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Sample records for sucre venezuela geographic

  1. Scorpion sting epidemiology in Montes Municipality of the State of Sucre, Venezuela: geographic distribution.

    PubMed

    De Sousa, L; Bonoli, S; Quiroga, M; Parrilla, P

    1996-01-01

    Scorpion stings were surveyed in the Montes Municipality of the State of Sucre, Venezuela, aiming to extend the information on these poisonous accidents by characterizing their geographic distribution. From 1980 to 1990, 184 cases of scorpion stings were recorded with an incidence rate of 38.6 cases per 10,000 inhabitants. The locality of San Fernando presented the highest incidence (68.3/1000) of poisonous accidents. The highest percentages of severe cases were recorded in the towns of Arenas (27%), San Lorenzo (21%), and Cocollar (19%), which are located at the foot of the Turimiquire Mountains. This region is a dispersion area of scorpions of the Tityus genus. Our results show that this region of the State of Sucre is endemic for scorpion stings which are an important public health problem.

  2. Malaria in Sucre State, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, R H

    2000-01-01

    The author reviews the malaria research program in Sucre State, Venezuela, taking an ecosystem approach. The goal was to determine which methods could have been introduced at the onset that would have made the study more ecological and interdisciplinary. Neither an ecosystem approach nor integrated disease control were in place at the time of the study. This study began to introduce an ecosystem approach when two contrasting ecosystems in Sucre State were selected for study and vector control methods were implemented based on research results. The need to have a health policy in place with an eco-health approach is crucial to the success of research and control. The review suggests that sustainability is low when not all the stakeholders are involved in the design and implementation of the research and control strategy development. The lack of community involvement makes sustainability doubtful. The author concludes that there were two interdependent challenges for malaria control: development of an ecosystem approach for malaria research and control, and the implementation of an integrated disease control strategy, with malaria as one of the important health issues.

  3. [New additions to the marine algae of Mochima National Park, Sucre, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Silva, Soraida; Brito, Leonor; Lemus, Andrés

    2003-06-01

    The marine algal flora from the eastern coast of Mochima National Park, Sucre, Venezuela was studied with a total of 51 taxa identified, including eight new additions of red algae which are Erythrotrichia carnea (Dillwyn) J. Agardh, Sahlingia subintegra (Rosenvinge) Kornmann, Liagora ceranoides Lamouroux, Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile) Trevisan, Dasya corymbifera J. Agardh, Chondria dasyphylla (Woodward) C. Agardh, Herposiphonia secunda f. tenella (C. Agardh) M.J. Wynne and Polysiphonia subtilissima Montagne. Morphological and anatomical aspects of the specimens are described and illustrated.

  4. Mycobacterium tuberculosis population structure and molecular epidemiological analysis in Sucre municipality, Miranda state, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Patiño, Margareth A; Abadía, Edgar; Solalba Gómez; Maes, Mailis; Muñoz, Mariana; Gómez, Daniela; Guzmán, Patricia; Méndez, María Victoria; Ramirez, Carmen; Mercedes, España; de Waard, Jacobus; Takiff, Howard

    2014-12-01

    Sucre municipality is a large, densely populated marginal area in the eastern part of Caracas, Venezuela that consistently has more cases of tuberculosis than other municipalities in the country. To identify the neighborhoods in the municipality with the highest prevalence of tuberculosis, and determine whether the Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain distribution in this municipality is different from that previously found in the western part of Caracas and the rest of Venezuela, we collected data on all tuberculosis cases in the municipality diagnosed in 2005-6. We performed two separate molecular epidemiological studies, spoligotyping 44 strains in a first study, and spoligotyping 131 strains, followed by MIRU-VNTR 15 on 21 clustered isolates in the second. With spoligotyping, the most common patterns were Shared International Type SIT17 (21%); SIT42 (15%); SIT93 (11%); SIT20 (7%); SIT53 (6%), a distribution similar to other parts of Venezuela, except that SIT42 and SIT20 were more common. MIRU-VNTR 15 showed that six of seven SIT17 strains examined belonged to a large cluster previously found circulating in Venezuela, but all of the SIT42 strains were related to a cluster centered in the neighborhoods of Unión and Maca, with a MIRU-VNTR pattern not previously seen in Venezuela. It appears that a large percentage of the tuberculosis in the Sucre municipality is caused by the active transmission of two strain families centered within distinct neighborhoods, one reflecting communication with the rest of the country, and the other suggesting the insular, isolated nature of some sectors.

  5. Are Returns to Education on the Decline in Venezuela and Does Mission Sucre Have a Role to Play?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Naihobe; Oyelere, Ruth Uwaifo

    2011-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence points to a falling standard of living for the educated in Venezuela. During this same period, President Hugo Chavez implemented several education reforms. We focus on a major university education reform known as Mission Sucre and its potential impact on returns to university education. First, we show that returns to education…

  6. [Reptiles from Cerro Colorado and its surroundings, Cumana, Sucre State, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Oliveros, O; Prieto, A; Comejo, P

    2000-01-01

    An inventory of the reptiles that inhabit in Cerro Colorado and its surroundings, was performed from March, 1994 to March, 1995. There were reported 8 species of snakes and 7 of lizards enclosed in 4 and 5 families repectively. Aspects observed were ecolology as habitat, activity, reproduction and relative abundance. The more abundant species of lizards were: Cnemidophorus femniscatus, Ameiva bifrontata, (Teiidae), Tropidurus hispidus (Tropiduridae), Gonatodes vittatus and Hemidactylus mabouia (Gekkonidae) and the ophidians: Leptodeira annulata and Mastigodryas amarali (Colubridae). It is believed that the changes occurred in the zone influenced the increase of the relative abundance of the species Leptotyphlops goudotii (Leptotyphlopidae) arid Gymnophthalmus speciosus(Gymnophthalmidae) and perhaps in the disappearance of others that have been reported at the xerophitic or semixerophitic zones of the Sucre State of Venezuela.

  7. The geothermal area of El Pilar-Casanay, State of Sucre, Venezuela: Geochemical exploration and model

    SciTech Connect

    D'Amore, F.; Gianelli, G.; Corazza, E. . Istituto Internazionale Ricerche Geotermiche)

    1994-06-01

    A geochemical survey was carried out in the El Pilar-Casanay area, State of Sucre, Venezuela, in order to ascertain its geothermoelectric potential. The area is characterized by many natural manifestations with temperatures in the range 80--100 C. The area investigated seems capable of producing high-enthalpy geothermal fluids; a deep reservoir is inferred, composed of a medium salinity (< 5,000 ppm) and neutral brine, with computed temperatures between 250 and 300 C, and with a high CO[sub 2] partial pressure. Second shallower reservoir is assumed to exist, with a temperature of the order of 200--220 C. The deep reservoir is shown to be liquid-dominated, while water and steam occupy the shallow one. The piezometric level (elevation 150 m) regulates the areal distribution of water springs and fumaroles. A partial self-sealing (mineral alteration) along outflows allows accumulation of hot fluids, while recharge is from local meteoric water.

  8. [Physical properties of the agar of Gracilariopsis tenuifrons (Gracilariacea) from Sucre, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Zecchinel, E; Brito, L; Lárez, G

    2000-12-01

    The yield, gel strength, gelling and melting temperatures of Gracilariopsis tenuifrons agar from Guayacán, Araya Peninsula, Sucre State, Venezuela were determined. Yield values with and without alkali treatment ranged from 23.22 to 39.57% and from 16.29 to 22.42% respectively, while gel strength with alkali treatment fluctuated betwen 699.31 and 1231.69 g/cm2 and without treatment varied from 278.0 to 691.06 g/cm2. Gelling and melting temperatures were in the range reported for other agarophytes. Considering gel strength, the agar quality of G. tenuifrons was higher than in other species and its exploitation in economically feasible.

  9. [Mollusc diversity in an Arca zebra (Mollusca: Bivalvia) community, Chacopata, Sucre, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Prieto, A S; Ruiz, L J; García, N; Alvarez, M

    2001-06-01

    The diversity of a subtidal epifaunal mollusk community was studied from September, 1990 to September, 1991 in Chacopata, Sucre State, Venezuela. There were 40 species (24 bivalves and 16 gastropods). The diversity indexes (H' = 2.087, J' = 0.392, 1/D = 0.528) were low when compared with other tropical zones. Monthly diversity reached its maximum in September, 1990 (1.63 bits/ind.) and July, 1991 (1.60 bits/ind.); minimum diversity occurred in June, 1991 (0.52 bits/ind.). A Log series model applied to species abundance data showed a straight line with a diversity index alpha of 5.56. Of 40 species identified, the turkeywing Arca zebra was dominant (69% in number of individuals and 72% of biomass) followed by Pinctada imbricata, Modiolus squamosus, Chama macerophyla and Anadara notabilis. The predatory snails Phyllonotus pomum, Chicoreus brevifrons and Murex recurvirostris seemed to have trophic relationships with A. zebra. The total mean biomass in wet weight (469.20 +/- 263 g m-2, shell included) was high which indicates that A. zebra, a species with a rapid growth rate, occupies a central role in the assemblage as an efficient filter feeder that converts planktonic food into available biomass, supporting one of the most important fisheries in Venezuela.

  10. Spatial and temporal distribution of anopheline larvae in two malarious areas in Sucre State, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Berti, J; Zimmerman, R; Amarista, J

    1993-01-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of anopheline larvae was studied in two coastal malarious areas of Sucre, State, Venezuela. Seven habitat types were sampled in the village of Guayana and eight species of Anopheles were collected. Anopheles aquasalis was the predominant species collected and was most abundant in the brackish marsh habitat (71 larvae per 100 samples). It was most abundant during the rainy season. At the second location, Santa Fé, six habitat types were sampled and four anopheline species were collected. Habitats where An. aquasalis was most abundant were temporary freshwater ponds (34 larvae per 100 samples) and mangroves (10.5 larvae per 100 samples). At this location it was also most abundant in the rainy season. During the dry season it was collected in small numbers in river pools (1.3 larvae per 100 samples) along with large numbers of An. pseudopunctipennis (479 larvae per 100 samples). Larval control could be an important component of the malaria control program because major habitats could be defined and presence and abundance of larvae was limited to specific times of year.

  11. [Diversity, abundance and distribution of benthic macrofauna on rocky shores from North Sucre State, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Johanna; Jiménez, Mayré; Allen, Thays

    2014-09-01

    The rocky intertidal zone is among the most extreme physical environments on Earth. Organisms living in this area are constantly stricken by physico-chemical and biological factors. Due to the ecological importance of these areas, we studied the diversity, abundance and distribution of the rocky coastline benthic macrofauna, from the North coast of Sucre State, Venezuela. We performed bimonthly samplings from November 2008 to September 2009. The collection of biological material in the littoral zone (supra, mid and infralittoral) was done manually with a grid of 0.25m2. Organisms were preserved in 10% formalin for later identification and analysis (ecological parameters and Kruskal-Wallis test to the abundance and diversity). We found a total 19,020 organisms (86 spp.), in 8 phyla, 45 families and 47 genera. Mollusks were the most abundant and diverse (58 spp.), followed by arthropods (12 spp.), annelids (7 spp.), echinoderms (5 spp.), and the less represented cnidarians, sipunculids, nemertinids and urochordates (1 sp.). The zonation found coincided with the universal scheme of zonation. The towns of Rio Boca and Rio Caribe presented the highest values of ecological parameters, and the lowest were found in Playa Grande. Statistical significant differences were found in the abundance and diversity of macrofauna among the three zones. The little information on the composition and distribution of macrobenthic rocky coastline, prevents a better comparison, however the results contribute to the knowledge of the marine biodiversity in this region.

  12. [Susceptibility of M. tuberculosis to antituberculosis drugs as determined by two methods, in Sucre state, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Rosmy; De Donato, Marcos; de Waard, Jacobus H; Takiff, Howard; Bello, Teresita; Chirinos, Gladys

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the resistance to isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RIF), streptomycin (STR) and ethambutol (EMB), with the Canetti's proportions method (PM) and the nitrate reductase assay (NRA) of 59 clinical strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, isolated in the period of august 2005 to december 2006, in Sucre state, Venezuela. Primary and acquired drug resistance was 6.3% and 14.3%, respectively. Only one strain was found to be multidrug resistant (MDR). The overall agreement between the NRA and PM was 100% for INH, RIF and EMB, and 96% for STR. The time to obtain results was 10 to 14 days for the NRA, compared to 42 days for the PM. The NRA was easy to perform and therefore represents a useful tool for rapid and accurate determination of drug-resistant M. tuberculosis. The sequence of the rpoB gene of the RIF resistant strain demonstrated a never described mutation (change in the codon 456; TCG > CAG) in the hypervariable region of 81 base pairs where most of the mutations of the RIF resistant strains have been reported. Comparison of our results with those of the last resistance prevalence study carried out in the years 1998-1999, shows a decrease in the studied area.

  13. [Structure and dynamics of the community associated to cultivated Gracilariopsis tenuifrons (Gracilariacea) in Chacopata, Sucre, Venezuela. I: Faunistic inventory].

    PubMed

    Barrios, J; Lemus, A

    2000-12-01

    The associated fauna of Gracilariopsis tenuifrons (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta) cultures was collected between October 1994 and December 1996 in Chacopata (Sucre State, Venezuela) and preserved in 10% formaldehyde. The species list includes 17 Crustacea, 14 Mollusca and six Polychaeta, the remaining taxa added ten species (total 47 species in eight Phyla). Grazing by mesoherbivores affected the algae and the mollusk Aplysia protea damaged new cultures significantly. The abundance of tubes built by the amphipod Euricthonius brasiliensis impairs algal aspect and facilitates colonization by other organisms.

  14. [Inventory of reptiles in 2 semi-arid zones from Northeastern of the Peninsula de Araya, Sucre State, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Pablo Cornejo, E; Antulio Prieto, A

    2001-01-01

    The fauna of reptiles in two localities from Northeastern Peninsula de Araya (Guayacán and El Morahal), Sucre State, Venezuela, was evaluated. Both zones are characterized by a vegetation of thorny tropical mount type, and semiarid climate of scarce precipitations (less than 700 mm). Field trips were made between june 1997 and june 1998. The samples were collected both during day and night, with the aid of conventional accessories. The information was complemented with visual registrations and bibliography revision. A total of 21 species were captured and/or observed, distributed in 10 families belonging to 2 of the 3 orders present in Venezuela. The most important families from the point of view of the diversity of species, were the Gekkonidae (2.00 bits/species) for the lizards and the Colubridae (2.33 bits/species) among the snakes. It was also reported one species of tortoises and three of cinegetic interest, being Cnemidophorus lemniscatus, Ameiva bifrontata y Tropidurus hispidus the only species of constant presence during the study.

  15. [Epidemiologic and molecular study of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar strains in pacients with diarrhea in Cumana, Sucre state, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Mora, Leonor; García, Ana; De Donato, Marcos; Urdaneta, Haideé

    2008-06-01

    An epidemiological and molecular study on E. histolytica and E. dispar was carried out in 428 patients with gastrointestinal symptomatology of diarrhea from different health centers in Cumana, Sucre state. The samples were processed through: direct examination with 0.85% physiological saline solution, temporal lugol staining, trichromic staining and the Ritchie method of concentration; a sucrose gradient was used for cyst isolation. The small subunit of the 16S RNA was amplified by nested, multiplex PCR for the molecular detection. The E. histolytica/E. dispar prevalences according to the direct, Ritchie and trichromic staining methods were 20.09, 13.79 and 12.15%, respectively; while prevalences according to PCR for E. histolytica and E. dispar were 6.31% and 4.44%, respectively, also detecting four cases of mixed infection. Sequencing of the amplified fragments of E. histolytica showed 100% homology with the sequences with strains from Merida (Venezuela), USA, Brazil, Mexico and GenBank. The infections by E. histolytica and E. dispar were statistically associated with age but not with sex. The presence of mucus, blood and abdominal pain were only associated to E. histolytica infection. The moderate prevalence of E. histolytica shows the endemic status of this population and warns about the potential problem as a morbidity and mortality in Sucre state. The frequency of E. dispar in this population suggests the existence of an overestimation problem in the diagnosis of amoebiasis with its clinical and epidemiological implications, and shows the poor knowledge about the true prevalences of this protozoan. The PCR allowed for the differential identification of E. histolytica and E. dispar, as well as the presence of mixed infections, making a great tool for epidemiological amoebiasis studies.

  16. [Nitrogen, phosphorus and the C/N ratio in superficial sediments of the lagoon of Chacopata, Sucre, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Fuentes Hernández, M V

    2000-12-01

    The basal behaviour and relationship with organic carbon (Corg) content and prevailing granulometric fractions, of organic nitrogen (Norg), total phosphorus (P-total) and C/N ratio in surface sediments of Chacopata lagoon, Sucre State, Venezuela, were studied. Concentrations and spatial gradients were determined in sixteen stations following a common method for marine sediments. Norg concentrations varied between 0.102 and 0.510% (x = 0.237%), total phosphorus between 0.012 and 0.094% (x = 0.058%) and C/N ratio between 9.27 and 44.47 (x = 20.53). The higher contents of Norg and total phosphorus are from sections with an abundance of mangroves, marine phanerogams, macroalgae, benthonic biomass and migratory birds shelters. The C/N ratio shows the typical values for carbonated sediments, indicating that the nitrogenous compounds are rapidly degraded and the organic matter presents itself as humic substances. This parameter was moderately associated with silt and clay, and showed antagonism with sand, whereas Norg and phosphorus showed no correlation with them. The organic contribution is purely autochthonous: no anthropogenous contributions were found.

  17. [Spatial and temporal variation of the fish community inhabiting the Laguna Grande de Obispo, Gulf of Cariaco, Sucre State, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    de Grado, A A; Bashirullah, A; Prieto, A

    2000-01-01

    The monthly species composition and the spatial and temporal variation of fish community of Laguna Grande de Obispo, Gulf of Canaco, Sucre State, Venezuela were analyzed. The samples were collected using two beach seines of different size from December 1995 to November 1996. A cluster analysis for stations inside the lagoon and time of capture showed 4 major groups, defined principally with ecological parameters of each area. Fishing with large seine in and outside the lagoon showed two large groups which were divided into 10 subgroups in function of station and time, while an inverse analysis of the same sample differentiated into 8 groups of species. based on distribution, dominance, and occurrence. Xenomeianiris brasiliensis, Mugil curema and Eucinostomus argenteus were the most abundant species in both time and space. An analysis of conglomerate on the whole fish community of the sampling period indicated the existence of two groups: i) the first half of the year including December 1995 and October 1996 and ii) the second half of the year. The distribution of fishes in relation to ecological factors is discussed.

  18. [Oropharyngeal morphology and food habits of Micropogonias furnieri (Pisces: Sciaenidae) in the North coast of Estado Sucre, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Ruiz, L J; Prieto, A; Lemus, M

    2001-01-01

    Morphology of the mandibular and pharyngeal region, and the feeding habits of Micropogonias furnieri were examined in 256 male and female specimens, between 28.7 and 54.3 cm total length, collected around Morro Puerto Santo, in northeast Sucre State, Venezuela (10 degrees 45'00" N-63 degrees 8'0" W), from May 1989 to April 1990. Micropogonias furnieri has a small ventral mouth; protrusible premaxillary and dentary; first branchial arches with 21 to 27 gill rakers, generally 24 to 25; and 7 to 11 pyloric caecae. The index of vacuity was low, with mean value of 7.00%. The mean intestinal index was 0.72, indicative of carnivorous species. Analysis of frequency of occurrence, indicates preference for crustaceans (45.70%), mainly crabs (34.90%), followed by polychaetes (28.00%), fishes (11.41%) and occasionally mollusks and echinoderms (4.0 and 3.9%, respectively). The diet of this species did not vary with sex.

  19. Adult abundance, biting behavior and parity of Anopheles aquasalis, Curry 1932 in two malarious areas of Sucre State, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Berti, J; Zimmerman, R; Amarista, J

    1993-01-01

    The principal vector of malaria in eastern Venezuela, Anopheles aquasalis, is exophagic and exophilic. Control using indoor insecticide house sprays has failed to lower the number of malaria cases. Therefore, studies were initiated in two villages of the eastern coastal state of Sucre to better understand this vector's biology and develop a more integrated control program. An. aquasalis was found to have a crepuscular biting behavior with a major peak at dusk and a minor peak at dawn. Mosquitos were collected more outdoors than indoors. Forty-seven percent of the biting took place before people went to bed (22:30 hr) and 69% of the mosquitos biting during this time period bite outdoors. Outdoor biting could be the reason why indoor spraying alone did not lower malaria cases. Seasonal abundance was greater in the rainy season compared to the dry season. Seasonal parous rates were high (78.3%-100%) and similar indoors and outdoors and between dry and wet season in Santa Fé. In Guayana, the seasonal parity was lower (34.6%-42.2%) than Santa Fé with indoor parity slightly higher than outdoors. Malaria cases were higher in Santa Fé, but adult mosquito density was much lower than in Guayana. This difference could have been due to higher parity in Santa Fé compared to Guayana. The greater distance to the nearest breeding site and presence of alternative hosts in Guayana can not be discounted as factors which contributed to the difference in malaria transmission between locations. We concluded that knowledge on seasonal occurrence, biting activity, resting behavior and breeding site location can be used to design a new control strategy for this vector.

  20. [Larval seasonality of the mosquito Anopheles aquasalis (Diptera: Culicidae) and other insects associated to its habitat in Sucre, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Berti, Jesús; González, Julio; Navarro-Bueno, Edith; Zoppi, Evelin; Gordon, Elizabeth; Delgado, Laura

    2010-06-01

    Anopheles aquasalis Curry is considered the main vector of human malaria in Northern Venezuela. A longitudinal study was carried out in the coastal areas of the Paria Peninsula, Sucre state. The larval habitats of A. aquasalis were classified as: 1--Brackish mangrove, and 2--Freshwater herbaceous swamp. Field surveys of mosquito larvae and aquatic insects were carried out in the same breeding sites over a one-year period, between January and December 1999. At each site, 30 samples of Anopheles larvae and aquatic insects were taken monthly. Simultaneously with mosquito larvae sampling, five selected variables of water were measured: conductivity, salinity, dissolved oxygen, temperature and pH. Seasonal and temporal variations of A. aquasalis larvae and aquatic insects were determined in the two larval habitats. For the entire study period, the abundance of larvae was higher in the mangrove. Correspondence analysis showed a strong relation between some chemical factors of water and larval abundance. The abundance of A. aquasalis larvae in both seasons, was positively correlated with water salinity, pH and conductivity, and negatively and with dissolved oxygen in the dry season. The presence of larvae was positively correlated with the presence of Avicenia germinans. In the mangrove there was a positive association between larvae abundance and Scirtidae family abundance and a negative correlation between larvae abundance and monthly precipitation (Spearman), as well as a significant negative correlation between Gerridae abundance and monthly precipitation. In the herbaceous swamp, there were not significant associations between A. aquasalis larvae abundance and abundance of others aquatic insects associated to habitat.

  1. [Some attributes of community structure of fishes in Laguna Grande de Obispo, Golfo Cariaco, Sucre State, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    De Grado, A A; Bashirullah, A

    2001-01-01

    Species composition, relative abundance, diversity and community structure of fishes were studied from monthly sampling during December 1995 to November 1996 in the Laguna Grande de Obispo, Gulf of Cariaco, Sucre State, Venezuela. Sampling were realised in 3 stations inside the lagoon with a small beach seine and the other 4 stations with a large beach seine. Seventy four species belonging to 33 families and 68 genera were identified of which 8 species dominated, constituting 90.43% of total catch. Mugil curema, Xenomelaniris brasiliensis, Opistonema oglinum, Atherinomorus stipes and Anchoa hepsetus were present in high abundance in the biomass. M. curema dominated the catch with large seine while X. brasiliensis, M. curema and Eucinostomus argenteus dominated the catch with small seine. Species diversity (H') ranged from 2.968-4.607 bits/ind and species richness of Margalef from 2.752-7.464. An inverse analysis realized on catches by small seine and based on nodal constancy and fidelity allowed to define a pattern of spatial distribution of 9 groups containing 1 to 11 species on the basis their abundance, frequency of appearance and ecological characteristics of each area. An analysis of correlation showed that the salinity, dissolved O2 and precipitation did not show any significant correlation with the ecological parameters studied but existed significant correlation with average surface water temperature (p < 0.05), number of species (S), individuals (N), diversity (H') and species richness (D). The positive correlation was found with surface temperature but no relationship with relative dominance (D1 and D2). The CPUE in biomass did not show any significant association with temperature.

  2. [Fenology and life cycle of Gracilariopsis tenuifions (Gracilariaceae) at Sucre, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Brito, Leonor; Silva, Soraida

    2005-05-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the frequency of different reproductive phases and to induce the germination of spores from tetrasporic and cystocarpic Gracilariopsis tenuifrons from Chacopata and La Peña, Venezuela, under controlled laboratory conditions (temperature 22 +/- 1 degree C, 12L:12D photoperiod, salinity of 36 +/-1 PSU and irradiance of 269 microE m(-2) s(-1)). Tetrasporic individuals dominated numerically over gametophitic individuals. The proportion of vegetative algae was very low. Only cystocarpic algae were collected and the spermatangia were absent. Sporulation, germination and formation of algae suggest that they present a Polysiphonia-type life cycle. Algae with reproductive structures were not obtained in the laboratory,

  3. [Benthic macrofauna associated to Thalassia testudinum in Bahía de Mochima, Sucre, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Jiménez Prieto, M; Liñero-Arana, I; Blanco-Rambla, J P; Fermín, J

    2000-12-01

    Diversity and abundance of benthic macrofauna associated to Thalassia testudinum were studied at Ensenada de Reyes, Mochima Bay, in the northeastern coast of Venezuela. Samples were taken monthly in six stations, three at 1 m in depth and three at 6 m, between December 1992 and February 1994, using a quadrat of 0.25 m2 for collecting plants and sediment; each sample was washed with seawater through a 1 mm sieve. The specimens were fixed in 6% formaldehyde. A total of 1722 organisms (6 888 ind x m2) and 127 species of macroinvertebrates were collected. Mollusks dominated with 53 species, followed by polychaetes (40), crustaceans (18) and echinoderms (8). Remaining groups were represented by 1-2 species. The highest abundance was in October (214 specimens), and the lowest in December 1993 (79 specimens). Specific richness was between 47 species in October and 18 in May 1993. Mean species diversity was 2.79-1.36 bits/ind. There were differences (ANOVA p<0.01) in number of specimens at the two depths but not throughout the 15 month study period (p>0.05). There were more specimens and species at the lowest depth and in stations with higher Thalassia testudinum biomass.

  4. Multiplex-PCR for detection of natural Leishmania infection in Lutzomyia spp. captured in an endemic region for cutaneous leishmaniasis in state of Sucre, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Jorquera, Alicia; González, Ricardo; Marchán-Marcano, Edgar; Oviedo, Milagros; Matos, Mercedes

    2005-02-01

    We studied the natural infection of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) sp. with Leishmania in endemic foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Paria peninsula, state of Sucre, Venezuela. Sand flies were collected between March 2001 and June 2003, using Shannon light-traps and human bait. Of the 1291 insects captured, only two species of phlebotomines were identified: L. ovallesi (82.75%) and L. gomezi (17.42%). A sample of the collected sand flies (51 pools of 2-12 individuals) were analyzed by using a multiplex-PCR assay for simultaneous detection of New Word Leishmaniaand Viannia subgenera. The results showed a total of 8 pools (15.68%) infected; of these, 7 were L. ovallesi naturally infected with L. braziliensis (2 pools) and L. mexicana (5 pools) and 1 pool of L. gomezi infected by L. braziliensis.

  5. Geographic distribution and host plants of Raoiella indica and associated mite species in northern Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Vásquez, Carlos; de Moraes, Gilberto J

    2013-05-01

    The red palm mite (RPM), Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), is an invasive pest in the New World, where it is currently considered a serious threat to coconut and banana crops. It was first reported from northern Venezuela in 2007. To determine its current distribution in this country, surveys were carried out from October 2008 to April 2010 on coconut (Cocos nucifera L.), banana (Musa spp.), ornamental plants and weeds in northern Venezuela. Higher population levels of RPM were registered on commercial coconut farms in Falcón and Sucre states but also on other plant species naturally growing along the coastal line in Anzoategui, Aragua, Carabobo, Monagas and Nueva Esparta states. Out of 34 botanical species evaluated, all RPM stages were observed only on eight arecaceous, one musaceous and one streliziaceous species, indicating that the pest developed and reproduced only on these plants. Mite specimens found on weeds were considered spurious events, as immature stages of the pest were never found on these. Amblyseius largoensis (Muma) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) was the most frequent predatory mite associated with RPM in all sampling sites. The results indicate that RPM has spread to extensive areas of northern Venezuela since its initial detection in Güiria, Sucre state. Considering the report of this pest mite in northern Brazil in the late 2009, additional samplings in southern Venezuela should be carried out, to evaluate the possible presence of RPM also in that region.

  6. [Protozoans in superficial waters and faecal samples of individuals of rural populations of the Montes municipality, Sucre state, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Mora, Leonor; Martínez, Indira; Figuera, Lourdes; Segura, Merlyn; Del Valle, Guilarte

    2010-12-01

    In Sucre state, the Manzanares river is threatened by domestic, agricultural and industrial activities, becoming an environmental risk factor for its inhabitants. In this sense, the presence of protozoans in superficial waters of tributaries of the Manzanares river (Orinoco river, Quebrada Seca, San Juan river), Montes municipality, Sucre state, as well as the analysis of faecal samples from inhabitants of towns bordering these tributaries were evaluated. We collected faecal and water samples from may 2006 through april 2007. The superficial water samples were processed after centrifugation by the direct examination and floculation, using lugol, modified Kinyoun and trichromic colorations. Fecal samples where analyzed by direct examination with physiological saline solution and the modified Ritchie concentration method and using the other colorations techniques above mentioned. The most frequently observed protozoans in superficial waters in the three tributaries were: Amoebas, Blastocystis sp, Endolimax sp., Chilomastix sp. and Giardia sp. Whereas in faecal samples, Blastocystis hominis, Endolimax nana and Entaomeba coli had the greatest frequencies in the three communities. The inhabitants of Orinoco La Peña turned out to be most susceptible to these parasitic infections (77.60%), followed by San Juan River (46.63%) and Quebrada Seca (39.49%). The presence of pathogenic and nonpathogenic protozoans in superficial waters demonstrates the faecal contamination of the tributaries, representing a constant focus of infection for their inhabitants, inferred by the observation of the same species in both types of samples.

  7. [Mollusks associated to the submerged roots of the red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle (L.), in the Gulf of Santa Fe, Sucre State, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Márquez, B; Jiménez, M

    2002-01-01

    A qualitative and quantitative monthly study of the mollusks community associated to the submerged roots of the red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle (L.), between October of 1998 and September of 1999, in six stations of the Gulf of Santa Fe, (Sucre State, Venezuela). Were collected 4,704 specimens, 45 species of mollusks were identified (22 gastropods, 15 bivalves and 8 chitons). The most abundant species were: Crassostrea rhizophorae, Isognomon bicolar, I. alatus and Brachidontes exustus. The highest values in diversity and evenness, and the smallest dominant values, were in the stations three and four, while the opposed happened in the stations one and two. The analysis of likeness showed that in the first five stations the space variations in the composition of the community are bigger than the temporary variations, while in the station six the temporary differences prevail. They were factors that could be important to determine the structure of the community, as vicinity to other ecosystems and/or specific biological aspects of the species like adaptations to fluctuating conditions, nutritious habits and migration in search of shady and protected atmospheres.

  8. Analysis of the El Niño/La Niña-Southern Oscillation variability and malaria in the Estado Sucre, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Petrocelli, Laura; Córdova, Karenia; Camardiel, Alberto; Aguilar, Víctor H; Hernández, Denise; Ramos, Santiago

    2012-09-01

    The last decade has seen an unprecedented, worldwide acceleration of environmental and climate changes. These processes impact the dynamics of natural systems, which include components associated with human communities such as vector-borne diseases. The dynamics of environmental and climate variables, altered by global change as reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, affect the distribution of many tropical diseases. Complex systems, e.g. the El Niño/La Niña-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), in which environmental variables operate synergistically, can provoke the reemergence and emergence of vector-borne diseases at new sites. This research investigated the influence of ENSO events on malaria incidence by determining the relationship between climate variations, expressed as warm, cold and neutral phases, and their relation to the number of malaria cases in some north-eastern municipalities of Venezuela (Estado Sucre) during the period 1990-2000. Significant differences in malaria incidence were found, particularly in the La Niña ENSO phases (cold) of moderate intensity. These findings should be taken into account for surveillance and control in the future as they shed light on important indicators that can lead to reduced vulnerability to malaria.

  9. [Abundance and richness of mollusks and crustaceans associated to the submerged roots of red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) at Bocaripo Lagoon, Sucre, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Cedeño, Jennellis; Jiménez Prieto, Mayré; Pereda, Luisana; Allen, Thays

    2010-10-01

    Mangrove roots are important habitats for many species. The abundance and richness of mollusks and crustaceans associated with the roots demerged of Rhizophora mangle was studied. The samples were gathered between February 2005 and January 2006, in Bocaripo lagoon, north coast of Sucre state, Venezuela. Five stations were established inside the lagoon; on every station two roots were chosen at random, put in plastic bags and scraped. The associated organisms were separated by taxa and fixed in 10% formaldehyde. One thousand ninety two specimens of mollusks, distributed in two classes: Bivalve and Gastropod were collected. Bivalve was the most abundant with 943 individuals. The most representative family was Mytilidae with 6 species, being Musculus lateralis the dominant species. The crustaceans were represented by 372 organisms, belonging to the class Malacostraca, where Panopeus herbstii (169 ind.) was the most abundant species. The families Panopeidae, Porcellanidae and Majidae had the highest number of species. Maximum abundance was in February (224 ind.), with a richness of 25 species and the minimums in November (45 ind.) and a richness of 12 species. The stations 1 and 5 presented the major abundance and richness of organisms, which could be related to environmental conditions favorable, as the major availability of microhabitats and nourishing offer; on the contrary the station 4, presented a more inhospitable environment, due to the high values in the salinity and temperature, which contributes with the minor abundance and richness of the present species.

  10. Temporal variations of heavy metals levels in Perna viridis, on the Chacopata-Bocaripo lagoon axis, Sucre State, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Rafael; Acosta, Vanessa; Segnini, Mary Isabel; Brito, Leonor; Martínez, Gregorio

    2015-02-28

    Perna viridis was used as biomonitor to assess heavy metal levels in the Chacopata-Bocaripo lagoon axis, Venezuela, during rain and drought seasons. The mussels were weighed and measured. The metal concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. For rain period, the order of bioavailability was: Cu>Ni>Mn>Co>Cd>Pb, and for drought: Cu>Mn>Ni>Co>Pb>Cd. The concentrations of Ni, Co, Cd and Pb showed significant differences (P<0.05) in both periods. There was higher metal accumulation during drought season, possibly related to upwelling, since it produces an increase in primary productivity, which translates more food into organisms, making metals bioavailable for mussels. Only Cu and Mn showed significant relationships between the size and metal concentration, during drought period, it may be because of the organisms need for these essential metals in different physiological processes.

  11. [Assessment of airborne mycoflora in critical areas of the Principal Hospital of Cumaná, state of Sucre, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Centeno, Sara; Machado, Sandra

    2004-06-01

    The study of the nosocomial infections of fungic origin has attained importance in the last years, due to the rise in the number of patients that are inmunocompromised and susceptible to suffer this kind of infection. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of filamentous fungi and yeast, present in the environment of the Intensive Care Unit, operating and newborn children rooms of the Hospital Universitario "Antonio Patricio de Alcalá" (HUAPA) from the city of Cumaná. Suere State, Venezuela. The recount of colony forming units/plate (UCF/plate) of the filamentous fungi and yeast was done in Petri plates with Sabouraud dextrose agar, which were exposed in the different studied areas. Eventually, the fungus colonies found were isolated and identified. The area that presented the highest average of UCF/plate was the Intensive Care Unit (9 UCF/plate). The isolated genus of filamentous fungus in higher proportion were Aspergillus (46.80%), Penicillium (19.19%) and Fusarium (11.06%). The isolated species with more frequency were Aspergillus niger (24.80%), Aspergillus flavus (10.54%) and Fusarium solani (9.52%). Rhodotorula glutinis was the isolated yeast with most frequency and different species of the genus Candida and the genus Criptococcus were isolated as well.

  12. Geographical distribution of Trypanosoma cruzi genotypes in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Hernán J; Segovia, Maikell; Llewellyn, Martin S; Morocoima, Antonio; Urdaneta-Morales, Servio; Martínez, Cinda; Martínez, Clara E; Garcia, Carlos; Rodríguez, Marlenes; Espinosa, Raul; de Noya, Belkisyolé A; Díaz-Bello, Zoraida; Herrera, Leidi; Fitzpatrick, Sinead; Yeo, Matthew; Miles, Michael A; Feliciangeli, M Dora

    2012-01-01

    Chagas disease is an endemic zoonosis native to the Americas and is caused by the kinetoplastid protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. The parasite is also highly genetically diverse, with six discrete typing units (DTUs) reported TcI - TcVI. These DTUs broadly correlate with several epidemiogical, ecological and pathological features of Chagas disease. In this manuscript we report the most comprehensive evaluation to date of the genetic diversity of T. cruzi in Venezuela. The dataset includes 778 samples collected and genotyped over the last twelve years from multiple hosts and vectors, including nine wild and domestic mammalian host species, and seven species of triatomine bug, as well as from human sources. Most isolates (732) can be assigned to the TcI clade (94.1%); 24 to the TcIV group (3.1%) and 22 to TcIII (2.8%). Importantly, among the 95 isolates genotyped from human disease cases, 79% belonged to TcI - a DTU common in the Americas, however, 21% belonged to TcIV- a little known genotype previously thought to be rare in humans. Furthermore, were able to assign multiple oral Chagas diseases cases to TcI in the area around the capital, Caracas. We discuss our findings in the context of T. cruzi DTU distributions elsewhere in the Americas, and evaluate the impact they have on the future of Chagas disease control in Venezuela.

  13. Geographical Distribution of Trypanosoma cruzi Genotypes in Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, Hernán J.; Segovia, Maikell; Llewellyn, Martin S.; Morocoima, Antonio; Urdaneta-Morales, Servio; Martínez, Cinda; Martínez, Clara E.; Garcia, Carlos; Rodríguez, Marlenes; Espinosa, Raul; de Noya, Belkisyolé A.; Díaz-Bello, Zoraida; Herrera, Leidi; Fitzpatrick, Sinead; Yeo, Matthew; Miles, Michael A.; Feliciangeli, M. Dora

    2012-01-01

    Chagas disease is an endemic zoonosis native to the Americas and is caused by the kinetoplastid protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. The parasite is also highly genetically diverse, with six discrete typing units (DTUs) reported TcI – TcVI. These DTUs broadly correlate with several epidemiogical, ecological and pathological features of Chagas disease. In this manuscript we report the most comprehensive evaluation to date of the genetic diversity of T. cruzi in Venezuela. The dataset includes 778 samples collected and genotyped over the last twelve years from multiple hosts and vectors, including nine wild and domestic mammalian host species, and seven species of triatomine bug, as well as from human sources. Most isolates (732) can be assigned to the TcI clade (94.1%); 24 to the TcIV group (3.1%) and 22 to TcIII (2.8%). Importantly, among the 95 isolates genotyped from human disease cases, 79% belonged to TcI - a DTU common in the Americas, however, 21% belonged to TcIV- a little known genotype previously thought to be rare in humans. Furthermore, were able to assign multiple oral Chagas diseases cases to TcI in the area around the capital, Caracas. We discuss our findings in the context of T. cruzi DTU distributions elsewhere in the Americas, and evaluate the impact they have on the future of Chagas disease control in Venezuela. PMID:22745843

  14. [Nutritional condition and serum protein concentration in children (6-12 years old) of Chacopata Sucre State, Venezuela (December--January, 1997)].

    PubMed

    Vásquez, Solange; García, Andrés Gerardi; Lugo, Raquel Salazar

    2004-01-01

    A biochemical and anthropometrical study of 175 children (6-12 years old) from Chacopata, Sucre State was done (December--January, 1997). The children were evaluated by combined anthropometrical indicators (OMS), clinical, nutritional and biochemical tests. The results showed 81.71% well-nourished children, 4.57% obese children and 13.72% with some degree of undernutrition: 3.43% acute undernourished and 10.29% chronic undernourished. Total seric proteins including fractions: albumin, alfa-1 alfa-2, beta and gamma globulins as well as total globulins and albumin/globulin indexes were at the normal reference range for children (6-12 years old). A significative increase in alfa-1 globulin (0.18+/-0.08 g/dl; 8-9 years old group) and decrease of alfa-2 globulin (0.71+/-0.11 g/dl; 10-12 year old group) was observed. Biochemical results associated with nutritional condition showed normal values, moreover, this biochemical index decreased in the undernourished group. A significant decrease of the seric beta globulin in the undernourished children (0.72+/-0,12 g/dl) with respect to the well-nourished children (0.79+/-0.15) was found. In children (6-12 years old) from Chacopata, compensated chronic undernourishement is prevalent.

  15. Venezuela.

    PubMed

    1987-04-01

    The background notes by the U.S. State Department on Venezuela emphasize the unique economic conditions in this oil-rich nation, and include information on its people, geography, history, government politics, defense and foreign relations. Venezuela, located on the north coast of South America, has 17,791,000 people, growing at a rate of 2.7%. Infant mortality is 2.7/1000, and life expectancy is 70 years. Geography ranges from the scarcely populated highlands between the Orinoco river and Guyana, the Orinoco plains, to the populated Andes mountains and coast. 80% of the population is urban. Literacy is a priority at 88.4%; Technical and university education is increasing; emigration from other countries is common because of relatively good working conditions. Venezuela has a long history of self government, having become independent in 1921. Now the democratic constitutional government is effective in improving both internal and regional development and human rights. The economy is based on oil production and refining, as well as steel and aluminum, all nationalized industries. Self-sufficiency in agriculture is a national goal. Because of the rapid population growth rate, however, per capita income and GNP are stagnating.

  16. Venezuela.

    PubMed

    1982-02-01

    This discussion of Venezuela reviews the following: the history of the country's demographic situation; the government's overall approach to population problems; statistical systems and development planning; institutional arrangements for the integration of population within development planning; the government's view of the importance of population policy in realizing development objectives; population size, growth, and natural increase; morbidity and mortality; fertility; international migration; and spatial distribution. Over the 1920-1961 period Venezuela's level of fertility was high and continued to rise gradually. The crude birth rate was around 40.0/1000 population in 1920, 44.0/1000 in 1950, and 45.0/1000 in 1961, and thereafter began to decline, dropping to a level of 38.4/1000 by 1971. During the same period, mortality underwent a steady decline, with the crude death rate falling from 30.0/1000 population in 1920 to 13.7 in 1950, 7.4 in 1961, and to 6.6 by 1971. Venezuela's government has no policy of intervention to modify fertility or population growth but has relied primarily on the benefits of rapid economic growth to achieve a rate of demographic growth that is compatible with its development objectives. Since 1920, 7 modern censuses have been conducted. The most recent census was in 1971. The registration data are classified as incomplete. Multiround sample household surveys were conducted in 1976-1977 and 1978. The government has not established a special unit for population policies. It assigned this function to the Central Planning Agency in 1975. The government has not announced a comprehensive population policy, but it has been moving in the direction of formulating more comprehensive policies in 2 areas of concern--international migration and spatial distribution. The government considers the current rate of population growth to be satisfactory despite the fact that it is rather high by Latin American standards. The government also considers

  17. Global Climate Change Effects on Venezuela's Vulnerability to Chagas Disease is Linked to the Geographic Distribution of Five Triatomine Species.

    PubMed

    Ceccarelli, Soledad; Rabinovich, Jorge E

    2015-11-01

    We analyzed the possible effects of global climate change on the potential geographic distribution in Venezuela of five species of triatomines (Eratyrus mucronatus (Stal, 1859), Panstrongylus geniculatus (Latreille, 1811), Rhodnius prolixus (Stål, 1859), Rhodnius robustus (Larrousse, 1927), and Triatoma maculata (Erichson, 1848)), vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. To obtain the future potential geographic distributions, expressed as climatic niche suitability, we modeled the presences of these species using two IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) future emission scenarios of global climate change (A1B and B1), the Global Climate model CSIRO Mark 3.0, and three periods of future projections (years 2020, 2060, and 2080). After estimating with the MaxEnt software the future climatic niche suitability for each species, scenario, and period of future projections, we estimated a series of indexes of Venezuela's vulnerability at the county, state, and country level, measured as the number of people exposed due to the changes in the geographical distribution of the five triatomine species analyzed. Despite that this is not a measure of the risk of Chagas disease transmission, we conclude that possible future effects of global climate change on the Venezuelan population vulnerability show a slightly decreasing trend, even taking into account future population growth; we can expect fewer locations in Venezuela where an average Venezuelan citizen would be exposed to triatomines in the next 50-70 yr.

  18. Geographical patterns of onchocerciasis in southern Venezuela: relationships between environment and infection prevalence.

    PubMed

    Botto, C; Escalona, E; Vivas-Martinez, S; Behm, V; Delgado, L; Coronel, P

    2005-03-01

    Onchocerciasis is a chronic filarial infection transmitted by Simulium flies that has a focal geographical distribution in Latin America. The southern Venezuelan focus has a gradient of endemicity that includes the largest number of hyperendemic communities in the continent, many of them in remote forest and mountainous areas, where it is an important public health problem among the Yanomami indigenous population. The recent introduction of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) tools and a landscape epidemiology approach for study of vector borne diseases is helping to understand relationships between environment and transmission dynamics of onchocerciasis. Striking differences in the transmission dynamics of onchocerciasis between different river courses were detected. A significant relationship between onchocerciasis and temperature was also demonstrated. The geologic substrate, kind of landscape and vegetation seemed also to influence the transmission of onchocerciasis. In the Venezuelan Amazon, different kinds of landscapes associated with distinctive vector species, show different intensities of transmission of onchocerciasis. In this sense, landscape analysis aided by GIS, may prove to be a useful tool for better identification of the spatial distribution of onchocerciasis risk in the Orinoco basin.

  19. Geospatial tools for the identification of a malaria corridor in Estado Sucre, a Venezuelan north-eastern state.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Petrocelli, Laura; Camardiel, Alberto; Aguilar, Víctor Hugo; Martinez, Néstor; Córdova, Karenia; Ramos, Santiago

    2011-05-01

    Landscape ecology research relies on frameworks based on geographical information systems (GIS), geostatistics and spatial-feature relationships. With regard to health, the approach consists of systems analysis using a set of powerful tools aimed at the reduction of community vulnerability through improved public policies. The north-oriental malaria focus, one of five such foci in Venezuela, situated in the north-eastern part of the Estado Sucre state, unites several social and environmental features and functions as an epidemiological corridor, i.e. an endemic zone characterised by permanent interaction between the mosquito vector and the human host allowing a continuous persistence of the malaria lifecycle. A GIS was developed based on official cartography with thematic overlays depicting malaria distribution, socio-economic conditions, basic environmental information and specific features associated with the natural wetlands present in the area. Generally, malaria foci are continuously active but when the malaria situation was modelled in the north-oriental focus, a differential, spatio-temporal distribution pattern situation was found, i.e. a situation oscillating between very active and dormant transmission. This pattern was displayed by spatial and statistical analysis based on the model generated in this study and the results were confirmed by municipal and county malaria records. Control of malaria, keeping the incidence at a permanently low level within the regional population, should be possible if these results are taken into account when designing and implementing epidemiological surveillance policies.

  20. Epizootics of yellow fever in Venezuela (2004-2005): an emerging zoonotic disease.

    PubMed

    Rifakis, Pedro M; Benitez, Jesus A; De-la-Paz-Pineda, Jose; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2006-10-01

    Epidemics and epizootics of yellow fever (YF) have been occurring in the border area of eastern Colombia and western Venezuela since 2003; for this reason many epidemiological control measures were adopted by the Ministry of Health (MOH) trying to prevent their spreading. These activities included monkey deaths surveillance as well as immunization of susceptible individuals with YF vaccine. In this setting, we analyzed epidemiological and epizootical issues related to YF in Venezuela during 2004-2005. In this period, YF epizootics occurred initially without geographical links to the 2003 outbreaks (which occurred at the Southern Maracaibo lake epizootic wave), but in relation with the Guayana epizootic wave; beginning in Monagas state and then affecting Anzoátegui, Guárico, and Sucre states. Just months later, Apure was also affected. Mérida and Táchira also report epizootics for the end of 2004. This year concluded with 15 human deaths due to YF and more than 100 howler monkey deaths. In the same year, 715 suspected cases were investigated confirming YF in 0.7% of them. For these reasons, between 2002 and 2004, Venezuela's MOH has vaccinated approximately 1.9 million people in areas considered to be enzootic. The country's goal for 2006 is to have 7 million people residing in high-risk cities and towns vaccinated, and in this way, preventing and controlling this emerging zoonotic disease.

  1. Geothermal reconnaissance of northeastern Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Urbani, F. )

    1989-01-01

    About 60% of Venezuela has been covered by a reconnaissance geothermal survey that includes geologic and water geochemical studies. The information is stored in a computerized data bank that holds data from 361 geothermal localities. The subsurface reservoir temperatures of the geothermal systems have been estimated using chemical geothermometry and mixing models and in many cases conceptual geothermal modes have been postulated. Preliminary assessments of the northeastern Venezuelan geothermal systems indicate that the most promising system is Las Minas near El Pilar in the state of Sucre, with an estimated deep reservoir temperature of 200-220{sup 0}C. Further studies are intended to evaluate its potential for electricity generation. Based on present data, other medium and low temperature systems in Venezuela appear useful for direct applications.

  2. The Bolivarian University of Venezuela: A Radical Alternative in the Global Field of Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivancheva, Mariya

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses paradoxes in the emergent global field of higher education as reflected in an alternative model of the university--the Bolivarian University of Venezuela (UBV) and the related higher education policy, Mision Sucre. With its credo in the applied social sciences, its commitment to popular pedagogy and its dependence on…

  3. Isonymy structure of Sucre and Táchira, two Venezuelan states.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Larralde, A; Barrai, I

    1997-10-01

    The isonymy structure of two Venezuelan states, Sucre and Táchira, is described using the surnames of the Register of Electors updated in 1991. The frequency distribution of surnames pooled together by sex was obtained for the 57 counties of Sucre and the 52 counties of Táchira, based on total population sizes of 158,705 and 160,690 individuals, respectively. The coefficient of consanguinity resulting from random isonymy (phi ii), Karlin and McGregor's ni (identical to v), and the proportion of the population included in surnames represented only once (estimator A) and in the seven most frequent surnames (estimator B) were calculated for each county. RST, a measure of microdifferentiation, was estimated for each state. The Euclidean distance between pairs of counties within states was calculated together with the corresponding geographic distances. The correlations between their logarithmic transformations were significant in both cases, indicating differentiation of surnames by distance. Dendrograms based on the Euclidean distance matrix were constructed. From them a first approximation of the effect of internal migration within states was obtained. Ninety-six percent of the coefficient of consanguinity resulting from random isonymy is determined by the proportion of the population included in the seven most frequent surnames, whereas between 72% and 88% of Karlin and McGregor's ni for Sucre and Táchira, respectively, is determined by the proportion of population included in surnames represented only once. Surnames with generalized and with focal distribution were identified for both states, to be used as possible indicators of the geographic origin of their carriers. Our results indicate that Táchira's counties, on average, tend to be more isolated than Sucre's counties, as measured by RST, estimator B, and phi ii. Comparisons with the results obtained for other. Venezuelan states and other non-Venezuelan populations are also given.

  4. Venezuela: illegal immigration from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Pellegrino, A

    1984-01-01

    The influx of illegal Colombian immigrants into Venezuela is studied using data from a variety of sources, including the 1971 census and several studies conducted in 1979-1980. The author examines the origins and destinations of migrants; age, sex, educational status, and occupational data; reasons for migration; and geographic distribution of the migrating population. Tables from Venezuela's General Foreign-Born Register of December 1980 are presented in an appendix.

  5. Patterns of ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) richness and relative abundance along an aridity gradient in Western Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Sánchez, A J; Lattke, J E; Viloria, A L

    2013-04-01

    In xeric ecosystems, ant diversity response to aridity varies with rainfall magnitude and gradient extension. At a local scale and with low precipitation regimes, increased aridity leads to a reduction of species richness and an increased relative abundance for some ant species. In order to test this pattern in tropical environments, ant richness and relative abundance variation were evaluated along 35 km of an aridity gradient in the Araya Peninsula, state of Sucre, Venezuela. Three sampling stations comprising five transects each were set up. Pitfall traps and direct collecting from vegetation were assessed per transect. Overall, 52 species, 23 genera, and 7 subfamilies of ants were recorded in the peninsula. The total number of species and genera recorded by both sampling stations and transects decreased linearly with increasing aridity. Total relative abundance was highest in the most arid portion of the peninsula, with Crematogaster rochai (Forel) and Camponotus conspicuus zonatus (Emery) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) being the numerically dominant species. Spatial and multivariate analyses revealed significant changes in ant composition every 11 km of distance, and showed a decrease of ant diversity with the increase of harsh conditions in the gradient. Here, we discuss how local geographic and topographic features of Araya originate the aridity gradient and so affect the microhabitat conditions for the ant fauna.

  6. Undocumented migration to Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Van Roy, R

    1984-01-01

    "In 1980 Venezuela took...steps to regularize the undocumented migrant population. While the number responding to the amnesty was small relative to expectations, the majority of illegals appeared to have regularized their status. For the first time it was possible to assess objectively the characteristics of the undocumented population. Moreover, the problem of illegal migrants seems to have been temporarily solved, a result of both the amnesty and the country's declining economic activity." Topics covered in the present article include the nationality, geographic distribution, sex and age distribution, educational status, and occupations of undocumented migrants.

  7. [Heavy metal distribution in superficial sedimenta ta Saco, Gulf of Cariaco, Sucre, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Valentina Fuentes, María; Rojas de Astudillo, Luisa; Diaz, Alfredo; Martínez, Gregorio

    2010-10-01

    The Gulf of Cariaco is a marine ecosystem with high primary productivity, which gives it an ecological and socioeconomic importance. Nevertheless, anthropogenic activities around the Gulf produce wastes that are deposited directly or by runoff into the sediments, and consequently, increases concentrations of metals in this ecosystem. The objective of this study was to determine the distribution of cadmium, copper, lead, manganese, nickel and zinc in geochemical fractions of surface sediments, using modified BCR sequential extraction procedure. The concentrations were measured using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. In addition, the contents of soluble and exchangeable metals associated to carbonate fractions, determined by BCR, were compared with those determined by the method of Campanella. Samples were collected in 12 stations during June 2007. The applied methodologies were evaluated with a certified reference material of marine sediments (HISS-1) and the results indicated that these methods provide adequate accuracy and precision for the extraction of metals. The total metal concentrations (microg g(-1)) were, Cd: < limit of detection (LD)-5.0; Pb: 1.79-60.41; Cu: no detected (ND)-42.18; Zn: 25.13-104.57; Mn: 66.31-80.29 and Ni: 3.29-24.58. Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb at several stations, exceeded the Canadian Sediment Quality Guidelines of the Lowest Effect Levels (LEL). Cadmium was identified as being the most mobile of the elements, having the highest concentrations in soluble and exchangeable cations and carbonates. However, Pb, Cu, Mn and Zn levels were found highly associated to organic matter and sulfide fractions. The methods did not show significant statistical differences for the extraction of soluble and exchangeable cations and the metals associated to carbonate fraction. There are several significant correlations between heavy metals, which suggest their common origin.

  8. Microbial activity in surface sediments of Chacopata-Bocaripo lagoon axis, Sucre State, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Segnini de B, Mary Isabel; Gómez, Irma; Brito, Leonor; Acosta, Vanessa; Troccoli, Luis

    2015-02-28

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the microbial activity of the surface sediments (0-10 cm) of the Chacopata-Bocaripo lagoon axis (Ch-BLA) through microbiological parameters: microbial biomass (Cmic) dehydrogenase activity (DHS), fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis (HFDA), arginine ammonification (AA) and biochemical parameters: phosphatase (PHa) and urease (URa) activity. They were determined during transition (July 2010) and upwelling (March 2011) periods. Total organic carbon (TOC) did not vary significantly (p⩾0.05) between climatic periods. All the parameters studied were higher in upwelling season: Cmic (191.79 mg Cmic kg(-1)), DHS (228.70 μg TFF g(-1) 24 h(-1)), HFDA (204.09 μg fluorescein g(-1) 24 h(-1)), AA (13.09 μg NH4-N g(-1) h(-1)), PHa (132.31 μg pNF g(-1) h(-1)), URa (12.90 μg NH4-N g(-1) h(-1)). They appear to be controlled by the availability and quality of nutrients in each climatic period, and were useful tools for evaluating changes in microbial activity in marine sediments.

  9. The recent evolution of immigration in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Pellegrino, A

    1985-09-01

    Recent trends in immigration to Venezuela are reviewed. Data are from official sources, including the 1981 census and a 1981 survey of migrants. An analysis of migrants by major country or region of origin is presented that includes consideration of geographic distribution, migrant characteristics, and the characteristics of illegal immigration.

  10. Effects of the Lycopersicon chmielewskii sucrose accumulator gene (sucr) on fruit yield and quality parameters following introgression into tomato.

    PubMed

    Chetelat, R T; Deverna, J W; Bennett, A B

    1995-07-01

    A gene controlling fruit sucrose accumulation, sucr, was introgressed from the wild tomato species Lycopersicon chmielewskii into the genetic background of a hexose-accumulating cultivated tomato, L. esculentum. During introgression, the size of the L. chmielewskii chromosomal segment containing sucr was reduced by selection for recombination between RFLP markers for the sucr gene and flanking loci. The effects of sucr on soluble solids content, fruit size, yield and other fruit parameters were studied in the genetic background of the processing tomato cultivar 'Huntl00'. In a segregating BC5F2 generation, the smallest introgression containing sucr-associated markers was necessary and sufficient to confer high-level sucrose accumulation, the effects of which were completely recessive. Fruit of sucr/sucr genotypes were smaller than those of +/sucr or +/+ genotypes at all stages of development. The timing of sugar accumulation and total sugar concentration were unaffected by sugar composition. No differences in total fruit biomass (fresh weight of red and green fruit) at harvest were observed between the genotypes, and sucrose accumulators produced greater numbers of fruit than hexose accumulators in one family. However, the proportion of ripe fruit at harvest, and hence yield of ripe fruit, as well as average ripe fruit weight and seed set were reduced in sucr/sucr genotypes. Sucrose accumulation was also associated with increased soluble solids content, consistency, serum viscosity, predicted paste yield and acidity, and decreased color rating. In the first backcross to L. chmielewskii, hexose accumulators (+/sucr) had larger fruit than sucrose accumulators (sucr/sucr), while no difference in soluble solids was detected.

  11. Venezuela`s gas industry poised for long term growth

    SciTech Connect

    Croft, G.D.

    1995-06-19

    Venezuela`s enormous gas resource, combined with a new willingness to invite outside investment, could result in rapid growth in that industry into the next century. The development of liquefied natural gas exports will depend on the future course of gas prices in the US and Europe, but reserves are adequate to supply additional projects beyond the proposed Cristobal Colon project. Venezuela`s gas reserves are likely to increase if exploration for nonassociated gas is undertaken on a larger scale. The paper discusses gas reserves in Venezuela, internal gas markets, the potential for exports, competition from Trinidad, LNG export markets, and the encouragement of foreign investment in the gas industry of Venezuela.

  12. [Secondary metabolites, lethality and antimicrobial activity of extracts from three corals and three marine mollusks from Sucre, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Ordaz, Gabriel; D'Armas, Haydelba; Yáñez, Dayanis; Hernández, Juan; Camacho, Angel

    2010-06-01

    The study of biochemical activity of extracts obtained from marine organisms is gaining interest as some have proved to have efficient health or industrial applications. To evaluate lethality and antimicrobial activities, some chemical tests were performed on crude extracts of the octocorals Eunicea sp., Muricea sp. and Pseudopterogorgia acerosa and the mollusks Pteria colymbus, Phyllonotus pomum and Chicoreus brevifrons, collected in Venezuelan waters. The presence of secondary metabolites like alkaloids, unsaturated sterols and pentacyclic triterpenes in all invertebrates, was evidenced. Additionally, sesquiterpenlactones, saponins, tannins, cyanogenic and cardiotonic glycosides were also detected in some octocoral extracts, suggesting that biosynthesis of these metabolites is typical in this group. From the lethality bioassays, all extracts resulted lethal to Artemia salina (LC50<1000 microg/ml) with an increased of lethal activity with exposition time. P. pomum extract showed the highest lethality rate (LC50=46.8 microg/ml). Compared to the octocorals, mollusks extracts displayed more activity and a greater action spectrum against different bacterial strains, whereas octocorals also inhibited some fungi strains growth. Staphylococcus aureus was the most susceptible to the antimicrobial power of the extracts (66.7%), whereas Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger were not affected. The antibiosis shown by marine organisms extracts indicates that some of their biosynthesized metabolites are physiologically active, and may have possible cytotoxic potential or as a source of antibiotic components.

  13. [Study of the factors determining an unexpected occurrecne of Chagas cardiomyopathy in Sucre, Bolivia].

    PubMed

    De Muynck, A; Muñoz, R; Manirankunda, L; Pizzaro, J C; Gutierrez, J

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this case-control study carried out between February 1, 1994 and December 22, 1994 at the "Instituto de Gastroenterologia Boliviano-Japonés" in Sucre, Bolivia was to determine risk factors for chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy in adult patients with positive serological tests for Trypanosoma cruzi. A total of 196 subjects were included. Inclusion criteria were positive serological tests for Trypanosoma cruzi, residence in the city of Sucre, Bolivia for at least 3 months, and age over 14 years. There were 62 cases presenting electrocardiographic findings consistent with Chagas cardiomyopathy and 134 controls presenting normal electrocardiographic findings. Both cases and controls underwent a standardized protocol including physical examination and laboratory tests. Interviews were set up to evaluate personal and familial history of Chagas disease, socioeconomic status, and presence of Triatoma infestans in the home. Bivariate analysis of data indicated that Chagas cardiomyopathy was associated with the following risk factors: heart rate (p < 0.05), fecaloma (p < 0.05), occupation requiring strenuous physical exertion (p < 0.001), proximity with domestic animals (p < 0.005), especially pigs (p < 0.005), dwelling features including outbuildings, more than 2 bedrooms, and inside ceilings (p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed the following risk factors: occupation requiring strenuous physical exertion (p < 0.005), a yard around the house (p < 0.05), and inside ceilings (p < 0.05). The results of this study show that prevention of chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy in Sucre, Bolivia will depend on improvement of living conditions.

  14. Astronomy in Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenzweig, Patricia

    Since the installation of the Observatorio Cagigal in Caracas, astronomy in Venezuela has developed steadily, and, in the last few decades, has been strong. Both theoretical and observational astronomy now flourish in Venezuela. A research group, Grupo de Astrofísica (GA) at the Universidad de Los Andes (ULA) in Mérida, started with few members but now has increased its numbers and undergone many transformations, promoting the creation of the Grupo de Astrofísica Teórica (CAT), and with other collaborators initiated the creation of a graduate study program (that offers master's and doctor's degrees) in the Postgrado de Física Fundamental of ULA. With the financial support of domestic Science Foundations such as CONICIT, CDCHT, Fundacite, and individual and collective grants, many research projects have been started and many others are planned. Venezuelan astronomy has benefitted from the interest of researchers in other countries, who have helped to improve our scientific output and instrumentation. With the important collaboration of national and foreign institutions, astronomy is becoming one of the strongest disciplines of the next decade in Venezuela.

  15. Enzootic Transmission of Yellow Fever Virus, Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Auguste, Albert J.; Lemey, Philippe; Bergren, Nicholas A.; Giambalvo, Dileyvic; Moncada, Maria; Morón, Dulce; Hernandez, Rosa; Navarro, Juan-Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of yellow fever virus (YFV) strains isolated from Venezuela strongly supports YFV maintenance in situ in Venezuela, with evidence of regionally independent evolution within the country. However, there is considerable YFV movement from Brazil to Venezuela and between Trinidad and Venezuela. PMID:25531105

  16. Enzootic transmission of yellow fever virus, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Auguste, Albert J; Lemey, Philippe; Bergren, Nicholas A; Giambalvo, Dileyvic; Moncada, Maria; Morón, Dulce; Hernandez, Rosa; Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Weaver, Scott C

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of yellow fever virus (YFV) strains isolated from Venezuela strongly supports YFV maintenance in situ in Venezuela, with evidence of regionally independent evolution within the country. However, there is considerable YFV movement from Brazil to Venezuela and between Trinidad and Venezuela.

  17. Venezuela Basin crustal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diebold, J. B.; Stoffa, P. L.; Buhl, P.; Truchan, M.

    1981-09-01

    Velocity-depth profiles derived from six two-ship expanding spread experiments, in combination with other geophysical data, define the characteristics of two distinct types of Venezuela Basin crust and the boundary between them. Each two-ship common midpoint reflection/refraction profile is automatically transformed into the τ-p plane, `picked' and interpreted to provide V(Z) functions with appropriate confidence bounds. The results, together with gravity, magnetic, and near-vertical incidence reflection data, reveal a 50,000 km2 triangle of Venezuela Basin crust which resembles normal oceanic crust in a magnetic quiet zone. North and west of this triangle lies the previously defined, thick `Caribbean' crust, having two distinct layers above the M discontinuity. Acoustic basement there appears unusually smooth due to extensive basaltic sills and flows which were cored at Deep Sea Drilling Project sites 146/149(sills), and 150 (flows); also, depths to mantle are greater than normal. Interpretations of near-vertical and wide-angle reflection data show that the extra crustal thickness is due not only to the emplacement of the flows but also to the crust below being somewhat thicker than normal. The boundary between the two crustal areas has a NE-SW trend which parallels the dominant structural and magnetic lineations.This boundary coincides in position, though not in trend, with the previously defined `central Venezuela Basin fault zone'. Further study is required to determine whether this boundary is of tectonic origin or if it represents a change in style of crustal production.

  18. [Contemporary demographic survey of Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Osorio, E

    1985-01-01

    Current demographic trends in Venezuela are reviewed, based on data from the 1981 census. Topics covered include population growth, age structure, family characteristics, school-age population, foreign population, spatial distribution, labor force, and housing.

  19. Diversity of avian haemosporidians in arid zones of northern Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Belo, Nayara O; Rodríguez-Ferraro, Adriana; Braga, Erika M; Ricklefs, Robert E

    2012-07-01

    Arid zones of northern Venezuela are represented by isolated areas, important from an ornithological and ecological perspective due to the occurrence of restricted-range species of birds. We analysed the prevalence and molecular diversity of haemosporidian parasites of wild birds in this region by screening 527 individuals (11 families and 20 species) for parasite mitochondrial DNA. The overall prevalence of parasites was 41%, representing 17 mitochondrial lineages: 7 of Plasmodium and 10 of Haemoproteus. Two parasite lineages occurred in both the eastern and western regions infecting a single host species, Mimus gilvus. These lineages are also present throughout northern and central Venezuela in a variety of arid and mesic habitats. Some lineages found in this study in northern Venezuela have also been observed in different localities in the Americas, including the West Indies. In spite of the widespread distributions of some of the parasite lineages found in northern Venezuela, several, including some that are relatively common (e.g. Ven05 and Ven06), have not been reported from elsewhere. Additional studies are needed to characterize the host and geographical distribution of avian malaria parasite lineages, which will provide a better understanding of the influence of landscape, vector abundance and diversity, and host identity on haemosporidian parasite diversity and prevalence.

  20. Brucellosis in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Francisco, J; Vargas, O

    2002-12-20

    Brucellosis is a public health problem in Venezuela and affects large numbers of animals. The most important biovar in the country is Brucella abortus. In cattle and buffalo it causes high rates of abortions in females and infertility in males; it is transmissible to occupationally exposed humans. In 1968, an official program was set up for the control and eradication of the disease and it is still in place. Amongst the control provisions, this program provides for the vaccination of female calves with strain 19 and the slaughtering of positive reactors following the official diagnosis (rapid agglutination in plate test). According to the official reports, the positive reactors ranged from 0.8 to 1.2% in the past few years. These values do not corroborate reports showing an average positive rate of 10.5% and even higher values in some areas of the country. The government is working to approve a new resolution that will replace the rapid agglutination in plate test with the Card Test, the use of 2-Mercaptoetanol, fixation of complement and competitive ELISA as confirmatory tests. In addition, there will be an obligatory vaccination with B. abortus strain 19 or B. abortus RB51 of all female calves between 3- and 8-month-old and a recommended revaccination at 10-15-month-old and adult cows in high prevalence areas. These measures should allow help to reduce the prevalence of the disease in cattle herds and thus minimize the risk for human populations.

  1. [Community structure of bivalves and gastropods in roots of red mangrove Rhizophora mangle (Rhizophoraceae) in isla Larga, Mochima Bay, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Acosta Balbas, Vanessa; Betancourt Tineo, Rafael; Prieto Arcas, Antulio

    2014-06-01

    The Rhizophora mangle roots form a complex ecosystem where a wide range of organisms are permanently established, reproduce, and find refuge. In this study, we assessed the diversity of bivalves and gastropods that inhabit red mangrove roots, in isla Larga, Mochima, Venezuela Sucre state. Bimonthly collections were made from January 2007 to May 2008, in four study areas denominated: South, North, East and West. In each area, five mangrove roots were sampled, and the specimens were obtained. We analyzed a total of 180 roots and a total of 35 bivalve species and 25 gastropod species were found. The most abundant bivalves were: Isognomon alatus, Isognomon bicolor, Ostrea equestris, Crassostrea rhizophorae and Brachidontes exustus; among gastropods, the most common where: Littorina angulifera, (Cymatium pileare and Diodora cayenensis. The months with the highest abundances and number of individuals for both groups were January and July 2007, and March 2008. The mangrove ecosystem in isla Larga, presented a number of individuals and species higher than those reported for other regions in Venezuela and the Caribbean.

  2. The origins of contemporary urbanization in Venezuela: growth without accumulation between 1920 and 1945.

    PubMed

    Negron, M A

    1982-01-01

    An analysis of urbanization in Venezuela between 1920 and 1945 is presented. This period is seen as a transitional one in which urbanization changed from a colonial to a modern pattern. Consideration is given to geographical variations in urbanization patterns and to developments since 1945. A comment by Alejandro Rofman is also included (pp. 27-8).

  3. A Cr(VI)-reducing Microbacterium sp. strain SUCR140 enhances growth and yield of Zea mays in Cr(VI) amended soil through reduced chromium toxicity and improves colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    PubMed

    Soni, Sumit K; Singh, Rakshapal; Awasthi, Ashutosh; Kalra, Alok

    2014-02-01

    Pot culture experiments were conducted in a glasshouse to evaluate the effects of four efficient Cr(VI)-reducing bacterial strains (SUCR44, SUCR140, SUCR186, and SUCR188) isolated from rhizospheric soil, and four arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF-Glomus mosseae, G. aggregatum, G. fasciculatum, and G. intraradices) alone or in combination, on Zea mays in artificially Cr(VI)-amended soil. Presence of a strain of Microbacterium sp. SUCR140 reduced the chromate toxicity resulting in improved growth and yields of plants compared to control. The bioavailability of Cr(VI) in soil and its uptake by the plant reduced significantly in SUCR140-treated plants; the effects of AMF, however, either alone or in presence of SUCR140 were not significant. On the other hand, presence of AMF significantly restricted the transport of chromium from root to the aerial parts of plants. The populations of AMF chlamydospores in soil and its root colonization improved in presence of SUCR140. This study demonstrates the usefulness of an efficient Cr(VI)-reducing bacterial strain SUCR140 in improving yields probably through reducing toxicity to plants by lowering bioavailability and uptake of Cr(VI) and improving nutrient availability through increased mycorrhizal colonization which also restricted the transport of chromium to the aerial parts.

  4. Venezuela. America = Las Americas [Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; Avery, Robert S.

    This bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides an encyclopedia-style overview of Venezuela's history, geography, economy, and culture for teachers to use with migrant children in the elementary grades. Topics presented in the English portion include climate, land, people, customs, government, arts, food, culture, wildlife,…

  5. English Teaching Profile (Provisional): Venezuela.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    This profile of the English language teaching situation in Venezuela discusses the status of English in society and in the educational system. It also gives an account of Venezuelan political, economic, and social life. A description is given of the education system and reforms that have been proposed for nursery school through higher education.…

  6. Media and Consumerism in Venezuela.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Richard; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Outlines opposing theories of the role of the commercial mass media in national economic development; reports on a survey of the attitudes of 636 adult residents of Barquisimeto, Venezuela, with respect to consumption, advertising, and national development, and shows how the results relate to the theory proposed by Daniel Lerner. (GT)

  7. Historical Earthquakes As Examples To Assess The Seismic Hazard In The Eastern Region of Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, J.; Posadas, A.; Avendaño, J.; Sierra, R.; Bonive, F.

    The North-East region of Venezuela lies on the border of the friction zone between the Caribbean and South-American tectonic plates, a source of great seismicity. The first written news of an earthquake in the American Continent were those of the earth- quake of september 1530 which caused damage to Cumaná, the first town of that Continent. Since then a continuous series of earthquakes have been reported, many of them with damaging effects on Cumaná; those caused in the 1929 earthquake (17-01- 1929; with IX Mercalli degrees) were well described by Sidney Paige in the Vo. 20 of the B.S.S.A., March, 1930. An earthquake of magnitude 5.9 {11-06-1986; 10.26z N,63.29z W} was the trigger for the Unesco`s intention to declare the Estado Sucre as a pilot zone for seismological studies. In 1991 a report issued by the International Institute of Earthquake Prediction Theory and Matematical Geophysics (Academy of Sciences, U.R.S.S.) stated that the ocurrence of an earthquake of great magnitude which could affect the North-East region of Venezuela was possible. Other studies of the seismicity of the region have been carried out. The interest of the authorities and of the seismologists reached a peak with the earthquake of july 1997 (10.456z N, 63.555z W), with a magnitude of 6.9; there was a death toll of 73, around 528 people injured and more than 2000 houses needed to be completely rebuilt. A study of micro- zonification of the city of Cumaná has been carried out recently and the results of this study will be presented also to this Congress.

  8. Venezuela offshore oil and gas production development: Past, present and future

    SciTech Connect

    Perez La Salvia, H.; Schwartz, E.; Contreras, M.; Rodriguez, J.I.; Febres, G.; Gajardo, E.

    1995-12-01

    This paper presents a short history of offshore oil and gas production in Venezuela starting in Lake Maracaibo in 1923. The main emphasis has been the results of the recent R and D and the exploratory offshore programs in areas like Orinoco Delta located in the Atlantic Ocean, Northeast and Northwest Venezuela in the Caribbean sea. In the R and D offshore program the main objectives were: (1) To establish the local environmental, oceanographical, geotechnical and seismicity conditions for the Venezuelan Continental Platform. (2) To give a technical support to the PDVSA Operating Affiliates during the exploratory programs including: (a) to develop accurate drilling vessel positioning systems; (b) evaluation of sea bottom geotechnical conditions for safely operating the jack-ups and drilling vessels involved in the exploratory wells and (c) to identify those areas which because of their special nature require further investigation to establish preliminary type of platforms required for the areas to be developed or to evaluate other solutions proposed by Foreign Consultant Engineering Companies to the PDVSA Operating Affiliated Companies. The main objective of PDVSA for the coming future will be to develop the North of Paria Gas Field through the initially named Christopher Columbus Project now Sucre Gas, S.A., a consortium conformed by LaGoven, S.A. Shell, Exxon and Mitsubishi. objective of this paper is to give an idea of the history of the Venezuelan Oil and Gas Offshore development giving emphasis to the results of the INTEVEP S.A. Red offshore program and to show some results of the particular characteristics of oceanographical, environmental, geotechnical and seismic conditions in the main areas evaluated during the exploratory program: Orinoco Delta, Gulf of Paria and North of Paria.

  9. Population genetic structure of the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Flor; Urdaneta, Ludmel; Rivero, José; Zoghbi, Normig; Ruiz, Johanny; Carrasquel, Gabriela; Martínez, José Antonio; Pernalete, Martha; Villegas, Patricia; Montoya, Ana; Rubio-Palis, Yasmin; Rojas, Elina

    2006-09-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the main vector of dengue in Venezuela. The genetic structure of this vector was investigated in 24 samples collected from eight geographic regions separated by up to 1160 km. We examined the distribution of a 359-basepair region of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 mitochondrial gene among 1144 Ae. aegypti from eight collections. This gene was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and tested for variation using single strand conformation polymorphism analysis. Seven haplotypes were detected throughout Venezuela and these were sorted into two clades. Significant differentiation was detected among collections and these were genetically isolated by distance.

  10. Prey composition in the carnivorous plants Utricularia inflata and U. gibba (Lentibulariaceae) from Paria Peninsula, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Elizabeth; Pacheco, Sergio

    2007-01-01

    Carnivorous aquatic plants, genus Utricularia (Lentibulariaceae), capture small aquatic organisms, such as rotifers, copepods, and cladocerans, by means of anatomical structures named bladders. The present study aimed to determine prey size and composition in U. gibba and U inflata, which were collected from a small lake and an herbaceous wetland, respectively, located in Paria Peninsula (Sucre State, Venezuela). Water pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, and salinity were measured in situ at each sampling location, and water samples were collected to determine N-Kjeldahl, total-P, Na+, K+, Ca++, Mg++, and Cl-. Fifty bladders from each plant species were measured and their contents were analyzed. N-Kjeldahl and total-P values were similar in both sites, and were also similar to values reported for eutrophic ecosystems, although Na+, K+, Ca++, Mg++ concentrations and in situ water parameter values were higher in the herbaceous wetland. Bladder content showed the following zooplankton groups: rotifers, cladocerans, copepods, annelids, rhizopodeans, and insects; and the following phytoplankton divisions: Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta, Cyanophyta, and Euglenophyta. U. inflata presented smaller and fewer bladders, but higher abundance and total algal and animal morphospecies richness than U. gibba. Prey composition similarity at the taxon level between the two carnivorous species was low.

  11. Zonation of hydric regimens in Venezuela based on rainfall characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo, D.; Verbist, K.; Gabriels, D.; Puche, M.; Bracho, G.; Soto, G.; Santibañez, F.

    2012-04-01

    The climate in Venezuela is a product of a complex combination and interaction of meteorological and geographical factors such as the geographic location either north of Ecuador or in the tropics, and the presence of warm waters north and northeast, a vast tropical moist forest south and a mountain range west. In order to delimit the different climatic zones in Venezuela, a zoning of water regimes were used to classify climate indices primarily on rainfall parameters. A first index used was the length of a dry period, corresponding to the number of months in the year when precipitation is less than half of the reference evapotranspiration. Another index was the Aridity Index (Ia) proposed by UNEP (1997), for which calculations were based on values of average annual rainfall of the stations of the FAO database (1984, 2000). The reference evapotranspiration (ETo) was calculated by the CIRH program version 2.0 (Santibanez, 2005), which allows the calculation of ETo by the FAO (Allen et al.1998) or by the original Penman-Monteith formula, by Thornthwaite (1948), Turc (1961) or by Ivanov (1996). The results show that the distribution of the climatic regimes of Venezuela is determined by rainfall patterns. The central region is dominated by a sub-humid regime surrounded by a humid regime. The southern region is dominated by hyper-humid, hydric and hyper-hydric regimes, as well as the most western and eastern regions. In the northern and central-western regions the semiarid, arid and hyper-arid regimes dominate.

  12. Family cluster of Mayaro fever, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Torres, Jaime R; Russell, Kevin L; Vasquez, Clovis; Barrera, Roberto; Tesh, Robert B; Salas, Rosalba; Watts, Douglas M

    2004-07-01

    A cluster of protracted migratory polyarthritis involving four adult family members occurred in January 2000 after a brief overnight outing in a rural area of Venezuela. Laboratory testing demonstrated Mayaro virus as the cause of the cluster. These results documented the first human cases of Mayaro virus in Venezuela.

  13. Paleoseismology in Venezuela: Objectives, methods, applications, limitations and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audemard M., Franck A.

    2005-10-01

    The privileged location of Venezuela along an active interplate deformation belt, despite of being a "so-called" developing country, has led to a long paleoseismic tradition as attested by 45 trench assessments since 1968. Since then, a first 2-trench study was carried out by the American Woodward-Clyde company across the Oca fault at Sinamaica. Since 1980, all further paleoseismic studies have been performed by FUNVISIS and the Uribante-Caparo hydroelectric project (southern Mérida Andes) became their first assessment where 22 huge trenches were bulldozer-dug. Except for these Compañía Anónima de Administración y Fomento Eléctrico (CADAFE) financed trenches and two others, all other assessments were for Petróleos de Venezuela S. A. -PDVSA-. In this paper, geographic and geologic factors, as well as logistic limitations, conditioning success in paleoseismic studies by trenching, shall be discussed based on the Venezuelan experience developed over the years. The scientific contribution of this approach refer to: confirmation of Holocene fault activity, slip-per-event and average slip rate of a given fault (or segment), seismic potential (repeat of maximum credible earthquakes) of known faults, fault segmentation, fault interaction as consequence of stress loading by stick-slip on contiguous faults, time-space distribution of seismic activity along a given tectonic feature, seismotectonic association of historical earthquakes and landscape evolution on the short term and its implications on the long-term evolution (poorly discussed since this is really part of the field of Neotectonics). In recent years (since 1999), a new approach has been introduced in Venezuela consisting in complementing the seismic history derived from trenching studies with the evaluation of seismically induced perturbations in the continuous Quaternary sedimentary record of (either active or fossil) lakes. The future of this discipline in Venezuela heads to more trenching and lake

  14. Hydrocarbon potential of Central Monagas, Eastern Venezuela Basin, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Barrios, F.; Daza, J.; Iusco, G.

    1996-08-01

    The Central Monagas area is part of the foreland sub-basin located on the southern flank of the Eastern Venezuela Basin. The sedimentary column of the Central Monagas is at least 7500 in thick and consists of Mesozoic (Cretaceous) and Cenozoic rocks. Interpretations of 60 regional seismic sections have been integrated with data from 12 existing wells, which cover an area of 1200 km{sup 2}. From these interpretations, basin-wide structure and interval isopach maps were constructed in order to aid the depiction of the basin architecture and tectonic history. The sub-basin developed on the southern flank of the Eastern Venezuela Basin is tightly linked to its evolution from a Mesozoic extensional regime into a Cenozoic compressional and strike-slip stage. The basin formed in the Middle Mesozoic by crustal extension of a rifting process. Regional northward tilting of the slab continued during the Late Cretaceous. Finally, the transpression of the Caribbean Plate during the Oligocene-Neogene induced the overprint of compressional deformation associated with the deposition of a foredeep wedge. Geochemical source rock analysis gave an average of 1.2 TOC, and R{sub o} of 0.66 indicating a mature, marine source. The modeling of the hydrocarbon generative history of the basin indicates that the oil migration started in the Middle Miocene, after the trap was formed. Analysis and mapping of reservoir rocks and seal rocks defined the effective area limits of these critical factors. The main play in the area is the extension of the Lower Oficina Formation which is the proven petroleum target in the Eastern Venezuela Basin.

  15. Geographical DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojtanowicz, Paweł

    2012-01-01

    The article shows the results of a study undertaken to search for a model illustrating the development of geographical thought. The created model, formulated with a triad that defines geography: human being-space-time, displays levels merging geographical sciences. These joining elements created by geographers, more or less consciously cooperating with the representatives of other sciences, seem to be the essence of the unity of the continuously spreading study range of geography.

  16. [Chemical composition of essential oils from leaves of Helicteres guazumifolia (Sterculiaceae), Piper tuberculatum (Piperaceae), Scoparia dulcis (Arecaceae) and Solanum subinerme (Solanaceae) from Sucre, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Ordaz, Gabriel; D'Armas, Haydelba; Yáñez, Dayanis; Moreno, Shailili

    2011-06-01

    Essential oils, biosynthesized and accumulated in aromatic plants, have a wide range of applications in the pharmaceutical health, cosmetics, food and agricultural industry. This study aimed to analyze the secondary metabolites in some plant species in order to contribute to their chemotaxonomy. Leaves from Helicteres guazumifolia, Piper tuberculatum, Scoparia dulcis and Solanum subinerme were collected and their essential oils were obtained by means of hydro-distillation. The oil fraction was analyzed and identified by GC/MS. The extraction yields were of 0.004, 0.032, 0.016 and 0.005%, and the oil constituents of 88.00, 89.80, 87.50 and 89.47%, respectively. The principal oils found were: non-terpenoids volatile secondary metabolites (30.28%) in H. guazumifolia; sesquiterpenoids (20.82 and 26.09%) and oxigen derivated (52.19 and 25.18%) in P. tuberculatum and S. dulcis; and oxigen diterpenoids (39.67%) in S. subinerme. The diisobuthylphtalate (13.11%) in H. guazumifolia, (-)-spathulenol (11.37%) in P. tuberculatum and trans-phytol (8.29 and 36.00%) in S. dulcis and S. subinerme, were the principal constituents in their respective essential oils. The diisooctylphtalate were the essential oil common to all species, but the volatile compounds such as trans-pinane, L-linalool, beta-ionone, isophytol, neophytadiene, trans-phytol, dibutylphtalate and methyl hexadecanoate, were only detected in three of these essences. This suggests that these plants may require similar secondary metabolites for their ecological interactions, possibly due to common environmental factors.

  17. Geology and petroleum resources of Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Klemme, H.D.

    1986-05-01

    Venezuela occupies a peripheral position to the Guiana shield and craton in northern South America. The larger sedimentary basins of the Venezuelan craton zone are marginal cratonic basins (Lanos-Barinas), resulting from Tertiary Andean eastward movements, and basins formed by collisional, extensional, and transformed movement of the American portion of Tethys (eastern Venezuela-Trinidad). The smaller sedimentary basins of Venezuela are Tertiary transverse-wrench basins in the disturbed intermontane zone peripheral to the cratonic basins (Maracaibo, Falcon, parts of the Gulf of Venezuela, Carioca, and parts of Tobago-Margarita). Venezuela accounts for 75% of the recoverable oil and 55% of the gas discovered in South America. These deposits occur primarily in two basins (East Venezuela and Maracaibo - where one complex, the Bolivar Coastal and lake pools, represents 40% of South American discovered oil). The East Venezuela basin contains the Orinico heavy oil belt, currently assessed at 1 to 2 trillion bbl of oil in place. Source rocks for Venezuelan hydrocarbons are middle Cretaceous calcareous bituminous shales and marls (40% of discovered hydrocarbons), lower Tertiary deltaic and transitional shales, Paleocene-Eocene (40%), and Oligocene-Miocene deltaic and coastal shales (20%). A key factor in high recovery of hydrocarbons appears to be preservation of middle Cretaceous and lower Tertiary source rocks during maturation and migration. Reservoirs are dominantly (> 90%) clastic sediments (sandstones) within, above, or updip from source sequences. Cap rocks are interbedded and overlying shale.

  18. Venezuela: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports on Venezuela's expansion by state oil company PDVSA has gone from a mere concept a year ago to a well-defined plan. The five-year project that began this year and runs through 1995 received a $4-billion upgrading last fall to $25 billion. Money will be spent in increments of $5 billion/year, and all sectors are involved. Largest share, about $10.5 billion, will go to upstream projects, with $6 billion to be invested in refining, $6 billion in petrochemicals, $1.5 billion in coal and $800 million in domestic marketing. PDVSA intends to finance most of the spending directly from its cash flow. The upstream spending will go toward boosting oil production to more than 3.6 MMbpd by the beginning of 1996, with capacity topping at 4.2 MMbopd. Such heavy spending should prove a boon to the Venezuelan economy. The oil industry constitutes 23% of Venezuela's GNP, accounts for 75% of governmental revenues and produces 70% of the nation's annual foreign exchange earnings. The Ministry of Planning already is forecasting a 7% leap in real growth of the GNP this year.

  19. Republic of Venezuela. Country profile.

    PubMed

    Hakkert, R

    1985-06-01

    Venezuela's current economic and demographic situation is described. Venezuela is a major oil country, and the oil industry accounts for 90% of the country's foreign exchange, 70% of the government's revenues, and 15% of the gross domestic product. The economy experienced a sudden and high rate of economic growth in the mid-1970s as a result of high oil prices; however, in recent years, declining oil prices have had a negative effect on the economy. The country is now faced with a serious trade deficit, and the government recently imposed restrictions on imports. Imports in recently years had increased markedly. The emphasis on the oil industry weakened the agricultural sector and, as a result, food imports increased. In addition, the rapid economic growth experienced during the 1970s greatly increased the demand for imported consumer goods. Venezuela has the 4th highest foreign debt in the world (US$35 billion). Despite these problems Venezuela has a relatively high per capita income (US$4,140) and living standard, compared to other countries in the region. Venezuela's total population is 14.6 million, and the population is unevenly distributed. 86% of the population lives in cities of 2500 or more. 37.4% of the population and 70% of the industry is concentrated in the Federal District which contains Caracas, and in the surrounding states of Aragua, Miranda, and Carabobo. This area constitutes only 2.36% of the country's territory. Most of the oil fields are located in the state of Zulia which also contains the country's 2nd largest city (Maracaibo). The country's coastal area contains most of the agricultural lands, and the prairies just south of the coastal mountain ranges are devoted primarily to cattle raising. The remaining 58.2% of the country's territory is essentially jungle and contains only 6.9% of the country's population. The annual population growth rate is 3.11%. Although the rate declined in recent years it is higher than in most of the other

  20. Triatoma maculata, the Vector of Trypanosoma cruzi, in Venezuela. Phenotypic and Genotypic Variability as Potential Indicator of Vector Displacement into the Domestic Habitat.

    PubMed

    García-Alzate, Roberto; Lozano-Arias, Daisy; Reyes-Lugo, Rafael Matías; Morocoima, Antonio; Herrera, Leidi; Mendoza-León, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    Triatoma maculata is a wild vector of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease; its incursion in the domestic habitat is scant. In order to establish the possible domestic habitat of T. maculata, we evaluated wing variability and polymorphism of genotypic markers in subpopulations of T. maculata that live in different habitats in Venezuela. As markers, we used the mtCyt b gene, previously apply to evaluate population genetic structure in triatomine species, and the β-tubulin gene region, a marker employed to study genetic variability in Leishmania subgenera. Adults of T. maculata were captured in the period 2012-2013 at domestic, peridomestic (PD), and wild areas of towns in the Venezuelan states of Anzoátegui, Bolívar, Portuguesa, Monagas, Nueva Esparta, and Sucre. The phenotypic analysis was conducted through the determination of the isometric size and conformation of the left wing of each insect (492 individuals), using the MorphoJ program. Results reveal that insects of the domestic habitat showed significant reductions in wing size and variations in anatomical characteristics associated with flying, in relation to the PD and wild habitats. The largest variability was found in Anzoátegui and Monagas. The genotypic variability was assessed by in silico sequence comparison of the molecular markers and PCR-RFLP assays, demonstrating a marked polymorphism for the markers in insects of the domestic habitat in comparison with the other habitats. The highest polymorphism was found for the β-tubulin marker with enzymes BamHI and KpnI. Additionally, the infection rate by T. cruzi was higher in Monagas and Sucre (26.8 and 37.0%, respectively), while in domestic habitats the infestation rate was highest in Anzoátegui (22.3%). Results suggest domestic habitat colonization by T. maculata that in epidemiological terms, coupled with the presence in this habitat of nymphs of the vector, represents a high risk of transmission of Chagas disease.

  1. Triatoma maculata, the Vector of Trypanosoma cruzi, in Venezuela. Phenotypic and Genotypic Variability as Potential Indicator of Vector Displacement into the Domestic Habitat

    PubMed Central

    García-Alzate, Roberto; Lozano-Arias, Daisy; Reyes-Lugo, Rafael Matías; Morocoima, Antonio; Herrera, Leidi; Mendoza-León, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    Triatoma maculata is a wild vector of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease; its incursion in the domestic habitat is scant. In order to establish the possible domestic habitat of T. maculata, we evaluated wing variability and polymorphism of genotypic markers in subpopulations of T. maculata that live in different habitats in Venezuela. As markers, we used the mtCyt b gene, previously apply to evaluate population genetic structure in triatomine species, and the β-tubulin gene region, a marker employed to study genetic variability in Leishmania subgenera. Adults of T. maculata were captured in the period 2012–2013 at domestic, peridomestic (PD), and wild areas of towns in the Venezuelan states of Anzoátegui, Bolívar, Portuguesa, Monagas, Nueva Esparta, and Sucre. The phenotypic analysis was conducted through the determination of the isometric size and conformation of the left wing of each insect (492 individuals), using the MorphoJ program. Results reveal that insects of the domestic habitat showed significant reductions in wing size and variations in anatomical characteristics associated with flying, in relation to the PD and wild habitats. The largest variability was found in Anzoátegui and Monagas. The genotypic variability was assessed by in silico sequence comparison of the molecular markers and PCR-RFLP assays, demonstrating a marked polymorphism for the markers in insects of the domestic habitat in comparison with the other habitats. The highest polymorphism was found for the β-tubulin marker with enzymes BamHI and KpnI. Additionally, the infection rate by T. cruzi was higher in Monagas and Sucre (26.8 and 37.0%, respectively), while in domestic habitats the infestation rate was highest in Anzoátegui (22.3%). Results suggest domestic habitat colonization by T. maculata that in epidemiological terms, coupled with the presence in this habitat of nymphs of the vector, represents a high risk of transmission of Chagas disease. PMID

  2. Geographic Tongue

    MedlinePlus

    ... cases, most often related to eating hot, spicy, salty or acidic foods Many people with geographic tongue ... sensitive oral tissues, including: Hot, spicy, acidic or salty foods Tobacco products Toothpaste that contains tartar-control ...

  3. Interrupting Chagas disease transmission in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Aché, A; Matos, A J

    2001-01-01

    The interruption of vectorial transmission of Chagas disease in Venezuela is attributed to the combined effects of ongoing entomoepidemiological surveillance, ongoing house spraying with residual insecticides and the concurrent building and modification of rural houses in endemic areas during almost five decades. The original endemic areas which totaled 750,000 km(2), have been reduced to 365,000 km(2). During 1958-1968, initial entomological evaluations carried out showed that the house infestation index ranged between 60-80%, the house infection index at 8-11% and a house density index of 30-50 triatomine bugs per house. By 1990-98, these indexes were further reduced to 1.6-4.0%, 0.01-0.6% and 3-4 bugs per house respectively. The overall rural population seroprevalence has declined from 44.5% (95% C.I.: 43.4-45.3%) to 9.2% (95% C.I.: 9.0-9.4%) for successive grouped periods from 1958 to 1998. The annual blood donor prevalence is firmly established below 1%. The population at risk of infection has been estimated to be less than four million. Given that prevalence rates are stable and appropriate for public health programmes, consideration has been given to potential biases that may distort results such as: a) geographical differences in illness or longevity of patients; b) variations in levels of ascertainment; c) variations in diagnostic criteria; and d) variations in population structure, mainly due to appreciable population migration. The endemic areas with continuous transmission are now mainly confined to piedmonts, as well as patchy foci in higher mountainous ranges, where the exclusive vector is Rhodnius prolixus. There is also an unstable area, of which landscapes are made up of grasslands with scattered broad-leaved evergreen trees and costal plains, where transmission is very low and occasional outbreaks are reported.

  4. An Example of Educational Transformation: Venezuela.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cirigliano, Gustavo F. J.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a case study of educational development in Venezuela, with emphasis on political and cultural influences, social needs, needs of developing nations, experimentation on all levels, fellowship programs, and projections for the future. (DB)

  5. Venezuela: Issues in the 111th Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-03

    Justice First (Primero Justicia), Project Venezuela ( Proyecto Venezuela), and A New Era (Un Nuevo Tiempo, UNT); leftist parties that defected from...would not be freed from a federal immigration facility in El Paso , Texas.142 In November 2006, however, a U.S. federal judge, who was considering...whereupon he was transferred from immigration detention in El Paso to a county jail in New Mexico near the Texas border. Posada was released from jail in

  6. Reformulated gasoline deal with Venezuela draws heat

    SciTech Connect

    Begley, R.

    1994-04-06

    A fight is brewing in Congress over a deal to let Venezuela off the hook in complying with the Clean Air Act reformulated gasoline rule. When Venezuela threatened to call for a GATT panel to challenge the rule as a trade barrier, the Clinton Administration negotiated to alter the rule, a deal that members of Congress are characterizing as {open_quotes}secret{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}back door.{close_quotes}

  7. [Experiences of the urbanization process in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Martinez Tirado, N

    1985-01-01

    The process of urbanization and urban growth in relation to economic development in Venezuela is analyzed. Four periods are considered: the period prior to the discovery of oil in Venezuela, which ended in the early 1940s; from the 1940s to the early 1970s; from the 1970s to 1983; and the present. Information is provided for the period 1936-1981 on total and urban population growth and on the size and number of urban centers.

  8. Area Handbook Series: Venezuela; A Country Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    1988. In January 1989, it merged with two smaller groups, For- mula One and the Authentic Renovating Organization, under the name of the Venezuelan...Internacional de Venezuela: Solidaridad en Ac- ci6n. Caracas: 1982. Indicadores de la Fuerza de Trabajo 1988. Caracas: 1989. _ ._ Ministerio de Energia y...Audiencia de Venezuela, 8 tion in, 52; population of, 53; schools Authentic Renovating Organization, 163 in, 74 automobile industry, 112; output of

  9. An Energy Overview of Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    anon.

    2003-10-20

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Venezuela. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resources permit.

  10. Geographical Theories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golledge, Reginald G.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the origin of theories in geography and particularly the development of location theories. Considers the influence of economic theory on agricultural land use, industrial location, and geographic location theories. Explores a set of interrelated activities that show how the marketing process illustrates process theory. (MJP)

  11. 78 FR 55096 - Ferrosilicon from Russia and Venezuela

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... COMMISSION Ferrosilicon from Russia and Venezuela Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... Russia and Venezuela of ferrosilicon, provided for in subheadings 7202.21.10, 7202.21.50, 7202.21.75... Venezuela. Accordingly, effective July 19, 2013, the Commission instituted antidumping duty...

  12. 78 FR 58556 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... COMMISSION Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela Determination On the basis of the record \\1... antidumping duty orders on imports of silicomanganese from India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela would be likely to... Venezuela. Background The Commission instituted these reviews on October 1, 2012 (77 FR 59970)...

  13. Population differentiation of the Chagas disease vector Triatoma maculata (Erichson, 1848) from Colombia and Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Monsalve, Yoman; Panzera, Francisco; Herrera, Leidi; Triana-Chávez, Omar; Gómez-Palacio, Andrés

    2016-06-01

    The emerging vector of Chagas disease, Triatoma maculata (Hemiptera, Reduviidae), is one of the most widely distributed Triatoma species in northern South America. Despite its increasing relevance as a vector, no consistent picture of the magnitude of genetic and phenetic diversity has yet been developed. Here, several populations of T. maculata from eleven Colombia and Venezuela localities were analyzed based on the morphometry of wings and the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) gene sequences. Our results showed clear morphometric and genetic differences among Colombian and Venezuelan populations, indicating high intraspecific diversity. Inter-population divergence is suggested related to East Cordillera in Colombia. Analyses of other populations from Colombia, Venezuela, and Brazil from distinct eco-geographic regions are still needed to understand its systematics and phylogeography as well as its actual role as a vector of Chagas disease.

  14. Ceuta-Tomoporo field, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Puig, E.R.; Fernando Marcano, R. )

    1990-09-01

    Ceuta field is located in the southeastern part of the Maracaibo basin, western Venezuela. The field is a conspicuous high belonging to the Pueblo Viejo trend, a set of strike-slip faults trending northwest. The field has an area of 320 km and is divided into eight fault-bounded blocks where light- or medium-grade oil is being produced. The structural framework is characterized by a major left-slip fault and oil accumulations are associated with compressive and extensive structural features. The deposition of Eocene sediments in some areas may have been controlled by normal faulting and a period of shortening may have altered the character of some of the faults during the late Eocene or later. The main producing intervals are shallow-water marine or fluviodeltaic Miocene and Eocene sands with porosities ranging from 8 to 15% and a production potential of up to 3,500 BOPD from depths averaging 5,182 m (17,000 ft). The reservoirs seem to contain mixtures of hydrocarbons, probably due to the generation of oil in more than one oil kitchen and/or at different migration times from a common drainage area.

  15. Male sex pheromones and the phylogeographic structure of the Lutzomyia longipalpis species complex (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Brazil and Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Watts, Phillip C; Hamilton, J Gordon C; Ward, Richard D; Noyes, Harry A; Souza, Nataly A; Kemp, Stephen J; Feliciangeli, M Dora; Brazil, Reginaldo; Maingon, Rhayza D C

    2005-10-01

    Lutzomyia longipalpis, a sibling complex, is the main vector of Leishmania chagasi/infantum. Discriminating between siblings is important as they may differ in vectorial capacity. Lutzomyia longipalpis populations display distinct male sex pheromone chemotypes. We investigated the phylogeographic pattern of variation at microsatellite loci from 11 populations from Brazil and Venezuela related to their male pheromone. Temporal genetic differentiation was mostly not significant at the same site. Spatial genetic differentiation was, however, strong, although there was only a weak relationship between genetic differentiation and the geographic distance separating the samples (r2 < 0.10); geographic separation explained a much greater (54-97%) percentage of the genetic differences among populations when samples with the same pheromone type were analyzed separately. A cluster analysis showed five groups: Lu. cruzi (Brazil) and Lu. pseudolongipalpis (Venezuela) as separate species, two (mostly 9-methyl-germacrene-B) Venezuelan and Brazilian groups, and a very distinct cluster of Brazilian cembrene populations.

  16. Mastery: A Lesson from Maria in Venezuela

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Sandra Anez; Powell, Norman W.

    2012-01-01

    Children who have been born into poverty or into at-risk circumstances are often considered "disposable" and not a societal priority. These youngsters have few advocates and limited successful options in life. In the city of Maracaibo, Venezuela, there is a large population of Amerindians who are called Guajiros. These indigenous people…

  17. The history of aeronautical medicine in Venezuela

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iriarte, D. R.

    1986-01-01

    The Aerial Medical Service of the Ministry of Transportation and Communications of Venezuela was created on June 1949, and later became the Department of Aeronautical Medicine. Its functions include the medical examinations of future pilots, navigators and flight engineers. The importance of good mental and physical health in all flight and ground personnel to ensure the safety of air travel is discussed.

  18. The Development of Education in Venezuela.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, George I.

    The present study aims to bring to the reader an understanding of Venezuela's educational patterns, needs, and development within the framework of the country's economic and social situation. Much of this report is devoted to historical backgrounds --to cultural development, politics, immigration, economics, and international attitudes-- to give…

  19. Implementing Pre-Vocational Studies in Venezuela.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young Mi

    This paper describes prevocational education in Venezuela on each educational level. First, it sets a historical context by identifying aspects of technical education that emerged at different times in its development; then it identifies certain strategies created to support the implementation of prevocationalization, and finally it concludes by…

  20. Venezuela natural gas for vehicles project

    SciTech Connect

    Marsicobetre, D.; Molero, T.

    1998-12-31

    The Natural Gas for Vehicles (NGV) Project in Venezuela describes the development and growth of the NGV project in the country. Venezuela is a prolific oil producer with advanced exploration, production, refining and solid marketing infrastructure. Gas production is 5.2 Bscfd. The Venezuelan Government and the oil state owned company Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA), pursued the opportunity of using natural gas for vehicles based on the huge amounts of gas reserves present and produced every day associated with the oil production. A nationwide gas pipeline network crosses the country from south to west reaching the most important cities and serving domestic and industrial purposes but there are no facilities to process or export liquefied natural gas. NGV has been introduced gradually in Venezuela over the last eight years by PDVSA. One hundred forty-five NGV stations have been installed and another 25 are under construction. Work done comprises displacement or relocation of existing gasoline equipment, civil work, installation and commissioning of equipment. The acceptance and usage of the NGV system is reflected in the more than 17,000 vehicles that have been converted to date using the equivalent of 2,000 bbl oil/day.

  1. [Cooper, cadmium and lead in the fish Cyprinodon dearborni, in the sediments and in the water of two lagoons in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Toledo, J; Lemus, M; Chung, K S

    2000-12-01

    The concentration of copper, cadmium and lead in superficial sediment, water and the fish Cyprinodon dearborni was determined in two coastal lagoons of Sucre State, Venezuela. Chacopata lagoon is hyper saline while Los Patos lagoon is hypo saline and receives significant wastewater from Cumaná city. Water, sediment and fish samples were collected in February 1998. In the laboratory, samples underwent acid digestion and were analyzed by atomic absorption spectophotometry. The mean values of the metals in C. dearborni from the Chacopata lagoon were: 159.26 +/- 210.68 microg/g for Cu, 44.71 +/- 45.58 microg/g for Cd, and 9.31 +/- 23.34 microg/g for Pb, while for Los Patos lagoon the mean values were: 64.88 +/- 16.30, 19.48 +/- 5.81 and 22.85 +/- 20.00, respectively. In the water column, the metal concentration ranges were: 2.3-11.6, 3.9-5.4 and 21-32 mg/l for copper, cadmium and lead, respectively. These results suggest that metal levels in sediment, water column and organisms in both lagoons do not differ, except for lead, even though only Los Patos receives waste water.

  2. [Clonal relationship and detection of blaKPC gene in strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae resistant to carbapenems, at a hospital in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Martínez, Dianny; Araque, Yasmina; Roduifo, Hectorina; Caña, Luisa; García, José; Gonzáiez, Diorelis; Rodríguez, Lucy; De Donato, Marcos

    2016-10-01

    In order to study the clonal relationship and blaKPC gene detection in clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae resistant to carbapenems, we analyzed 22 clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae with resistance to imipenem and/ or meropenem, isolated in the laboratory of bacteriology at the University Hospital "Antonio Patricio de Alcalá" (HUAPA) from the Cumana city, Sucre state, Venezuela, for a period of five consecutive years. Susceptibility to different antimicrobials was determined, and the presence of carbapenemases was detected by modified Hodge method, phenyl boronic acid synergy and combination discs. blaKPC gene detection was conducted by polymerase chain reaction and the clonal relationship was determined by pulsed field electrophoresis. High rates of antimicrobial resistance were found, five strains were negative, at least one phenotypic method, and all carried the blaKPC gene. Clonal spread was observed only in the intensive care unit (ICU), while in other services, polyclonality was found. We concluded that blaKPC gene is present in K. pneumoniae strains resistant to carbapenems isolated in the HUAPA and clonal spread it was only in the ICU.

  3. Revised seismic history of the El Pilar fault, Northeastern Venezuela, from the Cariaco 1997 earthquake and recent preliminary paleoseismic results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audemard, Franck A.

    2007-07-01

    In light of the July 9, 1997, Cariaco earthquake, it is clearly understood now that damage in the city of Cumaná located in northeastern Venezuela and frequently destroyed by the largest earthquakes since the first recorded event in 1530 is strongly enhanced by poor soil conditions that, in turn, are responsible for site amplification and widespread earthquake-induced effects. Therefore, most previous macroseismic studies of historical earthquakes must be revaluated because those localized high-intensity values at Cumaná surely led to the misestimation of past epicenters. Preliminary paleoseismic results, gathered at three exploratory trenches dug across the surface break of the Cariaco 1997 earthquake in 1998, allow us to associate the 1684 earthquake with this recently ruptured fault segment that extends between the towns of San Antonio del Golfo and Río Casanay (roughly between the two gulfs of Cariaco and Paria, state of Sucre). Other major results from the reassessment of the seismic history of this fault are: (a) the 1766 event seems to have generated in a different source to the El Pilar fault because the size of the felt area suggests that it is an intermediate-depth earthquake; (b) damage to Cumaná produced by the 1797 event suggests that this was a local earthquake, perhaps equivalent to the 1929 earthquake, which ruptured for some 30 km just east of Cumaná into the Gulf of Cariaco; and (c) seismogenic association of the 1530 and 1853 earthquakes still remains unclear but it is very likely that these ruptures occurred offshore, as suggested by the rather large tsunami waves that both events have generated, placing their hypocenters west of Cumaná in the Cariaco Trough. This reassessment also sheds light into the El Pilar fault segmentation and the behavior of its seismogenic barriers through time.

  4. [Geographic data for Neotropical bats (Chiroptera)].

    PubMed

    Noguera-Urbano, Elkin A; Escalante, Tania

    2014-03-01

    The global effort to digitize biodiversity occurrence data from collections, museums and other institutions has stimulated the development of important tools to improve the knowledge and conservation of biodiversity. The Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) enables and opens access to biodiversity data of 321 million of records, from 379 host institutions. Neotropical bats are a highly diverse and specialized group, and the geographic information about them is increasing since few years ago, but there are a few reports about this topic. The aim of this study was to analyze the number of digital records in GBIF of Neotropical bats with distribution in 21 American countries, evaluating their nomenclatural and geographical consistence at scale of country. Moreover, we evaluated the gaps of information on 1 degrees latitude x 1 degrees longitude grids cells. There were over 1/2 million records, but 58% of them have no latitude and longitude data; and 52% full fit nomenclatural and geographic evaluation. We estimated that there are no records in 54% of the analyzed area; the principal gaps are in biodiversity hotspots like the Colombian and Brazilian Amazonia and Southern Venezuela. In conclusion, our study suggests that available data on GBIF have nomenclatural and geographic biases. GBIF data represent partially the bat species richness and the main gaps in information are in South America.

  5. Astrometry and Geostationary Satellites in Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacruz, E.; Abad, C.

    2015-10-01

    We present the current status and the first results of the astrometric project CIDA - ABAE for tracking geo-stationary satellites. This project aims to determine a preliminary orbit for the Venezuelan satellite VENESAT-1, using astrometric positions obtained from an optical telescope. The results presented here are based on observations from the Luepa space tracking ground station in Venezuela, which were processed using astrometric procedures.

  6. [Growth and survival of the green mussel P. viridis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) in bottom culture conditions in Turpialito, Golfo de Cariaco, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Acosta, Vanessa; Montes, Marbelis; Cortez, Roraysi; Guevara, Miguel; Lodeiros, César

    2012-12-01

    Mussels represent one of the most important mollusk species for culture activities around the world, and their growth may depend on the culture system used and locality. In this study, we evaluated the growth of Perna viridis in bottom culture to test its performance when using natural food, and to decide its use as a culture species in the Gulf of Cariaco. For this, mussel seeds (35.81 +/- 1.41 mm in length) were obtained in the locality of Guaca (North coast of Sucre state) and transferred to the Hydrobiological Station of Turpialito, Gulf of Cariaco, Sucre state, Venezuela, where they were planted in "Spanish baskets" to evaluate their growth between July 2007 and February 2008. Monthly survival was determined and the maximum shell length, dry mass of muscle and remains tissues of the gonad. The environmental parameters (water temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll a, total seston and organic fraction), in the cultivation area were determined every 15 days. Monthly measurements were made of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates to seston. During the entire study the mussels showed continued growth, ultimately reaching a maximum length of 78.7 +/- 4.43 mm. However, the growth rate of the dry mass of somatic (muscle, other tissue) and reproductive tissues showed variability throughout the study, and observed a significant increase by the end of the experiment. The observed variations in the growth rate of the reproductive tissue mass depended on the reserves accumulated and food offered by the environment. The organic seston throughout the experience showed an independence of temperature and chlorophyll a values; this one maintained values above 1 mg/L, thus forming the main food resource for mussels. The high content of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates observed in the seston at the end of the study, might be mainly associated with coastal upwelling, which provides a great food contribution of phytoplankton and organic type. The high survival rate

  7. Applied geointegration to hydrocarbon exploration in the San Pedro-Machango Area, Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Fonseca, A.; Navarro, A.; Osorio, R.; Corvo, F.; Arismendi, J.

    1996-08-01

    Hydrocarbon exploration has nowadays a diversity of technological resources to capture, merge and interpret information from diverse sources. To accomplish this, the integration of geodata for modeling was done through the use of new technologies like Remote Sensing and Geographical Systems of Information and applied to the San Pedro-Machango area, located in the Serrania de Trujillo, west of Costa Bolivar (onshore), eastern Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela. The main purpose of this work was to optimize the design of an exploration program in harmony with environmental conservation procedures. Starting with satellital and radar images that incorporated geophysical, geological and environmental information, they then were analyzed and merged to improve the lithological, structural and tectonic interpretation, generating an integrated model that allowed better project design. The use of a system that combines information of geographical, geodetical, geophysical and geological origins with satellital and radar images produced up to date cartography and refined results of image interpretation.

  8. Varying genetic diversity of Papaya ringspot virus isolates from two time-separated outbreaks in Jamaica and Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Chin, M; Rojas, Y; Moret, J; Fermin, G; Tennant, P; Gonsalves, D

    2007-01-01

    Coat protein sequences of 22 Papaya ringspot virus isolates collected from different locations in Jamaica and Venezuela in 1999 and 2004, respectively, were determined and compared with sequences of isolates from earlier epidemics in 1990 and 1993. Jamaican isolates collected in 1999 exhibited nucleotide sequence identities between 98 and 100% but shared lower identities of 92.2% with an isolate collected in 1990. Isolates from the 2004 epidemic in Venezuela exhibited more heterogeneity, with identities between 88.7 and 98.8%. However, isolates collected in 1993 were more closely related (97.7%). The viral populations of the two countries are genetically different and appear to be changing at different rates; presumably driven by introductions, movement of plant materials, geographical isolation, and disease management practices.

  9. Language Planning for Venezuela: The Role of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelsey, Irving; Serrano, Jose

    A rationale for teaching foreign languages in Venezuelan schools is discussed. An included sociolinguistic profile of Venezuela indicates that Spanish is the sole language of internal communication needs. Other languages spoken in Venezuela serve primarily a group function among the immigrant and indigenous communities. However, the teaching of…

  10. Critical Pedagogy and Empowering in Teacher Education in Venezuela.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chacon, Carmen T.; Alvarez, Luisa Cristina

    This paper addresses the issue of the relationship between critical pedagogy and English as a foreign language (EFL) in Venezuela. Teacher-researchers have come to see the issues confronting nonnative educators in ELT as a more important issue than in previous years. They are particularly concerned about the current situation in Venezuela,…

  11. Using the Five Themes of Geography to Teach about Venezuela.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunal, Cynthia Szymanski; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that Venezuela has many U.S. ties because of its relative proximity and economic significance. Asserts that the Five Themes of Geography can be used to design effective classroom lessons about Venezuela. Presents five activities that include student objectives, necessary materials, and step-by-step instructional procedures. (CFR)

  12. The Dairy Technology System in Venezuela. Summary of Research 79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieto, Ruben D.; Henderson, Janet L.

    A study examined the agricultural technology system in Venezuela with emphasis on the dairy industry. An analytical framework was used to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the following components of Venezuela's agricultural technology system: policy, technology development, technology transfer, and technology use. Selected government…

  13. The impact of rotavirus disease in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Schael, I

    1996-09-01

    Information concerning the disease burden of rotavirus, particularly in developing countries, has important implications for the use and for monitoring the impact of rotavirus vaccines. Although rotavirus has been recognized as the most frequent cause of hospitalization in the world, national estimates and specific information about the incidence of hospitalization for rotavirus gastroenteritis are very limited. Consequently, estimates of the incidence of hospitalization among children during the first 2 years of life in Venezuela were determined by extrapolation of data from a community-based study carried out in Caracas.

  14. Thinking Like a Geographer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chernosky, Margaret Shaw

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an activity that engages the student in the geographic inquiry process, the student acquires geographic data and analyzes geographic information to answer a geographic question. The question is: "Do students in my class have place name mastery of the 50 states?" The activity assesses students' geo-literacy and shows the…

  15. Histories of Geographical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Ashley

    2006-01-01

    This paper revisits the value of and justification for histories of geographical education as a field of research endeavour within geographical education. Four potentially fruitful areas of research are identified. These are pressure groups, especially the International Geographical Union's Commission on Geographical Education; the influence of…

  16. Common Distribution Patterns of Marsupials Related to Physiographical Diversity in Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Ventura, Jacint; Bagaria, Guillem; Sans-Fuentes, Maria Assumpció; Pérez-Hernández, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify significant biotic regions (groups of areas with similar biotas) and biotic elements (groups of taxa with similar distributions) for the marsupial fauna in a part of northern South America using physiographical areas as Operational Geographical Units (OGUs). We considered Venezuela a good model to elucidate this issue because of its high diversity in landscapes and the relatively vast amount of information available on the geographical distribution of marsupial species. Based on the presence-absence of 33 species in 15 physiographical sub-regions (OGUs) we identified Operational Biogeographical Units (OBUs) and chorotypes using a quantitative analysis that tested statistical significance of the resulting groups. Altitudinal and/or climatic trends in the OBUs and chorotypes were studied using a redundancy analysis. The classification method revealed four OBUs. Strong biotic boundaries separated: i) the xerophytic zone of the Continental coast (OBU I); ii) the sub-regions north of the Orinoco River (OBU III and IV); and those south to the river (OBU II). Eleven chorotypes were identified, four of which included a single species with a restricted geographic distribution. As for the other chorotypes, three main common distribution patterns have been inferred: i) species from the Llanos and/or distributed south of the Orinoco River; ii) species exclusively from the Andes; and iii) species that either occur exclusively north of the Orinoco River or that show a wide distribution throughout Venezuela. Mean altitude, evapotranspiration and precipitation of the driest month, and temperature range allowed us to characterize environmentally most of the OBUs and chorotypes obtained. PMID:24806452

  17. Common distribution patterns of marsupials related to physiographical diversity in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Jacint; Bagaria, Guillem; Sans-Fuentes, Maria Assumpció; Pérez-Hernández, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify significant biotic regions (groups of areas with similar biotas) and biotic elements (groups of taxa with similar distributions) for the marsupial fauna in a part of northern South America using physiographical areas as Operational Geographical Units (OGUs). We considered Venezuela a good model to elucidate this issue because of its high diversity in landscapes and the relatively vast amount of information available on the geographical distribution of marsupial species. Based on the presence-absence of 33 species in 15 physiographical sub-regions (OGUs) we identified Operational Biogeographical Units (OBUs) and chorotypes using a quantitative analysis that tested statistical significance of the resulting groups. Altitudinal and/or climatic trends in the OBUs and chorotypes were studied using a redundancy analysis. The classification method revealed four OBUs. Strong biotic boundaries separated: i) the xerophytic zone of the Continental coast (OBU I); ii) the sub-regions north of the Orinoco River (OBU III and IV); and those south to the river (OBU II). Eleven chorotypes were identified, four of which included a single species with a restricted geographic distribution. As for the other chorotypes, three main common distribution patterns have been inferred: i) species from the Llanos and/or distributed south of the Orinoco River; ii) species exclusively from the Andes; and iii) species that either occur exclusively north of the Orinoco River or that show a wide distribution throughout Venezuela. Mean altitude, evapotranspiration and precipitation of the driest month, and temperature range allowed us to characterize environmentally most of the OBUs and chorotypes obtained.

  18. [Zika virus: Another emerging arbovirus in Venezuela?].

    PubMed

    Valero Nereida

    2015-09-01

    Current health conditions of Venezuela, together with the tropical proliferation of different types of Aedes (aegypti and albopictus), suggest the arrival to this country of ZIKA virus (ZIKV). The Pan American Health Organization urges Latin American countries to take measures to prevent the ZIKV entry and advises that these measures must be designed to detect the introduction of ZIKV in an area, track its spread and actively monitor the disease. In Venezuela and other Latin-American countries, where endemicity is high for other arboviruses such as dengue arid chikungunya, health authorities should strengthen their surveillance systems to detect early and timely introduction of ZIKV ap.d refine diagnostic methods to confirm the infection rate; however, the high incidence of cases due those viral agents reflects weakened and poorly timed insensitive monitoring systems, as well as, poor vector control measures, arising the questions: will this arbovirus pop in our country, will it set as the other as edemicepidemic and lead to alter their clinical behavior and severity of the disease?

  19. View of the Caribbean coast of Venezuela

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A near vertical view of the Caribbean coast of Venezuela is seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiment Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The large body of water is the Golfo de Venezuela; and the major land mass is the Peninsula de Paraguana. The view is looking northward from the mouth of the Golfete de Coro and Punta Cardon to Punta Macolia. The peninsula is connected to the Venezuelan mainland by the narrow strip of land in the most easterly corner of the picture. The dry, arid climate of the peninsula is indicated by sparse vegetation and the abundance of sand dunes. The highest point is about 2,700 feet above the sea and is the conspicuous black spot. Old raised shorelines features appear as streaks parallel to the Golfete de Coro. Water of the Golfete de Coro is red from the high sediment content. The streaks in the water off the peninsula is apparently an effect of wind which is blowing sand and w

  20. [Three phases of homicidal violence in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Briceño-León, Roberto

    2012-12-01

    Venezuela was considered one of the least violent countries in Latin America, however by 2010 it was among the countries with the highest homicide rate. This article analyzes the evolution of homicides in Venezuela between 1985 and 2010 and proposes the existence of three stages which correspond to trends in social and political institutions of the country. The first from 1985 to 1993, characterized by the looting of 1989 and the coups d'état of 1992, when for the first time the homicide rate rose from 8 to 20. The second phase from 1994 to 1998 was a recovery period of the institutional and political stability when the homicide rate remained constant at around 20. The third phase began in 1999 with the H Chavez government and the institutional destruction that comes with the Bolivarian revolution and caused an increase in the rate of 20 to 57 homicides per 100 thousand inhabitants. This article argues that the explanation for the changes in the phases is to be found in the transformation of social and political institutions.

  1. [Colombians in Venezuela: myth and reality].

    PubMed

    Bidegain Greising, G; Freitez Landaeta, A

    1988-08-01

    Figures of Colombian immigrants in Venezuela in the period 1981-1986 as well as the development of their socio-demographic profile and their integration into the labor market are analyzed by means of ad hoc tables drawn from a Sample Home Survey by the Oficina Central de Estadisticas e Informatica and information from the civil record office. It is estimated that in 1987 there are only half a million Colombians in Venezuela and, contrary to what is generally assumed, not only has the afflux decreased (3/4 of the Colombians entered before 1981), but also a return migration can be observed. Colombian immigration is not homogeneous, but is made up of different groups as far as their professional skills and occupations are concerned. The number of Colombians engaged in household service and those living in rural areas has decreased, but not the number of active farm workers. A greater proportion of Colombians engaged in trade and sales activities is observed, but artisans and skilled labor are still the majority.

  2. Current status of the New World screwworm Cochliomyia hominivorax in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Coronado, A; Kowalski, A

    2009-06-01

    The geographical distribution and seasonality of the New World screwworm (NWS), Cochliomyia hominivorax Coquerel (Diptera: Calliphoridae), were monitored through the use of sentinel animals as part of a co-ordinated programme involving veterinarians and farmers, as well as undergraduate students and teachers from veterinary colleges in Venezuela. This surveillance activity made it possible to collect NWS egg masses or larvae from all 23 states in the country and to determine that the rainy season has a strong positive influence on the number of cases of myiasis caused by C. hominivorax in dogs. In addition, efforts were made to obtain the co-operation of the public health service in order to document the extent of human myiasis in the western-central region of Venezuela. Preliminary results revealed 241 cases over a 7-year period, with cases reported in infants as well as in elderly people. Larvae causing myiasis, other than C. hominivorax, were collected from primary myiasis in rabbit (Lucilia eximia [Wiedemann]), dog (an unidentified sarcophagid species), birds (Philornis sp.) and wild mice (Cuterebra sp.). The economic impact of NWS in Venezuela has not been calculated in terms of loss of milk and meat production, damage to hides or death of animals. Control costs (e.g. cost of larvicides) have been estimated at US$ 2 m per year. Control of myiasis in animals is achieved through the use of chemical compounds, mainly organophosphorus (OP) compounds, macrocyclic lactones and, more recently, a foamy spray based on spinosad. Concerns about insecticide resistance to OP compounds have been raised.

  3. [Case reports of drug-induced liver injury in a reference hospital of Zulia state, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Mengual-Moreno, Edgardo; Lizarzábal-García, Maribel; Ruiz-Soler, María; Silva-Suarez, Niniveth; Andrade-Bellido, Raúl; Lucena-González, Maribel; Bessone, Fernando; Hernández, Nelia; Sánchez, Adriana; Medina-Cáliz, Inmaculada

    2015-03-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with varied geographical differences. The aim of this prospective, descriptive, cross-sectional study was to identify and characterize cases of DILI in a hospital of Zulia state, Venezuela. Thirteen patients with a presumptive diagnosis of DILI attended by the Department of Gastroenterology, Hospital Universitario, Zulia state, Venezuela, from December-2012 to December-2013 were studied. Ibuprofen (n = 3; 23.1%), acetaminophen (n = 3; 23.1), isoniazid (n = 2; 15.4%) and Herbalife products (n = 2; 15.4%) were the main drugs involved with DILI. Acetaminophen and ibuprofen showed a mixed pattern of liver injury (n = 3; 23.1%) and isoniazid presented a hepatocellular pattern (n = 2; 15.4%). The CIOMS/RUCAMS allowed the identification of possible (n = 7; 53.9%), probable (n = 4; 30.8%) and highly-probable cases (n = 2; 15.4%) of DILI. Amoxicillin/clavulanate, isoniazid, isotretinoin, methotrexate and Herbalife nutritional products were implicated as highly-probable and probable agents. The highest percentage of DILI corresponded to mild cases that recovered after the discontinuation of the agent involved (n = 9; 69.3%). The consumption of Herbalife botanical products is associated with probable causality and fatality (n = 1; 7.7%). In conclusion, the frequency of DILI cases controlled by the Department of Gastroenterology of the Hospital Universitario of Maracaibo was low, being ibuprofen, acetaminophen, isoniazid and products Herbalife the products most commonly involved. It is recommended to continue with the prospective registration of cases, with an extended follow up monitoring period and to facilitate the incorporation of other hospitals in the Zulia State and Venezuela.

  4. First Report of Heterorhabditis amazonensis from Venezuela and Characterization of Three Populations.

    PubMed

    Morales, Naiyulin; Morales-Montero, Patricia; Puza, Vladimir; San-Blas, Ernesto

    2016-09-01

    During a survey in western Venezuela in 2011, three new populations of Heterorhabditis amazonensis (LPV081, LPV156, and LPV498) were isolated. Some differences were found in terms of morphometry compared with the original description; however, the distance from the anterior end to the excretory pore is the most variable character; significantly shorter in all infective juveniles and in other developmental stages depending on the population. According to a Principal Component Analysis, LPV498 possesses more differences in morphometric characteristics and can be separated from the other two. Those intraspecific differences could be attributed to the geographic origin of the nematode. Molecular studies of ITS regions demonstrated that the sequences of the Venezuelan strains were identical to those of the type species originally isolated in the Brazilian Amazonian forest. This is an interesting fact because in several studies on heterorhabditids, intraspecific variability has been recorded. Herein, we present the first report of H. amazonensis in Venezuela and the characterization of three populations of this species.

  5. First Report of Heterorhabditis amazonensis from Venezuela and Characterization of Three Populations

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Naiyulin; Morales-Montero, Patricia; Puza, Vladimir; San-Blas, Ernesto

    2016-01-01

    During a survey in western Venezuela in 2011, three new populations of Heterorhabditis amazonensis (LPV081, LPV156, and LPV498) were isolated. Some differences were found in terms of morphometry compared with the original description; however, the distance from the anterior end to the excretory pore is the most variable character; significantly shorter in all infective juveniles and in other developmental stages depending on the population. According to a Principal Component Analysis, LPV498 possesses more differences in morphometric characteristics and can be separated from the other two. Those intraspecific differences could be attributed to the geographic origin of the nematode. Molecular studies of ITS regions demonstrated that the sequences of the Venezuelan strains were identical to those of the type species originally isolated in the Brazilian Amazonian forest. This is an interesting fact because in several studies on heterorhabditids, intraspecific variability has been recorded. Herein, we present the first report of H. amazonensis in Venezuela and the characterization of three populations of this species. PMID:27765987

  6. Possible association between gastric cancer and bracken fern in Venezuela: an epidemiologic study.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Amelot, M E; Avendaño, M

    2001-01-15

    To explore a possible connection between specific environmental factors that might explain the high rates of stomach cancer in people living in the highlands of western Venezuela, an epidemiologic study was conducted in 2 regions of contrasting topography. The regions embrace 3 Andean states, Mérida, Táchira and Trujillo, and the vicinal lowland surrounding the Maracaibo lake basin of Zulia State. Statistical sanitary records from 1986 to 1996 comprising 5.5 million people in the study area indicated that age-sex-adjusted gastric cancer death rate per 100,000 people (DR) was up to 3.64 times higher in highland than lowland areas, although total cancer-related DRs were comparable in both regions. DRs of other less frequent cancers from the upper alimentary tract [esophagous (1.18/0.99) and mouth-throat (1.39/2.64)] showed comparable values in both regions as well as colorectal, breast, and uterus-cervix cancers, suggesting that the stomach cancer DRs were related to geographically determined factors. Comparison of some nutrition issues, incidence of Helicobacter pylori infection in selected areas, the discovery of the bracken carcinogen ptaquiloside in milk from bracken-fed cows, the prevalence of this plant in mountain cattle households and pasturelands and the rates of bracken-evoked bovine enzootic hematuria led us to conclude that consumption of ptaquiloside-contaminated milk may contribute to human gastric cancer in the Andean states of Venezuela.

  7. Spinocerebellar ataxias in Venezuela: genetic epidemiology and their most likely ethnic descent.

    PubMed

    Paradisi, Irene; Ikonomu, Vassiliki; Arias, Sergio

    2016-03-01

    Dominantly inherited ataxias (spinocerebellar ataxias, SCAs) are a genetically heterogeneous group of neurologic diseases characterized by progressive cerebellar and spinal tract degeneration with ataxia and other signs, common to all known subtypes. Several types are relatively frequent worldwide, but in several countries, one specific SCA may show a higher prevalence owing to founder phenomena. In Venezuela, genetic epidemiological features of SCAs have been assessed during the last 30 years; mutations in ATXN1 (SCA1), ATXN2 (SCA2), ATXN3 (SCA3), CACNA1A (SCA6), ATXN7 (SCA7), ATXN8 (SCA8), ATXN10 (SCA10), TBP (SCA17) and ATN1 (dentatorubral pallidoluysian atrophy, DRPLA) loci were searched among 115 independent families. SCA7 was the most frequent subtype (26.6%), followed by SCA3 (25.0%), SCA2 (21.9%), SCA1 (17.2%), SCA10 (4.7%) and DRPLA (3.1%); in 43% of the families, the subtype remained unidentified. SCA7 mutations displayed strong geographic aggregation in two independent founder foci, and SCA1 showed a very remote founder effect for a subset of families. SCA10 families were scattered across the country, but all had an identical in-phase haplotype carried also by Mexican, Brazilian and Sioux patients, supporting a very old common Amerindian origin. Prevalence for dominant SCAs in Venezuela was estimated as 1:25 000 nuclear families, provenances of which are either Caucasoid, African or Amerindian.

  8. Geographic Information Office

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2004-01-01

    The Geographic Information Office (GIO) is the principal information office for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), focused on: Information Policy and Services, Information Technology, Science Information, Information Security, and the Federal Geographic Data Committee/Geospatial One Stop.

  9. Existentialism in Geographic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, David R.

    1974-01-01

    An existential approach to geographic education refers to the individual's ability to conceive of and experience geographic phenomena; implies a responsibility toward, as well as appreciation of, spatially defined phenomena; and leads to aesthetic and advocacy geography. (JH)

  10. Horizonal and Vertical Spatial Patterns of Radon and Other Soil-gases Across the El Pilar Fault Trace at Guaraphiche, Edo. Surce (Venezuela)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaBrecque, J. J.

    2002-05-01

    Soil-gases (radon, thoron, carbon dioxide and hydrogen) were measured at 63-cm depths along a transect perpendicular to the rupture (fault trace) from the 1997 Caricao earthquake (Mw=6.9) at Guarapiche, state of Sucre (Venezuela). The transect was about 40 meters long with ten sampling points with the spacings was smaller near the rupture. The shapes of the horizontal spatial patterns for radon (Rn-222), thoron (Rn-220) and total radon (Rn-222+Rn-220) were similar; the gas concentrations increased from both ends of the transect toward the rupture where a dip (valley) occurred. Both carbon dioxide and hydrogen gases showed anomalous values at the same sampling points. Twin peaks (anomalies) had been previously reported and suggested that they were due to blockage in the rupture. We have also determined soil-gases from 25-cm to 155-cm depths near the rupture and at the ends of the transect. The results showed that the soil-gas concentrations were not only higher in the upper levels (less than 65-cm) near the fault trace but were similar or greater than the lower levels. Thus, producing the twin peaks when soil-gas sampling was performed at the 65-cm depth. When the sampling was performed at only 45-cm depth the dip over the rupture was much less and the patterns looked more like a broad doublet peak. In conclusion, one can clearly see that not only positive soil-gas anomalies can occur over a fault trace but also negative ones too. 1) This work was partially funded by a research contract from the Venezuelan National Science Foundation (CONICIT Proyecto S1-95000448). 2) Mailing Address: Centro de Quimica, 8424 NW 56th Street, Suite 00204,Miami, Fl 33166 (USA). E-mail jjlabrec@ivic.ve FAX: +58-212-504-1214

  11. New species and records of Hydroptilidae (Trichoptera) from Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Robin E.; Holzenthal, Ralph W.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Eight new species of Hydroptilidae (Trichoptera) from Venezuela are described: Acostatrichia digitata sp. n., Hydroptila cressae sp. n., Metrichia botrychion sp. n., Ochrotrichia spira sp. n., Oxyethira bettyae sp. n., Oxyethira quiramae sp. n., Oxyethira redunca sp. n., and Rhyacopsyche shorti sp. n.New country records for Venezuela of 2 additional species, Neotrichia feolai Santos & Nessimian, 2009 and Oxyethira picita Harris & Davenport, 1999, are also provided. Illustrations of male genitalia are provided with each description. PMID:22577311

  12. Hydrogen: BOC-FW venture secures major Venezuela project

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, A.

    1995-07-26

    BOC Gases and Foster Wheeler Power Systems (FW) have been awarded a $50-million project to supply a 50-million cu ft/day hydrogen (H{sub 2}) plant to Lagoven`s Amuay, Venezuela refinery for 1997 startup. BOC and FW have also formed a marketing agreement for on-site H{sub 2} plants in the Americas, extending a previous relationship covering Chile and Venezuela.

  13. Geographic Media Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukinbeal, Chris

    2014-01-01

    While the use of media permeates geographic research and pedagogic practice, the underlying literacies that link geography and media remain uncharted. This article argues that geographic media literacy incorporates visual literacy, information technology literacy, information literacy, and media literacy. Geographic media literacy is the ability…

  14. Digital shaded-relief map of Venezuela

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrity, Christopher P.; Hackley, Paul C.; Urbani, Franco

    2004-01-01

    The Digital Shaded-Relief Map of Venezuela is a composite of more than 20 tiles of 90 meter (3 arc second) pixel resolution elevation data, captured during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) in February 2000. The SRTM, a joint project between the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), provides the most accurate and comprehensive international digital elevation dataset ever assembled. The 10-day flight mission aboard the U.S. Space Shuttle Endeavour obtained elevation data for about 80% of the world's landmass at 3-5 meter pixel resolution through the use of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) technology. SAR is desirable because it acquires data along continuous swaths, maintaining data consistency across large areas, independent of cloud cover. Swaths were captured at an altitude of 230 km, and are approximately 225 km wide with varying lengths. Rendering of the shaded-relief image required editing of the raw elevation data to remove numerous holes and anomalously high and low values inherent in the dataset. Customized ArcInfo Arc Macro Language (AML) scripts were written to interpolate areas of null values and generalize irregular elevation spikes and wells. Coastlines and major water bodies used as a clipping mask were extracted from 1:500,000-scale geologic maps of Venezuela (Bellizzia and others, 1976). The shaded-relief image was rendered with an illumination azimuth of 315? and an altitude of 65?. A vertical exaggeration of 2X was applied to the image to enhance land-surface features. Image post-processing techniques were accomplished using conventional desktop imaging software.

  15. [Leaf anatomic studies in solanaceae of Venezuela. VI. Leaf anatomy of 10 species of Cestrum L].

    PubMed

    Jáuregui, D; de Ríos, N R; Benítez de Rojas, C E

    2001-01-01

    The leaf anatomy of Cestrum acuminatissimum Dunal, C. alternifolium (Jacq.) O.E. Schulz, C. glabrescens (C.V. Morton) Steyerm. et Maguire, C. imbricatum Rusby, C. Iatifolium Lam., C. neblinense D'Arcy et Benítez, C. ruizteranianum Benítez et D'Arcy, C. schulzianum Francey, C. tillettii Benítez et D'Arcy y C. tubulosum Sendtner, is described in order to value its diagnostic characters useful as source of data in the taxonomy of the Solanaceae. The material was obtained from specimens deposited in MY herbarium, coming from different geographical areas of Venezuela, and it was prepared according the classical methodology used in leaf anatomy studies. The results obtained have, besides the common features mentions for other species of the genus Cestrum, some differences in: types and density of trichomes, thickness and sinuousities of the cell wall, stomata position, as well as in the distribution of esclerenchymatous cells of the mesophyll, midvein petiole.

  16. Improving exploration with geographical information system (GIS) technology

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, P.B.; Choiniere, M.R.; Harris, F.W. )

    1996-01-01

    Timely reliable access to data is required by Earth Scientists and Engineers evaluating geology, facilities, environment, and new business opportunities. Geographical Information System (GIS) technology has been recently implemented to provide efficient and comprehensive access to data for exploration work in Venezuela. The GIS allows rapid comparisons, queries, sorting, and evaluation of data that in the past required multiple hardware platforms, multiple software packages, paper plots, spreadsheets, and time. A vendor GIS database package formed the foundation. This GIS provided regional coverage for the entire country of Venezuela at a scale of 1:250,000. It included 36,000 wells and associated attributes, facilities, geologic maps, potential field data, and transportation networks. Essential with GIS, all of the data were transformed from multiple cartographic datums to a single map projection. Proprietary and other tabular databases were incorporated into the vendor GIS by Chevron, significantly upgrading the value of the system for company exploration. Tabular databases were either imported, linked or converted to the GIS. They included Nomad, Paradox, Oracle, Openworks, and PC-based spreadsheets containing wells, seismic, and geochemistry data. Nontabular data types incorporated into the GIS included digital outcrop log and paleosections, maps, other GIS data, Global Positioning System control points, satellite imagery and scanned photographs. The enhanced GIS has proven valuable for facilitating access to, and rapid and accurate evaluation of, large geographic areas with multiple data sources and types.

  17. Improving exploration with geographical information system (GIS) technology

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, P.B.; Choiniere, M.R.; Harris, F.W.

    1996-12-31

    Timely reliable access to data is required by Earth Scientists and Engineers evaluating geology, facilities, environment, and new business opportunities. Geographical Information System (GIS) technology has been recently implemented to provide efficient and comprehensive access to data for exploration work in Venezuela. The GIS allows rapid comparisons, queries, sorting, and evaluation of data that in the past required multiple hardware platforms, multiple software packages, paper plots, spreadsheets, and time. A vendor GIS database package formed the foundation. This GIS provided regional coverage for the entire country of Venezuela at a scale of 1:250,000. It included 36,000 wells and associated attributes, facilities, geologic maps, potential field data, and transportation networks. Essential with GIS, all of the data were transformed from multiple cartographic datums to a single map projection. Proprietary and other tabular databases were incorporated into the vendor GIS by Chevron, significantly upgrading the value of the system for company exploration. Tabular databases were either imported, linked or converted to the GIS. They included Nomad, Paradox, Oracle, Openworks, and PC-based spreadsheets containing wells, seismic, and geochemistry data. Nontabular data types incorporated into the GIS included digital outcrop log and paleosections, maps, other GIS data, Global Positioning System control points, satellite imagery and scanned photographs. The enhanced GIS has proven valuable for facilitating access to, and rapid and accurate evaluation of, large geographic areas with multiple data sources and types.

  18. David Meets Goliath on the Information Superhighway: Venezuela in the Context of the Electronic Communication Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez-Vegas, Saadia

    1995-01-01

    Discusses Venezuela's information and communications technology infrastructure and usage patterns; examines future networking plans; and addresses political and economic considerations linked to the information and technology problems in Venezuela and in Latin America in general. (LRW)

  19. Oil Slicks on Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Several oil slicks occurred on Lake Maracaibo in northwestern Venezuela between December 2002 and January 2003, and were observed by various satellite instruments. These images from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) provide new information relating to one such event near the center of Lake Maracaibo on December 26, 2002.

    In unpolluted areas, the water surface is 'ruffled' by wind and the resulting wave facets divert reflected rays into many directions. An oil film dampens the presence of small wind-driven 'capillary' waves, resulting a smoother, more mirror-like surface. Also, oil is more strongly absorbing than the surrounding water. Therefore, at most viewing angles, a surface slick will appear darker than the surrounding unpolluted areas, whereas near the specular angle (the angle at which a perfect mirror reflects light) it will appear brighter. Simultaneous observation at multiple view angles therefore enhances the reliability of oil-slick detection using optical imaging.

    An example of how the optical contrast of an oil film on a water surface changes as a function of viewing angle is illustrated by these false-color MISR images, comprised of near-infrared, red and blue spectral data at three different angles, using the vertical-viewing camera (left), the 26o-forward-viewing camera (center) and the 46o-forward-viewing camera (right). A swirly area in the middle of the lake appears darker than the surrounding waters at both the nadir and 46o views, but brighter than the surrounding waters at the 26o view. Of the three images, only the 26o camera observes close to specular reflection angle.

    Lake Maracaibo is the largest lake in South America. The lake is somewhat saline, since it is connected to the Gulf of Venezuela by a narrow strait in the north. Venezuela is the largest oil producing nation in the Western Hemisphere, and the Lake Maracaibo basin includes the largest oil fields and almost a quarter of this nation's population

  20. Tertiary evolution of the northeastern Venezuela offshore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ysaccis B., Raul

    1998-12-01

    On the northeastern offshore Venezuela, the pre-Tertiary basement consists of a deeply subducted accretionary complex of a Cretaceous island arc system that formed far to the west of its present location. The internal structure of this basement consists of metamorphic nappes that involve passive margin sequences, as well as oceanic (ophiolitic) elements. The Tertiary evolution of the northeastern Venezuela offshore is dominated by Paleogene (Middle Eocene-Oligocene) extension and Neogene transtension, interrupted by Oligocene to Middle Miocene inversions. The Paleogene extension is mainly an arc-normal extension associated with a retreating subduction boundary. It is limited to the La Tortuga and the La Blanquilla Basins and the southeastern Margarita and Caracolito subbasins. All of these basins are farther north of and not directly tied to the El Pilar fault system. On a reconstruction, these Paleogene extensional systems were located to the north of the present day Maracaibo Basin. By early Miocene the leading edge of the now overall transpressional system had migrated to a position to the north of the Ensenada de Barcelona. This relative to South America eastward migration is responsible for the Margarita strike-slip fault and the major inversions that began during the Oligocene and lasted into the Middle Miocene. The Bocono-El Pilar-Casanay-Warm Springs and the La Tortuga-Coche-North Coast fault systems are exclusively Neogene with major transtension occurring during the Late Miocene to Recent and act independently from the earlier Paleogene extensional system. They are responsible for the large Neogene transtensional basins of the area: the Cariaco trough, the Northern Tuy-Cariaco and the Paria sub-basins, and the Gulf of Paria Basin. This latest phase is characterized by strain-partitioning into strike slip faults, a transtensional northern domain and a transpressional southern domain that is responsible for the decollement tectonics and/or inversions of the

  1. 78 FR 4437 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, Venezuela: Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... COMMISSION Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, Venezuela: Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct... duty orders on silicomanganese from India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela would be likely to lead to... group response with respect to the review on subject imports from Venezuela was adequate, and ]...

  2. 78 FR 9034 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela: Final Results of the Expedited Second...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ... International Trade Administration Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela: Final Results of the... antidumping duty orders on silicomanganese from India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela. The Department finds that... silicomanganese from India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela were published on May 23, 2002. See Notice of Amended...

  3. 77 FR 59970 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela; Institution of Five-Year Reviews...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... COMMISSION Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela; Institution of Five-Year Reviews Concerning the Antidumping Duty Orders on Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela AGENCY: United..., Kazakhstan, and Venezuela would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury....

  4. An Interview with Margot Benacerraf: Reveron, Araya, and the Institutionalization of Cinema in Venezuela.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartzman, Karen

    1993-01-01

    Presents an interview (edited into a first-person form) with Margot Benacerraf, known for two prize-winning films in the 1950s but not as well known for her active promotion of film culture in Venezuela. Discusses her education in Venezuela, travels outside Venezuela, production of her prize-winning films, and her efforts at promoting the…

  5. 78 FR 60846 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Orders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... International Trade Administration Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela: Continuation of... silicomanganese from India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela would likely lead to a continuation or recurrence of dumping... Venezuela, pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (the ``Act'').\\1\\ As a result...

  6. 78 FR 13380 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela; Scheduling of Full Five-Year Reviews...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... COMMISSION Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela; Scheduling of Full Five-Year Reviews Concerning the Antidumping Duty Orders on Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela AGENCY... from India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  7. Trypanosoma cruzi III from armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus novemcinctus) from Northeastern Venezuela and its biological behavior in murine model. Risk of emergency of Chagas' disease.

    PubMed

    Morocoima, Antonio; Carrasco, Hernán J; Boadas, Johanna; Chique, José David; Herrera, Leidi; Urdaneta-Morales, Servio

    2012-11-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, etiological agent of Chagas' disease, was isolated from armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus novemcinctus) captured in rural communities Northeastern Venezuela from Nueva Esparta State (no endemic for Chagas' disease), Monagas and Anzoátegui States (endemics). The isolates, genetically typed by PCR-RFLP as belonging to the TcIII DTU, have demonstrated in murine model heterogenic parasitemia, mortality and histotropism with marked parasitism in cardiac, skeletal, and smooth myocytes that showed correlation with lymphobasophilic inflammatory infiltrates. Our finding of T. cruzi infected armadillos in Isla Margarita (Nueva Esparta State), together with reports of triatomine vectors in this region, the accentuated synanthropy of armadillos, intense economic activity, migration due to tourism and the lack of environmental education programs all of them represent risks that could cause the emergence of Chagas' disease in this area. This is the first report of the TcIII DTU in Northeastern Venezuela, thus widening the geographic distribution of this DTU.

  8. Malaria Control and Elimination,1 Venezuela, 1800s–1970s

    PubMed Central

    Villegas, Leopoldo; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam

    2014-01-01

    Venezuela had the highest number of human malaria cases in Latin American before 1936. During 1891–1920, malaria was endemic to >600,000 km2 of this country; malaria death rates led to major population decreases during 1891–1920. No pathogen, including the influenza virus that caused the 1918 pandemic, caused more deaths than malaria during 1905–1945. Early reports of malaria eradication in Venezuela helped spark the world’s interest in global eradication. We describe early approaches to malaria epidemiology in Venezuela and how this country developed an efficient control program and an approach to eradication. Arnoldo Gabaldón was a key policy maker during this development process. He directed malaria control in Venezuela from the late 1930s to the end of the 1970s and contributed to malaria program planning of the World Health Organization. We discuss how his efforts helped reduce the incidence of malaria in Venezuela and how his approach diverged from World Health Organization guidelines.

  9. Malaria control and elimination, Venezuela, 1800s –1970s.

    PubMed

    Griffing, Sean M; Villegas, Leopoldo; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam

    2014-10-01

    Venezuela had the highest number of human malaria cases in Latin American before 1936. During 1891–1920,malaria was endemic to >600,000 km2 of this country; malaria death rates led to major population decreases during 1891–1920. No pathogen, including the influenza virus that caused the 1918 pandemic, caused more deaths than malaria during 1905–1945. Early reports of malaria eradication in Venezuela helped spark the world's interest in global eradication. We describe early approaches to malaria epidemiology in Venezuela and how this country developed an efficient control program and an approach to eradication.Arnoldo Gabaldón was a key policy maker during this development process. He directed malaria control in Venezuela from the late 1930s to the end of the 1970s and contributed to malaria program planning of the World Health Organization.We discuss how his efforts helped reduce the incidence of malaria in Venezuela and how his approach diverged from World Health Organization guidelines.

  10. [Highest mosquito records (Diptera: Culicidae) in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Del Ventura, Fabiola; Zorrilla, Adriana; Liria, Jonathan

    2010-03-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are holometabolous insects with aquatic immature stages, which use a broad variety of larval habitats, from ground water bodies to Phytothelmata (water deposits in plants) and artificial deposits. The availability of breeding sites often determines the upper limits of mosquito ranges. We built a database with 9,607 records with 432 localities, 19 genera and 254 species. The Andean mountains have 77% of the highest mosquito records including Aedes euris with record at 3,133 m, followed by three species of Anopheles--subgenera Kerteszia--with the upper limit of 2,680 m. Wyeomyia bicornis and Culex daumastocampa at 2,550 m were the highest records in the Central-Coastal cordillera, while the highest record in Pantepui was Wyeomyia zinzala at 2,252 m. The species associated with phytothelmata (Bromeliaceae and Sarraceniaceae) represent 60% of the records. The upper limits of Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles (Kerteszia) species could represent the theoretical limit for transmission of filariasis or arboviruses, by Culex, and malaria by Anopheles (Kerteszia) in Venezuela. Similarly, a vector of Dengue, Aedes aegypti, has not been not recorded above 2,000 m.

  11. [Increasing difficulties for scientific publication in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Ryder, Elena

    2014-03-01

    A very important increase in the costs of the edition of scientific journals has taken place in Venezuela, due to difficulties in obtaining imported free acid paper and other materials used for handling documents. Like other journals, Investigaci6n Clinica has been considering switching completely to a digital publication format; however there are several reasons that prevent us to doing it at this time: the journal is distributed in printed form to many national institutions, which do not have immediate access to digital information. In addition, there exists a commitment of shipment of printed issues for some international indices and in exchange with other national and foreign journals, whose printed format we receive. Another important aspect is that our University maintains a weak technological platform that makes difficult the immediacy required for the interchange with authors and consulted referees of received papers; and there is a latent danger of limitations in the use of digital technologies, due to current national politic problems. Consequently, we need to continue with the printed format, but must reduce the amount of printed issues, so as not to limit the number of papers published in each edition. Nevertheless, there is an ever increasing number of contributions from foreign researches and Investigaci6n Clinica has been recently included in two new international indices, the SEIIC from Argentina and the Infobase Index from India, reasons that obligate us to maintain our levels of excellence and commitment to our authors and readers.

  12. [Enterobiasis in students from Ciudad Bolivar, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Devera, R; Pérez, C; Ramos, Y

    1998-01-01

    Enterobius vermicularis is a nematode with a peculiar biological cycle, thus requiring a special diagnostic technique. In order to determine the prevalence of E. vermicularis infection among schoolchildren in Ciudad Bolívar, Venezuela, 282 children aged 5-14 years old were evaluated between november 1995 and august 1996 by the Graham technique (three perianal swabs with adhesive cellulose tape). The prevalence of enterobiasis in the studied children was estimated 19.1% (54/282). There was no difference between sexes (P > 0.05), but there was a difference between ages (x2 = 13.8; 1.g. = 4), being the infection more frequent between 5 and 8 years. Symptoms were observed in 90.7% of the schoolchildren. Anal pruritus was the most common clinical finding (81.6%). Other less frequent manifestations were enuresis (28.6%) and vulvitis in girls (26.1%). This intestinal parasitosis occurs with high frequency among schoolchildren in Ciudad Bolívar with characteristic and identifiable symptoms in most cases. The Graham method must be used for its diagnosis. This test is not routinely performed in our laboratories unless specifically requested by the attending physician.

  13. Thermal modeling in Ceuta, Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Marcano, F.; Padron, S. )

    1993-02-01

    Hydrocarbon generation from Upper Cretaceous source rocks (Fm.La Luna) in Ceuta, center-eastern Maracaibo lake area in Venezuela, is modeled here, using a kinetic method and the conventional Time-Temperature Index (TTI) procedure. Geological evolution, burial and erosional history is based on available interpretation of 3D seismic and well data. Fragmentary present-day subsurface temperature data comes from corrected measurements in a few wells. Paleogradient/heat paleoflux was estimated during the thermal modeling on wells, by calculating vitrinite reflectances (Ro) or Tmax values and then comparing them with measured ones. However, thermal-indicator data does not always appear to be consistent and some data had to be rejected. Paleogradient evolution in the Cretaceous is controlled by the development of a isolated thermal compartment related to overpressures in a thick shaly sequence in the Upper Cretaceous. A geological section was studied in detail to illustrate possible migration paths to known fields and undrilled traps. Results show a good fit between the thermal evolution of the source rock and the maturity of the crude produced in the area.

  14. Composition and Ultrastructure of Streptomyces venezuelae

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, S. G.; Ritzi, Donna

    1968-01-01

    Streptomyces venezuelae is a filamentous bacterium with branching vegetative hyphae embedded in the substrate and aerial hyphae bearing spores. The exterior of the spore is inlaid with myriads of tiny rods which can be removed with xylene. The spore wall is approximately 30 nanometers thick. Occasionally, it can be seen that the plasma membrane and the membranous bodies within a spore are connected. The spore's germ plasm is not separated from the cytoplasm by a nuclear envelope. The cell walls of the vegetative hyphae, which are about 15 nanometers thick, are structurally and chemically similar to those of gram-positive bacteria. The numerous internal membranous bodies, some of which arise from the plasma membrane of the vegetative hypha, may be vesicular, whirled, or convoluted. Membranous bodies are usually prominent at the hyphal apices and are associated with septum formation. The germ plasm is an elongate, contorted, centrally placed area of lower electron density than the hyphal cytoplasm. The spores differ from the vegetative hyphae, not only in fine structure, but also in the arginine and leucine contents of their total cellular proteins. Images PMID:5669907

  15. Syllidae (Annelida, Polychaeta) from the Caribbean coast of Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Liñero-Arana, Ildefonso; Díaz Díaz, Oscarn

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Venezuela possesses a great variety of coastal environments allowing for a high diversity of marine species. However, systematic studies on marine invertebrates are scarce, especially on polychaetes. The family Syllidae is poorly known, and only 14 genera and 42 species have been reported from this country. A total of 13 genera and 26 species the Syllidae were identified from benthic samples collected on different substrata of the northeastern coast of Venezuela. Of these, seven genera and 16 species constitute new records for Venezuela: Odontosyllis guillermoi, Syllides floridanus, Salvatoria clavata, Salvatoria limbata, Sphaerosyllis longicauda, Parapionosyllis longicirrata, Trypanosyllis parvidentata, Trypanosyllis vittigera, Opisthosyllis sp., Syllis amica, Syllis armillaris, Syllis gracilis, Syllis pseudoarmillaris, Syllis vittata, Parasphaerosyllis indica and Myrianida convoluta. PMID:21998503

  16. Digital geologic map and GIS database of Venezuela

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrity, Christopher P.; Hackley, Paul C.; Urbani, Franco

    2006-01-01

    The digital geologic map and GIS database of Venezuela captures GIS compatible geologic and hydrologic data from the 'Geologic Shaded Relief Map of Venezuela,' which was released online as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2005-1038. Digital datasets and corresponding metadata files are stored in ESRI geodatabase format; accessible via ArcGIS 9.X. Feature classes in the geodatabase include geologic unit polygons, open water polygons, coincident geologic unit linework (contacts, faults, etc.) and non-coincident geologic unit linework (folds, drainage networks, etc.). Geologic unit polygon data were attributed for age, name, and lithologic type following the Lexico Estratigrafico de Venezuela. All digital datasets were captured from source data at 1:750,000. Although users may view and analyze data at varying scales, the authors make no guarantee as to the accuracy of the data at scales larger than 1:750,000.

  17. Current Space Projects of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, R.; Acevedo R.; Varela, F.; Otero, S.

    2014-06-01

    Since 2008, with the successful launch of the first Venezuelan telecommunication satellite VENESAT-1, the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela became an active player in the international space sector aimed at using space science and technology as a powerful tool to promote the national development. Based on that, through the Bolivarian Agency for Space Activities (ABAE), Venezuela has been implemented several space projects such as the manufacturing and launch of the first Venezuelan remote sensing satellite, the construction of a design center for small satellite technologies, as well as research and development activities related with the estimation of the physical properties of the Earth. This paper presents a brief description of the current space projects that are being developed by Venezuela.

  18. Environmental geographic information system.

    SciTech Connect

    Peek, Dennis W; Helfrich, Donald Alan; Gorman, Susan

    2010-08-01

    This document describes how the Environmental Geographic Information System (EGIS) was used, along with externally received data, to create maps for the Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement (SWEIS) Source Document project. Data quality among the various classes of geographic information system (GIS) data is addressed. A complete listing of map layers used is provided.

  19. Evaluation in Geographic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurfman, Dana G., Ed.

    This second yearbook of the National Council for Geographic Education presents recent thinking about the formulation and assessment of the educational outcomes of geography. Dana G. Kurfman overviews "Evaluation Developments Useful in Geographic Education" relating evaluation to decision making, objectives, data gatherings, and data…

  20. Enhanced flavonoid production in Streptomyces venezuelae via metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Ryeol; Ahn, Mi Sun; Han, Ah Reum; Park, Je Won; Yoon, Yeo Joon

    2011-11-01

    Metabolic engineering of plant-specific phenylpropanoid biosynthesis has attracted an increasing amount of attention recently, owing to the vast potential of flavonoids as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. Recently, we have developed a recombinant Streptomyces venezuelae as a heterologous host for the production of flavonoids. In this study, we successfully improved flavonoid production by expressing two sets of genes predicted to be involved in malonate assimilation. The introduction of matB and matC encoding for malonyl-CoA synthetase and the putative dicarboxylate carrier protein, respectively, from Streptomyces coelicolor into the recombinant S. venezuelae strains expressing flavanone and flavone biosynthetic genes resulted in enhanced production of both flavonoids.

  1. Complete genome sequences of two begomoviruses infecting weeds in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Fiallo-Olivé, Elvira; Chirinos, Dorys T; Geraud-Pouey, Francis; Moriones, Enrique; Navas-Castillo, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    The complete sequences of isolates of two new bipartite begomoviruses (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) found infecting weeds in Venezuela are provided. The names proposed for these new begomoviruses are "Datura leaf distortion virus" (DLDV), isolated from a Datura stramonium L. (family Solanaceae) plant, and "Dalechampia chlorotic mosaic virus" (DCMV), isolated from infected Dalechampia sp. (family Euphorbiaceae) and Boerhavia diffusa L. (family Nyctaginaceae) plants. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these new begomoviruses segregated in two distinct clades of New World begomoviruses. To our knowledge, this is the first record of a begomovirus infecting Dalechampia sp. plants. Also, this is the first report of a begomovirus infecting Boerhavia spp. and Datura spp. in Venezuela.

  2. Events affecting gold exploration in Venezuela since 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, David R.

    2014-01-01

    The structure of the gold mining industry in Venezuela has changed significantly since 1999 as a result of Government policy changes and industry response to these changes. This report documents the policy decisions that have affected the mining industry, discusses the response of the industry on a site by site basis, and suggests possible effects of these changes on the global economy. For the short term, at least, it appears that these changes have made Venezuela a more difficult place to invest for U.S. and Canadian companies, while investment by Chinese entities has been encouraged.

  3. Population structure of guppies in north-eastern Venezuela, the area of putative incipient speciation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Geographic barriers to gene flow and divergence among populations in sexual traits are two important causes of genetic isolation which may lead to speciation. Genetic isolation may be facilitated if these two mechanisms act synergistically. The guppy from the Cumaná region (within the Cariaco drainage) of eastern Venezuela has been previously described as a case of incipient speciation driven by sexual selection, significantly differentiated in sexual colouration and body shape from the common guppy, Poecilia reticulata. The latter occurs widely in northern Venezuela, including the south-eastern side of Cordillera de la Costa, where it inhabits streams belonging to the San Juan drainage. Here, we present molecular and morphological analyses of differentiation among guppy populations in the Cariaco and San Juan drainages. Our analyses are based on a 953 bp long mtDNA fragment, a set of 15 microsatellites (519 fish from 20 populations), and four phenotypic traits. Results Both microsatellite and mtDNA data showed that guppies inhabiting the two drainages are characterised by a significant genetic differentiation, but a higher proportion of the genetic variance was distributed among populations within regions. Most guppies in the Cariaco drainage had mtDNA from a distinct lineage, but we also found evidence for widespread introgression of mtDNA from the San Juan drainage into the Cariaco drainage. Phenotypically, populations in the two regions differed significantly only in the number of black crescents. Phenotypic clustering did not support existence of two distinct groupings, but indicated a degree of distinctiveness of Central Cumaná (CC) population. However, CC population showed little differentiation at the neutral markers from the proximate populations within the Cariaco drainage. Conclusions Our findings are consistent with only partial genetic isolation between the two geographic regions and indicate that the geographic barrier of Cordillera de

  4. The Bocono Fault Zone, Western Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert, C. ); Estevez, R. ); Henneberg, H.G. )

    1993-02-01

    The Bocono Fault Zone, the western part of the Bocono Moron-El Pilar Fault System of the southern Caribbean plate boundary, consists of aligned valleys, linear depressions, pull-apart basins and other morphological features, which extend for about 500 km in a N45[degrees]E direction, between the Tachira depression (Venezuela-Colombia border) and the Caribbean Sea. It crosses obliquely the Cordillera de Merida and cuts across the Caribbean Mountains, two different geologic provinces of Late Tertiary-Quaternary and Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary age, respectively. Therefore, the maximum age that can be assigned to the Bocono Fault Zone is Late Tertiary (probably Pliocene). A total maximum right-lateral offset rate of 3.3 mm/a. The age of the sedimentary fill o[approximately] the La Gonzalez pull-apart basin suggests that the 7-9 km right-lateral offset necessary to produce it took place in Middle to Late Pleistocene time. The majority of seismic events are well aligned with the main fault trace; minor events are distributed in a belt several kilometers wide. Focal depth is typically 15 km and focal mechanisms indicate an average east-west compression across the zone. Return periods of 135-460 a (Richter M = 8), 45-70 a (M = 7), and 7-15 a (M = 6) have been calculated. Geodetic studies of several sites along the zone indicate compressive and right-lateral components; at Mucubaji the rate of right-lateral displacement observed is about 1 mm every 5 months (15 a of measurements).

  5. Admixture estimates for Caracas, Venezuela, based on autosomal, Y-chromosome, and mtDNA markers.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Helios; Rodríguez-Larralde, Alvaro; Izaguirre, Mary Helen; De Guerra, Dinorah Castro

    2007-04-01

    The present Venezuelan population is the product of admixture of Amerindians, Europeans, and Africans, a process that was not homogeneous throughout the country. Blood groups, short tandem repeats (STRs), mtDNA, and Y-chromosome markers have been used successfully in admixture studies, but few such studies have been conducted in Venezuela. In this study we aim to estimate the admixture components of samples from two different socioeconomic levels from Caracas, Venezuela's capital city, compare their differences, and infer sexual asymmetry in the European Amerindian union patterns. Gene frequencies for blood groups ABO and Rh (CDE) and for the STRs VWA, F13A01, and FES/FPS and mtDNA and Y-chromosome haplogroups were studied in a sample of 60 individuals living in Caracas, taken from a private clinic (high socioeconomic level), and 50 individuals, also living in Caracas, drawn from a public maternity clinic (low socioeconomic level). The admixture analysis for the five autosomal markers gives a high European component (0.78) and an almost negligible African sub-Saharan component (0.06) for the high socioeconomic level, whereas for the low socioeconomic level the sub-Saharan, European, and Amerindian components were 0.21, 0.42, and 0.36, respectively. Estimates of admixture based on mtDNA and Y-chromosome markers reveal that the Amerindian contribution to these Caracas samples is almost entirely through females, because the Y-chromosome Amerindian and African sub-Saharan chromosomes found in this study were scarce. Our study reveals that the identification of the grandparents' geographic origin is an important methodological aspect to take into account in genetic studies related to the reconstruction of historical events.

  6. Poverty rates in Venezuela: getting the numbers right.

    PubMed

    Weisbrot, Mark; Sandoval, Luis; Rosnick, David

    2006-01-01

    This article looks at household and individual poverty rates in Venezuela over the past seven years. For more than a year, the statement that poverty in Venezuela has increased under the government of President Hugo Chávez has appeared in scores of major newspapers, on major television and radio programs, and even in publications devoted to foreign policy. There are no data to support such statements, and in fact the available data show a decline in poverty for both individuals and households over the seven-year period: the percentage of people in poverty declined from 50 percent in the first quarter of 1999 to 43.7 percent in 2005. Further, there is no evidence to suggest any change in the methodology for measuring poverty during this period, as has been alleged in a number of reports. The article also examines briefly the impact of significant changes in non-cash benefits such as free health care, which are not taken into account in the measured poverty rate, on poor people in Venezuela. Finally, the authors look at how the mistakes in reporting on Venezuela's poverty rate were made; an appendix gives examples of mistakes in major media and foreign policy publications.

  7. Selenium status of children living in seleniferous areas of Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Brätter, P; Negretti de Brätter, V E; Jaffé, W G; Mendez Castellano, H

    1991-12-01

    Selenium was measured in red blood cells, serum and hair of children and in breast milk of mothers in seleniferous areas of Venezuela by means of neutron activation analysis. Signs of selenosis were observed only in a few cases. Reduction in the rate of growth is discussed with respect to unequal local nutritional conditions during the growth period.

  8. CYP2D6 variability in populations from Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Nancy; Flores-Angulo, Carlos; Villegas, Cecilia; Mora, Yuselin

    2016-12-01

    CYP2D6 is an important cytochrome P450 enzyme that plays an important role in the metabolism of about 25% of currently prescribed drugs. The presence of polymorphisms in the CYP2D6 gene may modulate enzyme level and activity, thereby affecting individual responses to pharmacological treatments. The most prevalent diseases in the admixed population from Venezuela are cardiovascular and cancer, whereas viral, bacterial and parasitic diseases, particularly malaria, are prevalent in Amerindian populations; in the treatment of these diseases, several drugs that are metabolized by CYP2D6 are used. In this work, we reviewed the data on CYP2D6 variability and predicted metabolizer phenotypes, in healthy volunteers of two admixed and five Amerindian populations from Venezuela. The Venezuelan population is very heterogeneous as a result of the genetic admixture of three major ethnical components: Europeans, Africans and Amerindians. There are noticeable inter-regional and inter-population differences in the process of mixing of this population. Hitherto, there are few published studies in Venezuela on CYP2D6; therefore, it is necessary to increase research in this regard, in particular to develop studies with a larger sample size. There is a considerable amount of work remaining before CYP2D6 is integrated into clinical practice in Venezuela.

  9. Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis: a new case from Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Caruzo, Giusseppe; Cardozo, José

    2008-10-01

    Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is not often seen. To date, less than 300 cases have been communicated to the medical literature since the disease was first discovered in 1965. Six of these reports originated in Venezuela. The authors describe a new spontaneous case of PAM in a 33-year-old previously healthy Western-Venezuelan man.

  10. Late Pleistocene carbonate dissolution in the Venezuela Basin, Caribbean Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Cofer-Shabica, N.B.; Peterson, L.C.

    1985-01-01

    Piston cores from water depths greater than 4000 m in the Venezuela Basin (Caribbean Sea) provide continuous late Pleistocene records of carbonate dissolution and accumulation. The authors examination of multiple dissolution indices indicate that, at least for the last 150,000 years, dissolution of carbonate in the Venezuela Basin has been more intense during interglacial than glacial periods, a pattern opposite to more general observations from the deep Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico. By virtue of its shallow sill depth (1815 m), the Venezuela Basin is relatively isolated from the mainstream of Atlantic thermohaline circulation, and presently is filled with homogeneous, relatively warm (3.8/sup 0/C) waters primarily derived from Upper North Atlantic Deep Water. During the last glacial, the enhanced preservation of carbonate in the Venezuela Basin suggests the presence of a less corrosive, more oxygenated water mass in the Atlantic near sill depth. However, this simple interpretations is potentially complicated by past changes in the rain of biogenic materials from surface waters to the deep basin in what must be an essentially closed system below sill depth. Their observations of increased interglacial dissolution may help to explain previously noted discrepancies in the local glacial to interglacial amplitude of delta/sup 18/O variations recorded by coccoliths and planktonic foraminifera.

  11. Education and the Labor Market in Venezuela, 1975-1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psacharopoulos, George; Steier, Francis

    1988-01-01

    Examines various education-related aspects of Venezuela's labor market for 1975-1984, using a sample of 40,000 workers. Education returns have declined only two percent during a rapid educational expansion period. The increased supply of educated persons influenced the narrowing of earnings differentials and led to more equitable income…

  12. Molecular Epidemiologic Source Tracking of Orally Transmitted Chagas Disease, Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Segovia, Maikell; Martínez, Clara E.; Messenger, Louisa A.; Nessi, Anaibeth; Londoño, Juan C.; Espinosa, Raul; Martínez, Cinda; Alfredo, Mijares; Bonfante-Cabarcas, Rafael; Lewis, Michael D.; de Noya, Belkisyolé A.; Miles, Michael A.; Llewellyn, Martin S.

    2013-01-01

    Oral outbreaks of Chagas disease are increasingly reported in Latin America. The transitory presence of Trypanosoma cruzi parasites within contaminated foods, and the rapid consumption of those foods, precludes precise identification of outbreak origin. We report source attribution for 2 peri-urban oral outbreaks of Chagas disease in Venezuela via high resolution microsatellite typing. PMID:23768982

  13. A contribution to the centipede fauna of Venezuela (Chilopoda: Scolopendromorpha).

    PubMed

    Schileyko, Arkady A

    2014-06-20

    The descriptions of twelve Venezuelan Scolopendromorpha, a list of species, identification key and detailed list of localities are presented. Cryptops (C.) venezuelae Chamberlin, 1939, known only from the holotype has been re-described and Scolopendra conjungens Muralewicz, 1913 reduced to a junior synonym of Scolopendra angulata Newport, 1844 syn. nov.

  14. Pedernales oilfield, eastern Venezuela: The first 100 years

    SciTech Connect

    Gluyas, J.; Oliver, J.; Wilson, W.

    1996-08-01

    Petroleum seeps and surface tar mats attracted oil explorers to Pedernales in eastern Venezuela 100 years ago. Commercial production from the Pedernales Field was established by Creole in 1933. In three production periods, broken by WWII and the end of the Creole-Texaco refining contract, Creole and Lagoven produced about 60 MMSTB from about 60 wells in about 60 years. Peak production was in the late 1950s, when the field delivered 12,000 BOPD. Production was stopped in 1986. In March 1993, BP Venezuela acquired the license to reactivate Pedernales on behalf of Lagoven, and BP`s first well in the field was drilled in August 1994. A second was completed in early 1995. The production from each well was sufficiently encouraging for commerciality to be declared in March 1995. Phase 1 of the field reactivation demanded a production rate of 11,500 BOPD. As of now (September, 1995) six wells, including one gas disposal well, have been completed. Wells have been placed using a combination of old well data and mapping based on a close spaced 2D seismic survey shot in early 1994. Results from these first few wells indicate that the required production rate will be achieved despite severely depleted reservoir pressures. This paper tells the story of reactivation and re-evaluation of one of eastern Venezuela`s oldest oilfields.

  15. [Molecular characterization of Sigmodon hirsutus (Rodentia: Cricetidae) populations in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Lessmann, Janeth; Arrivillaga, Jazzmín; Aguilera, Marisol

    2011-06-01

    Recent phylogenetic studies based on cytochrome b gene sequence, have determined that the species historically known as Sigmodon hispidus (Rodentia) from South America comprises a species S. hirsutus of paraphyletic origin. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that populations from Venezuela, represent the sensu strict form, ancestral haplotypes, and monophyletic subspecieS. For this, 12 individual sequences from three localities of different biogeographic regions in Venezuela were evaluated and sequenced based on cyto b. Additionally, the sequences were used to develop a cladistic analysis and genetic distance calculations, and to compare this information with two individual sequences of Sigmodon specimens available in Genbank. Phylogenetic analyses show that the three populations of S. hirsutus of Venezuela form an ancestral and monophyletic subclade supported by high bootstrap values and significant genetic distance between subclade within the S. hirsutus. Besides, the existence of two lineages suggests two subspecies, S. hirsutus hirsutus from Venezuela, and S. hirsutus mexicanus from Mexico-Central America, but, both species need formal description.

  16. [Epidemiology of ophidism in Venezuela (1996-2004)].

    PubMed

    De Sousa, Leonardo; Bastouri-Carrasco, Jessica; Matos, Mercedes; Borges, Adolfo; Bónoli, Stefano; Vásquez-Suárez, Aleikar; Guerrero, Belsy; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis

    2013-06-01

    The data of accidents caused by snakebites in Venezuela, registered at the morbidity statistics of the Direction of Epidemiology and Strategic Analysis of the Ministry of Health and Social Development were analyzed. During the years of 1996-2004, 53,792 snakebites were registered in Venezuela (5,976 cases average per year), with a higher incidence during the year 2004 (7,486 incidents). Zulia reported the highest frequency of all the states (5,975 cases); meanwhile the Midwestern region, constituted by Lara, Portuguesa, Falc6n and Yaracuy states, had a higher morbidity for snake bites. The highest incidence, distributed per states was registered in Cojedes, during the year 2001, with 228.72 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. When it was determined by regions, the highest incidence occurred during the year 2004 at los Llanos with 63.81 per 100,000 inhabitants. The median of the incidence rate for Venezuela during the period was of 21.46 accidents per 100,000 inhabitants. The classification of the endemic areas for ophidism, according to the percentiles 23, 50, 75 and 90, organized the country in: (a) states and regions of very high endemicity, (b) high endemicity, (c) middle, (d) low and (e) very low endemicity. These epidemiological data indicated that the accidents caused by snakes constitute a collective health problem in Venezuela.

  17. Molecular epidemiologic source tracking of orally transmitted Chagas disease, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Segovia, Maikell; Carrasco, Hernán J; Martínez, Clara E; Messenger, Louisa A; Nessi, Anaibeth; Londoño, Juan C; Espinosa, Raul; Martínez, Cinda; Alfredo, Mijares; Bonfante-Cabarcas, Rafael; Lewis, Michael D; de Noya, Belkisyolé A; Miles, Michael A; Llewellyn, Martin S

    2013-07-01

    Oral outbreaks of Chagas disease are increasingly reported in Latin America. The transitory presence of Trypanosoma cruzi parasites within contaminated foods, and the rapid consumption of those foods, precludes precise identification of outbreak origin. We report source attribution for 2 peri-urban oral outbreaks of Chagas disease in Venezuela via high resolution microsatellite typing.

  18. State-Led Education for Democratic Socialism: Venezuela's Education Missions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Maura

    2015-01-01

    Venezuela's "Bolivarian Revolution" is conceptualised as an anti-neoliberal project that aims to promote fundamental changes in the configuration of political power via processes of state-grassroots collaboration. Central to this process is an emphasis on the key role of education in the development of a 21st Century socialism based on…

  19. Record of source-generated overpressures, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Vrolijk, P.J.; Pottorf, R.J.; Maze, W.B. )

    1996-01-01

    Fluid pressures affect migration of oil, gas, and water in continental margins. Burial and thermal history models describe the degree to which indercompaction or thermal expansion of fluids contribute to fluid pressure histories, but it is more difficult to evaluate how source-terms, such as oil yield or mineral dehydration reactions, impact paleo-fluid pressures. In this study, we document how a thick, maturing source rock helped create near-lithostatic fluid pressures that generated overpressures in reservoir rocks. We analyzed abundant oil-filled and rare aqueous fluid inclusions in calcite-filled fractures in the La Luna Fm. source rock and in the underlying Cogollo Gp. carbonate reservoir in the W. Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela. Homogenization temperatures (Th) of oil-filled inclusions range from 25-42[degrees]C in the La Luna Fm. and from 25-105[degrees]C in the Cogollo Gp., and associated gravities (determined from fluorescence properties) range from 28-43[degrees]API and 17-45[degrees]API, respectively. Integration of Th with the burial and thermal history of the sampled horizons leads to the conclusion that fractures in the La Luna Fm. formed under near-lithostatic fluid pressure conditions in the presence of a gas-charged oil. The values from fractures in the Cogollo Gp. are higher than in the La Luna Fm and become more variable with increasing depth below La Luna. We interpret those fractures to have formed under lower fluid pressure conditions and/or with a less gas-charged oil than for La Luna. This interpretation of the distribution of paleo-fluid pressures is supported by the observation of modern inverted fluid pressure gradients between upper and lower Cogollo Gp. reservoirs. Thus late expulsion of a gas-charged oil created near-lithostatic fluid pressures in the La Luna Fm. source rock, and those fluid pressures bled downward through fractures into the adjoining reservoir rocks, contributing to the overpressures we observe today.

  20. Seismological Parameters in the Northern Andes, Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobiesiak, M.; Palme de Osechas, C.; Choy, J. E.; Morandi S., M. T.; Campo, M.; Granado Ruiz, C.

    2001-12-01

    Venezuelas tectonic setting as part of the plate boundary between the Caribbean and the South American plate causes two major seismologically active fault systems: the roughly west - east trending strike slip fault system along the coast with numerous sub-parallel faults and the Bocono fault system, which dominates the Venezuelan southwest - northeast striking Andes. The main Bocono fault reaches a total length of about 500 km and has a width of approximately 100 km between the southern and northern baseline of the mountain slopes which are marked by inverse faults. This is believed to be due to strain partitioning, a concept which seems to apply as well to the Bocono fault system. The whole fault system is characterized by a high seismicity rate of small scale and intermediate event magnitudes ranging from 1.5 to 6.3 in the last fifty years. In this study we would like to present an investigation on 39 focal mechanism solutions and a b-value mapping of the Andean region with the main goal to throw light on the stess and strain situation. For recompiling the focal memchanisms calculated from first motion polarities, various sources had to been used: seismograms from stations of the local and regional networks of the Seismological Center of ULA, the national seismic network operated by FUNVISIS, the seismic network Lago Maracaibo of PDVSA and the local seismic network of DESURCA. For the b-value mapping we used the two catalogues of ULA and DESURCA of which the last one registered more than 6500 events from 1994 to 1999. The set of focal mechanism solutions studied showed normal, strike slip, and reverse faulting mechanisms concentrated in distinct areas of the Bocono fault system and thus resulting in a zonation also supported by the determinations of the azimuths of the maximum horizontal stress SHmax. This hypothesis of the zonation of the Andes region is strongly supported by the results of the b-value mapping. The zonation as seen in the varying major stress

  1. Evaluation of GO_CONS_GCF_2_TIM and GOCO01S Geopotential Models in Venezuela and Caribbean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orihuela, N. D.; Garcia, A. D.; Tabare, T.; Scientific Team Of Venezuelan; Caribbean Crustal Study From Satellital Data

    2010-12-01

    This paper shows two maps of the magnitude of the surface gravity vector (MSGV) of Venezuela and Caribbean region at 1:500.000 scale in the geographic window between the 0-20 north latitude and 74-58 western longitude (Fig. 1 and Fig. 2), that were generated from GOCE gravity gradients data provided by the European Space Agency (ESA). The maps that are showed come from the combined global gravity field model GOCO01s [GOCO Consortium., 2010] and from the satellite-only global gravity field model GO_CONS_GCF_2_TIM [Pail et al., 2010], both of 224 degree. The DEMs used for the evaluation of the MSGV are: Etopo2v2 [NGDC., 2006] and Etopo1 [Amante and Eakins, 2009] respectively. The data processing was done using: Shm2func [ICGEM., 2007]; Goce User Toolbox [ESA., 2009]; Gravsoft package [Tscherning et al., 1992] and Oasis Montaj (Geosoft). This research shows a review of observed gravity in the main geological provinces of the Venezuela and Caribbean region geography, revealing gravitational features important of the geological structures that are in Venezuelan and Caribbean subsurface.

  2. Geographic Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Wieczorek, William F.; Delmerico, Alan M.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter presents an overview of the development, capabilities, and utilization of geographic information systems (GIS). There are nearly an unlimited number of applications that are relevant to GIS because virtually all human interactions, natural and man-made features, resources, and populations have a geographic component. Everything happens somewhere and the location often has a role that affects what occurs. This role is often called spatial dependence or spatial autocorrelation, which exists when a phenomenon is not randomly geographically distributed. GIS has a number of key capabilities that are needed to conduct a spatial analysis to assess this spatial dependence. This chapter presents these capabilities (e.g., georeferencing, adjacency/distance measures, overlays) and provides a case study to illustrate how GIS can be used for both research and planning. Although GIS has developed into a relatively mature application for basic functions, development is needed to more seamlessly integrate spatial statistics and models. The issue of location, especially the geography of human activities, interactions between humanity and nature, and the distribution and location of natural resources and features, is one of the most basic elements of scientific inquiry. Conceptualizations and physical maps of geographic space have existed since the beginning of time because all human activity takes place in a geographic context. Representing objects in space, basically where things are located, is a critical aspect of the natural, social, and applied sciences. Throughout history there have been many methods of characterizing geographic space, especially maps created by artists, mariners, and others eventually leading to the development of the field of cartography. It is no surprise that the digital age has launched a major effort to utilize geographic data, but not just as maps. A geographic information system (GIS) facilitates the collection, analysis, and reporting of

  3. Geographic Information Systems.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, William F; Delmerico, Alan M

    2009-01-01

    This chapter presents an overview of the development, capabilities, and utilization of geographic information systems (GIS). There are nearly an unlimited number of applications that are relevant to GIS because virtually all human interactions, natural and man-made features, resources, and populations have a geographic component. Everything happens somewhere and the location often has a role that affects what occurs. This role is often called spatial dependence or spatial autocorrelation, which exists when a phenomenon is not randomly geographically distributed. GIS has a number of key capabilities that are needed to conduct a spatial analysis to assess this spatial dependence. This chapter presents these capabilities (e.g., georeferencing, adjacency/distance measures, overlays) and provides a case study to illustrate how GIS can be used for both research and planning. Although GIS has developed into a relatively mature application for basic functions, development is needed to more seamlessly integrate spatial statistics and models.The issue of location, especially the geography of human activities, interactions between humanity and nature, and the distribution and location of natural resources and features, is one of the most basic elements of scientific inquiry. Conceptualizations and physical maps of geographic space have existed since the beginning of time because all human activity takes place in a geographic context. Representing objects in space, basically where things are located, is a critical aspect of the natural, social, and applied sciences. Throughout history there have been many methods of characterizing geographic space, especially maps created by artists, mariners, and others eventually leading to the development of the field of cartography. It is no surprise that the digital age has launched a major effort to utilize geographic data, but not just as maps. A geographic information system (GIS) facilitates the collection, analysis, and reporting of

  4. Geographic tongue and tenofovir

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Alexandre Oliveira; Marinho, Rui Tato; Velosa, José; Costa, João Borges

    2013-01-01

    A 55-year-old male patient with chronic hepatitis B was started on tenofovir. One month after initiating the new medication, he developed severe symptomatology with odynophagia and a very painful tongue. The physical examination reveals multiple erythematous patches on his tongue and a biopsy was performed. It allowed the diagnosis of benign migratory glossitis or geographic tongue. The patient was kept on tenofovir, but had to start topical corticoid therapy. Geographic tongue is a common condition that may be caused by drug idiosyncrasy, but has never before been associated to tenofovir. It is usually asymptomatic, but sometimes it causes severe symptoms, being an important impairment of quality of life. PMID:23598934

  5. Generation of geographical profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Zhi-Bin; Zhang, Yuan-Biao; Liang, Kai-Fa; Lu, Zhen-Xing

    2010-08-01

    To provide help for the police's investigation on serial criminals, we develop a mathematical model in the paper. First, we use Inherently Continuous Model and Improved Kinetic Model to generate the offender's geographical profile. However, there is a difference in two models' results. For better synthesizing the difference, we develop a Combination Model and generate a new geographical profile. As a result, we estimate the offender's location and carry on a series of analysis. What's more, the models created can be applied in other fields, such as market's investigation, military operations and so on.

  6. Losing Influence: Regional Effects of U.S. Foreign Policy with Venezuela

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    Exporting Countries PDVSA Petroleum of Venezuela x PPT Fatherland for Everyone PSUV United Socialist Party of Venezuela RCTV Radio Caracas...American states. As of 2012, countries such as Brazil, Venezuela, and Chile all export more goods to China than they do to the United States.7 In the...Hussein of Iraq and other important leaders of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC).14 If the United States wants to understand the

  7. Making Geographical Futures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, John

    2015-01-01

    Although there are surprisingly few academic books about geography with the term "future" or "futures" in their titles, this paper indicates that for much of the twentieth century geographers contributed to important discussions about the shape of worlds to come. The paper offers a review of these debates within Anglo-American…

  8. Geographic information systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1992-01-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) technology can be used for scientific investigations, resource management, and developmental planning. For example, a GIS might allow emergency planners to easily calculate emergency response times in the event of a natural disaster, or a GIS might be used to find wetlands that need protection form pollution.

  9. Biosynthesis of glycosylated derivatives of tylosin in Streptomyces venezuelae.

    PubMed

    Han, Ah Reum; Park, Sung Ryeol; Park, Je Won; Lee, Eun Yeol; Kim, Dong-Myung; Kim, Byung-Gee; Yoon, Yeo Joon

    2011-06-01

    Streptomyces venezuelae YJ028, bearing a deletion of the entire biosynthetic gene cluster encoding the pikromycin polyketide synthases and desosamine biosynthetic enzymes, was used as a bioconversion system for combinatorial biosynthesis of glycosylated derivatives of tylosin. Two engineered deoxysugar biosynthetic pathways for the biosynthesis of TDP-3-O-demethyl-D-chalcose or TDP-Lrhamnose in conjunction with the glycosyltransferaseauxiliary protein pair DesVII/DesVIII were expressed in a S. venezuelae YJ028 mutant strain. Supplementation of each mutant strain capable of producing TDP-3-O-demethyl- D-chalcose or TDP-L-rhamnose with tylosin aglycone tylactone resulted in the production of the 3-O-demethyl- D-chalcose, D-quinovose, or L-rhamnose-glycosylated tylactone.

  10. A biostratigraphic sequence analysis in Cretaceous sediments from Eastern Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Paredes, I.; Carillo, M.; Fasola, A.; Luna, F. )

    1993-02-01

    This paper presents the results of a high resolution biostratigraphic study integrated with petrophysic analyses, of the Late Cretaceous sequence in several wells from the Maturin Sub-Basin, Eastern Venezuela. The main objective of this study is to integrate the different faunal and floral assemblages to the sedimentological evolution of the basin using sequential analysis techniques. This technique was applied using mainly terrestrial and marine palynomorphs which were relatively abundant and diverse as compared to the scarcity of foraminifera and nonnofossils. Based on the percentages of abundance and the diversity of the different groups of microfoss it was possible to establish the maximum flooding surfaces and condensation levels which allowed the definition of the possible candidates for the sequence boundaries. On the other hand, the identified bioevents made possible the definition of the chronostratigraphic datums of the sequence under study. The results obtained will contribute to optimize the exploration and development programs of the oil fields in Eastern Venezuela.

  11. A new species of Corydalus Latreille from Venezuela (Megaloptera, Corydalidae)

    PubMed Central

    Contreras-Ramos, Atilano; von der Dunk, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A new species of dobsonfly, Corydalus wanningeri, from Venezuela, is described and illustrated. It superficially resembles Corydalus neblinensis Contreras-Ramos, with a uniform reddish coloration of body and wings. Yet, because of male genitalic structure it might be closely related to Corydalus crossi Contreras-Ramos. Specimens were collected from a rain forest transitional zone between the Orinoco lowlands and the Gran Sabana plateau, in Bolívar state. This is the 15th species of Corydalus to be recorded from Venezuela, rendering this the country with the highest number of documented Corydalus species. A key to the sexually dimorphic, long-mandibled Venezuelan species of the genus is provided. PMID:21594032

  12. Radioisotope Concentration in Lake Sediments of Maracaibo, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Salas, A. Rangel; Viloria, T.; Sajo-Bohus, L.; Barros, H.; Greaves, E. D.; Palacios, D.

    2007-10-26

    Maracaibo Lake is one of the most important water basing and oil producing regions in Venezuela. Changes in the local environment have been monitored for chemical pollution in the past. For this study we selected a set of sediment samples collected in the shore and analyzed for its radioisotope content. Results show the gamma emitting isotopes distribution. Isotopes concentrations have been determined within the natural K, Th and U families.

  13. The New Phase of Constitutional Struggle in Venezuela

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-21

    3 The New Phase of “Constitutional” Struggle in Venezuela R. Evan Ellis1 The magnitude of the victory by the Venezuelan opposition in the December 6...politician Henry Ramos Allup to preside over the Assembly. Indeed, the first acts of Ramos and the new assembly included the removal of the...unconstitutional, or otherwise invalidate laws passed by the new National Assembly. While the appointment of the new judges by the Chavista-dominated

  14. Characterization and identification of chitinase producing Streptomyces venezuelae P10.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, G; Sen, S K

    2004-05-01

    In an attempt to isolate chitinase producers from soil, a streptomycete strain was found potent using natural chitin as the substrate. Chitinolytic activity was tested directly on agar plates, also with crude enzyme. Chitinase assay showed that the isolate could produce 0.8 U/ml of the enzyme. The morphological, cultural, physiological and biochemical characters of the isolate P10 were studied, and identified as Streptomyces venezuelae P10.

  15. Curie point depth in Venezuela and the Eastern Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnaiz-Rodríguez, Mariano S.; Orihuela, Nuris

    2013-04-01

    We estimate the Curie point depth (CPD) variations of Venezuela (continental crust, South American plate) and the Eastern Caribbean (oceanic crust, Caribbean Plate) by using spectral analysis of the magnetic anomalies, extracted from the 2010 Enhanced Magnetic Model (EMM2010), available at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). To test the reliability of the spectral content of this model, for a small region, we compare he CPD derived from the EMM2010 against the one from aeromagnetic data. We also compile heat flow data from previous studies to correlate them with the CPD lateral variations. The estimations show that the CPD in Venezuela and the Eastern Caribbean ranges between 54 and 17 km. The mean depth value within the continental crust is around 38 km. On the Guayana Shield, it has a mean value of 42 km and reaches a maximum of 54 km. As the Moho depth is at most 50 km, the upper mantle beneath the craton is magnetized. Continental lateral variations appear to be linked to the isostatic state and age of the different provinces, and mark the limit between the Precambrian and the Paleozoic provinces. The Maracaibo Basin is revealed as a thermally stable one with a constant CPD, while the Eastern Venezuela Basin is thermally affected. Most of the Eastern Caribbean seems stable, with a large non-perturbed area with a mean CPD value of 23 km. As the crustal thickness is at most 20 km, the isotherm is located within the upper mantle. A CPD minimum located on the Lesser Antilles arc is concentrated in its northern part, and can be related to the subduction zone that is most active. Finally, a shallow area within the Eastern Caribbean corresponds to the thin crust region in the Venezuela Basin, although it might be linked to mantle dynamics.

  16. Lessons Learned by Venezuela Fighting in Low Intensity Conflict

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-05

    BUILDING 122 CARLISLE, PA 17013-5050 ga. NAME OF FUNDING/SPONSORING I 8b. OFFICE SYMBOL 9. PROCUREMENT INSTRUMENT IDENTIFICATION NUMBER ORGANIZATION I...Congress, 29 April 1960. 1 7Colonel Juan Biaggini Gutierrez et al., Los Cinco de Linea (Caracas: Direccion de Educaion del Ejercito, 4 August 1980), 102...Barracks, PA : U.S. Army War College, 3 August 1992. Low Intensity Conflict. Venezuela Case Study. Fort Leavenworth, KS: U.S. Army Command and General Staff

  17. Research in seismology and earthquake engineering in Venezuela

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Urbina, L.; Grases, J.

    1983-01-01

    After the July 29, 1967, damaging earthquake (with a moderate magnitude of 6.3) caused widespread damage to the northern coastal area of Venezuela and to the Caracas Valley, the Venezuelan Government decided to establish a Presidential Earthquake Commission. This commission undertook the task of coordinating the efforts to study the after-effects of the earthquake. The July 1967 earthquake claimed numerous lives and caused extensive damage to the capital of Venezuela. In 1968, the U.S Geological Survey conducted a seismological field study in the northern coastal area and in the Caracas Valley of Venezuela. the objective was to study the area that sustained severe, moderate, and no damage to structures. A reported entitled Ground Amplification Studies in Earthquake Damage Areas: The Caracas Earthquake of 1967 documented, for the first time, short-period seismic wave ground-motion amplifications in the Caracas Valley. Figure 1 shows the area of severe damage in the Los Palos Grantes suburb and the correlation with depth of alluvium and the arabic numbers denote the ground amplification factor at each site in the area. the Venezuelan Government initiated many programs to study in detail the damage sustained and to investigate the ongoing construction practices. These actions motivated professionals in the academic, private, and Government sectors to develops further capabilities and self-sufficiency in the fields of engineering and seismology. Allocation of funds was made to assist in training professionals and technicians and in developing new seismological stations and new programs at the national level in earthquake engineering and seismology. A brief description of the ongoing programs in Venezuela is listed below. these programs are being performed by FUNVISIS and by other national organizations listed at the end of this article.   

  18. Decade of Venezuela’s President Hugo Chavez, Por Ahora

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    controversial expansion of control was seen with Venezuela’s state-owned oil company Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. ( PDVSA ), which, to this day has been...grew in response corruption reports related to the siphoning off money from PDVSA . In 2002, pro-Hugo Chavez groups, ‘Chavistas,’ engaged in...protest.16 Within a few days, the counter-coup facilitated Chavez’s return to power but problems remained. PDVSA witnessed a devastating strike

  19. Meeting the Challenge of Basic Education and Literacy in Latin America and the Caribbean. Highlights of a Unesco/UNICEF Regional Seminar on the Universalization of Primary Education and Literacy (Sucre, Bolivia, May 4-10, 1987). UNESCO-UNICEF Co-operative Programme Digest No. 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, Paris (France).

    This digest presents the main elements of a regional seminar held in Sucre, Bolivia, to analyze and assess basic education and literacy programs that have been implemented in Latin America and the Caribbean. In addition to UNICEF and UNESCO officials, some 36 experts from 11 countries participated in the meeting. Although the initial aim of the…

  20. Heterologous production of epothilones B and D in Streptomyces venezuelae.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Ryeol; Park, Je Won; Jung, Won Seok; Han, Ah Reum; Ban, Yeon-Hee; Kim, Eun Ji; Sohng, Jae Kyung; Sim, Sang Jun; Yoon, Yeo Joon

    2008-11-01

    Epothilones, produced from the myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum, are potential anticancer agents that stabilize microtubules in a similar manner to paclitaxel. The entire epothilone biosynthetic gene cluster was heterologously expressed in an engineered strain of Streptomyces venezuelae bearing a deletion of pikromycin polyketide synthase gene cluster. The resulting strains produced approximately 0.1 microg/l of epothilone B as a sole product after 4 days cultivation. Deletion of an epoF encoding the cytochrome P450 epoxidase gave rise to a mutant that selectively produces 0.4 microg/l of epothilone D. To increase the production level of epothilones B and D, an additional copy of the positive regulatory gene pikD was introduced into the chromosome of both S. venezuleae mutant strains. The resulting strains showed enhanced production of corresponding compounds (approximately 2-fold). However, deletion of putative transport genes, orf3 and orf14 in the epothilone D producing S. venezuelae mutant strain, led to an approximately 3-fold reduction in epothilone D production. These results introduce S. venezuelae as an alternative heterologous host for the production of these valuable anticancer agents and demonstrate the possibility of engineering this strain as a generic heterologous host for the production of polyketides and hybrid polyketide-nonribosomal peptides.

  1. Engineering of plant-specific phenylpropanoids biosynthesis in Streptomyces venezuelae.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Ryeol; Yoon, Jin A; Paik, Ji Hye; Park, Je Won; Jung, Won Seok; Ban, Yeon-Hee; Kim, Eun Ji; Yoo, Young Ji; Han, Ah Reum; Yoon, Yeo Joon

    2009-05-20

    Phenylpropanoids, including flavonoids and stilbenes, are plant secondary metabolites with potential pharmacological and nutraceutical properties. To expand the applicability of Streptomyces venezuelae as a heterologous host to plant polyketide production, flavonoid and stilbene biosynthetic genes were expressed in an engineered strain of S. venezuelae DHS2001 bearing a deletion of native pikromycin polyketide synthase gene. A plasmid expressing the 4-coumarate/cinnamate:coenzyme A ligase from Streptomyces coelicolor (ScCCL) and the chalcone synthase from Arabidopsis thaliana (atCHS) under the control of a single ermE* promoter was constructed and introduced into S. venezuelae DHS2001. The resulting strain produced racemic naringenin and pinocembrin from 4-coumaric acid and cinnamic acid, respectively. Placement of an additional ermE* promoter upstream of the codon-optimized atCHS (atCHS(op)) gene significantly increased the yield of both flavanones. Expression of codon-optimized chalcone isomerase gene from Medicago sativa, together with ScCCL and atCHS(op) genes led to production of (2S)-flavanones, but the yield was reduced. On the other hand, a recombinant strain harboring the ScCCL and codon-optimized stilbene synthase gene from Arachis hypogaea generated stilbenes such as resveratrol and pinosylvin. This is the first report on the heterologous expression of plant phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathways in Streptomyces genus.

  2. Risk, Activism, and Empowerment: Women's Breast Cancer in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Eid, Mahmoud; Nahon-Serfaty, Isaac

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of breast cancer in Venezuela is particularly alarming, which is attributed to healthcare inequalities, low health literacy, and lagging compliance with prevention methods (i.e., screening and mammography). While the right to health is acknowledged by the Venezuelan constitution, activism beyond governmental confines is required to increase women's breast cancer awareness and decrease mortality rates. Through the development of social support and strategic communicative methods enacted by healthcare providers, it may be possible to empower women with the tools necessary for breast cancer prevention. This paper discusses issues surrounding women's breast cancer, such as awareness of the disease and its risks, self-advocacy, and the roles of activists, healthcare providers, and society. Specifically, it describes a four-year action-oriented research project developed in Venezuela, which was a collaborative work among researchers, practitioners, NGOs, patients, journalists, and policymakers. The outcomes include higher levels of awareness and interest among community members and organizations to learn and seek more information about women's breast cancer, better understandings of the communicated messages, more media coverage and medical consultations, increasing positive patient treatments, expansion of networking of NGOs, as well as a widely supported declaration for a national response against breast cancer in Venezuela.

  3. Egalitarian policies and social determinants of health in Bolivarian Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Muntaner, Caries; Benach, Joan; Páez Victor, María; Ng, Edwin; Chung, Haejoo

    2013-01-01

    In 1999, newly-elected Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez initiated a far-reaching social movement as part of a political project known as the Bolivarian Revolution. Inspired by the democratic ideologies of Simón Bolívar, this movement was committed to reducing intractable inequalities that defined Venezuela's Fourth Republic (1958-1998). Given the ambitious scope of these reforms, Venezuela serves as an instructive example to understand the political context of social inequalities and population health. In this article, we provide a brief overview of the impact of egalitarian policies in Venezuela, stressing: (a) the socialist reforms and social class changes initiated by the Bolivarian Movement; (b) the impact of these reforms and changes on poverty and social determinants of health; (c) the sustainability of economic growth to continue pro-poor policies; and (d) the implications of egalitarian policies for other Latin American countries. The significance and implications of Chávez's achievements are now further underscored given his recent passing, leading one to ask whether political support for Bolivarianism will continue without its revolutionary leader.

  4. Diversity and composition of dengue virus type 2 in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Huhtamo, E; Comach, G; Sierra, G; Camacho, D E; Sironen, T; Vapalahti, O; Uzcátegui, N Y

    2013-09-01

    Dengue is a mosquito-borne disease caused by four closely related dengue virus (genus Flavivirus)serotypes (DENV-1–4). The clinical outcomes vary from mild febrile illness to life-threatening haemorrhagic manifestations. DENVs are endemic in the tropics and subtropics globally and currently no specific treatment or vaccines are available. In Venezuela, the American-Asian genotype of DENV-2 is the most prevalent and has been associated with severe disease outcomes.We aimed to follow-up the molecular epidemiology of DENV-2 in Venezuela to investigate if the evolution of the virus has remained the same throughout time or if the same dynamics documented in Brazil (hyperendemic co-circulation) also occurred. The results show that whereas the epidemiology of DENV in several endemic areas is characterized by serotype replacements through time, in Venezuela the American-Asian genotype DENV-2 has evolved into several genetic lineages and has remained in hyperendemic co-circulation with the other serotypes.

  5. Geologic map of the Venezuela part of the Puerto Ayacucho 2 degrees x 3 degrees Quadrangle, Amazonas Federal Territory, Venezuela

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wynn, Jeffrey C.; Olmore, Steven D.; Mendoza, Vicente; García, Andrés; Rendon, Ines; Estanga, Yasmin; Rincon, Haydee; Martinez, Felix; Lugo, Elis; Rivero, Nelson; Schruben, Paul G.

    1994-01-01

    This map is one of a series of 1:500,000-scale maps that, along with several other products, stems from a cooperative agreement between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Corporacion Venezolana de Guayana, Tecnica Minera, C.A. (TECMIN), a Venezuelan Government-owned mining and mineral exploration company. The agreement covered cooperative work carried out in the Precambrian Shield of southern Venezuela during 1987-1991 and included a geologic and mineral resource inventory, technology transfer, and scientific training (Wynn and others, in press). The Precambrian Guayana Shield (Escudo de Guyana, not to be confused with the neighboring country of Guyana) includes some of the oldest known rocks in the world (Mendoza, 1977) and also covers parts of neighboring Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana, Columbia, and Brazil. In Venezuela, it underlies most of Bolivar state and all of the Amazonas Federal Territory (see index map).

  6. Crustal thickness variations in Venezuela from deep seismic observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, M.; Avila, J.; Bezada, M.; Vieira, E.; Yáñez, M.; Levander, A.; Zelt, C. A.; Jácome, M. I.; Magnani, M. B.; The Bolivar Active Seismic Working Group

    2008-11-01

    The Caribbean-South America plate boundary zone is a complex zone of plate interactions, forming thrust belts and foreland basins in northern Venezuela. Within the framework of the BOLIVAR and GEODINOS projects, the geodynamics of plate interactions is being investigated using interdisciplinary geological and geophysical methods. Here, we focus on the results of the land based active seismic observations done in 2004 along four deep seismic wide angle profiles, acquired perpendicular to the Caribbean-South America plate boundary in northern Venezuela between longitudes 63° W and 70° W, and ranging from about latitudes 12 °N to about 9 °N. The mostly unreversed profiles provide information on the crustal structure from the oceanic-transitional crust on the southern border of the Caribbean plate to the continental crust of the Caribbean Mountain System and their associated foreland basins, which are bordered to the south by the Guayana Shield, which corresponds to stable South America plate. The derived crustal thickness oscillates around 35 km along the coastline, corresponding to the Caribbean Mountain System, and decreases only slightly towards the Leeward Antilles. To the south, in the area of the Eastern Venezuela Basin, crustal thickness reaches 40 km, increasing towards the Guayana Shield to 45 km. Nevertheless, there are two regions of anomalous crustal thickness, proven by arrivals from the lower crust and the Moho discontinuity. In the eastern part of the Eastern Venezuela Basin, crustal thickness reaches up to 50 km, with high velocity anomalies within the lower crust, which are interpreted as reworked lower crustal and upper mantle material, associated to the plate interactions of the South American and the Caribbean plates. The second anomalous zone is a remarkable crustal thinning from 35 km to 27 km in the Falcón Basin in western Venezuela, which extends eastwards into the Bonaire Basin, as documented by PmP reflections derived from land shots

  7. Radioactive source materials in Los Estados Unidos de Venezuela

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wyant, Donald G.; Sharp, William N.; Rodriguez, Carlos Ponte

    1953-01-01

    This report summarizes the data available on radioactive source materials in Los Estados Unidos de Venezuela accumulated by geologists of the Direccions Tecnica de Geolgia and antecedent agencies prior to June 1951, and the writers from June to November 1951. The investigation comprised preliminary study, field examination, office studies, and the preparation of this report, in which the areas and localities examined are described in detail, the uranium potentialities of Venezuela are summarized, and recommendations are made. Preliminary study was made to select areas and rock types that were known or reported to be radioactive or that geologic experience suggests would be favorable host for uranium deposits, In the office, a study of gamma-ray well logs was started as one means of amassing general radiometric data and of rapidly scanning many of ye rocks in northern Venezuela; gamma-ray logs from about 140 representative wells were examined and their peaks of gamma intensity evaluated; in addition samples were analyzed radiometrically, and petrographically. Radiometic reconnaissance was made in the field during about 3 months of 1951, or about 12 areas, including over 100 localities in the State of Miranda, Carabobo, Yaracuy, Falcon, Lara, Trujillo, Zulia, Merida, Tachira, Bolivar, and Territory Delta Amacuro. During the course of the investigation, both in the filed and office, information was given about geology of uranium deposits, and in techniques used in prospecting and analysis. All studies and this report are designed to supplement and to strengthen the Direccion Tecnica de Geologias's program of investigation of radioactive source in Venezuela now in progress. The uranium potentialities of Los Estados de Venezuela are excellent for large, low-grade deposits of uraniferous phospahtic shales containing from 0.002 to 0.027 percent uranium; fair, for small or moderate-sized, low-grade placer deposits of thorium, rare-earth, and uranium minerals; poor, for

  8. Geographic data from space

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, Robert H.

    1964-01-01

    Space science has been called “the collection of scientific problems to which space vehicles can make some specific contributions not achievable by ground-based experiments.” Geography, the most spatial of the sciences, has now been marked as one of these “space sciences.” The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is sponsoring an investigation to identify the Potential geographic benefits from the nation’s space program. This is part of NASA’s long-range inquiry to determine the kinds of scientific activities which might profitably be carried out on future space missions. Among such future activities which are now being planned by NASA are a series of manned earth orbital missions, many of which would be devoted to research. Experiments in physics, astronomy, geophysics, meteorology, and biology are being discussed for these long-range missions. The question which is being put to geographers is, essentially, what would it mean to geographic research to have an observation satellite (or many such satellites) orbiting the earth, gathering data about earth-surface features and environments?

  9. Socio-Economic Aspects of National Communication Systems: III. Radio Broadcasting in Venezuela. Communication and Society, 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capriles, Oswaldo; And Others

    The third in a series that examines the role of radio broadcasting in the process of socioeconomic and cultural change in three countries with different types of broadcasting organization--Austria, Czechoslovakia, and Venezuela--this volume focuses on Venezuela. An overview of radio broadcasting in Venezuela describes various aspects and provides…

  10. A new species and first record of Cotinis Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae) for Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Gasca-Álvarez, Héctor Jaime; Deloya, Cuauhtémoc

    2015-04-20

    A new Cotinis Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae: Gymnetini) species from Venezuela is described and illustrated. The new species is compared with Cotinis barthelemyi (Gory & Percheron) from Colombia. The Neotropical distribution of Cotinis is expanded to Venezuela. A revised key to the species of Cotinis is provided in both English and Spanish.

  11. Using the Five Themes of Geography To Teach about Venezuela and Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunal, Cynthia Szymanski; Christensen, Lois

    Activities that employ the five themes of geography--location, place, relationships within places, movement, and regions--to teach about Venezuela and Mexico are described in this document. Each theme has objectives, a list of materials, and three types of activities--exploration, invention, and expansion. Background information on Venezuela and…

  12. Earnings and Education in Venezuela: An Update from the 1987 Household Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psacharopoulos, George; Alam, Asad

    1991-01-01

    Uses data from Venezuela's 1987 Household Survey to update returns to education and compare them to 1975 and 1984 figures. Returns to education have been maintained despite the educational explosion occurring in Venezuela during the period investigated. Although higher education is most heavily subsidized, primary education remains the most…

  13. Characterization of enzootic foci of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus in western Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Barrera, R; Torres, N; Freier, J E; Navarro, J C; García, C Z; Salas, R; Vasquez, C; Weaver, S C

    2001-01-01

    The distribution of the sylvatic subtype ID Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) viruses in the lowland tropical forests of western Venezuela was investigated using remote sensing and geographic information system technologies. Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper satellite imagery was used to study the reflectance patterns of VEE endemic foci and to identify other locations with similar reflectance patterns. Enzootic VEE virus variants isolated during this study are the closest genetic relatives of the epizootic viruses that emerged in western Venezuela during 1992-1993. VEE virus surveillance was conducted by exposing sentinel hamsters to mosquito bites and trapping wild vertebrates in seven forests identified and located by means of the satellite image. We isolated VEE viruses from 48 of a total of 1,363 sentinel hamsters in two of the forests on six occasions, in both dry and wet seasons. None of the 12 small vertebrates captured in 8,190 trap-nights showed signs of previous VEE virus infection. The satellite image was classified into 13 validated classes of land use/vegetation using unsupervised and supervised techniques. Data derived from the image consisted of the raw digital values of near- and mid-infrared bands 4, 5, and 7, derived Tasseled Cap indices of wetness, greenness, and brightness, and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. Digitized maps provided ancillary data of elevation and soil geomorphology. Image enhancement was applied using Principal Component Analysis. A digital layer of roads together with georeferenced images was used to locate the study sites. A cluster analysis using the above data revealed two main groups of dense forests separated by spectral properties, altitude, and soil geomorphology. Virus was isolated more frequently from the forest type identified on flat flood plains of main rivers rather than the forest type found on the rolling hills of the study area. The spatial analysis suggests that mosquitoes carrying the enzootic viruses

  14. Venezuela positioning itself to take key market role in wake of Gulf War

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-19

    This paper reports on Venezuela which continues efforts to position itself in world markets to capitalize on fallout from the Persian Gulf war. The central government and state oil company Petroleos de Venezuela SA have accelerated already ambitious plans to expand activities in upstream and downstream oil and gas sectors. Pvdsa has sharply increased its 1991-96 investment program from the level planned at the end of last year. The goal is to put Venezuela on a par with major Persian Gulf oil exporters in terms of productive capacity. Linchpin of those efforts could well be further steps toward privatization of Venezuela's oil sector. For the first time since nationalization in 1976, private foreign and domestic companies are being permitted to participate in Venezuelan exploration and development. In addition, the government is trimming the onerous tax burden the oil sector has carried in Venezuela, as well as its heavy subsidy of domestic petroleum products.

  15. Volunteered Geographic Information in Wikipedia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Darren

    2010-01-01

    Volunteered geographic information (VGI) refers to the geographic subset of online user-generated content. Through Geobrowsers and online mapping services, which use geovisualization and Web technologies to share and produce VGI, a global digital commons of geographic information has emerged. A notable example is Wikipedia, an online collaborative…

  16. Synergetic Paradigm of Geographical Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorbanyov, Vladimir A.

    2016-01-01

    It is shown that in the last decades, geography has expanded so much, that it has lost its object of study. It was not clear, what the geographical science does, and, as a consequence, households have an extremely low level of geographical cultures and geographical education. Each geography is extremely isolated, has its own object of study.…

  17. The National Map - Geographic Names

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2002-01-01

    Governments depend on a common set of base geographic information as a tool for economic and community development, land and natural resource management, and health and safety services. Emergency management and homeland security applications rely on this information. Private industry, nongovernmental organizations, and individual citizens use the same geographic data. Geographic information underpins an increasingly large part of the Nation's economy.

  18. Geographic information systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    Information and activities are provided to: (1) enhance the ability to distinguish between a Geographic Information System (GIS) and a data management system; (2) develop understanding of spatial data handling by conventional methods versus the automated approach; (3) promote awareness of GIS design and capabilities; (4) foster understanding of the concepts and problems of data base development and management; (5) facilitate recognition of how a computerized GIS can model conditions in the present "real world" to project conditions in the future; and (6) appreciate the utility of integrating LANDSAT and other remotely sensed data into the GIS.

  19. Geographic science team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, N.

    1982-01-01

    The rational for using remote sensing in land use/land cover, geomorphology, and cartography applications is stated as well as potential uses in each of these areas. The next step to be perfected is indicated. Spatial and spectral resolution requirements for photointerpretations and/or multispectral pattern recognition of geomorphic elements and of cultural surface cover are listed. Requirements for photographic/analog or digital photogrammetry from spaceborne multispectral linear array sensors are included. A prioritized summary of data gaps in the geographic sciences is included.

  20. [Need and demand of kidneys for transplantation in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Milanés, C L; Bellorín-Font, E; Weisinger, J; Pernalete, N; Urbina, D; Paz-Martínez, V

    1993-01-01

    The number of cadaveric kidneys available for transplantation has become insufficient around the world. Despite concerted efforts, we have been unsuccessful in greatly improve the supply of organ donors, and consequently the number of end stage renal failure patients awaiting for kidney transplantation continues to increase. The primary objective of this paper is to quantify the need and supply of kidneys for transplant in Venezuela. An overview of the current level of kidney transplant activity in Venezuela is presented, observing that the activity with cadaveric donors had been predominant since 1983, although not to an optimal level. The annual activity in kidney transplant between 1989-1991 remained stable in 6 transplants/million people, but went sharply down to 4.6 in 1992. An estimate of the current need is around 10 donors/million people. This is in contrast with an effective donation rate of only 2.01 and 1.92 donors/million achieved in 1990 and 1991 respectively. The most frequent cause for no donation was the lack of familiar consent. Based on an analysis of the factors involved in the shortage of donor supply in Venezuela, we present some recommendations to increase the availability of cadaveric organ donors in the country. These measures include an improvement of education and legal regulation in the field of organ donation and transplantation, and following the Spanish model, the creation of a program of hospital transplant coordinators that can detect and evaluate potential organ donors as well as coordinate the logistical aspects of transplantation.

  1. A new approach to the oil business in Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Pradas, F.; Valdes, G. )

    1993-02-01

    Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. (PDVSA) has been meeting during the past two years with a considerable number of companies (groups) with a view to possible associations for the reactivation of known fields, joint activities in barely explored areas and the exploitation, refining, upgrading and marketing of crudes from the Orinoco Belt holder of immense reserves of extra-heavy crudes and bitumens. In Venezuela, a new approach to the oil business is under way. On January 1976, the law nationalizing the Venezuelan oil industry became effective establishing that the government retains the sole rights to the country's petroleum industry. However, Article 5 of the law made provision for associations in cases considered to be of [open quotes]National Interest.[close quotes] PDVSA became the wholly government-owned holding entity, encompassing 26 subsidiaries and affiliates. Other energy segments, particularly coal and petrochemicals, were not included in the law and since 1984 several associations with non-governmental entities have been established in Venezuela and very valuable experience has been garnered. Similarly, partnerships and acquisitions have been made in Europe and USA, mostly in refining, through PDVSA. The international petroleum industry foresees a modest, but steady increase in production during the coming decade, particularly in the second half of the nineties. This effect, added to the globalization concept, is making the traditional vertically integrated oil companies look for diverse [open quotes]lateral[close quotes] associations between groups, private and/or state owned with common interests, that will give greater security to sources of supply and market share.

  2. Present Status of Historical Seismicity Studies in Colombia and Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarabia, A.; Cifuentes, H.; Altez Ortega, R.; Palme, C.; Dimate, C.

    2013-05-01

    After the publication of the SISRA (CERESIS-1985) regional project, a unified catalog of seismic parameters and intensities for South America, researchers in historical seismicity have continued advancing on different scales in the area of this study of seismic hazard. The most important initiatives carried out in this area in Colombia and Venezuela can be grouped as follows: a) Reviews of destructive earthquakes in national and international historic archives, principally by Altez and FUNVISIS in Venezuela and Espinosa, Salcedo, and Sarabia et al in Colombia, leading to the preparation of seismologic catalogues, scientific and dissemination articles, reports, books, among others. b) Organization and systematization of historic information to develop public domain data bases and information, specifically the Historic Seismologic Teleinformation System in Venezuela, carried out between 2004 and 2008 under the coordination of Christl Palme and accessible on-line: http://sismicidad.ciens.ula.ve. As well, the "Historia Sísmica de Colombia 1550-1830" (Seismic History in Colombia 1550-1830) data base, in CD-ROM, by Espinosa Baquero (2003) and the historic seismicity information system of Colombia (Servicio Geológico Colombiano-Universidad Nacional de Colombia), published on the internet in 2012: http://agata.ingeominas.gov.co:9090/SismicidadHistorica/. c) Macroseismic studies for the development of intensity attenuation equations and the quantification and revaluation of basic historic earthquake parameters using isoseismal maps (Rengifo et al., Palme et al., Salcedo et al., among others) and procedures such as Boxer and Bakun & Wentworth (Palme et al., Dimaté, among others), which have produced significant changes in the parameters of some of the large earthquakes. d) Symposiums of researchers to promote interest and development in the discipline, including Jornadas Venezolanas de Sismología Histórica (Venezuelan Congress of Historical Seismology), held

  3. A new species of Coespeletia (Asteraceae, Millerieae) from Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Diazgranados, Mauricio; Morillo, Gilberto

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Coespeletia from the páramos of Mérida (Venezuela) is described here. This species, named Coespeletia palustris, is found in a few marshy areas of the páramo. It is closely related to C. moritziana, but differs from it in a smaller number of florets in the capitula, larger ray flowers with longer ligulae and longer linguiform appendages, smaller pollen grains, larger cypselae, ebracteate scapes, leaves and inflorescences with more whitish indumentum, larger leaf sheaths, and marshy habitat. PMID:24399890

  4. Evaluation of offshore penetration tests at El Palito refinery, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, J.I.; Simone, A.; Tichatscheck, C.; Boggess, R.

    1995-12-01

    Data from an offshore study in the western part of Venezuela are presented in terms of the penetration test data and liquefaction evaluation. Two types of penetration test were performed (SPT and DCPT) and the results of each are compared. This was made possible by the comparison testing performed at two different locations where the separation between boreholes with different penetration tests was small enough to allow direct comparison of the results. To the authors` knowledge, this is the first time that dynamic cone measurements have been made in an offshore environment. Comments in relation to the evaluation of liquefaction resistance based on the results of the offshore penetration testing are made.

  5. [The registration of deaths in Venezuela: an evaluation of coverage].

    PubMed

    Bidegain, G; Lopez, D

    1987-08-01

    "This paper presents six indirect techniques for estimating the degree of death coverage as applied to vital statistics information in Venezuela between 1960 and 1982, collected by two public institutions, namely, the 'Oficina Central de Estadistica e Informatica' (OCEI) and the Ministry of Health and Social Assistance (MSAS).... The results show remarkable improvements in the death registry coverage for both institutions, that amount to 97 or 98 per cent at the beginning of the 80's. Nevertheless, great differences can be observed between them regarding both structure and volume of deaths by sex and age." Among the problems discussed are the impact of immigration and errors in age reporting. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  6. [Interpopulation reproductive synchrony of Agave cocui (Agavaceae) in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Figueredo, Carmen J; Villegas, José Luis; Nassar, Jafet M

    2011-09-01

    Agave cocui (Agavaceae) is a species with broad distribution in arid and semiarid areas of Venezuela and Colombia. Despite of its ecological importance as a source of food for wildlife, and its economic value for production of a spirit drink, studies on the reproductive ecology of the species are relatively rare. In this study, we conducted a one-year evaluation of the flowering and fruiting phenology of A. cocui in the eight representative localities of the species' distribution in Venezuela. Within each study site, we chose an area with a minimum of 50 reproductive individuals and followed their reproductive phenophases with the help of binoculars, using six qualitative cathegories (emerging reproductive stalk, flowers, inmature fruits, mature fruits, bulbils and dry stalk) every two months. Emergence of the reproductive stalk in most of the examined populations began in September (rainy season), although this event delayed two months in a few populations. We detected significant negative correlations between precipitation and the percentage of flowering occurrence in four of the eight populations. Floral resources are available for flower visitors during approximately five months of the year (January-May). In most populations production of flowers initiated in January (dry season), and for Western Venezuela and Andean regions, the flowering main peak occurred in January. Localities from the Central and Eastern Coast exhibited the flowering peak in March, showing a delay of approximately two months with respect to other populations. Beginning of fruit set varied among localities from January to May; however, peak production of mature fruits concentrated in May, and fruit occurrence varied broadly between 5.2 and 85%. Bulbil production was detected in all populations and varied greatly among them (maximum percentage per population: 26.19-92.10%). High flowering synchronicity (Phenophase Overlapping Index: 0.756 and 0.999) was observed among all populations

  7. Venezuela: Political Conditions and U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-18

    PdVSA ), had been wasted. Although Venezuela had one of the most stable political systems in Latin America from 1958 until 1989, after that period numerous...in several deaths. The Chávez government responded to the oil sector strike by firing 13,000- 16,000 PdVSA employees. CRS-4 3 “CNE Emitió Resultados...is about 2.6 billion barrels per day.39 PdVSA announced in December 2004 that outside auditors would be appointed to verify the country’s oil

  8. Analyzing geographic clustered response

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, D.W.; Selvin, S.; Mohr, M.S.

    1991-08-01

    In the study of geographic disease clusters, an alternative to traditional methods based on rates is to analyze case locations on a transformed map in which population density is everywhere equal. Although the analyst's task is thereby simplified, the specification of the density equalizing map projection (DEMP) itself is not simple and continues to be the subject of considerable research. Here a new DEMP algorithm is described, which avoids some of the difficulties of earlier approaches. The new algorithm (a) avoids illegal overlapping of transformed polygons; (b) finds the unique solution that minimizes map distortion; (c) provides constant magnification over each map polygon; (d) defines a continuous transformation over the entire map domain; (e) defines an inverse transformation; (f) can accept optional constraints such as fixed boundaries; and (g) can use commercially supported minimization software. Work is continuing to improve computing efficiency and improve the algorithm. 21 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. A medical geographical anniversary.

    PubMed

    Barrett, F A

    1993-09-01

    It is now 200 years since L. L. Finke wrote his treatise on a global medical geography, Versuch einer allgemeinen medicinisch-praktischen Geographie. It was both the most extensive book in substantive content, and the most detailed in conceptual discussion on medical geography written to that point. Although it is one of the foundation pieces of medical geography, modern day practitioners seldom refer to Finke's work. There are two main reasons for this: with the exception of two passages, the work has never been translated from the original German, and many contemporary medical geographers believe that the field only developed in the mid-twentieth century. This paper's purpose is to demonstrate that this last point is unfounded and that recognition of Finke's seminal contribution is long over-due. On the 200th anniversary of the publication of An Attempt at a General Medical-Practical Geography Finke's great achievement is honoured.

  10. Geographic names information system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1987-01-01

    of the data in each of the data elements of the four data bases of GNIS. The GNIS program, which includes the automated names system and the National Gazetteer program, is a coordinated effort under the direction of Donald J. Orth, Chief of the Branch of Geographic Names. The automated system was initially developed by Sam Stulberg and Roger L. Payne. System enhancement and software development is coordinated by Judy J. Stella, head programmer for GNIS, and special projects coordinator is Louis A. Yost IV. Coordination of the research and compilation of certain gazetteers is directed by Robin D. Worcester with research assistance and support from Jon Campbell, Linda S. Davis, and Nancy Engel.

  11. Regulation of an anthranilate synthase gene in Streptomyces venezuelae by a trp attenuator.

    PubMed

    Lin, C; Paradkar, A S; Vining, L C

    1998-07-01

    The nucleotide sequence of a 2-4 kb BamHI-SalI fragment of Streptomyces venezuelae ISP5230 DNA that complements trpE and trpG mutations in Escherichia coli contains two ORFs. The larger of these (ORF2) encodes a 624 amino acid sequence similar to the overall sequence of the two subunits of anthranilate synthase. The two-thirds nearest the amino terminus resembles the aminase subunit; the remaining one-third resembles the glutamine amidotransferase subunit. Upstream of ORF2 is a small ORF encoding 18 amino acids that include three adjacent Trp residues; in addition the ORF contains inverted repeats with sequence and positional similarity to the products of attenuator (trpL) regions that regulate tryptophan biosynthesis in other bacteria. In cultures of a trpC mutant of S. venezuelae, increasing the concentration of exogenous tryptophan decreased the formation of anthranilate synthase; similar evidence of endproduct repression was obtained in a trpCER mutant of E. coli transformed with a vector containing the cloned DNA fragment from S. venezuelae. The anthranilate synthase activity in S. venezuelae cell extracts was inhibited by tryptophan, although only at high concentrations of the amino acid. A two-base deletion introduced into the cloned S. venezuelae DNA fragment prevented complementation of a trpE mutation in E. coli. However, S. venezuelae transformants in which the two-base deletion had been introduced by replacement of homologous chromosomal DNA did not exhibit a Trp- phenotype. The result implies that S. venezuelae has one or more additional genes for anthranilate synthase. In alignments with anthranilate synthase genes from other organisms, ORF2 from S. venezuelae most closely resembled genes for phenazine biosynthesis in Pseudomonas. The results bear on the function of the gene in S. venezuelae.

  12. Assessing earthquake catalogues in Venezuela by analyzing time series data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasquez, R.; Granado, C.

    2011-12-01

    We applied the Mann-Kendall non-parametric test for identifying significant trends in time series data regarding the seismicity patterns in Venezuela during the period 2001-2010. The entire seismicity region is divided in three areas to perform the test: 1) West with 12774 seismic events; 2) Center for a total of 909 earthquakes and 3) East with 6382 earthquakes. We analyzed the catalogues for every sub region to obtain the b value of the Gutenberg-Richter law based on the maximum likelihood method and the annual magnitude of completeness (Mc) by using the maximum curvature method (MAXC). We assessed statistically the analysis of Z for the time series consisting of the b value and Mc in the three subsets of earthquakes. The confidence interval of this study was 90%. This approach is useful to analyze the performance characteristics of the Venezuelan seismic network and the associated regional catalogues. The results lead to conclude that the Central part of Venezuela does not show an statistically significant trend of the seismicity or Mc, while western region has a decreasing trend in the Mc estimation but no variations in terms of the seismicity. Only the Eastern region presents an increasing trend in its seismicity and Mc values.

  13. The periodicity of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Grillet, María-Eugenia; El Souki, Mayida; Laguna, Francisco; León, José Rafael

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the periodicity of Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum incidence in time-series of malaria data (1990-2010) from three endemic regions in Venezuela. In particular, we determined whether disease epidemics were related to local climate variability and regional climate anomalies such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Malaria periodicity was found to exhibit unique features in each studied region. Significant multi-annual cycles of 2- to about 6-year periods were identified. The inter-annual variability of malaria cases was coherent with that of SSTs (ENSO), mainly at temporal scales within the 3-6 year periods. Additionally, malaria cases were intensified approximately 1 year after an El Niño event, a pattern that highlights the role of climate inter-annual variability in the epidemic patterns. Rainfall mediated the effect of ENSO on malaria locally. Particularly, rains from the last phase of the season had a critical role in the temporal dynamics of Plasmodium. The malaria-climate relationship was complex and transient, varying in strength with the region and species. By identifying temporal cycles of malaria we have made a first step in predicting high-risk years in Venezuela. Our findings emphasize the importance of analyzing high-resolution spatial-temporal data to better understand malaria transmission dynamics.

  14. Genotyping of clinical isolates of Acanthamoeba genus in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Carolina; Reyes-Batlle, María; Ysea, María Alejandra Vethencourt; Pérez, Mónica V Galindo; de Rondón, Carmen Guzmán; Paduani, Anaibeth J Nessi; Pérez, Angelyseb Dorta; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Sifaoui, Ines; de Galindo, María Virginia Pérez; de Suárez, Eva Pérez; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Valladares, Basilio; Piñero, José E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2016-12-01

    Free-living amoebae of Acanthamoeba genus are opportunistic pathogens distributed worldwide. Strains included in this genus are causative agents of a fatal encephalitis and a sight-threating keratitis in humans and other animals. In this study, 550 clinical samples which were collected between 1984 and 2014 from different patients with suspected infections due to Acanthamoeba were initially screened for the presence of this amoebic genus at the Laboratorio de Amibiasis-Escuela de Bioanálisis at the Universidad Central de Venezuela. Samples were cultured in 2% Non-Nutrient agar plates seeded with a layer of heat killed Escherichia coli. From the 550 clinical samples included in this study, 18 of them were positive for Acanthamoeba genus after culture identification. Moreover, positive samples were confirmed after amplification of the Diagnostic Fragment 3 (DF3) of the Acanthamoeba18S rDNA genus and sequencing was carried out in order to genotype the isolated strains of Acanthamoeba. Furthermore, the pathogenic potential of the strains was checked by performing thermotolerance and osmotolerance assays. Sequencing of the DF3 region resulted in the identification of genotype T4 in all the isolated strains. Moreover, most isolates were thermotolerant or both thermotolerant and osmotolerant and thus were classified as potentially pathogenic strains. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the molecular characterization at the genotype level of Acanthamoeba strains in Venezuela.

  15. Ethics, Risk, and Media Intervention: Women's Breast Cancer in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Eid, Mahmoud; Nahon-Serfaty, Isaac

    2015-07-01

    Breast cancer incidence and mortality rates are of concern among Latin American women, mainly due to the growing prevalence of this disease and the lack of compliance to proper breast cancer screening and treatment. Focusing on Venezuelan women and the challenges and barriers that interact with their health communication, this paper looks into issues surrounding women's breast cancer, such as the challenges and barriers to breast cancer care, the relevant ethics and responsibilities, the right to health, breast cancer risk perception and risk communication, and the media interventions that affect Venezuelan women's perceptions and actions pertaining to this disease. In particular, it describes an action-oriented research project in Venezuela that was conducted over a four-year period of collaborative work among researchers, practitioners, NGOs, patients, journalists, and policymakers. The outcomes include positive indications on more effective interactions between physicians and patients, increasing satisfactions about issues of ethical treatment in providing healthcare services, more sufficient and responsible media coverage of breast cancer healthcare services and information, a widely supported declaration for a national response against breast cancer in Venezuela, and the creation of a code of ethics for the Venezuelan NGO that led the expansion of networking in support of women's breast cancer healthcare.

  16. A case-control study of gastric cancer in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, N; Plummer, M; Vivas, J; Moreno, V; De Sanjosé, S; Lopez, G; Oliver, W

    2001-08-01

    A case-control study to evaluate risk factors for gastric cancer was carried out among 292 cases of gastric cancer and 485 controls in a high-risk area of Venezuela. Subjects were interviewed using a structured questionnaire, which elicited information on residential history, socio-economic status, family history of gastric diseases, smoking, drinking and dietary habits. Habitual diet was estimated from a meal-structured food frequency questionnaire on 75 food items. There was a strong inverse association with social class, as measured by education and by indicators of poverty. The results of the dietary analysis suggest that a diet high in starch and low in meat, fish and fresh vegetables increases risk of gastric cancer. A protective effect was observed for frequent consumption of allium vegetables. Inverse associations were found with height, which may reflect nutritional status in childhood, and with refrigerator use in the first two decades of life. Alcohol and tobacco consumption was investigated among males only, since the prevalence of alcohol and tobacco use was very low in females. Alcohol drinkers were at higher risk than non-drinkers and there was a small excess risk for current smokers compared with never smokers. There was some evidence of familial aggregation of gastric cancer. These findings will have important implications in planning preventive strategies for gastric cancer in Venezuela.

  17. Raptor abundance and distribution in the Llanos wetlands of Venezuela

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jensen, W.J.; Gregory, M.S.; Baldassarre, G.A.; Vilella, F.J.; Bildstein, K.L.

    2005-01-01

    The Llanos of Venezuela is a 275 000-km2 freshwater wetland long recognized as an important habitat for waterbirds. However, little information exists on the raptor community of the region. We conducted raptor surveys in the Southwestern and Western Llanos during 2000-02 and detected 28 species representing 19 genera. Overall, areas of the Llanos that we sampled contained 52% of all raptor species and more than 70% of the kites, buteos, and subbuteos known to inhabit Venezuela. Regional differences in the mean number per route for four of the 14 most common species, the Crested Caracara (Caracara plancus), Black-collared Hawk (Busarellus nigricollis), American Kestrel (Falco sparverius), and Osprey (Pandion haliaetus), were significant (P < 0.0018) in relation to the wet or dry seasons. Of the 14 less common species, six were detected in only one season (wet or dry). The Southwestern and Western regions of the Llanos support a rich raptor community composed primarily of nonmigratory wetland-dependent and upland-terrestrial species. ?? 2005 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  18. AMINOGLYCOSIDE RESISTANCE GENES IN Pseudomonas aeruginosa ISOLATES FROM CUMANA, VENEZUELA.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Bertinellys; Rodulfo, Hectorina; Carreño, Numirin; Guzmán, Militza; Salazar, Elsa; De Donato, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    The enzymatic modification of aminoglycosides by aminoglycoside-acetyltransferases (AAC), aminoglycoside-adenyltransferases (AAD), and aminoglycoside-phosphotransferases (APH), is the most common resistance mechanism in P. aeruginosa and these enzymes can be coded on mobile genetic elements that contribute to their dispersion. One hundred and thirty seven P. aeruginosa isolates from the University Hospital, Cumana, Venezuela (HUAPA) were evaluated. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the disk diffusion method and theaac, aadB and aph genes were detected by PCR. Most of the P. aeruginosa isolates (33/137) were identified from the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), mainly from discharges (96/137). The frequency of resistant P. aeruginosaisolates was found to be higher for the aminoglycosides tobramycin and amikacin (30.7 and 29.9%, respectively). Phenotype VI, resistant to these antibiotics, was the most frequent (14/49), followed by phenotype I, resistant to all the aminoglycosides tested (12/49). The aac(6´)-Ib,aphA1 and aadB genes were the most frequently detected, and the simultaneous presence of several resistance genes in the same isolate was demonstrated. Aminoglycoside resistance in isolates ofP. aeruginosa at the HUAPA is partly due to the presence of the aac(6´)-Ib, aphA1 andaadB genes, but the high rates of antimicrobial resistance suggest the existence of several mechanisms acting together. This is the first report of aminoglycoside resistance genes in Venezuela and one of the few in Latin America.

  19. AMINOGLYCOSIDE RESISTANCE GENES IN Pseudomonas aeruginosa ISOLATES FROM CUMANA, VENEZUELA

    PubMed Central

    TEIXEIRA, Bertinellys; RODULFO, Hectorina; CARREÑO, Numirin; GUZMÁN, Militza; SALAZAR, Elsa; DONATO, Marcos DE

    2016-01-01

    The enzymatic modification of aminoglycosides by aminoglycoside-acetyltransferases (AAC), aminoglycoside-adenyltransferases (AAD), and aminoglycoside-phosphotransferases (APH), is the most common resistance mechanism in P. aeruginosa and these enzymes can be coded on mobile genetic elements that contribute to their dispersion. One hundred and thirty seven P. aeruginosa isolates from the University Hospital, Cumana, Venezuela (HUAPA) were evaluated. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the disk diffusion method and theaac, aadB and aph genes were detected by PCR. Most of the P. aeruginosa isolates (33/137) were identified from the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), mainly from discharges (96/137). The frequency of resistant P. aeruginosaisolates was found to be higher for the aminoglycosides tobramycin and amikacin (30.7 and 29.9%, respectively). Phenotype VI, resistant to these antibiotics, was the most frequent (14/49), followed by phenotype I, resistant to all the aminoglycosides tested (12/49). The aac(6´)-Ib,aphA1 and aadB genes were the most frequently detected, and the simultaneous presence of several resistance genes in the same isolate was demonstrated. Aminoglycoside resistance in isolates ofP. aeruginosa at the HUAPA is partly due to the presence of the aac(6´)-Ib, aphA1 andaadB genes, but the high rates of antimicrobial resistance suggest the existence of several mechanisms acting together. This is the first report of aminoglycoside resistance genes in Venezuela and one of the few in Latin America. PMID:27007556

  20. GEOGRAPHIC NAMES INFORMATION SYSTEM (GNIS) ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN), contains information about physical and cultural geographic features in the United States and associated areas, both current and historical, but not including roads and highways. The database also contains geographic names in Antarctica. The database holds the Federally recognized name of each feature and defines the location of the feature by state, county, USGS topographic map, and geographic coordinates. Other feature attributes include names or spellings other than the official name, feature designations, feature class, historical and descriptive information, and for some categories of features the geometric boundaries. The database assigns a unique feature identifier, a random number, that is a key for accessing, integrating, or reconciling GNIS data with other data sets. The GNIS is our Nation's official repository of domestic geographic feature names information.

  1. A revision of the Lutrochidae (Coleoptera) of Venezuela, with description of six new species.

    PubMed

    Maier, Crystal A; Short, Andrew E Z

    2013-01-01

    The species of Lutrochidae occurring in Venezuela are revised. The only previously recorded species, Lutrochus acuminatus Grouvelle, is redescribed and a lectotype is designated. Lutrochus vestitus Sharp, is recorded from Venezuela and French Guiana for the first time. Six new species Lutrochus gustafsoni n. sp., L. cauraensis n. sp., L. maldonadoi n. sp., L. meridaensis n. sp., L. minutus n. sp., and L. violaceus n. sp. are described. Notes on habitat and habits for most species are provided, as well as a key to the eight species of Lutrochidae occurring in Venezuela. The family is reported from hygropetric habitats for the first time.

  2. Coloring geographical threshold graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Bradonjic, Milan; Percus, Allon; Muller, Tobias

    2008-01-01

    We propose a coloring algorithm for sparse random graphs generated by the geographical threshold graph (GTG) model, a generalization of random geometric graphs (RGG). In a GTG, nodes are distributed in a Euclidean space, and edges are assigned according to a threshold function involving the distance between nodes as well as randomly chosen node weights. The motivation for analyzing this model is that many real networks (e.g., wireless networks, the Internet, etc.) need to be studied by using a 'richer' stochastic model (which in this case includes both a distance between nodes and weights on the nodes). Here, we analyze the GTG coloring algorithm together with the graph's clique number, showing formally that in spite of the differences in structure between GTG and RGG, the asymptotic behavior of the chromatic number is identical: {chi}1n 1n n / 1n n (1 + {omicron}(1)). Finally, we consider the leading corrections to this expression, again using the coloring algorithm and clique number to provide bounds on the chromatic number. We show that the gap between the lower and upper bound is within C 1n n / (1n 1n n){sup 2}, and specify the constant C.

  3. Geographical Database Integrity Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Derya; Kauffman, Paul; Blackstock, Dexter

    2000-01-01

    Airport Safety Modeling Data (ASMD) was developed at the request of a 1997 White House Conference on Aviation Safety and Security. Politicians, military personnel, commercial aircraft manufacturers and the airline industry attended the conference. The objective of the conference was to study the airline industry and make recommendations to improve safety and security. One of the topics discussed at the conference was the loss of situational awareness by aircraft pilots. Loss of situational awareness occurs when a pilot loses his geographic position during flight and can result in crashes into terrain and obstacles. It was recognized at the conference that aviation safety could be improved by reducing the loss of situational awareness. The conference advised that a system be placed in the airplane cockpit that would provide pilots with a visual representation of the terrain around airports. The system would prevent airline crashes during times of inclement weather and loss of situational awareness. The system must be based on accurate data that represents terrain around airports. The Department of Defense and the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) released ASMD to be used for the development of a visual system for aircraft pilots. ASMD was constructed from NIMA digital terrain elevation data (DTED).

  4. [Geographic information systems].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Vásquez, Akram; Azañedo, Diego; Bendezú-Quispe, Guido; Pacheco-Mendoza, Josmel; Chaparro, R Martín

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to geospatially explore the occurrence rates of car accidents involving pedestrians in Cercado de Lima (Lima District), Peru. Car accidents involving pedestrians recorded in the 2015 National Police Station Census of the National Statistics and Information Institute were described and georeferenced. Subsequently, a Kernel Density analysis was carried out to locate areas with high, medium, and low density events. Records of 171 car accidents involving pedestrians were studied: the types of vehicles involved were automobiles (56.7%) and smaller vehicles (22.8%). The highest percentage of car accidents involving pedestrians (38.6%) took place between 12:00 p.m. and 5:00 p.m. There were two densely populated areas and two areas with intermediate density for car accidents involving pedestrians, locations that were previously reported as critical due to their deficiencies and high probability of traffic accidents. The use of geographic information systems offers a quick overview of the occurrence rates of car accidents involving pedestrians to make comparisons and enable the local implementation of strategies.

  5. The Crustal Structure and Seismicity of Eastern Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, M.; Martins, A.; Sobiesiak, M.; Alvarado, L.; Vasquez, R.

    2001-12-01

    Eastern Venezuela is characterized by a moderate to high seismicity, evidenced recently by the 1997 Cariaco earthquake located on the El Pilar Fault, a right lateral strike slip fault which marks the plate boundary between the Caribbean and South-American plates in this region. Recently, the seismic activity seems to migrate towards the zone of subduction of the Lesser Antilles in the northeast, where a mb 6.0 earthquake occurred in October 2000 at 120 km of depth. Periodical changes in the seismic activity are related to the interaction of the stress fields of the strike-slip and the subduction regimes. The seismic activity decreases rapidly towards to the south with some disperse events on the northern edge of the Guayana Shield, related to the Guri fault system. The crustal models used in the region are derived from the information generated by the national seismological network since 1982 and by microseismicity studies in northeastern Venezuela, coinciding in a crustal thickness of about 35 km in depth. Results of seismic refraction measurements for the region were obtained during field campains in 1998 (ECOGUAY) for the Guayana Shield and the Cariaco sedimentary basin and in 2001 (ECCO) for the Oriental Basin. The total crustal thickness decreases from about 45 km on the northern edge of the Guayana Shield to some 36 km close to El Tigre in the center of the Oriental Basin. The average crustal velocity decreases in the same sense from 6.5 to 5.8 km/s. In the Cariaco sedimentary basin a young sedimentary cover of 1 km thickness with a seismic velocity of 2 km/s was derived. Towards the northern limit of the South-American plate, no deep seismic refraction data are available up to now. The improvement of the crustal models used in that region would constitute a step forward in the analysis of the seismic hazard. Seismic refraction studies funded by CONICIT S1-97002996 and S1-2000000685 projects and PDVSA (additional drilling and blasting), recording equipment

  6. Adaptive Cartography and Geographical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konecny, Milan; Stanek, Karel

    2010-01-01

    The article focuses on adaptive cartography and its potential for geographical education. After briefly describing the wider context of adaptive cartography, it is suggested that this new cartographic approach establishes new demands and benefits for geographical education, especially in offering the possibility for broader individual…

  7. Geographic Education in Mexican Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prentice, Murray; Fredrich, Barbara

    Do Mexico's schools provide geographic learning opportunities to students and does equal opportunity to learn exist? The site for this study was Baja California's school district of Ensenada. Geographic education in urban primary and secondary schools was examined. School administrators and select teachers from 40 schools were asked about time…

  8. 78 FR 49471 - Ferrosilicon From the Russian Federation and Venezuela: Initiation of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... International Trade Administration Ferrosilicon From the Russian Federation and Venezuela: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigations AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration, Department... Bertrand at (202) 482-3207, AD/CVD Operations, Office 9, Import Administration, International...

  9. Biosynthesis of plant-specific flavones and flavonols in Streptomyces venezuelae.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Ryeol; Paik, Ji Hye; Ahn, Mi Sun; Park, Je Won; Yoon, Yeo Joon

    2010-09-01

    Recently, recombinant Streptomyces venezuelae has been established as a heterologous host for microbial production of flavanones and stilbenes, a class of plant-specific polyketides. In the present work, we expanded the applicability of the S. venezuelae system to the production of more diverse plant polyketides including flavones and flavonols. A plasmid with the synthetic codon-optimized flavone synthase I gene from Petroselium crispum was introduced to S. venezuelae DHS2001 bearing a deletion of the native pikromycin polyketide synthase gene, and the resulting strain generated flavones from exogenously fed flavanones. In addition, a recombinant S. venezuelae mutant expressing a codon-optimized flavanone 3beta-hydroxylase gene from Citrus siensis and a flavonol synthase gene from Citrus unshius also successfully produced flavonols.

  10. 78 FR 77423 - Ferrosilicon From the Russian Federation and Venezuela: Postponement of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... potential cost investigation of FerroAtlantica de Venezuela, S.A.\\6\\ (``FerroVen''), and data reported by FerroVen affected by high inflation in the Venezuelan economy.\\7\\ \\4\\ Petitioners are Globe...

  11. Correlation of the Jurassic through Oligocene Stratigraphic Units of Trinidad and Northeastern Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Algar, S.; Erikson, J.P.

    1995-04-01

    The Jurassic through Oligocene stratigraphies of Trinidad and the Serrenia del Interior of eastern Venezuela exhibit many similarities because of their proximity on the passive continental margins of northeastern South America. A slightly later subsidence in eastern Venezuela, and the generally deeper-water sedimentation in Trinidad, is interpreted to be the result of a serration of the original rift margin, producing an eastern Venezuela promontory and Trinidadian re-entrant. We interpret these serrations to be the result of oblique (NW-SE) spreading of North and South America during Middle and late Jurassic time. The stratigraphies of northeastern Venezuela and Trinidad contrast in the Hauterivan-Albian interval, with dynamic shallow shelf environments prevailing in the Serrenia del Interior and deeper marine submarine-fan deposition in Trinidad. Both areas develop middle to Upper Cretaceous source rocks during a time of eustatic sea level high and widespread oceanic anoxia. 15 refs., 4 fig.

  12. Biological and phylogenetic characterization of a genotype VII Newcastle disease virus from Venezuela: Efficacy of vaccination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Here we describe the characterization a virulent genotype VII Newcastle disease virus (NDV) from Venezuela and evaluate the efficacy of heterologous genotype commercial vaccination under field and controlled rearing conditions. Biological pathotyping and molecular analysis were applied. Results sh...

  13. A Descriptive Chronology of Films by Women in Venezuela, 1952-92.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartzman, Karen

    1993-01-01

    Offers an annotated chronology of Venezuelan films, representing a first step toward a general history of women's filmmaking in Venezuela. Suggests that the participation of women directors closely follows the curve of national film production in general. (RS)

  14. Decentralization and Regionalization in the Ministry of Education: The Case of Venezuela

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Mark

    1976-01-01

    This research is an effort to analyze the process of organizational change as it takes place within one segment of the public administration mechanism in Venezuela--The Ministry of Education. (Editor/RK)

  15. Complete genome sequences of two novel begomoviruses infecting common bean in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Fiallo-Olivé, Elvira; Márquez-Martín, Belén; Hassan, Ishtiaq; Chirinos, Dorys T; Geraud-Pouey, Francis; Navas-Castillo, Jesús; Moriones, Enrique

    2013-03-01

    The complete genome sequences of isolates of two new bipartite begomoviruses (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) found infecting common bean in Venezuela are provided. The names proposed for each of these viruses are "bean yellow chlorosis virus" (BYCV) and "bean white chlorosis mosaic virus" (BWCMV). Phylogenetic analysis showed that they segregated in two distinct clades of New World begomoviruses. This is the first report of begomoviruses infecting common bean in Venezuela.

  16. Checklist and distribution maps of the blow flies of Venezuela (Diptera, Calliphoridae, Mesembrinellidae).

    PubMed

    Velásquez, Yelitza; Martínez-Sánchez, Ana Isabel; Thomas, Arianna; Rojo, Santos

    2017-01-01

    A checklist of the 39 species of blow flies (Calliphoridae and Mesembrinellidae) so far known to occur in Venezuela is provided, based on a thorough literature review and the examination of ca. 500 specimens deposited in the main entomological collections of the country. Data from the literature and museum collections were used to generate distribution maps for 37 species. Three species are recorded from Venezuela for the first time: Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1830), Mesembrinella spicata Aldrich, 1925 and Mesembrinella umbrosa Aldrich, 1922.

  17. Four new species of Andean Pilea (Urticaceae), with additional notes on the genus in Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Dorr, Laurence J.; Stergios, Basil

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Four new species of Pilea (Urticaceae) from the Andes of Venezuela are described and illustrated: Pilea matthewii sp. nov., Pilea miguelii sp. nov., Pilea nicholasii sp. nov., and Pilea nidiae sp. nov. The affinities of these species and their positions within the informal classifications of Pilea proposed by Weddell and Killip are discussed. Notes on other species of Pilea found in Venezuela also are presented. PMID:25383012

  18. A new baseline for fascioliasis in Venezuela: lymnaeid vectors ascertained by DNA sequencing and analysis of their relationships with human and animal infection

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Human and animal fascioliasis poses serious public health problems in South America. In Venezuela, livestock infection represents an important veterinary problem whereas there appear to be few human cases reported, most of which are passively detected in health centres. However, results of recent surveys suggest that the situation may be underestimated in particular areas. To obtain a baseline for future fascioliasis assessment, studies were undertaken by means of rDNA ITS-2 and ITS-1 and mtDNA cox1 sequencing to clarify the specific status of Venezuelan lymnaeids, their geographical distribution and fascioliasis transmission capacity, by comparison with other American countries and other continents. Results Results obtained completely change the lymnaeid scenario known so far. The relatively rich lymnaeid fauna of Venezuela has been proven to include (i) Lymnaea meridensis and L. neotropica as the only native members, (ii) L. cubensis and Pseudosuccinea columella introduced from the Caribbean area, and (iii) Galba truncatula and L. schirazensis introduced from the Old World. The absence of representatives of the stagnicoline and Radix groups is remarkable. Four species are fascioliasis vectors: G. truncatula, L. cubensis and L. neotropica, which have the capacity to give rise to human endemic areas, and P. columella, which is a source of animal infection and is responsible for the spread of disease. Vector capacity in the apparently highland endemic L. meridensis is to be confimed, although may be expected given its phylogenetic relationships. Similarly as elsewhere, the non-transmitting L. schirazensis has been confused with L. cubensis, also with G. truncatula and possibly with L. neotropica. Conclusions The new scenario leads to the re-opening of many disease aspects. In Venezuela, altitude appears to be the main factor influencing fascioliasis distribution. Human infection shows an altitude pattern similar to other Andean countries, although a

  19. Venezuela's stake in US refining may grow: xenophobia addressed

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-23

    Is this an invasion of U.S. oil industry sovereignty, or a happy marriage of upstream and downstream between US and foreign interests. Venezuela, a founding member of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries who has also been a chief supplier to the US during times of peace and war, now owns half of two important US refining and marketing organizations. Many US marketers have felt uneasy about this foreign penetration of their turf. In this issue, for the sake of public information, the entire policy statement from the leader of that Venezuelan market strategy is provided. This issue also contains the following: (1) ED refining netback data for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of late September, 1987; and (2) ED fuel price/tax series for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere, Sept. 19 edition. 4 figures, 6 tables.

  20. Embodying racism: race, rhinoplasty, and self-esteem in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Gulbas, Lauren E

    2013-03-01

    In this article, I examine how race motivates women's decisions to undergo aesthetic rhinoplasty in Caracas, Venezuela. Through a combination of cultural domain analysis and thematic analysis of qualitative interviews, I explore how the preference for whiteness and associated facial features dovetail with the aesthetic ideals promoted by cosmetic surgeons. Rhinoplasty is offered by physicians and interpreted by patients as a resolution to body dissatisfaction and low self-esteem. The clinical ethos of objectivity established by cosmetic surgeons fails to acknowledge how perceptions of the self and body are strongly tied to racial marginalization: patients' efforts to alter the nose reveal attempts to change not only how the body looks, but how it is lived. As a result, cosmetic surgery only acts as a stop-gap measure to heighten one's self-esteem and body image.

  1. Canine visceral leishmaniasis on Margarita Island (Nueva Esparta, Venezuela).

    PubMed

    Zerpa, O; Ulrich, M; Negrón, E; Rodríguez, N; Centeno, M; Rodríguez, V; Barrios, R M; Belizario, D; Reed, S; Convit, J

    2000-01-01

    The frequency of American visceral leishmaniasis affecting humans on Margarita Island, Venezuela, has increased in recent years, and infected dogs appear to constitute the principal source of infection. ELISA tests with Leishmania donovani promastigotes and rK39 antigen from L. chagasi in serum from 541 dogs were positive in 33.1% and 21.6% of the samples, respectively. A second blood sample taken from 50 animals after 8-10 months revealed an increase from 24% to 40% of ELISA positivity to both antigens, suggesting high susceptibility and transmission in the canine population. Among 42 serologically positive dogs, 33% of which showed clinical signs of disease, 79% were positive in polymerase chain reactions using primers specific for the L. donovani complex. Control measures including epidemiological hypersurveillance, the humane sacrifice of infected dogs, and rapid diagnosis and treatment of human cases have been initiated.

  2. Transmission of Guanarito and Pirital Viruses among Wild Rodents, Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Milazzo, Mary L.; Cajimat, Maria N.B.; Duno, Gloria; Duno, Freddy; Utrera, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Samples from rodents captured on a farm in Venezuela in February 1997 were tested for arenavirus, antibody against Guanarito virus (GTOV), and antibody against Pirital virus (PIRV). Thirty-one (48.4%) of 64 short-tailed cane mice (Zygodontomys brevicauda) were infected with GTOV, 1 Alston’s cotton rat (Sigmodon alstoni) was infected with GTOV, and 36 (64.3%) of 56 other Alston’s cotton rats were infected with PIRV. The results of analyses of field and laboratory data suggested that horizontal transmission is the dominant mode of GTOV transmission in Z. brevicauda mice and that vertical transmission is an important mode of PIRV transmission in S. alstoni rats. The results also suggested that bodily secretions and excretions from most GTOV-infected short-tailed cane mice and most PIRV-infected Alston’s cotton rats may transmit the viruses to humans. PMID:22172205

  3. Potential for Great Thrust Earthquakes in NE Colombia & NW Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilham, R. G.; Mencin, D.

    2013-05-01

    Sixty-five percent of the ≈19 mm/yr eastward velocity of the Caribbean Plate north of Aruba and the Guajira peninsula relative to the South American plate is accommodated by dextral slip on the Bocono Fault system in NW Venezuela at 12±1 mm/yr, the remaining ~3 mm/yr of shear apparently distributed to the NW of the fault (Perez et al., 2011). The N40E strike of the Bocono fault system, however, requires that 10.6±1 mm/yr of convergence should accompany this partitioned dextral shear, but GPS measurements reveal that less than 25% of this convergence occurs across the Venezuelan Andes. The remaining 6-8 mm of convergence is presumably accommodated by incipient subduction between the Bocono fault and a trench 300 km NW of the northern coast of Colombia. Hence NW Venezuela and NE Colombia may occasionally host great earthquakes. Our current poor understanding of the geometry of the plate interface permits the plate to be locked 300 km down-dip and possibly 600 km along-strike, and if the plate slips in 10 m ruptures it could do so every 1200 years in a M~9 earthquake. No great earthquake has occurred since 1492, since when ~4 m of potential slip has developed, but should slip occur on just 10% of the hypothesized décollement (100x150 km) it could do so now in an Mw=8.2 earthquake. In that a potential Mw>8 earthquake poses a future seismic and tsunami threat to the Caribbean it is important to examine whether great earthquakes have occurred previously near the NW Venezuela coast. It is possible that creep accommodates the entire convergence signal, since there is no suggestion from microseismicity for an abrupt locked-to-sliding transition, as, for example, signifies its location in the Himalaya. An alternative measure of future potential seismic energy release is to identify the locus and rate of present-day strain contraction. To this end, Venezuelan, Colombian and US (CU and UNAVCO) investigators are installing an array of more than a dozen continuous operating

  4. Potential options to reduce GHG emissions in Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, N.; Bonduki, Y.; Perdomo, M.

    1996-12-31

    The Government of Venezuela ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in December, 1994. The Convention requires all parties to develop and publish national inventories of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) as well as national plans to reduce or control emissions, taking into account their common but differentiated responsibilities and their specific national and regional development priorities, objectives, and circumstances. Within this context, the Ministry of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources and the Ministry of Energy and Mines developed the `Venezuelan Case-Study to Address Climate Change`. The study was initiated in October 1993, with the financial and technical assistance of the Government of United States, through the U.S. Country Studies Program (USCSP), and the Global Environment Facility (GEF), through the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).

  5. Overcoming Squeezing in the Yacambú-Quibor Tunnel, Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoek, E.; Guevara, R.

    2009-04-01

    The 5 m diameter 23.3 km long Yacambú-Quibor tunnel is designed to carry water through the Andes from the Yacambú dam in the wet tropical Orinoco basin to the semi-arid but fertile Quibor basin in western Venezuela. The tunnel is excavated in silicified and graphitic phyllites at depths of up to 1270 m below surface and extreme squeezing problems have been encountered. Construction involved 8 contracts extending over 32 years with breakthrough being achieved in July 2008. Several excavation methods and various lining designs were used over the years until the adoption of yielding support permitted the Owner and the Contractor to agree that only a circular section would be used and emphasis was placed on developing a routine construction procedure, irrespective of the rock conditions encountered at the face. This paper describes some of the rock engineering issues that were faced during the construction of this tunnel.

  6. Seismic anisotropy and mantle flow beneath western Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masy, J.; Niu, F.; Levander, A.

    2009-12-01

    We measured shear wave splitting from SKS and SKKS data recorded by the national seismic network of Venezuela and a linear broadband PASSCAL/Rice seismic array across the Merida Andes. The linear array was installed as a second phase of the passive seismic component of the BOLIVAR project (Broadband Onshore-offshore Lithospheric Investigation of Venezuela and the Antilles arc Region) to better understand the complicated regional tectonics in western Venezuela. Polarization direction (φ) of the faster S wave and delay time (δt) between the fast and slow wavelets from 20 stations were obtained using a stacking method proposed by Wolfe and Silver (1998). For each station, SKS or SKKS waveform data from 2 to 36 earthquakes, mostly from the Tonga subduction zone, were selected for splitting analysis. We assumed that shear wave splitting observed at each station is caused by upper mantle seismic anisotropy beneath the station. The best splitting parameters (φ,δt) were estimated when the summed eigenvalue ratio ∑(SNRi[λ2i(φ,δt)/λ1i(φ,δt)]) of the covariance matrix of the corrected particle motion reaches its minimum. We used signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) calculated from a noise time window before SKS as the weight of the summation. The fast polarization directions can be divided into 3 zones, all in agreement with local GPS data: The first zone is the stations north of the dextral strike-slip Oca fault, an extinct part of the San Sebastian-El Pilar plate boundary zone. These stations show the largest split times (1.6-2.0s), oriented in a roughly EW direction, and are similar to splitting observations made further to the east along the strike slip plate boundary. Zone two is the Maracaibo block, bounded on the southeast by the right lateral Bocono fault, where split orientations are at N45°E, suggesting that the observed seismic anisotropy is likely caused by lithospheric deformation parallel to the Bocono. Zone three is east of the Bocono fault inside the

  7. Heterologous production of spectinomycin in Streptomyces venezuelae by exploiting the dTDP-D-desosamine pathway.

    PubMed

    Lamichhane, Janardan; Jha, Amit Kumar; Singh, Bijay; Pandey, Ramesh Prasad; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2014-03-20

    Spectinomycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic composed of actinamine and actinospectose, which are fused together by a putative glycosyltransferase, SpcG, during spectinomycin biosynthesis. Although previous studies have revealed the involvement of SpcA (myo-inositol monophosphatase), SpcB (dehydrogenase), SpcS2 (aminotransferase), and SpcM (methyltransferase) in the biosynthesis of actinamine, heterologous biosynthesis of spectinomycin via actinospectose has not been clearly elucidated. In this study, Streptomyces venezuelae was utilized as a source of dTDP-actinospectose from the pikromycin biosynthetic desosamine sugar pathway, and a recombinant vector, pSM5, carrying spcA, spcB, spcS2, spcM, and spcG was inserted into S. venezuelae. The formation of dTDP-spectinose was suspected through the use of dehydrogenase in the S. venezuelae chromosome. Herewith, the genetically engineered strain, S. venezuelae SM5, effectively produced up to 89.2mg/L in optimized medium. However, pSM5 in S. venezuelae YJ003, a dTDP-actinospectose-deficient strain, did not produce spectinomycin. This result demonstrates the use of a dTDP-actinospectose precursor produced in the desosamine pathway for heterologous production of spectinomycin in S. venezuelae.

  8. Role of oil in shaping Mexico and Venezuela as semiperipheral countries

    SciTech Connect

    Perozo, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which Mexico and Venezuela exercise semiperipheral behavior in their regional sphere of influence as a consequence of their possession of a strategic natural resource - oil. The principal task is to empirically examine the thesis that some Third World countries shift from a peripheral to a semiperipheral status when they possess certain natural resources essential to the industrialized or core countries. The theoretical framework upon which this study is based is presented. The development of the petroleum industry in Mexico and Venezuela is outlined, including a comparative description of the political development of both countries' industries as well as the amount of oil produced, exported, and in reserve. Information is presented about the demographic, political, and military characteristics of Mexico and Venezuela as semiperipheral countries. The economic setting, the internal stratification and trade capability bases of the semiperipheral status of Mexico and Venezuela are presented. Mexico's and Venezuela's economic and political role in the international relations of the region are discussed. A summary and analysis of the theory is supplied. It also synthesizes the empirical data which demonstrate Mexico's and Venezuela's semiperipheral control in their regional area of influence.

  9. Venezuela 2000 restructures its electric power sector to ensure competitiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, C.E.

    1999-11-01

    Today, it is well known that the countries that are best equipped to develop their production are not those with the most natural resources but those who have the best trained people, most technical resources and that base their development on competitiveness. The State model is, definitely, not one that offers the greatest advantages, and Venezuela is an example of this. Even when, thanks to the economic boom the country enjoyed in the 70s and 80s, it was able to cost the investments required to develop its infrastructure and to prepare a first class human contingent, over the long term, competition was discouraged and waste encouraged. The result was that, even when Venezuela had vast economic resources compared to its relatively small population, it was not able to become the exception to the rule and succeed in applying this model--now considered obsolete in many countries--indefinitely. Another model based on private ownership has begun to take its place, one that has made it possible to cost the increasingly large investments required, involves opening up these sectors to private capital, and uses the phenomenon of globalization--a major driving force behind competition and one that has wrought considerable change in all corners of the increasingly smaller planet. This paper describes the steps that different sectors in the country have been taking to implement this new model in the electric power sector, such as developing draft legislation for regulating the Sector, very shortly to culminate in the passing of an electric power law by Congress; opening up the Sector to private investors (privatization); dividing the electric power industry into four business units (generation, transmission, distribution and marketing); the electric power market; and other innovations currently being implemented.

  10. Potential geographical distribution of the red palm mite in South America.

    PubMed

    Amaro, George; de Morais, Elisangela Gomes Fidelis

    2013-07-01

    Among pests that have recently been introduced into the Americas, the red palm mite, Raoiella indica Hirst (Prostigmata: Tenuipalpidae), is the most invasive. This mite has spread rapidly to several Caribbean countries, United States of America, Mexico, Venezuela, Colombia and Brazil. The potential dispersion of R. indica to other regions of South America could seriously impact the cultivation of coconuts, bananas, exotic and native palms and tropical flowers such as the Heliconiaceae. To facilitate the development of efficacious R. indica management techniques such as the adoption of phytosanitary measures to prevent or delay the dispersion of this pest, the objective of this paper was to estimate the potential geographical distribution of R. indica in South America using a maximum entropy model. The R. indica occurrence data used in this model were obtained from extant literature, online databases and field sampling data. The model predicted potential suitable areas for R. indica in northern Colombia, central and northern Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, east French Guiana and many parts of Brazil, including Roraima, the eastern Amazonas, northern Pará, Amapá and the coastal zones, from Pará to north of Rio de Janeiro. These results indicate the potential for significant R. indica related economic and social impacts in all of these countries, particularly in Brazil, because the suitable habitat regions overlap with agricultural areas for R. indica host plants such as coconuts and bananas.

  11. Population genetics of Agave cocui: evidence for low genetic diversity at the southern geographic limit of genus Agave.

    PubMed

    Figueredo, Carmen J; Nassar, Jafet M

    2011-01-01

    The Agave genus embraces many species with outstanding ecological and economic importance in the arid regions of the Americas. Even though this genus covers a broad geographic distribution, our knowledge on the population genetics of species is concentrated in taxa located in North America. Recently, it has been demonstrated that plant domestication decreases levels of genetic diversity in managed populations and increases population structure with respect to wild populations. We examined levels of allozyme diversity (N = 17 loci) and population structure of Agave cocui, the species at the southern limit of distribution of the genus. We sampled 7 wild populations (N = 30-35 individuals per population) representative of the geographic distribution of the species in Venezuela. Among the agaves studied, A. cocui has some of the lowest estimates of genetic diversity (H(e)[species] = 0.059, H(e)[population] = 0.054) reported until present. We propose that this condition is probably linked to the recent origin of this species in arid and semiarid regions of Colombia and Venezuela, probably through one or a few founder events. The lowest estimates of genetic diversity were associated with small populations in very restricted arid patches; but also with overexploitation of rosettes for production of fermented drinks and fibers. Santa Cruz de Pecaya, one of the 2 centers of economic use of agaves in northwestern Venezuela presented one of the lowest values of genetic variability, a sign suggesting that human impact represents a significant threat to the available genetic pool that this species possesses in the region.

  12. The National Map - geographic names

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yost, Lou; Carswell, William J.

    2009-01-01

    The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN), contains information about the official names for places, features, and areas in the 50 States, the District of Columbia, the territories and outlying areas of the United States, including Antarctica. It is the geographic names component of The National Map. The BGN maintains working relationships with State names authorities to cooperate in achieving the standardization of geographic names. The GNIS contains records on more than 2 million geographic names in the United States - from populated places, schools, reservoirs, and parks to streams, valleys, springs, ridges, and every feature type except roads and highways. Entries include information such as the federally-recognized name and variant names and spellings for the feature; former names; the status of the name as determined by the BGN; county or counties in which each named feature is located; geographic coordinates that locate the approximate center of an aerial feature or the mouth and source of a linear feature, such as a stream; name of the cell of the USGS topographic map or maps on which the feature may appear; elevation figures derived from the National Elevation Dataset; bibliographic code for the source of the name; BGN decision dates and historical information are available for some features. Data from the GNIS are used for emergency preparedness, mapmaking, local and regional planning, service delivery routing, marketing, site selection, environmental analysis, genealogical research, and other applications.

  13. The importance of trenching in paleoseismic studies in Venezuela: brief historical summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murria, J.

    2009-04-01

    Paleoseismic studies have proved to be a powerful tool in seismic hazards assessment by he contributing to asses the seismogenic potential of a given fault by expanding the time window o seismic activity beyond the limits of historical and instrumental seismicity. Trenching has been an essential tool for paleoseismic studies in Venezuela. The first paleoseismic trenching project in Venezuela goes back to 1968 when Compania Shell de Venezuela retained the services of Woodward Clyde and Associates,(WCA), USA to asses the seismic integrity of the earthen dikes of Costa Oriental of Lake Maracaibo Protection System (COLM) in western Venezuela. The study was carried out under the general coordination of this author. An important part of this project included a seismology and seismic geology study under the direction of Geologist L.S. Cluff. This was the first ever study undertaken in Venezuela and included two excavations across the Oca Fault north of the city of Maracaibo. After several years of inactivity, FUNVISIS (The Venezuelan Foundation for Seismological Research) carried out in 1980 a seismic hazard (SHA) for the Uribante Caparo Hydroelectric Project southwest Venezuela. In 1989, MARAVEN, an operating company of PETROLE0S DE VENEUELA S.A. (PDVSA) undertook the project of a products pipeline form Maracaibo to El Vigia, south of Lake Maracaibo. Again, FUNVISIS was contracted to carry out a SHA, which included the digging of 5 trenches, which were supplemented with five more trenches for the COLM project. Trenching activity contined in Venezuela in the framework of SHA project, under the direction of Dr. Audemard. In 2001 Venezuelan trenching experience was exported to the neighboring Colombia as e Dr. Audemard t undertook a palaoseismicity project which included the digging of five trenches. In conclusion, paleoseismicty studies have given us the possibility of extending the scope of both instrumental and historical seismicity by some 10,000 years, trenching has

  14. Sawfishes and Other Elasmobranch Assemblages from the Mio-Pliocene of the South Caribbean (Urumaco Sequence, Northwestern Venezuela).

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Briceño, Jorge D; Maxwell, Erin; Aguilera, Orangel A; Sánchez, Rodolfo; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R

    2015-01-01

    The Urumaco stratigraphic sequence, western Venezuela, preserves a variety of paleoenvironments that include terrestrial, riverine, lacustrine and marine facies. A wide range of fossil vertebrates associated with these facies supports the hypothesis of an estuary in that geographic area connected with a hydrographic system that flowed from western Amazonia up to the Proto-Caribbean Sea during the Miocene. Here the elasmobranch assemblages of the middle Miocene to middle Pliocene section of the Urumaco sequence (Socorro, Urumaco and Codore formations) are described. Based on new findings, we document at least 21 taxa of the Lamniformes, Carcharhiniformes, Myliobatiformes and Rajiformes, and describe a new carcharhiniform species (†Carcharhinus caquetius sp. nov.). Moreover, the Urumaco Formation has a high number of well-preserved fossil Pristis rostra, for which we provide a detailed taxonomic revision, and referral in the context of the global Miocene record of Pristis as well as extant species. Using the habitat preference of the living representatives, we hypothesize that the fossil chondrichthyan assemblages from the Urumaco sequence are evidence for marine shallow waters and estuarine habitats.

  15. Sawfishes and Other Elasmobranch Assemblages from the Mio-Pliocene of the South Caribbean (Urumaco Sequence, Northwestern Venezuela)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The Urumaco stratigraphic sequence, western Venezuela, preserves a variety of paleoenvironments that include terrestrial, riverine, lacustrine and marine facies. A wide range of fossil vertebrates associated with these facies supports the hypothesis of an estuary in that geographic area connected with a hydrographic system that flowed from western Amazonia up to the Proto-Caribbean Sea during the Miocene. Here the elasmobranch assemblages of the middle Miocene to middle Pliocene section of the Urumaco sequence (Socorro, Urumaco and Codore formations) are described. Based on new findings, we document at least 21 taxa of the Lamniformes, Carcharhiniformes, Myliobatiformes and Rajiformes, and describe a new carcharhiniform species (†Carcharhinus caquetius sp. nov.). Moreover, the Urumaco Formation has a high number of well-preserved fossil Pristis rostra, for which we provide a detailed taxonomic revision, and referral in the context of the global Miocene record of Pristis as well as extant species. Using the habitat preference of the living representatives, we hypothesize that the fossil chondrichthyan assemblages from the Urumaco sequence are evidence for marine shallow waters and estuarine habitats. PMID:26488163

  16. RE-EVALUATION OF THE GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION AND PHYLOGEOGRAPHY OF THE SIGMODON HISPIDUS COMPLEX BASED ON MITOCHONDRIAL DNA SEQUENCES

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Robert D.; Henson, Dallas D.; Durish, Nevin D.

    2010-01-01

    Geographic distribution among members of the Sigmodon hispidus complex (Sigmodon hirsutus, S. hispidus, and S. toltecus) were examined using DNA sequences from the mitochondrial cytochrome-b gene. Geographic distribution of each taxon was defined based on DNA sequences obtained from 69 samples (19 newly obtained and 50 from previous studies) collected from North, Central, and South America. These data indicated that S. hispidus is restricted to the southern one-half of the United States and northeastern Mexico (Nuevo León and Tamaulipas), S. toltecus occupies the eastern one-third of Mexico (central Tamaulipas) to northern Honduras, and S. hirsutus is distributed from central Chiapas and southeastern Oaxaca to northern South America (Venezuela). The newly collected data extend distributions of S. hispidus from the southern United States southward into northeastern Mexico and that of S. toltecus from Chiapas, Mexico, southward to Honduras. Genetic divergence and patterns of phylogeography were examined within each taxon. PMID:20613884

  17. RE-EVALUATION OF THE GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION AND PHYLOGEOGRAPHY OF THE SIGMODON HISPIDUS COMPLEX BASED ON MITOCHONDRIAL DNA SEQUENCES.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Robert D; Henson, Dallas D; Durish, Nevin D

    2008-09-01

    Geographic distribution among members of the Sigmodon hispidus complex (Sigmodon hirsutus, S. hispidus, and S. toltecus) were examined using DNA sequences from the mitochondrial cytochrome-b gene. Geographic distribution of each taxon was defined based on DNA sequences obtained from 69 samples (19 newly obtained and 50 from previous studies) collected from North, Central, and South America. These data indicated that S. hispidus is restricted to the southern one-half of the United States and northeastern Mexico (Nuevo León and Tamaulipas), S. toltecus occupies the eastern one-third of Mexico (central Tamaulipas) to northern Honduras, and S. hirsutus is distributed from central Chiapas and southeastern Oaxaca to northern South America (Venezuela). The newly collected data extend distributions of S. hispidus from the southern United States southward into northeastern Mexico and that of S. toltecus from Chiapas, Mexico, southward to Honduras. Genetic divergence and patterns of phylogeography were examined within each taxon.

  18. Modelo Crosscultural de Pasantias para Lideres de la Educacion: Cooperacion entre Estados Unidos y Venezuela (Designing an Effective School Administrator Internship Program: United States and Venezuela Cooperation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serafin, Ana Gil; Thompson, Eugene W.

    A model was developed of an internship program designed to give valuable cross-cultural experience to school administrators in training at universities in the United States and Venezuela. A naturalistic approach was used to develop the model. Leading school administrators and educational leadership theorists in both countries were interviewed by…

  19. Mapa Geologico de Venezuela a Escala 1:750,000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hackley, Paul C.; Urbani, Franco; Karlsen, Alex W.; Garrity, Christopher P.

    2006-01-01

    Se presenta un mapa geologico digital de Venezuela sobre un fondo de relieve sombreado. Los datos geologicos e hidrologicos del norte del rio Orinoco proceden de la digitalizacion de mapas geologicos en papel a escala 1:500.000. Estos datos fueron integrados con el mapa geologico digital del Escudo de Guayana Venezolano, a su vez derivado de hojas en papel a escala 1:500.000. La informacion sobre los tipos de fallas mostrados en el mapa es igual que en las fuentes originales. Los poligonos geologicos fueron atribuidos por edad, litologia y nombre de la unidad siguiendo el Codigo geologico de Venezuela. Se incorporaron revisiones significativas de la geologia de la Cordillera de la Costa a partir de las nuevas hojas integradas a escala 1:25.000. Toda esta informacion geologico-estructural se sobrepuso a una imagen de relieve sombreado, producida por el procesamiento de los datos de radar interferometrico con 90 m (3 arcosegundos) de resolucion espacial obtenidos por la mision topografica de radar del transbordador espacial (SRTM). Las areas de la base de datos del SRTM carentes de informacion fueron llenadas por medio de la interpolacion de los datos de las celdas adyacentes. Para producir la imagen de relieve sombreado se uso una direccion de iluminacion de 315 deg con un angulo de 65 deg sobre el horizonte. La proyeccion usada en el mapa es conica equidistante, con latitudes de 4 y 9 deg norte como paralelos estandar y una longitud de 66 deg al oeste como meridiano central. Los datos en el mapa proceden primordialment de hojas a escala 1:500.000 y el producto esta preparado para una impresion optima en escala 1:750.000. Los usuarios pueden obtener ampliaciones mayores, sin embargo no se garantiza la precision del mapa a escalas mas detalladas. Especialmente en la region de Guayana, al sobreponer los mapas geologicos sobre la reciente imagen SRTM, se notan grandes discrepancias no sistematicas tanto en contactos como en fallas. Esto es debido a que los mapas

  20. Structural Model of the Tucupita Field, Eastern Venezuela Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arteaga, L. A.

    2013-05-01

    The Tucupita Field has an area of 73,51 Km2, is located between the states of Monagas and Delta Amacuro, geologically is located at the greater Temblador area in the Eastern Venezuela Basin, where the Oficina Formation's sands represent the main hydrocarbons reservoirs. From the results of the seismic reprocessing realized by Fusion Petroleum Technologies, Inc., the structural model of this field was done as initial step to the geocellular model of the Oficina-40 Reservoir, which was defined as a Faulted Relay Ramp, where the normal faults are dominant with NE-SW orientation Introduction The Tucupita Field is a mature oilfield at the greater Temblador area, however most of the wells were completed in the upper sands, therefore the main study is focused in the geological characterization of the Oficina-40 Reservoir's lower sands, starting by the structural model Previous Studies 1. Proyecto Tucupita 3D The seismic data of the Tucupita Field were adquired in 1996 by Western Atlas of Venezuela for the Benton Vinccler Company. The UTM coordinates of the wells used in this project, have been taken to make this geological model 2. Soporte Geofísico Integrado The seismic project Tucupita was processed by Fusion Petroleum Technologies Inc., in Houston and consisted of reprocessing and pre-stack migration in time (PSTM) and pre-stack migration in depth (PSDM), this data belong to the Petrodelta Company Based on the regional stratigraphy, were validated the "picks" to make the structural sections to support research with hard data. After, it proceeded to interpret the structural style of the field from the seismic amplitude cube. Then, it was done the faults modelling and the stratigraphic horizons to carry out the geocellular model Three structural sections were realized, which was interpreted like a faulted monocline, whose peak is located southward, where justly the wells are located. The contact oil-water was interpreted to -5648'. Echelon faults were interpreted in a

  1. Geographical clustering of Trypanosoma cruzi I groups from Colombia revealed by low-stringency single specific primer-PCR of the intergenic regions of spliced-leader genes.

    PubMed

    Mejía-Jaramillo, Ana María; Arboleda-Sánchez, Sair; Rodríguez, Ingrid Bibiana; Cura, Carolina; Salazar, Alexander; Del Mazo, Jesús; Triana-Chávez, Omar; Schijman, Alejandro Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    A low-stringency single-primer polymerase chain reaction (LSSP-PCR) typing procedure targeted to the intergenic regions of spliced-leader genes (SL) was designed to profile Trypanosoma cruzi I stocks from endemic regions of Colombia. Comparison between SL-LSSP-PCR profiles of parasite DNA from vector faeces and cultures isolated from those faeces showed more conservative signatures than profiles using LSSP-PCR targeted to the minicircle variable regions (kDNA). This was also observed by analysing 15 parasite clones from one stock as well as serial samples of a same stock after in vitro culturing or inoculation into mice. Thus, SL-LSSP-PCR appears more appropriate than kDNA-LSSP-PCR for reliable typing of major T. cruzi I groups from in vitro cultured stocks and triatomine faeces. SL-LSSP-PCR grouped 46 of 47 T. cruzi I Colombian stocks according to their geographical procedences in four clusters: Cluster Cas from Casanare Department, Cluster Mg from Northern Magdalena department, Cluster Mom from Momposina Depression in Southern Magdalena and finally Cluster NW from northwestern Colombia, including Sucre, Chocó, Córdoba and Antioquia departments. Sequence analysis identified punctual mutations among amplicons from each cluster. Within Cluster Mg, sequence polymorphism allowed association with different sylvatic vector species. Novel SL sequences and LSSP-PCR profiles are reported from T. cruzi I infecting Eratyrus cuspidatus, Panstrongylus geniculatus and Rhodnius pallescens vectors.

  2. Fluorescence Time-lapse Imaging of the Complete S. venezuelae Life Cycle Using a Microfluidic Device.

    PubMed

    Schlimpert, Susan; Flärdh, Klas; Buttner, Mark

    2016-02-28

    Live-cell imaging of biological processes at the single cell level has been instrumental to our current understanding of the subcellular organization of bacterial cells. However, the application of time-lapse microscopy to study the cell biological processes underpinning development in the sporulating filamentous bacteria Streptomyces has been hampered by technical difficulties. Here we present a protocol to overcome these limitations by growing the new model species, Streptomyces venezuelae, in a commercially available microfluidic device which is connected to an inverted fluorescence widefield microscope. Unlike the classical model species, Streptomyces coelicolor, S. venezuelae sporulates in liquid, allowing the application of microfluidic growth chambers to cultivate and microscopically monitor the cellular development and differentiation of S. venezuelae over long time periods. In addition to monitoring morphological changes, the spatio-temporal distribution of fluorescently labeled target proteins can also be visualized by time-lapse microscopy. Moreover, the microfluidic platform offers the experimental flexibility to exchange the culture medium, which is used in the detailed protocol to stimulate sporulation of S. venezuelae in the microfluidic chamber. Images of the entire S. venezuelae life cycle are acquired at specific intervals and processed in the open-source software Fiji to produce movies of the recorded time-series.

  3. Fluorescence Time-lapse Imaging of the Complete S. venezuelae Life Cycle Using a Microfluidic Device

    PubMed Central

    Schlimpert, Susan; Flärdh, Klas; Buttner, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Live-cell imaging of biological processes at the single cell level has been instrumental to our current understanding of the subcellular organization of bacterial cells. However, the application of time-lapse microscopy to study the cell biological processes underpinning development in the sporulating filamentous bacteria Streptomyces has been hampered by technical difficulties. Here we present a protocol to overcome these limitations by growing the new model species, Streptomyces venezuelae, in a commercially available microfluidic device which is connected to an inverted fluorescence widefield microscope. Unlike the classical model species, Streptomyces coelicolor, S. venezuelae sporulates in liquid, allowing the application of microfluidic growth chambers to cultivate and microscopically monitor the cellular development and differentiation of S. venezuelae over long time periods. In addition to monitoring morphological changes, the spatio-temporal distribution of fluorescently labeled target proteins can also be visualized by time-lapse microscopy. Moreover, the microfluidic platform offers the experimental flexibility to exchange the culture medium, which is used in the detailed protocol to stimulate sporulation of S. venezuelae in the microfluidic chamber. Images of the entire S. venezuelae life cycle are acquired at specific intervals and processed in the open-source software Fiji to produce movies of the recorded time-series. PMID:26967231

  4. The opisthobranch gastropods (Mollusca: Heterobranchia) from Venezuela: an annotated and illustrated inventory of species.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Manuel Caballer; Ortea, Jesús; Rivero, Nelsy; Tucker, Gabriela Carias; Malaquias, Manuel António E; Narciso, Samuel

    2015-10-29

    The Caribbean waters of Venezuela are composed by a large variety of habitats, with over 2800 km of coastline, islands, and islets. This area is a transitional zone between two main biogeographic provinces, the Caribbean and the Brazilian, separated by the fresh water outflows of the Orinoco and Amazon rivers, and is therefore expected to be an area of high species diversity. However, concerning the study of molluscs, Venezuela is probably the poorest known region in the Caribbean. The best compilation of opisthobranch species known in Venezuela was produced almost a decade ago, mentioning the occurrence of 57 species, plus seven determined only to genus level. In this work, 134 species are reported for Venezuela (71 are illustrated), representing about 40 % of the entire diversity of opisthobranchs known in the Caribbean. Among the species occurring in Venezuela, 49 have here the southern limit of their distribution range and only one the northern limit. Forty-six species are recorded for the first time to the country and one is a new record for the Caribbean Sea, namely Placida cremoniana. In addition, the distribution and ecology of the species are given based in literature and new data.

  5. Educational Reform in Colombia and Venezuela: An Organizational Analysis: Occasional Papers in Education and Development Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Mark

    This paper examines (1) attempts at educational reform in Venezuela and Colombia by means of decentralization, and (2) the impact of decentralization on two contrasting educational systems. In Venezuela, the national school system was highly centralized with even routine decisions being made in Caracas, which resulted in a rigid, unresponsive…

  6. A new species of Hemerobiella Kimmins (Neuroptera, Hemerobiidae) from Venezuela with notes on the genus.

    PubMed

    Sosa, Francisco; Lara, Rogéria I R; Martins, Caleb C

    2015-10-09

    Hemerobiella periotoi Sosa & Lara sp. nov. is described from Venezuela. The new species was collected at the edges of a mature cloud forest in Lara state. This is the third species known in Hemerobiella Kimmins, and the second recorded from Venezuela. Additionally, new Venezuelan records and illustrations of H. oswaldi Monserrat, as well as, a key to Hemerobiella species are provided.

  7. New insights into chloramphenicol biosynthesis in Streptomyces venezuelae ATCC 10712.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Martínez, Lorena T; Borsetto, Chiara; Gomez-Escribano, Juan Pablo; Bibb, Maureen J; Al-Bassam, Mahmoud M; Chandra, Govind; Bibb, Mervyn J

    2014-12-01

    Comparative genome analysis revealed seven uncharacterized genes, sven0909 to sven0915, adjacent to the previously identified chloramphenicol biosynthetic gene cluster (sven0916-sven0928) of Streptomyces venezuelae strain ATCC 10712 that was absent in a closely related Streptomyces strain that does not produce chloramphenicol. Transcriptional analysis suggested that three of these genes might be involved in chloramphenicol production, a prediction confirmed by the construction of deletion mutants. These three genes encode a cluster-associated transcriptional activator (Sven0913), a phosphopantetheinyl transferase (Sven0914), and a Na(+)/H(+) antiporter (Sven0915). Bioinformatic analysis also revealed the presence of a previously undetected gene, sven0925, embedded within the chloramphenicol biosynthetic gene cluster that appears to encode an acyl carrier protein, bringing the number of new genes likely to be involved in chloramphenicol production to four. Microarray experiments and synteny comparisons also suggest that sven0929 is part of the biosynthetic gene cluster. This has allowed us to propose an updated and revised version of the chloramphenicol biosynthetic pathway.

  8. [Characterization of flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) grown in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Cuevas, Zoitza Ostojich; Sangronis, Elba

    2012-06-01

    In recent years, the consumption of flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) has been promoted as a functional food for its health benefits, mainly attributable to its content of omega-3 fatty acids, lignans and dietary fiber. This study evaluated the microbiological quality, chemical composition and antioxidant properties of flaxseed grown in Venezuela and compared them to the values of a Canadian variety widely sold in the country. Total coliforms, molds and yeasts, S. aureus and sporulated of the genera Bacillus (aerobic) and Clostridium (anaerobic), moisture, fat, protein, total dietary fiber, soluble and insoluble, mucilage, minerals, fatty acid profile, equivalent HCN content, aw, color, polyphenols and antioxidant properties, like antiradical efficiency (AE), concentration of antioxidant needed to decrease the initial concentration by 50 %EC50) and the time required to reach the EC50 (TEC50) were evaluated. Significant differences in seed composition were determined, where its high content of fat, protein, alfa-linolenic acid and dietary fiber stand out. Differences were observed in the mucilage content, but not in soluble, insoluble and total fiber content. Equivalent HCN concentration in both seeds is in the order of 40 mg/100 g, which poses no health risks, considering their consumption patterns. Venezuelan flaxseed contains higher content of polyphenols than the Canadian does, but the antioxidant capacity of the latter is higher; both have an EA rated as average and a slow reaction time (TEC50 > 30 min).

  9. Sequence stratigraphy of the Maturin sub-basin (Eastern Venezuela)

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzales, G.; Mata, S.; Santiago, N.

    1996-08-01

    The prolific Eastern Venezuela Basin has an area of about 160,000 km{sup 2} and is bounded by the Pilar Fault to the North, the Guayana Shield to the South, the Baul Arch to the West and beyond the Orinoco Delta to the East. Sequence analysis of three N-S and one W-E regional transects covered by over one thousand km of seismic lines and sedimentological, biostratigraphic and electrofacies studies of 80 wells allowed the definition of the sequence stratigraphic column of the basin. Seven major unconformity bounded depositional sequences were defined from Barremian to Recent, three in the Cretaceous and four in the Tertiary. Twenty-one third-order cycles were recognized in the Tejas B supercycle (Upper Oligocene-Recent). This cycle correlates very well with the Gulf of Mexico and Global chronostratigraphic charts. In the proximal, southern area, each sequence shows transgressive sandstones in its lower section and regressive ones in the upper part, separated by claystones that include a maximum flooding surface. In the distal area, fine marine sediments predominate with local turbidities. Some electrical markers and planktonic fossils are traceable over long distances. Regional transacts show two distinct structural zones: tensional to the South and compressional to the North. The best petroleum reservoirs occur in Tertiary and to a lesser extent in Cretaceous sequences. In this basin occurs the largest oil accumulation of the world (Orinoco), as well as several giant oil fields.

  10. Chemostratigraphy: Applications in the Tachira depression, Tachira State, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Briceno, H.; Ostos, M.; Yoris, F.

    1996-08-01

    Rock analyses (40 chemical parameters) from densely sampled Cretaceous sections from La Luna, Navay, Aguardiente and Escandalosa formations in southwestern Venezuela, combined with multivariate statistical analysis, allowed statistical characterization of formations, environmentally meaningful clustering of correlated geochemical variables, as well as calculation of chemical accumulation rates. Chemofacies, defined from accumulation rates, were used for correlation and depositional environment definition. Organic matter maturity does not affect NiN ratios, but causes homogenization in Ca/Sr ratios. Th/V ratios clearly separate shelf vs. oceanic fades, closely matching those from biofacies analysis. Cycles in Th/V repeat every 60 in (Navay) to 20 in (La Luna), corresponding to Milankovitch climatic cycles. Shales (high Th/V) represent cooler-shallower sedimentation periods, and lodestones (low Th/V) represent warmer-deeper ones. Differences in accumulation rates were used for establishing changes in: source rock (La-Ce), either due to tectonism or variations in marine current pattern; redox conditions (Ni-V); clay mineralogy (Al-K); energy level (Al-Si); and salinity (Mg-Na). Finally, chemostratigraphy, combined with reliable structural and stratigraphical field data, has proven to be a powerful tool for unravelling tectono-stratigraphical histories.

  11. Geology and geochemistry of crude oils, Bolivar Coastal Fields, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Bockmeulen, M.; Barker, C.; Dickey, P.A.

    1983-02-01

    The Bolivar Coastal Fields (BCF) are located on the eastern margin of Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela. They form the largest oil field outside of the Middle East and contain oil which is mostly heavy with a gravity less than 22/sup 0/ API. Lake Maracaibo is now in an intermontane basin enclosed on three sides by the Andes Mountains. The area has a complex history and tectonic movement continues today. In the Cretaceous, the area was part of the platform of a large geosyncline, but by the Eocene it was near a coast where a series of large sandy deltas was deposited, with terrestrial sediments on the south and thick marine shales on the north. At this time, conditions for oil generation in the shales and migration to the sands were established, but the subsequent Oligocene faulting, uplift, and erosion may have allowed meteoric water to penetrate into reservoirs. During the Miocene and Pliocene, the basin was tilted first west and then south, and filled with continental sediments from the rising Andes. Tilting is still continuing and oil is moving up along the Oligocene unconformity, forming surface seeps.

  12. Structural style on southern flank of Merida Andes, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Urbina, C.; Cornelio, A. )

    1993-02-01

    The Merida Andes exhibit the most complex tectonics in western Venezuela. By studying the different ages and regional distribution of rocks, we can describe some tectonic features which are of interest to oil exploration in this area. Vertical basement movements accompanied extensional tectonics from pre-Cambrian until Eocene times. For this time interval, we reconstructed diverse normal fault systems and associated subsidence. From Eocene time onwards, compressional tectonics gave origin to anticlines and reverse, thrust and back-thrust faults. Neo-tectonic movements have modified existing structures by dislocation along transcurrent fault systems. Geochemical analyses have determined the presence of hydrocarbon source rocks equivalent to the a Luna Formation of the Maracaibo Basin; seismic, surface and subsurface data prove the existence of excellent seals in the Eocene Paguey Shale. The principal problem is to determine the timing of hydrocarbon migration with respect to the timing of trap formation. It is highly probable that the sapropelic strata of the Navay Formation, equivalent to the La Luna Formation, is presently expelling hydrocarbons to traps in the Barinas Basin, under presently existing temperature-pressure conditions.

  13. Hydrocarbon generation and migration modeling, Eastern Venezuela Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Chigne, N.; Russomanno, F.; Sanchez, H.; Callejon, A.; Finno, A.; Escalona, N. )

    1993-02-01

    The Eastern Venezuela Basin, with an area of approximately 180,000 km[sup 2], contains important giant oil fields as well as large unexplored areas. A passive margin originated during the Cretaceous and early Tertiary epochs, followed by emplacement of allochthonous thrust sheets coming from the west and development of a foreland basin. Therefore, thrusting, basin formation and structures are progressively younger (Ologocene to middle Miocene) from west to east. Heat flow has increased during the Tertiary to recent epochs from 40 to 100 mW/m[sup 2], only in the north-central part of the basin, as interpreted from present maturity data. The first stage of oil generation occurred during late Eocene and early Oligocene in the northernmost part of the basin. Most of oil migrated more than 150 km southernward up the undeformed homocline of the passive margin. Thus forming the Orinoco Oil Belt. Younger kitchens were later formed from north to south during Early Miocene to Recent. Oils from these kitchens were trapped by increasing tectonic deformation before reaching the southern border of the basin. Light and medium gravity oil fields were discovered in this tectonically complex area. This study has helped assess the hydrocarbon potential of as yet unexplored areas, by taking into account important quantitative factors previously not considered.

  14. Meningoencephalitis by Naegleria fowleri: epidemiological study in Anzoategui state, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Cermeño, Julman R; Hernández, Isabel; El Yasin, Helal; Tinedo, Rubén; Sánchez, Raúl; Pérez, Gladys; Gravano, Rosalía; Ruiz, Aida

    2006-01-01

    A case of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis produced by Naegleria fowleri was diagnosed in the Independencia county of Anzoategui State, Venezuela. This case motivated the realization of the present epidemiological study with the aim of identifying free-living amoebae in this area. Representative water samples were taken and physicochemical and microbiologic analyses were carried out. Trophozoites and cysts of Naegleria spp, were detected in 44.4% (n=4). An excellent concordance was found among the observations of free-living amoebae in smears and those of monoxenic cultures in non-nourishing agar with Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kappa=1; p= 0.003). A variable load of aerobic mesophils was obtained. Moulds and yeast averages presented 3.0 CFU/ml (SD +/- 2.0) and 102.9 CFU/ml (SD +/- 32.2), respectively. One hundred per cent of the samples presented a most probable number of total and fecal coliforms of 240,000 NMP/100mL. Naegleria spp was present in waters of the Independence county of Anzoategui state, which constitutes a risk for people that use these sources.

  15. [Chromomycosis by Rhinocladiella aquaspera: The first case in Venezuela.].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Blanco, M; Fernández-Zeppenfeldt, G; Hernández, R; Yegres, F; Borelli, D

    1998-03-01

    A case of chromomycosis induced by Rhinocladiella aquaspersa is decribed in Falcon State, which is considered as the first case in Venezuela, and the fifth one in the whole world of this species of Rhinocladiella. The case was observed in a five year-old child from the south part of Falcon State. The child presented wounds of two years of duration, in his upper left limb. These wounds were characterized by queloide cicatrices, and contiguous nodules, with a scalyo-scab surface. The disease was diagnosed through direct observation of cells extracted from the wounds and cleared with potassium hydroxide at 10%. The identification of R. aquaspersa was made by 1) The isolation in culture, using Lactritmel, Sabouraud-agar and Sablac as culture media; and 2) By observation, in slide culture, of dissemination structures characterized by erect conidiophores which were either simple or branched. The thermo-tolerance test applied indicate an optimum development temperature of 28 degrees C. It was not possible to reproduce the illness in Balb/c mice. The patient showed an unsatisfactory response to Itraconazol medication and improvement to an external local application therapy. Up to the present time, 370 cases of chromomycosis have been studied in Falcon State, with 21 cases in children. The suggests the existence of a susceptibility to this kind of mycosis from childhood.

  16. Late quaternary environmental history of lake valencia, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, J P; Leyden, B; Salgado-Labouriau, M; Lewis, W M; Schubert, C; Binford, M W; Frey, D G; Whitehead, D R; Weibezahn, F H

    1981-12-18

    Chemical, paleontological, and mineralogical analyses of a 7.5-meter core from the middle of Lake Valencia, Venezuela, have provided information on the paleoclimatic history of this low-elevation, low-latitude site for the last 13,000 years. The data show that dry climates existed in this region from 13,000 years before present (B.P.) until about 10,000 years B.P. The Lake Valencia Basin was occupied by intermittent saline marshes at that time. About 10,000 years B.P., a permanent lake of fluctuating salinity formed and arboreal plant communities replaced the earlier dominant xeric herbaceous vegetation and marsh plants. By 8500 years B.P., Lake Valencia reached moderate to low salinities and discharged water; the modern vegetation became established at that time. After 8500 years B.P., the lake twice ceased discharging as a result of reduced watershed moisture. The second of these drying episodes is still in progress and has been aggravated by human activities in the watershed.

  17. [Anthropometric characterization of an institutionalized elderly population from Caracas, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Hérrera, Hector; Rebato, Esther; Rocandio, Ana María; Hernández, Rosa; Rodríguez, Nahir; Barbosa, Johanna; Hernández-Valera, Yolanda

    2005-06-01

    Most of the anthropometric standards are derived from adult populations but not from older subjects, so their use to evaluate the nutritional status in the elderly may not be the most appropriate. In this sense, the anthropometric characteristics and their relationship to sex and age in a cross-sectional sample of 809 Venezuelan subjects (370 males and 439 females), aged 60 to 102 years old, randomly selected from a elderly institution-alised population were studied. The results indicate that anthropometric variables show different degrees and signs of sexual dimorphism. Males presented higher stature, weight, waist and calf circumferences and higher bone diameters, while females have higher hip and thigh perimeters, and bigger trunk and extremities skinfolds. Independently of the changes observed in these variables with age, the difference spread between the sexes tends to stay and even to increase with age in the height and weight, in hip perimeter and in thigh and calf skinfolds; while, on the contrary, they attenuate in waist perimeter and in triceps, subescapular and suprailiac skinfolds. Males and females appear to be more similar for these variables in the advanced ages. In general, these results could be used as reference elements for similar researches in Venezuela, due to the low number of studies developed in the country in older populations

  18. Cretaceous to Eocene passive margin sedimentation in Northeastern Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Erikson, J.P. )

    1993-02-01

    Twenty two palinspastic paleogeographic maps are presented for the Cretaceous to Eocene strata of the Serrania del Interior of northeastern Venezuela. The mapped lithologies, environmental conditions, and evolving depositional systems record [approximately]90 m.y. of dominantly marine sedimentation on the only observable Mesozoic passive margin in the Western Hemisphere. The depositional systems of the passive margin are heterogeneous at lateral (i.e., along-margin) length scales greater than [approximately]40 km. The primary lateral heterogeneity is caused by a major Lower Cretaceous deltaic system that emanated southwest of the Serrania del Interior. All important intervals, such as the laterally variable Aptian-Albian El Cantil platform limestone and the hydrocarbon source rocks of the Upper Cretaceous Querecual and San Antonio formations, are related to probable causal mechanisms and environmental conditions. Stratigraphic events have been interpreted as of either local or regional extent; based on a combination of outcrop sedimentologic analyses and regional depositional systems interpretation. The 3-dimensional distribution of depositional systems and systems tracts reveals 4-6 regional sequence boundaries separated by 4-20 m.y. Subsidence analyses support the facies interpretation of a passive margin by showing continuous, thermally dominated subsidence during the Cretaceous to Eocene interval. Subsidence and accumulation rates increased and facies changed significantly in the Oligocene, indicating the end of passive margin sedimentation and the initiation of foredeep subsidence and accumulation associated with overthrusting the eastward-advancing Caribbean Plate.

  19. Late quaternary environmental history of Lake Valencia, Venezuela

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Platt, Bradbury J.; Leyden, B.; Salgado-Labouriau, M.; Lewis, W.M.; Schubert, C.; Binford, M.W.; Frey, D.G.; Whitehead, D.R.; Weibezahn, F.H.

    1981-01-01

    Chemical, paleontological, and mineralogical analyses of a 7.5-meter core from the middle of Lake Valencia, Venezuela, have provided information on the paleoclimatic history of this low-elevation, low-latitude site for the last 13,000 years. The data show that dry climates existed in this region from 13,000 years before present (B.P.) until about 10,000 years B.P. The Lake Valencia Basin was occupied by intermittent saline marshes at that time. About 10,000 years B.P., a permanent lake of fluctuating salinity formed and arboreal plant communities replaced the earlier dominant xeric herbaceous vegetation and marsh plants. By 8500 years B.P., Lake Valencia reached moderate to low salinities and discharged water; the modern vegetation became established at that time. After 8500 years B.P., the lake twice ceased discharging as a result of reduced watershed moisture. The second of these drying episodes is still in progress and has been aggravated by human activities in the watershed. Copyright ?? 1981 AAAS.

  20. Hemosporidian parasites in forest birds from Venezuela: genetic lineage analyses.

    PubMed

    Mijares, Alfredo; Rosales, Romel; Silva-Iturriza, Adriana

    2012-09-01

    Avian hemosporidian parasites of the genera Haemoproteus, Plasmodium, and Leucocytozoon are transmitted by different dipteran vectors. In the present work, we looked for the presence of these parasites in 47 birds from 12 families, which were sampled in the migratory corridor Paso de Portachuelo, located at the Henri Pittier National Park, Venezuela. The presence of the parasites was evidenced by amplification of a region of 471 bp of their cytochrome b gene. This region of the marker presents enough polymorphism to identify most of the mitochondrial lineages. Therefore, the obtained amplicons were sequenced, not only to identify the genus of the parasites sampled, but also to analyze their genetic diversity in the study area. The overall parasite prevalence was low (11%). We reported, for the first time, Plasmodium in birds of the species Formicarius analis and Chamaeza campanisona (Formicariidae) and Haemoproteus in Geotrygon linearis (Columbidae). A phylogenetic tree was generated using the Haemoproteus, Plasmodium, and Leucocytozoon sequences obtained in this study, together with representative sequences from previous studies. The highest genetic diversities between the two Haemoproteus lineages (11.70%) and among the three Plasmodium lineages (7.86%) found in this study are also similar to those found when lineages reported in the literature were used. These results indicate that in the migratory corridor Paso de Portachuleo, representative parasite lineages are found, making this location an attractive location for future studies.

  1. Confronting Health Disparities: Latin American Social Medicine in Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Mantini-Briggs, Clara

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We explored the emergence and effectiveness of Venezuela's Misión Barrio Adentro, “Inside the Neighborhood Mission,” a program designed to improve access to health care among underserved residents of the country, hoping to draw lessons to apply to future attempts to address acute health disparities. Methods. We conducted our study in 3 capital-region neighborhoods, 2 small cities, and 2 rural areas, combining systematic observations with interviews of 221 residents, 41 health professionals, and 28 government officials. We surveyed 177 female and 91 male heads of household. Results. Interviews suggested that Misión Barrio Adentro emerged from creative interactions between policymakers, clinicians, community workers, and residents, adopting flexible, problem-solving strategies. In addition, data indicated that egalitarian physician–patient relationships and the direct involvement of local health committees overcame distrust and generated popular support for the program. Media and opposition antagonism complicated physicians’ lives and clinical practices but heightened the program's visibility. Conclusions. Top-down and bottom-up efforts are less effective than “horizontal” collaborations between professionals and residents in underserved communities. Direct, local involvement can generate creative and dynamic efforts to address acute health disparities in these areas. PMID:19150916

  2. Caribbean basin framework, 4: Maracaibo basin, northwestern Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Lugo, J. )

    1991-03-01

    The Maracaibo basin is presently located in a topographic depression on the Maracaibo block, a triangular, fault-bounded block within the Caribbean-South America plate boundary of northwestern Venezuela. Intense oil exploration over the last 50 years has produced a large amount of seismic and well data that can be used to constrain four Jurassic to Recent tectonic and depositional events that affected the region: (1). Late Jurassic rift phase and subsidence along normal faults striking north-northeast across the floor of the basin; (2) Cretaceous to early Eocene subsidence recorded by shallow to deep marine carbonate and clastic rocks that thicken from south to north and completely cover Permian rocks of the Merida arch; (3) Eocene folding, thrusting, and initial reactivation of Jurassic normal faults as convergent strike-slip and reverse faults. Eocene clastic sediments are thickest in a narrow northwest-trending foredeep on the northeastern margin of the basin; (4) Late Miocene to Recent northwest-southeast convergence is marked by continued reactivation of Jurassic normal faults as reverse and left-lateral strike-slip faults, uplift of mountain ranges bordering the basin, and deposition of up to 10 km of clastic sediment.

  3. Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Pregnant Women in Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J.; Barbella, Rosa A.; Case, Cynthia; Arria, Melissa; Ravelo, Marisela; Perez, Henry; Urdaneta, Oscar; Gervasio, Gloria; Rubio, Nestor; Maldonado, Andrea; Aguilera, Ymora; Viloria, Anna; Blanco, Juan J.; Colina, Magdary; Hernández, Elizabeth; Araujo, Elianet; Cabaniel, Gilberto; Benitez, Jesús; Rifakis, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a coproparasitological study. Univariated and multivariated analyses were made to determine risk factors for intestinal parasitosis and related anemia. Results. During 19 months, 1038 pregnant women were included and evaluated. Intestinal parasitosis was evidenced in 73.9%: A lumbricoides 57.0%, T trichiura 36.0%, G lamblia 14.1%, E hystolitica 12.0%, N americanus 8.1%, E vermicularis 6.3%, S stercoralis 3.3%. Relative risk for anemia in those women with intestinal parasitosis was 2.56 (P < .01). Discussion. Intestinal parasitoses could be associated with conditions for development of anemia at pregnancy. These features reflect the need of routine coproparasitological study among pregnant women in rural and endemic zones for intestinal parasites. Further therapeutic and prophylactic protocols are needed. Additional research on pregnant intestinal parasitic infection impact on newborn health is also considered. PMID:17093349

  4. Venezuela's Barrio Adentro: an alternative to neoliberalism in health care.

    PubMed

    Muntaner, Carles; Salazar, René M Guerra; Benach, Joan; Armada, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    Throughout the 1990s, all Latin American countries but Cuba implemented health care sector reforms based on a neoliberal paradigm that redefined health care less as a social right and more as a market commodity. These reforms were couched in the broader structural adjustment of Latin American welfare states as prescribed by international financial institutions since the mid-1980s. However, since 2003, Venezuela has been developing an alternative to this neoliberal trend through its health care reform program, Misión Barrio Adentro (Inside the Neighborhood). In this article, the authors review the main features of the Venezuelan health care reform, analyzing, within their broader sociopolitical and economic contexts, previous neoliberal health care reforms that mainly benefited transnational capital and domestic Latin American elites. They explain the emergence of the new health care program, Misión Barrio Adentro, examining its historical, social, and political underpinnings and the central role played by popular resistance to neoliberalism. This program not only provides a compelling model of health care reform for other low- to middle-income countries but also offers policy lessons to wealthy countries.

  5. Sedimentary sequence evolution in a Foredeep basin: Eastern Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Bejarano, C.; Funes, D.; Sarzalho, S.; Audemard, F.; Flores, G.

    1996-08-01

    Well log-seismic sequence stratigraphy analysis in the Eastern Venezuela Foreland Basin leads to study of the evolution of sedimentary sequences onto the Cretaceous-Paleocene passive margin. This basin comprises two different foredeep sub-basins: The Guarico subbasin to the west, older, and the Maturin sub-basin to the east, younger. A foredeep switching between these two sub-basins is observed at 12.5 m.y. Seismic interpretation and well log sections across the study area show sedimentary sequences with transgressive sands and coastal onlaps to the east-southeast for the Guarico sub-basin, as well as truncations below the switching sequence (12.5 m.y.), and the Maturin sub-basin shows apparent coastal onlaps to the west-northwest, as well as a marine onlap (deeper water) in the west, where it starts to establish. Sequence stratigraphy analysis of these sequences with well logs allowed the study of the evolution of stratigraphic section from Paleocene to middle Miocene (68.0-12.0 m.y.). On the basis of well log patterns, the sequences were divided in regressive-transgressive-regressive sedimentary cycles caused by changes in relative sea level. Facies distributions were analyzed and the sequences were divided into simple sequences or sub- sequences of a greater frequencies than third order depositional sequences.

  6. Pros and cons of power combined cycle in Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, C.; Hernandez, S.

    1997-09-01

    In Venezuela combined cycle power has not been economically attractive to electric utility companies, mainly due to the very low price of natural gas. Savings in cost of natural gas due to a higher efficiency, characteristic of this type of cycle, does not compensate additional investments required to close the simple cycle (heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) and steam turbine island). Low gas prices have contributed to create a situation characterized by investors` reluctance to commit capital in gas pipe lines and associated equipment. The Government is taking measures to improve economics. Recently (January 1, 1997), the Ministry of Energy and Mines raised the price of natural gas, and established a formula to tie its price to the exchange rate variation (dollar/bolivar) in an intent to stimulate investments in this sector. This is considered a good beginning after a price freeze for about three years. Another measure that has been announced is the implementation of a corporate policy of outsourcing to build new gas facilities such as pipe lines and measuring and regulation stations. Under these new circumstances, it seems that combined cycle will play an important role in the power sector. In fact, some power generation projects are considering building new plants using this technology. An economical comparative study is presented between simple and combined cycles power plant. Screening curves are showed with a gas price forecast based on the government decree recently issued, as a function of plant capacity factor.

  7. Gran Sabana fires (SE Venezuela): a paleoecological perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montoya, Encarni; Rull, Valentí

    2011-11-01

    Fires are among the most important risks for tropical ecosystems in a future climatic change scenario. Recently, paleoecological research has been addressed to discern the role played by fire in neotropical landscapes. However, given the magnitude of the Neotropics, many studies are relegated to infer just local trends. Here we present the compilation of the paleo-fire records developed until now in the southern Gran Sabana (SE Venezuela) with the aim to describe the fire history as well as to infer the possible forcing factors implied. In this sense, southern Gran Sabana has been under fire perturbation since the Lateglacial, with the concomitant effects upon vegetation, and persisted during the Holocene. Around 2000 cal yr BP onwards, the fire activity highly increased promoting the expansion of pre-existing savannas, the decrease of forests and the appearance and establishment of Mauritia palm swamps. The continuous fire incidence registered for several thousands of years has likely promoted the supremacy of treeless savannas upon other vegetation types and the degradation to secondary landscapes. Based on the available evidence, the anthropogenic nature of this high fire activity has been postulated. If so, it could be hypothesized that the timing arrival of Pemón, the present-day indigenous culture in the Gran Sabana, would be ca 2000 cal yr BP onwards, rather than the last centuries, as it has been formerly assumed. The implications of these ancient practices in the area are also discussed for present Gran Sabana landscapes sustainability and future conservation strategies.

  8. Geographic Discrimination of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Strains by Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Calcagno, Ana María; Niño-Vega, Gustavo; San-Blas, Felipe; San-Blas, Gioconda

    1998-01-01

    Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis of 33 Paracoccidioides brasiliensis strains from Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Peru, and Venezuela produced reproducible amplification products which were sufficiently polymorphic to allow differentiation of the strains. Types generated with five primers (OPG 03, OPG 05, OPG 14, OPG 16, and OPG 18) resulted in a high discriminatory index (0.956). The discriminatory index was slightly reduced (0.940) when only two primers (OPG 3 and OPG 14) were used. A dendrogram based on these results showed a high degree of similarity among the strains, and genetic differences were expressed in clusters related to geographical regions but not to pathological features of the disease. With a few exceptions, strains were sorted into five groups by geographical origin as follows: group I, Venezuelan strains; group II, Brazilian strains; group III, Peruvian strains; group IV, Colombian strains; and group V, Argentinian strains. The group containing the most disparate strains was group V (discriminatory index, 0.633); the discriminatory index for the other four groups was 0.824. The use of primer OPG 18 by itself was sufficient to discriminate species specificity, and the use of primer OPG 14 by itself was sufficient to discriminate among the geographical locations of the strains in the sample. This method may be helpful for epidemiological studies of P. brasiliensis. PMID:9620409

  9. Evaluating geographic information systems technology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guptill, Stephen C.

    1989-01-01

    Computerized geographic information systems (GISs) are emerging as the spatial data handling tools of choice for solving complex geographical problems. However, few guidelines exist for assisting potential users in identifying suitable hardware and software. A process to be followed in evaluating the merits of GIS technology is presented. Related standards and guidelines, software functions, hardware components, and benchmarking are discussed. By making users aware of all aspects of adopting GIS technology, they can decide if GIS is an appropriate tool for their application and, if so, which GIS should be used.

  10. Distribution and species diversity of deep-sea nematodes in the Venezuela Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tietjen, John H.

    1984-02-01

    In three sedimentary regions in the deep (>3400 m) Venezuela Basin, nematode abundance and dry weight biomass (ean ±1 S.E.) were higher in hemipelagic sediments (94 ± 1.5 individuals, 88 ± 2.5 μg per 10 cm -2) than in pelagic (67 ± 3 individuals, 32 ±33 μg per 10 cm -2) or turbidite (36 ± 3 individuals, 30 ± 3 μg per 10 cm -2) sediments. Abundance of nematodes appears to be at least partially related to geographic position within the basin; hemipelagic sediments lie closer to an area of elevated surface production near the Lesser Antilles than do the pelagic or turbidite sediments. Abundance of nematodes is also directly correlated with macrofauna abundance and presence of sedimentary lipids. Normal hierarchical classification indicates the presence of two faunal groups in the sediments: a 'sand' fauna in coarser pelagic sediments (median grain size, 65 μm) and a 'silt-clay' fauna in the finer hemipelagic and turbidite sediments (median grain size in both, 0.65 μm). Animals among the two faunal groups differ mostly in their feeding morphology: selective deposit feeding species, unable to utilize large, pelagically derived particles (mainly foraminiferan tests) are more abundant in finer hemipelagic and turbidite sediments, whereas species capable of rasping food particles off large sedimentary particles (epistrate feeders) are more abundant in pelagic sands than in finer sediments. Species diversity is higher in the hemipelagic than turbidite and pelagic sediments. Two reasons postulated for this are (1) the possible input of relatively fresh, surface-derived organic matter that might permit a large number of species to exist in hemipelagic sediments than in the other two, and (2) an optimally heterogeneous grain size distribution that might allow the species to coexist equitably. All three sediments support more diverse nematode assemblages than those in the North Carolina slope region, probably reflecting the greater physical stability of the abyssal

  11. Generation of multiple bioactive macrolides by hybrid modular polyketide synthases in Streptomyces venezuelae.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Yeo Joon; Beck, Brian J; Kim, Beom Seok; Kang, Han Young; Reynolds, Kevin A; Sherman, David H

    2002-02-01

    The plasmid-based replacement of the multifunctional protein subunits of the pikromycin PKS in S. venezuelae by the corresponding subunits from heterologous modular PKSs resulted in recombinant strains that produce both 12- and 14-membered ring macrolactones with predicted structural alterations. In all cases, novel macrolactones were produced and further modified by the DesVII glycosyltransferase and PikC hydroxylase, leading to biologically active macrolide structures. These results demonstrate that hybrid PKSs in S. venezuelae can produce a multiplicity of new macrolactones that are modified further by the highly flexible DesVII glycosyltransferase and PikC hydroxylase tailoring enzymes. This work demonstrates the unique capacity of the S. venezuelae pikromycin pathway to expand the toolbox of combinatorial biosynthesis and to accelerate the creation of novel biologically active natural products.

  12. [Serotypes and genotypes of dengue virus circulating in Venezuela, 1990-1997].

    PubMed

    Salas, R A; Tovar, D; Barreto, A; de Miller, E; Leitmeyer, K; Rico-Hesse, R

    1998-01-01

    Due to the increasing severity of hemorrhagic dengue epidemics during the last years in Venezuela, a retrospective analysis was conducted to identify the behaviour of the dengue virus serotypes circulating in the country and the molecular evolution of dengue virus serotype 2. The data presented here indicates that dengue virus serotypes 1, 2 and 4 are endemic in Venezuela, they circulate simultaneously around the year in the biggest urban cities, however, one particular serotype is predominant during an epidemic period and replaces the virus serotype dominant during the previous epidemic period. The increased severity of dengue fever since 1989 in Venezuela might be associated to the introduction of the Asiatic genotype of virus which replaced the autochthonous Caribbean genotype. The Asiatic genotype is recognised as a more virulent virus.

  13. Changes at the National Geographic Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwille, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    For more than 125 years, National Geographic has explored the planet, unlocking its secrets and sharing them with the world. For almost thirty of those years, National Geographic has been committed to K-12 educators and geographic education through its Network of Alliances. As National Geographic begins a new chapter, they remain committed to the…

  14. Geographic Considerations in International Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kott, Richard F.

    Based on students' generally shallow knowledge of geographic concepts on the one hand and a new and almost universal awareness of man in his milieu on the other, the author seeks to draw attention to the discipline of geography, and more specifically, political geography as an essential, fundamental component of international studies. The…

  15. Geographic Inquiry into Global Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, A. David

    1993-01-01

    Describes the background and development of the Geographic Inquiry into Global Issues (GIGI) project. Maintains that the secondary school lessons are designed to teach citizenship and critical thinking skills. Emphasizes that the pedagogical approach is founded on the inquiry approach. (CFR)

  16. Maryland Automated Geographic Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    A computer based system designed for storing geographic data in a consistent and coordinated manner is described. The data are stored, retrieved, and analyzed using a 400 km sq/acre cell. Stored information can be displayed on computer maps in a manner similar to standard map graphics. The data bank contains various information for performing land use analysis in a variety of areas.

  17. Geographical Concepts in Turkish Lullabys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çifçi, Taner

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a collection of lullabies which have an important place in Turkish culture and which form an important genre in folk literature are examined to find out distribution and presentation of geographical terms in the lullabies in this collection. In the study, 2480 lullabies in Turkish Lullabies which is one of the leading collections in…

  18. Territorial Decentration and Geographic Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoltman, Joseph P.

    Territorial decentration is a question of major significance to geographic educators. This paper reports the findings of a research project designed to determine the territorial decentration of an American sample of children. The primary purpose of the research was to determine if Piaget's territorial decentration stages are appropriate for…

  19. First Report of Cowpea Mild Mottle Carlavirus on Yardlong Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) in Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Miriam; Fernández-Rodríguez, Thaly; Garrido, Mario José; Mejías, Alexander; Romano, Mirtha; Marys, Edgloris

    2012-01-01

    Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) plants with virus-like systemic mottling and leaf distortion were observed in both experimental and commercial fields in Aragua State, Venezuela. Symptomatic leaves were shown to contain carlavirus-like particles. RT-PCR analysis with carlavirus-specific primers was positive in all tested samples. Nucleotide sequences of the obtained amplicons showed 84%–74% similarity to corresponding sequences of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV) isolates deposited in the GenBank database. This is the first report of CPMMV in Venezuela and is thought to be the first report of CPMMV infecting yardlong bean. PMID:23242372

  20. Checklist and distribution maps of the blow flies of Venezuela (Diptera, Calliphoridae, Mesembrinellidae)

    PubMed Central

    Velásquez, Yelitza; Martínez-Sánchez, Ana Isabel; Thomas, Arianna; Rojo, Santos

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A checklist of the 39 species of blow flies (Calliphoridae and Mesembrinellidae) so far known to occur in Venezuela is provided, based on a thorough literature review and the examination of ca. 500 specimens deposited in the main entomological collections of the country. Data from the literature and museum collections were used to generate distribution maps for 37 species. Three species are recorded from Venezuela for the first time: Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1830), Mesembrinella spicata Aldrich, 1925 and Mesembrinella umbrosa Aldrich, 1922. PMID:28228670

  1. First report of Cowpea mild mottle Carlavirus on yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Brito, Miriam; Fernández-Rodríguez, Thaly; Garrido, Mario José; Mejías, Alexander; Romano, Mirtha; Marys, Edgloris

    2012-12-14

    Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) plants with virus-like systemic mottling and leaf distortion were observed in both experimental and commercial fields in Aragua State, Venezuela. Symptomatic leaves were shown to contain carlavirus-like particles. RT-PCR analysis with carlavirus-specific primers was positive in all tested samples. Nucleotide sequences of the obtained amplicons showed 84%-74% similarity to corresponding sequences of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV) isolates deposited in the GenBank database. This is the first report of CPMMV in Venezuela and is thought to be the first report of CPMMV infecting yardlong bean.

  2. [Changes in lipid availability in Venezuela, 1970-1992].

    PubMed

    Abreu Olivo, E A; Ablan de Flórez, E

    1994-12-01

    The authors carry out a research focused on the quantification and analysis of the main changes in feeding and nutrition in Venezuela between 1970 and 1992. Such research started with the review and adjustment of the Food Balance Sheets (Hojas de Balance de Alimentos) elaborated by the Instituto Nacional de Nutrición (National Nutrition Institute) between 1970 and 1979 in order to homogenize them in a methodological way to make them similar to those elaborated by that institution and the Fundación Polar for the 1980-90 period. Estimates were made about the daily and per person availability of food for human consumption (DCH) for 1991 and 1992. This report, a partial product of that research, characterizes the evolution of the lipidic DCH in Venezuela for the 1970-1992 period. This period has been divided in seven stages of the evolution of the total energetic DCH, as this reflects well the course of the daily and per person Food Purchasing Power (PCA); there is a direct and strong functional relationship between these two variables. Along those stages the behaviour of the lipidic DCH is studied and we try to view possible relationships between the evolution of the Venezeluans economical situation and the absolute and relative variations observed in the level and the structure of the lipidic DCH. This structure is analyzed from several points of view: groups of food sources, origin, "visibility", and place of origin. One purpose is to determine also which food groups are mainly responsible for the venezuelan's external lipidic dependence. A general picture of the evolution of the DCH for saturated fatty acids and cholesterol is made, as well as of the variations experienced by the P/S and M/S relationships. It was found that the most dynamic elements, those that can explain a very high percentage of the variations observed in the level and the structure of the lipidic DCH were: the groups of foods of Visible Fats, Milk and dairy products, and Meats; vegetal lipids

  3. STSHV a teleinformatic system for historic seismology in Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choy, J. E.; Palme, C.; Altez, R.; Aranguren, R.; Guada, C.; Silva, J.

    2013-05-01

    From 1997 on, when the first "Jornadas Venezolanas de Sismicidad Historica" took place, a big interest awoke in Venezuela to organize the available information related to historic earthquakes. At that moment only existed one published historic earthquake catalogue, that from Centeno Grau published the first time in 1949. That catalogue had no references about the sources of information. Other catalogues existed but they were internal reports for the petroleum companies and therefore difficult to access. In 2000 Grases et al reedited the Centeno-Grau catalogue, it ended up in a new, very complete catalogue with all the sources well referenced and updated. The next step to organize historic seismicity data was, from 2004 to 2008, the creation of the STSHV (Sistema de teleinformacion de Sismologia Historica Venezolana, http://sismicidad.hacer.ula.ve ). The idea was to bring together all information about destructive historic earthquakes in Venezuela in one place in the internet so it could be accessed easily by a widespread public. There are two ways to access the system. The first one, selecting an earthquake or a list of earthquakes, and the second one, selecting an information source or a list of sources. For each earthquake there is a summary of general information and additional materials: a list with the source parameters published by different authors, a list with intensities assessed by different authors, a list of information sources, a short text summarizing the historic situation at the time of the earthquake and a list of pictures if available. There are searching facilities for the seismic events and dynamic maps can be created. The information sources are classified in: books, handwritten documents, transcription of handwritten documents, documents published in books, journals and congress memories, newspapers, seismologic catalogues and electronic sources. There are facilities to find specific documents or lists of documents with common characteristics

  4. Cytogenetics and karyosystematics of Oryzomys albigularis (Rodentia, Cricetidae) from Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, M; Pérez-Zapata, A; Martino, A

    1995-01-01

    Several authors have proposed that Oryzomys albigularis constitutes a supraspecific complex and that chromosomal pericentromeric inversions have played a fundamental role in the diversifying process. With the purpose of clarifying the unclear taxonomic situation of the nominal forms of O. albigularis living in Venezuela, a cytogenetic study was carried out on individuals from five different localities along the Andean range and the Cordillera de la Costa. All of the individuals examined showed a diploid number (2n) of 66 chromosomes, but there were differences in the number of autosomal arms (FN = 90, 92, and 104) and in the morphology of the X chromosome (metacentric or acrocentric). The C-banding pattern was similar in all populations, autosomal heterochromatin was restricted to the centromere, and the Y chromosome was the only one that had completely heterochromatic arms. G-banding was useful in making arm-to-arm comparison between the FN = 90 and FN = 104 karyomorphs; 23 shared pairs were found, 7 pairs differed due to pericentric inversions, and 3 pairs had no correspondence. We postulate that these karyomorphs probably correspond to allospecies, and that the specific denominations must correspond to two previously recognized populations of sigmodontine rodents: O. caracolus Thomas 1914 (2n = 66, FN = 90), for the populations from the Cordillera de la Costa, and O. meridensis Thomas 1894 (2n = 66, FN = 104), for the populations distributed between the middle and extreme north of the Andean range. The specific denomination for the populations of animals from the southern portion of the Andean range (Oryzomys sp., 2n = 66, FN = 92) is still to be determined.

  5. Petrology and thermal evolution of the Tinaquillo peridotite (Venezuela)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyler, Monique; Mattson, Peter H.

    1989-06-01

    The Tinaquillo peridotite complex is a layered and veined ultramafic-mafic body cropping out in the Cordillera de la Costa in northern Venezuela. Whole rock compositions, textures, and mineral chemistry of the peridotite and associated mafic rocks suggest that the complex underwent two major events before being emplaced into the Cordillera de la Costa. The peridotite first rose adiabatically within the upper mantle, at about 1350°C and 15-21 kbar pressure. This rise caused a small to medium degree of partial melting, resulting in the formation of a stratified complex of clinopyroxene-rich spinel lherzolites grading to harzburgites, interlayered with pyroxenite. The stratified complex then cooled and reequilibrated at about 800°-1000°C. A second upward movement of the peridotite brought it, still hot, from the upper mantle into lower crustal rocks (now called the Tinaco complex), at an estimated 7 kbar pressure, then cooling to 600°-700°C. The peridotite contains small amounts (2-5%) of homogeneously distributed pargasite. Locally, it is concentrated in amphibole veins grading into orthopyroxene- and spinel-hornblendite layers. Amphibolization was associated with metasomatism, and this metasomatic enrichment seems greater in the most depleted peridotite. The Tinaquillo peridotite shares many characteristics with Alpine spinel lherzolites that are believed to be derived from the subcontinental upper mantle and are emplaced within a continental rift, or at the margins of an oceanic rift. These characteristics are low degree of depletion, highly aluminous spinels, abundance of metasomatic facies, and early high-P equilibration followed by reequilibration with mafic-silicic continental type rocks within the intermediate-P granulite facies.

  6. A 75 ka Stalagmite Paleoclimate Record from Northern Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retrum, J. B.; Gonzalez, L. A.; Edwards, R.; Tincher, S. M.; Cheng, H.; Urbani, F.

    2011-12-01

    A stalagmite collected from Cueva Zarraga in the northern Venezuelan Andes was analyzed to determine local paleoclimatic history and help examine climate change in the Caribbean. Ages were determined by U/Th disequilibrium and the stalagmite shows a nearly complete record for ~ 75 ka. Two significant periods of non-deposition have been identified. The first period ranges between the Last Glacial Maximum at 19,820 ± 149 cal yr BP and a brief resumption of stalagmite growth at 15,409 ± 747 cal yr BP, likely representing the Bølling-Allerød interstadial. After the brief period of deposition, growth does not resume unil the Holocene at 10,408 ± 78 cal yr BP. Carbon and oxygen isotopes show a major depletion shift from the last glacial period to the Holocene, suggesting warmer and wetter conditions during the Holocene. The oxygen isotope depletion shift is also seen in the Cariaco Basin foraminifera record off the northern coast of Venezuela. While tempting to attribute δ13C depletion to decrease of the C4 plant contribution, there is no evidence that the area experience major vegetation changes. We attribute the δ13C depletion to enhanced recycling of soil CO2 resulting from canopy effects. Today, Cueva Zarraga is at the northern extent of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The cooler and drier conditions of the last glacial period suggest a southern displacement of the ITCZ. The close proximity of Cueva Zarraga to Cariaco Basin may allow for a high resolution tropical terrestrial and oceanic climatic response comparison.

  7. Encounters with Science at ULA, Venezuela: An Incentive for Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenzweig, P.

    2006-08-01

    In the School of Science of the Universidad de Los Andes (ULA), in Mérida, Venezuela, a very successful event focused on high school students and primary school students, was founded in 2000. The name of this event is "Encounters with Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, and Biology" (hereinafter "Encounters with Science"), and it integrates these disciplines as well as Astronomy. Its main purpose is that young minds can become familiar with the methods of science inquiry and reasoning, and can understand the concepts and processes of the sciences through thoroughly prepared experiences. This flourishing program is continuing to grow and to become strong. As a matter of fact, in its sixth edition (2005), the number of high and elementary school students coming from all over the country, has reached the outstanding number of nine thousand. Among all the experiences that the students could be engaged in were many involving Astronomy. These experiences were prepared by professors, together with graduate and undergraduate students, who are pursuing their degrees in all branches of science including astronomy. Although there is this incredible team of faculties and graduate and undergraduate students working together; the target is the students of the high and elementary schools. We certainly focus on the engaging and encouraging of students to experience scientific work first hand. Additionally, our professors have prepared an excellent didactic material that can, together with the hour/class teaching, prepare high school and elementary school students for a better understanding of science; particularly, helping in this way for a better education in Astronomy. The main event of the Encounters lasts five days in the School of Science of ULA, but subsidiary events are spread all over the year and around the country. As a successful program, it can be interesting to see if other countries can adopt this method to recruit or to trigger the interest of students to pursue their

  8. Atmospheric mercury emissions from polluted gold mining areas (Venezuela).

    PubMed

    García-Sánchez, A; Contreras, F; Adams, M; Santos, F

    2006-12-01

    Soil, waste rock and mud from mercury-gold amalgamation mining areas of El Callao (Venezuela) are highly enriched in Hg (0.5-500 microg g(-1)) relative to natural background concentrations (<0.1 microg g(-1)). Mercury fluxes to the atmosphere from twelve polluted sites of this area were measured in situ (6 a.m. to 8 p.m.) using a Plexiglas flux chamber connected to a portable mercury analyzer (model RA-915+; Lumex, St. Petersburg, Russia). Mercury fluxes ranged between 0.65 and 420.1 microg m(-2) h(-1), and the average flux range during the diurnal hours was 9.1-239.2 microg m(-2) h(-1). These flux values are five orders of magnitude higher than both reported world background Hg fluxes (1-69 ng m(-2) h(-1)) and the regional values, which are in the range 2-10 ng m(-2) h(-1). The flux results obtained in this study are, however, similar to those measured at Hg polluted sites such as chloro-alkali plants or polymetallic ore mining districts (>100,000 ng m(-2) h(-1)). The results from this study also show that Hg emissions from the soil are influenced by solar radiation, soil temperature and soil Hg concentration. Our data suggest that solar radiation may be the dominant factor affecting Hg degrees emission since the major species of mercury in polluted soil is Hg degrees (85-97% of total Hg). The simple release of Hg degrees vapor is probably the dominant process occurring with incident light in the field. The apparent activation energy for mercury emission indicates that the volatilization of mercury mainly occurred as a result of the vaporization of elemental mercury in soil. The degree of Hg emission differed significantly among the soil sites studied, which may be due to variations in soil texture, organic matter content and soil compaction.

  9. Lithospheric scale model of Merida Andes, Venezuela (GIAME Project)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, M.; Orihuela, N. D.; Klarica, S.; Gil, E.; Levander, A.; Audemard, F. A.; Mazuera, F.; Avila, J.

    2013-05-01

    Merida Andes (MA) is one of the most important orogenic belt in Venezuela and represents the northern culmination of South America Andes. During the last 60 years, several models have been proposed to explain the shallow and deep structure, using different geological, geophysical, seismological, geochemical and petrologic concepts; nevertheless, most of them have applied local observation windows, and do not represent the major structure of MA. Therefore, a multidisciplinary research group, coordinated by FUNVISIS, in close cooperation with UCV, ULA and PDVSA, is proposed in order to get the outlined goals in the project entitled GIAME ("Geociencia Integral de los Andes de MErida") was established, which aims to generate a lithospheric scale model and the development of a temporal dynamic model for the MA. As a base for lithospheric investigations of the Merida Andes, we are proposing three wide angle seismic profiles across the orogen on three representative sites, in order to determine the inner structure and its relation with the orogen's gravimetric root. To the date, there are no seismic studies at lithospheric scale which cross MA. The wide angle seismic will be complemented with the re-processing and re-interpretation of existing reflection seismic data, which will allow to establish a relationship between MA and its associated flexural basins (Maracaibo and Barinas-Apure basins). Depending on the results of the VENCORP Project (VENezuelan COntinental Reflection Profiling), which might show some reliable results about crustal features and Moho reflectors along three long seismic profiles at Caribbean Moutain system, a reflection seismic profile across the central portion of MA is proposed. Additional tasks, consisting in MA quaternary deformation studies, using research methods like neotectonics and paleoseismology, georadar, numerical modeling, cinematic GPS, SAR interferometry, thermocronology, detailed studies on regional geology, flexural modeling

  10. A modern regional geological analysis of Venezuela - lessons from a major new world oil province on exploration in mature areas

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, M. ); Audemard, F. ); Valdes, G. )

    1993-09-01

    Venezuela has produced some 44 billion bbl of oil since the early part of the century. As such, it represents one of the world's major oil producers and a mature petroleum province. However, major tracts of Venezuela's sedimentary basins remain underexplored and large discoveries are still being made in new and old reservoir systems. A regional geological analysis of Venezuela, focusing on basin evolution and sequence stratigraphy and incorporating data from the three national oil companies, is presented. The analysis presents a regionally consistent tectonostratigraphic model capable of explaining the evolution of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic basins of Venezuela and placing the major reservoir facies in their regional tectonic and sequence stratigraphic context. Four regional cross sections describe the stratigraphic and structural model. The model recognizes a Jurassic rifting event and inversion, succeeded by an Early Cretaceous passive margin. In western Venezuela, the Early Cretaceous passive subsidence is enhanced locally by extension related to the Colombian active margin. Venezuela experienced a major change in the Campanian with the initial collision of the Caribbean arc, recorded by foreland structuring and widespread stratigraphic changes. From the Campanian onward, the tectonostratigraphic evolution can be modeled in terms of a progressive southeast-directed arc-continent collision and the migration of the associated foredeep and rift basins. Within the tectonic framework, the major sequence stratigraphic units are identified and the reservoir distribution interpreted. This model provides a strong predictive tool to extrapolate reservoir systems into Venezuela's underexplored areas and to readdress its traditional areas.

  11. A population geographer's population pyramid.

    PubMed

    Sternstein, L

    1989-07-01

    A population geographer cannot depend on the standard population profile because it does not reflect spatial distribution of the desired characteristics. A more revealing approach is the modified box-and- whisker plot with the vertical lines of the box placed at the 1st and 3rd quartiles and the whiskers defining the variance. The geography of the age-sex structure variability in Thailand was examined using this method and by mapping and classifying all the age-sex structures. Classification of these structures includes comparing adjacent age-sex group differences, determining population profiles at each significance level, and spatially portraying each population structure. If the profile includes a 10th or more of the districts, it is called a uniform population profile. One should not generalize over a wide grouping of data because data is not normally regular. Geographical mapping given a usable description of the findings only when appropriate subdivisions of the data are utilized.

  12. Geographic Information System Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, Chad; Casad, Christopher; Floriano, Luis G.; Hill, Tracie; Johnson, Rashida K.; Locklear, J. Mark; Penn, Stephen; Rhoulac, Tori; Shay, Adam H.; Taylor, Antone; Thorpe, Karina

    1995-01-01

    Data was collected in order to further NASA Langley Research Center's Geographic Information System(GIS). Information on LaRC's communication, electrical, and facility configurations was collected. Existing data was corrected through verification, resulting in more accurate databases. In addition, Global Positioning System(GPS) points were used in order to accurately impose buildings on digitized images. Overall, this project will help the Imaging and CADD Technology Team (ICTT) prove GIS to be a valuable resource for LaRC.

  13. Geographical Applications of Remote Sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, Qihao; Zhou, Yuyu; Quattrochi, Dale

    2013-02-28

    Data and Information derived through Earth observation technology have been extensively used in geographic studies, such as in the areas of natural and human environments, resources, land use and land cover, human-environment interactions, and socioeconomic issues. Land-use and land-cover change (LULCC), affecting biodiversity, climate change, watershed hydrology, and other surface processes, is one of the most important research topics in geography.

  14. Geographic names of the Antarctic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; ,; ,; ,; Alberts, Fred G.

    1995-01-01

    This gazetteer contains 12,710 names approved by the United States Board on Geographic Names and the Secretary of the Interior for features in Antarctica and the area extending northward to the Antarctic Convergence. Included in this geographic area, the Antarctic region, are the off-lying South Shetland Islands, the South Orkney Islands, the South Sandwich Islands, South Georgia, Bouvetøya, Heard Island, and the Balleny Islands. These names have been approved for use by U.S. Government agencies. Their use by the Antarctic specialist and the public is highly recommended for the sake of accuracy and uniformity. This publication, which supersedes previous Board gazetteers or lists for the area, contains names approved as recently as December 1994. The basic name coverage of this gazetteer corresponds to that of maps at the scale of 1:250,000 or larger for coastal Antarctica, the off-lying islands, and isolated mountains and ranges of the continent. Much of the interior of Antarctica is a featureless ice plateau. That area has been mapped at a smaller scale and is nearly devoid of toponyms. All of the names are for natural features, such as mountains, glaciers, peninsulas, capes, bays, islands, and subglacial entities. The names of scientific stations have not been listed alphabetically, but they may appear in the texts of some decisions. For the names of submarine features, reference should be made to the Gazetteer of Undersea Features, 4th edition, U.S. Board on Geographic Names, 1990.

  15. Universities, Public Policy and Economic Development in Latin America: The Cases of Mexico and Venezuela.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorey, David E.

    1992-01-01

    Since establishment of national university systems in Mexico and Venezuela, three principal demands have dominated policy formation: government ideological demand; economic demand for expertise; and political and social demand for upward mobility through education. Tensions between these demands have stemmed from economic inability to sustain…

  16. Five Years of Cyclotron Radioisotope Production Experiences at the First PET-CT in Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Colmenter, L.; Coelho, D.; Esteves, L. M.; Ruiz, N.; Morales, L.; Lugo, I.; Sajo-Bohus, L.; Liendo, J. A.; Greaves, E. D.; Barros, H.; Castillo, J.

    2007-10-26

    Five years operation of a compact cyclotron installed at PET-CT facility in Caracas, Venezuela is given. Production rate of {sup 18}F labeled FDG, operation and radiation monitoring experience are included. We conclude that {sup 18}FDG CT-PET is the most effective technique for patient diagnosis.

  17. Exploiting the natural metabolic diversity of Streptomyces venezuelae to generate unusual reduced macrolides.

    PubMed

    Park, Je Won; Oh, Hong-Se; Jung, Won Seok; Park, Sung Ryeol; Han, Ah Reum; Ban, Yeon-Hee; Kim, Eun Ji; Kang, Han-Young; Yoon, Yeo Joon

    2008-11-30

    An unusual set of reduced macrolide antibiotics was discovered by combination of organic synthesis and a biosynthetic approach using the unique metabolic diversity of Streptomyces venezuelae; two unnatural 16-membered ring macrolides are also created by employing this bio-catalyst.

  18. The Universidad Nacional Abierta of Venezuela. A Case Study in Distance Learning Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, H. Z.

    A brief description of the country of Venezuela (geography, population, economy, internal communications, and politics) and its educational system introduce a description of the Universidad Nacional Abierta (UNA). The UNA was opened in July 1978 to expand the national system of higher education by the use of distance learning techniques. These…

  19. [Cities and oil. Historical and prospective aspects of the urban population of Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Papail, J; Picquet, M

    1989-01-01

    The authors present a historical overview of urbanization in Venezuela. The impact of the oil economy on population change and spatial distribution is emphasized. A typology of cities based on socioeconomic function and on a demographic classification of urban centers is devised. Future trends in urbanization are also considered. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  20. Factors Affecting Student Success at the National Open University of Venezuela.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Freitas, Katia Siqueira; Lynch, Patrick

    1986-01-01

    Findings of this analysis of the effect of selected variables on attrition in the introductory course of the National Open University of Venezuela suggest that noninstitutional variables accounted for the largest proportion of variance of student completion. Counseling and course redesign are recommended to enhance student motivation to complete…

  1. Guidelines For Implementation of Industrial Programs For Proposed Community Colleges in Venezuela.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sada, Pablo Maria

    The purpose of this study was to examine selected industrial education departments and programs of the community colleges in the United States, and to draw some beneficial implications for the establishment of the proposed community colleges in Venezuela. The procedure involved a review of the literature, the construction of a questionnaire, and…

  2. Streptomyces venezuelae TX-TL - a next generation cell-free synthetic biology tool.

    PubMed

    Moore, Simon J; Lai, Hung-En; Needham, Hannah; Polizzi, Karen M; Freemont, Paul S

    2017-01-31

    Streptomyces venezuelae is a promising chassis in synthetic biology for fine chemical and secondary metabolite pathway engineering. The potential of S. venezuelae could be further realized by expanding its capability with the introduction of its own in vitro transcription-translation (TX-TL) system. TX-TL is a fast and expanding technology for bottom-up design of complex gene expression tools, biosensors and protein manufacturing. Herein, we introduce a S. venezuelae TX-TL platform by reporting a streamlined protocol for cell-extract preparation, demonstrating high-yield synthesis of a codon-optimized sfGFP reporter and the prototyping of a synthetic tetracycline-inducible promoter in S. venezuelae TX-TL based on the tetO-TetR repressor system. The aim of this system is to provide a host for the homologous production of exotic enzymes from Actinobacteria secondary metabolism in vitro. As an example, the authors demonstrate the soluble synthesis of a selection of enzymes (12-70 kDa) from the Streptomyces rimosus oxytetracycline pathway.

  3. Resurrection Symphony: "El Sistema" as Ideology in Venezuela and Los Angeles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The explosive growth of Venezuela's "El Sistema" is rewriting the agenda of musical education in the West. Many commentators from the world of classical music react to the spectacle of dedicated young colonial musicians playing European masterworks as a kind of "miracle," accepting "Sistema" founder José Antonio…

  4. A new species of the genus Alienates Barber (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Enicocephalidae: Alienatinae) from Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Baňař, Petr; Štys, Pavel; Kolesnichenko, Yuliya

    2015-09-03

    New species Alienates thomasi sp. nov. Baňař & Štys is described from Venezuela based on a single female. It is the first species recorded from South America, and is illustrated and compared with other Caribbean and Central American Alienates species.

  5. Containing Venezuela’s Hugo Chavez: United States Foreign Policy Options

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-16

    Ecuadorian President Rafeal Correa and Bolivian President Evo Morales , offer little tangible support. Notably, the South American countries most able to...the FARC shares common socialist values with Chavez‟ Bolivarian Revolution. Venezuela also supports socialist regimes in Ecuador and Bolivia ...controversial foreign policies. With the exception of the state leaders of Iran, Cuba, Ecuador and Bolivia , Chavez has few supporters. Arguably, Russia

  6. Sandfly fauna of endemic leishmaniasis foci in Anzoátegui State, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    González, R; Jorquera, A; De Sousa, L; Ledezma, E; Devera, R

    2002-01-01

    A census of the sandfly fauna was undertaken in 1993-98 in 5 endemic leishmaniasis foci situated at different altitudes in Anzoátegui State, Venezuela. From the 17 species of Lutzomyia identified, we believe that Lu. ovallesi, Lu. panamensis and Lu. gomezi are the probable vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis, while Lu. evansi might transmit visceral leishmaniasis.

  7. Report on the Continuing Education of Health Professionals and Graduate Medical Education in Venezuela.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Thomas C.

    An analysis of health care in Venezuela indicates that if the health of the Venezuelan population is to be maintained and improved then there must be undertaken a major effort to develop continuing educational programs for physicians. Venezuelan undergraduate medical education is largely didactic, with little exposure to patient care;…

  8. Volatile compounds from Tagetes pusilla (Asteraceae) collected from the Venezuela Andes.

    PubMed

    Buitrago, Diolimar; Rojas, Luis B; Rojas, Janne; Morales, Antonio

    2010-08-01

    The essential oil from the leaves of Tagetes pusilla Kunth (Asteraceae) collected from Mérida, Venezuela, was analyzed by GC/MS. A yield of 0.38% oil was obtained by hydrodistillation. Only two components, trans-anethole and 4-allylanisole were identified by comparison of their mass spectra with those in the Wiley GC-MS Library data base.

  9. Rural Development in Venezuela and the Guianas: A Bibliography. Training and Methods Series Number 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Teresa, Comp.; And Others

    The bibliography cites 930 materials dealing with Venezuela and the Guianas. Published between 1949 and 1972, the materials are found in the Land Tenure Center Library at the University of Wisconsin. Topics covered are: agriculture, agrarian reform, economic affairs, economic cooperation, human resources, American Indians, industry, law, money,…

  10. The Cost Analysis of Learning at a Distance: Venezuela's Universidad Nacional Abierta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumble, Greville

    1982-01-01

    Examines the cost structure and future system costs of Venezuela's Universidad Nacional Abierta, compares them with the costs of other distance universities, and discusses the cost implications of media choice, size of program, and number of students. The usefulness of cost analysis and projection for decision making is also discussed. (EAO)

  11. Education, Democracy and Social Change: Venezuela's Education Missions in Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Maura

    2015-01-01

    The "Bolivarian Revolution" in Venezuela is conceptualised as a pedagogical project that aims to develop "twenty-first century Socialism" through state-grassroots collaboration in the reorganisation of political space in order to develop participatory, democratic institutions and processes. The cornerstones of this project to…

  12. The Effect of Wage Compression and Alternative Labor Market Opportunities on Teacher Quality in Venezuela

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortega, Daniel E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of teacher relative wages and teacher wage dispersion on high school graduates' preferences for teaching majors in College. This approximation to teacher quality is appropriate in a country like Venezuela as opposed to the US since the rigidity of the tertiary school system significantly limits mobility between…

  13. Counter-Hegemonic Regionalism and Higher Education for All: Venezuela and the ALBA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhr, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This paper employs new regionalism theory and regulatory regionalism theory in its analysis and theorisation of the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA) as a counter-hegemonic Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) regionalism. As (initially) the regionalisation of Venezuela's Bolivarian Revolution, ALBA is centred around the idea…

  14. Comprehensive Education Bolivarian-Style: The Alternative School in Barrio Pueblo Nuevo, Venezuela

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Mike

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author traces revolutionary developments in an alternative school in Barrio Pueblo Nuevo, Mérida, in the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, a school that caters for students between 4 and 14. He begins by recounting some fieldwork done at the school on his behalf by Edward Ellis in 2010. He goes on to discuss a video made at…

  15. Teachers' Perceived Efficacy among English as a Foreign Language Teachers in Middle Schools in Venezuela

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chacon, C.T.

    2005-01-01

    Teachers' sense of efficacy has been shown to influence teachers' actions and student outcomes. This study explored self-efficacy beliefs among English as a Foreign Language teachers in selected schools in Venezuela. Data were collected through a survey administered to 100 teachers. The Teacher Sense of Efficacy Scale (Tschannen-Moran &…

  16. Spionidae (Annelida: Polychaeta) from the Parque Nacional Morrocoy, Falcón, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Bone, D; Viéitez, J M

    2002-03-01

    Five species of polychaetes (Spionidae) were found associated to Thalassia testudinum meadows in Parque Nacional Morrocoy, Venezuela. We included a guide for their identification and present range extensions for the Venezuelan coasts and Southern Caribbean Sea. The species are: Dipolydora socialis, Prionospio (Minuspio) cirrifera, P. (Prionospio) fallax, P. (P.) steenstrupi, and Spio pettiboneae.

  17. José María Vargas (1786-1854): Reformer of anatomical studies in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Reverón, Rafael Romero

    2014-03-01

    José María Vargas (1786-1854): Venezuelan medical doctor, surgeon, optician, anatomist, chemist, botanist, professor, geologist, mineralogist, and mathematician. Second President of Venezuela (1835-1836), First republican dean, he reformed medicine studies in 1827 establishing human anatomical dissection in the Universidad Central de Venezuela where he taught human anatomy between 1827 and 1853 along with surgery and chemistry. In 1838, he wrote Curso de Lecciones y demostraciones Anatómicas, the first book on the subject printed in Venezuela for the teaching of human anatomy.

  18. Neotropical genera of Naucoridae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nepomorpha): new species of Placomerus and Procryphocricos from Guyana and Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Sites, Robert W; Camacho, Jesús

    2014-01-09

    The Neotropical fauna of saucer bugs (Naucoridae) currently includes four monotypic genera. Recent extensive collecting in Venezuela has produced three new species in two of these genera. In addition, undetermined Guyanan specimens of one of the new species were found in the United States National Museum of Natural History. Thus, described here are Placomerus obscuratus n. sp. from Guyana and Venezuela with brachypterous and macropterous hindwing forms, and two species of Procryphocricos from Venezuela. Procryphocricos quiu n. sp. is described from the brachypterous forewing form and Procryphocricos macoita n. sp. from both brachypterous and macropterous forms. Previously described species also are discussed.

  19. 33 CFR 165.8 - Geographic coordinates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 1983 (NAD 83), unless such geographic coordinates are expressly labeled NAD 83. Geographic coordinates without the NAD 83 reference may be plotted on maps or charts referenced to NAD 83 only after...

  20. 33 CFR 165.8 - Geographic coordinates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 1983 (NAD 83), unless such geographic coordinates are expressly labeled NAD 83. Geographic coordinates without the NAD 83 reference may be plotted on maps or charts referenced to NAD 83 only after...

  1. 33 CFR 165.8 - Geographic coordinates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 1983 (NAD 83), unless such geographic coordinates are expressly labeled NAD 83. Geographic coordinates without the NAD 83 reference may be plotted on maps or charts referenced to NAD 83 only after...

  2. Seismic microzoning projects and their implementation in Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, M.; Cano, V.; Olbrich, F.; Vallee, M.; Morales, C.; Arreaza, A.; Mendes, K.; Klarica, S.; Alvarez Gomez, J.; Aray, J.; Vielma, J.; Pombo, A.; Diaz, J.; Grupo de trabajo

    2013-05-01

    Site effects have been recognized to play an important role in damage distribution of destructive earthquakes. These effects have been observed in Venezuela especially during the 1967 Caracas earthquake, when 4 buildings with 10 and more storeys during the Caracas 1967 earthquake collapsed, and a big number of them in the same deep sediment area have been seriously damaged. This motivated the development of studies regarding the subsurface configuration of Caracas and Barquisimeto during the last decade, with a seismic microzoning project realized in both cities from 2005 to 2009. The main results of this project were the development of design response spectra for the different microzones within the sedimentary basin, as well as estimates of landslide hazard. Implementation of the results in municipality ordinances is actually discussed with local authorities. They are aimed to address mitigation for new constructions by the application of the specific design spectra, for existing buildings via evaluation and retrofitting strategies, and for slope areas (informal, as well as formal developments) due to the identification of areas that may not be developed or require detailed studies of slope stabilities. Since then, seismic microzoning studies were started in Cumaná, Guarenas/Guatire and Lara state, and within a broader context of integrated risk management, which includes flooding, landslide and technological risks, in Mérida, Valencia, Maracay, Barcelona/Puerto La Cruz and Valle de la Pascua. The projects are coordinated by the Venezuelan Foundation for Seismological Research (FUNVISIS) in cooperation with local universities. Efforts are done to unable local researchers to apply the methodologies in other cities as Valera, Trujillo, Boconó, San Cristóbal and Tucacas. A unified seismic hazard map as input motion to these studies is actually in development. Depending on the local characteristics, building inventory and vulnerability analysis are done for risk

  3. Characterization of phosphorus in sinking particles in Cariaco Basin, Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranhofer, M. L.; Benitez-Nelson, C.; Thunell, R.

    2004-12-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient utilized by all organisms for biological productivity, yet little is known about its cycling within the marine realm. In this study, we used a five-step sequential sediment extraction method (SEDEX) to examine the composition of P in sinking particles obtained from one of the world's largest anoxic basins, Cariaco Basin, Venezuela. This method, which is usually applied to sediments, chemically separates particulate P into 5 phases: loosely bound or exchangeable (PEx), iron-bound (PFe), authigenic (PAut), detrital (PDet), and organic (POrg). Samples were collected from November 2000 to April 2002 using four automated sediment traps moored at depths of 275, 455, 930 and 1250 m, with the 275 m trap located just above the oxic/anoxic interface. Our results indicate that the composition of particulate P changes dramatically as the material sinks through the water column. The 275 m trap was comprised of a mixture of PEx (57 %), POrg (23 %) and PFe (15 %), whereas the deepest trap was dominated by POrg (55 %) and PEx (26 %). Total P fluxes decreased by a factor of four between 275 and 1250 m (85.7 versus 18.5 \\mu mol m-2 d-1), with much of this decrease due to the > 75 % loss of PEx (49.2 to 4.9 \\mu mol m-2 d-1) and PFe (12.6 to 1.8 \\mu mol m-2 d-1). POrg decreased by only 50 % between these two depths (19.9 versus 10.2 \\mu mol m-2 d-1). Our results are consistent with the expectation that PEx is the most labile fraction of P and PFe is rapidly reduced in the anoxic bottom waters of Cariaco Basin. PEx correlates well with organic C (COrg) only in samples from the shallowest trap (r2 = 0.6), while in the deeper traps there is a strong correlation with terrigenous material (r2 = 0.6). This implies a change in the major source, and hence lability of this material as it sinks to the sea floor. POrg was very well correlated to COrg at all depths (r2 > 0.9), implying little to no preferential remineralization below 275 m. Additional

  4. Holocene evolution of the western Orinoco Delta, Venezuela

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aslan, A.; White, W.A.; Warne, A.G.; Guevara, E.H.

    2003-01-01

    The pristine nature of the Orinoco Delta of eastern Venezuela provides unique opportunities to study the geologic processes and environments of a major tropical delta. Remote-sensing images, shallow cores, and radiocarbon-dating of organic remains form the basis for describing deltaic environments and interpreting the Holocene history of the delta. The Orinoco Delta can be subdivided into two major sectors. The southeast sector is dominated by the Rio Grande-the principal distributary-and complex networks of anastomosing fluvial and tidal channels. The abundance of siliciclastic deposits suggests that fluvial processes such as over-bank flooding strongly influence this part of the delta. In contrast, the northwest sector is represented by few major distributaries, and overbank sedimentation is less widespread relative to the southeast sector. Peat is abundant and occurs in herbaceous and forested swamps that are individually up to 200 km2 in area. Northwest-directed littoral currents transport large volumes of suspended sediment and produce prominent mudcapes along the northwest coast. Mapping of surface sediments, vegetation, and major landforms identified four principal geomorphic systems within the western delta plain: (1) distributary channels, (2) interdistributary flood basins, (3) fluvial-marine transitional environments, and (4) marine-influenced coastal environments. Coring and radiocarbon dating of deltaic deposits show that the northern delta shoreline has prograded 20-30 km during the late Holocene sea-level highstand. Progradation has been accomplished by a combination of distributary avulsion and mudcape progradation. This style of deltaic progradation differs markedly from other deltas such as the Mississippi where distributary avulsion leads to coastal land loss, rather than shoreline progradation. The key difference is that the Orinoco Delta coastal zone receives prodigious amounts of sediment from northwest-moving littoral currents that transport

  5. New neotropical sebacinales species from a Pakaraimaea dipterocarpacea forest in the Guayana Region, Southern Venezuela: structural diversity and phylogeography.

    PubMed

    Moyersoen, Bernard; Weiβ, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Pakaraimaea dipterocarpacea, a member of the Dipterocarpaceae endemic in the Guayana region, is associated with a diverse community of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi. Amongst the 41 ECM fungal species detected in a 400 m2 P. dipterocarpacea ssp. nitida plot in Southern Venezuela, three species belonged to the Sebacinales. We tested whether ECM anatomotype characterization can be used as a feasible element in an integrative taxonomy in this diverse fungal group, where the relevance of fruitbody morphology for species delimitation seems limited. Using a combination of ECM morpho-anatomical characterizations and phylogenetic analyses based on nuclear ITS and LSU sequences, we report three new species. The main distinguishing features of Sebacina guayanensis are the yellowish cell walls together with conspicuous undifferentiated, uniform compact (type B) rhizomorphs. Staghorn-like hyphae are characteristic of S. tomentosa. The combination of clusters of thick-walled emanating hyphae, including hyphae similar to awl-shaped cystidia with basal dichotomous or trichotomous ramifications, and the presence of type B rhizomorphs were characteristic of a third, yet unnamed species. The three species belong to three different, possibly specifically tropical clades in Sebacinales Group A. The geographic distribution of phylogenetically related strains was wide, including a Dicymbe forest in Guyana and an Ecuadorian rainforest with Coccoloba species. We show that ECM morpho-anatomy can be used, in combination with other analyses, to delineate species within Sebacinales Group A. In addition to phylogenetic information, type B rhizomorphs observed in different Sebacinales clades have important ecological implications for this fungal group. The phylogeography of Sebacinales suggests that dispersion and host jump are important radiation mechanisms that shaped P. dipterocarpacea ECM fungal community. This study emphasizes the need for more sequence data to evaluate the hypothesis that

  6. New Neotropical Sebacinales Species from a Pakaraimaea dipterocarpacea Forest in the Guayana Region, Southern Venezuela: Structural Diversity and Phylogeography

    PubMed Central

    Moyersoen, Bernard; Weiß, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Pakaraimaea dipterocarpacea, a member of the Dipterocarpaceae endemic in the Guayana region, is associated with a diverse community of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi. Amongst the 41 ECM fungal species detected in a 400 m2 P. dipterocarpacea ssp. nitida plot in Southern Venezuela, three species belonged to the Sebacinales. We tested whether ECM anatomotype characterization can be used as a feasible element in an integrative taxonomy in this diverse fungal group, where the relevance of fruitbody morphology for species delimitation seems limited. Using a combination of ECM morpho-anatomical characterizations and phylogenetic analyses based on nuclear ITS and LSU sequences, we report three new species. The main distinguishing features of Sebacina guayanensis are the yellowish cell walls together with conspicuous undifferentiated, uniform compact (type B) rhizomorphs. Staghorn-like hyphae are characteristic of S. tomentosa. The combination of clusters of thick-walled emanating hyphae, including hyphae similar to awl-shaped cystidia with basal dichotomous or trichotomous ramifications, and the presence of type B rhizomorphs were characteristic of a third, yet unnamed species. The three species belong to three different, possibly specifically tropical clades in Sebacinales Group A. The geographic distribution of phylogenetically related strains was wide, including a Dicymbe forest in Guyana and an Ecuadorian rainforest with Coccoloba species. We show that ECM morpho-anatomy can be used, in combination with other analyses, to delineate species within Sebacinales Group A. In addition to phylogenetic information, type B rhizomorphs observed in different Sebacinales clades have important ecological implications for this fungal group. The phylogeography of Sebacinales suggests that dispersion and host jump are important radiation mechanisms that shaped P. dipterocarpacea ECM fungal community. This study emphasizes the need for more sequence data to evaluate the hypothesis that

  7. Late Pleistocene and Holocene Hydroclimate Variability in the Tropical Andes from Alpine Lake Sediments, Cordillera de Mérida, Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, D. J.; Abbott, M. B.; Polissar, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    The tropics play a major role in the global hydrologic cycle and changes to tropical rainfall patterns have critical implications for water resources and ecosystem dynamics over large geographic scales. In tropical South America, late Pleistocene and Holocene precipitation variability has been documented in geologic records and associated with numerous external and internal variables, including changes in summer insolation, South American summer monsoon strength, Pacific Ocean sea surface temperatures, continental moisture recycling, and other climate processes. However, there are few records from the northern hemisphere tropical Americas, a key region for understanding interhemispheric linkages and the drivers of tropical hydroclimate variability. Here, we present a ~13 ka record of coupled hydroclimate and environmental changes from Laguna Brava, a small (~0.07 km2), hydrologically closed lake basin situated at 2400 m asl in the Cordillera de Mérida, Venezuela. Sediment cores collected from varying water depths and proximity to shore are placed in a chronologic framework using radiocarbon ages from terrestrial macrofossils, and analyzed for a suite of physical, bulk geochemical, and stable isotopic parameters. Compound specific hydrogen isotope (D/H) measurements of terrestrial plant waxes (long-chain n-alkanes) show a sharp increase in the late Pleistocene, followed by a long-term trend toward more negative values that suggest a ~20‰ decrease in the D/H ratios of South American tropical precipitation during the Holocene. This pattern is consistent in sign and magnitude to other South American precipitation reconstructions from both hemispheres, indicating interhemispheric similarities in tropical hydroclimate variability. Superimposed on this continent-scale trend are changes in moisture balance and environmental conditions in the Venezuelan Andes. We reconstruct these parameters at Laguna Brava at multidecadal and centennial resolution and evaluate this

  8. 5 CFR 536.303 - Geographic conversion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... after geographic conversion is the employee's existing payable rate of basic pay in effect immediately before the action. (b) Geographic conversion when a retained rate employee's official worksite is changed... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Geographic conversion. 536.303...

  9. 5 CFR 536.303 - Geographic conversion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... after geographic conversion is the employee's existing payable rate of basic pay in effect immediately before the action. (b) Geographic conversion when a retained rate employee's official worksite is changed... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Geographic conversion. 536.303...

  10. Research and Research Methods in Geographical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Norman J., Ed.

    This collection of papers examines research methods in geographical education in nine countries. "Research Methods in the History of Geographical Education" (William Marsden, the United Kingdom) examines the methods used and some of the research undertaken in the history of geographical education. "Research Methods in Investigating…

  11. Short biography of Louis Daniel Beauperthuy (1807-71): pioneer of microbiology and medical science in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Gerardo A; Tarradath, Ewart

    2010-02-01

    Louis Daniel Beauperthuy was a pioneer of microbiology in Venezuela where he developed microscopic and clinical research together with academic and scientific observation related to leprosy and the role of insects in the transmission of febrile illnesses.

  12. Book Review: "Educational Reform and Administrative Development: The Cases of Columbia and Venezuela," by E. Mark Hanson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Patrick D.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews "Educational Reform and Administrative Development: The Cases of Colombia and Venezuela," by E. Mark Hanson, which relates the policy-making and administrative structures of these two countries to their political, historical, and cultural contexts. (TE)

  13. [Blastocystosis: a high prevalence of cases found in patients from Health Center of Soledad, Anzoategui State, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Velásquez, Virma; Caldera, Rixcia; Wong, Wladimir; Cermeño, Gloria; Fuentes, Maximo; Blanco, Ytalia; Aponte, Maria; Devera, Rodolfo

    2005-01-01

    The parasitological examination of fecal samples from 98 patients from an Ambulatory Health Center of Soledad, Anzoategui, Venezuela revealed a rather high proportion of results positive for Blastocystis hominis (46.9%).

  14. Review of the fossil matamata turtles: earliest well-dated record and hypotheses on the origin of their present geographical distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Gabriel S.; Rincón, Ascanio D.; Solórzano, Andrés; Langer, Max C.

    2016-04-01

    The matamata ( Chelus fimbriatus) is a highly aquatic chelid turtle known exclusively from northern South America. Due to its extremely modified morphology, it is well circumscribed among living taxa, but that is not the case of the two extinct species ascribed to the taxon, Chelus colombianus and Chelus lewisi. These were originally described for the Miocene of Colombia and Venezuela, respectively, and are known mostly from post-cranial material. Few traits have been considered diagnostic for these fossil taxa, and their shared geographic and temporal distributions raise doubts about their distinctiveness. Here, we describe new turtle remains from the early Miocene Castillo Formation, at Cerro la Cruz, northwestern Venezuela, assigning them to C. colombianus. We also review the taxonomy and diagnostic features of the fossil species of Chelus, comparing them with the variation recognized within C. fimbriatus. All alleged differences between the fossil Chelus species were found in our sample of the extant species, and may represent intraspecific variation of a single fossil species. Further, we reviewed the fossil record of Chelus spp. and proposed a paleobiogeographic hypothesis to explain its present geographic range.

  15. Review of the fossil matamata turtles: earliest well-dated record and hypotheses on the origin of their present geographical distribution.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Gabriel S; Rincón, Ascanio D; Solórzano, Andrés; Langer, Max C

    2016-04-01

    The matamata (Chelus fimbriatus) is a highly aquatic chelid turtle known exclusively from northern South America. Due to its extremely modified morphology, it is well circumscribed among living taxa, but that is not the case of the two extinct species ascribed to the taxon, Chelus colombianus and Chelus lewisi. These were originally described for the Miocene of Colombia and Venezuela, respectively, and are known mostly from post-cranial material. Few traits have been considered diagnostic for these fossil taxa, and their shared geographic and temporal distributions raise doubts about their distinctiveness. Here, we describe new turtle remains from the early Miocene Castillo Formation, at Cerro la Cruz, northwestern Venezuela, assigning them to C. colombianus. We also review the taxonomy and diagnostic features of the fossil species of Chelus, comparing them with the variation recognized within C. fimbriatus. All alleged differences between the fossil Chelus species were found in our sample of the extant species, and may represent intraspecific variation of a single fossil species. Further, we reviewed the fossil record of Chelus spp. and proposed a paleobiogeographic hypothesis to explain its present geographic range.

  16. Balancing the Societal Dimensions of Venezuela and Colombia through the Amnesty, Reconciliation, and Reintegration (AR2) Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-22

    fractured society’s success in the amnesty, reconciliation, and reintegration (AR2) process. In Venezuela, there remains a fractured political system...Balancing the Societal Dimensions of Venezuela and Colombia through the Amnesty, Reconciliation, and Reintegration (AR2) Process A Monograph by... Reintegration (AR2) Process 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Ngo, Danielle J., Major, USA 5f. WORK

  17. Natural Scales in Geographical Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Telmo; Roth, Camille

    2017-01-01

    Human mobility is known to be distributed across several orders of magnitude of physical distances, which makes it generally difficult to endogenously find or define typical and meaningful scales. Relevant analyses, from movements to geographical partitions, seem to be relative to some ad-hoc scale, or no scale at all. Relying on geotagged data collected from photo-sharing social media, we apply community detection to movement networks constrained by increasing percentiles of the distance distribution. Using a simple parameter-free discontinuity detection algorithm, we discover clear phase transitions in the community partition space. The detection of these phases constitutes the first objective method of characterising endogenous, natural scales of human movement. Our study covers nine regions, ranging from cities to countries of various sizes and a transnational area. For all regions, the number of natural scales is remarkably low (2 or 3). Further, our results hint at scale-related behaviours rather than scale-related users. The partitions of the natural scales allow us to draw discrete multi-scale geographical boundaries, potentially capable of providing key insights in fields such as epidemiology or cultural contagion where the introduction of spatial boundaries is pivotal. PMID:28374825

  18. Household energy use in urban Venezuela: Implications from surveys in Maracaibo, Valencia, Merida, and Barcelona-Puerto La Cruz

    SciTech Connect

    Figueroa, M.J.; Sathaye, J.

    1993-08-01

    This report identifies the most important results of a comparative analysis of household commercial energy use in Venezuelan urban cities. The use of modern fuels is widespread among all cities. Cooking consumes the largest share of urban household energy use. The survey documents no use of biomass and a negligible use of kerosene for cooking. LPG, natural gas, and kerosene are the main fuels available. LPG is the fuel choice of low-income households in all cities except Maracaibo, where 40% of all households use natural gas. Electricity consumption in Venezuela`s urban households is remarkably high compared with the levels used in households in comparable Latin American countries and in households of industrialized nations which confront harsher climatic conditions and, therefore, use electricity for water and space heating. The penetration of appliances in Venezuela`s urban households is very high. The appliances available on the market are inefficient, and there are inefficient patterns of energy use among the population. Climate conditions and the urban built form all play important roles in determining the high level of energy consumption in Venezuelan urban households. It is important to acknowledge the opportunities for introducing energy efficiency and conservation in Venezuela`s residential sector, particularly given current economic and financial constraints, which may hamper the future provision of energy services.

  19. Review of the Berosus Leach of Venezuela (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae, Berosini) with description of fourteen new species

    PubMed Central

    Oliva, Adriana; Short, Andrew E. Z.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The species of the water scavenger beetle genus Berosus Leach occurring in Venezuela are reviewed. Thirty-six species are recorded, including fifteen new species, fourteen of which are described here as new: Berosus aragua sp. n., Berosus asymmetricus sp. n., Berosus capanaparo sp. n., Berosus castaneus sp. n., Berosus corozo sp. n., Berosus ebeninus sp. n., Berosus garciai sp. n., Berosus humeralis sp. n., Berosus jolyi sp. n., Berosus llanensis sp. n., Berosus megaphallus sp. n., Berosus ornaticollis sp. n., Berosus repertus sp. n., and Berosus tramidrum sp. n. The fifteenth new species, known from a single female, is left undescribed pending the collection of males. Twelve species are recorded from Venezuela for the first time: Berosus ambogynus Mouchamps, Berosus consobrinus Knisch, Berosus elegans Knisch, Berosus geayi d’Orchymont, Berosus ghanicus d’Orchymont, Berosus guyanensis Queney, Berosus holdhausi Knisch, Berosus marquardti Knisch, Berosus olivae Queney, Berosus reticulatus Knisch, Berosus wintersteineri Knisch, and Berosus zimmermanni Knisch. PMID:22811607

  20. Biosynthesis and combinatorial biosynthesis of pikromycin-related macrolides in Streptomyces venezuelae.

    PubMed

    Xue, Y; Sherman, D H

    2001-01-01

    Pikromycin-related macrolides have recently attracted significant research interest because they are structurally related to the semisynthetic ketolide antibiotics that have demonstrated promising potential in combating multi-drug-resistant respiratory pathogens. Cloning and in-depth studies of the pikromycin biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptomyces venezuelae have led to new avenues in modular polyketide synthases, deoxysugar biosynthesis, cytochrome P450 hydroxylase, secondary metabolite gene regulation, and antibiotic resistance. Moreover, the knowledge and tools used for these studies are proving to be valuable in the development of advanced technologies for combinatorial biosynthesis of new macrolide antibiotics. This review summarizes these new developments and introduces S. venezuelae as a powerful new system for secondary metabolite pathway engineering from bench-top genetic manipulation to product fermentation.

  1. Development of Next Generation Synthetic Biology Tools for Use in Streptomyces venezuelae.

    PubMed

    Phelan, Ryan M; Sachs, Daniel; Petkiewicz, Shayne J; Barajas, Jesus F; Blake-Hedges, Jacquelyn M; Thompson, Mitchell G; Reider Apel, Amanda; Rasor, Blake J; Katz, Leonard; Keasling, Jay D

    2017-01-20

    Streptomyces have a rich history as producers of important natural products and this genus of bacteria has recently garnered attention for its potential applications in the broader context of synthetic biology. However, the dearth of genetic tools available to control and monitor protein production precludes rapid and predictable metabolic engineering that is possible in hosts such as Escherichia coli or Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In an effort to improve genetic tools for Streptomyces venezuelae, we developed a suite of standardized, orthogonal integration vectors and an improved method to monitor protein production in this host. These tools were applied to characterize heterologous promoters and various attB chromosomal integration sites. A final study leveraged the characterized toolset to demonstrate its use in producing the biofuel precursor bisabolene using a chromosomally integrated expression system. These tools advance S. venezuelae to be a practical host for future metabolic engineering efforts.

  2. Molecular characterization of a new begomovirus that infects Euphorbia heterophylla and Solanum lycopersicum in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Zambrano, Karla; Fernández-Rodríguez, Thaly; Marys, Edgloris

    2012-02-01

    We report the complete nucleotide sequence of a begomovirus isolate infecting Euphorbia heterophylla and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) in central Venezuela. Based on the current taxonomic criteria for the genus Begomovirus, the isolate was shown to represent a novel species, tentatively named Euphorbia mosaic Venezuela virus (EuMVV). Its DNA-A is most closely related to those of Euphorbia-infecting begomoviruses from the Caribbean and Central America. The DNA B component forms a phylogenetic cluster with Euphorbia and Sida-infecting begomoviruses from the squash leaf curl virus (SLCV) cluster. EuMVV is transmissible to S. lycopersicum and Capsicum annuum by biolistics of infectious cloned DNA-A and DNA-B components and induces characteristic leaf downward curling and yellowing in S. lycopersicum and and yellowing and leaf distortion in Capsicum annuum.

  3. Evolutionary and Ecological Characterization of Mayaro Virus Strains Isolated during an Outbreak, Venezuela, 2010.

    PubMed

    Auguste, Albert J; Liria, Jonathan; Forrester, Naomi L; Giambalvo, Dileyvic; Moncada, Maria; Long, Kanya C; Morón, Dulce; de Manzione, Nuris; Tesh, Robert B; Halsey, Eric S; Kochel, Tadeusz J; Hernandez, Rosa; Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Weaver, Scott C

    2015-10-01

    In 2010, an outbreak of febrile illness with arthralgic manifestations was detected at La Estación village, Portuguesa State, Venezuela. The etiologic agent was determined to be Mayaro virus (MAYV), a reemerging South American alphavirus. A total of 77 cases was reported and 19 were confirmed as seropositive. MAYV was isolated from acute-phase serum samples from 6 symptomatic patients. We sequenced 27 complete genomes representing the full spectrum of MAYV genetic diversity, which facilitated detection of a new genotype, designated N. Phylogenetic analysis of genomic sequences indicated that etiologic strains from Venezuela belong to genotype D. Results indicate that MAYV is highly conserved genetically, showing ≈17% nucleotide divergence across all 3 genotypes and 4% among genotype D strains in the most variable genes. Coalescent analyses suggested genotypes D and L diverged ≈150 years ago and genotype diverged N ≈250 years ago. This virus commonly infects persons residing near enzootic transmission foci because of anthropogenic incursions.

  4. KPC and VIM producing Enterobacter cloacae strain from a hospital in northeastern Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Dianny; Marcano, Daniel; Rodulfo, Hectorina; Salgado, Nurys; Cuaical, Nirvia; Rodriguez, Lucy; Caña, Luisa; Medina, Belkis; Guzman, Militza; De Donato, Marcos

    2015-06-01

    An 83-year-old male patient is admitted to the central hospital in Cumana, Venezuela with severe urinary infection, history of hospitalizaions and prolonged antimicrobial treatments. A strain of Enterobacter cloacae was isolated showing resistance to multiple types of antibiotics (only sensitive to gentamicin), with phenotype of serine- and metallo-carbapenemases. Both, bla(VIM-2) and bla(KPC) genes were detected in the isolate. This is the first report of an Enterobacteriaceae species producing both KPC carbapenemase and VIM metallo carbapenemase in Venezuela. This finding has a great clinical and epidemiological impact in the region, because of the feasibility of transferring these genes, through mobile elements to other strains of Enterobacter and to other infection-causing species of bacteria.

  5. Comet Halleys Legacy: SUNA, Astronomy from Universidad Central de Venezuela (U.C.V.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, Gabriel; Fernandez, Nelson

    2007-12-01

    The Sociedad Universitaria de Astronomia (SUNA) is a group of astronomy amateurs which works inside the Universidad Central de Venezuela (Venezuelas Central University)s campus. The initiative is originated during the path through the perihelion of Comet Halley in 1986, and since then their goals are promotion of astronomical information to all the university community. Observational works are also carried out, such as: registration and investigation of astronomical events, with the purpose to offer the opportunity to all public, mostly students o the University, to enjoy a spectacle, and at the same time to motivate the students to continue professional studies of astronomy. Being this last goal one of the most gratifying in the society.

  6. Geology and geomorphology of the Roraima group, southeastern Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanezpintado, G.

    A moderately detailed, accurate geologic geomorphologic map of the Roraima region at a 1:250,000 scale was prepared. This provides a suitable base for future, more detailed studies. It is recommended that the Roraima Formation be raised to Group status and include three apparently conformable but lithogically separable Formations from the base upwards, these are the Canaima, Gualaquinima, and Auyantepui formation. Two composite stratigraphic sections are established and formational thicknesses determined near Santa Elena de U. and Canaima. Radar imagery and aerial photo interpretation allows improved mapping of regional and local structures. Broad, gentle, postdepositional folding of the Roraima into anteclises and syneclises apparently was followed by intrusion of basic dikes and sills; the principal host is the Canaima Formation. Diamond bearing places in the present alluvial valleys are the result of continuous deposition, reworking and redeposition of older, more geographically disjunct floodplain and deltaic sediments.

  7. Venezuelas Pursuit of Caribbean Basin Interests: Implications for United States National Security.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    planning by the Lusinchi government, and upon whether the market price of petroleum drops no lower than the U.S. $28 per barrel to which it fell in...neutralizing the cazador units. The United States also should keep abreast of any Venezuelan plans to create a conven- tional rapid deployment force that could...Before additional initiatives could be undertaken, Venezuela’s Social Democrats ( Accion 0 Democratica) were ousted from power by the reactionary military

  8. Hydrocarbon Magnetic Authigenesis Mechanisms in Well and Soil Samples: Review of Studies in Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldana, M.; Diaz, M.; Costanzo, V.

    2008-05-01

    In recent studies we have tried to establish the correlation between shallow micromagnetic anomalies from oil wells and soil samples, with the underlying reservoir. We have combined rock magnetic experiments with Electronic Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) studies. Logs of Magnetic Susceptibility (MS), Extractable Organic Matter Concentration (EOMC) and Organic Matter Free Radical Concentration (OMFRC) have been compared. Additionally, rock magnetic and EPR experiments were carried out to identify the magnetic phases responsible for these anomalies. In wells from oil fields located in western Venezuela, MS and EOMC anomalies coincide at the same depth levels, and OMFRC anomalies lie close to them. These anomalies are associated to framboids of authigenic magnetite. In samples from eastern Venezuela oil fields, MS anomalies seem to be caused mainly by the presence of Fe sulphides (i.e. greigite). EOMC peaks do not coincide at the same depth levels of their MS counterparts. These results lead us to the conclusion that two different authigenic processes could operate. In western Venezuela, secondary magnetic minerals could be produced by the achievement of proper themochemical conditions, reached at shallow depth levels, combined with the presence of organic matter. The hydrocarbon gas leakage alters the organic matter, and a net electron transfer from this degraded matter to Fe(III) should occur, precipitating Fe(II) magnetic minerals (e.g. magnetite). Results from soil samples at a nearby prospective area suggest a similar process. In this case the alteration of organic matter has been observed via remote sensors. On the other hand, in eastern Venezuela oil fields, high concentrations of H2S at shallow depth levels, might allow the formation of secondary Fe-sulphides without the presence of organic matter. Different results for these two areas could be linked to their inherent distinct structural complexities and chemical properties of their hydrocarbons.

  9. New particle formation events observed at a high altitude site Pico Espejo, Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieminen, Tuomo; Kontkanen, Jenni; Krejci, Radovan; Ström, Johan; Tunved, Peter; Hamburger, Thomas; Calderon, Silvia; Hoffman, Pedro

    2013-05-01

    Formation and growth events of nucleation mode particles (10-25 nm in diameter) were analyzed from 27 month period of particle size distribution measurements at the high altitude site Pico Espejo in Venezuela. Particle formation was observed both in air masses connected to boundary layer air and in free tropospheric conditions. The frequency and magnitude of particle formation at this high altitude site was comparable to many observations at lower altitude sites.

  10. Determination of genotypes of hepatitis C virus in Venezuela by restriction fragment length polymorphism.

    PubMed Central

    Pujol, F H; Loureiro, C L; Devesa, M; Blitz, L; Parra, K; Beker, S; Liprandi, F

    1997-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus genotypes in Venezuela were analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism in the 5' noncoding region. The absence of BstUI digestion was found to be a useful marker for genotype 2 specimens. From 122 serum samples, 66, 20, and 2.5% were classified as genotypes 1, 2, and 3, respectively; 0.8% were classified as genotype 4; and 10% appeared to be mixed infections. PMID:9196212

  11. The Foreign Policy of Venezuela Toward El Salvador: 1979-1983

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    Memorias y Cuentas de otros ministerios y entidades involucradas en el suministro de ayuda a El Salvador, tales como el Kinisterlo de Energia y Minas...que estuviese ligada a cualquier ideologia politica. El Ministro de Energia y Minas, Calderbn. Berti, afirm6 que no existia, de parte de Venezuela, Wia...stamos a largo plazo. La duraci6n del Programa f ue de un aKo, renovable anualmente, previo acuerdo mutuo. En el primer afto de vigencia del acuerdo, los

  12. Applications of Planktonic foraminifera in the Paleogene of the Eastern Venezuela-Trinidad Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Radford, S.

    1996-08-01

    Following increased interest in the petroleum potential of the Eastern Venezuela-Trinidad Basin, a revision of the planktonic foraminifera from the Paleogene was undertaken. The application of evolutionary trends in microperforate, medioperforate and macroperforate lineages for petroleum exploration is assessed. Scanning Electron Microscope illustrations are presented for over 100 taxa currently applied in high resolution biostratigraphy, sequence stratigraphy and paleoceanography of the region. These will allow more rapid and reliable recognition of zones, hiatuses and sequence boundaries.

  13. Leptalpheus pereirai sp. nov., a new alpheid shrimp from Panama and Venezuela (Decapoda: Caridea).

    PubMed

    Anker, Arthur; Caripe, Jonathan Vera

    2016-06-22

    A new species of the infaunal alpheid shrimp genus Leptalpheus Williams, 1965 is described based on material from three localities on the Caribbean coast of Panama and Isla Chimana Grande, Venezuela. Leptalpheus pereirai sp. nov. belongs to a group of species characterised by the presence of well-developed adhesive disks on the major chela and appears to dwell in burrows of the large callianassid ghost shrimp, Glypturus acanthochirus Stimpson 1866.

  14. Individuals in a Collectivist World: Born in the U.S.A., Teaching in Caracas, Venezuela

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warring, Douglas F.; Huber-Warring, Tonya

    2006-01-01

    Venezuela is a country slightly larger than twice the size of California, the third largest U.S.A. state in land area. Caracas, the capitol city, is home to a population of 6 million people nested into a space that is actually smaller in size than the area of Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota, U.S.A., a city/suburb of only 2.8 million people. In…

  15. Employment Problems Associated with the Accelerated Delivery of the F-16 to the Republic of Venezuela.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    transformed Venezuelan history and modified political, moral and economic habits (13:182). Within a few years, Cipriano Castro, one of Venezuela’s most...101). In that year, after falsifying unfavorable election results, Perez Jimenez became the nation’s president. Jimenez was a throwback to the harsh...harshness. Government corruption was widespread with at 32 1-1; ’ least 50 percent of the government’s funds during the Jimenez years either stolen or

  16. Wood anatomy of tribe Detarieae and comparison with tribe Caesalpinieae (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae) in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Melandri, José Luis; de Pernía, Narcisana Espinoza

    2009-01-01

    We studied the wood anatomy of 29 species belonging to 10 genera of the tribe Detarieae, subfamily Caesalpinioideae and compare them with tribe Caesalpinieae. Detarieae is the largest of four tribes of Caesalpinioideae, with 84 genera, only eleven occur in Venezuela with species of timber importance. The specimens were collected in Venezuela and include wood samples from the collection of the Laboratorio de Anatomía de Maderas de la Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Ambientales de la Universidad de Los Andes, Venezuela, and of the Forest Products Laboratory of the USDA Forest Service in Madison, Wisconsin, USA. The terminology and methodology used followed the IAWA List of Microscopic Features for Hardwood Identification of the IAWA Committee, 1989. Measurements from each specimen were averaged (vessel diameters, vessel element lengths, intervessels pit size, fibre lengths and ray height). The species of Detarieae can be separated using a combination of diagnostic features. Wood characters that provide the most important diagnosis and may be used in systematics of Detarieae include: intercellular axial canals, rays heterocellular, rays exclusively or predominantly uniseriate, prismatic crystals common in ray cells, irregular storied structure and fibre wall thickness. For comparative anatomy between Detarieae and Caesalpinieae: intercellular axial canals, heterocellular rays, rays exclusively or predominantly uniseriate, prismatic crystals common in ray cells (in Detarieae) and regular storied structure, fibres septate, fibre wall thick or very thick, rays homocellular, multiseriate rays and silica bodies (in Caesalpinieae). Axial parenchyma is typically a good diagnostic feature for Leguminosae, but not for Detarieae and Caesalpinieae comparisons.

  17. Heterologous expression of tylosin polyketide synthase and production of a hybrid bioactive macrolide in Streptomyces venezuelae.

    PubMed

    Jung, Won Seok; Lee, Sang Kil; Hong, Jay Sung Joong; Park, Sung Ryeol; Jeong, Soon Jeong; Han, Ah Reum; Sohng, Jae Kyung; Kim, Byung Gee; Choi, Cha Yong; Sherman, David H; Yoon, Yeo Joon

    2006-10-01

    Tylosin polyketide synthase (Tyl PKS) was heterologously expressed in an engineered strain of Streptomyces venezuelae bearing a deletion of pikromycin PKS gene cluster using two compatible low-copy plasmids, each under the control of a pikAI promoter. The mutant strain produced 0.5 mg/l of the 16-membered ring macrolactone, tylactone, after a 4-day culture, which is a considerably reduced culture period to reach the maximum production level compared to other Streptomyces hosts. To improve the production level of tylactone, several precursors for ethylmalonyl-CoA were fed to the growing medium, leading to a 2.8-fold improvement (1.4 mg/ml); however, switching the pikAI promoter to an actI promoter had no observable effect. In addition, a small amount of desosamine-glycosylated tylactone was detected from the extract of the mutant strain, revealing that the native glycosyltransferase DesVII displayed relaxed substrate specificity in accepting the 16-membered ring macrolactone to produce the glycosylated tylactone. These results demonstrate a successful attempt for a heterologous expression of Tyl PKS in S. venezuelae and introduce S. venezuelae as a rapid heterologous expression system for the production of secondary metabolites.

  18. Combined Rock Magnetic and Dielectric studies applied to stratigraphic and archeological problems in Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costanzo-Alvarez, V.; Aldana, M.; Suarez, N.

    2007-05-01

    In the last few years the paleomagnetism research group, at the Universidad Simon Bolivar in Caracas (Venezuela), has undertaken combined studies of rock magnetism (e.g. natural magnetic remanence, magnetic susceptibility, hysteresis parameters etc.) and dielectric properties (maximum current depolarization temperatures and average activation energies) in Cretaceous and Paleogene sedimentary sequences from eastern and western Venezuela. Our main goal has been to find new ways of defining physical markers, in fossil- poor sedimentary rocks, for stratigraphic correlations. Magneto/dielectric characterizations of these rocks have proved also useful identifying lithological discontinuities and paleoenvironmental changes. More recently these two-fold technique have been extended to archeological materials (potsherds) from a series of Venezuelan islands, in order to track down clay sources and find out about different stages of pottery craftsmanship. Magneto/Dielectric characterization of archeological potsherds seems to allow the tracing of their provenance from various mainland prehistoric settlements of distinct Venezuelan amerindian groups. In this paper we present a comprehensive review of this research applied to a contact between two sedimentary formations in eastern Venezuela (Cretaceous Chimana/Querecual) and a number of pottery samples with diverse stylistic features excavated in a single archeological site from Los Roques islands.

  19. [Fatty acids profile characterization of white maize hybrids grown in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Alezones, Jesús; Avila, Manuel; Chassaigne, Alberto; Barrientos, Venancio

    2010-12-01

    In Venezuela, white corn is the most important crop regarding production, harvest area and consumption. One of its main by-products is corn oil, whose positive effect on health caused by the high content of unsaturated fatty acids has been widely recognized. In order to characterize the fatty acids profile of twelve white grained maize hybrids extensively grown in Venezuela, and the effect that divergent localities has on this profile, three semi commercial scale trials where established in Portuguesa, Yaracuy and Guárico states. Proportions of the main fatty acids in the raw oil of the different grain samples were determined using gas chromatography. Significant differences (p < 0,01) between hybrids were found for arachidic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, gadoleic and linoleic acids; non significant differences were found for linolenic acid. Significant differences between localities were found for all the fatty acids evaluated. High and significant correlations between fatty acids content were found; the most important relations were: linoleic-oleic (Rho = -0,98**), arachidic-palmitic (Rho = -0,61**), linoleic-stearic (Rho = -0,61**) and oleic-stearic (Rho = 0,58**). Corn produced in Venezuela presents lower levels of linoleic and higher levels of palmitic, stearic and oleic acids than the levels found in temperate corn. These differences involve significant changes in the nutritional properties of Venezuelan corn oil that should be considered in the development of new cultivars and industrial processes for oil production.

  20. Distribution, status, and traditional significance of the West Indian manatee Trichechus manatus in Venezuela

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, Thomas J.; Correa-Viana, Martín; Ludlow, Mark E.; Robinson, John G.

    1988-01-01

    Aerial and interview surveys were conducted in 1986 to determine the current distribution, status, and traditional significance of the West Indian manatee Trichechus manatus in Venezuela. Aerial surveys provided just eight tentative sightings in 73 hours of searching. These discouraging results may have been due to poor visibility, small populations, and perhaps reduced dry season manatee activity. Results of interview surveys, however, permitted a number of important generalizations. A remnant manatee population exists in Lake Maracaibo, but none occur along the more than 1500 km of Caribbean coastline. Abundance is greatest in eastern Venezuela bordering the Golfo de Paria, in the Orinoco Delta, and in the middle Orinoco and tributaries. Local market hunting in the middle of this century probably greatly reduced manatee populations in these areas. Recent protection laws, education efforts, and manatee scarcity have resulted in a declining interest in manatee hunting. Much excellent manatee habitat persists in these regions, and a continued decline in hunting could result in an optimistic outlook for future manatee populations if the incidental take in net fisheries is controlled. Traditional beliefs and legends concerning manatees in Venezuela, including hunting taboos, show that these animals remain a colorful part of the folk culture. However, manatee protection does not pose economic hardships or infringe upon traditional spiritual beliefs.

  1. Risk, Activism, and Empowerment: Women’s Breast Cancer in Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Eid, Mahmoud; Nahon-Serfaty, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of breast cancer in Venezuela is particularly alarming, which is attributed to healthcare inequalities, low health literacy, and lagging compliance with prevention methods (i.e., screening and mammography). While the right to health is acknowledged by the Venezuelan constitution, activism beyond governmental confines is required to increase women’s breast cancer awareness and decrease mortality rates. Through the development of social support and strategic communicative methods enacted by healthcare providers, it may be possible to empower women with the tools necessary for breast cancer prevention. This paper discusses issues surrounding women’s breast cancer, such as awareness of the disease and its risks, self-advocacy, and the roles of activists, healthcare providers, and society. Specifically, it describes a four-year action-oriented research project developed in Venezuela, which was a collaborative work among researchers, practitioners, NGOs, patients, journalists, and policymakers. The outcomes include higher levels of awareness and interest among community members and organizations to learn and seek more information about women’s breast cancer, better understandings of the communicated messages, more media coverage and medical consultations, increasing positive patient treatments, expansion of networking of NGOs, as well as a widely supported declaration for a national response against breast cancer in Venezuela. PMID:27868080

  2. [Direct genetic manipulation and criminal code in Venezuela: absolute criminal law void?].

    PubMed

    Cermeño Zambrano, Fernando G De J

    2002-01-01

    The judicial regulation of genetic biotechnology applied to the human genome is of big relevance currently in Venezuela due to the drafting of an innovative bioethical law in the country's parliament. This article will highlight the constitutional normative of Venezuela's 1999 Constitution regarding this subject, as it establishes the framework from which this matter will be legally regulated. The approach this article makes towards the genetic biotechnology applied to the human genome is made taking into account the Venezuelan penal law and by highlighting the violent genetic manipulations that have criminal relevance. The genetic biotechnology applied to the human genome has another important relevance as a consequence of the reformulation of the Venezuelan Penal Code discussed by the country's National Assembly. Therefore, a concise study of the country's penal code will be made in this article to better understand what judicial-penal properties have been protected by the Venezuelan penal legislation. This last step will enable us to identify the penal tools Venezuela counts on to face direct genetic manipulations. We will equally indicate the existing punitive loophole and that should be covered by the penal legislator. In conclusion, this essay concerns criminal policy, referred to the direct genetic manipulations on the human genome that haven't been typified in Venezuelan law, thus discovering a genetic biotechnology paradise.

  3. Phenotypic and molecular identification of Fonsecaea pedrosoi strains isolated from chromoblastomycosis patients in Mexico and Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Carolina Rojas, O; León-Cachón, Rafael B R; Pérez-Maya, Antonio Alí; Aguirre-Garza, Marcelino; Moreno-Treviño, María G; González, Gloria M

    2015-05-01

    Chromoblastomycosis is a chronic granulomatous disease caused frequently by fungi of the Fonsecaea genus. The objective of this study was the phenotypic and molecular identification of F. pedrosoi strains isolated from chromoblastomycosis patients in Mexico and Venezuela. Ten strains were included in this study. For phenotypic identification, we used macroscopic and microscopic morphologies, carbohydrate assimilation test, urea hydrolysis, cixcloheximide tolerance, proteolitic activity and the thermotolerance test. The antifungal activity of five drugs was evaluated against the isolates. Molecular identification was performed by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal DNA regions of the isolated strains. The physiological analysis and morphological features were variable and the precise identification was not possible. All isolates were susceptible to itraconazole, terbinafine, voriconazole and posaconazole. Amphotericin B was the least effective drug. The alignment of the 559-nucleotide ITS sequences from our strains compared with sequences of GenBank revealed high homology with F. pedrosoi (EU285266.1). In this study, all patients were from rural areas, six from Mexico and four from Venezuela. Ten isolates were identified by phenotypic and molecular analysis, using ITS sequence and demonstrated that nine isolates from Mexico and Venezuela were 100% homologous and one isolate showed a small genetic distance.

  4. Molecular characterization of hepatitis E virus in patients with acute hepatitis in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    García, Cristina Gutiérrez; Sánchez, Doneyla; Villalba, Maria Caridad Montalvo; Pujol, Flor Helene; de Los Ángeles Rodríguez Lay, Licel; Pinto, Belquis; Chacón, Elsa Patricia; Guzmán, Maria Guadalupe

    2012-07-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes a common infection in developing countries. HEV infection occurs as outbreaks, as sporadic clinical cases and as large epidemics in endemic areas. The objective of this study was to determine the presence of HEV infection in patients with clinical suspicion of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection, referred to the Instituto Nacional de Higiene "Rafael Rangel" in Venezuela. Seventy-four sera were tested for anti-HAV and anti-HEV IgM antibodies. HEV-RNA was amplified from anti-HEV IgM positive sera using nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for ORF1 (RNA dependent RNA polymerase region) and the amplicons sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. The frequency of anti-HEV IgM was 22/74 (30%) in the samples tested. Dual infection with HAV and HEV was found in 31% (12/39) of anti-HAV IgM positive patients. Viremia was detected in 3/22 (14%) of sera positive for anti-HEV IgM. Two HEV strains were classified as genotype 1 and one as genotype 3, which were closely related to Yam 67 (north of India) and US1 isolates from the USA, respectively. These findings suggest that HEV is an important cause of acute viral hepatitis in Venezuela as a single infection or co-infection with HAV, with high morbidity in children and young adults suggesting that this infection is endemic in Venezuela.

  5. The Oklahoma Geographic Information Retrieval System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    The Oklahoma Geographic Information Retrieval System (OGIRS) is a highly interactive data entry, storage, manipulation, and display software system for use with geographically referenced data. Although originally developed for a project concerned with coal strip mine reclamation, OGIRS is capable of handling any geographically referenced data for a variety of natural resource management applications. A special effort has been made to integrate remotely sensed data into the information system. The timeliness and synoptic coverage of satellite data are particularly useful attributes for inclusion into the geographic information system.

  6. A study of source parameters and attenuation of earthquakes in a regime of subduction in the east of Venezuela using Genetic Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granado, C.; Vasquez, R.

    2007-05-01

    A sample of 50 earthquakes associated with the regime of subduction in the east of Venezuela has been analyzed in order to determine the following source parameters: seismic moment, stress drop and attenuation Q. The spectral content of the seismograms of this sample was studied with Brune´s model as a basic reference, while the numerical treatment- by means of Genetic Algorithms. The studied seismograms were obtained through the network of the Venezuelan Seismological Foundation, with FUNVISIS broadband sensors detecting noise signals for calculating Q. The spectral analysis of seismograms of this sample reveals preliminary values for M0 between 6.E+9 to 8.5E+12 Nm. When considering attenuation Q for frequencies of 2, 5, 4, 8 and 10 Hertz, a variable Q was obtained from 125 to 590, indicating a different tectonic behavior compared to a sample of superficial seismicity of greater attenuation for the same geographic region. Additionally, the correlation between Q(P) and Q(S) for the earthquakes of the relevant region was investigated.

  7. Geographic range limits: achieving synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Gaston, Kevin J.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding of the determinants of species' geographic range limits remains poorly integrated. In part, this is because of the diversity of perspectives on the issue, and because empirical studies have lagged substantially behind developments in theory. Here, I provide a broad overview, drawing together many of the disparate threads, considering, in turn, how influences on the terms of a simple single-population equation can determine range limits. There is theoretical and empirical evidence for systematic changes towards range limits under some circumstances in each of the demographic parameters. However, under other circumstances, no such changes may take place in particular parameters, or they may occur in a different direction, with limitation still occurring. This suggests that (i) little about range limitation can categorically be inferred from many empirical studies, which document change in only one demographic parameter, (ii) there is a need for studies that document variation in all of the parameters, and (iii) in agreement with theoretical evidence that range limits can be formed in the presence or absence of hard boundaries, environmental gradients or biotic interactions, there may be few general patterns as to the determinants of these limits, with most claimed generalities at least having many exceptions. PMID:19324809

  8. Geographical epidemiology, spatial analysis and geographical information systems: a multidisciplinary glossary.

    PubMed

    Rezaeian, Mohsen; Dunn, Graham; St Leger, Selwyn; Appleby, Louis

    2007-02-01

    We provide a relatively non-technical glossary of terms and a description of the tools used in spatial or geographical epidemiology and associated geographical information systems. Statistical topics included cover adjustment and standardisation to allow for demographic and other background differences, data structures, data smoothing, spatial autocorrelation and spatial regression. We also discuss the rationale for geographical epidemiology and specific techniques such as disease clustering, disease mapping, ecological analyses, geographical information systems and global positioning systems.

  9. 34 CFR 642.33 - Geographic distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Geographic distribution. 642.33 Section 642.33 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY... Grant? § 642.33 Geographic distribution. The Secretary, to the greatest extent possible, awards...

  10. 7 CFR 3565.213 - Geographic distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Geographic distribution. 3565.213 Section 3565.213 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Loan Requirements § 3565.213 Geographic distribution....

  11. Treatment of geographic tongue with topical tacrolimus

    PubMed Central

    Purani, Jigar M; Purani, Hiral J

    2014-01-01

    Geographic tongue is an inflammatory condition of the dorsal surface and lateral border of the tongue, which may be asymptomatic. This article presents a case of geographic tongue in a 6-year-old child. Successful management was achieved with topical application of 0.1% tacrolimus. PMID:25085945

  12. 38 CFR 36.4214 - Geographical limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Geographical limits. 36.4214 Section 36.4214 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... Preparation General Provisions § 36.4214 Geographical limits. The site for any manufactured home...

  13. 38 CFR 36.4332 - Geographical limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Geographical limits. 36.4332 Section 36.4332 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... Geographical limits. Any real property purchased, constructed, altered, improved, or repaired with the...

  14. 38 CFR 36.4411 - Geographical limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Geographical limits. 36.4411 Section 36.4411 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... Geographical limits. Any real property purchased, constructed, altered, improved, repaired, or...

  15. 38 CFR 36.4523 - Geographical limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Geographical limits. 36.4523 Section 36.4523 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) LOAN GUARANTY Direct Loans § 36.4523 Geographical limits. Any real property purchased, constructed,...

  16. Geographical Literacy and the Role of GIS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Bryan A.

    1999-01-01

    Demonstrates how Geographical Information Systems (GIS) can help develop student skills that enhance learning. Describes the application of GIS within secondary geography education, providing an example of its use at the Windaroo Valley State High School (Australia). Discusses GIS and geographic literacy. (CMK)

  17. 33 CFR 166.103 - Geographic coordinates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... charts whose referenced horizontal datum is the North American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83), unless such geographic coordinates are expressly labeled NAD 83. Geographic coordinates without the NAD 83 reference may be plotted on maps or charts referenced to NAD 83 only after application of the...

  18. 33 CFR 166.103 - Geographic coordinates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... charts whose referenced horizontal datum is the North American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83), unless such geographic coordinates are expressly labeled NAD 83. Geographic coordinates without the NAD 83 reference may be plotted on maps or charts referenced to NAD 83 only after application of the...

  19. 33 CFR 166.103 - Geographic coordinates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... charts whose referenced horizontal datum is the North American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83), unless such geographic coordinates are expressly labeled NAD 83. Geographic coordinates without the NAD 83 reference may be plotted on maps or charts referenced to NAD 83 only after application of the...

  20. 33 CFR 166.103 - Geographic coordinates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... charts whose referenced horizontal datum is the North American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83), unless such geographic coordinates are expressly labeled NAD 83. Geographic coordinates without the NAD 83 reference may be plotted on maps or charts referenced to NAD 83 only after application of the...

  1. Characterization and engineering of the ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway towards the improved heterologous production of polyketides in Streptomyces venezuelae.

    PubMed

    Jung, Won Seok; Kim, Eunji; Yoo, Young Ji; Ban, Yeon Hee; Kim, Eun Ji; Yoon, Yeo Joon

    2014-04-01

    Streptomyces venezuelae has an inherent advantage as a heterologous host for polyketide production due to its fast rate of growth that cannot be endowed easily through metabolic engineering. However, the utility of S. venezuelae as a host has been limited thus far due to its inadequate intracellular reserves of the (2S)-ethylmalonyl-CoA building block needed to support the biosynthesis of polyketides preventing the efficient production of the desired metabolite, such as tylactone. Here, via precursor supply engineering, we demonstrated that S. venezuelae can be developed into a more efficient general heterologous host for the quick production of polyketides. We first identified and functionally characterized the ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway which plays a major role in supplying the (2S)-ethylmalonyl-CoA extender unit in S. venezuelae. Next, S. venezuelae was successfully engineered to increase the intracellular ethylmalonyl-CoA concentration by the deletion of the meaA gene encoding coenzyme B₁₂-dependent ethylmalonyl-CoA mutase in combination with ethylmalonate supplementation and was engineered to upregulate the expression of the heterologous tylosin PKS by overexpression of the pathway specific regulatory gene pikD. Thus, a dramatic increase (∼10-fold) in tylactone production was achieved. In addition, the detailed insights into the role of the ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway, which is present in most streptomycetes, provides a general strategy to increase the ethylmalonyl-CoA supply for polyketide biosynthesis in the most prolific family of polyketide-producing bacteria.

  2. The Effect of Geographic Units of Analysis on Measuring Geographic Variation in Medical Services Utilization

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong Heon; Hwang, Kyosang; Lee, Taesik

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the effect of geographic units of analysis on measuring geographic variation in medical services utilization. For this purpose, we compared geographic variations in the rates of eight major procedures in administrative units (districts) and new areal units organized based on the actual health care use of the population in Korea. Methods: To compare geographic variation in geographic units of analysis, we calculated the age–sex standardized rates of eight major procedures (coronary artery bypass graft surgery, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, surgery after hip fracture, knee-replacement surgery, caesarean section, hysterectomy, computed tomography scan, and magnetic resonance imaging scan) from the National Health Insurance database in Korea for the 2013 period. Using the coefficient of variation, the extremal quotient, and the systematic component of variation, we measured geographic variation for these eight procedures in districts and new areal units. Results: Compared with districts, new areal units showed a reduction in geographic variation. Extremal quotients and inter-decile ratios for the eight procedures were lower in new areal units. While the coefficient of variation was lower for most procedures in new areal units, the pattern of change of the systematic component of variation between districts and new areal units differed among procedures. Conclusions: Geographic variation in medical service utilization could vary according to the geographic unit of analysis. To determine how geographic characteristics such as population size and number of geographic units affect geographic variation, further studies are needed. PMID:27499165

  3. Venezuela’s Potential Threat to the United States’ National Security: An Analysis of the Conflictual Inter-Country Relationship

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-07

    State run oil company, Petróleos de Venezuela ( PDVSA ), is in a chaotic turmoil. “ PDVSA has become far more poorly managed since a strike two years ago...corruption, PDVSA oil production is declining which requires private companies to make up more of the oil supply. 25 However, Venezuela current economy

  4. Composing Models of Geographic Physical Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofer, Barbara; Frank, Andrew U.

    Processes are central for geographic information science; yet geographic information systems (GIS) lack capabilities to represent process related information. A prerequisite to including processes in GIS software is a general method to describe geographic processes independently of application disciplines. This paper presents such a method, namely a process description language. The vocabulary of the process description language is derived formally from mathematical models. Physical processes in geography can be described in two equivalent languages: partial differential equations or partial difference equations, where the latter can be shown graphically and used as a method for application specialists to enter their process models. The vocabulary of the process description language comprises components for describing the general behavior of prototypical geographic physical processes. These process components can be composed by basic models of geographic physical processes, which is shown by means of an example.

  5. Historical Biogeography Using Species Geographical Ranges

    PubMed Central

    Quintero, Ignacio; Keil, Petr; Jetz, Walter; Crawford, Forrest W.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial variation in biodiversity is the result of complex interactions between evolutionary history and ecological factors. Methods in historical biogeography combine phylogenetic information with current species locations to infer the evolutionary history of a clade through space and time. A major limitation of most methods for historical biogeographic inference is the requirement of single locations for terminal lineages, reducing contemporary species geographical ranges to a point in two-dimensional space. In reality, geographic ranges usually show complex geographic patterns, irregular shapes, or discontinuities. In this article, we describe a method for phylogeographic analysis using polygonal species geographic ranges of arbitrary complexity. By integrating the geographic diversification process across species ranges, we provide a method to infer the geographic location of ancestors in a Bayesian framework. By modeling migration conditioned on a phylogenetic tree, this approach permits reconstructing the geographic location of ancestors through time. We apply this new method to the diversification of two neotropical bird genera, Trumpeters (Psophia) and Cinclodes ovenbirds. We demonstrate the usefulness of our method (called rase) in phylogeographic reconstruction of species ancestral locations and contrast our results with previous methods that compel researchers to reduce the distribution of species to one point in space. We discuss model extensions to enable a more general, spatially explicit framework for historical biogeographic analysis. PMID:26254671

  6. Historical Biogeography Using Species Geographical Ranges.

    PubMed

    Quintero, Ignacio; Keil, Petr; Jetz, Walter; Crawford, Forrest W

    2015-11-01

    Spatial variation in biodiversity is the result of complex interactions between evolutionary history and ecological factors. Methods in historical biogeography combine phylogenetic information with current species locations to infer the evolutionary history of a clade through space and time. A major limitation of most methods for historical biogeographic inference is the requirement of single locations for terminal lineages, reducing contemporary species geographical ranges to a point in two-dimensional space. In reality, geographic ranges usually show complex geographic patterns, irregular shapes, or discontinuities. In this article, we describe a method for phylogeographic analysis using polygonal species geographic ranges of arbitrary complexity. By integrating the geographic diversification process across species ranges, we provide a method to infer the geographic location of ancestors in a Bayesian framework. By modeling migration conditioned on a phylogenetic tree, this approach permits reconstructing the geographic location of ancestors through time. We apply this new method to the diversification of two neotropical bird genera, Trumpeters (Psophia) and Cinclodes ovenbirds. We demonstrate the usefulness of our method (called rase) in phylogeographic reconstruction of species ancestral locations and contrast our results with previous methods that compel researchers to reduce the distribution of species to one point in space. We discuss model extensions to enable a more general, spatially explicit framework for historical biogeographic analysis.

  7. Differences in crop bacterial community structure between hoatzins from different geographical locations.

    PubMed

    Godoy-Vitorino, Filipa; Leal, Sara J; Díaz, Wilmer A; Rosales, Judith; Goldfarb, Katherine C; García-Amado, María A; Michelangeli, Fabían; Brodie, Eoin L; Domínguez-Bello, María G

    2012-04-01

    The hoatzin is the only known folivorous bird with foregut fermentation, and is distributed in Venezuela in rivers of the central savannas to the eastern Orinoco River. Differences in diet are expected to affect the digestive microbiota and we hypothesized that hoatzins from different habitats might have a different crop microbiota. We thus characterized the microbiota of six birds from the Cojedes and Orinoco Rivers using the G2 PhyloChip and, in parallel, we compared plant availability and foraging behavior of the hoatzins from the two locations. Plant composition differed between the 2 locations, which shared 5 out of 18 plant families and 1 plant genus--Coccoloba--that was highly consumed in both locations. The PhyloChip detected ∼1600 phylotypes from 42 phyla. There was a core microbiota with ~50% of the OTUs shared by at least 4 of the 6 individuals, but there were also differences in the crop microbiota of animals from the two regions. There existed a higher relative abundance of Alphaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria in the crops of birds from the Cojedes River and of Clostridia and Deltaproteobacteria in the crops of birds from the Orinoco River. The results showed both a core crop microbiota and also the bacterial taxa responsible for geographical differences among individuals from the two locations with different vegetation, suggesting an effect of both diet and geography in shaping the crop bacterial community of the hoatzin.

  8. Geographical Information Systems risk assessment models for zoonotic fascioliasis in the South American Andes region.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, M V; Sainz-Elipe, S; Nieto, P; Malone, J B; Mas-Coma, S

    2005-03-01

    The WHO recognises Fasciola hepatica to be an important human health problem. The Andean countries of Peru, Bolivia and Chile are those most severely affected by this distomatosis, though areas of Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela are also affected. As part of a multidisciplinary project, we present results of use of a Geographical Information Systems (GIS) forecast model to conduct an epidemiological analysis of human and animal fasciolosis in the central part of the Andes mountains. The GIS approach enabled us to develop a spatial and temporal epidemiological model to map the disease in the areas studied and to classify transmission risk into low, moderate and high risk areas so that areas requiring the implementation of control activities can be identified. Current results are available on a local scale for: (1) the northern Bolivian Altiplano, (2) Puno in the Peruvian Altiplano, (3) the Cajamarca and Mantaro Peruvian valleys, and (4) the Ecuadorian provinces of Azuay, Cotopaxi and Imbabura. Analysis of results demonstrated the validity of a forecast model that combines use of climatic data to calculate of forecast indices with remote sensing data, through the classification of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) maps.

  9. Genetic diversity and geographic pattern in early South American cotton domestication.

    PubMed

    Westengen, Ola T; Huamán, Zósimo; Heun, Manfred

    2005-01-01

    Amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting was applied to survey the genetic diversity of primitive South American Gossypium barbadense cotton for establishing a possible link to its pre-Columbian expansion. New germplasm was collected along coastal Peru and over an Andean transect in areas where most of the archaeological evidence relating to cotton domestication has been recorded. Gene bank material of three diploid (G. raimondii, G. arboreum, and G. herbaceum) and four allotetraploid cotton species (G. hirsutum, G. mustelinum, G. tomentosum and additional G. barbadense) was added for inter- and intra-specific comparison. Eight primer combinations yielded 340 polymorphic bands among the 131 accessions. The obtained neighbor joining and unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means are in full agreement with the known cytogenetics of the tetraploid cottons and their diploid genome donors. The four tetraploid species are clearly distinct based on taxonomic classification. The genetic diversity within G. barbadense reveals geographic patterns. The locally maintained cottons from coastal Peru display a distinct genetic diversity that mirrors their primitive agro-morphological traits. Accessions from the northernmost coast of Peru and from southwestern (SW) Ecuador cluster basal to the east-of-Andes accessions. The remaining accessions from Bolivia, Brazil, Columbia, Venezuela, and the Caribbean and Pacific islands cluster with the east-of-Andes accessions. Northwestern Peru/SW Ecuador (the area flanking the Guayaquil gulf) appears to be the center of the primitive domesticated G. barbadense cotton from where it spread over the Andes and expanded into its pre-Columbian range.

  10. Remote sensing and geographically based information systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cicone, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    The incorporation of remotely sensed digital data in a computer based information system is seen to be equivalent to the incorporation of any other spatially oriented layer of data. The growing interest in such systems indicates a need to develop a generalized geographically oriented data base management system that could be made commercially available for a wide range of applications. Some concepts that distinguish geographic information systems were reviewed, and a simple model which can serve as a conceptual framework for the design of a generalized geographic information system was examined.

  11. Lithospheric Expressions of the Precambrian Shield, Mesozoic Rifting, and Cenozoic Subduction and Mountain Building in Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levander, A.; Masy, J.; Niu, F.

    2013-05-01

    The Caribbean (CAR)-South American (SA) plate boundary in Venezuela is a broad zone of faulting and diffuse deformation. GPS measurements show the CAR moving approximately 2 cm/yr relative to SA, parallel to the strike slip fault system in the east, with more oblique convergence in the west (Weber et al., 2001) causing the southern edge of the Caribbean to subduct beneath northwestern South America. The west is further complicated by the motion of the triangular Maracaibo block, which is escaping northeastward relative to SA along the Bocono and Santa Marta Faults. In central and eastern Venezuela, plate motion is accommodated by transpression and transtension along the right lateral San Sebastian- El Pilar strike-slip fault system. The strike-slip system marks the northern edge of coastal thrust belts and their associated foreland basins. The Archean-Proterozoic Guayana Shield, part of the Amazonian Craton, underlies southeastern and south-central Venezuela. We used the 87 station Venezuela-U.S. BOLIVAR array (Levander et al., 2006) to investigate lithospheric structure in northern South America. We combined finite-frequency Rayleigh wave tomography with Ps and Sp receiver functions to determine lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) depth. We measured Rayleigh phase velocities from 45 earthquakes in the period band 20-100s. The phase velocities were inverted for 1D shear velocity structure on a 0.5 by 0.5 degree grid. Crustal thickness for the starting model was determined from active seismic experiments and receiver function analysis. The resulting 3D shear velocity model was then used to determine the depth of the LAB, and to CCP stack Ps and Sp receiver functions from ~45 earthquakes. The receiver functions were calculated in several frequency bands using iterative deconvolution and inverse filtering. Lithospheric thickness varies by more a factor of 2.5 across Venezuela. We can divide the lithosphere into several distinct provinces, with LAB depth

  12. Investigating human geographic origins using dual-isotope (87Sr/86Sr, δ18O) assignment approaches

    PubMed Central

    Sonnemann, Till F.; Shafie, Termeh; Hofman, Corinne L.; Brandes, Ulrik; Davies, Gareth R.

    2017-01-01

    Substantial progress in the application of multiple isotope analyses has greatly improved the ability to identify nonlocal individuals amongst archaeological populations over the past decades. More recently the development of large scale models of spatial isotopic variation (isoscapes) has contributed to improved geographic assignments of human and animal origins. Persistent challenges remain, however, in the accurate identification of individual geographic origins from skeletal isotope data in studies of human (and animal) migration and provenance. In an attempt to develop and test more standardized and quantitative approaches to geographic assignment of individual origins using isotopic data two methods, combining 87Sr/86Sr and δ18O isoscapes, are examined for the Circum-Caribbean region: 1) an Interval approach using a defined range of fixed isotopic variation per location; and 2) a Likelihood assignment approach using univariate and bivariate probability density functions. These two methods are tested with enamel isotope data from a modern sample of known origin from Caracas, Venezuela and further explored with two archaeological samples of unknown origin recovered from Cuba and Trinidad. The results emphasize both the potential and limitation of the different approaches. Validation tests on the known origin sample exclude most areas of the Circum-Caribbean region and correctly highlight Caracas as a possible place of origin with both approaches. The positive validation results clearly demonstrate the overall efficacy of a dual-isotope approach to geoprovenance. The accuracy and precision of geographic assignments may be further improved by better understanding of the relationships between environmental and biological isotope variation; continued development and refinement of relevant isoscapes; and the eventual incorporation of a broader array of isotope proxy data. PMID:28222163

  13. Developing Streptomyces venezuelae as a cell factory for the production of small molecules used in drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Ji; Yang, Inho; Yoon, Yeo Joon

    2015-09-01

    The heterologous expression of biosynthetic pathways is an indispensable tool for drug discovery and development from natural products. Streptomyces venezuelae is a promising heterologous host as it offers several attractive advantages, such as rapid growth rate, convenient genetic manipulation, and an abundant supply of common biosynthetic building blocks. In recent decades, several S. venezuelae mutant strains have been constructed and used to facilitate the synthesis and derivatization of diverse natural products. In this review article, we have provided a schematic look at these host strains, which were used to synthesize natural products from genetically engineered biosynthetic gene clusters.

  14. Metabolic engineering of Streptomyces venezuelae for malonyl-CoA biosynthesis to enhance heterologous production of polyketides.

    PubMed

    Maharjan, Sushila; Park, Je Won; Yoon, Yeo Joon; Lee, Hei Chan; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2010-02-01

    Using metabolic engineering, we developed Streptomyces venezuelae YJ028 as an efficient heterologous host to increase the malonyl-CoA pool to be directed towards enhanced production of various polyketides. To probe the applicability of newly developed hosts in the heterologous production of polyketides, we expressed type III polyketide synthase, 1,3,6,8-tetrahydroxynaphthalene synthase, in these hosts. Flaviolin production was doubled by expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) and 4-fold by combined expression of ACCase, metK1-sp and afsR-sp. Thus, the newly developed Streptomyces venezuelae YJ028 hosts produce heterologous polyketides more efficiently than the parent strain.

  15. Geologic constraints and controls on petroleum migration in eastern Venezuela basin

    SciTech Connect

    Aymard, R.; Baker, D.R.; Lander, R.

    1986-05-01

    This work focuses on the petroleum accumulations of the Anaco, Greater Oficina, and Faja (heavy-oil) areas along a north-south transect through the Eastern Venezuela basin. The authors believe these major accumulations are directly related to the Tertiary generative basin defined by the enormous fill of Tertiary sediments extending from the Guayana shield shelf edge on the south to the loci of Tertiary depocenters adjacent to the Venezuela coastal cordillera on the north. Factors that place constraints on the evolution of petroleum development in the Eastern Venezuela basin include: (1) accumulations of heavy oil in the Faja are unusually large; (2) petroleum in the Greater Oficina area is dominantly paraffinic-naphthenic, but is variable; (3) paraffinic (waxy) petroleum occurs within the Anaco area (4) petroleum is concentrated in the basal part of the Tertiary section; (5) most of the petroleum in sandstone reservoirs occurs near the shelf edge within immature sections, i.e., below the oil-generation threshold; and (6) petroleum is trapped on the north (basinal) side of faults. The major controls of petroleum variability and occurrence appear to be: (1) the temporal relationship between the generation and fluid expulsion history of the Tertiary basin fill; (2) the stratigraphic framework involving distinctive regressive-transgressive sequences that progressively onlap the shelf edge and are characterized by repetitive sedimentary packages (lower prodelta and upper transgressive shales separated by medial sandstones), which behaved as semi-independent units of generation, expulsion, and migration; (3) the related temporal development of the faults as effective seals.

  16. Residential energy use and conservation in Venezuela: Results and implications of a household survey in Caracas

    SciTech Connect

    Figueroa, M.J.; Ketoff, A.; Masera, O.

    1992-10-01

    This document presents the final report of a study of residential energy use in Caracas, the capital of Venezuela. It contains the findings of a household energy-use survey held in Caracas in 1988 and examines options for introducing energy conservation measures in the Venezuelan residential sector. Oil exports form the backbone of the Venezuelan economy. Improving energy efficiency in Venezuela will help free domestic oil resources that can be sold to the rest of the world. Energy conservation will also contribute to a faster recovery of the economy by reducing the need for major investments in new energy facilities, allowing the Venezuelan government to direct its financial investments towards other areas of development. Local environmental benefits will constitute an important additional by-product of implementing energy-efficiency policies in Venezuela. Caracas`s residential sector shows great potential for energy conservation. The sector is characterized by high saturation levels of major appliances, inefficiency of appliances available in the market, and by careless patterns of energy use. Household energy use per capita average 6.5 GJ/per year which is higher than most cities in developing countries; most of this energy is used for cooking. Electricity accounts for 41% of all energy use, while LPG and natural gas constitute the remainder. Specific options for inducing energy conservation and energy efficiency in Caracas`s residential sector include energy-pricing policies, fuel switching, particularly from electricity to gas, improving the energy performance of new appliances and customer information. To ensure the accomplishment of an energy-efficiency strategy, a concerted effort by energy users, manufacturers, utility companies, government agencies, and research institutions will be needed.

  17. [Urban construction, professions, and immigration at the origin of urban studies in Venezuela, 1870-1957].

    PubMed

    Martin Frechilla, J J

    1996-01-01

    The individuals and circumstances involved in the creation of the first graduate urban studies program in Venezuela are recalled, beginning with the odernization of Caracas under the impulse of President Antonio Guzman Blanco, elected in 1870. Guzman Blanco converted himself into Venezuela's first urbanist with the establishment of organizational frameworks and completion of massive public works projects, which were based largely on the urban models of the US and Europe. Engineering and public health were consolidated as the two most influential sources of professional competence for guiding urban development. By the mid-1930s, growth fueled by petroleum revenues was causing rapid urbanization, and it became apparent that trained professionals able to manage the increasingly complex tasks of urban planning were in short supply. A new surge of modernizing construction began in 1936 and led to a cooperative arrangement with a French firm, whose personnel were to be required to train Venezuelan engineers for future service in urban planning. An influx of refugees from the Spanish Civil War and the increasing influence of urban planning processes in the US were also observed. The National Commission on Urbanism was created in 1946 as a dependency of the Ministry of Planning to facilitate public administration of the development and control of cities. Throughout the period, a debate was underway on the need for a multidisciplinary approach to urban planning versus a primarily architectural or engineering approach. In 1957, some consensus was reached on the need for urban planning to be viewed as more than a speciality of architecture. A framework was developed for a graduate program in 1969 in the Central University of Venezuela. The National Commission on Urbanism was disbanded in 1957, largely because of its excessive focus on architecture to the exclusion of other disciplines relevant to the urbanization process.

  18. Infection with transfusion-transmitted virus (TTV) in humans and other primates in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Pujol, F H; Mejías, E; Loureiro, C L; Ludert, J E; Liprandi, F; Pernalete, J M

    2005-03-01

    Tranfusion-transmitted virus (TTV), a single-stranded circular DNA virus that chronically infects humans and other animals, displays a high degree of genetic diversity and was originally thought to be associated with hepatitis. The prevalences of TTV infection among different populations of humans and non-human primates from Venezuela have now been evaluated, using serum samples and three different detection tests. All three tests were PCR-based, one involving a hemi-nested PCR and primers based on the N22 open-reading-frame-1 region (N22-PCR), another employing 55 cycles with primers from the more conserved untranslated region (UTR-PCR), and the other using a hemi-nested PCR with primers from the same region (HUTR-PCR). The overall prevalences of human infection appeared much higher with the HUTR-PCR (52%) than with the N22-PCR (13%) or the UTR-PCR (5%). When the products amplified by N22-PCR from 28 human isolates of TTV were sequenced, only two genotypes of the virus were detected. The non-human sera tested came from primates kept in a zoo in north-western Venezuela. TTV DNA was detected, by HUTR-PCR, in both of the chimpanzee sera tested but not in any of the sera from the 11 New-World primates or the other 12 Old-World primates that were investigated. The results, particularly those of the HUTR-PCR, indicate that TTV infection is common in Venezuela, especially in populations, such as many Amerindian groups, who live under poor sanitary conditions. Although TTV infection may be relatively rare among non-human primates from the New World, this will have to be investigated further, using many more samples collected throughout the Americas.

  19. [Cardiovascular risk: initial estimation in the study cohort "CDC of the Canary Islands in Venezuela"].

    PubMed

    Viso, Miguel; Rodríguez, Zulma; Loreto, Neydys; Fernández, Yolima; Callegari, Carlos; Nicita, Graciela; González, Julio; Cabrera de León, Antonio; Reigosa, Aldo

    2011-12-01

    In Venezuela as in the Canary Islands (Spain), cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this research is to estimate the cardiovascular risk in the Canary Islands migrants living in Venezuela and participating in the study cohort "CDC of the Canary Islands in Venezuela". 452 individuals, aged 18 to 93 years (54.9% women), were enrolled between June 2008 and August 2009. A data survey was performed and their weight, height, abdomen and hip circumferences, and blood pressure were measured. After a 12-hour fasting period, a blood sample was obtained for glucose and lipid profile determinations. 40.5% of the subjects were over 65 years of age and 8% corresponded to the younger group (18-30 years). In men, the average age was 57.69 +/- 18.17 years and the body mass index 29.39 +/- 5.71 kg/m2, whereas women were 56.50 +/- 16.91 years and 28.20 +/- 5.57 kg/m2, respectively. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 49.1%, overweight and obesity together 75,2%, abdominal obesity 85.4%, diabetes 17.4%, impaired fasting glucose (IFG) 12.2%, elevated blood pressure 52.9%, low HDL-cholesterol 53,8% and elevated serum triglycerides 31%. Among subjects without diabetes or IFG, a third showed a high triglycerides/HDL-cholesterol ratio, indicating insulin resistance. We conclude that the Canarian-Venezuelan community suffers high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (obesity, abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, diabetes). In relation to the current population of the Canary Islands, they show a lower frequency of IFG and a higher frequency of low HDL-cholesterol. In comparison to the Venezuelan population (Zulia), they showed to have lower prevalence of IFG, low HDL cholesterol and elevated triglycerides.

  20. The impact of climate change on the geographical distribution of two vectors of Chagas disease: implications for the force of infection

    PubMed Central

    Medone, Paula; Ceccarelli, Soledad; Parham, Paul E.; Figuera, Andreína; Rabinovich, Jorge E.

    2015-01-01

    Chagas disease, caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is the most important vector-borne disease in Latin America. The vectors are insects belonging to the Triatominae (Hemiptera, Reduviidae), and are widely distributed in the Americas. Here, we assess the implications of climatic projections for 2050 on the geographical footprint of two of the main Chagas disease vectors: Rhodnius prolixus (tropical species) and Triatoma infestans (temperate species). We estimated the epidemiological implications of current to future transitions in the climatic niche in terms of changes in the force of infection (FOI) on the rural population of two countries: Venezuela (tropical) and Argentina (temperate). The climatic projections for 2050 showed heterogeneous impact on the climatic niches of both vector species, with a decreasing trend of suitability of areas that are currently at high-to-moderate transmission risk. Consequently, climatic projections affected differently the FOI for Chagas disease in Venezuela and Argentina. Despite the heterogeneous results, our main conclusions point out a decreasing trend in the number of new cases of Tr. cruzi human infections per year between current and future conditions using a climatic niche approach. PMID:25688019

  1. The impact of climate change on the geographical distribution of two vectors of Chagas disease: implications for the force of infection.

    PubMed

    Medone, Paula; Ceccarelli, Soledad; Parham, Paul E; Figuera, Andreína; Rabinovich, Jorge E

    2015-04-05

    Chagas disease, caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is the most important vector-borne disease in Latin America. The vectors are insects belonging to the Triatominae (Hemiptera, Reduviidae), and are widely distributed in the Americas. Here, we assess the implications of climatic projections for 2050 on the geographical footprint of two of the main Chagas disease vectors: Rhodnius prolixus (tropical species) and Triatoma infestans (temperate species). We estimated the epidemiological implications of current to future transitions in the climatic niche in terms of changes in the force of infection (FOI) on the rural population of two countries: Venezuela (tropical) and Argentina (temperate). The climatic projections for 2050 showed heterogeneous impact on the climatic niches of both vector species, with a decreasing trend of suitability of areas that are currently at high-to-moderate transmission risk. Consequently, climatic projections affected differently the FOI for Chagas disease in Venezuela and Argentina. Despite the heterogeneous results, our main conclusions point out a decreasing trend in the number of new cases of Tr. cruzi human infections per year between current and future conditions using a climatic niche approach.

  2. Coexistence of mcr-1 and blaNDM-1 in Escherichia coli from Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-Blas, Jose F.; Ovejero, Cristina M.; Abadia-Patiño, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    We studied the presence of the mobile colistin resistance gene mcr-1 in human, animal, and environmental Enterobacteriaceae samples from Cumana, Venezuela, that were collected in 2015. The mcr-1 gene was detected in 2/93 Escherichia coli isolates from swine (novel ST452) and human (ST19) samples that were resistant to colistin. Whole-genome sequencing and transformation experiments identified mcr-1 on an IncI2 plasmid. One of the isolates also bore the widely spread carbapenemase NDM-1. A One Health approach is necessary to further elucidate the flux of these high-risk genes. PMID:27431212

  3. Characterization of l-Digitoxosyl-phenanthroviridin from Streptomyces venezuelae ISP5230.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Andrew W; Martinez-Farina, Camilo F; Syvitski, Raymond T; Jakeman, David L

    2015-08-28

    The jadomycin-derived compound l-digitoxosyl-phenanthroviridin was isolated from fermentations of Streptomyces venezuelae ISP5230 grown in nutrient-deficient media with l-lysine as the sole nitrogen source. Structural elucidation was accomplished using a combination of high-resolution MS, LC-MS/MS, and 1D- and 2D-NMR. The compound was evaluated against the National Cancer Institute (NCI) 60 human tumor cell line screen in both the one-dose and five-dose screens, and cytotoxicity was compared to a small library of jadomycin analogues to probe the structure-activity relationship.

  4. Neopikromycin and novapikromycin from the pikromycin biosynthetic pathway of Streptomyces venezuelae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Kil; Park, Je Won; Kim, Ji Won; Jung, Won Seok; Park, Sung Ryeol; Choi, Cha Yong; Kim, Eung Soo; Kim, Beom Seok; Ahn, Jong Seog; Sherman, David H; Yoon, Yeo Joon

    2006-05-01

    Two new macrolides from the pikromycin biosynthetic pathway of Streptomyces venezuelae, neopikromycin (9) and novapikromycin (10), were identified and structurally characterized through mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. The established structures showed that 9 and 10 have hydroxyl groups at C-14 (9) and at both C-12 and C-14 (10), on the basis of a comparison with narbomycin (7). The purified PikC cytochrome P450 monooxygenase catalyzes the in vitro hydroxylation of 7 and pikromycin (8) to yield 9 and 10, respectively, thus expanding the substrate- and regio-flexibility of this enzyme.

  5. Molecular Evidence of Anaplasma platys Infection in Two Women from Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Arraga-Alvarado, Cruz M.; Qurollo, Barbara A.; Parra, Omaira C.; Berrueta, Maribel A.; Hegarty, Barbara C.; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents two case reports of Anaplasma platys detection in two women from Venezuela. Both patients were exposed to Rhipicephalus sanguineus, the presumed tick vector, and experienced chronic, nonspecific clinical signs including headaches and muscle pains. Intra-platelet inclusion bodies resembling A. platys were observed in buffy coat smears and A. platys DNA was amplified and sequenced from whole blood; however, treatment with doxycycline did not alleviate their symptoms. These cases provide further support for A. platys as a zoonotic tick-borne pathogen, most likely of low pathogenicity; nonetheless, the cause of illness in humans by A. platys is yet to be confirmed. PMID:25266347

  6. Correlated morphologic and genetic diversity among Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) collections in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Arrivillaga, J C; Rangel, Y N; Oviedo, M; Feliciangeli, M D

    2000-06-01

    Diversity among Lutzomyia longipalpis populations in Venezuela was characterized using 2 methods: larval mouthpart morphology-morphometry and isoenzyme electrophoresis. Analysis of the results suggested the presence of 2 morpho-genotypes. The mentum, maxillary comb, mandibular ventral teeth, and adenylate kinase and hexokinase enzyme-encoding loci suggested that a population from the northwestern Coriano System (Curarigua) is a distinct lineage within the L. longipalpis complex. Three widely separated populations from the Llanos (savanna), Andes, and northcentral Coastal Cordillera showed no significant substructure. These studies provide morphologic markers that are congruent with genetic data and suggest that the morphologic markers may be used to characterize and differentiate populations within this species complex.

  7. Monitoring of organophosphorus pesticide residues in vegetables of agricultural area in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Quintero, América; Caselles, María J; Ettiene, Gretty; de Colmenares, Nélida G; Ramírez, Tibisay; Medina, Deisy

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the residues of seven pesticides organophosphorus (methamidophos, diazinon, chlorpyriphos, parathion-methyl, dimethoate, malathion and tetrachlorvinphos), in some vegetables like: potato, lettuce, tomato, onion, red pepper and green onion cultivated in José María Vargas County in Táchira State, Venezuela. The research permitted to detect that 48.0% of the samples were contaminated with some of the pesticides studied. Methamidophos was founded in the vegetables in the rank of 6.3%-65.5%. The results show that 16.7% of the samples tested have residues higher than the maximum limits permitted.

  8. Diurnal raptors in the fragmented rain forest of the Sierra Imataca, Venezuela

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alvarez, E.; Ellis, D.H.; Smith, D.G.; LaRue, C.T.; Bird, David M.; Varland, Daniel E.; Negro, Juan Jose

    1996-01-01

    The rain forest of the Sierra Imataca in eastern Venezuela has been subjected to extensive deforestation for pastures and agricultural settlements. In the last decade the opening of access roads combined with intensified logging and mining activities have fragmented a significant portion of the remaining forest. We noted local distribution and habitat use for 42 species of diurnal raptors observed in affected areas in this region. We observed some raptors considered as forest interior species and other open country species foraging and roosting in man-made openings inside the forest.

  9. Diurnal raptors in the fragmented rain forest of the Sierra Imataca, Venezuela

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alvarez, E.; Ellis, D.H.; Smith, D.G.; LaRue, C.T.

    1994-01-01

    The rain forest of the Sierra Imataca in eastern Venezuela has been subjected to extensive deforestation for pastures and agricultural settlements. In the last decade the opening of access roads combined with intensified logging and mining activities have fragmented a significant portion of the remaining forest. We noted local distribution and habitat use for 40 species of diurnal raptors observed in ten affected areas, including raptors considered as forest interior species and some open country species utilizing the man-made openings inside the forest for roosting and foraging.

  10. Coexistence of mcr-1 and blaNDM-1 in Escherichia coli from Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Blas, Jose F; Ovejero, Cristina M; Abadia-Patiño, Lorena; Gonzalez-Zorn, Bruno

    2016-10-01

    We studied the presence of the mobile colistin resistance gene mcr-1 in human, animal, and environmental Enterobacteriaceae samples from Cumana, Venezuela, that were collected in 2015. The mcr-1 gene was detected in 2/93 Escherichia coli isolates from swine (novel ST452) and human (ST19) samples that were resistant to colistin. Whole-genome sequencing and transformation experiments identified mcr-1 on an IncI2 plasmid. One of the isolates also bore the widely spread carbapenemase NDM-1. A One Health approach is necessary to further elucidate the flux of these high-risk genes.

  11. Genetic variation of 15 STR autosomal loci in the Maracaibo population from Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Lennie Pineda; Borjas, Lisbeth; Zabala, William; Portillo, María Gabriela; Fernández, Erika; Delgado, Wilmer; Tovar, Florangel; Lander, Noelia; Chiurillo, Miguel Angel; Ramírez, José Luis; García, Oscar

    2006-08-10

    Allele frequencies for 15 short tandem repeats (STRs) autosomal loci (D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, TH01, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, vWA, TPOX, D18S51, D5S818 and FGA, included in the AmpFLSTR Identifiler, Applied Biosystems) were studied in the city of Maracaibo, Venezuela and were compared with other published Latin-American populations for the same loci. Population and forensic parameters were estimated.

  12. A study on the genus Agrilaxia Kerremans, 1903 from Venezuela (Coleoptera: Buprestidae: Buprestinae: Anthaxiini).

    PubMed

    Bílý, Svatopluk

    2015-11-03

    Study on the genus Agrilaxia Kerremans, 1903 from Venezuela. Altogether eight species were recorded from this country, four of them are described in this paper: Agrilaxia (Agrilaxia) biformis sp. nov., A. (A.) michaeli sp. nov., A. (A.) stephani sp. nov. and A. (A.) venezuelana sp. nov. All species are illustrated and new species are compared with the most similar/related species. A male of Agrilaxia (A.) balloui Fisher, 1942 is described and the male genitalia are illustrated. New country records are given for Agrilaxia (A.) balloui, A. (A.) costaricensis Obenberger, 1922, A. (A.) glabra Bílý & Brûlé 2013 and A. (A.) simillima Cobos, 1972.

  13. Case report: Molecular evidence of Anaplasma platys infection in two women from Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Arraga-Alvarado, Cruz M; Qurollo, Barbara A; Parra, Omaira C; Berrueta, Maribel A; Hegarty, Barbara C; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

    2014-12-01

    This article presents two case reports of Anaplasma platys detection in two women from Venezuela. Both patients were exposed to Rhipicephalus sanguineus, the presumed tick vector, and experienced chronic, nonspecific clinical signs including headaches and muscle pains. Intra-platelet inclusion bodies resembling A. platys were observed in buffy coat smears and A. platys DNA was amplified and sequenced from whole blood; however, treatment with doxycycline did not alleviate their symptoms. These cases provide further support for A. platys as a zoonotic tick-borne pathogen, most likely of low pathogenicity; nonetheless, the cause of illness in humans by A. platys is yet to be confirmed.

  14. Layers of Information: Geographic Information Systems (GIS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucking, Robert A.; Christmann, Edwin P.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Geographic Information System (GIS) which is capable of storing, manipulating, and displaying data allowing students to explore complex relationships through scientific inquiry. Explains applications of GIS in middle school classrooms and includes assessment strategies. (YDS)

  15. Remote sensing and geographically based information systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cicone, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    A structure is proposed for a geographically-oriented computer-based information system applicable to the analysis of remote sensing digital data. The structure, intended to answer a wide variety of user needs, would permit multiple views of the data, provide independent management of data security, quality and integrity, and rely on automatic data filing. Problems in geographically-oriented data systems, including those related to line encoding and cell encoding, are considered.

  16. Geographical networks evolving with an optimal policy.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yan-Bo; Zhou, Tao; Bai, Wen-Jie; Chen, Guanrong; Xiao, Wei-Ke; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2007-03-01

    In this article we propose a growing network model based on an optimal policy involving both topological and geographical measures. In this model, at each time step, a node, having randomly assigned coordinates in a 1x1 square, is added and connected to a previously existing node i, which minimizes the quantity ri2/kialpha, where ri is the geographical distance, ki the degree, and alpha a free parameter. The degree distribution obeys a power-law form when alpha=1, and an exponential form when alpha=0. When alpha is in the interval (0, 1), the network exhibits a stretched exponential distribution. We prove that the average topological distance increases in a logarithmic scale of the network size, indicating the existence of the small-world property. Furthermore, we obtain the geographical edge length distribution, the total geographical length of all edges, and the average geographical distance of the whole network. Interestingly, we found that the total edge length will sharply increase when alpha exceeds the critical value alphac=1, and the average geographical distance has an upper bound independent of the network size. All the results are obtained analytically with some reasonable approximations, which are well verified by simulations.

  17. The Geographic Scale of Metropolitan Racial Segregation

    PubMed Central

    REARDON, SEAN F.; MATTHEWS, STEPHEN A.; O’SULLIVAN, DAVID; LEE, BARRETT A.; FIREBAUGH, GLENN; FARRELL, CHAD R.; BISCHOFF, KENDRA

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses an aspect of racial residential segregation that has been largely ignored in prior work: the issue of geographic scale. In some metropolitan areas, racial groups are segregated over large regions, with predominately white regions, predominately black regions, and so on, whereas in other areas, the separation of racial groups occurs over much shorter distances. Here we develop an approach—featuring the segregation profile and the corresponding macro/micro segregation ratio—that offers a scale-sensitive alternative to standard methodological practice for describing segregation. Using this approach, we measure and describe the geographic scale of racial segregation in the 40 largest U.S. metropolitan areas in 2000. We find considerable heterogeneity in the geographic scale of segregation patterns across both metropolitan areas and racial groups, a heterogeneity that is not evident using conventional “aspatial” segregation measures. Moreover, because the geographic scale of segregation is only modestly correlated with the level of segregation in our sample, we argue that geographic scale represents a distinct dimension of residential segregation. We conclude with a brief discussion of the implications of our findings for investigating the patterns, causes, and consequences of residential segregation at different geographic scales. PMID:18939658

  18. Genetically engineered biosynthesis of macrolide derivatives including 4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-L-glucose from Streptomyces venezuelae YJ003-OTBP3.

    PubMed

    Pageni, Binod Babu; Oh, Tae-Jin; Liou, Kwangkyoung; Yoon, Yeo Joon; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2008-01-01

    Two sugar biosynthetic cassette plasmids were used to direct the biosynthesis of a deoxyaminosugar. The pOTBP1 plasmid containing TDP-glucose synthase (desIII), TDP-glucose-4,6-dehydratase (desIV), and glycosyltransferase (desVII/desVIII) was constructed and transformed into S. venezuelae YJ003, a strain in which the entire gene cluster of desosamine biosynthesis is deleted. The expression plasmid pOTBP3 containing 4-aminotransferase (gerB) and 3,5-epimerase (orf9) was transformed again into S. venezuelae YJ003- OTBP1 to obtain S. venezuelae YJ003-OTBP3 for the production of 4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-L-glucose derivatives. The crude extracts obtained from S. venezuelae ATCC 15439, S. venezuelae YJ003, and S. venezuelae YJ003-OTBP3 were further analyzed by TLC, bioassay, HPLC, ESI/MS, LC/MS, and MS/MS. The results of our study clearly shows that S. venezuelae YJ003-OTBP3 constructs other new hybrid macrolide derivatives including 4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-L-glycosylated YC-17 (3, [M+ Na+] m/z=464.5), methymycin (4, m/z=480.5), novamethymycin (6, m/z=496.5), and pikromycin (5, m/z=536.5) from a 12- membered ring aglycon (10-deoxymethynolide, 1) and 14-membered ring aglycon (narbonolide, 2). These results suggest a successful engineering of a deoxysugar pathway to generate novel hybrid macrolide derivatives, including deoxyaminosugar.

  19. Evaluacion de Programas de Alfabetizacion. Consulta Tecnica Regional (Maracaibo, Venezuela, 30 Noviembre-6 Diciembre 1987) Informe Final. (Evaluation of Literacy Programs. Regional Technical Meeting (Maracaibo, Venezuela, November 30-December 6, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    The objectives of this seminar were to identify problems in evaluating literacy programs and to design a working strategy to confront them. Four presentations included national case studies from Brazil, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Venezuela. Central questions asked concerned who and what were evaluated and how were the results to be used. In Brazil,…

  20. Genetic diversity and relationships among Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus field isolates from Colombia and Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Moncayo, A C; Medina, G M; Kalvatchev, Z; Brault, A C; Barrera, R; Boshell, J; Ferro, C; Freier, J E; Navarro, J C; Salas, R; De Siger, J; Vasquez, C; Walder, R; Weaver, S C

    2001-12-01

    During field studies of enzootic Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) viruses associated with epizootic emergence, a large number of virus isolates were made in sylvatic foci of Venezuela and Colombia. To rapidly characterize these isolates, antigenic subtypes were determined by means of immunofluorescence and by single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis by use of an 856-bp fragment from the P62 gene, which we used to distinguish genetic variants. Representative isolates were sequenced to assess the sensitivity of SSCP to detect genetic differences. The SSCP analysis distinguished isolates differing by as little as 1 nucleotide; overall, differences of > or = 1 nucleotide were recognized 89% of the time, and the sensitivity to distinguish strains that differed by only 1 or 4 nucleotides was 17 and 57%, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses of representative sequences showed that all recent isolates from the Catatumbo region of western Venezuela and the middle Magdalena Valley of Colombia were closely related to epizootic subtype IAB and IC strains; strains from Yaracuy and Miranda States were more distantly related. Cocirculation of the same virus genotype in both Colombian and Venezuelan foci indicated that these viruses are readily transported between enzootic regions separated by > 300 km. The SSCP analysis appears to be a simple, fast, and relatively efficient method of screening VEE virus isolates to identify meaningful genetic variants.

  1. Production optimization of sucker rod pumping wells producing viscous oil in Boscan field, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Guirados, C.; Sandoval, J.; Rivas, O.; Troconis, H.

    1995-12-31

    Boscan field is located in the western coast of Maracaibo lake and is operated by Maraven S.A., affiliate of Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. It has 315 active wells, 252 of which are produced with sucker rod pumping. Other artificial lift methods currently applied in this field are hydraulic (piston) pumping (39 wells) and ESP (24 wells). This paper presents the results of the production optimization of two sucker rod pumping wells of Boscan field producing viscous oil. This optimization has been possible due to the development of a new production scheme and the application of system analysis in completion design. The new production scheme involves the utilization of a subsurface stuffing box assembly and a slotted housing, both designed and patented by Intevep S.A., affiliate of Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. The completion design method and software used in the optimization study were also developed by Intevep S.A. The new production scheme and design method proved to be effective in preventing the causes of the above mentioned problems, allowing the increase of oil production under better operating conditions.

  2. [Molecular characterization of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa from four hospitals of Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Guevara, Armando; Sierra R, Carmen I; de Waard, Jacobus

    2012-12-01

    We analyzed 17 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistant to carbapenems isolated in four hospitals in eastern and southern Venezuela collected between 2007 and 2010. Combined disk method showed production of metallo־β־lactamases (MBLs) in all strains. PCR and sequencing of genes encoding IMP, VIM and SPM metallo־β־lactamase families confirmed the presence of VIM-2 MMBL in all strains. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis classified the strains into three similarity groups. The largest group, group A included 13 strains with over 83% similarity between them and was found in four hospitals. Two strains of Cumana hospital formed the group B and other two the Group C with similitary of 73% and 65% respectively with Group A. These results confirmed that hospitals in eastern and southern Venezuela, circulating strains of P. aeruginosa producing VIM-2 type MBLs with a common clonal origin. On the other hand, carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa circulating in Cumana city hospital had polyclonal origin.

  3. [Application of the polymerase chain reaction to the diagnosis of sickle cell anemia in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Martínez, J; Blanco, Z; Hakshaw, P; Moreno, N

    1998-02-01

    Application of polymerase chain reaction technology to detect sickle cell patients and heterozygous carriers in a group of patients suspect for sickle cell disease was carried out. The sample was composed of 102 normal individuals, and 102 unrelated out patients who were attending in the Hematology Service at the Maracay Central Hospital in the State of Aragua in Venezuela. All patients were interviewed. Results of their medical histories and the physical examination, made during the clinical visit, were recorded. The blood samples were collected in EDTA by venopuncture and genomic DNA was extracted from leucocytes. An amplified 536 base pairs fragment of the beta-globin gene containing codon 6, was digested with an isoschizomer of Mst II, Bsu36 I and electrophoresed in 3% agarose. We have established the technical conditions in our laboratory for the detection of sickle cell disease using a PCR assay. 32 patients having haemoglobin SS (HbSS) and 70 patients in the heterozygous state (HbAS) were identified. We confirm that the normal controls have the HbAA genotype. The standardization of a highly sensitive and specific diagnostic test for sickle cell disease permited us to identify the normal controls, the homozygotes and heterozygotes. This methodology is one of the fundamental technical bases for establishing a newborn screening programme in the Central Region of Venezuela and also has application in research related with other genetic diseases that affect the Venezuelan people.

  4. Ethics, Risk, and Media Intervention: Women’s Breast Cancer in Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Eid, Mahmoud; Nahon-Serfaty, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer incidence and mortality rates are of concern among Latin American women, mainly due to the growing prevalence of this disease and the lack of compliance to proper breast cancer screening and treatment. Focusing on Venezuelan women and the challenges and barriers that interact with their health communication, this paper looks into issues surrounding women’s breast cancer, such as the challenges and barriers to breast cancer care, the relevant ethics and responsibilities, the right to health, breast cancer risk perception and risk communication, and the media interventions that affect Venezuelan women’s perceptions and actions pertaining to this disease. In particular, it describes an action-oriented research project in Venezuela that was conducted over a four-year period of collaborative work among researchers, practitioners, NGOs, patients, journalists, and policymakers. The outcomes include positive indications on more effective interactions between physicians and patients, increasing satisfactions about issues of ethical treatment in providing healthcare services, more sufficient and responsible media coverage of breast cancer healthcare services and information, a widely supported declaration for a national response against breast cancer in Venezuela, and the creation of a code of ethics for the Venezuelan NGO that led the expansion of networking in support of women’s breast cancer healthcare. PMID:27867750

  5. Comparative federal health care policy: evidence of collaborative federalism in Pakistan and Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Baracskay, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Collaborative federalism has provided an effective analytical foundation for understanding how complex public policies are implemented in federal systems through intergovernmental and intersectoral alignments. This has particularly been the case in issue areas like public health policy where diseases are detected and treated at the local level. While past studies on collaborative federalism and health care policy have focused on federal systems that are largely democratic, little research has been conducted to examine the extent of collaboration in authoritarian structures. This article applies the collaborative federalism approach to the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. Evidence suggests that while both nations have exhibited authoritarian governing structures, there have been discernible policy areas where collaborative federalism is embraced to facilitate the implementation process. Further, while not an innate aspect of their federal structures, Pakistan and Venezuela can potentially expand their use of the collaborative approach to successfully implement health care policy and the epidemiological surveillance and intervention functions. Yet, as argued, this would necessitate further development of their structures on a sustained basis to create an environment conducive for collaborative federalism to flourish, and possibly expand to other policy areas as well.

  6. Endomyocardial disease in South America--report on 23 cases in Venezuela.

    PubMed Central

    Puigbo, J. J.; Combellas, I.; Acquatella, H.; Marsiglia, I.; Tortoledo, F.; Casal, H.; Suarez, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-three cases of endomyocardial disease (ED) are presented, studied in Venezuela, a tropical country in northern South America. The diagnosis was confirmed in 18 cases by means of pathological studies, and in 5 cases by angiocardiography which showed the characteristic obliterative ventricular lesions. Eosinophilia was present in 35% of the patients. The most frequent clinical feature was heart failure associated with mitral regurgitation. Systemic embolism was the first clinical feature in 5 cases. In 2 cases, ED was associated with autoimmune haemolytic anaemia or vasculitis. Necropsy revealed a predominance of the left-sided (9/16 cases) and biventricular (6/16 cases) types. The pathological lesions were characterised by fibrous thickening of the endocardium at the apex and the ventricular inflow tracts extending to the myocardium and involving the atrioventricular valves. ED is frequently misdiagnosed as rheumatic valvular cardiopathy. The two-dimensional echocardiogram is a very useful procedure for determining the spatial anatomy of ED. The echo findings were closely correlated with ventriculographic and necropsy findings. Even though ED is widely spread around the world, it is most frequently found in tropical and subtropical countries in Africa, Asia and America, such as Venezuela and Brazil. This suggests that there are aetiological factors in these latitudes, about which little is known. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:6844201

  7. Evolutionary and Ecological Characterization of Mayaro Virus Strains Isolated during an Outbreak, Venezuela, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Auguste, Albert J.; Liria, Jonathan; Forrester, Naomi L.; Giambalvo, Dileyvic; Moncada, Maria; Long, Kanya C.; Morón, Dulce; de Manzione, Nuris; Tesh, Robert B.; Halsey, Eric S.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.; Hernandez, Rosa; Navarro, Juan-Carlos

    2015-01-01

    In 2010, an outbreak of febrile illness with arthralgic manifestations was detected at La Estación village, Portuguesa State, Venezuela. The etiologic agent was determined to be Mayaro virus (MAYV), a reemerging South American alphavirus. A total of 77 cases was reported and 19 were confirmed as seropositive. MAYV was isolated from acute-phase serum samples from 6 symptomatic patients. We sequenced 27 complete genomes representing the full spectrum of MAYV genetic diversity, which facilitated detection of a new genotype, designated N. Phylogenetic analysis of genomic sequences indicated that etiologic strains from Venezuela belong to genotype D. Results indicate that MAYV is highly conserved genetically, showing ≈17% nucleotide divergence across all 3 genotypes and 4% among genotype D strains in the most variable genes. Coalescent analyses suggested genotypes D and L diverged ≈150 years ago and genotype diverged N ≈250 years ago. This virus commonly infects persons residing near enzootic transmission foci because of anthropogenic incursions. PMID:26401714

  8. Comparison of the petroleum systems of East Venezuela in their tectonostratigraphic context

    SciTech Connect

    Stronach, N.J.; Kerr, H.M.; Scotchmer, J.; Hunter, V.

    1996-08-01

    The Maturin and Guarico subbasins of East Venezuela record the transition from Cretaceous passive margin to Tertiary foreland basin with local post-orogenic transtensional basins. Petroleum is reservoired in several units ranging from Albian (El Cantil Formation) to Pliocene (Las Piedras Formation) age. Source rocks are principally in the Upper Cretaceous (Querecual Formation), and Miocene (Carapita Formation) in the Maturin subbasin and in the Upper Cretaceous (Tigre Formation) and Oligocene (Roblecito and La Pascua Formations) in the Guarico subbasin. An extensive well database has been used to address the distribution and provenance of hydrocarbons in the context of a tectonostratigraphic model for the evolution of the East Venezuela basin. Nine major plays have been described, comprising thirteen petroleum systems. The principal factors influencing the components of individual petroleum systems are as follows: (1) structural controls on Upper Cretaceous source rock distribution, relating to block faulting on the proto-Caribbean passive margin; (2) paleoenvironmental controls on source rock development within the Oligocene-Miocene foreland basin; and (3) timing of subsidence and maturation within the Oligocene-Upper Miocene foreland basin and the configuration of the associated fold and thrust belt, influencing long range and local migration routes (4) local development of Pliocene post-orogenic transtensional basins, influencing hydrocarbon generation, migration and remigration north of the Pirital High.

  9. An Estimate of Recoverable Heavy Oil Resources of the Orinoco Oil Belt, Venezuela

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.

    2009-01-01

    The Orinoco Oil Belt Assessment Unit of the La Luna-Quercual Total Petroleum System encompasses approximately 50,000 km2 of the East Venezuela Basin Province that is underlain by more than 1 trillion barrels of heavy oil-in-place. As part of a program directed at estimating the technically recoverable oil and gas resources of priority petroleum basins worldwide, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated the recoverable oil resources of the Orinoco Oil Belt Assessment Unit. This estimate relied mainly on published geologic and engineering data for reservoirs (net oil-saturated sandstone thickness and extent), petrophysical properties (porosity, water saturation, and formation volume factors), recovery factors determined by pilot projects, and estimates of volumes of oil-in-place. The U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean volume of 513 billion barrels of technically recoverable heavy oil in the Orinoco Oil Belt Assessment Unit of the East Venezuela Basin Province; the range is 380 to 652 billion barrels. The Orinoco Oil Belt Assessment Unit thus contains one of the largest recoverable oil accumulations in the world.

  10. [Seasonality of rotavirus infection in Venezuela: relationship between monthly rotavirus incidence and rainfall rates].

    PubMed

    González Chávez, Rosabel

    2015-09-01

    In general, it has been reported that rotavirus infection was detected year round in tropical countries. However, studies in Venezuela and Brazil suggest a seasonal behavior of the infection. On the other hand, some studies link infection with climatic variables such as rainfall. This study analyzes the pattern of behavior of the rotavirus infection in Carabobo-Venezuela (2001-2005), associates the seasonality of the infection with rainfall, and according to the seasonal pattern, estimates the age of greatest risk for infection. The analysis of the rotavirus temporal series and accumulated precipitation was performed with the software SPSS. The infection showed two periods: high incidence (November-April) and low incidence (May-October). Accumulated precipitation presents an opposite behavior. The highest frequency of events (73.8% 573/779) for those born in the period with a low incidence of the virus was recorded at an earlier age (mean age 6.5 +/- 2.0 months) when compared with those born in the station of high incidence (63.5% 568/870, mean age 11.7 +/- 2.2 months). Seasonality of the infection and the inverse relationship between virus incidence and rainfall was demonstrated. In addition, it was found that the period of birth determines the age and risk of infection. This information generated during the preaccine period will be helpful to measure the impact of the vaccine against the rotavirus.

  11. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy, National Geographic Society Photograph, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy, National Geographic Society Photograph, 1971 Courtesy, National Geographic Society LIBRARY, 1971 - Townsend House, 2121 Massachusetts Avenue Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  12. Preliminary assessment of a Cretaceous-Paleogene Atlantic passive margin, Serrania del Interior and Central Ranges, Venezuela/Trinidad

    SciTech Connect

    Pindell, J.L.; Drake, C.L. ); Pitman, W.C. )

    1991-03-01

    For several decades, Cretaceous arc collision was assumed along northern Venezuela based on isotopic ages of metamorphic minerals. From subsidence histories in Venezuelan/Trinidadian basins, however, it is now clear that the Cretaceous metamorphic rocks were emplaced southeastward as allochthons above an autochthonous suite of rocks in the Cenozoic, and that the pre-Cenozoic autochthonous rocks represent a Mesozoic passive margin. The passive margin rocks have been metamorphosed separately during overthrusting by the allochthons in central Venezuela, but they are uplifted but not significantly metamorphosed in Eastern Venezuela and Trinidad. There, in the Serrania del Interior and Central Ranges of Venezuela/Trinidad, Mesozoic-Paleogene passive margin sequences were uplifted in Neogene time, when the Caribbean Plate arrived from the west and transpressionally inverted the passive margin. Thus, this portion of South America's Atlantic margin subsided thermally without tectonism from Jurassic to Eocene time, and these sections comprise the only Mesozoic-Cenozoic truly passive Atlantic margin in the Western Hemisphere that is now exposed for direct study. Direct assessments of sedimentological, depositional and faunal features indicative of, and changes in, water depth for Cretaceous and Paleogene time may be made here relative to a thermally subsiding passive margin without the complications of tectonism. Work is underway, and preliminary assessments presented here suggest that sea level changes of Cretaceous-Paleogene time are not as pronounced as the frequent large and rapid sea level falls and rises that are promoted by some.

  13. Assessment of continuous oil and gas resources of the Maracaibo Basin Province of Venezuela and Colombia, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Le, Phoung A.; Pitman, Janet K.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Finn, Thomas M.; Klett, Timothy R.

    2017-03-27

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean continuous resources of 656 million barrels of oil and 5.7 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Maracaibo Basin Province, Venezuela and Colombia.

  14. Situation Report--Burma, Chile, German Democratic Republic, Indonesia, Jamaica, Poland, Singapore, St. Christopher/Nevis, Trinidad & Tobago, Venezuela.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in ten foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Burma, Chile, German Democratic Republic, Indonesia, Jamaica, Poland, Singapore, St. Christopher/Nevis, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two…

  15. Hepatitis A virus genetic diversity in Venezuela: exclusive circulation of subgenotype IA and evidence of quasispecies distribution in the isolates.

    PubMed

    Sulbaran, Y; Gutierrez, C R; Marquez, B; Rojas, D; Sanchez, D; Navas, J; Rovallo, E; Pujol, F H

    2010-11-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection is highly prevalent in Latin America, including Venezuela. Subgenotype IA seems to circulate in an almost exclusive fashion, except in Brazil. The aim of this study was the molecular characterization of the HAV infection in Venezuela, in order to characterize the circulating strains and to analyze the presence of quasispecies in sporadic cases and an epidemic outbreak. A total of 125 (113 sera and 12 feces) samples positive for anti-HAV IgM from sporadic cases and epidemic outbreak, were submitted to hemi-nested RT-PCR for amplification of the VP1 N terminus or complete region of the HAV genome. Sequences obtained from 96 Venezuelan isolates were used for phylogenetic analysis. The quasispecies distribution was evaluated by cloning of HAV amplicons. Phylogenetic analysis of HAV sequences from Venezuela showed the exclusive circulation of subgenotype IA, but with co-circulation of two lineages, not found in other countries. The genetic variability found among Venezuelan strains was also analyzed by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP). This technique allowed the detection of intra-strain variability, which was indeed related to the presence of quasispecies populations in the isolates. The quasispecies heterogeneity was higher in some isolates derived from sporadic cases compared to the one observed in the outbreak. The molecular characterization of HAV isolates from Venezuela showed the circulation of a unique subgenotype IA, but with the presence of diverse strains and quasispecies inside the viral populations.

  16. Complete genome sequence of Streptomyces venezuelae ATCC 15439, a promising cell factory for production of secondary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Song, Ju Yeon; Yoo, Young Ji; Lim, Si-Kyu; Cha, Sun Ho; Kim, Ji-Eun; Roe, Jung-Hye; Kim, Jihyun F; Yoon, Yeo Joon

    2016-02-10

    Streptomyces venezuelae ATCC 15439, which produces 12- and 14-membered ring macrolide antibiotics, is a platform strain for heterologous expression of secondary metabolites. Its 9.05-Mb genome sequence revealed an abundance of genes involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and their precursors, which should be useful for the production of bioactive compounds.

  17. Assessing the Educational and Financial Needs of Small-Scale Dairy Farmers in Socopo, Venezuela. Summary of Research 64.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieto, Ruben D.; Henderson, Janet L.

    The process of transferring agricultural technology in many countries was studied to determine the perceived educational and financial needs of small-scale dairy farmers in Socopo, Venezuela. The following data were collected: (1) demographic characteristics--age, educational level, farm size, number of lactating cows, dairy farming experience,…

  18. The pdx genetic marker adjacent to the chloramphenicol biosynthesis gene cluster in Streptomyces venezuelae ISP5230: functional characterization.

    PubMed

    Magarvey, N; He, J; Aidoo, K A; Vining, L C

    2001-08-01

    The pdx-4 mutation in Streptomyces venezuelae ISP5230 confers a growth requirement for pyridoxal (pdx) and is a marker for the genetically mapped cluster of genes associated with chloramphenicol biosynthesis. A gene regulating salvage synthesis of vitamin B6 cofactors in S. venezuelae was cloned by transforming a pdx-4 mutant host with the plasmid vector pDQ101 carrying a library of wild-type genomic DNA fragments, and by selecting for complementation of the host's pdx requirement. However, the corresponding replicative plasmid could not be isolated. Southern hybridizations and transduction analysis indicated that the complementing plasmid had integrated into the chromosome; after excision by a second crossover, the plasmid failed to propagate. To avoid loss of the recombinant vector, a pdx-dependent Streptomyces lividans mutant, KAA1, with a phenotype matching that of S. venezuelae pdx-4, was isolated for use as the cloning host. Introduction of pIJ702 carrying an S. venezuelae genomic library into S. lividans KAA1, and selection of prototrophic transformants, led to the isolation of a stable recombinant vector containing a 2.5 kb S. venezuelae DNA fragment that complemented requirements for pdx in both S. venezuelae and S. lividans mutants. Sequence analysis of the cloned DNA located an intact ORF with a deduced amino acid sequence that, in its central and C-terminal regions resembled type-I aminotransferases. The N-terminal region of the cloned DNA fragment aligned closely with distinctive helix-turn-helix motifs found near the N termini of GntR family transcriptional regulators. The overall deduced amino acid sequence of the cloned DNA showed 73% end-to-end identity to a putative GntR-type regulator cloned in cosmid 6D7 from the Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) genome. This location is close to that of pdxA, the first pdx marker in S. coelicolor A3(2) identified and mapped genetically in Sir David Hopwood's laboratory. The S. venezuelae gene and S. coelicolor pdx

  19. Geographical distribution of the dermatophytes: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Philpot, C. M.

    1978-01-01

    In these days of rapid transit from continent to continent, and the increasing mobility of people, agents of disease are no longer geographically restricted. Disease contracted half way across the world may become manifest in a country in which the pathogen is not normally found. Thus knowledge of the geographical distribution of pathogens becomes increasingly important when a diagnosis is being made. This is as true of ringworm fungi as of any other group of microorganisms. In the last 12 years, in the Mycological Reference Laboratory, an increasing number of exotic dermatophytes have been seen, related in part at least to the great increase in the number of non-British residents. Not all species of dermatophytes are cosmopolitan in their distribution throughout the world. While some have been recorded from every continent, others have geographically limited areas of greater or lesser extent. Surveys taken at intervals in a country may show a rise and fall in occurrence of several species as habits change, populations move and medical facilities became increasingly well-distributed. There have been few geographical surveys of ringworm fungi that have covered the world. Ajello (1960, 1974) has reviewed the individual species with regard to geographical location, while Vanbreuseghem & de Vroey (1970) attempted to estimate the relative importance of the various species in terms of numbers of isolations reported. This paper therefore reviews the world dermatophyte flora in terms of the dominant agents in the various countries, and some of the changes that have been recorded. PMID:75918

  20. The Production and Utilization of GDP-glucose in the Biosynthesis of Trehalose 6-Phosphate by Streptomyces venezuelae.

    PubMed

    Asención Diez, Matías D; Miah, Farzana; Stevenson, Clare E M; Lawson, David M; Iglesias, Alberto A; Bornemann, Stephen

    2017-01-20

    Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase OtsA from streptomycetes is unusual in that it uses GDP-glucose as the donor substrate rather than the more commonly used UDP-glucose. We now confirm that OtsA from Streptomyces venezuelae has such a preference for GDP-glucose and can utilize ADP-glucose to some extent too. A crystal structure of the enzyme shows that it shares twin Rossmann-like domains with the UDP-glucose-specific OtsA from Escherichia coli However, it is structurally more similar to Streptomyces hygroscopicus VldE, a GDP-valienol-dependent pseudoglycosyltransferase enzyme. Comparison of the donor binding sites reveals that the amino acids associated with the binding of diphosphoribose are almost all identical in these three enzymes. By contrast, the amino acids associated with binding guanine in VldE (Asn, Thr, and Val) are similar in S. venezuelae OtsA (Asp, Ser, and Phe, respectively) but not conserved in E. coli OtsA (His, Leu, and Asp, respectively), providing a rationale for the purine base specificity of S. venezuelae OtsA. To establish which donor is used in vivo, we generated an otsA null mutant in S. venezuelae The mutant had a cell density-dependent growth phenotype and accumulated galactose 1-phosphate, glucose 1-phosphate, and GDP-glucose when grown on galactose. To determine how the GDP-glucose is generated, we characterized three candidate GDP-glucose pyrophosphorylases. SVEN_3027 is a UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, SVEN_3972 is an unusual ITP-mannose pyrophosphorylase, and SVEN_2781 is a pyrophosphorylase that is capable of generating GDP-glucose as well as GDP-mannose. We have therefore established how S. venezuelae can make and utilize GDP-glucose in the biosynthesis of trehalose 6-phosphate.

  1. The Production and Utilization of GDP-glucose in the Biosynthesis of Trehalose 6-Phosphate by Streptomyces venezuelae*

    PubMed Central

    Asención Diez, Matías D.; Miah, Farzana; Stevenson, Clare E. M.; Lawson, David M.; Iglesias, Alberto A.; Bornemann, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase OtsA from streptomycetes is unusual in that it uses GDP-glucose as the donor substrate rather than the more commonly used UDP-glucose. We now confirm that OtsA from Streptomyces venezuelae has such a preference for GDP-glucose and can utilize ADP-glucose to some extent too. A crystal structure of the enzyme shows that it shares twin Rossmann-like domains with the UDP-glucose-specific OtsA from Escherichia coli. However, it is structurally more similar to Streptomyces hygroscopicus VldE, a GDP-valienol-dependent pseudoglycosyltransferase enzyme. Comparison of the donor binding sites reveals that the amino acids associated with the binding of diphosphoribose are almost all identical in these three enzymes. By contrast, the amino acids associated with binding guanine in VldE (Asn, Thr, and Val) are similar in S. venezuelae OtsA (Asp, Ser, and Phe, respectively) but not conserved in E. coli OtsA (His, Leu, and Asp, respectively), providing a rationale for the purine base specificity of S. venezuelae OtsA. To establish which donor is used in vivo, we generated an otsA null mutant in S. venezuelae. The mutant had a cell density-dependent growth phenotype and accumulated galactose 1-phosphate, glucose 1-phosphate, and GDP-glucose when grown on galactose. To determine how the GDP-glucose is generated, we characterized three candidate GDP-glucose pyrophosphorylases. SVEN_3027 is a UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, SVEN_3972 is an unusual ITP-mannose pyrophosphorylase, and SVEN_2781 is a pyrophosphorylase that is capable of generating GDP-glucose as well as GDP-mannose. We have therefore established how S. venezuelae can make and utilize GDP-glucose in the biosynthesis of trehalose 6-phosphate. PMID:27903647

  2. A Framework for Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA) based on geographic ontology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, H. Y.; Li, H. T.; Yan, L.; Lu, X. J.

    2015-06-01

    GEOBIA (Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis) is not only a hot topic of current remote sensing and geographical research. It is believed to be a paradigm in remote sensing and GIScience. The lack of a systematic approach designed to conceptualize and formalize the class definitions makes GEOBIA a highly subjective and difficult method to reproduce. This paper aims to put forward a framework for GEOBIA based on geographic ontology theory, which could implement "Geographic entities - Image objects - Geographic objects" true reappearance. It consists of three steps, first, geographical entities are described by geographic ontology, second, semantic network model is built based on OWL(ontology web language), at last, geographical objects are classified with decision rule or other classifiers. A case study of farmland ontology was conducted for describing the framework. The strength of this framework is that it provides interpretation strategies and global framework for GEOBIA with the property of objective, overall, universal, universality, etc., which avoids inconsistencies caused by different experts' experience and provides an objective model for mage analysis.

  3. Photographic Mosaics and Geographic Generalizations: A Perceptual Approach to Geographic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castner, Henry W.

    2003-01-01

    If vision can be considered the basis of geographic inquiry, then it must involve looking with discrimination--the ability to discern clues in our surroundings that speak to spatial processes or patterns in all aspects of geography--physical, cultural, economic, and so on. Geographic thinking also involves making spatial generalizations. We do…

  4. Pre-Service Geography Teachers' Confidence in Geographical Subject Matter Knowledge and Teaching Geographical Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harte, Wendy; Reitano, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This research tracked the confidence of 16 undergraduate and postgraduate pre-service geography teachers as they completed a single semester, senior phase geography curriculum course. The study focused specifically on the pre-service teachers' confidence in geographical subject matter knowledge and their confidence in teaching geographical skills.…

  5. Geographic variation in marine turtle fibropapillomatosis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenblatt, R.J.; Work, T.M.; Dutton, P.; Sutton, C.A.; Spraker, T.R.; Casey, R.N.; Diez, C.E.; Parker, Dana C.; St. Ledger, J.; Balazs, G.H.; Casey, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    We document three examples of fibropapillomatosis by histology, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and sequence analysis from three different geographic areas. Tumors compatible in morphology with fibropapillomatosis were seen in green turtles from Puerto Rico and San Diego (California) and in a hybrid loggerhead/ hawksbill turtle from Florida Bay (Florida). Tumors were confirmed as fibropapillomas on histology, although severity of disease varied between cases. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses revealed infection with the fibropapilloma-associated turtle herpesvirus (FPTHV) in all cases, albeit at highly variable copy numbers per cell. Alignment of a portion of the polymerase gene from each fibropapilloma-associated turtle herpesvirus isolate demonstrated geographic variation in sequence. These cases illustrate geographic variation in both the pathology and the virology of fibropapillomatosis.

  6. A single-use site selection technique, using GIS, for aquaculture planning: choosing locations for mangrove oyster raft culture in Margarita Island, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Buitrago, Joaquín; Rada, Martín; Hernández, Hernando; Buitrago, Esperanza

    2005-05-01

    Oyster culture has a potential to generate income for coastal communities and to lessen pressure on natural overexploited populations. A project to transfer mangrove oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae raft culture technology to selected coastal communities in Margarita Island, Venezuela is being developed, and an optimum location selection technique was devised. To pick the variables or factors that determine site suitability, a bibliographic database was made, aspects of interest chosen, and the most comprehensive ones singled out, eliminating redundant ones. Twenty variables were grouped in criteria based on the way they influence the project. Variables were classified as intrinsic environmental, environmental extrinsic, logistic, and socioeconomic criteria. Thirty-five experts were asked to evaluate the factors and to score each according to their suitability weight. Logistic criterion received the highest values, followed by environmental extrinsic issues. A Geographic Information System using a base map compiled from 1:25,000 scale maps was developed. A thematic map for each factor was completed, dividing graphically the 3896-km2 study area into polygons of equal weight for each factor. The Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE) was used to combine the variables. Resultant vectors in thematic maps were added to obtain smaller polygons with the same value sum. Finally, MCE was used to generate a final output: the optimum sites for oyster aquaculture resulting from the added values of over 3000 polygons in the maps, for the 20 criteria. Higher scores were reached in 13 areas covering 4.1 km2, those places having the optimum conditions for oyster raft aquaculture in the region. Additional locations meeting 75% to 70% of the demanded criteria for a final suitable selection cover 137 sites encompassing 37.5 km2.

  7. Location of geographical objects in crisis situations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybansky, M.; Kratochvil, V.

    2014-02-01

    This article summarizes the various expressions of object positioning using different coordinate data and different methods, such as use of maps, exploiting the properties of digital Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) networks, Global Navigational Satellite Systems (GNSS), Inertial Navigation Systems (INS), Inertial Measurement Systems (IMS), hybrid methods and non-contact (remote sensing) methods; all with varying level of accuracy. Furthermore, the article describes some geographical identifiers and verbal means to describe location of geographical objects such as settlements, rivers, forest, roads, etc. All of the location methods have some advantages and disadvantages, especially in emergency situations, when usually the crisis management has a lack of time in a decision process.

  8. Geographic information system/watershed model interface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Gary T.

    1989-01-01

    Geographic information systems allow for the interactive analysis of spatial data related to water-resources investigations. A conceptual design for an interface between a geographic information system and a watershed model includes functions for the estimation of model parameter values. Design criteria include ease of use, minimal equipment requirements, a generic data-base management system, and use of a macro language. An application is demonstrated for a 90.1-square-kilometer subbasin of the Patuxent River near Unity, Maryland, that performs automated derivation of watershed parameters for hydrologic modeling.

  9. Enhancing robustness and immunization in geographical networks

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Liang; Yang Kongqing; Yang Lei

    2007-03-15

    We find that different geographical structures of networks lead to varied percolation thresholds, although these networks may have similar abstract topological structures. Thus, strategies for enhancing robustness and immunization of a geographical network are proposed. Using the generating function formalism, we obtain an explicit form of the percolation threshold q{sub c} for networks containing arbitrary order cycles. For three-cycles, the dependence of q{sub c} on the clustering coefficients is ascertained. The analysis substantiates the validity of the strategies with analytical evidence.

  10. Most frequent mutation c.3402delC (p.Ala1135GlnfsX13) among Wilson disease patients in Venezuela has a wide distribution and two old origins.

    PubMed

    Paradisi, Irene; De Freitas, Laura; Arias, Sergio

    2015-02-01

    Wilson disease is an infrequent autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the ATP7B gene (13q14.3) producing pathologic phenotypes due to copper accumulation in critical tissues. The aim of the research was to probe Wilson disease genetic epidemiology in Venezuela, through the identification in diagnosed index cases, of ATP7B locus mutations, their geographic distribution, frequency, in-phase haplotypes and probable ethnic ancestry. During the last three decades 33 independent Wilson disease families from the country at large were ascertained and diagnosed through severely reduced ceruloplasmin activity, higher urinary copper excretion, and specific clinical signs. Molecular studies of the ATP7B gene were accomplished in 26 of the families. Disease prevalence was estimated as 1:94,000 families between 1985 and 2013, showing geographic aggregation in the state of Zulia with 1:27,000 families in it. DNA analysis in 26 families revealed 13 different mutations. The c.3402delC was the most frequent one (26.9%), presenting two independent in-phase haplotypes, both of likely European descent; which is followed by the not previously reported p.G691V (9.6%) and by the frequent European H1069Q (7.7%). Known mutations c.51 + 4A > T, c.1285 + 5G > T, M645R, T788I, V845SfsX28, T977M, L1088X, T1220M, R1319X and a novel P767L showed frequencies between 5.8 and 1.9%. Despite the ample mutation heterogeneity for Wilson disease in the country, the findings provide a diagnostic algorithm to ease mutation assessment in new patients; the predominant c.3402delC displayed wide geographic distribution and two genetic origins.

  11. Biosynthesis of the dichloroacetyl component of chloramphenicol in Streptomyces venezuelae ISP5230: genes required for halogenation.

    PubMed

    Piraee, Mahmood; White, Robert L; Vining, Leo C

    2004-01-01

    Five ORFs were detected in a fragment from the Streptomyces venezuelae ISP5230 genomic DNA library by hybridization with a PCR product amplified from primers representing a consensus of known halogenase sequences. Sequencing and functional analyses demonstrated that ORFs 11 and 12 (but not ORFs 13-15) extended the partially characterized gene cluster for chloramphenicol (Cm) biosynthesis in the chromosome. Disruption of ORF11 (cmlK) or ORF12 (cmlS) and conjugal transfer of the insertionally inactivated genes to S. venezuelae gave mutant strains VS1111 and VS1112, each producing a similar series of Cm analogues in which unhalogenated acyl groups replaced the dichloroacetyl substituent of Cm. 1H-NMR established that the principal metabolite in the disrupted strains was the alpha-N-propionyl analogue. The sequence of CmlK implicated the protein in adenylation, and involvement in halogenation was inferred from biosynthesis of analogues by the cmlK-disrupted mutant. A role in generating the dichloroacetyl substituent was supported by partial restoration of Cm biosynthesis when a cloned copy of cmlK was introduced in trans into VS1111. Complementation of the mutant also indicated that inactivation of cmlK rather than a polar effect of the disruption on cmlS expression had interfered with dichloroacetyl biosynthesis. The deduced CmlS sequence resembled sequences of FADH2-dependent halogenases. Conjugal transfer of cmlK or cmlS into S. venezuelae cml-2, a chlorination-deficient strain with a mutation mapped genetically to the Cm biosynthesis gene cluster, did not complement the cml-2 lesion, suggesting that one or more genes in addition to cmlK and cmlS is needed to assemble the dichloroacetyl substituent. Insertional inactivation of ORF13 did not affect Cm production, and the products of ORF14 and ORF15 matched Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) proteins lacking plausible functions in Cm biosynthesis. Thus cmlS appears to mark the downstream end of the gene cluster.

  12. Venezuela: from doctrine to dialogue to participation in the processes of regional development.

    PubMed

    Allor, D J

    1984-01-01

    The growing toward decentralization and democratization of development planning in Venezuela was discussed. Venezuela has a long tradition of rule by a strong centralized authority. Currently, the Office of the President is vested with considerable power, despite the existence of an elected legislator and an independent judiciary. The president rules by decree. State legislatures are elected, but governors of the states are appointed by the president. There are also elected municipal councils. Both state and municipal governments are almost fully dependent on the federal government for both their operating and capital investment budgets. Development programs are administered through 2 systems. Specific programs are administered by almost 100 different institutes and enterprises. The activities of these various programs are coordinated by administrative bodies at the state and federal level. The 2nd administrative system operates at the regional and federal levels. The administrative body at the federal level is the Central Office for Coordination and Planning and was established by Presidential Decree in 1958. This body prepares and coordinates all national development plans. The administrative bodies at the regional level are the Regional Organizations for Development. These bodies were created in specific regions through a series of legislative acts commencing in 1969 and continuing into the present. The development of these regional bodies represented a 1st step toward decentralization. Decree 478, promulgated in 1980, further promoted the decentalization of developmental planning. The decree established a series of assemblies and councils at various levels. A National Council of Regional Development was created at the federal level, and a Regional Council of Development was established at the regional level. At the state level an Assembly of Participation was organized, and at the municipal level a Committee of Citizen Participation was established

  13. Karyotype of the invasive species Pterois volitans (Scorpaeniformes: Scorpaenidae) from Margarita Island, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Nirchio, Mauro; Ehemann, Nicolás; Siccha-Ramirez, Raquel; Ron, Ernesto; Pérez, Julio Eduardo; Rossi, Anna Rita; Oliveira, Claudio

    2014-12-01

    The genus Pterois includes nine valid species, native to the Red Sea and Indian Ocean throughout the Western Pacific. P. volitans and P. miles are native to the Indo-Pacific, and were introduced into Florida waters as a result of aquarium releases, and have been recently recognized as invaders of the Western Atlantic and Caribbean Sea (Costa Rica to Venezuela). Thus far, cytogenetic studies of the genus Pterois only cover basic aspects of three species, including P. volitans from Indo-Pacific Ocean. Considering the lack of more detailed information about cytogenetic characteristics of this invasive species, the objective of the present study was to investigate the basic and molecular cytogenetic characteristics of P. volitans in Venezuela, and compare the results with those from the original distribution area. For this, the karyotypic characteristics of four lionfish caught in Margarita Island, Venezuela, were investigated by examining metaphase chromosomes by Giemsa staining, C-banding, Ag-NOR, and two-colour-Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for mapping of 18S and 5S ribosomal genes. Comparing the sequences of the 16S gene of the specimens analyzed, with sequences already included in the Genbank, we corroborated that our specimens identified as P. volitans are in fact this species, and hence exclude the possibility of a misidentification of P. miles. The diploid number was 2n = 48 (2m + 10sm + 36a) with FN = 60. Chromosomes uniformly decreased in size, making it difficult to clearly identify the homologues except for the only metacentric pair, and the pairs number two, the largest of the submetacentric series. C-banding revealed only three pairs of chromosomes negative for C-band, whereas all remaining chromosomes presented telomeric and some interstitial C-positive blocks. Only two chromosomes were C-banding positive at the pericentromeric regions. Sequential staining revealed Ag-NOR on the tips of the short arms of chromosome pair number two and the FISH

  14. VGG2002, a new high-resolution geoid for Venezuela and Eastern Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acuña, G.; Bosch, W.

    2003-04-01

    This paper describes a new high-resolution geoid for Venezuela and the East Caribbean Sea. The Venezuelan Gravimetric Geoid 2002 (VGG2002) covers the area between 0oN-20oN and 285oE-305oE with a resolution of 1'x1'. An additional 2o-zone was included to avoid boundary effects. About 1.5 million free-air gravity anomalies were used. They originate from PDVSA (Petróleos de Venezuela S.A.), BGI (Bureau Gravimetrique International) and the GEODAS data base of NGDC (National Geophysical Data Center). In marine areas, 1'x1' gravity anomalies derived from altimetry (S&Sv9.1) were also included. In order to determined the long wavelength geoid signal the EGM96 global geopotential model was used as reference. Short wavelength contributions were derived from a digital terrain model with 30'' (GTOPO30 model) and 2' (S&Sv8.2 model) resolution respectively. Using the GRAVSOFT software, the geoid undulations were computed with the remove-restore technique. The computation involves a spherical approximation to evaluate the Stokes integral by two dimensional spherical Fast Fourier Transform with 100% zero-padding. The terrain corrections were computed by Residual Terrain Model method using prism numeric integration and taking into account the topographic anomalies relative to a mean height surface of 15'x15' resolution. This surface was obtained by a moving average of the digital terrain model. In marine areas the height anomalies were completed by mean sea level deviations of POCM, an oceanographic model of the ocean dynamic topography. Subsequently, the quasi-geoid was converted to geoid heights. The accuracy was evaluated by about 300 GPS/leveling stations and absolute differences to TOPEX/Poseidon (nine years) mean sea surface profiles. These show that the absolute agreement with respect to the national vertical datum is generally better than 30 cm RMS for most parts of Venezuela, 15 cm RMS in coastal areas and 5 cm RMS at sea.

  15. Geographic variation in the frequency of isolation and fluconazole and voriconazole susceptibilities of Candida glabrata: an assessment from the ARTEMIS DISK Global Antifungal Surveillance Program.

    PubMed

    Pfaller, Michael A; Diekema, Daniel J; Gibbs, David L; Newell, Vance A; Barton, Richard; Bijie, Hu; Bille, Jacques; Chang, Shan-Chwen; da Luz Martins, Maria; Duse, Adriano; Dzierzanowska, Danuta; Ellis, David; Finquelievich, Jorge; Gould, Ian; Gur, Deniz; Hoosen, Anwar; Lee, Kyungwon; Mallatova, Nada; Mallie, Michele; Peng, N G Kee; Petrikos, George; Santiago, Axel; Trupl, Jan; VanDen Abeele, Ann Marie; Wadula, Jeannette; Zaidi, Mussaret

    2010-06-01

    Geographic differences in frequency and azole resistance among Candida glabrata may impact empiric antifungal therapy choice. We examined geographic variation in isolation and azole susceptibility of C. glabrata. We examined 23 305 clinical isolates of C. glabrata during ARTEMIS DISK global surveillance. Susceptibility testing to fluconazole and voriconazole was assessed by disk diffusion, and the results were grouped by geographic location: North America (NA) (2470 isolates), Latin America (LA) (2039), Europe (EU) (12 439), Africa and the Middle East (AME) (728), and Asia-Pacific (AP) (5629). Overall, C. glabrata accounted for 11.6% of 201 653 isolates of Candida and varied as a proportion of all Candida isolated from 7.4% in LA to 21.1% in NA. Decreased susceptibility (S) to fluconazole was observed in all geographic regions and ranged from 62.8% in AME to 76.7% in LA. Variation in fluconazole susceptibility was observed within each region: AP (range, 50-100% S), AME (48-86.9%), EU (44.8-88%), LA (43-92%), and NA (74.5-91.6%). Voriconazole was more active than fluconazole (range, 82.3-84.2% S) with similar regional variation. Among 22 sentinel sites participating in ARTEMIS from 2001 through 2007 (84 140 total isolates, 8163 C. glabrata), the frequency of C. glabrata isolation increased in 14 sites and the frequency of fluconazole resistance (R) increased in 11 sites over the 7-year period of study. The sites with the highest cumulative rates of fluconazole R were in Poland (22% R), the Czech Republic (27% R), Venezuela (27% R), and Greece (33% R). C. glabrata was most often isolated from blood, normally sterile body fluids and urine. There is substantial geographic and institutional variation in both frequency of isolation and azole resistance among C. glabrata. Prompt species identification and fluconazole susceptibility testing are necessary to optimize therapy for invasive candidiasis.

  16. The Geographic Polarization of American Voters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson-Merkowitz, Shanna; Lang, Corey

    2016-01-01

    For the past two decades, the presidency and both houses of Congress have been hotly contested by the two major political parties. Yet, geographically, the United States seems to be increasingly marked by "red" areas where the Democratic Party lacks any ability to even dream of winning office and "blue" areas where the…

  17. Geographic dynamics of viral encephalitis in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Henrich, Timothy J; Hutchaleelaha, Sombat; Jiwariyavej, Vitaya; Barbazan, Philippe; Nitatpattana, Narong; Yoksan, Sutee; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul

    2003-06-01

    Viral encephalitis (VE) continues to be a major disease in Asia, causing serious illness which may result in death or have neurological sequelae. This study involves an ecological analysis of the climatic, geographic and seasonal patterns of clinically reported VE in Thailand from 1993 to 1998 to investigate regional and seasonal differences in disease incidence. Three thousand eight hundred and twenty nine cases of VE were clinically diagnosed nationwide during the study period by the Thai Ministry of Public Health. Spearman rank correlations of temporal, spatial and geographic variables with disease incidence were performed. The monthly incidence of VE correlated significantly with seasonal changes in temperature, relative humidity and rainfall in the north-northeast region of Thailand (P < 0.001), whereas incidence in the south-central region correlated only with relative humidity (P = 0.003). Spatial analysis revealed a positive correlation of disease with elevation (P < 0.001), and negative correlations with rice-field cover (P < 0.001), agricultural land-use (P < 0.001) and temperature (P = 0.004) in the north-northeast region. No significant spatial correlation was identified in the south-central region. The spatial distribution of VE suggests that etiologic variations may be responsible, in part, for the geographic patterns of disease. Active etiologic surveillance is necessary in a variety of geographic settings in order to provide physicians with information necessary for disease prevention and clinical management.

  18. Threading One's Way Through the Geographic Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Paul F.

    1982-01-01

    Designed for students in grades 7 through 12, the paper presents illustrative resource materials for teaching concepts related to geographic regions. Emphasis is on giving students an understanding of the interrelationship between regional characteristics and human behavior. The paper introduces students to the following notions: environmental…

  19. Validating a Geographical Image Retrieval System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Bin; Chen, Hsinchun

    2000-01-01

    Summarizes a prototype geographical image retrieval system that demonstrates how to integrate image processing and information analysis techniques to support large-scale content-based image retrieval. Describes an experiment to validate the performance of this image retrieval system against that of human subjects by examining similarity analysis…

  20. Displaying Geographically-Based Domestic Statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quann, J.; Dalton, J.; Banks, M.; Helfer, D.; Szczur, M.; Winkert, G.; Billingsley, J.; Borgstede, R.; Chen, J.; Chen, L.; Fuh, J.; Cyprych, E.

    1982-01-01

    Decision Information Display System (DIDS) is rapid-response information-retrieval and color-graphics display system. DIDS transforms tables of geographically-based domestic statistics (such as population or unemployment by county, energy usage by county, or air-quality figures) into high-resolution, color-coded maps on television display screen.