Science.gov

Sample records for sugar cane agroindustry

  1. Sugar Cane Magic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mower, Nancy Alpert

    The booklet contains a story for middle-grade students which shows how the roles of men and women change through the years. The main characters are three sixth graders in Hawaii: one girl has Hawaiian ancestors, one girl has Japanese ancestors, and one boy has New England missionary ancestors. The children discover a magic stalk of sugar cane…

  2. Growing of sugar cane for energy

    SciTech Connect

    Humbert, R.P.

    1980-06-01

    The Brazilian alcohol program is reviewed and research into ways of increasing sugar cane yields discussed. Sugar cane varieties are being selected for their ''total sugars'' production. The effects of supplimentary applications of fertilizers and irrigations are being investigated. Time up to several months can be saved because in the growing of sugar cane for alcohol and cellulose it is not necessary to ripen the cane to convert most of the sugars to sucrose. The author feels that growing sugar cane for alcohol has a lot of potential for petroleum importing contries in the tropics. Smaller sugar mills, no longer economic for sugar production, can be economic for alcohol production as the energy requirements are far less.

  3. Spring reflections on Louisiana sugar cane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Louisiana sugar industry continues to produce high cane and sugar yields despite a short growing season. Spring fallow land management is essential for the upcoming crop. In the past few years, wide row spacing, billet cane planting, and cover-cropping have received significant attention. The ei...

  4. Improved molecular tools for sugar cane biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Kinkema, Mark; Geijskes, Jason; Delucca, Paulo; Palupe, Anthony; Shand, Kylie; Coleman, Heather D; Brinin, Anthony; Williams, Brett; Sainz, Manuel; Dale, James L

    2014-03-01

    Sugar cane is a major source of food and fuel worldwide. Biotechnology has the potential to improve economically-important traits in sugar cane as well as diversify sugar cane beyond traditional applications such as sucrose production. High levels of transgene expression are key to the success of improving crops through biotechnology. Here we describe new molecular tools that both expand and improve gene expression capabilities in sugar cane. We have identified promoters that can be used to drive high levels of gene expression in the leaf and stem of transgenic sugar cane. One of these promoters, derived from the Cestrum yellow leaf curling virus, drives levels of constitutive transgene expression that are significantly higher than those achieved by the historical benchmark maize polyubiquitin-1 (Zm-Ubi1) promoter. A second promoter, the maize phosphonenolpyruvate carboxylate promoter, was found to be a strong, leaf-preferred promoter that enables levels of expression comparable to Zm-Ubi1 in this organ. Transgene expression was increased approximately 50-fold by gene modification, which included optimising the codon usage of the coding sequence to better suit sugar cane. We also describe a novel dual transcriptional enhancer that increased gene expression from different promoters, boosting expression from Zm-Ubi1 over eightfold. These molecular tools will be extremely valuable for the improvement of sugar cane through biotechnology. PMID:24150836

  5. Improved molecular tools for sugar cane biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Kinkema, Mark; Geijskes, Jason; Delucca, Paulo; Palupe, Anthony; Shand, Kylie; Coleman, Heather D; Brinin, Anthony; Williams, Brett; Sainz, Manuel; Dale, James L

    2014-03-01

    Sugar cane is a major source of food and fuel worldwide. Biotechnology has the potential to improve economically-important traits in sugar cane as well as diversify sugar cane beyond traditional applications such as sucrose production. High levels of transgene expression are key to the success of improving crops through biotechnology. Here we describe new molecular tools that both expand and improve gene expression capabilities in sugar cane. We have identified promoters that can be used to drive high levels of gene expression in the leaf and stem of transgenic sugar cane. One of these promoters, derived from the Cestrum yellow leaf curling virus, drives levels of constitutive transgene expression that are significantly higher than those achieved by the historical benchmark maize polyubiquitin-1 (Zm-Ubi1) promoter. A second promoter, the maize phosphonenolpyruvate carboxylate promoter, was found to be a strong, leaf-preferred promoter that enables levels of expression comparable to Zm-Ubi1 in this organ. Transgene expression was increased approximately 50-fold by gene modification, which included optimising the codon usage of the coding sequence to better suit sugar cane. We also describe a novel dual transcriptional enhancer that increased gene expression from different promoters, boosting expression from Zm-Ubi1 over eightfold. These molecular tools will be extremely valuable for the improvement of sugar cane through biotechnology.

  6. Developments in beet and cane sugar extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Iverson, C.; Schwartzberg, H.G.

    1984-01-01

    This paper reviews the various types of extractors used in the extraction of sugar from beet and sugar cane. The types of extractors described are as follows:- Countercurrent Screw - Conveyor Extractors, (Tower Extractors, Slope Extractors), Countercurrent Drag Chain Extractors, Multistage Cross-Flow Extractors, Trommel Extractors, Multistage Scroll Extractors, Diffustion Batteries. Reduced capital costs and power expenditures and slightly higher cane sugar yields can be obtained by combined milking and diffusion extraction as opposed to multi-stage milling. The mechanical reliability of the machinery is emphasized and special attention is given to extraction procedures. Nowadays the trend in beet and cane sugar extraction is toward the use of larger and larger units which helps minimize labor and capital costs per unit of product.

  7. Sugar markers in aerosol particles from an agro-industrial region in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, R. C.; Alves, C. A.; Allen, A. G.; Cardoso, A. A.; Queiroz, M. E. C.; Campos, M. L. A. M.

    2014-06-01

    This work aimed to better understand how aerosol particles from sugar cane burning contribute to the chemical composition of the lower troposphere in an agro-industrial region of São Paulo State (Brazil) affected by sugar and ethanol fuel production. During a period of 21 months, we collected 105 samples and quantified 20 saccharides by GC-MS. The average concentrations of levoglucosan (L), mannosan (M), and galactosan (G) for 24-h sampling were 116, 16, and 11 ng m-3 respectively. The three anhydrosugars had higher and more variable concentrations in the nighttime and during the sugar cane harvest period, due to more intense biomass burning practices. The calculated L/M ratio, which may serve as a signature for sugar cane smoke particles, was 9 ± 5. Although the total concentrations of the anhydrosugars varied greatly among samples, the relative mass size distributions of the saccharides were reasonably constant. Emissions due to biomass burning were estimated to correspond to 69% (mass) of the sugars quantified in the harvest samples, whereas biogenic emissions corresponded to 10%. In the non-harvest period, these values were 44 and 27%, respectively, indicating that biomass burning is an important source of aerosol to the regional atmosphere during the whole year.

  8. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be...

  9. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be...

  10. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be...

  11. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be...

  12. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be...

  13. 7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar allotments. (a) Hawaii and Puerto Rico will be allotted a...

  14. 7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar allotments. (a) Hawaii and Puerto Rico will be allotted a...

  15. 7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar allotments. (a) Hawaii and Puerto Rico will be allotted a...

  16. 7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar allotments. (a) Hawaii and Puerto Rico will be allotted a...

  17. 7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar allotments. (a) Hawaii and Puerto Rico will be allotted a...

  18. VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH SUGAR BIN, CANE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH SUGAR BIN, CANE CLEANING PLANT AND CRUSHING MILL TO THE FORE. VIEW FROM THE EAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  19. By-products of the cane sugar industry

    SciTech Connect

    Paturav, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    This book discussed the inroads made in the sugar trade by the increasing consumption of high fructose corn syrup and the rapidly decreasing U.S. sugar imports that have forced many cane sugar-producing countries to reconsider their development policy and give more attention to improved efficiency and a more productive utilization of cane sugar by-products. Changes in sugar technology are addressed and the general improvement of biotechnology is described.

  20. Production of ethanol from sugar cane

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, F.W.

    1982-04-20

    An integrated process is provided for producing ethanol from sugar cane. Harvested cane is chopped and shredded to provide a mass of fiber and juice which is digested in a first digester with a hemicellulase enzyme. Fibrous residue is separated by centrifuge and passed to a second digester for digestion with a mixed culture of a cellulase enzyme and an ethanol-producing culture. Fibrous residue from is pressed to provide a recycle juice extract and then burned to provide at least part of the heat energy requirement of the process. Juice extracts from digesters separated by centrifuges are combined, sterilized, flashed and passed to a fermentor for fermentation with an ethanol-producing microorganism. Ethanol is recovered from the process by separation utilizing a membrane.

  1. Maximizing the xylitol production from sugar cane bagasse hydrolysate by controlling the aeration rate.

    PubMed

    Silva, S S; Ribeiro, J D; Felipe, M G; Vitolo, M

    1997-01-01

    Batch fermentations of sugar cane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate treated for removing the inhibitors of the fermentation were performed by Candida guilliermondii FTI20037 for xylitol production. The fermentative parameters agitation and aeration rate were studied aiming the maximization of xylitol production from this agroindustrial residue. The maximal xylitol volumetric productivity (0.87 g/L h) and yield (0.67 g/g) were attained at 400/min and 0.45 v.v.m. (K(L)a 27/h). According to the results, a suitable control of the oxygen input permitting the xylitol formation from sugar cane bagasse hydrolysate is required for the development of an efficient fermentation process for large-scale applications.

  2. Maximizing the xylitol production from sugar cane bagasse hydrolysate by controlling the aeration rate

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, S.S.; Ribeiro, J.D.; Felipe, M.G.A.; Vitolo, M.

    1997-12-31

    Batch fermentations of sugar cane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate treated for removing the inhibitors of the fermentation were performed by Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 for xylitol production. The fermentative parameters agitation and aeration rate were studied aiming the maximization of xylitol production from this agroindustrial residue. The maximal xylitol volumetric productivity (0.87 g/L {center_dot} h) and yield (0.67 g/g) were attained at 400/min and 0.45 v.v.m. (K{sub L}a 27/h). According to the results, a suitable control of the oxygen input permitting the xylitol formation from sugar cane bagasse hydrolysate is required for the development of an efficient fermentation process for large-scale applications. 20 refs., 2 figs.

  3. 1. Straighton view looking S at sugar cane crushing machinery ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Straight-on view looking S at sugar cane crushing machinery showing three-roll cane mill, single reduction gear, flywheel and steam engine. - Hacienda Azucarera la Igualdad, Sugar Mill Ruins & Steam Engine, PR Route 332, Guanica, Guanica Municipio, PR

  4. Agriculture: Bioconversion of sugar cane molasses

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, P.

    1999-09-29

    Auxein Corporation is demonstrating for commercial use an organic acid phytochelate, derived from what would otherwise be a discarded portion of sugar cane, that could increase the domestic sugar industry's profit margin from near zero to 7%. Along with helping a struggling industry, the phytochelate will bring substantial improvements to crop and tree production and greatly reduce the environmental threat posed by nitrogen-based fertilizers. Currently, the amount of fertilizer used produces harmful levels of run-off that contaminates ground water with unwanted nitrogen. By utilizing organic acid phytochelates, which assist plant growth by unlocking minerals stored in soil, fertilizer use can be dramatically reduced. This would improve crop yields, remove environmental threats to ground water, and cut fertilizer costs by as much as 50%.

  5. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may... microorganisms in cane-sugar and/or beet-sugar mills as specified in paragraph (b) of this section. (b) They...

  6. Clastogenicity of landfarming soil treated with sugar cane vinasse.

    PubMed

    da Silva Souza, Tatiana; Hencklein, Fabiana Aparecida; de Franceschi de Angelis, Dejanira; Fontanetti, Carmem Silvia

    2013-02-01

    The addition of nutrients and/or soil bulking agents is used in bioremediation to increase microbial activity in contaminated soils. For this purpose, some studies have assessed the effectiveness of vinasse in the bioremediation of soils contaminated with petroleum waste. The present study was aimed at investigating the clastogenic/aneugenic potential of landfarming soil from a petroleum refinery before and after addition of sugar cane vinasse using the Allium cepa bioassay. Our results show that the addition of sugar cane vinasse to landfarming soil potentiates the clastogenic effects of the latter probably due the release of metals that were previously adsorbed into the organic matter. These metals may have interacted synergistically with petroleum hydrocarbons present in the landfarming soil treated with sugar cane vinasse. We recommend further tests to monitor the effects of sugar cane vinasse on soils contaminated with organic wastes. PMID:22580848

  7. Plant for getting more sugar out of a cane crop

    SciTech Connect

    Perdomo, R.E.; Despradel, J.O.; Arceneaux, G.

    1982-04-01

    A crop of sugar cane consists of several important varieties, each with different qualities affecting vegetative growth and maturity. A study recently conducted at Central Romana in the Dominican Republic has revealed differences between yield curves of sugar cane varieties in local culture and a method has been developed for a practical application of results. This paper briefly summarizes the essential findings and outlines its practical applications.

  8. Cement replacement by sugar cane bagasse ash: CO2 emissions reduction and potential for carbon credits.

    PubMed

    Fairbairn, Eduardo M R; Americano, Branca B; Cordeiro, Guilherme C; Paula, Thiago P; Toledo Filho, Romildo D; Silvoso, Marcos M

    2010-09-01

    This paper presents a study of cement replacement by sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) in industrial scale aiming to reduce the CO(2) emissions into the atmosphere. SCBA is a by-product of the sugar/ethanol agro-industry abundantly available in some regions of the world and has cementitious properties indicating that it can be used together with cement. Recent comprehensive research developed at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro/Brazil has demonstrated that SCBA maintains, or even improves, the mechanical and durability properties of cement-based materials such as mortars and concretes. Brazil is the world's largest sugar cane producer and being a developing country can claim carbon credits. A simulation was carried out to estimate the potential of CO(2) emission reductions and the viability to issue certified emission reduction (CER) credits. The simulation was developed within the framework of the methodology established by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) for the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The State of São Paulo (Brazil) was chosen for this case study because it concentrates about 60% of the national sugar cane and ash production together with an important concentration of cement factories. Since one of the key variables to estimate the CO(2) emissions is the average distance between sugar cane/ethanol factories and the cement plants, a genetic algorithm was developed to solve this optimization problem. The results indicated that SCBA blended cement reduces CO(2) emissions, which qualifies this product for CDM projects. PMID:20493626

  9. 76 FR 36512 - USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment Quantity, Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... Office of the Secretary USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment Quantity, Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments, and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of... in the domestic sugar Overall Allotment Quantity (OAQ); a reassignment of surplus sugar...

  10. Sugar Cane: A Bitter-Sweet Legacy. A Study of the Disappearing African-American Worker on the Sugar Cane Plantations in Southern Louisiana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John A., Jr.; And Others

    This resource/study guide is designed to accompany the instructional video, "Sugar Cane: A Bitter-Sweet Legacy," which explores the significance of cultivating, harvesting, and refining sugar cane. It is also a brief study of the disappearing African-American workers on the sugar cane plantations in southern Louisiana. Seven main ideas are…

  11. 75 FR 60715 - Domestic Sugar Program-FY 2010 and FY 2011 Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... Commodity Credit Corporation Domestic Sugar Program--FY 2010 and FY 2011 Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing... 2010 (FY 2010) State sugar marketing allotments and company allocations to sugarcane and sugar beet processors. This applies to all domestic sugar marketed for human consumption in the United States...

  12. Seasonal hydroclimatic impacts of Brazilian sugar cane expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgescu, M.; Lobell, D. B.; Field, C. B.; Mahalov, A.

    2012-12-01

    Brazil is the leading producer of sugar cane in the world with roughly half used for ethanol production. Because of suitable climatic growing conditions, the majority of biofuel production is derived from sugar plantations in southeastern states. Anticipated increases in global demand for biofuels are expected to lead to future sugar cane expansion extending into Brazilian pasturelands and native cerrado. Prior to undergoing large-scale expansion an evaluation of impacts on the region's hydroclimate is warranted. Using a suite of multi-year ensemble-based simulations with the WRF modeling system, we quantify hydroclimatic consequences of sugar cane expansion across portions of south-central Brazil. Conversion from current land use to sugar cane causes opposing seasonal impacts on near-surface temperature. Proggresively greater cooling is simulated during the course of the growing season, followed by an abrupt warming shift post-harvest. Although seasonal impacts on near-surface temperature are significant, with cooling of 1C occurring during the peak of the growing season followed by warming of similar magnitude, impacts are small when annually averaged. Ensemble mean differences between the imposed sugar cane expansion and non-expansion scenario are suggestive of a drying precipitation trend, yet large uncertainty among individual members precludes definitive statements about impacts on the region's rainfall.

  13. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) They...

  14. 75 FR 53013 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-containing Products; Revision AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade... allocations of raw cane sugar, refined and special sugar, and sugar-containing products. USTR is revising...

  15. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) They...

  16. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) They...

  17. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) They...

  18. 40 CFR 409.30 - Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... liquid cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.30 Section 409.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Liquid Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.30 Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar...

  19. 40 CFR 409.30 - Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... liquid cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.30 Section 409.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Liquid Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.30 Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar...

  20. 40 CFR 409.30 - Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... liquid cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.30 Section 409.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Liquid Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.30 Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar...

  1. 40 CFR 409.30 - Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... liquid cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.30 Section 409.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Liquid Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.30 Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar...

  2. 40 CFR 409.30 - Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... liquid cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.30 Section 409.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Liquid Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.30 Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar...

  3. 76 FR 62339 - Domestic Sugar Program-2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... Commodity Credit Corporation Domestic Sugar Program--2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing... Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) is issuing this notice to publish the fiscal year (FY) 2012 State sugar marketing allotments and company allocations to sugarcane and sugar beet processors, which apply to...

  4. Process Integration of Bioethanol from Sugar Cane and Hydrogen Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, L.; Kafarov, V.

    In this study several alternatives for process integration of bioethanol from sugar cane and hydrogen production were evaluated. Bioethanol was produced above all in the fermentation of sweetened juice from sugar cane, stillage was removed. Stillage and bagasse are the process byproducts. The bioethanol steam reforming is an endothermic catalytic process when vaporized ethanol and steam are fed using a 1:6 molar ratio to reformer with a Ni-catalyst at atmospheric pressure and 350xC. Taking into account the processes properties mentioned above, it is possible to integrate the bioethanol production from sugar cane and its reforming by using byproducts like bagasse and stillage and to produce energy for steam reforming and bioethanol solution concentration by direct firing (for bagasse) or anaerobic digestion to get methane (for stillage).

  5. 40 CFR 409.20 - Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.20 Section 409.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.20 Applicability; description of the crystalline cane...

  6. 40 CFR 409.20 - Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.20 Section 409.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.20 Applicability; description of the crystalline cane...

  7. 40 CFR 409.20 - Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.20 Section 409.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.20 Applicability; description of the crystalline cane...

  8. 40 CFR 409.20 - Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.20 Section 409.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.20 Applicability; description of the crystalline cane...

  9. 40 CFR 409.20 - Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.20 Section 409.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.20 Applicability; description of the crystalline cane...

  10. Clarification properties of trash and stalk tissues from sugar cane.

    PubMed

    Eggleston, Gillian; Grisham, Michael; Antoine, April

    2010-01-13

    The effect of the U.S. and worldwide change from burnt to unburnt (green) sugar cane harvesting on processing and the use of sugar cane leaves and tops as a biomass source has not been fully characterized. Sugar cane whole-stalks were harvested from the first ratoon (repeat) crop of five commercial, Louisiana sugar cane varieties (LCP 85-384, HoCP 96-540, L 97-128, L 99-226, and L 99-233). Replicated sample tissues of brown, dry leaves (BL), green leaves (GL), growing point region (GPR), and stalk (S) were separated. Composite juice from each tissue type was clarified following a hot lime clarification process operated by most U.S. factories. Only GPR and GL juices foamed on heating and followed the normal settling behavior of factory sugar cane juice, although GL was markedly slower than GPR. GPR juice aided settling. S juice tended to thin out rather than follow normal settling and exhibited the most unwanted upward motion of flocs. Most varietal variation in settling, mud, and clarified juice (CJ) characteristics occurred for GL. The quality rather than the quantity of impurities in the different tissues mostly affected the volume of mud produced: After 30 min of settling, mud volume per unit tissue juice degrees Brix (% dissolved solids) varied markedly among the tissues (S 1.09, BL 11.3, GPR 3.0, and GL 3.1 mL/degrees Brix). Heat transfer properties of tissue juices and CJs are described. Clarification was unable to remove all BL cellulosic particles. GL and BL increased color, turbidity, and suspended particles in CJs with BL worse than GL. This will make the future attainment of very high pol (VHP) raw sugar in the U.S. more difficult. Although optimization of factory unit processes will alleviate extra trash problems, economical strategies to reduce the amount of green and brown leaves processed need to be identified and implemented.

  11. Payback time for soil carbon and sugar-cane ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mello, Francisco F. C.; Cerri, Carlos E. P.; Davies, Christian A.; Holbrook, N. Michele; Paustian, Keith; Maia, Stoécio M. F.; Galdos, Marcelo V.; Bernoux, Martial; Cerri, Carlos C.

    2014-07-01

    The effects of land-use change (LUC) on soil carbon (C) balance has to be taken into account in calculating the CO2 savings attributed to bioenergy crops. There have been few direct field measurements that quantify the effects of LUC on soil C for the most common land-use transitions into sugar cane in Brazil, the world's largest producer . We quantified the C balance for LUC as a net loss (carbon debt) or net gain (carbon credit) in soil C for sugar-cane expansion in Brazil. We sampled 135 field sites to 1 m depth, representing three major LUC scenarios. Our results demonstrate that soil C stocks decrease following LUC from native vegetation and pastures, and increase where cropland is converted to sugar cane. The payback time for the soil C debt was eight years for native vegetation and two to three years for pastures. With an increasing need for biofuels and the potential for Brazil to help meet global demand, our results will be invaluable for guiding expansion policies of sugar-cane production towards greater sustainability.

  12. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who...

  13. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who...

  14. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who...

  15. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who...

  16. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who...

  17. Sugar cane and sugar beet molasses, antioxidant-rich alternatives to refined sugar.

    PubMed

    Valli, Veronica; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Di Nunzio, Mattia; Danesi, Francesca; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza; Bordoni, Alessandra

    2012-12-26

    Molasses, the main byproduct of sugar production, is a well-known source of antioxidants. In this study sugar cane molasses (SCM) and sugar beet molasses (SBM) were investigated for their phenolic profile and in vitro antioxidant capacity and for their protective effect in human HepG2 cells submitted to oxidative stress. According to its higher phenolic concentration and antioxidant capacity in vitro, SCM exhibited an effective protection in cells, comparable to or even greater than that of α-tocopherol. Data herein reported emphasize the potential health effects of molasses and the possibility of using byproducts for their antioxidant activity. This is particularly important for consumers in developing countries, as it highlights the importance of consuming a low-price, yet very nutritious, commodity.

  18. [New technologies and workers' health: mechanization of sugar cane harvesting].

    PubMed

    Scopinho, R A; Eid, F; Vian, C E; Silva, P R

    1999-01-01

    In the context of reorganization of production in the sugar and alcohol industry, mechanization of sugar cane harvesting has been justified as a protective measure for the environment and workers. This article focuses on the consequences of organization of work in mechanization of sugar cane harvesting with regard to the harvester operators' health. Based on data gathered through interviews and direct observation at the workplace, changes implemented in the technological base and division of labor and organization were analyzed, identifying the work load inherent to the process and how it affects workers' health. While harvesters help decrease the physical, chemical, and mechanical work load, they increase the physiological and psychological work load. There is evidence of significant change in the pattern of work-related accidents, entailing a decrease in their frequency and increase in severity. The pattern of illness among harvester operators is similar to that of manual sugar cane cutters, with a highlight on psychosomatic illness related to the organization of work in shifts and increased tempo due to use of machinery.

  19. Does information about sugar source influence consumer liking of products made with beet and cane sugars?

    PubMed

    Urbanus, Brittany L; Schmidt, Shelly J; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2014-11-01

    Beet sugar contains an off-aroma, which was hypothesized to generate expectations on the acceptability of a product made with beet sugar. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess the impact of information about the sugar source (beet vs. cane) on the overall liking of an orange-flavored beverage. One hundred panelists evaluated an orange-flavored powdered beverage mix and beverage made with beet and cane sugars using a 5-phase testing protocol involving a tetrad test and hedonic ratings performed under blind and informed conditions. Tetrad test results indicated that there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between the beverage mix made with beet sugar and cane sugar; however, no difference was found between the beverage made with beet sugar and cane sugar. Hedonic ratings revealed the significance of information conditions on the panelists evaluation of sugar (F = 24.67, P < 0.001); however, no difference in the liking was identified for the beverage mix or beverage. Average hedonic scores were higher under informed condition compared to blind condition for all products, possibly because labels tend to reduce uncertainty about a product. Results from this study are representative of the responses from the general population and suggest that they are not affected by sugar source information in a beverage product. Based on concerns with the use of beet sugar expressed in the popular press, there may be a subgroup of the population that has a preconceived bias about sugar sources due to their prior experiences and knowledge and, thus, would be influenced by labels indicating the sugar source used in a product.

  20. Chromatographic detection of sugar cane samples via polarimetry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Juan Carlos; Fajer, Victor; Rodríguez, Carlos W.; Naranjo, Salvador; Mora, Luis; Ravelo, Justo; Cossio, Gladys; Avila, Norma

    2004-03-01

    The combination of molecular exclusion cromatography with the laser polarimetry has become a powerful technique to separate and evaluate some carbohydrates of sugar cane plants. In the following work it has been obtained chromatograms of carbohydrates standards, which has been used as comparison patterns in the studies of the juice quality in different cane varieties of different physiological stadiums and stress conditions. By means of the employment of this technique, it has also been determined the influence of carbohydrates of medium molecular mass in the determination of the apparent sucrose in the routine sugar analysis. On the other hand, discreet determination of the fractions causes time consuming and a troublesome manipulation. In the present work some modifications to the system are shown, obtaining a small volume sample (less than 1 ml) and angular readings on line, avoiding the employment of fraction collectors.

  1. Enhancing of sugar cane bagasse hydrolysis by Annulohypoxylon stygium glycohydrolases.

    PubMed

    Robl, Diogo; Costa, Patrícia dos Santos; Büchli, Fernanda; Lima, Deise Juliana da Silva; Delabona, Priscila da Silva; Squina, Fabio Marcio; Pimentel, Ida Chapaval; Padilla, Gabriel; Pradella, José Geraldo da Cruz

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a bioprocess for the production of β-glucosidase and pectinase from the fungus Annulohypoxylon stygium DR47. Media optimization and bioreactor cultivation using citrus bagasse and soybean bran were explored and revealed a maximum production of 6.26 U/mL of pectinase at pH 4.0 and 10.13 U/mL of β-glucosidase at pH 5.0. In addition, the enzymes extracts were able to replace partially Celluclast 1.5L in sugar cane bagasse hydrolysis. Proteomic analysis from A. stygium cultures revealed accessory enzymes, mainly belong to the families GH3 and GH54, that would support enhancement of commercial cocktail saccharification yields. This is the first report describing bioreactor optimization for enzyme production from A. stygium with a view for more efficient degradation of sugar cane bagasse.

  2. Enhancing of sugar cane bagasse hydrolysis by Annulohypoxylon stygium glycohydrolases.

    PubMed

    Robl, Diogo; Costa, Patrícia dos Santos; Büchli, Fernanda; Lima, Deise Juliana da Silva; Delabona, Priscila da Silva; Squina, Fabio Marcio; Pimentel, Ida Chapaval; Padilla, Gabriel; Pradella, José Geraldo da Cruz

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a bioprocess for the production of β-glucosidase and pectinase from the fungus Annulohypoxylon stygium DR47. Media optimization and bioreactor cultivation using citrus bagasse and soybean bran were explored and revealed a maximum production of 6.26 U/mL of pectinase at pH 4.0 and 10.13 U/mL of β-glucosidase at pH 5.0. In addition, the enzymes extracts were able to replace partially Celluclast 1.5L in sugar cane bagasse hydrolysis. Proteomic analysis from A. stygium cultures revealed accessory enzymes, mainly belong to the families GH3 and GH54, that would support enhancement of commercial cocktail saccharification yields. This is the first report describing bioreactor optimization for enzyme production from A. stygium with a view for more efficient degradation of sugar cane bagasse. PMID:25496945

  3. Crude glycerin combined with sugar cane silage in lamb diets.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Filho, Carlos Alberto Alves; Azevêdo, José Augusto Gomes; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; da Silva, Camilla Flávia Portela Gomes; Cabral, Ícaro dos Santos; Pereira, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro; dos Reis, Larissa Gomes; de Almeida, Flávio Moreira; Souza, Lígia Lins

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the level of crude glycerin (CG) on in vitro fermentation kinetics (0, 20, 40, 60, and 80 g/kg DM of sugar cane silage), on in vitro neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradation (0, 30, 60, and 90 g/kg DM of sugar cane silage), and intake and digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen balance (0, 20, 55, 82, and 108 g/kg DM of sugar cane silage) in lambs. The in vitro trials were conducted in a completely randomized design with three repetitions. The in vivo trial was conducted in a Latin square design with five repetitions (5 × 5). For variables in which the F test was considered significant, the statistical interpretation of the effect of CG substitution levels was carried out through regression analyses. Kinetic parameters were not affected by CG inclusion. On in vitro NDF degradation, a significant effect of CG levels was observed on the potentially degradable fraction of NDF, the insoluble potentially degradable fraction of NDF, and the undegradable NDF fraction. The intake and digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen balance were not affected by CG inclusion. The CG levels change in vitro NDF degradability parameters; however, there were no changes in animal intake, digestibility, and nitrogen balance with the inclusion levels used.

  4. Crude glycerin combined with sugar cane silage in lamb diets.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Filho, Carlos Alberto Alves; Azevêdo, José Augusto Gomes; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; da Silva, Camilla Flávia Portela Gomes; Cabral, Ícaro dos Santos; Pereira, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro; dos Reis, Larissa Gomes; de Almeida, Flávio Moreira; Souza, Lígia Lins

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the level of crude glycerin (CG) on in vitro fermentation kinetics (0, 20, 40, 60, and 80 g/kg DM of sugar cane silage), on in vitro neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradation (0, 30, 60, and 90 g/kg DM of sugar cane silage), and intake and digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen balance (0, 20, 55, 82, and 108 g/kg DM of sugar cane silage) in lambs. The in vitro trials were conducted in a completely randomized design with three repetitions. The in vivo trial was conducted in a Latin square design with five repetitions (5 × 5). For variables in which the F test was considered significant, the statistical interpretation of the effect of CG substitution levels was carried out through regression analyses. Kinetic parameters were not affected by CG inclusion. On in vitro NDF degradation, a significant effect of CG levels was observed on the potentially degradable fraction of NDF, the insoluble potentially degradable fraction of NDF, and the undegradable NDF fraction. The intake and digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen balance were not affected by CG inclusion. The CG levels change in vitro NDF degradability parameters; however, there were no changes in animal intake, digestibility, and nitrogen balance with the inclusion levels used. PMID:26530907

  5. Preliminary crystallographic analysis of sugar cane phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Napolitano, H. B.; Sculaccio, S. A.; Thiemann, O. H.; Oliva, G.

    2005-01-01

    X-ray diffraction data have been collected from crystals of recombinant sugar cane phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthase (PRS) and analysis has revealed its quaternary structure, localizing this PRS into the class of enzymes forming an hexameric oligomer of 223 kDa. Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthases (PRS; EC 2.7.6.1) are enzymes that are of central importance in several metabolic pathways in all cells. The sugar cane PRS enzyme contains 328 amino acids with a molecular weight of 36.6 kDa and represents the first plant PRS to be crystallized, as well as the first phosphate-independent PRS to be studied in molecular detail. Sugar cane PRS was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Using X-ray diffraction experiments it was determined that the crystals belong to the orthorhombic system, with space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2 and unit-cell parameters a = 213.2, b = 152.6, c = 149.3 Å. The crystals diffract to a maximum resolution of 3.3 Å and a complete data set to 3.5 Å resolution was collected and analysed.

  6. 40 CFR 409.40 - Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.40 Section 409.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Louisiana Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.40 Applicability; description of...

  7. 40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section 409.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80 Applicability; description of...

  8. 40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section 409.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80 Applicability; description of...

  9. 40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section 409.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.70 Applicability; description of the...

  10. 40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section 409.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80 Applicability; description of...

  11. 40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section 409.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.70 Applicability; description of the...

  12. 40 CFR 409.40 - Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.40 Section 409.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Louisiana Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.40 Applicability; description of...

  13. 40 CFR 409.40 - Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.40 Section 409.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Louisiana Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.40 Applicability; description of...

  14. 40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section 409.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.70 Applicability; description of the...

  15. 40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section 409.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.70 Applicability; description of the...

  16. 40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section 409.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80 Applicability; description of...

  17. 40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section 409.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.70 Applicability; description of the...

  18. 40 CFR 409.40 - Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.40 Section 409.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Louisiana Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.40 Applicability; description of...

  19. 40 CFR 409.40 - Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.40 Section 409.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Louisiana Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.40 Applicability; description of...

  20. 40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section 409.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80 Applicability; description of...

  1. Photosynthesis by sugar-cane leaves

    PubMed Central

    Hatch, M. D.; Slack, C. R.

    1966-01-01

    1. Radioactive products in detached leaf segments were examined after periods of steady-state photosynthesis in 14CO2. 2. After exposure to 14CO2 for approx. 1sec. more than 93% of the fixed radioactivity was located in malate, aspartate and oxaloacetate. After longer periods large proportions of the radioactivity appeared in 3-phosphoglycerate, hexose monophosphates and sucrose. Similar results were obtained with leaves still attached to the plant. 3. Radioactivity appeared first in C-4 of the dicarboxylic acids and C-1 of 3-phosphoglycerate. The labelling pattern in hexoses was consistent with their formation from 3-phosphoglycerate. 4. The reaction giving rise to C4 dicarboxylic acid appears to be the only quantitatively significant carboxylation reaction. 5. Evidence is provided that the radioactivity incorporated into the C4 dicarboxylic acid pool is transferred to sugars via 3-phosphoglycerate. A scheme is proposed to account for these observations. PMID:5971771

  2. Fractionation of sugar cane with hot, compressed, liquid water

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, S.G.; Kam, L.C.; Zemann, A.J.; Antal, M.J. Jr.

    1996-08-01

    Sugar-cane bagasse and leaves (10--15 g oven-dry basis) were fractionated without size reduction by a rapid (45 s to 4 min), immersed percolation using only hot (190--230 C), compressed (P > P{sub sat}), liquid water (0.6--1.2 kg). Over 50% of the biomass could be solubilized. All of the hemicellulose, together with much of the acid-insoluble lignin in the bagasse (>60%), was solubilized, while less than 10% of the cellulose entered the liquid phase. Moreover, recovery of the hemicellulose as monomeric sugars (after a mild posthydrolysis) exceeded 80%. Less than 5% of the hemicellulose was converted to furfural. Percolation beyond that needed to immerse the biomass in hot liquid water did not result in increased solubilization. The yield of lignocellulosic residue was also not sensitive to the form of the sugar cane used (bagasse or leaves) or its moisture content (8--50%). Commercial applications for this fractionation process include the pretreatment of lignocellulosics for bioconversion to ethanol and the production of pulp and paper products.

  3. How to manage sugar cane in the field and factory following damaging freezes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The exposure of sugar cane to damaging frosts occurs in approximately 25% of the sugar cane producing countries world-wide. A series of damaging freezes, -2.6, -3.3 and -2.1°C, occurred in Morocco on 4, 5 and 13 February 2012, respectively, only 2 weeks after the commencement of the harvest season....

  4. Sugar cane bagasse: an alternative fuel in the Brazilian citrus industry

    SciTech Connect

    Guerra, J.L.; Steger, E.

    1988-05-01

    This article will briefly discuss the production of sugar cane bagasse and advantages for using it as an alternative fuel. In particular, this article will focus on how Citrosuco Paulista, (a multi-plant producer of citrus concentrates), modified its existing boilers and dryers to accommodate the new sugar cane bagasse fuel.

  5. Pretreated sugar cane bagasse as a model for cattle feeding

    SciTech Connect

    Fontana, J.D.; Ramos, L.P.; Deschamps, F.C.

    1995-12-31

    Pretreatment under mild conditions in the presence of water (solvolysis) or aqueous orthophosphoric acid (phosphorolysis) was used to increase the nutritional value of sugar cane bagasse for cattle feeding. The best pretreatment conditions were defined as those in which the highest in situ degradability rates (ruminal digestion) were achieved with the least energy consumption and/or production of inhibitory products. Heating sugar cane bagasse up to 197{degrees}C (13.5 atm) at a 4:1 (w/w) water ratio was shown to be a compromised condition for solvolysis, as higher temperatures would require more energy consumption without adding too much to the already high 60% ruminal degradability of the residue in relation to its dry weight. These rates of degradability were shown to be further enhanced to almost 70% by adding 2.9% (w/w) orthophosphoric acid as an acid catalyst. A mathematical treatment of the kinetic data describing ruminal digestion of each of the pretreated residues was also developed in this study.

  6. Protective gloves on manual sugar cane cutting are really effective?

    PubMed

    Abrahão, R F; Gonzaga, M C; Braunbeck, O A

    2012-01-01

    Problems related to the use of personal protective equipment (PPE), specially the use of protective gloves for the manual sugar cane cutting, motivated this research, made possible by a tripartite negotiation involving the Ministry of Labor, the Union of Rural Workers and the Employer's Association of sugarcane agribusiness. The main objective was to evaluate, from an ergonomics perspective, the impact of use of the gloves during the manual cane sugar cutting, raising questions on safety, effectiveness and comfort. The research was carried in a sugarcane industry of São Paulo for two seasons involving 47 workers who made a qualitative analysis of acceptance of four models of protective gloves. The methodology included the use of semi-structured interviews, questionnaires and field observations and the experimental determination of the coefficient of static friction developed between the gloves and the surfaces of the machete handle. The main results indicate the general inadequacy of the gloves currently used forcing the employees to improvise. Workers found the glove of leather and nylon scraping the best reported for comfort in use. The overall results highlight the problem of detachment of test standards for the manufacture of PPE, ignoring users and the activity to be performed.

  7. Bioconversion of phytosterols to androstanes by mycobacteria growing on sugar cane mud.

    PubMed

    Pérez, C; Falero, A; Hung, B R; Tirado, S; Balcinde, Y

    2005-03-01

    Direct sterol conversion of sugar cane mud (residue) by Mycobacterium sp. was demonstrated to be possible technologically, thus avoiding sugar cane oil extraction and further processes of extraction and purification of phytosterols from this oil. Indeed, mycobacterial cells were able to convert phytosterols from sugar cane mud into 4-androstene-dione (AD) and 1,4 androsta-diene-3,17-dione (ADD). For the various concentrations assayed, concomitant higher yields for both androstanes were achieved at 20% (w/w) sugar cane mud in media. Furthermore, conversions were similar to those from other substrates, such as a mixture of phytosterols. The results suggest that the mycobacterial cell is able to easily access and bioconvert sugar cane mud phytosterols.

  8. Sensory differences between product matrices made with beet and cane sugar sources.

    PubMed

    Urbanus, Brittany L; Schmidt, Shelly J; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2014-11-01

    Although beet and cane sugar sources have nearly identical chemical compositions, the sugars differ in their volatile profiles, thermal behaviors, and minor chemical components. Scientific evidence characterizing the impact of these differences on product quality is lacking. The objective of this research was to determine whether panelists could identify a sensory difference between product matrices made with beet and cane sugar sources. Sixty-two panelists used the R-index by ranking method to discern whether there was a difference between 2 brands of beet and 2 brands of cane sugars in regard to their aroma and flavor, along with a difference in pavlova, simple syrup, sugar cookies, pudding, whipped cream, and iced tea made with beet and cane sugars. R-index values and Friedman's rank sum tests showed differences (P < 0.05) between beet and cane sugars in regard to their aroma and flavor. Significant differences between the sugar sources were also identified when incorporated into the pavlova and simple syrup. No difference was observed in the sugar cookies, pudding, whipped cream, and iced tea. Possible explanations for the lack of difference in these products include: (1) masking of beet and cane sensory differences by the flavor and complexity of the product matrix, (2) the relatively small quantity of sugar in these products, and (3) variation within these products being more influential than the sugar source. The findings from this research are relevant to sugar manufacturers and the food industry as a whole, because it identifies differences between beet and cane sugars and product matrices in which beet and cane sugars are not directly interchangeable.

  9. Characterization of an exoinulinase produced by Aspergillus terreus CCT 4083 grown on sugar cane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Coitinho, Juliana B; Guimarães, Valéria M; de Almeida, Maíra N; Falkoski, Daniel L; de Queiróz, José H; de Rezende, Sebastião T

    2010-07-28

    Exoinulinase (beta-d-fructan fructohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.80) secreted by Aspergillus terreus CCT4083 was obtained using sugar cane bagasse, an agroindustrial residue, as a carbon source. It was further purified from the supernatant culture in a rapid procedure. The enzyme presented 57 kDa on SDS-PAGE and 56 kDa on gel filtration chromatography. Inulin was hydrolyzed by the purified enzyme, yielding d-fructose as the main product. This enzyme showed maximum activity at pH 4.0 and 60 degrees C and maintained more than 90 and 75% of its original activity at 40 and 50 degrees C, respectively, after 3.5 h of preincubation. The K(M) values for inulin, sucrose, and raffinose were 11, 4.20, and 27.89 mM, respectively, and d-fructose was a competitive inhibitor (K(i) = 47.55 mM). The activation energies for sucrose, raffinose, and inulin were 10.4, 5.61, and 4.44 kcal/mol, respectively. The characteristics of A. terreus exoinulinase were compared to those of inulinases isolated from other organisms. The exoinulinase traits presented especially good thermostability and the ability to produce pure d-fructose, suggesting its application to the production of high-fructose syrup.

  10. Role of sugar cane in Brazil's history and economy

    SciTech Connect

    Nastari, P.M.

    1983-01-01

    The history and evolution of the sugar-cane culture in Brazil is reviewed. An econometric model is constructed to explain the economic relationships of supply and demand of sugar, hydrous ethanol (ethyl alcohol), and anhydrous ethanol in Brazil overtime. Estimates of the parameters in the model are obtained using the methods of ordinary least squares and three stages least squares. Because the number of exogenous variables is larger than the number of observations, principal components of the exogenous variables is used. The model estimated using three stages least squares with seven principal components has the best performance among the alternatives considered. Using the estimated model, the level of a number of policy variables is determined in consistency with the objectives of ethanol production established by the Brazilian government for 1985. It is estimated that in 1985 the proportion of anhydrous ethanol added to gasoline must be 16.5%. Analysis of the net income accrued by producers and the government since the creation of the National Alcohol Program (Proalcool) in 1975 reveals that producers of sugar have been able to triple their net annual income. Independent producers of ethanol have also been able to accrue positive net results during this period. It is concluded that the Proalcool has been beneficial to the Brazilian economy, largely because of the savings in oil imports and the internal creation of jobs, while at the same time it has contributed to a superavit in the government's budget.

  11. 77 FR 57180 - Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... Trade Representative in Presidential Proclamation 6763 (60 FR 1007). On September 10, 2012, the... REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION:...

  12. 75 FR 50796 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ... United States Trade Representative under Presidential Proclamation 6763 (60 FR 1007). On July 30, 2010... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade...

  13. 76 FR 20305 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Agriculture today announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic...

  14. 75 FR 38764 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Agriculture today announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic...

  15. 76 FR 50285 - Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... under Presidential Proclamation 6763 (60 FR 1007). On August 1, 2011, the Secretary of Agriculture... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade...

  16. 75 FR 22095 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Agriculture today announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic...

  17. New phenolic compounds from Kokuto, non-centrifuged cane sugar.

    PubMed

    Takara, Kensaku; Matsui, Daigo; Wada, Koji; Ichiba, Toshio; Chinen, Isao; Nakasone, Yoko

    2003-02-01

    Five new phenolic compounds, 4-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl-propanone (8), 3-[5-[(threo) 2,3-dihydro-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3-hydroxymethyl-7-methoxybenzofuranyl]-propanoic acid (12), 2-[4-(3-hydroxy-1-propenyl)-2,6-dimethoxyphenoxy]-3-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)propyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (13), 4-[(erythro) 2,3-dihydro-3(hydroxymethyl)-5-(3-hydropropyl)-7-methoxy-2-benzofuranyl]-2,6-dimethoxyphenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (14), 9-O-beta-D-xylopyranoside of icariol A2 (15), and known phenolic compounds were isolated from Kokuto, non-centrifuged cane sugar (Saccharum officinarum L.). Their structures were determined by a spectral investigation.

  18. Iron-binding properties of sugar cane yeast peptides.

    PubMed

    de la Hoz, Lucia; Ponezi, Alexandre N; Milani, Raquel F; Nunes da Silva, Vera S; Sonia de Souza, A; Bertoldo-Pacheco, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    The extract of sugar-cane yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was enzymatically hydrolysed by Alcalase, Protex or Viscozyme. Hydrolysates were fractionated using a membrane ultrafiltration system and peptides smaller than 5kDa were evaluated for iron chelating ability through measurements of iron solubility, binding capacity and dialyzability. Iron-chelating peptides were isolated using immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC). They showed higher content of His, Lys, and Arg than the original hydrolysates. In spite of poor iron solubility, hydrolysates of Viscozyme provided higher iron dialyzability than those of other enzymes. This means that more chelates of iron or complexes were formed and these kept the iron stable during simulated gastro-intestinal digestion in vitro, improving its dialyzability.

  19. Diets Based on Sugar Cane Treated with Calcium Oxide for Lambs

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, G. G. P.; Garcia, R.; Pires, A. J. V.; Silva, R. R.; Detmann, E.; Filho, A. Eustaquio; Ribeiro, L. S. O.; Carvalho, L. M.

    2013-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the intake, nutrient apparent digestibility and the effect of total collection days (two and four days) on apparent digestibility estimates for lambs fed diets containing sugar cane treated with calcium oxide (CaO). Eight Santa Inês castrated male lambs with a 16.6±1.8 kg body weight were used. The lambs were distributed in two 4×4 Latin squares, with four experimental periods of 14 d each. The animals were kept in 1.2 m2 individual pens, and the intake and digestibility evaluations were performed during the last four days of each period. The diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous, containing 14% crude protein (CP), and presenting 70% sugar cane treated with 0, 0.75, 1.5 or 2.25% of CaO (as-fed basis), corrected with 1% urea, and 30% concentrate. The sugar cane with added CaO was chopped, treated, and offered to the animals after 24 h of storage. The sugar cane with CaO increased the DM, OM, CP, NDF, NDFap, TC, NFCap and TDN intake (kg/d), when compared to natural sugar cane, and produced the same intake expressed as a percentage of body weight (% BW). The NFCap digestibility of the CaO-treated sugar cane was inferior to the NFCap digestibility in natural sugar cane. There was a linear increase in the DM intake with the CaO-added sugar cane, but the DM and NDF digestibility and the TDN content decreased linearly. The chemical treatment of sugar cane with CaO increases the intake but does not improve the nutrient digestibility. Two days of total fecal collection were found to be sufficient to estimate the total apparent digestibility in lambs. PMID:25049779

  20. Chemistry Based on Renewable Raw Materials: Perspectives for a Sugar Cane-Based Biorefinery

    PubMed Central

    Villela Filho, Murillo; Araujo, Carlos; Bonfá, Alfredo; Porto, Weber

    2011-01-01

    Carbohydrates are nowadays a very competitive feedstock for the chemical industry because their availability is compatible with world-scale chemical production and their price, based on the carbon content, is comparable to that of petrochemicals. At the same time, demand is rising for biobased products. Brazilian sugar cane is a competitive feedstock source that is opening the door to a wide range of bio-based products. This essay begins with the importance of the feedstock for the chemical industry and discusses developments in sugar cane processing that lead to low cost feedstocks. Thus, sugar cane enables a new chemical industry, as it delivers a competitive raw material and a source of energy. As a result, sugar mills are being transformed into sustainable biorefineries that fully exploit the potential of sugar cane. PMID:21637329

  1. Ethanol from Sugar Cane: Flask Experiments Using the EX-FERM Technique

    PubMed Central

    Rolz, Carlos; de Cabrera, Sheryl

    1980-01-01

    Alcohol production at the laboratory scale from sugar cane pieces by the EX-FERM technique was studied with 37 strains of Saccharomyces spp. The EX-FERM process is novel in that it employs the simultaneous extraction and fermentation of the sucrose in a cane-water suspension. Two types of cane treatments were used: chips and shredded pith, either fresh or dried. A mother culture of the yeast was prepared in enriched cane juice and then added to the cane-water mixture. After static fermentation for 40 h at 30°C, the cane was removed, and fresh cane was added to the yeast-alcohol broth. After an additional 24 h, the cane was again removed and the liquor was analyzed. After the first 40-h cycle, sugar consumption was above 99% with 10 of the 37 yeast strains tested, and ethanol reached levels of 1.29 to 4.00 g per 100 ml, depending on the yeast strain. The final ethanol concentration reached 4.27 to 5.37 g per 100 ml, and sugar consumption was above 98% in three cases during a second EX-FERM cycle employing previously air-dried chips and pith. Product yields were within accepted values. Cane treatment did not appear to affect the results at this level. PMID:16345626

  2. 75 FR 47258 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ...-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses AGENCY: Office of the Secretary..., as well as, refined and specialty sugar Tariff-Rate Quotas (TRQ) as required under the U.S. World Trade Organization (WTO) commitments. The FY 2011 raw cane sugar TRQ is established at 1,117,195...

  3. Nuclear and conventional methods for soil determination in sugar cane industry. Validity of sampling procedure.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, E A; Bacchi, M A

    1994-01-01

    Scandium and ash methods' performances were compared in terms of soil content assessment in sugar cane loads, emphasizing the common sampling drawbacks. Both methods are adequate for such determination in controlled conditions. The scandium has demonstrated better analytical characteristics, since it is free from interferences of cane matrix, which decreases the accuracy of the ash method in normal mill conditions.

  4. Proteomic analysis of Herbaspirillum seropedicae cultivated in the presence of sugar cane extract.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Fabio Aparecido; Tadra-Sfeir, Michelle Zibetti; Huergo, Luciano Fernandes; de Oliveira Pedrosa, Fábio; Monteiro, Rose Adele; de Souza, Emanuel Maltempi

    2013-03-01

    Bacterial endophytes of the genus Herbaspirillum colonize sugar cane and can promote plant growth. The molecular mechanisms that mediate plant- H. seropedicae interaction are poorly understood. In this work, we used 2D-PAGE electrophoresis to identify H. seropedicae proteins differentially expressed at the log growth phase in the presence of sugar cane extract. The differentially expressed proteins were validated by RT qPCR. A total of 16 differential spots (1 exclusively expressed, 7 absent, 5 up- and 3 down-regulated) in the presence of 5% sugar cane extract were identified; thus the host extract is able to induce and repress specific genes of H. seropedicae. The differentially expressed proteins suggest that exposure to sugar cane extract induced metabolic changes and adaptations in H. seropedicae presumably in preparation to establish interaction with the plant. PMID:23331092

  5. Interaction of Azospirillum brasilense and Glomus intrarradix in Sugar Cane Roots.

    PubMed

    Bellone, Carlos H; de Bellone Silvia, Carrizo

    2012-03-01

    Fifteen-day-old variety NA 56-79 sugar cane seedlings were inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense and Glomus intrarradix. This article aims at examining changes in sugar cane root seedlings inoculated with Glomus intrarradix and Azospirillum brasilense, the increase in microbial biomass and the acetylene reduction process as well. The internal root colonization was studied 20 days after inoculation using scanning and a transmission electron microscope. Both microorganisms entered the sugar cane root through the emergent lateral roots. The microorganisms were capable of coexisting both intra and intercellularly, producing changes in the cell wall, thus allowing colonization and interaction between the organisms. These changes increased the number of microorganisms inside the root as well as acetylene nitrogen reduction. Sugar cane plant biomass increased with joint-inoculation. The number of endophytic microorganisms and nitrogen fixing activity increased when they were colonized by Azospirillum and Glomus together.

  6. Influence of gamma radiation on microbiological parameters of the ethanolic fermentation of sugar-cane must

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcarde, A. R.; Walder, J. M. M.; Horii, J.

    2003-04-01

    The influence of gamma radiation on reducing the population of some bacteria Bacillus and Lactobacillus that usually contaminate the sugar-cane must and its effects on acidity of the medium and viability of the yeast during fermentation were evaluated. The treatment with gamma radiation reduced the bacterial load of the sugar-cane must. Consequently, the volatile acidity produced during the fermentation of the must decreased and the viability of the yeast afterwards added increased.

  7. Diffusion of moisture in drying of sugar cane fibers and bundles

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez-Ramirez, J.; Quintana-Hernandez, P.A.; Mendez-Lagunas, L.; Martinez-Gonzalez, G.; Gonzalez-Alatorre, G.

    2000-05-01

    Sugar cane fibers and arrangements of fibers in cylindrical bundles were dried in a thermoanalyzer and their diffusive coefficients were calculated using the slope method. The effect of temperature, moisture content as well as structural changes were analyzed. Diffusion coefficients changed nonlinearly with moisture content and followed an Arrhenius-like functionality with temperature. The analysis of these effects suggested a liquid diffusion transport mechanism of moisture transfer inside sugar cane fibers and bundles.

  8. Nitrogen-containing corrosion inhibitors for metals based on sugar cane wax

    SciTech Connect

    Ledovskykh, V.M.; Gonzales Rigotty, H.D.; Shapovalova, Yu.P.

    1988-05-01

    Requirements have been developed, reactions have been studied, and synthesis has been carried out for inhibitors of the carbonic acid amide and 2-alkylimidazoline classes from sugar cane wax. The efficiency of their inhibition on corrosion of metals in two phase media has been demonstrated in laboratory and pilot tests. The research was conducted to assess the feasibility of generating corrosion inhibitors from the waste products of sugar cane treatment for use in the Cuban oil production and refining industry.

  9. Saccharibacillus sacchari gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from sugar cane.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Raúl; García-Fraile, Paula; Zurdo-Piñeiro, José Luis; Mateos, Pedro F; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Bedmar, Eulogio J; Sánchez-Raya, Juan; Velázquez, Encarna

    2008-08-01

    A bacterial strain designated GR21T was isolated from apoplastic fluid of Saccharum officinarum (sugar cane). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolate forms a separate branch within the family 'Paenibacillaceae', with Paenibacillus as the closest related genus. Within this genus, the closest related species is Paenibacillus xylanilyticus, with 93.4 % similarity to the sequence of the type strain. The isolate has Gram-variable, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped cells, motile by polar and subpolar flagella. Round, non-ornamented, central or subterminal spores are formed in unswollen sporangia. The strain is catalase-positive and oxidase-negative on nutrient agar medium. Cellulose and aesculin were hydrolysed, whereas xylan, starch and gelatin were not. Growth was supported by many carbohydrates as carbon sources. Strain GR21T displayed a lipid profile consisting of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, an unknown aminophospholipid, two unknown glycolipids and an unknown phosphoglycolipid. MK-7 was the predominant menaquinone and anteiso-C15: 0 was the major fatty acid. The DNA G+C content was 57.8 mol%. Phylogenetic and phenotypic analyses, including assimilation of carbon sources and exoenzyme production commonly used for classification within the family 'Paenibacillaceae', showed that strain GR21T belongs to a new genus within this family, for which the name Saccharibacillus sacchari gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Saccharibacillus sacchari is GR21T (=LMG 24085T =DSM 19268T).

  10. 76 FR 21418 - Fiscal Year 2011 Allocation of Additional Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ... 6763 (60 FR 1007). On April 11, 2011, The Secretary of Agriculture announced an additional in-quota... Sugar and Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY... Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar and...

  11. 40 CFR 409.50 - Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.50 Section 409.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.50 Applicability; description of...

  12. 40 CFR 409.50 - Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.50 Section 409.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.50 Applicability; description of...

  13. 40 CFR 409.50 - Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.50 Section 409.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.50 Applicability; description of...

  14. 40 CFR 409.50 - Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.50 Section 409.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.50 Applicability; description of...

  15. 40 CFR 409.50 - Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.50 Section 409.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.50 Applicability; description of...

  16. 77 FR 25012 - Fiscal Year 2012 Allocation of Additional Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ... Representative under Presidential Proclamation 6763 (60 FR 1007). On April 19, 2012, the Secretary of Agriculture... Sugar and Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY... Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar and...

  17. Accumulation of recombinant cellobiohydrolase and endoglucanase in the leaves of mature transgenic sugar cane.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Mark D; Geijskes, Jason; Coleman, Heather D; Shand, Kylie; Kinkema, Mark; Palupe, Anthony; Hassall, Rachael; Sainz, Manuel; Lloyd, Robyn; Miles, Stacy; Dale, James L

    2011-10-01

    A major strategic goal in making ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass a cost-competitive liquid transport fuel is to reduce the cost of production of cellulolytic enzymes that hydrolyse lignocellulosic substrates to fermentable sugars. Current production systems for these enzymes, namely microbes, are not economic. One way to substantially reduce production costs is to express cellulolytic enzymes in plants at levels that are high enough to hydrolyse lignocellulosic biomass. Sugar cane fibre (bagasse) is the most promising lignocellulosic feedstock for conversion to ethanol in the tropics and subtropics. Cellulolytic enzyme production in sugar cane will have a substantial impact on the economics of lignocellulosic ethanol production from bagasse. We therefore generated transgenic sugar cane accumulating three cellulolytic enzymes, fungal cellobiohydrolase I (CBH I), CBH II and bacterial endoglucanase (EG), in leaves using the maize PepC promoter as an alternative to maize Ubi1 for controlling transgene expression. Different subcellular targeting signals were shown to have a substantial impact on the accumulation of these enzymes; the CBHs and EG accumulated to higher levels when fused to a vacuolar-sorting determinant than to an endoplasmic reticulum-retention signal, while EG was produced in the largest amounts when fused to a chloroplast-targeting signal. These results are the first demonstration of the expression and accumulation of recombinant CBH I, CBH II and EG in sugar cane and represent a significant first step towards the optimization of cellulolytic enzyme expression in sugar cane for the economic production of lignocellulosic ethanol.

  18. Biological nitrogen fixation in sugar cane: A key to energetically viable biofuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Boddey, R.M.

    1995-05-01

    The advantages of producing biofuels to replace fossil energy sources are derived from the fact that the energy accumulated in the biomass in captured directly from photosynthesis and is thus renewable, and that the cycle of carbon dioxide fixation by the crop, followed by burning of the fuel makes no overall contribution to atmospheric CO{sub 2} or, consequently, to global warming. However, these advantages are negated if large quantities of fossil fuels need to be used to grow or process the biofuel crop. In this regard, the Brazilian bioethanol program, based on the fermentation/distillation of sugar cane juice, is particularly favorable, not only because the crop is principally hand harvested, but also because of the low nitrogen fertilizer use on sugar cane in Brazil. Recent {sup 15}N and N balance studies have shown that in some Brazilian cane varieties, high yields are possible without N fertilization because the plants are able to obtain large contributions of nitrogen from plant-associated biological N{sub 2} fixation (BNF). The N{sub 2}-fixing acid-tolerant bacterium Acetobacter diazotrophicus was first found to occur within roots, stems, and leaves of sugar cane. Subsequently, two species of Herbaspirillum also have been found to occur within the interior of all sugar cane tissues. The discovery of these, and other N{sub 2}-fixing bacteria that survive poorly in soil but thrive within plant tissue (endophytic bacteria), may account for the high BNF contributions observed in sugar cane. Further study of this system should allow the gradual elimination of N fertilizer use on sugar cane, at least in Brazil, and opens up the possibility of the extension of this efficient N{sub 2}-fixing system to cereal and other crops with consequent immense potential benefits to tropical agriculture. 44 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Fluoride bioaccumulation by hydroponic cultures of camellia (Camellia japonica spp.) and sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum spp.).

    PubMed

    Camarena-Rangel, Nancy; Rojas Velázquez, Angel Natanael; Santos-Díaz, María del Socorro

    2015-10-01

    The ability of hydroponic cultures of camellia and sugar cane adult plants to remove fluoride was investigated. Plants were grown in a 50% Steiner nutrient solution. After an adaptation period to hydroponic conditions, plants were exposed to different fluoride concentrations (0, 2.5, 5 and 10 mg L(-1)). Fluoride concentration in the culture medium and in tissues was measured. In sugar cane, fluoride was mainly located in roots, with 86% of it absorbed and 14% adsorbed. Sugar cane plants removed 1000-1200 mg fluoride kg(-1) dry weight. In camellia plants the highest fluoride concentration was found in leaf. Roots accumulated fluoride mainly through absorption, which was 2-5 times higher than adsorption. At the end of the experiment, fluoride accumulation in camellia plants was 1000-1400 mgk g(-1) dry weight. Estimated concentration factors revealed that fluoride bioaccumulation is 74-221-fold in camellia plants and 100-500-fold in sugar cane plants. Thus, the latter appear as a suitable candidate for removing fluoride from water due to their bioaccumulation capacity and vigorous growth rate; therefore, sugar cane might be used for phytoremediation. PMID:25930125

  20. Fluoride bioaccumulation by hydroponic cultures of camellia (Camellia japonica spp.) and sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum spp.).

    PubMed

    Camarena-Rangel, Nancy; Rojas Velázquez, Angel Natanael; Santos-Díaz, María del Socorro

    2015-10-01

    The ability of hydroponic cultures of camellia and sugar cane adult plants to remove fluoride was investigated. Plants were grown in a 50% Steiner nutrient solution. After an adaptation period to hydroponic conditions, plants were exposed to different fluoride concentrations (0, 2.5, 5 and 10 mg L(-1)). Fluoride concentration in the culture medium and in tissues was measured. In sugar cane, fluoride was mainly located in roots, with 86% of it absorbed and 14% adsorbed. Sugar cane plants removed 1000-1200 mg fluoride kg(-1) dry weight. In camellia plants the highest fluoride concentration was found in leaf. Roots accumulated fluoride mainly through absorption, which was 2-5 times higher than adsorption. At the end of the experiment, fluoride accumulation in camellia plants was 1000-1400 mgk g(-1) dry weight. Estimated concentration factors revealed that fluoride bioaccumulation is 74-221-fold in camellia plants and 100-500-fold in sugar cane plants. Thus, the latter appear as a suitable candidate for removing fluoride from water due to their bioaccumulation capacity and vigorous growth rate; therefore, sugar cane might be used for phytoremediation.

  1. Computer simulation of combine harvesting and handling of sugar cane in Barbados

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, W.O.

    1983-01-01

    The broad objective of this study was to improve the efficiency of combine harvesting of sugar cane in Barbados. The harvesting process was broken down into two subsystems: a field subsystem and a factory yard subsystem. Two computer simulation models structured in GASP IV simulation language, were developed to model the operations involved in these systems. Model FIELDOP simulated the activities involved in the harvesting and loading of cane in the field, and in its transportation to the factory for processing. Model FACYARD simulated the weighing and unloading activities performed on cane transport units at the factory. Output from the models included utilization factors for the various component machines, daily cane delivery from the field system, and daily amounts of cane handled by the factory yard system. This output was fed into a cost program which calculated unit harvesting costs and total annual cane delivery for the equipment combinations simulated. Results indicated that a second scale at the factory can reduce the factory residence time of transport units by 88%, increase combine harvester utilization efficiency by 50-60%, increase daily cane receipts at the factory by more than 30%, and eliminate milling lost time due to lack of cane. The economic analysis demonstrated that harvesting cost per tonne can be significantly reduced.

  2. 75 FR 14479 - Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2010 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... United States Trade Representative under Presidential Proclamation 6763 (60 FR 1007). On September 29... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2010 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar... fiscal year (FY) 2010 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar....

  3. Dosimetric evaluation of sucrose and granulated cane sugar in the therapeutic dose range

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Melanie T. M.; Jordan, Kevin J.

    2009-04-15

    Granulated cane sugar has been used as a dosimetric material to report dose in high dose accidental irradiations. The purpose of this study was to assess whether clinical dosimetry is also plausible with such a commonly available material. The behavior of cane sugar was explored with respect to therapeutically relevant radiation quantities (dose, dose rate) and qualities (energy, radiation type) as well as under different temperature conditions. The stability of the signal postirradiation was also measured. Absorbed dose was measured by spectrophotometric readout of a ferrous ammonium sulfate xylenol orange (FX)-sugar solution in 10 cm path length cells. A visible color change was produced as a function of dose when the irradiated sugar samples were dissolved in FX solution (10% dilution by mass). A comparison of the optical absorbance spectra and dose response of cane sugar with analytical grade sucrose was done to establish a benchmark standard from which subsequent dosimetry measurements can be validated. The response of the sugar dosimeter read at 590 nm was found to be linear over the dose range of 100-2000 cGy, independent of energy (6-18 MV) and of the average dose rate (100-500 cGy/min). The readout of sugar samples irradiated with mixed photon and electron fields was also shown to be independent of radiation type (photons and electrons). Sugar temperature (20-40 degree sign C) during irradiation did not affect dose estimates, making it a promising dosimeter for in vivo dosimetry, particularly in cases where the dosimeter must remain in contact with the patient for an extended period of time. Sugar can be used as an integrating dosimeter, since it exhibits no fractionation effects. Granulated cane sugar is cost effective, safe, soft tissue equivalent, and can be used under various experimental conditions, making it a suitable dosimeter for some radiotherapy applications.

  4. The impact of stress on the health of sugar cane cutters

    PubMed Central

    Priuli, Roseana Mara Aredes; de Moraes, Maria Silvia; Chiaravalloti, Rafael Morais

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Evaluate the impact of stress on sugar cane cutters and the prevalence of physical and psychological symptoms before and after harvest. METHODS We studied 114 sugarcane cutters and 109 urban workers in the pre-harvest and 102 sugar cane cutters and 81 urban workers in the post-harvest period in the city of Mendonça, SP, Southeastern Brazil, in 2009. Data analysis was based on the frequency and percentage of the assessed symptoms of stress, using the Lipp-ISSL test (Symptoms of Stress for Adults). The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The Fisher Test was used to compare the variable of stress between pre- and post-harvest within the sugar cane cutter and urban worker groups. P values below 0.05 were considered significant. RESULTS Stress in sugar cane cutters increased after harvesting (34.2% pre-harvest and 46.1% post-harvest); in urban workers, stress decreased from 44.0% pre-harvest to 42.0% post-harvest. There was prevalence of the phase of resistance to stress for both groups with signs more apparent from the near-exhaustion and exhaustion phases for sugar cane cutters. After harvest, there was a tendency for the number of sugar cane cutters with symptoms of near-exhaustion (6.4%) and exhaustion (10.6%) to increase. After harvest there was a trend for the number of sugar cane cutters with physical symptoms (pre-harvest = 20.5%, post-harvest = 25.5%) and psychological symptoms (pre-harvest = 64.1%; post-harvest = 70.2%) to increase. For both groups, predominantly psychological symptoms occurred in both phases (70.2% versus 64.7%). CONCLUSIONS The work process of cutting cane can cause stress. Individual factors such as cognitive perception of the experience, self-efficacy beliefs and expectations of the employee regarding their performance can influence the understanding of the reactions in their body in face of the work. PMID:24897043

  5. Firmicutes dominate the bacterial taxa within sugar-cane processing plants.

    PubMed

    Sharmin, Farhana; Wakelin, Steve; Huygens, Flavia; Hargreaves, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Sugar cane processing sites are characterised by high sugar/hemicellulose levels, available moisture and warm conditions, and are relatively unexplored unique microbial environments. The PhyloChip microarray was used to investigate bacterial diversity and community composition in three Australian sugar cane processing plants. These ecosystems were highly complex and dominated by four main Phyla, Firmicutes (the most dominant), followed by Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Chloroflexi. Significant variation (p < 0.05) in community structure occurred between samples collected from 'floor dump sediment', 'cooling tower water', and 'bagasse leachate'. Many bacterial Classes contributed to these differences, however most were of low numerical abundance. Separation in community composition was also linked to Classes of Firmicutes, particularly Bacillales, Lactobacillales and Clostridiales, whose dominance is likely to be linked to their physiology as 'lactic acid bacteria', capable of fermenting the sugars present. This process may help displace other bacterial taxa, providing a competitive advantage for Firmicutes bacteria. PMID:24177592

  6. 77 FR 55451 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ...-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses; and the Fiscal Year 2013 Overall Allotment Quantity Under the Sugar Marketing Allotment Program AGENCY: Office of the Secretary... quantity of the raw, as well as, refined and specialty sugar Tariff-Rate Quotas (TRQ). The FY 2013 raw...

  7. Direct impacts on local climate of sugar-cane expansion in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loarie, Scott R.; Lobell, David B.; Asner, Gregory P.; Mu, Qiaozhen; Field, Christopher B.

    2011-05-01

    The increasing global demand for biofuels will require conversion of conventional agricultural or natural ecosystems. Expanding biofuel production into areas now used for agriculture reduces the need to clear natural ecosystems, leading to indirect climate benefits through reduced greenhouse-gas emissions and faster payback of carbon debts. Biofuel expansion may also cause direct, local climate changes by altering surface albedo and evapotranspiration, but these effects have been poorly documented. Here we quantify the direct climate effects of sugar-cane expansion in the Brazilian Cerrado, on the basis of maps of recent sugar-cane expansion and natural-vegetation clearance combined with remotely sensed temperature, albedo and evapotranspiration over a 1.9millionkm2 area. On a regional basis for clear-sky daytime conditions, conversion of natural vegetation to a crop/pasture mosaic warms the cerrado by an average of 1.55 (1.45-1.65)°C, but subsequent conversion of that mosaic to sugar cane cools the region by an average of 0.93 (0.78-1.07)°C, resulting in a mean net increase of 0.6°C. Our results indicate that expanding sugar cane into existing crop and pasture land has a direct local cooling effect that reinforces the indirect climate benefits of this land-use option.

  8. Increased estimates of air-pollution emissions from Brazilian sugar-cane ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsao, C.-C.; Campbell, J. E.; Mena-Carrasco, M.; Spak, S. N.; Carmichael, G. R.; Chen, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Accelerating biofuel production has been promoted as an opportunity to enhance energy security, offset greenhouse-gas emissions and support rural economies. However, large uncertainties remain in the impacts of biofuels on air quality and climate. Sugar-cane ethanol is one of the most widely used biofuels, and Brazil is its largest producer. Here we use a life-cycle approach to produce spatially and temporally explicit estimates of air-pollutant emissions over the whole life cycle of sugar-cane ethanol in Brazil. We show that even in regions where pre-harvest field burning has been eliminated on half the croplands, regional emissions of air pollutants continue to increase owing to the expansion of sugar-cane growing areas, and burning continues to be the dominant life-cycle stage for emissions. Comparison of our estimates of burning-phase emissions with satellite estimates of burning in São Paulo state suggests that sugar-cane field burning is not fully accounted for in satellite-based inventories, owing to the small spatial scale of individual fires. Accounting for this effect leads to revised regional estimates of burned area that are four times greater than some previous estimates. Our revised emissions maps thus suggest that biofuels may have larger impacts on regional climate forcing and human health than previously thought.

  9. Sugar cane management with humic extract and organic and mineral fertilizer: impacts on Oxisol some physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, M. C.; Campos, F. S.; Souza, Z. M.

    2012-04-01

    The present investigation has as objective to study the impact of cultive systems, humic extract and organic and mineral fertilizers on Oxisol some physical properties cultivated of sugar cane. It was developed in Aparecida do Taboado, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in Manufactores Alcoolvale. The study was in sugar cane culture implanted on 3th and 4th cycle. The experimental design was at randomized blocks following scheme in zone with eight treatments and four replications. The two treatments in main zone were represented by cultivation systems (with and without chisel) and the subzone fertilization (T1-mineral, T2-mineral+sugar cane residue, T3-mineral+humic and fulvic acids and T4-mix of mineral, sugar cane residue and humic and fulvic acids). In three soil layers: 0.00-0.05; 0.10-0.20 and 0.20-0.40 m were studied the physical soil properties: macroporosity, microporosity, total porosity and soil bulk density. Also evaluate the technological quality of sugar cane. The conclusions are: the application of mineral fertilizer+sugar cane residue+humic extract (Humitec ®) and cropping system with chisel were more effective in improving soil physical; the system of crop of sugar cane ratton implanted in the 2th and 3th cycle, without the use of chisel was better in the recovery of soil physical properties; the crop system without the chisel and the combination of mineral fertilizer+sugar cane residue was promising to increase of Brix, Pol juice, Pol sugar cane and total recoverable sugars Pol.

  10. Pyrolysis of olive residue and sugar cane bagasse: non-isothermal thermogravimetric kinetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Ounas, A; Aboulkas, A; El Harfi, K; Bacaoui, A; Yaacoubi, A

    2011-12-01

    Thermal degradation and kinetics for olive residue and sugar cane bagasse have been evaluated under dynamic conditions in the presence of nitrogen atmosphere, using a non-isothermal thermogravimetric method (TGA). The effect of heating rate was evaluated in the range of 2-50 K min(-1) providing significant parameters for the fingerprinting of the biomass. The DTG plot for the olive residue and sugar cane bagasse clearly shows that the bagasse begins to degrade at 473 K and exhibits two major peaks. The initial mass-loss was associated with hemicellulose pyrolysis and responsible for the first peak (538-543 K) whereas cellulose pyrolysis was initiated at higher temperatures and responsible for the second peak (600-607 K). The two biomass mainly devolatilized around 473-673 K, with total volatile yield of about 70-75%. The char in final residue was about 19-26%. Mass loss and mass loss rates were strongly affected by heating rate. It was found that an increase in heating rate resulted in a shift of thermograms to higher temperatures. Ozawa-Flynn-Wall and Vyazovkin methods were applied to determine apparent activation energy to the olive residue and sugar cane bagasse. Two different steps were detected with apparent activation energies in the 10-40% conversion range have a value of 153-162 kJ mol(-1) and 168-180 kJ mol(-1) for the hemicellulose degradation of olive residue and sugar cane bagasse, respectively. In the 50-80% conversion range, this value is 204-215 kJ mol(-1) and 231-240 kJ mol(-1) for the cellulose degradation of olive residue and sugar cane bagasse, respectively.

  11. Spatial relationship between the productivity of cane sugar and soil electrical conductivity measured by electromagnetic induction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siqueira, Glecio; Silva, Jucicléia; Bezerra, Joel; Silva, Enio; Montenegro, Abelardo

    2013-04-01

    The cultivation of sugar cane in Brazil occupies a prominent place in national production chain, because the country is the main world producer of sugar and ethanol. Accordingly, studies are needed that allow an integrated production and technified, and especially that estimates of crops are consistent with the actual production of each region. The objective of this study was to determine the spatial relationship between the productivity of cane sugar and soil electrical conductivity measured by electromagnetic induction. The field experiment was conducted at an agricultural research site located in Goiana municipality, Pernambuco State, north-east of Brazil (Latitude 07 ° 34 '25 "S, Longitude 34 ° 55' 39" W). The surface of the studied field is 6.5 ha, and its mean height 8.5 m a.s.l. This site has been under sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum sp.) monoculture during the last 24 years and it was managed burning the straw each year after harvesting, renewal of plantation was performed every 7 years. Studied the field is located 10 km east from Atlantic Ocean and it is representative of the regional landscape lowlands, whose soils are affected by salinity seawater, sugarcane plantations with the main economical activity. Soil was classified an orthic the Podsol. The productivity of cane sugar and electrical conductivity were measured in 90 sampling points. The productivity of cane sugar was determined in each of the sampling points in plots of 9 m2. The Apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa, mS m-1) was measured with an electromagnetic induction device EM38-DD (Geonics Limited). The equipment consists of two units of measurement, one in a horizontal dipole (ECa-H) to provide effective measurement distance of 1.5 m approximately and other one in vertical dipole (ECa-V) with an effective measurement depth of approximately 0.75 m. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and geostatistical tools. The results showed that productivity in the study area

  12. Effect of acid hydrolysis and fungal biotreatment on agro-industrial wastes for obtainment of free sugars for bioethanol production

    PubMed Central

    El-Tayeb, T.S.; Abdelhafez, A.A.; Ali, S.H.; Ramadan, E.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate selected chemical and microbiological treatments for the conversion of certain local agro-industrial wastes (rice straw, corn stalks, sawdust, sugar beet waste and sugarcane bagasse) to ethanol. The chemical composition of these feedstocks was determined. Conversion of wastes to free sugars by acid hydrolysis varied from one treatment to another. In single-stage dilute acid hydrolysis, increasing acid concentration from 1 % (v/v) to 5 % (v/v) decreased the conversion percentage of almost all treated agro-industrial wastes. Lower conversion percentages for some treatments were obtained when increasing the residence time from 90 to 120 min. The two-stage dilute acid hydrolysis by phosphoric acid (1.0 % v/v) followed by sulphuric acid (1.0 % v/v) resulted in the highest conversion percentage (41.3 % w/w) on treated sugar beet waste. This treatment when neutralized, amended with some nutrients and inoculated with baker’s yeast, achieved the highest ethanol concentration (1.0 % v/v). Formation of furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) were functions of type of acid hydrolysis, acid concentration, residence time and feedstock type. The highest bioconversion of 5 % wastes (37.8 % w/w) was recorded on sugar beet waste by Trichoderma viride EMCC 107. This treatment when followed by baker’s yeast fermentation, 0.41 % (v/v) ethanol and 8.2 % (v/w) conversion coefficient were obtained. PMID:24031984

  13. Effect of acid hydrolysis and fungal biotreatment on agro-industrial wastes for obtainment of free sugars for bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    El-Tayeb, T S; Abdelhafez, A A; Ali, S H; Ramadan, E M

    2012-10-01

    This study was designed to evaluate selected chemical and microbiological treatments for the conversion of certain local agro-industrial wastes (rice straw, corn stalks, sawdust, sugar beet waste and sugarcane bagasse) to ethanol. The chemical composition of these feedstocks was determined. Conversion of wastes to free sugars by acid hydrolysis varied from one treatment to another. In single-stage dilute acid hydrolysis, increasing acid concentration from 1 % (v/v) to 5 % (v/v) decreased the conversion percentage of almost all treated agro-industrial wastes. Lower conversion percentages for some treatments were obtained when increasing the residence time from 90 to 120 min. The two-stage dilute acid hydrolysis by phosphoric acid (1.0 % v/v) followed by sulphuric acid (1.0 % v/v) resulted in the highest conversion percentage (41.3 % w/w) on treated sugar beet waste. This treatment when neutralized, amended with some nutrients and inoculated with baker's yeast, achieved the highest ethanol concentration (1.0 % v/v). Formation of furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) were functions of type of acid hydrolysis, acid concentration, residence time and feedstock type. The highest bioconversion of 5 % wastes (37.8 % w/w) was recorded on sugar beet waste by Trichoderma viride EMCC 107. This treatment when followed by baker's yeast fermentation, 0.41 % (v/v) ethanol and 8.2 % (v/w) conversion coefficient were obtained. PMID:24031984

  14. 78 FR 56646 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... Tariff- Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses AGENCY: Office of the...-quota aggregate quantity of raw cane sugar at 1,117,195 metric tons raw value (MTRV). The Secretary also announces the establishment of the FY 2014 in-quota aggregate quantity of certain sugars, syrups,...

  15. 76 FR 42160 - Allocation of Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... Presidential Proclamation 6763 (60 FR 1007). On June 21, 2011, the Secretary of Agriculture announced an... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Allocation of Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar... additional fiscal year (FY) 2011 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane...

  16. 75 FR 26316 - Allocation of Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... United States Trade Representative under Presidential Proclamation 6763 (60 FR 1007). On April 23, 2010... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Allocation of Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar... additional fiscal year (FY) 2010 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane...

  17. Recovery of used frying sunflower oil with sugar cane industry waste and hot water.

    PubMed

    Ali, Rehab F M; El Anany, A M

    2014-11-01

    The main goal of the current investigation was to use sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) and to compare its adsorption efficiency with Magnesol XL as synthetic adsorbents to regenerate the quality of used frying sunflower oil. In addition, to evaluate the effect of water washing process on the quality of used frying oil and the treated oil. The metal patterns of sugar cane bagasse ash and Magnesol XL were determined. Some physical and chemical properties of unused, used frying and used-treated sunflower oil were determined. Sunflower oil sample was heated at 180 °C + 5 °C, then frozen French fries potato were fried every 30 min. during a continuous period of 20 h. Oil samples were taken every 4 h. The filter aids were added individually to the used frying oil at levels 1, 2 and 3 % (w / v), then mechanically stirred for 60 min at 105 °C. The results indicate that all the filter aids under study were characterized by high levels of Si and variable levels of other minerals. The highest level of Si was recorded for sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) was 76.79 wt. %. Frying process caused significant (P ≤ 0.05) increases in physico-chemical properties of sunflower oil. The treatments of used frying sunflower oil with different levels of sugar cane bagasse ash and Magnesol XL caused significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase in the quality of treated oil, however the soap content of treated oil was increased, therefore, the effect of water washing process on the quality of used frying and used-treated sunflower oil was evaluated. The values of soap and Total polar compounds after water treatment were about 4.62 and 7.27 times as low as that for sunflower oil treated with 3 % sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA). The results of the present study indicate that filtration treatment with different levels of sugar cane bagasse ash( SCBA) regenerated the quality of used sunflower oil and possess higher adsorbing effects than the synthetic filter aid ( Magnesol XL ) in

  18. Recovery of used frying sunflower oil with sugar cane industry waste and hot water.

    PubMed

    Ali, Rehab F M; El Anany, A M

    2014-11-01

    The main goal of the current investigation was to use sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) and to compare its adsorption efficiency with Magnesol XL as synthetic adsorbents to regenerate the quality of used frying sunflower oil. In addition, to evaluate the effect of water washing process on the quality of used frying oil and the treated oil. The metal patterns of sugar cane bagasse ash and Magnesol XL were determined. Some physical and chemical properties of unused, used frying and used-treated sunflower oil were determined. Sunflower oil sample was heated at 180 °C + 5 °C, then frozen French fries potato were fried every 30 min. during a continuous period of 20 h. Oil samples were taken every 4 h. The filter aids were added individually to the used frying oil at levels 1, 2 and 3 % (w / v), then mechanically stirred for 60 min at 105 °C. The results indicate that all the filter aids under study were characterized by high levels of Si and variable levels of other minerals. The highest level of Si was recorded for sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) was 76.79 wt. %. Frying process caused significant (P ≤ 0.05) increases in physico-chemical properties of sunflower oil. The treatments of used frying sunflower oil with different levels of sugar cane bagasse ash and Magnesol XL caused significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase in the quality of treated oil, however the soap content of treated oil was increased, therefore, the effect of water washing process on the quality of used frying and used-treated sunflower oil was evaluated. The values of soap and Total polar compounds after water treatment were about 4.62 and 7.27 times as low as that for sunflower oil treated with 3 % sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA). The results of the present study indicate that filtration treatment with different levels of sugar cane bagasse ash( SCBA) regenerated the quality of used sunflower oil and possess higher adsorbing effects than the synthetic filter aid ( Magnesol XL ) in

  19. 78 FR 57445 - Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... United States Trade Representative in Presidential Proclamation 6763 (60 FR 1007). On September 13, 2013... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade...

  20. Cytogenetic biomonitoring of occupationally exposed workers to ashes from burning of sugar cane in Ahome, Sinaloa, México.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Valenzuela, Carmen; Rodríguez-Quintana, Ana Rosa; Meza, Enrique; Waliszewski, Stefan M; Amador-Muñóz, Omar; Mora-Romero, Arlene; Calderón-Segura, María Elena; Félix-Gastélum, Rubén; Rodríguez-Romero, Isabel; Caba, Mario

    2015-09-01

    Burning the sugar cane field before harvesting has a negative impact on both air and human health, however this issue had not been explored in Mexico. The objective of this work was to determine the chromosomal damage in workers from sugar cane burning fields in Sinaloa, México. To this purpose, we analyzed 1000 cells of buccal exfoliated epithelia from 60 exposed workers and 60 non-exposed controls to determine micronucleus frequencies and other nuclear abnormalities. The results indicated significant higher values of micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities such as binucleate cells, pyknosis, karyolysis, chromatin condensation and nuclear buds frequencies in the exposed subjects compared to those that were not exposed. Our data indicates that sugar cane burning, that generates polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, represents a genotoxic risk for workers in this important sugar cane producing area in Mexico.

  1. Cytogenetic biomonitoring of occupationally exposed workers to ashes from burning of sugar cane in Ahome, Sinaloa, México.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Valenzuela, Carmen; Rodríguez-Quintana, Ana Rosa; Meza, Enrique; Waliszewski, Stefan M; Amador-Muñóz, Omar; Mora-Romero, Arlene; Calderón-Segura, María Elena; Félix-Gastélum, Rubén; Rodríguez-Romero, Isabel; Caba, Mario

    2015-09-01

    Burning the sugar cane field before harvesting has a negative impact on both air and human health, however this issue had not been explored in Mexico. The objective of this work was to determine the chromosomal damage in workers from sugar cane burning fields in Sinaloa, México. To this purpose, we analyzed 1000 cells of buccal exfoliated epithelia from 60 exposed workers and 60 non-exposed controls to determine micronucleus frequencies and other nuclear abnormalities. The results indicated significant higher values of micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities such as binucleate cells, pyknosis, karyolysis, chromatin condensation and nuclear buds frequencies in the exposed subjects compared to those that were not exposed. Our data indicates that sugar cane burning, that generates polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, represents a genotoxic risk for workers in this important sugar cane producing area in Mexico. PMID:26245813

  2. Lactic acid production from sugar-cane juice by a newly isolated Lactobacillus sp.

    PubMed

    Timbuntam, Walaiporn; Sriroth, Klanarong; Tokiwa, Yutaka

    2006-06-01

    A newly isolated sucrose-tolerant, lactic acid bacterium, Lactobacillus sp. strain FCP2, was grown on sugar-cane juice (125 g sucrose l(-1), 8 g glucose l(-1) and 6 g fructose l(-1)) for 5 days and produced 104 g lactic acid l(-1) with 90% yield. A higher yield (96%) and productivity (2.8 g l(-1 )h(-1)) were obtained when strain FCP2 was cultured on 3% w/v (25 g sucrose l(-1), 2 g glucose l(-1) and 1 g fructose l(-1)) sugar-cane juice for 10 h. Various cheap nitrogen sources such as silk worm larvae, beer yeast autolysate and shrimp wastes were also used as a substitute to yeast extract.

  3. Characterisation of sugar cane straw waste as pozzolanic material for construction: Calcining temperature and kinetic parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Frias, Moises

    2007-07-01

    This paper reports on the influence of calcining temperature (800 and 1000 deg. C) on the pozzolanic activation of sugar cane straw (SCS). The reaction kinetics of SCS ash-lime mixtures were inferred from physicochemical characteristics (X-ray diffraction patterns and thermogravimetry analysis. The fitting of a kinetic-diffusive model to the experimental data (fixed lime versus time) allowed the computing of the kinetic parameters (reaction rate constant) of the pozzolanic reaction. Results obtained confirm that the sugar cane straw ash (SCSA) calcined at 800 and 1000 deg. C have properties indicative of very high pozzolanic activity. No influence of calcining temperature on the pozzolanic activity was observed. Also, no crystalline compounds during the pozzolanic reaction were identified up to 90 days of reaction. Environmental durability and strength of the consequential mortars remain to be assessed.

  4. [The sugar cane blight of the 1860s: science applied to agriculture].

    PubMed

    Bediaga, Begonha

    2012-12-01

    The Imperial Instituto Fluminense de Cultura (Fluminense Imperial Institute of Agriculture) encouraged debate with a view to eradicating the blight that devastated sugar cane plantations in the State of Bahia. Rural landowners, government officials and men of science participated in the discussions. The article presents the context of the sciences applied to agriculture, especially agricultural chemistry and the repercussions of the 'discoveries' of Justus Liebig in Brazil. The debate at the Imperial Instituto about the sugar cane blight was analyzed, together with the ideas espoused there and the characters involved in the issue. The procedures and solutions presented are studied, as well as the formation of knowledge networks around the agricultural sciences, which was in the process of institutionalization at the time.

  5. Estimation of the sugar cane cultivated area from LANDSAT images using the two phase sampling method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Cappelletti, C. A.; Mendonca, F. J.; Lee, D. C. L.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.

    1982-01-01

    A two phase sampling method and the optimal sampling segment dimensions for the estimation of sugar cane cultivated area were developed. This technique employs visual interpretations of LANDSAT images and panchromatic aerial photographs considered as the ground truth. The estimates, as a mean value of 100 simulated samples, represent 99.3% of the true value with a CV of approximately 1%; the relative efficiency of the two phase design was 157% when compared with a one phase aerial photographs sample.

  6. Effect of the atmosphere on the classification of LANDSAT data. [Identifying sugar canes in Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Morimoto, T.; Kumar, R.; Molion, L. C. B.

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. In conjunction with Turner's model for the correction of satellite data for atmospheric interference, the LOWTRAN-3 computer was used to calculate the atmospheric interference. Use of the program improved the contrast between different natural targets in the MSS LANDSAT data of Brasilia, Brazil. The classification accuracy of sugar canes was improved by about 9% in the multispectral data of Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo.

  7. Preliminary statistical studies concerning the Campos RJ sugar cane area, using LANDSAT imagery and aerial photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Costa, S. R. X.; Paiao, L. B. F.; Mendonca, F. J.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Duarte, V.

    1983-01-01

    The two phase sampling technique was applied to estimate the area cultivated with sugar cane in an approximately 984 sq km pilot region of Campos. Correlation between existing aerial photography and LANDSAT data was used. The two phase sampling technique corresponded to 99.6% of the results obtained by aerial photography, taken as ground truth. This estimate has a standard deviation of 225 ha, which constitutes a coefficient of variation of 0.6%.

  8. Differentially delayed root proteome responses to salt stress in sugar cane varieties.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Cinthya Mirella; Pestana-Calsa, Maria Clara; Gozzo, Fabio Cesar; Mansur Custodio Nogueira, Rejane Jurema; Menossi, Marcelo; Calsa, Tercilio

    2013-12-01

    Soil salinity is a limiting factor to sugar cane crop development, although in general plants present variable mechanisms of tolerance to salinity stress. The molecular basis underlying these mechanisms can be inferred by using proteomic analysis. Thus, the objective of this work was to identify differentially expressed proteins in sugar cane plants submitted to salinity stress. For that, a greenhouse experiment was established with four sugar cane varieties and two salt conditions, 0 mM (control) and 200 mM NaCl. Physiological and proteomics analyses were performed after 2 and 72 h of stress induction by salt. Distinct physiological responses to salinity stress were observed in the varieties and linked to tolerance mechanisms. In proteomic analysis, the roots soluble protein fraction was extracted, quantified, and analyzed through bidimensional electrophoresis. Gel images analyses were done computationally, where in each contrast only one variable was considered (salinity condition or variety). Differential spots were excised, digested by trypsin, and identified via mass spectrometry. The tolerant variety RB867515 showed the highest accumulation of proteins involved in growth, development, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, reactive oxygen species metabolization, protein protection, and membrane stabilization after 2 h of stress. On the other hand, the presence of these proteins in the sensitive variety was verified only in stress treatment after 72 h. These data indicate that these stress responses pathways play a role in the tolerance to salinity in sugar cane, and their effectiveness for phenotypical tolerance depends on early stress detection and activation of the coding genes expression. PMID:24251627

  9. Properties of aerosols from sugar-cane burning emissions in Southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lara, L. L.; Artaxo, P.; Martinelli, L. A.; Camargo, P. B.; Victoria, R. L.; Ferraz, E. S. B.

    The influences of biomass burning emissions in the composition of aerosol have been studied during 1 year around the city of Piracicaba (Southeastern Brazil). Inhalable particles, separated in PM 2.5 and coarse particulate mode (CPM, with size in the range (2.5< dp<10 μm)), were sampled from April 1997 to March 1998 and analyzed for BC, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Pb. The average concentrations of PM 2.5, CPM, BC and chemical elements were statistically higher in the dry season than in the wet season. The results of absolute principal component analysis showed four and three different sources for PM 2.5 and CPM, respectively. Sugar-cane burning is the main source of PM 2.5 representing 60% of PM 2.5, soil dust accounted for 14%, and industries and oil combustion contributed with 12% each one. Resuspended soil is the main source of CPM followed by industrial emissions and sugar-cane burning. The sampling and analytical procedures applied in this study showed that sugar-cane burning and agricultural practices are the main sources of inhalable particles, possibly altering the aerosol composition around the city of Piracicaba.

  10. Including sugar cane in the agro-ecosystem model ORCHIDEE-STICS: calibration and validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valade, A.; Vuichard, N.; Ciais, P.; Viovy, N.

    2011-12-01

    Sugarcane is currently the most efficient bioenergy crop with regards to the energy produced per hectare. With approximately half the global bioethanol production in 2005, and a devoted land area expected to expand globally in the years to come, sugar cane is at the heart of the biofuel debate. Dynamic global vegetation models coupled with agronomical models are powerful and novel tools to tackle many of the environmental issues related to biofuels if they are carefully calibrated and validated against field observations. Here we adapt the agro-terrestrial model ORCHIDEE-STICS for sugar cane simulations. Observation data of LAI are used to evaluate the sensitivity of the model to parameters of nitrogen absorption and phenology, which are calibrated in a systematic way for six sites in Australia and La Reunion. We find that the optimal set of parameters is highly dependent on the sites' characteristics and that the model can reproduce satisfactorily the evolution of LAI. This careful calibration of ORCHIDEE-STICS for sugar cane biomass production for different locations and technical itineraries provides a strong basis for further analysis of the impacts of bioenergy-related land use change on carbon cycle budgets. As a next step, a sensitivity analysis is carried out to estimate the uncertainty of the model in biomass and carbon flux simulation due to its parameterization.

  11. An improved chemically inducible gene switch that functions in the monocotyledonous plant sugar cane.

    PubMed

    Kinkema, Mark; Geijskes, R Jason; Shand, Kylie; Coleman, Heather D; De Lucca, Paulo C; Palupe, Anthony; Harrison, Mark D; Jepson, Ian; Dale, James L; Sainz, Manuel B

    2014-03-01

    Chemically inducible gene switches can provide precise control over gene expression, enabling more specific analyses of gene function and expanding the plant biotechnology toolkit beyond traditional constitutive expression systems. The alc gene expression system is one of the most promising chemically inducible gene switches in plants because of its potential in both fundamental research and commercial biotechnology applications. However, there are no published reports demonstrating that this versatile gene switch is functional in transgenic monocotyledonous plants, which include some of the most important agricultural crops. We found that the original alc gene switch was ineffective in the monocotyledonous plant sugar cane, and describe a modified alc system that is functional in this globally significant crop. A promoter consisting of tandem copies of the ethanol receptor inverted repeat binding site, in combination with a minimal promoter sequence, was sufficient to give enhanced sensitivity and significantly higher levels of ethanol inducible gene expression. A longer CaMV 35S minimal promoter than was used in the original alc gene switch also substantially improved ethanol inducibility. Treating the roots with ethanol effectively induced the modified alc system in sugar cane leaves and stem, while an aerial spray was relatively ineffective. The extension of this chemically inducible gene expression system to sugar cane opens the door to new opportunities for basic research and crop biotechnology.

  12. An improved chemically inducible gene switch that functions in the monocotyledonous plant sugar cane.

    PubMed

    Kinkema, Mark; Geijskes, R Jason; Shand, Kylie; Coleman, Heather D; De Lucca, Paulo C; Palupe, Anthony; Harrison, Mark D; Jepson, Ian; Dale, James L; Sainz, Manuel B

    2014-03-01

    Chemically inducible gene switches can provide precise control over gene expression, enabling more specific analyses of gene function and expanding the plant biotechnology toolkit beyond traditional constitutive expression systems. The alc gene expression system is one of the most promising chemically inducible gene switches in plants because of its potential in both fundamental research and commercial biotechnology applications. However, there are no published reports demonstrating that this versatile gene switch is functional in transgenic monocotyledonous plants, which include some of the most important agricultural crops. We found that the original alc gene switch was ineffective in the monocotyledonous plant sugar cane, and describe a modified alc system that is functional in this globally significant crop. A promoter consisting of tandem copies of the ethanol receptor inverted repeat binding site, in combination with a minimal promoter sequence, was sufficient to give enhanced sensitivity and significantly higher levels of ethanol inducible gene expression. A longer CaMV 35S minimal promoter than was used in the original alc gene switch also substantially improved ethanol inducibility. Treating the roots with ethanol effectively induced the modified alc system in sugar cane leaves and stem, while an aerial spray was relatively ineffective. The extension of this chemically inducible gene expression system to sugar cane opens the door to new opportunities for basic research and crop biotechnology. PMID:24142380

  13. Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of sugar cane renewable jet fuel.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Marcelo; Gurgel, Angelo C; Seabra, Joaquim E A

    2014-12-16

    This study evaluated the life cycle GHG emissions of a renewable jet fuel produced from sugar cane in Brazil under a consequential approach. The analysis included the direct and indirect emissions associated with sugar cane production and fuel processing, distribution, and use for a projected 2020 scenario. The CA-GREET model was used as the basic analytical tool, while Land Use Change (LUC) emissions were estimated employing the GTAP-BIO-ADV and AEZ-EF models. Feedstock production and LUC impacts were evaluated as the main sources of emissions, respectively estimated as 14.6 and 12 g CO2eq/MJ of biofuel in the base case. However, the renewable jet fuel would strongly benefit from bagasse and trash-based cogeneration, which would enable a net life cycle emission of 8.5 g CO2eq/MJ of biofuel in the base case, whereas Monte Carlo results indicate 21 ± 11 g CO2eq/MJ. Besides the major influence of the electricity surplus, the sensitivity analysis showed that the cropland-pasture yield elasticity and the choice of the land use factor employed to sugar cane are relevant parameters for the biofuel life cycle performance. Uncertainties about these estimations exist, especially because the study relies on projected performances, and further studies about LUC are also needed to improve the knowledge about their contribution to the renewable jet fuel life cycle.

  14. Thermophilic actinomycetes in cane sugar mills: an aeromicrobiologic and seroepidemiologic study.

    PubMed

    Khan, Z U; Gangwar, M; Gaur, S N; Randhawa, H S

    1995-01-01

    Aerial prevalence of clinically important thermophilic actinomycetes and occurrence of precipitating antibodies against them in sera of 153 exposed workers have been reported. The study was carried out in two cane sugar mills namely, the Upper Doab Sugar Mills and the Ramala Sugar Mills, located in north-west India. In both the sugar mills, T. sacchari was the predominant species, it accounted for 55.1% and 50.3% of the total population of thermophilic actinomycetes, followed by T. vulgaris (19.7% and 23.7%), T. thalpophilus (21.1% and 17.1%), Saccharomonospora viridis (3.4% and 5.0%) and Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula (Faenia rectivirgula) (0.7% and 3.9%), respectively. Precipitating antibodies against thermophilic actinomycetes were demonstrable in 34 (22.2%) workers; T. sacchari alone accounted for 20 of the positive precipitin reactions, followed by S. rectivirgula in 10. The mean absorbance values for IgG antibody activity against T. sacchari as well as S. rectivirgula were found to be elevated significantly in the symptomatic workers than in the asymptomatic workers (p < 0.05) or unexposed controls (p < 0.001). However, the difference in IgG antibody activity was insignificant between precipitin-positive symptomatic workers and precipitin-positive asymptomatic workers. The results indicate that clinically important thermophilic actinomycetes are widely prevalent in cane sugar mills, and T. sacchari and S. rectivirgula are the major species involved in the sensitization of the bagasse workers in India.

  15. Electric power from sugar cane in Costa Rica. A technical and economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Tugwell, F.; Gowen, M.; Kenda, W.; Cohen, A.

    1988-07-01

    A team of specialists visited Costa Rica in May 1988 to analyze the potential for production and sale of electricity by the sugar-cane industry. Focusing on three sugar mills, the team made technical projections at four levels of investment, ranging from the simplest sale of surplus power to the installation of new turbogenerator systems. For each level, capital costs, electricity production and sales, and fuel options were estimated. Associated risks were assessed through sensitivity analyses to demonstrate the possible impacts of varying interest rates, fuel costs, and electricity sales prices. The team concluded that production and sale of electricity for the national grid could be an excellent investment opportunity for the sugar industry and would provide important economic benefits, including creation of additional jobs in rural areas, diversification of the sugar industry, and (in the short term) displacement of the need for imported fuels.

  16. 40 CFR 409.60 - Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.60 Section 409.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii Raw Cane Sugar...

  17. 40 CFR 409.60 - Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.60 Section 409.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii Raw Cane Sugar...

  18. 40 CFR 409.60 - Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.60 Section 409.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii Raw Cane Sugar...

  19. 40 CFR 409.60 - Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.60 Section 409.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii Raw Cane Sugar...

  20. 40 CFR 409.60 - Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.60 Section 409.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii Raw Cane Sugar...

  1. Firmicutes dominate the bacterial taxa within sugar-cane processing plants

    PubMed Central

    Sharmin, Farhana; Wakelin, Steve; Huygens, Flavia; Hargreaves, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Sugar cane processing sites are characterised by high sugar/hemicellulose levels, available moisture and warm conditions, and are relatively unexplored unique microbial environments. The PhyloChip microarray was used to investigate bacterial diversity and community composition in three Australian sugar cane processing plants. These ecosystems were highly complex and dominated by four main Phyla, Firmicutes (the most dominant), followed by Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Chloroflexi. Significant variation (p < 0.05) in community structure occurred between samples collected from ‘floor dump sediment’, ‘cooling tower water’, and ‘bagasse leachate’. Many bacterial Classes contributed to these differences, however most were of low numerical abundance. Separation in community composition was also linked to Classes of Firmicutes, particularly Bacillales, Lactobacillales and Clostridiales, whose dominance is likely to be linked to their physiology as ‘lactic acid bacteria’, capable of fermenting the sugars present. This process may help displace other bacterial taxa, providing a competitive advantage for Firmicutes bacteria. PMID:24177592

  2. 75 FR 39612 - Allocation of Second Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ... Proclamation 6763 (60 FR 1007). On July 6, 2010, the Secretary of Agriculture announced a second additional in... Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Office of... imported raw cane sugar. DATES: Effective Date: July 9, 2010. ADDRESSES: Inquiries may be mailed...

  3. Sugar Cane Water Foot Print for Brazilian Major Varietes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, R. D.; Maschio, R.; Leal, D. P.; Barbosa, F. D.; Mauri, R.

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the water productivity (PA) into biomass, sugar and energy for 24 brazilian sugarcane varieties under drip irrigation, subjected to full and deficit irrigation treatments during growing stage. Two experiments were established under greenhouse conditions at the Biosystems Engineering Department, ESALQ/USP, Piracicaba, SP. Experiment 1: ten varieties on a clay soil (RB835054, RB855453, RB855536, RB925211, RB867515, SP89-1115, SP81-3250, CTC14, CTC8 e CTC6) and Experiment 2: fourteen varieties on a sandy-loam soil (RB925345, RB855156, RB966928, RB72454, RB92579, IACSP95-5000, Caiana, SP83-2847, SP90-3414, SP79-1011, CTC17, CTC15, CTC9 e CTC2). In both experiments it was adopted two irrigation treatments: T100 - full irrigation with 100% crop evapotranspiration replacement, maintaining soil moisture near field capacity, and T70 - irrigation with 70% of water depth applied to T100 treatment. Irrigation treatments were initiated at 101 days of crop cycle, corresponding to the end of tillering and the beginning of intense stalk growth phase (first ratoon). It was observed variation in the water productivity into fresh stalk biomass (PABFC) from 16.22 to 29.21 kg m-3, according of the varieties and irrigation treatments applied. The highest values were observed for varieties CTC6, CTC14, RB867515, SP81-3250 and RB92579, under full irrigation treatment (T100), and CTC6, CTC14 and SP90-3414, under deficit irrigation treatment (T70). Water productivity into sugar (PABATR) ranged from 1.95 to 3.84 kg m-3, highest values were observed for varieties CTC6 and RB92579 (T100), as well as RB835054 e RB966928 (T70). Water productivity into total energy (PAETOT) varied from 101.17 to 174.65 MJ m-3, with highest values for varieties:SP81-3250, CTC6, CTC17 and RB92579 (T100 treatment), as well as SP90-3414, SP81-3250 and CTC6 (T70 treatment).

  4. Downstream processing for xylitol recovery from fermented sugar cane bagasse hydrolysate using aluminium polychloride.

    PubMed

    Silva, S S; Ramos, R M; Rodrigues, D C; Mancilha, I M

    2000-01-01

    Xylitol, a sweetener comparable to sucrose, is anticariogenic and can be consumed by diabetics. This sugar has been employed successfully in many foods and pharmaceutical products. The discovery of microorganisms capable of converting xylose present in lignocellulosic biomass into xylitol offers the opportunity of producing this poliol in a simple way. Xylitol production by biotechnological means using sugar cane bagasse is under study in our laboratories, and fermentation parameters have already been established. However, the downstream processing for xylitol recovery is still a bottleneck on which there is only a few data available in the literature. The present study deals with xylitol recovery from fermented sugar cane bagasse hydrolysate using 5.2 g/l of aluminium polychloride associated with activated charcoal. The experiments were performed at pH 9, 50 degrees C for 50 min. The results showed that aluminium polychloride and activated charcoal promoted a 93.5% reduction in phenolic compounds and a 9.7% loss of xylitol from the fermented medium, which became more discoloured, facilitating the xylitol separation.

  5. Influence of sugar cane burning on aerosol soluble ion composition in Southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, A. G.; Cardoso, A. A.; da Rocha, G. O.

    2004-09-01

    Seasonal variability in the major soluble ion composition of atmospheric particulate matter in the principal sugar cane growing region of central São Paulo State indicates that pre-harvest burning of sugar cane plants is an important influence on the regional scale aerosol chemistry. Samples of particulate matter were collected between April 1999 and February 2001 in coarse (> 3.5 μm) and fine (< 3.5 μm) fractions, and analysed for HCOO-, CH3COO-, C2O42- , SO42-, NO3-, Cl-, Na+, K+, NH4+, Mg2+ and Ca2+. Results indicated that the principal sources of the aerosols investigated were local or regional in nature (scale of tens to a few hundreds of km), and that differences between air masses of varying origins were small. Fine particles were typically acidic, containing secondary nitrates, sulphates and organic species. Coarse fraction concentrations were mainly influenced by physical parameters (wind speed, movement of vehicles and surface condition) affecting rates of re-suspension, although secondary nitrate and sulphate were also present in the larger particles. Concentrations of all measured species except sodium and chloride were higher during the burning season. Although concentrations were lower than often found in polluted urban environments, the massive increases during much of the year, due to a single anthropogenic activity (sugar cane burning) are indicative of a very large perturbation of the lower troposphere in the region relative to the natural condition. These aerosols are suspected of promoting respiratory disease. They also represent an important mechanism for the tropospheric transport of species relevant to surface acidification (sulphates, nitrates, ammonium and organic acids) and soil nutrient status (potassium, nitrogen, ammonium, calcium), so their impact on fragile natural ecosystems (following deposition) needs to be considered.

  6. Control of Invertase Synthesis in Sugar Cane. Loci of Auxin and Glucose Effects

    PubMed Central

    Glasziou, K. T.; Waldron, J. C.; Bull, T. A.

    1966-01-01

    In tissue slices from rapidly expanding internodes of sugar cane the vacuolar invertase level is a function of the balance between synthesis and destruction. The enzyme is destroyed in the tissue at an approximately constant rate with a half time of 2 hours. Invertase synthesis is regulated by both auxin and glucose. From studies with inhibitors of protein and RNA synthesis we conclude that auxin alters the rate of synthesis and glucose increases the rate of destruction of messenger RNA required for the production of invertase. PMID:16656252

  7. Cyclic AMP regulates the biosynthesis of cellobiohydrolase in Cellulomonas flavigena growing in sugar cane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Herrera, Jesús Antonio; Pérez-Avalos, Odilia; Salgado, Luis M; Ponce-Noyola, Teresa

    2009-10-01

    Cellulomonas flavigena produces a battery of cellulase components that act concertedly to degrade cellulose. The addition of cAMP to repressed C. flavigena cultures released catabolic repression, while addition of cAMP to induced C. flavigena cultures led to a cellobiohydrolase hyperproduction. Exogenous cAMP showed positive regulation on cellobiohydrolase production in C. flavigena grown on sugar cane bagasse. A C. flavigena cellobiohydrolase gene was cloned (named celA), which coded for a 71- kDa enzyme. Upstream, a repressor celR1, identified as a 38 kDa protein, was monitored by use of polyclonal antibodies.

  8. Chemometric characterization of alembic and industrial sugar cane spirits from cape verde and ceará, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Regina F R; Vidal, Carla B; de Lima, Ari C A; Melo, Diego Q; Dantas, Allan N S; Lopes, Gisele S; do Nascimento, Ronaldo F; Gomes, Clerton L; da Silva, Maria Nataniela

    2012-01-01

    Sugar cane spirits are some of the most popular alcoholic beverages consumed in Cape Verde. The sugar cane spirit industry in Cape Verde is based mainly on archaic practices that operate without supervision and without efficient control of the production process. The objective of this work was to evaluate samples of industrial and alembic sugar cane spirits from Cape Verde and Ceará, Brazil using principal component analysis. Thirty-two samples of spirits were analyzed, twenty from regions of the islands of Cape Verde and twelve from Ceará, Brazil. Of the samples obtained from Ceará, Brazil seven are alembic and five are industrial spirits. The components analyzed in these studies included the following: volatile organic compounds (n-propanol, isobutanol, isoamylic, higher alcohols, alcoholic grade, acetaldehyde, acetic acid, acetate); copper; and sulfates.

  9. Chemometric Characterization of Alembic and Industrial Sugar Cane Spirits from Cape Verde and Ceará, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Regina F. R.; Vidal, Carla B.; de Lima, Ari C. A.; Melo, Diego Q.; Dantas, Allan N. S.; Lopes, Gisele S.; do Nascimento, Ronaldo F.; Gomes, Clerton L.; da Silva, Maria Nataniela

    2012-01-01

    Sugar cane spirits are some of the most popular alcoholic beverages consumed in Cape Verde. The sugar cane spirit industry in Cape Verde is based mainly on archaic practices that operate without supervision and without efficient control of the production process. The objective of this work was to evaluate samples of industrial and alembic sugar cane spirits from Cape Verde and Ceará, Brazil using principal component analysis. Thirty-two samples of spirits were analyzed, twenty from regions of the islands of Cape Verde and twelve from Ceará, Brazil. Of the samples obtained from Ceará, Brazil seven are alembic and five are industrial spirits. The components analyzed in these studies included the following: volatile organic compounds (n-propanol, isobutanol, isoamylic, higher alcohols, alcoholic grade, acetaldehyde, acetic acid, acetate); copper; and sulfates. PMID:23227051

  10. Induction of apoptosis in human leukemia cells by naturally fermented sugar cane vinegar (kibizu) of Amami Ohshima Island.

    PubMed

    Mimura, Akio; Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Toshima, Youhei; Yazaki, Shin-ichi; Ohtsuki, Takashi; Ui, Sadaharu; Hyodoh, Fuminori

    2004-01-01

    Naturally fermented vinegar such as Kibizu (sugar cane vinegar in Amami Ohshima, Japan), Kurozu (black rice vinegar in Kagoshima, Japan), Kouzu (black rice vinegar in China) and red wine vinegar in Italy had potent radical-scavenging activity analyzed by DPPH method. For the elucidation of food factor for cancer prevention contained in naturally fermented vinegar, the induction of apoptosis in human leukemia cell HL-60 was investigated with sugar cane vinegar Kibizu. Fraction eluted by 40% methanol from Amberlite XAD 2 chromatography of sugar cane vinegar showed potent radical scavenging activity. The fraction also showed the activity repressing growth of typical human leukemia cells such as HL-60, THP-1, Molt-4, U-937, Jurkat, Raji and K-562. On the other hand, the fraction did not have any growth inhibition activity against human fetal lung cell TIG-1. The most potent radical-scavenging activity and the growth repression activity of the leukemia cell were observed in the same chromatographic fraction of methanol 40%. From cell sorting FACS analyses, electron microscopic observations and cytochemical staining of chromatin and nuclear segments in human leukemia cell HL-60 treated with the active fraction, it was concluded that apoptosis was induced in the leukemia cell by the fraction of sugar cane vinegar and resulted in the repression of growth of the human leukemia cells. Chromatographic fraction of sugar cane juice eluted by 20% methanol showed potent activities of radical-scavenging and growth repression of HL-60. These results led us the consideration that active components in sugar cane juice could be converted to more lipophilic compounds with activity to induce apoptosis in HL-60 by microbial fermentation with yeast and acetic acid bacteria.

  11. Optimizing the saccharification of sugar cane bagasse using dilute phosphoric acid followed by fungal cellulases.

    PubMed

    Geddes, C C; Peterson, J J; Roslander, C; Zacchi, G; Mullinnix, M T; Shanmugam, K T; Ingram, L O

    2010-03-01

    A low level of phosphoric acid (1% w/w on dry bagasse basis, 160 degrees C and above, 10 min) was shown to effectively hydrolyze the hemicellulose in sugar cane bagasse into monomers with minimal side reactions and to serve as an effective pre-treatment for the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. Up to 45% of the remaining water-insoluble solids (WIS) was digested to sugar monomers by a low concentration of Biocellulase W (0.5 filter paper unit/gWIS) supplemented with beta-glucosidase, although much higher levels of cellulase (100-fold) were required for complete hydrolysis. After neutralization and nutrient addition, phosphoric acid syrups of hemicellulose sugars were fermented by ethanologenic Escherichia coli LY160 without further purification. Fermentation of these syrups was preceded by a lag that increased with increased pre-treatment temperature. Further improvements in organisms and optimization of steam treatments may allow the co-fermentation of sugars derived from hemicellulose and cellulose, eliminating need for liquid-solid separation, sugar purification, and separate fermentations.

  12. Washoff of Residual Photosystem II Herbicides from Sugar Cane Trash under a Rainfall Simulator.

    PubMed

    Dang, Aaditi; Silburn, Mark; Craig, Ian; Shaw, Melanie; Foley, Jenny

    2016-05-25

    Herbicides are often applied to crop residues, but their fate has not been well studied. We measured herbicide washoff from sugar cane trash during simulated rainfall, at 1, 8, and 40 days after spraying (DAS), to provide insight into herbicide fate and for use in modeling. Herbicides included are commonly used in the sugar industry, either in Australia or in Brazil. Concentrations of all herbicides and applied Br tracer in washoff declined exponentially over time. The rate of washoff during rainfall declined with increasing DAS. Cumulative washoff as a function of rainfall was similar for most herbicides, although the most soluble herbicides did have more rapid washoff. Some but not all herbicides became more resistant to washoff with increasing DAS. Of the total mass washed off, 80% washed off in the first 30 mm (∼40 min) of rainfall for most herbicides. Little herbicide remained on the trash after rainfall, implying nearly complete washoff. PMID:26964670

  13. Washoff of Residual Photosystem II Herbicides from Sugar Cane Trash under a Rainfall Simulator.

    PubMed

    Dang, Aaditi; Silburn, Mark; Craig, Ian; Shaw, Melanie; Foley, Jenny

    2016-05-25

    Herbicides are often applied to crop residues, but their fate has not been well studied. We measured herbicide washoff from sugar cane trash during simulated rainfall, at 1, 8, and 40 days after spraying (DAS), to provide insight into herbicide fate and for use in modeling. Herbicides included are commonly used in the sugar industry, either in Australia or in Brazil. Concentrations of all herbicides and applied Br tracer in washoff declined exponentially over time. The rate of washoff during rainfall declined with increasing DAS. Cumulative washoff as a function of rainfall was similar for most herbicides, although the most soluble herbicides did have more rapid washoff. Some but not all herbicides became more resistant to washoff with increasing DAS. Of the total mass washed off, 80% washed off in the first 30 mm (∼40 min) of rainfall for most herbicides. Little herbicide remained on the trash after rainfall, implying nearly complete washoff.

  14. Volatilisation of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species during the pyrolysis of biomass: differences between sugar cane bagasse and cane trash.

    PubMed

    Keown, Daniel M; Favas, George; Hayashi, Jun-ichiro; Li, Chun-Zhu

    2005-09-01

    Sugar cane bagasse and cane trash were pyrolysed in a novel quartz fluidised-bed/fixed-bed reactor. Quantification of the Na, K, Mg and Ca in chars revealed that pyrolysis temperature, heating rate, valence and biomass type were important factors influencing the volatilisation of these alkali and alkaline earth metallic (AAEM) species. Pyrolysis at a slow heating rate (approximately 10 K min(-1)) led to minimal (often <20%) volatilisation of AAEM species from these biomass samples. Fast heating rates (>1000 K s(-1)), encouraging volatile-char interactions with the current reactor configuration, resulted in the volatilisation of around 80% of Na, K, Mg and Ca from bagasse during pyrolysis at 900 degrees C. Similar behaviour was observed for monovalent Na and K with cane trash, but the volatilisation of Mg and Ca from cane trash was always restricted. The difference in Cl content between bagasse and cane trash was not sufficient to fully explain the difference in the volatilisation of Mg and Ca.

  15. IMPROVED BIOREFINERY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL, CHEMICALS, ANIMAL FEED AND BIOMATERIALS FROM SUGAR CANE

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Donal F. Day

    2009-01-29

    The Audubon Sugar Institute (ASI) of Louisiana State University’s Agricultural Center (LSU AgCenter) and MBI International (MBI) sought to develop technologies that will lead to the development of a sugar-cane biorefinery, capable of supplying fuel ethanol from bagasse. Technology development focused on the conversion of bagasse, cane-leaf matter (CLM) and molasses into high value-added products that included ethanol, specialty chemicals, biomaterials and animal feed; i.e. a sugar cane-based biorefinery. The key to lignocellulosic biomass utilization is an economically feasible method (pretreatment) for separating the cellulose and the hemicellulose from the physical protection provided by lignin. An effective pretreatment disrupts physical barriers, cellulose crystallinity, and the association of lignin and hemicellulose with cellulose so that hydrolytic enzymes can access the biomass macrostructure (Teymouri et al. 2004, Laureano-Perez, 2005). We chose to focus on alkaline pretreatment methods for, and in particular, the Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) process owned by MBI. During the first two years of this program a laboratory process was established for the pretreatment of bagasse and CLM using the AFEX process. There was significant improvement of both rate and yield of glucose and xylose upon enzymatic hydrolysis of AFEX-treated bagasse and CLM compared with untreated material. Because of reactor size limitation, several other alkaline pretreatment methods were also co-investigated. They included, dilute ammonia, lime and hydroxy-hypochlorite treatments. Scale-up focused on using a dilute ammonia process as a substitute for AFEX, allowing development at a larger scale. The pretreatment of bagasse by an ammonia process, followed by saccharification and fermentation produced ethanol from bagasse. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) allowed two operations in the same vessel. The addition of sugarcane molasses to the hydrolysate

  16. Calcium phosphate flocs and the clarification of sugar cane juice from whole of crop harvesting.

    PubMed

    Thai, Caroline C D; Moghaddam, Lalehvash; Doherty, William O S

    2015-02-11

    Sugar cane biomass is one of the most viable feedstocks for the production of renewable fuels and chemicals. Therefore, processing the whole of crop (WC) (i.e., stalk and trash, instead of stalk only) will increase the amount of available biomass for this purpose. However, effective clarification of juice expressed from WC for raw sugar manufacture is a major challenge because of the amounts and types of non-sucrose impurities (e.g., polysaccharides, inorganics, proteins, etc.) present. Calcium phosphate flocs are important during sugar cane juice clarification because they are responsible for the removal of impurities. Therefore, to gain a better understanding of the role of calcium phosphate flocs during the juice clarification process, the effects of impurities on the physicochemical properties of calcium phosphate flocs were examined using small-angle laser light scattering technique, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction. Results on synthetic sugar juice solutions showed that the presence of SiO2 and Na(+) ions affected floc size and floc structure. Starch and phosphate ions did not affect the floc structure; however, the former reduced the floc size, whereas the latter increased the floc size. The study revealed that high levels of Na(+) ions would negatively affect the clarification process the most, as they would reduce the amount of suspended particles trapped by the flocs. A complementary study on prepared WC juice using cold and cold/intermediate liming techniques was conducted. The study demonstrated that, in comparison to the one-stage (i.e., conventional) clarification process, a two-stage clarification process using cold liming removed more polysaccharides (≤19%), proteins (≤82%), phosphorus (≤53%), and SiO2 (≤23%) in WC juice but increased Ca(2+) (≤136%) and sulfur (≤200%).

  17. Improved sugar cane juice clarification by understanding calcium oxide-phosphate-sucrose systems.

    PubMed

    Doherty, William O S

    2011-03-01

    It is accepted that the efficiency of sugar cane clarification is closely linked with sugar juice composition (including suspended or insoluble impurities), the inorganic phosphate content, the liming condition and type, and the interactions between the juice components. These interactions are not well understood, particularly those between calcium, phosphate, and sucrose in sugar cane juice. Studies have been conducted on calcium oxide (CaO)/phosphate/sucrose systems in both synthetic and factory juices to provide further information on the defecation process (i.e., simple liming to effect impurity removal) and to identify an effective clarification process that would result in reduced scaling of sugar factory evaporators, pans, and centrifugals. Results have shown that a two-stage process involving the addition of lime saccharate to a set juice pH followed by the addition of sodium hydroxide to a final juice pH or a similar two-stage process where the order of addition of the alkalis is reversed prior to clarification reduces the impurity loading of the clarified juice compared to that of the clarified juice obtained by the conventional defecation process. The treatment process showed reductions in CaO (27% to 50%) and MgO (up to 20%) in clarified juices with no apparent loss in juice clarity or increase in residence time of the mud particles compared to those in the conventional process. There was also a reduction in the SiO2 content. However, the disadvantage of this process is the significant increase in the Na2O content.

  18. Study of Sugar Cane Management Systems in Brazil Using Laser Induced Fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral, Jader; Villas-Boas, Paulino; Carvalho, Camila; Corá, José Eduardo; Milori, Débora

    2014-05-01

    Brazil is the largest producer of cane sugar, consequently, is a leader in the production of bio-ethanol, a clean and renewable energy that fits the model of sustainable economy as discussed and pursued by our society. Our state of São Paulo concentrates 60% of national production, representing a sizeable share in the range of world production. All this economic potential is closely monitored by the scientific community, which develops numerous studies seeking an improvement in production efficiency and reduced environmental impacts caused by the planting. However, the study of soil samples, in plantation areas, demands results about the content and structural forms of organic matter (OM). Also, the soil carbon stocks depend on the type of management. Our goal is to study OM of soil samples from four sugar cane management systems: (i) unburned cane harvest, (ii) preharvest burned, (iii) addition of sugarcane bagasse ash and (iv) addition of residue from the extraction of sucrose, using Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy of solid state. All the emission spectra were acquired using the system called LIFS-405, which consists of a diode laser Coherent, model cube with excitation at 405 nm, maximum output power of 50mJ and a mini-spectrometer, Ocean Optics USB2000-high sensitivity, with range of 194-894 nm and a fiber-optic bundle design (six excitation fibers in a circular path and one central fiber the collect the fluorescence). In this work, we will present the preliminary results evolving the humification index (HLIFS) of soil OM and total carbon amount (TC) for the different types of management. HLIFS shows a close correlation with the humification index of humic acid in solution obtained by means 2D conventional fluorescence spectroscopy.

  19. Sugar cane vinasse in water bodies: impact assessed by liver histopathology in tilapia.

    PubMed

    Marinho, Júlia Fernanda Urbano; Correia, Jorge Evangelista; Marcato, Ana Claudia de Castro; Pedro-Escher, Janaína; Fontanetti, Carmem Silvia

    2014-12-01

    Aquatic ecosystems are the main receptors of toxic substances from human activities. With the increase in sugar cane production, vinasse - the main residue of ethanol production - is a potential contaminant of water resources, due to its high organic matter content. This study was aimed at evaluating the toxicity of vinasse by examining the liver of the fish Oreochromis niloticus exposed to different dilutions of sugar cane vinasse (1%, 2%, 5%, 5% and 10%) in laboratory bioassays. Portions of liver were collected and fixed for histological and histochemical techniques to detect total proteins, polysaccharides and lipids. In the histological analysis, the groups treated with vinasse exhibited significant alterations, such as loss of cytoplasmic integrity, loss of cell limit and tissue disorganization. Protein and lipid profiles were not altered. Higher accumulation of polysaccharides was detected in fish exposed to lower concentrations of vinasse, with a gradual decrease in animals treated with vinasse in higher concentrations. We concluded that vinasse has a dose-dependent toxic and cytotoxic potential in water bodies and that the liver is strongly affected when acutely exposed to this contaminant. PMID:25265025

  20. Comparative respiratory toxicity of particles produced by traffic and sugar cane burning.

    PubMed

    Mazzoli-Rocha, Flavia; Magalhães, Clarissa Bichara; Malm, Olaf; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Zin, Walter Araujo; Faffe, Débora Souza

    2008-09-01

    The impact of particle emissions by biomass burning is increasing throughout the world. We explored the toxicity of particulate matter produced by sugar cane burning and compared these effects with equivalent mass of traffic-derived particles. For this purpose, BALB/c mice received a single intranasal instillation of either distilled water (C) or total suspended particles (15 microg) from an urban area (SP group) or biomass burning-derived particles (Bio group). Lung mechanical parameters (total, resistive and viscoelastic pressures, static elastance, and elastic component of viscoelasticity) and histology were analyzed 24h after instillation. Trace elements and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) metabolites of the two sources of particles were determined. All mechanical parameters increased similarly in both pollution groups compared with control, except airway resistive pressure, which increased only in Bio. Both exposed groups showed significantly higher fraction area of alveolar collapse, and influx of polymorphonuclear cells in lung parenchyma than C. The composition analysis of total suspended particles showed higher concentrations of PAHs and lower concentration of metals in traffic than in biomass burning-derived particles. In conclusion, we demonstrated that a single low dose of ambient particles, produced by traffic and sugar cane burning, induced significant alterations in pulmonary mechanics and lung histology in mice. Parenchymal changes were similar after exposure to both particle sources, whereas airway mechanics was more affected by biomass-derived particles. Our results indicate that biomass particles were at least as toxic as those produced by traffic.

  1. Long-term prospects for the environmental profile of advanced sugar cane ethanol.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Cinthia R U; Franco, Henrique Coutinho Junqueira; Junqueira, Tassia Lopes; van Oers, Lauran; van der Voet, Ester; Seabra, Joaquim E A

    2014-10-21

    This work assessed the environmental impacts of the production and use of 1 MJ of hydrous ethanol (E100) in Brazil in prospective scenarios (2020-2030), considering the deployment of technologies currently under development and better agricultural practices. The life cycle assessment technique was employed using the CML method for the life cycle impact assessment and the Monte Carlo method for the uncertainty analysis. Abiotic depletion, global warming, human toxicity, ecotoxicity, photochemical oxidation, acidification, and eutrophication were the environmental impacts categories analyzed. Results indicate that the proposed improvements (especially no-til farming-scenarios s2 and s4) would lead to environmental benefits in prospective scenarios compared to the current ethanol production (scenario s0). Combined first and second generation ethanol production (scenarios s3 and s4) would require less agricultural land but would not perform better than the projected first generation ethanol, although the uncertainties are relatively high. The best use of 1 ha of sugar cane was also assessed, considering the displacement of the conventional products by ethanol and electricity. No-til practices combined with the production of first generation ethanol and electricity (scenario s2) would lead to the largest mitigation effects for global warming and abiotic depletion. For the remaining categories, emissions would not be mitigated with the utilization of the sugar cane products. However, this conclusion is sensitive to the displaced electricity sources.

  2. Treatment of cane sugar mill wastewater in an upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Nacheva, P Mijaylova; Chávez, G Moeller; Chacón, J Matías; Chuil, A Canul

    2009-01-01

    The performance of a mesophilic UASB reactor was studied for the treatment of sugar cane mill wastewater previously pre-treated for solid separation. The experimental work was carried out in a reactor with 80 L total volume. Four organic loads were applied and the process performance was evaluated during two months for each experimental stage. Removal efficiencies higher than 90% were obtained with organic loads up to 16 kg COD m(-3) d(-1). Stable process performance and high biogas production were obtained. The COD removal rate increased substantially with the load increase to 24 kg COD m(-3) d(-1). However, the obtained removal was of only 78-82%, which can be attributed to the accumulation of volatile organic acids. The kinetic coefficients were obtained using first order model for the substrate removal rate and Monod's equation for bacteria specific growth rate. The UASB reactor is a good option for the biological treatment of pre-treated sugar cane mill wastewaters. The discharge requirements for COD concentration can be accomplished if the reactor is operated at a low organic load of 4 kg COD m(-3) d(-1). At higher loads, an additional biological treatment stage is needed.

  3. Rudimentary, low tech incinerators as a means to produce reactive pozzolan out of sugar cane straw

    SciTech Connect

    Martirena, Fernando . E-mail: f.martirena@enet.cu; Middendorf, Bernhard; Day, Robert L.; Gehrke, Matthias; Roque, Pablo; Martinez, Lesday; Betancourt, Sergio

    2006-06-15

    The ashes of agricultural wastes from the processing of sugar cane are recognized as having pozzolanic properties. Burning of these wastes under controlled conditions, e.g. temperature and residence time results in significant improvement in reactivity. There are many reports of low-tech incinerators that have been successfully used to produce reactive rice husk ash in Asia. The paper presents the results of the evaluation of a rudimentary incinerator where sugar cane straw is burnt in order to obtain a reactive ash. The incinerator is designed and constructed according to state-of-the-art recommendations for this kind of device. Various burning trials were performed in order to obtain ash for the experiment. X-ray diffraction analysis performed on powdered ash shows significant presence of amorphous (glassy) material. Lime-pozzolana pastes were prepared. The pastes were subjected to X-ray diffraction, thermo-gravimetric analysis, chemical titration, and SEM observation, as a means to examine the pozzolanicity of the ash via the progress with time of calcium hydroxide consumption, and changes in the pore size distribution and strength. Calcium silicate hydrate phases are the main reaction product of the pozzolanic reaction. The long residence time of the ash in the burning chamber seems to be the reason for the fairly low reactivity of the ash; the reactivity of the ash was not significantly improved in comparison with that of the ash burnt in uncontrolled conditions in the open air.

  4. Upgrading of sugar cane bagasse by thermal processes. 9: Catalytic liquefaction in ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Lancas, F.M.; Rezemini, A.L.; Donate, P.M.

    1999-05-01

    This article presents the results of a study on the process of direct catalytic liquefaction of sugar cane bagasse, using ethanol as solvent. A systematic study with 12 different types of commercially available catalysts was accomplished. For each catalyst, the conversion yield of sugar cane bagasse into liquefied products, which are useful as liquid fuels and chemical feedstocks, was determined. The highest conversion yield was observed when a nickel catalyst on SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was used. The liquefied products were fractionated into oils, asphaltenes, and asphaltols. The oil samples were separated and then fractionated into eight different chemical classes by preparative liquid chromatography. The highest proportion of light-oils (F1 to F5) was obtained with the potassium fluoride catalyst on silica gel. High proportions of resins (F6) were obtained with three types of catalysts: nickel on SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ruthenium, or platinum on activated carbon powder. The highest proportion of asphaltenes (F7) and of asphaltols (F8) were obtained with the niobium oxide catalyst.

  5. Upgrading of sugar cane bagasse by thermal processes. 10: Catalytic liquefaction in aqueous medium

    SciTech Connect

    Lancas, F.M.; Ruggiero, M.A.; Donate, P.M.

    1999-05-01

    This work presents the results of a study of a process of direct catalytic liquefaction of sugar cane bagasse, in aqueous medium, using different pH values. The experiments were conducted in the absence as well as in the presence of commercial catalysts. In the absence of catalyst, the results showed that the conversion of sugar cane bagasse into liquefied products is not influenced by the pH of the reaction mixture. An increase in the temperature augments the yield of liquefied products. The utilization of different commercial catalysts permits an increase in the yields of liquefied products up to 92.4%, obtained with 10% palladium on activated carbon powder as catalyst. The liquefied products were fractionated into eight different chemical classes by preparative liquid chromatography (PLC-8 method). In the absence of catalyst, high conversion yields into light-oils and resins (fractions F1 to F6) was observed only at pH = 9. When the catalysts were used (at pH = 9 and at 370 C), an important increase (from 29 to 78%) of resins (fraction F6) was observed. Under this condition, the proportion of asphaltenes and asphaltols (fractions F7 and F8) decreases from 70 to 20%.

  6. Ethanol/Water Pulps From Sugar Cane Straw and Their Biobleaching With Xylanase from Bacillus pumilus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriya, Regina Y.; Gonçalves, Adilson R.; Duarte, Marta C. T.

    The influence of independent variables (temperature and time) on the cooking of sugar cane straw with ethanol/water mixtures was studied to determine operating conditions that obtain pulp with high cellulose contents and a low lignin content. An experimental 22 design was applied for temperatures of 185 and 215°C, and time of 1 and 2.5 h with the ethanol/water mixture concentration and constant straw-to-solvent ratio. The system was scaled-up at 200°C cooking temperature for 2 h with 50% ethanol-water concentration, and 1∶10 (w/v) straw-to-solvent ratio to obtain a pulp with 3.14 cP viscosity, 58.09 kappa-number, and the chemical composition of the pulps were 3.2% pentosan and 31.5% lignin. Xylanase from Bacillus pumilus was then applied at a loading of 5-150 IU/g dry pulp in the sugar cane straw ethanol/water pulp at 50°C for 2 and 20 h. To ethanol/water pulps, the best enzyme dosage was found to be 20 IU/g dry pulp at 20 h, and a high enzyme dosage of 150 IU/g dry pulp did not decrease the kappa-number of the pulp.

  7. Nitrous Oxide and Methane Fluxes Following Ammonium Sulfate and Vinasse Application on Sugar Cane Soil.

    PubMed

    Paredes, Debora da S; Alves, Bruno J R; dos Santos, Marco A; Bolonhezi, Denizart; Sant'Anna, Selenobaldo A C; Urquiaga, Segundo; Lima, Magda A; Boddey, Robert M

    2015-09-15

    This study aimed to quantify nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) emission/sink response from sugar cane soil treated with fertilizer nitrogen (N) and vinasse applied separately or in sequence, the latter being investigated with regard to the time interval between applications for a possible effect on emissions. The study was carried out in a traditional area of unburned sugar cane in São Paulo state, Brazil. Two levels of N fertilization (0 and 100 kg N ha(-1)) with no added vinasse and combined with vinasse additions at different times (100 m(-3) ha(-1) at 3 and 15 days after N fertilization) were evaluated. Methane and N2O fluxes were monitored for 211 days. On average, the soil was a sink for CH4, which was not affected by the treatments. Emissions of N2O were induced by N fertilizer and vinasse applications. For ammonium sulfate, 0.6% of the added N was emitted as N2O, while for vinasse, this ranged from 1.0 to 2.2%. Changes in N2O fluxes were detected the day after application of vinasse on the N fertilized areas, but although the emission factor (EF) was 34% greater, the EF was not significantly different from fertilizer N alone. Nevertheless, we recommend to not apply vinasse after N fertilization to avoid boosting N2O emissions. PMID:26295867

  8. Hydrolysis of Ammonia-pretreated Sugar Cane Bagasse with Cellulase, β-Glucosidase, and Hemicellulase Preparations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prior, Bernard A.; Day, Donal F.

    Sugar cane bagasse consists of hemicellulose (24%) and cellulose (38%), and bioconversion of both fractions to ethanol should be considered for a viable process. We have evaluated the hydrolysis of pretreated bagasse with combinations of cellulase, β-glucosidase, and hemicellulase. Ground bagasse was pretreated either by the AFEX process (2NH3: 1 biomass, 100 °C, 30 min) or with NH4OH (0.5 g NH4OH of a 28% [v/v] per gram dry biomass; 160 °C, 60 min), and composition analysis showed that the glucan and xylan fractions remained largely intact. The enzyme activities of four commercial xylanase preparations and supernatants of four laboratory-grown fungi were determined and evaluated for their ability to boost xylan hydrolysis when added to cellulase and β-glucosidase (10 filter paper units [FPU]: 20 cellobiase units [CBU]/g glucan). At 1% glucan loading, the commercial enzyme preparations (added at 10% or 50% levels of total protein in the enzyme preparations) boosted xylan and glucan hydrolysis in both pretreated bagasse samples. Xylanase addition at 10% protein level also improved hydrolysis of xylan and glucan fractions up to 10% glucan loading (28% solids loading). Significant xylanase activity in enzyme cocktails appears to be required for improving hydrolysis of both glucan and xylan fractions of ammonia pretreated sugar cane bagasse.

  9. Burkholderia silvatlantica sp. nov., a diazotrophic bacterium associated with sugar cane and maize.

    PubMed

    Perin, L; Martínez-Aguilar, L; Paredes-Valdez, G; Baldani, J I; Estrada-de Los Santos, P; Reis, V M; Caballero-Mellado, J

    2006-08-01

    In a previous study, nitrogen-fixing isolates were recovered from the rhizosphere of maize and from surface-sterilized leaves of sugar cane cultivated in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, these isolates were identified as belonging to the genus Burkholderia, and whole-cell-protein profiles demonstrated that they are closely related to each other. In the present study, novel isolates were recovered from the roots of different sugar-cane varieties cultivated in diverse geographical regions of Brazil. Twenty-one nitrogen-fixing isolates were analysed using polyphasic taxonomy criteria, including DNA-DNA relatedness, 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, fatty acid profiles, whole-cell-protein patterns and multilocus enzyme electrophoresis profiles, as well as morphological, physiological and biochemical characterization. The analysis confirmed that these isolates belong to a novel species within the genus Burkholderia, for which the name Burkholderia silvatlantica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain, SRMrh-20(T) (=LMG 23149(T)=ATCC BAA-1244(T)), was isolated from the rhizosphere of maize var. Avantis A2345 cultivated in Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro. PMID:16902033

  10. Bioaccessible arsenic in soils of former sugar cane plantations, Island of Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Cutler, William G; Brewer, Roger C; El-Kadi, Aly; Hue, Nguyen V; Niemeyer, Patrick G; Peard, John; Ray, Chittaranjan

    2013-01-01

    Arsenical herbicides were used extensively for emergent weed control in Hawaiian sugar cane cultivation from 1913 to about 1950. As a result, surface soil arsenic concentrations average 280 mg kg(-1) across more than 60 km(2) of former sugar plantation land in the eastern portion of the Island of Hawaii. This study was conducted to elucidate the relationship between soil properties and arsenic bioaccessibility in the iron-rich volcanic soils. Soils are predominantly Andisols, formed by weathering of basaltic lava and tephra, with pedogenic solid phases consisting of short-range order iron oxyhydroxides, allophane-like aluminosilicates, and metal-humus compounds. These reactive solid phases strongly adsorb oxyanions, such as phosphate and arsenite/arsenate. High arsenic sorption capacity limits desorption and vertical migration within the soil column and prevents contamination of the underlying groundwater aquifer, despite high arsenic loading and precipitation rates. In vitro arsenic bioaccessibility, as measured by the SBRC gastric-phase test, ranges from 2% to 35% and averages 9% of total arsenic. Bioaccessible arsenic is higher in less weathered soils (Udifolists, Typic and Lithic Hydrudands) and lower in more weathered ash-dominant soils (Acrudoxic Hydrudands). Soil weathering indicators, such as reactive iron content, are strong predictors of arsenic bioaccessibility. Based on evidence from soil mineralogy, geochemistry and arsenic speciation, as well as limited soil arsenic bioavailability/bioaccessibility comparisons, risks to human health from direct contact (soil ingestion) are significantly reduced by low arsenic bioaccessibility. Nonetheless, some soils within former sugar cane cultivation areas contain bioaccessible arsenic concentrations exceeding Hawaii Department of Health risk-based action levels, and will require mitigating actions. Even higher levels of soil arsenic contamination have been identified at former pesticide storage and mixing areas

  11. Application of the OCRA Method in the sugar cane harvest and its repercussion on the workers' health. Preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Ruddy, Facci; Eduardo, Marcatto; Edoardo, Santino

    2012-01-01

    In Brazil the sugar ethanol industry has had strong growth in the last 10 years, sometimes due to the growing sugar exportation, sometimes due to the alcohol production for automobile fuel and for exportation. Despite the growing mechanization of the raw material harvest (sugar cane), the manual work still persists. The development of this article was based in the application of the OCRA Method in the sugar cane harvesting process, to evaluate the risks to the upper limbs by repetitive movements and epidemiologically prove the ratio risk x harm to the heath of the workers, as well as the probability of developing improvements in the working conditions. The analysis process consists of studying the work organization, the risks to the health of the worker and the distribution of the recovery periods during the working day.

  12. Habitat selection and coexistence of invasive cockroach species (Dictyoptera) in sugar-cane fields on Réunion island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, Stéphane; Rivault, Colette

    2006-01-01

    Selection of habitat has a profound influence on interactions among species and the assembly of ecological communities. We investigated habitat preferences to understand how different cockroach species coexist in sugar-cane fields on Réunion island. Cockroach populations belonging to a guild of seven species were surveyed during one annual cycle in eight sugar-cane fields that differed by several environmental factors, in order to investigate ecological features of cockroach species and their patterns of coexistence. Structure variations of the cockroach communities were analyzed at the field scale, at the sample unit scale, and according to variations of environmental conditions related to the annual sugar-cane growth cycle. A canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was used to elucidate relationships between species diversity, population abundance and environmental characteristics. The examination of partitioning at different spatial and temporal scales evidenced that each species occupied a particular type of habitat. The main factors influencing spatial habitat selection were at the sample unit scale: presence of ants, edge effect, soil moisture and granulometry, at the field scale: irrigation, annual rainfall, altitude and age of the field. Although a pair of species shared the same type of habitat, annual population peaks of each species did not coincide in time. This suggests that resource partitioning is based both on ecological factors and interspecific competition. Factors enhancing cockroach coexistence and factors favoring population outbursts are discussed as well as specific invasive capacities of these cockroaches and the role of the cockroach community in the sugar-cane trophic web.

  13. Including sugar cane in the agro-ecosystem model ORCHIDEE-STICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valade, A.; Vuichard, N.; Ciais, P.; Viovy, N.

    2010-12-01

    With 4 million ha currently grown for ethanol in Brazil only, approximately half the global bioethanol production in 2005 (Smeets 2008), and a devoted land area expected to expand globally in the years to come, sugar cane is at the heart of the biofuel debate. Indeed, ethanol made from biomass is currently the most widespread option for alternative transportation fuels. It was originally promoted as a carbon neutral energy resource that could bring energy independence to countries and local opportunities to farmers, until attention was drawn to its environmental and socio-economical drawbacks. It is still not clear to which extent it is a solution or a contributor to climate change mitigation. Dynamic Global Vegetation models can help address these issues and quantify the potential impacts of biofuels on ecosystems at scales ranging from on-site to global. The global agro-ecosystem model ORCHIDEE describes water, carbon and energy exchanges at the soil-atmosphere interface for a limited number of natural and agricultural vegetation types. In order to integrate agricultural management to the simulations and to capture more accurately the specificity of crops' phenology, ORCHIDEE has been coupled with the agronomical model STICS. The resulting crop-oriented vegetation model ORCHIDEE-STICS has been used so far to simulate temperate crops such as wheat, corn and soybean. As a generic ecosystem model, each grid cell can include several vegetation types with their own phenology and management practices, making it suitable to spatial simulations. Here, ORCHIDEE-STICS is altered to include sugar cane as a new agricultural Plant functional Type, implemented and parametrized using the STICS approach. An on-site calibration and validation is then performed based on biomass and flux chamber measurements in several sites in Australia and variables such as LAI, dry weight, heat fluxes and respiration are used to evaluate the ability of the model to simulate the specific

  14. Contribution of sugar-cane harvesting season to atmospheric contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Araraquara city, Southeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Andrade, Sandro José; Cristale, Joyce; Silva, Flávio Soares; Julião Zocolo, Guilherme; Marchi, Mary R. R.

    2010-08-01

    In Brazil, sugar-cane crops are burned to facilitate harvesting, and this causes environmental pollution from the large amounts of smoke and soot that are released into the atmosphere. The smoke and soot contain numerous organic compounds such as PAHs. In this study, PM 10 and PAH concentrations in the air of Araraquara (SE Brazil, with around 200,000 inhabitants and surrounded by sugar-cane plantations) were determined during the harvest and non-harvest seasons. The sampling strategy included two campaigns in each season, with 20 samples per season. PM 10 was collected using a Hi-vol sampler with Teflon™ - coated glass fiber filters. PM 10 ranged from 41 to 181 μg m -3 during the harvest season, and from 12 to 47 μg m -3 during the non-harvest season. The mean total concentration of PAHs was 2.5 ng m -3 (non-harvest season) and 11.6 ng m -3 (harvest season). In all sampling periods, the most abundant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were phenanthrene and fluoranthrene, and the least abundant was anthracene. The cluster analysis of the total PAH concentrations for each day of sampling and the corresponding meteorological data suggested that the atmospheric concentration of PAHs was independent of the differences in the weather between the seasons. For both sampling seasons, the statistical treatment (PCA, Varimax rotation and HCA) indicated the presence of vehicle sources (diesel, gasoline, and natural-gas engines); but for the harvest season, the main source was attributed to sugar-cane burning. The data generated by this study indicated the burning of sugar-cane as the main contributor to the high levels of PAHs detected in samples during the sugar-cane harvest season.

  15. [Preliminary results of an herpetology investigation in sugar cane plantation in Democratic Republic of Congo].

    PubMed

    Malukisa, J; Collet, M; Bokata, S; Odio, W

    2005-11-01

    Out of the 3,000 species of snakes described in the world, 163 are currently known from D.R. of Congo. We performed a systematic survey in sugar-cane plantations of the Sugar Company of Kwilu-Ngongo (Bas-Congo), located at 160 km South-West from Kinshasa and exploiting nearly 10,000 ha. The plantation is divided into 3 sectors in the middle of which we deposited barrels filled of formaldehyde. All the employees of the Sugar Company of Kwilu-Ngongo were requested to collect encountered snakes and put them in the nearest barrel. Between August 9th and September 21st, 2004, we collected 36 snakes in two different sites, revealing the presence of 3 families and 12 species. The most abundant species in Causus maculatus (47% in the first site--Point 8--and 29% in the second site--Point 13). The most poisonous and dangerous species were captured only in the first site--point 8, and were Dendroaspis jamesoni and Naja melanoleuca, both young. PMID:16402584

  16. Improvement on sugar cane bagasse hydrolysis using enzymatic mixture designed cocktail.

    PubMed

    Bussamra, Bianca Consorti; Freitas, Sindelia; Costa, Aline Carvalho da

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study cocktail supplementation for sugar cane bagasse hydrolysis, where the enzymes were provided from both commercial source and microorganism cultivation (Trichoderma reesei and genetically modified Escherichia coli), followed by purification. Experimental simplex lattice mixture design was performed to optimize the enzymatic proportion. The response was evaluated through hydrolysis microassays validated here. The optimized enzyme mixture, comprised of T. reesei fraction (80%), endoglucanase (10%) and β-glucosidase (10%), converted, theoretically, 72% of cellulose present in hydrothermally pretreated bagasse, whereas commercial Celluclast 1.5L converts 49.11%±0.49. Thus, a rational enzyme mixture designed by using synergism concept and statistical analysis was capable of improving biomass saccharification.

  17. Decomposition of lignin from sugar cane bagasse during ozonation process monitored by optical and mass spectrometries.

    PubMed

    Souza-Corrêa, J A; Ridenti, M A; Oliveira, C; Araújo, S R; Amorim, J

    2013-03-21

    Mass spectrometry was used to monitor neutral chemical species from sugar cane bagasse that could volatilize during the bagasse ozonation process. Lignin fragments and some radicals liberated by direct ozone reaction with the biomass structure were detected. Ozone density was monitored during the ozonation by optical absorption spectroscopy. The optical results indicated that the ozone interaction with the bagasse material was better for bagasse particle sizes less than or equal to 0.5 mm. Both techniques have shown that the best condition for the ozone diffusion in the bagasse was at 50% of its moisture content. In addition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were employed to analyze the lignin bond disruptions and morphology changes of the bagasse surface that occurred due to the ozonolysis reactions as well. Appropriate chemical characterization of the lignin content in bagasse before and after its ozonation was also carried out.

  18. A novel alkaline oxidation pretreatment for spruce, birch and sugar cane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Kallioinen, Anne; Hakola, Maija; Riekkola, Tiina; Repo, Timo; Leskelä, Markku; von Weymarn, Niklas; Siika-aho, Matti

    2013-07-01

    Alkaline oxidation pretreatment was developed for spruce, birch and sugar cane bagasse. The reaction was carried out in alkaline water solution under 10 bar oxygen pressure and at mild reaction temperature of 120-140°C. Most of the lignin was solubilised by the alkaline oxidation pretreatment and an easily hydrolysable carbohydrate fraction was obtained. After 72 h hydrolysis with a 10 FPU/g enzyme dosage, glucose yields of 80%, 91%, and 97%, for spruce, birch and bagasse, respectively, were achieved. The enzyme dosage could be decreased to 4 FPU/g without a major effect in terms of the hydrolysis performance. Compared to steam explosion alkaline oxidation was found to be significantly better in the conditions tested, especially for the pretreatment of spruce. In hydrolysis and fermentation at 12% d.m. consistency an ethanol yield of 80% could be obtained with both bagasse and spruce in 1-3 days.

  19. A novel alkaline oxidation pretreatment for spruce, birch and sugar cane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Kallioinen, Anne; Hakola, Maija; Riekkola, Tiina; Repo, Timo; Leskelä, Markku; von Weymarn, Niklas; Siika-aho, Matti

    2013-07-01

    Alkaline oxidation pretreatment was developed for spruce, birch and sugar cane bagasse. The reaction was carried out in alkaline water solution under 10 bar oxygen pressure and at mild reaction temperature of 120-140°C. Most of the lignin was solubilised by the alkaline oxidation pretreatment and an easily hydrolysable carbohydrate fraction was obtained. After 72 h hydrolysis with a 10 FPU/g enzyme dosage, glucose yields of 80%, 91%, and 97%, for spruce, birch and bagasse, respectively, were achieved. The enzyme dosage could be decreased to 4 FPU/g without a major effect in terms of the hydrolysis performance. Compared to steam explosion alkaline oxidation was found to be significantly better in the conditions tested, especially for the pretreatment of spruce. In hydrolysis and fermentation at 12% d.m. consistency an ethanol yield of 80% could be obtained with both bagasse and spruce in 1-3 days. PMID:23711947

  20. The effect of fire retardants on combustion and pyrolysis of sugar-cane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Griffin, G J

    2011-09-01

    Experiments were conducted by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and cone calorimetry to measure the affect of three fire retardants (ammonium sulphate, boric acid and borax) on the mass-loss rate and combustion characteristics of sugar-cane bagasse. Compared with untreated bagasse, bagasse impregnated with aqueous solutions of 0.1-0.5M fire retardants exhibited an increase in char mass production from 16% up to 41% when pyrolysed and up to a 41% reduction in total heat release (THR) during combustion. Char mass production was only a weak function of additive concentration over the range of concentrations (0.1-0.5M) used. Combining the additives did not show any synergistic effects for char production or heat release rate (HRR). Treatment of bagasse by these chemicals could be useful to enhance biochar yields in pyrolysis processes or to reduce flammability risk in composites containing bagasse.

  1. Pattern recognition applied to mineral characterization of Brazilian coffees and sugar-cane spirits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Andréa P.; Santos, Mirian C.; Lemos, Sherlan G.; Ferreira, Márcia M. C.; Nogueira, Ana Rita A.; Nóbrega, Joaquim A.

    2005-06-01

    Aluminium, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, S, Se, Si, Sn, Sr, and Zn were determined in coffee and sugar-cane spirit (cachaça) samples by axial viewing inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). Pattern recognition techniques such as principal component analysis and cluster analysis were applied to data sets in order to characterize samples with relation to their geographical origin and production mode (industrial or homemade and organically or conventionally produced). Attempts to correlate metal ion content with the geographical origin of coffee and the production mode (organic or conventional) of cachaça were not successful. Some differentiation was suggested for the geographical origin of cachaça of three regions (Northeast, Central, and South), and for coffee samples, related to the production mode. Clear separations were only obtained for differentiation between industrial and homemade cachaças, and between instant soluble and roasted coffees.

  2. Selection of sugar cane full-sib families using mixed models and ISSR markers.

    PubMed

    Almeida, L M; Viana, A P; Gonçalves, G M; Entringer, G C

    2014-01-01

    In 2006, an experiment examining families belonging to the first selection stage of the Sugar Cane Breeding Program of Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro/Rede Interuniversitária para o Desenvolvimento do Setor Sucroalcooleiro was conducted. Families and plants within families were evaluated to select superior plants for subsequent stages of the breeding program. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design, in which progenies were grouped into 4 sets, each with 4 replicates and 100 seedlings per plot. The following traits were evaluated: average stem diameter, total plot weight, number of stems, Brix of the lower stem, and Brix of the upper stem. The study of families used the restricted maximum likelihood/best linear unbiased procedure mixed models. After selection, families were genotyped via inter-simple sequence repeat to assess the genetic distance of genotypes. This approach was found to be efficient for selecting new genotypes. PMID:25501142

  3. Improvement on sugar cane bagasse hydrolysis using enzymatic mixture designed cocktail.

    PubMed

    Bussamra, Bianca Consorti; Freitas, Sindelia; Costa, Aline Carvalho da

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study cocktail supplementation for sugar cane bagasse hydrolysis, where the enzymes were provided from both commercial source and microorganism cultivation (Trichoderma reesei and genetically modified Escherichia coli), followed by purification. Experimental simplex lattice mixture design was performed to optimize the enzymatic proportion. The response was evaluated through hydrolysis microassays validated here. The optimized enzyme mixture, comprised of T. reesei fraction (80%), endoglucanase (10%) and β-glucosidase (10%), converted, theoretically, 72% of cellulose present in hydrothermally pretreated bagasse, whereas commercial Celluclast 1.5L converts 49.11%±0.49. Thus, a rational enzyme mixture designed by using synergism concept and statistical analysis was capable of improving biomass saccharification. PMID:25846188

  4. Distribution of prokaryotic organisms in a tropical estuary influenced by sugar cane agriculture in northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Lars; Schwalger, Berit; Knoppers, Bastiaan A.; da Silva, Luiz Antonio Ferreira; Medeiros, Paulo Ricardo Petter; Pollehne, Falk

    2010-01-01

    In a joint Brazilian-German case study, distribution patterns of microorganisms were compared with environmental variables in the tropical coastal Manguaba lagoon in northeast Brazil, which is situated downstream of several sugar cane processing plants . 16S rDNA and 16S rRNA single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) gene fingerprinting were used to follow the composition and distribution of microorganisms throughout the salinity gradient of the lagoon. Potentially abundant microorganisms were identified by sequencing representative SSCP bands. It could be demonstrated that the distribution of microbes was in close relation to the physico-chemical environmental settings and followed a common scheme. In the in- and outlet areas of the lagoon rather transient microbial communities were found, whereas in the central part a stable, diverse community was encountered, that due to the long residence time of the water, had ample time for development and adaptation. PMID:24031568

  5. Experimental variables effects on the direct liquefaction of lignin sugar cane bagasse

    SciTech Connect

    Celeghini, R.M.S.; Lancas, F.M.

    1998-08-01

    Sugar cane bagasse lignin was submitted to a liquefaction process with the aim of obtaining light oils. In order to increase the yields of light oils a study of the influence of experimental variables in the liquefaction process was performed. A 2{sup 4} factorial design was used, involving two levels and four variables: temperature, pressure, solute/solvent ratio, and time. It was observed that the variables time, temperature, and solute/solvent ratio influenced an increase in yield, and the variable solute/solvent ratio was independent, while the second-order effect among t {times} T, t {times} P was observed, and third-order among T {times} t {times} P occurs.

  6. Use of sugar cane vinasse to mitigate aluminum toxicity to Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    de Souza Oliveira, Ricardo Pinheiro; Rivas Torres, Beatriz; Zilli, Mario; de Araújo Viana Marques, Daniela; Basso, Luiz Carlos; Converti, Attilio

    2009-10-01

    Owing to its toxicity, aluminum (Al), which is one of the most abundant metals, inhibits the productivity of many cultures and affects the microbial metabolism. The aim of this work was to investigate the capacity of sugar cane vinasse to mitigate the adverse effects of Al on cell growth, viability, and budding, as the likely result of possible chelating action. For this purpose, Fleischmann's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was used in growth tests performed in 125-mL Erlenmeyer flasks containing 30 mL of YED medium (5.0 g/L yeast extract plus 20 g/L glucose) supplemented with the selected amounts of either vinasse or Al in the form of AlCl(3) . H(2)O. Without vinasse, the addition of increasing levels of Al up to 54 mg/L reduced the specific growth rate by 18%, whereas no significant reduction was observed in its presence. The toxic effect of Al on S. cerevisiae growth and the mitigating effect of sugar cane vinasse were quantified by the exponential model of Ciftci et al. (Biotechnol Bioeng 25:2007-2023, 1983). The cell viability decreased from 97.7% at the start to 84.0% at the end of runs without vinasse and to 92.3% with vinasse. On the other hand, the cell budding increased from 7.62% at the start to 8.84% at the end of runs without vinasse and to 17.8% with vinasse. These results demonstrate the ability of this raw material to stimulate cell growth and mitigate the toxic effect of Al. PMID:19184166

  7. Use of sugar cane vinasse to mitigate aluminum toxicity to Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    de Souza Oliveira, Ricardo Pinheiro; Rivas Torres, Beatriz; Zilli, Mario; de Araújo Viana Marques, Daniela; Basso, Luiz Carlos; Converti, Attilio

    2009-10-01

    Owing to its toxicity, aluminum (Al), which is one of the most abundant metals, inhibits the productivity of many cultures and affects the microbial metabolism. The aim of this work was to investigate the capacity of sugar cane vinasse to mitigate the adverse effects of Al on cell growth, viability, and budding, as the likely result of possible chelating action. For this purpose, Fleischmann's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was used in growth tests performed in 125-mL Erlenmeyer flasks containing 30 mL of YED medium (5.0 g/L yeast extract plus 20 g/L glucose) supplemented with the selected amounts of either vinasse or Al in the form of AlCl(3) . H(2)O. Without vinasse, the addition of increasing levels of Al up to 54 mg/L reduced the specific growth rate by 18%, whereas no significant reduction was observed in its presence. The toxic effect of Al on S. cerevisiae growth and the mitigating effect of sugar cane vinasse were quantified by the exponential model of Ciftci et al. (Biotechnol Bioeng 25:2007-2023, 1983). The cell viability decreased from 97.7% at the start to 84.0% at the end of runs without vinasse and to 92.3% with vinasse. On the other hand, the cell budding increased from 7.62% at the start to 8.84% at the end of runs without vinasse and to 17.8% with vinasse. These results demonstrate the ability of this raw material to stimulate cell growth and mitigate the toxic effect of Al.

  8. Dissolved organic carbon in rainwater from areas heavily impacted by sugar cane burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, C. H.; Francisco, J. G.; Nogueira, R. F. P.; Campos, M. L. A. M.

    This work reports on rainwater dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from Ribeirão Preto (RP) and Araraquara over a period of 3 years. The economies of these two cities, located in São Paulo state (Brazil), are based on agriculture and related industries, and the region is strongly impacted by the burning of sugar cane foliage before harvesting. Highest DOC concentrations were obtained when air masses traversed sugar cane fields burned on the same day as the rain event. Significant increases in the DOC volume weighted means (VWM) during the harvest period, for both sites, and a good linear correlation ( r = 0.83) between DOC and K (a biomass burning marker) suggest that regional scale organic carbon emissions prevail over long-range transport. The DOC VWMs and standard deviations were 272 ± 22 μmol L -1 ( n = 193) and 338 ± 40 μmol L -1 ( n = 80) for RP and Araraquara, respectively, values which are at least two times higher than those reported for other regions influenced by biomass burning, such as the Amazon. These high DOC levels are discussed in terms of agricultural activities, particularly the large usage of biogenic fuels in Brazil, as well as the analytical method used in this work, which includes volatile organic carbon when reporting DOC values. Taking into account rainfall volume, estimated annual rainwater DOC fluxes for RP (4.8 g C m -2 yr -1) and Araraquara (5.4 g C m -2 yr -1) were close to that previously found for the Amazon region (4.8 g C m -2 yr -1). This work also discusses whether previous calculations of the global rainwater carbon flux may have been underestimated, since they did not consider large inputs from biomass combustion sources, and suffered from a possible analytical bias.

  9. Distribution of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in soils and sugar cane crops at Corumbataí river basin, São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Conceição, Fabiano Tomazini; Bonotto, Daniel Marcos; Jiménez-Rueda, Jairo Roberto; Roveda, José Arnaldo Frutuoso

    2009-06-01

    The common use of phosphate fertilizers NPK and amendments in sugar cane crops in Brazilian agriculture may increase the (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K activity concentrations in soils and their availability for plants and human food chain. Thus, the main aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in soils and sugar cane crops in the Corumbataí river basin, São Paulo State, Brazil. The gamma spectrometry was utilized to measure the (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K activity concentration in all samples. The soil-to-sugar cane transfer factors (TF) were quantified using the ratio between the radionuclide activity concentration in sugar cane and its activity concentration in soil. The results show that, although radionuclides incorporated in phosphate fertilizers and amendments are annually added in the sugar cane crops, if utilized in accordance with the recommended rates, their use does not lead to hazards levels in soils. The soil-to-sugar cane transfer of radionuclides occurred in the following order (40)K>(226)Ra>(232)Th. Therefore, under these conditions, radionuclides intake through consumption of sugar is not hazardous to human health.

  10. Enzymatic saccharification of sugar cane bagasse by continuous xylanase and cellulase production from cellulomonas flavigena PR-22.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Rejón, Óscar A; Poggi-Varaldo, Héctor M; Ramos-Valdivia, Ana C; Ponce-Noyola, Teresa; Cristiani-Urbina, Eliseo; Martínez, Alfredo; de la Torre, Mayra

    2016-03-01

    Cellulase (CMCase) and xylanase enzyme production and saccharification of sugar cane bagasse were coupled into two stages and named enzyme production and sugar cane bagasse saccharification. The performance of Cellulomonas flavigena (Cf) PR-22 cultured in a bubble column reactor (BCR) was compared to that in a stirred tank reactor (STR). Cells cultured in the BCR presented higher yields and productivity of both CMCase and xylanase activities than those grown in the STR configuration. A continuous culture with Cf PR-22 was run in the BCR using 1% alkali-pretreated sugar cane bagasse and mineral media, at dilution rates ranging from 0.04 to 0.22 1/h. The highest enzymatic productivity values were found at 0.08 1/h with 1846.4 ± 126.4 and 101.6 ± 5.6 U/L·h for xylanase and CMCase, respectively. Effluent from the BCR in steady state was transferred to an enzymatic reactor operated in fed-batch mode with an initial load of 75 g of pretreated sugar cane bagasse; saccharification was then performed in an STR at 55°C and 300 rpm for 90 h. The constant addition of fresh enzyme as well as the increase in time of contact with the substrate increased the total soluble sugar concentration 83% compared to the value obtained in a batch enzymatic reactor. This advantageous strategy may be used for industrial enzyme pretreatment and saccharification of lignocellulosic wastes to be used in bioethanol and chemicals production from lignocellulose. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:321-326, 2016. PMID:26701152

  11. Enzymatic saccharification of sugar cane bagasse by continuous xylanase and cellulase production from cellulomonas flavigena PR-22.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Rejón, Óscar A; Poggi-Varaldo, Héctor M; Ramos-Valdivia, Ana C; Ponce-Noyola, Teresa; Cristiani-Urbina, Eliseo; Martínez, Alfredo; de la Torre, Mayra

    2016-03-01

    Cellulase (CMCase) and xylanase enzyme production and saccharification of sugar cane bagasse were coupled into two stages and named enzyme production and sugar cane bagasse saccharification. The performance of Cellulomonas flavigena (Cf) PR-22 cultured in a bubble column reactor (BCR) was compared to that in a stirred tank reactor (STR). Cells cultured in the BCR presented higher yields and productivity of both CMCase and xylanase activities than those grown in the STR configuration. A continuous culture with Cf PR-22 was run in the BCR using 1% alkali-pretreated sugar cane bagasse and mineral media, at dilution rates ranging from 0.04 to 0.22 1/h. The highest enzymatic productivity values were found at 0.08 1/h with 1846.4 ± 126.4 and 101.6 ± 5.6 U/L·h for xylanase and CMCase, respectively. Effluent from the BCR in steady state was transferred to an enzymatic reactor operated in fed-batch mode with an initial load of 75 g of pretreated sugar cane bagasse; saccharification was then performed in an STR at 55°C and 300 rpm for 90 h. The constant addition of fresh enzyme as well as the increase in time of contact with the substrate increased the total soluble sugar concentration 83% compared to the value obtained in a batch enzymatic reactor. This advantageous strategy may be used for industrial enzyme pretreatment and saccharification of lignocellulosic wastes to be used in bioethanol and chemicals production from lignocellulose. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:321-326, 2016.

  12. The effect of Schistosoma mansoni infection on the productivity of cane cutters on a sugar estate in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Fenwick, A.; Figenschou, B. H.

    1972-01-01

    In an attempt to justify future snail control on an irrigated sugar estate in Tanzania, the effects of Schistosoma mansoni infection on the productivity of apparently healthy cane cutters were investigated. The bonus earnings of cane cutters who were found to be infected with S. mansoni were compared, retrospectively, with earnings of uninfected cane cutters during the years 1968-69. For one 6-month period a more detailed study was made to correlate bonus earnings with actual output in tons of cane cut. It was found that in the four 6-month periods the mean bonus earnings of the uninfected cane cutters exceeded the mean bonus earnings of the infected men by 11.0%, 11.4%, 6.0%, and 13.7%, respectively. In all except the third period these differences were statistically significant. After treatment for S. mansoni infection, the workers were able to improve their earnings relative to both infected and uninfected workers. In a more detailed study of some of the workers during the third 6-month period, it was discovered that a 4% difference in bonus earnings represented a 1% difference in output. Taking into account the variations of bonus earnings it was estimated that the overall difference in productivity between infected and uninfected workers was 3-5%. PMID:4540675

  13. High Level Ethanol from Sugar Cane Molasses by a New Thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain in Industrial Scale.

    PubMed

    Fadel, M; Keera, Abeer A; Mouafi, Foukia E; Kahil, Tarek

    2013-01-01

    A new local strain of S. cerevisiae F-514, for ethanol production during hot summer season, using Egyptian sugar cane molasses was applied in Egyptian distillery factory. The inouluum was propagated through 300 L, 3 m(3), and 12 m(3) fermenters charged with diluted sugar cane molasses containing 4%-5% sugars. The yeast was applied in fermentation vessels 65 m(3) working volume to study the varying concentrations of urea, DAP, orthophosphoric acid (OPA), and its combinations as well as magnesium sulfate and inoculum size. The fermenter was allowed to stay for a period of 20 hours to give time for maximum conversion of sugars into ethanol. S. cerevisiae F-514 at molasses sugar level of 18% (w/v), inoculum size of 20% (v/v) cell concentration of 3.0 × 10(8)/mL, and combinations of urea, diammonium phosphate (DAP), orthophosphoric acid (OPA), and magnesium sulfate at amounts of 20, 10, 5, and 10 kg/65 m(3) working volume fermenters, respectively, supported maximum ethanol production (9.8%, v/v), fermentation efficiency (FE) 88.1%, and remaining sugars (RS) 1.22%. The fermentation resulted 13.4 g dry yeast/L contained 34.6% crude protein and 8.2% ash. By selecting higher ethanol yielding yeast strain and optimizing, the fermentation parameters both yield and economics of the fermentation process can be improved.

  14. High Level Ethanol from Sugar Cane Molasses by a New Thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain in Industrial Scale

    PubMed Central

    Fadel, M.; Keera, Abeer A.; Mouafi, Foukia E.; Kahil, Tarek

    2013-01-01

    A new local strain of S. cerevisiae F-514, for ethanol production during hot summer season, using Egyptian sugar cane molasses was applied in Egyptian distillery factory. The inouluum was propagated through 300 L, 3 m3, and 12 m3 fermenters charged with diluted sugar cane molasses containing 4%-5% sugars. The yeast was applied in fermentation vessels 65 m3 working volume to study the varying concentrations of urea, DAP, orthophosphoric acid (OPA), and its combinations as well as magnesium sulfate and inoculum size. The fermenter was allowed to stay for a period of 20 hours to give time for maximum conversion of sugars into ethanol. S. cerevisiae F-514 at molasses sugar level of 18% (w/v), inoculum size of 20% (v/v) cell concentration of 3.0 × 108/mL, and combinations of urea, diammonium phosphate (DAP), orthophosphoric acid (OPA), and magnesium sulfate at amounts of 20, 10, 5, and 10 kg/65 m3 working volume fermenters, respectively, supported maximum ethanol production (9.8%, v/v), fermentation efficiency (FE) 88.1%, and remaining sugars (RS) 1.22%. The fermentation resulted 13.4 g dry yeast/L contained 34.6% crude protein and 8.2% ash. By selecting higher ethanol yielding yeast strain and optimizing, the fermentation parameters both yield and economics of the fermentation process can be improved. PMID:24363937

  15. Composition and properties of the actinomycete flora in a ferralitic tropical soil (oxisol)-sugar cane ecological system.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, C; Szabó, I M

    1978-01-01

    Streptomycetes constituted about 46--48 per cent of the total aerobic microflora in the cultivated horizon of the studied ferralitic tropical soil below sugar cane plantation. This streptomycete fraction of the soil microbial community was composed of 13 (or more) species of Streptomyces (S. chromofuscus, S. chromogenus, S. diastatochromogenes, S. flavochromogenes, S. griseolus, S. nigrescens, S. phaeofaciens, S. sterilis, S. violaceus, Streptomyces sp. I--III), and Streptoverticillium (Sv. aspergilloides). None of these organisms did occur, with detectable frequency of occurrence, in the root surface region of sugar cane. Here, in the rhizoplane, we found a numerically small population of streptomycetes (about 5 per cent of the total bacterial flora), composed of two species (Streptomyces sp. IV and S. griseorubiginosus) which were, however, not detected in soil samples. PMID:664932

  16. Parameters-related uncertainty in modeling sugar cane yield with an agro-Land Surface Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valade, A.; Ciais, P.; Vuichard, N.; Viovy, N.; Ruget, F.; Gabrielle, B.

    2012-12-01

    Agro-Land Surface Models (agro-LSM) have been developed from the coupling of specific crop models and large-scale generic vegetation models. They aim at accounting for the spatial distribution and variability of energy, water and carbon fluxes within soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum with a particular emphasis on how crop phenology and agricultural management practice influence the turbulent fluxes exchanged with the atmosphere, and the underlying water and carbon pools. A part of the uncertainty in these models is related to the many parameters included in the models' equations. In this study, we quantify the parameter-based uncertainty in the simulation of sugar cane biomass production with the agro-LSM ORCHIDEE-STICS on a multi-regional approach with data from sites in Australia, La Reunion and Brazil. First, the main source of uncertainty for the output variables NPP, GPP, and sensible heat flux (SH) is determined through a screening of the main parameters of the model on a multi-site basis leading to the selection of a subset of most sensitive parameters causing most of the uncertainty. In a second step, a sensitivity analysis is carried out on the parameters selected from the screening analysis at a regional scale. For this, a Monte-Carlo sampling method associated with the calculation of Partial Ranked Correlation Coefficients is used. First, we quantify the sensitivity of the output variables to individual input parameters on a regional scale for two regions of intensive sugar cane cultivation in Australia and Brazil. Then, we quantify the overall uncertainty in the simulation's outputs propagated from the uncertainty in the input parameters. Seven parameters are identified by the screening procedure as driving most of the uncertainty in the agro-LSM ORCHIDEE-STICS model output at all sites. These parameters control photosynthesis (optimal temperature of photosynthesis, optimal carboxylation rate), radiation interception (extinction coefficient), root

  17. Enzyme activities and substrate degradation during white rot fungi growth on sugar-cane straw in a solid state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Ortega, G M; Martinez, E O; González, P C; Betancourt, D; Otero, M A

    1993-03-01

    Two strains of Pleurotus spp., grown in solid state fermentation on sugar-cane straw, degraded the dry matter by 50% after 60 days. The rate of substrate consumption and the dry weight of fruiting bodies decreased in consecutive flushings. Both strains vigorously attacked hemicellulose (80% of total degradation) and lignin (70%). Fruiting bodies were rich in protein and lipids, and had a low content of carbohydrates and ash.

  18. Response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to cadmium and nickel stress: the use of the sugar cane vinasse as a potential mitigator.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ricardo Pinheiro de Souza; Basso, Luiz Carlos; Junior, Adalberto Pessoa; Penna, Thereza Christina Vessoni; Del Borghi, Marco; Converti, Attilio

    2012-01-01

    Most of the metals released from industrial activity, among them are cadmium (Cd) and nickel (Ni), inhibit the productivity of cultures and affect microbial metabolism. In this context, the aim of this work was to investigate the capacity of sugar cane vinasse to mitigate the adverse effects of Cd and Ni on cell growth, viability, budding rate and trehalose content of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, likely because of adsorption and chelating action. For this purpose, the yeast was grown batch-wise in YED medium supplemented with selected amounts of vinasse and Cd or Ni. The negative effects of Cd and Ni on S. cerevisiae growth and the mitigating one of sugar cane vinasse were quantified by an exponential model. Without vinasse, the addition of increasing levels of Cd and Ni reduced the specific growth rate, whereas in its presence no reduction was observed. Consistently with the well-proved toxicity of both metals, cell viability and budding rate progressively decreased with increasing their concentration, but in the presence of vinasse the situation was remarkably improved. The trehalose content of S. cerevisiae cells followed the same qualitative behavior as cell viability, even though the negative effect of both metals on this parameter was stronger. These results demonstrate the ability of sugar cane vinasse to mitigate the toxic effects of Cd and Ni. PMID:21809054

  19. Respiratory toxicity of repeated exposure to particles produced by traffic and sugar cane burning.

    PubMed

    Mazzoli-Rocha, Flavia; Carvalho, Giovanna M C; Lanzetti, Manuella; Valença, Samuel S; Silva, Luiz F F; Saldiva, Paulo H N; Zin, Walter A; Faffe, Débora S

    2014-01-15

    We compared the toxicity of subchronic exposure to equivalent masses of particles from sugar cane burning and traffic. BALB/c mice received 3 intranasal instillations/week during 1, 2 or 4 weeks of either distilled water (C1, C2, C4) or particles (15μg) from traffic (UP1, UP2, UP4) or biomass burning (BP1, BP2, BP4). Lung mechanics, histology and oxidative stress were analyzed 24h after the last instillation. In all instances UP and BP groups presented worse pulmonary elastance, airway and tissue resistance, alveolar collapse, bronchoconstriction and macrophage influx into the lungs than controls. UP4, BP2 and BP4 presented more alveolar collapse than UP1 and BP1, respectively. UP and BP had worse bronchial and alveolar lesion scores than their controls; BP4 had greater bronchial lesion scores than UP4. Catalase was higher in UP4 and BP4 than in C4. In conclusion, biomass particles were more toxic than those from traffic after repeated exposures.

  20. Bioconversion of sugar cane crop residues with white-rot fungiPleurotus sp.

    PubMed

    Ortega, G M; Martínez, E O; Betancourt, D; González, A E; Otero, M A

    1992-07-01

    Four mushroom strains ofPleurotus spp. were cultivated on sugar cane crop residues for 30 days at 26°C. Biochemical changes affected the substrate as a result of fungal growth, in terms of nitrogen, lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose contents. All strains showed a strong ligninolytic activity together with variable cellulolytic and xylanolytic action.Pleurotus sajor-caju attacked lignin and cellulose at the same rate, showing a degradation of 47% and 55%, respectively. A better balance was shown by theP. ostreatus-P. pulmonarius hybrid, which exhibited the poorest cellulolytic action (39%) and the highest ligninolytic activity (67%). The average composition of mushroom fruit bodies, in terms of nitrogen, carbohydrates, fats and amino acid profiles, was determined. Crude protein and total carbohydrate varied from 23% to 33% and 36% to 68% of dry matter, respectively. Fat ranged from 3.3% to 4.7% and amino acid content from 12.2% to 22.2%. Slight evidence for a nitrogen fixing capability was encountered in the substrate to fruit body balance.

  1. Techno-economic comparison of biojet fuel production from lignocellulose, vegetable oil and sugar cane juice.

    PubMed

    Diederichs, Gabriel Wilhelm; Ali Mandegari, Mohsen; Farzad, Somayeh; Görgens, Johann F

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a techno-economic comparison was performed considering three processes (thermochemical, biochemical and hybrid) for production of jet fuel from lignocellulosic biomass (2G) versus two processes from first generation (1G) feedstocks, including vegetable oil and sugar cane juice. Mass and energy balances were constructed for energy self-sufficient versions of these processes, not utilising any fossil energy sources, using ASPEN Plus® simulations. All of the investigated processes obtained base minimum jet selling prices (MJSP) that is substantially higher than the market jet fuel price (2-4 fold). The 1G process which converts vegetable oil, obtained the lowest MJSPs of $2.22/kg jet fuel while the two most promising 2G processes- the thermochemical (gasification and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis) and hybrid (gasification and biochemical upgrading) processes- reached MJSPs of $2.44/kg and $2.50/kg jet fuel, respectively. According to the economic sensitivity analysis, the feedstock cost and fixed capital investment have the most influence on the MJSP. PMID:27259188

  2. Mathematical models for prediction of rheological parameters in vinasses derived from sugar cane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacua, Leidy M.; Ayala, Germán; Rojas, Hernán; Agudelo, Ana C.

    2016-04-01

    The rheological behaviour of vinasses derived from sugar cane was studied as a function of time (0 and 600 s), soluble solids content (44 and 60 °Brix), temperature (10 and 50°C), and shear rate (0.33 and 1.0 s-1). The results indicated that vinasses were time-independent at 25°C, where shear stress values ranged between 0.01 and 0.08 Pa. Flow curves showed a shear-thinning rheological behaviour in vinasses with a flow behaviour index between 0.69 and 0.89, for temperature between 10 and 20°C. With increasing temperature, the flow behaviour index was modified, reaching values close to 1.0. The Arrhenius model described well the thermal activation of shear stress and the consistency coefficient as a function of temperature. Activation energy from the Arrhenius model ranged between 31 and 45 kJ mol-1. Finally, the consistency coefficient as a function of the soluble solids content and temperature was well fitted using an exponential model (R2 = 0.951), showing that the soluble solids content and temperature have an opposite effect on consistency coefficient values.

  3. The development of snail control methods on an irrigated sugar-cane estate in northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Fenwick, A

    1970-01-01

    In an attempt to prevent the transmission of Schistosoma mansoni on an irrigated sugar-cane estate, molluscicide experiments were carried out to find the optimum methods for controlling the intermediate-host snails, Biomphalaria pfeifferi. The ease of application of N-tritylmorpholine led to its adoption as the molluscicide of choice for the two separate irrigation systems on the estate. Experiments on the frequency and duration of molluscicide treatments were carried out, and from these it was concluded that 5-day applications of N-tritylmorpholine at 0.025 ppm every 7 weeks might lead to a break in transmission by control of the snails.In another set of trials, drainage ditches were treated alternately with N-tritylmorpholine and niclosamide ethanolamine salt, and although the chemicals differed only slightly in their effect, the latter-being ovicidal-was chosen to be applied at approximately 4 ppm by knapsack sprayer every 8 weeks. Extra treatment of small pools with the same compound was carried out during the long rains when irrigation was unnecessary and most of the canals were dry.It is pointed out that the effect of the control methods on S. mansoni transmission will need to be evaluated by studying the incidence of the disease in the population.

  4. Techno-economic comparison of biojet fuel production from lignocellulose, vegetable oil and sugar cane juice.

    PubMed

    Diederichs, Gabriel Wilhelm; Ali Mandegari, Mohsen; Farzad, Somayeh; Görgens, Johann F

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a techno-economic comparison was performed considering three processes (thermochemical, biochemical and hybrid) for production of jet fuel from lignocellulosic biomass (2G) versus two processes from first generation (1G) feedstocks, including vegetable oil and sugar cane juice. Mass and energy balances were constructed for energy self-sufficient versions of these processes, not utilising any fossil energy sources, using ASPEN Plus® simulations. All of the investigated processes obtained base minimum jet selling prices (MJSP) that is substantially higher than the market jet fuel price (2-4 fold). The 1G process which converts vegetable oil, obtained the lowest MJSPs of $2.22/kg jet fuel while the two most promising 2G processes- the thermochemical (gasification and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis) and hybrid (gasification and biochemical upgrading) processes- reached MJSPs of $2.44/kg and $2.50/kg jet fuel, respectively. According to the economic sensitivity analysis, the feedstock cost and fixed capital investment have the most influence on the MJSP.

  5. New antioxidative phenolic glycosides isolated from Kokuto non-centrifuged cane sugar.

    PubMed

    Takara, Kensaku; Matsui, Daigo; Wada, Koji; Ichiba, Toshio; Nakasone, Yoko

    2002-01-01

    Nine compounds, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethoxyphenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), beta-D-fructfuranosyl-alpha-D-(6-vanilloyl)-glucopyranoside (2), beta-D-fructfuranosyl-alpha-D-(6-syringyl)-glucopyranoside (3), 3-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-[4-(3-hydroxy-1-(E)-propenyl)-2-methoxyphenoxy]propyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4), 3-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-[4-(3-hydroxy-1-(E)-propenyl)-2,6-dimethoxyphenoxy] propyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (5), dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol-9'-beta-D-glucopyranoside (6), 4-[ethane-2-[3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-propen]oxy]-2,6-dimethoxyphenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (7), 4-[ethane-2-[3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-propen]oxy]-2-methoxyphenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (8), and 3-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-[4-(3-hydroxy-1-(E)-propenyl)-2,6-dimethoxyphenoxy]propyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (9), were isolated from Kokuto non-centrifuged cane sugar. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic evidence, mainly based on the NMR technique. Among them, seven new glycosides were identified. The 2-deoxyribose oxidation method was used to measure their antioxidative activity. All of these compounds showed antioxidative activities.

  6. Environmental repercussions of cane-sugar industries on the Chhoti Gandak river basin, Ganga Plain, India.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Vikram; Singh, Dhruv Sen; Singh, Abhay K

    2010-12-01

    Chhoti Gandak river basin, situated in the Ganga Plain, is one of India's most productive cane-sugar industrial belts. Soil and groundwater samples were collected to investigate the impacts of these industries on the environment of the Chhoti Gandak river basin with special reference to soil and water. The results show that concentration of most metals are affected by industrial activities and surrounding agricultural practices. It is evidenced by increased heavy metal concentration in the soils as well as in the aquifers. Metals such as Pb, Cu, and Zn in the soil around the industrial sets are found significantly higher than their normal values in the soil. Metals like Fe and Mn in the groundwater are more than the permissible limit prescribed by the World Health Organization. In this study, an attempt was made to distinguish between the naturally occurring and anthropogenically induced metals in the soil. Analysis of geochemical properties, disposal of industrial wastes, inadequate application of agrochemicals, and their impact on environment indicate the sustainable implementation of integrated wastewater management plan in these industrial sets and also in similar situations.

  7. Environmental repercussions of cane-sugar industries on the Chhoti Gandak river basin, Ganga Plain, India.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Vikram; Singh, Dhruv Sen; Singh, Abhay K

    2010-12-01

    Chhoti Gandak river basin, situated in the Ganga Plain, is one of India's most productive cane-sugar industrial belts. Soil and groundwater samples were collected to investigate the impacts of these industries on the environment of the Chhoti Gandak river basin with special reference to soil and water. The results show that concentration of most metals are affected by industrial activities and surrounding agricultural practices. It is evidenced by increased heavy metal concentration in the soils as well as in the aquifers. Metals such as Pb, Cu, and Zn in the soil around the industrial sets are found significantly higher than their normal values in the soil. Metals like Fe and Mn in the groundwater are more than the permissible limit prescribed by the World Health Organization. In this study, an attempt was made to distinguish between the naturally occurring and anthropogenically induced metals in the soil. Analysis of geochemical properties, disposal of industrial wastes, inadequate application of agrochemicals, and their impact on environment indicate the sustainable implementation of integrated wastewater management plan in these industrial sets and also in similar situations. PMID:20041344

  8. Immunostimulation of sugar cane extract on neutrophils to Salmonella typhimurium infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-Hua; Lo, Dan-Yuan; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Hsuan, Shih-Ling; Chien, Maw-Sheng; Lin, Cheng-Chung; Chen, Ter-Hsin; Lee, Wei-Cheng

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory effects of sugar cane extract (SCE) on the biological activities of neutrophils in mice. Six-week-old BALB/c mice were fed 1250 mg/kg of SCE once. The generation, migration and biological functions of neutrophils and the survival rates of the mice in response to Salmonella typhimurium infection were evaluated. The results show that the numbers of both bone marrow cells and neutrophils were significantly increased in response to SCE administration (p < 0.05) compared with controls. The migration, phagocytosis and H₂O₂ generation of neutrophils were all significantly enhanced in SCE-treated mice (p < 0.05). After challenge with S. typhimurium (lethal dose, 50% (LD₅₀), SCE-treated mice had a 19.2% higher survival rate and milder hepatic lesions than the controls. Additionally, fewer invasive bacteria were recovered from the spleens of SCE-treated mice. In conclusion, our results suggest that SCE has a positive regulatory effect on the biological function of mouse neutrophils that may increase host resistance against bacterial infections.

  9. Use of steam explosion liquor from sugar cane bagasse for lignin peroxidase production by Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Maria Antonieta; Bon, Elba P S; Araujo Neto, Julio Silva

    2002-01-01

    The possibility of using two by-products of the sugar cane industry, molasses and bagasse steam explosion liquor (SEL), for lignin peroxidase (LiP) production by Phanerochaete chrysosporium was investigated. For comparison, the fungus was initially cultivated in synthetic media containing either glucose, sucrose, xylose, or xylan as sole carbon sources. The effect of veratryl alcohol (VA) was also investigated in relation to the enzyme activity levels. Results showed that sucrose was not metabolized by this fungus, which precluded the use of molasses as a carbon source. Glucose, xylose, and xylan promoted equivalent cell growth. Enzyme levels in the absence of VA were lower than 28 UI/L and in the presence of VA reached 109 IU/L with glucose and 85 IU/L with xylose or xylan. SEL was adequate for P. chrysosporium LiP production as LiP activity reached 90 IU/L. When VA was added to this medium, enzyme concentration increased to 155 IU/L.

  10. Induction of xylanases by sugar cane bagasse at different cell densities of Cellulomonas flavigena.

    PubMed

    Amaya-Delgado, L; Vega-Estrada, J; Flores-Cotera, L B; Dendooven, L; Hidalgo-Lara, M E; Montes-Horcasitas, M C

    2006-04-01

    The effect of cell density on xylanolytic activity and productivity of Cellulomonas flavigena was evaluated under two different culturing conditions: fed-batch culture with discontinuous feed of sugar cane bagasse (SCB; condition 1) and glycerol fed-batch culture followed by addition of SBC as xylanases inducer (condition 2). The enzymatic profile of xylanases was similar in both systems, regardless of the initial cell density at time of induction. However, the xylanolytic activity changed with initial cell density at the time of induction (condition 2). The maximum volumetric xylanase activity increased with increased initial cell density from 4 to 34 g l(-1) but decreased above this value. The largest total volumetric xylanase productivity under condition 2 (1.3 IU ml(-1) h(-1)) was significantly greater compared to condition 1 (maximum 0.6 IU ml(-1) h(-1)). Consequently, induction of xylanase activity by SCB after growing of C. flavigena on glycerol at intermediate cell density can be a feasible alternative to improve activity and productivity of xylanolytic enzymes.

  11. Sugarcane for water-limited environments. Genetic variation in cane yield and sugar content in response to water stress.

    PubMed

    Basnayake, J; Jackson, P A; Inman-Bamber, N G; Lakshmanan, P

    2012-10-01

    Water limitation is a major production constraint for sugarcane worldwide. However, to date, there has been little investigation of patterns of genetic variation in the response to water stress in sugarcane. Field experiments were conducted over 3 years under fully irrigated and managed water stress conditions at two locations in Northern Queensland in Australia. Eighty-nine genetically diverse clones were evaluated for their yield performance and sugar attributes. Water stress treatments reduced cane yield [tonnes of cane per hectare (TCH)] and total dry matter (TDM) by 17-52% and 20-56%, respectively, compared with irrigated treatments in the same experiments. Nevertheless, there was little genotype×environment interaction variation for TCH, TDM, or commercial cane sugar (CCS), and hence high genetic correlations between the irrigated and water stress treatments across environments. Both commercial and unselected clones performed poorly under severe stress environments, while the commercial clones outperformed the unselected clones under mild and moderate stress conditions. The results presented here highlight the contribution of intrinsic potential yields (yield under well-irrigated conditions) of some selected and unselected clones to maintain relatively high productivity in a range of moderate stress conditions imposed. The physiological basis for the high genetic correlations is at present unclear, but some explanations are hypothesized. The choice of stress levels in selection trials would not appear to be a critical issue for sugarcane breeding programmes, at least for the early phases of selection, where similar ranking clones across a range of moderate water stresses may be expected.

  12. Response of Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tepritidae) to white and brown cane, coconut, date, date jaggery and panela sugar solutions with varying degrees of fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We measured the EAG response of Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), the Caribbean fruit fly to six different sugars (white and brown cane, coconut, date, date jaggery and panela sugars). Wild and lab female flies of different physiological states (immature and mature) were tested in dry crystals and 10% su...

  13. Enterobacter sacchari sp. nov., a nitrogen-fixing bacterium associated with sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bo; Zhou, Qing; Lin, Li; Hu, Chunjin; Shen, Ping; Yang, Litao; An, Qianli; Xie, Guanlin; Li, Yangrui

    2013-07-01

    Five nitrogen-fixing bacterial strains (SP1(T), NN143, NN144, NN208 and HX148) were isolated from stem, root or rhizosphere soil of sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) plants. Cells were Gram-negative, motile, rods with peritrichous flagella. DNA G+C content was 55.0 ± 0.5 mol%. Sequence determinations and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene and rpoB indicated that the strains were affiliated with the genus Enterobacter and most closely related to E. radicincitans DSM 16656(T) and E. oryzae LMG 24251(T). Fluorimetric determination of thermal denaturation temperatures after DNA-DNA hybridization, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry differentiated the whole-genome, genotype and protein profiles from those of E. radicincitans and E. oryzae. The strains' cell fatty acid composition differentiated them from E. radicincitans and E. oryzae by containing a higher level of summed feature 2 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c) and a lower level of C17 : 0 cyclo. Their physiological and biochemical profiles differentiated them from E. radicincitans by being positive for methyl red test, ornithine decarboxylase and utilization of putrescine, D-arabitol, L-fucose and methyl α-D-glucoside and being negative for arginine dihydrolase, and differentiated them from E. oryzae by being positive for aesculin hydrolysis and utilization of putrescine, D-arabitol and L-rhamnose and being negative for arginine dihydrolase, lysine decarboxylase and utilization of mucate. The five strains therefore represent a novel species, for which the name Enterobacter sacchari sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain SP1(T) ( = CGMCC 1.12102(T) = LMG 26783(T)).

  14. Enterobacter sacchari sp. nov., a nitrogen-fixing bacterium associated with sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bo; Zhou, Qing; Lin, Li; Hu, Chunjin; Shen, Ping; Yang, Litao; An, Qianli; Xie, Guanlin; Li, Yangrui

    2013-07-01

    Five nitrogen-fixing bacterial strains (SP1(T), NN143, NN144, NN208 and HX148) were isolated from stem, root or rhizosphere soil of sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) plants. Cells were Gram-negative, motile, rods with peritrichous flagella. DNA G+C content was 55.0 ± 0.5 mol%. Sequence determinations and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene and rpoB indicated that the strains were affiliated with the genus Enterobacter and most closely related to E. radicincitans DSM 16656(T) and E. oryzae LMG 24251(T). Fluorimetric determination of thermal denaturation temperatures after DNA-DNA hybridization, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry differentiated the whole-genome, genotype and protein profiles from those of E. radicincitans and E. oryzae. The strains' cell fatty acid composition differentiated them from E. radicincitans and E. oryzae by containing a higher level of summed feature 2 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c) and a lower level of C17 : 0 cyclo. Their physiological and biochemical profiles differentiated them from E. radicincitans by being positive for methyl red test, ornithine decarboxylase and utilization of putrescine, D-arabitol, L-fucose and methyl α-D-glucoside and being negative for arginine dihydrolase, and differentiated them from E. oryzae by being positive for aesculin hydrolysis and utilization of putrescine, D-arabitol and L-rhamnose and being negative for arginine dihydrolase, lysine decarboxylase and utilization of mucate. The five strains therefore represent a novel species, for which the name Enterobacter sacchari sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain SP1(T) ( = CGMCC 1.12102(T) = LMG 26783(T)). PMID:23291881

  15. Changes in cholesterol kinetics following sugar cane policosanol supplementation: a randomized control trial

    PubMed Central

    Kassis, Amira N; Jones, Peter JH

    2008-01-01

    Background Sugar cane policosanols (SCP) have been shown to exert cholesterol-modulating properties in various studies conducted in Cuba by substantially reducing cholesterol synthesis. Independent research examining changes in cholesterol kinetics in response to SCP is limited to few studies, none of which was able to replicate findings of the original research. Moreover, no data are available on the effect of SCP on cholesterol absorption to date. The present study was undertaken to determine effects on cholesterol kinetics, namely synthesis and absorption, within hypercholesterolemic individuals consuming a SCP treatment. Twenty-one otherwise healthy hypercholesterolemic subjects participated in a randomized double-blind crossover study where they received 10 mg/day of policosanols or a placebo incorporated in margarine as an evening snack for a period of 28 days. The last week of the study phase, subjects were given 13C labelled cholesterol and deuterated water for the measurement of cholesterol absorption and synthesis respectively. Blood was collected on the first two and last five days of the trial. Cholesterol absorption and synthesis were determined by measuring red cell cholesterol 13C and deuterium enrichment, respectively. Results There was no significant change in LDL cholesterol levels as compared to control. In addition, the area under the curve for red cell cholesterol 13C enrichment across 96 hours was not significantly different in the SCP group as compared to control. Similarly, no difference was observed in the fractional rate of cholesterol synthesis over the period of 24 hours between the two treatment groups. Conclusion The findings of the present study fail to support previous research concerning efficacy and mechanism of action for policosanols. PMID:18447941

  16. Preventive and therapeutic effects of sugar cane extract on cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression in chickens.

    PubMed

    El-Abasy, Moshira; Motobu, Maki; Nakamura, Kikuyasu; Koge, Kenji; Onodera, Takashi; Vainio, Olli; Toivanen, Paavo; Hirota, Yoshikazu

    2004-08-01

    Effects of oral administration of sugar cane extract (SCE) on immunosuppression in chickens treated with cyclophosphamide (CPA) were evaluated. Three-week-old inbred chickens were inoculated into the crop with SCE (500 mg/kg/day) for three consecutive days before or after injection of CPA 12 or 20 mg/chicken. At the last day of SCE or CPA treatment, all chickens were immunized intravenously with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and Brucella abortus (BA). Chickens administered SCE showed a significant increase in body weight, gain in body weight/day, relative weight of the bursa of Fabricius and antibody responses to SRBC and BA than untreated control chickens. Chickens injected with CPA alone showed significantly decreased body weight, gain in body weight/day, relative weight of the bursa and antibody responses to SRBC and BA, showing immunosuppression in the bursa-dependent immune system. All chickens administered SCE before or after the treatment with CPA showed significantly higher values in body weight, gain in body weight/day, relative bursal weight and antibody responses to both antigens, when compared to chickens treated with CPA alone. In histological examination, chickens administered SCE showed a typical bursa with well constituted follicles, although chickens treated with CPA alone showed a severely atrophied bursa with rudimentary follicles and enormous proliferation of interfollicular connective tissue. Chickens treated with SCE and CPA showed a well-reconstituted bursa with almost normal structure. These results suggest that SCE has functionally and morphologically reconstituting effects on the bursa-dependent immune system in immunosuppressed chickens induced by injection of CPA.

  17. High Level Ethanol from Sugar Cane Molasses by a New Thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain in Industrial Scale.

    PubMed

    Fadel, M; Keera, Abeer A; Mouafi, Foukia E; Kahil, Tarek

    2013-01-01

    A new local strain of S. cerevisiae F-514, for ethanol production during hot summer season, using Egyptian sugar cane molasses was applied in Egyptian distillery factory. The inouluum was propagated through 300 L, 3 m(3), and 12 m(3) fermenters charged with diluted sugar cane molasses containing 4%-5% sugars. The yeast was applied in fermentation vessels 65 m(3) working volume to study the varying concentrations of urea, DAP, orthophosphoric acid (OPA), and its combinations as well as magnesium sulfate and inoculum size. The fermenter was allowed to stay for a period of 20 hours to give time for maximum conversion of sugars into ethanol. S. cerevisiae F-514 at molasses sugar level of 18% (w/v), inoculum size of 20% (v/v) cell concentration of 3.0 × 10(8)/mL, and combinations of urea, diammonium phosphate (DAP), orthophosphoric acid (OPA), and magnesium sulfate at amounts of 20, 10, 5, and 10 kg/65 m(3) working volume fermenters, respectively, supported maximum ethanol production (9.8%, v/v), fermentation efficiency (FE) 88.1%, and remaining sugars (RS) 1.22%. The fermentation resulted 13.4 g dry yeast/L contained 34.6% crude protein and 8.2% ash. By selecting higher ethanol yielding yeast strain and optimizing, the fermentation parameters both yield and economics of the fermentation process can be improved. PMID:24363937

  18. Saccharopolyspora subtropica sp. nov., a thermophilic actinomycete isolated from soil of a sugar cane field.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hao; Liu, Bin; Pan, Shangli

    2016-05-01

    A novel thermophilic actinomycete, designated strain T3T, was isolated from a soil sample of a sugar cane field. The strain grew at 25-60 °C (optimum 37-50 °C), at pH 6.0-11.0 (optimum 7.0-9.0) and with 0-12.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0-7 %). The aerial mycelium was white and the vegetative mycelium was colourless to pale yellow. The substrate mycelium fragmented into rod-shaped elements after 4-5 days at 50 °C. The aerial mycelium formed flexuous chains of 5-20 spores per chain; the oval-shaped spores had spiny surfaces and were non-motile. The organism contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The whole-cell sugars consisted of arabinose, galactose and ribose. The cellular fatty acid profile consisted mainly of anteiso-C17 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0. The quinone system was composed predominantly of MK-9(H4). The phospholipids detected were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine and ninhydrin-positive glycophospholipids. The DNA G+C content of strain T3T was 71.3 mol%. The organism showed a combination of morphological and chemotaxonomic properties typical of members of the genus Saccharopolyspora. In the 16S rRNA gene tree of Saccharopolyspora it formed a distinct phyletic line and was related most closely to Saccharopolyspora thermophila 216T. However, the phenotypic characteristics of strain T3T were significantly different from those of S. thermophila 216T and DNA-DNA hybridization revealed a low level of relatedness (28.6-32.3 %) between them. Based on the phenotypic and phylogenetic data, strain T3T represents a novel species in the genus Saccharopolyspora, for which the name Saccharopolyspora subtropica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is T3T ( = DSM 46801T = CGMCC 4.7206T). PMID:26882893

  19. A preliminary characterization of the mutagenicity of atmospheric particulate matter collected during sugar cane harvesting using the Salmonella/microsome microsuspension assay.

    PubMed

    de Aragão Umbuzeiro, Gisela; Franco, Alexandre; Magalhães, Dulce; de Castro, Francisco José Viana; Kummrow, Fábio; Rech, Célia Maria; Rothschild Franco de Carvalho, Lilian; de Castro Vasconcellos, Pérola

    2008-05-01

    During sugar cane harvesting season, which occurs from May to November of each year, the crops are burnt, cut, and transported to the mills. There are reports showing that mutagenic activity and PAH content increase during harvesting season in some areas of São Paulo State in comparison with nonharvesting periods. The objective of this work was to preliminarily characterize the mutagenic activity of the total organic extracts as well as corresponding organic fractions of airborne particulate matter (PM) collected twice from two cities, Araraquara (ARQ) and Piracicaba (PRB), during sugar cane harvesting season using the Salmonella/microsome microssuspension assay. One sample collected in São Paulo metropolitan area was also included. The mutagenicity of the total extracts ranged from 55 to 320 revertants per cubic meter without the addition of S9 and from not detected to 57 revertants per cubic meter in the presence of S9 in areas with sugar cane plantations. Of the three fractions analyzed, the most polar ones (nitro and oxy) were the most potent. A comparison of the response of TA98 with YG1041 and the increased potencies without S9 indicated that nitro compounds are causing the observed effect. More studies are necessary to verify the sources of the mutagenic activity such as burning of vegetal biomass and combustion of heavy duty vehicles used to transport the sugar cane to the mills. The Salmonella/microsome assay can be an important tool to monitor the atmosphere for mutagenicity during sugar cane harvesting season.

  20. Production of fuel ethanol at high temperature from sugar cane juice by a newly isolated Kluyveromyces marxianus.

    PubMed

    Limtong, Savitree; Sringiew, Chutima; Yongmanitchai, Wichien

    2007-12-01

    Kluyveromyces marxianus DMKU 3-1042, isolated by an enrichment technique in a sugar cane juice medium supplemented with 4% (w/v) ethanol at 35 degrees C, produced high concentrations of ethanol at both 40 and 45 degrees C. Ethanol production by this strain in shaking flask cultivation in sugar cane juice media at 37 degrees C was highest in a medium containing 22% total sugars, 0.05% (NH(4))(2)SO(4), 0.05% KH(2)PO(4), and 0.15% MgSO(4).7H(2)O and having a pH of 5.0; the ethanol concentration reached 8.7% (w/v), productivity 1.45 g/l/h and yield 77.5% of theoretical yield. At 40 degrees C, a maximal ethanol concentration of 6.78% (w/v), a productivity of 1.13 and a yield 60.4% of theoretical yield were obtained from the same medium, except that the pH was adjusted to 5.5. In a study on ethanol production in a 5l jar fermenter with an agitation speed of 300 rpm and an aeration rate of 0.2 vvm throughout the fermentation, K. marxianus DMKU 3-1042 yielded a final ethanol concentration of 6.43% (w/v), a productivity of 1.3g/l/h and a yield of 57.1% of theoretical yield.

  1. Analysis of sucrose accumulation in the sugar cane culm on the basis of in vitro kinetic data.

    PubMed Central

    Rohwer, J M; Botha, F C

    2001-01-01

    Sucrose accumulation in developing sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum) is accompanied by a continuous synthesis and cleavage of sucrose in the storage tissues. Despite numerous studies, the factors affecting sucrose accumulation are still poorly understood, and no consistent pattern has emerged which pinpoints certain enzyme activities as important controlling steps. Here, we develop an approach based on pathway analysis and kinetic modelling to assess the biochemical control of sucrose accumulation and futile cycling in sugar cane. By using the concept of elementary flux modes, all possible routes of futile cycling of sucrose were enumerated in the metabolic system. The available kinetic data for the pathway enzymes were then collected and assembled in a kinetic model of sucrose accumulation in sugar cane culm tissue. Although no data were fitted, the model agreed well with independent experimental results: in no case was the difference between calculated and measured fluxes and concentrations greater than 2-fold. The model thus validated was then used to assess different enhancement strategies for increasing sucrose accumulation. First, the control coefficient of each enzyme in the system on futile cycling of sucrose was calculated. Secondly, the activities of those enzymes with the numerically largest control coefficients were varied over a 5-fold range to determine the effect on the degree of futile cycling, the conversion efficiency from hexoses into sucrose, and the net sucrose accumulation rate. In view of the modelling results, overexpression of the fructose or glucose transporter or the vacuolar sucrose import protein, as well as reduction of cytosolic neutral invertase levels, appear to be the most promising targets for genetic manipulation. This offers a more directed improvement strategy than cumbersome gene-by-gene manipulation. The kinetic model can be viewed and interrogated on the World Wide Web at http://jjj.biochem.sun.ac.za. PMID:11513743

  2. The RpfCG two-component system negatively regulates the colonization of sugar cane stalks by Xanthomonas albilineans.

    PubMed

    Rott, Philippe; Fleites, Laura A; Mensi, Imène; Sheppard, Lauren; Daugrois, Jean-Heinrich; Dow, J Maxwell; Gabriel, Dean W

    2013-06-01

    The genome of Xanthomonas albilineans, the causal agent of sugar cane leaf scald, carries a gene cluster encoding a predicted quorum sensing system that is highly related to the diffusible signalling factor (DSF) systems of the plant pathogens Xylella fastidiosa and Xanthomonas campestris. In these latter pathogens, a cluster of regulation of pathogenicity factors (rpf) genes encodes the DSF system and is involved in control of various cellular processes. Mutation of Xanthomonas albilineans rpfF, encoding a predicted DSF synthase, in Florida strain XaFL07-1 resulted in a small reduction of disease severity (DS). Single-knockout mutations of rpfC and rpfG (encoding a predicted DSF sensor and regulator, respectively) had no effect on DS or swimming motility of the pathogen. However, capacity of the pathogen to cause disease was slightly reduced and swimming motility was severely affected when rpfG and rpfC were both deleted. Similar results were obtained when the entire rpfGCF region was deleted. Surprisingly, when the pathogen was mutated in rpfG or rpfC (single or double mutations) it was able to colonize sugar cane spatially more efficiently than the wild-type. Mutation in rpfF alone did not affect the degree of spatial invasion. We conclude that the DSF signal contributes to symptom expression but not to invasion of sugar cane stalks by Xanthomonas albilineans strain XaFL07-1, which is mainly controlled by the RpfCG two-component system. PMID:23538716

  3. Analysis of sucrose accumulation in the sugar cane culm on the basis of in vitro kinetic data.

    PubMed

    Rohwer, J M; Botha, F C

    2001-09-01

    Sucrose accumulation in developing sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum) is accompanied by a continuous synthesis and cleavage of sucrose in the storage tissues. Despite numerous studies, the factors affecting sucrose accumulation are still poorly understood, and no consistent pattern has emerged which pinpoints certain enzyme activities as important controlling steps. Here, we develop an approach based on pathway analysis and kinetic modelling to assess the biochemical control of sucrose accumulation and futile cycling in sugar cane. By using the concept of elementary flux modes, all possible routes of futile cycling of sucrose were enumerated in the metabolic system. The available kinetic data for the pathway enzymes were then collected and assembled in a kinetic model of sucrose accumulation in sugar cane culm tissue. Although no data were fitted, the model agreed well with independent experimental results: in no case was the difference between calculated and measured fluxes and concentrations greater than 2-fold. The model thus validated was then used to assess different enhancement strategies for increasing sucrose accumulation. First, the control coefficient of each enzyme in the system on futile cycling of sucrose was calculated. Secondly, the activities of those enzymes with the numerically largest control coefficients were varied over a 5-fold range to determine the effect on the degree of futile cycling, the conversion efficiency from hexoses into sucrose, and the net sucrose accumulation rate. In view of the modelling results, overexpression of the fructose or glucose transporter or the vacuolar sucrose import protein, as well as reduction of cytosolic neutral invertase levels, appear to be the most promising targets for genetic manipulation. This offers a more directed improvement strategy than cumbersome gene-by-gene manipulation. The kinetic model can be viewed and interrogated on the World Wide Web at http://jjj.biochem.sun.ac.za.

  4. Vinasse application to sugar cane fields. Effect on the unsaturated zone and groundwater at Valle del Cauca (Colombia).

    PubMed

    Ortegón, Gloria Páez; Arboleda, Fernando Muñoz; Candela, Lucila; Tamoh, Karim; Valdes-Abellan, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Extensive application of vinasse, a subproduct from sugar cane plantations for bioethanol production, is currently taking place as a source of nutrients that forms part of agricultural management in different agroclimatic regions. Liquid vinasse composition is characterised by high variability of organic compounds and major ions, acid pH (4.7), high TDS concentration (117,416-599,400mgL(-1)) and elevated EC (14,350-64,099μScm(-1)). A large-scale sugar cane field application is taking place in Valle del Cauca (Colombia), where monitoring of soil, unsaturated zone and the aquifer underneath has been made since 2006 to evaluate possible impacts on three experimental plots. For this assessment, monitoring wells and piezometers were installed to determine groundwater flow and water samples were collected for chemical analysis. In the unsaturated zone, tensiometers were installed at different depths to determine flow patterns, while suction lysimeters were used for water sample chemical determinations. The findings show that in the sandy loam plot (Hacienda Real), the unsaturated zone is characterised by low water retention, showing a high transport capacity, while the other two plots of silty composition presented temporal saturation due to La Niña event (2010-2011). The strong La Niña effect on aquifer recharge which would dilute the infiltrated water during the monitoring period and, on the other hand dissolution of possible precipitated salts bringing them back into solution may occur. A slight increase in the concentration of major ions was observed in groundwater (~5% of TDS), which can be attributed to a combination of factors: vinasse dilution produced by water input and hydrochemical processes along with nutrient removal produced by sugar cane uptake. This fact may make the aquifer vulnerable to contamination.

  5. Vinasse application to sugar cane fields. Effect on the unsaturated zone and groundwater at Valle del Cauca (Colombia).

    PubMed

    Ortegón, Gloria Páez; Arboleda, Fernando Muñoz; Candela, Lucila; Tamoh, Karim; Valdes-Abellan, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Extensive application of vinasse, a subproduct from sugar cane plantations for bioethanol production, is currently taking place as a source of nutrients that forms part of agricultural management in different agroclimatic regions. Liquid vinasse composition is characterised by high variability of organic compounds and major ions, acid pH (4.7), high TDS concentration (117,416-599,400mgL(-1)) and elevated EC (14,350-64,099μScm(-1)). A large-scale sugar cane field application is taking place in Valle del Cauca (Colombia), where monitoring of soil, unsaturated zone and the aquifer underneath has been made since 2006 to evaluate possible impacts on three experimental plots. For this assessment, monitoring wells and piezometers were installed to determine groundwater flow and water samples were collected for chemical analysis. In the unsaturated zone, tensiometers were installed at different depths to determine flow patterns, while suction lysimeters were used for water sample chemical determinations. The findings show that in the sandy loam plot (Hacienda Real), the unsaturated zone is characterised by low water retention, showing a high transport capacity, while the other two plots of silty composition presented temporal saturation due to La Niña event (2010-2011). The strong La Niña effect on aquifer recharge which would dilute the infiltrated water during the monitoring period and, on the other hand dissolution of possible precipitated salts bringing them back into solution may occur. A slight increase in the concentration of major ions was observed in groundwater (~5% of TDS), which can be attributed to a combination of factors: vinasse dilution produced by water input and hydrochemical processes along with nutrient removal produced by sugar cane uptake. This fact may make the aquifer vulnerable to contamination. PMID:26372944

  6. Air pollution from biomass burning and asthma hospital admissions in a sugar cane plantation area in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Arbex, Marcos Abdo; Martins, Lourdes Conceição; de Oliveira, Regiani Carvalho; Pereira, Luiz Alberto Amador; Arbex, Flávio Ferlin; Cançado, José Eduardo Delfini; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Braga, Alfésio Luís Ferreira

    2007-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association between the total suspended particles (TSPs) generated from preharvest sugar cane burning and hospital admission due to asthma (asthma hospital admissions) in the city of Araraquara. Design An ecological time‐series study. Total daily records of asthma hospital admissions (ICD 10th J15) were obtained from one of the main hospitals in Araraquara, São Paulo State, Brazil, from 23 March 2003 to 27 July 2004. The daily concentration of TSP (μg/m3) was obtained using Handi‐vol equipment (Energética, Brazil) placed in downtown Araraquara. The local airport provided the daily mean figures of temperature and humidity. The daily number of asthma hospital admissions was considered as the dependent variable in Poisson's regression models and the daily concentration of TSP was considered the independent variable. The generalised linear model with natural cubic spline was adopted to control for long‐time trend. Linear terms were used for weather variables. Results TSP had an acute effect on asthma admissions, starting 1 day after TSP concentrations increased and remaining almost unchanged for the next four days. A 10 μg/m3 increase in the 5‐day moving average (lag1–5) of TSP concentrations was associated with an increase of 11.6% (95% CI 5.4 to 17.7) in asthma hospital admissions. Conclusion Increases in TSP concentrations were definitely associated with asthma hospital admissions in Araraquara and, despite using sugar cane alcohol to reduce air pollution from automotive sources in large Brazilian urban centres, the cities where sugar cane is harvested pay a high toll in terms of public health. PMID:17435205

  7. Techno-economic evaluation of 2nd generation bioethanol production from sugar cane bagasse and leaves integrated with the sugar-based ethanol process

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bioethanol produced from the lignocellulosic fractions of sugar cane (bagasse and leaves), i.e. second generation (2G) bioethanol, has a promising market potential as an automotive fuel; however, the process is still under investigation on pilot/demonstration scale. From a process perspective, improvements in plant design can lower the production cost, providing better profitability and competitiveness if the conversion of the whole sugar cane is considered. Simulations have been performed with AspenPlus to investigate how process integration can affect the minimum ethanol selling price of this 2G process (MESP-2G), as well as improve the plant energy efficiency. This is achieved by integrating the well-established sucrose-to-bioethanol process with the enzymatic process for lignocellulosic materials. Bagasse and leaves were steam pretreated using H3PO4 as catalyst and separately hydrolysed and fermented. Results The addition of a steam dryer, doubling of the enzyme dosage in enzymatic hydrolysis, including leaves as raw material in the 2G process, heat integration and the use of more energy-efficient equipment led to a 37 % reduction in MESP-2G compared to the Base case. Modelling showed that the MESP for 2G ethanol was 0.97 US$/L, while in the future it could be reduced to 0.78 US$/L. In this case the overall production cost of 1G + 2G ethanol would be about 0.40 US$/L with an output of 102 L/ton dry sugar cane including 50 % leaves. Sensitivity analysis of the future scenario showed that a 50 % decrease in the cost of enzymes, electricity or leaves would lower the MESP-2G by about 20%, 10% and 4.5%, respectively. Conclusions According to the simulations, the production of 2G bioethanol from sugar cane bagasse and leaves in Brazil is already competitive (without subsidies) with 1G starch-based bioethanol production in Europe. Moreover 2G bioethanol could be produced at a lower cost if subsidies were used to compensate for the opportunity cost from the

  8. Sugarcane for water-limited environments. Genetic variation in cane yield and sugar content in response to water stress.

    PubMed

    Basnayake, J; Jackson, P A; Inman-Bamber, N G; Lakshmanan, P

    2012-10-01

    Water limitation is a major production constraint for sugarcane worldwide. However, to date, there has been little investigation of patterns of genetic variation in the response to water stress in sugarcane. Field experiments were conducted over 3 years under fully irrigated and managed water stress conditions at two locations in Northern Queensland in Australia. Eighty-nine genetically diverse clones were evaluated for their yield performance and sugar attributes. Water stress treatments reduced cane yield [tonnes of cane per hectare (TCH)] and total dry matter (TDM) by 17-52% and 20-56%, respectively, compared with irrigated treatments in the same experiments. Nevertheless, there was little genotype×environment interaction variation for TCH, TDM, or commercial cane sugar (CCS), and hence high genetic correlations between the irrigated and water stress treatments across environments. Both commercial and unselected clones performed poorly under severe stress environments, while the commercial clones outperformed the unselected clones under mild and moderate stress conditions. The results presented here highlight the contribution of intrinsic potential yields (yield under well-irrigated conditions) of some selected and unselected clones to maintain relatively high productivity in a range of moderate stress conditions imposed. The physiological basis for the high genetic correlations is at present unclear, but some explanations are hypothesized. The choice of stress levels in selection trials would not appear to be a critical issue for sugarcane breeding programmes, at least for the early phases of selection, where similar ranking clones across a range of moderate water stresses may be expected. PMID:22996675

  9. Selection of sugar cane families by using BLUP and multi-diverse analyses for planting in the Brazilian savannah.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, M H P; Ferreira, A; Peixoto, L A; Resende, M D V; Nascimento, M; Silva, F F

    2014-03-12

    This study evaluated different strategies to select sugar cane families and obtain clones adapted to the conditions of the Brazilian savannah. Specifically, 7 experiments were conducted, with 10 full sib families, and 2 witnesses in common to all experiments, in each experiment. The plants were grown in random blocks, with witnesses in common (incomplete blocks), and 6 repetitions of each experiment. The data were analyzed through the methodology of mixed patterns, in which the matrices of kinship between the families were identified by the method of restricted maximum likelihood. The characteristics that were evaluated included soluble solids content (BRIX), BRIX ton/ha, average mass of a culm, number of culms/m, and tons of culms/ha. A multi-diverse alternative based on the analysis of groupings by using the UPGMA method was used to identify the most viable families for selection, when considering the genotypic effects on all characteristics. This method appeared suitable for the selection of families, with 5 family groups being formed. The families that formed Group 2 appeared superior to all other families for all the evaluated characteristics. It is recommended that the families in Group 2 are preferentially used in sugar cane improvement programs to obtain varieties optimally adapted to the conditions of the Brazilian savannah.

  10. Selection of sugar cane families by using BLUP and multi-diverse analyses for planting in the Brazilian savannah.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, M H P; Ferreira, A; Peixoto, L A; Resende, M D V; Nascimento, M; Silva, F F

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated different strategies to select sugar cane families and obtain clones adapted to the conditions of the Brazilian savannah. Specifically, 7 experiments were conducted, with 10 full sib families, and 2 witnesses in common to all experiments, in each experiment. The plants were grown in random blocks, with witnesses in common (incomplete blocks), and 6 repetitions of each experiment. The data were analyzed through the methodology of mixed patterns, in which the matrices of kinship between the families were identified by the method of restricted maximum likelihood. The characteristics that were evaluated included soluble solids content (BRIX), BRIX ton/ha, average mass of a culm, number of culms/m, and tons of culms/ha. A multi-diverse alternative based on the analysis of groupings by using the UPGMA method was used to identify the most viable families for selection, when considering the genotypic effects on all characteristics. This method appeared suitable for the selection of families, with 5 family groups being formed. The families that formed Group 2 appeared superior to all other families for all the evaluated characteristics. It is recommended that the families in Group 2 are preferentially used in sugar cane improvement programs to obtain varieties optimally adapted to the conditions of the Brazilian savannah. PMID:24668636

  11. Particle geometry affects differentially substrate composition and enzyme profiles by Pleurotus ostreatus growing on sugar cane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Membrillo, Isabel; Sánchez, Carmen; Meneses, Marcos; Favela, Ernesto; Loera, Octavio

    2011-01-01

    The growth of Pleurotus ostreatus was analyzed on three particle sizes of sugar cane bagasse: 0.92 mm and 1.68 mm in diameter, in addition to heterogeneous fibers (average 2.9 mm in diameter). Specific growth rate on heterogeneous particles was lower (μ=0.043 h(-1)), although soluble protein production was maximal (809 μg/g dry wt). Higher μ values were reached on the other two particles sizes (0.049-0.05 h(-1)) with less soluble protein (500 μg/g dry wt). Xylanases and laccases were favored in heterogeneous particles; while the highest selectivity for xylanases over cellulases was observed in 1.68 mm particles, corresponding with the maximal hemicellulose breakdown. Lignin and cellulose were preferentially degraded in smallest particles. This study shows that the geometrical ratio, shape and size of sugar cane bagasse fibers strongly influence packing density for SSF substrate, with an impact in the production of extracellular enzymes, growth rates and composition changes in substrate.

  12. [Factors associated with acute malnutrition in migrating pre-school children from the sugar cane region of Jalisco].

    PubMed

    Salcedo-Rocha, A L; Prado-Aguilar, C A

    1991-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the association between socioeconomic, environmental, feeding and individual factors involved in the acute malnutrition of the migrating pre-schooler. A comparative, transversal, observational study was conducted in 511 children between the ages of 1 and 5 from child care centers in the Jalisco sugar cane area. Using anthropometric indicators, classified according to Waterlow, their nutritional state was evaluated. The prevalence of the malnutrition was 79.0 per 100 preschoolers (68.1% adapted, 21.5% acutely chronic and 10.4% acute). Those factors associated with acute malnutrition included: a family income of less than the established minimum wage (O.R. = 6.32, P = 0.00), a lesser amount with an acute pathology (O.R. = 3.34, P = 0.00) and being a year old (O.R. = 2.22, P = 0.01). Significant differences were found among children of parents who: did not have an education (P = 0.04) and who were sugar cane cutters (P = 0.05). The findings identify risk factors for acute malnutrition, probably modifiable using nutritional epidemiological surveillance strategies.

  13. CO2 co-gasification of lower sulphur petroleum coke and sugar cane bagasse via TG-FTIR analysis technique.

    PubMed

    Edreis, Elbager M A; Luo, Guangqian; Li, Aijun; Chao, Chen; Hu, Hongyun; Zhang, Sen; Gui, Ben; Xiao, Li; Xu, Kai; Zhang, Pingan; Yao, Hong

    2013-05-01

    This study investigates the non-isothermal mechanism and kinetic behaviour of gasification of a lower sulphur petroleum coke, sugar cane bagasse and blends under carbon dioxide atmosphere conditions using the thermogravimetric analyser (TGA). The gas products were measured online with coupled Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The achieved results explored that the sugar cane bagasse and blend gasification happened in two steps: at (<500 °C) the volatiles are released, and at (>700 °C) char gasification occurred, whereas the lower sulphur petroleum coke presented only one char gasification stage at (>800 °C). Significant interactions were observed in the whole process. Some solid-state mechanisms were studied by the Coats-Redfern method in order to observe the mechanisms responsible for the gasification of samples. The results show that the chemical first order reaction is the best responsible mechanism for whole process. The main released gases are CO2, CO, CH4, HCOOH, C6H5OH and CH3COOH.

  14. Effect of different pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse on cellulase and xylanases production by the mutant Penicillium echinulatum 9A02S1 grown in submerged culture.

    PubMed

    Camassola, Marli; Dillon, Aldo J P

    2014-01-01

    The main limitation to the industrial scale hydrolysis of cellulose is the cost of cellulase production. This study evaluated cellulase and xylanase enzyme production by the cellulolytic mutant Penicillium echinulatum 9A02S1 using pretreated sugar cane bagasse as a carbon source. Most cultures grown with pretreated bagasse showed similar enzymatic activities to or higher enzymatic activities than cultures grown with cellulose or untreated sugar cane bagasse. Higher filter paper activity (1.253 ± 0.147 U · mL(-1)) was detected in the medium on the sixth day of cultivation when bagasse samples were pretreated with sodium hydroxide, hydrogen peroxide, and anthraquinone. Endoglucanase enzyme production was also enhanced by pretreatment of the bagasse. Nine cultures grown with bagasse possessed higher β -glucosidase activities on the sixth day than the culture grown with cellulose. The highest xylanase activity was observed in cultures with cellulose and with untreated sugar cane bagasse. These results indicate that pretreated sugar cane bagasse may be able to serve as a partial or total replacement for cellulose in submerged fermentation for cellulase production using P. echinulatum, which could potentially reduce future production costs of enzymatic complexes capable of hydrolyzing lignocellulosic residues to form fermented syrups.

  15. Changes in the physicochemical characteristics, including flavour components and Maillard reaction products, of non-centrifugal cane brown sugar during storage.

    PubMed

    Asikin, Yonathan; Kamiya, Asahiro; Mizu, Masami; Takara, Kensaku; Tamaki, Hajime; Wada, Koji

    2014-04-15

    Changes in the quality attributes of non-centrifugal cane brown sugar represented by physicochemical characteristics as well as flavour components and Maillard reaction products (MRPs) were monitored every 3 months over 1 year of storage. Stored cane brown sugar became darker, and its moisture content and water activity (a(w)) increased during storage. Fructose and glucose levels decreased as non-enzymatic browning via the Maillard reaction occurred in the stored sample, and a similar trend was also discovered in aconitic and acetic acids. Stored cane brown sugar lost its acidic and sulfuric odours (58.70-39.35% and 1.85-0.08%, respectively); subsequently, the nutty and roasted aroma increased from 26.52% to 38.59% due to the volatile MRPs. The browning rate of stored cane brown sugar was positively associated with the development of volatile MRPs (Pearson's coefficient = 0.860), whereas the amount of 3-deoxyglucosone, an intermediate product of the Maillard reaction, had a lower association with the brown colour due to its relatively slow degradation rate.

  16. Effect of Different Pretreatment of Sugar Cane Bagasse on Cellulase and Xylanases Production by the Mutant Penicillium echinulatum 9A02S1 Grown in Submerged Culture

    PubMed Central

    Camassola, Marli; Dillon, Aldo J. P.

    2014-01-01

    The main limitation to the industrial scale hydrolysis of cellulose is the cost of cellulase production. This study evaluated cellulase and xylanase enzyme production by the cellulolytic mutant Penicillium echinulatum 9A02S1 using pretreated sugar cane bagasse as a carbon source. Most cultures grown with pretreated bagasse showed similar enzymatic activities to or higher enzymatic activities than cultures grown with cellulose or untreated sugar cane bagasse. Higher filter paper activity (1.253 ± 0.147 U·mL−1) was detected in the medium on the sixth day of cultivation when bagasse samples were pretreated with sodium hydroxide, hydrogen peroxide, and anthraquinone. Endoglucanase enzyme production was also enhanced by pretreatment of the bagasse. Nine cultures grown with bagasse possessed higher β-glucosidase activities on the sixth day than the culture grown with cellulose. The highest xylanase activity was observed in cultures with cellulose and with untreated sugar cane bagasse. These results indicate that pretreated sugar cane bagasse may be able to serve as a partial or total replacement for cellulose in submerged fermentation for cellulase production using P. echinulatum, which could potentially reduce future production costs of enzymatic complexes capable of hydrolyzing lignocellulosic residues to form fermented syrups. PMID:24967394

  17. Effect of different pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse on cellulase and xylanases production by the mutant Penicillium echinulatum 9A02S1 grown in submerged culture.

    PubMed

    Camassola, Marli; Dillon, Aldo J P

    2014-01-01

    The main limitation to the industrial scale hydrolysis of cellulose is the cost of cellulase production. This study evaluated cellulase and xylanase enzyme production by the cellulolytic mutant Penicillium echinulatum 9A02S1 using pretreated sugar cane bagasse as a carbon source. Most cultures grown with pretreated bagasse showed similar enzymatic activities to or higher enzymatic activities than cultures grown with cellulose or untreated sugar cane bagasse. Higher filter paper activity (1.253 ± 0.147 U · mL(-1)) was detected in the medium on the sixth day of cultivation when bagasse samples were pretreated with sodium hydroxide, hydrogen peroxide, and anthraquinone. Endoglucanase enzyme production was also enhanced by pretreatment of the bagasse. Nine cultures grown with bagasse possessed higher β -glucosidase activities on the sixth day than the culture grown with cellulose. The highest xylanase activity was observed in cultures with cellulose and with untreated sugar cane bagasse. These results indicate that pretreated sugar cane bagasse may be able to serve as a partial or total replacement for cellulose in submerged fermentation for cellulase production using P. echinulatum, which could potentially reduce future production costs of enzymatic complexes capable of hydrolyzing lignocellulosic residues to form fermented syrups. PMID:24967394

  18. Metal levels in sugar cane (Saccharum spp.) samples from an area under the influence of a municipal landfill and a medical waste treatment system in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Segura-Muñoz, S I; da Silva Oliveira, A; Nikaido, M; Trevilato, T M B; Bocio, A; Takayanagui, A M M; Domingo, J L

    2006-01-01

    In July 2003, duplicated samples of roots, stems and leaves of sugar cane (Saccharum spp.) were collected in 25 points of an area under direct influence of the municipal landfill site (MLS) and medical waste treatment system (MWTS) of Ribeirao Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. Cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The following concentrations (mg/kg) were found in roots: Cd, 0.22+/-0.12; Cr, 64.3+/-48.7; Cu, 140.6+/-27.7; Hg, 0.04+/-0.02; Mn, 561.6+/-283.3; Pb, 7.9+/-2.1 and Zn, 177.4+/-64.9. For some metals, these levels are higher than the concentrations previously reported for different plants, reaching, in some cases, values that might be considered toxic for vegetables. Metal levels in stems were 80-90% of those found in roots, while the concentrations detected in leaves were significantly lower than those in roots. The present results suggest that MLS and MWTS activities might have been increasing metal concentrations in edible tissues of sugar cane grown in the area under their influence. Moreover, the traditional agricultural practices in the production of sugar cane could be also another determinant factor to reach the current metal levels. The results of this study indicate that sugar cane is a crop that is able to grow in areas where metals in soils are accumulated.

  19. Changes in the physicochemical characteristics, including flavour components and Maillard reaction products, of non-centrifugal cane brown sugar during storage.

    PubMed

    Asikin, Yonathan; Kamiya, Asahiro; Mizu, Masami; Takara, Kensaku; Tamaki, Hajime; Wada, Koji

    2014-04-15

    Changes in the quality attributes of non-centrifugal cane brown sugar represented by physicochemical characteristics as well as flavour components and Maillard reaction products (MRPs) were monitored every 3 months over 1 year of storage. Stored cane brown sugar became darker, and its moisture content and water activity (a(w)) increased during storage. Fructose and glucose levels decreased as non-enzymatic browning via the Maillard reaction occurred in the stored sample, and a similar trend was also discovered in aconitic and acetic acids. Stored cane brown sugar lost its acidic and sulfuric odours (58.70-39.35% and 1.85-0.08%, respectively); subsequently, the nutty and roasted aroma increased from 26.52% to 38.59% due to the volatile MRPs. The browning rate of stored cane brown sugar was positively associated with the development of volatile MRPs (Pearson's coefficient = 0.860), whereas the amount of 3-deoxyglucosone, an intermediate product of the Maillard reaction, had a lower association with the brown colour due to its relatively slow degradation rate. PMID:24295691

  20. Draw-fill batch culture mode for production of xylanases by Cellulomonas flavigena on sugar cane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Vega-Estrada, J; Flores-Cotera, L B; Santiago, A; Magaña-Plaza, I; Montes-Horcasitas, C

    2002-03-01

    Draw-fill culture was evaluated as a method for xylanase production by Cellulomonas flavigena on sugar cane bagasse. Specific xylanase activity and volumetric xylanase activities were measured by harvesting 50%, 55%, 60% and 70% of fermented broth at the end of each subculture. Maximum specific (64 IU mg(-1) protein) and volumetric (166 IU ml(-1)) xylanase activities were obtained by harvesting 50-55% of broth. Values were 3.4 and 3.8 times greater than those obtained in batch cultures carried out under the same conditions. Enzyme productivity of 4.2 IU ml(-1) h(-1) was significantly greater than that obtained in continuous cultures (2.4 IU ml(-1) h(-1)) (P<0.05).

  1. Structural evaluation of sugar cane bagasse steam pretreated in the presence of CO2 and SO2

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous studies on the use of SO2 and CO2 as impregnating agent for sugar cane bagasse steam treatment showed comparative and promising results concerning the cellulose enzymatic hydrolysis and the low formation of the inhibitors furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural for the use of CO2 at 205°C/15 min or SO2 at 190°C/5 min. In the present study sugar cane bagasse materials pretreated as aforementioned were analyzed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy) aiming a better understanding of the structural and chemical changes undergone by the pretreated materials. Results SEM and TEM data showed that the structural modifications undergone by the pretreatment with CO2 were less pronounced in comparison to that using SO2, which can be directly related to the combined severity of each pretreatment. According to XRD data, untreated bagasse showed, as expected, a lower crystallinity index (CI = 48.0%) when compared to pretreated samples with SO2 (CI = 65.5%) or CO2 (CI = 56.4%), due to the hemicellulose removal of 68.3% and 40.5%, respectively. FTIR spectroscopy supported SEM, TEM and XRD results, revealing a more extensive action of SO2. Conclusions The SEM, TEM, XRD and FTIR spectroscopy techniques used in this work contributed to structural and chemical analysis of the untreated and pretreated bagasse. The images from SEM and TEM can be related to the severity of SO2 pretreatment, which is almost twice higher. The crystallinity index values obtained from XRD showed that pretreated materials have higher values when compared with untreated material, due to the partial removal of hemicellulose after pretreatment. FTIR spectroscopy supported SEM, TEM and XRD results. CO2 can actually be used as impregnating agent for steam pretreatment, although the present study confirmed a more extensive action of SO2. PMID:22616648

  2. Compressive strength and interfacial transition zone of sugar cane bagasse ash concrete: A comparison to the established pozzolans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Asma Abd Elhameed; Shafiq, Nasir; Nuruddin, Muhd Fadhil

    2015-05-01

    Agricultural and industrial by-products are commonly used in concrete production as cement replacement materials (CRMs) or as admixtures to enhance both fresh and hardened properties of concrete as well as to save the environment from the negative effects caused by their disposal. Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash (SCBA) is one of the promising CRMs, it is used as a partial replacement of cement for producing concrete; properties of such concrete depend on the chemical composition, fineness, and burning temperature of SCBA. Approximately 1500 Million tons of sugarcane are annually produced over all the world which leave about 40-45% bagasse after juice crushing for sugar industry giving an average annual production of about 600 Million tons of bagasse as a waste material. This paper presents some findings on the effect of SCBA on workability, compressive strength and microstructure of interfacial zone of concrete and its performance is compared to some of the established CRMs namely Densified Silica Fume, Fly Ash and Microwave Incinerated Rice Husk Ash.

  3. Analysis of Mannitol, as Tracer of Bacterial Infections in Cane and Beet Sugar Factories

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mannitol, formed mainly by Leuconostoc mesenteroides bacteria, is a sensitive marker of sugarcane and sugarbeet deterioration that can predict multiple processing problems. The delivery of consignments of deteriorated sugarcane or sugar beets to factories can detrimentally affect multiple process u...

  4. Analysis of Mannitol, as Tracer of Bacterial Infections in Cane and Beet Sugar Factories

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mannitol, formed mainly by Leuconostoc mesenteroides bacteria, is a sensitive marker of sugarcane and sugarbeet deterioration that can predict multiple processing problems. The delivery of consignments of deteriorated sugarcane or sugar beets to factories can detrimentally affect multiple process un...

  5. Further studies on a new pathway of photosynthetic carbon dioxide fixation in sugar-cane and its occurrence in other plant species.

    PubMed

    Hatch, M D; Slack, C R; Johnson, H S

    1967-02-01

    1. The pathway of photosynthesis in sugar-cane, which gives most of the radio-activity fixed during short periods in (14)CO(2) in C-4 of oxaloacetate, malate and aspartate, was examined under varied conditions. 2. The pattern of labelling was essentially the same with leaves of different ages and with leaves equilibrated at carbon dioxide concentrations in the range 0-3.8% (v/v) and light-intensities in the range 1400-9000ft.-candles before adding (14)CO(2). 3. Radioactive products were examined after exposing leaves of 33 different plant species to (14)CO(2) for 4sec. under standard conditions. 4. A labelling pattern typical of sugar-cane was found in several species of Gramineae but not in others. Of 16 species from other Families only a species of Cyperaceae contained a large proportion of the fixed radioactivity in oxaloacetate, malate and aspartate. PMID:6029601

  6. Further studies on a new pathway of photosynthetic carbon dioxide fixation in sugar-cane and its occurrence in other plant species

    PubMed Central

    Hatch, M. D.; Slack, C. R.; Johnson, Hilary S.

    1967-01-01

    1. The pathway of photosynthesis in sugar-cane, which gives most of the radio-activity fixed during short periods in 14CO2 in C-4 of oxaloacetate, malate and aspartate, was examined under varied conditions. 2. The pattern of labelling was essentially the same with leaves of different ages and with leaves equilibrated at carbon dioxide concentrations in the range 0–3·8% (v/v) and light-intensities in the range 1400–9000ft.-candles before adding 14CO2. 3. Radioactive products were examined after exposing leaves of 33 different plant species to 14CO2 for 4sec. under standard conditions. 4. A labelling pattern typical of sugar-cane was found in several species of Gramineae but not in others. Of 16 species from other Families only a species of Cyperaceae contained a large proportion of the fixed radioactivity in oxaloacetate, malate and aspartate. PMID:6029601

  7. Cellulase production by Penicillium funiculosum and its application in the hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse for second generation ethanol production by fed batch operation.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Roberto Nobuyuki; Barcelos, Carolina Araújo; Santa Anna, Lídia Maria Melo; Pereira, Nei

    2013-01-10

    This study aimed to produce a cellulase blend and to evaluate its application in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process for second generation ethanol production from sugar cane bagasse. The sugar cane bagasse was subjected to pretreatments (diluted acid and alkaline), as for disorganizing the ligocellulosic complex, and making the cellulose component more amenable to enzymatic hydrolysis. The residual solid fraction was named sugar cane bagasse partially delignified cellulignin (PDC), and was used for enzyme production and ethanol fermentation. The enzyme production was performed in a bioreactor with two inoculum concentrations (5 and 10% v/v). The fermentation inoculated with higher inoculum size reduced the time for maximum enzyme production (from 72 to 48). The enzyme extract was concentrated using tangential ultrafiltration in hollow fiber membranes, and the produced cellulase blend was evaluated for its stability at 37 °C, operation temperature of the simultaneous SSF process, and at 50 °C, optimum temperature of cellulase blend activity. The cellulolytic preparation was stable for at least 300 h at both 37 °C and 50 °C. The ethanol production was carried out by PDC fed-batch SSF process, using the onsite cellulase blend. The feeding strategy circumvented the classic problems of diffusion limitations by diminishing the presence of a high solid:liquid ratio at any time, resulting in high ethanol concentration at the end of the process (100 g/L), which corresponded to a fermentation efficiency of 78% of the maximum obtainable theoretically. The experimental results led to the ratio of 380 L of ethanol per ton of sugar cane bagasse PDC.

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of the Sugar Cane Endophyte Pseudomonas aurantiaca PB-St2, a Disease-Suppressive Bacterium with Antifungal Activity toward the Plant Pathogen Colletotrichum falcatum

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Judith S.

    2014-01-01

    The endophytic bacterium Pseudomonas aurantiaca PB-St2 exhibits antifungal activity and represents a biocontrol agent to suppress red rot disease of sugar cane. Here, we report the completely sequenced 6.6-Mb genome of P. aurantiaca PB-St2. The sequence contains a repertoire of biosynthetic genes for secondary metabolites that putatively contribute to its antagonistic activity and its plant-microbe interactions. PMID:24459254

  9. An approach to the utilisation of CO2 as impregnating agent in steam pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse and leaves for ethanol production

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The conditions for steam pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse and leaves were studied using CO2 as an impregnating agent. The following conditions were investigated: time (5 to 15 min) and temperature (190 to 220°C). The pretreatment was assessed in terms of glucose and xylose yields after enzymatic hydrolysis and inhibitor formation (furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural) in the pretreatment. Results from pretreatment using SO2 as impregnating agent was used as reference. Results For sugar cane bagasse, the highest glucose yield (86.6% of theoretical) was obtained after pretreatment at 205°C for 15 min. For sugar cane leaves the highest glucose yield (97.2% of theoretical) was obtained after pretreatment at 220°C for 5 min. The reference pretreatment, using impregnation with SO2 and performed at 190°C for 5 min, resulted in an overall glucose yield of 79.7% and 91.9% for bagasse and leaves, respectively. Conclusions Comparable pretreatment performance was obtained with CO2 as compared to when SO2 is used, although higher temperature and pressure were needed. The results are encouraging as some characteristics of CO2 are very attractive, such as high availability, low cost, low toxicity, low corrosivity and low occupational risk. PMID:20384996

  10. New process for fungal delignification of sugar-cane bagasse and simultaneous production of laccase in a vapor phase bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Meza, Juan Carlos; Sigoillot, Jean-Claude; Lomascolo, Anne; Navarro, David; Auria, Richard

    2006-05-31

    We propose a new process using a vapor phase bioreactor (VPB) to simultaneously (i) delignify sugar-cane bagasse, a residue of sugar production that can be recycled in paper industry, and (ii) produce laccase, an enzyme usable to bleach paper pulp. Ethanol vapor, used as laccase inducer, was blown up through a VPB packed with bagasse and inoculated with Pycnoporus cinnabarinusss3, a laccase-hyperproducing fungal strain. After 28 days, the laccase activity in the ethanol-treated bagasse was 80-fold higher (80 U g(ds)(-)(1)) and the bagasse delignification percentage was 12-fold (12%) higher than in the reference samples produced in the absence of ethanol, corresponding to a high overall pulp yield of 96.1%. In the presence of ethanol, the total soluble phenols amount was 2.5-fold (3 mg FA g(ds)(-)(1)) higher than that without ethanol. Six monomeric phenols were detected: p-coumaric (4-hydroxyphenyl-2-propenoic), ferulic (4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl-2-propenoic), syringic (4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzoic), vanillic (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic) and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids, and 2-methoxyhydroquinone. Higher concentrations of phenolic compounds were observed when ethanol vapor was added, confirming a more efficient bagasse delignification. After 28 days, the fungal-treated bagasse (with ethanol addition) was pulped and refined. For a freeness of 81 mL CSF, this processing required 50% less energy than with untreated bagasse (without inoculation and ethanol addition), which indicated a significant potential economy for the pulp and paper industry. Handsheets were made from pulp obtained after fungal-treated and untreated bagasse. Comparison of bagasse-pulp characteristics for freeness of 35 and 181 mL CSF showed an average increment by 35% for tensile index and breaking strength and length. VPB allowed a simultaneous production of laccase (90 U g(ds)(-)(1), after pressing of the bagasse) that improved the overall profitability of the process.

  11. New process for fungal delignification of sugar-cane bagasse and simultaneous production of laccase in a vapor phase bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Meza, Juan Carlos; Sigoillot, Jean-Claude; Lomascolo, Anne; Navarro, David; Auria, Richard

    2006-05-31

    We propose a new process using a vapor phase bioreactor (VPB) to simultaneously (i) delignify sugar-cane bagasse, a residue of sugar production that can be recycled in paper industry, and (ii) produce laccase, an enzyme usable to bleach paper pulp. Ethanol vapor, used as laccase inducer, was blown up through a VPB packed with bagasse and inoculated with Pycnoporus cinnabarinusss3, a laccase-hyperproducing fungal strain. After 28 days, the laccase activity in the ethanol-treated bagasse was 80-fold higher (80 U g(ds)(-)(1)) and the bagasse delignification percentage was 12-fold (12%) higher than in the reference samples produced in the absence of ethanol, corresponding to a high overall pulp yield of 96.1%. In the presence of ethanol, the total soluble phenols amount was 2.5-fold (3 mg FA g(ds)(-)(1)) higher than that without ethanol. Six monomeric phenols were detected: p-coumaric (4-hydroxyphenyl-2-propenoic), ferulic (4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl-2-propenoic), syringic (4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzoic), vanillic (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic) and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids, and 2-methoxyhydroquinone. Higher concentrations of phenolic compounds were observed when ethanol vapor was added, confirming a more efficient bagasse delignification. After 28 days, the fungal-treated bagasse (with ethanol addition) was pulped and refined. For a freeness of 81 mL CSF, this processing required 50% less energy than with untreated bagasse (without inoculation and ethanol addition), which indicated a significant potential economy for the pulp and paper industry. Handsheets were made from pulp obtained after fungal-treated and untreated bagasse. Comparison of bagasse-pulp characteristics for freeness of 35 and 181 mL CSF showed an average increment by 35% for tensile index and breaking strength and length. VPB allowed a simultaneous production of laccase (90 U g(ds)(-)(1), after pressing of the bagasse) that improved the overall profitability of the process. PMID:16719506

  12. Influence of sugar cane vinasse on the sorption and degradation of herbicides in soil under controlled conditions.

    PubMed

    Lourencetti, Carolina; De Marchi, Mary R R; Ribeiro, Maria L

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the influence of sugar cane vinasse on the persistence, sorption and leaching potential of diuron (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea), hexazinone (3-cyclohexyl-6-(dimethylamino)-1-methyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-dione) and tebuthiuron (1-(5-tert-butyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)-1,3-dimethylurea) in both a clay and sandy soil from a tropical area of Brazil. The experiments were conducted out under controlled laboratory conditions. The addition of sugarcane vinasse to soil influenced the persistence and sorption of the herbicides in both the studied clay and sandy soils, with a considerable decrease in the diuron DT₅₀ values in clay soil. The Ground Water Ubiquity Score (GUS) Index classifies the herbicides as leachers in both soils and treatments, with the exception of diuron, which is classified as a non-leacher in clay soil-vinasse and as a transient herbicide in sandy soil. These results suggest that special attention should be given to areas such as those where the sandy soil was collected in this study, which is a recharge area of the Guarani Aquifer and is likely to experience groundwater contamination due to the high leaching potential of the applied pesticides. PMID:22938579

  13. Wickerhamiella siamensis f.a., sp. nov., an endophytic and epiphytic yeast species isolated from sugar cane leaf.

    PubMed

    Khunnamwong, Pannida; Surussawadee, Janjira; Jindamorakot, Sasitorn; Limtong, Savitree

    2014-11-01

    Six strains representing a novel yeast species were isolated from tissue (DMKU-SE106(T), DMKU-SE110, DMKU-SE112 and DMKU-SE132) and the external surface (DMKU-SP335 and DMKU-SP406) of sugar cane leaves collected in Thailand. On the basis of morphological, biochemical, physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, and sequence analysis of the D1/D2 region of the LSU rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, the six strains were found to represent a single novel species of the genus Wickerhamiella although the formation of ascospores was not observed. The sequences of the D1/D2 region of the LSU rRNA gene and ITS region of the six strains differed from each other by 0-2 and 2-3 nt substitutions, respectively. The novel species was related most closely to Candida infanticola but with 4.5-4.6% nucleotide substitutions in the D1/D2 region of the LSU rRNA gene and 6.6-7.1% nucleotide substitutions in the ITS region. The name Wickerhamiella siamensis f.a., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DMKU-SE106(T) ( =BCC 61185(T) =NBRC 109697(T) =CBS 13331(T)).

  14. HC-Pro protein of sugar cane mosaic virus interacts specifically with maize ferredoxin-5 in vitro and in planta.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Qin; Liu, Zhong-Mei; Xu, Jian; Zhou, Tao; Wang, Meng; Chen, Yu-Ting; Li, Huai-Fang; Fan, Zai-Feng

    2008-08-01

    Symptom development of a plant viral disease is a result of molecular interactions between the virus and its host plant; thus, the elucidation of specific interactions is a prerequisite to reveal the mechanism of viral pathogenesis. Here, we show that the chloroplast precursor of ferredoxin-5 (Fd V) from maize (Zea mays) interacts with the multifunctional HC-Pro protein of sugar cane mosaic virus (SCMV) in yeast, Nicotiana benthamiana cells and maize protoplasts. Our results demonstrate that the transit peptide rather than the mature protein of Fd V precursor could interact with both N-terminal (residues 1-100) and C-terminal (residues 301-460) fragments, but not the middle part (residues 101-300), of HC-Pro. In addition, SCMV HC-Pro interacted only with Fd V, and not with the other two photosynthetic ferredoxin isoproteins (Fd I and Fd II) from maize plants. SCMV infection significantly downregulated the level of Fd V mRNA in maize plants; however, no obvious changes were observed in levels of Fd I and Fd II mRNA. These results suggest that SCMV HC-Pro interacts specifically with maize Fd V and that this interaction may disturb the post-translational import of Fd V into maize bundle-sheath cell chloroplasts, which could lead to the perturbation of chloroplast structure and function.

  15. Isolation and enzymic properties of levansucrase secreted by Acetobacter diazotrophicus SRT4, a bacterium associated with sugar cane.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, L; Arrieta, J; Menendez, C; Vazquez, R; Coego, A; Suarez, V; Selman, G; Petit-Glatron, M F; Chambert, R

    1995-07-01

    Acetobacter diazotrophicus, a nitrogen-fixing bacterium associated with sugar cane, secretes a levansucrase (sucrose-2,6-beta-D-fructan 6-beta-D-fructosyltransferase; EC 2.4.1.10). This enzyme is constitutively expressed and represents more than 70% of the total proteins secreted by strain SRT4. The purified protein consists of a single 58 kDa polypeptide with an isoelectric point of 5.5. Its activity is optimal at pH 5.0. It catalyses transfructosylation from sucrose to a variety of acceptors including water (sucrose hydrolysis), glucose (exchange reaction), fructan (polymerase reaction) and sucrose (oligofructoside synthesis). In vivo the polymerase activity leads to synthesis of a high-molecular-mass fructan of the levan type. A. diazotrophicus levansucrase catalyses transfructosylation via a Ping Pong mechanism involving the formation of a transient fructosyl-enzyme intermediate. The catalytic mechanism is very similar to that of Bacillus subtilis levansucrase. The kinetic parameters of the two enzymes are of the same order of magnitude. The main difference between the two enzyme specificities is the high yield of oligofructoside, particularly 1-kestotriose and kestotetraose, accumulated by A. diazotrophicus levansucrase during sucrose transformation. We discuss the hypothesis that these catalytic features may serve the different biological functions of each enzyme.

  16. Strategies for the development of a side stream process for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production from sugar cane molasses.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, M G E; Eiroa, M; Torres, C; Nunes, B R; Reis, M A M

    2007-07-15

    A three-stage process was developed to produce polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) from sugar cane molasses. The process includes (1) molasses acidogenic fermentation, (2) selection of PHA-accumulating cultures, (3) PHA batch accumulation using the enriched sludge and fermented molasses. In the fermentation step, the effect of pH (5-7) on the organic acids profile and productivity was evaluated. At higher pH, acetic and propionic acids were the main products, while lower pH favoured the production of butyric and valeric acids. PHA accumulation using fermented molasses was evaluated with two cultures selected either with acetate or fermented molasses. The effect of organic acids distribution on polymer composition and yield was evaluated with the acetate selected culture. Storage yields varied from 0.37 to 0.50Cmmol HA/Cmmol VFA. A direct relationship between the type of organic acids used and the polymers composition was observed. Low ammonia concentration (0.1Nmmol/l) in the fermented molasses stimulated PHA storage (0.62Cmmol HA/Cmmol VFA). In addition, strategies of reactor operation to select a PHA-accumulating culture on fermented molasses were developed. The combination of low organic loading with high ammonia concentration selected a culture with a stable storage capacity and with a storage yield (0.59Cmmol HA/Cmmol VFA) similar to that of the acetate-selected culture.

  17. Isolation and enzymic properties of levansucrase secreted by Acetobacter diazotrophicus SRT4, a bacterium associated with sugar cane.

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, L; Arrieta, J; Menendez, C; Vazquez, R; Coego, A; Suarez, V; Selman, G; Petit-Glatron, M F; Chambert, R

    1995-01-01

    Acetobacter diazotrophicus, a nitrogen-fixing bacterium associated with sugar cane, secretes a levansucrase (sucrose-2,6-beta-D-fructan 6-beta-D-fructosyltransferase; EC 2.4.1.10). This enzyme is constitutively expressed and represents more than 70% of the total proteins secreted by strain SRT4. The purified protein consists of a single 58 kDa polypeptide with an isoelectric point of 5.5. Its activity is optimal at pH 5.0. It catalyses transfructosylation from sucrose to a variety of acceptors including water (sucrose hydrolysis), glucose (exchange reaction), fructan (polymerase reaction) and sucrose (oligofructoside synthesis). In vivo the polymerase activity leads to synthesis of a high-molecular-mass fructan of the levan type. A. diazotrophicus levansucrase catalyses transfructosylation via a Ping Pong mechanism involving the formation of a transient fructosyl-enzyme intermediate. The catalytic mechanism is very similar to that of Bacillus subtilis levansucrase. The kinetic parameters of the two enzymes are of the same order of magnitude. The main difference between the two enzyme specificities is the high yield of oligofructoside, particularly 1-kestotriose and kestotetraose, accumulated by A. diazotrophicus levansucrase during sucrose transformation. We discuss the hypothesis that these catalytic features may serve the different biological functions of each enzyme. Images Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7619044

  18. Wickerhamiella siamensis f.a., sp. nov., an endophytic and epiphytic yeast species isolated from sugar cane leaf.

    PubMed

    Khunnamwong, Pannida; Surussawadee, Janjira; Jindamorakot, Sasitorn; Limtong, Savitree

    2014-11-01

    Six strains representing a novel yeast species were isolated from tissue (DMKU-SE106(T), DMKU-SE110, DMKU-SE112 and DMKU-SE132) and the external surface (DMKU-SP335 and DMKU-SP406) of sugar cane leaves collected in Thailand. On the basis of morphological, biochemical, physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, and sequence analysis of the D1/D2 region of the LSU rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, the six strains were found to represent a single novel species of the genus Wickerhamiella although the formation of ascospores was not observed. The sequences of the D1/D2 region of the LSU rRNA gene and ITS region of the six strains differed from each other by 0-2 and 2-3 nt substitutions, respectively. The novel species was related most closely to Candida infanticola but with 4.5-4.6% nucleotide substitutions in the D1/D2 region of the LSU rRNA gene and 6.6-7.1% nucleotide substitutions in the ITS region. The name Wickerhamiella siamensis f.a., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DMKU-SE106(T) ( =BCC 61185(T) =NBRC 109697(T) =CBS 13331(T)). PMID:25168613

  19. Influence of sugar cane vinasse on the sorption and degradation of herbicides in soil under controlled conditions.

    PubMed

    Lourencetti, Carolina; De Marchi, Mary R R; Ribeiro, Maria L

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the influence of sugar cane vinasse on the persistence, sorption and leaching potential of diuron (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea), hexazinone (3-cyclohexyl-6-(dimethylamino)-1-methyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-dione) and tebuthiuron (1-(5-tert-butyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)-1,3-dimethylurea) in both a clay and sandy soil from a tropical area of Brazil. The experiments were conducted out under controlled laboratory conditions. The addition of sugarcane vinasse to soil influenced the persistence and sorption of the herbicides in both the studied clay and sandy soils, with a considerable decrease in the diuron DT₅₀ values in clay soil. The Ground Water Ubiquity Score (GUS) Index classifies the herbicides as leachers in both soils and treatments, with the exception of diuron, which is classified as a non-leacher in clay soil-vinasse and as a transient herbicide in sandy soil. These results suggest that special attention should be given to areas such as those where the sandy soil was collected in this study, which is a recharge area of the Guarani Aquifer and is likely to experience groundwater contamination due to the high leaching potential of the applied pesticides.

  20. A comparison of liquid hot water and steam pretreatments of sugar cane bagasse for bioconversion to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Laser, M; Schulman, D; Allen, S G; Lichwa, J; Antal, M J; Lynd, L R

    2002-01-01

    Sugar cane bagasse was pretreated with either liquid hot water (LHW) or steam using the same 25 l reactor. Solids concentration ranged from 1% to 8% for LHW pretreatment and was > or = 50% for steam pretreatment. Reaction temperature and time ranged from 170 to 230 degrees C and 1 to 46 min, respectively. Key performance metrics included fiber reactivity, xylan recovery, and the extent to which pretreatment hydrolyzate inhibited glucose fermentation. In four cases, LHW pretreatment achieved > or = 80% conversion by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). > or = 80% xylan recovery, and no hydrolyzate inhibition of glucose fermentation yield. Combined effectiveness was not as good for steam pretreatment due to low xylan recovery. SSF conversion increased and xylan recovery decreased as xylan dissolution increased for both modes. SSF conversion, xylan dissolution. hydrolyzate furfural concentration, and hydrolyzate inhibition increased, while xylan recovery and hydrolyzate pH decreased, as a function of increasing LHW pretreatment solids concentration (1-8%). These results are consistent with the notion that autohydrolysis plays an important. if not exclusive, role in batch hydrothermal pretreatment. Achieving concurrently high (greater than 90%) SSF conversion and xylan recovery will likely require a modified reactor configuration (e.g. continuous percolation or base addition) that better preserves dissolved xylan.

  1. Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates from fermented sugar cane molasses by a mixed culture enriched in glycogen accumulating organisms.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Simon; Pisco, Ana R; Reis, Maria A M; Lemos, Paulo C

    2010-02-01

    Batch production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under aerobic conditions by an open mixed culture enriched in glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) with fermented sugar cane molasses as substrate was studied. The produced polymers contained five types of monomers, namely 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB), 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV), 3-hydroxy-2-methylbutyrate (3H2MB), 3-hydroxy-2-methylvalerate (3H2MV) and the medium chain length monomer 3-hydroxyhexanoate (3HHx). With fermented molasses as substrate, PHA was produced under concurrent consumption of stored glycogen with yields of 0.47-0.66 C-mol PHA per C-mol of total carbon substrate and with rates up to 0.65 C-mol/C-molX h. In order to investigate the role of glycogen during aerobic PHA accumulation in GAOs, synthetic single volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were used as substrates and it was found that the fate of glycogen was dependent on the type of VFA being consumed. Aerobic PHA accumulation occurred under concurrent glycogen consumption with acetate as substrate and under minor concurrent glycogen production with propionate as substrate. With butyrate and valerate as substrates, PHA accumulation occurred with the glycogen pool unaffected. The composition of the PHA was dependent on the VFA composition of the fermented molasses and was 56-70 mol-% 3HB, 13-43 mol-% 3HV, 1-23 mol-% 3HHx and 0-2 mol-% 3H2MB and 3H2MV. The high polymer yields and production rates suggest that enrichment of GAOs can be a fruitful strategy for mixed culture production of PHA from waste substrates.

  2. Cellulases and xylanases production by Penicillium echinulatum grown on sugar cane bagasse in solid-state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Camassola, Marli; Dillon, Aldo J P

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the production of cellulases and xylanases from Penicillium echinulatum 9A02S1, solid-state fermentation (SSF) was performed by using different ratios of sugar cane bagasse (SCB) and wheat bran (WB). The greatest filter paper activity obtained was 45.82 ± 1.88 U gdm(-1) in a culture containing 6SCB/4WB on the third day. The greatest β-glucosidase activities were 40.13 ± 5.10 U gdm(-1) obtained on the third day for the 0SCB/10WB culture and 29.17 ± 1.06 U gdm(-1) for the 2SCB/8WB culture. For endoglucanase, the greatest activities were 290.47 ± 43.57 and 276.84 ± 15.47 U gdm(-1), for the culture 6SCB/4WB on the fourth and fifth days of cultivation, respectively. The greatest xylanase activities were found on the third day for the cultures 6SCB/4WB (36.38 ± 5.38 U gdm(-1)) and 4SCB/6WB (37.87 ± 2.26 U gdm(-1)). In conclusion, the results presented in this article showed that it was possible to obtain large amounts of cellulases and xylanases enzymes using low-cost substrates, such as SCB and WB.

  3. Combined removal of BTEX in air stream by using mixture of sugar cane bagasse, compost and GAC as biofilter media.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Anil K; Majumder, C B; Chatterjee, Shamba

    2007-09-01

    Biofiltration of air stream containing mixture of benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and o-xylene (BTEX) has been studied in a lab-scale biofilter packed with a mixture of compost, sugar cane bagasse and granulated activated carbon (GAC) in the ratio 55:30:15 by weight. Microbial acclimation was achieved in 30 days by exposing the system to average BTEX inlet concentration of 0.4194 gm(-3) at an empty bed residence time (EBRT) of 2.3 min. Biofilter achieved maximum removal efficiency more than 99% of all four compounds for throughout its operation at an EBRT of 2.3 min for an inlet concentration of 0.681 gm(-3), which is quite significance than the values reported in the literature. The results indicate that when the influent BTEX loadings were less than 68 gm(-3)h(-1) in the biofilter, nearly 100% removal could be achieved. A maximum elimination capacity (EC) of 83.65 gm(-3)h(-1) of the biofilter was obtained at inlet BTEX load of 126.5 gm(-3)h(-1) in phase IV. Elimination capacities of BTEX increased with the increase in influent VOC loading, but an opposite trend was observed for the removal efficiency. The production of CO(2) in each phase (gm(-3)h(-1)) was also observed at steady state (i.e. at maximum removal efficiency). Moreover, the high concentrations of nitrogen in the nutrient solution may adversely affect the microbial activity possibly due to the presence of high salt concentrations. Furthermore, an attempt was also made to isolate the most profusely grown BTEX-degrading strain. A Gram-positive strain had a high BTEX-degrading activity and was identified as Bacillus sphaericus by taxonomical analysis, biochemical tests and 16S rDNA gene analysis methods.

  4. COMPARATIVE MACROSCOPIC STUDY OF OSTEOCHONDRAL DEFECTS PRODUCED IN FEMURS OF RABBITS REPAIRED WITH BIOPOLYMER GEL CANE SUGAR

    PubMed Central

    de Albuquerque, Paulo Cezar Vidal Carneiro; dos Santos, Saulo Monteiro; de Andrade Aguiar, José Lamartine; Filho, Nicodemus Pontes; de Mello, Roberto José Vieira; Costa, Mariana Lúcia Correia Ramos; de Albuquerque Olbertz, Clarissa Miranda Carneiro; de Souza Almeida, Tarciana Mendonça; da Silva Santos, Alessandro Henrique; da Silva, Joacil Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the surface, coloring, consistency, continuity and healing of osteochondral defects produced in the femoral condyles of rabbits and filled with sugar cane biopolymer gel (SCBG), after 90, 120 and 180 days, and in comparison with a control group. Method: Sixteen adult New Zealand white rabbits aged 6 to 7 months, weighing between 2 and 2.5 kg and without locomotor system abnormalities were studied. In all the animals, a defect was made in the femoral condyles of the right and left knees, measuring 3.2 mm in diameter and 4 mm in depth, using a trephine. The animals were divided into two groups: study group formed by the right knees, in which the medial and lateral condyles received implants of SCBG; and control group formed by the left knees, in which the medial and lateral condyles were allowed to heal naturally. The knees were assessed 90, 120 and 180 days after the operation. After the animals had been sacrificed, the anatomical specimens were resected and placed in Bouin's solution. They were then photographed with a Nikon Coolpix 5400® coupled to a Nikon SM2800® stereoscopic loupe, to analyze the surface, coloring, consistency, continuity and healing. Results: The results were evaluated using the chi-square test. There were no significant differences in the macroscopic assessments of healing between the study and control groups. Conclusion: With regard to the surface, coloring, consistency, continuity and healing of the defects, the macroscopic appearance of the tissue repaired with SCBG was similar to that of the control group. PMID:27027057

  5. Agro-industry sugarcane residues disposal: the trends of their conversion into energy carriers in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Alonso Pippo, W; Garzone, P; Cornacchia, G

    2007-01-01

    The goal of the present work was to carry out a review of the disposal practices for the agro-industry's sugarcane residue and the trends of energy use in Cuba. The lack of an alternative energy carrier to electricity with storage capability for use in off-season has to date been an unsolvable question. The improvement of cogeneration capacity via implementation of CEST or BIG/GTCC and the barriers for their implementation, the introduction of a medium size (3 ton/h) fast pyrolysis module (FPM3) as a solution for off-season energy demand in the agro-industry, and an assessment of the energy required to do so, were also analyzed. Bio-oil production from bagasse and sugarcane agriculture residues (SCAR) and their particularities at the sugar mill are treated. The influence of sugar facility production process configuration is analyzed. The fast pyrolysis products and the trends of their end uses in Cuba are presented. The production cost of a ton of Bio-oil for FPM3 conditions was calculated at 155 USD/ton and the payback time as a function of selling price between 160 and 110 USD/ton was estimated to be from 1.5 to 4 years. The economic feasibility of the FPM3 was estimated, comparing the added values for three scenarios: 1st case, currently-used sugar production, 16.5 USD/ton of cane; 2nd case, factoring in the cogeneration improvement, 27 USD/ton of cane; and 3rd case, with cogeneration improvement and Bio-oil production, 40 USD/ton of cane. The energy use of SCAR and the introduction of FPM3 in the sugar mill are promising improvements that could result in a potential surplus of 80 kWh(e)/ton of cane in-season, or 6 x 10(6)ton of Bio-oil (LHV=15 MJ/kg) for use off-season in a milling season of 4 million tons of raw sugar.

  6. Optimization of biodegradable plastic production on sugar cane molasses in Enterobacter sp. SEL2

    PubMed Central

    Naheed, Nighat; Jamil, Nazia

    2014-01-01

    Contaminated environments have a large number of bacteria which can accumulate PHA as their energy reserves. Out of 54 isolated bacterial strains from three groups of contaminated sites 48 were found PHA positive. The sites were grouped on the basis of the type of carbon sources i.e. sugars, fatty acids and much diverse type. Strains MFD5, MFD11, UML3, USL2, SEL2, SEL3, SEL10 and PFW1 produced 69.9 ± 0.29, 75.27 ± 0.45, 65.43 ± 0.1, 72.54 ± 0.27, 76.61 ± 0.28, 61.81 ± 0.05, 71.16 ± 0.09 and 74.92 ± 0.5 percent of PHA to their constant cell weight (CCW) respectively in PHA detection media supplemented with 2% glucose. Molasses, whey, crumbs hydrolysate and palm oil were checked as inexpensive carbon sources. Molasses alone could supply the required nutrients for growth and PHA production. Strain SEL2 produced 47.36 ± 0.45% PHA using 2% molasses at 37 °C and pH 7.0. Upon production optimization the best accumulation (80.95 ± 0.01%) was observed in PHA detection media with 0.2% nitrogen source, 3% molasses, pH 5.0 and 37 °C by the strain SEL2. The overall effect of the presence of increased molasses concentration in the media was positive it increased the accumulation period till 72 h. Enterobacter sp. SEL2 (JF901810) is first time being reported for PHA production. PMID:25242924

  7. Optimization of biodegradable plastic production on sugar cane molasses in Enterobacter sp. SEL2.

    PubMed

    Naheed, Nighat; Jamil, Nazia

    2014-01-01

    Contaminated environments have a large number of bacteria which can accumulate PHA as their energy reserves. Out of 54 isolated bacterial strains from three groups of contaminated sites 48 were found PHA positive. The sites were grouped on the basis of the type of carbon sources i.e. sugars, fatty acids and much diverse type. Strains MFD5, MFD11, UML3, USL2, SEL2, SEL3, SEL10 and PFW1 produced 69.9 ± 0.29, 75.27 ± 0.45, 65.43 ± 0.1, 72.54 ± 0.27, 76.61 ± 0.28, 61.81 ± 0.05, 71.16 ± 0.09 and 74.92 ± 0.5 percent of PHA to their constant cell weight (CCW) respectively in PHA detection media supplemented with 2% glucose. Molasses, whey, crumbs hydrolysate and palm oil were checked as inexpensive carbon sources. Molasses alone could supply the required nutrients for growth and PHA production. Strain SEL2 produced 47.36 ± 0.45% PHA using 2% molasses at 37 °C and pH 7.0. Upon production optimization the best accumulation (80.95 ± 0.01%) was observed in PHA detection media with 0.2% nitrogen source, 3% molasses, pH 5.0 and 37 °C by the strain SEL2. The overall effect of the presence of increased molasses concentration in the media was positive it increased the accumulation period till 72 h. Enterobacter sp. SEL2 (JF901810) is first time being reported for PHA production. PMID:25242924

  8. Optimization of biodegradable plastic production on sugar cane molasses in Enterobacter sp. SEL2.

    PubMed

    Naheed, Nighat; Jamil, Nazia

    2014-01-01

    Contaminated environments have a large number of bacteria which can accumulate PHA as their energy reserves. Out of 54 isolated bacterial strains from three groups of contaminated sites 48 were found PHA positive. The sites were grouped on the basis of the type of carbon sources i.e. sugars, fatty acids and much diverse type. Strains MFD5, MFD11, UML3, USL2, SEL2, SEL3, SEL10 and PFW1 produced 69.9 ± 0.29, 75.27 ± 0.45, 65.43 ± 0.1, 72.54 ± 0.27, 76.61 ± 0.28, 61.81 ± 0.05, 71.16 ± 0.09 and 74.92 ± 0.5 percent of PHA to their constant cell weight (CCW) respectively in PHA detection media supplemented with 2% glucose. Molasses, whey, crumbs hydrolysate and palm oil were checked as inexpensive carbon sources. Molasses alone could supply the required nutrients for growth and PHA production. Strain SEL2 produced 47.36 ± 0.45% PHA using 2% molasses at 37 °C and pH 7.0. Upon production optimization the best accumulation (80.95 ± 0.01%) was observed in PHA detection media with 0.2% nitrogen source, 3% molasses, pH 5.0 and 37 °C by the strain SEL2. The overall effect of the presence of increased molasses concentration in the media was positive it increased the accumulation period till 72 h. Enterobacter sp. SEL2 (JF901810) is first time being reported for PHA production.

  9. Optimization of process parameters for ethanol production from sugar cane molasses by Zymomonas mobilis using response surface methodology and genetic algorithm.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Bodhisatta; Rathore, Ankita; Srivastava, Saurav; Shekhawat, Mitali; Srivastava, Pradeep

    2011-04-01

    Ethanol is a potential energy source and its production from renewable biomass has gained lot of popularity. There has been worldwide research to produce ethanol from regional inexpensive substrates. The present study deals with the optimization of process parameters (viz. temperature, pH, initial total reducing sugar (TRS) concentration in sugar cane molasses and fermentation time) for ethanol production from sugar cane molasses by Zymomonas mobilis using Box-Behnken experimental design and genetic algorithm (GA). An empirical model was developed through response surface methodology to analyze the effects of the process parameters on ethanol production. The data obtained after performing the experiments based on statistical design was utilized for regression analysis and analysis of variance studies. The regression equation obtained after regression analysis was used as a fitness function for the genetic algorithm. The GA optimization technique predicted a maximum ethanol yield of 59.59 g/L at temperature 31 °C, pH 5.13, initial TRS concentration 216 g/L and fermentation time 44 h. The maximum experimental ethanol yield obtained after applying GA was 58.4 g/L, which was in close agreement with the predicted value.

  10. Diurnal and nocturnal measurements of PAH, nitro-PAH, and oxy-PAH compounds in atmospheric particulate matter of a sugar cane burning region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, Kely F.; Carvalho, Lilian R. F.; Allen, Andrew G.; Cardoso, Arnaldo A.

    2014-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitro-PAHs, and oxy-PAHs were studied in the atmospheric particulate matter of a subtropical rural region (São Paulo State, Brazil) affected by emissions from sugar cane burning. Diurnal and nocturnal samples were collected from May to June of 2010. In general, average PAH concentrations were significantly higher at night, suggesting that the compounds were predominantly emitted to the atmosphere during biomass burning (which was mainly performed at night). The maximum average PAH concentration was found for benzo[b]fluoranthene at night (2.9 ± 5.4 ng m-3). Among the nitro-PAH compounds, the highest average concentrations were obtained for 9-nitrophenanthrene in diurnal and nocturnal samples (1.5 ± 1.2 and 1.3 ± 2.1 ng m-3, respectively). In contrast to the PAH and nitro-PAH compounds, the oxy-PAHs could not be directly associated with sugar cane burning. The most abundant oxy-PAH compound was benzanthrone (1.6 ± 1.3 ng m-3) at night, followed by 9,10-anthraquinone (1.1 ± 0.9 ng m-3) and 9-fluorenone (0.4 ± 0.1 ng m-3) during the day. A correlation matrix was used to explore the origins of the different compounds. The data suggested that during the daytime, direct emissions (mainly in vehicle exhaust) contributed to the presence of PAHs, nitro-PAHs, and oxy-PAHs in air. Photochemical production also appeared to be a source of the majority of nitro-PAHs and oxy-PAHs, while photolysis could have contributed to removal of the nitro-PAHs during the daytime. At night, sugar cane burning emissions were the primary source of the PAHs and nitro-PAHs, with additional sources also contributing to the levels of oxy-PAHs in the atmosphere.

  11. Chitin and L(+)-lactic acid production from crab (Callinectes bellicosus) wastes by fermentation of Lactobacillus sp. B2 using sugar cane molasses as carbon source.

    PubMed

    Flores-Albino, Belem; Arias, Ladislao; Gómez, Jorge; Castillo, Alberto; Gimeno, Miquel; Shirai, Keiko

    2012-09-01

    Crab wastes are employed for simultaneous production of chitin and L(+)-lactic acid by submerged fermentation of Lactobacillus sp. B2 using sugar cane molasses as carbon source. Response surface methodology was applied to design the culture media considering demineralization. Fermentations in stirred tank reactor (2L) using selected conditions produced 88% demineralization and 56% deproteinization with 34% yield of chitin and 19.5 gL(-1) of lactic acid (77% yield). The chitin purified from fermentation displayed 95% degree of acetylation and 0.81 and 1 ± 0.125% of residual ash and protein contents, respectively.

  12. Impact on the air quality in Córdoba México by sugar cane burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jesús Figueroa, José; Mugica, Violeta; Millán, Fernando; Santiago, Naxieli; Torres, Miguel; Hernández, Francisco

    2016-04-01

    Mexico is the sixth larger producer of sugarcane in the world, and the City of Córdoba located in Veracruz, Mexico is surrounded by 13 sugar mills and hundreds of hectares of sugarcane fields. Nevertheless, large plumes of smoke are observed due to the burning of sugarcane fields with the purpose to make easy the manual harvest, protecting the workers from leaves, insects and snakes. In addition, after harvest, straw and other wastes are burned to prepare the land. The air pollution has an important impact to the health of inhabitants due to the presence of toxics such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, but also has an impact to global warming since has been published that black carbon emitted due to incomplete combustion has a high warming potency and that is the second climatic forcer after CO2. In order to determine the impact of these agriculture practices, a monitoring campaign of PM2.5 was carried out every six days from April to August 2015 in the City of Córdoba and a rural place close to the fields. Particle concentrations were determined and organic and black carbon were analyzed with thermo-optic equipment (TOT-Niosh, Sunset Lab) and an ethalometer (Sootscaner). In addition the concentration levels of 17 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured using GC-MS. PM2.5 average concentrations during harvesting in the urban and the rural zone were 138.3±43.6 μg/m3 and 147.4±27.3 μg/m3 respectively, whereas the concentrations during the no-harvesting period were 63.7±7.6 μg/m3 and 44.9±7.0 μg/m3 for the same places, showing that during harvesting the PM2.5 concentrations increase up to 3 times presenting most of the days bad air quality. The sum of PAHs in the urban and the rural locations were 3.36±0.72 ng/m3 and 1.58±0.49 ng/m3 during harvesting; these values are 43% and 54% greater than during the no-harvesting period. The most abundant PAHs were in all cases indene[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, and benzo

  13. Utilization of molasses and sugar cane bagasse for production of fungal invertase in solid state fermentation using Aspergillus niger GH1

    PubMed Central

    Veana, F.; Martínez-Hernández, J.L.; Aguilar, C.N.; Rodríguez-Herrera, R.; Michelena, G.

    2014-01-01

    Agro-industrial wastes have been used as substrate-support in solid state fermentation for enzyme production. Molasses and sugarcane bagasse are by-products of sugar industry and can be employed as substrates for invertase production. Invertase is an important enzyme for sweeteners development. In this study, a xerophilic fungus Aspergillus niger GH1 isolated of the Mexican semi-desert, previously reported as an invertase over-producer strain was used. Molasses from Mexico and Cuba were chemically analyzed (total and reducer sugars, nitrogen and phosphorous contents); the last one was selected based on chemical composition. Fermentations were performed using virgin and hydrolyzate bagasse (treatment with concentrated sulfuric acid). Results indicated that, the enzymatic yield (5231 U/L) is higher than those reported by other A. niger strains under solid state fermentation, using hydrolyzate bagasse. The acid hydrolysis promotes availability of fermentable sugars. In addition, maximum invertase activity was detected at 24 h using low substrate concentration, which may reduce production costs. This study presents an alternative method for invertase production using a xerophilic fungus isolated from Mexican semi-desert and inexpensive substrates (molasses and sugarcane bagasse). PMID:25242918

  14. Utilization of molasses and sugar cane bagasse for production of fungal invertase in solid state fermentation using Aspergillus niger GH1.

    PubMed

    Veana, F; Martínez-Hernández, J L; Aguilar, C N; Rodríguez-Herrera, R; Michelena, G

    2014-01-01

    Agro-industrial wastes have been used as substrate-support in solid state fermentation for enzyme production. Molasses and sugarcane bagasse are by-products of sugar industry and can be employed as substrates for invertase production. Invertase is an important enzyme for sweeteners development. In this study, a xerophilic fungus Aspergillus niger GH1 isolated of the Mexican semi-desert, previously reported as an invertase over-producer strain was used. Molasses from Mexico and Cuba were chemically analyzed (total and reducer sugars, nitrogen and phosphorous contents); the last one was selected based on chemical composition. Fermentations were performed using virgin and hydrolyzate bagasse (treatment with concentrated sulfuric acid). Results indicated that, the enzymatic yield (5231 U/L) is higher than those reported by other A. niger strains under solid state fermentation, using hydrolyzate bagasse. The acid hydrolysis promotes availability of fermentable sugars. In addition, maximum invertase activity was detected at 24 h using low substrate concentration, which may reduce production costs. This study presents an alternative method for invertase production using a xerophilic fungus isolated from Mexican semi-desert and inexpensive substrates (molasses and sugarcane bagasse).

  15. Plant growth-promoting traits of epiphytic and endophytic yeasts isolated from rice and sugar cane leaves in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nutaratat, Pumin; Srisuk, Nantana; Arunrattiyakorn, Panarat; Limtong, Savitree

    2014-08-01

    A total of 1035 yeast isolates, obtained from rice and sugar cane leaves, were screened primarily for indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production. Thirteen isolates were selected, due to their IAA production ranging from 1.2 to 29.3 mg g(-)(1) DCW. These isolates were investigated for their capabilities of calcium phosphate and ZnO(3) solubilisation, and also for production of NH(3), polyamine, and siderophore. Their 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, catalase and fungal cell wall-degrading enzyme activities were assessed. Their antagonism against rice fungal pathogens was also evaluated. Strain identification, based on molecular taxonomy, of the thirteen yeast isolates revealed that four yeast species - i.e. Hannaella sinensis (DMKU-RP45), Cryptococcus flavus (DMKU-RE12, DMKU-RE19, DMKU-RE67, and DMKU-RP128), Rhodosporidium paludigenum (DMKU-RP301) and Torulaspora globosa (DMKU-RP31) - were capable of high IAA production. Catalase activity was detected in all yeast strains tested. The yeast R. paludigenum DMKU-RP301 was the best IAA producer, yielding 29.3 mg g(-)(1) DCW, and showed the ability to produce NH3 and siderophore. Different levels of IAA production (7.2-9.7 mg g(-)(1) DCW) were found in four strains of C. flavus DMKU-RE12, DMKU-RE19, and DMKU-RE67, which are rice leaf endophytes, and strain DMKU-RP128, which is a rice leaf epiphyte. NH(3) production and carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase) activity was also detected in these four strains. Antagonism to fungal plant pathogens and production of antifungal volatile compounds were exhibited in T. globosa DMKU-RP31, as well as a moderate level of IAA production (4.9 mg g(-)(1) DCW). The overall results indicated that T. globosa DMKU-RP31 might be used in two ways: enhancing plant growth and acting as a biocontrol agent. In addition, four C. flavus were also found to be strains of interest for optimal IAA production.

  16. Lidar observation campaign of sugar cane fires and industrial emissions in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landulfo, E.; Jorge, Maria Paulete M. P.; Held, Gerhard; Guardani, Roberto; Steffens, Juliana; dos Anjos F. Pinto, Sergio; Andre, Iara R.; Garcia, Gilberto; Lopes, F. J. S.; Mariano, Glauber L.; da Costa, Renata F.; Rodrigues, Patricia F.

    2010-10-01

    Brazil has an important role in the biomass burning, with the detection of approximately 100,000 burning spots in a single year (2007). Most of these spots occur in the southern part of the Amazon basin during the dry season (from August to november) and these emissions reach the southeast of the country, a highly populated region and with serious urban air pollution problems. With the growing demand on biofuels, sugarcane is considerably expanding in the state of Sao Paulo, being a strong contributor to the bad air quality in this region. In the state of Sao Paulo, the main land use are pasture and sugarcane crop, that covers around 50% and 10% of the total area, respectively. Despite the aerosol from sugarcane burning having reduced atmospheric residence time, from a few days to some weeks, they might get together with those aerosol which spread over long distances (hundreds to thousands of kilometers). In the period of June through February 2010 a LIDAR observation campaign was carried in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, in order to observe and characterize optically the aerosols from two distinct sources, namely, sugar cane biomass burning and industrial emissions. For this purpose 2 LIDAR systems were available, one mobile and the other placed in a laboratory, both working in the visible (532 nm) and additionally the mobile system had a Raman channel available (607 nm). Also this campaign counted with a SODAR, a meteorological RADAR specially set up to detect aerosol "echoes" and gas-particle analyzers. To guarantee a good regional coverage 4 distinct sites were available to deploy the instruments, 2 in the near field of biomass burning activities (Rio Claro and Bauru), one for industrial emissions (Cubatao) and others from urban sources (Sao Paulo). The whole campaign provide the equivalent of 30 days of measurements which allowed us to get aerosol optical properties such as backscattering/extinction coefficients, scatter and LIDAR ratios, those were used to

  17. Physical vapor deposited thin films of lignins extracted from sugar cane bagasse: morphology, electrical properties, and sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Volpati, Diogo; Machado, Aislan D; Olivati, Clarissa A; Alves, Neri; Curvelo, Antonio A S; Pasquini, Daniel; Constantino, Carlos J L

    2011-09-12

    The concern related to the environmental degradation and to the exhaustion of natural resources has induced the research on biodegradable materials obtained from renewable sources, which involves fundamental properties and general application. In this context, we have fabricated thin films of lignins, which were extracted from sugar cane bagasse via modified organosolv process using ethanol as organic solvent. The films were made using the vacuum thermal evaporation technique (PVD, physical vapor deposition) grown up to 120 nm. The main objective was to explore basic properties such as electrical and surface morphology and the sensing performance of these lignins as transducers. The PVD film growth was monitored via ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectroscopy and quartz crystal microbalance, revealing a linear relationship between absorbance and film thickness. The 120 nm lignin PVD film morphology presented small aggregates spread all over the film surface on the nanometer scale (atomic force microscopy, AFM) and homogeneous on the micrometer scale (optical microscopy). The PVD films were deposited onto Au interdigitated electrode (IDE) for both electrical characterization and sensing experiments. In the case of electrical characterization, current versus voltage (I vs V) dc measurements were carried out for the Au IDE coated with 120 nm lignin PVD film, leading to a conductivity of 3.6 × 10(-10) S/m. Using impedance spectroscopy, also for the Au IDE coated with the 120 nm lignin PVD film, dielectric constant of 8.0, tan δ of 3.9 × 10(-3), and conductivity of 1.75 × 10(-9) S/m were calculated at 1 kHz. As a proof-of-principle, the application of these lignins as transducers in sensing devices was monitored by both impedance spectroscopy (capacitance vs frequency) and I versus time dc measurements toward aniline vapor (saturated atmosphere). The electrical responses showed that the sensing units are sensible to aniline vapor with the process being

  18. Modeling potential freshwater ecotoxicity impacts due to pesticide use in biofuel feedstock production: the cases of maize, rapeseed, salix, soybean, sugar cane, and wheat.

    PubMed

    Nordborg, Maria; Cederberg, Christel; Berndes, Göran

    2014-10-01

    The inclusion of ecotoxicity impacts of pesticides in environmental assessments of biobased products has long been hampered by methodological challenges. We expanded the pesticide database and the regional coverage of the pesticide emission model PestLCI v.2.0, combined it with the impact assessment model USEtox, and assessed potential freshwater ecotoxicity impacts (PFEIs) of pesticide use in selected biofuel feedstock production cases, namely: maize (Iowa, US, two cases), rapeseed (Schleswig-Holstein, Germany), Salix (South Central Sweden), soybean (Mato Grosso, Brazil, two cases), sugar cane (São Paulo, Brazil), and wheat (Schleswig-Holstein, Germany). We found that PFEIs caused by pesticide use in feedstock production varied greatly, up to 3 orders of magnitude. Salix has the lowest PFEI per unit of energy output and per unit of cultivated area. Impacts per biofuel unit were 30, 750, and 1000 times greater, respectively, for the sugar cane, wheat and rapeseed cases than for Salix. For maize genetically engineered (GE) to resist glyphosate herbicides and to produce its own insecticidal toxin, maize GE to resist glyphosate, soybeans GE to resist glyphosate and conventional soybeans, the impacts were 110, 270, 305, and 310 times greater than for Salix, respectively. The significance of field and site-specific conditions are discussed, as well as options for reducing negative impacts in biofuel feedstock production.

  19. Direct Zinc Determination in Brazilian Sugar Cane Spirit by Solid-Phase Extraction Using Moringa oleifera Husks in a Flow System with Detection by FAAS

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Vanessa N.; Borges, Simone S. O.; Coelho, Nivia M. M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a method for the determination of zinc in Brazilian sugar cane spirit, (cachaça in Portuguese), using solid-phase extraction with a flow injection analysis system and detection by FAAS. The sorbent material used was activated carbon obtained from Moringa oleifera husks. Flow and chemical variables of the proposed system were optimized through multivariate designs. The factors selected were sorbent mass, sample pH, sample flow rate, and eluent concentration. The optimum extraction conditions were obtained using a sample pH of 4.0, a sample flow rate of 6.0 mL min−1, 30.0 mg of sorbent mass, and 1.0 mol L−1 HNO3 as the eluent at a flow rate of 4.0 mL min−1. The limit of detection for zinc was 1.9 μg L−1, and the precision was below 0.82% (20.0 μg L−1, n = 7). The analytical curve was linear from 2 to 50 μg L−1, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9996. The method developed was successfully applied to spiked Brazilian sugar cane spirit, and accuracy was assessed through recovery tests, with results ranging from 83% to 100%. PMID:21785595

  20. Use of a new Trichoderma harzianum strain isolated from the Amazon rainforest with pretreated sugar cane bagasse for on-site cellulase production.

    PubMed

    Delabona, Priscila da Silva; Farinas, Cristiane Sanchez; da Silva, Mateus Ribeiro; Azzoni, Sindelia Freitas; Pradella, José Geraldo da Cruz

    2012-03-01

    The on-site production of cellulases is an important strategy for the development of sustainable second-generation ethanol production processes. This study concerns the use of a specific cellulolytic enzyme complex for hydrolysis of pretreated sugar cane bagasse. Glycosyl hydrolases (FPase, xylanase, and β-glucosidase) were produced using a new strain of Trichoderma harzianum, isolated from the Amazon rainforest and cultivated under different conditions. The influence of the carbon source was first investigated using shake-flask cultures. Selected carbon sources were then further studied under different pH conditions using a stirred tank bioreactor. Enzymatic activities up to 121 FPU/g, 8000 IU/g, and 1730 IU/g of delignified steam-exploded bagasse+sucrose were achieved for cellulase, xylanase and β-glucosidase, respectively. This enzymatic complex was used to hydrolyze pretreated sugar cane bagasse. A comparative evaluation, using an enzymatic extract from Trichoderma reesei RUTC30, indicated similar performance of the T. harzianum enzyme complex, being a potential candidate for on-site production of enzymes.

  1. Social epidemiology of a large outbreak of chickenpox in the Colombian sugar cane producer region: a set theory-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Idrovo, Alvaro J; Albavera-Hernández, Cidronio; Rodríguez-Hernández, Jorge Martín

    2011-07-01

    There are few social epidemiologic studies on chickenpox outbreaks, although previous findings suggested the important role of social determinants. This study describes the context of a large outbreak of chickenpox in the Cauca Valley region, Colombia (2003 to 2007), with an emphasis on macro-determinants. We explored the temporal trends in chickenpox incidence in 42 municipalities to identify the places with higher occurrences. We analyzed municipal characteristics (education quality, vaccination coverage, performance of health care services, violence-related immigration, and area size of planted sugar cane) through analyses based on set theory. Edwards-Venn diagrams were used to present the main findings. The results indicated that three municipalities had higher incidences and that poor quality education was the attribute most prone to a higher incidence. Potential use of set theory for exploratory outbreak analyses is discussed. It is a tool potentially useful to contrast units when only small sample sizes are available.

  2. Screening for endophytic nitrogen-fixing bacteria in Brazilian sugar cane varieties used in organic farming and description of Stenotrophomonas pavanii sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Patrícia L; Van Trappen, Stefanie; Thompson, Fabiano L; Rocha, Rafael C S; Barbosa, Heloiza R; De Vos, Paul; Moreira-Filho, Carlos A

    2011-04-01

    A Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming and nitrogen-fixing bacterium, designated ICB 89(T), was isolated from stems of a Brazilian sugar cane variety widely used in organic farming. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain ICB 89(T) belonged to the genus Stenotrophomonas and was most closely related to Stenotrophomonas maltophilia LMG 958(T), Stenotrophomonas rhizophila LMG 22075(T), Stenotrophomonas nitritireducens L2(T), [Pseudomonas] geniculata ATCC 19374(T), [Pseudomonas] hibiscicola ATCC 19867(T) and [Pseudomonas] beteli ATCC 19861(T). DNA-DNA hybridization together with chemotaxonomic data and biochemical characteristics allowed the differentiation of strain ICB 89(T) from its nearest phylogenetic neighbours. Therefore, strain ICB 89(T) represents a novel species, for which the name Stenotrophomonas pavanii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ICB 89(T) ( = CBMAI 564(T)  = LMG 25348(T)).

  3. Two-in-one fuel combining sugar cane with low rank coal and its CO₂ reduction effects in pulverized-coal power plants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Wook; Bae, Jong-Soo; Lee, Young-Joo; Park, Se-Joon; Hong, Jai-Chang; Lee, Byoung-Hwa; Jeon, Chung-Hwan; Choi, Young-Chan

    2013-02-01

    Coal-fired power plants are facing to two major independent problems, namely, the burden to reduce CO(2) emission to comply with renewable portfolio standard (RPS) and cap-and-trade system, and the need to use low-rank coal due to the instability of high-rank coal supply. To address such unresolved issues, integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) with carbon capture and storage (CCS) has been suggested, and low rank coal has been upgraded by high-pressure and high-temperature processes. However, IGCC incurs huge construction costs, and the coal upgrading processes require fossil-fuel-derived additives and harsh operation condition. Here, we first show a hybrid coal that can solve these two problems simultaneously while using existing power plants. Hybrid coal is defined as a two-in-one fuel combining low rank coal with a sugar cane-derived bioliquid, such as molasses and sugar cane juice, by bioliquid diffusion into coal intrapores and precarbonization of the bioliquid. Unlike the simple blend of biomass and coal showing dual combustion behavior, hybrid coal provided a single coal combustion pattern. If hybrid coal (biomass/coal ratio = 28 wt %) is used as a fuel for 500 MW power generation, the net CO(2) emission is 21.2-33.1% and 12.5-25.7% lower than those for low rank coal and designed coal, and the required coal supply can be reduced by 33% compared with low rank coal. Considering high oil prices and time required before a stable renewable energy supply can be established, hybrid coal could be recognized as an innovative low-carbon-emission energy technology that can bridge the gulf between fossil fuels and renewable energy, because various water-soluble biomass could be used as an additive for hybrid coal through proper modification of preparation conditions.

  4. A novel strategy for preparing calibration standards for the analysis of plant materials by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: A case study with pellets of sugar cane leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Gomes, Marcos; de Carvalho, Gabriel Gustinelli Arantes; Santos, Dário, Junior; Krug, Francisco José

    2013-08-01

    Calibration is still a challenging task when dealing with the direct analysis of solids. This is particularly true for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry/mass spectrometry, when the calibrations are matrix-dependent and/or appropriate certified reference materials are generally not available. Looking at the analysis of plant materials in the form of pressed pellets by LIBS, a new method to overcome and/or minimize this difficulty is proposed by keeping the matrix constant in order to produce matrix-matched calibration pellets. To achieve this goal and to test this novel approach, ground sugar cane leaves were chosen and submitted to acid extractions for obtaining the corresponding blank or a material containing very low concentrations of the analytes. The resulting dried solid material was used either as a blank or a low concentration standard, and also homogeneously mixed with the original plant material at appropriate ratios as well. The corresponding pellets were used as calibration standards and ablated at 30 different sites by applying 25 laser pulses per site with a Q-switched Nd:YAG at 1064 nm. The plasma emission collected by lenses was directed through an optical fiber towards a spectrometer equipped with Echelle optics and intensified charge-coupled device. Delay time and integration time gate were fixed at 2.0 and 5.0 μs, respectively. This calibration strategy was tested for the determination of Ca, Mg, K, P, Cu, Mn, and Zn by LIBS in pellets of leaves from 17 varieties of sugar cane and good correlations were obtained with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry results in the corresponding acid digests. The proposed approach was also useful to estimate the limits of detection based on measurements of blanks, as recommended by IUPAC, or with the aid of a low concentration standard.

  5. Initial analysis from a lidar observation campaign of sugar cane fires in the central and western portion of the São Paulo State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Lopes, Fábio Juliano; Held, Gerhard; Nakaema, Walter M.; Rodrigues, Patricia F.; Bassan, Jose M.; Landulfo, Eduardo

    2011-11-01

    The central and western portion of the Sao Paulo State has large areas of sugar cane plantations, and due to the growing demand for biofuels, the production is increasing every year. During the harvest period some plantation areas are burnt a few hours before the manual cutting, causing significant quantities of biomass burning aerosol to be injected into the atmosphere. During August 2010, a field campaign has been carried out in Ourinhos, situated in the south-western region of Sao Paulo State. A 2-channel Raman Lidar system and two meteorological S-Band Doppler Radars are used to indentify and quantify the biomass burning plumes. In addiction, CALIPSO Satellite observations were used to compare the aerosol optical properties detected in that region with those retrieved by Raman Lidar system. Although the campaign yielded 30 days of measurements, this paper will be focusing only one case study, when aerosols released from nearby sugar cane fires were detected by the Lidar system during a CALIPSO overpass. The meteorological radar, installed in Bauru, approximately 110 km northeast from the experimental site, had recorded "echoes" (dense smoke comprising aerosols) from several fires occurring close to the Raman Lidar system, which also detected an intense load of aerosol in the atmosphere. HYSPLIT model forward trajectories presented a strong indication that both instruments have measured the same air masss parcels, corroborated with the Lidar Ratio values from the 532 nm elastic and 607 nm Raman N2 channel analyses and data retrieved from CALIPSO have indicated the predominance of aerosol from biomass burning sources.

  6. Regulation of cellulases and xylanases from a derepressed mutant of Cellulomonas flavigena growing on sugar-cane bagasse in continuous culture.

    PubMed

    Ponce-Noyola, T; de la Torre, M

    2001-07-01

    When the wild type Cellulomonas flavigena was grown on glycerol, xylose or cellobiose, it produced basal levels of carboxymethyl-cellulase (CMCase), filter-paperase (FPase) and xylanase activities. By comparison, a catabolic derepressed mutant strain of the same organism produced markedly higher levels of these enzymes when grown on the same carbon sources. Sugar-cane bagasse induced both the wild type and the mutant strain to produce three- to eight-time higher levels of FPase and xylanase than was observed with xylose or cellobiose. Continuous culture was used to determine the minimal cellobiose or glucose concentrations that repress the enzyme synthesis in both strains. 2.5 g l(-1) glucose repressed FPase and xylanases from wild type, while 1.6 times more glucose was needed to repress the same activities in the PN-120 strain. In the same way, twofold more cellobiose was needed to reduce by 75% the CMCase and xylanase activities in the mutant compared to the wild type. The FPase in the presence of 4 g l(-1) cellobiose did not change in the same strain. Therefore, its derepressed and feedback resistant characters of PN-120 mutant are evident. On the other hand, isoelectrofocused crude extracts of mutant and wild strains induced by sugar-cane bagasse, did not show differences in protein patterns, however, the Schiffs staining was more intense in the PN-120 than in the wild strain. These results point out that the mutational treatment did not apparently change the extracellular proteins from mutant PN-120 and this could affect their regulation sites, since derepressed and feed-back resistant enzymes may be produced.

  7. Lignocellulolytic enzyme production of Pleurotus ostreatus growth in agroindustrial wastes.

    PubMed

    da Luz, José Maria Rodrigues; Nunes, Mateus Dias; Paes, Sirlaine Albino; Torres, Denise Pereira; de Cássia Soares da Silva, Marliane; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

    2012-10-01

    The mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus has nutritional and medicinal characteristics that depend on the growth substrate. In nature, this fungus grows on dead wood, but it can be artificially cultivated on agricultural wastes (coffee husks, eucalyptus sawdust, corncobs and sugar cane bagasse). The degradation of agricultural wastes involves some enzyme complexes made up of oxidative (laccase, manganese peroxidase and lignin peroxidase) and hydrolytic enzymes (cellulases, xylanases and tanases). Understanding how these enzymes work will help to improve the productivity of mushroom cultures and decrease the potential pollution that can be caused by inadequate discharge of the agroindustrial residues. The objective of this work was to assess the activity of the lignocellulolytic enzymes produced by two P. ostreatus strains (PLO 2 and PLO 6). These strains were used to inoculate samples of coffee husks, eucalyptus sawdust or eucalyptus bark add with or without 20 % rice bran. Every five days after substrate inoculation, the enzyme activity and soluble protein concentration were evaluated. The maximum activity of oxidative enzymes was observed at day 10 after inoculation, and the activity of the hydrolytic enzymes increased during the entire period of the experiment. The results show that substrate composition and colonization time influenced the activity of the lignocellulolytic enzymes. PMID:24031982

  8. Modeling sugar cane yield with a process-based model from site to continental scale: uncertainties arising from model structure and parameter values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valade, A.; Ciais, P.; Vuichard, N.; Viovy, N.; Huth, N.; Marin, F.; Martiné, J.-F.

    2014-01-01

    Agro-Land Surface Models (agro-LSM) have been developed from the integration of specific crop processes into large-scale generic land surface models that allow calculating the spatial distribution and variability of energy, water and carbon fluxes within the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum. When developing agro-LSM models, a particular attention must be given to the effects of crop phenology and management on the turbulent fluxes exchanged with the atmosphere, and the underlying water and carbon pools. A part of the uncertainty of Agro-LSM models is related to their usually large number of parameters. In this study, we quantify the parameter-values uncertainty in the simulation of sugar cane biomass production with the agro-LSM ORCHIDEE-STICS, using a multi-regional approach with data from sites in Australia, La Réunion and Brazil. In ORCHIDEE-STICS, two models are chained: STICS, an agronomy model that calculates phenology and management, and ORCHIDEE, a land surface model that calculates biomass and other ecosystem variables forced by STICS' phenology. First, the parameters that dominate the uncertainty of simulated biomass at harvest date are determined through a screening of 67 different parameters of both STICS and ORCHIDEE on a multi-site basis. Secondly, the uncertainty of harvested biomass attributable to those most sensitive parameters is quantified and specifically attributed to either STICS (phenology, management) or to ORCHIDEE (other ecosystem variables including biomass) through distinct Monte-Carlo runs. The uncertainty on parameter values is constrained using observations by calibrating the model independently at seven sites. In a third step, a sensitivity analysis is carried out by varying the most sensitive parameters to investigate their effects at continental scale. A Monte-Carlo sampling method associated with the calculation of Partial Ranked Correlation Coefficients is used to quantify the sensitivity of harvested biomass to input

  9. Topochemical distribution of lignin and hydroxycinnamic acids in sugar-cane cell walls and its correlation with the enzymatic hydrolysis of polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Lignin and hemicelluloses are the major components limiting enzyme infiltration into cell walls. Determination of the topochemical distribution of lignin and aromatics in sugar cane might provide important data on the recalcitrance of specific cells. We used cellular ultraviolet (UV) microspectrophotometry (UMSP) to topochemically detect lignin and hydroxycinnamic acids in individual fiber, vessel and parenchyma cell walls of untreated and chlorite-treated sugar cane. Internodes, presenting typical vascular bundles and sucrose-storing parenchyma cells, were divided into rind and pith fractions. Results Vascular bundles were more abundant in the rind, whereas parenchyma cells predominated in the pith region. UV measurements of untreated fiber cell walls gave absorbance spectra typical of grass lignin, with a band at 278 nm and a pronounced shoulder at 315 nm, assigned to the presence of hydroxycinnamic acids linked to lignin and/or to arabino-methylglucurono-xylans. The cell walls of vessels had the highest level of lignification, followed by those of fibers and parenchyma. Pith parenchyma cell walls were characterized by very low absorbance values at 278 nm; however, a distinct peak at 315 nm indicated that pith parenchyma cells are not extensively lignified, but contain significant amounts of hydroxycinnamic acids. Cellular UV image profiles scanned with an absorbance intensity maximum of 278 nm identified the pattern of lignin distribution in the individual cell walls, with the highest concentration occurring in the middle lamella and cell corners. Chlorite treatment caused a rapid removal of hydroxycinnamic acids from parenchyma cell walls, whereas the thicker fiber cell walls were delignified only after a long treatment duration (4 hours). Untreated pith samples were promptly hydrolyzed by cellulases, reaching 63% of cellulose conversion after 72 hours of hydrolysis, whereas untreated rind samples achieved only 20% hydrolyzation. Conclusion The low

  10. Determination of the Impact to air quality by the sugar cane burning during harvesting in Costa Rica: regional and temporal analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briceno, J. S.; Solórzano, D.; Rojas, J. F.; Beita, V. H.; Chinchilla, J. A.; Herrera, J.

    2015-12-01

    In Costa Rica, as in other countries, sugar-cane crops are burned to facilitate harvesting, and such process causes environmental pollution from the smoke that is released to the atmospheric boundary layer. In this study, during the harvest season, were determined PM10, PM2.5, ions, heavy metals and PAHs concentrations in the air of 8 different regions of Costa Rica. The sampling methodology included 47 events with 3 sampling sites per each; these sites covered different climate regions of the country. PM10 and PM2.5 were collected using Hi-vol samplers with quartz-fiber filters using a thermal pre-preprocess for organics. PM10 ranged from 25 to 390 μg/m3, PM2.5 from 25 to 354 μg/m3; the minimum results were obtained at the sixth region and the maximum ones at the second one, both located in the North Pacific. As a reference, in the metropolitan area of Costa Rica the PM10 usually have had annual means behind 30 μg/m3. The most abundant ions found in PM10 were chloride, nitrate and sulfate. Meanwhile, the ranges of Fe, Cr, Cu, and Pb were 0,03 - 6,80 µg/m3, 10,6 - 358,0 ng/m3, 11,8 - 361,4 ng/m3 and 0,67 - 479,50 ng/m3, respectively. The PAH most abundant were the naphthalene and the acenaphthylene. The mean total concentration of PAHs in PM10 was 7,9 ng/m3 with a standard deviation of 3,3 between regions. According to the PM10 medians, the regions with more pollution levels were the 3 and 4, while the regions 4 and 5 were the least contaminated. On the other hand, the atmospheric contaminants' concentration was significantly higher in the diurnal burnings than the nocturnal ones. The sampling sites were directly affected by the emission of the sugar-cane burning.

  11. Simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation of crystalline cellulose and sugar cane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolysate to lactate by a thermotolerant acidophilic Bacillus sp.

    PubMed

    Patel, Milind A; Ou, Mark S; Ingram, Lonnie O; Shanmugam, K T

    2005-01-01

    Polylactides produced from renewable feedstocks, such as corn starch, are being developed as alternatives to plastics derived from petroleum. In addition to corn, other less expensive biomass resources can be readily converted to component sugars (glucose, xylose, etc.) by enzyme and/or chemical treatment for fermentation to optically pure lactic acid to reduce the cost of lactic acid. Lactic acid bacteria used by the industry lack the ability to ferment pentoses (hemicellulose-derived xylose and arabinose), and their growth and fermentation optima also differ from the optimal conditions for the activity of fungal cellulases required for depolymerization of cellulose. To reduce the overall cost of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of cellulose, we have isolated bacterial biocatalysts that can grow and ferment all sugars in the biomass at conditions that are also optimal for fungal cellulases. SSF of Solka Floc cellulose by one such isolate, Bacillus sp. strain 36D1, yielded l(+)-lactic acid at an optical purity higher than 95% with cellulase (Spezyme CE; Genencor International) added at about 10 FPU/g cellulose, with a product yield of about 90% of the expected maximum. Volumetric productivity of SSF to lactic acid was optimal between culture pH values of 4.5 and 5.5 at 50 degrees C. At a constant pH of 5.0, volumetric productivity of lactic acid was maximal at 55 degrees C. Strain 36D1 also co-fermented cellulose-derived glucose and sugar cane bagasse hemicellulose-derived xylose simultaneously (SSCF). In a batch SSCF of 40% acid-treated hemicellulose hydrolysate (over-limed) and 20 g/L Solka Floc cellulose, strain 36D1 produced about 35 g/L lactic acid in about 144 h with 15 FPU of Spezyme CE/g cellulose. The maximum volumetric productivity of lactic acid in this SSCF was 6.7 mmol/L (h). Cellulose-derived lactic acid contributed to about 30% of this total lactic acid. These results show that Bacillus sp. strain 36D1 is well-suited for

  12. Characterization of a wollastonite glass-ceramic material prepared using sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) as one of the raw materials

    SciTech Connect

    Teixeira, Silvio R.; Souza, Agda E.; Carvalho, Claudio L.; Reynoso, Victor C.S.; Romero, Maximina; Rincón, Jesús Ma.

    2014-12-15

    Glass-ceramic material prepared with sugar cane bagasse ash as one of the raw materials was characterized to determine some important properties for its application as a coating material. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that wollastonite-2M (CaSiO{sub 3}) was the major glass-ceramic phase. The Rietveld method was used to quantify the crystalline (60 wt.%) and vitreous (40 wt.%) phases in the glass-ceramic. The microstructure (determined by scanning electron microscopy) of this material had a marble appearance, showing a microporous network of elongated crystals with some areas with dendritic, feather-like ordering. Microhardness data gave a mean hardness value of 564.4 HV (Vickers-hardness), and light microscopy disclosed a greenish brown colored material with a vitreous luster. - Highlights: • We studied the properties of a glass-ceramic material obtained from sugarcane ash. • This material has the appearance and hardness of natural stones. • A refining method gave information about its amorphous and crystalline phases. • This material has potential to be used as coating plates for buildings.

  13. Biochemical and molecular characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains obtained from sugar-cane juice fermentations and their impact in cachaça production.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Valdinéia Aparecida; Vicente, Maristela Araújo; Fietto, Luciano Gomes; Castro, Ieso de Miranda; Coutrim, Maurício Xavier; Schüller, Dorit; Alves, Henrique; Casal, Margarida; Santos, Juliana de Oliveira; Araújo, Leandro Dias; da Silva, Paulo Henrique Alves; Brandão, Rogelio Lopes

    2008-02-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains from different regions of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were isolated and characterized aiming at the selection of starter yeasts to be used in the production of cachaça, the Brazilian sugar cane spirit. The methodology established took into account the screening for biochemical traits desirable in a yeast cachaça producer, such as no H2S production, high tolerance to ethanol and high temperatures, high fermentative capacity, and the abilities to flocculate and to produce mycocins. Furthermore, the yeasts were exposed to drugs such as 5,5',5"-trifluor-D,L-leucine and cerulenin to isolate those that potentially overproduce higher alcohols and esters. The utilization of a random amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR method with primers based on intron splicing sites flanking regions of the COX1 gene, as well as microsatellite analysis, was not sufficient to achieve good differentiation among selected strains. In contrast, karyotype analysis allowed a clear distinction among all strains. Two selected strains were experimentally evaluated as cachaça producers. The results suggest that the selection of strains as fermentation starters requires the combined use of biochemical and molecular criteria to ensure the isolation and identification of strains with potential characteristics to produce cachaça with a higher quality standard.

  14. [Replacing of residue from production of palm Palm Royal Australian (Archontophoenix alexan- drae) in silage of sugar cane in diets of sheep].

    PubMed

    Bayão, Geraldo Fábio Viana; Queiroz, Augusto César de; Freitas, Samuel Galvão de; Batalha, Camila Delveaux Araujo; Sousa, Katiene Régia Silva; Pimentel, Róberson Machado; Cardoso, Lucas Ladeira; Cardoso, Alex Junio da Silva

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition, voluntary intake and apparent digestibility of the diets containing residue from palm heart of Australian Royal Palm (Archontophoenix alexandrae) to replace sugar cane on sheep. Twelve sheep were used with average live weight of 23.3 ± 2.8 Kg and they placed in metabolism cages and distributed in six latin square 2 x 2 in a factorial design 3 x 2 (three types of residue--sheet, bark and composed--and two levels of residue's replacement, 5% and 15%). It was observed higher intake of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), nonfiber carbohydrates (NFC) by substitution of composed residue. The average values of apparent digestibility of DM, OM, crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fibre correct for ash and protein (NDFap) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) were higher for sheet residue. There was interaction between type of residue and level of residue's replacement on the urinary excretion of total nitrogen (NUE), apparent nitrogen balance (BNA) and microbial nitrogen compost (NMIC). Residues from palm heart of Australian Royal Palm can be used as roughage in the ruminants'diet, and of these residues, the sheet and composed residue showed better response in the evaluated characteristics. PMID:26336723

  15. Saccharification and fermentation of sugar cane bagasse by Klebsiella oxytoca P2 containing chromosomally integrated genes encoding the Zymomonas mobilis ethanol pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Doran, J.B.; Aldrich, H.C.; Ingram, L.O. . Dept. of Microbiology and Cell Science)

    1994-06-20

    Pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse is essential for a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process which uses recombinant Klebsiella oxytoca strain P2 and Genencor Spezyme CE. Strain P2 has been genetically engineered to express Zymomonas mobilis genes encoding the ethanol pathway and retains the native ability to transport and metabolize cellobiose (minimizing the need for extracellular cellobiase). In SSF studies with this organism, both the rate of ethanol production and ethanol yield were limited by saccharification at 10 and 20 filter paper units (FPU) g[sup [minus]1] acid-treated bagasse. Dilute slurries of biomass were converted to ethanol more efficiently (over 72% of theoretical yield) in simple batch fermentations than slurries containing high solids, albeit with the production of lower levels of ethanol. With high solids (i.e., 160 g acid-treated bagasse L[sup [minus]1]), a combination of 20 FPU cellulase g[sup [minus]1] bagasse, preincubation under saccharification conditions, and additional grinding (to reduce particle size) were required to produce ca. 40 g ethanol L[sup [minus]1]. Alternatively, almost 40 g ethanol L[sup [minus]1] was produced with 10 FPU cellulase g[sup [minus]1] bagasse by incorporating a second saccharification step (no further enzyme addition) followed by a second inoculation and short fermentation. In this way, a theoretical ethanol yield of over 70% was achieved with the production of 20 g ethanol 800 FPU[sup [minus]1] of commercial cellulase.

  16. Observations on White Grubs Affecting Sugar Cane at the Juba Sugar Project, South-Western Somalia, in the 1980s, and Implications for Their Management.

    PubMed

    Cock, Matthew J W; Allard, Gillian B

    2013-01-01

    The authors made two visits to the Juba Sugar Project in south-west Somalia, at the beginning of the minor rains in October 1986, and at the beginning of the main rains in March 1987. Observations were made on morphospecies of scarabaeid white grub larvae, the adults, and the two associated for the key economic species, Cochliotis melolonthoides and Brachylepis werneri. Sampling larvae and adults by digging soil quadrats and adults by light trapping gave useful information on their biology and phenology. Sampling methods were evaluated and economic thresholds were extrapolated based on earlier work. Natural enemies were surveyed, and entomopathogenic nematodes and a cordyceps fungus (Ophiocordyceps barnesii) were considered to have potential to be used as biological control interventions.

  17. Mutagenicity profile of atmospheric particulate matter in a small urban center subjected to airborne emission from vehicle traffic and sugar cane burning.

    PubMed

    Alves, Debora Kristina M; Kummrow, Fábio; Cardoso, Arnaldo A; Morales, Daniel A; Umbuzeiro, Gisela A

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is genotoxic and recently was classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. PM chemical composition varies depending on source and atmospheric conditions. The Salmonella/microsome assay is the most used mutagenicity test and can identify the major chemical classes responsible for observed mutagenicity. The objective of this work was to characterize the mutagenicity of PM samples from a countryside city, Limeira, Brazil, which is influenced by heavy traffic and sugar cane biomass burning. Six samples of total PM were collected. Air mass backward trajectories were calculated. Organic extracts were assayed using the Salmonella/microsome microsuspension mutagenicity assay using TA98, YG1041, and TA1538, with and without metabolic activation (S9). YG1041 was the most sensitive strain and mutagenicity reached 9,700 revertants per m(3) without metabolic activation. Potency for TA1538 was higher than TA98, indicating that this strain should be considered in air mutagenicity studies. The increased response to YG1041 relative to TA98, and the decreased response with S9, suggests that nitroaromatics are the major contributors. Limeira is among the most mutagenic cities in the world. High mutagenicity in Limeira seems to occur when the air mass from the area of sugarcane production is mixed with air from the region impacted by anthropogenic activities such as traffic. An increase in the formation of nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons may result from longer contact time between the aromatic compounds and the atmosphere with high NOx and ozone concentration, although more studies are required to confirm this hypothesis.

  18. Short term responses of nitrogen trace gas emissions to nitrogen fertilization in tropical sugar cane: Variations due to soils and management practices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matson, P. A.; Billow, C.; Hall, S.; Zachariassen, J.

    1994-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization of agricultural systems is thought to be a major source of the increase in atmospheric N2O; NO emissions from soils have also been shown to increase due to N fertilization. While N fertilizer use is increasing rapidly in the developing world and in the tropics, nearly all of our information on gas emissions is derived from studies of temperate zone agriculture. Using chambers, we measured fluxes of N2O and NO following urea fertilization in tropical sugar cane systems growing on a variety of soil types in the Hawaiian Islands, USA. On the island of Maui, where urea is applied in irrigation lines and soils are mollisols and inceptisols, N2O fluxes were elevated for a week or less following fertilization; maximum average fluxes were typically less than 30 ng cm(exp -2)/ h. NO fluxes were often an order of magnitude less than N2O. Together, N2O and NO represented from 0.01 - 0.5% of the applied N. In fields on the island of Hawaii, where urea is broadcast on the surface and soils are andisols, N2O fluxes were similar in magnitude to Maui but remained elevated for much longer periods after fertilization. NO emissions were 2-5 times higher than N2O through most of the sampling periods. Together the gases loss represented approximately 1. 1 - 3% of the applied N. Laboratory studies indicate that denitrification is a critical source of N2O in Maui, but that nitrification is more important in Hawaii. Experimental studies suggest that differences in the pattern of N2O/NO and the processes producing them are a result of both carbon availability and placement of fertilizer, and that the more information-intensive fertilizer management practice results in lower emissions.

  19. Mutagenicity profile of atmospheric particulate matter in a small urban center subjected to airborne emission from vehicle traffic and sugar cane burning.

    PubMed

    Alves, Debora Kristina M; Kummrow, Fábio; Cardoso, Arnaldo A; Morales, Daniel A; Umbuzeiro, Gisela A

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is genotoxic and recently was classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. PM chemical composition varies depending on source and atmospheric conditions. The Salmonella/microsome assay is the most used mutagenicity test and can identify the major chemical classes responsible for observed mutagenicity. The objective of this work was to characterize the mutagenicity of PM samples from a countryside city, Limeira, Brazil, which is influenced by heavy traffic and sugar cane biomass burning. Six samples of total PM were collected. Air mass backward trajectories were calculated. Organic extracts were assayed using the Salmonella/microsome microsuspension mutagenicity assay using TA98, YG1041, and TA1538, with and without metabolic activation (S9). YG1041 was the most sensitive strain and mutagenicity reached 9,700 revertants per m(3) without metabolic activation. Potency for TA1538 was higher than TA98, indicating that this strain should be considered in air mutagenicity studies. The increased response to YG1041 relative to TA98, and the decreased response with S9, suggests that nitroaromatics are the major contributors. Limeira is among the most mutagenic cities in the world. High mutagenicity in Limeira seems to occur when the air mass from the area of sugarcane production is mixed with air from the region impacted by anthropogenic activities such as traffic. An increase in the formation of nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons may result from longer contact time between the aromatic compounds and the atmosphere with high NOx and ozone concentration, although more studies are required to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:26289646

  20. Duganella sacchari sp. nov. and Duganella radicis sp. nov., two novel species isolated from rhizosphere of field-grown sugar cane.

    PubMed

    Madhaiyan, M; Poonguzhali, S; Saravanan, V S; Hari, K; Lee, K-C; Lee, J-S

    2013-03-01

    Two strains, designated Sac-22(T) and Sac-41(T), were isolated from rhizosphere soil and rhizoplane of field-grown sugar cane clone Co86032. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed a clear affiliation of these two bacteria with the class Betaproteobacteria, their closest relatives being Pseudoduganella violaceinigra and Duganella zoogloeoides with 16S rRNA gene sequence pairwise similarities of 96.4-97.2 % to the two novel strains. Strains Sac-22(T) and Sac-41(T) shared a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity value of 97.6 %. Cells of the two strains were Gram-reaction-negative, aerobic, motile and rod-shaped. Ubiquinone (Q-8) was the respiratory quinone and the predominant polar lipids consisted of phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The main cellular fatty acids were C16 : 0, C16 : 1ω7c/iso-C15 : 0 2-OH, C17 : 0 cyclo, C10 : 0 3-OH and C12 : 0. The DNA G+C content of the genomic DNA was 56.4 mol% for strain Sac-22(T) and 54.9 mol% for strain Sac-41(T). Based on the results of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and physiological and biochemical characterization, that differentiated strains Sac-22(T) and Sac-41(T) from all recognized species of the genus Duganella, it was concluded that strains represent two novel species in the genus Duganella for which the names Duganella sacchari sp. nov. (type strain Sac-22(T) = KCTC 22381(T) = NCIMB 14475(T)) and Duganella radicis sp. nov. (type strain Sac-41(T) = KCTC 22382(T) = NCIMB 14476(T)) are proposed. PMID:22753524

  1. A diagnosis of sub-surface water table dynamics in low hydraulic conductivity soils in the sugar cane fields of Pongola, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malota, Mphatso; Senzanje, Aidan

    2016-04-01

    Water and land are the two natural resources restraining crop production in South Africa. With the increasing demand for food, emphasis has shifted from the sole reliance on rain fed crop production, to irrigation. The deterioration in irrigation water quality from surface water sources is, however, posing a big challenge to the sustainability of irrigated crop production. This is because more water is required for leaching, resulting in shallow water tables in agricultural lands. The installation of well designed subsurface drainage systems alone is not enough; the provision of timely maintenance is also necessary. In this study, the extent and severity of problems as a consequence of shallow water tables and their possible causes were investigated at three sugarcane fields in Pongola, South Africa, having low hydraulic conductivity soils. Also investigated were soil salinity levels and the temporal variation in the salinity of the irrigation water. A water table map of a 32 ha sugarcane field was generated, using observed water table depth (WTD) data from 36 piezometers monitored from September 2011 to February 2012. Out of the total 32 ha under cultivation, 12% was found to be affected by shallow WTDs of less than the 1.0 m design WTD. The inability of natural drainage to cope with subsurface drainage needs and the poor maintenance of subsurface drainage systems contributed to the shallow water tables in the area. Furthermore, the currently adopted drainage design criteria also proved unsatisfactory with mean observed water table depth and drainage discharge (DD) of 20% and 50%, respectively, less than their respective design levels. The salinity of the irrigation water was, on average, 32% higher than threshold tolerance level of sugarcane. The root zone soil salinity levels at the three study sites were greater than the 1.7 dS m-1 threshold for sugar cane. The subsurface drainage design criteria adopted at the site needs to be revisited by ensuring that the

  2. Effects of a mixture of fatty acids from sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) wax oil in two models of inflammation: zymosan-induced arthritis and mice tail test of psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Ledón, N; Casacó, A; Remirez, D; González, A; Cruz, J; González, R; Capote, A; Tolón, Z; Rojas, E; Rodríguez, V J; Merino, N; Rodríguez, S; Ancheta, O; Cano, M C

    2007-10-01

    A mixture of fatty acids obtained from sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) wax oil (FAM), in which the main constituents are palmitic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids, was evaluated in two models of inflammation: zymosan-induced arthritis and in the tail test for psoriasis, both on mice. In the first model, FAM significantly reduced zymozan-induced increase of beta glucuronidase (DE(50) 90+/-7 mg/kg). Histopathological studies showed inhibition in cellular infiltration and reduction of synovial hyperplasia and synovitis, whereas in the second test, histopathological and ultrastructural studies showed that topical application of FAM induced orthokeratosis with the presence of keratohyalin granules in the previously parakeratotic adult mouse tail, and without effects on epidermal thickness. The ED(50) of FAM in this model was 155+/-10 mg. The results of our studies showed that topical application of FAM exerts an important anti-inflammatory activity in both tests without evidence of irritant effects. The anti-inflamatory effects exerted by FAM may be due to its inhibitory effects on arachidonic acid metabolism. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the anti-inflammatory effect of sugar cane by-products in experimental models of arthritis and psoriasis.

  3. Bioenergy systems report. Special issue: cane energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-03-01

    The report examines the use of cane to produce energy. It focuses primarily on two recent proposals for the production of electric power for the grid using cane residues and supplementary fuels. It also reviews use of cane juice or molasses to produce ethanol for blending with gasoline. In both types of cane energy systems, the objective is the production of energy as well as sugar or sugar products. The report is divided into sections on growing and harvesting biomass fuels in cane fields, producing power for the grid with these fuels, the uses of the cane juice produced in cane energy systems, the costs and revenues associated with these systems, and the national benefits derived from these systems.

  4. Organic aerosols in a Brazilian agro-industrial area: Speciation and impact of biomass burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, R. C.; Alves, C. A.; Allen, A. G.; Cardoso, A. A.; Campos, M. L. A. M.

    2016-03-01

    This work presents the first comprehensive organic characterization of atmospheric aerosols from an agro-industrial region (São Paulo State, Brazil) highly impacted by biomass burning. The organic speciation was performed using different solvents of increasing polarity, enabling the identification and quantification of 172 different organic species by GC-MS. The mass of organic compounds reached 123 μg m- 3 in an aerosol sample collected during the sugar cane harvest period compared with 0.82 μg m- 3 in the non-harvest period. The samples most impacted by biomass burning were those with the highest percentages of non-polar compounds (n-alkanes; up to 96%). However, in absolute terms, the total mass of polar compounds in such samples was greater than for samples less impacted by this activity. Retene (a marker for biomass combustion) was the most abundant of the 19 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons quantified, corresponding to 14%-84%. This work shows that biomass burning was responsible for a benzo(a)pyrene equivalent index value that exceeded the recommendation of the World Health Organization. Principal component analysis indicated that agricultural biomass burning and emissions from crop processing facilities explained 42% of the variance of the data, while 37% was explained by urban emissions, 10% by vehicle emissions, and 10% by biogenic sources. This study provides insights into the emissions of a suite of organic compounds that could participate in anthropic alteration of regional cloud formation and precipitation patterns.

  5. Sugar and Other Sweeteners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godshall, Mary An

    Sugar and starch are among the most abundant plant products available, and large industries exist worldwide to extract and process them from agricultural sources. The world production of sugar (sucrose from cane and beet) in 2004/2005 was 142 million metric tons, raw value, 1 with 24.8 percent of that being beet sugar and 75.1 percent being cane sugar.2 The proportion of beet sugar to cane sugar has fallen steadily since about 1971, when it constituted 42.8 percent of total sugar production. The decline in total beet sugar proportion over the last ten years represents not so much a decline in beet production, which has remained in a range of 33-39 million metric tons, but rather a continued increase in cane sugar production from around 70 million metric tons in 1991 to 112 million metric tons.2 The production of total world sugar has also risen dramatically since 1971/72, when it was 71.7 million tons.3

  6. How combine harvesting of green cane billets with different levels of trash affects production and processing. Part II: Pilot plant processing to sugar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New refineries in Louisiana, USA are requesting Louisiana sugarcane factories to deliver very high pol/very low color (VHP/VLC) raw sugar with low ash concentrations. This higher quality raw sugar will allow both growers and factory processors to share economic premiums from the new refineries. A ...

  7. 32. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: End of mill into which cane was fed between top and bottom roll. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  8. How to manage cane in the field and factory following damaging freezes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The exposure of sugar cane to damaging frosts occurs in approximately 25% of the sugar cane producing countries world-wide. A series of damaging freezes, -2.6, -3.3 and -2.1°C, occurred in Morocco on 4, 5 and 13 February 2012, respectively, only 2 weeks after the commencement of the harvest season. ...

  9. The family II carbohydrate-binding module of xylanase CflXyn11A from Cellulomonas flavigena increases the synergy with cellulase TrCel7B from Trichoderma reesei during the hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Pavón-Orozco, Patricia; Santiago-Hernández, Alejandro; Rosengren, Anna; Hidalgo-Lara, María Eugenia; Stålbrand, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Synergy between Cellulomonas flavigena xylanase CflXyn11A and Trichoderma reesei endoglucanase TrCel7B was assessed during hydrolysis of alkaline pretreated sugar cane bagasse (SCB) after 12-48 h, applying the individual enzymes and mixtures of the enzymes. A high degree of synergy (6.3) between CflXyn11A and TrCel7B in hydrolysis of SCB was observed after 12h in the equimolar mixture. A threefold decrease in the degree of synergy was observed with TrCel7B and the catalytic module of CflXyn11A; suggesting an important role played by the carbohydrate-binding module of CflXyn11A (CflXyn11A-CBM) in the observed synergy. Affinity electrophoresis and binding assays showed that CflXyn11A-CBM binds to xylans and to a lesser extent to cellulose. Our results suggest that synergy is more pronounced at early stages of hydrolysis. Furthermore, for the first time it is described that a CBM carried by a xylanase significantly enhances the synergy with a cellulase (threefold increase in synergy).

  10. Botryosphaeria Cane Canker

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the more serious cane canker diseases of thornless blackberry plants in the eastern U.S. is caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea. Cane canker disease is highly destructive, often killing canes and reducing fruit yields to uneconomic levels. Cankers generally develop around one or more buds on th...

  11. The energy cane alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    This book reviews the conceptual and theoretical background of Saccharum botany, which underlies the growing of cane as a total growth commodity. Management details are provided for energy cane planting, cultivation, harvest, and postharvest operations. Chapters on energy cane utilization stress new developments in lignocellulose conversion plus alternative options for fermentable solids usage. Chapters are also included for the management of alternative grasses to supplement energy cane, and the breeding of new hybrid canes with high biomass attributes at the intergeneric and interspecific levels.

  12. Group 16SrXI phytoplasma strains, including subgroup 16SrXI-B and a new subgroup, 16SrXI-D, are associated with sugar cane white leaf.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rong-Yue; Li, Wen-Feng; Huang, Ying-Kun; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Shan, Hong-Li; Luo, Zhi-Ming; Yin, Jiong

    2016-01-01

    Sugar cane white leaf (SCWL) is a serious disease caused by phytoplasmas. In this study, we performed nested PCR with phytoplasma universal primer pairs (P1/P7 and R16F2n/R16R2) for the 16S rRNA gene to detect SCWL phytoplasmas in 31 SCWL samples collected from Baoshan and Lincang, Yunnan, China. We cloned and sequenced the nested PCR products, revealing that the 16S rRNA gene sequences from 31 SCWL samples were all 1247 bp in length and shared more than 99 % nucleotide sequence similarity with the 16S rRNA gene sequences of SCWL phytoplasmas from various countries. Based on the reported 16S rRNA gene sequence data from SCWL isolates of various countries, we conducted phylogenetic and virtual RFLP analysis. In the resulting phylogenetic tree, all SCWL isolates clustered into two branches, with the Lincang and Baoshan SCWL phytoplasma isolates belonging to different branches. The virtual RFLP patterns show that phytoplasmas of the Lincang branch belong to subgroup 16SrXI-B. However, the virtual RFLP patterns revealed by HaeIII digestion of phytoplasmas of the Baoshan branch differed from those of subgroup 16SrXI-B. According to the results of phylogenetic and virtual RFLP analysis, we propose that the phytoplasmas of the Baoshan branch represent a new subgroup, 16SrXI-D. These findings suggest that SCWL is caused by phytoplasmas from group 16SrXI, including subgroup 16SrXI-B and a new subgroup, 16SrXI-D. PMID:26508111

  13. Glass-Ceramic Material from the SiO2-Al2O3-CaO System Using Sugar-Cane Bagasse Ash (SCBA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, S. R.; Romero, M.; Ma Rincón, J.; Magalhães, R. S.; Souza, A. E.; Santos, G. T. A.; Silva, R. A.

    2011-10-01

    Brazil is the world's largest producer of alcohol and sugar from sugarcane. Currently, sugarcane bagasse is burned in boilers to produce steam and electrical energy, producing a huge volume of ash. The major component of the ash is SiO2, and among the minor components there are some mineralizing agents or fluxing. Published works have shown the potential of transforming silicate-based residues into glass-ceramic products of great utility. This work reports the research results of SCBA use to produce glass-ceramics with wollastonite, rankinite and gehlenite as the major phases. These silicates have important applications as building industry materials, principally wollastonite, due to their special properties: high resistance to weathering, zero water absorption, and hardness among others. The glasses (frits) were prepared mixing ash, calcium carbonate and sodium or potassium carbonates as flux agents, in different concentrations. X-ray fluorescence was used to determine the chemical composition of the glasses and their crystallization was assessed by using thermal analysis (DTA/DSC/TGA) and X-ray diffraction. The crystallization kinetics was evaluated using the Kissinger method, giving activation energies ranging from 200 to 600 kJ/mol.

  14. 30. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1885-1870. View: Masonry-lined passage-way leading to the mill at the center of its circular masonry enclosure. The passageway permitted cane to be carried to the mill and cane trash (bagasse) to be carried away. Bridges over the passageways, no longer in place, permitted the mill animals to circle and power the mill from above. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  15. Potential production of energy cane for fuel in the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Samuels, G.

    1984-12-01

    Sugarcane presents a tremendous potential as a renewable energy source for the non-oil producing countries of the Caribbean. The energy cane concept is sugarcane managed for maximum dry matter (total fermentable solids for alcohol fuel and combustible solids for electricity) rather than sucrose. The use of sugarcane as a renewable energy source can provide a solution, either partial or total, to the Caribbean energy problem. Sugar cane production and the use of this crop as a renewable energy source are described.

  16. Sugar crops for fuel alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    The use of alcohol rather than petroleum as a fuel source would require a large amount of land and suitable crops. Acerage now in use for food crops and animal production in the USA is given. The author presents alternatives to present land use in order to free acreage for energy crops such as sorghum, sugar beets, and sugar cane. (DC)

  17. Elevation of a cane-growing area of the state of Sao Paulo using LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Mendonca, F. J.; Lee, D. C. L.; Tardin, A. T.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Chen, S. C.; Lucht, L. A. M.; Moreira, M. A.; Delima, A. M.; Maia, F. C. S.

    1981-01-01

    Images at a scale of 1:250.000 were visually interpreted for identification and area estimates of sugar cane plantations in Sao Paulo. The basic criteria for crop identification were the spectral characteristics of channels 5 and 7 and their temporal variations observed from different LANDSAT passes. Using this technique, it was possible to map the sugar cane areas as well as the sugar cane already harvested. An area of 801,950 hectares was estimated within the study area. The confidence interval of correct classification ranged from 87.11% to 94.71%.

  18. Free-Standing Canes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehresman, Paul

    1995-01-01

    A precane device, called the "free-standing cane," was developed to help children with blindness along with other disabilities. The cane detects obstacles; guides the user's hands into a relaxed, static position in front of the hips; facilitates postural security and control; and offers tactile and kinesthetic feedback. (JDD)

  19. 2. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761899. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1899. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Top roll and one bottom roll, mill housing or cheeks, and spur pinion gears. The broken projection on the mill beside the bottom roll indicates the location of the cane tray. The cane juice crushed from the cane flowed into the juice tray below the bottom rolls. It then flowed into a wooden gutter and through a short tunnel in the mill's masonry enclosure and on to the boiling house for further processing. The opening at the base of the masency wall (In the photograph) is where the gutter ran from the mill to the boiling house. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  20. Path analysis of agro-industrial traits in sweet sorghum.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, G M R; Nunes, J A R; Parrella, R A C; Teixeira, D H L; Bruzi, A T; Durães, N N L; Fagundes, T G

    2015-12-09

    Sweet sorghum has considerable potential for ethanol production due to its succulent stalks that contain directly fermentable sugars. Since many traits need to be considered in the selection process to breed superior cultivars for ethanol production, then correlations between the traits might be of use to help the breeder define optimal improvement strategies. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the principal agro-industrial traits in sweet sorghum, and to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of primary and secondary traits on ethanol production per hectare. In total, 45 sweet sorghum genotypes (lineage/hybrids) were evaluated in an experiment designed in an alpha lattice 5 x 9. The data were analyzed using a mixed model approach. A detailed study of simple correlations was accomplished using path analysis. The experimental precision was high, with an accuracy above 76%. The various genotypes showed genetic variation for all agronomic and industrial traits, except stalk diameter. Some agro-industrial traits showed significant simple correlations with ethanol production, but according to the path analysis, some of these traits did not show a significant direct or indirect effect on ethanol production. The results highlighted the primary and secondary traits with practical relevance to sweet sorghum breeding, since they showed director indirect effects on ethanol production.

  1. Sugar (sucrose) holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponce-Lee, E. L.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2004-06-01

    Computer holograms made with sugar crystals are reported. This material is well known as a good sweetener; the sugar from sugar cane or sugar beet (sucrose). These sweetener can be applied as honey "water and diluted sugar" easily on any substrate such as plastics or glasses without critical conditions for developed process. This step corresponds only to the cured sucrose as a photopolymer process. The maximum absorption spectra is localized at UV region λ=240 nm. We record with lithographic techniques some gratings, showing a good diffraction efficiency around 45%. This material has good resolution to make diffraction gratings. These properties are attractive because they open the possibility to make phase holograms on candies. Mainly the phase modulation is by refraction index.

  2. 12. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Historical view, 1934, T.T. Waterman Collection, Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Oahu, Hawaii. Masonry-lined passageway leading to the mill at the center of its circular masonry enclosure. The passageway permitted cane to be carried to the mill and cane trash (bagasse) to be carried away after milling. Bridges over the passageways, not in place, permitted the mill animals to circle and power the mill from above. View shows area prior to substantial overgrowth existing in 1978 views of the area. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  3. Celebrating White Cane Awareness Month.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Judy; McGraw, Jane M.

    1995-01-01

    White Cane Awareness Month was created to teach the public that the long cane is a tool for maintaining independence and dignity and a symbol of freedom, not of pity or helplessness. Public relations materials were developed, including a demonstration for television stations on use of the long cane and a quiz to distribute at information booths.…

  4. Energy cane as a multiple-products alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    CANE SUGAR planting as it was formerly known is in serious and essentially irreversible trouble. Diversification of sugarcane to alternative farm crops is indicated in some instances. Yet, for the most part, the more logical alternative is an internal diversification to a multiple-products biomass commodity. Sometimes termed the energy cane approach, its keystones are the management of sugarcane as a quantitative rather than qualitative entity, and the inclusion of certain tropical-grass relatives to assist cane in its year-round supply of biomass to industrial consumers. Managed in this way, absolute tonnages of whole cane are increased materially beyond what is possible from sugar-crop management. Juice quality declines but sugar yields are significant as a function of high biomass tonnages per acre. Usage of the lignocellulose can range from low-quality humid boiler fuel in furnaces designed for refuse incineration, to higher-quality fuels in more efficient boilers, to proprietary fuels and chemical products, and to lignocellulose supply as the feedstock for primary chemicals production. The latter might include, for example, synthesis gas and petrochemicals in tropical regions lacking natural gas, naphtha, or coal as starting materials. Diversification of sugarcane to completely new farm commodities is opposed in favor of internal diversification to a high-growth, multiple-products commodity. Decisive issues here are as much educational as they are technical. The energy cane concept maintains that sugarcane is a future resource of enormous national and international value. It should develop accordingly where decision-taking is by persons who respect the cane plant and who have done their homework on its alternative-use potentials. 35 references, 5 figures, 6 tables.

  5. Effects of D-003, a mixture of high-molecular-weight sugar cane wax acids, on lipid peroxidation markers in older individuals: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Yohani; Menéndez, Roberto; Ferrer, José I.; Lopez, Ernesto; Castaño, Gladys; Fernández, Julio; Ferreiro, Rosa M.; Fernández, Lilia; Mendoza, Sarahí; González, Rosa; Mesa, Melbis

    2008-01-01

    Background: Aging is associated with increased lipid peroxidation (LP). D-003, a mixture of long-chain aliphatic primary acids purified from sugar cane wax, has been found to inhibit LP in experimental models and in healthy subjects. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of D-003 on LP markers and the lipid profile of older individuals. Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted at the Plaza Veterans' House, Havana City, Cuba. Male and female patients aged ≥60 years with total cholesterol values of <6.1 mmol/L were eligible for inclusion in the study. After a 3-week lead-in and baseline assessment period, patients were randomized to receive PO D-003 5 mg/d, D-003 10 mg/d, or placebo for 8 weeks. The effect on copper-induced LP of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles was the primary variable, and the effects on plasma total antioxidant status (TAS), plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, plasma antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) activities, and the lipid profile were secondary variables. A clinical examination was performed at each visit (baseline, weeks 4 and 8). A clinical examination, LP, and blood tests (lipid profile, hematologic, and blood biochemistry safety indicators) were performed at baseline and after 8 weeks of treatment. Compliance and adverse events (AEs) were assessed at weeks 4 and 8. A 2-tailed P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant for comparisons of both continuous and categoric variables. Results: Fifty-four patients aged ≥60 years were assessed for inclusion in the study, and 51 patients (40 women, 11 men; mean [SD] age, 67 [6] years) were included in the study. The lag phase of conjugated diene formation increased significantly and in a dose-dependent manner in the group treated with D-003 5 mg (24.7%; P < 0.01) and in the group treated with D-003 10 mg (29.3%; P < 0.01) compared with placebo. The maximal rate of conjugated diene

  6. Report on the engineering and economics of an ethanol/gasohol joint-venture project with Caldwell Sugars Co-op, Inc. at Thibodaux, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    The definitive availabilities and costs of the following feedstocks are assessed: sugar cane, sweet sorghum, cane, and molasses. The following are included: details of the project area in relation to the availability of nonstorable feedstocks; sugar cane availability and costs; sweet sorghum availability and costs; cane availability and costs, including identification of source of supply and byproduct marketing; molasses availability and costs, including local sources of supply and byproduct marketing, and net feedstocks costs of ethanol. Sugar cane, sweet sorghum, and molasses are investigated primarily as possible alternative local feedstocks to corn to meet the requirements of the Louisiana Gasohol Act.

  7. 75 FR 23631 - Sugar Re-Export Program, the Sugar-Containing Products Re-Export Program, and the Polyhydric...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... withdrawing the proposed rule published at 70 FR 3150 on January 21, 2005, to implement Chapter 17 of the...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service 7 CFR Part 1530 Sugar Re-Export Program, the Sugar... cane sugar under subheading 1701.11.20 of the HTS for the production of polyhydric alcohols,...

  8. Extracellular ligninolytic enzymes production by Pleurotus eryngii on agroindustrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Akpinar, Merve; Urek, Raziye Ozturk

    2014-01-01

    Pleurotus eryngii (DC.) Gillet (MCC58) was investigated for its ligninolytic ability to produce laccase (Lac), manganese peroxidase (MnP), aryl alcohol oxidase (AAO), and lignin peroxidase (LiP) enzymes through solid-state fermentation using apricot and pomegranate agroindustrial wastes. The reducing sugar, protein, lignin, and cellulose levels in these were studied. Also, the production of these ligninolytic enzymes was researched over the growth of the microorganism throughout 20 days, and the reducing sugar, protein, and nitrogen levels were recorded during the stationary cultivation at 28 ± 0.5°C. The highest Lac activity was obtained as 1618.5 ± 25 U/L on day 12 of cultivation using apricot. The highest MnP activity was attained as 570.82 ± 15 U/L on day 17 in pomegranate culture and about the same as apricot culture. There were low LiP activities in both cultures. The maximum LiP value detected was 16.13 ± 0.8 U/L in apricot cultures. In addition, AAO activities in both cultures showed similar trends up to day 17 of cultivation, with the highest AAO activity determined as 105.99 ± 6.3 U/L on day 10 in apricot cultures. Decolorization of the azo dye methyl orange was also achieved with produced ligninolytic enzymes by P. eryngii using apricot and pomegranate wastes. PMID:24279903

  9. From Wheelchair to Cane

    PubMed Central

    Mayo, Amanda; Berbrayer, David

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Spina bifida is associated with foot deformities, which may lead to foot ulcers, osteomyelitis, and limb amputation. Calcanectomy and Symes amputations have been reported successful in spina bifida. There is lack of evidence for transtibial amputations. This case describes a 27-yr-old woman with L4 level spina bifida who underwent bilateral transtibial amputations. She ambulated with bilateral ankle foot orthoses and canes until age 22. At age 22, she had bilateral foot reconstructive surgeries complicated by nonunion, ulcerations, and osteomyelitis. She was using a wheelchair by age 25. She had elective bilateral transtibial amputations at age 27 for progressive osteomyelitis. Four weeks after amputations, she was fit with bilateral prostheses. On completion of 2 mos of rehabilitation, she ambulated with a cane. This case demonstrates good functional outcomes after transtibial amputations in a young spina bifida patient. Prosthetic fitting should be considered for similar, previously high functioning spina bifida patients with transtibial amputation(s). PMID:26259056

  10. Novel Crystalline SiO2 Nanoparticles via Annelids Bioprocessing of Agro-Industrial Wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espíndola-Gonzalez, A.; Martínez-Hernández, A. L.; Angeles-Chávez, C.; Castaño, V. M.; Velasco-Santos, C.

    2010-09-01

    The synthesis of nanoparticles silica oxide from rice husk, sugar cane bagasse and coffee husk, by employing vermicompost with annelids ( Eisenia foetida) is reported. The product ( humus) is calcinated and extracted to recover the crystalline nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) show that the biotransformation allows creating specific crystalline phases, since equivalent particles synthesized without biotransformation are bigger and with different crystalline structure.

  11. Novel Crystalline SiO2 Nanoparticles via Annelids Bioprocessing of Agro-Industrial Wastes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The synthesis of nanoparticles silica oxide from rice husk, sugar cane bagasse and coffee husk, by employing vermicompost with annelids (Eisenia foetida) is reported. The product (humus) is calcinated and extracted to recover the crystalline nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) show that the biotransformation allows creating specific crystalline phases, since equivalent particles synthesized without biotransformation are bigger and with different crystalline structure. PMID:20802789

  12. 17. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Boiling House, 1878. View: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Boiling House, 1878. View: Southwest corner of boiling house. The amimal-powered cane mill is located in the undergrowth in the right foreground, - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  13. 76 FR 46267 - Increase in Fiscal Year 2011 Specialty Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota; Determination of Total Amounts of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ... Office of the Secretary Increase in Fiscal Year 2011 Specialty Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota; Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses; and Extension of Entry Period for the Fiscal Year 2012 Raw Sugar Tariff- Rate Quota...

  14. Alkali-based AFEX pretreatment for the conversion of sugarcane bagasse and cane leaf residues to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Chandraraj; Sousa, Leonardo da Costa; Jin, Mingjie; Chang, Linpei; Dale, Bruce E; Balan, Venkatesh

    2010-10-15

    Sugarcane is one of the major agricultural crops cultivated in tropical climate regions of the world. Each tonne of raw cane production is associated with the generation of 130 kg dry weight of bagasse after juice extraction and 250 kg dry weight of cane leaf residue postharvest. The annual world production of sugarcane is approximately 1.6 billion tones, generating 279 MMT tones of biomass residues (bagasse and cane leaf matter) that would be available for cellulosic ethanol production. Here, we investigated the production of cellulosic ethanol from sugar cane bagasse and sugar cane leaf residue using an alkaline pretreatment: ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX). The AFEX pretreatment improved the accessibility of cellulose and hemicelluloses to enzymes during hydrolysis by breaking down the ester linkages and other lignin carbohydrate complex (LCC) bonds and the sugar produced by this process is found to be highly fermentable. The maximum glucan conversion of AFEX pretreated bagasse and cane leaf residue by cellulases was approximately 85%. Supplementation with hemicellulases during enzymatic hydrolysis improved the xylan conversion up to 95-98%. Xylanase supplementation also contributed to a marginal improvement in the glucan conversion. AFEX-treated cane leaf residue was found to have a greater enzymatic digestibility compared to AFEX-treated bagasse. Co-fermentation of glucose and xylose, produced from high solid loading (6% glucan) hydrolysis of AFEX-treated bagasse and cane leaf residue, using the recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae (424A LNH-ST) produced 34-36 g/L of ethanol with 92% theoretical yield. These results demonstrate that AFEX pretreatment is a viable process for conversion of bagasse and cane leaf residue into cellulosic ethanol.

  15. Green-cane harvest of sugarcane effects on biomass and energy yields and nutrient removal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane yields in Louisiana can approach 40 dry Mg ha-1, making sugarcane an attractive biofuel feedstock as well as a profitable sugar crop. Existing technology used in green-cane harvesting can be used to allow chopper harvester extractor fans to remove variable amounts of extraneous leaf materi...

  16. [Effects of sugarcane-soybean intercropping on cane yield, quality and economic benefit under low nitrogen condition].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian-bo; Peng, Dong-hai; Qin, Liu-dong; Xing, Yong-xiu; Li, Yang-rui; Yang, Li-tao

    2015-05-01

    To explore the effects of sugarcane-soybean intercropping on cane yield, quality and economic benefit, three sugarcane cultivars (B8, ROC22 and GT21) planted under sugarcane monoculture and sugarcane-soybean intercropping with low nitrogen fertilization (urea application of 150 kg · hm(-2)). The field design was a split-plot with the cropping pattern being the principal factor and the sugarcane cultivar being the secondary factor. The results showed that the millable stalks, stalk diameter, cane yield and sugar production were significantly affected by sugarcane-soybean intercropping while the cane quality wasn' t changed obviously. Compared with sugarcane monoculture, the stalk diameter, millable stalks, cane yield and sugar production in the intercropping system were increased by 5.1%-8.7%, 7.9%-31.0%, 9.0%-40.5% and 5.6%-39.5%, respectively. The total incomes of cane and soybean, and sugar and soybean were increased by 58900-79300 yuan · hm(-2) and 58300-77200 yuan · hm(-2), respectively. Among the three sugarcane cultivars in the sugarcane-soybean intercropping pattern, the economic benefit was the highest in ROC22, while the ratoon cane yields of GT21 and B8 were higher than that of ROC22. The results also indicated that sugarcane-soybean intercropping is an effective planting method to reduce nitrogen fertilizer application and increase economic income in sugarcane production. PMID:26571661

  17. [Effects of sugarcane-soybean intercropping on cane yield, quality and economic benefit under low nitrogen condition].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian-bo; Peng, Dong-hai; Qin, Liu-dong; Xing, Yong-xiu; Li, Yang-rui; Yang, Li-tao

    2015-05-01

    To explore the effects of sugarcane-soybean intercropping on cane yield, quality and economic benefit, three sugarcane cultivars (B8, ROC22 and GT21) planted under sugarcane monoculture and sugarcane-soybean intercropping with low nitrogen fertilization (urea application of 150 kg · hm(-2)). The field design was a split-plot with the cropping pattern being the principal factor and the sugarcane cultivar being the secondary factor. The results showed that the millable stalks, stalk diameter, cane yield and sugar production were significantly affected by sugarcane-soybean intercropping while the cane quality wasn' t changed obviously. Compared with sugarcane monoculture, the stalk diameter, millable stalks, cane yield and sugar production in the intercropping system were increased by 5.1%-8.7%, 7.9%-31.0%, 9.0%-40.5% and 5.6%-39.5%, respectively. The total incomes of cane and soybean, and sugar and soybean were increased by 58900-79300 yuan · hm(-2) and 58300-77200 yuan · hm(-2), respectively. Among the three sugarcane cultivars in the sugarcane-soybean intercropping pattern, the economic benefit was the highest in ROC22, while the ratoon cane yields of GT21 and B8 were higher than that of ROC22. The results also indicated that sugarcane-soybean intercropping is an effective planting method to reduce nitrogen fertilizer application and increase economic income in sugarcane production.

  18. 21 CFR 168.130 - Cane sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table Sirups § 168.130 Cane sirup. (a) Cane sirup is the liquid food derived by concentration and heat treatment...

  19. 21 CFR 168.130 - Cane sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cane sirup. 168.130 Section 168.130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table Sirups § 168.130 Cane sirup. (a) Cane sirup is...

  20. Biophenols from agro-industrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Jamal, P; Alam, M Z; Suhani, F

    2008-07-01

    Large quantities of agro-based liquid wastes are produced every year and their disposal is often a problem for industries. In light of that, in this study prudent effort was done to screen the agro-industrial wastes - pineapple waste (PAW) and palm oil mill effluent (POME) for valuable biophenols product. Three different solvents; ethanol, acetone and distilled water were screened in order to enhance the process. All experiments were performed using fixed process conditions of solid to solvent ratio, temperatures, time and agitation speed. Effectiveness of extraction process to produce biophenol was based on high amount with more activity. POME was selected as potential source with biophenol content of 125.42 mg/L GAE. PMID:19025008

  1. Sugar Beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is a significant industrial crop of the temperate zone, the worldwide production of which exceeded 240 million tons in 2000. Worldwide, sugar from sugar beet provides about a third of all sugar consumed. Used as a sweetener in foods, beverages and pharmaceuticals, sug...

  2. Improving the performance of the Granulosis virus of Codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricideae) by adding the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae with sugar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies evaluated the effectiveness of adding Saccharomyces cerevisiae with brown cane sugar (sugar) to the codling moth granulosis virus, CpGV, to improve larval control of Cydia pomonella (L.), on apple. Neither the use of the yeast or sugar alone caused larval mortality greater than the water con...

  3. A novel approach of integrated bioprocessing of cane molasses for production of prebiotic and functional bioproducts.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manisha; Patel, Satya Narayan; Lata, Kusum; Singh, Umesh; Krishania, Meena; Sangwan, Rajender S; Singh, Sudhir P

    2016-11-01

    In this work, the sugar industry by-product cane molasses was investigated as feedstock for acceptor reactions by dextransucrase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides MTCC 10508, leading to the biosynthesis of oligosaccharides. The starch industry corn fiber residue was used as a source for acceptor molecules, maltose, in the reaction. Production of approximately 124g oligosaccharides (DP3-DP6) per kg of fresh molasses was achieved. Further, cane molasses based medium was demonstrated as a sole carbon source for L. mesenteroides growth and dextransucrase production. d-Fructose released by dextransucrase activity as processing by-product was transformed into the functional monosaccharide with zero caloric value, d-psicose, by inducing its epimerization. Quantitative analysis approximated 37g d-psicose per kg of fresh molasses. Thus, the study established a novel approach of integrated bioprocessing of cane molasses into prebiotic and functional food additives.

  4. A novel approach of integrated bioprocessing of cane molasses for production of prebiotic and functional bioproducts.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manisha; Patel, Satya Narayan; Lata, Kusum; Singh, Umesh; Krishania, Meena; Sangwan, Rajender S; Singh, Sudhir P

    2016-11-01

    In this work, the sugar industry by-product cane molasses was investigated as feedstock for acceptor reactions by dextransucrase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides MTCC 10508, leading to the biosynthesis of oligosaccharides. The starch industry corn fiber residue was used as a source for acceptor molecules, maltose, in the reaction. Production of approximately 124g oligosaccharides (DP3-DP6) per kg of fresh molasses was achieved. Further, cane molasses based medium was demonstrated as a sole carbon source for L. mesenteroides growth and dextransucrase production. d-Fructose released by dextransucrase activity as processing by-product was transformed into the functional monosaccharide with zero caloric value, d-psicose, by inducing its epimerization. Quantitative analysis approximated 37g d-psicose per kg of fresh molasses. Thus, the study established a novel approach of integrated bioprocessing of cane molasses into prebiotic and functional food additives. PMID:27498012

  5. Economical succinic acid production from cane molasses by Actinobacillus succinogenes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Peng; Zheng, Pu; Sun, Zhi-Hao; Ni, Ye; Dong, Jin-Jun; Zhu, Lei-Lei

    2008-04-01

    In this work, production of succinic acid by Actinobacillus succinogenes CGMCC1593 using cane molasses as a low cost carbon source was developed. In anaerobic bottles fermentation, succinic acid concentration of 50.6+/-0.9 g l(-1) was attained at 60 h using an optimum medium containing molasses pretreated with sulfuric acid, resulting in a succinic acid yield of 79.5+/-1.1% and sugar utilization of 97.1+/-0.6%. When batch fermentation was carried out in a 5-l stirred bioreactor with pretreated molasses, 46.4 g l(-1) of succinic acid was attained at 48 h and faster cells growth was also observed. Fed batch fermentation was performed to minimize the substrate (sugar) inhibition effect, giving 55.2 g l(-1) of succinic acid and 1.15 g l(-1)h(-1) of productivity at 48 h. The present study suggests that the inexpensive cane molasses could be utilized for the economical and efficient production of succinic acid by A. succinogenes.

  6. [Sugar cane burning in Brazil: respiratory health effects].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Helena

    2008-04-01

    The article aimed to update scientific literature information about respiratory health effects caused by sugarcane burning, considering the expansion of sugarcane plantations in Brazil and in the state of São Paulo. Articles published between 1996 and 2006, which deal with the health effects of sugarcane burning and/or air pollutants originating from this burning, were discussed. These studies suggest that part of the population--especially the elderly, children and asthmatics--suffers health effects of sugarcane burning. As a result, these people require health care, thus affecting health services and their families.

  7. The Penicillium echinulatum secretome on sugar cane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Daniela A; Cota, Júnio; Alvarez, Thabata M; Brüchli, Fernanda; Bragato, Juliano; Pereira, Beatriz M P; Pauletti, Bianca A; Jackson, George; Pimenta, Maria T B; Murakami, Mario T; Camassola, Marli; Ruller, Roberto; Dillon, Aldo J P; Pradella, Jose G C; Paes Leme, Adriana F; Squina, Fabio M

    2012-01-01

    Plant feedstocks are at the leading front of the biofuel industry based on the potential to promote economical, social and environmental development worldwide through sustainable scenarios related to energy production. Penicillium echinulatum is a promising strain for the bioethanol industry based on its capacity to produce large amounts of cellulases at low cost. The secretome profile of P. echinulatum after grown on integral sugarcane bagasse, microcrystalline cellulose and three types of pretreated sugarcane bagasse was evaluated using shotgun proteomics. The comprehensive chemical characterization of the biomass used as the source of fungal nutrition, as well as biochemical activity assays using a collection of natural polysaccharides, were also performed. Our study revealed that the enzymatic repertoire of P. echinulatum is geared mainly toward producing enzymes from the cellulose complex (endogluganases, cellobiohydrolases and β-glucosidases). Glycoside hydrolase (GH) family members, important to biomass-to-biofuels conversion strategies, were identified, including endoglucanases GH5, 7, 6, 12, 17 and 61, β-glycosidase GH3, xylanases GH10 and GH11, as well as debranching hemicellulases from GH43, GH62 and CE2 and pectinanes from GH28. Collectively, the approach conducted in this study gave new insights on the better comprehension of the composition and degradation capability of an industrial cellulolytic strain, from which a number of applied technologies, such as biofuel production, can be generated.

  8. The Penicillium echinulatum Secretome on Sugar Cane Bagasse

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Daniela A.; Cota, Júnio; Alvarez, Thabata M.; Brüchli, Fernanda; Bragato, Juliano; Pereira, Beatriz M. P.; Pauletti, Bianca A.; Jackson, George; Pimenta, Maria T. B.; Murakami, Mario T.; Camassola, Marli; Ruller, Roberto; Dillon, Aldo J. P.; Pradella, Jose G. C.; Paes Leme, Adriana F.; Squina, Fabio M.

    2012-01-01

    Plant feedstocks are at the leading front of the biofuel industry based on the potential to promote economical, social and environmental development worldwide through sustainable scenarios related to energy production. Penicillium echinulatum is a promising strain for the bioethanol industry based on its capacity to produce large amounts of cellulases at low cost. The secretome profile of P. echinulatum after grown on integral sugarcane bagasse, microcrystalline cellulose and three types of pretreated sugarcane bagasse was evaluated using shotgun proteomics. The comprehensive chemical characterization of the biomass used as the source of fungal nutrition, as well as biochemical activity assays using a collection of natural polysaccharides, were also performed. Our study revealed that the enzymatic repertoire of P. echinulatum is geared mainly toward producing enzymes from the cellulose complex (endogluganases, cellobiohydrolases and β-glucosidases). Glycoside hydrolase (GH) family members, important to biomass-to-biofuels conversion strategies, were identified, including endoglucanases GH5, 7, 6, 12, 17 and 61, β-glycosidase GH3, xylanases GH10 and GH11, as well as debranching hemicellulases from GH43, GH62 and CE2 and pectinanes from GH28. Collectively, the approach conducted in this study gave new insights on the better comprehension of the composition and degradation capability of an industrial cellulolytic strain, from which a number of applied technologies, such as biofuel production, can be generated. PMID:23227186

  9. Blood Sugar

    MedlinePlus

    Blood sugar, or glucose, is the main sugar found in your blood. It comes from the food you eat, and is your body's main source of energy. Your blood carries glucose to all of your body's cells to use ...

  10. 14. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Sorghum Pan. Manufactured by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Sorghum Pan. Manufactured by John Nott & Co., Honolulu, Hawaii, 1878. View: In the sorghum pan, heat was applied to the cane juice to clarify it, evaporate its water content, and concentrate the sugar crystals. The pan was set on a slope so that the juice would move through the compartments by gravity. The hand-lever sluice valves in the partition walls between the compartments permitted the sugar boiler to regulate the movement of batches of cane juice flowing through the pan. The metal fins projecting from the bottom of the pan imparted a circuitous route to the juice as it flowed through the pan--this made it flow over a much greater heated surface. The fins also supplemented the pan's heating surface by ... - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  11. Thermal conductivity of cane fiberboard

    SciTech Connect

    Leader, D.R.

    1995-05-01

    The thermal conductivity of cane fiberboard was measured in two planes; parallel to the surface and perpendicular to the surface of the manufactured sheet. The information was necessary to better understand the thermal response of a loaded shipping container. The tests demonstrated that the thermal conductivity of cane fiberboard in the plane parallel to the surface of the sheet was nearly twice as great as the conductivity of the same material in a plane perpendicular to the sheet. There was no significant difference in the conductivity in different directions within the plane parallel to the surface, and the presence of glue between layers of fiberboard did not significantly change the conductivity of the assembly. The tests revealed that the thermal conductivity measured in a direction perpendicular to the plane of the surface of a stack of cane fiberboard sheets not bonded together, decreases with an increase in the mean temperature. This was determined to be the result of air gaps between the sheets of fiberboard, and not related to the properties of the material itself

  12. Fermentative hydrogen production from agroindustrial lignocellulosic substrates

    PubMed Central

    Reginatto, Valeria; Antônio, Regina Vasconcellos

    2015-01-01

    To achieve economically competitive biological hydrogen production, it is crucial to consider inexpensive materials such as lignocellulosic substrate residues derived from agroindustrial activities. It is possible to use (1) lignocellulosic materials without any type of pretreatment, (2) lignocellulosic materials after a pretreatment step, and (3) lignocellulosic materials hydrolysates originating from a pretreatment step followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. According to the current literature data on fermentative H2 production presented in this review, thermophilic conditions produce H2 in yields approximately 75% higher than those obtained in mesophilic conditions using untreated lignocellulosic substrates. The average H2 production from pretreated material is 3.17 ± 1.79 mmol of H2/g of substrate, which is approximately 50% higher compared with the average yield achieved using untreated materials (2.17 ± 1.84 mmol of H2/g of substrate). Biological pretreatment affords the highest average yield 4.54 ± 1.78 mmol of H2/g of substrate compared with the acid and basic pretreatment - average yields of 2.94 ± 1.85 and 2.41 ± 1.52 mmol of H2/g of substrate, respectively. The average H2 yield from hydrolysates, obtained from a pretreatment step and enzymatic hydrolysis (3.78 ± 1.92 mmol of H2/g), was lower compared with the yield of substrates pretreated by biological methods only, demonstrating that it is important to avoid the formation of inhibitors generated by chemical pretreatments. Based on this review, exploring other microorganisms and optimizing the pretreatment and hydrolysis conditions can make the use of lignocellulosic substrates a sustainable way to produce H2. PMID:26273246

  13. Sugar Accumulation in Sugarcane

    PubMed Central

    Gayler, K. R.; Glasziou, K. T.

    1972-01-01

    The rate-limiting reaction for glucose uptake in storage tissue of sugarcane, Saccharum officinarum L., appears to be the movement of glucose across the boundary between the free space and the metabolic compartments. The mechanism for uptake of glucose across this boundary has been studied using 3-O-methyl glucose, an analogue of glucose which is not metabolized by sugar-cane tissue. This analogue is taken up by sugarcane storage tissue at a similar rate to glucose. Its rate of uptake follows Michaelis-Menten kinetics, Km = 1.9 mm, and it is competitively inhibited by glucose, Ki = 2 to 3 mm. Glucose uptake is similarly inhibited by 3-O-methyl glucose. Uptake of 3-O-methyl glucose is energy-dependent and does not appear to be the result of counterflow of glucose. It is concluded that glucose and 3-O-methyl glucose uptake across the boundary between the free space and the metabolic compartment in this tissue is mediated by an energy-dependent carrier system capable of accumulating the sugars against a concentration gradient. PMID:16658002

  14. 21 CFR 890.3075 - Cane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cane. 890.3075 Section 890.3075 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3075 Cane. (a) Identification. A...

  15. 21 CFR 890.3075 - Cane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cane. 890.3075 Section 890.3075 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3075 Cane. (a) Identification. A...

  16. 21 CFR 890.3075 - Cane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cane. 890.3075 Section 890.3075 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3075 Cane. (a) Identification. A...

  17. 21 CFR 890.3075 - Cane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cane. 890.3075 Section 890.3075 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3075 Cane. (a) Identification. A...

  18. 21 CFR 890.3075 - Cane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cane. 890.3075 Section 890.3075 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3075 Cane. (a) Identification. A...

  19. 21 CFR 168.130 - Cane sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... § 168.130 Cane sirup. (a) Cane sirup is the liquid food derived by concentration and heat treatment of... from such juice. It contains not less than 74 percent by weight of soluble solids derived solely from such juice. The concentration may be adjusted with or without added water. It may contain one or...

  20. 21 CFR 168.130 - Cane sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... § 168.130 Cane sirup. (a) Cane sirup is the liquid food derived by concentration and heat treatment of... from such juice. It contains not less than 74 percent by weight of soluble solids derived solely from such juice. The concentration may be adjusted with or without added water. It may contain one or...

  1. 21 CFR 168.130 - Cane sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... § 168.130 Cane sirup. (a) Cane sirup is the liquid food derived by concentration and heat treatment of... from such juice. It contains not less than 74 percent by weight of soluble solids derived solely from such juice. The concentration may be adjusted with or without added water. It may contain one or...

  2. Effect of Cane Length on Drop-Off Detection Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert Wall

    2012-01-01

    Although individuals who are blind have used a stick or a cane for their independent travel since the early years of human history, designs for modern long canes did not appear until World War II, when the systematic long cane techniques were developed by Hoover (1962). Ergonomic factors, such as the length of the cane, may affect how well a cane…

  3. Sugar 101

    MedlinePlus

    ... milk (such as yogurt, milk or cream) or fruit (fresh, dried) contains some natural sugars. Reading the ingredient list on a processed food’s label can tell you if the product contains added sugars, just not the ... juice concentrates High-fructose corn syrup Honey Invert ...

  4. 15. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Sorghum pan and boiling ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Sorghum pan and boiling range flue. Manufactured by John Nott & Co., Honolulu, Hawaii, 1878. View: North side of sorghum pan and boiling range flue, with furnace-end in background. In the sorghum pan heat was applied to the cane juice to clarify it, evaporate its water content, and concentrate the sugar crystals. Hot gasses moved through the flue underneath the entire copper bottom of the sorghum pan from the furnace end (in background) to the smokestack end (in foreground). After the hot cane juice moved through the separate compartments until it reached the final compartment (now missing two sides) where it was drawn out from the copper lip in the corner. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  5. Big Sugar in southern Africa: rural development and the perverted potential of sugar/ethanol exports.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Ben

    2010-01-01

    This paper asks how investment in large-scale sugar cane production has contributed, and will contribute, to rural development in southern Africa. Taking a case study of the South African company Illovo in Zambia, the argument is made that the potential for greater tax revenue, domestic competition, access to resources and wealth distribution from sugar/ethanol production have all been perverted and with relatively little payoff in wage labour opportunities in return. If the benefits of agro-exports cannot be so easily assumed, then the prospective 'balance sheet' of biofuels needs to be re-examined. In this light, the paper advocates smaller-scale agrarian initiatives. PMID:20873031

  6. Ethanol from sugar crops: a critical review

    SciTech Connect

    Lipinsky, E.S.; Allen, B.R.; Bose, A.; Kresovich, S.

    1981-01-01

    Due to the hardships resulting from rising oil prices and periodic production shortfalls, many developing countries, especially those with warm humid climates, have explored ethanol production from sugar crops. This critical review offers information on ethanol production for development planners. Two sugar crop-based ethanol systems, raw sugar facility retrofit and conventional juice extraction, are first examined. The agronomy of sugar crops (cane, beet, sorghum) is then described, as are the steps in crop processing (extraction, fermentation, distillation, stillage disposal). The costs of producing ethanol from a typical sugarcane processing plant and from a state-of-the-art molasses processing facility are presented, and the trade-offs between producing ethanol or raw sugar from sugarcane weighed. Finally, the properties of ethanol in automotive fuels are outlined, along with important storage, handling, and safety considerations. Three major problems are cited in ethanol production from sugar crops: adverse environmental effects (10 gallons of waste to 1 gallon of ethanol); the high cost of conventional milling equipment; and the loss of potential revenue from raw sugar sales. A future possibility of producing ethanol from fibrous residues (bagasse) is noted. Included are a 64-item bibliography (1936-1980) and 31 tables.

  7. Feruloyl esterases as a tool for the release of phenolic compounds from agro-industrial by-products.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Isabelle; Navarro, David; Marnet, Nathalie; Rakotomanomana, Nnjara; Lesage-Meessen, Laurence; Sigoillot, Jean-Claude; Asther, Marcel; Asther, Michèle

    2006-08-14

    Agro-industrial by-products are a potential source of added-value phenolic acids with promising applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Here two purified feruloyl esterases from Aspergillus niger, FAEA and FAEB were tested for their ability to release phenolic acids such as caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid from coffee pulp, apple marc and wheat straw. Their hydrolysis activity was evaluated and compared with their action on maize bran and sugar beet pulp. The specificity of both enzymes against natural and synthetic substrates was evaluated; particular attention was paid to quinic esters and lignin monomers. The efficiency of both enzymes on model substrates was studied. We show the ability of these enzymes to hydrolyze quinic esters and ester linkages between phenolic acids and lignin monomer.

  8. [Agroindustrial wastes methanization and bacterial composition in anaerobic digestion].

    PubMed

    González-Sánchez, María E; Pérez-Fabiel, Sergio; Wong-Villarreal, Arnoldo; Bello-Mendoza, Ricardo; Yañez-Ocampo, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    The tons of organic waste that are annually generated by agro-industry, can be used as raw material for methane production. For this reason, it is important to previously perform biodegradability tests to organic wastes for their full scale methanization. This paper addresses biodegradability, methane production and the behavior of populations of eubacteria and archaeabacteria during anaerobic digestion of banana, mango and papaya agroindustrial wastes. Mango and banana wastes had higher organic matter content than papaya in terms of their volatile solids and total solid rate (94 and 75% respectively). After 63 days of treatment, the highest methane production was observed in banana waste anaerobic digestion: 63.89ml CH4/per gram of chemical oxygen demand of the waste. In the PCR-DGGE molecular analysis, different genomic footprints with oligonucleotides for eubacteria and archeobacteria were found. Biochemical methane potential results proved that banana wastes have the best potential to be used as raw material for methane production. The result of a PCR- DGGE analysis using specific oligonucleotides enabled to identify the behavior of populations of eubacteria and archaeabacteria present during the anaerobic digestion of agroindustrial wastes throughout the process.

  9. [Agroindustrial wastes methanization and bacterial composition in anaerobic digestion].

    PubMed

    González-Sánchez, María E; Pérez-Fabiel, Sergio; Wong-Villarreal, Arnoldo; Bello-Mendoza, Ricardo; Yañez-Ocampo, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    The tons of organic waste that are annually generated by agro-industry, can be used as raw material for methane production. For this reason, it is important to previously perform biodegradability tests to organic wastes for their full scale methanization. This paper addresses biodegradability, methane production and the behavior of populations of eubacteria and archaeabacteria during anaerobic digestion of banana, mango and papaya agroindustrial wastes. Mango and banana wastes had higher organic matter content than papaya in terms of their volatile solids and total solid rate (94 and 75% respectively). After 63 days of treatment, the highest methane production was observed in banana waste anaerobic digestion: 63.89ml CH4/per gram of chemical oxygen demand of the waste. In the PCR-DGGE molecular analysis, different genomic footprints with oligonucleotides for eubacteria and archeobacteria were found. Biochemical methane potential results proved that banana wastes have the best potential to be used as raw material for methane production. The result of a PCR- DGGE analysis using specific oligonucleotides enabled to identify the behavior of populations of eubacteria and archaeabacteria present during the anaerobic digestion of agroindustrial wastes throughout the process. PMID:26365369

  10. Sweeteners - sugars

    MedlinePlus

    ... and jellies. Enhance flavor in processed meats. Provide fermentation for breads and pickles. Add bulk to ice ... and galactose. Maltose (malt sugar) is produced during fermentation. It is found in beer and breads. Maple ...

  11. Drop-Off Detection with the Long Cane: Effects of Different Cane Techniques on Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert Wall; Curtis, Amy

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the drop-off detection performance with the two-point touch and constant contact cane techniques using a repeated-measures design with a convenience sample of 15 cane users with visual impairments. The constant contact technique was superior to the two-point touch technique in the drop-off detection rate and the 50% detection…

  12. Effects of various agro-industrial residues on soil fertility and yield and quality of potatoes.

    PubMed

    Elmaci, O L; Seçer, M; Ceylan, S

    2012-07-01

    Nine combinations of production residues of agro-industries, urban wastes and mineral fertilizers were applied to potatoes (Solanum tuberosum var. Marabel) in a field experiment, and the effect of these combinations on soil characteristics, on yield and on various quality parameters of tubers were determined. The applications significantly affected soil pH, CaCO3 and organic matter content. Total N and available P and K levels of soils showed significant differences between the applications. The content of available Zn and Mn in the soil differed significantly between the applications. Sufficient levels of N, P and K were not attained in leaves in any application. Significant differences were observed between the P content of the leaves of the control and of the other applications. Potassium and Na content of the leaves showed significant variations between the applications. Manganese was at a statistically higher level in the leaves of some combinations. The nitrogen, P and Mn contents of tubers differed significantly between the applications. Phosphorus, K, Mg and Cu levels were found to be sufficient, but Fe, Zn and Mn were low in tubers. Tuber yield was statistically highest in the Wastes P + Mineral NK combination. Reduced sugar and protein content of the tubers was affected significantly by the applications. Significant correlations were found between soil, leaf and tubers.

  13. Spore production in Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom.) samson strains on agro-industrial residues

    PubMed Central

    Robl, Diogo; Sung, Letizia B.; Novakovich, João Henrique; Marangoni, Paulo R.D.; Zawadneak, Maria Aparecida C.; Dalzoto, Patricia R.; Gabardo, Juarez; Pimentel, Ida Chapaval

    2009-01-01

    Paecilomyces lilacinus has potential for pests control. We aimed to analyze mycelial growth and spore production in P. lilacinus strains in several agro-industrial residues and commercial media. This study suggests alternative nutrient sources for fungi production and that the biotechnological potential of agro-industrial refuses could be employed in byproducts development. PMID:24031361

  14. The Role of Universities in Supporting Local Agroindustry: The Case of the Piceno District in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavoletti, Ernesto

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of universities in supporting local agroindustry using the case of the Piceno agroindustrial district in Italy. Emerging countries' comparative advantages, made stronger by increased international trade and the rediscovery of local traditions and typicality, do not signify that there will be a less knowledge-intensive…

  15. Environmental view across Cane River Lake to the Roque House, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Environmental view across Cane River Lake to the Roque House, looking from the northeast (note Front Street in background) - Roque House, Between Front Street & Cane River, Natchitoches, Natchitoches Parish, LA

  16. 28. RW Sugar Mill: 18761889. Boilingrange Furnace and Clarifier position. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. RW Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Boiling-range Furnace and Clarifier position. View: In the boiling range all of the clarification, evaporation, and concentration of cane juice took place in open pans over the Continuous flue leading from this furnace. The furnace door through the exterior wall is at the end of the furnace. In the original installation, two copper clarifiers, manufactured by John Nott & Co. occupied this space directly above the furnace. In the clarifiers, lime was added to the cane juice so that impurities would coagulate into a scum on top of the near-boiling juice. The clarifiers have been removed since the closing of the mill. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  17. 29. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Boilingrange furnace and clarifier ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Boiling-range furnace and clarifier position. View: In the boiling range all of the concentration, evaporation, and concentration of cane juice took place in open pans over the continous flue leaving this furnace. The furnace door through the exterior wall is at the end of the furnace. In the original installation two copper clarifiers, manufactured by John Nott & Co. occupied this space directly above the furnace. In the clarifier lime was added to the cane juice so that impurities would coagulate into a scum on top of the near-boiling juice. The clarifiers have been removed since the closing of the mill. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  18. Sugar Beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    World sugar production is around 160 Mt yearly with a per capita consumption of about 23 kg. Total utilization is increasing approximately 1.4% annually thanks to the improved standard of living in densely populated countries like China and India. About one-quarter of world production is extracted f...

  19. Managing your blood sugar

    MedlinePlus

    Hyperglycemia - control; Hypoglycemia - control; Diabetes - blood sugar control; Blood glucose - managing ... Know how to: Recognize and treat low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) Recognize and treat high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) ...

  20. Butanol production from cane molasses by Clostridium saccharobutylicum DSM 13864: batch and semicontinuous fermentation.

    PubMed

    Ni, Ye; Wang, Yun; Sun, Zhihao

    2012-04-01

    Clostridium acetobutylicum strains used in most Chinese ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol) plants favorably ferment starchy materials like corn, cassava, etc., rather than sugar materials. This is one major problem of ABE industry in China and significantly limits the exploitation of cheap waste sugar materials. In this work, cane molasses were utilized as substrate in ABE production by Clostridium saccharobutylicum DSM 13864. Under optimum conditions, total solvent of 19.80 g/L (13.40 g/L butanol) was reached after 72 h of fermentation in an Erlenmeyer flask. In a 5-L bioreactor, total solvent of 17.88 g/L was attained after 36 h of fermentation, and the productivity and yield were 0.50 g/L/h and 0.33 g ABE/g sugar consumption, respectively. To further enhance the productivity, a two-stage semicontinuous fermentation process was steadily operated for over 8 days (205 h, 26 cycles) with average productivity (stage II) of 1.05 g/L/h and cell concentration (stage I) of 7.43 OD(660), respectively. The average batch fermentation time (stage I and II) was reduced to 21-25 h with average solvent of 15.27 g/L. This study provides valuable process data for the development of industrial ABE fermentation process using cane molasses as substrate.

  1. Use of wastes of the sugar industry as pozzolana in lime-pozzolana binders: Study of the reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, J.F.M.; Middendorf, B.; Gehrke, M.; Budelmann, H.

    1998-11-01

    Mineralogical studies of different wastes of the sugar industry, mainly sugar cane bagasse ash and sugar cane straw ash, have shown that such by-products are likely to be pozzolanic. Their use in lime-pozzolana binders could become an interesting alternative for developing countries. This paper presents a study that was aimed at monitoring the reaction between lime and wastes of the sugar industry having pozzolanic properties by evaluating (1) content of calcium hydroxide, dependent on time; (2) development of the pore structure, dependent on time; (3) study on the reaction products at different stages; and (4) mechanical properties of hardened pastes. The presence of calcium hydroxide was confirmed by x-ray diffraction analysis and thermogravimetric analysis of powder from samples of hydrated lime-pozzolana pastes. The reaction products in hydrated pastes were observed in a scanning electron microscope, and the pore structure was assessed using a mercury intrusion porosimeter. The results of the study show that sugar cane bagasse ash does not act like a reactive pozzolana, mainly due to the presence of unburned material and carbon, whereas sugar cane straw ash shows good pozzolanic activity comparable to that of rice husk ash.

  2. Biodiesel production from microalgae: co-location with sugar mills.

    PubMed

    Lohrey, Christian; Kochergin, Vadim

    2012-03-01

    Co-location of algae production facilities with cane sugar mills can be a technically advantageous path towards production of biodiesel. Algal biodiesel production was integrated with cane sugar production in the material and energy balance simulation program Sugars™. A model was developed that allowed comparison of production scenarios involving dewatering the algae to 20% ds (dry solids) or 30% ds prior to thermal drying. The net energy ratio, E(R) (energy produced/energy consumed) of the proposed process was found to be 1.5. A sensitivity analysis showed that this number ranged from 0.9 to 1.7 when the range of values for oil content, CO(2) utilization, oil conversion, and harvest density reported in the literature were evaluated. By utilizing available waste-resources from a 10,000 ton/d cane sugar mill, a 530 ha algae farm can produce 5.8 million L of biodiesel/yr and reduce CO(2) emissions of the mill by 15% without the need for fossil fuels.

  3. The Caribbean Sugar Bowl: A Case Study of "Human-Environment Interaction."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinson, Tom L.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a middle school lesson on the geographic theme of human-environmental interaction. Explains that the natural environments of the Dominican Republic and the gulf region of Alabama are compared and contrasted in the production of sugar cane. Includes maps, graphs, a historic speech, and suggested texts. (DK)

  4. Butyric acid fermentation in a fibrous bed bioreactor with immobilized Clostridium tyrobutyricum from cane molasses.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ling; Wang, Jufang; Liang, Shizhong; Wang, Xiaoning; Cen, Peilin; Xu, Zhinan

    2009-07-01

    Butyrate fermentation by immobilized Clostridium tyrobutyricum was successfully carried out in a fibrous bed bioreactor using cane molasses. Batch fermentations were conducted to investigate the influence of pH on the metabolism of the strain, and the results showed that the fermentation gave a highest butyrate production of 26.2 g l(-1) with yield of 0.47 g g(-1) and reactor productivity up to 4.13 g l(-1)h(-1) at pH 6.0. When repeated-batch fermentation was carried out, long-term operation with high butyrate yield, volumetric productivity was achieved. Several cane molasses pretreatment techniques were investigated, and it was found that sulfuric acid treatment gave better results regarding butyrate concentration (34.6+/-0.8 g l(-1)), yield (0.58+/-0.01 g g(-1)), and sugar utilization (90.8+/-0.9%). Also, fed-batch fermentation from cane molasses pretreated with sulfuric acid was performed to further increase the concentration of butyrate up to 55.2 g l(-1).

  5. Fate of Tebuthiuron and Hexazinone in Green-Cane Harvesting System.

    PubMed

    Toniêto, Thiago Antônio Pinheiro; de Pierri, Letícia; Tornisielo, Valdemar Luiz; Regitano, Jussara Borges

    2016-05-25

    In Brazil, fire prior to sugar cane harvesting has to be phased out by 2017, but it has already been phased out in up to 85-90% of the cropped area. The new system is called green cane and has entirely changed weed management practices. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of the straw presence as well as humic acid (HA), formulation, soil type, and aging on the sorption and leaching of (14)C-tebuthiuron and hexazinone. Both herbicides presented low sorption for all treatments (Kd,app ≤ 3.25 L kg(-1)), but it was higher for tebuthiuron in the clayer soil (LVd). Straw and aging only slightly enhanced sorption. The HA effects were not clear. Sorption was mostly affected by herbicide and soil type. Straw may promote physical trapping (∼40% of applied amount), which cannot be accessed by "batch" sorption (∼15% of the applied amount is sorbed), attenuating leaching of highly mobile herbicides in green-cane systems. To properly assess leaching through straw residues under laboratory condition, rainfall distribution is very important. PMID:26731582

  6. Cost-effective lignocellulolytic enzyme production by Trichoderma reesei on a cane molasses medium

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cane molasses, an important residue of the sugar industry, have the potential as a cost-effective carbon source that could serve as nutrients for industrial enzyme-producing microorganisms, especially filamentous fungi. However, the enzyme mixtures produced in such a complex medium are poorly characterized. In this study, the secretome of Trichoderma reesei grown on a cane molasses medium (CMM) as well as on a lactose-based conventional medium (LCM) were compared and analyzed by using proteomics. Results In this study we show that both the CMM and LCM can serve as excellent growth media for T. reesei. The enzyme expression patterns in the two media were similar and a considerable number of the identified proteins on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) gels were those involved in biomass degradation. The most abundant cellulolytic enzymes identified in both media were cellobiohydrolases (Cel7A/Cel6A) and endoglucanases (Cel7A/Cel5A) and were found to be more abundant in CMM. We also found that both media can serve as an inducer of xylanolytic enzymes. The main xylanases (XYNI/XYNIV) and xyloglucanase (Cel74A) were found at higher concentrations in the CMM than LCM. Conclusions We analyzed the prevalent proteins secreted by T. reesei in the CMM and LCM. Here, we show that hydrolytic enzymes are cost-effective and can be produced on cane molasses as a carbon source which can be used to digest lignocellulolytic biomass. PMID:24655817

  7. Development of New Energy Cane Culitvars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research into alternative energy sources has been on the rise since the 1970s. Novel sources of carbon-neutral energy are currently in high demand, but can pose different challenges in their development. Energy cane is a relatively new generation crop being bred as a source for biofuel feedstock and...

  8. Waste heat recovery systems in the sugar industry: An Indian perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Madnaik, S.D.; Jadhav, M.G.

    1996-04-01

    This article identifies the key role of the sugar industry in the rural development of developing countries. The Indian sugar industry, already second largest among the country`s processing industries, shows even greater potential, according to the Plan Documents (shown in a table). The potential of waste heat in sugar processing plants, which produce white crystal sugar using the double sulphitation clarification process, is estimated at 5757.9 KJ/kg of sugar. Efficient waste heat recovery (WHR) systems could help arrest the trend of increasing production costs. This would help the sugar industry not only in India, but in many other countries as well. The innovative methods suggested and discussed briefly in this article include dehydration of prepared cane, bagasse drying, and juice heating using waste heat. These methods can reduce the cost of energy in sugar production by at least 10% and improve efficiency and productivity.

  9. Efficient production of l-lactic acid using co-feeding strategy based on cane molasses/glucose carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ke; Xu, Ping

    2014-02-01

    L-Lactic acid is an important platform chemical, which ought to be produced under cost control to meet its huge demand. Cane molasses, a waste from sugar manufacturing processes, is hopeful to be utilized as a cheap carbon source for L-lactic acid fermentation. Considering that cane molasses contains nutrients and hazardous substances, efficient production of L-lactic acid was developed by using a co-feeding strategy based on the utilization of cane molasses/glucose carbon sources. Based on the medium optimization with response surface method, 168.3g/L L-lactic acid was obtained by a Bacillus coagulans strain H-1 after 78h fed-batch fermentation, with a productivity of 2.1g/Lh and a yield of 0.88g/g. Since cane molasses is a feasible carbon source, the co-feeding fermentation might be a promising alternative for the economical production of L-lactic acid.

  10. Bioprocessing of some agro-industrial residues for endoglucanase production by the new subsp.; Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus strain NEAE-J

    PubMed Central

    El-Naggar, Noura El-Ahmady; Abdelwahed, Nayera A.M.; Saber, Wesam I.A.; Mohamed, Asem A.

    2014-01-01

    The use of low cost agro-industrial residues for the production of industrial enzymes is one of the ways to reduce significantly production costs. Cellulase producing actinomycetes were isolated from soil and decayed agricultural wastes. Among them, a potential culture, strain NEAE-J, was selected and identified on the basis of morphological, cultural, physiological and chemotaxonomic properties, together with 16S rDNA sequence. It is proposed that strain NEAE-J should be included in the species Streptomyces albogriseolus as a representative of a novel sub-species, Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus strain NEAE-J and sequencing product was deposited in the GenBank database under accession number JN229412. This organism was tested for its ability to produce endoglucanase and release reducing sugars from agro-industrial residues as substrates. Sugarcane bagasse was the most suitable substrate for endoglucanase production. Effects of process variables, namely incubation time, temperature, initial pH and nitrogen source on production of endoglucanase by submerged fermentation using Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus have been studied. Accordingly optimum conditions have been determined. Incubation temperature of 30 °C after 6 days, pH of 6.5, 1% sugarcane bagasse as carbon source and peptone as nitrogen source were found to be the optimum for endoglucanase production. Optimization of the process parameters resulted in about 2.6 fold increase in the endoglucanase activity. Therefore, Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus coud be potential microorganism for the intended application. PMID:25242966

  11. Forage and sugar in dairy calves' starter diet and their interaction on performance, weaning age and rumen fermentation.

    PubMed

    Beiranvand, H; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M

    2014-06-01

    The effects of sugar and forage inclusion in calves' starter and their interaction on animal performance and rumen fermentation parameters were investigated. Twenty-eight neonatal Holstein male calves 3 days of age with average body weights of 42 ± 4 kg were allocated to four different treatments. All calves were fed a similar basal diet consisting of milk and concentrate. The experimental treatments were: (i) basal diet with no supplementation (Control, hereafter designated by C), (ii) basal diet plus 5% granular sugar cane (Sugar, designated by S), (iii) basal diet plus 5% forage (Forage, designated by F) and (iv) basal diet plus 5% forage with 5% granular sugar cane (F × S). Supplement ingredients were used on a dry matter (DM) basis. Rumen fluid parameters were measured twice on days 35 and 70 of the study period. The calves were weaned when they could consume 1 kg of starter for three consecutive days. The results show that starter intake was not affected by treatment; however, the lowest ADG was observed with calves in the sugar treatment. Weaning age was affected by treatments, and forage showed to reduce milk consumption period down to its shortest. Forage-sugar interaction was found to have no effects on animal performance. The structural body indices as well as the health status of the calves were similar in different treatments. Rumen pH did not differ among the treatment groups. Among the rumen parameters, total VFA concentration and molar proportions of butyrate and propionate did not exhibit any significant differences among the treatments. However, ruminal acetate concentration decreased in calves that fed sugar cane during the early weeks of the study period. Comparison of forage and sugar included in the starter diets revealed that forage reduced weaning age, while sugar cane had a negative effect on calves' performance.

  12. Efficient sugar release by acetic acid ethanol-based organosolv pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongdan; Wu, Shubin

    2014-12-01

    Acetic acid ethanol-based organosolv pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse was performed to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis. The effect of different parameters (including temperature, reaction time, solvent concentration, and acid catalyst dose) on pretreatment prehydrolyzate and subsequent enzymatic digestibility was determined. During the pretreatment process, 11.83 g of xylose based on 100 g of raw material could be obtained. After the ethanol-based pretreatment, the enzymatic hydrolysis was enhanced and the highest glucose yield of 40.99 g based on 100 g of raw material could be obtained, representing 93.8% of glucose in sugar cane bagasse. The maximum total sugar yields occurred at 190 °C, 45 min, 60:40 ethanol/water, and 5% dosage of acetic acid, reaching 58.36 g (including 17.69 g of xylose and 40.67 g of glucose) based on 100 g of raw material, representing 85.4% of total sugars in raw material. Furthermore, characterization of the pretreated sugar cane bagasse using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analyses were also developed. The results suggested that ethanol-based organosolv pretreatment could enhance enzymatic digestibilities because of the delignification and removal of xylan.

  13. Ergonomic Factors Related to Drop-Off Detection With the Long Cane: Effects of Cane Tips and Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae Shik; Wall Emerson, Robert S.; Curtis, Amy B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study examined the effect of cane tips and cane techniques on drop-off detection with the long cane. Background Blind pedestrians depend on a long cane to detect drop-offs. Missing a drop-off may result in falls or collision with moving vehicles in the street. Although cane tips appear to affect a cane user’s ability to detect drop-offs, few experimental studies have examined such effect. Method A repeated-measures design with block randomization was used for the study. Participants were 17 adults who were legally blind and had no other disabilities. Participants attempted to detect the drop-offs of varied depths using different cane tips and cane techniques. Results Drop-off detection rates were similar between the marshmallow tip (77.0%) and the marshmallow roller tip (79.4%) when both tips were used with the constant contact technique, p = .294. However, participants detected drop-offs at a significantly higher percentage when they used the constant contact technique with the marshmallow roller tip (79.4%) than when they used the two-point touch technique with the marshmallow tip (63.2%), p < .001. Conclusion The constant contact technique used with a marshmallow roller tip (perceived as a less advantageous tip) was more effective than the two-point touch technique used with a marshmallow tip (perceived as a more advantageous tip) in detecting drop-offs. Application The findings of the study may help cane users and orientation and mobility specialists select appropriate cane techniques and cane tips in accordance with the cane user’s characteristics and the nature of the travel environment. PMID:21077566

  14. Drop-off Detection with the Long Cane: Effects of Different Cane Techniques on Performance

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert Wall; Curtis, Amy

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the drop-off detection performance with the two-point touch and constant contact cane techniques using a repeated-measures design with a convenience sample of 15 cane users with visual impairments. The constant contact technique was superior to the two-point touch technique in the drop-off detection rate and the 50% detection threshold. The findings may help an orientation and mobility instructor select an appropriate technique for a particular client or training situation. PMID:21209791

  15. Multifractal modeling of the production of concentrated sugar syrup crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Bi; Jianbo, Gao

    2016-07-01

    High quality, concentrated sugar syrup crystal is produced in a critical step in cane sugar production: the clarification process. It is characterized by two variables: the color of the produced sugar and its clarity degree. We show that the temporal variations of these variables follow power-law distributions and can be well modeled by multiplicative cascade multifractal processes. These interesting properties suggest that the degradation in color and clarity degree has a system-wide cause. In particular, the cascade multifractal model suggests that the degradation in color and clarity degree can be equivalently accounted for by the initial “impurities” in the sugarcane. Hence, more effective cleaning of the sugarcane before the clarification stage may lead to substantial improvement in the effect of clarification.

  16. 3. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Sorghum pan and boiling ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Sorghum pan and boiling range flue. Manufactured by John Nott & Co., Honolulu, Hawaii, 1878. View: South side of sorghum pan and boiling range flue. In the sorghum pan heat was applied to the cane juice to clarify it, evaporate its water content, and concentrate the sugar crystals. Hot gasses moved through the flue underneath the entire copper bottom of the sorghum pan from the furnace (east) end to the smokestack (west) end of the boiling range. The sorghum pan sides are of redwood. The flue is built of fire-brick, masonry, and portland cement. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  17. Quantitation of trans-aconitic acid in different stages of the sugar-manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Guillermo; Londono, July; Cortes, Paola; Izquierdo, Olga

    2014-08-20

    The sugar cane industry has seen how biomass production in sugar mills would be converted to a readily available source of molecules besides sugar. Properly managed, byproducts would be transformed into a sustainable source of renewable and environmentally friendly chemical products. As a principal and more abundant organic acid in sugar cane juice, trans-aconitic acid (TAA) has been studied for use as a plasticizer in the polymer industry. However, up to now no industrial-scale application has been reported. As a reasonable approach to recover TAA from a sugar mill, first, an analytical method to determine its presence in all stages of the sugar-manufacturing process is needed. A new modern method was developed to measure TAA in seven stages in a sugar mill located in Valle del Cauca, Colombia. The stages with higher content of TAA were syrup, with 3363.6 ± 589.3 mg/L, and honey (molasses), with 6110.05 ± 139.5 mg/L. PMID:25098840

  18. Quantitation of trans-aconitic acid in different stages of the sugar-manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Guillermo; Londono, July; Cortes, Paola; Izquierdo, Olga

    2014-08-20

    The sugar cane industry has seen how biomass production in sugar mills would be converted to a readily available source of molecules besides sugar. Properly managed, byproducts would be transformed into a sustainable source of renewable and environmentally friendly chemical products. As a principal and more abundant organic acid in sugar cane juice, trans-aconitic acid (TAA) has been studied for use as a plasticizer in the polymer industry. However, up to now no industrial-scale application has been reported. As a reasonable approach to recover TAA from a sugar mill, first, an analytical method to determine its presence in all stages of the sugar-manufacturing process is needed. A new modern method was developed to measure TAA in seven stages in a sugar mill located in Valle del Cauca, Colombia. The stages with higher content of TAA were syrup, with 3363.6 ± 589.3 mg/L, and honey (molasses), with 6110.05 ± 139.5 mg/L.

  19. Rotating cross arm trellis and cane training for brambles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the combination of primocane training and cane positioning techniques using a rotatable cross-arm (RCA) trellis system and covering plants in winter to protect buds and canes from freezing temperatures in 'Apache', 'Boysenberry', 'Siskiyou', and 'Triple Crown' blackberry. After tying p...

  20. Can high quality cane be delivered to the mill economically

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cane quality is becoming increasingly important to the Louisiana sugarcane industry, with some processors offering premiums for high quality cane. Using a Cameco® 3500, we tested ground speeds of 2.5, 3.0, and 3.5 mph and fan speeds of 650, 850, and 1050 rpm. Ground speed had no effect on can...

  1. Plantain fibre bundles isolated from Colombian agro-industrial residues.

    PubMed

    Gañán, Piedad; Zuluaga, Robin; Restrepo, Adriana; Labidi, Jalel; Mondragon, Iñaki

    2008-02-01

    Comestible fruit production from Musaceas plants is an important economical activity in developing countries like Colombia. However, it generates a large amount of agro-industrial residues. Some of them are a potential resource of natural fibres, which can be used as reinforcement for composite materials. In this work, a series of commercial plantain (Musa AAB, cv "Dominico Harton") fibre bundles extracted from pseudostem, leaf sheath and rachis agricultural wastes were analyzed. Mechanical decortication and biological retting processes were used during fiber extraction. No significant differences in composition of vascular bundles were observed for both extraction processes. Gross morphological characteristics and mechanical behavior have been evaluated. Conducting tissues with spiral-like arrangement are observed attached to fibre bundles. This fact suggests a big amount of these tissues in commercial plantain plants. Both used extraction methods are not enough to remove them. Pseudostem fibre bundles have higher specific strength and modulus and lower strain at break than leaf sheath and rachis fibre bundles, having values comparable to other lignocellulosic fibres bundles. PMID:17350832

  2. Plantain fibre bundles isolated from Colombian agro-industrial residues.

    PubMed

    Gañán, Piedad; Zuluaga, Robin; Restrepo, Adriana; Labidi, Jalel; Mondragon, Iñaki

    2008-02-01

    Comestible fruit production from Musaceas plants is an important economical activity in developing countries like Colombia. However, it generates a large amount of agro-industrial residues. Some of them are a potential resource of natural fibres, which can be used as reinforcement for composite materials. In this work, a series of commercial plantain (Musa AAB, cv "Dominico Harton") fibre bundles extracted from pseudostem, leaf sheath and rachis agricultural wastes were analyzed. Mechanical decortication and biological retting processes were used during fiber extraction. No significant differences in composition of vascular bundles were observed for both extraction processes. Gross morphological characteristics and mechanical behavior have been evaluated. Conducting tissues with spiral-like arrangement are observed attached to fibre bundles. This fact suggests a big amount of these tissues in commercial plantain plants. Both used extraction methods are not enough to remove them. Pseudostem fibre bundles have higher specific strength and modulus and lower strain at break than leaf sheath and rachis fibre bundles, having values comparable to other lignocellulosic fibres bundles.

  3. Older Homebound Women: Negotiating Reliance on a Cane or Walker

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Eileen J.; Benson, Jacquelyn J.; Matsuda, Sandy

    2012-01-01

    Canes and walkers are commonly characterized as assistive devices and as devices that serve the same purpose, as walking aides. These general views were reappraised and tempered in this descriptive phenomenological study with 40 older women (aged 85-98) who were unable to leave their homes without help. The purpose was to describe the phenomena of negotiating reliance on canes and walkers as walking devices and the lifeworld context underlying each phenomenon. Relative to lifeworld, there were differences between coming to terms with using a cane and coming to terms with using a walker. Data revealed similarities and distinctions between the basic intentions of relying on canes and on walkers and the associated purposes served by canes and walkers. Participants did not view either device as consistently assistive. Findings evoke opportunities for dialogue among older persons, scholars, practitioners, and designers of these devices about coming to terms with such devices and relying on them. PMID:21041520

  4. Sugar and sugar substitutes. Comparisons and indications.

    PubMed

    Alfin-Slater, R B; Pi-Sunyer, F X

    1987-08-01

    Public confusion and concern about the use of sugar and sugar substitutes are widespread. Physicians must be prepared to answer patients' inquiries about these substances. Some population groups should avoid certain sugar substitutes. In particular, pregnant women and young children should avoid saccharin, and phenylketonuric homozygous persons should avoid aspartame. In a varied, balanced diet, the use of aspartame and saccharin is one safe way for the general population to enjoy sweet foods with fewer calories and less cariogenic potential. Sugar substitutes may be helpful in dietary compliance for overweight and diabetic patients.

  5. Multiple applications of ion chromatography oligosaccharide fingerprint profiles to solve a variety of sugar and sugar-biofuel industry problems.

    PubMed

    Eggleston, Gillian; Borges, Eduardo

    2015-03-25

    Sugar crops contain a broad variety of carbohydrates used for human consumption and the production of biofuels and bioproducts. Ion chromatography with integrated pulsed amperometric detection (IC-IPAD) can be used to simultaneously detect mono-, di-, and oligosaccharides, oligosaccharide isomers, mannitol, and ethanol in complex matrices from sugar crops. By utilizing a strong NaOH/NaOAc gradient method over 45 min, oligosaccharides of at least 2-12 dp can be detected. Fingerprint IC oligosaccharide profiles are extremely selective, sensitive, and reliable and can detect deterioration product metabolites from as low as 100 colony-forming units/mL lactic acid bacteria. The IC fingerprints can also be used to (i) monitor freeze deterioration, (ii) optimize harvesting methods and cut-to-crush times, (iii) differentiate between white refined sugar from sugar cane and from sugar beets, (iv) verify the activities of carbohydrate enzymes, (v) select yeasts for ethanol fermentations, and (vi) isolate and diagnose infections and processing problems in sugar factories.

  6. [Mango: agroindustrial aspects, nutritional/functional value and health effects].

    PubMed

    Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Olivas-Aguirre, Francisco J; Velderrain-Rodriguez, Gustavo R; González-Aguilar, A; de la Rosa, Laura A; López-Díaz, Jose A; Álvarez-Parrilla, Emilio

    2014-11-01

    Objetivo: Revisar y discutir la información más reciente sobre el valor agroindustrial, funcional y nutricional de uno de los frutos de mayor cultivo, exportación y consumo en México: el Mango. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda en diversas bases de datos (PubMed, Cochrane, ScienceDirect) y documentos de libre acceso (Google Scholar) sobre Mangifera indica L. Esta información fue posteriormente sub-clasificada en aspectos agroindustriales, nutricionales, funcionales y efectos a la salud. Resultados: Uno de cada veinte mangos consumidos mundialmente, es mexicano. “Ataulfo” es la variedad la de mayor importancia agronómica. El procesamiento mínimo de su pulpa (MP) genera residuos de cáscara (MC) y semilla con alto potencial nutracéutico. MP y MC son buenas fuentes de ascorbato, fructosa, fibra dietarias soluble (MP, almidones y ramnogalacturonanos) e insoluble (MC, ligninas y hemicelulosa) y lípidos funcionales (MP). MP y MC poseen un perfil de compuestos fenólicos (CF) monoméricos (MP) como el acido gálico y el protocatehuico y poliméricos (MC) como la -PGG asociados con efectos anti-obesigénicos, anti-inflamatorios, anti-cancerigenos y anti-diabeticos. Estos beneficios son dependientes de la bioaccesibilidad (liberación de su matriz alimentaria) y destino metabólico (biodisponibilidad) de estos CF. Discusión: El mango resulta una valiosa fuente de compuestos antioxidantes con comprobado beneficio a la salud. Sin embargo, factores como la variedad, temporalidad de cultivos, tratamientos pre y post-cosecha, extracción de bioactivos y algunas barreras fisiológicas pueden modificar su potencial nutracéutico.

  7. The Truth about Sugar.

    PubMed

    Yeung, C Albert; Goodfellow, Ashley; Flanagan, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Sugars are used by the industry to enhance the attractiveness of foods and drinks. These added sugars, or 'free sugars', are not easily identified in food or drink labels. Certain manufactured foods and drinks with 'safe' names, such as dried fruit and fruit juice, still contain free sugars and can be confusing. Guidance states that daily consumption of free sugars should be less than 10% of total energy intake (no more than 5% in the UK). However, it is found that both tooth decay and obesity are associated with consumption of free sugars in large quantities and at inappropriate times. PMID:26506805

  8. Reproduction and mortality in a colony of captive greater cane rats, Thryonomys swinderianus, Temminck.

    PubMed

    Adu, E K; Aning, K G; Wallace, P A; Ocloo, T O

    2000-02-01

    The reproductive performance and mortalities in a colony of captive greater cane rats, Thryonomys swinderianus, were monitored from 1992 to 1998 at the Grasscutter Domestication Centre, Achimota, Ghana. The animals were kept in cages and exposed to constant lighting from a 100 W electric light bulb during the night. The diet consisted mainly of freshly cut Panicum maximum (guinea grass) fed ad libitum, with occasional supplements of cassava and cane sugar. The results indicate that the mean litter size and litter weight were 2.9 +/- 0.51 and 439.4 +/- 81.23 g, respectively. These figures are low compared to those reported elsewhere. However, the mean birth weight was 151.2 +/- 11.08 g, higher by 12% than previously reported values. It is considered that poor nutrition, excessive exposure to light and stress were responsible for the relatively poor reproductive performance reported in these animals. The main causes of death were traumatic injuries (32%) and pulmonary congestion (16%). PMID:10717939

  9. Development of flocculent Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain GYK-10 for the selective fermentation of glucose/fructose in sugar mills.

    PubMed

    Kato, Taku; Ohara, Satoshi; Fukushima, Yasuhiro; Sugimoto, Akira; Masuda, Takayuki; Yasuhara, Takaomi; Yamagishi, Hiromi

    2016-07-01

    Advances in glucose/fructose-selective ethanol production have successfully enhanced raw sugar extraction from sugarcane juice by converting inhibitory substances (i.e., glucose/fructose) into ethanol, which is removed by subsequent operations in cane sugar mills. However, the commercial implementation of this breakthrough process in existing cane sugar mills requires a yeast strain that (i) can be used in food production processes, (ii) exhibits stable saccharometabolic selectivity, and (iii) can be easily separated from the saccharide solution. In this study, we developed a suitable saccharometabolism-selective and flocculent strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae GYK-10. We obtained a suitable yeast strain for selective fermentation in cane sugar mills using a yeast mating system. First, we crossed a haploid strain defective in sucrose utilization with a flocculent haploid strain. Next, we performed tetrad dissection of the resultant hybrid diploid strain and selected GYK-10 from various segregants by investigating the sucrose assimilation and flocculation capacity phenotypes. Ten consecutive fermentation tests of the GYK-10 strain using a bench-scale fermentor confirmed its suitability for the implementation of practical selective fermentation in a commercial sugar mill. The strain exhibited complete saccharometabolic selectivity and sustained flocculation, where it maintained a high ethanol yield and conversion rate throughout the test.

  10. Development of flocculent Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain GYK-10 for the selective fermentation of glucose/fructose in sugar mills.

    PubMed

    Kato, Taku; Ohara, Satoshi; Fukushima, Yasuhiro; Sugimoto, Akira; Masuda, Takayuki; Yasuhara, Takaomi; Yamagishi, Hiromi

    2016-07-01

    Advances in glucose/fructose-selective ethanol production have successfully enhanced raw sugar extraction from sugarcane juice by converting inhibitory substances (i.e., glucose/fructose) into ethanol, which is removed by subsequent operations in cane sugar mills. However, the commercial implementation of this breakthrough process in existing cane sugar mills requires a yeast strain that (i) can be used in food production processes, (ii) exhibits stable saccharometabolic selectivity, and (iii) can be easily separated from the saccharide solution. In this study, we developed a suitable saccharometabolism-selective and flocculent strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae GYK-10. We obtained a suitable yeast strain for selective fermentation in cane sugar mills using a yeast mating system. First, we crossed a haploid strain defective in sucrose utilization with a flocculent haploid strain. Next, we performed tetrad dissection of the resultant hybrid diploid strain and selected GYK-10 from various segregants by investigating the sucrose assimilation and flocculation capacity phenotypes. Ten consecutive fermentation tests of the GYK-10 strain using a bench-scale fermentor confirmed its suitability for the implementation of practical selective fermentation in a commercial sugar mill. The strain exhibited complete saccharometabolic selectivity and sustained flocculation, where it maintained a high ethanol yield and conversion rate throughout the test. PMID:26811219

  11. Potential production of energy cane for fuel in the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Samuels, G.

    1984-08-01

    Sugarcane grown as energy cane presents a new potential to the Caribbean countries to provide their own energy needs and to reduce or eliminate fuel oil imports. The use of proper agronomic techniques can convert conventional sugarcane growing to a crop capable of giving energy feedstocks in the form of fiber for boiler fuel for electricity and fermentable solids for alcohol for motor fuel. Sugarcane can still be obtained from the energy cane for domestic consumption and export if desired. The aerable land now devoted to sugarcane can utilized for energy-cane production without causing any serious imbalance in food crop production.

  12. Hyperactivity and sugar

    MedlinePlus

    ... likely to be hyperactive if they eat sugar, artificial sweeteners, or certain food colorings. Other experts disagree ... eating sugar (such as sucrose), aspartame (NutraSweet), and artificial flavors and colors lead to hyperactivity and other ...

  13. Monitoring Blood Sugar: The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels

    MedlinePlus

    ... Record Keeping The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels Besides helping to keep blood sugar levels (also ... sugar levels. continue How to Check Blood Sugar Levels Blood glucose testing is easier, less painful, and ...

  14. Hydrophobic sugar holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejias-Brizuela, N. Y.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Páez-Trujillo, G.; Hernández-Garay, M. P.; Fontanilla-Urdaneta, R.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2008-02-01

    The sugar matrix is used to record of phase holograms; it was modified with the purpose of obtaining a hydrophobic material to improve the stability of the registered image and to stimulate the photosensitivity of the sugar. The new material is formed by a sugar, pectin and vanillin dissolution. The diffraction efficiency parameter increases in comparison with only the sugar matrix, obtaining already of 10%.

  15. [Beetroot sugar and the development of its industry; from the first works until the postwar period 1914-1918].

    PubMed

    Brancon, D; Viel, C

    1999-01-01

    The research on beetroot sugar began in Germany with Marggraf and Achard and gained in importance in France during the Continental Blocade, more directly with the work of Chaptal and Delessert. The industry born from this sugar, the only product which could favorable replace cane sugar from the West Indian colonies, was developed thanks to Napoleon I. The Emperor brought his support and large grants to the manufacturers who had launched themselves in the production of this sugar substitute. If Chaptal, a former minister who was certainly one of the most significant pioneers in this field, was a beetroot grower and sugar manufacturer on the grounds of Chanteloup near Amboise; numerous other industrialists established themselves in France in areas of beetroot cultivation which quickly occupied vast surfaces in certain regions. It is the history of beetroot sugar, its economic importance and the beetroot industry in France, from its origins until the end of the First World War, that we will present here.

  16. Economical production of poly(ε-l-lysine) and poly(l-diaminopropionic acid) using cane molasses and hydrolysate of streptomyces cells by Streptomyces albulus PD-1.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jun; Xu, Zhaoxian; Xu, Hong; Liang, Jinfeng; Li, Sha; Feng, Xiaohai

    2014-07-01

    Poly(ε-L-lysine) (ε-PL) and poly(L-diaminopropionic acid) (PDAP) co-production by Streptomyces albulus PD-1 from cane molasses and hydrolysate of strepyomyces cells (HSC) was investigated for the first time in this study. The optimal initial total sugar concentration of the cane molasses pretreated with sulfuric acid was determined to be 20 g L(-1), and HSC could substitute for yeast extract for ε-PL and PDAP co-production. When fed-batch fermentation was performed in 1t fermentor with pretreated cane molasses and HSC, 20.6 ± 0.5 g L(-1) of ε-PL and 5.2 ± 0.6 g L(-1) of PDAP were obtained. The amount of strepyomyces cells obtained in one fed-batch fermentation is sufficient to prepare the HSC to satisfy the demand of subsequent fermentations, thus the self-cycling of organic nitrogen source becomes available. These results suggest that the low-cost cane molasses and HSC can be used for the economical production of ε-PL and PDAP by S. albulus PD-1.

  17. Isolation of lipase and citric acid producing yeasts from agro-industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Mafakher, Ladan; Mirbagheri, Maryam; Darvishi, Farshad; Nahvi, Iraj; Zarkesh-Esfahani, Hamid; Emtiazi, Giti

    2010-09-30

    Production of agro-industrial waste pollutants has become a major problem for many industries. However, agro-industrial wastes also can provide alternative substrates for industry and their utilization in this manner may help solve pollution problems. The aim of this study was to isolate yeasts from wastewater treatment plants that could be used to remove pollutants such as glycerol, paraffin and crude oil from the agro-industrial wastewater. In this study a total of 300 yeast isolates were obtained from samples of agro-industrial wastes, and two strains (M1 and M2) were investigated for their ability to produce valuable products such as lipase and citric acid. Identification tests showed that these isolates belonged to the species Yarrowia lipolytica. The Y. lipolytica M1 and M2 strains produced maximum levels of lipase (11 and 8.3 U/ml, respectively) on olive oil, and high levels of citric acid (27 and 8 g/l, respectively) on citric acid fermentation medium.

  18. Effect of Extraction Conditions on the Saccharide (Neutral and Acidic) Composition of the Crude Pectic Extract from Various Agro-Industrial Residues.

    PubMed

    Babbar, Neha; Roy, Sandra Van; Wijnants, Marc; Dejonghe, Winnie; Caligiani, Augusta; Sforza, Stefano; Elst, Kathy

    2016-01-13

    The influence of different extraction methodologies was assessed on the composition of both neutral (arabinose, rhamnose, galactose) and acidic (galacturonic acid) pectic polysaccharides obtained from four agro-industrial residues, namely, berry pomace (BP), onion hulls (OH), pressed pumpkin (PP), and sugar beet pulp (SBP). For acidic pectic polysaccharides, the extraction efficiency was obtained as BP (nitric acid-assisted extraction, 2 h, 62.9%), PP (enzymatic-assisted extraction, 12 h, 75.0%), SBP (enzymatic-assisted extraction, 48 h, 89.8%; and nitric acid-assisted extraction, 4 h, 76.5%), and OH (sodium hexametaphosphate-assisted extraction, 0.5 h, 100%; and ammonium oxalate-assisted extraction, 0.5 h, 100%). For neutral pectic polysaccharides, the following results were achieved: BP (enzymatic-assisted extraction, 24 h, 85.9%), PP (nitric acid-assisted extraction, 6 h, 82.2%), and SBP (enzymatic assisted extraction, 48 h, 97.5%; and nitric acid-assisted extraction, 4 h, 83.2%). On the basis of the high recovery of pectic sugars, SBP and OH are interesting candidates for the further purification of pectin and production of pectin-derived products.

  19. Walking cane use in prison: a medical and cultural analysis.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Scott T; Capozzoli, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the diagnosis, race, age, and conviction offenses of those using walking canes at California Medical Facility through a random review of 40 charts and 40 conviction folders. Motivating factors were concern about the potential for misuse of canes as weapons and a desire to further understand the clinical challenges faced by patients. Findings suggest that walking canes are most often prescribed for neurological or musculoskeletal problems, sometimes are prescribed with no apparent indication, and are more readily prescribed to violent offenders. Beyond their weight-bearing medical function, it is possible that canes bear cultural significance in prison culture, perhaps symbolizing pugnacious independence. The anthropological literature on aggression, interpersonal violence, and weapon use is explored to help understand the racial variation in use of fighting accoutrements in prison settings. PMID:21278316

  20. 10. Side view of cane mill looking NW with steam ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Side view of cane mill looking NW with steam engine in background. - Hacienda Azucarera La Esperanza, Steam Engine & Mill, 2.65 Mi. N of PR Rt. 2 Bridge over Manati River, Manati, Manati Municipio, PR

  1. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Stilbenes from Grape Canes.

    PubMed

    Piñeiro, Zulema; Marrufo-Curtido, Almudena; Serrano, Maria Jose; Palma, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    An analytical ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) method has been optimized and validated for the rapid extraction of stilbenes from grape canes. The influence of sample pre-treatment (oven or freeze-drying) and several extraction variables (solvent, sample-solvent ratio and extraction time between others) on the extraction process were analyzed. The new method allowed the main stilbenes in grape canes to be extracted in just 10 min, with an extraction temperature of 75 °C and 60% ethanol in water as the extraction solvent. Validation of the extraction method was based on analytical properties. The resulting RSDs (n = 5) for interday/intraday precision were less than 10%. Furthermore, the method was successfully applied in the analysis of 20 different grape cane samples. The result showed that grape cane byproducts are potentially sources of bioactive compounds of interest for pharmaceutical and food industries. PMID:27322224

  2. Hummingbirds fuel hovering flight with newly ingested sugar.

    PubMed

    Welch, Kenneth C; Bakken, Bradley Hartman; Martinez del Rio, Carlos; Suarez, Raul K

    2006-01-01

    We sought to characterize the ability of hummingbirds to fuel their energetically expensive hovering flight using dietary sugar by a combination of respirometry and stable carbon isotope techniques. Broadtailed hummingbirds (Selasphorus platycercus) were maintained on a diet containing beet sugar with an isotopic composition characteristic of C3 plants. Hummingbirds were fasted and then offered a solution containing cane sugar with an isotopic composition characteristic of C4 plants. By monitoring the rates of CO2 production and O2 consumption, as well as the stable carbon isotope composition of expired CO2, we were able to estimate the relative contributions of carbohydrate and fat, as well as the absolute rate at which dietary sucrose was oxidized during hovering. The combination of respirometry and carbon isotope analysis revealed that hummingbirds initially oxidized endogenous fat following a fast and then progressively oxidized proportionately more carbohydrates. The contribution from dietary sources increased with each feeding bout, and by 20 min after the first meal, dietary sugar supported approximately 74% of hovering metabolism. The ability of hummingbirds to satisfy the energetic requirements of hovering flight mainly with recently ingested sugar is unique among vertebrates. Our finding provides an example of evolutionary convergence in physiological and biochemical traits among unrelated nectar-feeding animals.

  3. 20. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Boiling House Interior, 1878. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Boiling House Interior, 1878. View: Remains of south wall. The molasses storage pits are below the floor in the foreground. The remaining piece of floor indicates the form of the entire floor. The sorghum pan and boiling range flue slope from left to right (east to west) and permitted batches of cane juice to flow through the boiling pan by gravity. The beams, joists, truss work are built of northwest pine. The sides and floor boards are built of redwood. The boiling range flue is built of fire-brick, masonry, and portland cement. The corrugated roof appears to be a later addition, not contemporary with mill operation. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  4. Haiti: energy efficiency in the sugar and manufacturing industries

    SciTech Connect

    Streicher, A.

    1985-03-28

    A review of energy use in Haiti, aimed at identifying possible projects to complement current A.I.D. support for institution building and energy planning within the Ministry of Mines and Energy Resources (MMRE), is presented. Key findings are that: (1) the sugar and manufacturing industries rely heavily on biomass fuels - wood, charcoal, and bagasse (sugar cane residue); and (2) demand for commercial energy and for electricity is growing rapidly despite supply constraints. The report calls for A.I.D. to: initiate a program to reduce biomass consumption (which is causing severe soil erosion and deforestation), especially in the small distilleries called guildives; collaborate with MMRE and the World Bank to develop a detailed workplan to promote energy efficiency in the guildives, focusing on technology development; help MMRE and the private sector to project Haiti's industrial energy and electricity needs through the year 2000; and sponsor a program of energy audits and efficiency improvements in the manufacturing sector.

  5. Sugar, ethics and legislation.

    PubMed

    Azize, Joseph

    2010-05-01

    There are serious ethical and legal issues concerning the sale of sugar products, especially to children, yet one cannot address children's consumption without addressing consumption across society. The ethical principles are not even controversial. However, sugar has been insufficiently scrutinised, probably because sweetness is popular and plays a prominent, but dispensable, cultural role. Sugar is both addictive and toxic, although it is a very mild, very slow-working poison. Yet, over time, its effects can be quite serious. The social and health problems have proved grave and intractable. Given the nature of sugar, it should be regulated like alcohol and tobacco, if not more stringently, given its greater social and cultural penetration across all ages. That is, sales of sugar products at school canteens should be banned, advertising severely limited, full disclosure of sugar content made mandatory, warnings placed on certain products, and sugar itself should be taxed. PMID:20552941

  6. Transport of sugars.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Qing; Cheung, Lily S; Feng, Liang; Tanner, Widmar; Frommer, Wolf B

    2015-01-01

    Soluble sugars serve five main purposes in multicellular organisms: as sources of carbon skeletons, osmolytes, signals, and transient energy storage and as transport molecules. Most sugars are derived from photosynthetic organisms, particularly plants. In multicellular organisms, some cells specialize in providing sugars to other cells (e.g., intestinal and liver cells in animals, photosynthetic cells in plants), whereas others depend completely on an external supply (e.g., brain cells, roots and seeds). This cellular exchange of sugars requires transport proteins to mediate uptake or release from cells or subcellular compartments. Thus, not surprisingly, sugar transport is critical for plants, animals, and humans. At present, three classes of eukaryotic sugar transporters have been characterized, namely the glucose transporters (GLUTs), sodium-glucose symporters (SGLTs), and SWEETs. This review presents the history and state of the art of sugar transporter research, covering genetics, biochemistry, and physiology-from their identification and characterization to their structure, function, and physiology. In humans, understanding sugar transport has therapeutic importance (e.g., addressing diabetes or limiting access of cancer cells to sugars), and in plants, these transporters are critical for crop yield and pathogen susceptibility.

  7. Use of the C-5 Laser Cane by School Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldie, Dorothy

    1977-01-01

    The use of the Laser Cane with four blind students attending public school is discussed with emphasis on modifications in technique needed to integrate the cane's use into each student's travel system. (Author)

  8. Composite films based on biorelated agro-industrial waste and poly(vinyl alcohol). Preparation and mechanical properties characterization.

    PubMed

    Chiellini, E; Cinelli, P; Imam, S H; Mao, L

    2001-01-01

    As a part of an ongoing project on the production of composite materials based on poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and polymeric materials from renewable resources, the present paper reports on the incorporation of agricultural waste materials as organic fillers in a film matrix based on PVA as continuous phase. In this study lignocellulosic fibers byproducts, derived from sugar cane (SC) and apple (AP) and orange (OR) fruit juice extraction, were cast from PVA aqueous solutions. The effect of fiber type and composition on the relative properties of cast films was evaluated and compared. OR resulted to be suitable for blending in higher amounts by weight than SC and AP. Glycerol and urea were added as plasticizing agents and were observed to be effective in giving flexible films. Additionally, cornstarch was added to further increase the composition of polymers from renewable resources in cost-effective and ecoefficient composite film formulations. The prepared films resulted sensitive to moisture and water. To reduce water sensitivity, hexamethoxymethylmelamine (HMMM) was tested as a cross-linking agent for the present composite formulations. Cross-linked films exhibited significant improvement in water-resistance that can be taken as a tuneable structural feature for customized applications. The mechanical properties of the prepared composite films (elongation at break, tensile strength, Young modulus) were found to be dependent upon the nature and content of the filler and on environmental conditions.

  9. Sediment-transport characteristics of Cane Creek, Lauderdale County, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carey, W.P.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation of the sediment-transport characteristics of Cane Creek in Lauderdale County, Tennessee, was conducted from 1985-88 to evaluate the potential for channel erosion induced by modifications (realignment and enlargement) and the potential ability of different flows to move bed and bank stabilizing material. Frequently occurring flows in Cane Creek are capable of moving sand-size material (0.0625 - 4.0 millimeters). During floods that equal or exceed the 2-year flood, Cane Creek is capable of moving very coarse gravel (32 - 64 millimeters). Boundary-shear values at bridges, where flow contractions occur, correspond to critical diameters in excess of 100 millimeters. Thus, the areas near bridges, where channel stability is most critical, are the areas where erosive power is greatest. Deepening and widening of Cane Creek has exposed large areas of channel boundary that are a significant source of raindrop-detached sediment during the early stages of a storm before stream flow increases signifi- cantly. This causes suspended-sediment concentration to peak while the flow hydrograph is just beginning to rise. For basins like Cane Creek, where runoff events commonly last less than a day and where variation in discharge and sediment concentrations are large, an estimate of sediment yield based on periodic observations of instantaneous values is subject to considerable uncertainty.

  10. Trends in utilization of agro-industrial byproducts for production of bacteriocins and their biopreservative applications.

    PubMed

    Bali, Vandana; Panesar, Parmjit S; Bera, Manab B

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriocins are proteinaceous, ribosomally synthesized bio-molecules having major roles in food preservation due to their antimicrobial action against food spoilage microorganisms. These have gained importance in the last decades because of increasing interest in natural products and their applications in the field of biopreservation, pharmaceutical, aquaculture, livestock, etc. Their production is quite expensive which includes the cost of synthetic media and downstream processing of which 30% of the total production cost relies on synthetic media and nutritional supplements used for growth of microorganisms. The low cost agro-industrial by-products, rich in nutritional supplements, can act as a good substitute for high valued synthetic media. This review provides comprehensive information on the use of cost effective, renewable agro-industrial by-products as substrates for the production of bacteriocins and their application in food as biopreservatives.

  11. [Morbidity with temporary work incapacity in workers of the agroindustrial sector].

    PubMed

    Ciocanu, M S

    1991-01-01

    The results of a thorough study of morbidity with temporary disablement in 4,164 agro-industrial workers from five types of agro-industrial associations (horned cattle breeding, pork breeding, mechanization, fruit and tobacco growing) are presented. After the main medical causes of morbidity with temporary digestive tract disorders, accidents and poisonings, diseases of the osteo-muscular and respiratory systems) the authors analyses the causal relations with various risk factors (alcohol abuse, non-observance of microclimate standards at the working spot, length of service, means of conveyance, worker's age, types of activities, etc.). It is underlined that a decrease in morbidity with temporary disablement is possible and that more sustained health programs are required.

  12. Influence of the alkaline delignification on the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of sugar cane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Soares, Mariana Lucena; Gouveia, Ester Ribeiro

    2013-11-01

    Ethanol production from steam explosion alkaline delignified bagasse was investigated by saccharification and simultaneous fermentation. Non delignified bagasse (ND) contained 25% lignin, and after alkaline delignification, materials with 6% (D1 - NaOH 1% w/v) and 12% (D05 - NaOH 0.5% w/v) lignin, respectively, were obtained. Ethanol production increased 450% and 733% in relation to ND, when D05 and D1 material, respectively, were used. Higher productivity and EtOH/bagasse were observed for D1. However, higher enzymatic convertibility of cellulose was obtained with 0.5% w/v NaOH. Alkaline delignification increased the ethanol production despite decreased cellulose.

  13. High productivity and good nutritive values of cellulolytic bacteria grown on sugar cane bagasse. [Cellulomonas sp

    SciTech Connect

    Enriquez, A.; Rodriguez, H.

    1983-03-01

    The fermentation of cellulosic wastes by cellulolytic bacteria shows promise as a process for obtaining new low-cost protein sources; at the same time, it solves a problem of waste disposal. At present, many problems remain to be solved before making this process economically profitable. The low productivity due to poor cell density attained, and low nutritive value of the biomass produced stand out as two of them. Humphrey et al. have pointed out that the critical question in the microbial degradation of cellulose is how to optimize the cell yield in order to achieve nearly total cellulose degradation. Belamy calculated that the rate of cellulose utilization should be at least 1-5 g/l/h for the process to be profitable. The work described here deals with how increases of cell concentration and productivity change the media concentration of a fermentation process using Cellulomonas sp., and the determination of the nutritive value of the product. (Refs. 12).

  14. Identification and Structural Characterization of Novel Cyclotide with Activity against an Insect Pest of Sugar Cane*

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Michelle F. S.; Fensterseifer, Isabel C. M.; Migliolo, Ludovico; Sousa, Daniel A.; de Capdville, Guy; Arboleda-Valencia, Jorge W.; Colgrave, Michelle L.; Craik, David J.; Magalhães, Beatriz S.; Dias, Simoni C.; Franco, Octávio L.

    2012-01-01

    Cyclotides are a family of plant-derived cyclic peptides comprising six conserved cysteine residues connected by three intermolecular disulfide bonds that form a knotted structure known as a cyclic cystine knot (CCK). This structural motif is responsible for the pronounced stability of cyclotides against chemical, thermal, or proteolytic degradation and has sparked growing interest in this family of peptides. Here, we isolated and characterized a novel cyclotide from Palicourea rigida (Rubiaceae), which was named parigidin-br1. The sequence indicated that this peptide is a member of the bracelet subfamily of cyclotides. Parigidin-br1 showed potent insecticidal activity against neonate larvae of Lepidoptera (Diatraea saccharalis), causing 60% mortality at a concentration of 1 μm but had no detectable antibacterial effects. A decrease in the in vitro viability of the insect cell line from Spodoptera frugiperda (SF-9) was observed in the presence of parigidin-br1, consistent with in vivo insecticidal activity. Transmission electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy of SF-9 cells after incubation with parigidin-br1 or parigidin-br1-fluorescein isothiocyanate, respectively, revealed extensive cell lysis and swelling of cells, consistent with an insecticidal mechanism involving membrane disruption. This hypothesis was supported by in silico analyses, which suggested that parigidin-br1 is able to complex with cell lipids. Overall, the results suggest promise for the development of parigidin-br1 as a novel biopesticide. PMID:22074926

  15. Cyanate as an Active Precursor of Ethyl Carbamate Formation in Sugar Cane Spirit.

    PubMed

    Galinaro, Carlos A; Ohe, Thiago H K; da Silva, Augusto C H; da Silva, Sebastião C; Franco, Douglas W

    2015-08-26

    The thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of ethyl carbamate (EC) formation through the reaction between cyanate and ethanol were investigated. The rate constant values for cyanate ion decay and EC formation are (8.0 ± 0.4) × 10(-5) and (8.9 ± 0.4) × 10(-5) s(-1), respectively, at 25 °C in 48% aqueous ethanolic solution at pH 4.5. Under the investigated experimental conditions, the rate constants are independent of the ethanol and cyanate concentrations but increase as the temperature increases (ΔH1(⧧) = 19.4 ± 1 kcal/mol, ΔS1(⧧) = −12.1 ± 1 cal/K, and ΔG1(⧧) = 23.0 ± 1 kcal/mol) and decrease as the solution pH increases. According to molecular modeling (DFT) that was performed to analyze the reaction mechanism, the isocyanic acid (HNCO) is the active EC precursor. The calculated ΔG1(⧧), ΔH1(⧧), and ΔS1(⧧) values are in very good agreement with the experimental ones.

  16. Banded applications are highly effective in minimising herbicide migration from furrow-irrigated sugar cane.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Danielle P; Anderson, Jenny S; Davis, Aaron; Lewis, Stephen; Brodie, Jon; Kookana, Rai

    2014-01-01

    Runoff from farm fields is a common source of herbicide residues in surface waters in many agricultural industries around the world. In Queensland, Australia, the runoff of PSII inhibitor herbicides (in particular diuron and atrazine) is a major concern due to their potential impact on the Great Barrier Reef. This study compared the conventional practice of broadcast application of herbicides in sugarcane production across the whole field with the banded application of particular herbicides onto raised beds only using a shielded sprayer. This study found that the application of two moderately soluble herbicides, diuron and atrazine, to only the raised beds decreased the average total load of both herbicides moving off-site by >90% compared with the conventional treatment. This was despite the area being covered with the herbicides by the banded application being only 60% less than with the conventional treatment. The average total amount of atrazine in drainage water was 7.5% of the active ingredient applied in the conventional treatment compared with 1.8% of the active ingredient applied in the banded application treatment. Similarly, the average total amount of diuron in drainage water was 4.6% of that applied in the conventional treatment compared with 0.9% of that applied in the banded application treatment. This study demonstrates that the application of diuron and atrazine to raised beds only is a highly effective way of minimising migration of these herbicides in drainage water from furrow irrigated sugarcane.

  17. [Influence of substrate concentration on PHA production using fermented sugar cane as substrate].

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi-Qiang; Deng, Yi; Huang, Long; Wen, Qin-Xue; Guo, Zi-Rui

    2013-06-01

    PHA was a kind of biodegradable polymer produced by mixed microorganisms. In recent years, 3-stage PHA synthesis process (including substrate hydrolysis, culture selection, and PHA synthesis) was commonly used for PHA production. In this kind of process, culture selection is the key stage, which directly affects the PHA production efficiency. In order to deal with sludge bulking occurred in the culture selection system, this paper analyzes the influence of substrate concentration on culture selection efficiency as well as operation stability. Under different influent substrate concentrations of 560 mg x L(-1), 1 120 mg x L(-1) and 1 680 mg x L(-1), we confirmed that influent substrate concentration (COD) of 1 120 mg x L(-1) is the most suitable parameter for the bacteria enriching process after a long period of time under short SRT. After 94 days of cultivation, we achieved 50% of PHA content, 0.7145 COD/COD of PHA conversion rate and 0.191 2 mg x (mg x h)(-1) of specific PHA storage rate at the end of batch tests with nutrient starvation. The study also confirmed that glycogen level in cells has a close relationship with its PHA synthesis ability, which shows its potential to predict the enrichment efficiency.

  18. Identification and structural characterization of novel cyclotide with activity against an insect pest of sugar cane.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Michelle F S; Fensterseifer, Isabel C M; Migliolo, Ludovico; Sousa, Daniel A; de Capdville, Guy; Arboleda-Valencia, Jorge W; Colgrave, Michelle L; Craik, David J; Magalhães, Beatriz S; Dias, Simoni C; Franco, Octávio L

    2012-01-01

    Cyclotides are a family of plant-derived cyclic peptides comprising six conserved cysteine residues connected by three intermolecular disulfide bonds that form a knotted structure known as a cyclic cystine knot (CCK). This structural motif is responsible for the pronounced stability of cyclotides against chemical, thermal, or proteolytic degradation and has sparked growing interest in this family of peptides. Here, we isolated and characterized a novel cyclotide from Palicourea rigida (Rubiaceae), which was named parigidin-br1. The sequence indicated that this peptide is a member of the bracelet subfamily of cyclotides. Parigidin-br1 showed potent insecticidal activity against neonate larvae of Lepidoptera (Diatraea saccharalis), causing 60% mortality at a concentration of 1 μm but had no detectable antibacterial effects. A decrease in the in vitro viability of the insect cell line from Spodoptera frugiperda (SF-9) was observed in the presence of parigidin-br1, consistent with in vivo insecticidal activity. Transmission electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy of SF-9 cells after incubation with parigidin-br1 or parigidin-br1-fluorescein isothiocyanate, respectively, revealed extensive cell lysis and swelling of cells, consistent with an insecticidal mechanism involving membrane disruption. This hypothesis was supported by in silico analyses, which suggested that parigidin-br1 is able to complex with cell lipids. Overall, the results suggest promise for the development of parigidin-br1 as a novel biopesticide. PMID:22074926

  19. A comparative analysis of potential impact area of common sugar cane burning methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiscox, A. L.; Flecher, S.; Wang, J. J.; Viator, H. P.

    2015-04-01

    The negative effects of agricultural burning are well-known, although the actual impact area of different activities has not previously been quantified. An elastic backscatter lidar system was used to examine the impact-area size and dispersion of smoke generated from different types of sugarcane burning activities; pre-harvest (standing) burning and post-harvest (ground) burning. Experiments were conducted in the sugarcane harvest season of 2010 and 2011 at two locations in Louisiana, USA. Current dispersion theory would suggest that the primary difference between burn types would be primarily in the initial plume rise, but that the overall plume shape would remain the same. However, remotely sensed lidar data with the capability to measure plume dispersion and the short time dynamics of plume location showed pre-harvest (standing) burning produced a larger plume with greater rise and more spread within the 300 m of the plume, but a decrease in dispersion, but not concentration further downwind. Post-harvest (ground) burning produced a more traditional plume shape, but still exceeded impact area predictions near the source. Moreover, large changes in plume size can occur with small increases in wind speed. These are the first instrumented measurements of the meteorological effects of the different types of sugarcane burning. These results indicate that ground burning is preferable, but should be avoided in lower wind speed conditions.

  20. Enhancement of enzymatic hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse by steam explosion pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Kling, S.H.; Neto, C.C.; Ferrara, M.A.; Torres, J.C.R.; Magalhaes, D.B.; Ryu, D.D.Y.

    1987-01-01

    In this study, the possibility of applying a steam explosion pretreatment process to sugarcane bagasse was investigated, and the effectiveness of the pretreatment in terms of hemicellulose solubilization and enhancement of enzymatic hydrolysis was determined. The steam requirement for the pretreatment was also investigated at the pilot-plant scale, and these results are presented.

  1. Identification and structural characterization of novel cyclotide with activity against an insect pest of sugar cane.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Michelle F S; Fensterseifer, Isabel C M; Migliolo, Ludovico; Sousa, Daniel A; de Capdville, Guy; Arboleda-Valencia, Jorge W; Colgrave, Michelle L; Craik, David J; Magalhães, Beatriz S; Dias, Simoni C; Franco, Octávio L

    2012-01-01

    Cyclotides are a family of plant-derived cyclic peptides comprising six conserved cysteine residues connected by three intermolecular disulfide bonds that form a knotted structure known as a cyclic cystine knot (CCK). This structural motif is responsible for the pronounced stability of cyclotides against chemical, thermal, or proteolytic degradation and has sparked growing interest in this family of peptides. Here, we isolated and characterized a novel cyclotide from Palicourea rigida (Rubiaceae), which was named parigidin-br1. The sequence indicated that this peptide is a member of the bracelet subfamily of cyclotides. Parigidin-br1 showed potent insecticidal activity against neonate larvae of Lepidoptera (Diatraea saccharalis), causing 60% mortality at a concentration of 1 μm but had no detectable antibacterial effects. A decrease in the in vitro viability of the insect cell line from Spodoptera frugiperda (SF-9) was observed in the presence of parigidin-br1, consistent with in vivo insecticidal activity. Transmission electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy of SF-9 cells after incubation with parigidin-br1 or parigidin-br1-fluorescein isothiocyanate, respectively, revealed extensive cell lysis and swelling of cells, consistent with an insecticidal mechanism involving membrane disruption. This hypothesis was supported by in silico analyses, which suggested that parigidin-br1 is able to complex with cell lipids. Overall, the results suggest promise for the development of parigidin-br1 as a novel biopesticide.

  2. Cyanate as an Active Precursor of Ethyl Carbamate Formation in Sugar Cane Spirit.

    PubMed

    Galinaro, Carlos A; Ohe, Thiago H K; da Silva, Augusto C H; da Silva, Sebastião C; Franco, Douglas W

    2015-08-26

    The thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of ethyl carbamate (EC) formation through the reaction between cyanate and ethanol were investigated. The rate constant values for cyanate ion decay and EC formation are (8.0 ± 0.4) × 10(-5) and (8.9 ± 0.4) × 10(-5) s(-1), respectively, at 25 °C in 48% aqueous ethanolic solution at pH 4.5. Under the investigated experimental conditions, the rate constants are independent of the ethanol and cyanate concentrations but increase as the temperature increases (ΔH1(⧧) = 19.4 ± 1 kcal/mol, ΔS1(⧧) = −12.1 ± 1 cal/K, and ΔG1(⧧) = 23.0 ± 1 kcal/mol) and decrease as the solution pH increases. According to molecular modeling (DFT) that was performed to analyze the reaction mechanism, the isocyanic acid (HNCO) is the active EC precursor. The calculated ΔG1(⧧), ΔH1(⧧), and ΔS1(⧧) values are in very good agreement with the experimental ones. PMID:26248556

  3. Amino acids profile of sugar cane spirit (cachaça), rum, and whisky.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Francisco W B; Boso, Lisangela M; Cardoso, Daniel R; Franco, Douglas W

    2008-05-15

    An analytical procedure for the separation and quantification of 20 amino acids in cachaças has been developed involving C18 solid phase cleanup, derivatization with o-phthalaldehyde/2-mercaptoethanol, and reverse phase liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The detection limit was between 0.0050 (Cys) and 0.25 (Ser)mgL(-1), whereas the recovery index varies from 69.5 (Lys) to 100 (Tyr)%. Relative standard deviations vary from 1.39 (Trp) to 13.4 (Glu)% and from 3.08 (Glu) to 13.5 (His) for the repeatability and intermediate precision, respectively. From the quantitative profile of amino acids in 41 cachaças, 5 rums, and 12 whisky samples, the following order of amino acids in significant quantities is observed: Gly=Ser

  4. DNA barcode information for the sugar cane moth borer Diatraea saccharalis.

    PubMed

    Bravo, J P; Silva, J L C; Munhoz, R E F; Fernandez, M A

    2008-01-01

    We reviewed the use and relevance of barcodes for insect studies and investigated the barcode sequence of Diatraea saccharalis. This sequence has a high level of homology (99%) with the barcode sequence of the Crambidae (Lepidoptera). The sequence data can be used to construct relationships between species, allowing a multidisciplinary approach for taxonomy, which includes morphological, molecular and distribution data, all of which are essential for the understanding of biodiversity. The D. saccharalis barcode is a previously undescribed sequence that could be used to analyze Lepidoptera biology. PMID:18767242

  5. Hawaii's Sugar Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Aiea, HI.

    A warm and sunny subtropical climate helps make Hawaii an important sugar producer. History records that sugarcane was already present when Captain James Cook discovered the islands in 1778, and that the first successful sugarcane plantation was started in 1835 by Ladd and Company at Koloa. The first recorded export of Hawaiian sugar was in 1837,…

  6. Low blood sugar - newborns

    MedlinePlus

    ... neonatal hypoglycemia. It refers to low blood sugar (glucose) in the first few days after birth. ... Babies need blood sugar (glucose) for energy. Most of that glucose is used by the brain. The baby gets glucose from the mother through the ...

  7. Membrane filtration of agro-industrial wastewaters and isolation of organic compounds with high added values.

    PubMed

    Zagklis, Dimitris P; Paraskeva, Christakis A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was the exploitation of agro-industrial wastes or by-products such as olive mill wastewater (OMW) and defective wines. A cost-effective system for their maximum exploitation is suggested, using a combined process of membrane filtration and other physicochemical processes. Wastewaters are first treated in a membrane system (prefiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, and reverse osmosis) where pure water and other organic fractions (by-products) are obtained. Organic fractions, called hereafter byproducts and not wastes, are further treated for the separation of organic compounds and isolation of high added value products. Experiments were performed with OMW and defective wines as characteristic agro-industrial wastewaters. Profit from the exploitation of agro-industrial wastewaters can readily help the depreciation of the indeed high cost process of membrane filtration. The simple phenolic fraction of the OMW was successfully isolated from the rest of the waste, and problems occurring during winemaking, such as high volatile acidity and odours, were tackled.

  8. Membrane filtration of agro-industrial wastewaters and isolation of organic compounds with high added values.

    PubMed

    Zagklis, Dimitris P; Paraskeva, Christakis A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was the exploitation of agro-industrial wastes or by-products such as olive mill wastewater (OMW) and defective wines. A cost-effective system for their maximum exploitation is suggested, using a combined process of membrane filtration and other physicochemical processes. Wastewaters are first treated in a membrane system (prefiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, and reverse osmosis) where pure water and other organic fractions (by-products) are obtained. Organic fractions, called hereafter byproducts and not wastes, are further treated for the separation of organic compounds and isolation of high added value products. Experiments were performed with OMW and defective wines as characteristic agro-industrial wastewaters. Profit from the exploitation of agro-industrial wastewaters can readily help the depreciation of the indeed high cost process of membrane filtration. The simple phenolic fraction of the OMW was successfully isolated from the rest of the waste, and problems occurring during winemaking, such as high volatile acidity and odours, were tackled. PMID:24434988

  9. Total sugars in atmospheric aerosols: An alternative tracer for biomass burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaramboni, C.; Urban, R. C.; Lima-Souza, M.; Nogueira, R. F. P.; Cardoso, A. A.; Allen, A. G.; Campos, M. L. A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Ambient aerosols were collected in an agro-industrial region of São Paulo State (Brazil) between May 2010 and February 2012 (n = 87). The atmosphere of the study region is highly affected by the emissions of gases and particles from sugar and fuel ethanol production, because part of the area planted with sugarcane is still burned before manual harvesting. This work proposes the quantification of total sugars as an alternative chemical tracer of biomass burning, instead of levoglucosan. The quantification of total sugars requires a small area of a filter sample and a simple spectrophotometer, in contrast to the determination of levoglucosan, which is much more complex and time-consuming. Total sugars concentrations in the aerosol ranged from 0.28 to 12.5 μg m-3, and (similarly to levoglucosan) the emissions were significantly higher at night and during the sugarcane harvest period, when most agricultural fires occur. The linear correlation between levoglucosan and total sugars (r = 0.612) was stronger than between levoglucosan and potassium (r = 0.379), which has previously been used as a biomass burning tracer. In the study region, potassium is used in fertilizers, and this, together with substantial soil dust resuspension, makes potassium unsuitable for use as a tracer. On average, ca. 40% of the total sugars was found in particles smaller than 0.49 μm. By including data from previous work, it was possible to identify from 35 to 42% of the total sugars, with biomass burning making the largest contribution. The high solubility in water of these sugars means that determination of their concentrations could also provide important information concerning the hydrophilic properties of atmospheric aerosols.

  10. Bioconversion of lignocellulose-derived sugars to ethanol by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Madhavan, Anjali; Srivastava, Aradhana; Kondo, Akihiko; Bisaria, Virendra S

    2012-03-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass from agricultural and agro-industrial residues represents one of the most important renewable resources that can be utilized for the biological production of ethanol. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is widely used for the commercial production of bioethanol from sucrose or starch-derived glucose. While glucose and other hexose sugars like galactose and mannose can be fermented to ethanol by S. cerevisiae, the major pentose sugars D-xylose and L-arabinose remain unutilized. Nevertheless, D-xylulose, the keto isomer of xylose, can be fermented slowly by the yeast and thus, the incorporation of functional routes for the conversion of xylose and arabinose to xylulose or xylulose-5-phosphate in Saccharomyces cerevisiae can help to improve the ethanol productivity and make the fermentation process more cost-effective. Other crucial bottlenecks in pentose fermentation include low activity of the pentose phosphate pathway enzymes and competitive inhibition of xylose and arabinose transport into the cell cytoplasm by glucose and other hexose sugars. Along with a brief introduction of the pretreatment of lignocellulose and detoxification of the hydrolysate, this review provides an updated overview of (a) the key steps involved in the uptake and metabolism of the hexose sugars: glucose, galactose, and mannose, together with the pentose sugars: xylose and arabinose, (b) various factors that play a major role in the efficient fermentation of pentose sugars along with hexose sugars, and (c) the approaches used to overcome the metabolic constraints in the production of bioethanol from lignocellulose-derived sugars by developing recombinant S. cerevisiae strains.

  11. Sugars in Antarctic aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbaro, Elena; Kirchgeorg, Torben; Zangrando, Roberta; Vecchiato, Marco; Piazza, Rossano; Barbante, Carlo; Gambaro, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    The processes and transformations occurring in the Antarctic aerosol during atmospheric transport were described using selected sugars as source tracers. Monosaccharides (arabinose, fructose, galactose, glucose, mannose, ribose, xylose), disaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose, lactulose), alcohol-sugars (erythritol, mannitol, ribitol, sorbitol, xylitol, maltitol, galactitol) and anhydrosugars (levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan) were measured in the Antarctic aerosol collected during four different sampling campaigns. For quantification, a sensitive high-pressure anion exchange chromatography was coupled with a single quadrupole mass spectrometer. The method was validated, showing good accuracy and low method quantification limits. This study describes the first determination of sugars in the Antarctic aerosol. The total mean concentration of sugars in the aerosol collected at the "Mario Zucchelli" coastal station was 140 pg m-3; as for the aerosol collected over the Antarctic plateau during two consecutive sampling campaigns, the concentration amounted to 440 and 438 pg m-3. The study of particle-size distribution allowed us to identify the natural emission from spores or from sea-spray as the main sources of sugars in the coastal area. The enrichment of sugars in the fine fraction of the aerosol collected on the Antarctic plateau is due to the degradation of particles during long-range atmospheric transport. The composition of sugars in the coarse fraction was also investigated in the aerosol collected during the oceanographic cruise.

  12. Sugars and dental caries.

    PubMed

    Touger-Decker, Riva; van Loveren, Cor

    2003-10-01

    A dynamic relation exists between sugars and oral health. Diet affects the integrity of the teeth; quantity, pH, and composition of the saliva; and plaque pH. Sugars and other fermentable carbohydrates, after being hydrolyzed by salivary amylase, provide substrate for the actions of oral bacteria, which in turn lower plaque and salivary pH. The resultant action is the beginning of tooth demineralization. Consumed sugars are naturally occurring or are added. Many factors in addition to sugars affect the caries process, including the form of food or fluid, the duration of exposure, nutrient composition, sequence of eating, salivary flow, presence of buffers, and oral hygiene. Studies have confirmed the direct relation between intake of dietary sugars and dental caries across the life span. Since the introduction of fluoride, the incidence of caries worldwide has decreased, despite increases in sugars consumption. Other dietary factors (eg, the presence of buffers in dairy products; the use of sugarless chewing gum, particularly gum containing xylitol; and the consumption of sugars as part of meals rather than between meals) may reduce the risk of caries. The primary public health measures for reducing caries risk, from a nutrition perspective, are the consumption of a balanced diet and adherence to dietary guidelines and the dietary reference intakes; from a dental perspective, the primary public health measures are the use of topical fluorides and consumption of fluoridated water.

  13. Formulation of an alginate-vineyard pruning waste composite as a new eco-friendly adsorbent to remove micronutrients from agroindustrial effluents.

    PubMed

    Vecino, X; Devesa-Rey, R; Moldes, A B; Cruz, J M

    2014-09-01

    The cellulosic fraction of vineyard pruning waste (free of hemicellulosic sugars) was entrapped in calcium alginate beads and evaluated as an eco-friendly adsorbent for the removal of different nutrients and micronutrients (Mg, P, Zn, K, N-NH4, SO4, TN, TC and PO4) from an agroindustrial effluent (winery wastewater). Batch adsorption studies were performed by varying the amounts of cellulosic adsorbent (0.5-2%), sodium alginate (1-5%) and calcium chloride (0.05-0.9M) included in the biocomposite. The optimal formulation of the adsorbent composite varied depending on the target contaminant. Thus, for the adsorption of cationic contaminants (Mg, Zn, K, N-NH4 and TN), the best mixture comprised 5% sodium alginate, 0.05M calcium chloride and 0.5% cellulosic vineyard pruning waste, whereas for removal of anionic compounds (P, SO4 and PO4), the optimal mixture comprised 1% sodium alginate, 0.9M calcium chloride and 0.5% cellulosic vineyard pruning waste. To remove TC from the winery wastewater, the optimal mixture comprised 3% of sodium alginate, 0.475M calcium chloride and 0.5% cellulosic vineyard pruning waste.

  14. Quantification of long cane usage characteristics with the constant contact technique.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeongmi; Moncada-Torres, Arturo; Furrer, Jonas; Riesch, Markus; Gassert, Roger

    2016-07-01

    While a number of Electronic Travel Aids (ETAs) have been developed over the past decades, the conventional long cane remains the most widely utilized navigation tool for people with visual impairments. Understanding the characteristics of long cane usage is crucial for the development and acceptance of ETAs. Using optical tracking, cameras and inertial measurement units, we investigated grasp type, cane orientation and sweeping characteristics of the long cane with the constant contact technique. The mean cane tilt angle, sweeping angle, and grip rotation deviation were measured. Grasp type varied among subjects, but was maintained throughout the experiments, with thumb and index finger in contact with the cane handle over 90% of the time. We found large inter-subject differences in sweeping range and frequency, while the sweeping frequency showed low intra-subject variability. These findings give insights into long cane usage characteristics and provide critical information for the development of effective ETAs. PMID:26965194

  15. 4. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Furnace doer for sugar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Furnace doer for sugar boiling range. Manufactured by Honolulu Iron Works, Honolulu, 1879. Cost: $15.30. View: the furnace for the sugar boiling range was stoked from outside of the east wall of the boiling house. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  16. FTIR characterization of Mexican honey and its adulteration with sugar syrups by using chemometric methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rios-Corripio, M. A.; Rios-Leal, E.; Rojas-López, M.; Delgado-Macuil, R.

    2011-01-01

    A chemometric analysis of adulteration of Mexican honey by sugar syrups such as corn syrup and cane sugar syrup was realized. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to measure the absorption of a group of bee honey samples from central region of Mexico. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to process FTIR spectra to determine the adulteration of bee honey. In addition to that, the content of individual sugars from honey samples: glucose, fructose, sucrose and monosaccharides was determined by using PLS-FTIR analysis validated by HPLC measurements. This analytical methodology which is based in infrared spectroscopy and chemometry can be an alternative technique to characterize and also to determine the purity and authenticity of nutritional products as bee honey and other natural products.

  17. Low blood sugar

    MedlinePlus

    ... may have when your blood sugar gets too low include: Double vision or blurry vision Fast or pounding heartbeat Feeling cranky or acting aggressive Feeling nervous Headache Hunger Shaking or trembling Sweating ...

  18. THE TASTE OF SUGARS

    PubMed Central

    McCaughey, Stuart A.

    2008-01-01

    Sugars evoke a distinctive perceptual quality (“sweetness” in humans) and are generally highly preferred. The neural basis for these phenomena is reviewed for rodents, in which detailed electrophysiological measurements have been made. A receptor has been identified that binds sweeteners and activates G-protein-mediated signaling in taste receptor cells, which leads to changes in neural firing rates in the brain, where perceptions of taste quality, intensity, and palatability are generated. Most cells in gustatory nuclei are broadly-tuned, so quality perception presumably arises from patterns of activity across neural populations. However, some manipulations affect only the most sugar-oriented cells, making it useful to consider them as a distinct neural subtype. Quality perception may also arise partly due to temporal patterns of activity to sugars, especially within sugar-oriented cells that give large but delayed responses. Non-specific gustatory neurons that are excited by both sugars and unpalatable stimuli project to ventral forebrain areas, where neural responses provide a closer match with behavioral preferences. This transition likely involves opposing excitatory and inhibitory influences by different subgroups of gustatory cells. Sweeteners are generally preferred over water, but the strength of this preference can vary across time or between individuals, and higher preferences for sugars are often associated with larger taste-evoked responses. PMID:18499254

  19. 5. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Two sugar coolers ca. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Two sugar coolers ca. 1880. View: After the concentrated syrup flowed out of the sorghum pan, it cooled and crystallized in these iron sugar coolers. After the sugar syrup was granulated and cooled it was dug out of the coolers and fed into the centrifugals. The Meyer Mill purchased twelve coolers between 1878 and 1881 costing between $35 and $45 each. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  20. Lateral cane lengths affect yield components in 'Triple Crown' blackberry on rotating cross-arm trellis and cane training system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three primocanes of mature ‘Triple Crown’ blackberry plants were trained on the rotating cross-arm trellis (RCA) trellis. By the end of the summer, as many as 30 lateral canes with lengths greater than 3.5 m had developed on three primocanes that had been bent at a 0.50-m height and allowed to exte...

  1. Utilization of Agro-industrial Wastes for the Simultaneous Production of Amylase and Xylanase by Thermophilic Actinomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Renu; Kapoor, Vishal; Kumar, Vijay

    2012-01-01

    Agro-industrial wastes such as sugarcane bagasse, wheat bran, rice bran, corn cob and wheat straw are cheapest and abundantly available natural carbon sources. The present study was aimed to production of amylase and xylanase simultaneously using agro-industrial waste as the sole carbon source. Seven thermophilic strains of actinomycete were isolated from the mushroom compost. Among of these, strain designated MSC702 having high potential to utilize agro-industrial wastes for the production of amylase and xylanase. Strain MSC702 was identified as novel species of Streptomyces through morphological characterization and 16S rRNA gene sequence. Enzyme production was determined using 1% (w/v) of various agro-industrial waste in production medium containing (g/100mL): K2HPO4 (0.1), (NH4)2SO4 (0.1), NaCl (0.1), MgSO4 (0.1) at pH 7.0 after incubation of 48 h at 50°C. The amylase activity (373.89 IU/mL) and xylanase activity (30.15 IU/mL) was maximum in rice bran. The decreasing order of amylase and xylanase activity in different type of agro-industrial wastes were found rice bran (RB) > corn cob (CC) > wheat bran (WB) > wheat straw (WS) > sugarcane bagasse (SB) and rice bran (RB) > wheat bran (WB) > wheat straw (WS) > sugarcane bagasse (SB) > corn cob (CC), respectively. Mixed effect of different agro-industrial wastes was examined in different ratios. Enzyme yield of amylase and xylanase was ~1.3 and ~2.0 fold higher with RB: WB in 1:2 ratio. PMID:24031986

  2. Utilization of Agro-industrial Wastes for the Simultaneous Production of Amylase and Xylanase by Thermophilic Actinomycetes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Renu; Kapoor, Vishal; Kumar, Vijay

    2012-10-01

    Agro-industrial wastes such as sugarcane bagasse, wheat bran, rice bran, corn cob and wheat straw are cheapest and abundantly available natural carbon sources. The present study was aimed to production of amylase and xylanase simultaneously using agro-industrial waste as the sole carbon source. Seven thermophilic strains of actinomycete were isolated from the mushroom compost. Among of these, strain designated MSC702 having high potential to utilize agro-industrial wastes for the production of amylase and xylanase. Strain MSC702 was identified as novel species of Streptomyces through morphological characterization and 16S rRNA gene sequence. Enzyme production was determined using 1% (w/v) of various agro-industrial waste in production medium containing (g/100mL): K2HPO4 (0.1), (NH4)2SO4 (0.1), NaCl (0.1), MgSO4 (0.1) at pH 7.0 after incubation of 48 h at 50°C. The amylase activity (373.89 IU/mL) and xylanase activity (30.15 IU/mL) was maximum in rice bran. The decreasing order of amylase and xylanase activity in different type of agro-industrial wastes were found rice bran (RB) > corn cob (CC) > wheat bran (WB) > wheat straw (WS) > sugarcane bagasse (SB) and rice bran (RB) > wheat bran (WB) > wheat straw (WS) > sugarcane bagasse (SB) > corn cob (CC), respectively. Mixed effect of different agro-industrial wastes was examined in different ratios. Enzyme yield of amylase and xylanase was ~1.3 and ~2.0 fold higher with RB: WB in 1:2 ratio. PMID:24031986

  3. Facts and myths about sugar.

    PubMed

    Anderson, G H

    1991-09-01

    There is now considerable evidence that the concern about sugar consumption as reflected by the media in the 1970s was misplaced. Knowledge of sugar consumption has led to the conclusion that current consumption levels are consistent with the achievement of healthful diets. The myths surrounding sugar and health, including the myth that sugar causes hyperactivity, are slow to disappear. Because these myths are misleading and harmful, nutrition educators need to continue to place sugar in the diet in perspective.

  4. Bioreactors for lignocellulose conversion into fermentable sugars for production of high added value products.

    PubMed

    Liguori, Rossana; Ventorino, Valeria; Pepe, Olimpia; Faraco, Vincenza

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomasses derived from dedicated crops and agro-industrial residual materials are promising renewable resources for the production of fuels and other added value bioproducts. Due to the tolerance to a wide range of environments, the dedicated crops can be cultivated on marginal lands, avoiding conflict with food production and having beneficial effects on the environment. Besides, the agro-industrial residual materials represent an abundant, available, and cheap source of bioproducts that completely cut out the economical and environmental issues related to the cultivation of energy crops. Different processing steps like pretreatment, hydrolysis and microbial fermentation are needed to convert biomass into added value bioproducts. The reactor configuration, the operative conditions, and the operation mode of the conversion processes are crucial parameters for a high yield and productivity of the biomass bioconversion process. This review summarizes the last progresses in the bioreactor field, with main attention on the new configurations and the agitation systems, for conversion of dedicated energy crops (Arundo donax) and residual materials (corn stover, wheat straw, mesquite wood, agave bagasse, fruit and citrus peel wastes, sunflower seed hull, switchgrass, poplar sawdust, cogon grass, sugarcane bagasse, sunflower seed hull, and poplar wood) into sugars and ethanol. The main novelty of this review is its focus on reactor components and properties. PMID:26572518

  5. Wearable Virtual White Cane Network for navigating people with visual impairment.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yabiao; Chandrawanshi, Rahul; Nau, Amy C; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho

    2015-09-01

    Navigating the world with visual impairments presents inconveniences and safety concerns. Although a traditional white cane is the most commonly used mobility aid due to its low cost and acceptable functionality, electronic traveling aids can provide more functionality as well as additional benefits. The Wearable Virtual Cane Network is an electronic traveling aid that utilizes ultrasound sonar technology to scan the surrounding environment for spatial information. The Wearable Virtual Cane Network is composed of four sensing nodes: one on each of the user's wrists, one on the waist, and one on the ankle. The Wearable Virtual Cane Network employs vibration and sound to communicate object proximity to the user. While conventional navigation devices are typically hand-held and bulky, the hands-free design of our prototype allows the user to perform other tasks while using the Wearable Virtual Cane Network. When the Wearable Virtual Cane Network prototype was tested for distance resolution and range detection limits at various displacements and compared with a traditional white cane, all participants performed significantly above the control bar (p < 4.3 × 10(-5), standard t-test) in distance estimation. Each sensor unit can detect an object with a surface area as small as 1 cm(2) (1 cm × 1 cm) located 70 cm away. Our results showed that the walking speed for an obstacle course was increased by 23% on average when subjects used the Wearable Virtual Cane Network rather than the white cane. The obstacle course experiment also shows that the use of the white cane in combination with the Wearable Virtual Cane Network can significantly improve navigation over using either the white cane or the Wearable Virtual Cane Network alone (p < 0.05, paired t-test).

  6. Interaction Effects of the Amount of Practice, Preferred Cane Technique, and Type of Cane Technique Used on Drop-Off Detection Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert Wall; Curtis, Amy

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the interaction effects of the amount of practice and the cane technique used in drop-off detection with a sample of 32 adults who were blind. The advantage of the constant contact technique over the two-point touch technique was significantly greater for the less experienced cane users than for the more experienced ones.…

  7. Metabolic engineering of sugars and simple sugar derivatives in plants.

    PubMed

    Patrick, John W; Botha, Frikkie C; Birch, Robert G

    2013-02-01

    Carbon captured through photosynthesis is transported, and sometimes stored in plants, as sugar. All organic compounds in plants trace to carbon from sugars, so sugar metabolism is highly regulated and integrated with development. Sugars stored by plants are important to humans as foods and as renewable feedstocks for industrial conversion to biofuels and biomaterials. For some purposes, sugars have advantages over polymers including starches, cellulose or storage lipids. This review considers progress and prospects in plant metabolic engineering for increased yield of endogenous sugars and for direct production of higher-value sugars and simple sugar derivatives. Opportunities are examined for enhancing export of sugars from leaves. Focus then turns to manipulation of sugar metabolism in sugar-storing sink organs such as fruits, sugarcane culms and sugarbeet tubers. Results from manipulation of suspected 'limiting' enzymes indicate a need for clearer understanding of flux control mechanisms, to achieve enhanced levels of endogenous sugars in crops that are highly selected for this trait. Outcomes from in planta conversion to novel sugars and derivatives range from severe interference with plant development to field demonstration of crops accumulating higher-value sugars at high yields. The differences depend on underlying biological factors including the effects of the novel products on endogenous metabolism, and on biotechnological fine-tuning including developmental expression and compartmentation patterns. Ultimately, osmotic activity may limit the accumulation of sugars to yields below those achievable using polymers; but results indicate the potential for increases above current commercial sugar yields, through metabolic engineering underpinned by improved understanding of plant sugar metabolism.

  8. Fluorescence study of sugars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thongjamroon, Sunida; Pattanaporkratana, Apichart

    2015-07-01

    We studied photoemission of monosaccharides and disaccharides using laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. A 532- nm, 10 mW, laser was used to excite the samples and back-scattering signals were collected by a spectrometer. We found that most sugars show weak fluorescence in solid phase but do not fluoresce when dissolved in water solutions. The emission spectra show similar peak intensity at 590 nm, but they are different in emission intensities. We suggest that the fluorescence spectra may be used to differentiate sugar type, even though the origin of the fluorescence is unclear and needed further study.

  9. Detection of adulteration in honey samples added various sugar syrups with 13C/12C isotope ratio analysis method.

    PubMed

    Tosun, Murat

    2013-06-01

    Honey can be adulterated in various ways. One of the adulteration methods is the addition of different sugar syrups during or after honey production. Starch-based sugar syrups, high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), glucose syrup (GS) and saccharose syrups (SS), which are produced from beet or canes, can be used for adulterating honey. In this study, adulterated honey samples were prepared with the addition of HFCS, GS and SS (beet sugar) at a ratio of 0%, 10%, 20%, 40% and 50% by weight. (13)C/(12)C analysis was conducted on these adulterated honey samples using an isotope ratio mass spectrometer in combination with an elemental analyser (EA-IRMS). As a result, adulteration using C(4) sugar syrups (HFCS and GS) could be detected to a certain extent while adulteration of honey using C(3) sugar syrups (beet sugar) could not be detected. Adulteration by using SS (beet sugar) still has a serious detection problem, especially in countries in which beet is used in manufacturing sugar. For this reason, practice and analysis methods are needed to meet this deficit and to detect the adulterations precisely in the studies that will be conducted. PMID:23411291

  10. Industrial and agroindustrial wastes: an echotechnological approach to the production of supported photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    da Silva, William Leonardo; Lansarin, Marla Azário; dos Santos, João H Z

    2016-01-01

    Agroindustrial wastes (rice husk, exhausted bark acacia, and tobacco dust) and foundry sands from the iron foundry industry were employed as a support source for photocatalysts. TiCl4 was used as the titanium precursor in the preparation of the supported photocatalysts. The solids were characterized by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy over the ultraviolet range (DRS-UV), X-ray diffraction (XRD), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), nitrogen adsorption-desorption at -196 °C and zeta potential (ZP) measurements. The systems were evaluated for the photodegradation of rhodamine B (RhB). Among the tested systems, the highest percentage of dye degradation was reached by the catalyst prepared with foundry sand supports, with values of 65% under ultraviolet and 39% under visible radiation, whereas under the same conditions, the catalyst prepared with rice husk showed the best photocatalytic performance among the samples prepared with agroindustrial wastes with values of 43% under ultraviolet and 38% under visible radiation. Strong Spearman's correlations among the photocatalytic activity, the zeta potential (ζp>0.900) and the band gap energy (ζp>0.895) were observed. Exploratory tests with tap water samples revealed that the system may be sensitive to other analytes present in these environmental samples.

  11. Application of lipase from Burkholderia cepacia in the degradation of agro-industrial effluent.

    PubMed

    Mello Bueno, Pabline Rafaella; de Oliveira, Tatianne Ferreira; Castiglioni, Gabriel Luis; Soares Júnior, Manoel Soares; Ulhoa, Cirano Jose

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the physical and chemical characteristics of Amano PS commercial lipase - Burkholderia cepacia and lipase produced by Burkholderia cepacia strain ATCC 25416, in addition to studying the hydrolysis of agro-industrial effluent collected in a fried potato industry. The optimum temperature for increasing lipase activity was 37 °C. The temperature increase caused a decrease in thermostability of lipase, and the commercial lipase was less stable, with values of 10.5, 4.6 and 4.9%, respectively, lower than those obtained by lipase from strain ATCC 25416, at temperatures of 40, 50 and 60 °C. The enzymatic activity was higher in alkaline conditions, achieving better results at pH 8.0. The pH was the variable that most influenced the hydrolysis of triacylglycerides of the agro-industrial effluent, followed by enzyme concentration, and volume of gum arabic used in the reaction medium. Thus, it can be observed that the enzymatic hydrolytic process of the studied effluent presents a premising contribution to reduction of environmental impacts of potato chip processing industries. PMID:25860696

  12. Industrial and agroindustrial wastes: an echotechnological approach to the production of supported photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    da Silva, William Leonardo; Lansarin, Marla Azário; dos Santos, João H Z

    2016-01-01

    Agroindustrial wastes (rice husk, exhausted bark acacia, and tobacco dust) and foundry sands from the iron foundry industry were employed as a support source for photocatalysts. TiCl4 was used as the titanium precursor in the preparation of the supported photocatalysts. The solids were characterized by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy over the ultraviolet range (DRS-UV), X-ray diffraction (XRD), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), nitrogen adsorption-desorption at -196 °C and zeta potential (ZP) measurements. The systems were evaluated for the photodegradation of rhodamine B (RhB). Among the tested systems, the highest percentage of dye degradation was reached by the catalyst prepared with foundry sand supports, with values of 65% under ultraviolet and 39% under visible radiation, whereas under the same conditions, the catalyst prepared with rice husk showed the best photocatalytic performance among the samples prepared with agroindustrial wastes with values of 43% under ultraviolet and 38% under visible radiation. Strong Spearman's correlations among the photocatalytic activity, the zeta potential (ζp>0.900) and the band gap energy (ζp>0.895) were observed. Exploratory tests with tap water samples revealed that the system may be sensitive to other analytes present in these environmental samples. PMID:26744932

  13. Effect of canopy manipulation on cane and fruit Botrytis in protected raspberry.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, T; Berrie, A M; Wedgwood, E; Allen, J; Xu, X M

    2009-01-01

    Botrytis cinerea causes disease on both the fruit and cane of raspberry. The incidence of latent and post-harvest fruit botrytis was examined in 19 commercial open-field and protected crops. Many samples showed a high incidence of infected fruit (>50%), even on protected crops sprayed with fungicides. Differences between open-field and protected crops, between sprayed and unsprayed crops and between two varieties (GLen Ample and Tulameen) were not statistically significant. The incidence of latent infection by B. cinerea in unripe fruit did not correlate with the incidence of botrytis fruit rot developing on ripe fruit. Experiments were conducted in two commercial crops to investigate whether the removal of Lateral Leaves and thinning of primocanes during the flowering and fruiting period could reduce the incidence of fruit and cane infection by B. cinereo. Canopy manipulation resulted in considerable decreases in humidity inside the canopy at one site, where the original cane density was very high, (20 canes/m) and not at the second site where cane density was lower (10 canes/m). Canopy thinning did not significantly reduce the incidence of fruit botrytis at either site but reduced the incidence of leaf and cane infection in the dense crop. Results suggest that a significant reduction of cane infection by canopy manipulation can be realised for situations where cane density and disease pressure are high. The present studies suggest that in dense canopies in a protected crop, cane Lesions are more likely to result from direct infection of canes by the pathogen, although the pathogen can readily invade wounds on canes, including de-leafing wounds.

  14. 1. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Historical view, 1934, from T.T. Waterman collection, Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association. Large rectangular piece lying in front of the mill is the top of the mill frame appearing in its proper place in 1928 views. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  15. Converting sugars to sugar alcohols by aqueous phase catalytic hydrogenation

    DOEpatents

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Werpy, Todd A.; Wang, Yong; Frye, Jr., John G.

    2003-05-27

    The present invention provides a method of converting sugars to their corresponding sugar alcohols by catalytic hydrogenation in the aqueous phase. It has been found that surprisingly superior results can be obtained by utilizing a relatively low temperature (less than 120.degree. C.), selected hydrogenation conditions, and a hydrothermally stable catalyst. These results include excellent sugar conversion to the desired sugar alcohol, in combination with long life under hydrothermal conditions.

  16. Free sugar profile in cycads.

    PubMed

    Marler, Thomas E; Lindström, Anders J

    2014-01-01

    The sugars fructose, glucose, maltose, and sucrose were quantified in seven tissues of Zamia muricata Willd. to determine their distribution throughout various organs of a model cycad species, and in lateral structural roots of 18 cycad species to determine the variation in sugar concentration and composition among species representing every cycad genus. Taproot and lateral structural roots contained more sugars than leaf, stem, female strobilus, or coralloid roots. For example, taproot sugar concentration was 6.4-fold greater than stem sugar concentration. The dominant root sugars were glucose and fructose, and the only detected stem sugar was sucrose. Sucrose also dominated the sugar profile for leaflet and coralloid root tissue, and fructose was the dominant sugar in female strobilus tissue. Maltose was a minor constituent of taproot, leaflet, and female strobilus tissue, but absent in other tissues. The concentration of total free sugars and each of the four sugars did not differ among genera or families. Stoichiometric relationships among the sugars, such as the quotient hexoses/disaccharides, differed among organs and families. Although anecdotal reports on cycad starch have been abundant due to its historical use as human food and the voluminous medical research invested into cycad neurotoxins, this is the first report on the sugar component of the non-structural carbohydrate profile of cycads. Fructose, glucose, and sucrose are abundant in cycad tissues, with their relative abundance highly contrasting among organs. Their importance as forms of carbon storage, messengers of information, or regulators of cycad metabolism have not been determined to date.

  17. The Maple Sugar Festival

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Basil

    1978-01-01

    Describing the Iroquoi's Maple Sugar Festival, this article details the symbolism of renewal, becoming, and regeneration celebrated by the Iroquoi as the sap from the maple trees begins to flow each year. The symbolic role of woman, the sweet sap itself, and man's fellow creatures are described. (JC)

  18. Future sustainability of the sugar and sugar-ethanol industries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Like many other food and chemical industries, the sugar and sugar-ethanol industries are facing important sustainability issues. The relatively low and fluctuating profit for sugar, the world-wide impetus to produce alternatives to petroleum-based fuels and reduce green house gases, and water- and ...

  19. Manage your blood sugar (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Checking your blood sugar levels often and writing down the results will tell you how well you are managing your diabetes so you ... possible. The best times to check your blood sugar are before meals and at bedtime. Your blood ...

  20. Low blood sugar symptoms (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... nervousness and irritability are signs that a person's blood sugar is getting dangerously low. A person showing any of these symptoms should check their blood sugar. If the level is low (70 mg/dl), ...