18S rDNA gene were only detected (by microscopy and quantitative PCR, respectively) in the groups administered such spores. This study thus confirms that spores from the ST3 strain of Kudoa septempunctata were excreted in the faeces without infecting the gastrointestinal tract in ddY suckling mice. PMID:27067108

  16. Latching-on and suckling of the healthy term neonate: breastfeeding assessment.

    PubMed

    Cadwell, Karin

    2007-01-01

    Increasing breastfeeding duration and exclusivity is an acknowledged public health priority. Breastfeeding problems, especially with the healthy term neonate latching-on or feeding with a suboptimal latch, are common reasons for early breastfeeding termination when they result in inadequate breastfeeding, poor milk transfer, and sore nipples. This article describes clinical strategies for systematic latch-on and suckling assessment with the goal of improving the skills of clinicians who provide care for breastfeeding women.

  17. Protein catabolism in suckling and fasting northern elephant seal pups (Mirounga anglstirostris).

    PubMed

    Houser, D S; Costa, D P

    2001-11-01

    Nursing elephant seal pups are hypothesized to be preadapted to the postweaning fast, yet no comparison of lipid or protein use for meeting metabolic costs has been made between these contrasting nutritional periods. To address this, protein catabolism was estimated in five elephant seal pups from measurements of urea turnover made twice during nursing and twice during the postweaning fast. Changes in body composition were measured in ten separate weaned pups via tritiated water dilution and matched to fasting urea turnover measurements in order to assess errors in protein catabolism derived from urea turnover rates. Estimates of lean mass loss based upon urea turnover and tritiated water dilution were in general agreement, supporting estimates of protein catabolism derived from urea turnover measurements. Protein catabolism was estimated to contribute less than 4% to the average metabolic rate of suckling and fasting pups implying strict protein conservation during both periods and supporting the shypothesis that suckling pups are pre-adapted to fasting. It is proposed that strict protein conservation across suckling and fasting compensates for relative reductions in maternal investment associated with the abbreviated lactation period of the elephant seal.

  18. Renal function in suckling and fasting pups of the northern elephant seal.

    PubMed

    Houser, D S; Crocker, D E; Webb, P M; Costa, D P

    2001-06-01

    Elephant seals fast for prolonged periods without access to water. This is made possible, in part, by reductions in urine production. However, the mechanisms involved in reducing urine production are not understood. In this study, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was measured in five northern elephant seal pups (Mirounga angustirostris) via the inulin clearance technique. Measurements were made during day 9 and day 18-22 of nursing and the second and eighth week of the postweaning fast. Plasma aldosterone and cortisol concentrations, quantified by radioimmunoassay, were measured in eight other weanlings during the second and eighth week of the fast. Mean GFR was 79.3+/-29.3 ml/min during the early suckling period and 78.2+/-17.1, 89.8+/-52.7, and 80.4+/-12.2 ml/min during the late suckling, early fasting and late fasting periods, respectively. Differences between nursing and fasting were insignificant, possibly because reduced protein oxidation during suckling and rapid recruitment of protein for tissue synthesis obviated the need for postprandial hyperfiltration. Alternatively, maintenance of GFR during fasting may facilitate urea concentration by compensating for reductions in the fractional excretion of urea. It is further hypothesized that aldosterone is primarily responsible for mediating renal water reabsorption in this system.

  19. The Suckling Hills Fault, Kayak Island Zone, and accretion of the Yakutat microplate, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, James B.; Worthington, Lindsay L.; Pavlis, Terry L.; Bruhn, Ronald L.; Gulick, Sean P.

    2011-12-01

    The Suckling Hills and Kayak Island are isolated mountain blocks located along strike from each other within the foreland of the St. Elias orogen in southern Alaska. These blocks preserve an erosional surface that was deformed by slip on northwest-dipping reverse faults in the Pleistocene. We suggest that the Suckling Hills Fault and Kayak Island Zone form a segmented fault network that links with the Bering Glacier structure to the north. This fault network separates the central Yakataga fold and thrust belt from complex, multiply deformed structures in the western syntaxis. Ongoing accretion of the Yakutat microplate to North America results in translation of structures of the fold and thrust belt into the western syntaxis. The composite Suckling Hills Fault, Kayak Island Zone, and Bering Glacier structure may have formed because the older structures of the fold and thrust belt were unfavorably oriented within the western syntaxis region. This pattern of deformation provides a template for understanding the complex deformation within the core of the western syntaxis and predicts refolding and straightening of the western syntaxis margin with continued accretion. This study provides an analog for structural overprinting and changing deformation patterns through time in orogenic corners.

  20. Kinetics and pathogenicity of oral infection by equine herpesvirus-9 in mice and suckling hamsters.

    PubMed

    El-Nahass, E; El-Habashi, N; Abdelaziz, A A; Nayel, M; Kasem, S; Fukushi, H; Tuji, H; Hirata, A; Sakai, H; Yanai, T

    2012-01-01

    The pathogenesis and kinetics of oral infection by equine herpesvirus (EHV)-9 were studied in mice and hamsters. After oral inoculation of 10(5) plaque-forming units (PFU) of virus, 1-week-old suckling hamsters showed varying severity of neurological disease from 72 hours post inoculation (hpi) and all of these animals had died by 96 hpi. Four-week-old ICR mice inoculated orally with 4 × 10(4)PFU of virus showed no clinical signs, but they developed erosive and ulcerative gastritis from 36 hpi. Varying degrees of encephalitis were seen in infected mice and hamsters, and the hamsters also developed myelitis by 96 hpi. Immunohistochemistry performed on whole body sections of suckling hamsters revealed the kinetics of spread of the virus to the central nervous system. EHV-9 antigen was detected initially in macrophages of the oral and lingual submucosa. At 36 hpi virus antigen was detected in the nerve fibres and pseudounipolar neurons of the trigeminal ganglion and at 96 hpi antigen was present in the myenteric plexuses of the intestine. Virus antigen was also detected in the liver, lungs and heart of affected animals. EHV-9 DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction in the brain, blood and spinal cord of suckling hamsters at 36, 48 and 96 hpi. These findings show that EHV-9 may spread via the trigeminal nerve when mice and hamsters are inoculated orally with virus. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dietary inulin affects the intestinal microbiota in sows and their suckling piglets.

    PubMed

    Paßlack, Nadine; Vahjen, Wilfried; Zentek, Jürgen

    2015-03-07

    Several studies have focused on the effects of dietary inulin on the intestinal microbiota of weaned piglets. In the present study, inulin was added to a diet for gestating and lactating sows, expecting not only effects on the faecal microbiota of sows, but also on the bacterial cell numbers in the gastrointestinal tract of their piglets during the suckling period. Sows were fed a diet without (n = 11) or with (n = 10) 3% inulin, and selected bacterial groups were determined in their faeces ante and post partum. Suckling piglets, 8 per group, were euthanised on day 10 after birth to analyse digesta samples of the gastrointestinal tract. Dietary inulin increased the cell numbers of enterococci, both, in the faeces of the sows during gestation and lactation, and in the caecum of the piglets (P ≤ 0.05). Moreover, higher cell numbers of eubacteria (stomach) and C. leptum (caecum), but lower cell numbers of enterobacteria and L. amylovorus (stomach) were detected in the digesta of the piglets in the inulin group (P ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, inulin seems to have the potential to influence the gastrointestinal microbiota of suckling piglets through the diet of their mother, showing the importance of the mother-piglet couple for the microbial development. Early modulation of the intestinal microbiota could be especially interesting with regard to the critical weaning time.

  2. Correlation between lead retention and intestinal pinocytosis in the suckling mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.A.; Doherty, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Young animals absorb and retain a greater fraction of an oral dose of lead than do adult animals. It has been proposed that pinocytotic activity in young animals is partially responsible for the increased lead retention and absorption. Radiolabeled lead (5 mg/kg) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP, 50 mg/kg) were administered orally to 12-day-old suckling mice and to adult mice, and the uptake of lead and PVP was determined periodically during a 6-day interval. Intestinal tissue from the distal jejunum and ileum were found to contain the greatest quantities of both lead and PVP. Pretreatment of suckling mice with cortisone acetate resulted in decreased content of lead and PVP within tissue of the intestine, and decreased whole-body lead retention. Cortisone pretreatment produced lower lead concentrations in blood, brain, kidney, and liver. Lead and PVP uptake into intestinal tissue of adult mice was much less than uptake in suckling pups. Cortisone pretreatment of adult mice had no effect on whole-body lead retention or intestinal tissue content of lead or PVP.

  3. Tobacco consumption in Swedish twins reared apart and reared together.

    PubMed

    Kendler, K S; Thornton, L M; Pedersen, N L

    2000-09-01

    Prior studies of twins reared together suggest that regular tobacco use (RTU) is substantially heritable. However, strong social influences on RTU might have biased these results. We examine the self-report lifetime history of RTU in members of 778 male-male and female-female twin pairs, raised together and apart, born from 1890 to 1958 and ascertained through the population-based Swedish Twin Registry. In men, the pattern of twin resemblance for RTU suggested both genetic and rearing-environmental effects, which, in the best-fit biometrical model, accounted for 61% and 20% of the variance in liability to RTU, respectively. For women, overall results were hard to interpret, but became clearer when divided by birth cohort. In women born before 1925, rates of RTU were low and twin resemblance was environmental in origin. In later cohorts, rates of RTU in women increased substantially, as did heritability. For women born after 1940, heritability of RTU was similar to that seen in men (63%). Genetic factors play an important etiologic role in RTU. In women, the impact of genetic factors increased in more recent cohorts, suggesting that, as social restrictions on female tobacco use relaxed over time, heritable influences increased in importance.

  4. Spawning and rearing Atlantic menhaden

    SciTech Connect

    Hettler, W.F.

    1981-04-01

    Two-year-old Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) held in the laboratory at ambient temperatures and salinities for more than 1 year, were induced to spawn by injecting first human chorionic gonadotropin and then carp pituitary powder. Spawning took place at temperatures of 16 to 20/sup 0/C in a 2100-L indoor tank modified to recover the buoyant fertilized eggs. Larvae were reared to the juvenile stage on a diet of cultured rotifers (Brachionus plicatilus), sieved wild zooplankton (64 to 500 ..mu..m), brine shrimp (Artemia salina) nauplii, and powdered trout food.

  5. Effective suckling in relation to naked maternal-infant body contact in the first hour of life: an observation study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Best practice guidelines to promote breastfeeding suggest that (i) mothers hold their babies in naked body contact immediately after birth, (ii) babies remain undisturbed for at least one hour and (iii) breastfeeding assistance be offered during this period. Few studies have closely observed the implementation of these guidelines in practice. We sought to evaluate these practices on suckling achievement within the first hour after birth. Methods Observations of seventy-eight mother-baby dyads recorded newborn feeding behaviours, the help received by mothers and birthing room practices each minute, for sixty minutes. Results Duration of naked body contact between mothers and their newborn babies varied widely from 1 to 60 minutes, as did commencement of suckling (range = 10 to 60 minutes). Naked maternal-infant body contact immediately after birth, uninterrupted for at least thirty minutes did not predict effective suckling within the first hour of birth. Newborns were four times more likely to sustain deep rhythmical suckling when their chin made contact with their mother’s breast as they approached the nipple (OR 3.8; CI 1.03 - 14) and if their mothers had given birth previously (OR 6.7; CI 1.35 - 33). Infants who had any naso-oropharyngeal suctioning administered at birth were six times less likely to suckle effectively (OR .176; CI .04 - .9). Conclusion Effective suckling within the first hour of life was associated with a collection of practices including infants positioned so their chin can instinctively nudge the underside of their mother’s breast as they approach to grasp the nipple and attach to suckle. The best type of assistance provided in the birthing room that enables newborns to sustain an effective latch was paying attention to newborn feeding behaviours and not administering naso-oropharyngeal suction routinely. PMID:24423381

  6. Neonatal treatment with ovarian hormones and suckling among distinct litter sizes: Differential effects on recognition memory and spreading depression at adulthood.

    PubMed

    Accioly, Noranege Epifânio; Guedes, Rubem Carlos Araújo

    2017-09-10

    Ovarian hormones (OH) and early malnutrition may affect the developing brain, with repercussions on behavioral and excitability-dependent processes. However, the possible synergistic effects of both factors have not been analyzed. In this study, we investigated the effect of treatment in early life with OH and suckling among distinct litter sizes on recognition memory, anxiety behavior, and the excitability-dependent phenomenon known as cortical spreading depression (CSD). Female Wistar rats were suckled under favorable and unfavorable lactation, corresponding to litters with 9 and 15 pups (L9 and L15 groups, respectively). From postnatal days (P) 7 to 21, the animals received 50 µg/kg of β-estradiol or progesterone. From P80 to P84, we tested behavioral reactions. From P90 to P120, we analyzed CSD parameters. Compared with the corresponding L9 groups, the OH-treated L15 groups performed worse in recognition memory tasks. No intergroup difference in the anxiety parameters was observed. Compared with naive and vehicle-treated controls, OH-treated groups displayed higher CSD velocities and amplitudes and shorter CSD durations. Early treatment with OH facilitates recognition memory and CSD, and in association with unfavorable lactation (L15) impaired recognition memory, but not anxiety behavior, in the adult brain. OH treatment and L15 lactation condition seem to interact regarding OH action on memory, but not on CSD. Data suggest a long-lasting differential effect that might be related to the lasting hormonal action on brain excitability. We postulate and discuss the possibility that these findings may be implicated in human neurological diseases.

  7. ATRAZINE DISPOSITION IN PREGNANT AND LACTATING LONG-EVANS RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atrazine (ATR) is a widely used herbicide shown to delay early mammary development in female offspring of gestationally exposed rats. The effects of ATR can be induced by in utero exposure and/or suckling from a dam exposed during late pregnancy, but ATR is reported to have a hal...

  8. 75 FR 68663 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Rear Impact Guards; Rear Impact Protection; Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ...; Rear Impact Protection; Technical Report, on the Effectiveness of Underride Guards for Heavy Trailers...: Request for comments on technical report. SUMMARY: This notice announces NHTSA's publication of a Technical Report, its existing Safety Standard 223, Rear Impact Guards and Safety Standard 224, Rear...

  9. 5. View West. West side and rear elevations of c. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View West. West side and rear elevations of c. 1890 first rear addition; partial north rear elevation of c. 1900 side ell addition; and north rear and west side elevation of final rear addition of c. 1940. - Vaughn Chevrolet Building, 101-109 East Main Street, Monongahela, Washington County, PA

  10. The Association Between Common Labor Drugs and Suckling When Skin-to-Skin During the First Hour After Birth.

    PubMed

    Brimdyr, Kajsa; Cadwell, Karin; Widström, Ann-Marie; Svensson, Kristin; Neumann, Monica; Hart, Elaine A; Harrington, Sarah; Phillips, Raylene

    2015-12-01

    Intrapartum drugs, including fentanyl administered via epidural and synthetic oxytocin, have been previously studied in relation to neonatal outcomes, especially breastfeeding, with conflicting results. We examined the normal neonatal behavior of suckling within the first hour after a vaginal birth while in skin-to-skin contact with mother in relation to these commonly used drugs. Suckling in the first hour after birth has been shown in other studies to increase desirable breastfeeding outcomes. Prospective comparative design. Sixty-three low-risk mothers self-selected to labor with intrapartum analgesia/anesthesia or not. Video recordings of infants during the first hour after birth while being held skin-to-skin with their mother were coded and analyzed to ascertain whether or not they achieved Stage 8 (suckling) of Widström's 9 Stages of newborn behavior during the first hour after birth. A strong inverse correlation was found between the amount and duration of exposure to epidural fentanyl and the amount of synthetic oxytocin against the likelihood of achieving suckling during the first hour after a vaginal birth. Results suggest that intrapartum exposure to the drugs fentanyl and synthetic oxytocin significantly decreased the likelihood of the baby suckling while skin-to-skin with its mother during the first hour after birth. © 2015 The Authors. Birth published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Prepregnant overweight and obesity diminish the prolactin response to suckling in the first week postpartum.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Kathleen M; Kjolhede, Chris L

    2004-05-01

    The population subgroups with the highest proportion of overweight and obese women often are characterized by the lowest rates of initiation and shortest durations of breastfeeding. We previously documented that these 2 population-level trends may be related. In a population of white women who lived in a rural area, we observed that prepregnant overweight and obesity were associated with failure to initiate and also to sustain lactation. The means by which being overweight or obese negatively affect lactational performance is unknown and likely to be multifactorial in origin, including the simple mechanical difficulties of latching on and proper positioning of the infant. In addition, we have shown that prepregnant body mass index (BMI) is negatively associated with the timing of lactogenesis II, the onset of copious milk secretion. Although the effects of obesity on the prolactin response to infant suckling have never been studied, we postulated that maternal obesity could compromise this important response. We proposed that this might occur because obesity alters the 24-hour spontaneous release of prolactin and also because prolactin secretion is blunted in response to various stimuli among obese subjects. The fall in progesterone concentration that occurs immediately postpartum is the trigger for the onset of copious milk secretion, but maintenance of prolactin and cortisol concentrations is necessary for this trigger to be effective. Adipose tissue concentrates progesterone. We proposed that this additional source of progesterone would lead to consistently higher progesterone concentrations among obese compared with normal-weight women. This, in turn, would lead to a delay in reaching the appropriate concentration to trigger the onset of lactogenesis II. We tested the hypotheses that a reduced prolactin response to suckling and higher-than-normal progesterone concentration in the first week after delivery might be among the means by which maternal overweight

  12. Family Rearing Antecedents of Pubertal Timing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belsky, Jay; Steinberg, Laurence D.; Houts, Renate M.; Friedman, Sarah L.; DeHart, Ganie; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Roisman, Glenn I.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.; Susman, Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    Two general evolutionary hypotheses were tested on 756 White children (397 girls) studied longitudinally: (1) rearing experiences would predict pubertal timing; and (2) children would prove differentially susceptible to rearing. Analysis of pubertal measurements, including some based on repeated physical assessments, showed that mothering and…

  13. Rear Steering Inoperative: Apollo 16 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The inoperative condition of the rear steering system of the lunar roving vehicle (Apollo 16) during the initial drive to the modular equipment stowage assembly was investigated. The front and rear steering systems are described, and the failure analyzed. It is concluded that an open circuit must have occurred either in the hand controller potentiometer or between the potentiometer wiper and the summing node.

  14. Parents and the Dynamics of Child Rearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, George W.

    This book, designed for advanced courses on parent-child relationships, examines scientific evidence concerning parents' effect on children's development. Chapter 1, "The Development of Child-Rearing Research: From Mere Beliefs to a More Dynamic Perspective," discusses the beginnings of and current trends in child rearing research and…

  15. Child-Rearing Practices: Symposium I C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phisalaphong, Wanpen; And Others

    Studies of child-rearing practices among Thai, Indonesian, and Indian families are reported in two abstracts and one full paper. The Indonesian study (by Siti Rahayu Haditono) explored achievement motivation, parents' educational level, and child-rearing practices among members of four Javanese occupational groups: farmers, traders, civil…

  16. Rear-facing car seat (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A rear-facing car seat position is recommended for a child who is very young. Extreme injury can occur in an accident because ... child. In a frontal crash a rear-facing car seat is best, because it cradles the head, ...

  17. [Comparative study of the susceptibility of suckling and adult mice used for the isolation of rabies virus from the saliva of dogs with natural rabies].

    PubMed

    Côrtes, V de A; Côrtes, J de A; Vasconcellos, S A; Ito, F H; Rozas, C E; Nilsson, M R; Paim, G V

    1979-01-01

    Forty two saliva samples from rabid dogs were examined by intracerebral inoculation of weanling and suckling mice. Although rabies virus assay were successful in all of the samples in both groups of mice used, a significant higher death proportion (p < 0.01) were observed in the suckling mice group.

  18. Effects of intermittent suckling on body composition of Iberian piglets weaned at 35 days of age.

    PubMed

    Castellano, R; Aguinaga, M A; Nieto, R; Aguilera, J F; Haro, A; Seiquer, I

    2014-05-01

    Piglet body composition at weaning could be a determinant for pig's viability and may be influenced by factors such as the nutritional management followed during suckling. An experiment was conducted to study whether intermittent suckling (IS) affects body composition at weaning and nutrient and energy retention during a 34-day lactation period in Iberian piglets. Litters were subjected to conventional suckling (CS) or IS (n=10 litters of six piglets per treatment) in two trials. All piglets had ad libitum access to creep feed from day 15 onwards. In IS, piglets were progressively separated from the sow for 6, 8 and 10 h daily during the last week of lactation, whereas in CS piglets had continuous access to their dams. Creep feed intake in litters and BW development of individual piglets were measured throughout the 34-day lactation. Within each litter, both at birth and at weaning (day 35), one piglet was used to assess nutrient retention and body composition by the comparative slaughter approach. During days 29 to 35 of the experiment, daily creep feed intake was greater in IS piglets (IS 124, CS 67 g/piglet, P=0.040), and average daily gain differed significantly between groups (IS 190, CS 150 g/day, P=0.010). BW at weaning was higher in the IS than in the CS piglets (IS 8.19, CS 7.48 kg, P=0.011). Empty-body fat and energy content at weaning were higher in the IS compared with CS litters, as well as fat content in the carcass (P=0.04). The IS treatment did not affect empty-body protein deposition, but significantly increased daily retention of fat, energy, ash and calcium, compared with CS litters (P<0.05). Thus, IS in Iberian piglets seems to enhance feed intake, growth rate and retention of some body components, which may contribute to a higher body fat content at weaning and facilitate the weaning process.

  19. Measurement of milk intake in suckling llamas (Lama glama) using deuterium oxide dilution.

    PubMed

    Riek, A; Gerken, M; Moors, E

    2007-02-01

    The objective of the study was to estimate daily milk intake in llama crias and relate nutrient intakes at peak lactation to growth data. Milk intake in 11 suckling llamas was estimated from water kinetics using deuterium oxide (D2O) at d 17, 66, and 128 postpartum. Daily milk intakes averaged 2.6, 2.3, and 2.0 kg at 17, 66, and 128 d postpartum, respectively. Milk intake decreased with age when expressed as daily amount, percentage of body weight (BW), or per kilogram of metabolic size, but the influence of age was eliminated when expressed per gram of daily gain. Because llamas only have one young per parturition, milk intake was equivalent to the daily milk output of the dam, which ranged from 27.6 to 96.9 g/kg of maternal BW(0.75). Compared with different ruminant species, milk production in llamas appears to lie between wild and domestic ruminants used for meat production. Nutrients (dry matter, fat, protein, and lactose) and energy intakes from the milk calculated by combining milk intake and milk composition data decreased with age when expressed as daily amount or per 100 g of BW, but when expressed per gram of daily gain, no clear trend was observed. Maintenance requirement for suckling llamas at peak lactation (17 d postpartum) was 312 kJ of ME/kg of BW(0.83). Combined with milk composition data, the present milk intake estimations at different stages of the lactation can be used to establish recommendations for nutrient and energy requirements of suckling llamas.

  20. Enterovirus 71-induced autophagy increases viral replication and pathogenesis in a suckling mouse model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We previously reported that Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection activates autophagy, which promotes viral replication both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study we further investigated whether EV71 infection of neuronal SK-N-SH cells induces an autophagic flux. Furthermore, the effects of autophagy on EV71-related pathogenesis and viral load were evaluated after intracranial inoculation of mouse-adapted EV71 (MP4 strain) into 6-day-old ICR suckling mice. Results We demonstrated that in EV71-infected SK-N-SH cells, EV71 structural protein VP1 and nonstructural protein 2C co-localized with LC3 and mannose-6-phosphate receptor (MPR, endosome marker) proteins by immunofluorescence staining, indicating amphisome formation. Together with amphisome formation, EV71 induced an autophagic flux, which could be blocked by NH4Cl (inhibitor of acidification) and vinblastine (inhibitor of fusion), as demonstrated by Western blotting. Suckling mice intracranially inoculated with EV71 showed EV71 VP1 protein expression (representing EV71 infection) in the cerebellum, medulla, and pons by immunohistochemical staining. Accompanied with these infected brain tissues, increased expression of LC3-II protein as well as formation of LC3 aggregates, autophagosomes and amphisomes were detected. Amphisome formation, which was confirmed by colocalization of EV71-VP1 protein or LC3 puncta and the endosome marker protein MPR. Thus, EV71-infected suckling mice (similar to EV71-infected SK-N-SH cells) also show an autophagic flux. The physiopathological parameters of EV71-MP4 infected mice, including body weight loss, disease symptoms, and mortality were increased compared to those of the uninfected mice. We further blocked EV71-induced autophagy with the inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA), which attenuated the disease symptoms and decreased the viral load in the brain tissues of the infected mice. Conclusions In this study, we reveal that EV71 infection of suckling mice induces an

  1. Enterovirus 71-induced autophagy increases viral replication and pathogenesis in a suckling mouse model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ying-Ray; Wang, Po-Shun; Wang, Jen-Ren; Liu, Hsiao-Sheng

    2014-08-20

    We previously reported that Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection activates autophagy, which promotes viral replication both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study we further investigated whether EV71 infection of neuronal SK-N-SH cells induces an autophagic flux. Furthermore, the effects of autophagy on EV71-related pathogenesis and viral load were evaluated after intracranial inoculation of mouse-adapted EV71 (MP4 strain) into 6-day-old ICR suckling mice. We demonstrated that in EV71-infected SK-N-SH cells, EV71 structural protein VP1 and nonstructural protein 2C co-localized with LC3 and mannose-6-phosphate receptor (MPR, endosome marker) proteins by immunofluorescence staining, indicating amphisome formation. Together with amphisome formation, EV71 induced an autophagic flux, which could be blocked by NH₄Cl (inhibitor of acidification) and vinblastine (inhibitor of fusion), as demonstrated by Western blotting. Suckling mice intracranially inoculated with EV71 showed EV71 VP1 protein expression (representing EV71 infection) in the cerebellum, medulla, and pons by immunohistochemical staining. Accompanied with these infected brain tissues, increased expression of LC3-II protein as well as formation of LC3 aggregates, autophagosomes and amphisomes were detected. Amphisome formation, which was confirmed by colocalization of EV71-VP1 protein or LC3 puncta and the endosome marker protein MPR. Thus, EV71-infected suckling mice (similar to EV71-infected SK-N-SH cells) also show an autophagic flux. The physiopathological parameters of EV71-MP4 infected mice, including body weight loss, disease symptoms, and mortality were increased compared to those of the uninfected mice. We further blocked EV71-induced autophagy with the inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA), which attenuated the disease symptoms and decreased the viral load in the brain tissues of the infected mice. In this study, we reveal that EV71 infection of suckling mice induces an amphisome formation accompanied

  2. Effect of externally added carnitine on the synthesis of acetylcholine in rat cerebral cortex cells.

    PubMed

    Wawrzeńczyk, A; Nałecz, K A; Nałecz, M J

    1995-06-01

    Acetylcholine synthesis from radiolabelled glucose was monitored in cerebral cortex cells isolated from brains of suckling and adult rats. Acetylcholine synthesis was found much higher in suckling animals, both in the absence and presence of acetylcholinesterase (acetylcholine hydrolase, EC 3.1.1.7) inhibitor, paraoxon. Together with choline (20 microM), carnitine was found to stimulate acetylcholine synthesis in a synergistic way in cortex cells from adult rats (18%). Choline, however, was incapable of reversing an inhibitory effect exerted by carnitine on acetylcholine synthesis in cortex cells from suckling animals. Distribution of carnitine derivatives was found significantly different in the cells from young and old animals, the content of acetylcarnitine decreased with age with a corresponding increase of free carnitine. The observed differences in carnitine effect on acetylcholine synthesis suggested that high acetylcarnitine in cells capable of beta-oxidation might be correlated with the lower level of acetylcholine synthesis.

  3. Artificial rearing inhibits apoptotic cell death through action on pro-apoptotic signaling molecules during brain development: replacement licking partially reverses these effects.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee-Chakraborty, Munmun; Chatterjee, Diptendu

    2010-08-12

    Early life stress associated with being reared without mother, siblings, and nest affects the formation of neuronal networks during rat development. Prior work shows that in comparison to mother-reared male rats, artificial rearing results in elevated numbers of neurons in adulthood and reduced apoptosis during the first postnatal week. Replacement with stroking stimulation, designed to simulate mothers' licking, reversed these effects in most brain areas. The present communication explored the effects of early rearing manipulations on signaling proteins. Male rats were reared until postnatal day 7 either in an artificial-feeding paradigm (AR) or with their mothers (MR). AR animals received different amounts of maternal-like stimulation using a soft paintbrush. Brains were extracted and prepared for molecular assays of 1) apoptosis and 2) pro and anti-apoptotic proteins on day 7 of postnatal life. Results showed that stimulation of the AR pups reversed the effects of artificial rearing on apoptosis in a dose dependent manner; low and very high levels of stimulation were without effect whereas moderate levels of stimulation produced effects on apoptosis similar to effects seen in mother-reared controls. Moreover, this artificial rearing effect and the pattern of reversal with stroking were also found for levels of pro-apoptotic Bax protein, the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and levels of activated caspase-3 which we believe mediates programmed cell death.

  4. Social isolation increases aggressive behaviour and alters the effects of diazepam in the rat social interaction test.

    PubMed

    Wongwitdecha, N; Marsden, C A

    1996-02-01

    Isolation rearing in the early stages of life has been shown to modify a variety of behaviours in many animals and the responsitivity to psychotropic drugs. The aims of the present study were to investigate the effects of isolation rearing on anxiety using the social interaction paradigm and to compare the effects of diazepam on social interaction behaviours in isolation and socially reared rats. Male Lister hooded rats were reared from weaning either alone (isolation reared) or in groups of four (socially reared) for 6 weeks and then were tested for social interaction. Both isolation and socially reared rats were exposed to the social interaction test either without drug treatment or following saline or diazepam (1 and 2.5 mg/kg, i.p., 30 min before testing). The results demonstrate that under high light in an unfamiliar arena, the isolation compared to the socially reared rats showed a significantly (P < 0.01) higher level of social interaction, manifested as increases in aggressive and avoidance behaviours, and that this interaction occur for a greater length of time during the test period (10 min). However, when the light level was decreased or when the arena was familiar, active social interaction of isolation reared rats decreased but increased in the socially reared rats. In both conditions the isolation reared rats displayed more aggressive behaviours, in particular biting and boxing the partners which did not occur with the socially reared rats. Pretreatment of diazepam (1 and 2.5 mg/kg., i.p.) caused a dose-related reduction in aggressive behaviours in rats reared under both conditions but increased passive interactions in the socially reared rats. In contrast diazepam (2.5 mg/kg) reduced active interaction in the isolation reared rats but had no effect on passive interaction. These results indicate that isolation rearing increases aggressive behaviours and alters the effects of diazepam.

  5. Isolation rearing significantly perturbs brain metabolism in the thalamus and hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Bonab, A A; Fricchione, J G; Gorantla, S; Vitalo, A G; Auster, M E; Levine, S J; Scichilone, J M; Hegde, M; Foote, W; Fricchione, G L; Denninger, J W; Yarmush, D M; Fischman, A J; Yarmush, M L; Levine, J B

    2012-10-25

    Psychosocial neglect during childhood severely impairs both behavioral and physical health. The isolation rearing model in rodents has been employed by our group and others to study this clinical problem at a basic level. We previously showed that immediate early gene (IEG) expression in the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is decreased in isolation-reared (IR) compared to group-reared (GR) rats. In the current study, we sought to evaluate: (1) whether these changes in IEG expression would be detected by the measurement of brain glucose metabolism using positron emission tomography (PET) with fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and (2) whether PET FDG could illuminate other brain regions with different glucose metabolism in IR compared to GR rats. We found that there were significant differences in FDG uptake in the hippocampus that were consistent with our findings for IEG expression (decreased mean FDG uptake in IR rats). In contrast, in the mPFC, the FDG uptake between IR and GR rats did not differ. Finally, we found decreased mean FDG uptake in the thalamus of the IR rats, a region we had not previously examined. The results suggest that PET FDG has the potential to be utilized as a biomarker of molecular changes in the hippocampus. Further, the differences found in thalamic brain FDG uptake suggest that further investigation of this region at the molecular and cellular levels may provide an important insight into the neurobiological basis of the adverse clinical outcomes found in children exposed to psychosocial deprivation.

  6. Effect of parenteral administration of erythromycin, tilmicosin, and tylosin on abomasal emptying rate in suckling calves.

    PubMed

    Nouri, Mohammad; Constable, Peter D

    2007-12-01

    To determine the effect of parenteral administration of erythromycin, tilmicosin, and tylosin on abomasal emptying rate in suckling calves. 8 male Holstein-Friesian calves < 35 days old. Calves received each of 4 treatments in random order (2 mL of saline [0.9% NaCl] solution, IM [control treatment]; erythromycin, 8.8 mg/kg, IM; tilmicosin, 10 mg/kg, SC; and tylosin, 17.6 mg/kg, IM). Calves were fed 2 L of milk replacer containing acetaminophen (50 mg/kg) 30 minutes later. Jugular venous blood samples and transabdominal ultrasonographic abomasal dimensions were obtained periodically after suckling. Abomasal emptying rate was assessed on the basis of the time to maximal plasma acetaminophen concentration and ultrasonographic determination of the halftime of abomasal emptying. One-tailed Dunnett post tests were conducted whenever the F value for group was significant. Emptying rate was faster for erythromycin, tilimicosin, and tylosin than for the control treatment, as determined on the basis of time to maximal plasma acetaminophen concentration. Ultrasonography indicated that the half-time of abomasal emptying was significantly shorter for erythromycin than for the control treatment. Tylosin and tilmicosin accelerated the abomasal emptying rate, but not significantly, relative to the emptying rate for the control treatment. Administration of erythromycin, tilmicosin, and tylosin at the label dosage increased abomasal emptying rate in calves. The clinical importance of an increase in abomasal emptying rate in cattle remains to be determined.

  7. Phenotypic characterization of intestinal Escherichia coli of pigs during suckling, postweaning, and fattening periods.

    PubMed Central

    Katouli, M; Lund, A; Wallgren, P; Kühn, I; Söderlind, O; Möllby, R

    1995-01-01

    A highly discriminatory and standardized biochemical fingerprinting method was used to monitor the persistence and colonization of intestinal Escherichia coli isolated from the feces of four sows and their litters (four piglets from each) during the suckling, postweaning, and fattening periods. Altogether, 195 fecal samples were collected and 1,827 E. coli strains were tested (mean number of isolates tested per fecal sample per pig, 9.5). Strains were divided into similarity groups on the basis of their biochemical phenotypes (BPTs). The diversity of E. coli strains in each sample was measured with Simpson's index of diversity, and similarity between E. coli floras of piglets was calculated with a population similarity index. Each fecal sample contained several BPTs of E. coli, some of which dominated that population. The intestinal colonization of piglets consisted of successive waves of different E. coli BPTs, the tenure of which varied from a few days to 2 weeks. Most of these BPTs disappeared in the succeeding samples and were not recovered again from the same piglets. On the other hand, some E. coli strains which colonized piglets early during the suckling period persisted for a long period and were referred to as resident BPTs. Each piglet carried more than one resident BPT (mean of 2.4 BPTs per pig), some of which were also found in other piglets.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7574614

  8. Regional Variation in Geniohyoid Muscle Strain During Suckling in the Infant Pig

    PubMed Central

    HOLMAN, SHAINA DEVI; KONOW, NICOLAI; LUKASIK, STACEY L.; GERMAN, REBECCA Z.

    2014-01-01

    The geniohyoid muscle (GH) is a critical suprahyoid muscle in most mammalian oropharyngeal motor activities. We used sonomicrometry to evaluate regional strain (i.e., changes in length) in the muscle origin, belly, and insertion during suckling in infant pigs, and compared the results to existing information on strain heterogeneity in the hyoid musculature. We tested the hypothesis that during rhythmic activity, the GH shows regional variation in muscle strain. We used sonomicrometry transducer pairs to divide the muscle into three regions from anterior to posterior. The results showed differences in strain among the regions within a feeding cycle; however, no region consistently shortened or lengthened over the course of a cycle. Moreover, regional strain patterns were not correlated with timing of the suck cycles, neither (1) relative to a swallow cycle (before or after) nor (2) to the time in feeding sequence (early or late). We also found a tight relationship between muscle activity and muscle strain, however, the relative timing of muscle activity and muscle strain was different in some muscle regions and between individuals. A dissection of the C1 innervations of the geniohyoid showed that there are between one and three branches entering the muscle, possibly explaining the variation seen in regional activity and strain. In combination, our findings suggest that regional heterogeneity in muscle strain during patterned suckling behavior functions to stabilize the hyoid bone, whereas the predictable regional strain differences in reflexive behaviors may be necessary for faster and higher amplitude movements of the hyoid bone. PMID:22549885

  9. Optimal management of replacement heifers in a beef herd: a model for simultaneous optimization of rearing and breeding decisions.

    PubMed

    Stygar, A H; Kristensen, A R; Makulska, J

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to provide farmers an efficient tool for supporting optimal decisions in the beef heifer rearing process. The complexity of beef heifer management prompted the development of a model including decisions on the feeding level during prepuberty (age <10 mo), the time of weaning (age, BW, calendar month), the feeding level during the reproductive period (age ≥10 mo), and time of breeding (age, BW, and calendar month). The model was formulated as 3-level hierarchic Markov process. A founder level of the model has 12 states resembling all possible birth months of a heifer. Based on the birth month information from the founder level, for the indoor season (November to April) and outdoor season (May to October), feeding and breeding costs (natural service cost in the outdoor and AI cost in the indoor season) were applied. The optimal rearing strategy was found by maximizing the total discounted net revenues from the predicted future productivity of the Polish Limousine heifers defined as the cumulative BW of calves born from a cow calved until the age of 5 yr, standardized on the 210th day of age. According to the modeled optimal policy, heifers fed during the whole rearing period at the ADG of 810 g/d and generally weaned after the maximum suckling period of 9 mo should already be bred at the age of 13.2 mo and BW constituting 55.6% of the average mature BW. Based on the optimal strategy, 52% of all heifers conceived from May to July and calved from February to April. This optimal rearing pattern resulted in an average net return of EUR 311.6 per pregnant heifer. It was found that the economic efficiency of beef operations can be improved by applying different herd management practices to those currently used in Poland. Breeding at 55.6% of the average mature BW, after a shorter and less expensive rearing period, resulted in an increase in the average net return per heifer by almost 18% compared to the conventional system, in which heifers were

  10. Effect of maternal feed efficiency as growing heifers and lactating cows on feed intake and performance of their suckling offspring

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We determined whether suckling calf DMI and performance was associated with feed efficiency, feed intake, and performance of thier dam as a growing heifer or lactating cow. Feed efficiency was established in 74 growing heifers that subsequently gave birth to their second calf as 3-yr old cows. For t...

  11. Bull exposure and an increased within-day milking to suckling interval reduced postpartum anoestrus in dual purpose cows.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Hernández, P; García-Winder, M; Gallegos-Sánchez, J

    2002-12-16

    It is hypothesized that the combined effects of suckling and milking in the dual purpose cows is one of the main suppressors of reproductive efficiency in this production system. The experiment described here examined whether managing the interval between milking and suckling could reduce the postpartum anoestrous period and whether the presence of a teaser bull could enhance the effects of these managements. The experiment involved 39 Bos taurus x Bos indicus cows which had an average weight of 523.0 +/- 12.8 kg (mean +/- S.E.M.) and body condition score of 5-7 (scale 1-9) at calving. The cows and calves grazed separate pastures and the cows were supplemented with 2 kg 17% CP concentrates and 1 kg molasses per cow per day. The experiment was conducted over the first 100 days postpartum. Cows were hand-milked once per day in the presence of the calf to stimulate milk release. The factors in the 2 x 2 design were the milking to suckling interval (0 h, control suckling; CS versus 8 h prolonged-delay suckling; PDS) and no exposure versus exposure to a teaser bull (B). Cows were assigned at random within calving date to the four treatments: CS (n = 10), PDS (n = 10), CS-B (n = 9) and PDS-B (n = 10). Cows on treatments CS and CS-B had three-quarters of the udder milked and one-quarter was not milked. The entire udder was milked on those treatments where there was an interval between milking and suckling. The bull was introduced 7 days after calving in treatments where the cows were exposed to a teaser bull. Body weights of cows and calves and cow milk yield were recorded. Weekly blood samples were collected for plasma progesterone assay. Data were analyzed by ANOVA in a 2 x 2 factorial design and by chi(2)-test. There were no statistically significant differences between treatments in cow body weight at calving and at 100 days postpartum, nor in milk yield (overall mean 6.0 +/- 1.1 kg per day). Calf daily gain was 598 +/- 25 g for treatments CS and CS-B in which

  12. Myxozoans and Our Dinner Table: Pathogenicity Studies of Myxobolus honghuensis (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida) Using a Suckling Mice Model.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qingxiang; Jia, Luo; Qin, Jianhua; Li, Hong; Gu, Zemao

    2015-08-01

    Myxobolus honghuensis parasitizes the pharynx of the allogynogenetic gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch), an economically important food fish with large consumption rates in China. The fact that it is hard to detect the cysts formed by M. honghuensis without euthanizing the fish and the spores can reach the consumers has prompted us to investigate the effect of M. honghuensis on conventional, immunocompetent BALB/c suckling mice, in order to consider the possible pathological effects in general immunocompetent consumers by the ingestion of Myxobolus-infected fish. BALB/c suckling mice were inoculated with serial dilutions of the spore suspension and then hematological and histological studies were performed. Tests of suckling mice showed no statistically difference of fluid accumulation ratio between mice inoculated with 1.65 × 10(6) M. honghuensis spores and negative control after 8-h incubation. Spores did not disrupt intestinal histology, and no abnormal bowel movements were observed within 20 h postinoculation. No anomalous hematology parameters were documented. These results, taken together, reveal that M. honghuensis spores do not cause pathology (diarrhea and elevated fluid accumulation) in BALB/c suckling mice. However, an extrapolation is not currently feasible because of lack of a highly quantifiable risk extrapolation model, inaccessibility to data for the effect of M. honghuensis on humans, and lack of consideration of the immunosuppressed population. Our study extends the results of the effect of myxozoan on suckling mice and serves as baseline for future experiment using the same model in evaluating the myxozoan-caused foodborne disease.

  13. Halofuginone alleviates acute viral myocarditis in suckling BALB/c mice by inhibiting TGF-β1

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xiao-Hua; Fu, Jia; Sun, Da-Qing

    2016-04-29

    Viral myocarditis (VMC) is an inflammation of heart muscle in infants and young adolescents. This study explored the function of halofuginone (HF) in Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) -treated suckling mice. HF-treated animal exhibited higher survival rate, lower heart/body weight, and more decreased blood sugar concentration than CVB3 group. HF also reduced the expressions of interleukin(IL)-17 and IL-23 and the numbers of Th17 cells. Moreover, HF downregulated pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and increased anti-inflammatory cytokine levels. The expressions of transforming growth factor(TGF-β1) and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B (NF-κB) p65/ tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) proteins were decreased by HF as well. Finally, the overexpression of TGF-β1 counteracted the protection effect of HF in CVB3-treated suckling mice. In summary, our study suggests HF increases the survival of CVB3 suckling mice, reduces the Th17 cells and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, and may through downregulation of the TGF-β1-mediated expression of NF-κB p65/TNF-α pathway proteins. These results offer a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of VMC. - Highlights: • Halofuginone (HF) increases the survival of suckling BALB/c mice infected with acute CVB3. • HF reduces the expression of Th17 cell markers (IL-17 and IL-23) and the number of CD4{sup +} IL17{sup +} cells. • Pro-inflammatory cytokines levels associated with myocarditis were reduced by HF in CVB3-treated suckling mice. • HF alleviates VMC via inhibition of TGF-β1-mediated NF-κB p65/TNF-α pathway.

  14. Timed artificial insemination early in the breeding season improves the reproductive performance of suckled beef cows.

    PubMed

    Sá Filho, Manoel F; Penteado, Luciano; Reis, Everton L; Reis, Tomás A N P S; Galvão, Klibs N; Baruselli, Pietro S

    2013-03-01

    The objective was to compare reproductive performance of breeding programs that used natural service (NS), AI after estrus detection (ED), and timed AI (TAI). In experiment 1, 597 suckled beef cows were randomly allocated to one of four groups. Cows in the TAI+NS group (N = 150) were bred by TAI at 11 days after the onset of the breeding season (BS). Bulls were placed with cows 10 days after TAI and remained together until the end of the 90-day BS. Cows in the TAI+ED+NS group (N = 148) received TAI, then AI based on ED for the next 45 days, and finally NS for the last 45 days of the BS. Cows in the ED+NS group (N = 147) received AI based on ED during the first 45 days of the BS, followed by NS for the last 45 days of the BS. Cows in the NS group (N = 149) were bred by NS for the entire 90-day BS. Cows in the ED+NS or NS groups had a decreased (P < 0.001) hazard of pregnancy compared with cows in the two groups bred by TAI at the onset of BS. Also, cows bred by TAI (TAI+NS = 92.7%; and TAI+ED+NS = 91.9%) had higher (P < 0.01) pregnancy rates at the end of the BS compared with cows not bred by TAI (ED+NS = 85.0%; NS = 83.2%). In experiment 2, 507 suckled beef cows were randomly assigned to one of two groups at the onset of a 90-day BS. The NS group (N = 255) received only NS during the entire BS, and the TAI+NS group (N = 252) received TAI at the onset of the BS, followed by NS until the end of BS. Cows in the TAI+NS group had 63% higher hazard of pregnancy (P < 0.001) compared with cows in the NS group, and reduced the median days to pregnancy by 44 (11 vs. 55 days). However, there was no difference (P = 0.31) in proportion of pregnant cows at the end of the BS (TAI+NS = 77.0% vs. NS = 71.0%). Therefore, incorporation of TAI programs early in the BS increased reproductive performance of suckled beef cows. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Feeding vegetable oils to lactating ewes modifies the fatty acid profile of suckling lambs.

    PubMed

    Manso, T; Bodas, R; Vieira, C; Mantecón, A R; Castro, T

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of vegetable oil supplementation of ewe diets on the performance and fatty acid (FA) composition of their suckling lambs. Forty-eight pregnant Churra ewes (mean BW 64.3±0.92 kg) with their 72 newborn lambs (prolificacy=1.5) were assigned to one of four experimental diets, supplemented with 3% of hydrogenated palm (PALM), olive (OLI), soya (SOY) or linseed (LIN) oil. Lambs were nourished exclusively by suckling from their respective mothers. Ewes were milked once daily, and milk samples were taken once a week. When lambs reached 11 kg, they were slaughtered and samples were taken from musculus longissimus dorsi (intramuscular fat) and subcutaneous fat tissue. No changes were observed in milk yield, proximal composition or lamb performance (P>0.10). Milk and lamb subcutaneous and intramuscular fat samples from the PALM diet had the highest saturated fatty acid concentration, whereas those of the OLI, SOY and LIN diets had the lowest (P<0.05). The greatest monounsaturated fatty acid concentration was observed in milk from ewes fed OLI, and the least in milk and in lamb subcutaneous and intramuscular fat samples from LIN and PALM diets. Milk and lamb fat from ewes fed PALM displayed the highest 16:0 proportion and the lowest 18:0 (P<0.05). There were higher concentrations of cis-9 18:1 in OLI samples (P<0.05), more 18:2n-6 in SOY lambs and milk fat (P<0.001) and the highest levels of 18:3n-3 and 20:5n-3 in LIN samples (P<0.01). Milk and lamb subcutaneous and intramuscular samples from SOY and LIN diets contained the most cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid, whereas PALM samples had the least (P<0.01). Sheep diet supplementation with different oils, constituting up to 3% of their diets, resulted in changes in the FA composition of milk and the subcutaneous and intramuscular fat of suckling lambs, but did not affect either milk production or lamb performance.

  16. [Effect of freezing on immunogenicity of the rabies vaccine produced in suckling mouse brain].

    PubMed

    Albas, A; Nogueira, R M; Fontolan, O L; Albas Kd; Bremer Neto, H

    2001-01-01

    The immune humoral response induced by the rabies vaccine produced in suckling mouse brain was studied in 23 dogs. The mouse neutralization test (MNT) was used to evaluate the level of rabies antibodies. Ten dogs received vaccine stored at 2 to 8 degrees C, showing the following results: 30 days after vaccination, six samples (60%) responded to the MNT; 180 days after vaccination, 4 samples (40%); and 360 days after vaccination, only one sample (10%). The remaining 13 dogs received previously frozen vaccine and 30 days after vaccination, only two samples (l5.4%) responded to the MNT. No titers were detected 180 and 360 days after vaccination. Statistical analysis of each variable used Tuckey analysis of variance, which showed statistically significant differences between the two groups.

  17. Strategies of supplementation of female suckling calves and nutrition parameters of beef cows on tropical pasture.

    PubMed

    Valente, Eriton Egidio Lisboa; Paulino, Mario Fonseca; Detmann, Edenio; Valadares Filho, Sebastião de Campos; Barros, Livia Vieira; Cabral, Carla Heloisa Avelino; Silva, Aline Gomes; Duarte, Marcio de Souza

    2012-10-01

    The performance of female calves in creep feeding under different strategies of supplementation and milk production, intake, and digestibility of grazing Nellore and crossbred cows (Nellore × Holstein) during the dry-rainy transition season were assessed. Forty-four female beef suckling calves, with initial age between 90 and 150 days and average initial body weight of 117.7 ± 4.3 kg, and their respective dams (24 Nellore and 20 crossbred) with average initial body weight of 417.5 ± 8.3 kg, were used. The experimental treatments consisted of: control group--mineral mixture only; strategy 1--supplementation from 112 days prior to weaning (0.375 kg/animal/day); strategy 2--supplementation from 112 days prior to weaning, in increasing amounts of 0.15, 0.30, 0.45, and 0.60 kg/animal/day through the four experimental periods, respectively; and strategy 3--supplementation from 56 days prior to weaning (0.750 kg/animal/day). Calves from strategy 1 had greater (P < 0.05) average daily gain (0.672 kg/day) than control animals (0.582 kg/day) and greater (P < 0.05) efficiency of supplement use than the other groups. Crossbred cows produced more milk than Nellore cows (P < 0.05). Crossbred cows presented greater (P < 0.05) dry matter intake (DMI) than Nellore cows. However, no differences were found (P > 0.05) for nutrient digestibility among genetic types. It can be concluded that strategies of supplementation that present an equitable distribution of supplement provides greater weight gain in suckling female beef calves. Crossbred cows produce more milk and present greater DMI than Nellore cows. There are no differences in the nutrient digestibility between Nellore and Nellore × Holstein crossbred cows.

  18. Rapid genetic analysis of Helicobacter pylori gastric mucosal colonization in suckling mice.

    PubMed

    Guo, Betty P; Mekalanos, John J

    2002-06-11

    Previously described animal models for Helicobacter pylori infection have been limited by cumbersome host requirements (e.g., germ-free conditions or unusual species) or are applicable to only special subsets of H. pylori strains (e.g., fresh clinical isolates or animal-adapted derivatives). Here, we report that 5- to 6-day-old outbred CD-1 (ICR) suckling mice support 24-h colonization of all H. pylori strains tested (SS1, 26695 SmR-1, 43504 SmR-1, and G27 SmR-1), including lab-passaged strains that cannot be adapted for colonization of adult animals. Total colony-forming units (cfu) recovered from infection with lab-passaged strains did not differ from those with mouse-adapted SS1. We also tested this model's ability to detect colonization defects in strains carrying mutations in known virulence genes by coinfecting with wild-type H. pylori and measuring differential recovery. This competition assay identified colonization defects in several classes of known attenuated mutants, including those defective in acid resistance (ureA), metabolism (frdA), motility (motB), and chemotaxis (cheY). A mutant defective in copA (copper transporting P-type ATPase) is nonattenuated in adult and infant mice. Possibly because of the limited duration of infection, our model did not identify defects in vacuolating cytotoxin (vacA) or gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (ggt) as attenuating, in contrast to results from other animal models. We also identified a new virulence gene (HP0507) encoding a conserved hypothetical protein, which is important for colonization in our model. The suckling mouse model offers a rapid method to identify colonization defects in any H. pylori strain and may have utility as a new tool for studying immunity to primary infection.

  19. Hormone induced changes in lactase glycosylation in developing rat intestine.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Kamaljit Kaur; Mahmood, Safrun; Mahmood, Akhtar

    2008-11-01

    Lactase exists in both soluble and membrane-bound forms in suckling rat intestine. The distribution of lactase and its glycosylated isoforms in response to thyroxine or cortisone administration has been studied in suckling rats. 75% of lactase activity was detected, associated with brush borders, compared to 24% in the soluble fraction of 8-day-old rats. Thyroxine treatment enhanced soluble lactase activity to 34%, whereas particulate fraction was reduced to 67% compared to controls. Cortisone administration reduced soluble lactase activity from 24% in controls to 12% with a concomitant increase in membrane-bound activity to 89%. Western blot analysis revealed lactase signal, corresponding to 220 kDa in both the soluble and membrane fractions, which corroborated the enzyme activity data. The elution pattern of papain solubilized lactase from agarose-Wheat Germ agglutinin, or Concanavalin A or Jacalin agglutinin columns was different in the suckling and adult rat intestines. Also the elution profile of lactase activity from agarose-lectin columns was modulated in cortisone, thyroxine, and insulin injected pups, which suggests differences in glycosylated isoforms of lactase under these conditions. These findings suggest the role of these hormones in inducing changes in lactase glycosylation during postnatal development of intestine, which may contribute to adult-type hypolactasia in rats.

  20. Presence and characterization of pig group A and C rotaviruses in feces of Belgian diarrheic suckling piglets.

    PubMed

    Theuns, Sebastiaan; Vyt, Philip; Desmarets, Lowiese M B; Roukaerts, Inge D M; Heylen, Elisabeth; Zeller, Mark; Matthijnssens, Jelle; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2016-02-02

    The importance of group A and C rotaviruses (RVA and RVC) in the pathogenesis of diarrhea in Belgian suckling pigs is poorly investigated, and it is not known which strains are circulating in the Belgian suckling pig population. Obtaining better insights in the occurrence of both viral species in the swine population is essential in order to develop accurate diagnostic, therapeutic and prophylactic strategies to protect suckling pigs against diarrhea in a durable manner. In the present study, viral loads of RVA and RVC were quantified in diarrhea samples of suckling piglets less than 2 weeks old, collected on 36 different Belgian farms. On 22 of 36 farms tested (61%), high viral loads of RVA (6.96-11.95 log10 copies/g feces) and/or RVC (5.40-11.63 log10 copies/g feces) were detected. Seventeen RVA isolates were genotyped for their outer capsid proteins VP7 and VP4. Four different G-genotypes (G3, G4, G5 and G9) for VP7 were found together with 4 different P-genotypes (P[6], P[7], P[13] and P[23]) for VP4, in 8 different G/P combinations. All characterized RVC strains belonged to genotype G6 (VP7), except for one strain possessing the G1 genotype. VP4 genes of Belgian RVC strains were genetically heterogeneous, but were classified in the genotype P5. Most rotavirus positive samples also contained Escherichia coli, whereas Clostridium perfringens infections were mainly detected in rotavirus negative samples. Results of the present study offer better insights in the occurrence of RVA and RVC infections in Belgian diarrheic suckling piglets. As a conclusion, routine diagnostic testing for both viral species in cases of diarrhea in suckling pigs is highly recommended. Furthermore, the present findings also offer valuable information for the development of new prophylactic measures against rotavirus. Finally, the relatedness between RVC strains from pigs and other host species is described, and their possible implications in interspecies transmission events are discussed.

  1. Lactation deficit in OFA hr/hr rats may be caused by differential sensitivity to stress compared with Wistar and Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Susana R; Bonafede, Melisa M; Carreño, Norma B; Deis, Ricardo P; Jahn, Graciela A

    2012-07-01

    OFA hr/hr (OFA) rats present a major lactation deficit that impairs offspring survival. To explore whether abnormal stress responsiveness causes this deficit, we compared their hormonal (prolactin, progesterone, and corticosterone) responses to stress (room change and 2-min ether exposure) with those of Wistar and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. We tested responses during the estrous cycle, pregnancy, lactation, after ovariectomy, and ovarian steroid hormone priming, and responses to suckling. We evaluated hypothalamic expression of receptors for prolactin (PRLRlong) and the isoforms of receptors for progesterone (PRA and B) and estrogen (ERα and β) in late pregnancy. We tested whether administration of an anxiolytic (diazepam) improved lactation. Ether exposure increased circulating levels of the three hormones in the three strains of rats, cycling and ovariectomized, but was less effective in pregnancy and lactation. Elevated estrogen level (estrus and estradiol-treated ovariectomized rats) potentiated the prolactin response more in SD and OFA rats than in Wistar rats. Elevated progesterone level (late pregnancy, lactation, progesterone-treated ovariectomized rats) inhibited the prolactin response less in OFA than in SD or Wistar rats. Ether exposure inhibited the prolactin and oxytocin responses to suckling only in OFA rats. Diazepam treatment increased pup survival rate and the prolactin response to suckling. Hypothalamic total PR mRNA content, assayed by RT-PCR, was higher in pregnant OFA rats compared with SD and Wistar rats, but the PRB/PRA protein ratio determined by Western blot was lowest in Wistar rats, intermediate in OFA rats, and highest in SD rats. The heightened sensitivity to stress of lactating OFA rats may contribute to their lactational deficit and be caused by a combination of hypoprolactinemia and reduced inhibitory capacity of progesterone.

  2. Developmental changes in hepatic glucose metabolism in a newborn piglet model: A comparative analysis for suckling period and early weaning period.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chunyan; Wang, Qinhua; Wang, Jing; Tan, Bie; Fan, Zhiyong; Deng, Ze-yuan; Wu, Xin; Yin, Yulong

    2016-02-19

    The liver glucose metabolism, supplying sufficient energy for glucose-dependent tissues, is important in suckling or weaned animals, although there are few studies with piglet model. To better understand the development of glucose metabolism in the piglets during suckling period and early weaning period, we determined the hepatic glycogen content, and investigated the relative protein expression of key enzymes of glucogenesis (GNG) and mRNA levels of some glucose metabolism-related genes. During suckling period, the protein level of G6Pase in the liver of suckling piglets progressively declined with day of age compared with that of newborn piglets (at 1 day of age), whereas the PEPCK level stabilized until day 21 of age, indicating that hepatic GNG capacity gradually weakened in suckling piglets. The synthesis of hepatic glycogen, which was consistent with the fluctuation of glycolytic key genes PFKL and PKLR that gradually decreased after birth and was more or less steady during latter suckling period, although both the mRNA levels of GCK and key glucose transporter GLUT2 presented uptrend in suckling piglets. However, early weaning significantly suppressed the hepatic GNG in the weaned piglets, especially at d 3-5 of weaning period, then gradually recovered at d 7 of weaning period. Meanwhile, PFKL, PKLR and GLUT2 showed the similar trend during weaning period. On the contrast, the hepatic glycogen reached the maximum value when the G6Pase and PEPCK protein expression were at the lowest level, although the GCK level maintained increasing through 7 days of weaning period. Altogether, our study provides evidence that hepatic GNG and glycolysis in newborn piglets were more active than other days during suckling period, and early weaning could significantly suppressed glucose metabolism in liver, but this inhibition would progressively recover at day 7 after weaning.

  3. Neonatal Alcohol Exposure Permanently Disrupts the Circadian Properties and Photic Entrainment of the Activity Rhythm in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Gregg C.; West, James R.; Chen, Wei-Jung A.; Earnest, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Alcohol exposure during the period of rapid brain development produces structural damage in different brain regions, including the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), that may have permanent neurobehavioral consequences. Thus, this study examined the long-term effects of neonatal alcohol exposure on circadian behavioral activity in adult rats. Methods Artificially reared Sprague-Dawley rat pups were exposed to alcohol (EtOH; 4.5 g/kg/day) or isocaloric milk formula (gastrostomy control; GC) on postnatal days 4–9. At 2 months of age, rats from the EtOH, GC, and suckle control (SC) groups were housed individually, and properties of the circadian rhythm in wheel-running behavior were continuously analyzed during exposure to a 12-hr light:12-hr dark photoperiod (LD 12:12) or constant darkness (DD). Results Neonatal alcohol exposure had distinctive effects on the rhythmic properties and quantitative parameters of adult wheel-running behavior. EtOH-treated animals were distinguished by unstable and altered entrainment to LD 12:12 such that their daily onsets of activity were highly variable and occurred at earlier times relative to control animals. In DD, circadian regulation of wheel-running behavior was altered by neonatal alcohol exposure such that the free-running period of the activity rhythm was shorter in EtOH-exposed rats than in control animals. Total amount of daily wheel-running activity in EtOH-treated rats was greater than that observed in the SC group. In addition, the circadian activity patterns of EtOH-exposed rats were fragmented such that the duration of the active phase and the number of activity bouts per day were increased. Conclusions These data indicate that neonatal alcohol exposure produces permanent changes in the circadian regulation of the rat activity rhythm and its entrainment to LD cycles. These long-term alterations in circadian behavior, along with the developmental alcohol-induced changes in SCN endogenous rhythmicity, may have

  4. Social isolation rearing increases dopamine uptake and psychostimulant potency in the striatum.

    PubMed

    Yorgason, Jordan T; Calipari, Erin S; Ferris, Mark J; Karkhanis, Anushree N; Fordahl, Steven C; Weiner, Jeffrey L; Jones, Sara R

    2016-02-01

    Social isolation rearing (SI) is a model of early life stress that results in neurobiological alterations leading to increased anxiety-like behaviors. These animals also exhibit an increased propensity to administer psychostimulants, such as cocaine; however, the mechanisms governing this increased addiction vulnerability remain to be elucidated. Long-term stressors have been shown to produce important alterations in nucleus accumbens core (NAc) function. The NAc regulates motivated and goal-directed behaviors, and individual differences in NAc function have been shown to be predictive of addiction vulnerability. Rats were reared in group (GH; 4/cage) or SI (1/cage) conditions from weaning (PD 28) into early adulthood (PD 77) and dopamine release was assessed using voltammetry in brain slices containing the NAc and dorsomedial striatum. SI rats exhibited enhanced dopamine release and uptake in both regions compared to GH rats. In regard to psychostimulant effects directly at the dopamine transporter (DAT), methylphenidate and amphetamine, but not cocaine, inhibited uptake more in SI than GH rats. The increased potencies were positively correlated with uptake rates, suggesting that increased potencies of amphetamine-like compounds are due to changes in DAT function. Cocaine's effects on uptake were similar between rearing conditions, however, cocaine enhanced evoked dopamine release greater in SI than GH rats, suggesting that the enhanced cocaine reinforcement in SI animals involves a DAT independent mechanism. Together, the results provide the first evidence that greater psychostimulant effects in SI compared to GH rats are due to effects on dopamine terminals related to uptake dependent and independent mechanisms.

  5. Social Isolation Rearing Increases Dopamine Uptake and Psychostimulant Potency in the Striatum

    PubMed Central

    Yorgason, Jordan T.; Calipari, Erin S.; Ferris, Mark J.; Karkhanis, Annushree N.; Fordahl, Steven C.; Weiner, Jeffrey L.; Jones, Sara R.

    2015-01-01

    Social isolation rearing (SI) is a model of early life stress that results in neurobiological alterations leading to increased anxiety-like behaviors. These animals also exhibit an increased propensity to administer psychostimulants, such as cocaine; however, the mechanisms governing this increased addiction vulnerability remains to be elucidated. Long-term stressors have been shown to produce important alterations in nucleus accumbens core (NAc) function. The NAc regulates motivated and goal-directed behaviors, and individual differences in NAc function have been shown to be predictive of addiction vulnerability. Rats were reared in group (GH; 4/cage) or SI (1/cage) conditions from weaning (PD 28) into early adulthood (PD 77) and dopamine release was assessed using voltammetry in brain slices containing the NAc and dorsomedial striatum. SI rats exhibited enhanced dopamine release and uptake in both regions compared to GH rats. In regard to psychostimulant effects directly at the dopamine transporter (DAT), methylphenidate and amphetamine, but not cocaine, inhibited uptake more in SI than GH rats. The increased potencies were positively correlated with uptake rates, suggesting that increased potencies of amphetamine-like compounds are due to changes in DAT function. Cocaine’s effects on uptake were similar between rearing conditions, however, cocaine enhanced evoked dopamine release greater in SI than GH rats, suggesting that the enhanced cocaine reinforcement in SI animals involves a DAT independent mechanism. Together, the results provide the first evidence that greater psychostimulant effects in SI compared to GH rats are due to effects on dopamine terminals related to uptake dependent and independent mechanisms. PMID:26525189

  6. Effect of thyroid hormones from maternal milk on some measures of body growth and endocrine system in newborn sucklings.

    PubMed

    Turakulov, Y K; Karimova, S F; Gainutdinov, M K

    1983-10-01

    The effect of thyroidectomy (TX) in lactating mother on the development of sucklings was studied during first 15 days of life. TX resulted in a decrease of thyroxine (T4) level in maternal milk which further resulted in a decrease of the level of T4, insulin and glucose in serum of newborns, and a decrease of body weight and of the glycogen content in liver. It is suggested that the hypoglycemia, decrease of liver glycogen and retardation of body growth under such conditions result from the inhibition of glucogenesis due to a deficiency of T4 and presumably also of GH in sucklings. These investigations showed that changes of glucose and glycogen in newborns during the early postnatal period together with some other measures of the development may be used in the evaluation of their adaptation capability.

  7. The "Rear-View Mirror" Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nord, James

    1987-01-01

    The "rear-view mirror" approach referred to by McLuhan refers to new media being used with the methods of older, different media. A Sens-it (SENtence- SENtence- SITuation) cell model is suggested as an effective use of interactive videodisk systems in contrast to the communicative competence approach. (Author/LMO)

  8. PARENT ATTITUDES IN REARING MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LEICHMAN, NATHAN S.; WILLENBERG, ERNEST P.

    POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE ASPECTS OF REARING MENTAL RETARDATES WERE IDENTIFIED AND MEASURED DURING THIS STUDY BY EXAMINATIONS OF PARENTAL ATTITUDES AND HOW THESE ATTITUDES OFTEN AFFECT THE DAILY BEHAVIOR AND LEARNING READINESS OF CHILDREN WHILE IN SCHOOL. BEHAVIORAL FACTORS OF THE INDIVIDUAL CHILD WERE ANALYZED AND COMPARED WITH STATISTICS COVERING…

  9. Synthesis report on rearing Asian longhorned beetle

    Treesearch

    Melody A. Keena; Ann E. Hajek; Thomas L. M. Dubois; David R. Lance

    2003-01-01

    Since not all research on Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (ALB) can be conducted in China or at North American sites where it is being eradicated, the ability to mass rear the Asian longhorned beetle is critical to rapid progress on research necessary for exclusion, detection, and eradication of this serious pest.

  10. Contexts of Child Rearing: Problems and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronfenbrenner, Urie

    1979-01-01

    Synthesizes existing knowledge regarding interpersonal contexts of human development with emerging concepts and data that point to trans-contextual parameters of child-rearing environments. Proposes properties of the environment that foster development: primary and secondary development contexts; the impact of third parties; and interconnections…

  11. Laboratory rearing and handling of cerambycids

    Treesearch

    Melody A. Keena

    2017-01-01

    Lack of suitable rearing and handling techniques has hampered research on the biology and control of many species of cerambycids that feed on host species of economic importance. Furthermore, because cerambycids spend most or all of their pre-adult life cycle inside the host plant, the biology of many is not well-known and would be dif

  12. Contexts of Child Rearing: Problems and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronfenbrenner, Urie

    1979-01-01

    Synthesizes existing knowledge regarding interpersonal contexts of human development with emerging concepts and data that point to trans-contextual parameters of child-rearing environments. Proposes properties of the environment that foster development: primary and secondary development contexts; the impact of third parties; and interconnections…

  13. PARENT ATTITUDES IN REARING MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LEICHMAN, NATHAN S.; WILLENBERG, ERNEST P.

    POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE ASPECTS OF REARING MENTAL RETARDATES WERE IDENTIFIED AND MEASURED DURING THIS STUDY BY EXAMINATIONS OF PARENTAL ATTITUDES AND HOW THESE ATTITUDES OFTEN AFFECT THE DAILY BEHAVIOR AND LEARNING READINESS OF CHILDREN WHILE IN SCHOOL. BEHAVIORAL FACTORS OF THE INDIVIDUAL CHILD WERE ANALYZED AND COMPARED WITH STATISTICS COVERING…

  14. Rear View - Astronaut Alan Shepard - Pressure Suit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1961-01-01

    S61-02796 (5 May 1961) --- Rear view of astronaut Alan B. Shepard Jr., in his pressure suit and helmet, as he approaches the Freedom 7 capsule in preparation for ingress before the Mercury-Redstone 3 mission. All that can be seen of the astronaut is his legs. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  15. Child Rearing Study in Brunei Darussalam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosberg, Marilee A.

    In order to gather data on children's lives, language, and religious activities, and to gather data on child rearing practices in Brunei, a study interviewed parents from 38 Malaysian families having one or more children 3-8 years old. Results indicated that 92 percent of the children crawled when they were between 6-9 months old; 63 percent were…

  16. Effect of Suckling Systems on Serum Oxytocin and Cortisol Concentrations and Behavior to a Novel Object in Beef Calves

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Siyu; Tanaka, Shigefumi; Ogura, Shin-ichiro; Roh, Sanggun; Sato, Shusuke

    2015-01-01

    We investigated differences between effects of natural- and bucket-suckling methods on basal serum oxytocin (OT) and cortisol concentrations, and the effect of OT concentration on affiliative and investigative behavior of calves to a novel object. Ten Japanese Black calves, balanced with birth order, were allocated evenly to natural-suckling (NS) and bucket suckling (BS) groups. Blood samples were collected at the ages of 1 and 2 months (1 week after weaning) calves, and serum OT and cortisol concentrations were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and enzymeimmunoassay tests, respectively. Each calf at the age of 2 months (2 weeks after weaning) was released into an open-field with a calf decoy, and its investigative and affiliative behaviors were recorded for 20 minutes. In 1-month-old calves, the basal serum OT concentration (25.5±4.9 [mean±standard deviation, pg/mL]) of NS was significantly higher than that of BS (16.9±6.7) (p<0.05), whereas the basal cortisol concentration (5.8±2.5 [mean±standard deviation, ng/mL]) of NS was significantly lower than that in BS (10.0±2.8) (p<0.05). Additionally, a negative correlation was noted between serum OT and cortisol concentrations in 1-month-old calves (p = 0.06). Further, the higher serum OT concentration the calves had at 1 month old, the more investigative the calves were at 2 months old but not affiliative in the open-field with a calf decoy. Thus, we concluded that the natural suckling method from a dam elevates the basal serum OT concentration in calves, and high serum OT concentrations induce investigative behavior and attenuate cortisol concentrations. PMID:26580289

  17. Mid Columbia sturgeon incubation and rearing study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, Michael J.; Kofoot, Eric; Blubaugh, J

    2011-01-01

    This report describes the results from the second year of a three-year investigation on the effects of different thermal regimes on incubation and rearing early life stages of white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus. The Columbia River has been significantly altered by the construction of dams resulting in annual flows and water temperatures that differ from historical levels. White sturgeon have been demonstrated to spawn in two very distinct sections of the Columbia River in British Columbia, Canada, which are both located immediately downstream of hydropower facilities. The thermal regimes differ substantially between these two areas. The general approach of this study was to incubate and rear white sturgeon early life stages under two thermal regimes; one mimicking the current, cool water regime of the Columbia River downstream from Revelstoke Dam, and one mimicking a warmer regime similar to conditions found on the Columbia River at the international border. Second-year results suggest that thermal regimes during incubation influence rate of egg development and size at hatch. Eggs incubated under the warm thermal regime hatched sooner than those incubated under the cool thermal regime. Mean length of free embryos at hatch was significantly different between thermal regimes with free embryos from the warm thermal regime being longer at hatch. However, free embryos from the cool thermal regime had a significantly higher mean weight at hatch. This is in contrast with results obtained during 2009. The rearing trials revealed that growth of fish reared in the cool thermal regime was substantially less than growth of fish reared in the warm thermal regime. The magnitude of mortality was greatest in the warm thermal regime prior to initiation of exogenous feeding, but chronic low levels of mortality in the cool thermal regime were higher throughout the period. The starvation trials showed that the fish in the warm thermal regime exhausted their yolk reserves faster

  18. TRACES OF ORIGINAL PARTITIONS AT JUNCTURE OF FRONT ROOM, REAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TRACES OF ORIGINAL PARTITIONS AT JUNCTURE OF FRONT ROOM, REAR ROOM AND HALL, SECOND FLOOR. ALSO SHOWS ORIGINAL STUCCO CORNICE OF FRONT AND REAR ROOMS (LEFT) AND HALL (RIGHT) - Kid-Chandler House, 323 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  19. 53. REAR OF MOTOR AND REDUCTION GEAR NO. 2: View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. REAR OF MOTOR AND REDUCTION GEAR NO. 2: View towards northwest showing rear of Motor and Reduction Gear No. 2, installed in 1926. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  20. 4. NORTH ELEVATION, SHOWING ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICES AT LEFT REAR, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. NORTH ELEVATION, SHOWING ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICES AT LEFT REAR, AND SWITCH RACK AT RIGHT REAR. VIEW TO SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-3 Powerhouse, San Bernardino National Forest, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  1. BOILING HOUSE, GROUND FLOOR. WAREHOUSE TO LEFT REAR, MASSECUITTE HEATERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BOILING HOUSE, GROUND FLOOR. WAREHOUSE TO LEFT REAR, MASSECUITTE HEATERS ABOVE RIGHT, LOW GRADE CENTRIFUGALS BELOW. CRYSTALLIZER HOT WATER TANK TO REAR. VIEW FROM NORTHEAST - Lihue Plantation Company, Sugar Mill Building, Haleko Road, Lihue, Kauai County, HI

  2. EVAPORATOR FLOOR, CELL ONE IN FOREGROUND, CRYSTALLIZER MEZZANINE TO REAR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EVAPORATOR FLOOR, CELL ONE IN FOREGROUND, CRYSTALLIZER MEZZANINE TO REAR, OLIVER MUD FILTER WING TO RIGHT REAR. VIEW FROM NORTHEAST - Lihue Plantation Company, Sugar Mill Building, Haleko Road, Lihue, Kauai County, HI

  3. 31. REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of July 1908 photograph showing west rear of powerhouse and car barn. View from the north. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  4. [Post suckling prolactin and estradiol levels as predictors of the time of appearance of the first post partum menstruation].

    PubMed

    Valdés, Patricio; Orellana, Juan J

    2007-04-01

    The variability in the duration of lactational amenorrhoea (LA) lead to develop statistical multivariate models to predict the risk of the appearance of the first postpartum menstruation. To estimate the probability of recovering the first postpartum menstruation by means of a survival analysis, including hormonal levels and other parameters as predictor variables. Eighty one mothers in exclusive breastfeeding until the sixth postpartum month, in whom estradiol, basal and post suckling prolactin were measured at the third post partum month, were studied. The variables that better predict the appearance of the first menstruation between the 3rd and 12th postpartum months, were identified using a Cox model survival analysis. The median amenorrhea survival time (the lapse when the chance of recovering menstruation is 50%) was 209 days from delivery. Dichotomized estradiol and post suckling prolactin were the only significant variables that predicted the return of menstruation, with cutoff points of 190 pmol/ and 2,550 mIU/L, respectively. Post suckling prolantin and estradiol levels, measured at the third post partum month, are predictors for the time of appearance of the first postpartum menstruation.

  5. Limits to sustained energy intake XXIV: impact of suckling behaviour on the body temperatures of lactating female mice

    PubMed Central

    Gamo, Y.; Bernard, A.; Troup, C.; Munro, F.; Derrer, K.; Jeannesson, N.; Campbell, A.; Gray, H.; Miller, J.; Dixon, J.; Mitchell, S. E.; Hambly, C.; Vaanholt, L. M.; Speakman, J. R.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential causes of high body temperature (Tb) during lactation in mice as a putative limit on energy intake. In particular we explored whether or not offspring contributed to heat retention in mothers while suckling. Tb and physical activity were monitored in 26 female MF1 mice using intraperitoneally implanted transmitters. In addition, maternal behaviour was scored each minute for 8 h d−1 throughout lactation. Mothers that raised larger litters tended to have higher Tb while nursing inside nests (P < 0.05), suggesting that nursing offspring may have influenced heat retention. However, Tb during nursing was not higher than that recorded during other behaviours. In addition, the highest Tb during the observation period was not measured during nursing behaviour. Finally, there was no indication that mothers discontinued suckling because of a progressive rise in their Tb while suckling. Tb throughout lactation was correlated with daily increases in energy intake. Chronic hyperthermia during lactation was not caused by increased heat retention due to surrounding offspring. Other factors, like metabolic heat produced as a by-product of milk production or energy intake may be more important factors. Heat dissipation limits are probably not a phenomenon restricted to lactation. PMID:27157478

  6. Temporal plasma vitamin concentrations are altered by fat-soluble vitamin administration in suckling pigs.

    PubMed

    Jang, Y D; Ma, J Y; Monegue, J S; Monegue, H J; Stuart, R L; Lindemann, M D

    2015-11-01

    Piglets are born with purportedly low plasma vitamin D levels. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of fat-soluble vitamin administration, primarily vitamin D, by different administration routes on plasma vitamin concentrations in suckling pigs. A total of 45 pigs from 5 litters were allotted at birth to 3 treatments within each litter. Pigs were administered 400 IU of α-tocopherol, 40,000 IU of retinyl palmitate, and 40,000 IU of vitamin D at d 1 of age either orally or by i.m. injection and compared with control pigs with no supplemental vitamin administration. Blood samples were collected at d 0 (initial), 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 14, and 20 after administration. Plasma 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25OHD), α-tocopherol, retinyl palmitate, and retinol concentrations were analyzed. Except for retinol, the effects of treatment, day, and day × treatment interaction ( < 0.01) were observed on plasma vitamin concentrations. Plasma concentrations of 25OHD and α-tocopherol increased immediately regardless of administration routes to peak at d 2 and 1 after administration, respectively. Plasma retinyl palmitate concentrations increased only with the injection treatment, with the peak at d 1 after administration. Plasma concentrations of 25OHD in both administration treatments and α-tocopherol in the injection treatment were maintained at greater levels than those in the control treatment until d 20 after administration. With regard to the pharmacokinetic parameters for plasma 25OHD concentrations, the injection treatment had greater elimination half-life ( < 0.01), maximum plasma concentrations ( < 0.05), and all area under the curve parameters ( < 0.01) but a lower elimination rate constant ( < 0.01) than the oral treatment. Relative bioavailability of oral administration compared with injection administration was 55.26%. These results indicate that plasma status of 25OHD,α-tocopherol, and retinyl palmitate are differentially changed between types of

  7. Isospora orlovi infection in suckling dromedary camel calves (Camelus dromedarius) in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, S; Gluecks, I V; Younan, M; Thebo, P; Mattsson, J G

    2008-04-15

    Outbreaks of isosporosis in young suckling dromedary camel calves (Camelus dromedarius) in Dubai, UAE and in Kenya were recently described. In the former outbreak the pathogen was shown to be Isospora orlovi by morphological features and was later characterized molecularly. In the present study, we have made a longitudinal investigation of 159 suckling dromedary calves < or =12 weeks of age belonging to 8 ranched camel herds (M1) in Northern Kenya. The study was carried out during 18 months. In three of the herds frequent samples were taken irregularly every 1-6 weeks. All calves < or =12 weeks of age present in the respective herds were sampled during the visits. In addition, 91 calves of the same age group but belonging to 42 pastoral herds (M2) in Northern Kenya were point sampled at convenience. Faecal samples from each calf were taken and the faeces were investigated for coccidia. Samples found with coccidian oocysts were suspended in a 2% potassium dichromate solution. Isospora sp. was identified and samples with relatively high numbers of Isospora sp. were analysed molecularly. The SSU rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) were amplified with primers complementary to conserved regions of the SSU rRNA gene in eukaryotes as well as a conserved part of the 5.8S rRNA gene of Eimeria. A relatively high number of the calves exhibited diarrhoea, 30.2% and 41.8% in the M1 and M2 herds, respectively. Isospora sp. was only found in diarrhoeic calves or in calves convalescent from recent scouring periods. No calf >8 weeks of age was found to be excreting Isospora sp. The parasite was only found in calves < or =4 weeks of age in the M1 herds and in the M2 herds in calves <8 weeks of age. Of the M1 and M2 calves exhibiting diarrhoea, 20.8% and 26.3% excreted Isospora sp., respectively. Morphologically the Isospora sp. was similar to I. orlovi and sequence analysis of the SSU rRNA gene from four Kenyan isolates (unfortunately only from the pastoral herds, M2

  8. Impaired extinction of fear conditioning after REM deprivation is magnified by rearing in an enriched environment.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Amy Silvestri

    2015-07-01

    Evidence from both human and animal studies indicates that rapid eye movement sleep (REM) is essential for the acquisition and retention of information, particularly of an emotional nature. Learning and memory can also be impacted by manipulation of housing condition such as exposure to an enriched environment (EE). This study investigated the effects of REM deprivation and EE, both separately and combined, on the extinction of conditioned fear in rats. Consistent with prior studies, conditioning was enhanced in EE-reared rats and extinction was impaired in REM deprived rats. In addition, rats exposed to both REM deprivation and EE showed the greatest impairment in extinction, with effects persisting through the first two days of extinction training. This study is the first to explore the combination of REM deprivation and EE and suggests that manipulations that alter sleep, particularly REM, can have persisting deleterious effects on emotional memory processing.

  9. 13. Dairy barn, west side, rear stall wing to left, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Dairy barn, west side, rear stall wing to left, rear yard at center, and rear yard wall to right - A. I. Du Pont Estate, Blue Ball Dairy Barn, Junction of U.S. Route 202 & Rockland Road, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  10. 49 CFR 393.80 - Rear-vision mirrors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rear-vision mirrors. 393.80 Section 393.80... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.80 Rear-vision mirrors. (a) Every bus, truck, and truck tractor shall be equipped with two rear-vision mirrors, one at each side, firmly...

  11. 49 CFR 393.80 - Rear-vision mirrors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rear-vision mirrors. 393.80 Section 393.80... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.80 Rear-vision mirrors. (a) Every bus, truck, and truck tractor shall be equipped with two rear-vision mirrors, one at each side, firmly...

  12. 49 CFR 393.80 - Rear-vision mirrors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rear-vision mirrors. 393.80 Section 393.80... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.80 Rear-vision mirrors. (a) Every bus, truck, and truck tractor shall be equipped with two rear-vision mirrors, one at each side, firmly...

  13. 49 CFR 393.80 - Rear-vision mirrors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rear-vision mirrors. 393.80 Section 393.80... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.80 Rear-vision mirrors. (a) Every bus, truck, and truck tractor shall be equipped with two rear-vision mirrors, one at each side, firmly...

  14. 49 CFR 393.80 - Rear-vision mirrors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rear-vision mirrors. 393.80 Section 393.80... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.80 Rear-vision mirrors. (a) Every bus, truck, and truck tractor shall be equipped with two rear-vision mirrors, one at each side, firmly...

  15. 24. REAR ELEVATION, HULETT ORE UNLOADERS. TRACKS CARRYING THE FRONT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. REAR ELEVATION, HULETT ORE UNLOADERS. TRACKS CARRYING THE FRONT END AND REAR LEGS OF THE HULETT UNLOADERS ARE LAID ON THE DOCK AND REAR WALLS, RESPECTIVELY; BOTH WALLS ARE MADE OF REINFORCED CONCRETE SUPPORTED ON CONCRETE PILES. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  16. GARAGE EXTERIOR EAST SIDE AND REAR SHOWING PIER SUPPORTS UNDER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GARAGE EXTERIOR EAST SIDE AND REAR SHOWING PIER SUPPORTS UNDER SHED-ROOFED REAR STORAGE COMPARTMENT, ASBESTOS SIDING OVER ORIGINAL WOOD SIDING, AND SINGLE CASEMENT WINDOW OVER REAR STORAGE COMPARTMENT. VIEW TO NORTHWEST - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Big Creek Town, Operator House Garage, Orchard Avenue south of Huntington Lake Road, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

  17. Artificial rearing of 10 species of wood-boring insects

    Treesearch

    Jimmy R. Galford

    1969-01-01

    Small numbers of 10 species of wood-boring insects were reared from newly hatched larvae to adults on artificial media with good survival. Species with life cycles of up to 2 years in nature were reared on the media in less than 1 year. Although all of the adults appeared normal physically, some were sterile. One species was reared artificially for three generations....

  18. Feeding behaviour of artificially reared Romane lambs.

    PubMed

    David, I; Bouvier, F; Ricard, E; Ruesche, J; Weisbecker, J-L

    2014-06-01

    A consequence of increasing litter size in sheep is that a portion of the lambs have to be reared artificially. Detailed information about the pattern of milk consumption of artificially reared lambs would help improve their management. The purpose of this study is to describe the individual and group feeding behaviour of 94 Romane artificially reared lambs from 5 to 28 days of age using an electronic automatic lamb feeder. Animals were located in four pens of 8 to 15 lambs of similar age with one teat per pen. They were fed ad libitum. In our experimental situation (group rearing, continuous lightning) on average a lamb made 1.4±0.7 visits to the teat per meal and 9.5±3 meals per day. Mean meal duration was 247±158 s and the mean daily time spent feeding was 38±25 min. The mean quantity of milk intake was 176±132 ml per meal and 1.68±0.8 l per day. With age, the number of daily meals and their duration decreased while the quantity of milk consumed per meal and per day increased. Females tended to make more visits to the teat per meal and perform more meals per day but their milk consumption per meal was lower. The feed conversion ratio was 1.36±0.2. Synchrony in feeding (group meal) was estimated as the percentage of lambs that wanted to access the teat within the same short period (relative group meal size). On average 65% of lambs in the pen wanted to access the teat within the same period, but for 35% of group meals the relative group meal size was >90%. There was no consistency in the order in which lambs accessed the teat during a group meal. Our evaluation suggested that electronic automatic lamb feeders are tools that can provide, on a large scale, data describing the feeding behaviour of artificially reared lambs. It is then possible to study factors influencing these traits in order to improve the outcome of artificially reared lambs.

  19. Carcass measurements and meat quality characteristics of dairy suckling kids compared to an indigenous genotype.

    PubMed

    Ekiz, Bulent; Ozcan, Mustafa; Yilmaz, Alper; Tölü, Cemil; Savaş, Türker

    2010-06-01

    Effects of genotype on carcass measurements and meat quality were investigated by using 24 suckling kids from Turkish Saanen, Gokceada and Maltese breeds. Carcass quality characteristics of indigenous kids (Gokceada) were lower than those of dairy type (Turkish Saanen and Maltese) kids. Breed effect on ultimate meat pH, cooking loss, drip loss and Warner Bratzler shear force values were not significant. Meat samples from Turkish Saanen kids had higher redness (at 0, 1 and 24h) and yellowness (at 24h) values than Gokceada kids (P<0.05). Breed had no significant effect on sensory characteristics except flavour intensity. Flavour intensity scores given to meat samples of Maltese kids were higher than those of Turkish Saanen and Gokceada kids (P<0.01). In conclusion, dairy type breeds should be considered for meat production as well, with meat from Maltese kids potentially offering better colour and flavour intensity than that of Turkish Saanen kids. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Critical role of the endogenous cannabinoid system in mouse pup suckling and growth.

    PubMed

    Fride, E; Ginzburg, Y; Breuer, A; Bisogno, T; Di Marzo, V; Mechoulam, R

    2001-05-11

    Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the active principle in marijuana, is a cannabinoid receptor agonist. Both the crude drug and delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol have been used as appetite promoters. The endogenous cannabinoid, arachidonoyl ethanolamide (anandamide), likewise a cannabinoid receptor agonist, has been shown to have the same effect. In contrast, the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1-H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (SR141716A) reduces food intake. Here, we report that administration of SR141716A to newly born mouse pups (either a single administration on postnatal day 1, or daily for a week as of postnatal day 2) had a devastating effect on milk ingestion and growth. The first 24 h after birth appeared the most critical for the growth stunting effect of SR141716A. Death followed within 4-8 days. Co-administration of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol almost fully reversed the effect of the antagonist in the week-long regimen. Co-administration of 2-arachidonoyl glycerol, an endocannabinoid, with 2-palmitoyl glycerol and 2-linoleoyl glycerol, which enhance 2-arachidonoyl glycerol potency, resulted in a significant delay in mortality rates caused by the antagonist. We conclude that the endocannabinoid system plays a vital role in milk suckling, and hence in growth and development during the early stages of mouse life.

  1. Prolactin response to suckling and maintenance of postpartum amenorrhea among intensively breastfeeding Nepali women.

    PubMed

    Stallings, J F; Worthman, C M; Panter-Brick, C; Coates, R J

    1996-02-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the association between PRL responses to suckling and maintenance of postpartum amenorrhea among breastfeeding mothers. Three blood spot samples (5, 30, and 50 min following a timed nursing bout) were collected from 71 intensively breastfeeding Nepali women for PRL determination. Maternal age, BMI (weight/height2), menstrual status, caste, infant age, nursing bout length, and duration of supplementation were recorded at time of sample collection. Independent and paired t tests, linear regression analyses, and general linear models were used to evaluate differences between cycling (n = 36) and amenorrheic (n = 35) women and associations among variables. Logistic regression analyses were used to relate PRL measures to the odds of maintaining lactational amenorrhea. Amenorrheic breastfeeding mothers had higher (P < .001) PRL levels at all 3 collection times than cycling breastfeeding mothers, and PRL levels declined with time since birth (P < 0.05). The odds (OR) of having ceased lactational amenorrhea was significantly higher (OR = 5.0, 95% Cl = 1.3-19.9) among mothers with lower PRL levels (< or = 10 ng/mL) at 50 min post-sucking, and PRL at 50 min showed a significant dose response relationship with menstrual status. The association between 50 min PRL levels and lactational amenorrhea appears to be independent of time postpartum, maternal age, BMI, nursing bout length, and duration of supplementation. Among intensively nursing women, maintenance of elevated PRL levels across the interbout interval increases the odds of maintaining lactational amenorrhea.

  2. Iron Supplementation in Suckling Piglets: How to Correct Iron Deficiency Anemia without Affecting Plasma Hepcidin Levels

    PubMed Central

    Starzyński, Rafał R.; Laarakkers, Coby M. M.; Tjalsma, Harold; Swinkels, Dorine W.; Pieszka, Marek; Styś, Agnieszka; Mickiewicz, Michał; Lipiński, Paweł

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to establish an optimized protocol of iron dextran administration to pig neonates, which better meets the iron demand for erythropoiesis. Here, we monitored development of red blood cell indices, plasma iron parameters during a 28-day period after birth (till the weaning), following intramuscular administration of different concentrations of iron dextran to suckling piglets. To better assess the iron status we developed a novel mass spectrometry assay to quantify pig plasma levels of the iron-regulatory peptide hormone hepcidin-25. This hormone is predominantly secreted by the liver and acts as a negative regulator of iron absorption and reutilization. The routinely used protocol with high amount of iron resulted in the recovery of piglets from iron deficiency but also in strongly elevated plasma hepcidin-25 levels. A similar protocol with reduced amounts of iron improved hematological status of piglets to the same level while plasma hepcidin-25 levels remained low. These data show that plasma hepcidin-25 levels can guide optimal dosing of iron treatment and pave the way for mixed supplementation of piglets starting with intramuscular injection of iron dextran followed by dietary supplementation, which could be efficient under condition of very low plasma hepcidin-25 level. PMID:23737963

  3. Iron supplementation in suckling piglets: how to correct iron deficiency anemia without affecting plasma hepcidin levels.

    PubMed

    Starzyński, Rafał R; Laarakkers, Coby M M; Tjalsma, Harold; Swinkels, Dorine W; Pieszka, Marek; Styś, Agnieszka; Mickiewicz, Michał; Lipiński, Paweł

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to establish an optimized protocol of iron dextran administration to pig neonates, which better meets the iron demand for erythropoiesis. Here, we monitored development of red blood cell indices, plasma iron parameters during a 28-day period after birth (till the weaning), following intramuscular administration of different concentrations of iron dextran to suckling piglets. To better assess the iron status we developed a novel mass spectrometry assay to quantify pig plasma levels of the iron-regulatory peptide hormone hepcidin-25. This hormone is predominantly secreted by the liver and acts as a negative regulator of iron absorption and reutilization. The routinely used protocol with high amount of iron resulted in the recovery of piglets from iron deficiency but also in strongly elevated plasma hepcidin-25 levels. A similar protocol with reduced amounts of iron improved hematological status of piglets to the same level while plasma hepcidin-25 levels remained low. These data show that plasma hepcidin-25 levels can guide optimal dosing of iron treatment and pave the way for mixed supplementation of piglets starting with intramuscular injection of iron dextran followed by dietary supplementation, which could be efficient under condition of very low plasma hepcidin-25 level.

  4. Effect of stunning systems on meat quality of Manchego suckling lamb packed under modified atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Linares, M B; Bórnez, R; Vergara, H

    2008-03-01

    The effects of the type of stunning (TS) [electrically vs. gas] and packing in modified atmospheres (MA) [MA-A: 30% CO(2)/70% O(2); MA-B: 30% CO(2)/69.3% N(2)/0.7% CO; MA-C: 40% CO(2)/60% N(2)] on meat quality (pH), drip losses (DL), water holding capacity (WHC), shear force (SF) and instrumental colour (L(∗), and C(∗)chroma) of suckling lamb of the Spanish Manchego breed at 7, 14 and 21d post-packing was studied. Acceptance of meat samples (on the basis of colour and odour) was determined. In general neither the TS nor the MA affected the pH values. Meat from the gas stunned lambs had the lowest DL (P<0.001 at 14d post-packing), but lower WHC (more water expelled; P<0.01 at 14 and 21d post-packing), was more tender (P<0.01) and had higher L(∗) (P<0.001 at 14d post-packing) and C(∗) values (P<0.001) than the electrically stunned group. Similar values of WHC and SF were observed for all MA types but the use of CO in the packs (MA-B) caused less DL, gave the highest C(∗) values, acceptability and colour stability with time of storage.

  5. Meat quality in suckling lambs: effect of pre-slaughter handling.

    PubMed

    Vergara, H; Linares, M B; Berruga, M I; Gallego, L

    2005-03-01

    Thirty-three suckling lambs of the Manchega breed were used to compare the effects of pre-slaughter handling (PSH) on initial meat quality and at 7 days post-mortem. Lambs were distributed into three groups: electrically stunned (ESL; n=15), stunned using CO(2) (GSL; n=10) and slaughtered without previous stunning (USL; n=8). Meat quality was evaluated by examining pH, colour (L*, a*, b* values), water holding capacity (WHC), cooking loss (CL), shear force (SF) and drip loss (DL). At 24 h post-mortem, the highest pH corresponded to the USL group (P<0.05) whereas the lowest pH decline (pH(0)-pH(24)) corresponded to the GSL group (P<0.05). Differences in pH among groups disappeared after 7 days post-mortem. In general, PSH did not affect values of WHC, CL and colour parameters. After 7 days post-mortem, there were significant differences between groups in DL, this being lowest (P<0.05) in stunned animals. GSL resulted in more tender meat (lower SF value) than ESL and USL (P<0.05). Moreover, there was no blood splash in any of the carcasses of the GSL group.

  6. Validation of a New Larval Rearing Unit for Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Mass Rearing

    PubMed Central

    Gilles, Jérémie R. L.; Bellini, Romeo

    2014-01-01

    The mosquito larval rearing unit developed at the Insect Pest Control Laboratory (IPCL) of the FAO/IAEA Joint Division was evaluated for its potential use for Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1895) mass rearing in support of the development of a sterile insect technique (SIT) package for this species. The use of the mass rearing trays and rack did not adversely affect larval development, pupation and survival rates and allowed the management of large larval rearing colonies with reduced space requirements in comparison with classical individual trays. The effects of larval density, water temperature and diet composition on pupal production and size differentiation for sex separation efficacy were analyzed for individual mass rearing trays as well as multiple trays stacked within the dedicated rack unit. Best results were obtained using eighteen thousand larvae per tray at a density of 3 larvae per ml of deionized water at a temperature of 28°C on a diet consisting of 50% tuna meal, 36% bovine liver powder, 14% brewer's yeast and, as an additive, 0.2 gr of Vitamin Mix per 100 ml of diet solution. Pupae were harvested on the sixth day from larval introduction at L1 stage and males were separated out by the use of a 1400 µm sieve with 99.0% accuracy with a recovery rate of ca. 25% of the total available males. With the use of this larval rearing unit, an average production of 100,000 male pupae per week can be achieved in just 2 square meter of laboratory space. Compared to previous laboratory rearing method, the same pupal production and sex separation efficacy could only be achieved by use of ca. 200 plastic trays which required the space of two 5 square meter climatic-controlled rooms. PMID:24647347

  7. Rearing Chrysoperla externa Larvae on Artificial Diets.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, C E S; Amaral, B B; Souza, B

    2017-02-01

    We tested three artificial diets for rearing larvae of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), aiming at reducing the production costs of this predator. Two of the diets come from studies with other species of lacewings, and the third is a modification described in this paper. All diets were based on animal protein and were supplied to 2nd and 3rd instar larvae, whereas 1st instar larvae received eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). We evaluated the preimaginal duration and survival, adult size, longevity and fecundity, egg hatchability, and predatory capacity of larvae produced. The performance of the diets was followed for seven generations. The diet we describe showed to be the best among the artificial diets tested. Our results show that C. externa can be successfully reared on artificial diets during second and third instars, reducing in 90% the dependency on eggs of A. kuehniella.

  8. Slow Progress in Dune (Left Rear Wheel)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The left rear wheel of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity makes slow but steady progress through soft dune material in this movie clip of frames taken by the rover's rear hazard identification camera over a period of several days. The sequence starts on Opportunity's 460th martian day, or sol (May 10, 2005) and ends 11 days later. In eight drives during that period, Opportunity advanced a total of 26 centimeters (10 inches) while spinning its wheels enough to have driven 46 meters (151 feet) if there were no slippage. The motion appears to speed up near the end of the clip, but that is an artifact of individual frames being taken less frequently.

  9. Slow Progress in Dune (Right Rear Wheel)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The right rear wheel of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity makes slow but steady progress through soft dune material in this movie clip of frames taken by the rover's rear hazard identification camera over a period of several days. The wheel is largely hidden by a cable bundle. The sequence starts on Opportunity's 460th martian day, or sol (May 10, 2005) and ends 11 days later. In eight drives during that period, Opportunity advanced a total of 26 centimeters (10 inches) while spinning its wheels enough to have driven 46 meters (151 feet) if there were no slippage. The motion appears to speed up near the end of the clip, but that is an artifact of individual frames being taken less frequently.

  10. Opiate addicts and their perceived parental rearing.

    PubMed

    Anasagasti, J I; Denia, M

    1988-01-01

    A comparison is made between a group of young opiate addicts and a control group on their parents' rearing attitudes. A number of significant differences between the two groups emerged e.g. concerning affection, guilt engendering, favouring self esteem, estimation of school performance, strictness indicating a defective family atmosphere. The presence of a high percentage of alcoholism in fathers of the toxicomanics supports these findings.

  11. Movements and wetland selection by brood-rearing black ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ringelman, J.K.; Longcore, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    Movements and wetland selection by brood-rearing black ducks (Anas rubripes) were studied in Maine during 1977-80. Eight radio-marked hens moved their broods an average of 1.2 km from the nest to rearing pond, but only 1 hen initiated secondary brood movements. Half of the 85 broods reared in the study area used only 3 wetlands, and most rearing ponds contained active beaver (Castor canadensis) colonies. Brood-rearing hens preferred Emergent ponds over lakes and Evergreen Scrub-Shrub wetlands, and did not occupy Dead Scrub-Shrub, Unconsolidated Bottom, or Aquatic Bed wetlands. Rearing ponds were large and possessed extensive areas of flooded mountain alder (Alnus incana), willow (Salix spp.), and herbaceous vegetation. Wetlands avoided by brood-rearing hens were those with large areas of open water, submergent aquatics, or ericaceous shrub vegetation.

  12. Individual differences in impulsive and risky choice: Effects of environmental rearing conditions

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Kimberly; Marshall, Andrew T.; Smith, Aaron P.; Koci, Juraj; Park, Yoonseong

    2014-01-01

    The present experiment investigated early-rearing environment modulation of individual differences in impulsive and risky choice. Rats were reared in an isolated condition (IC; n = 12), in which they lived alone without novel stimuli, or an enriched condition (EC; n = 12), in which they lived among conspecifics with novel stimuli. The impulsive choice task involved choices between smaller-sooner (SS) versus larger-later (LL) rewards. The risky choice task involved choices between certain-smaller (C-S) versus uncertain-larger (U-L) rewards. Following choice testing, incentive motivation to work for food was measured using a progressive ratio task and correlated with choice behavior. HPLC analyses were conducted to determine how monoamine concentrations within the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAC) related to behavior in different tasks. IC rats were more impulsive than EC rats, but they did not differ in risky choice behavior. However, choice behavior across tasks was significantly correlated (i.e., the more impulsive rats were also riskier). There were no group differences in monoamine levels, but noradrenergic and serotonergic concentrations were significantly correlated with impulsive and risky choice. Furthermore, serotonin and norepinephrine concentrations in the NAC significantly correlated with incentive motivation and the timing of the reward delays within the choice tasks. These results suggest a role for domain general processes in impulsive and risky choice and indicate the importance of the NAC and/or PFC in timing, reward processing, and choice behavior. PMID:24769268

  13. Individual differences in impulsive and risky choice: effects of environmental rearing conditions.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Kimberly; Marshall, Andrew T; Smith, Aaron P; Koci, Juraj; Park, Yoonseong

    2014-08-01

    The present experiment investigated early-rearing environment modulation of individual differences in impulsive and risky choice. Rats were reared in an isolated condition (IC; n=12), in which they lived alone without novel stimuli, or an enriched condition (EC; n=11), in which they lived among conspecifics with novel stimuli. The impulsive choice task involved choices between smaller-sooner (SS) versus larger-later (LL) rewards. The risky choice task involved choices between certain-smaller (C-S) versus uncertain-larger (U-L) rewards. Following choice testing, incentive motivation to work for food was measured using a progressive ratio task and correlated with choice behavior. HPLC analyses were conducted to determine how monoamine concentrations within the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAC) related to behavior in different tasks. IC rats were more impulsive than EC rats, but they did not differ in risky choice behavior. However, choice behavior across tasks was significantly correlated (i.e., the more impulsive rats were also riskier). There were no group differences in monoamine levels, but noradrenergic and serotonergic concentrations were significantly correlated with impulsive and risky choice. Furthermore, serotonin and norepinephrine concentrations in the NAC significantly correlated with incentive motivation and the timing of the reward delays within the choice tasks. These results suggest a role for domain general processes in impulsive and risky choice and indicate the importance of the NAC and/or PFC in timing, reward processing, and choice behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Oxidative stress induced by gibberellic acid on kidney tissue of female rats and their progeny: biochemical and histopathological studies.

    PubMed

    Troudi, Afef; Ben Amara, Ibtissem; Soudani, Nejla; Samet, Amira Mahjoubi; Zeghal, Najiba

    2011-09-01

    Gibberellic acid (GA(3)) is an endogenous plant growth regulator used worldwide in agriculture. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of GA(3) on the kidney function of adult rats and their pups. Female Wistar rats were given daily 200 ppm GA(3) in drinking water from the 14th day of pregnancy until day 14 after delivery. GA(3) induced nephrotoxicity, as evidenced by a reduction in the 24-h urine volume and an increase in plasma creatinine, urea and uric acid levels. Nephrotoxicity was objectified by a significant increase of malondialdehyde level and a decrease of antioxidant enzyme activities like catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione content in kidneys of suckling pups and their mothers. Kidney histological studies confirmed biochemical parameters. We concluded that the exposure of rats to GA(3) induced oxidative stress and histopathological changes in kidneys of suckling rats and their mothers during late pregnancy and early postnatal periods.

  15. Fatty acid composition of lamb meat from the autochthonous Jezersko-Solčava breed reared in different production systems.

    PubMed

    Cividini, Angela; Levart, Alenka; Žgur, Silvester; Kompan, Drago

    2014-08-01

    Thirty two autochthonous Jezersko-Solčava lambs were used to investigate the effect of production (pasture vs. stable) and weaning system (suckling vs. weaned) on fatty acid composition of Longissimus dorsi intramuscular fat in a 2 × 2 factorial design. Pasture lambs had lower intramuscular fat concentration (P<0.0001) more PUFA and trans C18:1, more ALA (P=0.0322), ARA (<0.0001) and EPA (0.0149) but less SFA (P<0.0001) than stable lambs. Weaning system affected PUFA (P=0.0040) and MUFA (P=0.0070) but not SFA and trans C18:1 fatty acids. The interaction of production system and weaning system was significant mainly for trans C18:1 and trans C18:2 fatty acids. Finally, lamb meat from all four treatments which are traditionally used in rearing of Jezersko-Solčava lambs are favourable from the nutritive point of view, due to their low n-6/n-3 ratio. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of different post mortem temperatures on carcass quality of suckling lamb.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Begoña; Vieira, Ceferina; Martínez, Beatriz; Fernández, Ana M

    2013-08-01

    The effect of post mortem treatment on microbiological lamb carcass quality was studied. Suckling lambs carcasses were assigned to three different post mortem treatments: conventional (2  for 24 h), ultra-rapid (-20  for 3.5 h then 2  until 24 h post mortem) and slow (12   for 7 h then 2  until 24 h post mortem). Carcass pH and temperature were measured at 0, 3.5, 7 and 24 h post slaughter. Lamb carcasses were sampled for total aerobic viable and Enterobacteriaceae counts just after dressing and 24 h post mortem. A significant effect (p < 0.05) of post mortem treatment on carcasses temperature and pH was found corresponding the faster pH fall to slowly chilled muscles. However, no differences were found at 24 h post mortem among treatments in both parameters. Regarding microbiological results, carcasses of ultra-rapid treatment had the lowest total aerobic viable and Enterobacteriaceae counts and those belonging to conventional treatment had the highest total aerobic viable counts. From 0 to 24 h post mortem, an increase of total aerobic viable was observed in conventional and slow treatments whilst Enterobacteriaceae counts remained constant in all cases. From a microbiological point of view, the ultra-rapid treatment was the only one allowed to maintain the hygienic carcasses quality. However, according to pH and temperature results the carcasses subjected to this treatment may be susceptible to cold shortening.

  17. Evolution of the Gulf of Alaska coastal plain: Cape Suckling to Icy Point

    SciTech Connect

    Molnia, B.F.

    1985-01-01

    The Gulf of Alaska coastline, coastal plain, and adjacent continental margin between Cape Suckling and Icy Point is located on the leading edge of the northwestward moving Pacific Plate. Although dominated by intensive wind and wave erosion, this coastal region is accretionary. This apparent contradiction results from the ongoing combination of aperiodic seismic uplift and long-term tectonic uplift raising new shoreline areas which are immediately attacked by erosion. If the hiatus between episodes of successive uplift is short, then a segment of the uplifted area is preserved as a coastal plain ridge. About one-half of the almost 500 km long coastal area has a ridge cover. Near the Alsek River and west of Cape Yakataga, as many as 20 distinct parallel ridges exist. All are younger than 3000 radiocarbon years old. Approximately 4000 years ago, as eustatic sea level reached present level, there was no coastal plain. Rather, the Pacific Ocean covered a deep, glacially-scoured bedrock shelf and reached directly to the foot of the coast mountains. Rivers draining onto the continental shelf had to fill fiords and shelf basins before a continental shelf sediment wedge developed. Only in the past 2000-3000 years has the wedge projected above sea level. Once this occurred, the combination of seismicity and tectonics began the ridge building process. This combination of processes has produced an extremely young, very dynamic, changing coastline and coastal plain. As evidence of its youthfulness, the two largest ridge complexes adjacent to the coastline were too young to date by radiocarbon methods.

  18. Supplemental dietary whey protein concentrate reduces rotavirus-induced disease symptoms in suckling mice.

    PubMed

    Wolber, Frances M; Broomfield, Anne M; Fray, Linley; Cross, Martin L; Dey, Debjit

    2005-06-01

    Rotavirus-induced diarrhea is a common infection that results in the death of nearly 500,000 children annually. Currently, no large-scale preventative treatments or vaccines exist. Because some whey protein concentrates (WPC) were shown to contain bioactive ingredients that may activate immune cells and/or prevent infection, the current study was conducted to assess whether the proprietary WPC IMUCARE (WPC-IC) could protect against rotavirus. Suckling BALB/c mice were treated by gavage once daily with WPC-IC or with the control protein bovine serum albumin from the age of 9 to 17 d, and were infected with murine rotavirus at the age of 11 d. Disease symptoms were graded as mild, moderate, or severe, and viral shedding was measured in fecal samples during the postinfection period. Severe diarrhea occurred in 63% of control mice; this was significantly reduced to 36% in WPC-IC-fed mice. Severe diarrhea occurred for a 4-d period in the control group but only for a 2-d period in the WPC-IC group. Although the mean viral load per mouse did not differ between the groups, the proportion of mice shedding high levels of the virus in the feces postinfection was significantly lower in the WPC-IC group on d 13, 16, and 17, and significantly higher on d 14. Rotavirus-specific antibody levels in serum and gut fluid did not differ between groups. Thus, prophylactic treatment with WPC-IC may reduce rotaviral disease by decreasing the prevalence of severe diarrhea and by decreasing the time period during which severe symptoms and high viral shedding occur.

  19. Effect of creep-fed supplement on the susceptibility of pasture-grazed suckling lambs to gastrointestinal helminths.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Gleice Kelli Ayardes; Ítavo, Camila Celeste Brandão Ferreira; Monteiro, Kedma Leonora Silva; da Silva, Jonilson Araújo; da Silva, Pâmila Carolini Gonçalves; Ítavo, Luís Carlos Vinhas; Borges, Dyego Gonçalves Lino; de Almeida Borges, Fernando

    2017-05-30

    This study evaluated the effect of creep feeding a protein supplement on the susceptibility of suckling lambs to infection with gastrointestinal helminths. Male and female lambs were grazed on Brachiaria spp. pastures next to their mothers. Animals were allocated to one of two treatments: creep feeding (261g/d) and control (no supplementation). The trial period was the suckling of lambs during two years of study: May-October 2013 and March-July 2014. Supplementary creep feeding of lambs improved animal performance (P<0.05). Creep-fed lambs reached 18kg body weight in 64 d, but unsupplemented lambs required 77 d to reach the same weight. Lambs were susceptible to helminth infection during lactation; lambs in both treatments had high fecal egg counts (FECs), with means >1000 eggs per gram, as early as 45days of age, when the daily grazing time per animal increased. Creep feeding reduced the FECs of suckling lambs >60days of age in infections dominated by Haemonchus contortus. Totals of 20 and 48 anthelmintic treatments were administered to the supplemented and unsupplemented animals, respectively. The effect of this variable, however, was significant (P<0.05) only after 60days, when nine and 28 treatments had been administered to the supplemented and unsupplemented lambs, respectively. The number of strongyloid larvae recovered from the paddock did not differ significantly (P >0.05) between the two treatments, indicating similar challenges by infective larvae to both groups. The supplementation of lambs by creep feeding can thus be a strategy for the sustainable control of helminth infection, because it reduces the dependence on anthelmintic treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Prevalence of virulence genes in Escherichia coli strains isolated from piglets in the suckling and weaning period in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Toledo, Andrea; Gómez, Daniela; Cruz, Celene; Carreón, Rosalba; López, Jorge; Giono, Silvia; Castro, Ana María

    2012-01-01

    Faecal Escherichia coli isolates from suckling (n = 503) and weaning (n = 450) piglets with and without diarrhoea from 10 farms in Mexico were examined for identification and prevalence of virulence genes. E. coli isolates were tested further for enterotoxin (LT, STa, STb, Stx1, Stx2 and EAST1), fimbrial (F4, F5, F6, F17, F18 and F41) and eae adhesin genes by multiplex PCR. Of the 953 isolates of E. coli examined by multiplex PCR, 650 (68.2 %) isolates were positive for at least one adhesin gene. Among the isolates from diarrhoeic piglets, F41 (72 %) was the most prevalent adhesin followed by eae adhesin (27 %), F6 (12 %), F17 (9 %), F18 (9 %), F5 (8 %) and F4 (3 %). Enterotoxin genes were detected in 424 (44.5 %) of the isolates, of which EAST1 (38 %) and STa (30 %) were the most common, followed by STb (17 %), Stx2 (6 %) and LT (5 %). Twenty-three per cent of isolates from suckling piglets and 43 % of isolates from weaned piglets carried both enterotoxin and adhesin genes, the most common virotypes being F41 : STa, F41 : EAST1, EAST1 : eae, F41 : F6, F41 : STa : STb, F41 : eae and F17 : eae. The present study examined for the first time, to our knowledge, the prevalence of 13 virulence genes among E. coli strains isolated from piglets with and without diarrhoea in Mexico. The results suggested that there are a wide variety of virulence genes associated with diarrhoea in piglets. This study provides baseline information on the significance of specific virotypes associated with suckling and weaning periods in piglets in Mexico.

  1. Dietary fibres modulate the composition and activity of butyrate-producing bacteria in the large intestine of suckling piglets.

    PubMed

    Mu, Chunlong; Zhang, Lingli; He, Xiangyu; Smidt, Hauke; Zhu, Weiyun

    2017-02-04

    Dietary fibres have been shown to affect early-life microbiota colonization in the large intestine of suckling piglets, however, much less is known as to whether they also modulate the composition and activity of butyrate-producing bacteria. Here, we investigated the effect of dietary fibres on the abundance, composition, and activity of butyrate-producing bacteria in suckling piglets. Piglets were fed a control diet or creep feeds containing alfalfa, wheat bran, or pure cellulose, respectively, from postnatal day 7 to 22. Large intestinal digesta and mucosa samples were collected for quantitative analysis of bacterial group-specific 16S ribosomal RNA- and butyrate production-related genes, and digesta samples for quantification of short-chain fatty acids. The alfalfa diet increased (P < 0.05) Clostridium cluster XIVa abundance, copies of genes encoding proteins involved in butyrate production (butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase, butyrate kinase), and butyrate concentration compared to the wheat bran diet in the digesta of the proximal colon. In the distal colonic digesta, animals fed the alfalfa diet had the highest number of butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase gene copies (P < 0.05) and numerically the highest butyrate concentration, albeit not significant (P > 0.05), compared to other groups. In the distal colonic mucosa, the cellulose diet increased (P < 0.05) the abundance of Clostridium cluster XIVa and copies of the butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase gene compared to the alfalfa diet. These results indicated that dietary fibres modulate the abundance and activity of butyrate-producing bacteria in the large intestine of suckling piglets, and that a moderate supplementation of alfalfa and cellulose may benefit early-life gut health through the delivery of butyrate to the mucosa.

  2. Addition of chromic oxide to creep feed as a fecal marker for selection of creep feed-eating suckling pigs.

    PubMed

    Kuller, Wikke I; van Beers-Schreurs, Hetty M G; Soede, Nicoline M; Taverne, Marcel A M; Kemp, Bas; Verheijden, Jos H M

    2007-07-01

    To determine whether the addition of chromic oxide (Cr(2)O(3)) to creep feed could be used as a visual marker in feces for selection of creep feed-eating suckling pigs. 20 suckling pigs. Via syringe, 5 pigs (2 to 3 days old on day 0; 1 pig/treatment) from each of 4 litters received oral administrations of 10, 20, 30, or 40 g of creep feed containing 10 g of Cr(2)O(3)*kg(1) on each of 2 consecutive days (days 20 and 21) or 30 g of creep feed containing 10 g of Cr(2)O(3)*kg(1) on day 20 and 30 g of Cr(2)O(3)-free creep feed on day 21. On days 21 through 24, 6 fecal samples were collected from each pig at regular intervals between 8:00 AM and 6:00 PM. Green-colored feces were considered indicative of creep feed consumption (eaters). Data analyses were based on single and multiple fecal samples. On day 22, evaluation of 1 fecal sample/pig and multiple fecal samples per pig resulted in identification of as many as 40% and only 15% of the feed-treated pigs wrongly as noneaters, respectively. Repeated sampling over multiple days would identify 99% of eaters accurately. Pigs erroneously identified as noneaters were those administered either low amounts of Cr(2)O(3)-supplemented creep feed for 2 days or Cr(2)O(3)-supplemented creep feed on only 1 day. Data suggest that addition of Cr(2)O(3) to creep feed enables selection of individual creep feed-eating suckling pigs via examination of feces, provided that repeated fecal samples are evaluated.

  3. Effect of suckling restriction with nose plates and premature weaning on postpartum anestrous interval in primiparous cows under range conditions.

    PubMed

    Quintans, G; Vázquez, A I; Weigel, K A

    2009-11-01

    Suckling and nutrition are generally recognized as two major factors controlling the duration of the postpartum anovulatory period. In the present study, the effect of premature weaning and suckling restriction with nose plates (NPs) on cow and calf performance was evaluated. The study was conducted over 2 years; primiparous Hereford cows, weighing (mean+/-S.E.M.) 344+/-3.5kg and with 4.1+/-0.05 units of body condition score (BCS) (scale 1-8 [Vizcarra, J.A., Ibañez, W., Orcasberro, R., 1986. Repetibilidad y reproductibilidad de dos escalas para estimar la condición corporal de vacas Hereford. Investigaciones Agronómicas 7 (1), 45-47]) at calving, remained with their calves until 72.5+/-1.2 days postpartum (day 0). They were then assigned to one of three treatments: (i) calves with free access to their dams and ad libitum suckling (S, n=29); (ii) calves fitted with NPs for 14 days, but remained with their dams (NP, n=29), and (iii) calves that were weaned from their dams (W, n=28). All cows were anestrus at the time treatments commenced (day 0). All cows were blood sampled twice weekly from 1 week before the beginning of the experiment until the end of the mating period (day 74) for progesterone analysis. The mating period began on day 14. Cows in W treatment had ovulations earlier (P<0.05) than those in NP and S groups. Cows in the NP group had longer (P<0.05) intervals between the first progesterone increase and normal luteal phase than cows in the other two treatments groups (23.3+/-3.2 vs. 6.5+/-3.2 and 5.2+/-3.3 days for NP, S and W cows, respectively). Fifty per cent of the cows with NP had a short cycle (7 days) but there was a group of cows that had longer (P<0.05) intervals (66 days) between first progesterone increase and normal estrous activity. In the NP group, 8 of 29 cows had a short luteal phase and then a normal one; for 9 of these 29 cows progesterone concentrations remained low for 6 weeks from the beginning of the treatment; and for 12 of these

  4. Partial suckling of lambs reduced the linoleic and conjugated linoleic acid contents of marketable milk in Chios ewes.

    PubMed

    Tzamaloukas, O; Orford, M; Miltiadou, D; Papachristoforou, C

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of weaning systems applied in a commercial dairy sheep farm on the fatty acid (FA) composition of marketable milk produced. Forty second parity, purebred Chios ewes were allocated to the following weaning treatments: (a) ewes were weaned from their lambs at 48 h after birth and machine milked twice daily [no lambs (NL) group, n=20]; or, (b) starting 48 h postpartum, ewes were separated from their lambs for 12h during the evening, machine milked once daily the following morning, and lambs were allowed to suckle for 12 h during the day for the first 5 wk of lactation [partial suckling (PS) group, n=20]. After weaning of the PS lambs at wk 6 of age, all ewes were machine milked twice daily. Commercial milk yield and milk composition was recorded weekly (fat, protein, FA content) or fortnightly (somatic cell counts) throughout the first 10 wk of lactation. The PS ewes compared with NL group produced commercial milk lower in milk yield, milk fat, and somatic cell counts, but not in protein content during the first 5-wk period. Such differences were not observed after weaning of the PS lambs. The FA profile of commercial milk was also affected by partial suckling during the preweaning period. Total polyunsaturated FA were higher in NL compared with PS ewe milk at wk 1, 2, 4, and 5 (on average, 21% higher), whereas no differences were detected between NL and PS ewe milk from wk 6 to 10 of lactation. From the polyunsaturated FA, linoleic acid (C18:2 cis-9,cis-12) and conjugated linoleic acid (C18:2 cis-9,trans-11; rumenic acid) were particularly affected, showing on average a reduction of 18 and 38%, respectively. From the monounsaturated FA, vaccenic acid (C18:1 trans-11) was affected during wk 1 and 2 of the treatment period, with the PS ewe milk having reduced content compared with the NL milk. Other unsaturated FA, such as oleic acid and α-linolenic acid, or saturated FA were not found to be affected by the

  5. Diel behavior of rearing fall Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Kock, Tobias J.; Skalicky, Joseph J.

    2010-01-01

    In fisheries science, habitat use is often inferred when fish are sampled or observed in a particular location. Physical habitat is typically measured where fish are found, and thus deemed important to habitat use. Although less common, a more informative approach is to measure or observe fish behavior within given habitats to more thoroughly assess their use of those locations. While this approach better reflects how fish use habitat, fish behavior can be difficult to quantify, particularly at night. For example, Tiffan and others (2002, 2006) were able to quantify habitat availability and characteristics that were important for rearing juvenile fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. The authors, however, could only speculate as to how juvenile salmon use habitat and respond to changes in water level fluctuations. Conversely, in this study we provide data on the diel activities of rearing juvenile wild fall Chinook Salmon which provides a better understanding of how fish “use” these rearing habitats. Diel behavior patterns are important because fish in the Hanford Reach are often stranded on shorelines when the water level rapidly recedes because of hydroelectric power generation at upriver dams (Nugent and others 2002; Anglin and others 2006). We hypothesize that juvenile salmon are at greater risk of stranding at night because they are less active and occupy habitat differently than during the day. We used underwater videography to collect behavioral information during the day and night to determine if juvenile fall Chinook Salmon are more susceptible to stranding when water level fluctuations occur at night.

  6. Lesions caused in suckling mice by certain viruses isolated from cases of so called non-paralytic poliomyelitis and of pleurodynia.

    PubMed

    PAPPENHEIMER, A M; DANIELS, J B; CHEEVER, F S; WELLER, T H

    1950-08-01

    A STUDY HAS BEEN MADE OF THE LESIONS PRODUCED IN SUCKLING MICE BY THE FOLLOWING VIRUSES: Powers, Matulaitis, DeMole, Kine, McCarthy, Conn. 5, Ohio R, High Point, WS No. 4, EMC, and Col. SK. Pathologic alterations have been found in myocardium, lungs, liver, pancreas, thymus, brain and spinal cord, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscles. A comparison of the lesions produced by the individual strains has disclosed certain differential features which are discussed in detail. Within the group of so called Coxsackie viruses, myositis has not proved to be a constant finding, and it may occur in suckling mice infected with other types of virus.

  7. 49 CFR 393.86 - Rear impact guards and rear end protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 571.223) in effect at the time the vehicle was manufactured. When the rear impact guard is installed... (49 CFR 571.224) in effect at the time the vehicle was manufactured. The requirements of paragraph (a... extremity of the vehicle. (3) Guard height. The vertical distance between the bottom edge of the horizontal...

  8. 49 CFR 393.86 - Rear impact guards and rear end protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 571.223) in effect at the time the vehicle was manufactured. When the rear impact guard is installed... (49 CFR 571.224) in effect at the time the vehicle was manufactured. The requirements of paragraph (a... extremity of the vehicle. (3) Guard height. The vertical distance between the bottom edge of the horizontal...

  9. Distant view of rear and side (east) of building 256, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Distant view of rear and side (east) of building 256, along with the rear of building 257 (obstructed by truck), and side and rear of building 255. In the distance, the upper floors of the hospital, building 500, is visible. Camera station is next to building 264, looking south. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Building 256, North side of East O'Niell Avenue, between Tenth & Twelfth Streets, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  10. 7. INTERIOR, VIEW FROM ENTRANCE TOWARD ENCLOSED STAIRS AND REAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR, VIEW FROM ENTRANCE TOWARD ENCLOSED STAIRS AND REAR DOOR - Mulliken-Spragins Tenant House, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  11. View of south rear and east sides, facing northnorthwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of south rear and east sides, facing north-northwest - International Longshoremen's & Warehousemen's Union Hall, Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme Road, Port Hueneme, Ventura County, CA

  12. View from left rear theater looking towards stage National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from left rear theater looking towards stage - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Pacific Branch, Wadsworth Theater, 11301 Wilshire Boulevard, West Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. GARAGE, SOUTH (REAR) AND EAST SIDE, LOOKING NORTHWEST Irvine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GARAGE, SOUTH (REAR) AND EAST SIDE, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  14. 2. View to north showing southwest (rear) elevation and partial ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View to north showing southwest (rear) elevation and partial southeast elevation, with Medical Storage Building beyond - Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Carpenter & Paint Shop, Green Street, Portsmouth, Portsmouth, VA

  15. BLDG 1 REAR (EAST) AND NORTH END Naval Magazine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLDG 1 REAR (EAST) AND NORTH END - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Administration Building, Between Constitution & Constellation Streets, east side of main quad, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  16. Gnotobiotic pigs-derivation and rearing.

    PubMed Central

    Miniats, O P; Jol, D

    1978-01-01

    The procurement, rearing, nutrition and microbiological monitoring of gnotobiotic pigs and a method for conditioning of primary, colostrum-deprived, specific pathogen free pigs is described. As compared to the established hysterectomy and closed hysterotomy methods for the derivation of gnotobiotic piglets an alternative approach, open caesarian section with the sow maintained under general halothane-nitrous oxide anaesthesia and the introduction of each fetus into the sterile isolator via a liquid germicidal trap, was found to be more efficient and equally successful in providing viable and microbiologically sterile piglets. Two sterile commercially available milk diets, a special formula for orphan animals and condensed cow's milk, when the latter was supplemented with injectable vitamin E, selenium and iron, proved adequate for satisfactory health of the animals. Two types of pelleted starter rations, sterilized by 4.5 megarads of gamma irradiation, provided adequately for the nutritional needs of older gnotobiotic pigs. Results of microbiological monitoring indicated that the surgical and rearing methods employed were capable of preventing contamination of the animals with bacteria, mycoplasma, yeasts, molds, protozoa and helminths but probably could not exclude occasional vertically transmitted viral infections. Exposure of the animals for four weeks to selected strains of lactobacilli, fecal streptococci and Escherichia coli did not result in visible disease while they were maintained in isolators and conditioned them for transfer into a conventional microbial environment. PMID:154359

  17. Occurrence of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections in suckling and nursery pigs in a region of high pig density.

    PubMed

    Nathues, H; Kubiak, R; Tegeler, R; grosse Beilage, E

    2010-02-13

    The occurrence of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections in young pigs was surveyed in a retrospective study of 1122 datasets obtained from routine diagnostics where either suckling or nursery pigs were examined for M hyopneumoniae in lung tissue. Findings were correlated with the presence of lung lesions, detection of other respiratory pathogens, vaccination history and parameters describing the herd of origin. The prevalence of M hyopneumoniae in lung tissue from 201 suckling pigs was 2.0 per cent and, therefore, significantly lower than in lung tissue from 921 nursery pigs, which was 9.3 per cent. Previous use of antimicrobials and the vital status of the pigs when delivered for postmortem examination did not influence the detection of M hyopneumoniae infection. The presence of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-EU genotype, Pasteurella multocida, Haemophilus parasuis, Mycoplasma hyorhinis or Streptococcus suis was correlated with a higher probability of also finding M hyopneumoniae. The history of vaccination, the time of the first or second application, and the type of vaccine (one- versus two-shot) did not influence the detection of M hyopneumoniae. A correlation between the type of herd and the presence of M hyopneumoniae was statistically insignificant and no effect of farrowing rhythm could be confirmed.

  18. Chitosan can stop or postpone the death of the suckling mice challenged with foot-and-mouth disease virus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In the study, a method called "hardening in liquid phase" for preparing chitosan granules with glutaraldehyde as crosslinker and Tween 80 as surfactant and paraffin liquid as dispersant was established. The chitosan granules were light yellow and insoluble in water or oil, but they swelled in acid solution and narrowed in neutral or alkaline solution. Furthermore, some of characteristics of the chitosan granules were revealed. (a) Stability: Their shapes were stable at pH 7.0 and pH 8.0 and -30°C~120°C. The shelf life is at least one year in vitro at room temperature. (b) Safety: Some experiments of their lethal effect to suckling mice and pathogenicity to mature mice proved the chitosan granules were harmless. (c) Antiviral activity: Some suckling mice injected with chitosan granules were still alive or delayed death compared with control group when they challenged with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). Such anti-FMDV capacity could maintain 1 week and was the strongest on the third day. PMID:20540780

  19. Olfactory guidance of nipple attachment and suckling in kittens of the domestic cat: Inborn and learned responses.

    PubMed

    Raihani, Gina; González, Daniel; Arteaga, Lourdes; Hudson, Robyn

    2009-12-01

    In 60 kittens (11 litters) from free-ranging domestic cats we investigated the role of chemical cues in facilitating nipple attachment and suckling during the first month of postnatal life when kittens are totally dependent on the mother's milk. Kittens were tested both together and individually on sedated females in different reproductive states. We found (1) that newborn kittens with no suckling experience responded to the ventrum of lactating but not to the ventrum of nonlactating females with search behavior and attached to nipples within minutes; (2) that even in older kittens, nipple attachment depended on females' reproductive state, with virtually no attachments on nonreproducing females, some on pregnant females, the greatest number on early-lactating females, followed by a decline on late-lactating females; and (3) that kittens could locate their particular, most used nipple on their mother but not on a female of similar lactational age, even after eye opening. We suggest that kittens respond from birth with efficient nipple-search behavior to inborn olfactory cues on the mother's ventrum, that emission of these is under hormonal control, but that kittens also quickly learn olfactory cues specific to their own mother and to their own particular nipples.

  20. Nipple preference and contests in suckling kittens of the domestic cat are unrelated to presumed nipple quality.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Robyn; Raihani, Gina; González, Daniel; Bautista, Amando; Distel, Hans

    2009-05-01

    We studied the development of suckling behavior and weight gain in 11 litters (52 kittens) of free-ranging domestic cats until postnatal day 28 just before the start of weaning. In six of these litters, we also recorded milk intake and contests for access to nipples. Already within 12 hr of birth kittens showed a preference for posterior nipples, and by postnatal day 3 each had developed a preference for particular nipples. In fact, 86% of kittens used one particular nipple most often, and even when the mother changed the side she lay on to nurse. Contests for access to nipples occurred throughout the study period at an average rate of one to two contests per kitten per hour of nursing. Contrary to suggestions in the literature that kittens compete for more productive nipples, we found no relation between kittens' use of particular nipples and their weight gain, milk intake, or involvement in contests during suckling. We suggest that kittens' preference for posterior nipples as well as their establishment of an individual "teat order" might function to optimize the number of nipples remaining productive across lactation, and to reduce energetically costly scrambles and potentially injurious contests among littermates.

  1. Expression and Localization of Aquaporin 4 and Aquaporin 5 along the Large Intestine of Colostrum-Suckling Buffalo Calves.

    PubMed

    Pelagalli, A; Squillacioti, C; De Luca, A; Pero, M E; Vassalotti, G; Lombardi, P; Avallone, L; Mirabella, N

    2016-12-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are membrane channel proteins that play a role in regulating water permeability in many tissues. To date, seven isoforms of AQPs have been reported in the gastrointestinal tract in different mammalian species. In contrast, both tissue distribution and expression of AQPs are unknown in the buffalo. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of both AQP4 and AQP5 mRNAs and their relative proteins in the large intestinal tracts of buffalo calves after colostrum suckling using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Our results revealed a diversified tissue AQP4 and AQP5 immunolocalization accompanied by their highest expression in the tissues of colostrum-suckling buffalo calves confirmed by Western blotting. In particular, AQP4 was distributed along the endothelium and enterocytes while AQP5 in the endocrine cells. These findings provide direct evidence for AQP4 and AQP5 expression in the large intestine, suggesting that different AQPs collaborate functionally and distinctively in water handling during intestinal development, especially during the first period after delivery.

  2. [Reproduction data in breeding mares, diseases and losses among suckling foals and preventive husbandry in German stud farms].

    PubMed

    Steiner, N; Lindner, A

    1993-08-01

    By means of a survey, the reproductive rate of mares and the foal losses in ten Thoroughbred, Saddlebred and Pony studs in Germany, mainly from North-Rhine-Westfalia, were collected and evaluated. Data for the survey were recorded for 1985-1990. The study also examined the hygienic management in the surveyed studs, and the morbidity rate of suckling foals was obtained for 1990. In addition to the survey questionnaire each stud was visited once. Two studs of each horse group were visited several times every week from March to August in order to evaluate as exactly as possible the husbandry and morbidity of the suckling foals. The main results were: The abortion rate in Thoroughbred and Saddlebred horses was about 4.5%, of the Ponies 1%. After the 299th day of gestation, fetal mortality ranged from 3.2 to 3.5%. In the more intensively observed studs 33% of Thoroughbred foals, 42% of Saddlebred foals and 11% of Pony foals became ill. Saddlebred foals were more frequently affected by respiratory disease while Thoroughbred and Pony foals were mainly afflicted by diarrhea. The scope of husbandry measures was broader and more intensive in the Thoroughbred and Pony studs compared to the Saddlebred studs.

  3. Prenatal transportation stress alters temperament and serum cortisol concentrations in suckling Brahman calves.

    PubMed

    Littlejohn, B P; Price, D M; Banta, J P; Lewis, A W; Neuendorff, D A; Carroll, J A; Vann, R C; Welsh, T H; Randel, R D

    2016-02-01

    This experiment examined the relationship between prenatal stress and subsequent calf temperament through weaning. The prenatal stressor used was repeated transportation of pregnant Brahman cows for 2 h at 60 ± 5, 80 ± 5, 100 ± 5, 120 ± 5, and 140 ± 5 d of gestation. Prenatally stressed calves ( = 41) were compared with controls ( = 44; dams did not undergo transportation during pregnancy) from 2 wk of age until weaning (average age at weaning = 174.8 ± 1.3 d). Temperament was defined by pen score (PS; 1 = calm and 5 = excitable), exit velocity (EV; m/sec), and temperament score (TS; (PS + EV)/2) and was recorded for each calf on d -168, -140, -112, -84, -56, -28, and 0 relative to weaning (d 0 = weaning). Cortisol concentrations were determined in serum samples obtained on d -168, -140, -28, and 0 relative to weaning. Birth weight and weaning weight were not different between treatment groups ( > 0.1). Pen score was greater ( = 0.03) in prenatally stressed calves (2.84 ± 0.21) relative to controls (2.31 ± 0.21). Exit velocity was greater ( < 0.01) in prenatally stressed calves (2.1 ± 0.14 m/sec) than in controls (1.61 ± 0.14 m/sec). Exit velocity was affected by a treatment × calf sex interaction ( = 0.04) and was greater in prenatally stressed females. Exit velocity was also affected by day ( < 0.0001). Temperament score was greater ( = 0.01) in prenatally stressed calves (2.45 ± 0.16) than in controls (1.95 ± 0.16). Temperament score was affected by day ( < 0.01). Basal cortisol concentrations were greater ( = 0.04) in prenatally stressed calves (15.87 ± 1.04 ng/mL) than in controls (13.42 ± 1.03 ng/mL). Basal cortisol concentrations were greater ( < 0.01) in females (16.61 ± 1.06 ng/mL) than in males (12.68 ± 1.02 ng/mL). Cortisol concentrations were positively correlated ( < 0.01) with PS ( = 0.55, < 0.01), EV ( = 0.4, < 0.01), and TS ( = 0.55, < 0.01). Overall, suckling Brahman calves that were prenatally stressed were more temperamental and

  4. Dose response of lactating dairy ewes during suckling and milking to bovine somatotropin.

    PubMed

    Requena, R; Balasch, S; Peris, C; Rodríguez, M; Fernández, N

    2010-09-01

    The objectives were to determine the effect of administering recombinant bovine ST (bST) every 14 d on milk yield and milk composition in dairy ewes and to assess the possible effects of treatment on milk yield loss that occurs at lamb weaning. Seventy-two lactating dairy ewes were separated into 4 groups at lambing, and each group received no bST (control) or 40, 80, or 120 mg of bST every 14 d until wk 20 of lactation. During the first 5 wk of lactation, ewes suckled their lambs during the night and were milked once daily (period 1). After weaning, from 6 to 22 wk of lactation, ewes were exclusively milked twice daily (period 2). Actual milk yield, potential milk yield, and milk component percentages were recorded weekly throughout lactation. In period 1, bST-treated groups increased yields of potential milk (P = 0.04) and the corresponding 6% fat-corrected milk (FCM; P = 0.04) but not actual milk yield (P = 0.42) compared with the untreated group. In period 2, treated groups increased potential (P < 0.01) and actual (P < 0.01) milk yields as well as their corresponding 6% FCM (potential, P < 0.01; actual, P < 0.01), in comparison with the untreated group. The group treated with 120 mg of bST every 14 d yielded 39% more actual milk and 44% more 6% FCM than the control group for period 2. At weaning, between the last week of period 1 and the first week of period 2, treated groups showed similar absolute (P = 0.15) and relative (P = 0.33) values for the potential milk losses compared with the control group. Treatments increased (P = 0.04) actual milk fat percentages during period 1, but did not affect the other milk components or somatic cell count. In summary, bST increased potential milk yield throughout lactation and actual milk yield only after weaning in dairy ewes. In dairy ewes, bST was not useful for reducing the milk yield loss that occurred at weaning.

  5. An economic evaluation of estrous synchronization and timed artificial insemination in suckled beef cows.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, J C; Bird, S L; Larson, J E; Dilorenzo, N; Dahlen, C R; Dicostanzo, A; Lamb, G C

    2012-11-01

    Partial budget analysis was used to determine the economic outcome of estrus synchronization (ES) and timed artificial insemination (TAI) in commercial cow-calf production. Suckled beef cows (n = 1,197) from 8 locations were assigned randomly within each location to 1 of 2 treatment groups: 1) cows were inseminated artificially after synchronization of ovulation using the CO-Synch + CIDR protocol, which includes a 100-μg injection of GnRH (OvaCyst; TevaAnimal Health, St. Joseph, MO) when a controlled internal drug-releasing device (CIDR; Pfizer Animal Health, New York, NY) containing 1.38 g of progesterone was inserted. The CIDR was removed 7 d later, and cows received a 25-mg injection of PGF(2α) (PGF; Lutalyse; Pfizer Animal Health), followed in 66 h with TAI and a second 100-μg injection of GnRH (TAI; n = 582), and 2) cows were exposed to natural service (NS) without estrous synchronization (Control; n = 615). Within each herd, cows from both treatments were maintained together in similar pastures and were exposed to bulls 12 h after the last cow in the TAI treatment was inseminated. Overall, the percentage of cows exposed to treatments that subsequently weaned a calf was greater (P < 0.05) for TAI (84%) than Control (78%) cows. In addition, survival analysis demonstrated that cumulative calving distribution differed (P < 0.05) between the TAI and Control treatments. Weaning weights per cow exposed to treatments were greater (P < 0.01) for cows in the TAI treatment (193.4 ± 4.3 kg) than those cows in the Control treatment (175.9 ± 4.3 kg). Overall, increased returns plus decreased costs ($82.32) minus decreased returns plus increased costs ($33.18) resulted in a $49.14 advantage per exposed cow in the TAI treatment compared with the Control treatment. Location greatly influenced weaned calf weights, which may have been a result of differing management, nutrition, genetic selection, production goals, and environments. We concluded that ES and TAI had a

  6. Does mosquito mass-rearing produce an inferior mosquito?

    PubMed

    Soma, Dieudonné D; Maïga, Hamidou; Mamai, Wadaka; Bimbile-Somda, Nanwintoun S; Venter, Nelius; Ali, Adel B; Yamada, Hanano; Diabaté, Abdoulaye; Fournet, Florence; Ouédraogo, Georges A; Lees, Rosemary S; Dabiré, Roch K; Gilles, Jeremie R L

    2017-09-07

    The success of the sterile insect technique depends, among other things, on continuous releases of sexually competitive sterile males within the target area. Several factors (including high rearing density and physical manipulation, such as larvae and pupae separation) can influence the quality of males produced in mass-rearing facilities. The different steps in mass production in the laboratory may modify the behaviour of mosquitoes, directly or through loss of natural characters as a result of adaptation to lab rearing, and lead to the competitiveness of sterile male being reduced. In the present study, the objective was to evaluate the effect of mass-rearing conditions on sterile male sexual competitiveness in semi-field cages compared to routine small scale laboratory rearing methods. Anopheles arabiensis immature stages were reared both on a large scale using a rack and tray system developed by the FAO/IAEA (MRS), and on a small scale using standard laboratory rearing trays (SRS). Mosquito life history traits such as pupation rate, emergence rate, adult size as well as the effect of irradiation on adult longevity were evaluated. Moreover, 5-6 day old mosquitoes were released into field cages and left for two nights to mate and the mating competitiveness between sterile mass-reared males and fertile males reared on a small scale when competing for small scale reared virgin females was investigated. Resulting fertility in a treatment ratio of 1:1:1 (100 irradiated males: 100 non-irradiated males: 100 virgin females) was compared to control cages with 0:100:100 (non-irradiated control) and 100:0:100 (irradiated control). No significant differences in life history parameters were observed between rearing methods. The competitiveness index of mass reared males (0.58) was similar to males reared on a small scale (0.59). A residual fertility rate of 20% was observed in the irradiated control (100:0:100), measured as the percentage of eggs collected from the cages

  7. Maternal and littermate deprivation disrupts maternal behavior and social-learning of food preference in adulthood: tactile stimulation, nest odor, and social rearing prevent these effects.

    PubMed

    Melo, Angel I; Lovic, Vedran; Gonzalez, Andrea; Madden, Melissa; Sinopoli, Katia; Fleming, Alison S

    2006-04-01

    Maternal and littermate (social) separation, through artificial rearing (AR), disrupts the development of subsequent maternal behavior and social learning in rats. The addition of maternal-licking-like stimulation during AR, partially reverses some of these effects. However, little is know about the role of social stimuli from littermates and nest odors during the preweaning period, in the development of the adult maternal behavior and social learning. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of peer- and peer-and-odor rearing on the development of maternal behavior and social learning in rats. Female pups were reared with mothers (mother reared-MR) or without mothers (AR) from postnatal day (PND) 3. AR rats received three different treatments: (1) AR-CONTROL group received minimal tactile stimulation, (2) AR-ODOR females received exposure to maternal nest material inside the AR-isolation-cup environment, (3) AR-SOCIAL group was reared in the cup with maternal nest material and a conspecific of the same-age and same-sex and received additional tactile stimulation. MR females were reared by their mothers in the nest and with conspecifics. In adulthood, rats were tested for maternal behavior towards their own pups and in a social learning task. Results confirm our previous report that AR impairs performance of maternal behavior and the development of a social food preference. Furthermore, social cues from a littermate, in combination with tactile stimulation and the nest odor, reversed the negative effects of complete isolation (AR-CONTROL) on some of the above behaviors. Exposure to the odor alone also had effects on some of these olfactory-mediated behaviors. These studies indicate that social stimulation from littermates during the preweaning period, in combination with odor from the nest and tactile stimulation, contributes to the development of affiliative behaviors.

  8. Preweaning housing effects on behavior and physiological measures in pigs during the suckling and fattening periods.

    PubMed

    Chaloupková, H; Illmann, G; Neuhauserová, K; Tománek, M; Valis, L

    2007-07-01

    The effect of the preweaning housing system on the stress response of pigs before weaning and during fattening was studied in 33 litters of domestic pigs. Three preweaning housing systems were compared: barren crate (standard farrowing crate without straw), enriched crate (20% larger crate, with straw), and as a control, a farrowing pen (pen, 60% larger than the barren crate, with straw). At 25 d of age, pigs were tested with an isolation test and 1 d later with a human approach test (HumanT). Pigs were weaned at 28 d of age. At 3 and 6 mo of age, pigs were tested with an isolation-human approach test. The latency and frequency of squeal calls and locomotor activity were analyzed for all 3 tests, whereas physical contact with the human was also analyzed for the HumanT and isolation-human approach test. At 6 mo of age, the pigs were transported to a slaughterhouse. One day before transport, immediately after transport, and 1 h after transport, saliva samples were taken for cortisol analysis. The pH of the LM was also measured 45 min after slaughter. Preweaning housing system affected (P < 0.05) the probability of squeal vocalizations, the latency of locomotion, and the duration of locomotion during the HumanT. Pigs from the enriched pens vocalized less, had a longer latency to move, and performed less overall locomotion than pigs from the barren crates. Preweaning housing system did not affect behavior of fattening pigs. Cortisol concentrations before and after transport were not affected by preweaning housing system. An interaction of cortisol concentrations and housing systems was observed between the control sample and the sample taken immediately after transport in pigs from the barren crates (P < 0.05) compared with pigs from the enriched housing systems. Meat from pigs reared in the barren crate tended to have lower pH (P < 0.10) and that of pigs reared in enriched crates had lower pH (P < 0.05) than meat of pigs reared in enriched pens. No differences were

  9. Endotoxemia in newborn rats attenuates acute pancreatitis at adult age.

    PubMed

    Jaworek, J; Konturek, S J; Macko, M; Kot, M; Szklarczyk, J; Leja-Szpak, A; Nawrot-Porabka, K; Stachura, J; Tomaszewska, R; Siwicki, A; Pawlik, W W

    2007-03-01

    Bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS), at high concentration is responsible for sepsis, and neonatal mortality, however low concentration of LPS protected the pancreas against acute damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exposition of suckling rats to LPS on the course of acute pancreatitis at adult age. Suckling rat (30-40g) received intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of saline (control) or LPS from Escherichia coli or Salmonella typhi (5, 10 or 15 mg/kg-day) during 5 consecutive days. Two months later these rats have been subjected to i.p. cearulein infusion (25 microg/kg) to produce caerulein-induced pancreatitis (CIP). The following parameters were tested: pancreatic weight and morphology, plasma amylase and lipase activities, interleukin 1beta (IL-1 beta), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and interleukin 10 (IL-10) plasma concentrations. Pancreatic concentration of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid peroxidation products; malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) have been also measured. Caerulein infusion produced CIP in all animals tested, that was confirmed by histological examination. In the rats, which have been subjected in the neonatal period of life to LPS at doses 10 or 15 mg/kg-day x 5 days, all manifestations of CIP have been reduced. In these animals acute inflammatory infiltration of pancreatic tissue and pancreatic cell vacuolization have been significantly diminished. Also pancreatic weight, plasma lipase and alpha-amylase activities, as well as plasma concentrations of IL-1beta and IL-6 have been markedly decreased, whereas plasma anti-inflammatory IL-10 concentration was significantly increased in these animals as compared to the control rats, subjected in the infancy to saline injection instead of LPS. Caerulein-induced fall in pancreatic SOD concentration was reversed and accompanied by significant reduction of MDA + 4 HNE in the pancreatic tissue. The effects of LPS derived from E. coli or S. typhi were similar

  10. Detection of Torque teno sus virus types 1 and 2 by nested polymerase chain reaction in sera of sows at parturition and of their newborn piglets immediately after birth without suckling colostrum and at 24 hr after suckling colostrum.

    PubMed

    Tshering, Chenga; Takagi, Mitsuhiro; Deguchi, Eisaburo

    2012-03-01

    This study was performed to clarify the sow-to-fetus transmission pathway of Torque teno sus virus (TTSuV) types 1 (TTSuV1) and 2 (TTSuV2). For this purpose, detection of TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 (TTSuVs) in sera of 6 sows (Sows 1-6) at parturition and in sera of their newborn piglets immediately after birth without suckling colostrum was performed by nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR). These sows were bred using semen that had tested negative for TTSuVs. In a TTSuV1- and TTSuV2-positive sow (Sow 1), TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 were detected in 4 and 5 of 12 newborn littermates, respectively. In a TTSuV1-positive sow (Sow 2), TTSuV1 was detected in 1 of 8 newborn littermates. In 4 TTSuV1- and TTSuV2-negative sows (Sows 3-6), TTSuV1 was detected in 6 out of the 25 newborn piglets of 3 sows (Sows 3-5), while TTSuVs were not detected in all 13 piglets of 1 sow (Sow 6). In addition, to investigate the possibility of a sow-to-piglet transmission pathway of TTSuV via colostrum, TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 in sera of 12 newborn piglets from Sows 1-3 were examined by nPCR. Immediately after birth without suckling colostrum, TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 were not detected in 10 and 8 of 12 newborn piglets, respectively; however, at 24 hr after suckling colostrum, TTSuV1 was detected in 6 piglets, while TTSuV2 was not detected in any piglets. These results confirmed the existence of a sow-to-fetus transmission pathway of TTSuV during normal pregnancy and suggested a possibility of sow-to-piglet transmission of TTSuV via colostrum.

  11. Rear semicircular section of the highlift pumping station basement with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Rear semi-circular section of the high-lift pumping station basement with remnants of the piping systems and suction wells at rear wall. - Robert B. Morse Water Filtration Plant, 10700 and 10701 Columbia Pike, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  12. Rear Area Security In The Field Army Service Area.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1965-05-19

    his ma.jor subordinate Commanders, the arm support brigade commander. Rear are? ecurity doctrine requires the area coriander to coordin- ate unit...field army service area. Response The army support brigade coriander conducts phase I rear area security operations within the limits of current

  13. Pupal abnormalities among laboratory-reared gypsy moths

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Hansen

    1991-01-01

    Gypsy moth cohorts from 10 near-wild strains (one to six previous generations in culture), six wild strains (field-collected egg masses), and the standard "New Jersey" lab strain (34th and 35th generation in culture) were reared on Otis wheat germ-based artificial diet, in a constant environment. Rearings were begun with newly-hatched first instars; pupae...

  14. 3. First floor of rear ell: view of exposed framing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. First floor of rear ell: view of exposed framing on north wall, floor, and ceiling, looking north - McCrone House, Rear Ell, New Castle Hundred, 1 mile South of intersection of U.S. Route 13 & Route 40, west of Route 13, New Castle, New Castle County, DE

  15. 2. Elevation of south side of dwelling and rear ell ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Elevation of south side of dwelling and rear ell - McCrone House, Rear Ell, New Castle Hundred, 1 mile South of intersection of U.S. Route 13 & Route 40, west of Route 13, New Castle, New Castle County, DE

  16. Aerial view west from center of square showing rear walls ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial view west from center of square showing rear walls and roofs of rear ells of 515 Eleventh Street, 517 Eleventh Street, 519 Eleventh Street, and Eleventh Street - Square 347 (Commercial Buildings), Tenth, Eleventh, E, & F Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  17. 2. VIEW LOOKING NORTH OF GUARDLOCK (LEFT REAR), DUNDEE DAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW LOOKING NORTH OF GUARDLOCK (LEFT REAR), DUNDEE DAM (RIGHT-CENTER REAR), AND REMOVED SITE OF TOWPATH (FOREGROUND) DURING HYDROPOWER FACILITY INSTALLATION - Dundee Canal, Headgates, Guardlock & Uppermost Section, 250 feet northeast of Randolph Avenue, opposite & in line with East Clifton Avenue, Clifton, Passaic County, NJ

  18. North rear, oblique view to the southeast, showing the east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North rear, oblique view to the southeast, showing the east wing and rear wall construction. Note the outline of the former windows beneath the current small aluminum-frame windows - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Building No. 16 A-B (Duplex), 30652 & 30654 Wellton-Mohawk Drive, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of Variant Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Strain CH/HNZZ47/2016 Isolated from Suckling Piglets in China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xinsheng; Zhang, Qiaoling; Fang, Yuzhen; Zhou, Peng; Lu, Yanzhen; Xiao, Shuai; Dong, Zhaoliang

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) could cause an acute and highly contagious enteric disease in swine. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of PEDV strain CH/HNZZ47/2016 isolated from suckling piglets with mild diarrhea in Henan Province, China. It will help understand the molecular and evolutionary characteristics of PEDV in China. PMID:28254990

  20. Reproduction and larval rearing of amphibians.

    PubMed

    Browne, Robert K; Zippel, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    Reproduction technologies for amphibians are increasingly used for the in vitro treatment of ovulation, spermiation, oocytes, eggs, sperm, and larvae. Recent advances in these reproduction technologies have been driven by (1) difficulties with achieving reliable reproduction of threatened species in captive breeding programs, (2) the need for the efficient reproduction of laboratory model species, and (3) the cost of maintaining increasing numbers of amphibian gene lines for both research and conservation. Many amphibians are particularly well suited to the use of reproduction technologies due to external fertilization and development. However, due to limitations in our knowledge of reproductive mechanisms, it is still necessary to reproduce many species in captivity by the simulation of natural reproductive cues. Recent advances in reproduction technologies for amphibians include improved hormonal induction of oocytes and sperm, storage of sperm and oocytes, artificial fertilization, and high-density rearing of larvae to metamorphosis. The storage of sperm in particular can both increase the security and reduce the cost of maintaining genetic diversity. It is possible to cryopreserve sperm for millennia, or store it unfrozen for weeks in refrigerators. The storage of sperm can enable multiple parentages of individual females' clutches of eggs and reduce the need to transport animals. Cryopreserved sperm can maintain the gene pool indefinitely, reduce the optimum number of males in captive breeding programs, and usher in new generations of Xenopus spp. germ lines for research. Improved in vitro fertilization using genetic diversity from stored sperm means that investigators need the oocytes from only a few females to produce genetically diverse progeny. In both research and captive breeding programs, it is necessary to provide suitable conditions for the rearing of large numbers of a diverse range of species. Compared with traditional systems, the raising of larvae

  1. Infant temperament and child-rearing stress: birth order influences.

    PubMed

    Honjo, S; Mizuno, R; Ajiki, M; Suzuki, A; Nagata, M; Goto, Y; Nishide, T

    1998-05-29

    The relationship between an infant's temperamental difficulty and the mother's child-rearing stress was investigated in a sample of 128 children. Children's temperament was assessed by the Revised Infant Temperament Questionnaire (RITQ) at 6-7 months, and by the Toddler Temperament Scale (TTS) at 18 months. The mothers' child-rearing stress was assessed by a self-report questionnaire. At the children's age of 18 months, mothers of difficult children reported higher child-rearing stress than mothers of easy children. Although difference in the level of child-rearing stress reflecting birth order was not evident at either 6-7 months or 18 months, the proportion of child-rearing stress which could be explained by the children's temperament was highest for mothers of first-borns when their children were 18 months old.

  2. Applicability of a progesterone-based timed artificilal insemination protocol after follicular fluid aspiration using the ovum pick-up technique in suckled beef cows.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Toh-Ichi; Hoshina, Toshinori; Sasaki, Shu-Ichi; Sasaki, Osamu; Osawa, Takeshi

    2007-04-01

    We conducted a progesterone-based timed AI protocol after follicular fluid aspiration using the ovum pick-up (OPU) technique to examine its applicability to the suckled beef cow. A total of 19 beef cows were randomly allocated to one of the following three groups based on the number of days postpartum: 13 to 60 days (Group A: suckled; early postpartum period, n=9), 61 to 150 days (Group B: suckled; mid postpartum period, n=6), or 151 to 281 days (Group C: non-suckled; prolonged open period, n=4) postpartum. These cows were treated with follicular fluid aspiration and insertion of a progesterone-releasing intravaginal device (PRID) on day 0. The PRID was removed and 500 microg of cloprostenol was intramuscularly administered on day 7. A dose (100 microg) of fertirelin acetate was injected intramuscularly 48 hours later, and this was followed by a timed AI (TAI) after another 18 hours (day 10). Serum samples were taken on days 0, 7, 9, 10, 12, 17, 24 and 31 for determination of the estradiol-17beta (E(2)) and progesterone concentrations. Pregnancy diagnosis was made by rectal palpation approximately 60 days after TAI. There was no significant difference in the peripheral E(2) concentrations among the three groups during the period of the hormonal treatment. The average progesterone concentrations in Group A on day 17 were significantly higher than those in Group B and exceeded 1.0 ng/ml on day 17 and thereafter. There was no significant difference in the numbers of collected immature oocytes among the three groups. The pregnancy rates in Groups A, B, and C were 77.8% (7/9), 83.3% (5/6) and 50.0% (2/4), respectively. In conclusion, this timed AI protocol is applicable to suckled beef cows within the period of 60 days postpartum.

  3. Genetic and environmental influences on eating behavior - a study of twin pairs reared apart or reared together

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study examined the relative influence of genetic versus environmental factors on specific aspects of eating behavior. Adult monozygotic twins (22 pairs and 3 singleton reared apart, 38 pairs and 9 singleton reared together, age 18-76 years, BMI 17-43 kg/m2) completed the Three Factor Eating Que...

  4. Autonomy, Educational Plans, and Self-Esteem in Institution-Reared and Home-Reared Teenagers in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulviste, Tiia

    2011-01-01

    The study examines autonomy, self-esteem, and educational plans for the future of 109 institution-reared and 106 home-reared teenagers (15-19 years). Teenagers were asked to complete the Teen Timetable Scale (Feldman & Rosenthal), two Emotional Autonomy Scales (Steinberg & Silverberg), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and answer questions…

  5. Autonomy, Educational Plans, and Self-Esteem in Institution-Reared and Home-Reared Teenagers in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulviste, Tiia

    2011-01-01

    The study examines autonomy, self-esteem, and educational plans for the future of 109 institution-reared and 106 home-reared teenagers (15-19 years). Teenagers were asked to complete the Teen Timetable Scale (Feldman & Rosenthal), two Emotional Autonomy Scales (Steinberg & Silverberg), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and answer questions…

  6. Beta-endorphin in genetically hypoprolactinemic rat: IPL nude rat

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, H.; Sabbagh, I.; Abou-Samra, A.B.; Bertrand, J.

    1986-01-20

    Beta-endorphin has been reported to regulate not only stress- and suckling-induced but also basal prolactin secretion. In the aim to better evaluate the endogenous beta-endorphin-prolactin interrelation, the authors measured beta-endorphin levels in a new rat strain, genetically hypoprolactinemic and characterized by a total lack of lactation: IPL nude rat. Beta-endorphin was measured using a specific anti-h-..beta.. endorphin in plasma and extracts of anterior and neurointermediate lobes of the pituitary, hypothalamus and brain. Pituitary extracts were also chromatographed on Sephadex G50 column. Results obtained showed that in IPL nude females on diestrus and males, the beta-endorphin contents of the neurointermediate lobe was significantly lower than in normal rats, while the values found in the other organs and plasma were similar. However, elution pattern of the anterior pituitary extracts from male rats showed greater immunoactivity eluting as I/sup 125/ h-beta-endorphin than in normal rat; this was not the case for the female rat. These results are consistent with a differential regulation of beta-endorphin levels of anterior and neurointermediate lobe by catecholamines. Moreover they suggest that PRL secretion was more related to neurointermediate beta-endorphin. 40 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

  7. Stenosis of the central canal of the spinal cord following inoculation of suckling hamsters with reovirus type I.

    PubMed

    Milhorat, T H; Kotzen, R M

    1994-07-01

    The central canal of the human spinal cord is partially or completely occluded in the vast majority of individuals by the early years of adult life. The authors describe an experimental lesion following virus-induced ependymitis that bears a striking resemblance to the condition in man. Suckling hamsters were inoculated with 0.06 ml of 10(-3) infectivity titer of reovirus type I between the 2nd and 5th days of life. The pathological events consisted of necrotizing ependymitis, healing of the ependyma by gliovascular scarring, and obstruction of narrow bottlenecks such as the central canal. Histological findings were characterized by disorganization of the ependyma, formation of ependymal rosettes and microtubules, subependymal gliovascular scarring, and intracanalicular gliosis. These features are the same as those encountered clinically and provide strong evidence that stenosis of the central canal in man is a pathological lesion involving ependymal injury and scarring.

  8. Optimizing the use of sex-sorted sperm in timed artificial insemination programs for suckled beef cows.

    PubMed

    Sá Filho, M F; Girotto, R; Abe, E K; Penteado, L; Campos Filho, E P; Moreno, J F; Sala, R V; Nichi, M; Baruselli, P S

    2012-06-01

    Three experiments were designed to evaluate methods to optimize the use of sex-sorted sperm in timed AI (TAI) programs for suckled beef cows. In all 3 experiments, suckled Bos indicus cows were synchronized using an intravaginal progesterone (P4) device during 8 d and a 2.0-mg injection of intramuscular estradiol benzoate (EB) at device insertion. The females received PG and eCG (300 IU) at P4 device removal and 1.0 mg of EB 24 h later. The cows were inseminated 60 to 64 h after P4 device withdrawal. All cows had their ovaries scanned by transrectal ultrasound at TAI to indentify and to measure the largest follicle (LF) present. In Exp. 1, a total of 853 cows had their LF classified as <9 mm or ≥9 mm at the time of TAI; these cows were then randomly assigned to 4 groups according to their LF diameter (<9 mm or ≥9 mm) and the type of sperm used (sex-sorted or non-sex-sorted). There was an interaction (P = 0.02) between the type of sperm and LF diameter beginning at TAI[non-sex-sorted ≥9 mm = 58.9%a (126/214); non-sex-sorted <9 mm = 49.5%b (106/214);sex-sorted ≥9 mm = 56.8%ab (134/236); and sex-sorted <9 mm = 31.2%c (59/189), a≠b≠c = P < 0.05]. In Exp. 2, suckled cows (n = 491) were classified immediately before TAI as having displayed estrus or not (estrus or no estrus) between P4 device removal and TAI. These cows were randomly assigned to 4 groups according to the occurrence of estrus and the type of sperm (sex-sorted or non-sex-sorted). There were effects of the occurrence of estrus (P = 0.0003) and the type of sperm (P = 0.05) on pregnancy per AI [P/AI; no estrus, non-sex-sorted = 43.6% (27/62); estrus, non-sex-sorted = 58.5%; (107/183); no estrus, sex-sorted = 33.9% (21/62), and estrus, sex-sorted = 50.0% (92/184)]; however, no interaction between the occurrence of estrus and type of sperm was observed (P = 0.87). In Exp. 3, a total of 200 suckled cows presenting LF ≥9 mm at TAI were randomly assigned to receive sex-sorted sperm deposited into the

  9. Evaluation of water treatment plant UV reactor efficiency against Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst infectivity in immunocompetent suckling mice.

    PubMed

    Le Goff, L; Khaldi, S; Favennec, L; Nauleau, F; Meneceur, P; Perot, J; Ballet, J-J; Gargala, G

    2010-03-01

    To assess the efficiency of a medium-pressure UV reactor under full-scale water treatment plant (WTP) conditions on the infectivity of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in an Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) suckling mice infectivity model. Six/seven-day-old mice were administered orally 2-10x10(4)Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. Compared with nonirradiated oocysts, 40 mJ cm(-2) UV irradiation of ingested oocysts resulted 7 days later in a 3.4-4.0 log10 reduction in the counts of small intestine oocysts, using a fluorescent flow cytometry assay. Present data extend to industrial conditions previous observations of the efficiency of UV irradiation against Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst in vivo development. Present results suggest that in WTP conditions, a medium-pressure UV reactor is efficient in reducing the infectivity of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts, one of the most resistant micro-organisms present in environmental waters.

  10. Delay in growth and the development of nephritis in rats treated with interferon preparations in the neonatal period.

    PubMed Central

    Gresser, I.; Morel-Maroger, L.; Châtelet, F.; Maury, C.; Tovey, M.; Bandu, M. T.; Buywid, J.; Delauche, M.

    1979-01-01

    Suckling rats were injected for 14 to 17 days with potent rat-cell-culture interferon preparations or various heterologous interferon or control preparations. Only treatment with rat interferon resulted in a delay in growth and maturation of different organs and the subsequent development of an "immune complex" type nephritis. Thus, 38 of 43 rats treated with rat interferon developed a severe glomerulonephritis. Thus, 38 of 43 rats treated with rat interferon developed a severe glomerulonephritis, whereas only 3 of 99 rats in the various control groups had minimal renal lesions. Deposits of IgG and C3 along the glomerular basement membrane were only seen in interferon-treated rats. Images Figure 6 Figure 3 Figure 2 Figure 5 Figure 4 Figure 1 PMID:156503

  11. Pen rearing and imprinting of fall Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeman, J.W.; Novotny, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    Results of rearing upriver bright fall chinook salmon juveniles in net pens and a barrier net enclosure in two backwater areas and a pond along the Columbia River were compared with traditional hatchery methods. Growth, smoltification, and general condition of pen-reared fish receiving supplemental feeding were better than those of fish reared using traditional methods. Juvenile fish receiving no supplemental feeding were generally in poor condition resulting in a net loss of production. Rearing costs using pens were generally lower than in the hatchery. However, low adult returns resulted in greater cost per adult recovery than fish reared and released using traditional methods. Much of the differences in recovery rates may have been due to differences in rearing locations, as study sites were as much as 128 mi upstream from the hatcheries and study fish may have incurred higher mortality associated with downstream migration than control fish. Fish reared using these methods could be a cost-effective method of enhancing salmon production in the Columbia River Basin.

  12. Epidemiological patterns of bovine besnoitiosis in an endemic beef cattle herd reared under extensive conditions.

    PubMed

    Esteban-Gil, A; Calvete, C; Casasús, I; Sanz, A; Ferrer, J; Peris, M P; Marcén-Seral, J M; Castillo, J A

    2017-03-15

    Bovine besnoitiosis is a parasitic disease caused by the protozoan Besnoitia besnoiti. Described many decades ago, recent epidemiological studies reveal its important spread within Europe in the last years. To date, many epidemiological aspects related to life cycle, routes of transmission, incidence rates and associated risk factors are lacking; hence, the establishment of appropriate disease control programmes poses an important challenge. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the epidemiological pattern of the disease in an endemic herd reared under extensive conditions (Spanish Pyrenees) by identifying main factors associated with infection and clinical disease dynamics. The study population consisted of 276 Brown Swiss and Pirenaica adult animals and 145 calves born and weaned at the farm during the study. Three sampling time frames were used: January 2010, September 2010 and February 2011, which allowed us to differentiate two periods designated as mountain and valley periods. The data related to animals (breed, sex and age) and herd management (animal grouping and time in housing) were recorded. The data collection methodology was mainly based on clinical examinations and defining the serological status against bovine besnoitiosis by the immunofluorescent antibody testing of blood samples. The total prevalence among adult animals was 38.34% (CI95%: 34.53-42.07), with 18.54% of seropositive animals showing clinical signs. In regard to the cumulative incidence, 34.57% of new infections were detected during the mountain period, in contrast to the 24.59% observed in the valley period. The incidence density was 0.058 and 0.061 new infections per animal-month for the mountain and valley periods, respectively. According to the seroepidemiological study, the seroconversion probability of B. besnoiti infection was directly associated with the number of seropositive cows with whom an animal had been stabled as well as the housing period duration

  13. Effects of Lactobacillus casei and Enterococcus faecalis on growth performance, immune function and gut microbiota of suckling piglets.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chaoqi; Zhu, Qun; Chang, Juan; Yin, Qingqiang; Song, Andong; Li, Zhentian; Wang, Erzhu; Lu, Fushan

    2017-04-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of orally administrated Lactobacillus casei and Enterococcus faecalis on performance, immune function and gut microbiota of suckling piglets. Neonatal piglets (n = 120) were randomly assigned to 4 groups, with 30 suckling piglets in each group. The piglets were from 15 litters, one male and one female piglet were selected for each group in each litter. The Control group was administrated with normal saline, the other groups with L. casei or E. faecalis or a combination of L. casei and E. faecalis at a ratio of 3:1. Each piglet was orally administrated with 1, 2, 3 and 4 ml probiotics or normal saline at the age of 1, 7, 14 and 21 d, respectively. The piglets were weaned at the age of 21 d. The results showed that compared with the Control group, the average daily gain of piglets administrated with probiotics was significantly increased, and the diarrhoea rate and mortality were significantly decreased (p < 0.05). After supplementation of the combined probiotics, the protease activity in stomach, duodenum and colon was increased and in all supplemented groups, the immunoglobulin A concentration in plasma was significantly higher (p < 0.05). The combined probiotics significantly increased villus length and the expression level of transforming growth factor-β in the jejunum (p < 0.05) but decreased the expression level of the jejunal tumour necrosis factor-α (p < 0.05). In addition, probiotics could regulate gut microbiota and increase microbial similarity coefficients for keeping piglet gut microbiota stable.

  14. Feeding probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus (MTCC 5897) fermented milk to suckling mothers alleviates ovalbumin-induced allergic sensitisation in mice offspring.

    PubMed

    Saliganti, Vamshi; Kapila, Rajeev; Sharma, Rohit; Kapila, Suman

    2015-10-28

    The neonatal period is often polarised to T helper (Th2) response at the time of birth, predisposing offspring to allergic disorders. Passive immunity through the mother's milk is critical for immune system development of newborns. Probiotics have been proposed to harmonise Th1/Th2 imbalance in allergic conditions in adults. In the present study, the anti-allergic effects of feeding probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus-fermented milk (PFM) either to dams during the suckling period or to their offspring after weaning individually or else in successive periods against ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergy in newborns was analysed. After allergen sensitisation, physical symptoms of allergy, gut immune response, humoral immune response and cell-mediated response through interleukins were detected. Consumption of PFM by mothers and offspring showed a reduction (P<0·01) in physical allergic symptoms in newborns with an increase (P<0·01) in the numbers of goblet and IgA+ cells in the small intestine. Similarly, considerable (P<0·001) decreases in OVA-specific antibodies (IgE, IgG, IgG1) and ratios of IgE/IgG2a and IgG1/IgG2a in the sera of newborn mice were recorded. A decrease in IL-4 and an increase in interferon-γ levels further confirmed the shift from Th2 to Th1 pathway in PFM-fed mice. It is logical to conclude that the timing of PFM intervention in alleviating allergic symptoms is critical, which was found to be most effective when mothers were fed during the suckling period.

  15. Fin development in stream- and hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pelis, R.M.; McCormick, S.D.

    2003-01-01

    To determine the effect of development and environment on fin growth, we measured fin lengths of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) from two hatcheries (August, October and April-May), stream-reared fish (July and October) stocked as fry into two tributaries, and smelts from the main stem of the Connecticut River (May). For stream-reared parr, there was a linear relationship between the dorsal, caudal and anal fins with fork length, while the pectoral, pelvic and adipose fins exhibited a curvilinear relationship with fork length. Parr from a high gradient stream had larger caudal fins than fish from a low gradient stream, but other fins did not differ. Regression lines for the fins of stream-reared smelts were all linear when fin length was regressed against fork length. Stream-reared parr had larger pectoral, pelvic and anal fins than smolts of similar size while dorsal and caudal fin lengths did not differ. Regression equations formulated using the fins of stream-reared parr were used to calculate the percent difference (100 x observed fin length/expected) in fin lengths between stream- and hatchery-reared parr. The pelvic, adipose, caudal and anal fins of hatchery-reared parr showed no signs of degeneration by the first sampling period 7 months after hatching, whereas degeneration in the pectoral (13-20%) and dorsal (15-18%) fins was evident at this time. By the end of the study, degeneration was present in every fin except the adipose, with the pectoral (35-65%) and dorsal (32-58%) fins exhibiting the greatest amount of fin loss. All fins of hatchery-reared parr became shorter with time. There were minor differences in fin degeneration among parr from the two hatcheries, but the overall pattern of decreasing fin size was similar, indicating a common cause of fin degeneration. Comparison of stream- and hatchery-reared fish is a valuable means of determining the impact of captive environments on fin growth.

  16. Cooperative fish-rearing programs in Hanford Site excess facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Herborn, D.I.; Anderson, B.N.

    1994-05-01

    In, 1993, two successful fish-rearing pilot projects were conducted in Hanford Site 100 K Area water treatment pools (K Pools) that are excess to the US Department of Energy needs. Beginning this spring, two larger cooperative fish programs will be undertaken in the K Pools. One program will involve the Yakama Indian Nation, which will rear, acclimate, and release 500,000 fall chinook salmon. The other program involves the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, which will rear warm-water specie (walleye and channel catfish) for planting in state lakes. Renewed economic vitality is the goal expected from these and follow-on fish programs.

  17. Comparison of the "nursing" and other parental behaviors of nulliparous and lactating female rats.

    PubMed

    Lonstein, J S; Wagner, C K; De Vries, G J

    1999-12-01

    Virgin female rats display maternal behaviors after continuous exposure to pups (sensitization) that are in some respects similar to those of postpartum females. We herein provide a detailed comparison of the "nursing" and other parental behaviors of maternally sensitized virgin females and postpartum lactating dams. Ovariectomized and intact virgin females were exposed to pups until displaying maternal behavior. On the females' fourth day of maternal responsiveness, the pups were removed for 3 h and then returned, and subject-litter interactions were observed for 45 min. Behavior of maternal virgins was compared with that of lactating dams observed on day 4 postpartum interacting with either suckling pups or pups unable to suckle due to perioral anesthesia. Ovariectomy had no effect on behavior of virgins. Retrieval and licking of pups were deficient in virgins compared with lactating dams. Suckled dams showed prolonged kyphosis (upright crouched nursing), whereas nonsuckled dams displayed little kyphosis but rather were often in a hunched position over pups. Some aspects of quiescent "nursing" behaviors of virgins were surprisingly similar to those of suckled dams, including the latency to and duration of quiescence. Nonsuckling pup stimulation elicited more kyphosis in virgins than in lactating dams, which was still much less than in suckled dams. Virgins also "nursed" pups in hunched and prone postures. Differences between sensitized and postpartum females in their maternal behaviors likely reflect differences in motivation as well as sensory inputs they receive from pups. In particular, sensory regulation of "nursing" behaviors is influenced by reproductive state because nonsuckling pups elicit different postural responses in sensitized and lactating mothers. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  18. A survey of management practices that influence performance and welfare of dairy calves reared in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hötzel, Maria J; Longo, Cibele; Balcão, Lucas F; Cardoso, Clarissa S; Costa, João H C

    2014-01-01

    Here we report dairy calf management practices used by 242 smallholder family farmers in the South of Brazil. Data were collected via a semi-structured questionnaire with farmers, inspection of the production environment and an in-depth interview with a sample of 26 farmers. Herds had an average of 22.3 lactating cows and an average milk production of 12.7 L/cow/day. Calves were dehorned in 98% of the farms, with a hot iron in 95%. Male calves were castrated in 71% of the farms; methods were surgery (68%), emasculator (29%), or rubber rings (3%). No pain control was used for these interventions. In 51% of the farms all newborn male calves were reared, sold or donated to others; in 35% all newborn males were killed on the farm. Calves were separated from the dam up to 12 h after birth in 78% of the farms, and left to nurse colostrum from the dam without intervention in 55% of the farms. The typical amount of milk fed to calves was 4 L/day until a median age of 75 days. In 40% of the farms milk was provided in a bucket, in 49% with bottles, and in 11% calves suckled from a cow. Solid feeding in the milk-feeding period started at a median age of 10 days. Calves were housed individually in 70% of the farms; in 81% of the farms calves were housed in indoor pens, in 6% in outdoor hutches and in 13% they were kept on pasture. Diarrhoea was reported as the main cause of calf mortality in 71% of the farms. Farmers kept no records of calf disease, mortality, or use of medicines. Changing the scenario identified in this survey is essential to support the sustainable development of dairy production, an activity of great economic and social relevance for the region.

  19. A Survey of Management Practices That Influence Performance and Welfare of Dairy Calves Reared in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Hötzel, Maria J.; Longo, Cibele; Balcão, Lucas F.; Cardoso, Clarissa S.; Costa, João H. C.

    2014-01-01

    Here we report dairy calf management practices used by 242 smallholder family farmers in the South of Brazil. Data were collected via a semi-structured questionnaire with farmers, inspection of the production environment and an in-depth interview with a sample of 26 farmers. Herds had an average of 22.3 lactating cows and an average milk production of 12.7 L/cow/day. Calves were dehorned in 98% of the farms, with a hot iron in 95%. Male calves were castrated in 71% of the farms; methods were surgery (68%), emasculator (29%), or rubber rings (3%). No pain control was used for these interventions. In 51% of the farms all newborn male calves were reared, sold or donated to others; in 35% all newborn males were killed on the farm. Calves were separated from the dam up to 12 h after birth in 78% of the farms, and left to nurse colostrum from the dam without intervention in 55% of the farms. The typical amount of milk fed to calves was 4 L/day until a median age of 75 days. In 40% of the farms milk was provided in a bucket, in 49% with bottles, and in 11% calves suckled from a cow. Solid feeding in the milk-feeding period started at a median age of 10 days. Calves were housed individually in 70% of the farms; in 81% of the farms calves were housed in indoor pens, in 6% in outdoor hutches and in 13% they were kept on pasture. Diarrhoea was reported as the main cause of calf mortality in 71% of the farms. Farmers kept no records of calf disease, mortality, or use of medicines. Changing the scenario identified in this survey is essential to support the sustainable development of dairy production, an activity of great economic and social relevance for the region. PMID:25506692

  20. FIRST FLOOR REAR ROOM. SECOND FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FIRST FLOOR REAR ROOM. SECOND FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED-- NOTE PRESENCE OF SECOND FLOOR WINDOWS AT LEFT. See also PA-1436 B-6 - Kid-Physick House, 325 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  1. FIRST FLOOR REAR ROOM. SECOND FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FIRST FLOOR REAR ROOM. SECOND FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED-- NOTE PRESENCE OF SECOND FLOOR WINDOWS AT LEFT. See also PA-1436 B-13 - Kid-Physick House, 325 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  2. Detail, rear door types, building 242, oblique view to southwest, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, rear door types, building 242, oblique view to southwest, 90 mm lens. - Travis Air Force Base, Nuclear Weapons Assembly Building, W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  3. 4. View south of rear of filtration bed building. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View south of rear of filtration bed building. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  4. 2. REAR VIEW SHOWING SPLIT SHAKE EXTERIOR AND HEXAHEDRAL PLAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. REAR VIEW SHOWING SPLIT SHAKE EXTERIOR AND HEXAHEDRAL PLAN AND DENSE LANDSCAPE - Camp Cleawox, Adirondack Sleeping Shelter, Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area, Siuslaw National Forest, Florence, Lane County, OR

  5. 5. Oblique view of rear (southeast) and right side (southwest) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Oblique view of rear (southeast) and right side (southwest) elevations, looking north. - Downtown Short Pump Grocery, West Broad Street (State Route 250) & Three Chopt Road, Short Pump, Henrico County, VA

  6. 5. VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING REAR WALL, CLEAT AND SINGLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING REAR WALL, CLEAT AND SINGLE BIT ON STERN DECK OF VESSEL 37 Edward Larrabee, photographer, December 1984 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 37, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  7. 2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING TOP, SIDE, AND REAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING TOP, SIDE, AND REAR VIEW OF VESSEL 37 SUPERSTRUCTURE Charles Wisniewski, photographer, January 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 37, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  8. 7. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING REAR TBRACE. Photocopy of photograph. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING REAR T-BRACE. Photocopy of photograph. Susan Kardas, photographer, December 1984 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 37, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  9. Red oak borers become sterile when reared under continuous light

    Treesearch

    Jimmy R. Galford

    1975-01-01

    Red oak borers, Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman), reared under continuous light for 12 weeks became sterile. Sterility is thought to have been caused by light destroying vitamins essential for fertility

  10. 2. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, REAR AND RIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, REAR AND RIGHT SIDES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Water Treatment & Storage Building, Southern portion of launch area, southeast of Ready Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  11. 22. DETAIL, TWO LIGHTING TYPES AT REAR OF TEST STAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. DETAIL, TWO LIGHTING TYPES AT REAR OF TEST STAND 1-A. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  12. 8. SOUTH REAR, SUPERSTRUCTURE. Looking north from deck. Edwards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. SOUTH REAR, SUPERSTRUCTURE. Looking north from deck. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  13. 26. STATIC TEST TOWER CONTROL PANELS AT REAR OF TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. STATIC TEST TOWER CONTROL PANELS AT REAR OF TOWER UNDERNEATH SHED ROOF. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn Propulsion & Structural Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  14. 68. VIEW SHOWING SOUTHWEST REAR OF NEPTUNE'S LOCK (LEFT) AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. VIEW SHOWING SOUTHWEST REAR OF NEPTUNE'S LOCK (LEFT) AND CAPTAIN'S GALLEY (RIGHT), LOOKING NORTHEAST - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  15. 63. DETAIL VIEW OF REAR DOOR, BUTTRESSES, AND PARAPETED GABLE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. DETAIL VIEW OF REAR DOOR, BUTTRESSES, AND PARAPETED GABLE, NEPTUNE'S LOCKER, SOUTHEAST SIDE, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  16. Life sciences building, north rear, also showing north hall to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Life sciences building, north rear, also showing north hall to the right, and the library in the center distance. - San Bernardino Valley College, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  17. North rear, east part. Ramp leads to basement utility rooms ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North rear, east part. Ramp leads to basement utility rooms and specimen preparation rooms. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  18. North rear, west part. Administration building is visible at far ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North rear, west part. Administration building is visible at far right. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  19. Perspective view of north rear and west side, also showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of north rear and west side, also showing north hall at far left. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  20. 48. DETAIL OF REAR OF DEMULTIPLEX PANEL 5 SHOWING COMPONENTS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. DETAIL OF REAR OF DEMULTIPLEX PANEL 5 SHOWING COMPONENTS OF VACUUM-TUBE OSCILLOSCOPE - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  1. FEATURE 4, ARMCO HUT, REAR AND SOUTHWEST SIDE, VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE 4, ARMCO HUT, REAR AND SOUTHWEST SIDE, VIEW FACING NORTH-NORTHWEST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-ARMCO Hut, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  2. 4. WEST REAR ELEVATION OF BUILDING 260 (STORAGE STRUCTURE A) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. WEST REAR ELEVATION OF BUILDING 260 (STORAGE STRUCTURE A) IN STORAGE AREA. - Loring Air Force Base, Weapons Storage Area, Northeastern corner of base at northern end of Maine Road, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  3. Ejection of a rear facing, golf cart passenger.

    PubMed

    Schau, Kyle; Masory, Oren

    2013-10-01

    The following report details the findings of a series of experiments and simulations performed on a commercially available, shuttle style golf cart during several maneuvers involving rapid accelerations of the vehicle. It is determined that the current set of passive restraints on these types of golf carts are not adequate in preventing ejection of a rear facing passenger during rapid accelerations in the forward and lateral directions. Experimental data and simulations show that a hip restraint must be a minimum of 13 in. above the seat in order to secure a rear facing passenger during sharp turns, compared to the current restraint height of 5 in. Furthermore, it is determined that a restraint directly in front of the rear facing passenger is necessary to prevent ejection. In addressing these issues, golf cart manufacturers could greatly reduce the likelihood of injury due to ejection of a rear facing, golf cart passenger.

  4. WEST (REAR) AND NORTH (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST (REAR) AND NORTH (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO EAST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Target Intelligence Training Building-Combat Center, Off Connecticut Road, east of Idaho Avenue, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  5. SOUTH (SIDE) AND WEST (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. view TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH (SIDE) AND WEST (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. view TO NORTH. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Target Intelligence Training Building-Combat Center, Off Connecticut Road, east of Idaho Avenue, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  6. 3. NORTH (REAR) AND EAST SIDE ELEVATIONS, LOOKING SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. NORTH (REAR) AND EAST SIDE ELEVATIONS, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Hunting Island Lighthouse, Cottage HI-65, Hunting Island State Park, US Route 21, 16 miles East of Beaufort, Beaufort, Beaufort County, SC

  7. EAST (REAR) AND NORTH (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. view TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST (REAR) AND NORTH (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. view TO SOUTHWEST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Spares Inert Storage Building, Off Perimeter Road in Weapons Storage Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  8. J SERIES MAGAZINE. J 107 NORTH END AND REAR (EAST). ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    J SERIES MAGAZINE. J 107 NORTH END AND REAR (EAST). J 106-103 IN BACKGROUND. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Inert Storehouse Type, Twelfth Street between Kwajulein & New Mexico Streets, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  9. 6. East rear, cattle auction arena below in background, Omaha ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. East rear, cattle auction arena below in background, Omaha livestock market offices above. View to west. - South Omaha Union Stock Yards, Stock Yards Autopark, 2900 "O" Plaza, Omaha, Douglas County, NE

  10. NORTH REAR AND WEST SIDE, Looking southeast down Saturn Boulevard. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH REAR AND WEST SIDE, Looking southeast down Saturn Boulevard. February, 1998 - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Electrical Substation, Test Area 1-115, northwest end of Saturn Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  11. 22. LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM RECEIVING PLATFORM AT THE REAR (EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM RECEIVING PLATFORM AT THE REAR (EAST SIDE) OF BUILDING, SHOWING SOUTH SIDE OF NORTH WING AND SOUTH SIDE OF FOOD PRESERVATION AND SANITATION LABORATORY (Harms) - Dairy Industry Building, Iowa State University campus, Ames, Story County, IA

  12. 14. REAR (EAST SIDE) OF BUILDING SHOWING RECEIVING COURT AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. REAR (EAST SIDE) OF BUILDING SHOWING RECEIVING COURT AND SOUTH SIDE OF FOOD PRESERVATION AND SANITATION LABORATORY, LOOKING WEST-NORTHWEST (Harms) - Dairy Industry Building, Iowa State University campus, Ames, Story County, IA

  13. 3. Rear (north) and east elevations of converted chicken house, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Rear (north) and east elevations of converted chicken house, with smokehouse, cooling (well) house, and residence in background - Henry E. Williams Farmstead, Converted Chicken House, East of Residence & Smokehouse, Cedar Point, Chase County, KS

  14. 28. Rear lot of the Adelman Block. The collapsed truss ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Rear lot of the Adelman Block. The collapsed truss roof (ca. 1932) originally sheltered an automobile sales garage - Lockport Historic District, Bounded by Eighth, Hamilton & Eleventh Streets & Illinois & Michigan Canal, Lockport, Will County, IL

  15. 3. West (rear) and south (side) elevations view to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. West (rear) and south (side) elevations - view to north - Bureau of Mines Boulder City Experimental Station, Electrolytic Manganese Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  16. 2. North (side) and west (rear) elevations view to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. North (side) and west (rear) elevations - view to southeast - Bureau of Mines Boulder City Experimental Station, Electrolytic Manganese Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  17. 5. CLUBHOUSE. REAR (NORTHWEST) SIDE. VIEW TO SOUTHSOUTHWEST. Rainbow ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. CLUBHOUSE. REAR (NORTHWEST) SIDE. VIEW TO SOUTH-SOUTHWEST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Clubhouse, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  18. VIEW OF NORTH REAR, BUILDING 13 TO RIGHT, FACING SOUTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF NORTH REAR, BUILDING 13 TO RIGHT, FACING SOUTHWEST. - Douglas Aircraft Company Long Beach Plant, Aircraft Wing & Fuselage Assembly Building, 3855 Lakewood Boulevard, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. VIEW OF EAST SIDE AND NORTH REAR, FACING SOUTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF EAST SIDE AND NORTH REAR, FACING SOUTHWEST. - Douglas Aircraft Company Long Beach Plant, Aircraft Wing & Fuselage Assembly Building, 3855 Lakewood Boulevard, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. 75. SACRED HEART SCHOOL, 1324 ELLIS STREET SOUTH (REAR ELEVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    75. SACRED HEART SCHOOL, 1324 ELLIS STREET SOUTH (REAR ELEVATION FROM GREENE STREET 56/61A - Greene Street Historic District, Greene Street, Gordon Highway to Augusta Canal Bridge, Augusta, Richmond County, GA

  1. 11. Interior view of communications compartment. View toward rear of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Interior view of communications compartment. View toward rear of aircraft. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  2. 1. Northwest end and southwest rear. View to east. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Northwest end and southwest rear. View to east. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Squadron Operations Building, At southwestern-most boundary of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  3. 3. General view showing rear of looking glass aircraft. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. General view showing rear of looking glass aircraft. View to north. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  4. 3. REAR VIEW, AUTOMATIC BLOCK SIGNAL, EASTBOUND ON CATENARY BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. REAR VIEW, AUTOMATIC BLOCK SIGNAL, EASTBOUND ON CATENARY BRIDGE 486 - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  5. 2. View facing east showing the south elevation (rear) of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View facing east showing the south elevation (rear) of the garage, loading docks and rail spur, with Providence Fruit & Produce Building beyond. - Armour & Company Building, 100 Harris Avenue, Providence, Providence County, RI

  6. REAR ELEVATION OF MEMORIAL TO SOLDIERS WHO DIED FOR THIS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REAR ELEVATION OF MEMORIAL TO SOLDIERS WHO DIED FOR THIS COUNTRY (OBELISK), SECTION 43A, LOOKING SOUTH ALONG EAST OBELISK ROAD. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Leavenworth National Cemetery, 150 Muncie Road, Leavenworth, Leavenworth County, KS

  7. OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR ELEVATION OF MARINE BARRACKS, LOOKING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR ELEVATION OF MARINE BARRACKS, LOOKING WEST NORTHWEST. - Naval Computer & Telecommunications Area Master Station, Eastern Pacific, Radio Transmitter Facility Lualualei, Marine Barracks, Intersection of Tower Drive & Morse Street, Makaha, Honolulu County, HI

  8. 6. West rear and north side of building. View to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. West rear and north side of building. View to southeast.' - U.S. Customs Service Port of Roosville, Main Port Building, U.S. Highway 93, immediately south of U.S.-Canadian border, Eureka, Lincoln County, MT

  9. 7. West rear and south side of building. View to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. West rear and south side of building. View to east. - U.S. Customs Service Port of Roosville, Main Port Building, U.S. Highway 93, immediately south of U.S.-Canadian border, Eureka, Lincoln County, MT

  10. 4. REAR ELEVATION OF CHAPEL. SOUTH (LEFT) AND EAST (RIGHT) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. REAR ELEVATION OF CHAPEL. SOUTH (LEFT) AND EAST (RIGHT) SIDES. THE STRUCTURE AT THE EXTREME RIGHT IS THE ACADEMY BUILDING - Ursuline Academy, Chapel, 300 Augusta Street, San Antonio, Bexar County, TX

  11. 19. INTERIOR OF NORTHEAST REAR BEDROOM SHOWING ALUMINUMFRAME SLIDING GLASS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. INTERIOR OF NORTHEAST REAR BEDROOM SHOWING ALUMINUM-FRAME SLIDING GLASS WINDOWS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  12. 21. INTERIOR OF SOUTHEAST REAR BEDROOM SHOWING ALUMINUMFRAME SLIDING GLASS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. INTERIOR OF SOUTHEAST REAR BEDROOM SHOWING ALUMINUM-FRAME SLIDING GLASS WINDOWS. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  13. 11. SOUTH (REAR) ELEVATION OF THE PHILADELPHIA SAVING FUND SOCIETY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. SOUTH (REAR) ELEVATION OF THE PHILADELPHIA SAVING FUND SOCIETY (PSFS) BUILDING WITH MEETING HOUSE CORNICE IN FOREGROUND. - Twelfth Street Meeting House, 20 South Twelfth Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. Looking West From rear (East) End of Office Building Including ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking West From rear (East) End of Office Building Including Recycle Storage Area, Loading Docks, and Decontamination Zone - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Office, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  15. 16. Rear (west) side of incinerator. Glove boxes to the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Rear (west) side of incinerator. Glove boxes to the left. Metal catwalk in the middle. Incinerator control panel to the right. Looking south towards scrubber cell. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

  16. 17. Rear (west) side of incinerator. Incinerator control panel on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Rear (west) side of incinerator. Incinerator control panel on the right. Looking south towards scrubber cell. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

  17. 7. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHWEST OF REAR ORIGINAL SECOND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHWEST OF REAR ORIGINAL SECOND FLOOR, WITH PASSAGEWAY LEADING TO c1944-1950 POST-U.S. RADIUM ADDITION - United States Radium Corporation, Paint Application Building, 422 Alden Street, Orange, Essex County, NJ

  18. SERVICE AREA AT THE REAR OF RESIDENCES, BETWEEN NINTH AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SERVICE AREA AT THE REAR OF RESIDENCES, BETWEEN NINTH AND TENTH STREETS. NOTE THE WATER TOWER JUST VISIBLE ABOVE THE TREES AT LEFT CENTER. VIEW FACING WEST NORTHWEST. - Hickam Field, Hickam Historic Housing, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  19. Environmental assessment, K Pool fish rearing, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has a need to respond to a request to lease facilities at the Hanford Site 100-KE and 100-KW filter plant pools (K Pools) for fish rearing activities. These fish rearing activities would be: (1) business ventures with public and private funds and (2) long-term enhancement and supplementation programs for game fish populations in the Columbia River Basin. The proposed action is to enter into a use permit or lease agreement with the YIN or other parties who would rear fish in the 100-K Area Pools. The proposed action would include necessary piping, pump, and electrical upgrades of the facility; cleaning and preparation of the pools; water withdrawal from the Columbia River, and any necessary water or wastewater treatment; and introduction, rearing and release of fish. Future commercial operations may be included.

  20. Oblique view of rear and south east sides, view towards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of rear and south east sides, view towards the southwest, with scale - Fort McClellan Ammunition Storage Area, Building No. 4408, Second Avenue (Magazine Road), Anniston, Calhoun County, AL

  1. Planar view of rear (northeast) side, view towards the southwest, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Planar view of rear (northeast) side, view towards the southwest, without scale - Fort McClellan Ammunition Storage Area, Building No. 4408, Second Avenue (Magazine Road), Anniston, Calhoun County, AL

  2. Oblique view of rear and south east sides, view towards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of rear and south east sides, view towards the southwest, without scale - Fort McClellan Ammunition Storage Area, Building No. 4408, Second Avenue (Magazine Road), Anniston, Calhoun County, AL

  3. Oblique view of rear and south sides of ammunition storage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of rear and south sides of ammunition storage buildings 4403 and 4404, view towards the north without scale - Fort McClellan Ammunition Storage Area, Building No. 4403, Second Avenue (Magazine Road), Anniston, Calhoun County, AL

  4. Oblique view of rear and south sides of ammunition storage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of rear and south sides of ammunition storage buildings 4404 and 4405, view towards the north without scale - Fort McClellan Ammunition Storage Area, Building No. 4404, Second Avenue (Magazine Road), Anniston, Calhoun County, AL

  5. Oblique view of rear and south sides of ammunition storage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of rear and south sides of ammunition storage buildings 4404 and 4405, view towards the north with scale - Fort McClellan Ammunition Storage Area, Building No. 4404, Second Avenue (Magazine Road), Anniston, Calhoun County, AL

  6. Planar view of rear (northeast) side, view towards the southwest, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Planar view of rear (northeast) side, view towards the southwest, without scale - Fort McClellan Ammunition Storage Area, Building No. 4409, Second Avenue (Magazine Road), Anniston, Calhoun County, AL

  7. Interior planar view of doors to railroad platform at rear ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior planar view of doors to railroad platform at rear of ammunition storage building 4403, view towards the west westside with scale - Fort McClellan Ammunition Storage Area, Building No. 4403, Second Avenue (Magazine Road), Anniston, Calhoun County, AL

  8. South (side) and east (rear) elevations, view to northwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South (side) and east (rear) elevations, view to northwest - Bureau of Mines Boulder City Experimental Station, Titanium Development Plant, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  9. 3. South (side) and east (rear) elevations, view to northwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. South (side) and east (rear) elevations, view to northwest - Bureau of Mines Boulder City Experimental Station, Titanium Research Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  10. 20. Mill River and rear of the 1860 armory building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Mill River and rear of the 1860 armory building, c. 1930. Photocopied from a print of a film negative, NHCHSL. View from the south. - Eli Whitney Armory, West of Whitney Avenue, Armory Street Vicinity, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  11. 5. BARRACKS, NEXT TO BASKETBALL COURT, RIGHT AND REAR SIDES, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. BARRACKS, NEXT TO BASKETBALL COURT, RIGHT AND REAR SIDES, LOOKING EAST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Barracks No. 1, North end of base, southest of Basketball Court & northwest of Barracks No. 2, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  12. 22. DRAWING #8 OF 15, FRONT AND REAR ELEVATIONS, CANOPY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. DRAWING #8 OF 15, FRONT AND REAR ELEVATIONS, CANOPY ROOF PLAN AND CANOPY DETAIL, AND ELEVATIONS OF NEW TOILETS - U. S. Post Office, Custom House & Courthouse, 401 Center Street, Fernandina Beach, Nassau County, FL

  13. FACILITY 814, SOUTHEAST SIDE AND REAR, SHOWING COURTYARD BETWEEN WINGS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 814, SOUTHEAST SIDE AND REAR, SHOWING COURTYARD BETWEEN WINGS, OBLIQUE VIEW FACING WEST. - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Bachelor Officers' Quarters Type, Between Grimes & Tidball Streets near Ayres Avenue, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  14. FACILITY 810, REAR OF DUPLEX SHOWING COURTYARD BETWEEN WINGS, OBLIQUE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 810, REAR OF DUPLEX SHOWING COURTYARD BETWEEN WINGS, OBLIQUE VIEW FACING EAST. - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Duplex Housing Type with Corner Entries, Between Hamilton & Tidball Streets near Williston Avenue, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  15. OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTHEAST SIDE. SHOWING THE TWO REAR WINGS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTHEAST SIDE. SHOWING THE TWO REAR WINGS OF THE BUILDING. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST. - Hickam Field, Fort Kamehameha Officers' Housing Type Y, 27 Worchester Avenue, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  16. View east, showing Northwest Wing (Wing 5) and rear elevations ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View east, showing Northwest Wing (Wing 5) and rear elevations of facade and tis flaking wings (Wings 1 and 2) - Hospital for Sick Children, 1731 Bunker Hill Road, Northeast, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  17. 20. Historic American Buildings Survey L. C. Durette, Photographer REAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Historic American Buildings Survey L. C. Durette, Photographer REAR STAIRS 1st. TO 2nd. FLOOR SHOWING POST OF CHIMNEY GIRT & OVERHANG - Doe Garrison, Lamprey River & Great Bay, Newmarket, Rockingham County, NH

  18. 19. Historic American Buildings Survey L. C. Durette, Photographer REAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Historic American Buildings Survey L. C. Durette, Photographer REAR STAIRS 1st. & 2nd. FLOOR SHOWING POST OF CHIMNEY GIRT - Doe Garrison, Lamprey River & Great Bay, Newmarket, Rockingham County, NH

  19. 5. View looking northwest, showing rear (south) elevation of blacksmith ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View looking northwest, showing rear (south) elevation of blacksmith shop/garage, residential garage and house - Lamprey Blacksmith Shop, South side of Dover Road, 0.05 miles east of Goboro Road, Epsom, Merrimack County, NH

  20. Oblique view of blacksmith shop, showing north and west (rear) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of blacksmith shop, showing north and west (rear) elevations; camera facing southeast - Lemmon-Anderson-Hixson Ranch, Blacksmith Shop, 11220 North Virginia Street, Reno, Washoe County, NV