Yagmur, Gulhan; Ziyade, Nihan; Elgormus, Neval; Das, Taner; Sahin, M Feyzi; Yildirim, Muzaffer; Ozgun, Ayse; Akcay, Arzu; Karayel, Ferah; Koc, Sermet
As an opportunistic pathogen with high mortality rates, Cytomegalovirus (CMV) may lead to fatal disseminated CMV infection of the premature and newborn; thus necessitating the demonstration of CMV-DNA with clinical history and/or histopathological findings of CMV infection and defining other bacterial and viral infection agents with real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in udden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) cases as we aimed in this study. 314 (144 female, 170 male) SUDI cases were prospectively investigated from January 2013 to January 2015 in Istanbul Forensic Medicine Institution. The study includes 87 tissue samples of 39 cases for post-mortem histopathological examination of interstitial pneumonia, myocarditis, meningitis, encephalitis, hepatitis, colitis or tubulointerstitial nephritis and/or accompanying chronic sialadenitis. CMV-DNA was found positive in 35 (40.2%) salivary gland, 19 (21.8%) lung, 1 (1.1%) tonsil, and 1 (1.1%) brain tissues. CMV sialadenitis and/or CMV pneumonia associated with other viral and/or bacterial agents were detected in 23 (60%) of 39 infant cases. The demonstration of CMV-DNA would significantly clarify the cause of death and collection of epidemiological data in SUDI cases with clinical history and histopathological findings of CMV infection accompanying chronic CMV sialadenitis. Furthermore, CMV suppresses the immune system, and may predispose to other bacterial and/or viral infections in these cases. Post-mortem molecular investigations are useful in explaining cause of death in SUDI with a suspicion of infection in forensic autopsies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
American Journal of Play, 2010
Jaak Panksepp, known best for his work on animal emotions and coining the term "affective neuroscience," investigates the primary processes of brain and mind that enable and drive emotion. As an undergraduate, he briefly considered a career in electrical engineering but turned instead to psychology, which led to a 1969 University of…
Medium chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCAD) is the most common inborn error of fatty acid oxidation. This condition may lead to cellular energy shortage and cause severe clinical events such as hypoketotic hypoglycemia, Reye syndrome and sudden death. MCAD deficiency usually presents around three to six months of life, following catabolic stress as intercurrent infections or prolonged fasting, whilst neonatal-onset of the disease is quite rare. We report the case of an apparently healthy newborn who suddenly died at the third day of life, in which the diagnosis of MCAD deficiency was possible through peri-mortem blood-spot acylcarnitine analysis that showed very high concentrations of octanoylcarnitine. Genetic analysis at the ACADM locus confirmed the biochemical findings by demonstrating the presence in homozygosity of the frame-shift c.244dup1 (p.Trp82LeufsX23) mutation, a severe genotype that may explain the unusual and very early fatal outcome in this newborn. This report confirms that inborn errors of fatty acid oxidation represent one of the genetic causes of sudden unexpected deaths in infancy (SUDI) and underlines the importance to include systematically specific metabolic screening in any neonatal unexpected death. PMID:23095120
Dramatic and regular inter-annual population fluctuations of small rodents, often referred to as voles and lemming cycles, are a well-known features of northern ecosystems. These population cycles of herbivores are synchronous at large spatial scales and have been shown to cause corresponding fluctuations in plant abundance. However, these regular plant cycles are only apparent at large spatial scales. Demographic stochasticity of rodent populations at smaller spatial scales and different responses of plant communities with different community traits are likely mechanisms driving this scale dependence, but moderate scale data (in-between satellites and manual recordings in study plots) are currently limiting our understanding of their relative importance. Understanding at which spatial scales we have synchronous plant cycles, and the mechanisms underpinning this pattern is of vital importance to understand processes like inter-annual variation in carbon fluxes or to predict future vegetation changes. I here show that by combining data from manually recorded subplots and satellite observation with RGB photos and multispectral sensor recordings from drones we can get the moderately scaled data needed to address these questions. I here show data on at which spatial scales regular interannual rodent cycles are synchronous and how rodent cycles influence different plants and communities based on their traits. I will, based on the results presented above, discuss future possibilities and limitations to study population dynamics of herbivores and plants with data derived from drones with special focus on temporal and spatial data.
Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.
This report presents the second phase of a study on thermal treatment technologies. The study consists of a systematic assessment of nineteen thermal treatment alternatives for the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the MLLW. The alternatives considered in Phase 2 were innovative thermal treatments with nine types of primary processing units. Other variations in the study examined the effect of combustion gas, air pollution control system design, and stabilization technology for the treatment residues. The Phase 1 study, the results of which have been published as an interim report, examined ten initial thermal treatment alternatives. The Phase 2 systems were evaluated in essentially the same manner as the Phase 2 systems. The assumptions and methods were the same as for the Phase 1 study. The quantities, and physical and chemical compositions, of the input waste used in he Phase 2 systems differ from those in the Phase 1 systems, which were based on a preliminary waste input database developed at the onset of the Integrated Thermal Treatment System study. The inventory database used in the Phase 2 study incorporates the latest US Department of Energy information. All systems, both primary treatment systems and subsystem inputs, have now been evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 lb/hr).
Nitta, Yoko; Kim, Bo S; Nishinari, Katsuyoshi; Shirakawa, Mayumi; Yamatoya, Kazuhiko; Oomoto, Toshio; Asai, Iwao
The gelation behavior of mixtures of tamarind seed xyloglucan (TSX) and sodium form gellan (Na-G) was investigated. The storage and loss shear moduli, G' and G'', of the mixtures showed that a thermoreversible gel was obtained although each polysaccharide alone did not form a gel at experimental conditions. The viscoelastic behavior of the mixtures showed a gel formation of TSX and Na-G induced by synergistic interaction. This synergistic interaction was also revealed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and circular dichroism. Although TSX alone did not show any peak in DSC curves, mixtures with only a small amount of Na-G, which by itself did not show any peak, showed a single peak. With increasing Na-G content, another peak began to appear at the same temperature at which a peak of Na-G alone appeared. Thermally induced changes in circular dichroism of the mixtures were different from those expected from the individual behavior of TSX and Na-G.
General Atomics (GA) is developing Supercritical Water Partial Oxidation (SWPO) as a means of producing hydrogen from low-grade biomass and other waste feeds. The Phase I Pilot-scale Testing/Feasibility Studies have been successfully completed and the results of that effort are described in this report. The key potential advantage of the SWPO process is the use of partial oxidation in-situ to rapidly heat the gasification medium, resulting in less char formation and improved hydrogen yield. Another major advantage is that the high-pressure, high-density aqueous environment is ideal for reacting and gasifying organics of all types. The high water content of the medium encourages formation of hydrogen and hydrogen-rich products and is especially compatible with high water content feeds such as biomass materials. The high water content of the medium is also effective for gasification of hydrogen-poor materials such as coal. A versatile pilot plant for exploring gasification in supercritical water has been established at GA's facilities in San Diego. The Phase I testing of the SWPO process with wood and ethanol mixtures demonstrated gasification efficiencies of about 90%, comparable to those found in prior laboratory-scale SCW gasification work carried out at the University of Hawaii at Manoa (UHM), as well as other biomass gasification experience with conventional gasifiers. As in the prior work at UHM, a significant amount of the hydrogen found in the gas phase products is derived from the water/steam matrix. The studies at UHM utilized an indirectly heated gasifier with an activated carbon catalyst. In contrast, the GA studies utilized a directly heated gasifier without catalyst, plus a surrogate waste fuel. Attainment of comparable gasification efficiencies without catalysis is an important advancement for the GA process, and opens the way for efficient hydrogen production from low-value, dirty feed materials. The Phase I results indicate that a practical means to overcome limitations on biomass slurry feed concentration and preheat temperature is to coprocess an auxiliary high heating value material. SWPO coprocessing of two high-water content wastes, partially dewatered sewage sludge and trap grease, yields a scenario for the production of hydrogen at highly competitive prices. It is estimated that there are hundreds if not thousands of potential sites for this technology across the US and worldwide. The economics for plants processing 40 tpd sewage sludge solids augmented with grease trap waste are favorable over a significant range of cost parameters such as sludge disposal credit and capital financing. Hydrogen production costs for SWPO plants of this size are projected to be about $3/GJ or less. Economics may be further improved by future developments such as pumping of higher solids content sludges and improved gasifier nozzle designs to reduce char and improve hydrogen yields. The easiest market entry for SWPO is expected to be direct sales to municipal wastewater treatment plants for use with sewage sludge in conjunction with trap grease, as both of these wastes are ubiquitous and have reasonably well-defined negative value (i.e., the process can take credit for reduction of well-defined disposal costs for these streams). Additionally, waste grease is frequently recovered at municipal wastewater treatment plants where it is already contaminated with sewage. SWPO should also be favorable to other market applications in which low or negative value, high water content biomass is available in conjunction with a low or negative value fuel material. For biomass slurries primary candidates are sewage sludge, manure sludge, and shredded and/or composted organic municipal solid waste (MSW) slurries. For the high heating value stream primary candidates are trap grease, waste plastic or rubber slurries, and coal or coke slurries. Phase II of the SWPO program will be focused on verifying process improvements identified during Phase I, and then performing extended duration testing with the GA pilot plant. Tests of at least 100 hours duration using sewage sludge and trap grease as simultaneous feedstocks are a primary objective. Follow-on Phases III and IV of the SWPO program will develop and demonstrate a dedicated 5 tpd reduced-scale SWPO facility at a location such as the Encina municipal wastewater treatment plant. Subsequent to this demonstration, the technology will be ready for a commercial-scale demonstration. While there are clearly technical challenges that must still be addressed, SWPO represents an outstanding opportunity to further the dual goals of developing a hydrogen economy and practicing environmentally friendly waste disposal. It may well represent one of the few scenarios in which hydrogen may be produced economically from biomass at a relatively small scale. SWPO could thus play a pivotal role in the proliferation of distributed hydrogen generation.
ALTIUS is a Belgian project for an atmospheric instrument onboard a micro-satellite aiming at the measurement of different atmospheric constituents with a high vertical resolution of about 1 km using mainly the limb scattering technique. The spectral coverage ranges from 200 nm to 2 µm with a moderate spectral resolution of a few nm, and the expected global Earth coverage revisit time is about 3 days. The project has now reached the end of the feasibility study. Part of the work was dedicated to the characterization of the scientific performances of the instrument in terms of retrieval accuracy. MODTRAN 4 was used to compute radiative transfer simulations in limb view. The obtained radiance was converted into a photon count rate using the technical features of the optics and the detectors. Finally, the optimal estimation theory was used to retrieve a number of atmospheric consitutents : O3, which is the main target gas of the mission, NO2, CO2, CH4 and H2O. The expected error budget for these species is discussed for different integration times and horizontal resolutions.
Modest, Diane; Cymerman, Sandra
This training manual is intended to enable educators to utilize the SAGE Tri-Fold Model as a means for developing a process-oriented differentiated curriculum for elementary grade gifted students using either the separate classroom, the resource room, or the consultant teacher model. The program, a nationally validated National Diffusion Network…
Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188) Washington, DC 20503. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE ( DD -MM-YYYY...Aideed’s branch of the USC) Somali National Front (SNF) Somali National Movement (SNM) Somali Patriotic Front ( SPF ) Somali Patriotic Movement (SPM
de Michele, Marcello
The North Anatolian Fault (NAF), with a total length of about 1500 km, is one of the most active right-lateral strike-slip faults in the world. It defines the tectonic boundary between the Anatolian Plate and the Eurasian Plate in northern Turkey, accommodating ~14-30 mm/yr of relative plate motion between the two plates (fig. 1). The Gazikoy-Saros segment (the Ganos fault, GF) is the onshore segment of the northern strand of the NAF between the Marmara Sea and the Gulf of Saros. It was last ruptured in 1912 with a Ms=7.4 earthquake that broke the entire inland segment of the fault, a length of about 50 km, and produced a right-lateral strike-slip component of at least 3 m. Other large historical earthquakes that have been attributed to the Ganos fault occurred in A.D. 824, 1343, 1509 and 1766 (e. g. Reilinger et al., 2000; Meade et al., 2002; Motagh et al., 2007; Janssen et al., 2009; Megraoui et al., 2012 ; Ersen Aksoy et al., 2010). The GF forms a 45 km long linear fault system and represents the link between the northern strand of the NAFZ in the Sea of Marmara and the North Aegean Trough where slip partitioning results in branching of the fault zone. The present study aims at showing the results retrieved from L band Interferometric Syntethic Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements for the monitoring of Crustal Deformation in the Anatolian Fault Zone in the frame of the MARMARA SUPERSITE PROJECT "MARSITE" on the Ganos section of the North Anatolian fault zone. We processed SAR data made available through the CAT-1 ESA (European Space Agency) archives, acquired by the L-band radar sensor ALOS PALSAR between 2007 and 2011. The aim of this exercise is to test L-band capabilities to map the spatial and temporal evolution of the present-day crustal deformation phenomena affecting the Ganos section of the NAFZ with high level of spatial details. The goal of this task is to assess whether InSAR L-Band data can be useful to evaluate the long-term behavior of active faults and eventual interactions between geologic structures, complementarily to GPS measurements and other in-situ observations on the study area. Mid-term monitoring (4 - 10 years) of the crustal deformation in the MARsite area is targeted. The ALOS Palsar archive over the Ganos Section of the NAFZ is not extraordinarily rich concerning the number of SAR scenes acquired with the same viewing and polarisation mode, which is a necessity when willing to perform a standard InSAR study. Thus, we decided to improve the number of potential SAR scenes by performing a processing on multiple polarisation data. We combine Fine Beam Mode Single Polarisation (FBS) and Fine Beam Mode Dual Polarisation (FBD) data, with a look angle of about 38.7°. We actually can process both these data together at the price of a decrease in spatial resolution but improving the data temporal sampling and dataset population. We then have 13 Single Look Complex (SLC) L-band data spanning 4 years, from 2007/07/07 to 2011/01/15. Besides, the satellite path orientation with respect to the fault orientation is optimal to obtain a suitable InSAR LOS sensitivity to strike-slip surface movement parallel to the NAFZ at the Ganos section. The shallow creep signal is expected to range from ~0 to 1.5 cm/yr. From the 66 initial differential interferograms, we select a subset of 41 high-signal-coherence interferograms as input for the stacking procedure. Our results suggest that the tectonic signal within the velocity map retrieved from ALOS Palsar InSAR presented in this study is hidden beneath a number of interferometric phase contributions. The phase contributions are mainly due Radio Frequency Interferences (RFI) that are emitted from the ground and affect L-band data. RFI bias the amplitude and phase of the L-band signal resulting in serious co-registration problems and stripes on the interferometric phase. To compensate this bias, we apply RFI filtering during the SAR focusing. Unfortunately, the RFI filter application results in image distortions and difficulties in image co-registration. We could anyway measure a number of across fault 20km-length profiles that reveal a displacement gradient of 0.6 cm/yr. Is this due to tectonic movements ? At the present stage, our conclusion is that L-Band SAR data on the Ganos section of the NAFZ are too few and too affected by RFI to allow a robust seismotectonic interpretation. Longer-term data acquisitions are needed and could be provided by the new generation L-Band sensor Alos-2.
A polymorphism in a staphylococcal enterotoxin receptor gene (T cell receptor BV3 recombination signal sequence) is not associated with unexplained sudden unexpected death in infancy in an Australian cohort.
Highet, Amanda R; Gibson, Catherine S; Goldwater, Paul N
Polymorphisms in genes that influence the expression of toxin receptors could contribute to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and unexplained Sudden Unexpected Death in Infancy (uSUDI) for which there is evidence of toxin involvement. We aimed to determine whether TCRBV3S1 allele 2 could be involved in a staphylococcal toxic shock hypothesis for uSUDI. Observed frequencies of the TCRBV3S1*2 allele and genotype in 48 Australian uSUDI cases and 96 live comparison infants did not differ. In future the role of other toxin receptor gene polymorphisms deserves investigation.
Taylor, Barry J; Garstang, Joanna; Engelberts, Adele; Obonai, Toshimasa; Cote, Aurore; Freemantle, Jane; Vennemann, Mechtild; Healey, Matt; Sidebotham, Peter; Mitchell, Edwin A; Moon, Rachel Y
Comparing rates of sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) in different countries and over time is difficult, as these deaths are certified differently in different countries, and, even within the same jurisdiction, changes in this death certification process have occurred over time. To identify if International Classification of Diseases-10 (ICD-10) codes are being applied differently in different countries, and to develop a more robust tool for international comparison of these types of deaths. Usage of six ICD-10 codes, which code for the majority of SUDI, was compared for the years 2002-2010 in eight high-income countries. There was a great variability in how each country codes SUDI. For example, the proportion of SUDI coded as sudden infant death syndrome (R95) ranged from 32.6% in Japan to 72.5% in Germany. The proportion of deaths coded as accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed (W75) ranged from 1.1% in Germany to 31.7% in New Zealand. Japan was the only country to consistently use the R96 code, with 44.8% of SUDI attributed to that code. The lowest, overall, SUDI rate was seen in the Netherlands (0.19/1000 live births (LB)), and the highest in New Zealand (1.00/1000 LB). SUDI accounted for one-third to half of postneonatal mortality in 2002-2010 for all of the countries except for the Netherlands. The proposed set of ICD-10 codes encompasses the codes used in different countries for most SUDI cases. Use of these codes will allow for better international comparisons and tracking of trends over time. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Wilcox, Rebecca L; Nelson, Cliff C; Stenzel, Peter; Steiner, Robert D
A protocol was developed for the detection of fatty acid oxidation disorders (FOD) in cases of sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI). Tandem mass spectrometry blood acylcarnitine analysis of Guthrie card blood spots was performed. In the first 5 years, 1.2% of Oregon's 247 SUDI cases were identified with FOD, 2 with medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, and one with very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency.
Most infant apparent life-threatening events (ALTEs) are minor with spontaneously favorable prognosis. Frequent etiologies are gastroesophageal reflux, obstructive apneas, respiratory infections, and breath-holding spells. Some rare but potentially serious causes must be discussed. Diagnosis is usually guided by careful questioning of the parents and repeated clinical examinations. A few complementary examinations are systematically needed and their performance is increased if they are oriented by clinical aspects. Hospitalization is usual for monitoring, further etiological investigation, and management of parental anxiety. ALTE and sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) etiologies are often different. SUDI is called sudden unexplained death in infancy if it remains unexplained after investigation including autopsy. The annual incidence in France fell sharply after prevention campaigns in the 1990s, and now is about 400 SUDI, including 250 unexplained SUDI. The main guidelines of prevention are back sleeping, cessation of smoking during and after pregnancy, securing the bed and bedding, prevention of hyperthermia, and avoidance of dangerous factors of bed sharing. In the future, infants with particular vulnerabilities may be identified. The Haute Autorité de santé (French National Authority for Health) has published guidelines to support SUDI, standardize procedures, and improve our understanding of the causes of death. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Möllborg, Per; Wennergren, Göran; Almqvist, Petra; Alm, Bernt
Despite its declining incidence, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is still an important cause of death in infancy. This study investigated the environmental circumstances associated with SIDS, by analysing data from all sudden unexpected deaths in infancy (SUDI) in Sweden from 2005 to 2011. All Swedish infants forensically autopsied up to the age of 365 days from 2005 to 2011 were included. Medical records were obtained from the hospitals and supplementary data from the Swedish Medical Birth Register. Of the 261 infants, 136 were defined as SIDS and 125 as explained SUDI. The documentation in the medical records was poor when it came to issues such as bed sharing, sleep position, smoking, breastfeeding and pacifier use. The main findings were a significantly higher prevalence of bed sharing in SIDS than in explained deaths (odds ratio 7.77, 95% confidence interval 2.36-25.57) and that prone sleeping was still overrepresented. Bronchopneumonia, other infections and congenital anomalies were the most common causes of explained SUDI. Bed sharing and prone sleeping were more common in SIDS than in explained SUDI. Sparse data in medical records were a problem, and the authors are now working with the National Board of Health and Welfare on a project to establish new routines. ©2015 The Authors. Acta Paediatrica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation Acta Paediatrica.
Rouleau, C; Bongrand, A F; Pidoux, O; Roustan, E; Martrille, L; Picaud, J-C; Costes-Martineau, V; Cambonie, G
The characteristics of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in the French region of Languedoc-Roussillon from 2003-2008 were examined in a retrospective study of two groups classified as unexplained sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) (SIDS, n = 27) or explained SUDI (n = 22). The interval between the time the baby was last observed alive (time of last feed) and the discovery of death was evaluated. In SIDS, 67% (18/27) of deaths were discovered during the day (09:00-21:00 h) mostly within 4 h after feeding (66%). In explained SUDI, 68.2% of deaths were discovered at night and time intervals between the last feed and discovery of death were longer (mean 7.1 h, p<0.01). Most SIDS deaths were discovered during the day and explained SUDI discovered at night. Variations in time between the last feed and discovery of death in the two groups may result from differences in parental attentiveness during the day and at night.
Jonghun Park; Laszlo Horvath; Robert J. Bush
This study documented the current status of wood pallet repair in the United States by identifying the types of processing and equipment usage in repair operations from an automation prespective. The wood pallet repair firms included in the sudy received an average of approximately 1.28 million cores (i.e., used pallets) for recovery in 2012. A majority of the cores...
Sebire, N J; Talbert, D
Sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) is a category used to represent the largest single group of infant deaths. Although there are several theories, the cause of SUDI remains unknown and the mechanism of co-sleeping associated deaths are also undetermined. We investigate a possible biomechanical mechanism which may be common in SUDI and may provide an explanation for the association of the known risk factors for SUDI such as co-sleeping, prematurity, prone sleeping position, overwrapping, overheating and maternal smoking. The neonatal lung has few, if any, true septa but from about four weeks of age, a period of rapid alveolarisation commences. The developing alveolar walls (septae) have little fibre support against surface tension forces as they grow but are supported by a double layer of capillaries. Until the elastin/collagen supporting network is laid down these nascent septal walls are vulnerable to collapse against sac or duct walls during this transitional period. We hypothesise that such collapse will prevent one side of the septa, and the wall it overlays, from alveolar gas exchange and a functional left-right shunt is formed which may result in hypoxia. Furthermore, lung stretch receptors in bronchi running through or adjacent to collapsed regions will be activated, falsely signalling lung inflation to the brain stem with resultant respiratory inhibition, so precipitating further collapse. The process will continue until lung volume falls below residual capacity, when normal tidal breathing efforts will no longer result in significant air flow, even if stretch receptor signals have not produced complete apnoea. Large inspiratory efforts are then required to break the surface tension seal, which damages capillaries to produce petechial haemorrhages. Many epidemiological risk factors for SUDI could influence such a mechanism, leading to the proposal that Alveolar Septal Collapse in Infancy (ASCI) is a core mechanism via which these factors act
Malloy, Michael H
Small for gestational age (SGA) infants have been reported to be at higher risk for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). To compare the risk of SIDS among SGA and large for gestational age (LGA) infants with that of death from other causes of sudden unexpected deaths in infancy (SUDI) and the residual "other" causes of infant death. The 2002 US period infant birth and death certificate linked file was used to identify infant deaths classified as SIDS (ICD-10 code R95), SUDI (ICD-10 codes R00-Y84 excluding R95) or all other residual codes. The 2002 race and sex-specific birth cohorts were used to generate the 10th and 90th percentiles of birth weight for each gestational age week from 24 to 42 weeks' gestation. Demographic variables previously identified as associated with SIDS were used in multiple logistic regression equations to determine the risk for death among SGA and LGA infants (birth weight <10th percentile and >90th percentile, respectively) independent of other potentially confounding variables. Complete data on 1956 SIDS deaths, 2012 SUDI, and 11 592 other deaths were available. The adjusted OR for SIDS, SUDI and "other" causes for SGA infants was 1.65 (95% CI 1.47 to 1.85), 1.78 (1.59 to 2.00) and 4.68 (4.49 to 4.88), respectively. The adjusted OR for LGA infants was reduced for SIDS (0.73 (0.60 to 0.89)), SUDI (0.81 (0.68 to 0.98)) and "other" (0.42 (0.38 to 0.46)). Although SGA infants seem to be at slightly increased risk for SIDS or SUDI their risk for "other" residual causes is about 2.5 times higher. LGA infants seem to be at reduced risk of mortality for all causes. The mechanisms by which restricted intrauterine growth increases risk of mortality and excessive intrauterine growth offers protective effects are uncertain.
Garstang, Joanna; Ellis, Catherine; Griffiths, Frances; Sidebotham, Peter
A comprehensive child death review (CDR) program was introduced in England and Wales in 2008, but as yet data have only been analyzed at a local level, limiting the learning from deaths. The aim of this study is to describe the profile of causes and risk factors for sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) as determined by the new CDR program. This was a descriptive outcome study using data from child death overview panel Form C for SUDI cases dying during 2010-2012 in the West Midlands region of England. The main outcome measures were: cause of death, risk factors and potential preventability of death, and determination of deaths probably due to unintentional asphyxia. Data were obtained for 65/70 (93 %) SUDI cases. 20/65 (31 %) deaths were initially categorized as due to medical causes; 21/65 (32 %) as SIDS; and 24/65 (37 %) as undetermined. Reanalysis suggested that 2/21 SIDS and 7/24 undetermined deaths were probably due to unintentional asphyxia, with 6 of these involving co-sleeping and excessive parental alcohol consumption. Deaths classified as "undetermined" had significantly higher total family and environmental risk factor scores (mean 2.6, 95 % CI 2.0-3.3) compared to those classified as SIDS (mean 1.6, 95 % CI 1.2-1.9), or medical causes for death (mean 1.1, 95 % CI 0.8-1.3). 9/20 (47 %) of medical deaths, 19/21 (90 %) SIDS, and 23/24 (96 %) undetermined deaths were considered to be potentially preventable. There were inadequacies in medical provision identified in 5/20 (25 %) of medically explained deaths. The CDR program results in detailed information about risk factors for SUDI cases but failed to recognize deaths probably due to unintentional asphyxia. The misclassification of probable unintentional asphyxial deaths and SIDS as "undetermined deaths" is likely to limit learning from these deaths and inhibit prevention strategies. Many SUDI occurred in families with mental illness, substance misuse and chaotic lifestyles and most in
Waite, Alison J; Coombs, Robert C; McKenzie, Angela; Daman-Willems, Charlotte; Cohen, Marta C; Campbell, Michael J; Carpenter, Robert G
To report mortality in babies enrolled on a community-based programme, Care of Next Infant Plus (CONI PLUS), which primarily supports parents anxious because of previous sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) in their extended family or following an apparent life threatening event (ALTE) in their baby. Prospective observational study from 1996 to 2010 in the UK. Of 6487 babies enrolled, 37 died (5.7 per 1000). There were 2789 (43.0%) SUDI related babies of whom, six died suddenly and unexpectedly (2.15 per 1000). Four babies were sharing a sofa at night or a bed with parent(s) who smoked or had consumed alcohol. Of the 1882 (29.0%) babies enrolled following an ALTE, five died suddenly and unexpectedly (2.66 per 1000): four unexplained and one due to infection. None occurred while sharing a sleep surface, and at least three died during the day. The remaining 1816 (28%) babies were enrolled for other reasons. Seven died suddenly and unexpectedly (3.85 per 1000), two were unexplained and none associated with bed sharing. The number of SUDI deaths in babies enrolled on CONI PLUS is higher than expected from UK averages. Deaths in babies enrolled because of family history of SUDI were mostly associated with inappropriate sharing of a sleep surface at night and mostly outside the peak age range for sudden infant death. The opposite is true for those enrolled following an ALTE. The number of deaths is small but findings suggest a different mechanism for death in these two groups. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Ridenour, Ty A; Halliburton, Amanda E; Bray, Bethany C
Among drug classes, substance use disorder (SUD) consequent to using inhalants (SUD-I) has perhaps the smallest evidence base. This study compared DSM-IV versus DSM-5 nomenclatures, testing whether 4 traditional categories of inhalants (aerosols, gases, nitrites, solvents) are manifestations of a single pathology, obtaining item parameters of SUD-I criteria, and presenting evidence that SUD can result from using nitrites. An urban, Midwestern, community sample of 162 inhalant users was recruited. Participants were 2/3 male, nearly 85% White, and had a mean age of 20.3 years (SD = 2.4 years), spanning the ages of greatest incidence of SUD and slightly older than the primary ages of inhalants use initiation. Analyses consisted of bivariate associations, principle components analysis, and item response theory analysis. Validity was demonstrated for SUD-I consequent to each inhalant type as well as for aggregating all inhalant types into a single drug class. Results supported DSM-5 nomenclature over DSM-IV in multiple ways except that occurrence of diagnostic orphans was not statistically smaller using DSM-5. (PsycINFO Database Record
Ridenour, Ty A.; Halliburton, Amanda; Bray, Bethany C.
Among drug classes, substance use disorder (SUD) consequent to using inhalants (SUD-I) has perhaps the smallest evidence base. This study compared SUD-IV vs. SUD-5 nomenclatures, testing whether four traditional categories of inhalants (aerosols, gases, nitrites, solvents) are manifestations of a single pathology, obtaining item parameters of SUD-I criteria, and presenting evidence that SUD can result from using nitrites. An urban, Midwestern, community sample of 162 inhalant users was recruited. Participants were 2/3 male, nearly 85% Caucasian, and had a mean age of 20.3 years (SD=2.4 years), spanning the ages of greatest incidence of SUD and slightly older than the primary ages of inhalants use initiation. Analyses consisted of bivariate associations, principle components analysis, and item response theory analysis. Validity was demonstrated for SUD-I consequent to each inhalant type as well as for aggregating all inhalant types into a single drug class. Results supported DSM-5 nomenclature over DSM-IV in multiple ways except that occurrence of diagnostic orphans was not statistically smaller using DSM-5. PMID:25134040
security. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Cyber Security, Cyber Warfare , Estonia, Georgia, Russian Federation Cyber Strategy, Convention on Cybercrime, NATO Center...Federation ......................................................................................... 33 X. The Future of Russian Cyber Warfare ................................................................... 39...Issue 15.09); Binoy Kampmark, Cyber Warfare Between Estonia And Russia, (Contemporary Review: Autumn, 2003), p 288-293; Jaak Aaviksoo, Address by the
Wiedijk, J E F; Soerdjbalie-Maikoe, V; Maat, G J R; Maes, A; van Rijn, R R; de Boer, H H
This paper describes an investigation of the sudden and unexpected death of a five-and-a-half-month-old boy. As in every Dutch case of sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI), a multidisciplinary diagnostic approach was used. This included post-mortem radiography, showing a linear discontinuity of the parietal bone. Originally this was interpreted as a skull fracture, but autopsy indicated no signs of mechanical trauma. Instead the defect was defined as a unilateral accessory suture of the parietal bone. The initial erroneous diagnosis had severe adverse consequences and thus every health care professional or forensic specialist dealing with paediatric mechanical traumas should be cautious of this rare anomaly.
To estimate the number of deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) attributable to secondhand smoke in New Zealand. Comparative risk assessment methods were used to estimate the attributable burden from second-hand smoke in children and non-smoking adults in New Zealand. Disease outcomes included were: ischaemic heart disease; stroke and lung cancer in adults; asthma; lower respiratory infections; otitis media; sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI); and low birthweight at term in children. Mortality data from 2009-2011 and DALY data from 2006 were used. In New Zealand, second-hand smoke was estimated to have caused 104 deaths (plausible range: 66-137) in 2010, and led to the loss of 2,286 healthy years of life (DALYs) (1,465-3,177) in 2006. The main conditions accounting for this health burden were ischaemic heart disease and stroke in older adults. Children accounted for 34% of the attributable health loss in 2006, particularly due to SUDI. Māori experienced five times the health loss of non-Māori, after standardising for age differences. Second-hand smoke continues to cause substantial health loss in New Zealand, and disproportionately affects children and Māori. Substantial health gains can be made by reducing exposure to second-hand smoke in New Zealand.
In 2011, questions raised in medicine, by the occurrence of the unexpected death of an infant (SUDI), are far from having found definitive answers. Explanations remain fragmented, statistics are fuzzy, research is unsystematic and care protocols are still highly varied in spite of recommendations by the HAS (Haute Autorité de santé, French National Authority for Health) in 2007, which are, in practice, difficult to follow. After 17 years, preventive measures should have given much better results but they continue to come up against strong resistance from the public and certain professionals, a lack of proper resources and numerous contradictory messages from business, advertising and even medicine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Griffiths, Frances; Sidebotham, Peter
Objectives Improvements in our understanding of the role of modifiable risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) mean that previous reassurance to parents that these deaths were unpreventable may no longer be appropriate. This study aimed to learn of bereaved parents' and healthcare professionals' experiences of understanding causes of death following detailed sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) investigations. The research questions were: How do bereaved parents understand the cause of death and risk factors identified during detailed investigation following a sudden unexpected infant death? What is the association between bereaved parents' mental health and this understanding? What are healthcare professionals' experiences of sharing such information with families? Design This was a mixed-methods study using a Framework Approach. Setting Specialist paediatric services. Participants Bereaved parents were recruited following detailed multiagency SUDI investigations; 21/113 eligible families and 27 professionals participated giving theoretical saturation of data. Data collection We analysed case records from all agencies, interviewed professionals and invited parents to complete the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and questionnaires or in-depth interviews. Results Nearly all bereaved parents were able to understand the cause of death and several SIDS parents had a good understanding of the relevant modifiable risk factors even when these related directly to their actions. Paediatricians worried that discussing risk factors with parents would result in parental self-blame and some deliberately avoided these discussions. Over half the families did not mention blame or blamed no one. The cause of death of the infants of these families varied. 3/21 mothers expressed overwhelming feelings of self-blame and had clinically significant scores on HADS. Conclusions Bereaved parents want detailed information about their child's death. Our study
Gavaghan, Colin; Bastani, Amir
In 2002, Caspi and colleagues proposed that a specific gene by environment (GxE) interaction is related to antisocial tendencies. Since then, a substantial body of literature has examined the potential implications of such a correlation for the criminal justice system, and in particular, for the attribution of responsibility and blame that lies at the core of that system. It is probably accurate to say that the majority position among criminal theorists is that evidence of such a nature does not undermine or seriously challenge existing notions of responsibility, and could not constitute a full defense to a criminal charge - although it may have a role to play in sentencing. Less consideration, however, has been given to the role such evidence may play in so-called 'partial defenses' - those like diminished responsibility (DR), which serve not to exculpate the defendant entirely, but rather, to mitigate his responsibility for the criminal act. This paper aims to assess the most important feature of the Caspi Sudy - the low variant gene for the production of Monoamine Oxidase Acid A gene (MAOA-L) - and its possible role in a defense of DR. We argue that, following the approach of common law jurisdictions to analogous situations, there is no principled reason to exclude evidence of MAOA-L as a basis of DR.
Stover, C.W.; Barnhard, L.M.; Reagor, B.G.; Algermissen, S.T.
The earthquake data shown on this map and listed in table 1 are a list of earthquakes that were originally used in preparing the Seismic Risk Studies in the United States (Algermissen, 1969) which have been recompiled and updated through 1977. These data have been reexamined which resulted in some revisions of epicenters and intensities as well as assignment of intensities to earthquakes that previously had none assigened. Intensity values were updated from new and additional data soureces that were not available at the time of original compilation. Some epicenters were relocated on the basis of new informaition. The data shown in table 1 are estimates of the most accurate epicenter, magnitude, and intensity of each earthquake, on the basis of historical and current information. Some of the aftershocks from large earthquakes are listed but are incomplete in many instances, especialy for ones that occurred before seismic instruments were in universal usage. Only earthquakes located within the borders of the states of Maine are listed. This map superceeds Miscellaneous Field Sudies Map MF-845.
A pilot study on post-evisceration contamination of broiler carcasses and ready-to-sell livers and intestines (mala) with Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in a high-throughput South African poultry abattoir.
Bartkowiak-Higgo, A J; Veary, C M; Venter, E H; Bosman, A M
To assess post-evisceration contamination of broiler carcasses, 300 samples were randomly selected during routine slaughter in the winter of 2004. The samples originated from 50 chicken carcasses, taken directly after evisceration, as well as 25 samples from ready-to-sell packages of fresh intestines (mala) and livers. The samples were taken in batches over a period of 4 weeks to allow randomised sampling from different farms of origin. Conventional culture-based detection methods of Campylobacter spp. usually need 4-6 days to produce a result. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) used for this study took less than 32 hours. The average contamination rates with Campylobacter in both the skin and liver samples were 24%, and 28% for intestines. Chicken and chicken products, especially livers and intestines, form an integral part of the traditional diet of many Black South Africans, as they are cheap and readily available in bulk and un-chilled for direct distribution, mainly through street vending and other informal retail outlets. This sudy showed that Campylobacter spp. are prevalent in poultry in South Africa. The handling of poultry meat and products contaminated with this organism in households and the potential for cross-contamination of other foods presents a high risk of infection to consumers in South Africa. The study also emphasised the need for further research in this field.
Arthurs, Owen J; Hutchinson, John C; Sebire, Neil J
Perinatal autopsy practice is undergoing a state of change with the introduction of evidence-based cross-sectional imaging, driven primarily by parental choice. In particular, the introduction of post mortem magnetic resonance imaging (PMMR) has helped to advance less-invasive perinatal autopsy in the United Kingdom (UK) and Europe. However, there are limitations to PMMR and other imaging techniques which need to be overcome, particularly with regard to imaging very small fetuses. Imaging is also now increasingly used to investigate particular deaths in childhood, such as suspected non-accidental injury (NAI) and sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI). Here we focus on current topical developments the field, with particular emphasis on the application of imaging to perinatal autopsy, and pediatric forensic deaths. Different imaging modalities and their relative advantages and disadvantages are discussed, together with other benefits of more advanced cross-sectional imaging which currently lie in the research domain. Whilst variations in local imaging service provision and need may determine different practice patterns, and access to machines and professionals with appropriate expertise and experience to correctly interpret the findings may limit current practices, we propose that gold standard perinatal and pediatric autopsy services would include complete PMMR imaging prior to autopsy, with PMCT in suspicious childhood deaths. This approach would provide maximal diagnostic yield to the pathologist, forensic investigator and most importantly, the parents.
González-Estecha, Montserrat; Bodas-Pinedo, Andrés; Rubio-Herrera, Miguel Ángel; Martell-Claros, Nieves; Trasobares-Iglesias, Elena M; Ordóñez-Iriarte, José M; Guillén-Pérez, José Jesús; Herráiz-Martínez, Miguel Ángel; García-Donaire, José Antonio; Farré-Rovira, Rosaura; Calvo-Manuel, Elpidio; Martínez-Álvarez, Jesús Román; Llorente-Ballesteros, M Teresa; Sáinz-Martín, María; Martínez-Astorquiza, Txantón; Martínez-García, M José; Bretón Lesmes, Irene; Cuadrado-Cenzual, M Ángeles; Prieto-Menchero, Santiago; Gallardo-Pino, Carmen; Moreno-Rojas, Rafael; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Torres-Moreno, Miriam; Arroyo-Fernández, Manuel; Calle-Pascual, Alfonso
The benefit of fish consumption in children and adults is well-known. However, it has been pointed out that excessive methylmercury intake due to consumption of contaminated fish leads to neurological toxicity in children, affecting cognitive function, memory, visual-motor function and language. After the intoxications in Minamata and Iraq, wide-ranging epidemiological studies were carried out in New Zealand, the Faroe Islands and the Seychelles and international recommendations were established for fish consumption in pregnant women and small children. In Spain, the Childhood and Environmental project (INMA, its Spanish acronym) has studied the effects of diet and the environment on fetal and childhood development in different geographic areas of Spain. National and international sudies have demonstrated that mercury concentrations are mainly dependent on fish consumption, although there are variations among countries which can be explained not only by the levels of fish consumption, but also by the type or species of fish that is consumed, as well as other factors. Although the best documented adverse effects of methylmercury are the effects on nervous sytem development in fetuses and newborns, an increasing number of studies indicate that cognitive function, reproduction and, especially, cardiovascular risk in the adult population can also be affected. However, more studies are necessary in order to confirm this and establish the existance of a causal relationship.
Lindskog, G E
The life of Oliver Wendell Holmes was selected as the subject for a lecture in the 1974 History of Medicine series at Yale University School of Medicine because, as the Latin subtitle of the essay suggests, he represents a fortunate and uncommon, but by no means unique, synthesis of the practical and aesthetic, of science and the humanities. An attempt has been made by the lecturer, employing frequent, but brief, excerpts from the works of several disinguished biographers as well as Doctor Holmes' own lectures, medical papers, essays and poems to delineate the elite heritage and the events that led this complex person transiently into the sudy of law, the profession in which his older son reached the pinnacle of the U.S. Supreme Court, and finally into medicine where a short period of private practice was followed by more than three decades of distinguished teaching is anatomy. His lifetime (1809-1894) spanned most of the nineteenth century, in the literary hisory of which he played a significant role. His writings reveal a remarkable, and sometimes prophetic, appreciation of the impact that burgeoning science and evolving social pressures and changes would have on the teaching and practice of medicine in the future-our present.
Yang, Yueh-Lung; Chang, Ching-Hsien; Huang, Ching-Cheng; Kao, Wenny Mei-Wen; Liu, Wei-Chung; Liu, Hsia-Wei
Numerous materials have been proposed for bone tissue engineering. In this study, a newly designed hybrid composite scaffold composed of poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) and a naturally bioceramic hybrid material, nanonized pearl powder, were prepared and the biological activities and physical properties of the scaffold for bone tissue engineering were evaluated. It is a composite consisting calcium carbonate crystal in an aragonite structure, embedded in an organic matrix. Peral contains one or more signal molecules capable of stimulating bone formation. The nanonized pearl powder is considered as a promising osteoinductive biomaterial. This biomaterial is biocompatible and shows osteogenic activity. In this study, the designed biohybrid of nanonized pearl powder/poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (NPP/PLGA) biocomposite scaffolds would employ biodegradable material as MC3T3-E1 cells seeded scaffolds. Therefore, the biocomposite scaffolds would be used to culture with MC3T3-E1 cells under spinner bioreactor in vitro. Furthermore, it also detailed how these tissues were characterized, qualitatively and quantitatively, with scanning electron microscopy and biochemical testing. The identity and the mode of action of these molecules on the osteoblast differentiation were analyzed. This study indicates that the efficiency of nanonized pearl powders in bone cell differentiation are certainly different from that of proteins. Further sudy will look forward to manufacturing the promising new generation bone substitute, three dimensional biocomposite scaffolds to replace the implant and autogeneous bone graft, which combines basic research and clinical application.
Nazarian, Shaban; Peter, John V St; Boston, Raymond C; Jones, Sidney A; Mariash, Cary N
Vitamin D has in vitro and in vivo effects on β-cells and insulin sensitivity. Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) has been associated with onset and progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM-2). However, studies involving supplementation of vitamin D in subjects with previously established diabetes have demonstrated inconsistent effects on insulin sensitivity. The aim of this open-label study was to assess the effects of high dose vitamin D3 supplementation on insulin sensitivity in subjects with VDD and impaired fasting glucose. We studied 8 subjects with VDD and pre-diabetes with the modified frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance (mFSIGT) test before and after vitamin D supplementation. Vitamin D3 was administered as 10,000 IU daily for 4 weeks. The mFSIGT was analyzed with MinMod Millennnium to obtain estimates of Acute Insulin Response to Glucose (AIRg), Insulin Sensitivity (SI), and Disposition Index (DI). We found that AIRg decreased (p = 0.011) and insulin sensitivity, expressed as SI, increased (p = 0.012) after a intervention with vitamin D. If these findings are repeated in a randomized, double-blind, sudy the results indicate that orally administered high dose vitamin D3 supplementation improves insulin sensitivity in subjects with impaired fasting glucose and suggests that high dose vitamin D3 supplementation might provide an inexpensive public health measure in preventing, or at least delaying, the progression from impaired fasting glucose to diabetes. PMID:22005267
Lindskog, Gustaf E.
The life of Oliver Wendell Holmes was selected as the subject for a lecture in the 1974 History of Medicine series at Yale University School of Medicine because, as the Latin subtitle of the essay suggests, he represents a fortunate and uncommon, but by no means unique, synthesis of the practical and aesthetic, of science and the humanities. An attempt has been made by the lecturer, employing frequent, but brief, excerpts from the works of several disinguished biographers as well as Doctor Holmes' own lectures, medical papers, essays and poems to delineate the elite heritage and the events that led this complex person transiently into the sudy of law, the profession in which his older son reached the pinnacle of the U.S. Supreme Court, and finally into medicine where a short period of private practice was followed by more than three decades of distinguished teaching is anatomy. His lifetime (1809-1894) spanned most of the nineteenth century, in the literary hisory of which he played a significant role. His writings reveal a remarkable, and sometimes prophetic, appreciation of the impact that burgeoning science and evolving social pressures and changes would have on the teaching and practice of medicine in the future—our present. PMID:4617425
Harrison, Ashley Johnson; Gibb, Brandon E
Cognitive theories state attentional biases contribute to the development and maintenance of depression. Like depressed adults, there is growing evidence for the presence of attentional biases to sad stimuli in depressed youth. Although the direction of this bias among children remains unclear, preliminary evidence indicates attentional avoidance of sad stimuli in children. This is the first known sudy to use eye-tracking to investigate the exact nature of attention biases among depressed children. To assess sustained attention, the current study used eye-tracking and a passive viewing task in which children viewed a series of four facial expressions (angry, happy, sad, neutral) presented simultatiously for 20 s on a computer screen. The current study compared the attentional allocation of currently depressed children (n = 19; M age = 11.21) to a group of never depressed children (n = 22; M age = 10.82). Consistent with earlier research with children, we found that children with current major or minor depression, compared to children with no history of depression, exhibited attentional avoidance of sad facial stimuil as well as some evidence for preferential attention to happy faces. This study provides additional evidence that although depressed children demonstrate mood congruent attentional biases like that observed depressed adults, the nature of these biases may reflect attentional avoidance of sad stimuli, rather than preferential attention.
Kim, Tae-Su; Choi, Ehn-Kyoung; Kim, Jihyun; Shin, Kyungha; Lee, Sung-Pyo; Choi, Youngjin; Jeon, Joseph H.
Helicobacter pylori-eliminating effects of FEMY-R7, composed of fucoidan and evening primrose extract, were investigated in mice and humans. Male C57BL/6 mice were infected with the bacteria by intragastric inoculation (1×109 CFU/mouse) 3 times at 2-day intervals, and simultaneously, orally treated twice a day with 10 or 100 mg/kg FEMY-R7 for 2 weeks. In Campylobcter-like organism-detection test, FEMY-R7 markedly reduced the urease-positive reactivity. In a clinical sudy, human subjects, confirmed to be infected with Helicobacter pylori, were orally administered twice a day with a capsule containing 150 mg FEMY-R7 for 8 weeks. FEMY-R7 significantly decreased both the Delta over baseline-value in urea breath test and the serum pepsinogens I and II levels. The results indicate that FEMY-R7 not only eliminates H. pylori from gastric mucosa of animals and humans, but also improves gastric function. PMID:25324874
Chetboul, Valérie; Blot, Stephane; Sampedrano, Carolina Carlos; Thibaud, Jean-Laurent; Granger, Nicolas; Tissier, Renaud; Bruneval, Patrick; Gaschen, Frederic; Gouni, Vassiliki; Nicolle, Audrey P; Pouchelon, Jean-Louis
Diagnosis of feline hypertrophic cardiomyopathy currently is based on the presence of myocardial hypertrophy detected using conventional echocardiography. The accuracy of tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) for earlier detection of the disease has never been described. The objective of this sudy was to quantify left ventricular free wall (LVFW) velocities in cats with hypertrophic muscular dystrophy (HFMD) during preclinical cardiomyopathy using TDI. The study animals included 22 healthy controls and 7 cats belonging to a family of cats with HFMD (2 affected adult males, 2 heterozygous adult females, one 2.5-month-old affected male kitten, and 2 phenotypically normal female kittens from the same litter). All cats were examined via conventional echocardiography and 2-dimensional color TDI. No LVFW hypertrophy was detected in the 2 carriers or in the affected kitten when using conventional echocardiography and histologic examination, respectively. The LVFW also was normal for 1 affected male and at the upper limit of normal for the 2nd male. Conversely, LVFW dysfunction was detected in all affected and carrier cats with HFMD when using TDI. TDI consistently detects LVFW dysfunction in cats with HFMD despite the absence of myocardial hypertrophy. Therefore, TDI appears more sensitive than conventional echocardiography in detecting regional myocardial abnormalities.
Lobmaier, I V K; Vege, A; Gaustad, P; Rognum, T O
In cases of sudden unexpected death in infants and children (SUDI), microbiological investigation has been an important part of the autopsy protocol at the University of Oslo for the last 15 years. The purpose of this study was to compare the microbiological findings in samples taken at hospital admittance shortly after death and at autopsy. Blood cultures and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were collected both at the hospital and at autopsy; organ samples were additionally collected at autopsy. Hospital samples were collected at a median of 4.5 h (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.25-5) and autopsy samples at a median of 24.25 h (95% CI 22-25.5) after death. The proportion of positive cultures was stable over time; the post mortal time had no influence on bacterial growth. As long as the autopsy is performed within 48 h after death, prior microbiological examination is unnecessary. Blood culture, CSF and lung specimens are the best predictors in our study.
Radiation induced changes in the cuticular hydrocarbons of the granary weevil and their relationships to desiccation and adult mortality: Annual progress report, February 15, 1987 to February 14, 1988
Sitophilus granarius (L) is a major pest of stroed grains and is prone to irradiation treatment. There is considerable scope for use of radiation like Cesium-137 (as a source) as an alternative to chemical treatment for pest control. Study with regard to radiation damage and the effect of environmental factors like temperature and humidity on adult weevil mortality due to radiation effect is limited. Stored-grain insects live in an enviroment where liquid water is seldom available. Waterproofing and conservation of water by the insects is a critical factor for weevil survival. In some insects it has been noted that the rate of water loss through the integument has been associated with changes in the hydrocarbon composition of the epicuticle. Epicuticular hydrocarbons play an important role in preventing desiccation. Information on the effects of irradiation on epicuticular hydrocarbon of the adult weevils is limited. The present investigation sudies the after effects of radiation damage to granary weevil (Sitophilus granarius (L.) in terms of causing increased water loss from the body, weevil nortality and concommitant changes, if any, in the cuticular hydrocarbons that waterproof the insect. 23 refs., 22 figs., 7 tabs.
Dempers, Johan; Sens, Mary Ann; Wadee, Shabbir Ahmed; Kinney, Hannah C.; Odendaal, Hein J.; Wright, Colleen A.
The classification of an unexpected infant death as the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) depends upon a complete autopsy and death scene investigation to exclude known causes of death. Here we report the death of a four-month-old infant in a tuberculosis endemic area that presented as a sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) with no apparent explanation based on the death scene characteristics. The autopsy, however, revealed progressive primary pulmonary tuberculosis with intrathoracic adenopathy, compression of the tracheobronchial tree and miliary lesions in the liver. This case underscores the clinical difficulties in the diagnosis of infantile tuberculosis, as well as the possibility of sudden death as part of its protean manifestations. The pathology and clinical progression of tuberculosis in infants differs from older children and adults due to the immature immune response in infants. This case dramatically highlights the need for complete autopsies in all sudden and unexpected infant deaths, as well as the public health issues in a sentinel infant tuberculosis diagnosis. PMID:20705406
Faleeva, T G; Ivanov, I N; Mishin, E S; Vnukova, N V; Kornienko, I V
The objective of the present experimental molecular-genetic study of DNA contained in of human fingerprints was to establish the relationship between the reference genetic profiles and the genotypes of the individuals leaving their fingerprints on a smooth metal object. The biological material for the purpose of the investigation was sampled at different time intervals. The were taken using a scotch tape and used to obtain the complete genetic profile immediately after the fingerprints had been left as well as within the next 24 hours and one week. It proved impossible to identify the complete genetic profile one month after the fingerprints had been left. The alleles not typical for reference samples were identified within one week after swabbing the material from the metal surface. The results of the sudy can be explained by the decrease of the concentration of the initial DNA-matrix in the samples due to its degradation in the course of time. It is concluded that the parallel genetic analysis is needed if reliable evidence of identity of the profiles of interest or its absence is to be obtained.
Kamm, Liina; Bogdanov, Dan; Laur, Sven; Vilo, Jaak
Motivation: Increased availability of various genotyping techniques has initiated a race for finding genetic markers that can be used in diagnostics and personalized medicine. Although many genetic risk factors are known, key causes of common diseases with complex heritage patterns are still unknown. Identification of such complex traits requires a targeted study over a large collection of data. Ideally, such studies bring together data from many biobanks. However, data aggregation on such a large scale raises many privacy issues. Results: We show how to conduct such studies without violating privacy of individual donors and without leaking the data to third parties. The presented solution has provable security guarantees. Contact: email@example.com Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:23413435
Fekih, Nadia; Allali, Hocine; Merghache, Salima; Chaïb, Faïza; Merghache, Djamila; El Amine, Mohamed; Djabou, Nassim; Muselli, Alain; Tabti, Boufeldja; Costa, Jean
Objective To find new bioactive natural products, the chemical composition and to sudy the antibacterial activity of essential oil components extracted from the aerial parts of the Algerian aromatic plant Pinus halepensis Miller (P. halepensis) (needles, twigs and buds). Methods The essential oil used in this study was isolated by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus according to the European Pharmacopoeia. The chemical composition was investigated using GC-retention indices (RI) and GC-MS. Results Forty-nine compounds, representing 97.9% of the total collective oil, were identified. Essential oil was dominated by hydrocarbon compounds (80.6%) especially monoterpenes (65.5%). The major compounds from ten oils stations were: myrcene (15.2%-32.0%), α-pinene (12.2%-24.5%), E-β-caryophyllene (7.0%-17.1%), terpinolene (1.8%-13.3%), 2-phenyl ethyl isovalerate (4.8%-10.9%), terpinene-4-ol (1.0%-8.2 %) and sabinene (1.5%-6.3%). The intra-species variations of the chemical compositions of P. halepensis aerial parts essential oils from ten Algerian sample locations were investigated using statistical analysis. Essential oil samples were clustered in 2 groups by hierarchical cluster analysis, according to their chemical composition. The essential oil revealed an interesting antimicrobial effect against Lysteria monocytogenes, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanii, Citrobacter freundii and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Conclusions These results suggest that the essential oil from P. halepensis may be a new potential source as natural antimicrobial applied in pharmaceutical and food industries.
Pryce, JW; Weber, MA; Ashworth, MT; Roberts, SEA; Malone, M; Sebire, NJ
Objectives Infant mortality has undergone a dramatic reduction in the UK over the past century because of improvements in public health policy and medical advances. Postmortem examinations have been performed at Great Ormond Street Hospital for over 100 years, and analysis of cases across this period has been performed to assess changing patterns of infant deaths undergoing autopsy. Design Autopsy reports from 1909 and 2009 were examined. Age, major pathology and cause of death was reviewed from these cases and entered into an anonymized database. A subsequent comparative analysis was performed. Setting All postmortems performed and reported at Great Ormond Street Hospital in 1909 and 2009. Participants Infant deaths, aged 0–365 days, were identified and subsequently analysed for the two years. Main outcome measures Comparative proportional analysis of postmortem findings from the two time periods. Results Three-hundred and fifty-seven and 347 autopsy reports were identified from 1909 and 2009 including 178 and 128 infant deaths, respectively. The commonest cause of death in 1909 was infection (74%) compared to 20% of deaths in 2009. The most frequent final ‘diagnosis’ in 2009 was ‘unexplained sudden unexpected infant death (SUDI)’, despite a full postmortem including ancillary investigations. In contrast, there were no such cases recorded in 1909, but there were frequent deaths due to gastroenteritis and malnutrition together accounting for 16% of cases, compared to one case of gastroenteritis in 2009. Fifteen percent of 1909 cases had infections which are almost never fatal with appropriate treatment in 2009, including tuberculosis, diphtheria and syphilis. Congenital anomalies were detected with similar frequencies at both time points, (21% and 19% in 1909 and 2009, respectively). Conclusion In the UK, significant changes in patterns of pathology have occurred in paediatric autopsy cases performed at a single specialist centre. Fatal infections and
Wijarnpreecha, K; Thongprayoon, C; Panjawatanan, P; Ungprasert, P
This sudy aims to investigate the association between insomnia or excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We searched published studies indexed in MEDLINE and EMBASE database from inception to December 2015. Studies that reported odds ratios (ORs), risk ratios, hazard ratios or standardized incidence ratio with 95% confidence intervals (CI) comparing the risk of NAFLD among participants who had insomnia or EDS versus those without insomnia or EDS were included. Pooled ORs and 95% CI were calculated using a random-effect, generic inverse variance method of DerSimonian and Laird. Cochran's Q test and I2 statistic were used to determine the between-study heterogeneity. Our search strategy yielded 2117 potentially relevant articles (781 articles from MEDLINE and 1336 articles from EMBASE). After comprehensive review, seven studies (three cross-sectional studies and four case-control studies) were found to be eligible and were included in the meta-analysis. The risk of NAFLD in participants who had insomnia was significantly higher with the pooled OR of 1.13 (95% CI, 1.00-1.27). The statistical heterogeneity was moderate with an I2 of 62%. Elevated risk of NAFLD was also observed among participants with EDS even though the 95% CI was wider and did not reach statistical significance (pooled OR 2.21; 95% CI, 0.84-5.82). The statistical heterogeneity was moderate with an I2 of 62%. Our study demonstrated an increased risk of NAFLD among participants who had insomnia or EDS. Whether this association is causal needs further investigations.
De Veaux, Richard D.; Gordon, Arnold L.; Comiso, Joey C.; Bacherer, Nadine E.
The role of seafloor topography in the spatial variations of the southern ocean sea ice cover as observed (every other day) by the Nimbus 7 scanning multichannel microwave radiometer satellite in the years 1980, 1983, and 1984 is studied. Bottom bathymetry can affect sea ice surface characteristics because of the basically barotropic circulation of the ocean south of the Antarctic Circumpolar current. The main statistical tool used to quantify this effect is a local nonparametric regression model of sea ice concentration as a function of the depth and its first two derivatives in both meridional and zonal directions. First, we model the relationship of bathymetry to sea ice concentration in two sudy areas, one over the Maud Rise and the other over the Ross Sea shelf region. The multiple correlation coefficient is found to average 44% in the Maud Rise study area and 62% in the Ross Sea study area over the years 1980, 1983, and 1984. Second, a strategy of dividing the entire Antarctic region into an overlapping mosaic of small areas, or windows is considered. Keeping the windows small reduces the correlation of bathymetry with other factors such as wind, sea temperature, and distance to the continent. We find that although the form of the model varies from window to window due to the changing role of other relevant environmental variables, we are left with a spatially consistent ordering of the relative importance of the topographic predictors. For a set of three representative days in the Austral winter of 1980, the analysis shows that an average of 54% of the spatial variation in sea ice concentration over the entire ice cover can be attributed to topographic variables. The results thus support the hypothesis that there is a sea ice to bottom bathymetry link. However this should not undermine the considerable influence of wind, current, and temperature which affect the ice distribution directly and are partly responsible for the observed bathymetric effects.
Tutuncu, Yasemin; Berker, Dilek; Isik, Serhat; Ozuguz, Ufuk; Akbaba, Gulhan; Kucukler, Ferit Kerim; Aydin, Yusuf; Guler, Serdar
Long-acting somatostatin analogs are frequently used as adjuvant treatment of acromegaly patients after noncurative surgery. This sudy aims to compare the efficacy of octreotide long-acting release (OCT) and lanreotide Autogel (LAN) in acromegaly patients. Sixty-eight patients not cured by transsphenoidal endoscopic or microscopic pituitary surgery between 2003 and 2009 were retrospectively analyzed (25 men; 43 women; mean age 41.1 ± 10.9 years [range 18-65 years]). The patients were assigned randomly to OCT (n = 36) and LAN (n = 32) groups. Evaluations included insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and growth hormone (GH) after oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) 3, 6, 12 and 18 months after starting medical treatment; pituitary magnetic resonance imaging was performed before treatment and after 3 and 12 months. Patients achieving IGF-I levels within the age and gender normal range and GH level <1 μg/l following OGTT were considered a 'biochemical cure'. Mean IGF-I and GH values and tumor volumes (cm(3)) in the LAN and OCT groups were similar in the post-operative period before initiation of medical treatment. A statistically significant decrease in GH and IGF-I levels was obtained for both treatment groups at each follow-up visit compared to the previous value. Tumor shrinkage after 12 months of treatment was statistically significant in both groups but the percentage tumor shrinkage (28.5% vs. 34.9%, P = 0.166) and rate of patients achieving biochemical cure (63.9 and 78.1%, P = 0.454) were similar between OCT and LAN groups, respectively. OCT and LAN treatment options have similar efficacy for ensuring biochemical cure and tumor shrinkage in acromegaly patients who had noncurative surgery.
GROUSSET, F. E.
Trace elements and isotopes have found widespread applications in oceanography. In most cases, their use has led to a better understanding of many oceanic processes (viz., chemical inputs to the ocean, chemical fluxes through the water column, particulate- dissolved-matter exchanges, watermass circulation, etc), permitting the application of reliable models. Anomalies have been observed, however, in the data on some tracers of particulates that should be given more attention in future. For example, it is widely recognized that the Sr isotopic composition of detrital particles is grain-size dependant (Dasch, 1969), whereas their Nd isotopic composition would not vary with grain-size (Goldstein et al., 1984). Recent sudies of detrital grain-size fractions, however, reveal that Sr, Nd and Pb isotopes can be strongly grain-size dependant. Some of these same isotopes can be used to study dissolved phases. The isotopic composition of Nd associated with iron oxides deposited on surface sediment planktic foraminifers has been used as a watermass tracer (Palmer et al., 1985). In the northern Atlantic surface sediments, however, the Nd isotope composition of the foraminifers is in fact mostly controled by the isotopic composition of the ambient detrital particles that are partially dissolved into the intertitial waters, subsequently contaminating the foraminifers (Grousset et al., 1986). The original watermass fingerprint is thus partly obscured. Another example is provided by iron-manganese nodules. In the Pacific ocean, the temporal evolution of the Pb-isotope composition of three nodules located at different latitudes has been explained by their plate-tectonic latitudinal shift through time (Meynadier, 2000). In the same ocean, another study still in progress of two nodules from a unique box-core reveals two totally different temporal behaviors of their trace elements and isotopes (Bernard et al., in prep.). Such anomalies will be reviewed and discussed.
Cascardi, Michele; Blank, Sean; Dodani, Vikash
Advancing dating violence (DV) research requires consistent conceptualization and measurement. However, empirical sudies on the measurement of psychological and physical DV perpetration and victimization are uncommon. There were three aims of the current study: (a) to examine the construct validity of psychological and physical DV perpetration and victimization on the Conflict in Adolescent Dating Relationships Inventory (CADRI) and Revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2) using factor analysis; (b) to compare empirically derived DV scales with ones using face valid definitions of psychological and physical DV within each measure; and (c) to compare results obtained from the CADRI with those obtained from the CTS2. A diverse sample of undergraduates (N = 512; 63.9% female, 50.0% White, 16.2% Black, and 22.9% Latino) completed an online survey. There were two-factor solutions for each survey and DV perpetration and victimization: moderate psychological DV and severe psychological/physical DV on the CADRI; and moderate psychological and physical DV and severe psychological and physical DV on the CTS2. Multiple regression analyses showed that results were similar for empirically and rationally derived scoring methods with one exception: On the CTS2, risk factors associated with moderate DV were not the same as those associated with psychological DV. Moreover, the unique contribution of risk factors to each form of DV depended on which survey was used. In multivariate studies of risk factors associated with psychological and physical DV, the CADRI and CTS2 do not appear to be interchangeable, and may lead to different conclusions about the relative importance of risk factors.
Neotropical Monogenoidea. 50. Oviparous gyrodactylids from loricariid and pimelodid catfishes in Brazil, with the proposal of Phanerothecioides n. g., Onychogyrodactylus n. g. and Aglaiogyrodactylus n. g. (Polyonchoinea: Gyrodactylidea).
Kritsky, Delane C; Vianna, Rogério T; Boeger, Walter A
The diagnosis of Phanerothecium Kritsky & Thatcher, 1977 is amended, and Phanerothecioides n. g., Onychogyrodactylus n. g. and Aglaiogyrodactylus n. g., all comprised of oviparous gyrodactylids (Monogenoidea: Polyonchoinea), are proposed to accommodate 11 of the 15 species (14 new to science) herein described and/or reported from loricariid and pimelodid catfishes (Teleostei: Siluriformes) in Brazil: Phanerothecium harrisi Kritsky & Boeger, 1991, P. spinatoides n. sp. and P. deiropedeum n. sp. all from Hypostomus spp.; P. spinulatum n. sp. from Hypostomus cf. regani; Phanerothecioides agostinhoi n. g., n. sp. (type-species) from Hypostomus spp. and Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum; Onychogyrodactylus sudis n. g., n. sp. (type-species) and O. hydaticus n. sp. both from Ancistrus multispinus; Aglaiogyrodactylus forficulatus n. g., n. sp. (type-species) from Kronichthys lacerta; A. pedunculatus n. sp. from Hisonotus sp.; A. guttus n. sp. from Pseudotothyris obtusa; A. salebrosus n. sp., A. conei n. sp. and A. ctenistus n. sp. all from Pareiorhaphis parmula; and A. calamus n. sp. and A. forficuloides n. sp. both from Schizolecis guntheri. Phanerothecioides n. g. is characterised by oviparous forms lacking superficial and deep haptoral bars and pregermarial vitelline follicles, and by having a conspicuous testis in adult specimens, a syncytial prostatic gland, a reduced copulatory sac and vitelline ducts in the form of an inverted 'U'. Onychogyrodactylus n. g. is differentiated from all other oviparous gyrodactylid genera by its members having a spine-like accessory sclerite enclosed in a separate pouch associated with the terminal male genitalia. Species of Aglaiogyrodactylus n. g. possess H-shaped vitelline ducts and a complex accessory piece and sclerotised or non-sclerotised male copulatory organ enclosed within the copulatory sac.
Briceno, Cesar; Calvet, Nuria
The Orion OB1 association, at ~400 pc and with a wide range of ages (~1-10 Myr) and environmental conditions, is an ideal place to look at how stars form, first evolve and disperse among the general population of field stars. Also to study disk dispersal and the duration of the planet formation phase.However, despite spanning nearly 200 deg2 on the sky, almost all we know about Orion comes from studies of a limited fraction of the entire region, mostly of the youngest objects (~<1 Myr) in the A and B molecular clouds and the ~3 Myr old sigma Ori cluster.We will present here the results of our 180 sq deg photometric multi-epoch survey across the Orion OB1 association, using the known variability of T Tauri stars to pick them among the general field population, and following with spectroscopy to confirm members and characterize them.The ~2000 newly identified young low-mass stars are mostly located away from the molecular clouds, across tens of sq. deg. in the Orion OB1a and OB1b sub-associations, with ages in the range ~4-10 Myr. But within this general population we identify a significant fraction concentrated in distinct overdensities, most notably the ~7 Myr old 25 Orionis cluster. These stellar aggregates point to a previously unknown degree of substructure that has survived the dissipation of the parent molecular clouds. We also find that the Orion Nebula Cluster is surrounded by a few sq.deg. halo of young stars, as has been suggested by recent sudies.
Kim, Tae-Su; Shin, Kyungha; Jeon, Joseph H.; Choi, Ehn-Kyoung; Choi, Youngjin; Lee, Sung-Pyo; Lee, Yoon-Bok
Helicobacter pylori-eliminating effects of FEMY-R7, composed of Laminaria japonica and Oenothera biennis extracts, were investigated in mice and humans. Male C57BL/6 mice were infected with the bacteria by intragastric inoculation (1×109 CFU/mouse) 3 times at 2-day intervals, and simultaneously, orally treated twice a day with total 20, 64 or 200 mg/kg/day FEMY-R7 for 2 weeks. In Campylobcter-like organism (CLO)-detection tests on gastric mucosa and feces, FEMY-R7 reduced the urease-positive reactivity in a dose-dependent manner; i.e., the positivity ratios were decreased to 70, 20, and 10% for gastric mocosa and to 80, 50, and 20% for feces. In a clinical sudy, human subjects, confirmed to be infected with Helicobacter pylori, were orally administered twice a day with capsules containing total 100, 320 or 1,000 mg/man/day FEMY-R7 (matching doses for 20, 64 or 200 mg/kg/day, respectively, in mice from a body surface area-based dose translation) for 8 weeks. FEMY-R7 decreased the positivity ratios in feces to 70, 40, and 30%, respectively. In bacterial culture, H. pylori was identified from the CLO-positive stools of mice and humans. The bacterial identification ratios exhibited a good correlation between the matching doses in mice and humans. It is suggested that FEMY-R7 could be a promising functional food without tolerance as an adjunct to reduce the dosage of antibiotics for the treatment of recurrent H. pylori infection. PMID:25806078
Almada, Leonardo Ferreira; Pereira, Alfredo; Carrara-Augustenborg, Claudia
The field of affective neuroscience has emerged from the efforts of Jaak Panksepp in the 1990s and reinforced by the work of, among others, Joseph LeDoux in the 2000s. It is based on the ideas that affective processes are supported by brain structures that appeared earlier in the phylogenetic scale (as the periaqueductal gray area), they run in parallel with cognitive processes, and can influence behaviour independently of cognitive judgements. This kind of approach contrasts with the hegemonic concept of conscious processing in cognitive neurosciences, which is based on the identification of brain circuits responsible for the processing of (cognitive) representations. Within cognitive neurosciences, the frontal lobes are assigned the role of coordinators in maintaining affective states and their emotional expressions under cognitive control. An intermediary view is the Damasio-Bechara Somatic Marker model, which puts cognition under partial somatic-affective control. We present here our efforts to make a synthesis of these views, by proposing the existence of two interacting brain circuits; the first one in charge of cognitive processes and the second mediating feelings about cognitive contents. The coupling of the two circuits promotes an endogenous feedback that supports conscious processes. Within this framework, we present the defence that detailed study of both affective and cognitive processes, their interactions, as well of their respective brain networks, is necessary for a science of consciousness.
Watt, Douglas F
Jaak Panksepp's article 'Affective Consciousness: Core Emotional Feelings in Animals and Humans' is a excellent review and summary by a leading empirical contributor whose work for many years has been running counter to reigning behavioristic premises in neuroscience. It may unfortunately be true that he could not get this review published in many neuroscience journals because it attacks too many sacred (behavioristic) cows. Panksepp has given readers of Consciousness and Cognition a nicely condensed summary of much of his classic 1998 textbook, Affective Neuroscience. I'm reasonably confident that future neuroscience students will look on that textbook as one of the seminal publications on the subject of emotion and the brain, much as we might now look back on Luria's Higher Cortical Functions in Man, or Paul MacLean's classic work, The Triune Brain. There is probably little that I can add to his elegant presentation of the basic affective neuroscience findings, but I would like to highlight a few key issues for the reader.
Almada, Leonardo Ferreira; Pereira, Alfredo; Carrara-Augustenborg, Claudia
The field of affective neuroscience has emerged from the efforts of Jaak Panksepp in the 1990s and reinforced by the work of, among others, Joseph LeDoux in the 2000s. It is based on the ideas that affective processes are supported by brain structures that appeared earlier in the phylogenetic scale (as the periaqueductal gray area), they run in parallel with cognitive processes, and can influence behaviour independently of cognitive judgements. This kind of approach contrasts with the hegemonic concept of conscious processing in cognitive neurosciences, which is based on the identification of brain circuits responsible for the processing of (cognitive) representations. Within cognitive neurosciences, the frontal lobes are assigned the role of coordinators in maintaining affective states and their emotional expressions under cognitive control. An intermediary view is the Damasio-Bechara Somatic Marker model, which puts cognition under partial somatic-affective control. We present here our efforts to make a synthesis of these views, by proposing the existence of two interacting brain circuits; the first one in charge of cognitive processes and the second mediating feelings about cognitive contents. The coupling of the two circuits promotes an endogenous feedback that supports conscious processes. Within this framework, we present the defence that detailed study of both affective and cognitive processes, their interactions, as well of their respective brain networks, is necessary for a science of consciousness. PMID:23678246
Deris, Nadja; Montag, Christian; Reuter, Martin; Weber, Bernd; Markett, Sebastian
According to Jaak Panksepp's Affective Neuroscience Theory and the derived self-report measure, the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scales (ANPS), differences in the responsiveness of primary emotional systems form the basis of human personality. In order to investigate neuronal correlates of personality, the underlying neuronal circuits of the primary emotional systems were analyzed in the present fMRI-study by associating the ANPS to functional connectivity in the resting brain. N=120 healthy participants were invited for the present study. The results were reinvestigated in an independent, smaller sample of N=52 participants. A seed-based whole brain approach was conducted with seed-regions bilaterally in the basolateral and superficial amygdalae. The selection of seed-regions was based on meta-analytic data on affective processing and the Juelich histological atlas. Multiple regression analyses on the functional connectivity maps revealed associations with the SADNESS-scale in both samples. Functional resting-state connectivity between the left basolateral amygdala and a cluster in the postcentral gyrus, and between the right basolateral amygdala and clusters in the superior parietal lobe and subgyral in the parietal lobe was associated with SADNESS. No other ANPS-scale revealed replicable results. The present findings give first insights into the neuronal basis of the SADNESS-scale of the ANPS and support the idea of underlying neuronal circuits. In combination with previous research on genetic associations of the ANPS functional resting-state connectivity is discussed as a possible endophenotype of personality.
Turen, Yener; Ugur Sanli, D.
stations, leaving usually a pure white noise. In such a case, we apply various filtering strategies to improve the significancy of the deformation rate in comparison to SOPAC estimates. This is sudied for a global network of IGS stations, and the conclusions are shared.
Slatina, Enes; Music, Miralem; Babic, Nermina; Pleho-Kapic, Amna; Dervisevic, Senad; Salibasic, Mirhan; Mujaric, Ekrema
The intention of this work is to research whether the link between the barometer pressure and the cerebrovascular insult (CVI) exists. The stroke is the first cause of non-traumatic disability and third illness by mortality in the majority of available relevant literature. Goal of the sudy was to research all the cases of the patients who suffered from the acute stroke in the Canton of Sarajevo and those who were treated in the pre-hospital phase by Emergency Medical Institute staff and their working diagnosis was established as CVI ac. The criteria in the research were established for inclusion and exclusion of cases. The days with and without CVI cases were compared with the meteorological data obtained from the Hydro-meteorological Institute of Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina . Since the approval was requested and obtained from the Hydro-meteorological Institute, all the meteorological data could be compared. The meteorological data comprise the barometer pressure measuring every day at 7 h, 14 h and 21 h. In the retrospective study, there will be followed, during three years (2004, 2005 and 2006), the cases of the patients who suffered from the stroke, and, the emergency medical care was offered to them by the side of the Emergency Medical Institute of Canton of Sarajevo staff. All the cases in the Canton of Sarajevo were followed regardless of the place of incidence: whether the help was offered in Institute's outpatient departments, patient's flat or at public place. Due to the extensiveness of data (in the analysis comprising three years, there was the total of 1930 cases), the test of normal distribution was used. Since it was about the pre-hospital research, the acute stroke was looked at generally without division by types. The certain diagnostics by types can only be established in the hospital. The results in the research indicate that the extreme values of barometer pressure, regardless of their being increased ones or decreased ones, influence
Slatina, Enes; Music, Miralem; Babic, nermina; Pleho –Kapic, Amna; Dervisevic, Senad; Salibasic, Mirhan; Mujaric, ekrema
Introduction: The intention of this work is to research whether the link between the barometer pressure and the cerebrovascular insult (CVI) exists. The stroke is the first cause of non-traumatic disability and third illness by mortality in the majority of available relevant literature. Goals: Goal of the sudy was to research all the cases of the patients who suffered from the acute stroke in the Canton of Sarajevo and those who were treated in the pre-hospital phase by Emergency Medical Institute staff and their working diagnosis was established as CVI ac. Material and methods: The criteria in the research were established for inclusion and exclusion of cases. The days with and without CVI cases were compared with the meteorological data obtained from the Hydro-meteorological Institute of Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina . Since the approval was requested and obtained from the Hydro-meteorological Institute, all the meteorological data could be compared. The meteorological data comprise the barometer pressure measuring every day at 7 h, 14 h and 21 h. Results and discussion: In the retrospective study, there will be followed, during three years (2004, 2005 and 2006), the cases of the patients who suffered from the stroke, and, the emergency medical care was offered to them by the side of the Emergency Medical Institute of Canton of Sarajevo staff. All the cases in the Canton of Sarajevo were followed regardless of the place of incidence: whether the help was offered in Institute’s outpatient departments, patient’s flat or at public place. Due to the extensiveness of data (in the analysis comprising three years, there was the total of 1930 cases), the test of normal distribution was used. Since it was about the pre-hospital research, the acute stroke was looked at generally without division by types. The certain diagnostics by types can only be established in the hospital. Conclusion: The results in the research indicate that the extreme values of barometer
El Yazidi, Abdelhadi; Broquet, Gregoire; Pison, Isabelle; Ramonet, Michel; Ciais, Philippe
In the context of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions for the next decade, the European countries work together in order to develop robust methods for monitoring and verifying their sources and sinks. The implementation of dense atmospheric monitoring surface networks such as the Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS) provides novel data for emission quantification at national and sub-national scales. Data assimilation approaches using numerical atmospheric transport models together with observed atmospheric concentrations, are used to constrain GHG sources and sinks. The main advantages of the so called inverse methods is to bring an independent method for the verification of GHG inventories at the national scale. This study aims at developing an innovative inverse modelling framework using GHG measurements from the ICOS network, meteorological data and national emission inventories in order to improve the estimates of sources and natural sinks in France. The monitoring network provide a set of continuous measured data across France in near real time. We have access to 6 GHG monitoring stations in France including 3 near borders. We sudy the representativeness of GHG concentrations depending on the meteorological situation, with the objective to optimize the constrained GHG fluxes. A set of 8 forward simulations is performed using the Eulerian off-line chemistry-transport model CHIMERE with two meteorological fields, two biogenic models, and two anthropogenic inventories. The set of simulation is compared to measurements, in order to assess the sensitivity of simulated concentration to various input data at national and sub-national scales. In plains sites low resolution meteorological data (15 km) improves the simulated GHG concentrations compared to a high resolution model. However, at mountain sites the higher resolution model (2.5km) decreases the rmse compared to measurements, by 1 ppm for CO2 and 10 ppb for CH4.The 8 simulations are able to
Hoskins, W. Andrew; Homiak, Daniel; Cassady, R. Joseph; Kerslake, Tom; Peterson, Todd; Ferguson, Dale; Snyder, Dave; Mikellides, Ioannis; Jongeward, Gary; Schneider, Todd
The sta:us of development of a Direct Drive Ha!! Thruster System is presented. 13 the first part. a s:udy of the impacts to spacecraft systems and mass benefits of a direct-drive architecture is reviewed. The study initially examines four cases of SPT-100 and BPT-4000 Hall thrusters used for north-south station keeping on an EXPRESS-like geosynchronous spacecraft and for primary propulsion for a Deep Space- 1 based science spacecraft. The study is also extended the impact of direct drive on orbit raising for higher power geosynchronous spacecraft and on other deep space missions as a function of power and delta velocity. The major system considerations for accommodating a direct drive Hall thruster are discussed, including array regulation, system grounding, distribution of power to the spacecraft bus, and interactions between current-voltage characteristics for the arrays and thrusters. The mass benefit analysis shows that, for the initial cases, up to 42 kg of dry mass savings is attributable directly to changes in the propulsion hardware. When projected mass impacts of operating the arrays and the electric power system at 300V are included, up to 63 kg is saved for the four initial cases. Adoption of high voltage lithium ion battery technology is projected to further improve these savings. Orbit raising of higher powered geosynchronous spacecraft, is the mission for which direct drive provides the most benefit, allowing higher efficiency electric orbit raising to be accomplished in a limited period of time, as well as nearly eliminating significant power processing heat rejection mass. The total increase in useful payload to orbit ranges up to 278 kg for a 25 kW spacecraft, launched from an Atlas IIA. For deep space missions, direct drive is found to be most applicable to higher power missions with delta velocities up to several km/s , typical of several Discovery-class missions. In the second part, the status of development of direct drive propulsion power
Võsoberg, Kristel; Tillmann, Vallo; Tamm, Anna-Liisa; Maasalu, Katre; Jürimäe, Jaak
This study examined bone mineral density (BMD) accrual in prepubertal rhythmic gymnasts entering puberty and their age-matched untrained control girls, and associations with baseline jumping performance and body composition over the 3-year period. Whole body (WB) and femoral neck (FN) BMD, WB fat mass (FM) and fat free mass (FFM), countermovement jump (CMJ) and rebound jumps for 15 s (RJ15s) were assessed in 25 rhythmic gymnasts and 25 untrained controls at baseline and after 3-year period. The changes over this period were calculated (Δ scores). Pubertal maturation over the 3-year period was slower in rhythmic gymnasts compared to untrained controls, while no difference in bone age development was seen. WB BMD increased similarly in both groups, while the increase in FN BMD was higher in rhythmic gymnasts compared with untrained controls. In rhythmic gymnasts, baseline FFM was the most significant predictor of ΔWB BMD explaining 19.2% of the variability, while baseline RJ15s was the most significant predictor of ΔFN BMD explaining 18.5% of the variability. In untrained controls, baseline FM explained 51.8 and 18.9% of the variability in ΔWB BMD and ΔFN BMD, respectively. In conclusion, mechanical loading of high-intensity athletic activity had beneficial effect on BMD accrual in rhythmic gymnasts and may have counterbalanced such negative factors on bone development as slower pubertal maturation and lower body FM. Baseline FFM and repeated jumps test performance were related to BMD accrual in rhythmic gymnasts, while baseline FM was related to BMD accrual in untrained controls. Key points Sudy examined bone mineralization in prepubertal rhythmic gymnasts entering puberty and their age-matched untrained control girls, and associations with baseline jumping performance and body composition. Jumping performance and fat free mass values predicted bone mineral accrual in rhythmic gymnasts. Fat mass predicted bone mineral accrual in untrained control girls
Shanskiy, , Merrit; Vollmer, Elis; Penu, Priit
The utilization of organic soils for forestry or agriculture requires the land amelioration that could result on the peat losses from 15 to 20 t ha-1 in a year on following five years. After five years, the peat losses will be 5 - 15 t ha-1 in a year. The agricultural land resource on different types of organic soils (including ameliorated bogs) in Estonia is 360 000 ha that comprises 41% of total agricultural land area. The landscape iself is a valuable resource that considered to be a set of characteristics that satisfy needs of people using the landscape: economical or non-economical value; ecological, social, recreational, aesthetical, educational, scientific or even protective value. More diverse landscapes have higher biodiversity and yield more services to public, they are also seen as more sustainable and resilient to short-term changes. In order to maintain landscape diversity, sustainable maintenance is important. The purpose of current study was to estimate the land use potential on three different ameliorated peat areas and to develop the methodology for the futher sustainable utilization in order to secure the best ecological functioning of soil while taking into account maintaining and increasing landscape value. Therefore, site specific soil sampling (n=77) was carried out on predetermined eight study sites. Soil samples were analyzed for main agrochemical parameters (n=17; pHKCl, P, K, C%, N%, S%, ash, main anions and cations). This enables determing site-specific best suitable crops and land use scenarios. For the land resource description (soils type, topology) the digital soil map (1: 10,000) and field sudy based database were used for describing the model areas. For more specific identification of the field layers the Agricultural Registers and Information Board (ARIB) and databases of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) payments were used for subsidy schemes chekout. Estonian Nature Information System map tool was used to specify the
Pazzaglia, Frank J.; Gardner, Thomas, W.
resulting rom sediment loading are accomodated primately by a convex-up flexural hinge, physiographically represented by the Fall Zone. Our results elucidate an inherent danger in using topography alone to constrain late-stage passive margin deformation mechanisms. Only through careful synthesis of field stratigraphic and geomorphic elements such as fluvial terraces, Coastal Plain deposits, and offshore stratigraphy can age control be extended from the offshore depositional setting to the erosionally dominated continent. This sudy demonstrates that despite a relatively subdued topography, the middle U.S. Atlantic margin experiences progressive flexural isostatic deformation similar to that proposed for high-relief margins characterized by great escarpments. Thus margin topographic diversity remains a function of other factors, such as lithospheric composition and/or structure, supracrustal stratigraphy and structure, degree of drainage integration, drainage divide migration and climate.
Panksepp, Jules B.; Lahvis, Garet P.
In the past few years, several experimental studies have suggested that empathy occurs in the social lives of rodents. This indicates that rodent behavioral models can be developed in an attempt to elucidate the mechanistic substrates of empathy at levels that have heretofore been unavailable. For example, the finding that mice from certain inbred strains express behavioral and physiological responses to conspecific distress, while others do not, underscores that the genetic underpinnings of empathy are specifiable and that in the future they could be harnessed to develop new therapies for human psychosocial impairments. However, the advent of rodent models of empathy is met at the outset with a number of theoretical and semantic problems that are similar to those previously confronted by studies of empathy in humans. The distinct underlying components of empathy must be differentiated from one another and from lay usage of the term. The primary goal of this paper is to review a set of seminal studies that are directly relevant to developing a concept of empathy in rodents. We first consider some of the psychological phenomena that have been associated with empathy, and within this context, we consider the component processes, or endophenotypes of rodent empathy. We then review a series of recent experimental studies that demonstrate the capability of rodents to detect and respond to the affective state of their social partners. We focus primarily on experiments that examine how rodents share affective experiences of fear, but we also highlight how similar types of experimental paradigms can be utilized to evaluate the possibility that rodents share positive affective experiences. Taken together, these studies were inspired by Jaak Panksepp’s theory that all mammals are capable of felt affective experiences. PMID:21672550
Heywood, Leslie L.
Recently there has been a turn toward considerations of embodiment, cognition, and context in sport studies. Many researchers have argued that the traditional focus on clinical psychology and performance enhancement within the discipline is incomplete, and now emphasize the importance of athletes’ social and familial contexts in a research paradigm that examines interconnections between movement, cognition, emotion, and the social and cultural context in which movement takes place. While it is important that the sport studies focus is being expanded to consider these interactions, I will argue that this model is still incomplete in that it is missing a fundamental variable – that of our evolutionary neurobiological roots. I will use the work of affective neuroscientists Jaak Panksepp and Stephen Porges to show that because sport so clearly activates neural systems that function at both proximate and ultimate levels of causation, it can be seen to serve fundamental needs for affective balance. A neurobiology of affect shows how the evolution of the mammalian autonomic nervous system has resulted in neurophysiological substrates for affective processes and stress responses, and has wide-ranging implications for sport studies in terms of suggesting what forms of coaching might be the most effective in what context. I propose the term cultural neuropsychology of sport as a descriptor for a model that examines the relationships between neurophysiological substrates and athletes’ social and familial contexts in terms of how these variables facilitate or fail to facilitate athletes’ neuroceptions of safety, which in turn have a direct impact on their performance. A cultural neuropsychological model of sport might thereby be seen to elaborate a relationship between proximate and ultimate mechanisms in concretely applied ways. PMID:22069389
Heywood, Leslie L
Recently there has been a turn toward considerations of embodiment, cognition, and context in sport studies. Many researchers have argued that the traditional focus on clinical psychology and performance enhancement within the discipline is incomplete, and now emphasize the importance of athletes' social and familial contexts in a research paradigm that examines interconnections between movement, cognition, emotion, and the social and cultural context in which movement takes place. While it is important that the sport studies focus is being expanded to consider these interactions, I will argue that this model is still incomplete in that it is missing a fundamental variable - that of our evolutionary neurobiological roots. I will use the work of affective neuroscientists Jaak Panksepp and Stephen Porges to show that because sport so clearly activates neural systems that function at both proximate and ultimate levels of causation, it can be seen to serve fundamental needs for affective balance. A neurobiology of affect shows how the evolution of the mammalian autonomic nervous system has resulted in neurophysiological substrates for affective processes and stress responses, and has wide-ranging implications for sport studies in terms of suggesting what forms of coaching might be the most effective in what context. I propose the term cultural neuropsychology of sport as a descriptor for a model that examines the relationships between neurophysiological substrates and athletes' social and familial contexts in terms of how these variables facilitate or fail to facilitate athletes' neuroceptions of safety, which in turn have a direct impact on their performance. A cultural neuropsychological model of sport might thereby be seen to elaborate a relationship between proximate and ultimate mechanisms in concretely applied ways.
Panksepp, Jules B; Lahvis, Garet P
In the past few years, several experimental studies have suggested that empathy occurs in the social lives of rodents. Thus, rodent behavioral models can now be developed to elucidate the mechanistic substrates of empathy at levels that have heretofore been unavailable. For example, the finding that mice from certain inbred strains express behavioral and physiological responses to conspecific distress, while others do not, underscores that the genetic underpinnings of empathy are specifiable and that they could be harnessed to develop new therapies for human psychosocial impairments. However, the advent of rodent models of empathy is met at the outset with a number of theoretical and semantic problems that are similar to those previously confronted by studies of empathy in humans. The distinct underlying components of empathy must be differentiated from one another and from lay usage of the term. The primary goal of this paper is to review a set of seminal studies that are directly relevant to developing a concept of empathy in rodents. We first consider some of the psychological phenomena that have been associated with empathy, and within this context, we consider the component processes, or endophenotypes of rodent empathy. We then review a series of recent experimental studies that demonstrate the capability of rodents to detect and respond to the affective state of their social partners. We focus primarily on experiments that examine how rodents share affective experiences of fear, but we also highlight how similar types of experimental paradigms can be utilized to evaluate the possibility that rodents share positive affective experiences. Taken together, these studies were inspired by Jaak Panksepp's theory that all mammals are capable of felt affective experiences.
Tsibart, Anna; Koshovskii, Timur; Gamova, Natalia; Kovach, Roman
The fire effects the soil properties depend on soil type and on their vulnerability to fires. The most of available data is devoted to changes in organo-mineral soils. But the peat fires can cause deeper changes in soil profiles, especially in case of drained peat soils. Now the lack of information exists in the sphere of the comparison of these fire types on soil cover. Meshchera plain (Moscow and Ryazan Regions, Russia) has different soil types. Moreover peatlands were partly drained, and the plain was affected by numerous fires of different time. So there is a need of detailed post-fire soil investigations in this region. During current research the soils Meshchera plain subjected by wildfires of 2002, 2007, 2010 and 2012 were studied. A total of 32 profiles including background and post-fire histosols, histic and sod podzols were investigated. Moreover the detailed description of vegetation cover was conducted. The samples were taken from genetic horizons. The morfological properties of soil profiles were sudied and the samples were analysed on organic carbon, pH, macroelements, magnetic susceptibility. After the wildfires changes in morfological and physico-chemical properties of soils were detected in most cases. The formation of ash and charry horizons was observed only in cases of peat soils affecetd by intense fires, and all post-fire drained peat soils had thick ash horizons even after 10 years after the fires. The significant loss of organic matter took place after burning. But almost immediately after the fires new stage of humus formation usually started. For instance, in post-fire histosols in 2 years after the burning the content of organic carbon reached to 10-12 % in upper horizons. ph values in background histosols were approximately 4-5. After the fire pH increased in these soil type to 8, and two years after the fire event pH decreased to 6-7. In podzols pH values returned to the pre-fire level 4-5 in two years. The magnetic susceptibility of
Angiboust, Samuel; Agard, Philippe
Understanding processes acting along the subduction interface is crucial to assess lithospheric scale coupling between tectonic plates, exhumation of deep-seated rocks and mechanisms causing intermediate-depth seismicity. Yet, despite a wealth of geophysical studies aimed at better characterizing the subduction interface, we still lack critical petrological data constraining such processes as intermediate-seismicity within oceanic subduction zones. This contribution reviews recent findings from two major localities showing deeply subducted ophiolitic remnants (Zermatt-Saas, Monviso), which crop out in the classic, well-preserved fossil subduction setting of the Western Alps. We herein show that both ophiolite remnants represent large, relatively continuous fragments of oceanic lithosphere (i.e., several km-thick tectonic slices across tens of km) exhumed from ~80 km depths and thereby provide important constraints on interplate coupling mechanisms. In both fragments (but even more so in the Zermatt-Saas one) pervasive hydrothermal processes and seafloor alteration, promoting fluid incorporation in both mafic and associated ultramafic rocks, was essential, together with the presence of km-thick serpentinite soles, to decrease the density of the tectonic slices and prevent them from an irreversible sinking into the mantle. The Monviso case sudy provides further insights into the subduction plate interface at ~80 km depths. The Lago Superiore Unit, in particular, is made of a 50-500 m thick eclogitized mafic crust (associated with minor calcschist lenses) overlying a 100-400 m thick metagabbroic body and a km-thick serpentinite sole, and is cut by two 10 to 100m thick eclogite-facies shear zones, respectively located at the boundary between basalts and gabbros, and between gabbros and serpentinites (the Lower Shear Zone: LSZ). The LSZ gives precious information on both seismicity and fluid flow: (1) Eclogite breccias, reported here for the first time, mark the locus
Agard, P.; Angiboust, S.; Plunder, A.
In order to place constraints on the still elusive lithological and physical nature of the subduction plate interface, we herein present critical petrological (and modelling) data from intermediate depths along the subduction interface. Their implications, ranging from long-term underplating and exhumation to short-lived seismic events, are confronted with the recent wealth of geophysical/chemical data from the literature. Emphasis is placed on findings from two major localities showing deeply subducted ophiolitic remnants (Zermatt-Saas, Monviso), which crop out in the classic, well-preserved fossil subduction setting of the Western Alps. Both ophiolite remnants in fact represent large, relatively continuous fragments of oceanic lithosphere (i.e., several km-thick tectonic slices across tens of km) exhumed from ~80 km depths and thereby provide important constraints on interplate coupling mechanisms. We show that pervasive hydrothermal processes and seafloor alteration promoting fluid incorporation in both mafic and associated ultramafic rocks was essential, together with the presence of km-thick serpentinite soles, to decrease the density of the tectonic slices and prevent them from an irreversible sinking into the mantle. The Monviso case sudy (particularly the Lago Superiore Unit) provides further insights on both seismicity and fluid flow along the subduction plate interface at ~80 km depths: (1) Eclogite breccias, reported here for the first time, mark the locus of an ancient fault zone associated with intraslab, intermediate-depth earthquakes at ~80 km depth. They correspond to m-sized blocks made of 1-10 cm large fragments of eclogite mylonite later embedded in serpentinite in a ~100m thick eclogite facies shear zone. We suggest that seismic brecciation (possibly at magnitudes Mw ~4) occurred in the middle part of the oceanic crust, accompanied by the input of externally-derived fluids. (2) Prominent fluid-rock interactions, as attested by ubiquitous