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Sample records for sudan irradiation transportation

  1. Towards a sterile insect technique field release of Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes in Sudan: Irradiation, transportation, and field cage experimentation

    PubMed Central

    Helinski, Michelle EH; Hassan, Mo'awia M; El-Motasim, Waleed M; Malcolm, Colin A; Knols, Bart GJ; El-Sayed, Badria

    2008-01-01

    Background The work described in this article forms part of a study to suppress a population of the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis in Northern State, Sudan, with the Sterile Insect Technique. No data have previously been collected on the irradiation and transportation of anopheline mosquitoes in Africa, and the first series of attempts to do this in Sudan are reported here. In addition, experiments in a large field cage under near-natural conditions are described. Methods Mosquitoes were irradiated in Khartoum and transported as adults by air to the field site earmarked for future releases (400 km from the laboratory). The field cage was prepared for experiments by creating resting sites with favourable conditions. The mating and survival of (irradiated) laboratory males and field-collected males was studied in the field cage, and two small-scale competition experiments were performed. Results Minor problems were experienced with the irradiation of insects, mostly associated with the absence of a rearing facility in close proximity to the irradiation source. The small-scale transportation of adult mosquitoes to the release site resulted in minimal mortality (< 6%). Experiments in the field cage showed that mating occurred in high frequencies (i.e. an average of 60% insemination of females after one or two nights of mating), and laboratory reared males (i.e. sixty generations) were able to inseminate wild females at rates comparable to wild males. Based on wing length data, there was no size preference of males for mates. Survival of mosquitoes from the cage, based on recapture after mating, was satisfactory and approximately 60% of the insects were recaptured after one night. Only limited information on male competitiveness was obtained due to problems associated with individual egg laying of small numbers of wild females. Conclusion It is concluded that although conditions are challenging, there are no major obstacles associated with the small

  2. Sudan.

    PubMed

    1985-08-01

    The Sudan's population characteristics, geographical features, history, political conditions, and foreign relations are profiled. The 1984 population of Sudan has been estimated at 21.1 million, with an estimated annual growth rate of 3.0%. Approximately 25% of the Sudanese population resides in urban areas. Major religions are Islam, indigenous beliefs (in southern Sudan), and Christianity. The official language is Arabic, although English and tribal languages are also spoken. Education is compulsory for 9 years, but the attendance rate is only 48%. The infant mortality rate is 118.0/1000 live births, and life expectancy is 47 years. 78.4% of the work force is engaged in agriculture, 9.8% in industry and commerce, and 6% in government. The estimated gross national product for 1981-83 was $27.36 billion, with an estimated annual growth rate of 2.7% in 1982-83. Per capit income was approximately $361 in 1982, with an average annual inflation rate of 20-30%. Sudan's population is composed of 2 distinct cultures, Arab and black African, and effective collaboration between them poses one of the nation's principal internal problems. The 5 northern regions cover almost 2/3 of Sudan and include most urban centers. Most of the 13 million Sudanese who live in this area are Arabic-speaking Muslims of several distinct tribal groups. The southern region has a population of about 5.5 million and a predominantly rural, subsistence economy. The south also contains many tribal groups and uses many more languages than the north. Sudan's primary resources are agricultural. Although the country is trying to diversify its cash crops, cotton and cottonseed account for more than 50% of export earnings. Another large export crop is gum arabic. Grain sorghum is the principal food crop, and wheat is grown for domestic consumption. Livestock production has vast potential and many animals, particularly camels and sheep, are exported to other Arab countries. The inadequate transportation

  3. 31 CFR 538.209 - Prohibited transportation-related transactions involving Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... transactions involving Sudan. 538.209 Section 538.209 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 538.209 Prohibited transportation-related transactions involving Sudan... relating to transportation of cargo to or from Sudan; (b) The provision of transportation of cargo to...

  4. 31 CFR 538.209 - Prohibited transportation-related transactions involving Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... transactions involving Sudan. 538.209 Section 538.209 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 538.209 Prohibited transportation-related transactions involving Sudan... relating to transportation of cargo to or from Sudan; (b) The provision of transportation of cargo to...

  5. 31 CFR 538.209 - Prohibited transportation-related transactions involving Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... transactions involving Sudan. 538.209 Section 538.209 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 538.209 Prohibited transportation-related transactions involving Sudan... relating to transportation of cargo to or from Sudan; (b) The provision of transportation of cargo to...

  6. 31 CFR 538.209 - Prohibited transportation-related transactions involving Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... transactions involving Sudan. 538.209 Section 538.209 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 538.209 Prohibited transportation-related transactions involving Sudan... relating to transportation of cargo to or from Sudan; (b) The provision of transportation of cargo to...

  7. 31 CFR 538.209 - Prohibited transportation-related transactions involving Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... transactions involving Sudan. 538.209 Section 538.209 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 538.209 Prohibited transportation-related transactions involving Sudan... relating to transportation of cargo to or from Sudan; (b) The provision of transportation of cargo to...

  8. Ag Transport Through Non-Irradiated and Irradiated SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Szlufarska, Izabela; Morgan, Dane; Blanchard, James

    2016-01-11

    Silicon carbide is the main barrier to diffusion of fission products in the current design of TRistuctural ISOtropic (TRISO) coated fuel particles, and Ag is one of the few fission products that have been shown to escape through this barrier. Because the SiC coating in TRISO is exposed to radiation throughout the lifetime of the fuel, understanding of how radiation changes the transport of the fission products is essential for the safety of the reactor. The goals of this project are: (i) to determine whether observed variation in integral release measurements of Ag through SiC can be explained by differences in grain size and grain boundary (GB) types among the samples; (2) to identify the effects of irradiation on diffusion of Ag through SiC; (3) to discover phenomena responsible for significant solubility of Ag in polycrystalline SiC. To address these goals, we combined experimental analysis of SiC diffusion couples with modeling studies of diffusion mechanisms through bulk and GBs of this material. Comparison between results obtained for pristine and irradiated samples brings in insights into the effects of radiation on Ag transport.

  9. Dialysis and transplantation in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Suliman, S M; Beliela, M H; Hamza, H

    1995-01-01

    In this report we present the current status of the renal replacement therapy in Sudan. Sudan is a large country with 30 million inhabitants. Peritoneal Dialysis was started in 1968, while hemodialysis was started in 1973. At present, there are only 16 hemodialysis machines serving 56 patients in two centers in Sudan. There are also 15 peritoneal dialysis beds for 70 intermittent peritoneal dialysis patients in three centers. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis is not being practiced in Sudan. The first renal transplant was in 1974, and till now more than 30 transplants have been performed in two transplant centers. All the transplants have been from living donors. The scholars of Islam in Sudan oppose to donation from cadavers. There are 200 renal transplant patients being followed up in Sudan and the majority had their renal transplants abroad. We conclude that there is a tremendous shortage of renal services in Sudan. There are more efforts being made to improve these services.

  10. Demanding Divestment from Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asquith, Christina

    2006-01-01

    Bowing to student demands to "stop supporting genocide," the University of California regents voted earlier this year to divest millions of dollars from companies working in the war-torn African nation of Sudan, the first major public university in the nation to take such action. Since student protests on the subject began at Harvard…

  11. UNICEF and the Sudan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, Nairobi (Kenya). Eastern Africa Regional Office.

    Coupled with poor infrastructure, vast distances, and harsh climatic conditions, the enormous physical obstacles in the Sudan (Africa's largest country) have combined to produce extremely serious problems for Sudanese children, who will soon constitute half of the 17 million people there. This booklet describes continuing projects implemented by…

  12. 31 CFR 538.505 - Provision of certain legal services to the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting Sudan. 538.505 Section 538.505 Money and... Licensing Policy § 538.505 Provision of certain legal services to the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting Sudan. (a) The provision to the Government of Sudan, to a person in Sudan, or...

  13. 31 CFR 538.505 - Provision of certain legal services to the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting Sudan. 538.505 Section 538.505 Money and... Licensing Policy § 538.505 Provision of certain legal services to the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting Sudan. (a) The provision to the Government of Sudan, to a person in Sudan, or...

  14. 31 CFR 538.505 - Provision of certain legal services to the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting Sudan. 538.505 Section 538.505 Money and... Licensing Policy § 538.505 Provision of certain legal services to the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting Sudan. (a) The provision to the Government of Sudan, to a person in Sudan, or...

  15. 31 CFR 538.505 - Provision of certain legal services to the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting Sudan. 538.505 Section 538.505 Money and... Licensing Policy § 538.505 Provision of certain legal services to the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting Sudan. (a) The provision to the Government of Sudan, to a person in Sudan, or...

  16. 31 CFR 538.505 - Provision of certain legal services to the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting Sudan. 538.505 Section 538.505 Money and... Licensing Policy § 538.505 Provision of certain legal services to the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting Sudan. (a) The provision to the Government of Sudan, to a person in Sudan, or...

  17. An Adaptive Security Construct: Insurgency in Sudan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    feb01. pdf (accessed August 10, 2007). 11 Theodore S. Dagne, Library of Congress, and Congressional Research Service, "Sudan: The Crisis in Darfur and...concept was later adapted for urban guerrilla conflict. See also Carlos Marighella, “Minimanual do guerrilheiro urbano ,” translated by Robert Moss...as a lack of infrastructure and transportation means worked in favor of the “bush-fighting” insurgents.106 Conventional operations grew increasingly

  18. Irradiation response of commercial, high-Tc superconducting tapes: Electromagnetic transport properties

    DOE PAGES

    Gapud, A. A.; Greenwood, N. T.; Alexander, J. A.; ...

    2015-07-01

    Effects of low dose irradiation on the electrical transport current properties of commercially available high-temperature superconducting, coated-conductor tapes were investigated, in view of potential applications in the irradiative environment of fusion reactors. Three different tapes, each with unique as-grown flux-pinning structures, were irradiated with Au and Ni ions at energies that provide a range of damage effects, with accumulated damage levels near that expected for conductors in a fusion reactor environment. Measurements using transport current determined the pre- and post-irradiation resistivity, critical current density, and pinning force density, yielding critical temperatures, irreversibility lines, and inferred vortex creep rates. Results showmore » that at the irradiation damage levels tested, any detriment to as-grown pre-irradiation properties is modest; indeed in one case already-superior pinning forces are enhanced, leading to higher critical currents.« less

  19. Irradiation response of commercial, high-Tc superconducting tapes: Electromagnetic transport properties

    SciTech Connect

    Gapud, A. A.; Greenwood, N. T.; Alexander, J. A.; Khan, A.; Leonard, K. J.; Aytug, T.; List III, F. A.; Rupich, M. W.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-07-01

    Effects of low dose irradiation on the electrical transport current properties of commercially available high-temperature superconducting, coated-conductor tapes were investigated, in view of potential applications in the irradiative environment of fusion reactors. Three different tapes, each with unique as-grown flux-pinning structures, were irradiated with Au and Ni ions at energies that provide a range of damage effects, with accumulated damage levels near that expected for conductors in a fusion reactor environment. Measurements using transport current determined the pre- and post-irradiation resistivity, critical current density, and pinning force density, yielding critical temperatures, irreversibility lines, and inferred vortex creep rates. Results show that at the irradiation damage levels tested, any detriment to as-grown pre-irradiation properties is modest; indeed in one case already-superior pinning forces are enhanced, leading to higher critical currents.

  20. The quality of irradiated red ginseng powder following transport from Korea to the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, J. H.; Lee, J.; Waje, C.; Ahn, J. J.; Kim, G. R.; Chung, H. W.; Kim, D. H.; Lee, J. W.; Byun, M. W.; Kim, K. S.; Kim, K. S.; Park, S. H.; Lee, E. J.; Ahn, D. U.

    2009-07-01

    Irradiated red ginseng powder (2.4 kg) in commercial bottles was transported from Korea to Iowa State University (USA) via air- (10 days) and sea-cargos (50 days) to prove its qualities and identity. The microbial loads of transported samples by both methods after 5 kGy irradiation were reduced from 10 6 to 10 3 CFU/g in total aerobic bacteria and from 20 CFU/g (minimum detection level) to negative in coliforms, respectively, which are in accordance with Korean microbial standard for ginseng powders. Sea-transported irradiated samples showed the increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and Hunter's a (red) value, but sensory qualities of all the red ginseng samples were not significantly different depending on irradiation and transportation means. Irradiated samples could be identified from the non-irradiated ones by the analysis of photostimulated luminescence, thermoluminescence, and electron spin resonance. This trial proved the feasibility of inter-country transportation of irradiated red ginseng powder.

  1. Observations on cattle schistosomiasis in the Sudan, a study in comparative medicine. III. Field testing of an irradiated Schistosoma bovis vaccine

    SciTech Connect

    Majid, A.A.; Bushera, H.O.; Saad, A.M.; Hussein, M.F.; Taylor, M.G.; Dargie, J.D.; Marshall, T.F.; Nelson, G.S.

    1980-05-29

    Previous work has shown that cattle can acquire a strong resistance to Schistosoma bovis infection following repeated natural exposure. Partial resistance to a laboratory challenge with S. bovis has also been demonstrated in calves after immunization with an irradiated schistosomular or cercarial vaccine. The aim of the present study was to see whether this type of caccine could protect calves under the very different conditions of natural exposure to S. bovis in the field. Thirty 6- to 9-month-old calves were each immunized with 10,000 irradiated S. bovis schistosomula by intramuscular injection and 8 weeks later were released into an enzootic area along with 30 unvaccinated animals. The calves were followed up for 10 months, during which period protection was evidenced by a lower mortality rate, a slower rate of acquisition of infection, and lower fecal egg counts in the vaccinated calves. Necropsy of the survivors showed 60 to 70% reductions in worm and tissue egg counts of the vaccinated calves as compared to those not vaccinated.

  2. Lagrangian tracing of Sahelian Sudan moisture sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salih, Abubakr A. M.; Zhang, Qiong; Tjernström, Michael

    2015-07-01

    The Sahelian Sudan is an arid to semiarid region that depends on the seasonal rainfall as the main source of water, but its rainfall has large interannual variability. Such dry regions usually have their main moisture sources elsewhere; thus, the rainfall variability is directly related to the moisture transport. This study seeks to identify source regions of water vapor for Sahelian Sudan during the monsoon period, from July to September. We have used the Lagrangian trajectory model FLEXPART driven by ERA-Interim reanalysis for the time period 1998 to 2008. The results show that most of the air masses that reach this region during the monsoon period have their major origins over the Arabian Peninsula, Central Africa, or are associated with the tropical easterly jet. Flow associated with Intertropical Convergence Zone contributes almost half of the total precipitated water; most of it comes from Central Africa. This suggests that moisture recycling is the major contributor, compared to Oceanic sources. The flows from the northeast (Arabian Peninsula and north Asia) and east (Horn of Africa and north Indian Ocean) contribute about one third of the precipitated water. The rest of precipitated water comes from the Mediterranean, subtropical Atlantic, and western Sahel, all with smaller contribution. Our results also indicate that different subregions of Sahelian Sudan have different moisture sources. Such result needs to be taken into account in seasonal forecasting practices.

  3. Al Jazirah, Sudan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Al Jazirah (also Gezira) is one of the 26 states of Sudan. The state lies between the Blue Nile and the White Nile in the east-central region of the country. It is a well populated area suitable for agriculture. The area was at the southern end of Nubia and little is known about its ancient history and only limited archaeological work has been conducted in this area. The region has benefited from the Gezira Scheme, a program to foster cotton farming begun in 1925. At that time the Sennar Dam and numerous irrigation canals were built. Al Jazirah became the Sudan's major agricultural region with more than 2.5 million acres (10,000 km) under cultivation. The initial development project was semi-private, but the government nationalized it in 1950. Cotton production increased in the 1970s but by the 1990s increased wheat production has supplanted a third of the land formerly seeded with cotton.

    The image was acquired December 25, 2006, covers an area of 56 x 36.4 km, and is located near 14.5 degrees north latitude, 33.1 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  4. Distance Teaching in the Sudan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badri, Hagga Kashif

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the history, social climate, and country of Sudan as they relate to several educational projects. It is suggested that a satisfactory rate of development cannot be achieved while illiteracy remains at its present high level. (Author/JEG)

  5. Heat transport in metals irradiated by ultrashort laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanavin, A. P.; Smetanin, I. V.; Isakov, V. A.; Afanasiev, Yu. V.; Chichkov, B. N.; Wellegehausen, B.; Nolte, S.; Momma, C.; Tünnermann, A.

    1998-06-01

    Different regimes of heat propagation in metals irradiated by subpicosecond laser pulses are studied on the basis of a two-temperature diffusion model. Analytical solutions for the heat conduction equation, corresponding to the different temperature dependences of the electron thermal conductivity, are obtained. It is shown that in case of a strong electron-lattice nonequilibrium, the heat penetration depth grows linearly with time, and the heat propagation velocity decreases with increasing laser fluence. Investigations of this ``counterintuitive'' regime of heat propagation are performed.

  6. Heat transport in metals irradiated by ultrashort laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanavin, Andrei P.; Afanasiev, Yuri V.; Chichkov, Boris N.; Isakov, Vladimir A.; Smetanin, Igor V.

    2000-02-01

    Different regimes of heat propagation in metals irradiated by subpicosecond laser pulses are studied on the basis of two-temperature diffusion model. New analytical solutions for the heat conduction equation, corresponding to the different temperature dependences of the electron thermal conductivity (formula available n paper), are found. It is shown that in case of a strong electron-lattice nonequilibrium, the heat penetration depth grows linearly with time, lT varies direct as t, in opposite to the ordinary diffusionlike behavior, lT varies direct as t1/2. Moreover, the heat propagation velocity decreases with increasing laser fluence.

  7. Safety analysis of irradiated nuclear fuel transportation container

    SciTech Connect

    Uspuras, E.; Rimkevicius, S.

    2007-07-01

    Ignalina NPP comprises two Units with RBMK-1500 reactors. After the Unit 1 of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant was shut down in 2004, approximately 1000 fuel assemblies from Unit were available for further reuse in Unit 2. The fuel-transportation container, vehicle, protection shaft and other necessary equipment were designed in order to implement the process for on-site transportation of Unit 1 fuel for reuse in the Unit 2. The Safety Analysis Report (SAR) was developed to demonstrate that the proposed set of equipment performs all functions and assures the required level of safety for both normal operation and accident conditions. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the content and main results of SAR, focusing attention on the container used to transport spent fuel assemblies from Unit I on Unit 2. In the SAR, the structural integrity, thermal, radiological and nuclear safety calculations are performed to assess the acceptance of the proposed set of equipment. The safety analysis demonstrated that the proposed nuclear fuel transportation container and other equipment are in compliance with functional, design and regulatory requirements and assure the required safety level. (authors)

  8. Transport properties of Ar+ irradiated resistive switching BiFeO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, L.; Shuai, Y.; Ou, X.; Luo, W. B.; Wu, C. G.; Zhang, W. L.; Bürger, D.; Skorupa, I.; You, T.; Du, N.; Schmidt, O. G.; Schmidt, H.

    2015-05-01

    BiFeO3 thin films were irradiated by Ar+ ions with different fluences. The rectifying and resistive switching behaviour were retained on the Au/BiFeO3/Pt stack, and the ON/OFF ratio clearly depends on the Ar+ fluence. It was observed that the transport in high resistance state changes from Poole-Frenkel conduction to space-charge-limited conduction after irradiation. While the conduction of the low resistance state is dominated by both the interface and the bulk thin film in the pristine devices, however, it is only dominated by the interface in the irradiated devices. The observed change of conduction mechanism was explained by additionally created oxygen vacancies (OVs) during irradiation, which also improves the stability of resistive switching.

  9. Tuning the transport gap of functionalized graphene via electron beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Steven E.; Withers, Freddie; Dubois, Marc; Craciun, Monica F.; Russo, Saverio

    2013-03-01

    We demonstrate a novel method to tune the energy gap ɛ1 between the localized states and the mobility edge of the valence band in chemically functionalized graphene by changing the coverage of fluorine adatoms via electron-beam irradiation. From the temperature dependence of the electrical transport properties we show that ɛ1 in partially fluorinated graphene CF0.28 decreases upon electron irradiation up to a dose of 0.08 C cm-2. For low irradiation doses (<0.1 C cm-2) partially fluorinated graphene behaves as a lightly doped semiconductor with impurity bands close to the conduction and valence band edges, whereas for high irradiation doses (>0.2 C cm-2) the electrical conduction takes place via Mott variable range hopping.

  10. Lagrangian tracing of Sahelian Sudan moisture sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salih, Abubakr A. M.; Zhang, Qiong; Tjernström, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Sahelian Sudan, 10° to 16°N, is an arid to semi-arid zone that separates the Saharan to the north and the wet Savannah to the south. The region is characterized by, relatively, limited water resources, and hence has a high dependency on the annual rainfall. According to the latest IPCC report, regions that have such limited water resources are highly vulnerable to the ongoing climate change and variability. Taking into account that the agriculture is the main economical activity, the variability in annual rainfall is of direct soci-economical relevance. Similar to the rest of the African Sahel, the rainy season, June through September, across Sahelian Sudan is connected to the annual march of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). However, there still a limited understanding of the actual sources of moisture that supplies this region with water vapor during the rainy season. Broadly speaking, the Atlantic, the Congo rain forest, the Read Sea and the Indian Ocean are the main potential sources. In this study we use Lagrangian tracing technique to indentify the sources of moisture of Sahelian Sudan and attempt quantifying their contribution to the total annual moisture convergence. For this we utilized output from the Lagrangian trajectory model FLEXPART driven by the meteorological fields from the European Center for Medium range Weather Forecast ERA-interim for period of ten years 2000 to 2009. We trace back, for ten days each mass element to indentify the source region. The models also accounts for precipitation and moisture uptakes through the course of the transport of the air parcel from source to destination. Identifying the sources of moisture is of great importance, and can help in two connected directions. First, identifying sources of moisture will help in understanding the variability and will provide insight about the drought causes and mechanisms. Second, revealing the moisture sources would enhance ongoing efforts in seasonal forecasting.

  11. NUHOWS - Storage and Transportation of Irradiated Reactor Components in Large Packages - 13439

    SciTech Connect

    Rae, Glen A.

    2013-07-01

    Most irradiated reactor components (hardware such as Control Rod Blades, Fuel Channels, Poison Curtains, etc.) generated at reactors previously required significant processing for size reduction due to the available transportation casks not being physically capable of containing unprocessed material. As of July 1, 2008, disposal for this typical waste class (B and C) became inaccessible (for the major part of the nation) due to the Barnwell, SC disposal facility being closed to all but its three compact states (CT, NJ and SC). Currently in the United States, most facilities are storing their irradiated hardware on-site in the spent fuel pools. Until recently with the opening of the Waste Control Specialists' Texas disposal facility, utilities faced the challenges of spent fuel pool space and capacity management. However, even with WCS's disposal availability, the site currently has annual Curie limitations for disposal, which will continue to promote interim on-site storage until such time as disposal is available. In response, Transnuclear Inc., (TN) an AREVA company, proceeded with designing a new large Radioactive Waste Container (RWC) that can be used to package irradiated hardware without the need for significant processing. The design features of the RWC allows for intermittent loadings of the hardware for better packaging efficiency, higher packaging density, space savings and reduced cost. This RWC is also compatible with TN's on-site modular vault storage system. Once completely loaded, the RWC can be transported to an on-site storage facility, an off-site storage facility and/or an available disposal facility. To accommodate the transportation, TN has designed a large transportation cask, the MP197HB. As the original design was for transporting fuel, it contains the necessary shielding to allow for the transport of unprocessed irradiated reactor components, while significantly reducing the amount of irradiated hardware shipments required with the use of

  12. Ticks infesting animals in the Sudan and Southern Sudan: past and current status.

    PubMed

    Elghali, Ahmed A; Hassan, Shawgi M

    2012-12-06

    In this review, we collate information about ticks identified in different parts of the Sudan and South Sudan since 1956 in order to identify gaps in tick prevalence and create a map of tick distribution. This will avail basic data for further research on ticks and policies for the control of tick-borne diseases. In this review, we discuss the situation in the Republic of South Sudan as well as Sudan. For this purpose we have divided Sudan into four regions, namely northern Sudan (Northern and River Nile states), central Sudan (Khartoum, Gazera, White Nile, Blue Nile and Sennar states), western Sudan (North and South Kordofan and North, South and West Darfour states) and eastern Sudan (Red Sea, Kassala and Gadarif states).

  13. Warmtetransport in Kleding bij Aanstraling met Warmte (Heat Transport in Clothing during Irradiation with Heat)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-22

    the thermal insulation of clothing . Ergonomics 2S, 1617-1632. Nielsen, B., Kasson, K. en Aschengreen, F.E. (1988). Heat balance during exercise in...the sun. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 58, 189-196. Nielsen, B. (1989). Solar heat load: heat balance during exercise in clothed subjects. Manuscript voor Eur...Institute for Perception, Soesterberg, The Netherlands Heat transport in clothing during irradiation vith heat A.M.J. Pieters and W.A. Lotens ABSTRACT A

  14. Deterministic transport calculations of dose profiles due to proton beam irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Filippone, W.L.; Smith, M.S.; Santoro, R.T.; Gabriel, T.A.; Alsmiller, R.G. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Charged-particle transport calculations are most often carried out using the Monte Carlo technique. For example, the TIGER and EGS codes are used for electron transport calculations, while HETC models the transport of protons and heavy ions. In recent years there has been considerable progress in deterministic models of electron transport. Many of these models are also applicable to protons. In this paper we present discrete ordinates solutions to the Spencer-Lewis equation for protons. In its present form, our code calculates the energy deposition profile and primary proton flux in x-y geometry due to proton beam irradiation. Proton energies up to 0.4 GeV are permissible.

  15. Return of the Lost Boys to South Sudan: A Strategy to Building a Stronger South Sudan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    conflict South Sudan. Thus, it is stated in the South Sudan Development Plan (SSDP), 2011–2013 that “educated and skilled South Sudanese from the...during the conference with the USAID, Juba, South Sudan, June 15, 2009), www.gurtong.net (Accessed December 14, 2010). 11 South Sudan Development Plan ...you are married and have children, you have to consider them when making plans ,” he explained.44 Concerns about the welfare of nuclear family seem

  16. Transportation impact analysis for shipment of irradiated N-reactor fuel and associated materials

    SciTech Connect

    Daling, P.M.; Harris, M.S.

    1994-12-01

    An analysis of the radiological and nonradiological impacts of highway transportation of N-Reactor irradiated fuel (N-fuel) and associated materials is described in this report. N-fuel is proposed to be transported from its present locations in the 105-KE and 105-KW Basins, and possibly the PUREX Facility, to the 327 Building for characterization and testing. Each of these facilities is located on the Hanford Site, which is near Richland, Washington. The projected annual shipping quantity is 500 kgU/yr for 5 years for a total of 2500 kgU. It was assumed the irradiated fuel would be returned to the K- Basins following characterization, so the total amount of fuel shipped was assumed to be 5000 kgU. The shipping campaign may also include the transport and characterization of liquids, gases, and sludges from the storage basins, including fuel assembly and/or canister parts that may also be present in the basins. The impacts of transporting these other materials are bounded by the impacts of transporting 5000 kgU of N-fuel. This report was prepared to support an environmental assessment of the N-fuel characterization program. The RADTRAN 4 and GENII computer codes were used to evaluate the radiological impacts of the proposed shipping campaign. RADTRAN 4 was used to calculate the routine exposures and accident risks to workers and the general public from the N-fuel shipments. The GENII computer code was used to calculate the consequences of the maximum credible accident. The results indicate that the transportation of N-fuel in support of the characterization program should not cause excess radiological-induced latent cancer fatalities or traffic-related nonradiological accident fatalities. The consequences of the maximum credible accident are projected to be small and result in no excess latent cancer fatalities.

  17. Quantum transport in neutron-irradiated modulation-doped heterojunctions. I. Fast neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, W.; Zhou, J.; Huang, Y.; Cai, L.

    1988-12-15

    We have investigated the characteristics of low-temperature quantum transport in Al/sub x/Ga/sub 1-//sub x/As/GaAs modulation-doped heterojunctions irradiated by fast neutrons of about 14 MeV energy. The concentration and the mobility of the two-dimensional electron gas (2D EG) under low magnetic fields decrease with increase in the concentrations of scatterers, such as ionized impurities, lattice defects, and interface roughness. On the other hand, under strong magnetic fields, the Hall plateau broadening associated with the Landau localized states, and the Shubnikov--de Hass (SdH) oscillation enhancement associated with the Landau extended states, increase markedly after fast-neutron irradiation.

  18. Agricultural fields, Khartoum, Sudan, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This herringbone pattern of irrigated agricultural fields near Khartoum, Sudan (14.5N, 33.5E) is very distinctive in both size and shape. The region contains thousands of these rectangular fields bounded by canals which carry water from both the White and Blue Nile Rivers. A crop rotation system is used so that some fields are in cotton, millit, sorghum or fallow to conserve moisture and control weeds and insects. See also STS049-96-003.

  19. 3D Monte Carlo model of optical transport in laser-irradiated cutaneous vascular malformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majaron, Boris; Milanič, Matija; Jia, Wangcun; Nelson, J. S.

    2010-11-01

    We have developed a three-dimensional Monte Carlo (MC) model of optical transport in skin and applied it to analysis of port wine stain treatment with sequential laser irradiation and intermittent cryogen spray cooling. Our MC model extends the approaches of the popular multi-layer model by Wang et al.1 to three dimensions, thus allowing treatment of skin inclusions with more complex geometries and arbitrary irradiation patterns. To overcome the obvious drawbacks of either "escape" or "mirror" boundary conditions at the lateral boundaries of the finely discretized volume of interest (VOI), photons exiting the VOI are propagated in laterally infinite tissue layers with appropriate optical properties, until they loose all their energy, escape into the air, or return to the VOI, but the energy deposition outside of the VOI is not computed and recorded. After discussing the selection of tissue parameters, we apply the model to analysis of blood photocoagulation and collateral thermal damage in treatment of port wine stain (PWS) lesions with sequential laser irradiation and intermittent cryogen spray cooling.

  20. Measurements of Electron Transport in Foils Irradiated with a Picosecond Time Scale Laser Pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C. R. D.; Hoarty, D. J.; James, S. F.; Swatton, D.; Hughes, S. J.; Morton, J. W.; Guymer, T. M.; Hill, M. P.; Chapman, D. A.; Andrew, J. E.; Comley, A. J.; Shepherd, R.; Dunn, J.; Chen, H.; Schneider, M.; Brown, G.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Emig, J.

    2011-05-06

    The heating of solid foils by a picosecond time scale laser pulse has been studied by using x-ray emission spectroscopy. The target material was plastic foil with a buried layer of a spectroscopic tracer material. The laser pulse length was either 0.5 or 2 ps, which resulted in a laser irradiance that varied over the range 10{sup 16}-10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}. Time-resolved measurements of the buried layer emission spectra using an ultrafast x-ray streak camera were used to infer the density and temperature conditions as a function of laser parameters and depth of the buried layer. Comparison of the data to different models of electron transport showed that they are consistent with a model of electron transport that predicts the bulk of the target heating is due to return currents.

  1. Human Resources for Information Development in Sudan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesley, Cecile

    1992-01-01

    Describes the state of human resources development in Sudan's information industry. Training problems and the emigration of high level personnel are discussed, guidelines for human resource development are suggested, and national strategies to develop and retain Sudan's human resources are suggested. (EA)

  2. Language Situation in Post-War Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddiek, Ahmed Gumaa

    2010-01-01

    The theme behind this paper is to review the language policy and language planning in the Sudan, after the institutionalization of peace; by exploring the recent policy of political factions in the North and the South towards languages in post-war Sudan. This effort aims at encouraging non-Arabic speaking-ethnic-groups to accept the Arabic…

  3. 75 FR 75865 - Presidential Determination on Sudan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... enables the United Nations to facilitate the referendum in Southern Sudan pursuant to the Comprehensive... Sudan Memorandum for the Secretary of State President of the Export-Import Bank of the United States By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States...

  4. Demanding strategic leadership. Sudan. The Hague Forum.

    PubMed

    Garang, G D

    1999-01-01

    The establishment of the Sudan National Population Council in the wake of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) showed strong political commitment to implementing the ICPD's program of action at the national level. Sudan has also participated in a number of regional and international meetings which recommended various ways of accelerating the implementation of the program of action. The successful implementation of Sudan's national population policy demands strategic leadership at various levels to ensure that the government, with the active participation of the civil society, work together to design, implement, coordinate, monitor, and evaluate population and development programs. However, the country's longstanding civil war and other manmade and natural disasters have caused ongoing population displacement and resettlement processes, impeding development efforts. Sudan's government is concentrating mainly upon ending the war and addressing its negative consequences upon population development before addressing any development plans and programs. The ICPD quantitative targets will be hard to reach in Sudan given current conditions.

  5. 31 CFR 538.305 - Government of Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Government of Sudan. 538.305 Section... § 538.305 Government of Sudan. (a) The term Government of Sudan includes: (1) The state and the Government of Sudan, as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof, including...

  6. 31 CFR 538.418 - Financial transactions in Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Financial transactions in Sudan. 538... Interpretations § 538.418 Financial transactions in Sudan. (a) Any financial transaction with a depository institution located in an area of Sudan other than the Specified Areas of Sudan, e.g., Khartoum,...

  7. 31 CFR 538.305 - Government of Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Government of Sudan. 538.305 Section... § 538.305 Government of Sudan. The term Government of Sudan includes: (a) The state and the Government of Sudan, as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof, including...

  8. 31 CFR 538.305 - Government of Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Government of Sudan. 538.305 Section... § 538.305 Government of Sudan. (a) The term Government of Sudan includes: (1) The state and the Government of Sudan, as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof, including...

  9. 31 CFR 538.418 - Financial transactions in Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Financial transactions in Sudan. 538... Interpretations § 538.418 Financial transactions in Sudan. (a) Any financial transaction with a depository institution located in an area of Sudan other than the Specified Areas of Sudan, e.g., Khartoum,...

  10. 31 CFR 538.305 - Government of Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Government of Sudan. 538.305 Section... § 538.305 Government of Sudan. The term Government of Sudan includes: (a) The state and the Government of Sudan, as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof, including...

  11. 31 CFR 538.418 - Financial transactions in Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Financial transactions in Sudan. 538... Interpretations § 538.418 Financial transactions in Sudan. (a) Any financial transaction with a depository institution located in an area of Sudan other than the Specified Areas of Sudan, e.g., Khartoum,...

  12. 31 CFR 538.305 - Government of Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Government of Sudan. 538.305 Section... § 538.305 Government of Sudan. The term Government of Sudan includes: (a) The state and the Government of Sudan, as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof, including...

  13. 31 CFR 538.418 - Financial transactions in Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Financial transactions in Sudan. 538... Interpretations § 538.418 Financial transactions in Sudan. (a) Any financial transaction with a depository institution located in an area of Sudan other than the Specified Areas of Sudan, e.g., Khartoum,...

  14. 31 CFR 538.418 - Financial transactions in Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Financial transactions in Sudan. 538... Interpretations § 538.418 Financial transactions in Sudan. (a) Any financial transaction with a depository institution located in an area of Sudan other than the Specified Areas of Sudan, e.g., Khartoum,...

  15. Thermal transport in CO2 laser irradiated fused silica: in situ measurements and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, S T; Matthews, M J; Elhadj, S; Draggoo, V G; Bisson, S E

    2009-07-07

    In situ spatial and temporal temperature measurements of pristine fused silica surfaces heated with a 10.6 {micro}m CO{sub 2} laser were obtained using an infrared radiation thermometer based on a Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT) camera. Laser spot sizes ranged from 250 {micro}m to 1000 {micro}m diameter with peak axial irradiance levels of 0.13 to 16 kW/cm{sup 2}. For temperatures below 2800K, the measured steady-state surface temperature is observed to rise linearly with both increasing beam size and incident laser irradiance. The effective thermal conductivity estimated over this range was approximately 2W/mK, in good agreement with classical calculations based on phonon heat capacities. Similarly, time-dependent temperature measurements up to 2000K yielded thermal diffusivity values which were close to reported values of 7 x 10{sup -7} m{sup 2}/s. Above {approx}2800K, the fused silica surface temperature asymptotically approaches 3100K as laser power is further increased, consistent with the onset of evaporative heat losses near the silica boiling point. These results show that in the laser heating regime studied here, the T{sup 3} temperature dependent thermal conductivity due to radiation transport can be neglected, but at temperatures above 2800K heat transport due to evaporation must be considered. The thermal transport in fused silica up to 2800K, over a range of conditions, can then be adequately described by a linear diffusive heat equation assuming constant thermal properties.

  16. Sudan challenges the sand dragon.

    PubMed

    Tinker, J

    1978-01-01

    Formerly productive areas have become wasteland as the desert advances in the Sudan. To understand how desertification is undermining the very survival of the Sahel, one ecosystem is reviewed in detail here: the gum arabic zone of Kordofan. After cotton, gum arabic is Sudan's largest export, worth from $14-26 million in recent years. In this zone the ecologically balanced cycle of gum gardens, fire, grain crops, and fallow is now breaking down; the 1968-1973 drought having in many areas delivered the final blow. Because of a growing population, the cultivation period is extended, and the soil becomes impoverished. Overgrazing in the fallow period, and the lopping of gum trees for firewood is producing a low return on the gum trees. Without this gum to harvest for cash, farmers must repeatedly replant their subsistence crops until the land becomes useless sand. The Sudanese have recognized the problem earlier than most, and a number of imaginative and practicable pilot projects are already in use: 1) waterpoint management; 2) construction of firebreaks; 3) land threatened by shifting dunes has been enclosed by stockproof fence and afforested with local trees; and 4) shelter belts have been planted around town perimeters where old gum tree stumps have started to sprout and the grass is reseeding itself. Out of these pilot projects, and with the advice of the U.N. Environment Program, the U.N. Development Program, and FAO, the Sudanese have developed a modest $26 million desert encroachment control and rehabilitation program (DECARP).

  17. Two-dimensional concentration distribution of reactive oxygen species transported through a tissue phantom by atmospheric-pressure plasma-jet irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Toshiyuki; Sato, Akihiro; Kusumegi, Shota; Kudo, Akihiro; Sakanoshita, Tomohiro; Tsurumaru, Takuya; Uchida, Giichiro; Koga, Kazunori; Shiratani, Masaharu

    2016-07-01

    The two-dimensional concentration distribution of reactive oxygen species (ROSs) transported through an agarose-film tissue phantom by atmospheric-pressure plasma-jet irradiation is visualized using a KI-starch gel reagent. Oxygen addition to helium enhances ROS transportation through the film. A radial ROS distribution pattern at the plasma-irradiated film surface changes into a doughnut-shaped pattern after passing through the film. The ROS transportation speed is 0.14-0.2 mm/min. We suggest that there are two types of ROS transportation pathways in the plasma-irradiated film: linear and circular. The majority of ROSs are transported through the circular pathway. ROS concentration distributions changed markedly with irradiation distance. Diffusive ROS transportation due to a concentration gradient is negligible in plasma-irradiated films.

  18. Rift Valley fever, Sudan, 2007 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Aradaib, Imadeldin E; Erickson, Bobbie R; Elageb, Rehab M; Khristova, Marina L; Carroll, Serena A; Elkhidir, Isam M; Karsany, Mubarak E; Karrar, Abdelrahim E; Elbashir, Mustafa I; Nichol, Stuart T

    2013-02-01

    To elucidate whether Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) diversity in Sudan resulted from multiple introductions or from acquired changes over time from 1 introduction event, we generated complete genome sequences from RVFV strains detected during the 2007 and 2010 outbreaks. Phylogenetic analyses of small, medium, and large RNA segment sequences indicated several genetic RVFV variants were circulating in Sudan, which all grouped into Kenya-1 or Kenya-2 sublineages from the 2006-2008 eastern Africa epizootic. Bayesian analysis of sequence differences estimated that diversity among the 2007 and 2010 Sudan RVFV variants shared a most recent common ancestor circa 1996. The data suggest multiple introductions of RVFV into Sudan as part of sweeping epizootics from eastern Africa. The sequences indicate recent movement of RVFV and support the need for surveillance to recognize when and where RVFV circulates between epidemics, which can make data from prediction tools easier to interpret and preventive measures easier to direct toward high-risk areas.

  19. Training traditional birth attendants in southern Sudan.

    PubMed

    Haarsager, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Traditional birth attendants are currently the principal service providers to pregnant women in southern Sudan. A training program provides education to promote maternal and newborn health as well as birth preparedness and establishes mechanisms for supportive supervision.

  20. Quality of Sterile Male Tsetse after Long Distance Transport as Chilled, Irradiated Pupae

    PubMed Central

    Bassene, Mireille D.; Fall, Assane Gueye; Diouf, Thérèse A. R.; Sall, Baba; Vreysen, Marc J. B.; Rayaissé, Jean-Baptiste; Takac, Peter; Sidibé, Issa; Parker, Andrew G.; Mutika, Gratian N.; Bouyer, Jérémy; Gimonneau, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    Background Tsetse flies transmit trypanosomes that cause human and African animal trypanosomosis, a debilitating disease of humans (sleeping sickness) and livestock (nagana). An area-wide integrated pest management campaign against Glossina palpalis gambiensis has been implemented in Senegal since 2010 that includes a sterile insect technique (SIT) component. The SIT can only be successful when the sterile males that are destined for release have a flight ability, survival and competitiveness that are as close as possible to that of their wild male counterparts. Methodology/Principal Findings Tests were developed to assess the quality of G. p. gambiensis males that emerged from pupae that were produced and irradiated in Burkina Faso and Slovakia (irradiation done in Seibersdorf, Austria) and transported weekly under chilled conditions to Dakar, Senegal. For each consignment a sample of 50 pupae was used for a quality control test (QC group). To assess flight ability, the pupae were put in a cylinder filtering emerged flies that were able to escape the cylinder. The survival of these flyers was thereafter monitored under stress conditions (without feeding). Remaining pupae were emerged and released in the target area of the eradication programme (RF group). The following parameter values were obtained for the QC flies: average emergence rate more than 69%, median survival of 6 days, and average flight ability of more than 35%. The quality protocol was a good proxy of fly quality, explaining a large part of the variances of the examined parameters. Conclusions/Significance The quality protocol described here will allow the accurate monitoring of the quality of shipped sterile male tsetse used in operational eradication programmes in the framework of the Pan-African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign. PMID:26562521

  1. Dust photophoretic transport in a disk irradiated by an evolving PMS star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordier, D.; Moroni, P.; Tognelli, E.

    2014-04-01

    As reported by Tielens et al. (2005) [14] the interstellar medium (ISM) is very poor in crystalline solids. For instance, Kemper et al. (2004) [7] well reproduce the interstellar absorption band using a mixture of 15.1% amorphous pyroxene and 84.9% of amorphous olivine by mass, leading to a crystalline fraction of the interstellar silicates around 0.2% by mass. The proto-solar nebula is supposed to be formed from the material coming from the ISM. As a consequence, the primordial dust in the solar system should be composed of amorphous solids excepted grains which have undergone thermal annealing in high temperature regions (i.e. around 1000-1500 K) close to the star (i.e. r . 1 - 2 AU). Besides this, comets are presumed to have formed in the cold outer part of the solar nebula. Campins & Ryan (1989) have found that crystalline olivine is a major component of the silicates in comet Halley. Stardust samples of comet 81P/Wild 2 include large singleminerals crystals and X-raymicroscopic analysis leads to a crystal mass fraction fcryst larger than ~ 50% (Ogliore et al. 2009, Brownlee et al. 2006). More generally comets have a fcryst larger than ~ 20% (Lindsay et al. 2013, Kelley & Wooden, 2009). This discrepancy between ISMgrains crystallinity and comets one is the mark of a radial transport process occuring in the accretion disk. Several transport processes have been proposed to explain the presence of these refractory material in comets: annealing by shock waves in the outer solar nebula (Harker & Desch 2002) [3], radial mixing processes by turbulent diffusion (Gail, 2001; Wehrstedt & Gail, 2002; Bockelée-Morvan et al., 2002) or transport by photophoresis (Mousis et al., 2007 andMoudens et al., 2011). In this paper, we focus on this last process for which we employ a 1+1D accretion disk model irradiated by a pre-main sequence (PMS) star. The model of nebula and the model of star are both evolving. Concerning the photophoresis itself, essentially, we have followed the

  2. Defect-mediated transport and electronic irradiation effect in individual domains of CVD-grown monolayer MoS2

    DOE PAGES

    Durand, Corentin; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Fowlkes, Jason; ...

    2015-01-16

    We study the electrical transport properties of atomically thin individual crystalline grains of MoS2 with four-probe scanning tunneling microscopy. The monolayer MoS2 domains are synthesized by chemical vapor deposition on SiO2/Si substrate. Temperature dependent measurements on conductance and mobility show that transport is dominated by an electron charge trapping and thermal release process with very low carrier density and mobility. The effects of electronic irradiation are examined by exposing the film to electron beam in the scanning electron microscope in an ultrahigh vacuum environment. The irradiation process is found to significantly affect the mobility and the carrier density of themore » material, with the conductance showing a peculiar time-dependent relaxation behavior. It is suggested that the presence of defects in active MoS2 layer and dielectric layer create charge trapping sites, and a multiple trapping and thermal release process dictates the transport and mobility characteristics. The electron beam irradiation promotes the formation of defects and impact the electrical properties of MoS2. Finally, our study reveals the important roles of defects and the electron beam irradiation effects in the electronic properties of atomic layers of MoS2.« less

  3. 75 FR 62069 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Sudan Waiver Process

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation; Sudan Waiver Process AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DoD), General..., Prohibition on contracting with entities that conduct restricted business operations in Sudan, to add specific... on awarding a contract to a contractor that conducts business in Sudan should be waived....

  4. 15 CFR 742.10 - Anti-terrorism: Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Sudan. 742.10 Section...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.10 Anti-terrorism: Sudan. (a) License requirements. (1) If AT column 1 or AT... ECCN, a license is required for export to Sudan for anti-terrorism purposes. 1 AT column 1 refers...

  5. 31 CFR 538.320 - Specified Areas of Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specified Areas of Sudan. 538.320 Section 538.320 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... Definitions § 538.320 Specified Areas of Sudan. (a) The term Specified Areas of Sudan means Southern...

  6. 15 CFR 742.10 - Anti-terrorism: Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Sudan. 742.10 Section...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.10 Anti-terrorism: Sudan. (a) License requirements. (1) If AT column 1 or AT... ECCN, a license is required for export to Sudan for anti-terrorism purposes. 1 AT column 1 refers...

  7. 31 CFR 538.320 - Specified Areas of Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Specified Areas of Sudan. 538.320 Section 538.320 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... Definitions § 538.320 Specified Areas of Sudan. (a) The term Specified Areas of Sudan means Southern...

  8. 31 CFR 538.320 - Specified Areas of Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Specified Areas of Sudan. 538.320 Section 538.320 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... Definitions § 538.320 Specified Areas of Sudan. (a) The term Specified Areas of Sudan means Southern...

  9. 31 CFR 538.320 - Specified Areas of Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Specified Areas of Sudan. 538.320 Section 538.320 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... Definitions § 538.320 Specified Areas of Sudan. (a) The term Specified Areas of Sudan means Southern...

  10. 76 FR 68037 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Sudan Waiver Process

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... Regulation; Sudan Waiver Process AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DoD), General Services Administration (GSA... prohibition on contracting with entities that conduct restricted business operations in Sudan. This rule adds... that conducts restricted business operations in Sudan. The rule also describes the consultation...

  11. 31 CFR 538.417 - Transshipments through Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transshipments through Sudan. 538.417... § 538.417 Transshipments through Sudan. (a) The exportation or reexportation of goods, technology, or services to the Specified Areas of Sudan is exempt under § 538.212(g) only if such goods, technology,...

  12. 31 CFR 538.417 - Transshipments through Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transshipments through Sudan. 538.417... § 538.417 Transshipments through Sudan. (a) The exportation or reexportation of goods, technology, or services to the Specified Areas of Sudan is exempt under § 538.212(g) only if such goods, technology,...

  13. 31 CFR 538.417 - Transshipments through Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transshipments through Sudan. 538.417... § 538.417 Transshipments through Sudan. (a) The exportation or reexportation of goods, technology, or services to the Specified Areas of Sudan is exempt under § 538.212(g) only if such goods, technology,...

  14. 31 CFR 538.417 - Transshipments through Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Transshipments through Sudan. 538.417... § 538.417 Transshipments through Sudan. (a) The exportation or reexportation of goods, technology, or services to the Specified Areas of Sudan is exempt under § 538.212(g) only if such goods, technology,...

  15. 15 CFR 742.10 - Anti-terrorism: Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Sudan. 742.10 Section...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.10 Anti-terrorism: Sudan. (a) License requirements. (1) If AT column 1 or AT... ECCN, a license is required for export to Sudan for anti-terrorism purposes. 1 AT column 1 refers...

  16. 15 CFR 742.10 - Anti-terrorism: Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Sudan. 742.10 Section...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.10 Anti-terrorism: Sudan. (a) License requirements. (1) If AT column 1 or AT... ECCN, a license is required for export to Sudan for anti-terrorism purposes. 1 AT column 1 refers...

  17. 31 CFR 538.320 - Specified Areas of Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Specified Areas of Sudan. 538.320 Section 538.320 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... Definitions § 538.320 Specified Areas of Sudan. (a) The term Specified Areas of Sudan means Southern...

  18. 31 CFR 538.417 - Transshipments through Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transshipments through Sudan. 538.417... § 538.417 Transshipments through Sudan. (a) The exportation or reexportation of goods, technology, or services to the Specified Areas of Sudan is exempt under § 538.212(g) only if such goods, technology,...

  19. 15 CFR 742.10 - Anti-terrorism: Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Sudan. 742.10 Section...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.10 Anti-terrorism: Sudan. (a) License requirements. (1) If AT column 1 or AT... ECCN, a license is required for export to Sudan for anti-terrorism purposes. 1 AT column 1 refers...

  20. A climate trend analysis of Sudan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Funk, Christopher C.; Eilerts, Gary; Verdin, Jim; Rowland, Jim; Marshall, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Summer rains in western and southern Sudan have declined by 10-20 percent since the mid-1970s. Observed warming of more than 1 degree Celsius is equivalent to another 10-20 percent reduction in rainfall for crops. The warming and drying have impacted southern Darfur and areas around Juba. Rainfall declines west of Juba threaten southern Sudan's future food production prospects. In many cases, areas with changing climate are coincident with zones of substantial conflict, suggesting some degree of association; however, the contribution of climate change to these conflicts is not currently understood. Rapid population growth and the expansion of farming and pastoralism under a more variable climate regime could dramatically increase the number of at-risk people in Sudan over the next 20 years.

  1. Dielectric and transport properties of magnetic insulators irradiated with GeV heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Costantini, J.M.; Salvetat, J.P.; Brisard, F.

    1997-11-01

    The dielectric and ac/dc transport properties of single crystals of yttrium iron garnet (Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} and Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Si), and barium hexaferrite (BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} and BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 1 9}:Co,Ti) were investigated after irradiations with Xe and Pb ions in the GeV range. In the virgin n-type samples (Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Si and BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}:Co,Ti), the strong dielectric relaxation below 100 kHz is found to correspond to a space-charge polarization at the blocking metal/insulator contacts yielding a nonohmic dc conductivity. The relaxation frequency decreases with increasing amorphization yield in relation to the decrease of the insulators bulk dc conductivity which becomes ohmic in the amorphous phases. The ac conductivity data of both crystalline and amorphous Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Si above 100 kHz and for 100K{lt}T{lt}300K exhibit two contributions: (i) that of carrier transport in a disordered or inhomogeneous medium varying as {nu}{sup s}, with s{approx_equal}0.8, (ii) and that of a two-site polaron hopping process of charge transfer between Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} with an activation energy of 0.29 eV for T{gt}180K. The dc conductivity data of crystalline Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Si for 80K{lt}T{lt}300K are discussed on the basis of a small polaron hopping conduction mechanism between Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} with an activation energy around 0.28 eV for T{gt}125K, in agreement with the activation energy around 0.28 eV of the space-charge dielectric relaxation frequency for T{gt}180K. All amorphous phases data are consistent with the picture of hopping conduction between gap states in a disordered medium with (i) an {nu}{sup s} dependence for the ac conductivity above a critical frequency proportional to the dc conductivity, (ii) and an exp({minus}T{sup {minus}1/4}) law for the dc conductivity. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. The ethnic distribution of sickle cell disease in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Sabahelzain, Majdi Mohammed; Hamamy, Hanan

    2014-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is one of the most common inherited disorders of haemoglobin in Africa and it is expected that sickle cell trait varies in frequency in different areas in Sudan. An extensive literature search was carried out accessing the US National Library of Medicine, the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region resources, the Catalogue for Transmission Genetics in Arabs and papers and documents published in Sudan that included data on the prevalence of sickle cell anaemia and trait. Rates of SCA and trait varied in different areas in Sudan with the highest rates reported from Western and Eastern Sudan where one in every 123 children born in Messeryia tribe in Western Sudan is at risk of having SCD. High consanguinity rates and malaria endemicity are strong related factors with sickle cell gene in Sudan. This review will present what is known about the rates of sickle cell gene in different ethnic groups in Sudan.

  3. Aetiology of Oral Cancer in the Sudan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives To review the studied risk factors that linked to aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan. There have been numerous reports in the increase in the incidence of oral cancer from various parts of the world. A recent trend for a rising incidence of oral cancer, with the absence of the well established risk factors, has raised concern. Although, there are inconsistent data on incidence and demographical factors, studies suggest that the physiologic response to risk factors by men and women vary in different populations. Material and Methods This review principally examines 33 publications devoted to aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan, in addition to some risk factors that are commonly practiced in the Sudan. Results Several studies examining risk factors for oral cancer include tobacco use (Smoked and Smokeless), alcohol consumption, occupational risk, familial risk, immune deficits, virus infection and genetic factors. Conclusions Toombak use and infection with high risk Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) were extensively investigated and linked to the aetiology of oral cancer in Sudan. PMID:24422031

  4. Cholera outbreak--southern Sudan, 2007.

    PubMed

    2009-04-10

    Vibrio cholerae causes cholera, an acute infectious diarrheal disease that can result in death without appropriate therapy, depending on the severity of the disease. War, poverty, inadequate sanitation, and large numbers of refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs) are major precursors to cholera outbreaks. In 2005, Southern Sudan ended its 22-year civil war with North Sudan; as a result, IDPs and refugees are returning to the south. During April--June 2007, investigators from the Southern Sudan Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (SS-FELTP) and CDC investigated a cholera outbreak in the town of Juba, Southern Sudan. This report summarizes the results of that investigation, which found that 3,157 persons were diagnosed with suspected cholera during January--June 2007, with 74 deaths resulting from the disease. An environmental investigation revealed suboptimal hygiene practices and a lack of water and sanitation infrastructure in Juba. A case-control study indicated that persons less likely to have cholera were more likely to have consumed hot meals containing meat during the outbreak. Contaminated food or water were not identified as possible sources of the cholera outbreak in Juba. However, this might be attributed to limitations of the study, including small sample size. Cholera can reach epidemic proportions if adequate control measures are not implemented early. Mass media campaigns are important for current and new residents in Juba to understand the importance of proper food handling, clean water, and optimal hygiene practices to prevent the spread of cholera.

  5. Sudan dyes: are they dangerous for human health?

    PubMed

    Fonovich, Teresa M

    2013-07-01

    Azo and diazo compounds include Sudan dyes, which were widely used in industry. Although they are not permitted in food, they had been found contaminating different food products and their presence is investigated regularly (since 2003) in these products. Sudan III, as well as Sudan Black B, was included in different laboratory techniques for tissue ceroid and lipofucsin analysis and blood-cell staining. Also, Sudan Black B has been recently included in in vivo evaluations in human beings (through oral intake), and Sudan III is still allowed in cosmetics. These azo dyes were metabolized to possible carcinogenic colorless amines, both in the liver of mammalians and by the micro flora present in human skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Both human and laboratory animal cytochrome P450s (CYPs) were able to oxidize Sudan I, whereas Sudan III modified CYP activities. In vitro genotoxic effects were reported for Sudan I, and some DNA adducts formed through exposure to its metabolites were identified. Sudan I was also found to be carcinogenic in the rat, but not in the mouse. The aim of the present review is to put together the most relevant information concerning Sudan dye uses and toxicity to provide some tools for the identification of the risk they represent for human health.

  6. Effect of annealing on electronic carrier transport properties of gamma-irradiated AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Anupama; Schwarz, Casey; Shatkhin, Max; Wang, Luther; Flitsiyan, Elena; Chernyak, Leonid; Liu, Lu; Hwang, Ya; Ren, Fan; Pearton, Stephen; Department of Physics, University of Central Florida Collaboration; Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Florida Collaboration; Department of Materials Science; Engineering, University of Florida Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors were irradiated with 60Co gamma-ray doses from 100Gy to 1000Gy, in order to analyze the effects of irradiation on the devices' transport properties. Temperature dependent Electron Beam Induced Current (EBIC) measurements, conducted on the devices before and after exposure to gamma-irradiation, allowed for the obtaining of activation energy related to radiation-induced defects due to nitrogen vacancies. Later, the devices were annealed at 200o C for 25 minutes. All the measurements were performed again to study the effect of annealing on the gamma-irradiated devices. Annealing of gamma-irradiated transistors shows that partial recovery of device performance is possible at this temperature. DC current-voltage measurements were also conducted on the transistors to assess the impact of gamma-irradiation and annealing on transfer, gate and drain characteristics.

  7. Hole transport through proton-irradiated p-type silicon wafers during electrochemical anodization

    SciTech Connect

    Breese, M. B. H.; Champeaux, F. J. T.; Bettiol, A. A.; Teo, E. J.; Blackwood, D. J.

    2006-01-15

    The hole current density flowing through and around proton-irradiated areas of p-type silicon during electrochemical anodization is simulated and studied experimentally using scanning electron microscopy and photoluminescence imaging. It is shown that for certain irradiation geometries the current flow may be either reduced or enhanced in areas adjacent to irradiated lines, resulting in enhanced or reduced rates of porous silicon formation and corresponding changes in photoluminescence intensity and feature height. The current flow to the surface is unaffected by both the beam straggle and the high defect density at the end of ion range, enabling feature dimensions of {approx}200 nm to be attained. This study has enabled fabrication of micromachined and patterned porous silicon structures in anodized wafers with accurate control of feature dimensions, layer thickness, and photoluminescence emission wavelength and intensity.

  8. Manipulation of transport hysteresis on graphene field effect transistors with Ga ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Quan; Liu, Shuai; Ren, Naifei

    2014-09-29

    We have studied the effect of Ga ion irradiation on the controllable hysteretic behavior of graphene field effect transistors fabricated on Si/SO{sub 2} substrates. The various densities of defects in graphene were monitored by Raman spectrum. It was found that the Dirac point shifted to the positive gate voltage constantly, while the hysteretic behavior was enhanced first and then weakened, with the dose of ion irradiation increasing. By contrasting the trap charges density induced by dopant and the total density of effective trap charges, it demonstrated that adsorbate doping was not the decisive factor that induced the hysteretic behavior. The tunneling between the defect sites induced by ion irradiation was also an important cause for the hysteresis.

  9. Mapping the potential risk of mycetoma infection in Sudan and South Sudan using ecological niche modeling.

    PubMed

    Samy, Abdallah M; van de Sande, Wendy W J; Fahal, Ahmed Hassan; Peterson, A Townsend

    2014-10-01

    In 2013, the World Health Organization (WHO) recognized mycetoma as one of the neglected tropical conditions due to the efforts of the mycetoma consortium. This same consortium formulated knowledge gaps that require further research. One of these gaps was that very few data are available on the epidemiology and transmission cycle of the causative agents. Previous work suggested a soil-borne or Acacia thorn-prick-mediated origin of mycetoma infections, but no studies have investigated effects of soil type and Acacia geographic distribution on mycetoma case distributions. Here, we map risk of mycetoma infection across Sudan and South Sudan using ecological niche modeling (ENM). For this study, records of mycetoma cases were obtained from the scientific literature and GIDEON; Acacia records were obtained from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility. We developed ENMs based on digital GIS data layers summarizing soil characteristics, land-surface temperature, and greenness indices to provide a rich picture of environmental variation across Sudan and South Sudan. ENMs were calibrated in known endemic districts and transferred countrywide; model results suggested that risk is greatest in an east-west belt across central Sudan. Visualizing ENMs in environmental dimensions, mycetoma occurs under diverse environmental conditions. We compared niches of mycetoma and Acacia trees, and could not reject the null hypothesis of niche similarity. This study revealed contributions of different environmental factors to mycetoma infection risk, identified suitable environments and regions for transmission, signaled a potential mycetoma-Acacia association, and provided steps towards a robust risk map for the disease.

  10. Structural, optical, and transport properties of nanocrystalline bismuth telluride thin films treated with homogeneous electron beam irradiation and thermal annealing.

    PubMed

    Takashiri, Masayuki; Asai, Yuki; Yamauchi, Kazuki

    2016-08-19

    We investigated the effects of homogeneous electron beam (EB) irradiation and thermal annealing treatments on the structural, optical, and transport properties of bismuth telluride thin films. Bismuth telluride thin films were prepared by an RF magnetron sputtering method at room temperature. After deposition, the films were treated with homogeneous EB irradiation, thermal annealing, or a combination of both the treatments (two-step treatment). We employed Williamson-Hall analysis for separating the strain contribution from the crystallite domain contribution in the x-ray diffraction data of the films. We found that strain was induced in the thin films by EB irradiation and was relieved by thermal annealing. The crystal orientation along c-axis was significantly enhanced by the two-step treatment. Scanning electron microscopy indicated the melting and aggregation of nano-sized grains on the film surface by the two-step treatment. Optical analysis indicated that the interband transition of all the thin films was possibly of the indirect type, and that thermal annealing and two-step treatment methods increased the band gap of the films due to relaxation of the strain. Thermoelectric performance was significantly improved by the two-step treatment. The power factor reached a value of 17.2 μW (cm(-1) K(-2)), approximately 10 times higher than that of the as-deposited thin films. We conclude that improving the crystal orientation and relaxing the strain resulted in enhanced thermoelectric performance.

  11. Structural, optical, and transport properties of nanocrystalline bismuth telluride thin films treated with homogeneous electron beam irradiation and thermal annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takashiri, Masayuki; Asai, Yuki; Yamauchi, Kazuki

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the effects of homogeneous electron beam (EB) irradiation and thermal annealing treatments on the structural, optical, and transport properties of bismuth telluride thin films. Bismuth telluride thin films were prepared by an RF magnetron sputtering method at room temperature. After deposition, the films were treated with homogeneous EB irradiation, thermal annealing, or a combination of both the treatments (two-step treatment). We employed Williamson-Hall analysis for separating the strain contribution from the crystallite domain contribution in the x-ray diffraction data of the films. We found that strain was induced in the thin films by EB irradiation and was relieved by thermal annealing. The crystal orientation along c-axis was significantly enhanced by the two-step treatment. Scanning electron microscopy indicated the melting and aggregation of nano-sized grains on the film surface by the two-step treatment. Optical analysis indicated that the interband transition of all the thin films was possibly of the indirect type, and that thermal annealing and two-step treatment methods increased the band gap of the films due to relaxation of the strain. Thermoelectric performance was significantly improved by the two-step treatment. The power factor reached a value of 17.2 μW (cm-1 K-2), approximately 10 times higher than that of the as-deposited thin films. We conclude that improving the crystal orientation and relaxing the strain resulted in enhanced thermoelectric performance.

  12. Retrospective measles outbreak investigation: Sudan, 2004.

    PubMed

    Coronado, Fátima; Musa, Nisreen; El Tayeb, El Sayed Ahmed; Haithami, Salah; Dabbagh, Alya; Mahoney, Frank; Nandy, Robin; Cairns, Lisa

    2006-10-01

    Recent population-based studies of measles incidence and deaths in Sudan are not available. To determine the epidemiology and case-fatality rate (CFR) of measles, we conducted a retrospective outbreak investigation in two states in northern Sudan. Of 1144 case-patients identified, 92% were <15 years; 48.6% were vaccinated; and 62% received vitamin A before illness. Ten measles-associated deaths were identified (CFR 0.9%; 95% confidence interval 0.16-1.91). CFR determined by this investigation is lower than expected for the region but remains 10 times higher than that in developed countries. Measles control should be strengthened by improving vaccine coverage, measles surveillance and case-management.

  13. High Levels of Dietary Supplement Vitamins A, C and E are Absorbed in the Small Intestine and Protect Nutrient Transport Against Chronic Gamma Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Azzam, Edouard I.; Ferraris, Ronaldo P.; Howell, Roger W.

    2015-01-01

    We examined nutrient transport in the intestines of mice exposed to chronic low-LET 137Cs gamma rays. The mice were whole-body irradiated for 3 days at dose rates of 0, 0.13 and 0.20 Gy/h, for total dose delivery of 0, 9.6 or 14.4 Gy, respectively. The mice were fed either a control diet or a diet supplemented with high levels of vitamins A, C and E. Our results showed that nutrient transport was perturbed by the chronic irradiation conditions. However, no apparent alteration of the macroscopic intestinal structures of the small intestine were observed up to day 10 after initiating irradiation. Jejunal fructose uptake measured in vitro was strongly affected by the chronic irradiation, whereas uptake of proline, carnosine and the bile acid taurocholate in the ileum was less affected. D-glucose transport did not appear to be inhibited significantly by either 9.6 or 14.4 Gy exposure. In the 14.4 Gy irradiated groups, the diet supplemented with high levels of vitamins A, C and E increased intestinal transport of fructose compared to the control diet (day 10; t test, P = 0.032), which correlated with elevated levels of vitamins A, C and E in the plasma and jejunal enterocytes. Our earlier studies with mice exposed acutely to 137Cs gamma rays demonstrated significant protection for transport of fructose, glucose, proline and carnosine. Taken together, these results suggest that high levels of vitamins A, C and E dietary supplements help preserve intestinal nutrient transport when intestines are irradiated chronically or acutely with low-LET gamma rays. PMID:26484399

  14. High Levels of Dietary Supplement Vitamins A, C and E are Absorbed in the Small Intestine and Protect Nutrient Transport Against Chronic Gamma Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Roche, Marjolaine; Neti, Prasad V S V; Kemp, Francis W; Azzam, Edouard I; Ferraris, Ronaldo P; Howell, Roger W

    2015-11-01

    We examined nutrient transport in the intestines of mice exposed to chronic low-LET 137Cs gamma rays. The mice were whole-body irradiated for 3 days at dose rates of 0, 0.13 and 0.20 Gy/h, for total dose delivery of 0, 9.6 or 14.4 Gy, respectively. The mice were fed either a control diet or a diet supplemented with high levels of vitamins A, C and E. Our results showed that nutrient transport was perturbed by the chronic irradiation conditions. However, no apparent alteration of the macroscopic intestinal structures of the small intestine were observed up to day 10 after initiating irradiation. Jejunal fructose uptake measured in vitro was strongly affected by the chronic irradiation, whereas uptake of proline, carnosine and the bile acid taurocholate in the ileum was less affected. D-glucose transport did not appear to be inhibited significantly by either 9.6 or 14.4 Gy exposure. In the 14.4 Gy irradiated groups, the diet supplemented with high levels of vitamins A, C and E increased intestinal transport of fructose compared to the control diet (day 10; t test, P = 0.032), which correlated with elevated levels of vitamins A, C and E in the plasma and jejunal enterocytes. Our earlier studies with mice exposed acutely to 137Cs gamma rays demonstrated significant protection for transport of fructose, glucose, proline and carnosine. Taken together, these results suggest that high levels of vitamins A, C and E dietary supplements help preserve intestinal nutrient transport when intestines are irradiated chronically or acutely with low-LET gamma rays.

  15. 31 CFR 538.415 - Payments involving Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Payments involving Sudan. 538.415 Section 538.415 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... § 538.415 Payments involving Sudan. Before a United States financial institution initiates a...

  16. 31 CFR 538.415 - Payments involving Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Payments involving Sudan. 538.415 Section 538.415 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... § 538.415 Payments involving Sudan. Before a United States financial institution initiates a...

  17. The Dinka of Sudan: Family Traditions in Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, Kate

    This paper examines the core values of the Dinka tribe of Sudan, focusing on the most prominent aspects of their family life. The paper also examines how the Dinka family is changing in the face of Sudan's civil war and modernization. It concludes with suggestions for new directions that social work can take to facilitate the transition of the…

  18. 31 CFR 538.415 - Payments involving Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Payments involving Sudan. 538.415 Section 538.415 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... § 538.415 Payments involving Sudan. Before a United States financial institution initiates a...

  19. 31 CFR 538.415 - Payments involving Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Payments involving Sudan. 538.415 Section 538.415 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... § 538.415 Payments involving Sudan. Before a United States financial institution initiates a...

  20. Education in the Sudan: The Privileging of an Islamic Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breidlid, Anders

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the educational discourse in the part of the Sudan administered by the Government of the Sudan. It first analyses the value system upon which the Sudanese education is based by focusing on the nature of Islamism. Such a discussion is necessary because the dominant discourse is a discourse where power and Islamic theocracy…

  1. 31 CFR 538.415 - Payments involving Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payments involving Sudan. 538.415 Section 538.415 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... § 538.415 Payments involving Sudan. Before a United States financial institution initiates a...

  2. Reasons behind the Failure of Teaching Sudan Practical Integrated National English (SPINE 5) in Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamad, Mona M.

    2015-01-01

    According to the development of English language learning and curriculum design, English language series became a very important issue that affects education globally and in Sudan. In specific, this study reports reasons behind the failure of teaching SPINE 5 (which is one of SPINE series) from the teachers' point of view. In Bahry Locality in…

  3. 31 CFR 538.522 - Transactions related to U.S. citizens residing in Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... residing in Sudan. 538.522 Section 538.522 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and.... citizens residing in Sudan. U.S. persons are authorized to engage in transactions in Sudan ordinarily... reside on a permanent basis in Sudan....

  4. 31 CFR 538.522 - Transactions related to U.S. citizens residing in Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... residing in Sudan. 538.522 Section 538.522 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and.... citizens residing in Sudan. U.S. persons are authorized to engage in transactions in Sudan ordinarily... reside on a permanent basis in Sudan....

  5. 78 FR 8360 - Addition of South Sudan to the Restricted Destinations List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 110 RIN 3150-AJ21 Addition of South Sudan to the Restricted Destinations List AGENCY...) is amending its export and import regulations by adding South Sudan to the list of restricted... Equipment and Material,'' with regard to U.S. Government law and policy on South Sudan. South Sudan is...

  6. 31 CFR 538.522 - Transactions related to U.S. citizens residing in Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... residing in Sudan. 538.522 Section 538.522 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and.... citizens residing in Sudan. U.S. persons are authorized to engage in transactions in Sudan ordinarily... reside on a permanent basis in Sudan....

  7. The Birth of a New Nation: The Republic of South Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totten, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    In early July, the country of Sudan, wracked by civil war since the 1980s, officially split into two separate nations, Sudan and South Sudan. Six months earlier, over a seven-day period, the people in southern Sudan had voted in a national referendum on whether to secede from the North. The voters had two choices: "Separation" or…

  8. 31 CFR 538.522 - Transactions related to U.S. citizens residing in Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... residing in Sudan. 538.522 Section 538.522 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and.... citizens residing in Sudan. U.S. persons are authorized to engage in transactions in Sudan ordinarily... reside on a permanent basis in Sudan....

  9. 31 CFR 538.522 - Transactions related to U.S. citizens residing in Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... residing in Sudan. 538.522 Section 538.522 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and.... citizens residing in Sudan. U.S. persons are authorized to engage in transactions in Sudan ordinarily... reside on a permanent basis in Sudan....

  10. Correlation between structure and electrical transport in ion-irradiated graphene grown on Cu foils

    SciTech Connect

    Buchowicz, G.; Stone, P.R.; Robinson, J.T.; Cress, C.D.; Beeman, J.W.; Dubon, O.D.

    2010-11-04

    Graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition and supported on SiO2 and sapphire substrates was studied following controlled introduction of defects induced by 35 keV carbon ion irradiation. Changes in Raman spectra following fluences ranging from 1012 cm-2 to 1015 cm-2 indicate that the structure of graphene evolves from a highly-ordered layer, to a patchwork of disordered domains, to an essentially amorphous film. These structural changes result in a dramatic decrease in the Hall mobility by orders of magnitude while, remarkably, the Hall concentration remains almost unchanged, suggesting that the Fermi level is pinned at a hole concentration near 1x1013 cm-2. A model for scattering by resonant scatterers is in good agreement with mobility measurements up to an ion fluence of 1x1014 cm-2.

  11. Anthocyanins of Hibiscus sabdiffera calyces from Sudan.

    PubMed

    Cahliková, Lucie; Ali, Badreldin H; Havliková, Lucie; Ločárek, Mirek; Siatka, Tomáš; Opletal, Lubomir; Blunden, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Extracts of the calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa are widely used in folk medicine to combat many illnesses. The active constituents of the extracts have been shown on several occasions to be anthocyanins. In our current studies the biological activities of an extract of H. sabdariffa calyces purchased in Oman, but grown in Sudan, are being compared with those of the anthocyanins isolated from them, and, for this, the anthocyanin profile of the extract needed to be ascertained. Although several anthocyanins were detected by UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS, delphinidin-3-sambubioside (major) and cyanidin-3-sambubioside were predominant.

  12. Area Handbook Series: Sudan: A Country Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    Khartoum average 15’C in January and have dropped as low as 6°C after the passing of a cool front in winter. The haboob , a violent dust storm, can occur...information on the sources of Sudan’s arms can be found in Forecast International/DMS Market Intelligence Report: Middle East and Africa. Reports by two...information from The Miliary Balance, 1991-1992, London, 1991, 119; and Forecast International/DMS Market Intelligence Report, Middle East andAfti- ca

  13. Dracunculiasis Eradication: And Now, South Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Donald R.; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Weiss, Adam; Withers Jr., P. Craig; Eberhard, Mark L.; Roy, Sharon L.

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the status of the global Dracunculiasis Eradication Program as of the end of 2012. Dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease) has been eliminated from 17 of 21 countries where it was endemic in 1986, when an estimated 3.5 million cases occurred worldwide. Only 542 cases were reported from four countries in 2012, and 103 villages still had indigenous transmission. Most remaining cases were reported from the new Republic of South Sudan, whereas Chad, Ethiopia, and Mali each reported 10 cases or less. Political instability and insecurity in Mali may become the main obstacles to interrupting dracunculiasis transmission forever. PMID:23843492

  14. Transportation risk assessment for the shipment of irradiated FFTF tritium target assemblies from the Hanford Site to the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, D. L.

    1997-11-19

    A Draft Technical Information Document (HNF-1855) is being prepared to evaluate proposed interim tritium and medical isotope production at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). This report examines the potential health and safety impacts associated with transportation of irradiated tritium targets from FFTF to the Savannah River Site for processing at the Tritium Extraction Facility. Potential risks to workers and members of the public during normal transportation and accident conditions are assessed.

  15. Transport properties of the topological Kondo insulator SmB6 under the irradiation of light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Guo-Bao; Yang, Hui-Min

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we study transport properties of the X point in the Brillouin zone of the topological Kondo insulator SmB6 under the application of a circularly polarized light. The transport properties at high-frequency regime and low-frequency regime as a function of the ratio (κ) of the Dresselhaus-like and Rashba-like spin-orbit parameter are studied based on the Floquet theory and Boltzmann equation respectively. The sign of Hall conductivity at high-frequency regime can be reversed by the ratio κ and the amplitude of the light. The amplitude of the current can be enhanced by the ratio κ. Our findings provide a way to control the transport properties of the Dirac materials at low-frequency regime. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11504095 and 11447145), the Foundation of Heze University (Grant Nos. XY14B002 and XYPY01), and the Project funded by the Higher Educational Science and Technology Program of Shandong Province, China (Grant No. J15LJ55).

  16. The rebirth of cardiac surgery in Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Elnur, Elamin Elawad

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiac surgery is nowadays an integral part of a complete national health service. Methods In this paper the rebirth of cardiac surgery in Sudan from 1998 till 2007 is given by means of a literature search, personal interviews and searching hospital records. Results A summary of the initial birth of these services in 1959 till its demise in 1993 is first mentioned to set the stage for the subsequent period of sustainable growth. The surgical workforce and the surgical workload in the latter period is documented and showed that in the period from 1998 to 2007 2,868 open heart operations were done in three centers in Sudan. All these centers are based in Khartoum but they cater for all the country. It is estimated that (with the addition of two centers after the study period) the service provided would need to be quadrupled (by doubling the number of centers to 10 and increasing their capacity so as to cater for the whole country). The case mix of operations done is predominantly valvular comprising 63.2% of the total followed by congenital cardiac cases at 22.8% and then ischaemic at 11.9%. Conclusions The results imply that a big effort has to be done in the primary healthcare sector to try and eradicate rheumatic heart disease which is the main cause of the valvular lesions. PMID:27904841

  17. Influence of SiC grain boundary character on fission product transport in irradiated TRISO fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillo, T. M.; van Rooyen, I. J.

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the fission product precipitates at silicon carbide grain boundaries from an irradiated TRISO particle were identified and correlated with the associated grain boundary characteristics. Precession electron diffraction in the transmission electron microscope provided the crystallographic information needed to identify grain boundary misorientation and boundary type (i.e., low angle, random high angle or coincident site lattice (CSL)-related). The silicon carbide layer was found to be composed mainly of twin boundaries and small fractions of random high angle and low angle grain boundaries. Most fission products were found at random, high-angle grain boundaries, with small fractions at low-angle and CSL-related grain boundaries. Palladium (Pd) was found at all types of grain boundaries while Pd-uranium and Pd-silver precipitates were only associated with CSL-related and random, high-angle grain boundaries. Precipitates containing only Ag were found only at random, high-angle grain boundaries, but not at low angle or CSL-related grain boundaries.

  18. Linking atomic and mesoscopic scales for the modelling of the transport properties of uranium dioxide under irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertolus, Marjorie; Freyss, Michel; Dorado, Boris; Martin, Guillaume; Hoang, Kiet; Maillard, Serge; Skorek, Richard; Garcia, Philippe; Valot, Carole; Chartier, Alain; Van Brutzel, Laurent; Fossati, Paul; Grimes, Robin W.; Parfitt, David C.; Bishop, Clare L.; Murphy, Samuel T.; Rushton, Michael J. D.; Staicu, Dragos; Yakub, Eugen; Nichenko, Sergii; Krack, Matthias; Devynck, Fabien; Ngayam-Happy, Raoul; Govers, Kevin; Deo, Chaitanya S.; Behera, Rakesh K.

    2015-07-01

    This article presents a synthesis of the investigations at the atomic scale of the transport properties of defects and fission gases in uranium dioxide, as well as of the transfer of results from the atomic scale to models at the mesoscopic scale, performed during the F-BRIDGE European project (2008-2012). We first present the mesoscale models used to investigate uranium oxide fuel under irradiation, and in particular the cluster dynamics and kinetic Monte Carlo methods employed to model the behaviour of defects and fission gases in UO2, as well as the parameters of these models. Second, we describe briefly the atomic scale methods employed, i.e. electronic structure calculations and empirical potential methods. Then, we show the results of the calculation of the data necessary for the mesoscale models using these atomic scale methods. Finally, we summarise the links built between the atomic and mesoscopic scale by listing the data calculated at the atomic scale which are to be used as input in mesoscale modelling. Despite specific difficulties in the description of fuel materials, the results obtained in F-BRIDGE show that atomic scale modelling methods are now mature enough to obtain precise data to feed higher scale models and help interpret experiments on nuclear fuels. These methods bring valuable insight, in particular the formation, binding and migration energies of point and extended defects, fission product localization, incorporation energies and migration pathways, elementary mechanisms of irradiation induced processes. These studies open the way for the investigation of other significant phenomena involved in fuel behaviour, in particular the thermochemical and thermomechanical properties and their evolution in-pile, complex microstructures, as well as of more complex fuels.

  19. Defect-mediated transport and electronic irradiation effect in individual domains of CVD-grown monolayer MoS2

    SciTech Connect

    Durand, Corentin; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Fowlkes, Jason; Najmaei, Sina; Lou, Jun; Li, An -Ping

    2015-01-16

    We study the electrical transport properties of atomically thin individual crystalline grains of MoS2 with four-probe scanning tunneling microscopy. The monolayer MoS2 domains are synthesized by chemical vapor deposition on SiO2/Si substrate. Temperature dependent measurements on conductance and mobility show that transport is dominated by an electron charge trapping and thermal release process with very low carrier density and mobility. The effects of electronic irradiation are examined by exposing the film to electron beam in the scanning electron microscope in an ultrahigh vacuum environment. The irradiation process is found to significantly affect the mobility and the carrier density of the material, with the conductance showing a peculiar time-dependent relaxation behavior. It is suggested that the presence of defects in active MoS2 layer and dielectric layer create charge trapping sites, and a multiple trapping and thermal release process dictates the transport and mobility characteristics. The electron beam irradiation promotes the formation of defects and impact the electrical properties of MoS2. Finally, our study reveals the important roles of defects and the electron beam irradiation effects in the electronic properties of atomic layers of MoS2.

  20. Identifying potential sources of Sudan I contamination in Capsicum fruits over its growth period.

    PubMed

    Wu, Naiying; Gao, Wei; Zhou, Li; Lian, Yunhe; Li, Fengfei; Han, Wenjie

    2015-04-15

    Sudan dyes in spices are often assumed to arise from cross-contamination or malicious addition. Here, experiments were carried out to identify the potential source of Sudan I-IV in Capsicum fruits through investigation of their contents in native Capsicum tissues, soils and associated agronomic materials. Sudan II-IV was not detected in any of the tested samples. Sudan I was found in almost all samples except for the mulching film. Sudan I concentrations decreased from stems to leaves and then to fruits or roots. Sudan I levels in soils were significantly elevated by vegetation treatment. These results exclude the possibility of soil as the main source for Sudan I contamination in Capsicum fruits. Further study found out pesticide and fertilizer constitutes the major source of Sudan I contamination. This work represents a preliminary step for a detailed Sudan I assessment to support Capsicum management and protection in the studied region.

  1. Modeling of the mass transport in porous media under laser beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojtatowicz, Tomasz W.

    1995-03-01

    The vaporization of porous materials (especially internal vaporization of skeleton) has been largely ignored in studies of laser heating and processing of materials. The loss of energy associated with the vaporization process would keep the internal temperature of material from rising. In this paper the author presents the results of the computation of the heat losses for two different models of porous media: the sand and the pores' tree model. In his calculation the author uses the thermophysical parameters of gypsum slurry. In the first step a numerical simulation is carried out for the vaporization of solid skeleton and mass transport of vapor (without the viscosity of vapor), only. Then the water on the pore's wall was taken into account.

  2. Effect of heavy-ion irradiation on transport properties of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} films

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, D.H.; Shim, S.Y.; Park, J.H.

    1996-12-31

    Parallel columnar defects to the c axis and crossed columnar defects were introduced into these films by heavy-ion irradiation with dose equivalent to 1 or 2 T vortex density. The electrical transport properties including resistivity, critical current density, Hall resistivity were measured vs temperature, applied magnetic field, and fluence. The irreversibility line defined as onset of dissipation progressively shifted to higher temperature with dosage and showed its dependence on inclination angle. Critical current also showed a clear enhancement compared to unirradiated samples. The Hall scaling behavior and the Hall conductivity were modified after heavy-ion irradiation.

  3. Ocular disorders among schoolchildren in Khartoum State, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Rushood, A A; Azmat, S; Shariq, M; Khamis, A; Lakho, K A; Jadoon, M Z; Sial, N; Rushood, A A; Kamil, E A

    2013-03-01

    From December 2005 to June 2007, a total screening of all 1418 government primary schools in Khartoum State, Sudan, was performed to estimate ocular problems among children aged 6-15 years. We screened 671,119 children (56.7% males) for significant refractive error and other eye ailments. Ocular problems were found in 20,321 (3.03%) children. The 3 localities with highest ocular pathology were Karary (26.2%), Ummbada (21.0%) and Jabal Awlia (15.7%). The overall prevalence of refractive error was 2.19%. Myopia was found in 10,064 (1.50%) children while 4661 (0.70%) were hyperopic. Other ocular problems included vernal keratoconjunctivitis, vitamin A deficiency, microbial conjunctivitis, strabismus and corneal opacity. Only 288 (0.04%) children were diagnosed with active trachoma: 86.5% of these were from Ummbada locality, on the periphery ofthe State, where transportation facilities are poor and poverty is widespread. Overall, 99% of the eye ailments identified are either treatable or preventable. To reduce these and to achieve the goals of Vision 2020, an effective and efficient school health programme is needed.

  4. Focused helium-ion beam irradiation effects on electrical transport properties of few-layer WSe2: Enabling nanoscale direct write homo-junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Stanford, Michael; Noh, Joo Hyon; Koehler, Michael R.; Mandrus, David G.; Duscher, Gerd; Rondinone, Adam Justin; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Ward, Thomas Zac; Rack, Philip D.; Pudasaini, Pushpa Raj; Belianinov, Alex; Cross, Nicholas

    2016-06-06

    Atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are currently receiving significant attention due to their promising opto-electronic properties. Tuning optical and electrical properties of mono and few-layer TMDs, such as tungsten diselenide (WSe2), by controlling the defects, is an intriguing opportunity to synthesize next generation two dimensional material opto-electronic devices. Here, we report the effects of focused helium ion beam irradiation on the structural, optical and electrical properties of few-layer WSe2, via high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and electrical transport measurements. By controlling the ion irradiation dose, we selectively introduce precise defects in few-layer WSe2 thereby locally tuning the resistivity and transport properties of the material. Hole transport in the few layer WSe2 is degraded more severely relative to electron transport after helium ion irradiation. Moreover, by selectively exposing material with the ion beam, we demonstrate a simple yet highly tunable method to create lateral homo-junctions in few layer WSe2 flakes, which constitutes an important advance towards two dimensional opto-electronic devices.

  5. Focused helium-ion beam irradiation effects on electrical transport properties of few-layer WSe2: enabling nanoscale direct write homo-junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanford, Michael G.; Pudasaini, Pushpa Raj; Belianinov, Alex; Cross, Nicholas; Noh, Joo Hyon; Koehler, Michael R.; Mandrus, David G.; Duscher, Gerd; Rondinone, Adam J.; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Ward, T. Zac; Rack, Philip D.

    2016-06-01

    Atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are currently receiving significant attention due to their promising opto-electronic properties. Tuning optical and electrical properties of mono and few-layer TMDs, such as tungsten diselenide (WSe2), by controlling the defects, is an intriguing opportunity to synthesize next generation two dimensional material opto-electronic devices. Here, we report the effects of focused helium ion beam irradiation on the structural, optical and electrical properties of few-layer WSe2, via high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and electrical transport measurements. By controlling the ion irradiation dose, we selectively introduce precise defects in few-layer WSe2 thereby locally tuning the resistivity and transport properties of the material. Hole transport in the few layer WSe2 is degraded more severely relative to electron transport after helium ion irradiation. Furthermore, by selectively exposing material with the ion beam, we demonstrate a simple yet highly tunable method to create lateral homo-junctions in few layer WSe2 flakes, which constitutes an important advance towards two dimensional opto-electronic devices.

  6. Focused helium-ion beam irradiation effects on electrical transport properties of few-layer WSe2: Enabling nanoscale direct write homo-junctions

    DOE PAGES

    Stanford, Michael; Noh, Joo Hyon; Koehler, Michael R.; ...

    2016-06-06

    Atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are currently receiving significant attention due to their promising opto-electronic properties. Tuning optical and electrical properties of mono and few-layer TMDs, such as tungsten diselenide (WSe2), by controlling the defects, is an intriguing opportunity to synthesize next generation two dimensional material opto-electronic devices. Here, we report the effects of focused helium ion beam irradiation on the structural, optical and electrical properties of few-layer WSe2, via high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and electrical transport measurements. By controlling the ion irradiation dose, we selectively introduce precise defects in few-layer WSe2 thereby locally tuningmore » the resistivity and transport properties of the material. Hole transport in the few layer WSe2 is degraded more severely relative to electron transport after helium ion irradiation. Moreover, by selectively exposing material with the ion beam, we demonstrate a simple yet highly tunable method to create lateral homo-junctions in few layer WSe2 flakes, which constitutes an important advance towards two dimensional opto-electronic devices.« less

  7. Alkaline pulping of some eucalypts from Sudan.

    PubMed

    Khristova, P; Kordsachia, O; Patt, R; Dafaalla, S

    2006-03-01

    Four eucalypts (Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus microtheca, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Eucalyptus citriodora) grown in Sudan were examined for their suitability for pulping and papermaking with different alkaline methods. Their physical, morphological and chemical characteristics are reported. The pulping trials with E. citriodora and E. tereticornis were carried out using the kraft-AQ, soda-AQ, modified AS/AQ (ASA), ASAM and kraft methods. For the other two species, only the ASAM and the kraft process were applied. ASAM pulping gave the best results in terms of yield, degree of delignification, mechanical and optical pulp properties. The best pulps, obtained in kraft and ASAM cooking of E. citriodora, were bleached to 88% ISO brightness in a totally chlorine free bleaching sequence (OQ1O/PQ2P). The bleached pulps, especially the ASAM pulp, showed good papermaking properties and would be suitable for manufacture of writing and printing grades of paper.

  8. The Effect of Long-Distance Transportation on the Fitness of Irradiated False Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) for Use in a Sterile Insect Release Program.

    PubMed

    Nepgen, E S; Hill, M P; Moore, S D

    2015-12-01

    The effect of cold immobilization and long-distance transport of irradiated Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick) on the flight ability of male (♂) and female (♀) moths, the longevity of male and female moths, and the realized fecundity of mating pairs CIM (chilled irradiated moths) ♀ × CIM♂, CIM♀ × NIP (nonirradiated pupae) ♂, NIP♀ × CIM♂, and NIP♀ × NIP♂ was examined to improve application of the sterile insect technique (SIT). Adult moths treated with 150 Gy of gamma radiation were immobilized with cold temperature between 4 and 6°C inside a polyurethane cooler box and transported for 12 h by road from Citrusdal, Western Cape Province, to Addo, Eastern Cape Province. Nonirradiated moths were transported as pupae inside a cardboard tray and removed by hand after which male and female pupae were separated and placed inside containers for eclosion. Male and female moths were individually placed inside petri dishes to determine longevity or paired with irradiated and nonirradiated counterparts to evaluate realized fecundity before incubation in 100% darkness at 25°C and 75% relative humidity. Flight tests were conducted indoors at 25°C by release of individual moths per hand. A significant decrease in flight ability and longevity of irradiated false codling moth was found after handling, cold immobilization, and transport, although critically, realized fecundity was not affected. Because of the impact of long-distance transport on quality of the released insects as well as the efficacy of SIT, comprehensive protocols for this critical step in the process need to be developed for a pestiferous insect with phytosanitary status such as false codling moth.

  9. Iodized salt consumption in Sudan: present status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih; Gaffar, Abdelrahim Mutwakel; Bani, Ibrahim Ahmed

    2012-12-01

    Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) Control Programme in Sudan adopted salt iodization as the long-term strategy in 1994. In 2000, it was found that less than 1% of households were using adequately-iodized salt. The objectives of this study were to: (i) study the coverage and variation of different geographical regions of Sudan regarding access to and use of iodized salt, (ii) explore the possible factors which influence the use of iodized salt, (iii) develop recommendations to help in the implementation of the Universal Salt Iodization (USI) strategy in Sudan. This paper is based on the Sudan Household Health Survey (SHHS) dataset. A total sample of 24,507 households was surveyed, and 18,786 cooking salt samples were tested for iodine levels with rapid salt-testing kits. Nationally, the percentage of households using adequately-iodized salt increased from less than 1% in 2000 to 14.4%, with wide variations between states. Access to iodized salt ranged from 96.9% in Central Equatoria to 0.4% in Gezira state. Population coverage with iodized salt in Sudan remains very low. The awareness and political support for USI programme is very weak. National legislation banning the sale of non-iodized salt does not exist. Utilization of the already-existing laws, like the National Standardization and Metrology Law (2008), to develop a compulsory national salt specification, will accelerate the USI in Sudan.

  10. Effect of gamma ray irradiation on the structural and electrical transport properties of PrFe{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Sultan, Khalid Ikram, M.; Asokan, K.

    2014-04-24

    The effect of gamma ray irradiation on the structural and transport properties of polycrystalline bulk samples of PrFe{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 3} (x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.5) were investigated. The samples were synthesized by solid state reaction method and exposed to {sup 60}Co gamma radiation to accumulated dose of 625 KGy. From the Raman study, the modes exhibit a blue shift with broadening of spectral features in the irradiated samples. The dielectric constant (ε′) was also studied as a function of frequency. The dielectric constant and ac conductivity increases with Mn doping but decrease on irradiation. Exposure to gamma radiation results in substantial modification in the physical properties of these compounds.

  11. The role of charge transport in nanoporous films under electromagnetic irradiation.

    PubMed

    Dallacasa, V; di Sia, P; Dallacasa, F; Romanò, L

    2009-06-01

    Recently, attention has been paid to surface plasmon waves occurring at an interface as responsible for selective absorption of light and enhancement of the photoelectron current. Interest for plasmon resonance phenomena in photovoltaics is groving, for applications in very thin film-based devices. We discuss in this paper d-c open circuit voltages of nominally undoped mesoporous films of TiO2 of the type used in dye-sensitized cells, under exposure to visible and ambient electromagnetic radiation. In non-sensitized films we interpret these as arising from absorption of electromagnetic energy at plasmon resonances determined by the morphology of the films and subsequent electronic diffusion through the nanocrystals of TiO2. Typical order of magnitude of voltages V(oc) approximately equal to 1 mV indicates an equivalent temperature T approximately equal to 3 K of the radiation involved, which suggests ambient microwave background as responsabile of the effect. The order of magnitude of short-circuit current I approximately equal to 10(-9) A is consistent with experimental data of the diffusion coefficient of the oxide. We find from these data the efficiency of the process is of typical order 1% for nanocrystals of 10 nm typical size. Confirmation of these results are obtained by a Montecarlo simulation of transport taking into account the overall mechanisms of scattering, including phonons, imperfections and doping centres, and traps. We find that TiO2 is a n-type self doped material, with typical doping concentrations N (I) approximately equal to 10(18) cm(-3). The same route is applied to dye-sensitized cells under exposure to solar light for which we find a maximum efficiency of 10% in agreement with certified results on Graetzel's cells, independent of the nanocrystal size. We conclude that the enhancement of the efficiency of these electrochemical cells may be obtained by optimizing the charge current within the mesoporous films, which can be obtained by

  12. Swarming and mating behavior of male Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) in an area of the Sterile Insect Technique Project in Dongola, northern Sudan.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Mo'awia M; Zain, Hussam M; Basheer, Mohammed A; Elhaj, Hassab-Elrasoul F; El-Sayed, Badria B

    2014-04-01

    The problems facing the conventional mosquito control methods including resistance to insecticides have led to the development of alternative methods such as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) to suppress populations of the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis in northern Sudan. This method entails the release of large numbers of irradiated males to compete against wild conspecifics for mating with virgin females in the field. The swarming and mating behaviors of this species were conducted at two field sites during the period 2009-2012 in Dongola, northern Sudan. Observations were made in the field sites and in a contained semi-field enclosure. In addition, participation of released irradiated-marked males in the swarms of wild mosquito was investigated. Swarms were observed on sunset in the vicinity of larval habitats around irrigation channel and stopped with the onset of the darkness about 21-25 min after the start. Swarms were observed above visual markers such as palm trees, bare ground, and manure. Several couples were observed leaving the swarms in copula in the direction of the sunlight. The majority of copulations were observed within 12-15 min of the start of swarming. Relatively low insemination rates (28%) of females collected from coupling pairs were observed. Irradiated-marked males were observed to join the natural swarms regularly, indicating their probable competitiveness with the other wild males. These findings enhance the feasibility of staging an SIT campaign against malaria vector in Northern State-Sudan.

  13. 31 CFR 538.205 - Prohibited exportation and reexportation of goods, technology, or services to Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reexportation of goods, technology, or services to Sudan. 538.205 Section 538.205 Money and Finance: Treasury... goods, technology, or services to Sudan. Except as otherwise authorized, the exportation or reexportation, directly or indirectly, to Sudan of any goods, technology (including technical data, software,...

  14. 3 CFR - Certification Concerning U.S. Participation in the United Nations Mission in South Sudan...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... United Nations Mission in South Sudan Consistent With Section 2005 of the American Servicemembers... Certification Concerning U.S. Participation in the United Nations Mission in South Sudan Consistent With Section... members of the U.S. Armed Forces participating in the United Nations Mission in South Sudan are...

  15. 31 CFR 538.205 - Prohibited exportation and reexportation of goods, technology, or services to Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reexportation of goods, technology, or services to Sudan. 538.205 Section 538.205 Money and Finance: Treasury... goods, technology, or services to Sudan. Except as otherwise authorized, the exportation or reexportation, directly or indirectly, to Sudan of any goods, technology (including technical data, software,...

  16. 31 CFR 538.532 - Humanitarian transshipments to or from the Specified Areas of Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the Specified Areas of Sudan. 538.532 Section 538.532 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating... Humanitarian transshipments to or from the Specified Areas of Sudan. The transit or transshipment to or from the Specified Areas of Sudan of goods, technology, or services intended for humanitarian...

  17. 31 CFR 538.532 - Humanitarian transshipments to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized. 538.532 Section 538.532 Money and Finance: Treasury....532 Humanitarian transshipments to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized. The transit or transshipment to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur of goods, technology, or services intended for...

  18. 3 CFR - Presidential Determination on the Eligibility of South Sudan To Receive Defense Articles and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... South Sudan To Receive Defense Articles and Defense Services Under the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961... Eligibility of South Sudan To Receive Defense Articles and Defense Services Under the Foreign Assistance Act... services to the Republic of South Sudan will strengthen the security of the United States and promote...

  19. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... to Sudan Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of November 1, 2012 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan On November 3, 1997, by Executive Order 13067, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Sudan and, pursuant to the International...

  20. 31 CFR 538.205 - Prohibited exportation and reexportation of goods, technology, or services to Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reexportation of goods, technology, or services to Sudan. 538.205 Section 538.205 Money and Finance: Treasury... goods, technology, or services to Sudan. Except as otherwise authorized, the exportation or reexportation, directly or indirectly, to Sudan of any goods, technology (including technical data, software,...

  1. 75 FR 67585 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... Notice of November 1, 2010--Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan #0; #0; #0... National Emergency With Respect to Sudan On November 3, 1997, by Executive Order 13067, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Sudan, pursuant to the International Emergency...

  2. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to Sudan Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of October 30, 2013 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan On November 3, 1997, by Executive Order 13067, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Sudan and, pursuant to the International...

  3. 31 CFR 538.532 - Humanitarian transshipments to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized. 538.532 Section 538.532 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Humanitarian transshipments to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized. The transit or transshipment to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur of goods, technology, or services intended for humanitarian...

  4. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to Sudan Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of October 27, 2009 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan On November 3, 1997, by Executive Order 13067, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Sudan, pursuant to the International...

  5. 31 CFR 538.532 - Humanitarian transshipments to or from the Specified Areas of Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the Specified Areas of Sudan. 538.532 Section 538.532 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating... Humanitarian transshipments to or from the Specified Areas of Sudan. The transit or transshipment to or from the Specified Areas of Sudan of goods, technology, or services intended for humanitarian...

  6. 31 CFR 538.532 - Humanitarian transshipments to or from the Specified Areas of Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the Specified Areas of Sudan. 538.532 Section 538.532 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating... Humanitarian transshipments to or from the Specified Areas of Sudan. The transit or transshipment to or from the Specified Areas of Sudan of goods, technology, or services intended for humanitarian...

  7. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to Sudan Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of November 1, 2011 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan On November 3, 1997, by Executive Order 13067, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Sudan, pursuant to the International...

  8. 31 CFR 538.205 - Prohibited exportation and reexportation of goods, technology, or services to Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reexportation of goods, technology, or services to Sudan. 538.205 Section 538.205 Money and Finance: Treasury... goods, technology, or services to Sudan. Except as otherwise authorized, the exportation or reexportation, directly or indirectly, to Sudan of any goods, technology (including technical data, software,...

  9. 31 CFR 538.205 - Prohibited exportation and reexportation of goods, technology, or services to Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reexportation of goods, technology, or services to Sudan. 538.205 Section 538.205 Money and Finance: Treasury... goods, technology, or services to Sudan. Except as otherwise authorized, the exportation or reexportation, directly or indirectly, to Sudan of any goods, technology (including technical data, software,...

  10. 77 FR 66357 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-02

    ... With Respect to Sudan #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77 , No... ] Notice of November 1, 2012 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan On November 3, 1997, by Executive Order 13067, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Sudan...

  11. 78 FR 65865 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... With Respect to Sudan #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No... ] Notice of October 30, 2013 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan On November 3, 1997, by Executive Order 13067, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Sudan...

  12. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to Sudan Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of November 1, 2010 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan On November 3, 1997, by Executive Order 13067, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Sudan, pursuant to the International...

  13. Female genital mutilation in Kenya and Sudan.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    Female genital mutilation is still practiced in 28 African countries despite international calls for its abolishment. A 1991 survey of 1365 14-year-old girls undertaken by a nongovernmental organization in Kenya revealed that 90% had suffered mutilation ranging from the least mutilating form, "sunna" to excision to infibulation. Most of the procedures had taken place when the girls were aged 10-14 years as part of a ritual where the same unsterile knife was used on several girls. Whereas 65% of respondents stated that they approved of female genital mutilation, a little more than a third would abolish the practice. In Sudan, a 1989-90 Demographic and Health Survey of 5860 ever married women aged 15-49 included a number of questions related to female genital mutilation. 89% of respondents were mutilated, and 82% of these had suffered infibulation. This prevalence rate showed a decrease from the 96% level recorded in 1977-78. Among younger women, the incidence of sunna is increasing. Most of these procedures were performed by medical workers such as trained midwives or traditional birth attendants. 79% of the respondents favored continuation of the procedure, but women with a secondary-level education and urban women showed strong opposition. Most women cite tradition as the reason for their approval, and almost half of the women who disapprove cite medical complications. This survey provided the necessary data to implement a policy of eradication of this harmful practice through increasing women's education and provoking open discussion about the procedure.

  14. 31 CFR 538.537 - Transshipment of goods, technology, and services to or from the Republic of South Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., and services to or from the Republic of South Sudan. 538.537 Section 538.537 Money and Finance... Policy § 538.537 Transshipment of goods, technology, and services to or from the Republic of South Sudan... transshipment of goods, technology, and services through Sudan to or from the Republic of South Sudan...

  15. 31 CFR 538.537 - Transshipment of goods, technology, and services to or from the Republic of South Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., and services to or from the Republic of South Sudan. 538.537 Section 538.537 Money and Finance... Policy § 538.537 Transshipment of goods, technology, and services to or from the Republic of South Sudan... transshipment of goods, technology, and services through Sudan to or from the Republic of South Sudan...

  16. 31 CFR 538.537 - Transshipment of goods, technology, and services to or from the Republic of South Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., and services to or from the Republic of South Sudan. 538.537 Section 538.537 Money and Finance... Policy § 538.537 Transshipment of goods, technology, and services to or from the Republic of South Sudan... transshipment of goods, technology, and services through Sudan to or from the Republic of South Sudan...

  17. Anaemia among adults in Kassala, Eastern Sudan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The increased heterogeneity in the distribution of social and biological risk factors makes the epidemiology of anaemia a real challenge. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Kassala, Eastern Sudan during the period of January — March 2011 to investigate the prevalence and predictors of anaemia among adults (> 15 years old). Findings Out of 646, 234 (36.2%) adults had anaemia; 68 (10.5%); 129 (20.0%) and 37 (5.7%) had mild, moderate and severe anaemia, respectively. In logistic regression analyses, age (OR = 1.0, CI = 0.9–1, P = 0.7), rural vs. urban residency (OR = 0.9, CI = 0.7–1.3, P = 0.9), female vs. male gender (OR = 0.8, CI = 0.6–1.1, P = 0.3), educational level ≥ secondary level vs. < secondary level (OR = 1.0, CI = 0.6–1.6, P = 0.8) and Hudandawa vs. non-Hudandawa ethnicity (OR = 0.8, CI = 0.6–1, P = 0.1) were not associated with anaemia. Conclusion There was a high prevalence of anaemia in this setting, anaemia affected adults regardless to their age, sex and educational level. Therefore, anaemia is needed to be screened for routinely and supplements have to be employed in this setting. PMID:22537662

  18. Mycetoma in the Sudan: an update from the Mycetoma Research Centre, University of Khartoum, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Fahal, Ahmed; Mahgoub, El Sheikh; El Hassan, Ahmed M; Abdel-Rahman, Manar Elsheikh

    2015-03-01

    This communication reports on the Mycetoma Research Centre of the University of Khartoum, Sudan experience on 6,792 patients seen during the period 1991-2014.The patients were predominately young (64% under 30 years old) males (76%). The majority (68%) were from the Sudan mycetoma belt and 28% were students. Madurella mycetomatis eumycetoma was the most common type (70%). In 66% of the patients the duration of the disease was less than five years, and 81% gave a history of sinuses discharging mostly black grains (78%). History of trauma at the mycetoma site was reported in 20%. Local pain was reported in 27% of the patients, and only 12% had a family history of mycetoma. The study showed that 57% of the patients had previous surgical excisions and recurrence, and only 4% received previous medical treatment for mycetoma. Other concomitant medical diseases were reported in 4% of the patients. The foot (76%) and hand (8%) were the most commonly affected sites. Less frequently affected sites were the leg and knee (7%), thigh (2%), buttock (2%) and arm and forearm (1%). Rare sites included the chest wall, head and neck, back, abdominal wall, perineum, oral cavity, tongue and eye. Multiple sites mycetoma was recorded in 135 (2%) of cases. At presentation, 37% of patients had massive lesions, 79% had sinuses, 8% had local hyper-hydrosis at the mycetoma lesion, 11% had regional lymphadenopathy, while 6% had dilated tortuous veins proximal to the mycetoma lesions. The diagnosis of mycetoma was established by combined imaging techniques and cytological, histopathological, serological tests and grain culture. Patients with actinomycetoma received a combination of antimicrobial agents, while eumycetoma patients received antifungal agents combined with various surgical excisions. Surgical excisions in the form of wide local excision, debridement or amputation were done in 807 patients, and of them 248 patients (30.7%) had postoperative recurrence. Different types of amputations

  19. Mycetoma in the Sudan: An Update from the Mycetoma Research Centre, University of Khartoum, Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Fahal, Ahmed; Mahgoub, EL Sheikh; Hassan, Ahmed M. EL; Abdel-Rahman, Manar Elsheikh

    2015-01-01

    This communication reports on the Mycetoma Research Centre of the University of Khartoum, Sudan experience on 6,792 patients seen during the period 1991–2014.The patients were predominately young (64% under 30 years old) males (76%). The majority (68%) were from the Sudan mycetoma belt and 28% were students. Madurella mycetomatis eumycetoma was the most common type (70%). In 66% of the patients the duration of the disease was less than five years, and 81% gave a history of sinuses discharging mostly black grains (78%). History of trauma at the mycetoma site was reported in 20%. Local pain was reported in 27% of the patients, and only 12% had a family history of mycetoma. The study showed that 57% of the patients had previous surgical excisions and recurrence, and only 4% received previous medical treatment for mycetoma. Other concomitant medical diseases were reported in 4% of the patients. The foot (76%) and hand (8%) were the most commonly affected sites. Less frequently affected sites were the leg and knee (7%), thigh (2%), buttock (2%) and arm and forearm (1%). Rare sites included the chest wall, head and neck, back, abdominal wall, perineum, oral cavity, tongue and eye. Multiple sites mycetoma was recorded in 135 (2%) of cases. At presentation, 37% of patients had massive lesions, 79% had sinuses, 8% had local hyper-hydrosis at the mycetoma lesion, 11% had regional lymphadenopathy, while 6% had dilated tortuous veins proximal to the mycetoma lesions. The diagnosis of mycetoma was established by combined imaging techniques and cytological, histopathological, serological tests and grain culture. Patients with actinomycetoma received a combination of antimicrobial agents, while eumycetoma patients received antifungal agents combined with various surgical excisions. Surgical excisions in the form of wide local excision, debridement or amputation were done in 807 patients, and of them 248 patients (30.7%) had postoperative recurrence. Different types of

  20. The Role of Education in Sudan's Civil War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breidlid, Anders

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the role that education plays in conflict, with specific reference to the civil war in Sudan. It analyses the ideological basis of the Sudanese government (GoS) during the civil war, with special reference to the role of religion and ethnicity. It shows how the primary education system was based on the Islamist ideology of…

  1. New sources of grain mold resistance among accessions from Sudan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fifty-nine sorghum accessions from Sudan were evaluated in replicated plots at Isabela, Puerto Rico, for resistance against Fusarium thapsinum, one of the causal agents of grain mold. The environmental conditions during this study, especially at and after physiological maturity were optimal for gra...

  2. Sudanese Images of the Other: Education and Conflict in Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breidlid, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Education can contribute to peace and reconciliation as well as to conflict and strife. The complex, often contradictory role of education in conflict is explored in this article in relation to Sudan. The focus of the article is the North-South conflict, bearing in mind that other, "minor" wars and military clashes in both the North and…

  3. Child Prodigy in Astronomy: A Biographical Study from the Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khaleefa, Omar

    2009-01-01

    Although many studies have been conducted in the West regarding child prodigies, no such studies have taken place in indigenous Arab cultures--particularly not in Sudan. The present study attempts to bridge the existing gap in this area by focusing on a Sudanese child prodigy with extraordinary inclination towards astronomy. It is a qualitative…

  4. Tertiary age for upper Nubian sandstone formation, central Sudan

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, G.; Lejal-Nicol, A.; Vaudois-Mieja, N.

    1986-02-01

    In central and northern Sudan, oil exploration is now active in the basins containing sediments of the Nubian Sandstone Formation. On the evidence of planned pipeline construction, significant volumes of oil appear to have been discovered in southwestern Sudan. A newly discovered flora from the upper Nubian Sandstone Formation near Khartoum in central Sudan is Tertiary in age. The flora is well preserved, and comprises leaves, flowers, and fruits, many not yet described. At the generic level, they are comparable to forms that are known fro the Eocene to Miocene. Aquatic plants indicate a lacustrine paleoenvironment; humid tropical forests thrived on the lakeshores. The Nubian Sandstone Formation of Sudan had been considered to be entirely of Cretaceous age; this new flora shifts the upper boundary into the Tertiary. The Tertiary Hudi Chert, found in scattered outcrops in the region of Atbara, was considered to overlie the Nubian Sandstone Formation. The authors suggest that the Hudi Chert is partly age equivalent to the Tertiary upper Nubian Sandstone at Jebel Mudaha.

  5. Unsafe abortion and abortion care in Khartoum, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Kinaro, Joyce; Ali, Tag Elsir Mohamed; Schlangen, Rhonda; Mack, Jessica

    2009-11-01

    Unsafe abortion in Sudan results in significant morbidity and mortality. This study of treatment for complications of unsafe abortion in five hospitals in Khartoum, Sudan, included a review of hospital records and a survey of 726 patients seeking abortion-related care from 27 October 2007 to 31 January 2008, an interview of a provider of post-abortion care and focus group discussions with community leaders. Findings demonstrate enormous unmet need for safe abortion services. Abortion is legally restricted in Sudan to circumstances where the woman's life is at risk or in cases of rape. Post-abortion care is not easily accessible. In a country struggling with poverty, internal displacement, rural dwelling, and a dearth of trained doctors, mid-level providers are not allowed to provide post-abortion care or prescribe contraception. The vast majority of the 726 abortion patients in the five hospitals were treated with dilatation and curettage (D&C), and only 12.3% were discharged with a contraceptive method. Some women waited long hours before treatment was provided; 14.5% of them had to wait for 5-8 hours and 7.3% for 9-12 hours. Mid-level providers should be trained in safe abortion care and post-abortion care to make these services accessible to a wider community in Sudan. Guidelines should be developed on quality of care and should mandate the use of manual vacuum aspiration or misoprostol for medical abortion instead of D&C.

  6. An Investigation into the Transportation of Irradiated Uranium/Aluminum Targets from a Foreign Nuclear Reactor to the Chalk River Laboratories Site in Ontario, Canada - 12249

    SciTech Connect

    Clough, Malcolm; Jackson, Austin

    2012-07-01

    This investigation required the selection of a suitable cask and development of a device to hold and transport irradiated targets from a foreign nuclear reactor to the Chalk River Laboratories in Ontario, Canada. The main challenge was to design and validate a target holder to protect the irradiated HEU-Al target pencils during transit. Each of the targets was estimated to have an initial decay heat of 118 W prior to transit. As the targets have little thermal mass the potential for high temperature damage and possibly melting was high. Thus, the primary design objective was to conceive a target holder to dissipate heat from the targets. Other design requirements included securing the targets during transportation and providing a simple means to load and unload the targets while submerged five metres under water. A unique target holder (patent pending) was designed and manufactured together with special purpose experimental apparatus including a representative cask. Aluminum dummy targets were fabricated to accept cartridge heaters, to simulate decay heat. Thermocouples were used to measure the temperature of the test targets and selected areas within the target holder and test cask. After obtaining test results, calculations were performed to compensate for differences between experimental and real life conditions. Taking compensation into consideration the maximum target temperature reached was 231 deg. C which was below the designated maximum of 250 deg. C. The design of the aluminum target holder also allowed generous clearance to insert and unload the targets. This clearance was designed to close up as the target holder is placed into the cavity of the transport cask. Springs served to retain and restrain the targets from movement during transportation as well as to facilitate conductive heat transfer. The target holder met the design requirements and as such provided data supporting the feasibility of transporting targets over a relatively long period of time

  7. Ebola haemorrhagic fever in Sudan, 1976

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    A large outbreak of haemorrhagic fever (subsequently named Ebola haemorrhagic fever) occurred in southern Sudan between June and November 1976. There was a total of 284 cases; 67 in the source town of Nzara, 213 in Maridi, 3 in Tembura, and 1 in Juba. The outbreak in Nzara appears to have originated in the workers of a cotton factory. The disease in Maridi was amplified by transmission in a large, active hospital. Transmission of the disease required close contact with an acute case and was usually associated with the act of nursing a patient. The incubation period was between 7 and 14 days. Although the link was not well established, it appears that Nzara could have been the source of infection for a similar outbreak in the Bumba Zone of Zaire. In this outbreak Ebola haemorrhagic fever was a unique clinical disease with a high mortality rate (53% overall) and a prolonged recovery period in those who survived. Beginning with an influenza-like syndrome, including fever, headache, and joint and muscle pains, the disease soon caused diarrhoea (81%), vomiting (59%), chest pain (83%), pain and dryness of the throat (63%), and rash (52%). Haemorrhagic manifestations were common (71%), being present in half of the recovered cases and in almost all the fatal cases. Two post mortems were carried out on patients in November 1976. The histopathological findings resembled those of an acute viral infection and although the features were characteristic they were not exclusively diagnostic. They closely resembled the features described in Marburg virus infection, with focal eosinophilic necrosis in the liver and destruction of lymphocytes and their replacement by plasma cells. One case had evidence of renal tubular necrosis. Two strains of Ebola virus were isolated from acute phase sera collected from acutely ill patients in Maridi hospital during the investigation in November 1976. Antibodies to Ebola virus were detected by immunofluorescence in 42 of 48 patients in Maridi who

  8. Effect of low energy ion irradiation on the transport and structural behavior of PEDOT:PSS systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shilpa, S.; Venkatachalaiah, K. N.; Damle, R.; Kumar, Pravin; Kanjilal, D.; Kumaraswamy, G. N.

    2016-05-01

    In the past two decades, organic conductors have been widely explored for use in different applications. One of the extensively studied organic material for the use in the field of electronic devices is PEDOT:PSS. Organic/inorganic nanocomposite systems have been developed to improve the properties of organic materials. In the present study, we have made an attempt to understand the effect of low energy oxygen ion beam irradiation on the electrical and structural properties of PEDOT:PSS and PEDOT:PSS/TiO2 nanocomposites. The observed reduction in electrical properties in PEDOT:PSS systems may be linked to radiation induced phase change. The nanocomposite systems show better stability to the ion irradiation compared to the pure systems.

  9. Text messaging app improves disease surveillance in rural South Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Buesseler, Heather M.

    2016-01-01

    Background In South Sudan, remote health facilities face challenges in submitting weekly surveillance reports for epidemic-prone diseases due to long distances and difficult terrain health workers must cover to hand-deliver paper reports. Not only are patients unable to access care while health workers are away, identification of and timely response to an infectious disease outbreak is hampered. Methods Data journey mapping with stakeholders was conducted in three counties in Eastern Equatoria State to inform an appropriate mHealth solution. A short message service (SMS) application was selected because it did not require internet connection and only needed minimal equipment investments. The SMS app was designed using open source Android software due to low set-up and maintenance costs. Health facility staffs use personal phones to send an SMS in a predetermined format to the County Health Department (CHD) Android phone base. CHD staff review data; once verified, CHD exports the data to existing health information system software for onward submission to the State Ministry of Health (SMOH). To engender perceived value and incentive use, health workers must use personal airtime to send the SMS; they receive a bonus if they submit reports on time. For long-term sustainability of the system, CHDs have incorporated system maintenance costs into their monthly budgets. Results Eighty-nine health workers and 21 CHD staff were trained to use the SMS app. They found the innovation interesting and easy to use. All three counties increased on-time submissions upon introduction of the app. The predefined SMS template is important for data accuracy. Availability of a dedicated CHD staff and mobile network coverage in the most remote areas present ongoing challenges to timely report submissions in some counties. CHDs declare the SMS app has revolutionized weekly disease surveillance reporting in their counties. Eastern Equatoria SMOH has requested scale up of this app to all

  10. Polar and low polar solvents media effect on dipole moments of some diazo Sudan dyes.

    PubMed

    Zakerhamidi, M S; Golghasemi Sorkhabi, Sh; Shamkhali, A N

    2014-06-05

    Absorption and fluorescence spectra of three Sudan dyes (SudanIII, SudanIV and Sudan black B) were recorded in various solvents with different polarity in the range of 300-800nm, at room temperature. The solvatochromic method was used to investigate dipole moments of these dyes in ground and excited states, in different media. The solvatochromic behavior of these substances and their solvent-solute interactions were analyzed via solvent polarity parameters. Obtained results express the effects of solvation on tautomerism and molecular configuration (geometry) of Sudan dyes in solvent media with different polarity. Furthermore, analyze of solvent-solute interactions and value of ground and excited states dipole moments suggests different forms of resonance structures for Sudan dyes in polar and low-polar solvents.

  11. TRANSPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation outline: transport principles, effective solubility; gasoline composition; and field examples (plume diving).
    Presentation conclusions: MTBE transport follows from - phyiscal and chemical properties and hydrology. Field examples show: MTBE plumes > benzene plu...

  12. A gravity and magnetic traverse from Port Sudan to Abu Hamad, NE Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadig, Abdel Ati; Almond, David C.; Ahmed, Farouk

    Gravity and magnetic measurements were recorded while making a geotraverse from the Red Sea at Port Sudan to the River Nile at Abu Hamad. Much of the region is poorly known geologically and the geophysical interpretations have been constrained by new observations along and near to the traverse line. There are close correlations between gravity, magnetics and many of the major geological features of the region. Western, central and eastern blocks can be distinguished on the basis of combined geology and geophysics. The largely metasedimentary western block shows flat geophysical profiles, whereas the batholith which composes most of the central block shows minor anomalities related to its inhomogenous primary composition and to zones of later N-S shearing. The eastern block is composed largely of low-grade metavolcanic rocks but has a local basement of higher grade rocks, and there are numerous intrusions of granite and gabbro, with ophiolitic lenses within the NE-trending Nakasib shear zone. The strong geophysical anomalies over the Nakasib zone are in keeping with interpretation of this zone as a reworked oceanic suture. Other strong anomalies relate to the presence of basic intrusions and the distribution of basic basement rocks. The regional gravity profile is similar to those measured elsewhere on the flanks of the Red Sea and reflects thinning of the lithosppheric units as the Red Sea axis is approached.

  13. Occurrence of Sudan I in paprika fruits caused by agricultural environmental contamination.

    PubMed

    Lian, Yunhe; Gao, Wei; Zhou, Li; Wu, Naiying; Lu, Qingguo; Han, Wenjie; Tie, Xiaowei

    2014-05-07

    Current research has demonstrated the presence of sub parts per billion levels of Sudan dye in paprika fruits during the vegetation process, which is difficult to understand on the basis of the conventional concept of cross-contamination or malicious addition. Detailed surveys on Sudan dyes I-IV in paprika fruits, soils, and agronomic materials used from seven fields of Xinjiang (China) were conducted to investigate the natural contamination. Results revealed that Sudan dyes II-IV were never detected and that Sudan I existed in almost all samples except for the mulching film and irrigation water. The higher total amount of Sudan I in soils, pesticides, and fertilizers compared to coated seeds indicated the combination of Sudan I-contaminated soils and application of Sudan I-containing agronomic materials constitutes a major source of 0.18-2.52 μg/kg levels of Sudan I in fruits during the growth period. The study offers a more reasonable explanation for the previously observed Sudan I in paprika fruits.

  14. Logistics of Guinea worm disease eradication in South Sudan.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alexander H; Becknell, Steven; Withers, P Craig; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Hopkins, Donald R; Stobbelaar, David; Makoy, Samuel Yibi

    2014-03-01

    From 2006 to 2012, the South Sudan Guinea Worm Eradication Program reduced new Guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis) cases by over 90%, despite substantial programmatic challenges. Program logistics have played a key role in program achievements to date. The program uses disease surveillance and program performance data and integrated technical-logistical staffing to maintain flexible and effective logistical support for active community-based surveillance and intervention delivery in thousands of remote communities. Lessons learned from logistical design and management can resonate across similar complex surveillance and public health intervention delivery programs, such as mass drug administration for the control of neglected tropical diseases and other disease eradication programs. Logistical challenges in various public health scenarios and the pivotal contribution of logistics to Guinea worm case reductions in South Sudan underscore the need for additional inquiry into the role of logistics in public health programming in low-income countries.

  15. Logistics of Guinea Worm Disease Eradication in South Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Alexander H.; Becknell, Steven; Withers, P. Craig; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Hopkins, Donald R.; Stobbelaar, David; Makoy, Samuel Yibi

    2014-01-01

    From 2006 to 2012, the South Sudan Guinea Worm Eradication Program reduced new Guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis) cases by over 90%, despite substantial programmatic challenges. Program logistics have played a key role in program achievements to date. The program uses disease surveillance and program performance data and integrated technical–logistical staffing to maintain flexible and effective logistical support for active community-based surveillance and intervention delivery in thousands of remote communities. Lessons learned from logistical design and management can resonate across similar complex surveillance and public health intervention delivery programs, such as mass drug administration for the control of neglected tropical diseases and other disease eradication programs. Logistical challenges in various public health scenarios and the pivotal contribution of logistics to Guinea worm case reductions in South Sudan underscore the need for additional inquiry into the role of logistics in public health programming in low-income countries. PMID:24445199

  16. Tylenchida associated with different crops in Sennar State (Sudan).

    PubMed

    Elbadri, G A; Bert, W; Geraert, E

    2001-01-01

    A study was done on the taxonomy and morphology of plant parasitic nematodes (Tylenchida) found in Sennar State (Sudan). Sixty samples of different crops were collected in the sugarcane area. Thirty samples originated from soil around the roots of Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane) from different ratoons and thirty samples were collected from other crops (Mangifera indica; Citrus limon; Citrus aurantifolia; Citrus paradisi; Citrus sinensis, Phoenix dactylifera, Musa sapentium; Cassia italica, Capsicum annuum, Sorghum bicolor, Sorghum sudanensis, Gossypium barbadense, Ficus nitida, Khaya senegalensis, Eucalyptus microtheca, Acacia nilotica, Acacia seyal, Azardichta indica, Cajanus cajana, Caltropsis spp. and Liguster ovalifolium). Seven species belonging to seven different genera of Tylenchida were identified: Paratrophurus lobatus, Scutellonema clathricaudatum, Hoplolaimus aegypti and Filenchus cylindricus. Helicotylenchus plumariae, Pratylenchus thornei and Malenchus andrassyi are new records for Sudan. These seven species were compared with the descriptions given in the literature and differences and variations were discussed. Additional morphological data were described by means of SEM microscopy.

  17. Nasopharyngeal Cancer in Sudan: Epidemiology, Clinical and Histological Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Nazik E.; Adam, Ameera A.M.; Khalifa, Eman H.; EL Hassan, Lamyaa A.M.; Ibrahim, M.E.; Hamad, K.M.; El Hassan, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To study the epidemiology, clinical features, staging, etiology and pathology of nasopharyngeal cancer in Sudan. Study design: This is a retrospective study. Setting: Ear, Nose and Throat Department Khartoum Teaching Hospital, Khartoum City, Sudan. Subjects and methods: Patients suspected to have nasopharyngeal cancer were assessed during the period March 2004 to May 2010. Data from confirmed cases was obtained; it included clinical and epidemiological information. Results: Three hundred and eighty five cases were studied. Bimodal age distribution of the disease was noted with two peaks, one at 15–19 years and one at 50–54 years. The male to female ratio was 2.6:1 and a distinct geographical distribution of the disease was noted, with clustering of cases in the towns of Dilling, Kadogli and the surrounding rural area of the Nuba Mountains. These areas in the Western States were reported to be of high background radiation due to naturally produced radioactive uranium. The Nuba tribe headed the list among other tribes, demonstrating a clear ethnic predilection. Sixty-eight cases presented at stage IV. There was a predominance of Type II (15.58%) and Type III (65.97%). Patients were treated by neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Conclusions: NPC is an important form of cancer in Sudan. Some tribes are significantly more affected than others. Patients present with advanced disease. Environmental and genetic factors need further studies. Screening at risk populations that aim at early diagnosis and management of patients is recommended. PMID:24179400

  18. Malaria Risk Mapping for Control in the Republic of Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Noor, Abdisalan M.; ElMardi, Khalid A.; Abdelgader, Tarig M.; Patil, Anand P.; Amine, Ahmed A. A.; Bakhiet, Sahar; Mukhtar, Maowia M.; Snow, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence shows that malaria risk maps are rarely tailored to address national control program ambitions. Here, we generate a malaria risk map adapted for malaria control in Sudan. Community Plasmodium falciparum parasite rate (PfPR) data from 2000 to 2010 were assembled and were standardized to 2–10 years of age (PfPR2–10). Space-time Bayesian geostatistical methods were used to generate a map of malaria risk for 2010. Surfaces of aridity, urbanization, irrigation schemes, and refugee camps were combined with the PfPR2–10 map to tailor the epidemiological stratification for appropriate intervention design. In 2010, a majority of the geographical area of the Sudan had risk of < 1% PfPR2–10. Areas of meso- and hyperendemic risk were located in the south. About 80% of Sudan's population in 2011 was in the areas in the desert, urban centers, or where risk was < 1% PfPR2–10. Aggregated data suggest reducing risks in some high transmission areas since the 1960s. PMID:23033400

  19. 48 CFR 25.702 - Prohibition on contracting with entities that conduct restricted business operations in Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prohibition on contracting with entities that conduct restricted business operations in Sudan. 25.702 Section 25.702 Federal... operations in Sudan....

  20. 48 CFR 25.702 - Prohibition on contracting with entities that conduct restricted business operations in Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prohibition on contracting with entities that conduct restricted business operations in Sudan. 25.702 Section 25.702 Federal... operations in Sudan....

  1. 48 CFR 25.702 - Prohibition on contracting with entities that conduct restricted business operations in Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Prohibition on contracting with entities that conduct restricted business operations in Sudan. 25.702 Section 25.702 Federal... operations in Sudan....

  2. 48 CFR 25.702 - Prohibition on contracting with entities that conduct restricted business operations in Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibition on contracting with entities that conduct restricted business operations in Sudan. 25.702 Section 25.702 Federal... operations in Sudan....

  3. 48 CFR 25.702 - Prohibition on contracting with entities that conduct restricted business operations in Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prohibition on contracting with entities that conduct restricted business operations in Sudan. 25.702 Section 25.702 Federal... operations in Sudan....

  4. N Isotopes in Nile Sediments (ethiopia, Sudan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padoan, M.; Villa, I. M.; Garzanti, E.; Galbusera, M.; Quistini, S.; Peruta, L.; El Kammar, A.

    2009-04-01

    , values vary from 0.51240-0.51242 for tributaries draining basement rocks only (e.g., Gash, wadi Guba) to 0.51275-0.51280 for tributaries draining mostly basaltic rocks (Atbara); tributaries draining both record mixed signals (e.g., 0.51259; Beles). Nd ratios for Atbara sediments correspond closely with signatures of volcanic source rocks (0.51271-0.51298; Pik et al., 1999), revealing involvement of various mantle and crustal components in petrogenesis of flood basalts. Corresponding Nd model ages (tDM) cluster around 0.84 Ga for the mostly volcanic-derived Blue Nile, Atbara, and Main Nile muds, range 1.2 - 1.5 Ga for tributaries draining Ethiopian basement rocks, and reach as high as 2.4 Ga for the Bahr Ez Zeraf. The different Nd isotopic signal between mud and sand samples is closely controlled by mineralogical composition, Nd and other REE being chiefly contributed by ultradense minerals (e.g., monazite), and consequently concentrated in the finest size fractions of each sample (Garzanti et al., 2008). FREYDIER, R., MICHARD, A., DE LANGE G., THOMSON, J., 2001. Nd isotopic composition of Eastern Mediterranean sediments: tracers of the Nile influence during sapropel S1 formation. Mar. Geol., 177, 45-62. GARZANTI, E., ANDÒ, S., VEZZOLI, G., ABDEL MEGID, A.A., EL KAMMAR, A., 2006. Petrology of Nile River sands (Ethiopian and Sudan): Sediment budgets and erosion patterns. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 252, 327-341. GARZANTI, E., ANDÒ, S., VEZZOLI, G., 2008. Settling-equivalence of detrital minerals and grain-size dependence of sediment composition. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 273, 138-151. HARLAVAN Y., GARZANTI, E., PADOAN, M., EL KAMMAR, A. Geochemical characterization of Nile River sands; Rare earth elements, Pb and Sr isotopes of the fine fraction. In preparation. KROM, M.D., CLIFF, R.A., EIJSINK, L.M., HERUT, B., CHESTER, R., 1999a. The characterisation of Saharan dusts and Nile particulate matter in surface sediments from the Levantine basin using Sr isotopes. Mar. Geol

  5. Cultural Considerations for Security Cooperation Operations in South Sudan: Understanding the Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    identified to accomplish the mission of AFRICOM in its fact sheet , three of those objectives can only be realized through security cooperation. Those...papayas, bananas , sweet potatoes, sunflowers, cotton, sesame, cassava, beans, peanuts, cattle, and sheep. Trade: Major trading partner--Sudan...2010, 11. 2 President, National Security Strategy 2010, 3. 3 United States Africa Command, Fact Sheet : United States Africa Command: U.S

  6. Effectiveness of emergency water treatment practices in refugee camps in South Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Syed Saad; Fesselet, Jean-Francois

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate the concentration of residual chlorine in drinking water supplies in refugee camps, South Sudan, March–April 2013. Methods For each of three refugee camps, we measured physical and chemical characteristics of water supplies at four points after distribution: (i) directly from tapstands; (ii) after collection; (iii) after transport to households; and (iv) after several hours of household storage. The following parameters were measured: free and total residual chlorine, temperature, turbidity, pH, electrical conductivity and oxidation reduction potential. We documented water handling practices with spot checks and respondent self-reports. We analysed factors affecting residual chlorine concentrations using mathematical and linear regression models. Findings For initial free residual chlorine concentrations in the 0.5–1.5 mg/L range, a decay rate of ~5x10-3 L/mg/min was found across all camps. Regression models showed that the decay of residual chlorine was related to initial chlorine levels, electrical conductivity and air temperature. Covering water storage containers, but not other water handling practices, improved the residual chlorine levels. Conclusion The concentrations of residual chlorine that we measured in water supplies in refugee camps in South Sudan were too low. We tentatively recommend that the free residual chlorine guideline be increased to 1.0 mg/L in all situations, irrespective of diarrhoeal disease outbreaks and the pH or turbidity of water supplies. According to our findings, this would ensure a free residual chlorine level of 0.2 mg/L for at least 10 hours after distribution. However, it is unknown whether our findings are generalizable to other camps and further studies are therefore required. PMID:26478612

  7. [Peculiarities of ion transport of calcium in tumor cells under conditions of irradiation by ionizing radiation, chemopreparations and homeopathic means].

    PubMed

    Mikhvetadze, A V; Nadateĭshvili, G G

    2006-11-01

    The goal of given investigation was to reveal an effect of different agents on ion transport of Ca2+ in tumor cells (Erlich's carcinomas). Ionizing radiation, antitumor preparation vinkristin as well as homeopathic means - stimulated phosphoric acid diluted at 10-14 were used. Small doses of radiation (0,05 and 0,1 Gr) always had a stimulating effect on ion transport even in combination with vinkristin, which separately always depressed it. Both separately and in any combination stimulated phosphoric acid always reinforced transmembrane ion transport. In regard to Ca2+ a hypothesis about its participation in the process of reparation of tumor cell has been suggested. At increasing of Ca2+ concentrations a transmembrane transport of this ion in the environment increases what induces strengthening of adhesive properties of the cell. However, it is known that in tumors these properties are decreased. Apparently, in this case two contrary processes - strengthening and decrease of adhesive properties take place pointing to the fact that there appear reparative forces in tumor process.

  8. 31 CFR 538.506 - 30-day delayed effective date for pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan. 538.506 Section 538.506 Money and Finance: Treasury....506 30-day delayed effective date for pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan. (a) Pre... of Sudanese origin or owned or controlled by the Government of Sudan, importations under the...

  9. 31 CFR 538.508 - Certain payments by the Government of Sudan of obligations to persons within the United States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Sudan of obligations to persons within the United States authorized. 538.508 Section 538.508 Money and... Licensing Policy § 538.508 Certain payments by the Government of Sudan of obligations to persons within the..., solely for the purpose of payment of obligations of the Government of Sudan to persons or accounts...

  10. 31 CFR 538.208 - Prohibited grant or extension of credits or loans to the Government of Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... credits or loans to the Government of Sudan. 538.208 Section 538.208 Money and Finance: Treasury... loans to the Government of Sudan. Except as otherwise authorized, the grant or extension of credits or loans by any United States person to the Government of Sudan is prohibited....

  11. 31 CFR 538.208 - Prohibited grant or extension of credits or loans to the Government of Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... credits or loans to the Government of Sudan. 538.208 Section 538.208 Money and Finance: Treasury... loans to the Government of Sudan. Except as otherwise authorized, the grant or extension of credits or loans by any United States person to the Government of Sudan is prohibited....

  12. 31 CFR 538.208 - Prohibited grant or extension of credits or loans to the Government of Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... credits or loans to the Government of Sudan. 538.208 Section 538.208 Money and Finance: Treasury... loans to the Government of Sudan. Except as otherwise authorized, the grant or extension of credits or loans by any United States person to the Government of Sudan is prohibited....

  13. 31 CFR 538.508 - Certain payments by the Government of Sudan of obligations to persons within the United States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Sudan of obligations to persons within the United States authorized. 538.508 Section 538.508 Money and... Licensing Policy § 538.508 Certain payments by the Government of Sudan of obligations to persons within the..., solely for the purpose of payment of obligations of the Government of Sudan to persons or accounts...

  14. 31 CFR 538.208 - Prohibited grant or extension of credits or loans to the Government of Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... credits or loans to the Government of Sudan. 538.208 Section 538.208 Money and Finance: Treasury... loans to the Government of Sudan. Except as otherwise authorized, the grant or extension of credits or loans by any United States person to the Government of Sudan is prohibited....

  15. 31 CFR 538.506 - 30-day delayed effective date for pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan. 538.506 Section 538.506 Money and Finance: Treasury....506 30-day delayed effective date for pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan. (a) Pre... of Sudanese origin or owned or controlled by the Government of Sudan, importations under the...

  16. 31 CFR 538.208 - Prohibited grant or extension of credits or loans to the Government of Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... credits or loans to the Government of Sudan. 538.208 Section 538.208 Money and Finance: Treasury... loans to the Government of Sudan. Except as otherwise authorized, the grant or extension of credits or loans by any United States person to the Government of Sudan is prohibited....

  17. 31 CFR 538.508 - Certain payments by the Government of Sudan of obligations to persons within the United States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Sudan of obligations to persons within the United States authorized. 538.508 Section 538.508 Money and... Licensing Policy § 538.508 Certain payments by the Government of Sudan of obligations to persons within the..., solely for the purpose of payment of obligations of the Government of Sudan to persons or accounts...

  18. 31 CFR 538.506 - 30-day delayed effective date for pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan. 538.506 Section 538.506 Money and Finance: Treasury....506 30-day delayed effective date for pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan. (a) Pre... of Sudanese origin or owned or controlled by the Government of Sudan, importations under the...

  19. 31 CFR 538.508 - Certain payments by the Government of Sudan of obligations to persons within the United States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Sudan of obligations to persons within the United States authorized. 538.508 Section 538.508 Money and... Licensing Policy § 538.508 Certain payments by the Government of Sudan of obligations to persons within the..., solely for the purpose of payment of obligations of the Government of Sudan to persons or accounts...

  20. 31 CFR 538.506 - 30-day delayed effective date for pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan. 538.506 Section 538.506 Money and Finance: Treasury....506 30-day delayed effective date for pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan. (a) Pre... of Sudanese origin or owned or controlled by the Government of Sudan, importations under the...

  1. 31 CFR 538.508 - Certain payments by the Government of Sudan of obligations to persons within the United States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Sudan of obligations to persons within the United States authorized. 538.508 Section 538.508 Money and... Licensing Policy § 538.508 Certain payments by the Government of Sudan of obligations to persons within the..., solely for the purpose of payment of obligations of the Government of Sudan to persons or accounts...

  2. 31 CFR 538.506 - 30-day delayed effective date for pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan. 538.506 Section 538.506 Money and Finance: Treasury....506 30-day delayed effective date for pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan. (a) Pre... of Sudanese origin or owned or controlled by the Government of Sudan, importations under the...

  3. The Cost of Antibiotic Mass Drug Administration for Trachoma Control in a Remote Area of South Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Kolaczinski, Jan H.; Robinson, Emily; Finn, Timothy P.

    2011-01-01

    Background Mass drug administration (MDA) of antibiotics is a key component of the so-called “SAFE” strategy for trachoma control, while MDA of anthelminthics provides the cornerstone for control of a number of other neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Simultaneous delivery of two or more of these drugs, renowned as “integrated NTD control,” is being promoted to reduce costs and expand intervention coverage. A cost analysis was conducted alongside an MDA campaign in a remote trachoma endemic area, to inform budgeting for NTD control in South Sudan. Methods and Findings A first round of antibiotic MDA was conducted in the highly trachoma endemic county of Mayom, Unity state, from June to August 2010. A core team of seven staff delivered the intervention, including recruitment and training of 44 supervisors and 542 community drug distributors. Using an ingredients approach, financial and economic costs were captured from the provider perspective in a detailed costing database. Overall, 123,760 individuals were treated for trachoma, resulting in an estimated treatment coverage of 94%. The economic cost per person treated was USD 1.53, excluding the cost of the antibiotic azithromycin. Ninety four per cent of the delivery costs were recurrent costs, with personnel and travel/transport costs taking up the largest share. Conclusions In a remote setting and for the initial round, MDA of antibiotics was considerably more expensive than USD 0.5 per person treated, an estimate frequently quoted to advocate for integrated NTD control. Drug delivery costs in South Sudan are unlikely to decrease substantially during subsequent MDA rounds, as the major cost drivers were recurrent costs. MDA campaigns for delivery of one or more drugs in South Sudan should thus be budgeted at around USD 1.5 per person treated, at least until further costing data for delivery of other NTD drugs, singly or in combination, are available. PMID:22022632

  4. Games, Social Simulations, and Data--Integration for Policy Decisions: The "Sudan" Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landwehr, Peter; Spraragen, Marc; Ranganathan, Balki; Carley, Kathleen M.; Zyda, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss the development of the "Sudan Game," an interactive model of the country in the time period leading up to the Sudanese referendum on the secession of the South. While many simulations are designed to educate about their subjects, the "Sudan Game" is intended to be a prototype for policy…

  5. The Birth of a Nation Is Only the Beginning: The Travails of South Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totten, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Just three years since it broke away from Sudan, the new country of South Sudan is embroiled in a violent civil war. This article examines what went wrong and why, by discussing the incredible difficulty of building a new nation from scratch following years of conflict, war, suspicion, and great expectations. How this tragedy will end is anyone's…

  6. Teaching the Violent Past in Secondary Schools in Newly Independent South Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skårås, Merethe; Breidlid, Anders

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses the teaching and learning of South Sudan history from 1955--2005 in secondary schools in South Sudan with a specific focus on national unity. The article draws on two periods of focused ethnography, from September to December 2014 and July to September 2015, including classroom observation and interviews with teachers,…

  7. 31 CFR 538.204 - Prohibited importation of goods or services from Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prohibited importation of goods or services from Sudan. 538.204 Section 538.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 538.204 Prohibited importation of goods or services from Sudan. Except as...

  8. 76 FR 68053 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... With Respect to Sudan #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76, No... ] Notice of November 1, 2011 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan On November 3, 1997, by Executive Order 13067, the President declared a national emergency with respect to...

  9. 31 CFR 538.204 - Prohibited importation of goods or services from Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibited importation of goods or services from Sudan. 538.204 Section 538.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 538.204 Prohibited importation of goods or services from Sudan. Except as...

  10. 78 FR 16028 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of South Sudan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of South Sudan Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3... Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to South Sudan, and I hereby waive this restriction....

  11. 31 CFR 538.204 - Prohibited importation of goods or services from Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prohibited importation of goods or services from Sudan. 538.204 Section 538.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 538.204 Prohibited importation of goods or services from Sudan. Except as...

  12. 31 CFR 538.204 - Prohibited importation of goods or services from Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prohibited importation of goods or services from Sudan. 538.204 Section 538.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 538.204 Prohibited importation of goods or services from Sudan. Except as...

  13. 31 CFR 538.204 - Prohibited importation of goods or services from Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prohibited importation of goods or services from Sudan. 538.204 Section 538.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 538.204 Prohibited importation of goods or services from Sudan. Except as...

  14. The Lost Boys of Sudan: Ambiguous Loss, Search for Family, and Reestablishing Relationships with Family Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luster, Tom; Qin, Desiree B.; Bates, Laura; Johnson, Deborah J.; Rana, Meenal

    2008-01-01

    The "Lost Boys of Sudan" were separated from their families by civil war and subsequently lived in 3 other countries--Ethiopia, Kenya, and the United States. In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 refugees who located surviving family members in Sudan after an average separation of 13.7 years. The interviews probed their experiences…

  15. Overcoming Structural Adjustment Policies in Africa: Strategies for Vocational Education and Training in the Sudan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washi, Sidiga; Pitamber, Sunita

    Most developing countries have been debt ridden since the mid-1970s. This continuing debt burden has resulted in increasing prices and inflation, growing unemployment, and daily life difficulties. This problem has been acute for the Sudan. Sudan received help from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in 1978 and negotiated new credit terms. By…

  16. The Politics of Writing Tribal Identities in the Sudan: The Case of the Colonial Nuba Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelhay, Ashraf Kamal

    2010-01-01

    Linguistics is implicated in the colonial project of the invention of "self-contained" "racial" and "tribal units" in the Sudan. This paper has two objectives. First, to historicise the notions of "language" in the postcolonial discourse of language planning in the Sudan by reviewing one of the significant…

  17. Viewing the Reconstruction of Primary Schooling in Southern Sudan through Education Data, 2006-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, HyeJin; Moses, Kurt D.; Jang, Bosun; Wils, Annababette

    2011-01-01

    After one of the longest wars in the history of Africa, Southern Sudan accomplished one of the world's quickest education reconstruction programmes. Once the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) was signed in 2005, the international donor community and the government and people of Southern Sudan united under a common goal: to increase access to…

  18. Phylogenetic and ecologic perspectives of a monkeypox outbreak, southern Sudan, 2005.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Yoshinori; Emerson, Ginny L; Carroll, Darin S; Zhao, Hui; Li, Yu; Reynolds, Mary G; Karem, Kevin L; Olson, Victoria A; Lash, R Ryan; Davidson, Whitni B; Smith, Scott K; Levine, Rebecca S; Regnery, Russell L; Sammons, Scott A; Frace, Michael A; Mutasim, Elmangory M; Karsani, Mubarak E M; Muntasir, Mohammed O; Babiker, Alimagboul A; Opoka, Langova; Chowdhary, Vipul; Damon, Inger K

    2013-02-01

    Identification of human monkeypox cases during 2005 in southern Sudan (now South Sudan) raised several questions about the natural history of monkeypox virus (MPXV) in Africa. The outbreak area, characterized by seasonally dry riverine grasslands, is not identified as environmentally suitable for MPXV transmission. We examined possible origins of this outbreak by performing phylogenetic analysis of genome sequences of MPXV isolates from the outbreak in Sudan and from differing localities. We also compared the environmental suitability of study localities for monkeypox transmission. Phylogenetically, the viruses isolated from Sudan outbreak specimens belong to a clade identified in the Congo Basin. This finding, added to the political instability of the area during the time of the outbreak, supports the hypothesis of importation by infected animals or humans entering Sudan from the Congo Basin, and person-to-person transmission of virus, rather than transmission of indigenous virus from infected animals to humans.

  19. Experimental Study on Fast Electrons Transport in Ultra-intense Laser Irradiated Solid Targets by Transition Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhijian, Zheng; Guangcan, Wang; Yuqiu, Gu

    2008-11-01

    The experiment was performed with SILEX laser facility(Ti-saphhire) at LFRC in China. The SILEX parameter: wavelength 0.8μm, duration 35fs, output power 280TW, contrast 5*105, The focal spot φ10μm(F/1.7), intensity on target surface 1*10^19W/cm^2(F/3). The main diagnostic equipments are the electron spectrometer, OMA spectrometer, optical streak camera. Some experimental results are given: The spectrum of optical emission from rear surface is rather narrow around some particular frequencies(1φ, 2φ, 3φ), We ascribe and confirm that the spike-like spectral line that is coherent transition radiation; The coherent light is also seen on time-integrated image with ring-patter due to Weibel instability of the fast electron transport; Obtained experimental cure of target thickness vs OTR image intensity is relative to mean free path of fast electron; The measuring optical transition radiation(OTR) duration of 171ps much longer than 1ps duration of fast electron transport target, the possible explanation is that the OTR duration to be determined magnetic diffusion time.

  20. Gender relations and women's reproductive health in South Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Kane, Sumit; Rial, Matilda; Matere, Anthony; Dieleman, Marjolein; Broerse, Jacqueline E.W.; Kok, Maryse

    2016-01-01

    Background In South Sudan, women disproportionately bear the burden of morbidity and mortality related to sexual and reproductive health, with a maternal mortality ratio of 789 deaths per 100,000 live births. Design A qualitative study was conducted to analyze how gendered social relations among the Fertit people affect women's ability to exercise control over their reproductive lives and thereby their sexual and reproductive health. Transcripts of 5 focus group discussions and 44 semi-structured interviews conducted with purposefully selected community members and health personnel were analyzed using Connell's relational theory of gender. Results Women across all age groups report that they have little choice but to meet the childbearing demands of husbands and their families. Women, both young and old, and also elders, are frustrated about how men and society are letting them down and how they are left to bear the reproductive burden. The poverty and chronic insecurity in South Sudan mean that many men have few sources of pride and achievement; conformity and complicity with the hegemonic practices accord both security and a sense of belonging and privilege to men, often at the expense of women's reproductive health. Conclusions Inequalities in the domestic, social, and economic spheres intersect to create social situations wherein Fertit women's agency in the reproductive realm is constrained. In South Sudan, as long as economic and social opportunities for women remain restricted, and as long as insecurity and uncertainty remain, many women will have little choice but to resort to having many children to safeguard their fragile present and future. Unless structural measures are taken to address these inequalities, there is a risk of both a widening of existing health inequalities and the emergence of new inequalities. PMID:27900934

  1. Preliminary field trials of acrolein in the Sudan*

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Frederick F.; Dawood, Ismail K.; Blondeau, René

    1965-01-01

    Field trials of acrolein for the simultaneous control of aquatic weeds and snails were conducted in the Sudan. Phytotoxicity studies at 25 and 50 ppm showed minor or no damage to furrow-irrigated crops, but flood irrigation of vegetable seedlings at 15 ppm was toxic. Effective downstream carriage of acrolein was demonstrated for a distance of 1.6 km at a concentration of 25 ppm. Planorbid snails (Bulinus and Biomphalaria) were almost completely eliminated (98-99% kills). All submersed aquatic weeds were destroyed. PMID:14310912

  2. Regional efficiency in the organization of agricultural processing facilities: an application to oilseeds industry in the Sudan

    SciTech Connect

    Babiker, B.I.

    1982-01-01

    There has been an increase in the production of oilseeds in the Sudan during the last few years following a policy of diversifying production. The increase in supply has also been accompanied by an export policy that is directed towards exporting processed products rather than seeds. Assuming that the present trend of increased production and exports of processed oilseeds will continue, and knowing that the present marketing services of oilseeds in the country are rather inefficient, economic information is needed to give more precise direction to the expected changes in marketing services. The present research used an economic framework to analyze the costs of transportation, storage, and processing of oilseeds in the Sudan. The objectives of the study were to describe the present marketing system of oilseeds and evaluate the performance of the institutions involved, to determine the optimum location, number and size of processing plants for 1979/80 and 1989/90, and to analyze the impact of changes in selected variables in the model on plant location, marketing costs and product flow. Results of the analysis showed that increasing the present processing capacity of 50 to 70% as expected did not increase the per unit cost of processing. The 70% processing capacity was considered the basic solution. Optimum plant location was obtained by removing the constraints on processing capacity.

  3. Factors Associated with HIV/AIDS in Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Badreldin Abdelrhman; Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To assess participants' knowledge about HIV/AIDS and to identify the factors associated with HIV/AIDS in Sudan. Methods. Observational cross-sectional study carried out at Omdurman National Voluntary Counseling and Testing Centre, Sudan covered 870 participants. Sociodemographic data as well as information related to sexual behavior were collected. Results. Most of the respondents were knowledgeable about the true transmission modes for AIDS virus. Very few respondents knew someone infected with AIDS (4.5%), died of AIDS (8.1%), accepted to live with someone infected with AIDS (4.7%) or to work with someone infected with AIDS (2.1%). Regarding sexual behavior, 96.5% had reported their first sexual experience between 20 and 30 years, with 85.7% reporting one or two partners, and only 1.8% reported using condom. Multivariate logistic regression showed that circumcision, religion, marital status, age at first sex, number of sexual partners, education level, and misconception of knowledge are the main risk factors associated with HIV/AIDS. Conclusion. Our results showed that a number of diversity risk factors were associated with HIV/AIDS. It is unlikely that a holistic approach will be found to immediately change sexual-risk-relating behavior. Interventions including sustained educational programs, promotion of condom, and encouragement of voluntary testing and active involvement of the country's political and religious leaders will be needed to alleviate this problem. PMID:23957014

  4. Seasonal variation and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in eastern Sudan.

    PubMed

    Ali, A A; Adam, G K; Abdallah, T M

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the seasonal variation and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in eastern Sudan, in the period between January 2008 and December 2010. The medical files of women attending at Kassala hospital, eastern Sudan with hypertension, with or without proteinuria were retrospectively retrieved. The data of patients with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were compared with a similar number of controls that were normotensive and non-proteinuric. During the study period, there were 9,578 deliveries; 153 patients had hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, yielding an incidence rate of 1.6%. Of all cases and controls (306), there were 183 (59.8%) deliveries in winter, 84 (27.5%) in summer and 39 (12.7%) in autumn. The highest rate of pre-eclampsia was in winter (1.1%) (CI = 1.1-2.7, OR = 1.7, p = 0.004) and the lowest rate was in autumn (0.2%) (CI = 0.4-1.8, OR = 0.8, p = 0.758.). Our study revealed significant association between the incidence of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and the winter season (103 (67.3%) vs 80 (52.3%), p = 0.001). Thus, more attention in the winter season might reduce the morbidity and mortality of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.

  5. Oil exploration in nonmarine rift basins of interior Sudan

    SciTech Connect

    Schull, T.J.

    1984-04-01

    In early 1975 Chevron Overseas Petroleum Inc. commenced a major petroleum exploration effort in previously unexplored interior Sudan. With the complete cooperation of the Sudanese Government, Chevron has acquired a vast amount of geologic and geophysical data during the past 9 years. These data include extensive aeromagnetic and gravity surveys, 25,000 mi (40,200 km) of seismic data, and the results of 66 wells. This information has defined several large rift basins which are now recognized as a major part of the Central African rift system. The sedimentary basins of interior Sudan are characterized by thick Cretaceous and Tertiary nonmarine clastic sequences. Over 35,000 ft (10,600 m) of sediment have been deposited in the deepest trough, and extensive basinal areas are underlain by more than 20,000 ft (6100 m) of sediment. The depositional sequence includes thick lacustrine shales and claystones, flood plain claystones, and lacustrine, fluvial, and alluvial sandstones and conglomerates. Those lacustrine claystones which were deposited in an anoxic environment provide oil-prone source rocks. Reservoir sandstones have been found in a wide variety of nonmarine sandstone facies. The extensional tectonism which formed these basins began in the Early Cretaceous. Movement along major fault trends continued intermittently into the Miocene. This deformation resulted in a complex structural history which led to the formation of several deep fault-bounded troughs, major interbasin high trends, and complex basin flanks. This tectonism has created a wide variety of structures, many of which have become effective hydrocarbon traps.

  6. Molecular detection of equine trypanosomes in the Sudan.

    PubMed

    Salim, Bashir; Bakheit, Mohammed Ahmed; Sugimoto, Chihiro

    2014-03-01

    Equine trypanosomosis (ET) is a protozoan disease affecting equines in many parts of the world. We examined 509 samples collected from geographically distinct regions in eastern, central and western Sudan to estimate the endemicity of ET using the generic ITS1-PCR diagnostic methods. Results revealed that horses and donkeys were infected by Trypanosoma brucei subgroup, Trypanosoma vivax, Trypanosoma simiae and Trypanosoma congolense. The prevalence of Trypanosoma spp. was higher in horses (12.7%, n=393) than in donkeys (3.4%, n=116). The highest prevalence was observed in South Darfur State (19.3%, n=202), followed by Kassala State (15.1%, n=86), Gadaref State (3.7%, n=82), and Khartoum State (2.6%, n=76). No trypanosomes were detected in the 63 samples collected from North Kurdofan State. We report for the first time the presence of T. simiae and T. congolense in horses in the Sudan. This study should alert veterinary services, authorized bodies to take action toward ET by undertaking countrywide epidemiological studies of the disease and adopting control strategies.

  7. Statistical Methods for Predicting Malaria Incidences Using Data from Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Awadalla, Khidir E.

    2017-01-01

    Malaria is the leading cause of illness and death in Sudan. The entire population is at risk of malaria epidemics with a very high burden on government and population. The usefulness of forecasting methods in predicting the number of future incidences is needed to motivate the development of a system that can predict future incidences. The objective of this paper is to develop applicable and understood time series models and to find out what method can provide better performance to predict future incidences level. We used monthly incidence data collected from five states in Sudan with unstable malaria transmission. We test four methods of the forecast: (1) autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA); (2) exponential smoothing; (3) transformation model; and (4) moving average. The result showed that transformation method performed significantly better than the other methods for Gadaref, Gazira, North Kordofan, and Northern, while the moving average model performed significantly better for Khartoum. Future research should combine a number of different and dissimilar methods of time series to improve forecast accuracy with the ultimate aim of developing a simple and useful model for producing reasonably reliable forecasts of the malaria incidence in the study area. PMID:28367352

  8. A climate distribution model of malaria transmission in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Musa, Mohammed I; Shohaimi, Shamarina; Hashim, Nor R; Krishnarajah, Isthrinayagy

    2012-11-01

    Malaria remains a major health problem in Sudan. With a population exceeding 39 million, there are around 7.5 million cases and 35,000 deaths every year. The predicted distribution of malaria derived from climate factors such as maximum and minimum temperatures, rainfall and relative humidity was compared with the actual number of malaria cases in Sudan for the period 2004 to 2010. The predictive calculations were done by fuzzy logic suitability (FLS) applied to the numerical distribution of malaria transmission based on the life cycle characteristics of the Anopheles mosquito accounting for the impact of climate factors on malaria transmission. This information is visualized as a series of maps (presented in video format) using a geographical information systems (GIS) approach. The climate factors were found to be suitable for malaria transmission in the period of May to October, whereas the actual case rates of malaria were high from June to November indicating a positive correlation. While comparisons between the prediction model for June and the case rate model for July did not show a high degree of association (18%), the results later in the year were better, reaching the highest level (55%) for October prediction and November case rate.

  9. Energy transport and isochoric heating of a low-Z, reduced-mass target irradiated with a high intensity laser pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, H.; Nakamura, H.; Tanabe, M.; Fujiwara, T.; Yamamoto, N.; Fujioka, S.; Mima, K.; Mishra, R.; Sentoku, Y.; Mancini, R.; Hakel, P.; Ohshima, S.; Batani, D.; Veltcheva, M.; Desai, T.; Jafer, R.; Kawamura, T.; Koike, F.

    2011-02-15

    Heat transport in reduced-mass targets irradiated with a high intensity laser pulse was studied. K{alpha} lines from partially ionized chlorine embedded in the middle of a triple-layered plastic target were measured to evaluate bulk electron temperature in the tracer region inside the target. Two groups of K{alpha} lines, one from Cl{sup +}-Cl{sup 6+} (hereby called ''cold K{alpha}''), and the other from Cl{sup 9+} and Cl{sup 10+} (''shifted K{alpha}'') are observed from different regions within the target. Two-dimensional collisional particle-in-cell simulations show two distinct heating mechanisms occurring concurrently: uniform heating by refluxing electrons and local heating by diffusive electrons in the central region. These two heating processes, which made the target temperature distribution nonuniform, are responsible for producing the two groups of K{alpha} lines in the experiment. The blue-shift of cold K{alpha} lines in the experiment is the signature of higher temperatures achieved by the refluxing heating in smaller-mass targets.

  10. Low Seroprevalence Indicates Vulnerability of Eastern and Central Sudan to Infection with Chikungunya Virus.

    PubMed

    Adam, Awadalkareem; Seidahmed, Osama M E; Weber, Christopher; Schnierle, Barbara; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Reiche, Sven; Jassoy, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Outbreaks of infections with chikungunya virus (CHIKV) have previously been reported from Sudan but the prevalence in the general population is unknown. We investigated the seroprevalence of CHIKV infection in 379 serum samples from patients with fever in the outpatient clinics of three hospitals in eastern and central Sudan. The seroprevalence was 1.8%, indicating that CHIKV infections are rare in these parts of Sudan. As the vector Aedes aegypti is endemic in this area, the population is at risk for a CHIKV epidemic.

  11. Vitamin A deficiency in the Sudan: a call for a surveillance system.

    PubMed

    el Bushra, H E

    1992-05-01

    This short review summarizes all the published and unpublished reports on vitamin A deficiency in the Sudan in the last four decades. Different local terms used by people to indicate vitamin A deficiency were enlisted. There is evidence that vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem in eastern Sudan and among communities from western and southern Sudan living around Greater Khartoum, who were displaced from their homelands because of drought, famine conditions and civil unrest. There are reports indicative of vitamin A deficiency problem in the central and the far western provinces. There were no reports from the northern provinces. The need for a surveillance system was discussed.

  12. Assessment of the Government of South Sudan’s Potential for Survival as an Independent Nation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-25

    AUTHOR: Major Michael Hyde AY 10-11 Approved: 1::::~_,_~~~Ř-’"""-"~~:::e:_----zJ"------;-- Dme : ________ ~~~~~~-=~HL- Executive Summary Title...became the dominant force in the region. 5 Sudan People’s Liberation Army/Movement At the beginning of the Second Civil War in Sudan, a rebel group...over the North on most regional issues but also sees the south as a moderating force in Sudan.48 Any instability in the North or South puts their

  13. Staining histological lung sections with Sudan Black B or Sudan III for automated identification of alveolar epithelial type II cells.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Jan Philipp; Pedersen, Lars; Mühlfeld, Christian; Ochs, Matthias

    2015-10-01

    Alveolar epithelial type II (AE2) cells produce, store and secrete pulmonary surfactant and serve as progenitor cells for the alveolar epithelium. They are thus an interesting target in wide fields of pulmonary research. Stereological methods allow their quantification based on measurements on histological sections. A proper AE2 cell quantification, however, requires a method of tissue processing that results in little tissue shrinkage during processing. It was recently shown that a primary fixation with a mixture of glutaraldehyde and formaldehyde, postfixation with osmium tetroxide and uranyl acetate and embedding in glycol methacrylate fulfills this requirement. However, a proper quantification, furthermore, requires a secure identification of the cells under the microscope. Classical approaches using routine stainings, high magnifications and systematic uniform random sampling can result in a tedious counting procedure. In this article we show that Sudan Black B and Sudan III staining in combination with the previously described "low shrinkage method" of tissue processing result in good staining of lamellar bodies of AE2 cells (their storing organelles of surfactant) and thus provide a good signal of AE2 cells, which allows their easy and secure identification even at rather low magnifications. We further show that this signal enables automated detection of AE2 cells by image analysis, which should make this method a suitable staining method for the recently developed and more efficient proportionator sampling.

  14. Peste des petits ruminants infection in domestic ruminants in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Intisar, K S; Ali, Y H; Haj, M A; Sahar, M A T; Shaza, M M; Baraa, A M; Ishag, O M; Nouri, Y M; Taha, K M; Nada, E M; Ahmed, A M; Khalafalla, A I; Libeau, G; Diallo, A

    2017-04-01

    The existence of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in domestic ruminants and camels in Sudan during 2008-2012 was investigated. Lung tissues and serum samples were randomly collected from sheep, goats, cattle, and camels at different areas of Sudan. A total of 12,384 serum samples were collected from clinically healthy 7413 sheep, 1988 camels, 1501 cattle, 1459 goats, and 23 gazelles at different areas in the Sudan. They were examined for PPR antibodies using competitive ELISA (cELISA). The overall detected seroprevalence of PPR in tested sera was 49.4%; seroprevalence values within species were 67.1, 48.2, 25.8, 2.1, and 21.7% in sheep, goat, cattle, camels, and gazelles, respectively. The highest seroprevalence (68.1%) was observed in sera collected from Darfur states, then the central states (54.3%). A total of 1276 lung tissue samples (623 sheep, 324 cattle, 220 camels, and 109 goats) were collected. The majority of lung samples were collected from clinically healthy animals that showed lesions on PM in slaughterhouses (95%) and during PPR outbreaks; samples were tested for PPR antigen using immunocapture ELISA (IcELISA). PPR antigen was detected in 233 out of the 1276 tested samples (18.3%). Positive results were observed in samples collected from clinically healthy and diseased animals. The observed prevalence values in each species were 33.6, 21.1, 15.4, and 12.3% in camel, goat, sheep, and cattle, respectively. PPR antigen was detected in samples from different areas; however, the highest prevalence (63.9%) was found in samples collected from the eastern states, then Khartoum state (28%). Trials for virus isolation were done in different cell cultures. Out of 30 IcELISA-positive samples inoculated in primary bovine and ovine kidney cells, Vero cells, the PPR virus was successfully isolated from 15 (eight sheep, five camels, and two goats) samples in the three cell culture types. Using RT-PCR, PPRV nucleic acid was detected in all 25 IcELISA-positive tested

  15. Molecular Detection of Rickettsia africae in Amblyomma variegatum Collected from Sudan.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Ryo; Qiu, Yongjin; Salim, Bashir; Hassan, Shawgi Mohamed; Sugimoto, Chihiro

    2015-05-01

    Despite the increasing awareness of the importance of emerging vector-borne diseases, human tick-borne diseases, particularly rickettsial infections, are overlooked, especially in the countries such as Sudan with limited resources to perform molecular-based surveys. This study aimed at detection and genetic characterization of Rickettsia spp. in ticks collected from Sudan. The samples were first screened for the presence of rickettsial agents by gltA real-time PCR and subsequently characterized by gltA and ompA PCR and size-based multispacer typing. The results demonstrated the wide distribution of Rickettsia africae and/or closely related species across Sudan. The results of this report highlight the need for careful consideration of rickettsial infections in patients with nonmalarial febrile illness in this country. Nationwide surveillance on ticks associated with human rickettsial infections in Sudan is warranted.

  16. Plasmodium falciparum population structure in Sudan post artemisinin-based combination therapy.

    PubMed

    Bakhiet, Amani M A; Abdel-Muhsin, Abdel-Muhsin A; Elzaki, Salah-Eldin G; Al-Hashami, Zainab; Albarwani, Hamida S; AlQamashoui, Badar A; Al-Hamidhi, Salama; Idris, Mohamed A; Elagib, Atif A; Beja-Pereira, Albano; Babiker, Hamza A

    2015-08-01

    Over the past decade, Sudan has stepped up malaria control backed by WHO, and this has resulted in significant reduction in parasite rate, malaria morbidity and mortality. The present study analyzed Plasmodium falciparum parasites in four geographical separated areas, to examine whether the success in malaria control following the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has disrupted the population structure and evolution of the parasite. We examined 319 P. falciparum isolates collected between October 2009 and October 2012 in four different areas in Sudan (Jazira [central Sudan], Southern Darfur [western Sudan], Upper Nile [southern Sudan] and Kasala [eastern Sudan]). Twelve microsatellites were analyzed for allelic diversity, multi-locus haplotype and inter-population differentiation. Level of diversity was compared to that detected for three of the above microsatellites among P. falciparum parasites in central and eastern Sudan in 1999, prior to introduction of ACT. Diversity at each locus (unbiased heterozygosity [H]) was high in all areas (Jazira, H=0.67), (Southern Darfur, H=0.71), (Upper Nile, H=0.71), and (Kasala, H=0.63). Microsatellites were distributed widely and private alleles, detected in a single population, were rare. The extent of diversity in the above sites was similar to that seen, in 1999, in central (Khartoum, H=0.73) and eastern Sudan (Gedaref, H=0.75). Significant Linkage disequilibrium (LD) was observed between the microsatellites in all populations. Pairwise FST analysis revealed that parasites in the four areas could be considered as one population. However, the parasites in Sudan clustered away from parasites in West Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Despite marked reduction in malaria risk in Sudan, the extent of diversity and parasite genetic structure are indicative of a large population size. Further considerable reduction in transmission would be needed before fragmented sub-population can be seen. In addition, the large

  17. Microbial quality of some vegetables sold in ED DueimTwon, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Goja, Arafat Mohammed; Mahmoud, Mohamed Salih Osman

    2013-06-15

    This study was probably the first research carried out to investigate the microbiological quality of some vegetables sold in ED DueimTwon, Sudan. Four species of vegetables were used, Arugula (Eruca sativa), Mloukhia (Corchorus olitorius), Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and Green pepper (Capsicum annuum). The samples were collected and examined according to standardized methods for total viable bacteria, coliforms and fecal coliform count. The average of total viable count ranged from 1.2 x 105-5.6 x 105 CFU mL(-1) for Arugula; 2.1 x 105-2.8 x 107 CFU mL(-1) for Mloukhia; 3.4 x 105-4.8 x 105 for Tomato and 2.3 x 105-8.0 x 106 CFU mL(-1) for Green pepper. However, the maximum level of total and fecal coliform were (93, 21); (28, 11); (75, 15) and (150, 20) MPN 100 mL(-1), respectively. Twelve bacteria belonging to five genera were isolated. Staphylococcus (33%) was the most predominant isolated followed by Enterobacteriaceae (25%), Bacillus (17%) and Streptococcus (17%). Micrococcus (8%) was the least dominant isolated. The results of microbial counts of these vegetable samples in this study indicate that, the agricultural practices, harvesting, hygiene, transporting and selling points are poor and therefore, the higher microbial load could be risked for public health.

  18. Comparative study of Monte Carlo particle transport code PHITS and nuclear data processing code NJOY for recoil cross section spectra under neutron irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamoto, Yosuke; Ogawa, Tatsuhiko

    2017-04-01

    Because primary knock-on atoms (PKAs) create point defects and clusters in materials that are irradiated with neutrons, it is important to validate the calculations of recoil cross section spectra that are used to estimate radiation damage in materials. Here, the recoil cross section spectra of fission- and fusion-relevant materials were calculated using the Event Generator Mode (EGM) of the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS) and also using the data processing code NJOY2012 with the nuclear data libraries TENDL2015, ENDF/BVII.1, and JEFF3.2. The heating number, which is the integral of the recoil cross section spectra, was also calculated using PHITS-EGM and compared with data extracted from the ACE files of TENDL2015, ENDF/BVII.1, and JENDL4.0. In general, only a small difference was found between the PKA spectra of PHITS + TENDL2015 and NJOY + TENDL2015. From analyzing the recoil cross section spectra extracted from the nuclear data libraries using NJOY2012, we found that the recoil cross section spectra were incorrect for 72Ge, 75As, 89Y, and 109Ag in the ENDF/B-VII.1 library, and for 90Zr and 55Mn in the JEFF3.2 library. From analyzing the heating number, we found that the data extracted from the ACE file of TENDL2015 for all nuclides were problematic in the neutron capture region because of incorrect data regarding the emitted gamma energy. However, PHITS + TENDL2015 can calculate PKA spectra and heating numbers correctly.

  19. Nairobi fly (Paederus) dermatitis in South Sudan: a case report.

    PubMed

    Iserson, Kenneth V; Walton, Emily K

    2012-09-01

    A 28-year-old nursing student working in Juba, South Sudan, suddenly developed a rash over her mid-right clavicle. Beginning as a 10-cm-diameter erythematous patch with an irregular border, within 24 hours it had developed an increasingly gray, necrotic center, appearing similar to a burn. The patient was seen by 2 local physicians without a diagnosis being made. Ultimately, it was diagnosed as being caused by the toxic hemolymph, pederin, from the Nairobi fly (Paederus). The rash usually affects body parts not covered by clothing; healing time ranges from 7 to 28 days, usually with permanent skin discoloration. Preventive measures include typical antivector precautions, including bed nets, long-sleeve clothing, and avoiding fluorescent lights. If the beetles are found on the skin, brushing them off, rather than crushing them, avoids producing dermatitis. Treatment includes rapidly washing the affected area, applying cold, wet compresses, and possibly treating with antibiotics, steroids, and antihistamines.

  20. The Impact of Conflict on Forests in South Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorsevski, V.; Kasischke, E. S.; Dempewolf, J.; Loboda, T. V.; Geores, M.

    2014-12-01

    The impacts of armed conflict on ecosystems are complex and difficult to assess due to restricted access to affected areas making satellite remote sensing a useful tool for studying direct and indirect effects of conflict on the landscape. The Imatong Central Forest Reserve (ICFR) in South Sudan together with the nearby Dongotana Hills and the Agoro-Agu Forest Reserve (AFR) in Northern Uganda share a boundary and encompass a biologically diverse montane ecosystem. This study used satellite data combined with general human population trends to examine the impact of armed conflict and its outcome on similar forest ecosystems both during and after hostilities. A Disturbance Index (DI) was used to investigate the location and extent of forest cover loss and gain in three areas for two key time periods. Results indicate that the rate of forest recovery was significantly higher than the rate of disturbance both during and after wartime in and around the ICFR. In contrast, the nearby Dongotana Hills experienced relatively high rates of disturbance during both periods; however, post war period losses were largely offset by some gains in forest cover. Discussions with local inhabitants confirmed these findings and provided further insights into the underlying causes impacting forest cover and wildlife. South Sudan is the latest nation to join the Global Environment Facility (GEF). While the GEF does not explicitly address conflict, many of the projects it supports occur in conflict and post-conflict zones with wide-ranging repercussions for both people and the environment. In an effort to assess best practices for working in conflict and post-conflict areas, the GEF Scientific and Technical Advisory Panel (STAP) will undertake an analysis of GEF-funded projects over the last two decades to identify where the GEF has promoted cooperation between groups and states, and/or made a positive contribution toward conflict avoidance resulting in shared environmental benefits.

  1. Immune Memory to Sudan Virus: Comparison between Two Separate Disease Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Sobarzo, Ariel; Eskira, Yael; Herbert, Andrew S.; Kuehne, Ana I.; Stonier, Spencer W.; Ochayon, David E.; Fedida-Metula, Shlomit; Balinandi, Steven; Kislev, Yaara; Tali, Neta; Lewis, Eli C.; Lutwama, Julius Julian; Dye, John M.; Yavelsky, Victoria; Lobel, Leslie

    2015-01-01

    Recovery from ebolavirus infection in humans is associated with the development of both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses. According to recent studies, individuals that did not survive infection with ebolaviruses appear to have lacked a robust adaptive immune response and the expression of several early innate response markers. However, a comprehensive protective immune profile has yet to be described. Here, we examine cellular memory immune responses among survivors of two separate Ebolavirus outbreaks (EVDs) due to Sudan virus (SUDV) infection in Uganda—Gulu 2000–2001 and Kibaale 2012. Freshly collected blood samples were stimulated with inactivated SUDV, as well as with recombinant SUDV or Ebola virus (EBOV) GP (GP1–649). In addition, ELISA and plaque reduction neutralization assays were performed to determine anti-SUDV IgG titers and neutralization capacity. Cytokine expression was measured in whole blood cultures in response to SUDV and SUDV GP stimulation in both survivor pools, demonstrating recall responses that indicate immune memory. Cytokine responses between groups were similar but had distinct differences. Neutralizing, SUDV-specific IgG activity against irradiated SUDV and SUDV recombinant proteins were detected in both survivor cohorts. Furthermore, humoral and cell-mediated crossreactivity to EBOV and EBOV recombinant GP1–649 was observed in both cohorts. In conclusion, immune responses in both groups of survivors demonstrate persistent recognition of relevant antigens, albeit larger cohorts are required in order to reach greater statistical significance. The differing cytokine responses between Gulu and Kibaale outbreak survivors suggests that each outbreak may not yield identical memory responses and promotes the merits of studying the immune responses among outbreaks of the same virus. Finally, our demonstration of cross-reactive immune recognition suggests that there is potential for developing cross-protective vaccines for

  2. Sensitivity of photosynthetic electron transport to photoinhibition in a temperate deciduous forest canopy: Photosystem II center openness, non-radiative energy dissipation and excess irradiance under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Niinemets U; Kull, O

    2001-08-01

    We used chlorophyll fluorescence techniques to investigate responses of Photosystem II (PSII) quantum yield to light availability in the short term (quantum flux density integrated over the measurement day, Qd) and in the long term (Qd averaged over the season, Qs) in a mixed deciduous forest comprising shade-tolerant and water-stress-sensitive Tilia cordata Mill. in the lower canopy and shade-intolerant and water-stress-resistant Populus tremula L. in the upper canopy. In both species, intrinsic efficiency of PSII in the dark-adapted state (Fv/Fm) was lower during the day than during the night, and the difference in Fv/Fm between day and night increased with increasing Qs. Although the capacity for photosynthetic electron transport increased with increasing Qs in both species, maximum quantum efficiency of PSII in the light-adapted state (alpha) decreased with increasing Qs. At a common Qs, alpha was lower in T. cordata than in P. tremula primarily because of a higher fraction of closed PSII centers, and to a smaller extent because of limited, non-radiative, excitation energy dissipation in the pigment bed in T. cordata. Across both species, photochemical quenching (qP), which measures the openness of PSII centers, varied more than fivefold, but the efficiency of excitation energy capture by open PSII centers (Fv'/Fm'), which is an estimate of non-radiative excitation energy dissipation in PSII antennae, varied by only 50%. Chlorophyll turnover rates increased with increasing irradiance, especially in T. cordata, possibly because of increased photodestruction. Diurnal measurements of PSII quantum yields (PhiPSII) indicated that, under similar environmental conditions, PhiPSII was always lower in the afternoon than in the morning, and the fraction of daily integrated photosynthetic electron transport lost because of diurnal declines in PhiPSII (Delta) increased with increasing Qd. At a common Qd, mean daily PSII center reduction state, the fraction of light in

  3. 78 FR 68499 - In the Matter of the Designation of Jama'atu Ansarul Muslimina Fi Biladis-Sudan Also Known as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... Matter of the Designation of Jama'atu Ansarul Muslimina Fi Biladis-Sudan Also Known as Ansaru Aso Known as Ansarul Muslimina Fi Biladis Sudan Also Known as Vanguards for the Protection of Muslims in Black Africa Also Known as JAMBS Also Known as Jama'atu Ansaril Muslimina Fi Biladis Sudan as a...

  4. 78 FR 68500 - In the Matter of the Designation of Jama'atu Ansarul Muslimina Fi Biladis-Sudan Also Known as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... Matter of the Designation of Jama'atu Ansarul Muslimina Fi Biladis-Sudan Also Known as Ansaru Also Known as Ansarul Muslimina Fi Biladis Sudan Also Known as Vanguards for the Protection of Muslims in Black Africa Also Known as JAMBS Also Known as Jama'atu Ansaril Muslimina Fi Biladis Sudan as a...

  5. Sudan dyes in adulterated saffron (Crocus sativus L.): Identification and quantification by (1)H NMR.

    PubMed

    Petrakis, Eleftherios A; Cagliani, Laura R; Tarantilis, Petros A; Polissiou, Moschos G; Consonni, Roberto

    2017-02-15

    Saffron, the dried red stigmas of Crocus sativus L., is considered as one of the most expensive spices worldwide, and as such, it is prone to adulteration. This study introduces an NMR-based approach to identify and determine the adulteration of saffron with Sudan I-IV dyes. A complete (1)H and (13)C resonance assignment for Sudan I-IV, achieved by two-dimensional homonuclear and heteronuclear NMR experiments, is reported for the first time. Specific different proton signals for the identification of each Sudan dye in adulterated saffron can be utilised for quantitative (1)H NMR (qHNMR), a well-established method for quantitative analysis. The quantification of Sudan III, as a paradigm, was performed in varying levels (0.14-7.1g/kg) by considering the NMR signal occurring at 8.064ppm. The high linearity, accuracy and rapidity of investigation enable high resolution (1)H NMR spectroscopy to be used for evaluation of saffron adulteration with Sudan dyes.

  6. The Relationship between Leadership Style and Motivation among Faculty Members in Two Public Universities in the Republic of South Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malok, Malok N.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between leadership style and motivation among faculty members in two public universities in the Republic of the South Sudan. The researcher examined this issue by surveying and interviewing faculty members in two public universities in the Republic of South Sudan, a total of 67 for…

  7. The Role of the Government in Perpetrating Genocide: A Comparative Analysis of 1994 Rwanda Genocide and 2003 Sudan Genocide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-13

    GENOCIDE : A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF 1994 RWANDA GENOCIDE AND 2003 SUDAN GENOCIDE A...of the 1994 Rwanda Genocide and 2003 Sudan Genocide 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...examples of governments responsible for perpetrating genocide . The extremist ethnic Hutu government planned and executed the 1994 Rwanda genocide

  8. Cystic echinococcosis in Mundari tribe-members of South Sudan.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Barclay T; Jacob, Joseph; Finn, Timothy; Lado, Mounir; Napoleon, Robert; Brooker, Simon; Sidhu, Paul S; Kolaczinski, Jan

    2013-09-01

    Many neglected tropical diseases, including the zoonotic disease cystic echinococcosis (hydatidosis), are endemic to East Africa. However, their geographical distribution is heterogenous and incompletely characterized. The aim of this study was to determine if Mundari pastoralists harbor endemic human hydatidosis. The survey was conducted in cattle camps randomly selected from accessible sites provided by officials in Terekeka, South Sudan. Following informed consent, a questionnaire collected demographic data and hydatid exposure risk. A systematic sonographic abdominal exam was performed using General Electric's LOGIQ Book XP with a 3C-RS 2-5 MHz curvilinear transducer. Six hundred and ten individuals were screened from 13 camps. Four infections were identified, all in women. The prevalence of abdominal hydatid disease in the Mundari tribe-members in cattle camps was 0·7% and all individuals reporting at least one high-risk exposure to hydatid disease. Cystic echinococcosis is endemic among Mundari pastoralists; however, it would appear to be less endemic than in neighboring tribes.

  9. [Sudan and other illegal dyes--food adulteration].

    PubMed

    Gajda, Joanna; Switka, Agnieszka; Kuźma, Katarzyna; Jarecka, Jolanta

    2006-01-01

    As foodstuffs adulterated by illegal dyes, such as Sudan I, II, III IIV, para-Red, have appeared on the European Union market, the emergency measures to eliminate this problem have been taken. The illegal dyes are added to dried, ground chilli, curry, curcuma and to palm oil. These products are imported from countries outside the E.U. The adulteration concerns also ready to eat products which contain the ingredients mentioned above. Apart from the adulteration, the presence of illegal dyes in foodstuffs can be a threat to consumer's health. In 2003-2005 three Commission Decisions on emergency measures regarding some products which can contain illegal dyes were published. Since May 2003 to March 2006, 651 notifications on food adulteration by illegal dyes were sent to the RASFF system. As a result of the taken measures, the number of notifications have decreased. The possibility of food adulteration by illegal dyes different from the ones which are used now are considered. This is the reason why the continuation of food control and cooperation between official control authorities and food producers are necessary.

  10. Economic development and the allocation of petroleum products in Sudan

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, M. ); Yousif, M.A.R. )

    1991-01-01

    The Sudanese economy has been characterized in recent years by severe energy shortages which have affected all economic activity. More than 94% of the commercial energy is imported and the level of such imports is seriously limited by the current foreign exchange crisis. However, the problem is not just one of foreign exchange; there is also the problem of utilization of resources to avoid bottleneck problems of supply. The allocation of petroleum products in Sudan has had a severe effect on all aspects of economic life. The aim of this paper is to highlight the problem and to build a model to optimize the distribution of petroleum products in order to achieve at least a minimal supply in all regions. A large linear programming model has been developed and the solution indicates that current facilities should be able to satisfy 96% of the 1986 demand, about 30% more than the actual supply. Furthermore, with a little investment in storage facilities and extra trucks, the supply could satisfy total demand in the immediate future.

  11. Modelling of sedimentation processes inside Roseires Reservoir (Sudan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omer, A. Y. A.; Ali, Y. S. A.; Roelvink, J. A.; Dastgheib, A.; Paron, P.; Crosato, A.

    2015-04-01

    Roseires Reservoir, located on the Blue Nile River in Sudan, is the first trap to the sediments coming from the vast upper river catchment in Ethiopia, which suffers from high erosion and desertification problems. The reservoir has already lost more than one-third of its storage capacity due to sedimentation in the last four decades. Appropriate management of the eroded soils in the upper basin could mitigate this problem. In order to do that, the areas providing the highest sediment volumes to the river have to be identified, since they should have priority with respect to the application of erosion control practices. This requires studying the sedimentation record inside Roseires Reservoir in order to assess when and how much sediment is deposited and to identify its source. This paper deals with the identification of deposition time and soil stratification inside the reservoir, based on historical bathymetric data, numerical modelling and newly acquired soil data. The remoteness of the study area and the extreme climate result in coring campaigns being expensive and difficult. Therefore, these activities need to be optimised and coring locations selected beforehand. This was done by combining bathymetric data and the results of a depth-averaged morphodynamic model recording the vertical stratification in sediment deposits. The model allowed for recognising the areas that are potentially subject to neither net erosion nor bar migration during the lifespan of the reservoir. Verification of these results was carried out by analysing sediment stratification from the data collected during the subsequent field campaign.

  12. Correlation of measles and dengue infection in Kassala, Eastern Sudan.

    PubMed

    Abdalla, Tajeldin M; Karsany, Mubarak S; Ali, AbdelAziem A

    2015-01-01

    Using the clinical case definition adopted by the World Health Organization, a total of 275 suspected cases of measles were enrolled in this study during January-March 2012 in Kassala Teaching Hospital, Eastern Sudan. Various clinical manifestations (fever, headache, cough, coryza, conjunctivitis, skin rash, vomiting, diarrhoea, convulsion, and hemorrhagic manifestations) were reported among these patients. Blood was withdrawn from the first 64 (23.3%) patients. Two samples were hemolyzed and only 60 samples (21.8%) were investigated for measles and dengue IgM antibodies. Antibodies for measles, dengue, and co-infection were detected in the plasma of 12 (20%), seven (11.7%), and 10 (16.7%) samples, respectively. Although there was no significant difference in age, residence, occupation, and vaccination status among the different groups, a high proportion of male patients (P = 0.011), severe cases (P = 0.004), and death ((P = 0.001) were reported among co-infected cases.

  13. Rift basins of interior Sudan: petroleum exploration and discovery

    SciTech Connect

    Schull, T.J.

    1988-10-01

    The sedimentary basins of interior Sudan are characterized by thick nonmarine clastic sequences of Jurassic(.)-Cretaceous and Tertiary age. Over 45,000 ft (13,716 m) of sediment was deposited in the deepest trough and extensive basinal areas are underlain by more than 20,000 ft (6096 m) of sedimentary rocks. The depositional sequences include thick lacustrine shales and claystones, flood plain claystones, and lacustrine, fluvial, and alluvial sandstones and conglomerates. Those lacustrine claystones deposited in a suboxic environment provide good oil-prone source rocks. Reservoir sandstones have been found in a wide variety of nonmarine sandstone facies. The extensional tectonism that formed these basins began in the Jurassic(.)-Early Cretaceous. Movement along major fault trends continued intermittently into the Miocene. This deformation resulted in a complex structural history that led to the formation of several deep fault-bounded troughs, major interbasinal highs, and complex basin flanks. This tectonism has created a wide variety of structures, many of which have become effective hydrocarbon traps. During the past eight years, several important oil discoveries have been made. Significant accumulations have been delineated in the Heglig and Unity areas, where estimated recoverable reserves are 250-300 million bbl of oil. 14 figures.

  14. Addressing malaria vector control challenges in South Sudan: proposed recommendations.

    PubMed

    Chanda, Emmanuel; Doggale, Constantino; Pasquale, Harriet; Azairwe, Robert; Baba, Samson; Mnzava, Abraham

    2013-02-08

    Upon the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in 2005, the Republic of South Sudan (RSS) has faced a lot of challenges, such as a lack of infrastructure, human resources and an enormous burden of vector borne diseases including malaria. While a national malaria strategic plan 2006-2011 was developed, the vector control component has remained relatively weak. The strategy endorses the distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) as the frontline intervention with other interventions recommended only when technical and institutional capacity is available. In 2006, a draft integrated vector management (IVM) strategic plan 2007-2012 was developed but never implemented, resulting in minimal coordination, implementation and coverage of malaria vector control tools including their inherent impact. To address this challenge, the vector control team of the National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) is being strengthened. With the objective of building national capacity and technical collaboration for effective implementation of the IVM strategy, a national malaria vector control conference was held from 15-17th October 2012 in Juba. A range of NMCP partners, state ministries, acadaemia, private sector, national and international non-governmental organizations, including regional and global policymakers attended the meeting. The conference represented a major milestone and made recommendations revolving around the five key elements of the IVM approach. The meeting endorsed that vector control efforts in RSS be augmented with other interventions within the confines of the IVM strategy as a national approach, with strong adherence to its key elements.

  15. Epidemiology of Substance Use among University Students in Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Osman, Tarig; Victor, Cathrine; Abdulmoneim, Alaa; Mohammed, Hala; Abdalla, Fatima; Ahmed, Asma; Ali, Eiman; Mohammed, Wael

    2016-01-01

    Background. Youth populations are vulnerable to substance use particularly in developing countries where circumstances may be favorable for it. There is no published data on substance use among the youth in Sudan other than on tobacco use. Objectives. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, circumstances, and factors associated with substance use. Methods. An institution-based survey was conducted on a sample of 500 students. Data was collected using a questionnaire designed by the WHO for student drug surveys and analyzed using IBM SPSS version 20. Results. The overall prevalence of substance use is 31%. The current prevalence of tobacco, cannabis, alcohol, amphetamines, tranquilizers, inhalants, opiates, cocaine, and heroin use was 13.7%, 4.9%, 2.7%, 2.4%, 3.2%, 1%, 1.2%, 0.7%, and 0.5%, respectively. Curiosity (33.1%) was the main reason for initiation of substance use. The main adverse effects reported were health problems (19.7%) and theft (19.7%). Peers (40.9%) were the prime source of substance use. On multivariate analysis, male sex was the principle predictor for substance use (AOR: 5.55; 95% CI: 3.38, 9.17). Conclusion. Strategies to control substance use should encompass the role of the university and parents in observing and providing education to improve awareness of substances and their consequences. PMID:27006856

  16. Epidemiology of anaemia among pregnant women in Geizera, central Sudan.

    PubMed

    Abdelgadir, M A; Khalid, A R; Ashmaig, A L; Ibrahim, A R M; Ahmed, A-Aziz M; Adam, I

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted between August and September 2010 at the antenatal care clinic of the Araba Waeshreen Hospital (Geizera), central Sudan. Sociodemographic, medical, obstetric and use of pica information were gathered. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Haemoglobin levels were measured and blood films and stools were examined for malaria and schistosomiasis. Out of the 292 women, 119 (40.8%) had anaemia (HB < 11 g/dl); eight (2.7%) had severe anaemia (HB < 7 g/dl). One patient had a positive blood film for malaria. A total of 38 (13.0%) out of the 292 pregnant women had S. mansoni infections. While age, parity, gestational age, education, occupation, interpregnancy interval and BMI were not associated with anaemia, pica (OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.0-2.9, p = 0.02) and S. mansoni infections (OR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.2-6.7, p = 0.01) were significantly associated with anaemia using univariate and multivariate analyses. The high prevalence of anaemia among these women needs to be controlled through preventive measurement of S. mansoni infections and health education to prevent practising pica.

  17. Respiratory symptoms and occupational bronchitis in chromite ore miners, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Ballal, S G

    1986-10-01

    Prevalence of respiratory symptoms and chronic bronchitis was determined in a group of 122 subjects (77 exposed miners, 18 partially exposed, 27 controls) working at chromite ore mines in Sudan. The mean ages (+/- s.d.) of the three groups were 36.4 (+/- 7.8), 35.2 (+/- 6.8) and 34.6 (+/- 7.5) years respectively. Methods included a respiratory symptoms questionnaire based on the British Medical Research Council (MRC 1976) questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, determination of FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC%. The majority (66%) of the exposed subjects were non-smokers (NS) and 20 (77%) of the 'ever-smokers' (current and ex-smokers) were smokers of less than 15 cigarettes day-1. Respiratory symptoms (cough, phlegm, dyspnoea) were more frequent among the miners and so was chronic bronchitis. The prevalence of the latter was 26% among the miners compared to 11% and 7% among the partially exposed and the controls respectively. These differences could not be accounted for by cigarette smoking. Sixty-five per cent of the miners diagnosed as having asthma, chronic bronchitis or both were non-smokers. Although the values for the FEV1/FVC% remained normal or near the lower limits of the normal range, the mean value was significantly lower among the miners. It was concluded that the mine dust was the prime cause of the respiratory symptoms and chronic bronchitis among the miners.

  18. Women's experiences in the armed conflict situation in Sudan.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    The negative impact of war is apparent at various levels of the Sudanese society. Economic, social, and political instability is occurring on a large scale and the most vulnerable groups are women and children. This report aimed to document women's human rights violations in the ongoing armed conflict situation in Sudan, with the emphasis on rape; investigate the forms of violence against women in a situation of armed conflict; present testimonies of women survivors; and use the document for advocacy. A total of 20 testimonies were obtained, which clearly indicated that rape is a systematic practice in areas of conflict regardless of whether the Sudanese People's Liberation Army, the Khartoum government, or bandit groups that take advantage of the chaos, have attacked civilians. In view of this, regional agencies should show more seriousness in finding solutions for the war, and perpetrators of rape should be brought to justice so as to change the perception of rape as an unfortunate but inevitable side effect of war.

  19. Agricultural pesticide exposure and perinatal mortality in central Sudan.

    PubMed Central

    Taha, T. E.; Gray, R. H.

    1993-01-01

    Hospital- and community-based studies were conducted in central Sudan to investigate the association between pesticide exposure and perinatal mortality. The cases were 197 stillbirths in the hospital and 36 perinatal deaths in the community; the controls were 812 liveborn, normal-birth-weight infants in the hospital, and 1505 liveborn infants who survived for the first 7 days after birth in the community. The odds ratio (OR) of perinatal death associated with pesticide exposure was estimated using multiple logistic regression. There was a consistent and significant association between pesticide exposure and perinatal mortality in the hospital (adjusted OR = 1.9; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3-2.8) and the community populations (adjusted OR = 2.7; 95% CI: 1.1-6.4). The OR was significantly higher among women engaged in farming (3.6; 95% CI: 1.6-8.0), but not among women in nonfarming occupations (1.6; 95% CI: 0.8-3.3). The estimated attributable risks of perinatal death owing to pesticide exposure were 22.6% for hospital stillbirths and 15.7% for community perinatal deaths; but among women engaged in farming in the hospital population the attributable risks were substantially higher (34.5%). PMID:8324850

  20. Barriers to Institutional Childbirth in Rumbek North County, South Sudan: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Wilunda, Calistus; Scanagatta, Chiara; Putoto, Giovanni; Takahashi, Risa; Montalbetti, Francesca; Segafredo, Giulia; Betrán, Ana Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Background South Sudan has one of the world’s poorest health indicators due to a fragile health system and a combination of socio-cultural, economic and political factors. This study was conducted to identify barriers to utilisation of institutional childbirth services in Rumbek North County. Methods Data were collected through 14 focus group discussions with 169 women and 45 men, and 18 key informant interviews with community leaders, staff working in health facilities, traditional birth attendants, and the staff of the County Health Department. Data were analysed using inductive content analysis. Results The barriers to institutional childbirth were categorised under four main themes: 1) Issues related to access and lack of resources: long distance to health facilities, lack of transportation means, referral problems, flooding and poor roads, and payments in health facilities; 2) Issues related to the socio-cultural context and conflict: insecurity, influence of the husband, lack of birth preparedness, domestic chores of women, influence of culture; 3) Perceptions about pregnancy and childbirth: perceived benefit of institutional childbirth, low childbirth risk perception, and medicalisation of childbirth including birth being perceived to be natural, undesirable birth practices, privacy concerns, and fear of caesarean section; and 4) Perceptions about the quality of care: inadequate health facility infrastructure and perceived neglect during admission. Conclusions Multiple factors hinder institutional childbirth in Rumbek North. Some of the factors such as insecurity and poor roads are outside the scope of the health sector and will require a multi-sectoral approach if childbirth services are to be made accessible to women. Detailed recommendations to increase utilisation of childbirth services in the county have been suggested. PMID:27977745

  1. Molecular identification of different Theileria and Babesia species infecting sheep in Sudan.

    PubMed

    El Imam, Ahmed H; Hassan, Shawgi M; Gameel, Ahmed A; El Hussein, Abdelrahim M; Taha, Khalid M; Oosthuizen, Marinda C

    2016-01-01

    The epidemiological aspects of sheep piroplasmosis in Sudan are poorly studied, and further investigations using sensitive and precise techniques are required. In this study, the Reverse Line Blot (RLB) hybridization assay was used to detect and simultaneously differentiate between Theileria and Babesia species. DNA was extracted from blood collected on filter paper (n=219) from apparently healthy sheep from six different geographical localities in Sudan. Results indicated that Theileria ovis (88.6%), T. separata (20.1%), T. lestoquardi (16.4%) and T. annulata (16.4%) DNA could be detected in the blood samples. Single and mixed Theileria infections were detected in 74 (33.8%) and 124 (56.6%) respectively and T. ovis being the most prevalent species in the country. T. ovis and T. separata were reported for the first time in sheep in Sudan.

  2. [Rapid determination of Sudan dyes adulterated in natural paprika red by FTIR].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-wei; Liu, Ling-ling; Wu, Yan-wen; Ouyang, Jie; Sun, Su-qin

    2012-04-01

    How to rapidly determine synthesized pigments or dyes adulterated in natural pigments is a difficult problem for food analysts. Natural paprika red is widely used in foods because of its coloration and pharmaceutical effect, but it is sometimes adulterated with Sudan dyes for its poor stability under light or heat treatment. In the present paper, the macro-fingerprint characteristic of infrared spectroscopy was utilized to identify Sudan dyes adulterated in paprika red. The strong peaks at 1 621, 1 500 and 751 cm(-1) in FTIR spectra and at the fingerprint region of 753, 684 and 496 cm(-1) in the secondary deriative FTIR spectra were remarkable characteristics for Sudan dyes adulterated in paprika red, of which the limit of determination was about 1%.

  3. Towards global Guinea worm eradication in 2015: the experience of South Sudan.

    PubMed

    Awofeso, Niyi

    2013-08-01

    For centuries, the Guinea worm parasite (Dracunculus medinensis) has caused disabling misery, infecting people who drink stagnant water contaminated with the worm's larvae. In 2012, there were 542 cases of Guinea worm reported globally, of which 521 (96.1%) were reported in South Sudan. Protracted civil wars, an inadequate workforce, neglect of potable water provision programs, suboptimal Guinea worm surveillance and case containment, and fragmented health systems account for many of the structural and operational factors encumbering South Sudan's Guinea worm eradication efforts. This article reviews the impacts of six established Guinea worm control strategies in South Sudan: (1) surveillance to determine actual caseload distribution and trends in response to control measures; (2) educating community members from whom worms are emerging to avoid immersing affected parts in sources of drinking water; (3) filtering potentially contaminated drinking water using cloth filters or filtered drinking straws; (4) treating potentially contaminated surface water with the copepod larvicide temephos (Abate); (5) providing safe drinking water from boreholes or hand-dug wells; and (6) containment of transmission through voluntary isolation of each patient to prevent contamination of drinking water sources, provision of first aid, and manual extraction of the worm. Surveillance, community education, potable water provision, and case containment remain weak facets of the program. Abate pesticide is not a viable option for Guinea worm control in South Sudan. In light of current case detection and containment trends, as well as capacity building efforts for Guinea worm eradication, South Sudan is more likely to eradicate Guinea worm by 2020, rather than by 2015. The author highlights areas in which substantial improvements are required in South Sudan's Guinea worm eradication program, and suggests improvement strategies.

  4. Direct method for determination of Sudan I in FD&C Yellow No. 6 and D&C Orange No. 4 by reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Petigara, Bhakti R; Scher, Alan L

    2007-01-01

    A reversed-phase liquid chromatographic method was developed to determine parts-per-million and higher levels of Sudan 1, 1-(phenylazo)-2-naphthalenol, in the disulfo monoazo color additive FD&C Yellow No. 6 and in a related monosulfo monoazo color additive, D&C Orange No. 4. Sudan I, the corresponding unsulfonated monoazo dye, is a known impurity in these color additives. The color additives are dissolved in water and methanol, and the filtered solutions are directly chromatographed, without extraction or concentration, by using gradient elution at 0.25 mL/min. Calibrations from peak areas at 485 nm were linear. At a 99% confidence level, the limits of determination were 0.008 microg Sudan I/mL (0.4 ppm) in FD&C Yellow No. 6 and 0.011 microg Sudan I/mL (0.00011%) in D&C Orange No. 4. The confidence intervals were 0.202 +/- 0.002 microg Sudan I/mL (10.1 +/- 0.1 ppm) near the specification level for Sudan I in FD&C Yellow No. 6 and 20.0 +/- 0.2 microg Sudan I/mL (0.200 +/- 0.002%) near the highest concentration of Sudan I found in D&C Orange No. 4. A survey was conducted to determine Sudan I in 28 samples of FD&C Yellow No. 6 from 17 international manufacturers over 3 years, and in a pharmacology-tested sample. These samples were found to contain undetected levels (16 samples), 0.5-9.7 ppm Sudan I (0.01-0.194 microg Sudan I/mL in analyzed solutions; 11 samples including the pharmacology sample), and > or =10 ppm Sudan I (> or = 0.2 microg Sudan I/mL; 2 samples). Analyses of 21 samples of D&C Orange No. 4 from 8 international manufacturers over 4 years found Sudan I at undetected levels (8 samples), 0.0005 to < 0.005% Sudan I (0.05 to < 0.5 microg Sudan I/mL in analyzed solutions; 3 samples, including a pharmacology batch), 0.005 to <0.05% Sudan I (0.5 to <5 microg Sudan I/mL; 9 samples), and 0.18% Sudan I (18 microg Sudan I/mL; 1 sample).

  5. An assessment of the feasibility for oil substitution in the Sudan

    SciTech Connect

    Perdikis, N.; Shibeika, M.H.E. )

    1989-01-01

    This paper attempts to assess the possibilities for oil substitution in the Sudan. The authors begin by analyzing the expected growth of energy demand between 1984 and 1990 basing their work on official reports and published statistics. They then turn to identifying the scope for oil use ratios at both the industry and industry subsector levels. The achieving of potential energy substitution is then examined in the light of available alternative technologies and fuel supplies. Finally they turn to discussing their findings' implications for public policy in the energy sector in the Sudan.

  6. Genetic diversity and population structure of Plasmodium vivax isolates from Sudan, Madagascar, French Guiana and Armenia.

    PubMed

    Menegon, Michela; Durand, Patrick; Menard, Didier; Legrand, Eric; Picot, Stéphane; Nour, Bakri; Davidyants, Vladimir; Santi, Flavia; Severini, Carlo

    2014-10-01

    Polymorphic genetic markers and especially microsatellite analysis can be used to investigate multiple aspects of the biology of Plasmodium species. In the current study, we characterized 7 polymorphic microsatellites in a total of 281 Plasmodium vivax isolates to determine the genetic diversity and population structure of P. vivax populations from Sudan, Madagascar, French Guiana, and Armenia. All four parasite populations were highly polymorphic with 3-32 alleles per locus. Mean genetic diversity values was 0.83, 0.79, 0.78 and 0.67 for Madagascar, French Guiana, Sudan, and Armenia, respectively. Significant genetic differentiation between all four populations was observed.

  7. Pallet irradiators for food processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinnon, R. G.; Chu, R. D. H.

    This paper looks at the various design concepts for the irradiation processing of food products, with particular emphasis on handling the products on pallets. Pallets appear to offer the most attractive method for handling foods from many considerations. Products are transported on pallets. Warehouse space is commonly designed for pallet storage and, if products are already palletized before and after irradiation, then labour could be saved by irradiating on pallets. This is also an advantage for equipment operation since a larger carrier volume means lower operation speeds. Different pallet irradiator design concepts are examined and their suitability for several applications are discussed. For example, low product holdup for fast turn around will be a consideration for those operating an irradiation "service" business; others may require a very large source where efficiency is the primary requirement and this will not be consistent with low holdup. The radiation performance characteristics and processing costs of these machines are discussed.

  8. Food commodity pipeline management in transitional settings: challenges and lessons learned from the first USAID food development program in South Sudan.

    PubMed

    Tappis, Hannah; Doocy, Shannon; Amoako, Stephen

    2013-08-01

    Despite decades of support for international food assistance programs by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Office of Food for Peace, relatively little is known about the commodity pipeline and management issues these programs face in post-conflict and politically volatile settings. Based on an audit of the program's commodity tracking system and interviews with 13 key program staff, this case study documents the experiences of organizations implementing the first USAID-funded non-emergency (development) food assistance program approved for Sudan and South Sudan. Key challenges and lessons learned in this experience about food commodity procurement, transport, and management may help improve the design and implementation of future development food assistance programs in a variety of complex, food-insecure settings around the world. Specifically, expanding shipping routes in complex political situations may facilitate reliable and timely commodity delivery. In addition, greater flexibility to procure commodities locally, rather than shipping U.S.-procured commodities, may avoid unnecessary shipping delays and reduce costs.

  9. A new model for management of mycetoma in the Sudan.

    PubMed

    Fahal, Ahmed; Mahgoub, El Sheikh; El Hassan, Ahmed Mohamed; Abdel-Rahman, Manar Elsheikh; Alshambaty, Yassir; Hashim, Ahmed; Hago, Ali; Zijlstra, Eduard E

    2014-10-01

    Patients with mycetoma usually present late with advanced disease, which is attributed to lack of medical and health facilities in endemic areas, poor health education and low socio-economic status. With this background, an integrated patient management model at the village level was designed to address the various problems associated with mycetoma. The model was launched in an endemic village in the Sudan, between 2010 and 2013. This model is described in a prospective, descriptive, community-based study, aimed to collect epidemiological, ecological, and clinical data and to assess knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) in order to design effective and efficient management measures. In this study, the prevalence of mycetoma was 14.5 per 1,000 inhabitants. The patients were farmers, housewives and children of low socio-economic status, and no obvious risk group was detected. All had surgery performed in a mobile surgical unit in the village which encouraged patients to present early with small early lesion leading to a good clinical outcome. The close contact with the Acacia tree thorns, animals and animal dung, walking bare footed and practising poor hygiene may all have contributed to the development of mycetoma in the village. Knowledge of mycetoma was poor in 96.3% of the study population, 70% had appropriate attitudes and beliefs towards interaction with mycetoma patients and treatment methods, and 49% used satisfactory or good practices in the management of mycetoma. Knowledge and practices on mycetoma were found to be significantly associated with age. Based on the KAP and epidemiological data, several health education sessions were conducted in the village for different target groups. The integrated management approach adopted in this study is unique and appeared successful and seems suitable as an immediate intervention. While for the longer term, establishment of local health facilities with trained health staff remains a priority.

  10. The Holocene Geoarchaeology of the Desert Nile in Northern Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodward, Jamie; Macklin, Mark; Spencer, Neal; Welsby, Derek; Dalton, Matthew; Hay, Sophie; Hardy, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Invited Paper Forty years ago Colin Renfrew declared that "every archaeological problem starts as a problem in geoarchaeology" (Renfrew, 1976 p. 2). With this assertion in mind, this paper draws upon the findings from field research in two sectors of the Nile Valley of Northern Sudan dedicated to the exploration of human-environment interactions during the middle and late Holocene. This part of the Nile corridor contains a rich cultural record and an exceptionally well preserved Holocene fluvial archive. A distinctive feature of these records is the variety of evidence for interaction between desert and river over a range of spatial and temporal scales. This interaction presented both challenges and opportunities for its ancient inhabitants. This paper will present evidence for large-scale landscape changes driven by shifts in global climate. It will also show how we have integrated the archaeological and geological records in the Northern Dongola Reach and at Amara West - where long-term field projects led by archaeologists from the British Museum have recognised the importance of a sustained commitment to interdisciplinary research to achieve a fully integrated geoarchaeological approach across a range of scales. The former project is a large-scale landscape survey with multiple sites across an 80 km reach of the Nile whilst the latter has a strong focus on a single New Kingdom town site and changes in its environmental setting. By combining multiple archaeological and geological datasets - and pioneering the use of OSL dating and strontium isotope analysis in the Desert Nile - we have developed a new understanding of human responses to Holocene climate and landscape change in this region. Renfrew, C. (1976) Archaeology and the earth sciences. In: D.A. Davidson and M.I. Shackley (eds) Geoarchaeology: Earth Science and the Past, Duckworth, London, 1-5.

  11. Bacteriological quality of drinking water in Nyala, South Darfur, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Abdelrahman, Amira Ahmed; Eltahir, Yassir Mohammed

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the bacterial contaminations in drinking water in Nyala city, South Darfur, Sudan with special reference to the internally displaced people camps (IDPs). Two hundred and forty water samples from different sites and sources including bore holes, hand pumps, dug wells, water points, water reservoir and household storage containers were collected in 2009. The most probable number method was used to detect and count the total coliform, faecal coliform and faecal enterococci. Results revealed that the three indicators bacteria were abundant in all sources except water points. Percentages of the three indicators bacteria count above the permissible limits for drinking water in all samples were 46.4% total coliform, 45.2% faecal coliform and 25.4% faecal enterococci whereas the highest count of the indicators bacteria observed was 1,600 U/100 ml water. Enteric bacteria isolated were Escherichia coli (22.5%), Enterococcus faecalis (20.42%), Klebsiella (15.00%), Citrobacter (2.1%) and Enterobacter (3.33%). The highest contamination of water sources was observed in household storage containers (20%) followed by boreholes (11.25%), reservoirs (6.24%), hand pumps (5.42%) and dug wells (2.49%). Contamination varied from season to season with the highest level in autumn (18.33%) followed by winter (13.75%) and summer (13.32%), respectively. All sources of water in IDP camps except water points were contaminated. Data suggested the importance of greater attention for household contamination, environmental sanitation control and the raise of awareness about water contamination.

  12. [Food irradiation].

    PubMed

    Migdał, W

    1995-01-01

    A worldwide standard on food irradiation was adopted in 1983 by Codex Alimentarius Commission of the Joint Food Standard Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and the World Health Organization (WHO). As a result, 41 countries have approved the use of irradiation for treating one or more food items and the number is increasing. Generally, irradiation is used to: food loses, food spoilage, disinfestation, safety and hygiene. The number of countries which use irradiation for processing food for commercial purposes has been increasing steadily from 19 in 1987 to 33 today. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (19MeV, 1 kW) and an industrial unit Elektronika (10MeV, 10 kW). On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permission for irradiation for: spices, garlic, onions, mushrooms, potatoes, dry mushrooms and vegetables.

  13. Tissue irradiator

    DOEpatents

    Hungate, F.P.; Riemath, W.F.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1975-12-16

    A tissue irradiator is provided for the in-vivo irradiation of body tissue. The irradiator comprises a radiation source material contained and completely encapsulated within vitreous carbon. An embodiment for use as an in- vivo blood irradiator comprises a cylindrical body having an axial bore therethrough. A radioisotope is contained within a first portion of vitreous carbon cylindrically surrounding the axial bore, and a containment portion of vitreous carbon surrounds the radioisotope containing portion, the two portions of vitreous carbon being integrally formed as a single unit. Connecting means are provided at each end of the cylindrical body to permit connections to blood- carrying vessels and to provide for passage of blood through the bore. In a preferred embodiment, the radioisotope is thulium-170 which is present in the irradiator in the form of thulium oxide. A method of producing the preferred blood irradiator is also provided, whereby nonradioactive thulium-169 is dispersed within a polyfurfuryl alcohol resin which is carbonized and fired to form the integral vitreous carbon body and the device is activated by neutron bombardment of the thulium-169 to produce the beta-emitting thulium-170.

  14. Gender differences in the prevalence and determinants of tobacco use among school-aged adolescents (11 – 17 years) in Sudan and South Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Atari, Dominic Odwa

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Tobacco use is one of the leading and preventable causes of global morbidities and premature mortalities. The study explores gender differences in the prevalence and determinants of tobacco use among school-aged adolescents (11-17years) in Sudan and South Sudan. Methods The study utilized the national Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data collected in 2005 for Sudan (4,277 unweighted; 131,631 weighted). Univariate and bivariate analyses were conducted to examine the associations between the dependent (tobacco use status) and independent variables. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the key factors which influence tobacco consumption among adolescents in the 2 Sudans for ever cigarette users, current cigarette users, and users of noncigarette tobacco products. Results There were significant gender differences in the prevalence of ever cigarette users (21.8%; male=13.1%, female=6.5%, p<0.05) and current cigarette users (6.9%; male=4.9%, female = 1.3%, p<0.05) but not among users of noncigarette tobacco products (14.7%; male=6.8%, female=6.1%). Adolescent tobacco use was significantly associated with availability of monthly income or allowance, exposure to tobacco industry promotions, and tobacco-use behavior of familial relations. Knowledge about the harmful effects of secondhand smoke was related with decreased likelihood of tobacco use. Conclusion School programs that focus on health messages alone may not work for the adolescent population. Legislations that ban all types of tobacco advertisements, promotions, and sponsorships among adolescents are needed in the 2 countries. PMID:25404978

  15. Studies of Transport Properties and Critical Temperature Suppression Mechanism in Yttrium BARIUM(2) COPPER(3) Oxygen(x) Thin Films Irradiated with 20 TO 120 KEV Electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jiunn-Yuan

    1995-11-01

    We present comprehensive studies of the effects of 20 to 120 keV electron irradiation on rm YBa_2Cu_3O_{x} thin films. Above 60 keV, T_{c } of irradiated samples is suppressed accompanied by a significant increase in residual resistivity, while the carrier concentration remains relatively unchanged. The plane oxygen defects produced by irradiation are found to be responsible for T_{c} suppression. The II suppression mechanism is discussed within several theoretical frameworks. Though in qualitative agreement with d-wave pairing symmetry, our results show a T_{c} suppression rate three times as slow as predicted by the theory when resistivity data are used to extract the impurity scattering rate. Alternatively, phase fluctuations theory gives a qualitative description as well. The displacement energy of plane oxygen is found to be 8.3 eV, which corresponds to a threshold electron energy 58 keV. Finally, an empirical relation is proposed to describe the temperature dependence of the Hall coefficient.

  16. Association of tomato leaf curl Sudan virus with leaf curl disease of tomato in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Sohrab, Sayed Sartaj; Yasir, Muhammad; El-Kafrawy, Sherif Ali; Abbas, Ayman T; Mousa, Magdi Ali Ahmed; Bakhashwain, Ahmed A

    2016-06-01

    Tomato is an important vegetable crop and its production is adversely affected by leaf curl disease caused by begomovirus. Leaf curl disease is a serious concern for tomato crops caused by begomovirus in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Tomato leaf curl disease has been shown to be mainly caused either by tomato leaf curl Sudan virus or tomato yellow leaf curl virus as well as tomato leaf curl Oman virus. Many tomato plants infected with monopartite begomoviruses were also found to harbor a symptom enhancing betasatellites. Here we report the association of tomato leaf curl Sudan virus causing leaf curl disease of tomato in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The complete genome sequence analysis showed highest (99.9 %) identity with tomato leaf curl Sudan virus causing leaf curl disease in Arabian Peninsula. In phylogenetic relationships analysis, the identified virus formed closest cluster with tomato leaf curl Sudan virus. In recombination analysis study, the major parent was identified as tomato leaf curl Sudan virus. Findings of this study strongly supports the associated virus is a variant of tomato leaf curl Sudan virus causing disease in Sudan, Yemen and Arabian Peninsula. The betasatellites sequence analysis showed highest identity (99.8 %) with tomato leaf curl betasatellites-Amaranthus-Jeddah. The phylogenetic analysis result based on betasatellites formed closed cluster with tomato yellow leaf curl Oman betasatellites. The importance of these findings and occurrence of begomovirus in new geographic regions causing leaf curl disease of tomato in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are discussed.

  17. 48 CFR 52.225-20 - Prohibition on Conducting Restricted Business Operations in Sudan-Certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., personnel, products, services, personal property, real property, or any other apparatus of business or... conducted under such authorization; (3) Consist of providing goods or services to marginalized populations of Sudan; (4) Consist of providing goods or services to an internationally recognized...

  18. Civic Education and Peacebuilding: Examples from Iraq and Sudan. Special Report 254

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Daniel H.; Bishai, Linda S.

    2010-01-01

    Between 2006 and 2010, the United States Institute of Peace developed several civic education programs for Iraq and Sudan as part of broader efforts to promote postconflict stability and development and help prevent a return to violence. This report describes those programs after first examining the conceptual bases for civic education and how…

  19. South Sudan: Stakeholders' Views of Technical and Vocational Education and Training and a Framework for Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atari, Dominic Odwa; McKague, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The Republic of South Sudan, recently emerging from the longest civil war in contemporary African history, has set goals towards post-conflict reconstruction in many areas of social services. However, the educational infrastructure continues to struggle, and many stakeholders in government and international and local organisations are not…

  20. Genetic Diversity of Schistosoma haematobium Eggs Isolated from Human Urine in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Quan, Juan-Hua; Choi, In-Wook; Ismail, Hassan Ahmed Hassan Ahmed; Mohamed, Abdoelohab Saed; Jeong, Hoo-Gn; Lee, Jin-Su; Hong, Sung-Tae; Yong, Tai-Soon; Cha, Guang-Ho; Lee, Young-Ha

    2015-06-01

    The genetic diversity of Schistosoma haematobium remains largely unstudied in comparison to that of Schistosoma mansoni. To characterize the extent of genetic diversity in S. haematobium among its definitive host (humans), we collected S. haematobium eggs from the urine of 73 infected schoolchildren at 5 primary schools in White Nile State, Sudan, and then performed a randomly amplified polymorphic DNA marker ITS2 by PCR-RFLP analysis. Among 73 S. haematobium egg-positive cases, 13 were selected based on the presence of the S. haematobium satellite markers A4 and B2 in their genomic DNA, and used for RFLP analysis. The 13 samples were subjected to an RFLP analysis of the S. haematobium ITS2 region; however, there was no variation in size among the fragments. Compared to the ITS2 sequences obtained for S. haematobium from Kenya, the nucleotide sequences of the ITS2 regions of S. haematobium from 4 areas in Sudan were consistent with those from Kenya (> 99%). In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that most of the S. haematobium population in Sudan consists of a pan-African S. haematobium genotype; however, we also report the discovery of Kenyan strain inflow into White Nile, Sudan.

  1. 48 CFR 52.225-20 - Prohibition on Conducting Restricted Business Operations in Sudan-Certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Restricted Business Operations in Sudan-Certification. 52.225-20 Section 52.225-20 Federal Acquisition... Operations in Sudan—Certification. As prescribed at 25.1103(d), insert the following provision: Prohibition on Conducting Restricted Business Operations in Sudan—Certification (AUG 2009) (a) Definitions....

  2. They Own This: Mother Tongue Instruction for Indigenous Kuku Children in Southern Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laguarda, Ana Isabel; Woodward, Walter Pierce

    2013-01-01

    This article details a pilot program of mother tongue instruction in five primary schools for classes one through three, in Kajokeji County, Central Equatoria State, South Sudan. The program was launched by teachers and volunteers with the support of the Jesuit Refugee Service, an international non-governmental organization. The research examines…

  3. The Sociolinguistics of Nationalism in the Sudan: The Politicisation of Arabic and the Arabicisation of Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelhay, Ashraf; Makoni, Busi; Makoni, Sinfree; Mugaddam, Abdel Rahim

    2011-01-01

    This monograph describes the historiography of language ideologies that led to the politicisation of Arabic and the Arabicisation of politics in the Sudan, starting from British colonial rule until the Comprehensive Peace Agreement that was a precursor to the separation of the South as an independent state. The monograph shows that the…

  4. 48 CFR 52.225-20 - Prohibition on Conducting Restricted Business Operations in Sudan-Certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Restricted Business Operations in Sudan-Certification. 52.225-20 Section 52.225-20 Federal Acquisition... Operations in Sudan—Certification. As prescribed at 25.1103(d), insert the following provision: Prohibition on Conducting Restricted Business Operations in Sudan—Certification (AUG 2009) (a) Definitions....

  5. 48 CFR 52.225-20 - Prohibition on Conducting Restricted Business Operations in Sudan-Certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Restricted Business Operations in Sudan-Certification. 52.225-20 Section 52.225-20 Federal Acquisition... Operations in Sudan—Certification. As prescribed at 25.1103(d), insert the following provision: Prohibition on Conducting Restricted Business Operations in Sudan—Certification (AUG 2009) (a) Definitions....

  6. Collaborative Evaluation and Market Research Converge: An Innovative Model Agricultural Development Program Evaluation in Southern Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, John M.; O'Sullivan, Rita

    2012-01-01

    In June and July 2006 a team of outside experts arrived in Yei, Southern Sudan through an AID project to provide support to a local agricultural development project. The team brought evaluation, agricultural marketing and financial management expertise to the in-country partners looking at steps to rebuild the economy of the war ravaged region. A…

  7. The Naivasha Language Policy: The Language of Politics and the Politics of Language in the Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelhay, Ashraf Kamal; Makoni, Busi; Makoni, Sinfree Bullock

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a textual analysis of the Naivasha language provisions in Sudan in an attempt to explore how political discourse is manifested in each policy statement. Using Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) as an analytic and interpretive framework, the article argues that the Naivasha language provisions as political discourse are shaped…

  8. Reaching out and Partnering in the Sudan through Integrated Community-Oriented Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelrahman, Samira; Al Fadil, Sumaia

    2011-01-01

    Community-university partnerships, if they are to be successful, must be firmly grounded in the context in which they take place. This paper describes the ways in which the University of Gezira in the Sudan from its very beginning was built on an understanding of rural communities. The university's Faculty of Medicine built its training around…

  9. Geologic assessment of the fossil energy and geothermal potential of the Sudan

    SciTech Connect

    Setlow, L.W.

    1983-01-01

    This preliminary report provides geological input to the consideration of appropriate activities that can enhance the exploration and development of fossil-fuel and possible geothermal energy resources of the Sudan, and is based on study of available literature in early 1982. 59 references, 16 figures, 7 tables.

  10. 48 CFR 52.225-20 - Prohibition on Conducting Restricted Business Operations in Sudan-Certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Restricted Business Operations in Sudan-Certification. 52.225-20 Section 52.225-20 Federal Acquisition... Operations in Sudan—Certification. As prescribed at 25.1103(d), insert the following provision: Prohibition on Conducting Restricted Business Operations in Sudan—Certification (AUG 2009) (a) Definitions....

  11. A Basic Hybrid Library Support Model to Distance Learners in Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelrahman, Omer Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Distance learning has flourished in Sudan during the last two decades; more and more higher education institutions offer distance learning programmes to off-campus students. Like on-campus students, distance learners should have access to appropriate library and information support services. They also have specific needs for library and…

  12. Genetic Diversity of Schistosoma haematobium Eggs Isolated from Human Urine in Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Juan-Hua; Choi, In-Wook; Ismail, Hassan Ahmed Hassan Ahmed; Mohamed, Abdoelohab Saed; Jeong, Hoo-Gn; Lee, Jin-Su; Hong, Sung-Tae; Yong, Tai-Soon; Cha, Guang-Ho; Lee, Young-Ha

    2015-01-01

    The genetic diversity of Schistosoma haematobium remains largely unstudied in comparison to that of Schistosoma mansoni. To characterize the extent of genetic diversity in S. haematobium among its definitive host (humans), we collected S. haematobium eggs from the urine of 73 infected schoolchildren at 5 primary schools in White Nile State, Sudan, and then performed a randomly amplified polymorphic DNA marker ITS2 by PCR-RFLP analysis. Among 73 S. haematobium egg-positive cases, 13 were selected based on the presence of the S. haematobium satellite markers A4 and B2 in their genomic DNA, and used for RFLP analysis. The 13 samples were subjected to an RFLP analysis of the S. haematobium ITS2 region; however, there was no variation in size among the fragments. Compared to the ITS2 sequences obtained for S. haematobium from Kenya, the nucleotide sequences of the ITS2 regions of S. haematobium from 4 areas in Sudan were consistent with those from Kenya (> 99%). In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that most of the S. haematobium population in Sudan consists of a pan-African S. haematobium genotype; however, we also report the discovery of Kenyan strain inflow into White Nile, Sudan. PMID:26174820

  13. Population-Level Effect of Cholera Vaccine on Displaced Populations, South Sudan, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Rumunu, John; Abubakar, Abdinasir; West, Haley; Ciglenecki, Iza; Helderman, Trina; Wamala, Joseph Francis; Vázquez, Olimpia de la Rosa; Perea, William; Sack, David A.; Legros, Dominique; Martin, Stephen; Lessler, Justin; Luquero, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    Following mass population displacements in South Sudan, preventive cholera vaccination campaigns were conducted in displaced persons camps before a 2014 cholera outbreak. We compare cholera transmission in vaccinated and unvaccinated areas and show vaccination likely halted transmission within vaccinated areas, illustrating the potential for oral cholera vaccine to stop cholera transmission in vulnerable populations. PMID:27192187

  14. Situation Reports--Ceylon, Costa Rica, Ghana, Haiti, Morocco, Sudan, Tunisia, and U.S.A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in eight countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Ceylon, Costa Rica, Ghana, Haiti, Morocco, Sudan, Tunisia, and the United States of America. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where appropriate and if it is…

  15. The question of Sudan: a hydroeconomic optimization model for the Sudanese Nile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satti, S.; Zaitchik, B.; Siddiqui, S.

    2014-10-01

    The effects of development and the uncertainty of a changing climate in East Africa pose myriad challenges for water managers along the Blue Nile. Sudan's large irrigation potential, hydroelectric dams, and prime location within the basin mean that Sudan's water management decisions will have great social, economic and political implications within the region. At the same time, Sudan's water use options are constrained by tradeoffs between upstream irrigation developments and downstream hydropower facilities as well as by the country's commitments under existing or future transboundary water sharing agreements. Here, we present a model that can be applied to evaluate optimal allocation of surface water resources to irrigation and hydropower in the Sudanese portion of the Blue Nile. Hydrologic inputs are combined with agronomic and economic inputs to formulate an optimization model within the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS). A sensitivity analysis is performed by testing model response to a range of economic conditions and to changes in the volume and timing of hydrologic flows. Results indicate that changing hydroclimate inputs have the capacity to greatly influence the productivity of Sudan's water resources infrastructure. Results also show that the economically optimal volume of water consumption, and thus the importance of existing treaty constraints, is sensitive to the perceived value of agriculture relative to electricity as well as to changing hydrological conditions.

  16. Trypanosomiasis:goats as a possible reservoir of Trypanosoma congolense in the Republic of the Sudan.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, M M; Elmalik, K H

    1977-08-01

    Experimental Trypanosoma congolense infections of goats and calves were compared. Goats developed a chronic form of trypanosomiasis, often recovering spontaneously from a strain which caused an acute fatal disease in calves. Goats may be important in the maintenace of T. congolense in nature in the Sudan.

  17. E-Learning Sudan, Formal Learning for Out-of-School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubbé, Hester; Badri, Aiman; Telford, Rebecca; van der Hulst, Anja; van Joolingen, Wouter

    2016-01-01

    E-Learning Sudan (ELS) is a custom-built computer/tablet game that provides alternative learning opportunities to Sudanese children who are excluded from education. Unique in ELS is that children can learn mathematics, in their own remote village, without a teacher. This research study assessed the effectiveness of ELS in two pilots through a…

  18. Examining the Contemporary Status of an Education System: The Case of the Republic of South Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banraba, Boboya James Edimond

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to examine the contemporary status of an education system. The paper takes the case of the Republic of South Sudan. The key issues the paper will examine are the education enrollment and completion rates while paying particular attention to inequalities in both access and quality among racial or ethnic groups, males and…

  19. Molecular Evidence of High Proportion of Plasmodium vivax Malaria Infection in White Nile Area in Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Suliman, Makarim M. Adam; Hamad, Bushra M.; Albasheer, Musab M. Ali; Elhadi, Maytha; Elobied, Maha

    2016-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum is a predominant malaria species that infects humans in the African continent. A recent WHO report estimated 95% and 5% of P. falciparum and P. vivax malaria cases, respectively, in Sudan. However many laboratory reports from different areas in Sudan indicated otherwise. In order to verify, we selected four hundred suspected malaria cases from Aljabalain area located in the White Nile state, central Sudan, and diagnosed them with quality insured microscopy and species-specific nested PCR. Our results indicated that the proportion of P. vivax infections among suspected malaria cases was high. We found that on average 20% and 36.5% of malaria infections in both study areas were caused by P. vivax using both microscopy and PCR, respectively. This change in pattern is likely due to the recent demographic changes and high rate of immigration from neighbouring countries in the recent years. This is the first extensive clinical study of its kind that shows rising trend in P. vivax malaria cases in White Nile area, Sudan. PMID:27980861

  20. Sub-regional integration in Sudan: the key to food security and recovery.

    PubMed

    D'Silva, Brian; Tecosky, Olivia

    2007-03-01

    The signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) in Sudan has created a new opportunity for peace. Approaches to food security must now be reoriented based on the agro-ecological diversity in Sudan. WFP is in a unique position to catalyse an approach to food security that meets immediate needs and contributes to long-term recovery, in collaboration with the Government of National Unity (GNU) and the Government of South Sudan (GOSS). Aggregate food production in Sudan has increased in the past decade. At sub-regional levels, however, many areas remain food insecure. Major research must be undertaken to identify optimum levels of food production and barriers to access to food at sub-regional levels as a first step towards linking deficit areas with areas of surplus. Initiatives must also be undertaken to facilitate increased integration between sub-regions. Increased sub-regional linkages could ensure more efficient delivery of food in the short term as well as recovery and economic growth in the long term.

  1. Socioeconomic and Institutional Correlates of Family Formation: Khartoum, Sudan, 1945-75.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelrahman, A. I.; Morgan, S. Philip

    1987-01-01

    Examined socioeconomic and institutional correlates of marriage timing in Khartoum, Sudan. Found that age at marriage rose sharply across later study cohorts. Living with husband's parents after marriage and marrying endogamously were both associated with sharply reduced ages at marriage. Increase in marriage age appeared to be recent, rapid, and…

  2. Research On: Motivation to Learn English among College Students in Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humaida, Ibrahim Abdelrahim Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    This research was conducted to achieve the following objectives: to examine motivation to learn English language among students of faculty of arts, Islamic University-Sudan, to find out if there were significant statistical differences on motivation scores related to both student level and age. To pursue these objectives, the researcher used the…

  3. 77 FR 3369 - Presidential Determination on the Eligibility of South Sudan To Receive Defense Articles and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-24

    ... the Arms Export Control Act, as Amended Memorandum for the Secretary of State By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 503(a) of... South Sudan will strengthen the security of the United States and promote world peace. You...

  4. Exploring clinical pharmacists' perception of their impact on healthcare in Khartoum State, Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Salim, Anas Mustafa Ahmed; Elhada, Arwa Hassan Ahmed; Elgizoli, Bashir

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The principal aim of this study was to explore the self-perception of clinical pharmacists of their impact on healthcare in Khartoum State, Sudan, how they think doctors perceive their impact, exploring the obstacles that clinical pharmacists are facing, and identifying what clinical pharmacists recommend for a better clinical pharmacy practice in Sudan. Methods: This was an exploratory cross-sectional study that employed a qualitative method. Individual, in-depth interviews were conducted with a convenient sample of 26 clinical pharmacists working in 14 governmental hospitals in Khartoum State, Sudan, in March 2016. Each interview was recorded, transcribed, and coded into themes. Thematic analysis was carried out. Findings: The study revealed different themes regarding clinical pharmacists' perception of their impact on healthcare. The majority believed that they made an improvement in healthcare but not to the level they aspire to. Participants expressed that junior doctors and nurses had a better acceptance of clinical pharmacists' interventions compared to senior doctors. The main obstacles that clinical pharmacists were facing were their limited number, lack of support from health authorities, lack of training and educational program, lack of job descriptions, lack of specific area in patient files for clinical pharmacist intervention, and low salaries. Most participants showed dissatisfaction with the syllabus of the master of clinical pharmacy they studied. Conclusion: The study revealed that clinical pharmacists were looking for a better contribution in healthcare in Sudan. This can be achieved by solving the problems identified in this study. PMID:27843964

  5. Fluorescent nanomicelles for selective detection of Sudan dye in Pluronic F127 aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xinliang; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Hui; Wang, Xiaohui; Huang, Fei

    2014-04-09

    Novel self-assembled water-soluble nanomicelles that contain fluorescent conjugated polymers (poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (PFO) or poly[2,7-(9,9-dihexylfluorene)-alt-4,4'-phenylether] (PF-PE)) have been obtained and used as the highly sensitive/selective platform for Sudan dye detection. The Fluorescent nanomicelles exhibited a highly selective fluorescence quenching by the prohibited food additive Sudan I, while not for the natural pigments: Capsanthin and Beta-carotene, due to the more suitable matching of the LUMOs (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital) of the conjugated polymers with that of Sudan I molecules. The Stern-Volmer constants (K(SV)) of PF-PE/F127 and PFO/F127 for Sudan I were 1,040,480 and 665,000 M(-1), respectively, which were more than 100 times higher than those of the same conjugated polymers in the orgainc solvents. The significantly enhanced sensitivity was due to the collective effect of the F127 micelles to both chromophore and analyte, through which the fluorophone-analyte binding interaction is significantly strengthened and efficient photoinduced charge transfer occurs. The as-proposed materials and approach may be potentially applied in the real-time food safety screening.

  6. Risk Factors for Sustained Cholera Transmission, Juba County, South Sudan, 2014.

    PubMed

    Ujjiga, Thomas T A; Wamala, Joseph F; Mogga, Juma J H; Othwonh, Thabo O; Mutonga, David; Kone-Coulibaly, Asta; Shaikh, Masood Ali; Mpairwe, Allan M; Abdinasir, Abubaker; Abdi, Mohamed A; Yoti, Zabulon; Olushayo, Olu; Nyimol, Pinyi; Lul, Riek; Lako, Richard L; Rumunu, John

    2015-10-01

    We conducted a case-control study to identify risk factors for the 2014 cholera outbreak in Juba County, South Sudan. Illness was associated with traveling or eating away from home; treating drinking water and receiving oral cholera vaccination were protective. Oral cholera vaccination should be used to complement cholera prevention efforts.

  7. Resilience and Culture/Ethnicity Examples from Sudan, Namibia, and Armenia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grotberg, Edith H.

    This study examined cultural/ethnic similarities and differences in ways to promote resilience in children identified in the International Resilience Research Project (IRRP), focusing on Sudan, Namibia, and Armenia. Child resilience was assessed through the child's responses to a hypothetical situation in which a child is teased and frightened by…

  8. Feasibility of health systems strengthening in South Sudan: a qualitative study of international practitioner perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Abigail; Legido-Quigley, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the feasibility of health systems strengthening from the perspective of international healthcare implementers and donors in South Sudan. Design A qualitative interview study, with thematic analysis using the WHO health system building blocks framework. Setting South Sudan. Participants 17 health system practitioners, working for international agencies in South Sudan, were purposively sampled for their knowledge and experiences of health systems strengthening, services delivery, health policy and politics in South Sudan. Results Participants universally reported the health workforce as insufficient and of low capacity and service delivery as poor, while access to medicines was restricted by governmental lack of commitment in undertaking procurement and supply. However, progress was clear in improved county health department governance, health management information system functionality, increased health worker salary harmonisation and strengthened financial management. Conclusions Resurgent conflict and political tensions have negatively impacted all health system components and maintaining or continuing health system strengthening has become extremely challenging. A coordinated approach to balancing humanitarian need particularly in conflict-affected areas, with longer term development is required so as not to lose improvements gained. PMID:26700280

  9. The question of Sudan: a hydro-economic optimization model for the Sudanese Blue Nile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satti, S.; Zaitchik, B.; Siddiqui, S.

    2015-05-01

    The effects of development and the uncertainty of a changing climate in eastern Africa pose myriad challenges for water managers along the Blue Nile. Sudan's large irrigation potential, hydroelectric dams, and prime location within the basin mean that Sudan's water management decisions will have great social, economic and political implications for the region. At the same time, Sudan's water use options are constrained by tradeoffs between upstream irrigation developments and downstream hydropower facilities as well as by the country's commitments under existing or future transboundary water sharing agreements. Here, we present a model that can be applied to evaluate optimal allocation of surface water resources to irrigation and hydropower in the Sudanese portion of the Blue Nile. Hydrologic inputs are combined with agronomic and economic inputs to formulate an optimization model within the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS). A sensitivity analysis is performed by testing model response to a range of economic conditions and to changes in the volume and timing of hydrologic flows. Results indicate that changing hydroclimate inputs have the capacity to greatly influence the productivity of Sudan's water resource infrastructure. Results also show that the economically optimal volume of water consumption, and thus the importance of existing treaty constraints, is sensitive to the perceived value of agriculture relative to electricity as well as to changing hydrological conditions.

  10. Irradiation subassembly

    DOEpatents

    Seim, O.S.; Filewicz, E.C.; Hutter, E.

    1973-10-23

    An irradiation subassembly for use in a nuclear reactor is described which includes a bundle of slender elongated irradiation -capsules or fuel elements enclosed by a coolant tube and having yieldable retaining liner between the irradiation capsules and the coolant tube. For a hexagonal bundle surrounded by a hexagonal tube the yieldable retaining liner may consist either of six segments corresponding to the six sides of the tube or three angular segments each corresponding in two adjacent sides of the tube. The sides of adjacent segments abut and are so cut that metal-tometal contact is retained when the volume enclosed by the retaining liner is varied and Springs are provided for urging the segments toward the center of the tube to hold the capsules in a closely packed configuration. (Official Gazette)

  11. Studies on the selective Am3+ transport, irradiation stability and surface morphology of polymer inclusion membranes containing Cyanex-301 as carrier extractant.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, A; Mohapatra, P K; Hassan, P A; Manchanda, V K

    2011-08-15

    Transport behaviour of Am(3+) across cellulose triacetate (CTA) based polymer inclusion membranes (PIM) containing Cyanex-301 (bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)dithiophosphinic acid) as the carrier extractant and tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) or 2-nitrophenyloctylether (NPOE) as the plasticizer was investigated from different feed and strip conditions. The TBP plasticized membrane resulted back transport of Am when alpha-hydroxy iso-butyric acid was used as the complexing agent in the strip phase while no such effect was seen when ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) was used as the complexant. Effect of varying Cyanex-301 concentration and bipyridyl (bipy) concentration on Am transport was also investigated. Long term reusability of the membrane was studied by measuring the permeability coefficient (P) after exposing the PIMs to a maximum gamma ray dose of ∼ 200 kGy. The surface morphology of the membranes was analyzed by atomic force microscopy and the roughness parameter was correlated to transport efficiency.

  12. Family planning in the Sudan: a pilot project success story.

    PubMed

    el Tom, A R; Lauro, D; Farah, A A; McNamara, R; Ali Ahmed, E F

    1989-01-01

    In 1980, the Department of Community Medicine of the University of Khartoum designed an operations research project to test the possibility of getting village midwives to be involved in the delivery of maternal and child health and family planning (MCH/FP) services. From 1981-1983 the project was implemented by the University of Khartoum in cooperation with the Ministry of Health. The project area covered 100 km. It encompassed a largely agrarian population of 93,000 in 90 villages north of Khartoum along the banks of the Nile. The focus was on training and supervising village midwives. Information was provided on contraceptives for birth spacing, distribution of oral contraceptives, and referral for other methods. Also provided to midwives was information for mothers on oral rehydration therapy for children with diarrhea, and distribution of oral rehydration solution packets. Nutrition education was given midwives with emphasis on breastfeeding and weaning procedures. Information was also supplied about vaccination for children under 5 years of age (in collaboration with the Sudan Expanded Program on Immunization). The project was expensive, particularly regarding incentive payments for supervisors and midwives. The project had a very good start, but when incentive payments were withdrawn, it almost collapsed. At first, what midwives could do to provide maternal and child health services was targeted, but as the project went on, there was more concern for involvement of midwives in broader rural health delivery. The project area was a conservative, Islamic one. An extension area was selected 5 hours travelling time from Khartoum in Shendi District of Nile Province. The project was begun in 60 villages of 75,000 inhabitants. The land stretched for 120 km along both banks of the Nile. In the extension area, a small fee (US$.025) was charged per cycle, half going to the midwives, and half towards the health teams' expenses. 21 health zones were created, and a health

  13. Magnetic Prospection at the Archaeological Site of Jebel Barkal, Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Mohamed A. Mohamed; Goldmann, Thomas; Wolf, Pawel; Wützler, Ronny; Goldmann, Lukas; Hobbs, Richard; Kendall, Timothy

    2010-05-01

    One of most important archaeological sites in northern Sudan is Jebel Barkal, an isolated sandstone butte, which became the chief cult center of the ancient Sudanese kingdom of Kush (ca. 800 BC-400 AD). Located on the western edge of the modern town of Karima, just downstream from the Nile's fourth cataract, Jebel Barkal is the site of numerous ruined palaces, temples, and pyramids. In 2006 and 2007, we carried out a magnetic survey of about 3.5 hectares of the temple area using an Overhauser magnetometer GSM 19. Our objective was to prospect some of the unexcavated areas of the site to try to image the sub-soil remains, and our resulting map clearly shows a number of magnetic anomalies of mud-brick, fired brick and stone-block walls belonging to different ancient buildings. Our initial magnetic results successfully revealed one corner of the wall of the early Meroitic palace B 100, which had been "lost" after its excavation in 1916, since it buried by later excavation debris before it had been precisely located on any site map. Prospection in the same area also revealed other (earlier?) massive mud walls of unknown function and character. A second area we chose for examination was that in front of the Great Amun Temple (B 500). Here we found two or three small rectangular anomalies that suggested a series of small chapels built at right angles to the paved way leading into the Great Temple; the layout was identical to chapels in front of the Great Amun Temple at Meroe. Another magnetic anomaly in front of B 500 seemed to be a predictable type of stepped podium, well-known from other Kushite temples. A third area we chose to examine was that northeast of B 500. Here we found the clear outline of a multi-chambered building (B 1700) parallel to the Great Temple, which appeared to have all the characteristics of a smaller temple fronted by a pylon. Far less clear were the complex magnetic anomalies we found northeast of B 1700. These appeared to belong to a series of

  14. Malaria control in South Sudan, 2006–2013: strategies, progress and challenges

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background South Sudan has borne the brunt of years of chronic warfare and probably has the highest malaria burden in sub-Saharan Africa. However, effective malaria control in post-conflict settings is hampered by a multiplicity of challenges. This manuscript reports on the strategies, progress and challenges of malaria control in South Sudan and serves as an example epitome for programmes operating in similar environments and provides a window for leveraging resources. Case description To evaluate progress and challenges of the national malaria control programme an in-depth appraisal was undertaken according to the World Health Organization standard procedures for malaria programme performance review. Methodical analysis of published and unpublished documents on malaria control in South Sudan was conducted. To ensure completeness, findings of internal thematic desk assessments were triangulated in the field and updated by external review teams. Discussion and evaluation South Sudan has strived to make progress in implementing the WHO recommended malaria control interventions as set out in the 2006–2013 National Malaria Strategic Plan. The country has faced enormous programmatic constraints including infrastructure, human and financial resource and a weak health system compounded by an increasing number of refugees, returnees and internally displaced people. The findings present a platform on which to tailor an evidence-based 2014–2018 national malaria strategic plan for the country and a unique opportunity for providing a model for countries in a post-conflict situation. Conclusions The prospects for effective malaria control and elimination are huge in South Sudan. Nevertheless, strengthened coordination, infrastructure and human resource capacity, monitoring and evaluation are required. To achieve all this, allocation of adequate local funding would be critical. PMID:24160336

  15. Henry Solomon Wellcome: A philanthropist and a pioneer sponsor of medical research in the Sudan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Henry Solomon Wellcome, the famous drug manufacturer had a fascinating association with the Sudan. Besides supporting tropical medicine research in this country, he established an extensive project in the Sudan that aimed at combining archeological excavations, philanthropy and social reform. This article is an archives-based account on this side of Wellcome’s association with the Sudan. The article starts with Wellcome’s early years in the American Midwest and the evolution of his career and his rise as a world-renowned drug manufacturer. After the battle of Omdurman, Wellcome visited Sudan in 1900 – 1901 where he offered to support the establishment of the research laboratories which later came to be known as the Wellcome Tropical Research Laboratories in Khartoum. He then became directly involved in the planning and running of extensive archeological excavations in the central Sudan. This project served as a field in which Wellcome found an outlet for his philanthropy. More than 4000 labourers were employed in Jebel Moya. Professional archeologists and anatomists were recruited by Wellcome to supervise the work, and all the requirements in terms of equipment were catered for. Wellcome devised a Savings Bank System whereby part of the earnings of each labourer were saved to him till the end of the season. He also introduced one of his innovations: aerial photography using box kite which was used for the first time in archeology. Wellcome made it a rule that no applicant should be turned away. The Camp Commandant had to find suitable work for each applicant, including the handicapped who were assigned to appropriate jobs like mending baskets or cutting grass for building huts. Wellcome’s welfare work had a significant impact on the local inhabitants of Jebel Moya. Henry Solomon Wellcome, 1906. Oil painting by Hugh Goldwin Riviere. Credit: Wellcome Library PMID:27493379

  16. Hepatitis C Virus Epidemiology in Djibouti, Somalia, Sudan, and Yemen: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chaabna, Karima; Kouyoumjian, Silva P.; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To characterize hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemiology and assess country-specific population-level HCV prevalence in four countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region: Djibouti, Somalia, Sudan, and Yemen. Methods Reports of HCV prevalence were systematically reviewed as per PRISMA guidelines. Pooled HCV prevalence estimates in different risk populations were conducted when the number of measures per risk category was at least five. Results We identified 101 prevalence estimates. Pooled HCV antibody prevalence in the general population in Somalia, Sudan and Yemen was 0.9% (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 0.3%–1.9%), 1.0% (95%CI: 0.3%–1.9%) and 1.9% (95%CI: 1.4%–2.6%), respectively. The only general population study from Djibouti reported a prevalence of 0.3% (CI: 0.2%–0.4%) in blood donors. In high-risk populations (e.g., haemodialysis and haemophilia patients), pooled HCV prevalence was 17.3% (95%CI: 8.6%–28.2%) in Sudan. In Yemen, three studies of haemodialysis patients reported HCV prevalence between 40.0%-62.7%. In intermediate-risk populations (e.g.. healthcare workers, in patients and men who have sex with men), pooled HCV prevalence was 1.7% (95%CI: 0.0%–4.9%) in Somalia and 0.6% (95%CI: 0.4%–0.8%) in Sudan. Conclusion National HCV prevalence in Yemen appears to be higher than in Djibouti, Somalia, and Sudan as well as most other MENA countries; but otherwise prevalence levels in this subregion are comparable to global levels. The high HCV prevalence in patients who have undergone clinical care appears to reflect ongoing transmission in clinical settings. HCV prevalence in people who inject drugs remains unknown. PMID:26900839

  17. The anti-TNF-α antibody infliximab inhibits the expression of fat-transporter-protein FAT/CD36 in a selective hepatic-radiation mouse model.

    PubMed

    Martius, Gesa; Cameron, Silke; Rave-Fränk, Margret; Hess, Clemens F; Wolff, Hendrik A; Malik, Ihtzaz A

    2015-03-02

    Previously, we reported a radiation-induced inflammation triggering fat-accumulation through fatty-acid-translocase/cluster of differentiation protein 36 (FAT/CD36) in rat liver. Furthermore, inhibition of radiation-induced FAT/CD36-expression by anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (anti-TNF-α) (infliximab) was shown in vitro. The current study investigates fat-accumulation in a mouse-model of single-dose liver-irradiation (25-Gray) and the effect of anti-TNF-α-therapy on FAT/CD36 gene-expression. Mice livers were selectively irradiated in vivo in presence or absence of infliximab. Serum- and hepatic-triglycerides, mRNA, and protein were analyzed by colorimetric assays, RT-PCR, Immunofluorescence and Western-Blot, respectively. Sudan-staining was used demonstrating fat-accumulation in tissue. In mice livers, early (1-3 h) induction of TNF-α-expression, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, was observed. It was followed by elevated hepatic-triglyceride level (6-12 h), compared to sham-irradiated controls. In contrast, serum-triglyceride level was decreased at these time points. Similar to triglyceride level in mice livers, Sudan staining of liver cryosections showed a quick (6-12 h) increase of fat-droplets after irradiation. Furthermore, expression of fat-transporter-protein FAT/CD36 was increased at protein level caused by radiation or TNF-α. TNF-α-blockage by anti-TNF-α showed an early inhibition of radiation-induced FAT/CD36 expression in mice livers. Immunohistochemistry showed basolateral and cytoplasmic expression of FAT/CD36 in hepatocytes. Moreover, co-localization of FAT/CD36 was detected with α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA+) cells and F4/80+ macrophages. In summary, hepatic-radiation triggers fat-accumulation in mice livers, involving acute-phase-processes. Accordingly, anti-TNF-α-therapy prevented early radiation-induced expression of FAT/CD36 in vivo.

  18. Irradiated foods

    MedlinePlus

    ... it reduces the risk of food poisoning . Food irradiation is used in many countries. It was first approved in the U.S. to prevent sprouts on white potatoes, and to control insects on wheat and in certain spices and seasonings.

  19. Giant suppression of flux-flow resistivity in heavy-ion irradiated Tl2Ba2Ca2Cu3O10 films - Influence of linear defects on vortex transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budhani, R. C.; Suenaga, M.; Liou, S. H.

    1992-01-01

    A large shift of the onset of flux-flow resistivity and the irreversibility line H(irr)(T) to higher temperatures is observed in Tl2Ba2Ca2Cu3O10 films containing linear defects created by Ag(+21) ion irradiation. The H(irr)(T), which has a characteristic L shape in highly anisotropic Tl and Bi based cuprates, becomes more like that of YBa2Cu3O7 in the presence of these defects. The Jc at 77 K also shows a large increase as a result of flux localization at the defects. The transport data indicate that in the H-T plane above H(irr)(T) of the unirradiated material, an ensemble of unoccupied defects is required for effective pinning of each flux line in the system.

  20. Environmental crisis and its impact on women. The case of the Sudan.

    PubMed

    Bedri, B; Osama, S

    1992-06-01

    The savannah belt of the Sudan, particularly the central region of the northern Kordofan, provides resources for agricultural and pastoral activities and yields the destruction and misuse of renewable resources. Desertification has eliminated lands from production at a time when there is a greater demand for land from the increasing population. Environmental damage also involves water deficiencies and seasonal rain patterns, which promote communal grazing and lead to overgrazing. Wood or charcoal for fuel is increasingly in short supply, and the need to travel further to obtain access to fire wood and charcoal has increased. Other conditions which contribute to environmental degradation are the variability of the climate, the lack of rainfall, or presence of drought, and rural-urban migration. Agricultural production is low due to overregulation of irrigated land, inefficiency of agricultural cooperatives, inappropriate or unjust pricing policies, lack of inputs, and high cost of transportation and agricultural operations. When environmental deterioration occurs, woman are the first to suffer; when economic gains occur, women are the last to receive the benefits. Women are affected through increased work loads, and harder work loads cause by loss of productivity of the land. The fuel wood crisis means women must walk farther to obtain adequate supplies for cooking. Also, when wood is unavailable or of limited availability or the price rises, the quality of food declines or a reduction in nutritional intake occurs. When rainfall is uneven or soil quality has been compromised, larger tracts of land must be cleared. Nomadic existence is disrupted when lands are degraded; settlement leads to unemployment and loss of wealth. Water shortages mean uncertainty about crop production, greater distances to obtain water, and unsafe water supplies, which contribute to disease. Smoke from cooking also impairs the health of women. The conditions of migrant women on urban fringes

  1. Ground-water geology of Kordofan Province, Sudan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodis, Harry G.; Hassan, Abdulla; Wahadan, Lutfi

    1968-01-01

    For much of Kordofan Province, surface-water supplies collected and stored in hafirs, fulas, and tebeldi trees are almost completely appropriated for present needs, and water from wells must serve as the base for future economic and cultural development. This report describes the results of a reconnaissance hydrogeologic investigation of the Province and the nature and distribution of the ground-water resources with respect to their availability for development. Kordofan Province, in central Sudan, lies within the White Nile-Nile River drainage basin. The land surface is largely a plain of low relief; jebels (hills) occur sporadically, and sandy soils are common in most areas except in the south where clayey soils predominate. Seasonal rainfall, ranging from less than 100 millimeters in the north to about 800 millimeters in the south, occurs almost entirely during the summer months, but little runoff ever reaches the Nile or White Nile Rivers. The rocks beneath the surficial depsits (Pleistocene to Recent) in the Province comprise the basement complex (Precambrian), Nawa Series (upper Paleozoic), Nubian Series (Mesozoic), laterite (lower to middle Tertiary), and the Umm Ruwaba Series (Pliocene to Pleistocene). Perennial ground-water supplies in the Province are found chiefly in five hydrologic units, each having distinct geologic or hydrologic characteristics. These units occur in Nubian or Umm Ruwaba strata or both, and the sandstone and conglomerate beds form the :principal aquifers. The water is generally under slight artesian head, and the upper surface of the zone of saturation ranges from about 50 meters to 160 meters below land surface. The surficial deposits and basement rocks are generally poor sources of ground water in most of the Province. Supplies from such sources are commonly temporary and may dissipate entirely during the dry season. Locally, however, perennial supplies are obtained from the surficial deposits and from the basement rocks. Generally

  2. Examination frequency and population dose from medical X-ray examinations in Sudan in 2010.

    PubMed

    Suliman, I I; Ibraheem, S B; Youssif, B E; Abdelgabar, M I; Gafar, R; Elshiekh, E; Ahmed, Nada A; Sulieman, A

    2015-07-01

    This study was performed to estimate examination frequency and collective and per caput effective doses arising from medical X-ray procedures in Sudan, 2010. Information was collected from 30 hospitals performing radiography, computed tomography (CT), fluoroscopy and interventional radiology (IR) procedures. The estimated annual number of examinations was 33 million radiographic X-ray procedures (99 %), 0.34 million CT exams per year (14 % paediatrics CT), 0.02 million fluoroscopy and IR procedures. The estimated annual number of examinations was 326 per 1000 people. The estimated annual collective and per caput effective doses from medical X-ray procedures mount 7197 man Sv and 0.18 mSv, respectively. The study offered the first projection of frequency and population dose from medical X-ray examinations in Sudan and provides estimates of the impact of the medical X-ray procedures at the national level.

  3. Jebel Moya (Sudan): new dates from a mortuary complex at the southern Meroitic frontier

    PubMed Central

    Brass, Michael; Schwenniger, Jean-Luc

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a new chronology for the burial complex at Jebel Moya, south-central Sudan. It reassesses the body of evidence from Sir Henry Wellcome's original 1911–1914 excavations in order to place the site within a firm chronological framework by: (a) applying an attribute-based approach to discern discrete pottery assemblages; and (b) applying initial OSL dates to facilitate the reliable dating of this site for the first time. Jebel Moya is re-interpreted as a burial complex situated on the southern periphery of the late Meroitic state, and its potential to serve as a chronological and cultural reference point for future studies in south-central and southern Sudan is outlined. PMID:25400300

  4. Procedures for woody vegetation surveys in the Kazgail rural council area, Kordofan, Sudan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Falconer, Allan; Cross, Matthew D.; Orr, Donald G.

    1990-01-01

    Efforts to reforest parts of the Kordofan Province of Sudan are receiving support from international development agencies. These efforts include planning and implementing reforestation activities that require the collection of natural resources and socioeconomic data, and the preparation of base maps. A combination of remote sensing, geographic information system and global positioning systems procedures are used in this study to meet these requirements.Remote sensing techniques were used to provide base maps and to guide the compilation of vegetation resources maps. These techniques provided a rapid and efficient method for documenting available resources. Pocket‐sized global positioning system units were used to establish the location of field data collected for mapping and resource analysis. A microcomputer data management system tabulated and displayed the field data. The resulting system for data analysis, management, and planning has been adopted for the mapping and inventory of the Gum Belt of Sudan.

  5. Collaborative evaluation and market research converge: an innovative model agricultural development program evaluation in Southern Sudan.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, John M; O'Sullivan, Rita

    2012-11-01

    In June and July 2006 a team of outside experts arrived in Yei, Southern Sudan through an AID project to provide support to a local agricultural development project. The team brought evaluation, agricultural marketing and financial management expertise to the in-country partners looking at steps to rebuild the economy of the war ravaged region. A partnership of local officials, agricultural development staff, and students worked with the outside team to craft a survey of agricultural traders working between northern Uganda and Southern Sudan the steps approach of a collaborative model. The goal was to create a market directory of use to producers, government officials and others interested in stimulating agricultural trade. The directory of agricultural producers and distributors served as an agricultural development and promotion tool as did the collaborative process itself.

  6. Arthropod-Borne Viral Infectious Associated with a Fever Outbreak in the Northern Province of Sudan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    Chikungunya (CHIK) and 5 % for Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic Fever ( CCHF ) viruses. Antibody prevalences tended to increase with age for WN and YF viruses...for Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic Fever ( CCHF ) viruses. Antibody prevalences tended to increase with age for WN and YF viruses. Antibody rates were...distribution of arboviral IgG antibody in the Northern Province of Sudan Antibody No. pos. (%) Age No. of (years) subjects DEN-2 WN YF RVF SFN SFS CCHF

  7. Bagasse-fired steam boiler station for Kenana Sugar in Sudan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    The equipment and operation of the bagasse fired steam boiler station of the Kenana Sugar factory in Sudan are described. The station consists of six bagasse-fired, steam boilers with individual capacities of 113 tonnes per hour which provide steam for a 40 MN power station. During the off-season it serves as a regional power station which also operates irrigation facilities to the cane fields. The bagasse handling and feeding system is also described.

  8. MY EXPERIENCE OF TEACHING PHACOSURGERY ON VISALIS 100 IN SUDAN AND NIGERIA.

    PubMed

    Dnyanmote, Santosh

    2015-01-01

    At the invitation of the director of The National Eye Center, Kaduna, Nigeria and The Makkah Eye Hospital of Khartoum, Sudan I visited both these institutions to teach phacoemulsification surgery to their aspiring surgeons on Visalis 100 (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Germany). This article highlights the experience of teaching phacoemulsification surgery in foreign African countries like Nigeria and Sudan. In Nigeria I had the opportunity to give training in both wet lab and live surgery settings whereas in Sudan only hands-on live surgery. Sudan being an Islamic nation pigs are not slaughtered there and hence no pig eyes. Goat eyes differ significantly from human eyes and hence have almost no value in wet lab teaching. The training program included theoretical discussions, wet lab, surgery and finally discussions related to the days' surgery. It became clear that quality of learning depends on three main factors. Thorough understanding of theory and observation of senior surgeons in operation room Good wet lab and finally doing the surgery oneself in step by step manner. Dedicated teachers and instructors can make all the difference. The learning curve also significantly shortens if the trainees are exposed to all types of cataract surgery like ECCE, SICS and phacoemulsification surgery. The main problem faced by those surgeons who have done only ECCE/SICS is that they are not used to handling microscope and instruments in both hands at the same time. Hence I strongly recommend them wet lab where they can sit and practice using both hands and feet and microscope simultaneously and in coordinated fashion.

  9. Levels of pesticides residues in the White Nile water in the Sudan.

    PubMed

    Nesser, Gibreel A A; Abdelbagi, Azhari O; Hammad, Ahmed Mohammed Ali; Tagelseed, Mirghani; Laing, Mark D

    2016-06-01

    Twenty-two commonly used pesticides were monitored during autumn, winter, and summer of 2004-2005 in 27 water samples from three sites along the White Nile in Sudan (former Sudan). Sites were selected to reflect pesticides gathered from drainage canals in central Sudan and from upstream sources. Collected samples were extracted and subjected to gas chromatographic analysis. Pesticides levels were measured in nanograms per liter. Pesticides residues were detected in 96 % of the samples with a total residue burden of 4132.6 ng L(-1), and an overall mean concentration and range of 50.99 and not detected-1570 ng L(-1), respectively. Ororganochlorines were the most frequently detected contaminants, which were found in 70 % of the samples, causing a total burden of 2852.8 ng L(-1), followed by pyrethroids 15 % of the samples, with a total burden of 926.5 ng L(-1). The tested herbicides were detected in ˂4 % of the samples with a total burden of 353.3 ng L(-1), while organophosphorus levels were below the detection limit. The most frequent contaminants were the following: heptachlor and its epoxide (52 % of samples), followed by DDTs (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes) (DDT and DDE, in 19 % of the samples), cypermethrin and fenvalerate (in 11 % of the samples), and pendimethalin (in <4 % of the samples). Residues of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers (α, β, γ and δ), endosulfan (α and β), p, p-DDD, λ cyhalothrin, deltamethrin, and oxyfluorfen were not detected in the analyzed samples. Generally, levels were least in autumn, and followed by summer and winter. Sources of contamination might include agricultural lands in central Sudan and upstream sources. Both recent and old contaminations were indicated.

  10. Cancer incidence in Khartoum, Sudan: first results from the Cancer Registry, 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Intisar E; Weng, Hsin-Yi; Mohamed, Kamal H; Mohammed, Sulma I

    2014-08-01

    In 2009, the first National Population-based Cancer Registry (NCR) was established in Sudan. We report in this study, the first data from the NCR for Khartoum State for the period 2009-2010. The NCR staff used passive and active approaches to collect data on cancer diagnosed by all means in Khartoum State. Rates were age standardized to the 2010 Sudan Standard Population and 1966 and 2000 World Standard Population and expressed per 100,000 populations. During 2009-2010, 6771 new cancer cases were registered. Of those, 3646 (53.8%) cases were in women and 3125 (46.2%) were in men. The most commonly diagnosed cancer among women was breast followed by leukemia, cervix, and ovary, and among men it was prostate cancer followed by leukemia, lymphoma, oral, colorectal, and liver. In children less than 15 years of age, leukemia was the most common cancer followed lymphoma, and cancer of the eye, bone, kidney, and the brain. The overall age-standardized rate (ASR) per 100,000 population was higher in women (124.3) than in men (90.8) using 2010 Sudan Standard Population. Similarly, it was higher in women (188.6 and 206.3 per 100,000 population) than in men (145.4 and 160.0 per 100,000 population) using 1966 and 2000 World Standard Population, respectively. The data from NCR indicated that prostate and breast as the most commonly diagnosed cancer sites in men and women in Khartoum, while cancer of the cervix trailed behind portraying a cancer picture similar to that of the developed world. Despite the study limitations, the NCR data gave a fair representation of cancer profile of Khartoum State and underscored the need for high-quality cancer registries in Sudan.

  11. A Qualitative Analysis of the Spontaneous Volunteer Response to the 2013 Sudan Floods: Changing the Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Albahari, Amin; Schultz, Carl H

    2017-03-08

    Introduction While the concept of community resilience is gaining traction, the role of spontaneous volunteers during the initial response to disasters remains controversial. In an attempt to resolve some of the debate, investigators examined the activities of a spontaneous volunteer group called Nafeer after the Sudan floods around the city of Khartoum in August of 2013. Hypothesis Can spontaneous volunteers successfully initiate, coordinate, and deliver sustained assistance immediately after a disaster?

  12. Obstetric fistula in Southern Sudan: situational analysis and Key Informant Method to estimate prevalence

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Obstetric fistula is a severe condition which can have devastating consequences for a woman’s life. Despite a considerable literature, very little is known about its prevalence. This project was conducted to carry out a situational analysis of fistula services in South Sudan and to pilot test the Key Informant Method (KIM) to estimate the prevalence of fistula in a region of South Sudan. Methods Key stakeholder interviews, document reviews and fistula surgery record reviews were undertaken. A KIM survey was conducted in a district of Western Bahr-el-Ghazal in January 2012. One hundred sixty-six community-based distributors, traditional birth attendants and village midwives were trained as key informants to identify women with fistula in the community. Women identified were subsequently examined by an obstetrician and nurse to verify whether they had a fistula. Results There were limited fistula repair services in South Sudan. Approximately 50–80 women per year attend periodic campaigns, with around half having a fistula and receiving a repair. On average a further 5 women a year received fistula repair from hospital services. Ten women with potential fistula were identified via KIM; all confirmed by the obstetrician. Of these, three were from the survey area, which had 8,865 women of reproductive age (15–49 years). This gives a minimal estimated prevalence of at least 30 fistulas per 100,000 women of reproductive age (95% CI 10–100). Conclusions Routine fistula repair services available do not meet the population’s needs. The pilot study suggests that KIM can be used to identify women with fistula in the community. Data on fistula are generally poor; the KIM methodology we used in South Sudan yielded a lower fistula prevalence than estimates reported previously in the region. PMID:23497241

  13. Sudan: The Crisis in Darfur and Status of the North-South Peace Agreement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-19

    National Islamic Front ( NIF ) government, which ousted the democratically elected civilian government in 1989, pursued the war in Southern Sudan with...Front ( NIF ), agreed on a cabinet. At the core of the dispute was the distribution of key economic ministerial portfolios. The NCP insisted on keeping...central governments in Khartoum, albeit unsuccessfully. In the early 1990s, the National Islamic Front ( NIF ) government, which came to power in 1989

  14. Climate change, conflict and development in Sudan: global neo-Malthusian narratives and local power struggles.

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, Harry

    2011-01-01

    Dystopian accounts of climate change posit that it will lead to more conflict, causing state failure and mass population movements. Yet these narratives are both theoretically and empirically problematic: the conflict–environment hypothesis merges a global securitization agenda with local manipulations of Northern fears about the state of planetary ecology. Sudan has experienced how damaging this fusion of wishful thinking, power politics and top-down development can be. In the 1970s, global resource scarcity concerns were used locally to impose the fata morgana of Sudan as an Arab-African breadbasket: in the name of development, violent evictions of local communities contributed to Sudan's second civil war and associated famines. Today, Darfur has been labelled ‘the world's first climate change conflict’, masking the long-term political-economic dynamics and Sudanese agency underpinning the crisis. Simultaneously, the global food crisis is instrumentalized to launch a dam programme and agricultural revival that claim to be African answers to resource scarcity. The winners, however, are Sudan's globalized Islamist elites and foreign investors, whilst the livelihoods of local communities are undermined. Important links exist between climatic developments and security, but global Malthusian narratives about state failure and conflict are dangerously susceptible to manipulations by national elites; the practical outcomes decrease rather than increase human security. In the climate change era, the breakdown of institutions and associated violence is often not an unfortunate failure of the old system due to environmental shock, but a strategy of elites in wider processes of power and wealth accumulation and contestation.

  15. Post-Conflict Returnee Reintegration: A Case Study of South Sudan and the Livelihood Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    case of South Sudan highlights the importance of post-conflict societies to plan and implement a long-term development strategy in order to establish...2010). 35 their efforts have been focused on emergency relief. Echoing this point, their 2010 report states, “ Planning for the longer term response...border to their homeland, they are also supporting ex-combatants in acquiring vocation skills such as sewing.139 In general, plans to facilitate long

  16. Sudan stain of fecal fat: new insight into an old test.

    PubMed

    Khouri, M R; Huang, G; Shiau, Y F

    1989-02-01

    The 72-h fecal fat determination is used as the gold standard to document the presence of steatorrhea. Although the Sudan stain for fecal fat is advocated as a sensitive screening test, a quantitative correlation between the 72-h fecal fat quantitation and the fecal Sudan stain is lacking. This study was designed to examine the staining properties of different classes of purified lipids in an experimentally defined artificial matrix, and to elucidate the reasons for the lack of quantitative correlation between these two tests. Our results indicate that the "neutral fat" stain without acidification or heating identifies triglyceride; and at an appropriate pH, the "neutral stain" also identifies fatty acid. The "split fat" stain with acidification and heating identifies both triglyceride and fatty acid. After acidification, fatty acid soaps are converted to the nonionized fatty acid. Thus, fatty acid soaps can be identified indirectly as fat droplets that are stained by the split fat stain. Although cholesterol is stained with Sudan stain after heating, upon cooling, cholesterol forms crystals of anhydrous cholesterol, making its staining pattern distinct. Neither the neutral fat nor the split fat stain can detect phospholipid or cholesteryl ester. The 72-h fecal fat determination is a measure of the total fatty acid content after a specimen is saponified. The resulting fatty acids are derived from a variety of endogenous and exogenous sources, including free fatty acids, soaps of fatty acids, triglycerides, cholesterol esters, and phospholipids. Therefore, the 72-h fecal fat quantitation does not differentiate between the primary sources of the measured fatty acid. It is concluded that the 72-h fecal fat determination is not specific for documenting triglyceride (fat) malabsorption. Until new methods are developed that specifically measure fecal triglyceride and fatty acid, the Sudan stain of fecal fat appears to be a more specific method for detecting the presence

  17. Phlebotomus Sandflies of the Paloich Area in the Sudan (Diptera, Psychodidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1964-10-01

    sandflies based on total collections in the area. Solid black bars. on R. H. and temperature rows represent average daily minimums per month and...and other arthropods of pUblic health and veterinary significance. DECK 2 PHLEBOTOMUS SANDFLIES OF THE PALOICH AREA IN THE SUDAN (DIPTERA...PSYCHODIDAE)’ 2860 By Laurence W. Quate2 Abstract: This report describes results of field studies on Phlebotomus sandflies from August 1962 to October

  18. Risk factors for trachomatous trichiasis in children: cross-sectional household surveys in Southern Sudan.

    PubMed

    Ngondi, Jeremiah; Reacher, Mark H; Matthews, Fiona E; Brayne, Carol; Gatpan, Gideon; Becknell, Steven; Kur, Lucia; King, Jonathan; Callahan, Kelly; Emerson, Paul M

    2009-03-01

    We have previously documented blinding trachoma to be a serious public health problem in Southern Sudan, with an unusually high prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis (TT) among children. We aimed to investigate risk factors for TT in children in Southern Sudan. Cross-sectional surveys were undertaken in 11 districts between 2001 and 2006, and eligible participants were examined for trachoma signs. Risk factors were assessed through interviews and observations. Using logistic regression, associations between TT in children and potential risk factors were investigated. In total, 11155 children aged 1-14 years from 3950 households were included in the analysis. Overall prevalence of TT was 1.5% (95% CI 1.1-2.1). Factors independently associated with increased odds of TT in children aged 1-14 years were: increasing age (P(trend)<0.001); female gender (odds ratio=1.5; 95% CI 1.1-2.1); increasing proportion of children in the household with trachomatous inflammation-intense (TI) (P(trend)=0.002); and increasing number of adults in the household with TT (P(trend)<0.001). Our study revealed risk factors for TT in children consistent with those previously reported for TT in adults. While the associations of TT in children with TI in siblings and TT in adult relatives merit further investigation, there is an urgent need for trachoma prevention interventions and trichiasis surgery services that are tailored to cater for young children in Southern Sudan.

  19. Awakening in Sudan: women seek to bridge the gap between traditional customs and modern needs.

    PubMed

    Chernush, K

    1979-04-26

    The point was strongly made at the opening session of the symposium to celebrate the 75th anniversary of the Ahfad University College in Sudan - the 1st secular school for girls and the beginning of women's education in Sudan - that in Africa the woman is unrecognized and oppressed by both traditional and modern society. Even when education is available, women must contend with prevailing attitudes that often make it impossible for them to use their special knowledge and skills. The program itself was divided into 2 parts - formal presentations and discussion of some 50 scholarly papers and an informal workshop for rural women leaders and trainers from various government ministries. The point was made that illiteracy among women is about 92%, far greater than among men. Some speakers provided insights into the impact of customs and traditions on women and into the impact of the women's movement on Sudanese law and politics. 1 speaker traced women's inferior status to discrepancies between Sudanese constitutional law and personal or religious laws. The most well-attended session focused on female circumcision, widely practiced in Sudan but never before openly discussed in public, with both women and men present. Sudanese doctors, sociologists, and a clinical psychologist repeatedly refuted accepted notions about the practice's supposedly religious basis and physical benefits. Male and female attitudes toward circumcision were also analyzed. At the symposium's end it was concluded that Sudanese women still lagged very much behind men in education, legal and political rights, health and nutrition and social matters.

  20. Quantitative analysis of Sudan dye adulteration in paprika powder using FTIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lohumi, Santosh; Joshi, Ritu; Kandpal, Lalit Mohan; Lee, Hoonsoo; Kim, Moon S; Cho, Hyunjeong; Mo, Changyeun; Seo, Young-Wook; Rahman, Anisur; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2017-02-17

    As adulteration of foodstuffs with Sudan dye, especially paprika- and chilli-containing products, has been reported with some frequency, this issue has become one focal point for addressing food safety. FTIR spectroscopy has been used extensively as an analytical method for quality control and safety determination for food products. Thus, the use of FTIR spectroscopy for rapid determination of Sudan dye in paprika powder was investigated in this study. A net analyte signal (NAS)-based methodology, named HLA/GO (hybrid linear analysis in the literature), was applied to FTIR spectral data to predict Sudan dye concentration. The calibration and validation sets were designed to evaluate the performance of the multivariate method. The obtained results had a high determination coefficient (R(2)) of 0.98 and low root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.026% for the calibration set, and an R(2) of 0.97 and RMSE of 0.05% for the validation set. The model was further validated using a second validation set and through the figures of merit, such as sensitivity, selectivity, and limits of detection and quantification. The proposed technique of FTIR combined with HLA/GO is rapid, simple and low cost, making this approach advantageous when compared with the main alternative methods based on liquid chromatography (LC) techniques.

  1. Microscopic and Molecular Detection of Camel Piroplasmosis in Gadarif State, Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Nyingilili, Hamisi Said

    2017-01-01

    The socioeconomic importance of camels (Camelus dromedarius) could not be neglected in the Sudan. The present study was planned to confirm the presence of piroplasmosis in camels from the Eastern region of the Sudan (Gedarif State) using microscopical (blood film) and molecular technique (PCR). A total of 55 camels of different sexes (34 females and 21 males) were sampled from four localities of the state between January 2011 and January 2012. The prevalence rates using parasitological and molecular examinations were 43.6% and 74.5%, respectively. The prevalence rates significantly vary between the localities (p = 0.011) but not between the different sexes (p = 0.515). PCR technique showed higher sensitivity than microscopy. The present paper was to be the first report investigating camel piroplasmosis using both parasitological and molecular methods in the Eastern region of the Sudan. Further studies in the phylogenetic sequencing are to be continued for parasite speciation. Moreover, studies on the clinical and economic consequences of camel piroplasmosis are recommended. PMID:28293445

  2. Ebola hemorrhagic fever under scope, view of knowledge, attitude and practice from rural Sudan in 2015.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Mohamed M G; Shwaib, Hussam M; Fahim, Monica M; Ahmed, Elhamy A; Omer, Mawadda K; Monier, Islam A; Balla, Siham A

    2016-07-05

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) is an emerging threat to public health. The last epidemic in West Africa had a great effect on the affected communities. Timely and effective interventions were necessary in addition to community participation to control the epidemic. The knowledge, attitude and practices of vulnerable communities remain unknown, particularly in Sudan. The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge, attitude and practices of rural residents in Sudan regarding Ebola hemorrhagic fever. We conducted a cross sectional, community-based large-scale study in Al Gaziera state in rural Sudan in eight localities. In total, 1500 random adult participants were selected. The participants were assessed by a predesigned pretested questionnaire regarding their knowledge, attitude and practices regarding Ebola. Their sources of information were determined, and we assessed demographic factors as predictors of knowledge. We found poor knowledge, a fair attitude and suboptimal practices among the participants. The main sources of information were the press and media. Education was the only predictor of knowledge regarding Ebola. A lack of knowledge and suboptimal preventive practices mandates orientation and education programs to raise public awareness. Health care providers are advised to engage more in educating the community.

  3. Costs of hemodialysis and kidney transplantation in Sudan: a single center experience.

    PubMed

    Elsharif, Mohamed Elhafiz; Elsharif, Elham Gariballa; Gadour, Waheeb Hassan

    2010-10-01

    INTRODUCTION. End-stage renal disease is a serious illness with major consequences in both health and healthcare expenditures. The growing number of patients with end-stage renal disease in developing countries will consume a greater proportion of healthcare budget. We aimed to assess the costs of hemodialysis and kidney transplantation in a renal care center in Sudan. MATERIALS AND METHODS. We conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate the costs of kidney transplantation and compare those with the costs of hemodialysis per year. We enrolled 78 patients on regular hemodialysis for at least 2 years and 33 kidney transplant patients on regular follow-up at Gezira Hospital for Renal Diseases and Surgery in Sudan. RESULTS. The annual cost of hemodialysis was found to be US $ 6847.00. The total cost of the first year after transplantation was US $ 14 825.04 and the cost of kidney transplantation after the first year was US $ 10 651.00. The total hospitalization days and absence from work were less in the transplant group. Conclusions. Hemodialysis in Sudan is less expensive than transplantation.

  4. Linking Satellite Derived Land Surface Temperature with Cholera: A Case Study for South Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldaach, H. S. V.; Jutla, A.; Akanda, A. S.; Colwell, R. R.

    2014-12-01

    A sudden onset of cholera in South Sudan, in April 2014 in Northern Bari in Juba town resulted in more than 400 cholera cases after four weeks of initial outbreak with a case of fatality rate of CFR 5.4%. The total number of reported cholera cases for the period of April to July, 2014 were 5,141 including 114 deaths. With the limited efficacy of cholera vaccines, it is necessary to develop mechanisms to predict cholera occurrence and thereafter devise intervention strategies for mitigating impacts of the disease. Hydroclimatic processes, primarily precipitation and air temperature are related to epidemic and episodic outbreak of cholera. However, due to coarse resolution of both datasets, it is not possible to precisely locate the geographical location of disease. Here, using Land Surface Temperature (LST) from MODIS sensors, we have developed an algorithm to identify regions susceptible for cholera. Conditions for occurrence of cholera were detectable at least one month in advance in South Sudan and were statistically sensitive to hydroclimatic anomalies of land surface and air temperature, and precipitation. Our results indicate significant spatial and temporal averaging required to infer usable information from LST over South Sudan. Preliminary results that geographically location of cholera outbreak was identifiable within 1km resolution of the LST data.

  5. Phylogenetic analysis of some Newcastle disease virus isolates from the Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Elmardi, N.A.; Bakheit, M.A.; Khalafalla, A.I.

    2016-01-01

    A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to amplify 1412 bp of the fusion protein gene (F gene) of four Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates; two velogenic (TY-1/90 and DIK-90) and two lentogenic isolates (Dongla 88/1 and GD.S.1). Following sequencing, nucleotide sequences were annotated and 894 bp were compared phylogenetically with those from strains previously reported in the Sudan and the virus strains published on the GenBank. It could be demonstrated that TY-1/90 and DIK-90 strains belong to the genotype VI of NDV and are in close genetic relationship to sub- genotype VIb. TY-1/90 and DIK-90 strains were observed to be genetically unrelated to the earlier Sudanese isolates of 1970/80s and the late of 2000s suggesting a different origin. The close genetic relationship to the European and African pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (PPMV-1) suggests a common ancestor. Dongola, GD.S.1 strains were classified into genotype II that comprises non-pathogenic lentogenic NDV strains. The present genetic classification of NDV isolates of the Sudan provides valuable information on genotypes of NDV. Further molecular epidemiological investigations of the recent outbreaks of Newcastle disease in the Sudan are needed in order to improve the efficiency of control strategies and vaccine development. PMID:27419101

  6. Rehabilitation of the expanded programme on immunization in Sudan following a poliomyelitis outbreak.

    PubMed Central

    ElZein, H. A.; Birmingham, M. E.; Karrar, Z. A.; Elhassan, A. A.; Omer, A.

    1998-01-01

    In 1993 a large outbreak of paralytic poliomyelitis occurred in Sudan as a result of an accumulation of large numbers of susceptible children that was accelerated by faltering immunization services. The extent of the outbreak led to the rapid rehabilitation of Sudan's Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI); the government began financing vaccine purchase, operational aspects of EPI were decentralized, vaccine delivery was changed from a mobile to a fixed-site strategy, a solar cold chain network was installed, inservice training was resuscitated, and social mobilization was enhanced. National immunization days (NIDs) for poliomyelitis eradication were conducted throughout the country, including the southern states during a cease fire in areas of conflict. Measles immunization coverage was increased by offering measles vaccine during the second round of NIDs and subsequently through routine immunization services. Supplemental tetanus toxoid immunization of women of child-bearing age began in three provinces at high risk for neonatal tetanus. From 1994 to 1996 reported immunization coverage increased and the incidence of all EPI target diseases fell. Trends in coverage, disease incidence, financing, and the implementation of WHO-recommended disease-control strategies suggest that more sustainable immunization services have been re-established in Sudan. PMID:9803584

  7. A new multipurpose gamma-irradiation facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huebner, G.

    In the past 3 yr much work has been done in the G.D.R. on food irradiation. The experiments have shown that this treatment gives favourable results in many products such as spices, onions, potatoes, chicken, animal feeds, fodder yeast, drugs and vaccines. Economic aspects of food irradiation require the effective use of an irradiation plant and cobalt-60. Therefore, a new multipurpose irradiation facility was developed, applicable as an onion irradiator with a capacity of about 15 ton/h and for the simultaneous irradiation of different products (spices, animal feed, chicken, etc.) in closed product ☐es with a size of 1.2 m x 1.0 m x 1.2 m. A microcomputer controls the transport of product ☐es around the gamma sources.

  8. Method development and survey of Sudan I–IV in palm oil and chilli spices in the Washington, DC, area

    PubMed Central

    Genualdi, Susie; MacMahon, Shaun; Robbins, Katherine; Farris, Samantha; Shyong, Nicole; DeJager, Lowri

    2016-01-01

    Sudan I, II, III and IV dyes are banned for use as food colorants in the United States and European Union because they are toxic and carcinogenic. These dyes have been illegally used as food additives in products such as chilli spices and palm oil to enhance their red colour. From 2003 to 2005, the European Union made a series of decisions requiring chilli spices and palm oil imported to the European Union to contain analytical reports declaring them free of Sudan I–IV. In order for the USFDA to investigate the adulteration of palm oil and chilli spices with unapproved colour additives in the United States, a method was developed for the extraction and analysis of Sudan dyes in palm oil, and previous methods were validated for Sudan dyes in chilli spices. Both LC-DAD and LC-MS/MS methods were examined for their limitations and effectiveness in identifying adulterated samples. Method validation was performed for both chilli spices and palm oil by spiking samples known to be free of Sudan dyes at concentrations close to the limit of detection. Reproducibility, matrix effects, and selectivity of the method were also investigated. Additionally, for the first time a survey of palm oil and chilli spices was performed in the United States, specifically in the Washington, DC, area. Illegal dyes, primarily Sudan IV, were detected in palm oil at concentrations from 150 to 24 000 ng ml−1. Low concentrations (< 21 μg kg−1) of Sudan dyes were found in 11 out of 57 spices and are most likely a result of cross-contamination during preparation and storage and not intentional adulteration. PMID:26824489

  9. Method development and survey of Sudan I-IV in palm oil and chilli spices in the Washington, DC, area.

    PubMed

    Genualdi, Susie; MacMahon, Shaun; Robbins, Katherine; Farris, Samantha; Shyong, Nicole; DeJager, Lowri

    2016-01-01

    Sudan I, II, III and IV dyes are banned for use as food colorants in the United States and European Union because they are toxic and carcinogenic. These dyes have been illegally used as food additives in products such as chilli spices and palm oil to enhance their red colour. From 2003 to 2005, the European Union made a series of decisions requiring chilli spices and palm oil imported to the European Union to contain analytical reports declaring them free of Sudan I-IV. In order for the USFDA to investigate the adulteration of palm oil and chilli spices with unapproved colour additives in the United States, a method was developed for the extraction and analysis of Sudan dyes in palm oil, and previous methods were validated for Sudan dyes in chilli spices. Both LC-DAD and LC-MS/MS methods were examined for their limitations and effectiveness in identifying adulterated samples. Method validation was performed for both chilli spices and palm oil by spiking samples known to be free of Sudan dyes at concentrations close to the limit of detection. Reproducibility, matrix effects, and selectivity of the method were also investigated. Additionally, for the first time a survey of palm oil and chilli spices was performed in the United States, specifically in the Washington, DC, area. Illegal dyes, primarily Sudan IV, were detected in palm oil at concentrations from 150 to 24 000 ng ml(-1). Low concentrations (< 21 µg kg(-1)) of Sudan dyes were found in 11 out of 57 spices and are most likely a result of cross-contamination during preparation and storage and not intentional adulteration.

  10. Geography and correlates of attitude toward Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) in Sudan: What can we learn from successive Sudan opinion poll data?

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Alexander; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin

    2016-02-01

    In Sudan, prevalence of FGM is declining; likely as a result of changing attitude surrounding FGM, as more women believe the practice should be discontinued amid growing awareness about its health dangers. DFID Sudan opinion poll data collected from 2012 to 2014 was used. Bayesian geo-additive mixed models were used to map the spatial distribution of the likelihood of pro-FGM attitude at the state-level accounting for associated risk factors. During 2012 to 2014, the overall proportion of pro-FGM was 27.5% and 18.3% respectively with striking variations within states. People with pro-FGM attitude were more likely to be un-educated, living in rural settings with strong tribal identity. Individuals from Darfur were more likely to be pro-FGM when compared to the North state. The decrease in the practice of cutting observed between the 2006 and 2010 Sudanese Household Surveys and the resulting shift in attitude make a compelling case for public health policy to eradicate the FGM practice.

  11. Determination of Sudan I in paprika powder by molecularly imprinted polymers-thin layer chromatography-surface enhanced Raman spectroscopic biosensor.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fang; Hu, Yaxi; Chen, Da; Li-Chan, Eunice C Y; Grant, Edward; Lu, Xiaonan

    2015-10-01

    Sudan I is a carcinogenic and mutagenic azo-compound that has been utilized as a common adulterant in spice and spice blends to impart a desirable red color to foods. A novel biosensor combining molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs), thin layer chromatography (TLC) and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) could determine Sudan I levels in paprika powder to 1 ppm (or 2 ng/spot). Sudan I spiked paprika extracts (spiking levels: 0, 1, 5, 10, 40, 70 and 100 ppm) were prepared. Sudan I imprinted polymers were synthesized by employing the interaction between Sudan I (template) and methacrylic acid (functional monomer), followed by washing to remove Sudan I leaving the Sudan I-binding sites exposed. MIPs were used as a stationary phase for TLC and could selectively retain Sudan I at the original spot with little interference. A gold colloid SERS substrate could enhance Raman intensity for Sudan I in this MIP-TLC system. Principal component analysis plot and partial least squares regression (R(2)=0.978) models were constructed and a linear regression model (R(2)=0.983) correlated spiking levels (5, 10, 40, 70 and 100 ppm) with the peak intensities (721 cm(-1)) of Sudan I SERS spectra. Both separation (30-40s) and detection (1s or 0.1s) were extremely fast by using both commercial bench-top and custom made portable Raman spectrometers. This biosensor can be applied as a rapid, low-cost and reliable tool for screening Sudan I adulteration in foods.

  12. Amperometric detection of Sudan I in red chili powder samples using Ag nanoparticles decorated graphene oxide modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Prabakaran, E; Pandian, K

    2015-01-01

    A simple and sensitive electrochemical method was developed to determine the concentration of Sudan I in chili powder based on silver nanoparticles decorated graphene oxide modified glassy carbon electrode (AgNPs@GO/GCE). The voltammetry behaviour of Sudan I on modified GCE was investigated in phosphate buffer medium (PBS) with various pH ranges and the electron transfer properties were studied. It is found that the AgNPs@GO/GCE can catalyse the reduction of azo group, -N=N- followed by electrochemical oxidation of (-)OH group present in Sudan I dye molecule. Quantitative detection of Sudan I present in food products was carried out by amperometry method in which reduction potential was fixed at -0.77 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The amperometry method showed an excellent performance with a sensitivity of 6.83 μA mM(-1) and a detection limit of 11.4 × 10(-7)ML(-1). A linear calibration graph was constructed in the ranging 3.90 × 10(-6) to 3.19 × 10(-5)ML(-1). The method was successfully applied for the determination of Sudan I in red chili powder samples.

  13. Phytosanitary Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Hallman, Guy J.; Blackburn, Carl M.

    2016-01-01

    Phytosanitary treatments disinfest traded commodities of potential quarantine pests. Phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments use ionizing radiation to accomplish this, and, since their international commercial debut in 2004, the use of this technology has increased by ~10% annually. Generic PI treatments (one dose is used for a group of pests and/or commodities, although not all have been tested for efficacy) are used in virtually all commercial PI treatments, and new generic PI doses are proposed, such as 300 Gy, for all insects except pupae and adult Lepidoptera (moths). Fresh fruits and vegetables tolerate PI better than any other broadly used treatment. Advances that would help facilitate the use of PI include streamlining the approval process, making the technology more accessible to potential users, lowering doses and broadening their coverage, and solving potential issues related to factors that might affect efficacy. PMID:28231103

  14. Magnetic/non-magnetic argan press cake nanocellulose for the selective extraction of sudan dyes in food samples prior to the determination by capillary liquid chromatograpy.

    PubMed

    Benmassaoud, Yassine; Villaseñor, María J; Salghi, Rachid; Jodeh, Shehdeh; Algarra, Manuel; Zougagh, Mohammed; Ríos, Ángel

    2017-05-01

    Two methods for the determination of Sudan dyes (Sudan I, Sudan II, Sudan III and Sudan IV) in food samples, by solid phase extraction - capillary liquid chromatography, are proposed. Both methods use nanocellulose (NC) extracted from bleached argan press cake (APC), as a nano-adsorbent recycled from an agricultural waste material. One of the methods involves the dispersion of NC in food sample extracts, along with the waste and eluents being separated by centrifugation. In the other method, NC was modified by magnetic iron nanoparticles before using it in the extraction of Sudan dyes. The use of a magnetic component in the extraction process allows magnetic separation to replace the centrifugation step in a convenient and economical way. The two proposed methods allows the determination of Sudan dye amounts at the 0.25-2.00µgL(-1) concentration range. The limit of detections, limit of quantifications and standard deviations achieved were lower than 0.1µgL(-1), 0.20µgL(-1) and 3.46% respectively, when using NC as a nano-adsorbent, and lower than 0.07µgL(-1), 0.23µgL(-1) and 2.62%, respectively, with the magnetic nanocellulose (MNC) was used. Both methods were applied to the determination of Sudan dyes in barbeque and ketchup sauce samples, obtaining recoveries between 93.4% and 109.6%.

  15. Migration, unemployment and the urban labour market. A case study of the Sudan.

    PubMed

    Oberai, A S

    1977-01-01

    Investigation of migration, unemployment, and the urban labor in Sudan was based on the Household Socioeconomic Survey of Greater Khartoum, conducted in October-November 1974. The survey sample consisted of 15,339 persons, 8904 of whom were natives of the 3 towns (Greater Khartoum) and 6435 were immigrants. Among the latter were 976 children below 12 years of age from whom no migration information was collected. Adult migrants were further subdivided into those who had migrated during the 5 years preceding the survey (947) and those who had migrated 5 or more years previously (4512). During the 5 years preceding the survey, the rate of migration into the 3 towns was of the order of 2.2% per annum. Over 80% of the migrants came from 9 of the 12 northern and central provinces. The 3 southern provinces contributed few migrants to the area. 47% of the recent migrants stated that their last place of residence had been a rural area; 53% reported an urban area. Among recent migrants, 69% of the males and 67% of the females were between the ages of 15-29. Only 4% of the males and 11% of the females were over 50. The migrants had a significantly higher level of education than the average population in the northern and central provinces where most of them originated, but this does not mean that they were necessarily better educated than the native population of the 3 towns. Of the 947 recent migrants, 354 had been working before the move. Of these the great majority, 73% had been in agriculture, 8% in services, 6% in trade, and 3% in construction. 18% of those working before the move were private employees, 6% government employees, and the remaining 76% either self employed or unpaid family workers. In this last category 82% of the self employed and 97% of the unpaid family workers had been in agriculture. The principal pull factors seemed to have been higher average annual earnings, job availability, better educational opportunities, and the low cost of migration due to the

  16. Incidence and survival rates of ovarian cancer in low-income women in Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Abuidris, Dafalla O.; Weng, Hsin-Yi; Elhaj, Ahmed M.; Eltayeb, Elgaylani Abdallah; Elsanousi, Mohamed; Ibnoof, Rehab S.; Mohammed, Sulma I.

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the second most common gynecological cancer worldwide. Little is known about the disease in Sudan. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the incidence rate, age and stage at diagnosis, and median survival time of patients presenting at the National Cancer Institute-University of Gezira (NCI-UG), Sudan. Data were collected in a prospective study of women with ovarian cancer over a period of eleven years of follow-up (between 2000 and 2011). Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the distribution of the demographics of the sample. The direct method was used to compute the age-standardized rate (ASR) using data from the 1966 and 2000 World Standard Populations (WSPs). The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate survival functions and the median survival time. Log-rank tests were used to statistically compare between the survival functions. There were steady increases in ovarian cancer incidence rates between 2000 and 2009, with a slight decline noted in 2010 and 2011. The patients' age range was 9–90. The age-specific incidence rate increased greatly in women aged 55 years or older. The majority of the patients had stage III or IV disease. The annual ASR using WSPs 1966 and 2000 as standard populations were 3.3 and 3.7 per 100,000 women, respectively. The median survival time was 31 months (95% confidence interval, 19–43). The 5-year cumulative survival rate was 38%. In Sudan, ovarian cancer affects postmenopausal women, akin to what is reported in the developed world with high incidence rates. Presenting with advanced stage disease is the predominant factor that results in a short survival time for women. PMID:28105363

  17. A Single Lineage of Hepatitis E Virus Causes both Outbreaks and Sporadic Hepatitis in Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Elduma, Adel Hussein; Zein, Mai Mohammed Adam; Karlsson, Marie; Elkhidir, Isam M.E.; Norder, Heléne

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have reported sporadic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections during non-outbreak periods in Africa. In this study, the prevalence of HEV infection in Sudan was investigated in 432 patients with acute hepatitis from 12 localities in North Kordofan, and from 152 patients involved in smaller outbreaks of hepatitis in the neighbouring Darfur. HEV infection was diagnosed in 147 (25%) patients: 98 from Kordofan and 49 from Darfur. The mortality was 10%; six of the patients who died from the infection were pregnant women. HEV RNA was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in 38 (26%) patients: 22 from Kordofan and 16 from Darfur. Partial open reading frame (ORF) 1 and ORF2 were sequenced from HEV from nine and three patients, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Sudanese strains belonged to genotype 1 (HEV1), and confirmed the segregation of African HEV1 strains into one branch divergent from Asian HEV1. It also revealed that the Sudanese strains from this study and from an outbreak in 2004 formed a separate clade with a common ancestor, distinct from strains from the neighbouring Chad and Egypt. This HEV strain has thus spread in a large area of Sudan, where it has caused both sporadic hepatitis E and outbreaks from at least 2004 and onwards. These data demonstrate that hepatitis E is a constant, on-going public health problem in Sudan and that there is a need for hepatitis E surveillance, outbreak preparedness, and general improvements of the sanitation in these remote areas of the country. PMID:27782061

  18. Sources of Sahelian-Sudan moisture: Insights from a moisture-tracing atmospheric model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salih, Abubakr A. M.; Zhang, Qiong; Pausata, Francesco S. R.; Tjernström, Michael

    2016-07-01

    The summer rainfall across Sahelian-Sudan is one of the main sources of water for agriculture, human, and animal needs. However, the rainfall is characterized by large interannual variability, which has attracted extensive scientific efforts to understand it. This study attempts to identify the source regions that contribute to the Sahelian-Sudan moisture budget during July through September. We have used an atmospheric general circulation model with an embedded moisture-tracing module (Community Atmosphere Model version 3), forced by observed (1979-2013) sea-surface temperatures. The result suggests that about 40% of the moisture comes with the moisture flow associated with the seasonal migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and originates from Guinea Coast, central Africa, and the Western Sahel. The Mediterranean Sea, Arabian Peninsula, and South Indian Ocean regions account for 10.2%, 8.1%, and 6.4%, respectively. Local evaporation and the rest of the globe supply the region with 20.3% and 13.2%, respectively. We also compared the result from this study to a previous analysis that used the Lagrangian model FLEXPART forced by ERA-Interim. The two approaches differ when comparing individual regions, but are in better agreement when neighboring regions of similar atmospheric flow features are grouped together. Interannual variability with the rainfall over the region is highly correlated with contributions from regions that are associated with the ITCZ movement, which is in turn linked to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. Our result is expected to provide insights for the effort on seasonal forecasting of the rainy season over Sahelian Sudan.

  19. Analysis of pedestrian accident costs in Sudan using the willingness-to-pay method.

    PubMed

    Mofadal, Adam I A; Kanitpong, Kunnawee; Jiwattanakulpaisarn, Piyapong

    2015-05-01

    The willingness-to-pay (WTP) with contingent valuation (CV) method has been proven to be a valid tool for the valuation of non-market goods or socio-economic costs of road traffic accidents among communities in developed and developing countries. Research on accident costing tends to estimate the value of statistical life (VOSL) for all road users by providing a principle for the evaluation of road safety interventions in cost-benefit analysis. As in many other developing countries, the economic loss of traffic accidents in Sudan is noticeable; however, analytical research to estimate the magnitude and impact of that loss is lacking. Reports have shown that pedestrians account for more than 40% of the total number of fatalities. In this study, the WTP-CV approach was used to determine the amount of money that pedestrians in Sudan are willing to pay to reduce the risk of their own death. The impact of the socioeconomic factors, risk levels, and walking behaviors of pedestrians on their WTP for fatality risk reduction was also evaluated. Data were collected from two cities-Khartoum and Nyala-using a survey questionnaire that included 1400 respondents. The WTP-CV Payment Card Questionnaire was designed to ensure that Sudan pedestrians can easily determine the amount of money that would be required to reduce the fatality risk from a pedestrian-related accident. The analysis results show that the estimated VOSL for Sudanese pedestrians ranges from US$0.019 to US$0.101 million. In addition, the willingness-to-pay by Sudanese pedestrians to reduce their fatality risk tends to increase with age, household income, educational level, safety perception, and average time spent on social activities with family and community.

  20. Deforestation and greenhouse gas emissions associated with fuelwood consumption of the brick making industry in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Alam, Syed Ashraful; Starr, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The study focuses on the role of the fired clay brick making industry (BMI) on deforestation and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Sudan. The BMI is based on numerous kilns that use biomass fuel, mainly wood which is largely harvested unsustainably. This results in potential deforestation and land degradation. Fuelwood consumption data was collected using interviews and questionnaires from 25 BMI enterprises in three administrative regions, namely Khartoum, Kassala and Gezira. Annual fuelwood consumption data (t dm yr(-1)) was converted into harvested biomass (m(3)) using a wood density value of 0.65 t dm m(-3). For annual GHG estimations, the methodological approach outlined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was used. According to our results, the annual deforestation associated with the BMI for the whole of Sudan is 508.4x10(3) m(3) of wood biomass, including 267.6x10(3) m(3) round wood and 240.8x10(3) m(3) branches and small trees. Total GHG emissions from the Sudanese BMI are estimated at 378028 t CO(2), 15554 t CO, 1778 t CH(4), 442 t NO(X), 288 t NO and 12 t N(2)O per annum. The combined CO(2)-equivalent (global warming potential for 100-year time horizon) of the GHG emissions (excluding NO(X) and NO) is 455666 t yr(-1). While these emissions form only a small part of Sudan's total GHG emissions, the associated deforestation and land degradation is of concern and effort should be made for greater use of sustainable forest resources and management.

  1. Determining the effect of climate change and development on water resources management in the Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satti, S.; Zaitchik, B.; Siddiqui, S.

    2013-12-01

    The effects of development and the uncertainty of climate change in East Africa provide a myriad of challenges for water managers along the Blue Nile. The construction of the Grand renaissance dam (GRD), as well as the unknown trajectory of precipitation trends in the Ethiopian highlands may greatly affect the countries that rely on the Nile. Sudan's huge irrigation potential and dams that feed multiple current irrigation schemes as well as its location within the basin means that Sudan's water management decisions may reverberate and have social, economic and political implications within the east African sub-region. Here, we apply a suite of state-of-the-art hydrology and climate analysis tools to evaluate the sensitivity of Sudan's optimal hydropower and irrigation development pathways to hydrologic variability and climate change. Present day hydrologic conditions are derived from a gridded implementation of the Noah Land Surface Model (LSM) that includes representation of typical irrigation practices in the region. Noah is implemented using the NASA Land Information System (LIS), and draws forcing data from a combination of reanalysis and satellite meteorological products. Additional satellite inputs are used to provide a constraint on Noah evapotranspiration estimates and to acquire parameters such as crop water requirements that are crucial in determining yield and agricultural production. Future climate conditions are projected using statistical downscaling techniques trained to historical meteorological records and projected forward using inputs from the 5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) simulation database. These climatic and hydrologic inputs are combined with agronomic and economic inputs to drive an optimization model developed within the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS). By using output and results from climate, hydrologic and optimization models this research aims to show how these models can be integrated to aid decision

  2. Guinea worm disease in Ayod, Upper Nile Province, southern Sudan: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Guthmann, J P; Mercer, A J; Gandubert, C; Morin, F

    1996-02-01

    Upper Nile Province is one of the four main endemic areas for Guinea worm disease in the Sudan. In December 1994, a survey was conducted in the village of Ayod where the disease is endemic, to investigate morbidity and local knowledge of transmission and prevention. Interviews were conducted in households selected by standard cluster sampling procedures and of the 759 people examined, 156 (20.6%) had Guinea worm lesions. Adjusted odds ratios were used to estimate the relative risk for people with different personal or household characteristics in a multivariate analysis. After controlling for the possible confounding effects of other study variables, having a filter in the household, gender, and lack of knowledge about transmission and about prevention, were not associated with lesions. Only two variables were significantly associated with Guinea worm disease: getting water from a source other than a well increased the risk by a factor of 2.3, and being aged 5 years or more increased the risk by a factor of 31.1. This study demonstrates the clear association between the source of water for drinking and Guinea worm disease found elsewhere. We suggest the provision of reliable sources of pure drinking water and health education are the most suitable long-term preventive measures. The Sudan now represents the greatest challenge to the goal of global eradication of Guinea worm disease, following the reduction in cases in Nigeria. The continuing civil war and insecurity in southern Sudan hinder the implementation of an effective water programme and other control measures, but the potential benefits through reduced incapacity and improved agricultural productivity are considerable.

  3. Characterization and occurrence of squash chlorotic leaf spot virus, a tentative new torradovirus infecting cucurbits in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Lecoq, H; Verdin, E; Tepfer, M; Wipf-Scheibel, C; Millot, P; Dafalla, G; Desbiez, C

    2016-06-01

    During a survey conducted in Sudan in 2012, a virus with spherical particles was isolated from a squash plant showing chlorotic leaf spots. The virus was transmitted mechanically and by two whitefly species, but not by aphids. RT-PCR with generic torradovirus primers yielded a band of expected size from total RNA of a symptomatic plant. Next-generation sequencing confirmed that this is tentatively a new torradovirus, for which we propose the name 'squash chlorotic leaf spot virus'. Using specific RT-PCR primers, the virus was detected in cucurbit samples collected since 1992 at different locations in Sudan.

  4. The Guruswami--Sudan Decoding Algorithm for Reed--Solomon Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEliece, R. J.

    2003-01-01

    This article is a tutorial discussion of the Guruswami-Sudan (GS) Reed-Solomon decoding algorithm, including self-contained treatments of the Kotter and Roth-Ruckenstein (RR) improvements. It also contains a number of new results, including a rigorous discussion of the average size of the decoder's list, an improvement in the RR algorithm's stopping rule, a simplified treatment of the combinatorics of weighted monomial orders, and a proof of the monotonicity of the GS decoding radius as a function of the interpolation multiplicity.

  5. Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus vector mediates postexposure protection against Sudan Ebola hemorrhagic fever in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Geisbert, Thomas W; Daddario-DiCaprio, Kathleen M; Williams, Kinola J N; Geisbert, Joan B; Leung, Anders; Feldmann, Friederike; Hensley, Lisa E; Feldmann, Heinz; Jones, Steven M

    2008-06-01

    Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) vectors expressing homologous filoviral glycoproteins can completely protect rhesus monkeys against Marburg virus when administered after exposure and can partially protect macaques after challenge with Zaire ebolavirus. Here, we administered a VSV vector expressing the Sudan ebolavirus (SEBOV) glycoprotein to four rhesus macaques shortly after exposure to SEBOV. All four animals survived SEBOV challenge, while a control animal that received a nonspecific vector developed fulminant SEBOV hemorrhagic fever and succumbed. This is the first demonstration of complete postexposure protection against an Ebola virus in nonhuman primates and provides further evidence that postexposure vaccination may have utility in treating exposures to filoviruses.

  6. Identification of Striga hermonthica-Resistant Upland Rice Varieties in Sudan and Their Resistance Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Samejima, Hiroaki; Babiker, Abdel G.; Mustafa, Ahmed; Sugimoto, Yukihiro

    2016-01-01

    Rice has become a major staple cereal in sub-Saharan Africa. Currently, upland rice cultivation is expanding particularly in rainfed areas where the root parasitic weed Striga hermonthica, a major constraint to cereal production, is endemic. Laboratory, pot, and semi-controlled open air experiments were performed to evaluate resistance of selected rice varieties in Sudan to a resident S. hermonthica population. In the laboratory, 27 varieties were screened for post-attachment resistance using the rhizotron technique. Varieties displaying high post-attachment resistance, Umgar, NERICA5, and NERICA13 together with NERICA4, NERICA18, and Nipponbare, a lowland rice variety, were further evaluated for performance and Striga resistance in pot and semi-controlled open air experiments and for germination inducing activity in a laboratory. In addition, comparative studies on reaction of Umgar, Kosti1 and Kosti2, released varieties for commercial production in Sudan, to the parasite were performed in two pot experiments. In the pot experiments Umgar and NERICA5, consistently, sustained the lowest Striga emergence (<2.2 Striga plants per pot), while NERICA13 and NERICA4 supported 1.8–5.7 and 8.7–16.4 Striga plants per pot, respectively. In an artificially Striga-infested field, number of emergent Striga plants per 10 rice hills, at harvest, was 2.0, 2.0, 4.8, 13.5, 13.3, and 18.3 on Umgar, NERICA5, NERICA13, NERICA4, NERICA18, and Nipponbare, respectively. Striga had no adverse effects on total above-ground parts and panicle dry weight in Umgar and NERICA5. Germination-inducing activity of root exudates, at 14 days after sowing onward, was markedly lower for Umgar than for NERICA5, NERICA13, NERICA4, and NERICA18. Based on these findings, Umgar has both pre and post-attachment resistance to a resident Striga population in Sudan. Kosti1 and Kosti2 did not exhibit Striga-resistance at the same level as Umgar. Further the resistance of NERICA5, a variety reported to be

  7. Sudan: The Darfur Crisis and the Status of the North-South Negotiations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-10-22

    areas as well as in areas susceptible to attacks.” This means the government of Sudan could deploy forces near or in SLA-controlled areas, where there...Darfur. The term “ethnic cleansing” originated during the Bosnian conflict of the early 1990s, evolving from a military term meaning “to clear the land...Article 2 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide states that “in the present Convention, genocide means any of the

  8. Identification of Striga hermonthica-Resistant Upland Rice Varieties in Sudan and Their Resistance Phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Samejima, Hiroaki; Babiker, Abdel G; Mustafa, Ahmed; Sugimoto, Yukihiro

    2016-01-01

    Rice has become a major staple cereal in sub-Saharan Africa. Currently, upland rice cultivation is expanding particularly in rainfed areas where the root parasitic weed Striga hermonthica, a major constraint to cereal production, is endemic. Laboratory, pot, and semi-controlled open air experiments were performed to evaluate resistance of selected rice varieties in Sudan to a resident S. hermonthica population. In the laboratory, 27 varieties were screened for post-attachment resistance using the rhizotron technique. Varieties displaying high post-attachment resistance, Umgar, NERICA5, and NERICA13 together with NERICA4, NERICA18, and Nipponbare, a lowland rice variety, were further evaluated for performance and Striga resistance in pot and semi-controlled open air experiments and for germination inducing activity in a laboratory. In addition, comparative studies on reaction of Umgar, Kosti1 and Kosti2, released varieties for commercial production in Sudan, to the parasite were performed in two pot experiments. In the pot experiments Umgar and NERICA5, consistently, sustained the lowest Striga emergence (<2.2 Striga plants per pot), while NERICA13 and NERICA4 supported 1.8-5.7 and 8.7-16.4 Striga plants per pot, respectively. In an artificially Striga-infested field, number of emergent Striga plants per 10 rice hills, at harvest, was 2.0, 2.0, 4.8, 13.5, 13.3, and 18.3 on Umgar, NERICA5, NERICA13, NERICA4, NERICA18, and Nipponbare, respectively. Striga had no adverse effects on total above-ground parts and panicle dry weight in Umgar and NERICA5. Germination-inducing activity of root exudates, at 14 days after sowing onward, was markedly lower for Umgar than for NERICA5, NERICA13, NERICA4, and NERICA18. Based on these findings, Umgar has both pre and post-attachment resistance to a resident Striga population in Sudan. Kosti1 and Kosti2 did not exhibit Striga-resistance at the same level as Umgar. Further the resistance of NERICA5, a variety reported to be endowed

  9. Exposure to pesticides in agriculture: a survey of spraymen using dimethoate in the Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Copplestone, J. F.; Fakhri, Z. I.; Miles, J. W.; Mitchell, C. A.; Osman, Y.; Wolfe, H. R.

    1976-01-01

    There is a need for objective data on the exposure of spraymen to pesticides in agriculture in order to assess minimum requirements for practicable protection in tropical areas. To provide data, a survey was carried out in the Sudan on spraymen using dimethoate. No cholinesterase depressions were found and the calculated dose received by each man per day was within safe limits in the circumstances of this survey. Respiratory exposure was only a minor part of total exposure. The methodology of such surveys is discussed and the need for the use of a standard protocol is emphasized. PMID:1088104

  10. Pan-ebolavirus and Pan-filovirus Mouse Monoclonal Antibodies: Protection against Ebola and Sudan Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Holtsberg, Frederick W.; Shulenin, Sergey; Vu, Hong; Howell, Katie A.; Patel, Sonal J.; Gunn, Bronwyn; Karim, Marcus; Lai, Jonathan R.; Frei, Julia C.; Nyakatura, Elisabeth K.; Zeitlin, Larry; Douglas, Robin; Fusco, Marnie L.; Froude, Jeffrey W.; Saphire, Erica Ollmann; Herbert, Andrew S.; Wirchnianski, Ariel S.; Lear-Rooney, Calli M.; Alter, Galit; Dye, John M.; Glass, Pamela J.; Warfield, Kelly L.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The unprecedented 2014-2015 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa has highlighted the need for effective therapeutics against filoviruses. Monoclonal antibody (MAb) cocktails have shown great potential as EVD therapeutics; however, the existing protective MAbs are virus species specific. Here we report the development of pan-ebolavirus and pan-filovirus antibodies generated by repeated immunization of mice with filovirus glycoproteins engineered to drive the B cell responses toward conserved epitopes. Multiple pan-ebolavirus antibodies were identified that react to the Ebola, Sudan, Bundibugyo, and Reston viruses. A pan-filovirus antibody that was reactive to the receptor binding regions of all filovirus glycoproteins was also identified. Significant postexposure efficacy of several MAbs, including a novel antibody cocktail, was demonstrated. For the first time, we report cross-neutralization and in vivo protection against two highly divergent filovirus species, i.e., Ebola virus and Sudan virus, with a single antibody. Competition studies indicate that this antibody targets a previously unrecognized conserved neutralizing epitope that involves the glycan cap. Mechanistic studies indicated that, besides neutralization, innate immune cell effector functions may play a role in the antiviral activity of the antibodies. Our findings further suggest critical novel epitopes that can be utilized to design effective cocktails for broad protection against multiple filovirus species. IMPORTANCE Filoviruses represent a major public health threat in Africa and an emerging global concern. Largely driven by the U.S. biodefense funding programs and reinforced by the 2014 outbreaks, current immunotherapeutics are primarily focused on a single filovirus species called Ebola virus (EBOV) (formerly Zaire Ebola virus). However, other filoviruses including Sudan, Bundibugyo, and Marburg viruses have caused human outbreaks with mortality rates as high as 90%. Thus

  11. Use of Irradiated Foods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brynjolfsson, A.

    1985-01-01

    The safety of irradiated foods is reviewed. Guidelines and regulations for processing irradiated foods are considered. The radiolytic products formed in food when it is irradiated and its wholesomeness is discussed. It is concluded that food irradiation processing is not a panacea for all problems in food processing but when properly used will serve the space station well.

  12. [Determination of four Sudan dyes in chili oil by high performance liquid chromatography with on-line photochemical derivatization and fluorescence detection].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Gong, Zhenbin

    2012-06-01

    A method for the measurement of Sudan I, Sudan II, Sudan III and Sudan B in chili oil using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with on-line photochemical derivatization and fluorescence detection has been developed. The Sudan dyes were separated on an SB-C18 column in a single run by the mixed mobile phase of acetonitrile-water with a gradient program. A laboratory-built time/energy programmed photochemical reactor (PCR) with an ultraviolet mercury lamp was installed between a photodiode array detector (PDA) and a fluorescence detector (FLD), and it was applied to convert the non-or weakly fluorescent Sudan dyes into fluorescence emission components. The photochemical derivatization conditions and fluorescence detection parameters have been investigated and optimized. The recoveries of the standards spiked in real chili oil samples for all the dyes were 81.3% - 100.4%. The relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 6) of the fluorescence signal intensity at the spiked level of 0.8 mg/kg were 2.6% - 3.8%. The limits of detection (LODs) were in the range of 0.009 - 0.054 mg/kg and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were 0.030 - 0.181 mg/kg, which were better than those of the commonly used HPLC coupled with PDA. The developed method which is simple, sensitive, and selective can be applied to the routine analysis of Sudan dyes.

  13. Research in the Sudan on child and family concerns.

    PubMed

    Grotberg, E H

    1983-01-01

    This paper examines research by Sudanese university students on: 1) indigenous childrearing practices and their implications for parent education; 2) female circumcision and changes in that practice; and 3) problems in providing adequate services for handicapped children. Various aspects of childrearing practices such as maternal warmth, feeding and weaning, toilet training, discipline, sex and sex roles, and maternal reactions to children's curiosity were observed. 150 mothers of 5-year-old children were studied using an interview schedule modeled after Robert Sears of Harvard University. The mothers were from 2 urban groups and 1 rural group. The research has led to development of parent education curricula. 150 third year urban high school girls were interviewed regarding female circumcision. The study found that although about 96% of the students had had some form of female circumcision performed on them, they opposed its being performed on sisters and other young girls (71.3% and 70%, respectively). The study (1983) shows that the most severe form, pharaonic circumcision, takes place 30% of the time, the intermediate form is done 60% of the time, while the Sunna, least radical form, accounts for 11% of circumcisions. There is a trend toward extinction of circumcision in urban areas while the direction of change in rural areas is not as clear. Interest in handicapped children is recent and much more work is needed to honor their rights adequately. Special education programs do exist for blind, physically handicapped, deaf, speech and hearing impaired children. A Directorate of Special Education was established in 1980 in the Ministry of Education. A survey of selected facilities reveals a need for more trained teachers and social workers, more services, better family-institution relationships, more financial resources and transportation, and more educational materials. Minimal government interest, inappropriate curriculum and insufficient number of special

  14. Yield and quality attributes of faba bean inbred lines grown under marginal environmental conditions of Sudan.

    PubMed

    Gasim, Seif; Hamad, Solafa A A; Abdelmula, Awadalla; Mohamed Ahmed, Isam A

    2015-11-01

    Faba beans (Vicia faba L.) represent an essential source of food protein for many people in Sudan, especially those who cannot afford to buy animal meat. The demand for faba bean seeds is greatly increased in recent years, and consequently its production area was extended southward where the climate is marginally suitable. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate seed yield and nutritional quality of five faba bean inbred lines grown under marginal environmental conditions of Sudan. The inbred lines have considerable (P ≤ 0.05) variability in yield and yield components, and seed chemical composition. The mean carbohydrate content was very high (501.1 g kg(-1)) and negatively correlated with seed yield, whereas the average protein content was relatively high (253.1 g kg(-1)) and positively correlated with seed yield. Globulin was the significant fraction (613.5 g kg(-1)protein) followed by albumin (200.2 g kg(-1)protein). Biplot analysis indicates that inbred lines Hudeiba/93-S5 and Ed-damar-S5 outscore other lines in terms of seed yield and nutritional quality. This study demonstrates that Hudeiba/93-S5 and Ed-damar-S5 are useful candidates in faba bean breeding program to terminate the protein deficiency malnutrition and provide healthy and nutritious meal for people living in subtropical areas.

  15. Prevalence of protozoa species in drinking and environmental water sources in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Shanan, Salah; Abd, Hadi; Bayoumi, Magdi; Saeed, Amir; Sandström, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    Protozoa are eukaryotic cells distributed worldwide in nature and are receiving increasing attention as reservoirs and potential vectors for the transmission of pathogenic bacteria. In the environment, on the other hand, many genera of the protozoa are human and animal pathogens. Only limited information is available on these organisms in developing countries and so far no information on their presence is available from Sudan. It is necessary to establish a molecular identification of species of the protozoa from drinking and environmental water. 600 water samples were collected from five states (Gadarif, Khartoum, Kordofan, Juba, and Wad Madani) in Sudan and analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. 57 out of 600 water samples were PCR positive for protozoa. 38 out of the 57 positive samples were identified by sequencing to contain 66 protozoa species including 19 (28.8%) amoebae, 17 (25.7%) Apicomplexa, 25 (37.9%) ciliates, and 5 (7.6%) flagellates. This study utilized molecular methods identified species belonging to all phyla of protozoa and presented a fast and accurate molecular detection and identification of pathogenic as well as free-living protozoa in water uncovering hazards facing public health.

  16. Thirty-Seven Human Cases of Sparganosis from Ethiopia and South Sudan Caused by Spirometra Spp.

    PubMed

    Eberhard, Mark L; Thiele, Elizabeth A; Yembo, Gole E; Yibi, Makoy S; Cama, Vitaliano A; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto

    2015-08-01

    Thirty-seven unusual specimens, three from Ethiopia and 34 from South Sudan, were submitted since 2012 for further identification by the Ethiopian Dracunculiasis Eradication Program (EDEP) and the South Sudan Guinea Worm Eradication Program (SSGWEP), respectively. Although the majority of specimens emerged from sores or breaks in the skin, there was concern that they did not represent bona fide cases of Dracunculus medinensis and that they needed detailed examination and identification as provided by the World Health Organization Collaborating Center (WHO CC) at Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). All 37 specimens were identified on microscopic study as larval tapeworms of the spargana type, and DNA sequence analysis of seven confirmed the identification of Spirometra sp. Age of cases ranged between 7 and 70 years (mean 25 years); 21 (57%) patients were male and 16 were female. The presence of spargana in open skin lesions is somewhat atypical, but does confirm the fact that populations living in these remote areas are either ingesting infected copepods in unsafe drinking water or, more likely, eating poorly cooked paratenic hosts harboring the parasite.

  17. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium Infection among Inhabitants of 2 Rural Areas in White Nile State, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Sim, Seobo; Yu, Jae-Ran; Lee, Young-Ha; Lee, Jin-Su; Jeong, Hoo-Gn; Mohamed, Abd Al Wahab Saed; Hong, Sung-Tae

    2015-12-01

    Cryptosporidium , a protozoan parasite that causes watery diarrhea, is found worldwide and is common in areas with low water hygiene. In February 2014, 866 stool samples were collected from the inhabitants of 2 rural areas in White Nile State, Sudan. These stool samples were assessed by performing modified acid-fast staining, followed by examination under a light microscope. The overall positive rate of Cryptosporidium oocysts was 13.3%. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in 8.6% stool samples obtained from inhabitants living in the area having water purification systems and in 14.6% stool samples obtained from inhabitants living in the area not having water purification systems. No significant difference was observed in the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection between men and women (14.7% and 14.1%, respectively). The positive rate of oocysts by age was the highest among inhabitants in their 60s (40.0%). These findings suggest that the use of water purification systems is important for preventing Cryptosporidium infection among inhabitants of these rural areas in Sudan.

  18. Controlling medicine prices in Sudan: the challenge of the recently established medicines regulatory authority.

    PubMed

    Ali, G K M; Yahia, Y

    2012-08-01

    This study evaluated the capacity of the medicine pricing mechanism of the National Medicines and Poisons Board (NMPB), the medicine regulatory agency of Sudan, in controlling prices of imported medicines. The study was conducted between July and September 2008 and data on the 50 most sold medicines in 2007 were obtained from the records of the regulatory authority and pharmacies in Khartoum; 135 products were included. The cost and freight (C&F) prices of 23% of the selected medicines approved by NMPB were over 10 times the International Reference Price; 71% of these items were generics. The wholesale price of only 40% of the studied medicines was less than that approved by NMPB, while the retail price of 47% of medicines was less than that approved by the authority. The retail price of 11 of 12 originator medicines was equal to or more than their prices published in the British National Formulary. The price of the medicines distributed by Central Medical Supplies was about 2-fold their C&F price. The current pricing system is of limited benefit in controlling medicine prices in Sudan.

  19. Interactions and Pastoralism Along the Southern and Southeastern Frontiers of the Meroitic State, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Brass, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The Nilotic Meroitic state, in what is now the Sudan, existed from the late fourth century BC until the mid fourth century AD. It has come to be regarded in recent years as an African segmentary state with a prestige-goods economy, less centralised than, for example, Egypt, with direct control by the ruling family diminished outside the Shendi Reach (central Sudan). Outbound trade from its capital Meroe included ebony, elephants, gold, iron, ivory and ostrich feathers. Trade routes criss-crossed the desert and extended down the Nile river to Greco-Roman Egypt, as well as through Red Sea ports to several Middle Eastern destinations including Egypt. Using the southern and southeastern reaches of the Meroitic state as a case study, I argue that to conceptualise the frontier peripheries of early states as borders is to misunderstand their internal dynamics (movements of people, fluid social networks and regional exchange systems). Each region had its own distinctive form of power relations. Examining how communities in these frontier zones were constituted, inscribed their identities in the landscape and facilitated trade in relation to the core of the Meroitic state in the Shendi Reach draws attention to the fluidity and continual renegotiation of state-pastoral relations.

  20. Aiding refugees in the aftermath of civil war. Country focus: Sudan.

    PubMed

    1996-10-01

    There are an estimated 150,000 people infected with HIV in Sudan, including 3000 children; a prevalence of 0.6%. In 1995, 196 of 22,278 blood donors screened were HIV seropositive. This latter figure is high compared to other survey findings. The long civil war in the country has caused an estimated 1.9 million people to be displaced in and around Khartoum, the capital. The majority of these people live in four camps which will most likely remain inhabited and where they are for many more years. The UK branch of the Save the Children Fund is funding a 2-year, $12,000 project to raise awareness in the camps of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. A survey will assess the level of condom use and determine which traditional practices may facilitate transmission of HIV. Communication channels and preferred sources of information in the camps will then be identified. Camp health workers will be trained in counseling, health education, and sexually transmitted disease and HIV/AIDS case management. Volunteer health workers and community motivators will be recruited from among the refugees. Sudan's health infrastructure needs to be improved in order to prevent any increase in the incidence and prevalence of HIV/AIDS in the country.

  1. Laboratory diagnosis of Ebola hemorrhagic fever during an outbreak in Yambio, Sudan, 2004.

    PubMed

    Onyango, Clayton O; Opoka, Martin L; Ksiazek, Thomas G; Formenty, Pierre; Ahmed, Abdullahi; Tukei, Peter M; Sang, Rosemary C; Ofula, Victor O; Konongoi, Samson L; Coldren, Rodney L; Grein, Thomas; Legros, Dominique; Bell, Mike; De Cock, Kevin M; Bellini, William J; Towner, Jonathan S; Nichol, Stuart T; Rollin, Pierre E

    2007-11-15

    Between the months of April and June 2004, an Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) outbreak was reported in Yambio county, southern Sudan. Blood samples were collected from a total of 36 patients with suspected EHF and were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for immunoglobulin G and M antibodies, antigen ELISA, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of a segment of the Ebolavirus (EBOV) polymerase gene. A total of 13 patients were confirmed to be infected with EBOV. In addition, 4 fatal cases were classified as probable cases, because no samples were collected. Another 12 patients were confirmed to have acute measles infection during the same period that EBOV was circulating. Genetic analysis of PCR-positive samples indicated that the virus was similar to but distinct from Sudan EBOV Maleo 1979. In response, case management, social mobilization, and follow-up of contacts were set up as means of surveillance. The outbreak was declared to be over on 7 August 2004.

  2. Leishmania donovani: genetic diversity of isolates from Sudan characterized by PCR-based RAPD.

    PubMed

    Hamad, S H; Khalil, E A G; Musa, A M; Ibrahim, M E; Younis, B M; Elfaki, M E E; El-Hassan, A M

    2010-08-01

    Drug unresponsiveness in patients with visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a problem in many endemic areas. This study aimed to determine genetic diversity of Leishmania donovani isolates from a VL endemic area in Sudan as a possible explanation for drug unresponsiveness in some patients. Thirty clinically stibogluconate (SSG)-sensitive isolates were made SSG-unresponsive in vitro by gradually increasing SSG concentrations. The sensitive isolates and their SSG-unresponsive counterparts were typed using mini-circle kDNA and categorized using PCR-RAPD. All the isolates were typed as L. donovani, the resulting PCR-RAPD characterization of the SSG-sensitive isolates gave three distinct primary genotypes while, the SSG-unresponsive isolates showed only a single band. L. donovani isolates from eastern Sudan are diverse; this probably resulted from emergence of new L. donovani strains during epidemics due to the pressure of widespread use of antimonials. In this communication the possible role of isolates diversity in antimonial unresponsiveness and the in vitro changing PCR-RAPD band pattern in SSG-unresponsive strains were discussed.

  3. Geoarchaeological investigation at Al-Khiday (central Sudan): late Quaternary palaeoenvironment and site formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerboni, Andrea; Usai, Donatella; Salvatori, Sandro

    2010-05-01

    The micromorphological investigation on several pluristratified archaeological sites in central Sudan (Al-Khiday, left bank of the White Nile, Khartoum region, Sudan) permitted to elucidate depositional and post-depositional processes playing a role in the formation and preservation of the archaeological record. At Al-Khiday sites are located at the top of small mounds, representing the remains of Pleistocene sandy fluvial bars, and were attended since the beginning of the Holocene. The first occupation of the area corresponds to a pre-Mesolithic cemetery; than Mesolithic groups lived upon the mounds and their occupation is testified by several archaeological features: pits filled by ash and bones and living floors. Preserved Neolithic features are scarce and limited to few graves (V millennium BC). After this phase, a long gap in human attendance is registered, during which wind continued to dismantling the mounds and the sites; at ca. 2000 years BP Meroitic/Post-Meroitic groups built their tombs at the top of the archaeological sequences and altered most of the stratigraphic record. Thanks to micromorphology, it was possible to distinguish between archaeological strata still in situ and those disturbed by natural and anthropic processes; furthermore, this approach allowed to interpret the significance of several archaeological features (living floors, fireplaces, and garbage pits). In this case micromorphology of archaeological deposits was a key tool to reconstruct the depositional and post-depositional processes that contributed to the formation and preservation of the archaeological record.

  4. Awareness and practice of patients' rights among hospitalized patients at Wad-Medani Teaching Hospital, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Younis, Abobaker A H; Hassan, Amal H A; Dmyatti, Eylaph M E H; Elmubarak, Mehad A H; Alterife, Rahma A A; Salim, Rawan E O; Mohamed, Samar A B; Ahmed, Wefag S A M

    2017-03-30

    Patients' rights are a fundamental human right and an important part of modern health care practice. This is a cross-sectional descriptive analytic study, conducted amongst 263 patients at Wadi-Medani Teaching Hospital, Sudan, in March-April 2015. Most patients (95.2%) did not know about the Bill of Rights and most of them (92.8%) were not able to mention any of the patients' rights. The most practiced rights were: the right to be asked for permission before examination (88.1%), proper handling (87.8%), safety of the hospital (87%), presence of a third person when examining a female by a male doctor (85.6%), and admission file confidentiality (75.5%). The awareness of Sudan FMOH Patients' Bill of Rights was very low among patients at Wad-Medani Teaching Hospital, yet they showed a high satisfaction rate probably due to their low socioeconomic status, educational level and expectations. Therefore, awareness of patients' rights must be increased.

  5. The experience of Chinese physicians in the national health diplomacy programme deployed to Sudan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Gimbel, Sarah; Malik, Elfatih; Hassen, Sara; Hagopian, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Chinese Medical Teams have been working in developing countries since 1963 as a health diplomacy strategy. In 2010, 1252 Chinese medical personnel were assigned to 48 countries. We conducted a review of Chinese literature and governmental websites to describe the history and current distribution of Chinese Medical Teams around the world. In addition, we interviewed members of a 36-member Chinese Medical Team deployed to Sudan (primarily about their motivations to join the programme and the challenges and benefits they face), along with their Sudanese hosts. The most significant challenge health workers described was homesickness. Most members said they were able to maintain motivation through their curiosity and the doctor-friendly environment. All but two rated their own working performance as 'good' or 'very good', while their Sudanese colleagues consistently rated them even higher. Participants reported conflicting beliefs regarding the perceived responsibilities of the team and challenges around communication. Three pillars support the Chinese Medical Team programme in Sudan: bilateral government commitment, the professionalism of the Medical Teams, and the welcoming medical environment. Future success of this or similar Chinese programmes depend on the willingness of both governments to participate, the ongoing commitment of younger Chinese doctors, and the hospitality of physicians in the host country. There are also some threats to the programme, including a potentially diminishing need for Chinese doctors to support increasingly well-trained host country physicians.

  6. Thirty-Seven Human Cases of Sparganosis from Ethiopia and South Sudan Caused by Spirometra Spp.

    PubMed Central

    Eberhard, Mark L.; Thiele, Elizabeth A.; Yembo, Gole E.; Yibi, Makoy S.; Cama, Vitaliano A.; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Thirty-seven unusual specimens, three from Ethiopia and 34 from South Sudan, were submitted since 2012 for further identification by the Ethiopian Dracunculiasis Eradication Program (EDEP) and the South Sudan Guinea Worm Eradication Program (SSGWEP), respectively. Although the majority of specimens emerged from sores or breaks in the skin, there was concern that they did not represent bona fide cases of Dracunculus medinensis and that they needed detailed examination and identification as provided by the World Health Organization Collaborating Center (WHO CC) at Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). All 37 specimens were identified on microscopic study as larval tapeworms of the spargana type, and DNA sequence analysis of seven confirmed the identification of Spirometra sp. Age of cases ranged between 7 and 70 years (mean 25 years); 21 (57%) patients were male and 16 were female. The presence of spargana in open skin lesions is somewhat atypical, but does confirm the fact that populations living in these remote areas are either ingesting infected copepods in unsafe drinking water or, more likely, eating poorly cooked paratenic hosts harboring the parasite. PMID:26055739

  7. Poor practice and knowledge among traditional birth attendants in Eastern Sudan.

    PubMed

    Ali, A A; Siddig, M F

    2012-11-01

    To identify and understand knowledge and practice among traditional birth attendants (TBAs), a total of 111 TBAs were interviewed at Kassala, Eastern Sudan between March and April 2011. Hand-washing prior to the delivery was a universal practice but only 25.2% of the interviewed TBAs used sterilised equipment. TBAs in this study appeared to have a low level of awareness about when a mother should be referred to hospital, and lacked basic information on family planning and HIV/AIDS. None of these 111 TBAs knew or used equipment for neonatal resuscitation (such as bag, tube and mask) or knew neonatal signs that needed extra attention such as change in skin colour, weak suckling and respiratory distress, and nearly one-third (28.8%) of the respondents believed in a few days delay in milk production. Thus, substantial effort is needed to improve the knowledge and practice among TBAs in Eastern Sudan, including training programmes, and this might be the best hope to achieve the Millennium Development Goals.

  8. Socio-economic aspects of Gum Arabic production in Dalanj area, South Korodofan, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Koli, A O; Eltayeb, A M; Sanjak, E M; Mohammed, M H

    2013-11-01

    Acacia senegal (locally: Hashab tree) is one of the most important tree species in Sudan as it considers the main Gum Arabic producing tree. The objective of this study is to investigate the socio-economic aspects of gum Arabic production and to assess contribution of gum Arabic to sustainable livelihood of local people in Dalanj Locality, South Kordofan State-Sudan. Social survey was carried out by using structured questionnaire for 80 respondents (gum producers) on random sample basis in eight villages, 10 respondents from each village. Issues pertaining to socio-economic factors affecting gum Arabic production and contribution of gum Arabic to sustainable livelihood of local people, in Dalanj Locality, were assessed. Results of the study revealed that expansion of agriculture lands at the expense of hashab trees, fires and illegal felling are the most important factors constraining gum production in the area. The results also indicated that agriculture is the main source of income and gum Arabic is a supplementary source of income. The importance of gum Arabic becomes apparent during (off farm season) the period between crops harvest and the preparation of the next agricultural season. Establishment of producers' associations and provision of loans to producers are highly recommended to ensure sustainability of gum production.

  9. Serological survey of canine leptospirosis in three countries of tropical Africa: Sudan, Gabon and Ivory Coast.

    PubMed

    Roqueplo, Cédric; Marié, Jean-Lou; André-Fontaine, Geneviève; Kodjo, Angeli; Davoust, Bernard

    2015-02-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted to estimate the presence of leptospiral antibodies among 475 dogs from three countries of tropical Africa: Sudan (n=62), Gabon (n=255) and Ivory Coast (n=158). Sixteen reference strains belonging to seven serogroups were used as antigen in the microscopic agglutination test. Overall, considering titres ≥1:40, 453 samples were positive towards one or several serovars of pathogenic leptospires. Focusing on high titres, i.e. ≥1:320, the seroprevalence was 40.8%. In Gabon, the seroprevalence was higher in rural areas than in an urban environment (p<0.001). In Ivory Coast, the seroprevalence for serogroups Icterohaemorrhagiae and Canicola was not statistically different according to the vaccinal status. Predominant serogroups varied according to the countries but Grippotyphosa and Sejroë were the most common, while Icterohaemorragiae and Canicola were dominant in Sudan. In these three countries, dogs are heavily exposed to pathogenic Leptospira and humans living in the same environment are also at risk of infection.

  10. Photocatalytic degradation of Azure and Sudan dyes using nano TiO2.

    PubMed

    Aarthi, T; Narahari, Prashanthi; Madras, Giridhar

    2007-11-19

    The present study investigates the dependence of photocatalytic rate on molecular structure of the substrate that is degraded. The photocatalytic degradation of Azure (A and B) and Sudan (III and IV) dyes, having similar structure, but different functional groups, were investigated with two catalysts. The photocatalytic activity of solution combustion synthesized TiO(2) (CS TiO(2)) was compared with that of Degussa P-25 for degrading these dyes. The effect of solvents and mixed-solvent system on photodegradation of Sudan III was investigated. The photodegradation rate was found to be higher in solvents with higher polarity. The effect of pH and the presence of metal ions in the form of chloride and nitrate salt, on degradation rate of Azure A was also investigated. The metal ions significantly reduced the photocatalysis rates. A detailed Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model has been developed to explain the effect of metal ions on degradation rate of the substrate. This model elucidates the contribution of holes and electrons towards degradation of the dye.

  11. Molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction coupled to liquid chromatography for determination of Sudan dyes in preserved beancurds.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hongyuan; Qiao, Jindong; Pei, Yuning; Long, Tao; Ding, Wen; Xie, Kun

    2012-05-01

    New molecularly imprinted microspheres synthesized by suspension polymerisation using phenylamine and naphthol as mimic template were successfully applied as selective sorbents for the solid-phase extraction used for the simultaneous determination of four Sudan dyes from preserved beancurd products. The obtained imprinted microspheres showed good recognition and selectivity to the four Sudan dyes in aqueous solution and the affinity could be easily controlled by adjusting the property of the solution. Under the selected experimental condition, the recoveries of the Sudan dyes in preserved beancurds at three spiked levels were ranged between 90.2-104.5% with the relative standard deviation of less than 6.8%. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) based on a signal-to-noise of 3 and 10 were in the range of 0.005-0.009μgg(-1) and 0.015-0.030μgg(-1), respectively. Comparing with alumina and C18-based extraction, the selectivity and repeatability of molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) were obviously improved. This method could be potentially applied for the determination of Sudan dyes in complicated food samples.

  12. CYP-450 isoenzymes catalyze the generation of hazardous aromatic amines after reaction with the azo dye Sudan III.

    PubMed

    Zanoni, Thalita Boldrin; Lizier, Thiago M; Assis, Marilda das Dores; Zanoni, Maria Valnice B; de Oliveira, Danielle Palma

    2013-07-01

    This work describes the mutagenic response of Sudan III, an adulterant food dye, using Salmonella typhimurium assay and the generation of hazardous aromatic amines after different oxidation methods of this azo dye. For that, we used metabolic activation by S9, catalytic oxidation by ironporphyrin and electrochemistry oxidation in order to simulate endogenous oxidation conditions. The oxidation reactions promoted discoloration from 65% to 95% of Sudan III at 1 × 10(-4)molL(-1) and generation of 7.6 × 10(-7)molL(-1) to 0.31 × 10(-4)molL(-1) of aniline, o-anisidine, 2-methoxi-5-methylaniline, 4-aminobiphenyl, 4,4'-oxydianiline; 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane and 2,6-dimethylaniline. The results were confirmed by LC-MS-MS experiments. We also correlate the mutagenic effects of Sudan III using S. typhimurium with the strain TA1535 in the presence of exogenous metabolic activation (S9) with the metabolization products of this compound. Our findings clearly indicate that aromatic amines are formed due to oxidative reactions that can be promoted by hepatic cells, after the ingestion of Sudan III. Considering that, the use of azo compounds as food dyestuffs should be carefully controlled.

  13. Mid-term evaluation of USAID (US Agency for International Development) Sudan Energy Planning and Management Project (650-0059)

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.W.; Stovall, J.P.; Raby, J.G.; Younger, D.R.; Pryor, C.A.

    1988-06-01

    In 1984, the United States Agency for International Development's mission in Sudan implemented the Energy Planning and Management Project to strengthen several key institutions in the energy sector of Sudan. One component of the project focused on improving management, billing and collection, pricing, purchasing and stores, and vehicle operation and maintenance in the National Electricity Corporation. The other major component was devoted to strengthening the capability of the National Energy Administration to conduct national energy planning studies, including the analysis of energy issues and policies and the recommendation of policies. Originally the planned date for the midterm evaluation of this project was early 1986, but because political turmoil and other events impeded implementation of the project, that evaluation was only conducted in January and February 1987. ORNL, at the request of the Sudan Mission and the office of Energy of AID, fielded a team in January 1987 to evaluate the progress of the project to that date and make recommendations for the remainder of the project's implementation. This study reports the findings and recommendations of the evaluation team regarding the Sudan Energy Management and Planning Project. 84 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Addressing the Challenges of Language Choice in the Implementation of Mother-Tongue Based Bilingual Education in South Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spronk, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Since the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) in 2005, the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (South Sudan) has been working towards the implementation of a Language and Education Policy in which the mother tongue of the learner is to be used as a medium of instruction for the first three years of primary education.…

  15. Children of the "Sug": A Study of the Daily Lives of Street Children in Khartoum, Sudan, with Intervention Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kudrati, Mustafa; Plummer, Mary L.; Yousif, Nassrin Dafaalla El Hag

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The study examines street children's daily lives in Khartoum, Sudan to recommend ways to improve their conditions and to successfully assist them off the streets. Methods: In 2000-2001, eight researchers conducted participant observation for 7 weeks; 20 groups of children engaged in role-plays and drawing activities; over 500 children…

  16. Educational Concerns of Arabic Speaking Migrants from Sudan and Iraq to Melbourne: Expectations on Migrant Parents in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sainsbury, W. J.; Renzaho, A. M. N.

    2011-01-01

    Families immigrating to Australia face many challenges integrating into the educational system, including language barriers and interrupted schooling. We have qualitatively evaluated the educational concerns of Arabic migrants from Sudan and Iraq to Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, a city that receives a high percentage of Australia's immigrants.…

  17. Water Security and Hydropolitics of the Nile River: South Sudan’s National Security in the 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-16

    founding fathers, including Thomas Hobbes and Hans Morgenthau, believed that mankind by nature is egocentric, competitive and conflictual.82...examines three fundamental theories of international relations to understand the nature of conflicts that South Sudan faces and how it should deal with...

  18. Notes from the field: malnutrition and elevated mortality among refugees from South Sudan - Ethiopia, June-July 2014.

    PubMed

    Andresen, Ellen; Bilukha, Oleg O; Menkir, Zeray; Gayford, Megan; Kavosa, Millicent; Wtsadik, Mulugeta; Maina, Gidraf; Gose, Mesfin; Nyagucha, Irene; Shahpar, Cyrus

    2014-08-15

    As a result of armed civil conflict in South Sudan that started in mid-December of 2013, an estimated 1.1 million persons were internally displaced, and approximately 400,000 refugees fled South Sudan to neighboring countries (primarily to Ethiopia, Uganda, Sudan, and Kenya). Refugees from South Sudan arriving in Ethiopia are sheltered in three refugee camps located in Gambella region: Leitchuor, Kule, and Tierkidi. The camps were established during January-May 2014 and have estimated refugee populations of 47,000, 51,000, and 50,000, respectively. Reports from health clinics and humanitarian agencies providing assistance to refugees suggested poor nutritional status of arriving refugees and elevated mortality rates. To assess the nutritional status of refugee children aged 6-59 months and mortality rates (crude [all ages] and aged <5 years), the Administration for Refugee and Returnee Affairs (an Ethiopian government aid agency), the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, World Food Programme, and United Nations Children's Fund, in collaboration with CDC, conducted cross-sectional population-representative surveys in Leitchuor, Kule, and Tierkidi camps during June-July 2014. Anthropometric measurements in children were taken using standard procedures, and nutritional status was classified based on 2006 World Health Organization (WHO) growth standards. Hemoglobin was measured using HemoCue Hb 301. Anemia was diagnosed according to WHO thresholds. Retrospective mortality rates in Leitchuor and Kule were measured using a household census method.

  19. Non-Formal Environmental Education: The Utilization of Solar Energy for Cooking in a Rural Area in Sudan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Zubeir, Z.

    1997-01-01

    In El Sururab in rural Sudan, solar energy is used for cooking instead of wood. This study explored the efficiency of a hot-box type of solar cooker for storing heat and its effectiveness for different methods of cooking various foods used daily in El Sururab. Forty local women served as a respondent group. (PVD)

  20. 76 FR 35507 - Assistance to Southern Sudan and the United States Contribution to the Global Fund To Fight AIDS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... Assistance to Southern Sudan and the United States Contribution to the Global Fund To Fight AIDS... Waiver Determination under Section 202(d)(4)(A)(ii) of the United States Leadership against HIV/AIDS... determination under Section 202(d)(4)(A)(ii) of the United States Leadership Against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis,...

  1. Anomalous perturbative transport in tokamaks due to drift-Alfven-wave turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Thoul, A.A. ); Similon, P.L. ); Sudan, R.N. )

    1994-03-01

    The method developed in Thoul, Similon, and Sudan [Phys. Plasmas [bold 1], 579 (1994)] is used to calculate the transport due to drift-Alfven-wave turbulence, in which electromagnetic effects such as the fluttering of the magnetic field lines are important. Explicit expressions are obtained for all coefficients of the anomalous transport matrix relating particle and heat fluxes to density and temperature gradients in the plasma. Although the magnetic terms leave the transport by trapped electrons unaffected, they are important for the transport by circulating electrons.

  2. Anomalous perturbative transport in tokamaks due to drift-Alfvén-wave turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoul, Anne A.; Similon, P. L.; Sudan, R. N.

    1994-03-01

    The method developed in Thoul, Similon, and Sudan [Phys. Plasmas 1, 579 (1994)] is used to calculate the transport due to drift-Alfvén-wave turbulence, in which electromagnetic effects such as the fluttering of the magnetic field lines are important. Explicit expressions are obtained for all coefficients of the anomalous transport matrix relating particle and heat fluxes to density and temperature gradients in the plasma. Although the magnetic terms leave the transport by trapped electrons unaffected, they are important for the transport by circulating electrons.

  3. Arabicization in high education: The case of medical colleges in the Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Fadni Suliman, Issameldin

    This thesis explores language policies, language conflict and language-user attitudes toward arabicization which refers to the use of Arabic as a medium of instruction in teaching medicine in universities in the Sudan. It follows up these objectives: (1) To highlight the roots of arabicization and implemented language planning activities through document analysis. (2) To report on the advantages and disadvantages of both Arabic and English as media of instruction in teaching medicine in the Sudan. (3) To survey the attitudes of students and their instructors in the colleges of Khartoum, Omdurman and Gezira universities towards arabicization using two similar developed questionnaires and an interview for faculty members. The questionnaires were distributed to the students and faculty members in the three colleges to probe six factors: (I) The extent of use of languages of instruction (2) Readiness of the students to receive medical studies in English (3) The difficulties they face (4) English as a medium of instruction in medical colleges (5) Arabic as a medium of instruction in medical colleges (6) Students' preference of a language of instruction. The study utilized tables, charts and chi square tests to illustrate the attitudes of students and their faculty members. The study has revealed that the attitude of most of the students and their faculty members were in favor of arabicization in principle. In fact, students showed support for the pedagogical benefits of Arabic like they can prepare and study in Arabic in less time than English. They can take more notes in Arabic than in English. The study has highlighted that Arabic as a native language of the students offers them a mighty and indispensable support for the ability to convey ideas, capacity for imaginative or creative thinking than the limited capacity given by the foreign language. Notwithstanding, English is reported to be very important for students' current medical studies and future career. The

  4. The epidemiology of trachoma in Eastern Equatoria and Upper Nile States, southern Sudan.

    PubMed Central

    Ngondi, Jeremiah; Onsarigo, Alice; Adamu, Liknaw; Matende, Ibrahim; Baba, Samson; Reacher, Mark; Emerson, Paul; Zingeser, James

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Limited surveys and anecdotal data indicate that trachoma is endemic in the states of Eastern Equatoria and Upper Nile in southern Sudan. However, its magnitude and geographical distribution are largely unknown. We conducted surveys to ascertain the prevalence and geographical distribution of trachoma, and to identify targets for control interventions. METHODS: Population-based cross-sectional surveys were conducted in nine sites in southern Sudan between September 2001 and June 2004. Two-stage random cluster sampling with probability proportional to size was used to select the sample. Trachoma grading was done using the WHO simplified grading system. FINDINGS: A total of 17 016 persons were examined, a response rate of 86.1% of the enumerated population. Prevalence of signs of active trachoma in children aged 1-9 years was: TF=53.7% (95% confidence interval (CI)=52.1-55.3); TI=42.7% (95% CI=41.2-44.2); TF and/or TI=64.1% (95% CI=62.5-65.5). Prevalence of trichiasis (TT) in children aged less than 15 years was 1.2% (95% CI=0.9-1.4), while TT prevalence in persons aged 15 years and above was 9.2% (95% CI=8.6-9.9). Women were more likely to have trichiasis compared to men (odds ratio (OR)=1.57; 95% CI=1.34-1.84). Tentative extrapolation to the states of Eastern Equatoria and Upper Nile estimates that there is a backlog of 178,250 (lower and upper bounds=156,027-205,995) persons requiring surgery and the entire population, estimated to be over 3.9 million, is in need of the SAFE strategy to control blinding trachoma. CONCLUSION: Trachoma is a public health problem in all nine of the study sites surveyed. The unusually high prevalence of active trachoma and TT in children points to the severity of the problem. There is urgent need to implement trachoma control interventions in trachoma endemic regions of southern Sudan. PMID:16462982

  5. Utilizing Remote Sensing to Explore Hydrological and Climatic Factors of Visceral Leishmaniasis in South Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruczkiewicz, A.; Sweeney, A.; Reid, C.; Seaman, J.; Abubakar, A.; Ritmeijer, K.; Jensen, K.; Schroeder, R.; McDonald, K. C.; Lessel, J.; Thomson, M. C.; Elnaiem, D.; Ceccato, P.

    2014-12-01

    Recent epidemics of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Sudan and South Sudan (locally known as Kala Azar) have caused an estimated 100,000 deaths and have renewed the impetus for defining the ecological boundaries of this vector borne disease. In the past 30 years outbreaks have occurred cyclically within this country, but recent shifts in endemicity have necessitated a more robust understanding of the drivers of the disease. Previous work (e.g. Gebre-Michael et al., 2004; Ashford & Thomson, 1991; Hoogstraal & Heyneman, 1969) has suggested that the primary biological vector in this region, the female sand fly Phlebotomus orientalis, exhibits sensitivities to environmental and climatic variables. Results of this study showed a relationship between precipitation and inundation during months of the transmission season (April-July) and the number of confirmed cases in the following September-January period. Particular months of the transmission season with below-average precipitation were better indicators of lagged reports of VL than others. During VL epidemics (2009, 2010, 2011) the month of June exhibited below average precipitation. The two largest epidemics (2010, 2011) were associated with years of below average precipitation in the month of April. Inundation during April-July (AMJJ) also exhibited a strong inverse relationship with reported VL cases in the following September- January (SONDJ). This relationship was best explored when comparing the VL case data of a specific medical center to the inundation anomalies. Results are typified by the Lankien Medical Center analysis where below average inundation during April displays an inverse relationship with VL cases in the following SONDJ. Drought may lead to below average inundation, which could allow for soils to maintain their fissures, thus maintaining the sand fly breeding habitat, resulting in a sustained breeding season for the sandflies (Quate, 1964). Above-average precipitation and inundation might have the

  6. Commercial food irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Black, E.F.; Libby, L.M.

    1983-06-01

    Food irradiation is discussed. Irradiation exposes food to gamma rays from a cobalt-60 or a cesium-137 source, or to high-energy electrons emitted by an electron accelerator. A major advantage is that food can be packaged either before or after treatment. FDA regulations with regard to irradiation are discussed. Comments on an 'Advance Notice' on irradiation, published by the FDA in 1981 are summarized.

  7. Color Change of Sudan III against Concentrated Sulfuric Acid in Acetonitrile and Quantification for a Small Amount of Concentrated Sulfuric Acid.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Takao; Kurata, Shoji; Ogino, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    The color-changing phenomenon of hydrophobic bisazo dye, Sudan III in an acetonitrile solution against the addition of concentrated sulfuric acid has been discovered and the chromic properties investigated. Based on observations, a novel quantification method of concentrated sulfuric acid has been developed. Sudan III changes its color from orange to blue against a small volume of sulfuric acid, and the acetonitrile solution of Sudan III is the most suitable for observing the color-change phenomenon. (1)H-NMR and UV-Vis spectroscopic studies showed that the color-change mechanism of Sudan III against sulfuric acid is due to the protonation of the dye by sulfuric acid. This phenomenon is applicable to the quantification of concentrated sulfuric acid by introducing the Hammett acidity function. The proposed method requires only a small amount of the sample, 0.04 mL, and enables rapid quantification.

  8. Tectonic evaluation of the Nubian shield of Northeastern Sudan using thematic mapper imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Bechtel is nearing completion of a one-year program that uses digitally enhanced LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) data to compile the first comprehensive regional tectonic map of the Proterozoic Nubian Shield exposed in the northern Red Sea Hills of northeastern Sudan. The status of significant objectives of this study are given. Pertinent published and unpublished geologic literature and maps of the northern Red Sea Hills to establish the geologic framework of the region were reviewed. Thematic mapper imagery for optimal base-map enhancements was processed. Photo mosaics of enhanced images to serve as base maps for compilation of geologic information were completed. Interpretation of TM imagery to define and delineate structural and lithogologic provinces was completed. Geologic information (petrologic, and radiometric data) was compiled from the literature review onto base-map overlays. Evaluation of the tectonic evolution of the Nubian Shield based on the image interpretation and the compiled tectonic maps is continuing.

  9. Morbidity and mortality of severe malnutrition among Sudanese children in New Halfa Hospital, Eastern Sudan.

    PubMed

    Mahgoub, Hyder M; Adam, Ishag

    2012-01-01

    Medical files of children with severe malnutrition admitted at New Halfa hospital, Sudan during 2007-2009 were reviewed. A total of 1097 children (54.9%, 602 male) with severe malnutrition were admitted during the three year period. Oedematous severe malnutrition was found in 179 (16.3%) children. Of these 1097, 796 (72.6%) patients with severe malnutrition were children <2 years old. Out of these 1097 children, 780 (71.1%) and 112 (10.2%) had diarrhoea and malaria, respectively. Sixty-one (5.5%) of these children died, 237 (21.6%) discharged against medical advice and 799 (72.8%) were discharged. Of the 61 children who died 11 (18.0%) had septicaemia following diarrhoea and respiratory tract infections. The case fatality rate was not different with sex or with presence/absence of oedema.

  10. Novel Paramyxovirus Associated with Severe Acute Febrile Disease, South Sudan and Uganda, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Albariño, César G.; Foltzer, Michael; Towner, Jonathan S.; Rowe, Lory A.; Campbell, Shelley; Jaramillo, Carlos M.; Bird, Brian H.; Reeder, DeeAnn M.; Vodzak, Megan E.; Rota, Paul; Metcalfe, Maureen G.; Spiropoulou, Christina F.; Knust, Barbara; Vincent, Joel P.; Frace, Michael A.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Rollin, Pierre E.

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, a female wildlife biologist experienced fever, malaise, headache, generalized myalgia and arthralgia, neck stiffness, and a sore throat shortly after returning to the United States from a 6-week field expedition to South Sudan and Uganda. She was hospitalized, after which a maculopapular rash developed and became confluent. When the patient was discharged from the hospital on day 14, arthralgia and myalgia had improved, oropharynx ulcerations had healed, the rash had resolved without desquamation, and blood counts and hepatic enzyme levels were returning to reference levels. After several known suspect pathogens were ruled out as the cause of her illness, deep sequencing and metagenomics analysis revealed a novel paramyxovirus related to rubula-like viruses isolated from fruit bats. PMID:24447466

  11. Assessment of the social accountability of the faculty of medicine at University of Gezira, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Elsanousi, S; Elsanousi, M; Khalafallah, O; Habour, A

    2016-07-10

    A socially accountable medical school is one that directs its education, research and service activities towards addressing the priority health concerns of the community it serves and verifying its impact on the community. This study aimed to assess the social accountability of the University of Gezira faculty of medicine in Sudan. We reviewed the literature, faculty documents and reports and used both the World Health Organization social accountability grid and the conceptualization-production-usability model as frameworks for analysis. In most of the domains and phases of the social accountability grid, the faculty's educational programme was found to be well-planned and well-implemented, demonstrating an impact on the community and active participation in health-system development in the local area. The University of Gezira faculty of medicine is socially responsible and responsive and is on the way to becoming fully socially accountable in certain aspects.

  12. Genetic Changes at the Glycoprotein Editing Site Associated With Serial Passage of Sudan Virus.

    PubMed

    Alfson, Kendra J; Avena, Laura E; Beadles, Michael W; Menzie, Heather; Patterson, Jean L; Carrion, Ricardo; Griffiths, Anthony

    2015-10-01

    Sudan virus (SUDV), like the closely related Ebola virus (EBOV), is a filovirus that causes severe hemorrhagic disease. They both contain an RNA editing site in the glycoprotein gene that controls expression of soluble and full-length protein. We tested the consequences of cell culture passage on the genome sequence at the SUDV editing site locus and determined whether this affected virulence. Passage resulted in expansion of the SUDV editing site, similar to that observed with EBOV. We compared viruses possessing either the wild-type or expanded editing site, using a nonhuman primate model of disease. Despite differences in virus serum titer at one time point, there were no significant differences in time to death or any other measured parameter. These data imply that changes at this locus were not important for SUDV lethality.

  13. Late Quaternary environments and prehistoric occupation in the lower White Nile valley, central Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Martin A. J.; Usai, Donatella; Salvatori, Sandro; Williams, Frances M.; Zerboni, Andrea; Maritan, Lara; Linseele, Veerle

    2015-12-01

    Despite the major contributions provided over fifty years ago by A.J. Arkell and J.D. Tothill to our understanding of late Quaternary environments and prehistoric occupation near the confluence of the Blue and White Nile in central Sudan, three key questions have remained unresolved since then. (a) Was the decline in Nile flood levels from early Holocene times onwards caused by a reduction in Nile discharge, or by channel incision, or both? (b) Was the regional climate wetter during times of high Nile floods and drier during times of low Nile floods? (c) Given the high degree of disturbance of Mesolithic and later prehistoric sites, is it possible to identify primary-context, stratified and undisturbed occupation? Drawing upon dated evidence from three sites to the east of and three to the west of the lower White Nile, we provide a qualified answer to the first question and documented affirmative answers to the second and third questions.

  14. High-resolution Crystal Structure of Dimeric VP40 From Sudan ebolavirus.

    PubMed

    Clifton, Matthew C; Bruhn, Jessica F; Atkins, Kateri; Webb, Terry L; Baydo, Ruth O; Raymond, Amy; Lorimer, Donald D; Edwards, Thomas E; Myler, Peter J; Saphire, Erica Ollmann

    2015-10-01

    Ebolaviruses cause severe hemorrhagic fever. Central to the Ebola life cycle is the matrix protein VP40, which oligomerizes and drives viral budding. Here we present the crystal structure of the Sudan virus (SUDV) matrix protein. This structure is higher resolution (1.6 Å) than previously achievable. Despite differences in the protein purification, we find that it still forms a stable dimer in solution, as was noted for other Ebola VP40s. Although the N-terminal domain interface by which VP40 dimerizes is conserved between Ebola virus and SUDV, the C-terminal domain interface by which VP40 dimers may further assemble is significantly smaller in this SUDV assembly.

  15. The Economic Burden of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Sudan: An Assessment of Provider and Household Costs

    PubMed Central

    Meheus, Filip; Abuzaid, Abuzaid A.; Baltussen, Rob; Younis, Brima M.; Balasegaram, Manica; Khalil, Eltahir A. G.; Boelaert, Marleen; Musa, Ahmed M.

    2013-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected parasitic disease that is fatal if left untreated and is endemic in eastern Sudan. We estimated the direct and indirect costs of treatment of VL from the perspective of the provider and the household at three public hospitals in Gedaref State. The median total cost for one VL episode was estimated to be US$450. Despite the free provision of VL drugs at public hospitals, households bore 53% of the total cost of VL with one episode of VL representing 40% of the annual household income. More than 75% of households incurred catastrophic out-of-pocket expenditures. The length of treatment of 30 days led to important costs for both health providers and households. Alternative treatment regimens that reduce the duration of treatment are urgently needed. PMID:24189368

  16. Torture by Cieng: ethical theory meets social practice among the Dinka Agaar of south Sudan.

    PubMed

    Deal, Jeffery L

    2010-01-01

    Here I detail violence in South Sudan by first discussing a specific Dinka Agaar practice alongside existing discourses on the social aspects of violence and universal human rights, then I show how these acts had meaning and purpose using data from personal accounts of violence. I posit that the violence described was consistent with Dinka Agaar concepts of justice and basic human rights and that it cannot be judged against any universal human rights standard, devoid of local context or of an overarching metanarrative. These events highlight conflicting subjectivities, ethical norms, and the painful difficulties inherent to advocacy in areas of conflict. Viewed from the perspective of the larger social unit, it is easy to see how violence was required to end violence. However, witnessing punitive violence purposefully enacted on innocent individuals to achieve peace has the potential to create conflicting positions that modern anthropological discourse cannot reconcile.

  17. Human monkeypox outbreak caused by novel virus belonging to Congo Basin clade, Sudan, 2005.

    PubMed

    Formenty, Pierre; Muntasir, Mohammed O; Damon, Inger; Chowdhary, Vipul; Opoka, Martin L; Monimart, Charlotte; Mutasim, Elmangory M; Manuguerra, Jean Claude; Davidson, Whitni B; Karem, Kevin L; Cabeza, Jeanne; Wang, Sharlenna; Malik, Mamunur R; Durand, Thierry; Khalid, Abdalhalim; Rioton, Thomas; Kuong-Ruay, Andrea; Babiker, Alimagboul A; Karsani, Mubarak E M; Abdalla, Magdi S

    2010-10-01

    To determine the outbreak source of monkeypox virus (MPXV) infections in Unity State, Sudan, in November 2005, we conducted a retrospective investigation. MPXV was identified in a sub-Sahelian savannah environment. Three case notification categories were used: suspected, probable, and confirmed. Molecular, virologic, and serologic assays were used to test blood specimens, vesicular swabs, and crust specimens obtained from symptomatic and recovering persons. Ten laboratory-confirmed cases and 9 probable cases of MPXV were reported during September-December 2005; no deaths occurred. Human-to-human transmission up to 5 generations was described. Our investigation could not fully determine the source of the outbreak. Preliminary data indicate that the MPXV strain isolated during this outbreak was a novel virus belonging to the Congo Basin clade. Our results indicate that MPXV should be considered endemic to the wetland areas of Unity State. This finding will enhance understanding of the ecologic niche for this virus.

  18. The impact of indoor residual spraying with malathion on malaria in refugee camps in eastern Sudan.

    PubMed

    Charlwood, J D; Qassim, M; Elnsur, E I; Donnelly, M; Petrarca, V; Billingsley, P F; Pinto, J; Smith, T

    2001-09-01

    An exploratory trial of the efficacy of indoor spraying with malathion on morbidity and mortality in refugee camps in eastern Sudan was conducted during the rainy season of 1997. The interior walls of houses from a randomly selected group of five camps were sprayed with malathion in mid-September and morbidity and mortality rates in the camps for the months October to December compared with rates in five controls. Pyrethrum spray collection and human landing catches were performed in two collection rounds. An exophagic but endophilic population of Anopheles arabiensis was the most common mosquito collected. The mean human blood index of 242 mosquitoes from eight camps was 0.51. Only two of 1040 mosquitoes examined harboured sporozoites. Blood samples of 83 putative malaria patients were examined for parasites by PCR. Mortality rates in the 3 months following spraying were significantly lower in sprayed camps although differences in clinical malaria incidence between sprayed and non-sprayed camps were not significant.

  19. Secondary peritoneal hydatidosis, the challenges of echinococcal disease in South Sudan: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Richard William; Ellis-Owen, Rwth; Winson, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    A 28 year old male presented to the Juba Teaching Hospital with progressive shortness of breath. 18 months prior to admission, he presented to a rural hospital with severe abdominal pain. An emergency laparotomy was performed, and a large hepatic cyst was removed. Examination at the Juba Teaching hospital revealed a grossly distended abdomen with multiple palpable masses per abdomen. An Abdominal Ultrasound revealed multiple loculated cysts throughout the abdomen. A diagnosis of Secondary Peritoneal Hydatidosis resulting from incorrectly performed surgery was made. The patient was conservatively treated and at 14 weeks, the cysts showed a moderate reduction in size. Cystic Echinococcus(CE) is common in South Sudan and has a considerable disease burden throughout the developing world. Greater governmental and international support is required to develop effective control measures for these diseases. PMID:25995812

  20. HIV-infected People in Sudan Moving Toward Chronic Poverty: Possible Interventions.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Salwa Muddthir; Eisa, Ammar Abobakre; Ibrahim, Faisal

    2016-01-01

    We sought to identify the socioeconomic impact on people living with HIV (PLWH) in Sudan. Focus group discussions were used to collect data and identify the most outstanding domains of HIV impact on PLWH and the survival mechanisms that may be common to a group of diverse HIV-infected persons (n = 30). The findings indicated that the most striking financial and social impacts were due to stigma associated with HIV in the conservative Sudanese society, which led to loss of work with all its consequences (e.g., children's education and health care expenses were affected). The socioeconomic impacts of HIV on infected populations are discussed, and suggestions for possible interventions to mitigate harmful impacts and stigma within the society, the workplace, and health care settings are highlighted. We concluded that HIV has intensified the existing problems of infected people, contributing to their vulnerability to poverty.

  1. Undiagnosed diabetes mellitus in rural communities in Sudan: prevalence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Noor, S K M; Bushara, S O E; Sulaiman, A A; Elmadhoun, W M Y; Ahmed, M H

    2015-05-19

    Undiagnosed diabetes constitutes a challenge for health providers, especially in rural areas. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes mellitus and glucose intolerance among adults in rural communities in River Nile State, north Sudan. In a cross-sectional community-based study, blood glucose, anthropometric, demographic and clinical history data were obtained from 1111 individuals from 35 villages. The prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes was 2.6% (29 individuals); glucose intolerance was detected in 1.3% (14 individuals). Classic symptoms (polydipsia, polyuria and weight loss) were present in around half of the participants but were not more prevalent in those with diabetes. Lower educational level, increasing age, hypertension and unexplained weight loss were significant risk factors for diabetes. Other variables (obesity, sex, occupation, alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking) were not significant risk factors. There is a low prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes and glucose intolerance in the rural population of River Nile State.

  2. Transitional coordination in Sudan (2006-08): lessons from the United Nations Resident Coordinator's Office.

    PubMed

    Clarke, John N

    2013-07-01

    With the increase in internal conflicts following the end of the Cold War, the scale and scope of the United Nations' work in conflict and post-conflict environments grew markedly. As a result, the coordination of programming and policy in the transition from relief to recovery has been a central preoccupation of academics and practitioners alike. Intergovernmental bodies such as the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) have made these topics a subject of regular discussion, while some countries have altered their bureaucratic structures to respond more effectively in post-crisis settings, particularly in cases involving the deployment of national troops. The United Nations Resident Coordinator's Office in Sudan provides a model for other transitional countries and is a useful case study of the broader challenges of post-crisis programming. Effective coordination structures and planning/programming processes are identified as interdependent prerequisites for ensuring a successful transition from relief to recovery.

  3. Interrupting the balance: reconsidering the complexities of conflict in South Sudan.

    PubMed

    Pendle, Naomi

    2014-04-01

    By the start of 2014, violent conflict had erupted across much of South Sudan following initial violence in Juba on 15 December 2013. The speed with which the fighting has spread raises questions regarding the impact of national-level politics on violence at the local level. This article develops a framework in which violent conflict can be comprehended as a response to the interruption of the negotiation of the balance of power between groups; the negotiation is interrupted when that balance tips in favour of one group, such as through changes in the national political market or government reforms. The article provides two cases studies of attempts to strengthen the state that inadvertently interrupted local power relations between groups. In response, the groups engaged in violent conflict to reinstate a balance of power. Both examples involve conflict among Dinka groups from 2005 to 2008.

  4. (Histo)chemical aspects of Sudan Black B in various solvents.

    PubMed

    Frederiks, W M; Slob, A; Frank, J J; Tas, J

    1981-01-01

    The spectral properties, chemical composition and practical use in histochemistry of Sudan Black B (SBB) dissolved in pure dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) have been investigated, in view of favourable characteristics of this solvent observed in previous work. The composition of SBB dissolved in DMSO, as determined with thin layer chromatography, appeared to be similar to that of SBB dissolved in aceton or 70% ethanol. The spectral properties of the two main components of SBB (SBBI and SBBII) also were the same in different solvents. A freshly made solution of SBB in DMSO proved to give good results in staining neutral lipids and phospholipids in frozen sections of rat liver and adrenal cortex, as well as with smears of isolated liver cell nuclei; during aging of such staining solution, however, a new secondary product is formed which greatly reduces the specificity of the staining.

  5. Household-Based Sero-Epidemiologic Survey after a Yellow Fever Epidemic, Sudan, 2005

    PubMed Central

    Farnon, Eileen C.; Hannah Gould, L.; Griffith, Kevin S.; Osman, Magdi S.; Kholy, Amgad El; Brair, Maria-Emanuela; Panella, Amanda J.; Kosoy, Olga; Laven, Janeen J.; Godsey, Marvin S.; Perea, William; Hayes, Edward B.

    2010-01-01

    From September through early December 2005, an outbreak of yellow fever (YF) occurred in South Kordofan, Sudan, resulting in a mass YF vaccination campaign. In late December 2005, we conducted a serosurvey to assess YF vaccine coverage and to better define the epidemiology of the outbreak in an index village. Of 552 persons enrolled, 95% reported recent YF vaccination, and 25% reported febrile illness during the outbreak period: 13% reported YF-like illness, 4% reported severe YF-like illness, and 12% reported chikungunya-like illness. Of 87 persons who provided blood samples, all had positive YF serologic results, including three who had never been vaccinated. There was also serologic evidence of recent or prior chikungunya virus, dengue virus, West Nile virus, and Sindbis virus infections. These results indicate that YF virus and chikungunya virus contributed to the outbreak. The high prevalence of YF antibody among vaccinees indicates that vaccination was effectively implemented in this remotely located population. PMID:20519615

  6. Sudan: situational analysis of maternal health in Bara District, North Kordofan.

    PubMed

    Campbell, M; Abu Sham, Z

    1995-01-01

    A high maternal mortality ratio was estimated in Bara District in Sudan during the late 1980's with approximately 407 women dying per 100,000 live births. In order to design effective intervention strategies, Care International and the Ministry of Health in Sudan conducted a study to identify the attitudes of women, staff, and TBAs towards motherhood, prenatal care, and practices affecting the health of women in the district. The previously conducted training programme for TBAs was also assessed in its impact. The study yielded the following results: in addition to the commonly known risk factors for maternal health e.g. haemorrhage, puerperal infection, obstructed labour, and anemia, the women in the villages and health staff identified female genital mutilation (pharaonic circumcision) as a major threat to safe motherhood. Health seeking behaviour was linked to problems of access and perceived quality of care: women did generally not wish to spend more than 30 minutes for reaching a facility. But if the quality of a particular institution was considered good, and supplies and equipment were available, women would cover great distances to reach such a facility. Participation in prenatal care suffered from the equation of preventive with curative care. Women would therefore tend to turn to a clinic or service provider, if symptoms of illness occurred during a pregnancy. The village-based services suffered from the lack of equipment and poor staff training, which further undermined the motivation to seek prenatal care. When health staff recommended referral of a pregnant women for delivery, the advice was usually followed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Epidemiological survey of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in cattle in East Darfur State, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Alaa M; Adam, Ibrahim A; Osman, Badreldin T; Aradaib, Imadeldin E

    2015-06-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne disease caused by CCHF virus (CCHFV) of the genus Nairovirus in the family Bunyaviridae. CCHFV causes subclinical infection in domestic livestock and an often fatal hemorrhagic illness in humans, with approximately 30% mortality rates. In the present study, a cross-sectional serosurvey was conducted in a total of 282 randomly selected cattle from five localities in East Darfur State, Sudan. The exposure status to CCHF was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of CCHFV-specific IgG antibodies in cattle serum samples. The CCHFV-specific IgG antibodies were detected in 54 out of 282 animals, accounting for a 19.14% prevalence rate. Older cattle (>2 years of age) were approximately five times more likely to be infected with the virus (OR=4.90, CI=1.28-18.98, p-value=0.02). Heavily tick-infested cattle (ticks all over the body) were at 11 times higher at risk compared to tick-free animals (OR=11.11, CI=2.86-43.25, p-value=0.01). Grazing system is another factor affecting CCHF, where cattle grazing on open system were 27 times more at risk compared to other grazing systems (OR=27.22, CI=7.46-99.24, p-value=0.001). There was an association between localities and CCHF cattle (OR=0.24, CI=0.07-0.83, p-value=0.02). This study confirms the exposure of cattle to CCHF in East Darfur and identifies potential risk factors associated with the disease. Further epidemiological studies and improved surveillance are urgently needed to prevent a possible outbreak of CCHF among humans in the Darfur region of Sudan.

  8. Investigation of hepatitis E outbreak among refugees - Upper Nile, South Sudan, 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    2013-07-26

    During the week of July 2, 2012, the deaths of two pregnant women and one child were reported by household mortality surveillance in Jamam refugee camp, Maban County, Upper Nile State, South Sudan. All were reported to have yellow eyes before death. During July 27-August 3, 2012, three adult males with acute onset jaundice were admitted to the Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) hospital in Jamam camp; two died within 4 days of admission. The Republic of South Sudan Ministry of Health, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), CDC, and humanitarian organizations responded through enhanced case surveillance, a serosurvey investigation, and targeted prevention efforts. As of January 27, 2013, a total of 5,080 acute jaundice syndrome (AJS) cases had been reported from all four Maban County refugee camps (Doro, Gendrassa, Jamam, and Yusuf Batil). Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection was confirmed in a convenience sample of cases in each camp. A cross-sectional serosurvey conducted in Jamam camp in November 2012 indicated that 54.3% of the population was susceptible to HEV infection. Across all camps, an AJS case-fatality rate (CFR) of 10.4% was observed among pregnant women. The outbreak response has focused on improving safe drinking water availability, improving sanitation and hygiene, conducting active case finding, and optimizing clinical care, especially among pregnant women. Sustaining these improvements, along with strengthening community outreach, is needed to improve outbreak control. Further investigation of the potential role for the newly developed HEV vaccine in outbreak control also is needed.

  9. Cropland land surface phenology and seasonality in East Africa: Ethiopia, Tanzania, and South Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alemu, W. G.; Henebry, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    Most people in East Africa depend on rainfed agriculture. Rainfall in the region has been decreasing recently and is highly variable in space and time leading to high food insecurity. A comprehensive understanding of the regional cropland dynamics is therefore needed. Land surface phenology and land surface seasonality have important roles in monitoring cropland dynamics in a region with sparse coverage of in situ climatic and biophysical observations. However, commonly used optical satellite data are often degraded by cloud cover, aerosols, and dust and they are restricted to daytime observations. Here we used near-daily passive microwave (PM) data at 25 km spatial resolution from a series of microwave radiometers—AMSR-E, FengYun3B/MWRI, AMSR2—to study cropland dynamics for 2003-2013 in three important grain production areas of East Africa: Ethiopia, Tanzania, and South Sudan. PM data can be collected through clouds and at night. Based on Google Earth imagery, we identified several cropland areas corresponding to PM grid cells. Rainfall from TRMM and atmospheric water vapor (V) from PM data displayed temporal patterns that were unimodal in Ethiopia and South Sudan, but bimodal in Tanzania. We fitted convex quadratic models to link growing season increments of V and vegetation optical depth (VOD) to accumulated V (AV). The models yielded high coefficients of determination (r2 ≥0.8) and phenometrics calculated from the parameter coefficients. Peak rainfall lagged peak V, but preceded peak VOD. Growing degree-days (GDD), calculated from the PM air temperature data, displayed a weaker bimodal seasonality in which the lowest values occurred during the peak rainy season, due to the cooling effect of latent heat flux and coupled with higher reflection of insolation by the cloud deck. V as a function of GDD displays quasi-periodic behavior. Drier sites in the region displayed larger (smaller) intra-annual dynamic range of V (GDD) compared to the moister sites.

  10. Gender inequality in acute coronary syndrome patients at Omdurman Teaching Hospital, Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Mirghani, Hyder O.; Elnour, Mohammed A.; Taha, Akasha M.; Elbadawi, Abdulateef S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gender differences among patients with the acute coronary syndrome is still being debated, no research has been done on gender inequality among coronary syndrome patients in Sudan. Objectives: To study gender differences in presentation, management, and outcomes of acute coronary syndrome in Sudan. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive longitudinal study was conducted in Omdurman Teaching Hospital between July 2014 and August 2015. Patients were invited to sign a written informed consent form, were interviewed and examined by a physician, and then followed during their hospital stay. Information collected includes coronary risk factors, vital signs, echocardiography findings, arrhythmias, heart failure, cardiogenic shock, and death. The Ethical Committee of Omdurman Teaching Hospital approved the research. Results: A total of 197 consecutive acute coronary syndrome patients were included, 43.1% were females. A significant statistical difference was evident between males and females regarding the type of acute coronary syndrome, its presentation, and time of presentation to the hospital, smoking, and receipt of thrombolysis (P < 0.05). No differences were found with regard to age, hypertension, diabetes, family history of myocardial infarction, percutaneous coronary intervention, and in-hospital acute coronary complications (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Women were less likely to receive thrombolytic therapy, present with chest pain, and diagnosed with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. No gender differences were found in acute coronary syndrome risk factors apart from smoking, which was more common in males, and there were no differences between males and females as regards in-hospital complications. PMID:27186156

  11. Severe Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria among adults at Kassala Hospital, eastern Sudan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There have been few published reports on severe Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria among adults in Africa. Methods Clinical pattern/manifestations of severe P. falciparum and P. vivax (according to World Health Organization 2000 criteria) were described in adult patients admitted to Kassala Hospital, eastern Sudan. Results A total of 139 adult patients (80 males, 57.6%) with a mean (SD) age of 37.2 (1.5) years presented with severe P. falciparum (113, 81.3%) or P. vivax (26, 18.7%) malaria. Manifestations among the 139 patients included hypotension (38, 27.3%), cerebral malaria (23, 16.5%), repeated convulsions (18, 13.0%), hypoglycaemia (15, 10.8%), hyperparasitaemia (14, 10.1%), jaundice (14, 10.1%), severe anaemia (10, 7.2%), bleeding (six, 4.3%), renal impairment (one, 0.7%) and more than one criteria (27, 19.4%). While the geometric mean of the parasite count was significantly higher in patients with severe P. vivax than with severe P. falciparum malaria (5,934.2 vs 13,906.6 asexual stage parasitaemia per μL, p = 0.013), the different disease manifestations were not significantly different between patients with P. falciparum or P. vivax malaria. Three patients (2.2%) died due to severe P. falciparum malaria. One had cerebral malaria, the second had renal impairment, jaundice and hypoglycaemia, and the third had repeated convulsions and hypotension. Conclusions Severe malaria due to P. falciparum and P. vivax malaria is an existing entity among adults in eastern Sudan. Patients with severe P. falciparum and P. vivax develop similar disease manifestations. PMID:23634728

  12. Strengthening human resources for health through information, coordination and accountability mechanisms: the case of the Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Badr, Elsheikh; Mohamed, Nazar A; Afzal, Muhammad Mahmood; Bile, Khalif Mohamud

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Problem Human resources for health (HRH) in the Sudan were limited by shortages and the maldistribution of health workers, poor management, service fragmentation, poor retention of health workers in rural areas, and a weak health information system. Approach A “country coordination and facilitation” process was implemented to strengthen the national HRH observatory, provide a coordination platform for key stakeholders, catalyse policy support and HRH planning, harmonize the mobilization of resources, strengthen HRH managerial structures, establish new training institutions and scale up the training of community health workers. Local setting The national government of the Sudan sanctioned state-level governance of the health system but many states lacked coherent HRH plans and policies. A paucity of training institutions constrained HRH production and the adequate and equitable deployment of health workers in rural areas. Relevant changes The country coordination and facilitation process prompted the establishment of a robust HRH information system and the development of the technical capacities and tools necessary for data analysis and evidence-based participatory decision-making and action. Lessons learnt The success of the country coordination and facilitation process was substantiated by the stakeholders’ coordinated support, which was built on solid evidence of the challenges in HRH and shared accountability in the planning and implementation of responses to those challenges. The support led to political commitment and the mobilization of resources for HRH. The leadership that was promoted and the educational institutions that were opened should facilitate the training, deployment and retention of the health workers needed to achieve universal health coverage. PMID:24347712

  13. Role of the domestic dog as a reservoir host of Leishmania donovani in eastern Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Mo'awia M; Osman, Omran F; El-Raba'a, Fathi MA; Schallig, Henk DFH; Elnaiem, Dia-Eldin A

    2009-01-01

    Background The study aims to determine the role of domestic dogs in transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in eastern Sudan. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 10 villages along the River Rahad in eastern Sudan to elucidate the role of domestic dogs (Canis familiaris, Linnaeus, 1758) as a reservoir host of Leishmania donovani. In this study, 87 dogs were screened for infection by Leishmania donovani. Blood and lymph node samples were taken from 87 and 33 dogs respectively and subsequently screened by the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Direct Agglutination Test (DAT) test. Additional lymph node smears were processed for microscopy and parasite culture. Host preference of the visceral leishmaniasis (VL) vector in the area, Phlebotomus orientalis, and other sandflies for the Nile rat (Arvicanthis niloticus, É. Geoffrey, 1803), the genet (Genetta genetta, Linnaeus, 1758), the mongoose (Herpeistes ichneumon, Linnaeus, 1758), and the domestic dog were determined by counting numbers of sand flies attracted to CDC traps that were baited by these animals. Results DAT on blood samples detected anti-Leishmania antibodies in 6 samples (6.9%). Two out of 87 (2.3%) blood samples tested were PCR positive, giving an amplification product of 560 bp. The two positive samples by PCR were also positive by DAT. However, none of the 33 lymph nodes aspirates were Leishmania positive when screened by microscopy, culture and genus-specific PCR. The dog-baited trap significantly attracted the highest number of P. orientalis and sand fly species (P < 0.001). This was followed by the Egyptian mongoose baited trap and less frequently by the genet baited trap. Conclusion It is concluded that the results obtained from host attraction studies indicate that dog is more attractive for P. orientalis than Egyptian mongoose, common genet and Nile rat. PMID:19534802

  14. Electrochemical determination of Sudan I in food samples at graphene modified glassy carbon electrode based on the enhancement effect of sodium dodecyl sulphonate.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xinying; Chao, Mingyong; Wang, Zhaoxia

    2013-06-01

    This paper describes a novel electrochemical method for the determination of Sudan I in food samples based on the electrochemical catalytic activity of graphene modified glassy carbon electrode (GMGCE) and the enhancement effect of an anionic surfactant: sodium dodecyl sulphonate (SDS). Using pH 6.0 phosphate buffer solution (PBS) as supporting electrolyte and in the presence of 1.5 × 10(-4)mol L(-1) SDS, Sudan I yielded a well-defined and sensitive oxidation peak at a GMGCE. The oxidation peak current of Sudan I remarkably increased in the presence of SDS. The experimental parameters, such as supporting electrolyte, concentration of SDS, and accumulation time, were optimised for Sudan I determination. The oxidation peak current showed a linear relationship with the concentrations of Sudan I in the range of 7.50 × 10(-8)-7.50 × 10(-6)mol L(-1), with the detection limit of 4.0 × 10(-8)mol L(-1). This new voltammetric method was successfully used to determine Sudan I in food products such as ketchup and chili sauce with satisfactory results.

  15. In-line micro-matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction for simultaneous separation and extraction of Sudan dyes in different spices.

    PubMed

    Rajabi, Maryam; Sabzalian, Sedigheh; Barfi, Behruz; Arghavani-Beydokhti, Somayeh; Asghari, Alireza

    2015-12-18

    A novel, simple, fast, and miniaturized method, termed in-line micro-matrix solid-phase dispersion (in-line MMSPD), coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed for the simultaneous extraction and determination of Sudan dyes (i.e. Sudan I-IV, Sudan orange G, Sudan black B, and Sudan red G) with the aid of an experimental design strategy. In this method, a matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) column including a suitable mixture of polar sorbents was inserted in the mobile phase pathway, and while the interfering compounds were retained, the analytes were eluted and entered into the analytical column. In this way, the extraction, elution, and separation of the analytes were performed sequentially. Under the optimal experimental conditions (including the amount of sample, 0.0426g; amount of dispersant phase, 0.0216g of florisil, 0.0227g of silica, 0.0141g of alumina; and blending time, 112s), the limits of detection (LODs), limits of quantification, linear dynamic ranges, and recoveries were obtained to be 0.3-15.3μgkg(-1), 1-50μgkg(-1), 50-28,000μgkg(-1), and 94.5-99.1%, respectively. The results obtained showed that determination of the selected Sudan dyes in food samples using an enough sensitive and a simple analytically validated method like in-line MMSPD may offer a suitable screening method, which could be useful for food analysis and adulteration.

  16. Welding irradiated stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Kanne, W.R. Jr.; Chandler, G.T.; Nelson, D.Z.; Franco-Ferreira, E.A.

    1993-12-31

    Conventional welding processes produced severe underbead cracking in irradiated stainless steel containing 1 to 33 appm helium from n,a reactions. A shallow penetration overlay technique was successfully demonstrated for welding irradiated stainless steel. The technique was applied to irradiated 304 stainless steel that contained 10 appm helium. Surface cracking, present in conventional welds made on the same steel at the same and lower helium concentrations, was eliminated. Underbead cracking was minimal compared to conventional welding methods. However, cracking in the irradiated material was greater than in tritium charged and aged material at the same helium concentrations. The overlay technique provides a potential method for repair or modification of irradiated reactor materials.

  17. 76 FR 5102 - Draft NUREG-0561, Revision 2; Physical Protection of Shipments of Irradiated Reactor Fuel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ... Protection of Shipments of Irradiated Reactor Fuel; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... transport of irradiated reactor fuel (for purposes of this rulemaking, the terms ``irradiated reactor fuel... examine and have copied for a fee, publicly available documents at the NRC's PDR, Room O-1 F21, One...

  18. 78 FR 31821 - Physical Protection of Shipments of Irradiated Reactor Fuel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 73 RIN 3150-AI64 Physical Protection of Shipments of Irradiated Reactor Fuel AGENCY... (NRC) is issuing Revision 2 of NUREG-0561, ``Physical Protection of Shipments of Irradiated Reactor... regulations for the transport of irradiated reactor fuel at Sec. 73.37 of Title 10 of the Code of...

  19. A Qualitative Evidence of the Breeding Sites of Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) in and Around Kassala Town, Eastern Sudan.

    PubMed

    Hamza, Asma Mahmoud; El Rayah, El Amin

    2016-01-01

    Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) is considered the most efficient malaria vector in eastern Sudan. This study aims to characterize the breeding sites of An. arabiensis throughout the year in and around Kassala town, eastern Sudan. Diverse larval habitat types were visited and characterized based on the habitat type and chemical composition. Mosquito larvae were found in many diverse habitats. During the rainy season, rain pools and water bodies created by the seasonal Gash River serve as the main breeding sites. In the dry season, irrigation canals, seepage from water pipes, neglected wells, artificial containers, and man-made ditches serve as the main breeding sites. Breeding water showed a pH of 7.9 and a low concentration of the total dissolved salts. The results of this study may be considered in planning and implementing larval control programs in the area.

  20. A Qualitative Evidence of the Breeding Sites of Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) in and Around Kassala Town, Eastern Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Hamza, Asma Mahmoud; El Rayah, El Amin

    2016-01-01

    Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) is considered the most efficient malaria vector in eastern Sudan. This study aims to characterize the breeding sites of An. arabiensis throughout the year in and around Kassala town, eastern Sudan. Diverse larval habitat types were visited and characterized based on the habitat type and chemical composition. Mosquito larvae were found in many diverse habitats. During the rainy season, rain pools and water bodies created by the seasonal Gash River serve as the main breeding sites. In the dry season, irrigation canals, seepage from water pipes, neglected wells, artificial containers, and man-made ditches serve as the main breeding sites. Breeding water showed a pH of 7.9 and a low concentration of the total dissolved salts. The results of this study may be considered in planning and implementing larval control programs in the area. PMID:27547039

  1. Sudan, a Country in Crisis U.S. Engagement Options to Foster Peace, Stability, Prosperity, and Health

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    guerilla tactics against government supply lines and oil infrastructure. A rebellion broke out in Darfur, in western Sudan, in 2003, led by two rebel...resources are agricultural, but oil production and export are taking on greater importance since October 2000. Although the country is trying to...for domestic consumption. Sesame seeds and peanuts are cultivated for domestic consumption and increasingly for export. Livestock production has 5

  2. Building the nation's body: The contested role of abortion and family planning in post-war South Sudan.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Jennifer J; Storeng, Katerini T

    2016-11-01

    This paper offers an ethnographic analysis of public health policies and interventions targeting unwanted pregnancy (family planning and abortion) in contemporary South Sudan as part of wider 'nation-building' after war, understood as a process of collective identity formation which projects a meaningful future by redefining existing institutions and customs as national characteristics. The paper shows how the expansion of post-conflict family planning and abortion policy and services are particularly poignant sites for the enactment of reproductive identity negotiation, policing and conflict. In addition to customary norms, these processes are shaped by two powerful institutions - ethnic movements and global humanitarian actors - who tend to take opposing stances on reproductive health. Drawing on document review, observations of the media and policy environment and interviews conducted with 54 key informants between 2013 and 2015, the paper shows that during the civil war, the Sudan People's Liberation Army and Movement mobilised customary pro-natalist ideals for military gain by entreating women to amplify reproduction to replace those lost to war and rejecting family planning and abortion. International donors and the Ministry of Health have re-conceptualised such services as among other modern developments denied by war. The tensions between these competing discourses have given rise to a range of societal responses, including disagreements that erupt in legal battles, heated debate and even violence towards women and health workers. In United Nations camps established recently as parts of South Sudan have returned to war, social groups exert a form of reproductive surveillance, policing reproductive health practices and contributing to intra-communal violence when clandestine use of contraception or abortion is discovered. In a context where modern contraceptives and abortion services are largely unfamiliar, conflict around South Sudan's nation

  3. SIR-B analysis of the Precambrian shield of Sudan and Egypt: Penetration studies and subsurface mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dixon, T. H.; Roth, L.; Stern, R. J.; Almond, D. C.; Kroner, A.; Elshazly, E. M.

    1984-01-01

    A shuttle imaging radar-B (SIR-B) study is proposed for the Precambrian shield in southeast Egypt and northeast Sudan in an area east of the Nile. The phenomenon of radar penetration of thin, dry eolian/alluvial cover is to be confirmed and quantified. The penetration phenomenon is to be used to map structural and lithologic features. Field work to be done in conjunction with image acquisition is discussed.

  4. Survey of causative agents for acute respiratory infections among patients in Khartoum- State, Sudan, 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study was carried out to determine causative agents of acute respiratory illness of patients in Khartoum State, Sudan. Methods Four hundred patients experiencing respiratory infections within January-March 2010 and January-March 2011 were admitted at Khartoum Hospital and had their throat swab samples subjected to multiplex real-time RT-PCR to detect influenza viruses (including subtypes) and other viral agents. Isolation, nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic analysis on some influenza viruses based on the HA gene were done. Results Out of 400 patients, 66 were found to have influenza viruses (35, 27, 2, and 2 with types A, B, C, and A and B co-infections, respectively). Influenza viruses were detected in 28, 33 and 5 patients in the age groups <1, 1–10, and 11–30 years old, respectively but none in the 31–50 years old group. Out of 334 patients negative for influenza viruses, 27, 14, and 2 were positive for human respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus and adenovirus, respectively. Phylogenetic tree on influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 subtype shows that Sudan strains belong to the same clade and are related to those strains from several countries such as USA, Japan, Italy, United Kingdom, Germany, Russia, Greece, Denmark, Taiwan, Turkey and Kenya. Seasonal A H3 subtypes have close similarity to strains from Singapore, Brazil, Canada, Denmark, USA and Nicaragua. For influenza B, Sudan strains belong to two different clades, and just like influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 and A H3 subtypes, seem to be part of worldwide endemic population (Kenya, USA, Brazil, Russia, Taiwan and Singapore). Conclusions In Sudan, the existence of respiratory viruses in patients with acute respiratory infection was confirmed and characterized for the first time by using molecular techniques. PMID:24160894

  5. Epidemiological perspectives of ticks and tick-borne diseases in South Sudan: cross-sectional survey results.

    PubMed

    Kivaria, Fredrick M; Kapaga, Angolwisye M; Mbassa, Gabriel K; Mtui, Paul F; Wani, Rhombe J

    2012-09-03

    A cross-sectional study was conducted between September and October 2010 in five states of South Sudan that were selected on the basis of the perceived risk of tick-borne diseases. The purpose was to investigate epidemiological parameters of tick-borne diseases in South Sudan and their uses in future control strategies. A total of 805 calves were assessed by clinical, microscopic and serological examination and tick counts. The indirect Enzyme-Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay (ELISA) was used to detect antibodies to Theileria parva, Theileria mutans, Anaplasma marginale and Babesian bigemina. Sero-conversion risks for T. parva and T. mutans were 27.3% and 31.3% respectively, whilst the risk was 57.6% and 52.8% for A. marginale and B. bigemina, respectively. Major tick species identified include Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus decoloratus, Rhipicephalus microplus, Amblyomma variegatum, and Rhipicephalus evertsi. There was great variation (P ≤ 0.001) in the number of all these ticks, both between herds in a state and between calves in an individual herd. The low and intermediate sero-conversion risks observed in the study states suggest that immunisation against East Coast fever (ECF) is justified. Fortunately, three major genotypes that were identified by applying Polymerase Chain Reaction Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCRRFLP) analysis on the p104 to the blood samples and T. parva Muguga, matched very well with T. parva Kiambu 5 and T. parva Muguga; therefore the Muguga cocktail can be used for the immunisation of cattle in South Sudan. However, prospective studies are required to develop optimal control measures for tick-borne diseases under different ecological and husbandry practices in South Sudan.

  6. Development of SSR Markers Linked to Low Hydrocyanic Acid Content in Sorghum-Sudan Grass Hybrid Based on BSA Method.

    PubMed

    Xiao-Xia, Yu; Zhi-Hua, Liu; Zhuo, Yu; Yue, Shi; Xiao-Yu, Li

    2016-01-01

    Sorghum-Sudan grass hybrid containing high hydrocyanic acid content can cause hydrocyanic acid poisoning to the livestock and limit the popularization of this forage crop. Molecular markers associated with low hydrocyanic acid content can speed up the process of identification of genotypes with low hydrocyanic acid content. In the present study, 11 polymorphic SSR primers were screened and used for bulked segregant analysis and single marker analysis. Three SSR markers Xtxp7230, Xtxp7375 and Bnlg667960 associated with low hydrocyanic acid content were rapidly identified by BSA. In single marker analysis, six markers Xtxp7230, Xtxp7375, Bnlg667960, Xtxp67-11, Xtxp295-7 and Xtxp12-9 were linked to low hydrocyanic acid content, which explained the proportion of phenotypic variation from 7.6 % to 41.2 %. The markers identified by BSA were also verified by single marker analysis. The three SSR marker bands were then cloned and sequenced for sequence homology analysis in NCBI. It is the first report on the development of molecular markers associated with low hydrocyanic acid content in sorghum- Sudan grass hybrid. These markers will be useful for genetic improvement of low hydrocyanic acid sorghum-Sudan grass hybrid by marker-assisted breeding.

  7. Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) and multivariate analysis as a screening tool for detecting Sudan I dye in culinary spices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Anibal, Carolina V.; Marsal, Lluís F.; Callao, M. Pilar; Ruisánchez, Itziar

    2012-02-01

    Raman spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis was evaluated as a tool for detecting Sudan I dye in culinary spices. Three Raman modalities were studied: normal Raman, FT-Raman and SERS. The results show that SERS is the most appropriate modality capable of providing a proper Raman signal when a complex matrix is analyzed. To get rid of the spectral noise and background, Savitzky-Golay smoothing with polynomial baseline correction and wavelet transform were applied. Finally, to check whether unadulterated samples can be differentiated from samples adulterated with Sudan I dye, an exploratory analysis such as principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to raw data and data processed with the two mentioned strategies. The results obtained by PCA show that Raman spectra need to be properly treated if useful information is to be obtained and both spectra treatments are appropriate for processing the Raman signal. The proposed methodology shows that SERS combined with appropriate spectra treatment can be used as a practical screening tool to distinguish samples suspicious to be adulterated with Sudan I dye.

  8. Design of unique pins for irradiation of higher actinides in a fast reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Basmajian, J.A.; Birney, K.R.; Weber, E.T.; Adair, H.L.; Quinby, T.C.; Raman, S.; Butler, J.K.; Bateman, B.C.; Swanson, K.M.

    1982-03-01

    The actinides produced by transmutation reactions in nuclear reactor fuels are a significant factor in nuclear fuel burnup, transportation and reprocessing. Irradiation testing is a primary source of data of this type. A segmented pin design was developed which provides for incorporation of multiple specimens of actinide oxides for irradiation in the UK's Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) at Dounreay Scotland. Results from irradiation of these pins will extend the basic neutronic and material irradiation behavior data for key actinide isotopes.

  9. Electrokinetic and surface chemical characterizations of an irradiated microfiltration polysulfone membrane: comparison of two irradiation doses.

    PubMed

    de Lara, R; Benavente, J

    2007-06-15

    The effect of ionizing radiation on the surface and electrokinetic characteristic parameters for a porous membrane of pore size 0.2 mum is determined and correlated with the irradiation dose (10 and 80 J/kg). Changes in NaCl permeability and membrane system electrical resistance determined from diffusion and impedance spectroscopy measurements are consistent with the increase of membrane pore radii/porosity, in agreement with SEM micrographs and reported results. Low irradiation dose seems to clean the membrane surface of impurities, according to XPS results, but the increase of irradiation doses could affect surface roughness. Due to the relatively high pore radius, ion transport numbers are practically independent of radiation and dose, but irradiation slightly modifies the membrane solution interface by increasing its weakly electronegative character, which could be of interest in the ultrafiltration of proteins or macromolecules.

  10. Stratigraphy and evolution of emerged Pleistocene reefs at the Red Sea coast of Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamed, Basher; Bussert, Robert; Dominik, Wilhelm

    2016-02-01

    Emerged Pleistocene coral reefs constitute a prominent landform along the Red Sea coast of Sudan. They are well exposed with a thickness of up to 12 m and extend over a width of about 3 km parallel to the coastline. Four major reef units that represent different reef zones are distinguished. Unit 1 is located directly at the coastline and is assigned to the rock-reef rim, while unit 2 represents the reef-front zone. Unit 3 is attributed to the reef-flat zone and unit 4 to the back-reef zone. The stratigraphic position and age of the four units respectively the facies zones are based on field relationships and δ18O analysis. Results of δ18O analysis of coral, gastropod and bivalve samples were correlated to previous age dating of correlative reefs in Sudan and other parts of the Red Sea region. Estimation of reef ages was mainly based on δ18O values of the reef-front zone (unit 2) and the observed sedimentary succession of the reefs. δ18O values of two Porites coral samples from the reef-front zone strongly suggest equivalent ages of 120 and 122 ka that correspond to marine isotope stage MIS 5.5. Based on δ18O values and the field relationship to the reef-front zone, ages of reef-flat zone (unit 3) and back-reef zone (unit 4) could be assigned to MIS 9 and MIS 7 respectively. MIS 5.1 is suggested for the reef-rock rim (unit 1). The relationship of the reef zones to individual MIS might be explained by the predominance of a specific zone during a certain stage, while other facies were less well developed and/or later eroded by wave action. The reef unit most distal from the recent coastline formed during interglacial stage MIS 7, while former studies assign this unit to interglacial stage MIS 9. Unique flourishing, high diversity and excellent preservation of corals in the back-reef unit of MIS 7 reflect growth in troughs landward of the oldest reef-flat formed during previous interglacial stage MIS 9.

  11. Comminuting irradiated ferritic steel

    DOEpatents

    Bauer, Roger E.; Straalsund, Jerry L.; Chin, Bryan A.

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of comminuting irradiated ferritic steel by placing the steel in a solution of a compound selected from the group consisting of sulfamic acid, bisulfate, and mixtures thereof. The ferritic steel is used as cladding on nuclear fuel rods or other irradiated components.

  12. Perspective on food irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-02-01

    Recent US Food and Drug Administration approval of irradiation treatment for fruit, vegetables and pork has stimulated considerable discussion in the popular press on the safety and efficacy of irradiation processing of food. This perspective is designed to summarize the current scientific information available on this issue.

  13. MASSIVE LEAKAGE IRRADIATOR

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.; Szilard, L.; Christy, R.F.; Friedman, F.L.

    1961-05-30

    An irradiator designed to utilize the neutrons that leak out of a reactor around its periphery is described. It avoids wasting neutron energy and reduces interference with the core flux to a minimum. This is done by surrounding all or most of the core with removable segments of the material to be irradiated within a matrix of reflecting material.

  14. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a specific monoclonal antibody as a new tool to detect Sudan dyes and Para red.

    PubMed

    Ju, Chunmei; Tang, Yong; Fan, Huiying; Chen, Jinding

    2008-07-28

    To set up an immunoassay-based method to detect Sudan dyes and Para red, we generated a monoclonal antibody (Mab) using a specially designed carboxyl derivative of Sudan I (CSD I) as the immunogen. CSD I was synthesized by azocoupling reaction using 2-naphthol and diazotised 4-aminobenzoic acid. The antibody was obtained from a hybridoma, which was derived from the fusion of the mouse myeloma SP2/0 cells and the splenocytes from the mice immunized with the CSD I-bovine serum albumin (BSA) conjugate. In addition, we showed that the Mab was highly specific for Sudan I, III and Para red. The limit of detection was approximately 0.01ngmL(-1) in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) buffer and 0.5ngg(-1) in chilli tomato sauce. The recoveries of Sudan I, III and Para red for the chilli tomato sauce were from 84% to 99% and coefficients of variation were from 14.9% to 33.3%. Thus, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method is a rapid and high throughput screening tool to detect Sudan dyes and Para red in food products.

  15. Mixed infection of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) and other respiratory viruses in dromedary camels in Sudan, an abattoir study.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Intisar Kamil; Ali, Yahia Hassan; AbdulRahman, Magdi Badawi; Mohammed, Zakia Abas; Osman, Halima Mohammed; Taha, Khalid Mohammed; Musa, Mohammed Zain; Khalafalla, AbdelMelik Ibrahim

    2015-06-01

    This study was intended to determine the role played by peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in causing respiratory infections in camels and its association with other respiratory viruses. A total of 474 lung specimens showing pneumonia were collected from clinically healthy camels in slaughterhouses at five different areas in Sudan. Using immunocapture ELISA (IcELISA), 214 specimens (45.1 %) were found to be positive for PPR antigen. The highest prevalence was found in central Sudan (59.9 %) then northern Sudan (56.6 %) and eastern Sudan (26.6 %). Parainfluenza virus 3 (PIV 3), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), bovine herpes virus-1 (BHV-1), bovine viral diarrhea (BVD), and adenovirus were detected in 4.4, 2.9, 2.0, 9.0, and 1.3 % of the specimens, respectively. PPR antigen was found in about 50 % of specimens that showed positive result for other viral antigens. Twenty-five of 28 BVD, 15 of 16 PIV3, 8 of 12 RSV, 4 of 4 adenovirus, and 4 of 5 BHV-1 were found in association with other respiratory antigens. Results revealed the existence of PPRV infection in dromedary camels in Sudan and present evidence for mixed virus infection, suggesting that respiratory infections in camels might be exacerbated by PPRV.

  16. High sensitive voltammetric sensor based on Pt/CNTs nanocomposite modified ionic liquid carbon paste electrode for determination of Sudan I in food samples.

    PubMed

    Elyasi, Mojdeh; Khalilzadeh, Mohammad A; Karimi-Maleh, Hassan

    2013-12-15

    In this work, a simple and high sensitivity electrochemical sensor was developed to determine Sudan I based on Pt/CNTs nanocomposite ionic liquid modified carbon paste electrode (Pt/CNTs/ILCPE) using cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and square wave voltammetry (SWV) methods. The novel sensor exhibited an obviously catalytic activity towards the oxidation of Sudan I, which can be confirmed by the increased oxidation peak current and the decreased oxidation peak potential when compared with the bare carbon paste electrode (CPE). The electron transfer coefficient (α), diffusion coefficient (D), and charge transfer resistance (Rct) of Sudan I at the modified electrode were calculated. The linear response range and detection limit were found to be 0.008-600 μmol L(-1) and 0.003 μmol L(-1), respectively. Other species did not interfere with the determination of Sudan I at a surface of propose sensor in the optimum condition. The proposed sensor was successfully applied for the determination of Sudan I in food samples with satisfactory results.

  17. Horizontal modular dry irradiated fuel storage system

    DOEpatents

    Fischer, Larry E.; McInnes, Ian D.; Massey, John V.

    1988-01-01

    A horizontal, modular, dry, irradiated fuel storage system (10) includes a thin-walled canister (12) for containing irradiated fuel assemblies (20), which canister (12) can be positioned in a transfer cask (14) and transported in a horizontal manner from a fuel storage pool (18), to an intermediate-term storage facility. The storage system (10) includes a plurality of dry storage modules (26) which accept the canister (12) from the transfer cask (14) and provide for appropriate shielding about the canister (12). Each module (26) also provides for air cooling of the canister (12) to remove the decay heat of the irradiated fuel assemblies (20). The modules (26) can be interlocked so that each module (26) gains additional shielding from the next adjacent module (26). Hydraulic rams (30) are provided for inserting and removing the canisters (12) from the modules (26).

  18. Irradiation Creep in Graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Ubic, Rick; Butt, Darryl; Windes, William

    2014-03-13

    An understanding of the underlying mechanisms of irradiation creep in graphite material is required to correctly interpret experimental data, explain micromechanical modeling results, and predict whole-core behavior. This project will focus on experimental microscopic data to demonstrate the mechanism of irradiation creep. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy should be able to image both the dislocations in graphite and the irradiation-induced interstitial clusters that pin those dislocations. The team will first prepare and characterize nanoscale samples of virgin nuclear graphite in a transmission electron microscope. Additional samples will be irradiated to varying degrees at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) facility and similarly characterized. Researchers will record microstructures and crystal defects and suggest a mechanism for irradiation creep based on the results. In addition, the purchase of a tensile holder for a transmission electron microscope will allow, for the first time, in situ observation of creep behavior on the microstructure and crystallographic defects.

  19. Aflatoxins, ochratoxins and zearalenone in sorghum and sorghum products in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Elbashir, Abdalla A; Ali, Salah Eldeen A

    2014-01-01

    This survey examined 60 samples of sorghum and 30 samples of sorghum products from three states (Khartoum, Kordofan and Gadarif) of Sudan for aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2), ochratoxin A and B (OTA, OTB) and zearalenone (ZEN), using high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The limits of detection and limits of quantification were in the range 0.01-0.6 µg kg(-1) and 0.03-2.0 µg kg(-1), respectively. The frequency of contaminated samples with AFB1 from Khartoum, Gadarif and Kordofan state was 38.1%, 22.2% and 23.8%, respectively. Only two samples of sorghum from Khartoum state were contaminated with OTA (3.3%). Concentrations of OTA and OTB were low and may not cause problems. No sample of sorghum or sorghum products was contaminated with ZEN. Some sorghum samples contained AFB1 concentrations above the European Union regulatory limits. The highest contaminated samples were found in Khartoum state.

  20. Large-scale snail control trial with trifenmorph in the Gezira irrigation scheme, Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Amin, M. A.; Fenwick, A.; Osgerby, J. M.; Warley, A. P.; Wright, A. N.

    1976-01-01

    A large-scale field trial was carried out during December 1973 to assess the effect of trifenmorph on Bulinus truncatus and Biomphalaria pfeifferi in 379 000 feddans (≈159 000 ha) of the Gezira irrigation system in the Sudan. The commercial formulation used (Frescon) is an emulsifiable concentrate containing 16.5% trifenmorph. Five dispensers were used to add the commercial product to the water continuously for 7.5 days; 18 121 litres were used to treat 28.4 million m3 of water. In addition, each minor canal was hand-sprayed from the tail to 300 m upstream of the last open field outlet pipe; 360 litres of the commercial formulation were used for this operation. A minimum concentration of 0.035 mg trifenmorph per litre of water was produced at the head of each minor canal. The use of caged snails showed that a concentration as low as 0.015 mg/litre was sufficient to produce 100% mortality in B. truncatus in 7.5 days; this is equivalent to a concentration × time product of 0.12 mg/litre days. PMID:1088406

  1. Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene Evidence of Prostatic Stones at Al Khiday Cemetery, Central Sudan.

    PubMed

    Usai, Donatella; Maritan, Lara; Dal Sasso, Gregorio; Artioli, Gilberto; Salvatori, Sandro; Jakob, Tina; Salviato, Tiziana

    2017-01-01

    The recovery of three stone-like ovoid objects within the burial of a pre-Mesolithic (Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene) individual at Al Khiday cemetery (Central Sudan) raises the question of the nature and origin of these objects. The position in which the objects were found in relation to the human skeleton suggested a pathological condition affecting the individual, possibly urinary bladder, kidney stones or gallstones. To solve this issue, a multi-analytical approach, consisting of tomographic, microstructural and compositional analyses, was therefore performed. Based on their microstructure and mineralogical composition, consisting of hydroxylapatite and whitlockite, the investigated stones were identified as primary (endogenous) prostatic calculi. In addition, the occurrence of bacterial imprints also indicates on-going infectious processes in the individual. This discovery of the earliest known case of lithiasis extends the appearance of prostatic stones into the Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene, a disease which therefore can no longer be considered exclusive to the modern era, but which also affected prehistoric individuals, whose lifestyle and diet were significantly different to our own.

  2. Patterns of rural household energy use: a study in the White Nile province - the Sudan

    SciTech Connect

    Abdu, A.S.E.

    1984-01-01

    This study investigates rural household domestic energy consumption patterns in a semiarid area of the Sudan. It describes the socio-economic and environmental context of energy use, provides an estimation of local woody biomass production, and evaluates ecological impacts of increased energy demand on the local resource base. It is based on findings derived from field surveys, a systematic questionnaire, and participant observations. Findings indicate that households procure traditional fuels by self-collection and purchases. Household members spent on average 29 percent of their working time gathering fuels. Analysis of firewood consumption across income groups shows little variation among the households. In contrast, charcoal use rises with increasing income. Fuel consumption data are further subjected to regression analysis. Firewood is significantly determined by household size, while charcoal, kerosene/diesel (El Jaz El Ahmer), use are dependent on annual expenditure. Patterns of dung and crop remains use fit the framework of low resource base, high forestry depletion rates, and low incomes for most of the study area.

  3. Constraints to Hamari sheep farming under range conditions in Darfur and Kordofan Regions of Western Sudan.

    PubMed

    Tirab, Ahmed Berima; Chimonyo, Michael

    2016-08-01

    The study was conducted to identify the major production constraints of Hamari sheep in Darfur and Kordofan Regions of Western Sudan. A structured questionnaire was administered to 128 farmers in Darfur and Kordofan. Feed shortages, prevalence of diseases and parasites, and predation were more severe in Darfur than Kordofan (P < 0.05). Thefts were ranked higher by farmers using the sedentary system compared to those using semi-nomadic system (P < 0.05). Water shortage was ranked higher by farmers with small flocks, large flocks, semi-nomadic and sedentary husbandry system in Kordofan than their counterparts in Darfur Region (P < 0.05). Farmers practising semi-nomadic husbandry system and sedentary system in Darfur region ranked diseases, parasites and predation higher than those practising semi-nomadic and sedentary system in Kordofan region (P < 0.05). Feed shortage was ranked higher as a challenge by farmers practising semi-nomadic system in Darfur Region than those practising semi-nomadic system in Kordofan Region (P < 0.05). It can be concluded that the severity of challenges facing Hamari sheep producers vary with flock size, region and production system used.

  4. Sudan General Petroleum Corporation: a study of the evolution of its organization

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, A.E.

    1984-01-01

    This study is of an exploratory nature, with the purpose of investigating the evolution of the organization, macro and micro, of Sudan General Petroleum Corporation (SGPC) and how it relates to government strategy toward the petroleum sector. The study addresses the following questions: what changes took place in the organization of SGPC for the period 1900-1983. What changes took place in the government strategy toward the petroleum industry for the corresponding period. How did the changes in SGPC organization relate to the changes in government strategy. What generalizations can be made about the relationship between government strategy toward the petroleum industry and the structure of state petroleum enterprises in developing countries. What are the implications for the future organizational structure of SGPC and its relationships to external entities. The study shows that the organization of SGPC, macro and micro, tends to change in response to the changes in government strategy toward the petroleum sector. Certain political and economic factors shaped the government strategy, which in turn influenced the structure of SGPC. The SGPC organization, in its most complex form in 1983, is the result of the concatenation of several basic strategies.

  5. Providing health services during a civil war: the experience of a garrison town in South Sudan.

    PubMed

    Kevlihan, Rob

    2013-10-01

    The impact of conflict, particularly conflict arising during civil wars, on the provision of healthcare is a subject that has not been widely considered in conflict-related research. Combatants often target health services to weaken or to defeat the enemy, while attempts to maintain or improve health systems also can comprise part of counter-insurgency 'hearts-and-minds' strategies. This paper describes the dynamics associated with the provision of health services in Malakal, an important garrison town in South Sudan, during the second Sudanese civil war (1983-2005). Drawing on the concepts of opportunity hoarding and exploitation, it explores the social and political dynamics of service provision in and around the town during the war. These concepts provide a useful lens with which to understand better how health services are affected by conflict, while the empirical case study presented in the paper illustrates dynamics that may be repeated in other contexts. The concepts and case study set out in this paper should prove useful to healthcare providers working in conflict zones, including humanitarian aid agencies and their employees, increasing their understanding of the social and political dynamics that they are likely to face during future conflict-related complex emergencies.

  6. Microbial aetiology of acute diarrhoea in children under five years of age in Khartoum, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Amir; Abd, Hadi; Sandstrom, Gunnar

    2015-04-01

    Diarrhoea is one of leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recent estimations suggested the number of deaths is close to 2.5 million. This study examined the causative agents of diarrhoea in children under 5 years of age in suburban areas of Khartoum, Sudan. A total of 437 stool samples obtained from children with diarrhoea were examined by culture and PCR for bacteria, by microscopy and PCR for parasites and by immunoassay for detection of rotavirus A. Of the 437 samples analysed, 211 (48%) tested positive for diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli, 96 (22%) for rotavirus A, 36 (8%) for Shigella spp., 17 (4%) for Salmonella spp., 8 (2%) for Campylobacter spp., 47 (11%) for Giardia intestinalis and 22 (5%) for Entamoeba histolytica. All isolates of E. coli (211, 100 %) and Salmonella (17, 100%), and 30 (83%) isolates of Shigella were sensitive to chloramphenicol; 17 (100%) isolates of Salmonella, 200 (94%) isolates of E. coli and (78%) 28 isolates of Shigella spp. were sensitive to gentamicin. In contrast, resistance to ampicillin was demonstrated in 100 (47%) isolates of E. coli and 16 (44%) isolates of Shigella spp. In conclusion, E. coli proved to be the main cause of diarrhoea in young children in this study, followed by rotavirus A and protozoa. Determination of diarrhoea aetiology and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of diarrhoeal pathogens and improved hygiene are important for clinical management and controlled strategic planning to reduce the burden of infection.

  7. Immune Responses to an Oral Cholera Vaccine in Internally Displaced Persons in South Sudan.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Anita S; Bouhenia, Malika; Rumunu, John; Abubakar, Abdinasir; Gruninger, Randon J; Pita, Jane; Lino, Richard Lako; Deng, Lul L; Wamala, Joseph F; Ryan, Edward T; Martin, Stephen; Legros, Dominique; Lessler, Justin; Sack, David A; Luquero, Francisco J; Leung, Daniel T; Azman, Andrew S

    2016-10-24

    Despite recent large-scale cholera outbreaks, little is known about the immunogenicity of oral cholera vaccines (OCV) in African populations, particularly among those at highest cholera risk. During a 2015 preemptive OCV campaign among internally displaced persons in South Sudan, a year after a large cholera outbreak, we enrolled 37 young children (1-5 years old), 67 older children (6-17 years old) and 101 adults (≥18 years old), who received two doses of OCV (Shanchol) spaced approximately 3 weeks apart. Cholera-specific antibody responses were determined at days 0, 21 and 35 post-immunization. High baseline vibriocidal titers (>80) were observed in 21% of the participants, suggesting recent cholera exposure or vaccination. Among those with titers ≤80, 90% young children, 73% older children and 72% adults seroconverted (≥4 fold titer rise) after the 1(st) OCV dose; with no additional seroconversion after the 2(nd) dose. Post-vaccination immunological endpoints did not differ across age groups. Our results indicate Shanchol was immunogenic in this vulnerable population and that a single dose alone may be sufficient to achieve similar short-term immunological responses to the currently licensed two-dose regimen. While we found no evidence of differential response by age, further immunologic and epidemiologic studies are needed.

  8. Prevalence of anaemia in preschool children in Karma Albalad area, Northern State, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Hussein, M D; Mohamed, S

    2014-02-11

    Anaemia is a major childhood health problem in developing countries. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of anaemia, and some of its determinants, in preschool children in a rural village in the Northern State of Sudan. All children aged 3-6 years attending the 4 village kindergartens on the day of the study were enrolled. Demographic and socioeconomic data were collected using a questionnaire completed by parents, and blood samples were taken for haemoglobin measurement. Out of 163 children, 131 had anaemia (haemoglobin level < 11 g/dL), a prevalence of 80.4%. This figure is comparable to data from other developing countries. The prevalence of anaemia was not significantly associated with any of the studied demographic and socioeconomic factors (sex, economic status of the family, mother's literacy or family size) or health of the child (history of pica or number of attacks of malaria in the last year). A campaign to tackle this serious health issue is urgently needed.

  9. The Egyptian mongoose, Herpestes ichneumon, is a possible reservoir host of visceral leishmaniasis in eastern Sudan.

    PubMed

    Elnaiem, D A; Hassan, M M; Maingon, R; Nureldin, G H; Mekawi, A M; Miles, M; Ward, R D

    2001-05-01

    Investigations were made on possible reservoir hosts of Leishmania donovani in 2 zoonotic foci of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Dinder National Park (DNP) and the peri-domestic habitats of adjacent villages of eastern Sudan. Animals were captured, in November 1997-1998 and April-May 1999 and examined for L. donovani infection using light microscopy and 2 sensitive Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) systems. Microscopy and PCR investigations were also used to determine the infection rates of L. donovani in Phlebotomus orientalis captured from the uninhabited site of DNP. Infections of L. donovani were detected in 2 out of 14 Egyptian mongooses (Herpestes ichneumon), 1 out of 168 Arviconthus niloticus and 1 out of 8 Mastomys natalensis. Samples from 68 other animals captured from the study area were all negative for the infection. Active zoonotic transmission of L. donovani at the time of animal sampling in the uninhabited site of DNP was demonstrated by finding the parasite in 3.4% (7 out of 184) and 3.2% (5 out of 157) of flies collected in March 1998 and May 1999, respectively. We suggest that the Egyptian mongoose is a possible reservoir host of L. donovani. The importance of other animals in maintaining the infection is also discussed.

  10. Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene Evidence of Prostatic Stones at Al Khiday Cemetery, Central Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Usai, Donatella

    2017-01-01

    The recovery of three stone-like ovoid objects within the burial of a pre-Mesolithic (Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene) individual at Al Khiday cemetery (Central Sudan) raises the question of the nature and origin of these objects. The position in which the objects were found in relation to the human skeleton suggested a pathological condition affecting the individual, possibly urinary bladder, kidney stones or gallstones. To solve this issue, a multi-analytical approach, consisting of tomographic, microstructural and compositional analyses, was therefore performed. Based on their microstructure and mineralogical composition, consisting of hydroxylapatite and whitlockite, the investigated stones were identified as primary (endogenous) prostatic calculi. In addition, the occurrence of bacterial imprints also indicates on-going infectious processes in the individual. This discovery of the earliest known case of lithiasis extends the appearance of prostatic stones into the Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene, a disease which therefore can no longer be considered exclusive to the modern era, but which also affected prehistoric individuals, whose lifestyle and diet were significantly different to our own. PMID:28122013

  11. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Dairy Cattle with Reproductive Problems in Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Elfahal, Abdelghafar M.; Elhassan, Amira M.; Hussien, Mohammed O.; Enan, Khalid A.; Musa, Azza B.; El Hussein, Abdelrahim M.

    2013-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis, caused by Toxoplasma gondii, is one of the most common parasitic infections of humans and other warm-blooded animals in most parts of the world. The disease is common among sheep and goats and it is recognized as one of the major causes of reproductive failure in these animals. Cattle, on the other hand, can be infected, but abortion or perinatal mortality has not been recorded. This survey was carried out to study the prevalence of this disease in cattle in Khartoum and Gazira States (Sudan). 181 sera samples collected from dairy cattle with reproductive problems were assayed for antibodies to T. gondii by ELISA. The prevalence rate of T. gondii antibodies in cattle at herd level was 44.8% (13/29). Herd level infection rates were 50% and 33.3% in Khartoum and Gazira States, respectively. The overall prevalence of T. gondii at individual level in both states was 13.3% (24/181). The prevalence was 12.7% (17/134), was 14.9% (7/47) in Khartoum and Gazira State, respectively. There was significantly higher (P < 0.05) prevalence of T. gondii antibodies in the age group less than one year old (36.4%) than in other age groups and in males (30.8%) than in females (11.9%) while no significant relationship was discerned regarding breed, location, season, or signs of reproductive disease. PMID:24171116

  12. Homologous and heterologous protection of nonhuman primates by Ebola and Sudan virus-like particles.

    PubMed

    Warfield, Kelly L; Dye, John M; Wells, Jay B; Unfer, Robert C; Holtsberg, Frederick W; Shulenin, Sergey; Vu, Hong; Swenson, Dana L; Bavari, Sina; Aman, M Javad

    2015-01-01

    Filoviruses cause hemorrhagic fever resulting in significant morbidity and mortality in humans. Several vaccine platforms that include multiple virus-vectored approaches and virus-like particles (VLPs) have shown efficacy in nonhuman primates. Previous studies have shown protection of cynomolgus macaques against homologous infection for Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus (MARV) following a three-dose vaccine regimen of EBOV or MARV VLPs, as well as heterologous protection against Ravn Virus (RAVV) following vaccination with MARV VLPs. The objectives of the current studies were to determine the minimum number of vaccine doses required for protection (using EBOV as the test system) and then demonstrate protection against Sudan virus (SUDV) and Taï Forest virus (TAFV). Using the EBOV nonhuman primate model, we show that one or two doses of VLP vaccine can confer protection from lethal infection. VLPs containing the SUDV glycoprotein, nucleoprotein and VP40 matrix protein provide complete protection against lethal SUDV infection in macaques. Finally, we demonstrate protective efficacy mediated by EBOV, but not SUDV, VLPs against TAFV; this is the first demonstration of complete cross-filovirus protection using a single component heterologous vaccine within the Ebolavirus genus. Along with our previous results, this observation provides strong evidence that it will be possible to develop and administer a broad-spectrum VLP-based vaccine that will protect against multiple filoviruses by combining only three EBOV, SUDV and MARV components.

  13. Zinc and selenium levels in women with gestational diabetes mellitus at Medani Hospital, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Hamdan, H Z; Elbashir, L M; Hamdan, S Z; Elhassan, E M; Adam, I

    2014-10-01

    Gestational diabetes is a common medical disorder in pregnancy. There is a growing body of evidence of the association between zinc, selenium status and diabetes mellitus during pregnancy. A case-control study was conducted at Medani Hospital, Sudan, to compare zinc and selenium levels in pregnant women with gestational diabetes and normal pregnant women (controls). The two groups (31 in each arm) were well-matched in age, parity, gestational age, haemoglobin and body mass index. Zinc and selenium levels were measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. There were no significant differences in the median (interquartile) zinc (498.9 [395-703] vs 486.4 [404-667] μg/l, p = 0.905) and selenium (164.4 [61-415] vs 204 [68-541] μg/l, p = 0.838) values between the two groups. There were no significant correlations between zinc and selenium, or between these trace elements and body mass index, gestational age and blood glucose levels.

  14. The First Confirmed Elimination of an Onchocerciasis Focus in Africa: Abu Hamed, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Zarroug, Isam M A; Hashim, Kamal; ElMubark, Wigdan A; Shumo, Zainab A I; Salih, Kawthar A M; ElNojomi, Nuha A A; Awad, Huda A; Aziz, Nabil; Katabarwa, Moses; Hassan, Hassan K; Unnasch, Thomas R; Mackenzie, Charles D; Richards, Frank; Higazi, Tarig B

    2016-11-02

    Mass treatment with ivermectin for onchocerciasis was stopped in 2012 in Abu Hamed, an isolated focus on the River Nile in northern Sudan. A 3-year posttreatment surveillance (PTS) ensued, at the end of which an evaluation was conducted in 2015 following the current World Health Organization guidelines for verification of onchocerciasis elimination. Vector black flies were collected from sentinel breeding sites and finger-prick bloodspots were collected from children ≤ 10 years of age resident in 35 communities within the focus. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening of 19,191 flies from four sites for the O-150 parasite-specific marker found no flies carrying Onchocerca volvulus larvae (0%, 95% upper confidence limit [UCL] = 0.16), and serological testing of 5,266 children identified only one Ov16 seropositive child (0.019%, 95% UCL = 0.074); whose skin snips were negative when tested by O-150 PCR assay. These results indicate that for the first time in Africa, onchocerciasis elimination has been verified after a successful PTS in Abu Hamed.

  15. Nitrite in processed meat products in Khartoum, Sudan and dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Adam, Aziza Hussein Bakheit; Mustafa, Nazik Eltayeb Musa; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2017-06-01

    Nitrite intake from locally processed meat in Khartoum, Sudan was estimated and compared to established safety levels. For this purpose, 90 locally processed meat samples were collected randomly from retail outlets and analysed for nitrite levels according to the British standard 1992 protocol and 350 purchasers at retail outlets were questioned about their consumption pattern. Nitrite concentrations in all samples were below the Sudanese maximum limit (ML) of 100 mg kg(-1) for nitrite in meat products. Dietary exposure to nitrite for adults and children was estimated to be in the range of 0.026-0.128 and 0.107-0.511 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1), respectively. This implies that nitrite intake for a significant number of consumers, especially children, are likely to exceed the established acceptable daily intake (ADI) of 0-0.07 mg kg(-1) bw/day of JECFA, in spite the fact that meat samples collected complied with the current ML.

  16. SHUTTLE IMAGING RADAR PROVIDES FRAMEWORK FOR SUBSURFACE GEOLOGIC EXPLORATION IN EGYPT AND SUDAN.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breed, Carol S.; McCauley, John F.; Schaber, Gerald G.

    1984-01-01

    Shuttle Imaging Radar provides a pictorial framework to guide exploration for mineral resources (potential placers), groundwater sources, and prehistoric archaeological sites in the Western Desert of Egypt and Sudan. Documented penetration by the SIR-A signal of dry surficial sediment to depths of a meter or more revealed bedrock geologic features and networks of former stream valleys otherwise concealed beneath windblown sand, alluvium, and colluvial deposits. 'Radar units' mapped on SIR-A images according to relative brightness and degree of mottling correspond to subsurface geologic and topographic features identified in more than 50 test pits. Petrologic examination of pit samples confirms that a variety of depositional environments existed in this now hyper-arid region before it was mantled by windblown sand sheets and dunes. Wet sand was discovered in two buried valleys shown on the radar images and located in the field with the aid of co-registered maps and Landsat images, and a satellite navigation device. Buried valleys whose streams once traversed mineralized zones are potential sites of placers (gold, tin).

  17. Mapping cancer disease using geographical information system (GIS) in Gezira State-Sudan.

    PubMed

    Elebead, F M; Hamid, Amna; Hilmi, H S M; Galal, H

    2012-08-01

    In Sudan, the prevalence of cancer cases increased and cancer ranked as the major cause of death. Therefore, forming a cancer control program and putting strategic action plans into practice became an important matter for the health industry. The correlation of variations in different societies and environmental factors should be examined spatially with reliable data. The aim of this study is to produce base maps for implementation of cancer control program and cancer density maps through the utilization of GIS in health work. In this study, a database was built with the use of GIS to examine the distribution of cancer cases and maps relating to cancer events in allocation units were created. Cancer cases data registered from 1999 to 2008, by the Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Biology and Treatment of Tumors--University of Gezira in El Gezira State, was used as case in this study. Using ArcGIS, the distribution of cancer cases were presented on cancer maps including allocation units and incidence values, which were calculated for each villages and locality region. According to the world standards, cancer rates were determined and examined by the spatial analysis power of GIS. The research concluded that cancer cases were increased, in some localities over the past 10 years (1999-2008). This can be related to many reasons including the existence of the Gezira Scheme were farmers used fertilizers and pesticides, as well as increasing health awareness among the citizens through the establishment of use in the state.

  18. Ebola virus disease in southern Sudan: hospital dissemination and intrafamilial spread

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Roy C.; McCormick, Joseph B.; Zubeir, Osman A.

    1983-01-01

    Between 31 July and 6 October 1979, 34 cases of Ebola virus disease (22 of which were fatal) occurred among five families in a rural district of southern Sudan; the disease was introduced into four of the families from a local hospital. Chains of secondary spread within the family units, accounting for 29 cases resulted from direct physical contact with an infected person. Among all persons with such contact in the family setting, those who provided nursing care had a 5.1-fold increased risk of infection, emphasizing the importance of intimate contact in the spread of this disease. The absence of illness among persons who were exposed to cases in confined spaces, but without physical contact, confirmed previous impressions that there is no risk of airborne transmission. While the ecology of Ebola virus is unknown, the presence of anti-Ebola antibodies in the sera of 18% of persons who were unassociated with the outbreak suggests that the region is an endemic focus of Ebola virus activity. PMID:6370486

  19. Climate variability and environmental stress in the Sudan-Sahel zone of West Africa.

    PubMed

    Mertz, Ole; D'haen, Sarah; Maiga, Abdou; Moussa, Ibrahim Bouzou; Barbier, Bruno; Diouf, Awa; Diallo, Drissa; Da, Evariste Dapola; Dabi, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Environmental change in the Sudan-Sahel region of West Africa (SSWA) has been much debated since the droughts of the 1970s. In this article we assess climate variability and environmental stress in the region. Households in Senegal, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, and Nigeria were asked about climatic changes and their perceptions were compared across north-south and west-east rainfall gradients. More than 80% of all households found that rainfall had decreased, especially in the wettest areas. Increases in wind speeds and temperature were perceived by an overall 60-80% of households. Contrary to household perceptions, observed rainfall patterns showed an increasing trend over the past 20 years. However, August rainfall declined, and could therefore potentially explain the contrasting negative household perceptions of rainfall trends. Most households reported degradation of soils, water resources, vegetation, and fauna, but more so in the 500-900 mm zones. Adaptation measures to counter environmental degradation included use of manure, reforestation, soil and water conservation, and protection of fauna and vegetation. The results raise concerns for future environmental management in the region, especially in the 500-900 mm zones and the western part of SSWA.

  20. Review of research on the insect pests of kenaf and their control in the Sudan.

    PubMed

    Eldin, N S; El-Amin, E M

    1981-01-01

    Kenaf, Hibiscus cannabinus L., is grown in many parts of the Sudan as a fibre plant. During its various stages of growth, 17 different species of insects were detected, out of which only the cotton flea beetle Podagrica puncticollis Weise is of economic importance. The attack by this pest is most serious in the seedling stage; late sowings coupled with early light showers suffer the heaviest damage. In the leaves the beetles eat out round holes ('shot-hole effect'). The entire life cycle takes about 4 to 5 weeks, and about five generations are completed on the plant depending on the weather conditions. Cultural practices incorporating early sowing and eradication of the main host plants, Hibiscus esculentus and Abutilon spp., considerably reduce the size of the initial infestation. Chemicals tested as seed-dressing or sprays for the control of the beetle failed to give good results. However, granular insecticides showed a better performance and longer residual effect. Disyston 5G was effective for six weeks and also improved the general condition of the plants.

  1. Use of healthcare services by injured people in Khartoum State, Sudan

    PubMed Central

    El Tayeb, Sally; Abdalla, Safa; Van den Bergh, Graziella; Heuch, Ivar

    2015-01-01

    Background Trauma care is an important factor in preventing death and reducing disability. Injured persons in low- and middle-income countries are expected to use the formal healthcare system in increasing numbers. The objective of this paper is to examine use of healthcare services after injury in Khartoum State, Sudan. Methods A community-based survey using a stratified two-stage cluster sampling technique in Khartoum State was performed. Information on healthcare utilisation was taken from injured people. A logistic regression analysis was used to explore factors affecting the probability of using formal healthcare services. Results During the 12 months preceding the survey a total of 441 cases of non-fatal injuries occurred, with 260 patients accessing formal healthcare. About a quarter of the injured persons were admitted to hospital. Injured people with primary education were less likely to use formal healthcare compared to those with no education. Formal health services were most used by males and in cases of road traffic injuries. The lowest socio-economic strata were least likely to use formal healthcare. Conclusions Public health measures and social security should be strengthened by identifying other real barriers that prevent low socio-economic groups from making use of formal healthcare facilities. Integration and collaboration with traditional orthopaedic practitioners are important aspects that need further attention. PMID:25205849

  2. Haematological and Biochemical Morbidity of Schistosoma Haematobium in School Children in Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Elagba HA; Eltayeb, Mohamed; Ibrahim, Hikmat

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence and intensity of infection with schistosomiasis among school children and to evaluate the efficacy of praziquantel in normalizing the levels of some haematological and biochemical blood constituents. Methods: A total of 346 school children, aged 7–13 years, from El-Kriab primary school, near the El-Seleit irrigation scheme east of Khartoum, Sudan, were screened for schistosomiasis. All 136 children infected with Schistosoma haematobium and/or S. mansoni were clinically investigated and treated with a single oral dose of praziquantel (40 mg/kg body weight). Results: In 74% out of 97 children infected with S. haematobium the egg count exceeded 500 eggs/10 ml of urine and they had high level of eosinophilia and leukocyte counts, high globulin and calcium levels and low potassium. The serum total proteins, globulins, albumin and urea showed statistically significant differences between control and patients and between patients before and after treatment, although the levels were within the normal reference range. Praziquantel treatment was highly effective as proved by a (58%) cure rate, a (98%) reduction in egg count and normalization of the examined blood parameters six weeks post-treatment. Conclusion: Infection with S. haematobium influenced the normal levels of certain blood constituents and treatment with praziquantel normalized the physiological conditions. According to WHO guidelines, regular mass treatment with praziquantel and health education are recommended as part of the primary health care programme in areas of hight prevalence and intensity of S. haematobium infection. PMID:21748136

  3. Immune Responses to an Oral Cholera Vaccine in Internally Displaced Persons in South Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Anita S.; Bouhenia, Malika; Rumunu, John; Abubakar, Abdinasir; Gruninger, Randon J.; Pita, Jane; Lino, Richard Lako; Deng, Lul L.; Wamala, Joseph F.; Ryan, Edward T.; Martin, Stephen; Legros, Dominique; Lessler, Justin; Sack, David A.; Luquero, Francisco J.; Leung, Daniel T.; Azman, Andrew S.

    2016-01-01

    Despite recent large-scale cholera outbreaks, little is known about the immunogenicity of oral cholera vaccines (OCV) in African populations, particularly among those at highest cholera risk. During a 2015 preemptive OCV campaign among internally displaced persons in South Sudan, a year after a large cholera outbreak, we enrolled 37 young children (1–5 years old), 67 older children (6–17 years old) and 101 adults (≥18 years old), who received two doses of OCV (Shanchol) spaced approximately 3 weeks apart. Cholera-specific antibody responses were determined at days 0, 21 and 35 post-immunization. High baseline vibriocidal titers (>80) were observed in 21% of the participants, suggesting recent cholera exposure or vaccination. Among those with titers ≤80, 90% young children, 73% older children and 72% adults seroconverted (≥4 fold titer rise) after the 1st OCV dose; with no additional seroconversion after the 2nd dose. Post-vaccination immunological endpoints did not differ across age groups. Our results indicate Shanchol was immunogenic in this vulnerable population and that a single dose alone may be sufficient to achieve similar short-term immunological responses to the currently licensed two-dose regimen. While we found no evidence of differential response by age, further immunologic and epidemiologic studies are needed. PMID:27775046

  4. Membrane filtration of Sudan orange G on a cellulose acetate membrane filter for separation-preconcentration and spectrophotometric determination in water, chili powder, chili sauce and tomato sauce samples.

    PubMed

    ALOthman, Zeid A; Unsal, Yunus E; Habila, Mohamed; Shabaka, Azza; Tuzen, Mustafa; Soylak, Mustafa

    2012-08-01

    A simple membrane filtration procedure for separation-enrichment of Sudan orange G is presented. The method is based on the adsorption of Sudan orange G on a cellulose acetate filter and its elution from the membrane with 10 mL of ethanol. Sudan orange G in the eluent was determined by UV-visible spectrophotometry at 388 nm. The effect of analytical conditions, including pH, flow rates and eluent, sample volume, type of membrane for quantitative preconcentration and separation of Sudan orange G were examined. The influences of matrix components on Sudan orange G recoveries were studied. The preconcentration factor was 125. The detection limit was 4.9 μg L(-1). The relative standard deviation was 4.3%. The presented procedure was applied to chili powder, chili sauce, tomato sauce, powdered beverage and water samples.

  5. Molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction combined with ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of four Sudan dyes in sausage samples.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hongyuan; Qiao, Jindong; Wang, Hui; Yang, Gengliang; Row, Kyung Ho

    2011-06-21

    A simple and highly selective molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) combined with ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) was developed for the determination of four Sudan dye (I, II, III, and IV) residues in sausage products. The novel molecularly imprinted microspheres (MIMs) synthesized by aqueous suspension polymerization using phenylamine-naphthol as the dummy template show high affinity to the four Sudan dyes and were applied as selective sorbents of MISPE-DLLME to overcome the drawbacks of template leakage in quantitative analysis. Good linearity was obtained in a range of 0.005-2.0 μg g(-1) and the average recoveries of the four Sudan dyes at three spiked levels ranged from 86.3 to 107.5%. The MISPE-DLLME-HPLC protocol significantly improved the purification and enrichment of the analytes and eliminated the template leakage of the conventional MISPE on quantitative analysis.

  6. A user's guide to the SUDAN computer program for determining the vibration modes of structural systems. Ph.D. Thesis - Case Western Reserve Univ., Jun. 1963

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kvaternik, R. G.; Durling, B. J.

    1978-01-01

    The use of the SUDAN computer program for analyzing structural systems for their natural modes and frequencies of vibration is described. SUDAN is intended for structures which can be represented as an equivalent system of beam, spring, and rigid-body substructures. User-written constraint equations are used to analytically join the mass and stiffness matrices of the substructures to form the mass and stiffness matrices of the complete structure from which all the frequencies and modes of the system are determined. The SUDAN program can treat the case in which both the mass and stiffness matrices of the coupled system may be singular simultaneously. A general description of the FORTRAN IV program is given, the computer hardware and software specifications are indicated, and the input required by the program is described.

  7. Alaskan Commodities Irradiation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Zarling, J.P.; Swanson, R.B.; Logan, R.R.; Das, D.K.; Lewis, C.E.; Workman, W.G.; Tumeo, M.A.; Hok, C.I.; Birklid, C.A.; Bennett, F.L.

    1988-12-01

    The ninety-ninth US Congress commissioned a six-state food irradiation research and development program to evaluate the commercial potential of this technology. Hawaii, Washington, Iowa, Oklahoma and Florida as well as Alaska have participated in the national program; various food products including fishery products, red meats, tropical and citrus fruits and vegetables have been studied. The purpose of the Alaskan study was to review and evaluate those factors related to the technical and economic feasibility of an irradiator in Alaska. This options analysis study will serve as a basis for determining the state's further involvement in the development of food irradiation technology. 40 refs., 50 figs., 53 tabs.

  8. Impacts of conflict on land use and land cover in the Imatong Mountain region of South Sudan and northern Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorsevski, Virginia B.

    The Imatong Mountain region of South Sudan makes up the northern most part of the Afromontane conservation 'biodiversity hotspot' due to the numerous species of plants and animals found here, some of which are endemic. At the same time, this area (including the nearby Dongotana Hills and the Agoro-Agu region of northern Uganda) has witnessed decades of armed conflict resulting from the Sudan Civil War and the presence of the Ugandan Lord's Resistance Army (LRA). The objective of my research was to investigate the impact of war on land use and land cover using a combination of satellite remote sensing data and semi-structured interviews with local informants. Specifically, I sought to (1) assess and compare changes in forest cover and location during both war and peace; (2) compare trends in fire activity with human population patterns; and (3) investigate the underlying causes influencing land use patterns related to war. I did this by using a Disturbance Index (DI), which isolates un-vegetated spectral signatures associated with deforestation, on Landsat TM and ETM+ data in order to compare changes in forest cover during conflict and post-conflict years, mapping the location and frequency of fires in subsets of the greater study area using MODIS active fire data, and by analyzing and summarizing information derived from interviews with key informants. I found that the rate of forest recovery was significantly higher than the rate of disturbance both during and after wartime in and around the Imatong Central Forest Reserve (ICFR) and that change in net forest cover remained largely unchanged for the two time periods. In contrast, the nearby Dongotana Hills experienced relatively high rates of disturbance during both periods; however, post war period losses were largely offset by gains in forest cover, potentially indicating opposing patterns in human population movements and land use activities within these two areas. For the Agoro-Agu Forest Reserve (AFR) region

  9. Land use and land cover classification, changes and analysis in gum Arabic belt in North Kordofan, Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Hassan E.; Csaplovics, Elmar; Elhaja, Mohamed E.; El Abbas, Mustafa M.

    2013-10-01

    The gum arabic belt in Sudan plays a significant role in environmental, social and economical aspects. This research was conducted in North Kordofan State, which is affected by modifications in conditions and composition of vegetation cover trends in the gum arabic belt as in the rest of the Sahelian Sudan zone. The objective of the paper is to study the classification, changes and analysis of the land use and land cover in the gum arabic belt in North Kordofan State in Sudan. The study used imageries from different satellites (Landsat and ASTER) and multi-temporal dates (MSS 1972, TM 1985, ETM+ 1999 and ASTER 2007) acquired in dry season. The imageries were geo-referenced and radiometrically corrected by using ENVI-FLAASH software. Image classification (pixel-based) and accuracy assessment were applied. Application of multi-temporal remote sensing data demonstrated successfully the identification and mapping of land use and land cover into five main classes. Forest dominated by Acacia senegal class was separated covering an area of 21% in the year 2007. The obvious changes and reciprocal conversions in the land use and land cover structure indicate the trends and conditions caused by the human interventions as well as ecological impacts on Acacia senegal trees. Also the study revealed that a drastic loss of forest resources occurred in the gum arabic belt in North Kordofan during 1972 to 2007 (25% for Acacia senegal trees). The study concluded that, using of traditional Acacia senegal-based agro-forestry as one of the most successful form in the gum belt.

  10. Development and evaluation of loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for detection of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Osman, Hana A M; Eltom, Kamal H; Musa, Nasreen O; Bilal, Nasreldin M; Elbashir, Mustafa I; Aradaib, Imadeldin E

    2013-06-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus (CCHFV) activity has been detected in Kordufan region of the Sudan in 2008 with high case-fatality rates in villages and rural hospitals in the region. Therefore, in the present study, a reverse transcription (RT) loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed and compared to nested RT-PCR for rapid detection of CCHFV targeting the small (S) RNA segment. A set of RT-LAMP primers, designed from a highly conserved region of the S segment of the viral genome, was employed to identify all the Sudanese CCHFV strains. The sensitivity studies indicated that the RT-LAMP detected 10fg of CCHFV RNA as determined by naked eye turbidity read out, which is more likely the way it would be read in a resource-poor setting. This level of sensitivity is good enough to detect most acute cases. Using agarose gel electrophoresis, the RT-LAMP assay detected as little as 0.1fg of viral RNA (equivalent to 50 viral particle). There was 100% agreement between results of the RT-LAMP and the nested PCR when testing 10-fold serial dilution of CCHFV RNA. The specificity studies indicated that there was no cross-reactivity with other related hemorrhagic fever viruses circulating in Sudan including, Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), Dengue fever virus, and yellow fever virus. The RT-LAMP was performed under isothermal conditions at 63°C and no special apparatus was needed, which rendered the assay more economical and practical than real-time PCR in such developing countries, like Sudan. In addition, the RT-LAMP provides a valuable tool for rapid detection and differentiation of CCHFV during an outbreak of the disease in remote areas and in rural hospitals with resource-poor settings.

  11. Integrated Surveys of Neglected Tropical Diseases in Southern Sudan: How Much Do They Cost and Can They Be Refined?

    PubMed Central

    Kolaczinski, Jan H.; Hanson, Kara; Robinson, Emily; Picon, Diana; Sabasio, Anthony; Mpakateni, Martin; Lado, Mounir; Moore, Stephen; Petty, Nora; Brooker, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Background Increasing emphasis on integrated control of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) requires identification of co-endemic areas. Integrated surveys for lymphatic filariasis (LF), schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection have been recommended for this purpose. Integrated survey designs inevitably involve balancing the costs of surveys against accuracy of classifying areas for treatment, so-called implementation units (IUs). This requires an understanding of the main cost drivers and of how operating procedures may affect both cost and accuracy of surveys. Here we report a detailed cost analysis of the first round of integrated NTD surveys in Southern Sudan. Methods and Findings Financial and economic costs were estimated from financial expenditure records and interviews with survey staff using an ingredients approach. The main outcome was cost per IU surveyed. Uncertain variables were subjected to univariate sensitivity analysis and the effects of modifying standard operating procedures were explored. The average economic cost per IU surveyed was USD 40,206 or USD 9,573, depending on the size of the IU. The major cost drivers were two key categories of recurrent costs: i) survey consumables, and ii) personnel. Conclusion The cost of integrated surveys in Southern Sudan could be reduced by surveying larger administrative areas for LF. If this approach was taken, the estimated economic cost of completing LF, schistosomiasis and STH mapping in Southern Sudan would amount to USD 1.6 million. The methodological detail and costing template provided here could be used to generate cost estimates in other settings and readily compare these to the present study, and may help budget for integrated and single NTDs surveys elsewhere. PMID:20644619

  12. The question of women and environment in the Sudan: inquiries into eco-feminism and feminist environmentalism.

    PubMed

    Nageeb, S A

    1994-12-01

    This article discusses a theoretical framework suggested by Agarwal on eco-feminism in the context of Sudan and the Kordofam region of Sudan. The paper focuses specifically on one aspect of eco-feminism that is discussed by Shiva (1988). Eco-feminism is the link between the domination and suppression of women and the domination and exploitation of nature. Women are identified with nature, while men are closer to culture, which places women in an inferior position. Because of the link of women with nature, women have a vested interest in restructuring the domination of nature. Feminism and environmentalism both reflect egalitarian and nonhierarchical systems. This analysis tests whether women are the central actors of environment and whether women's and environmental interests can be advanced simultaneously. The Indian experience reflects the class and gender process that results in loss of knowledge and livelihoods among poor rural women. The impact is related to the interaction between ideology and political and economic power. Grass-roots resistance to environmental degradation is strong, and women are engaged due to threats to survival. Sudanese women's role, position, status, and relation to the environment is shaped by the patriarchal order, class, ethnicity, and the sexual division of labor. The Shiva concepts apply to Sudan and the Kordofan region. The marginalization of traditional farming and pastoralism has pushed the growing population into marginal environmental zones. The focus on cash-oriented development, political instability, and insufficient and corrupt bureaucracies have aggravated the environmental crisis. Social inequality has increased. Shiva's theories do not fit Sudanese society and Agarwal's perspective is too general. Some Sudanese women have accumulated wealth, commercial interests, and exploited land.

  13. Food irradiation in perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henon, Y. M.

    1995-02-01

    Food irradiation already has a long history of hopes and disappointments. Nowhere in the world it plays the role that it should have, including in the much needed prevention of foodborne diseases. Irradiated food sold well wherever consumers were given a chance to buy them. Differences between national regulations do not allow the international trade of irradiated foods. While in many countries food irradiation is still illegal, in most others it is regulated as a food additive and based on the knowledge of the sixties. Until 1980, wholesomeness was the big issue. Then the "prerequisite" became detection methods. Large amounts of money have been spent to design and validate tests which, in fact, aim at enforcing unjustified restrictions on the use of the process. In spite of all the difficulties, it is believed that the efforts of various UN organizations and a growing legitimate demand for food safety should in the end lead to recognition and acceptance.

  14. [The irradiation process].

    PubMed

    Barillot, I; Chauvet, B; Hannoun Lévi, J M; Lisbona, A; Leroy, T; Mahé, M A

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the regulatory framework of the radiotherapy practice in France, the external irradiation and brachytherapy process and the guidelines for patient follow-up.

  15. Integrated Modeling of Polymer Composites Under High Energy Laser Irradiation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-30

    included as an appendix. 15. SUBJECT TERMS organic matrix composites, polymer matrix composites, lasers, thermal transport, ICMSE, molecular dynamics...AFRL-RX-WP-TR-2016-0071 INTEGRATED MODELING OF POLYMER COMPOSITES UNDER HIGH ENERGY LASER IRRADIATION Brent Volk, Gregory Ehlert...22 July 2013 – 30 September 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE INTEGRATED MODELING OF POLYMER COMPOSITES UNDER HIGH ENERGY LASER IRRADIATION 5a. CONTRACT

  16. Development of sedimentary cycles on the east Sahara craton since Silurian time (northwest Sudan/southwest Egypt)

    SciTech Connect

    Wycisk, P. )

    1988-08-01

    The sedimentary succession of southwest Egypt and northwest Sudan, formerly called the Nubia(n) Sandstone, has been subdivided into a number of formations. The predominantly fluvial sediments which characterize Silurian to Upper Cretaceous strata of this region were repeatedly interrupted by marine transgressions that rapidly progressed toward the south since Ordovician time. Thin, shallow marine sequences of different ages can be traced for more than 1,000 km within the studied area. The development of the sedimentary cycles will be pointed out by surface and subsurface data along a cross section from the southern Dakhla basin in the north to the Misaha trough and Abyad basin in the south.

  17. Total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, D.E.; Ferguson, R.M.; Simmons, R.L.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1983-05-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation by itself can produce sufficient immunosuppression to prolong the survival of a variety of organ allografts in experimental animals. The degree of prolongation is dose-dependent and is limited by the toxicity that occurs with higher doses. Total lymphoid irradiation is more effective before transplantation than after, but when used after transplantation can be combined with pharmacologic immunosuppression to achieve a positive effect. In some animal models, total lymphoid irradiation induces an environment in which fully allogeneic bone marrow will engraft and induce permanent chimerism in the recipients who are then tolerant to organ allografts from the donor strain. If total lymphoid irradiation is ever to have clinical applicability on a large scale, it would seem that it would have to be under circumstances in which tolerance can be induced. However, in some animal models graft-versus-host disease occurs following bone marrow transplantation, and methods to obviate its occurrence probably will be needed if this approach is to be applied clinically. In recent years, patient and graft survival rates in renal allograft recipients treated with conventional immunosuppression have improved considerably, and thus the impetus to utilize total lymphoid irradiation for its immunosuppressive effect alone is less compelling. The future of total lymphoid irradiation probably lies in devising protocols in which maintenance immunosuppression can be eliminated, or nearly eliminated, altogether. Such protocols are effective in rodents. Whether they can be applied to clinical transplantation remains to be seen.

  18. The Butana Region of Central Sudan: Sahara Craton or Arabian-Nubian Shield?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Alam, T.; Stüwe, K.

    2012-04-01

    The Butana region lies 250 km south east of Khartoum and is one of the few exposures of Proterozoic basement in Central Sudan. The area is characterized by a flat surface and isolated basement exposures. Various authors have allocated the region to part of the Arabian-Nubian Shield or to part of the reworked Sahara Craton. Although the area is indeed located in the rough region of this transition, little information exists on the details of the basement geology in Butana. Field work indicates that the geology of the study area is similar to the other parts of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. The area consists of low-grade metavolcanic rocks (arc assemblage), pre- and syn-tectonic granitic intrusions. In particular the presence of serpentinites, ophiolitic metagabbro and high-grade metamorphic rocks may identify it as part of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. The main metamorphic foliation trend in the low-grade rocks is northeast-southwest with steep foliation plains and sub-horizontal lineation. In the high-grade rocks, at least three deformation phases were observed in the field. D1 associates with northeast-southwest foliation planes and D2 associates with high temperature folding mechanism which gave the high-grade rocks domal pattern. While D3 is a faulting phase with brittle features. The peak metamorphism most probably occurred after the D2 as indicated by the migmatic features. Geochronological work is in progress in order to identify uniquely if the region should be allocated to the Arabian-Nubian Shield or the Sahara Craton.

  19. Sedimentological reservoir characteristics of the Paleocene fluvial/lacustrine Yabus Sandstone, Melut Basin, Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahgoub, M. I.; Padmanabhan, E.; Abdullatif, O. M.

    2016-11-01

    Melut Basin in Sudan is regionally linked to the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Central and Western African Rift System (CWARS). The Paleocene Yabus Formation is the main oil producing reservoir in the basin. It is dominated by channel sandstone and shales deposited in fluvial/lacustrine environment during the third phase of rifting in the basin. Different scales of sedimentological heterogeneities influenced reservoir quality and architecture. The cores and well logs analyses revealed seven lithofacies representing fluvial, deltaic and lacustrine depositional environments. The sandstone is medium to coarse-grained, poorly to moderately-sorted and sub-angular to sub-rounded, arkosic-subarkosic to sublitharenite. On the basin scale, the Yabus Formation showed variation in sandstone bodies, thickness, geometry and architecture. On macro-scale, reservoir quality varies vertically and laterally within Yabus Sandstone where it shows progressive fining upward tendencies with different degrees of connectivity. The lower part of the reservoir showed well-connected and amalgamated sandstone bodies, the middle to the upper parts, however, have moderate to low sandstone bodies' connectivity and amalgamation. On micro-scale, sandstone reservoir quality is directly affected by textures and diagenetic changes such as compaction, cementation, alteration, dissolution and kaolinite clays pore fill and coat all have significantly reduced the reservoir porosity and permeability. The estimated porosity in Yabus Formation ranges from 2 to 20% with an average of 12%; while permeability varies from 200 to 500 mD and up to 1 Darcy. The understanding of different scales of sedimentological reservoir heterogeneities might contribute to better reservoir quality prediction, architecture, consequently enhancing development and productivity.

  20. Anaemia, folate, zinc and copper deficiencies among adolescent schoolgirls in eastern Sudan.

    PubMed

    Abdelrahim, Ishraga I; Mahgoub, Hyder M; Mohamed, Ayoub A; Ali, Naji I; Elbashir, Mustafa I; Adam, I

    2009-12-01

    Anaemia is a widespread problem especially in the tropics. Among adolescent girls, it has negative consequences on growth, school performance, morbidity and reproductive performance. A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of anaemia, iron, folate, zinc and copper deficiencies amongst adolescent schoolgirls in New Halfa, eastern Sudan, and to examine the relationship of these micronutrients with haemoglobin (Hb) levels. Out of 187 adolescent schoolgirls, 181 (96.8%) had anaemia (Hb<12 g/dl); 21% had mild anaemia (Hb 11.0-11.9 g/dl); 66.8.1% had moderate anaemia (Hb 8.0-10.9 g/dl), and 12.1% had severe anaemia (Hb<8 g/dl), respectively. Iron deficiency (S-ferritin<12 μg/l), iron deficiency anaemia (<12 m/dl and S- ferritin<12 μg/l) and folate deficiency (S-folate<3 ng/ml) were prevalent in 17.6%, 16.5% and 69% of these girls, respectively. Nine percent and 5.9% of these girls had zinc (<75 μg/ml) and copper deficiency (<75 μg/ml), respectively. Twenty-six (14%) girls had ≥ 2 micronutrient deficiencies. S-ferritin and zinc were significantly lower in patients with severe anaemia. Haemoglobin levels were significantly positively correlated with zinc levels (r=0.161, P=0.03) and with copper levels (r=0.151, P=0.03). Thus, interventions are required to prevent and control anaemia in this setting. Further research is needed.