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Sample records for suggests central susceptibility

  1. The impact of outcome valence on the susceptibility to suggestion for post-event causal misinformation.

    PubMed

    Chrobak, Quin M; Groves, Chris L; Otradovec, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that people are especially susceptible to false memory development for suggested misinformation that fills a causal role (i.e., explains some known outcome) (Chrobak & Zaragoza, 2013). However, little is known about how factors associated with the witnessed outcome impact the likelihood of false memory development. In the present study, outcome valence (negative, positive, or neutral) was manipulated. Participants heard several short stories that contained an outcome (e.g., a counselor getting promoted) that lacked a causal explanation. Participants were subsequently exposed to suggested causal misinformation that explained that outcome (e.g., the counselor performed an impressive act the previous day) and then were tested on their memory for the original event. Results indicated that participants incorrectly reported the suggested causal information more when it explained either a positive or negative outcome as opposed to a neutral outcome. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:26786731

  2. Insecticide susceptibility of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Central Africa

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894) are the main vectors of dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses worldwide. As there is still no vaccine or specific treatment for DENV and CHIKV, vector control remains the cornerstone of prevention and outbreak control. Unfortunately, vector control programs are facing operational challenges with mosquitoes becoming resistant to commonly used insecticides in several areas through the world. Throughout Central Africa no recent data are available susceptible/resistant status of either vector species since the introduction/arrival of Ae. albopictus in this area. We therefore studied the level of resistance of these two major vectors to insecticides commonly used in Africa for mosquito control. Results Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus were sampled in six urban localities of Cameroon (Garoua, Bertoua, Yaoundé, Bafia, Buea) and Gabon (Libreville). Larval bioassays, carried out to determine the lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC95) and resistance ratios (RR50 and RR95) suggested that both vector species were susceptible to Bti (Bacillus thuringiensis var israeliensis) and temephos. Bioassays were also performed on adults using WHO diagnostic test kits to assess phenotypic resistance to deltamethrin, DDT, fenitrothion and propoxur. These experiments showed that one population of Ae. aegypti (Libreville) and two populations of Ae. albopictus (Buea and Yaoundé) were resistant to DDT (mortality 36% to 71%). Resistance to deltamethrin was also suspected in Ae. albopictus from Yaoundé (83% mortality). All other field mosquito populations were susceptible to deltamethrin, DDT, fenitrothion and propoxur. No increase in the knockdown times (Kdt50 and Kdt95) was noted in the Yaoundé resistant population compared to other Ae. albopictus populations, suggesting the possible involvement of metabolic resistance to deltamethrin and DDT. Conclusion In view of the recent increase in dengue and

  3. Magnetic susceptibility and relation to initial 87Sr/86Sr for granitoids of the central Sierra Nevada, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bateman, P.C.; Dodge, F.C.W.; Kistler, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    Measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of more than 6000 samples of granitic rock from the Mariposa 1?? by 2?? quadrangle, which crosses the central part of the Sierra Nevada batholith between 37?? and 38??N latitude, shows that magnetic susceptibility values are above 10-2 SI units in the east and central parts of the batholith and drop abruptly to less than 10-3 SI units in the western foothills. In a narrow transitional zone, intermediate values (10-3 to 10-2) prevail. Magnetic susceptibility appears to decrease slightly westward within the zones of both high and low values. Magnetic susceptibility in plutonic rocks is chiefly a function of the abundance of magnetite, which depends, in turn, on the total iron content of the rocks and their oxidation ratio. Correlations of magnetic susceptibility with initial 87Sr/86Sr suggest that oxidation ratios have been inherited from the source regions for the magmas from which the rocks crystallized. Reduction of Fe3+ to Fe2+ by organic carbon or other reducing substances may also have affected magnetic susceptibility. -from Authors

  4. Study of Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility on Central Chimei Fault, Coastal Range of Eastern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, C. Y.

    2014-12-01

    The Chimei fault is the only major reverse fault across the entire Coastal Range and is also a typical lithology-contrast fault thrusting the volcanic Tuluanshan Formation of Miocene over the sedimentary Paliwan Formation of Pleistocene. To investigate the deformation pattern across the Chimei fault more precisely, we analyzed oriented coring samples of mudstone across the fault zone, damage zone, fold zone and wall rocks along the Hsiukuluan River via anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS). Prolate (cigar-shaped) and oblate (disc-shaped) ellipsoids appear together at fault zone, damage zone and fold zone, suggesting that strong variation of deformation and lithology in each zone of the Chimei fault. Previous study pointed out that oblate ellipsoid usually appears in the footwall, further indicating that the Chimei fault behaves differently from regular detachment faults. It strongly speculates although the central Chimei fault displays N-S shortening, the deformation is not strong enough to develop penetrative oblate fabric, even in the main fault zone of the Chimei fault. Further studies will be rnrformation is not sobear theequired to identify the magnetic carriers and grain size to improve current concept. Keywords : Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility, Coastal Range, Chimei Fault, Taiwan

  5. Streptococcus agalactiae Serotype Distribution and Antimicrobial Susceptibility in Pregnant Women in Gabon, Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Belard, Sabine; Toepfner, Nicole; Capan-Melser, Mesküre; Mombo-Ngoma, Ghyslain; Zoleko-Manego, Rella; Groger, Mirjam; Matsiegui, Pierre-Blaise; Agnandji, Selidji T; Adegnika, Ayôla A; González, Raquel; Kremsner, Peter G; Menendez, Clara; Ramharter, Michael; Berner, Reinhard

    2015-11-25

    Neonatal invasive disease due to Streptococcus agalactiae is life threatening and preventive strategies suitable for resource limited settings are urgently needed. Protective coverage of vaccine candidates based on capsular epitopes will relate to local epidemiology of S. agalactiae serotypes and successful management of critical infections depends on timely therapy with effective antibiotics. This is the first report on serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of S. agalactiae in pregnant women from a Central African region. Serotypes V, III, and Ib accounted for 88/109 (81%) serotypes and all isolates were susceptible to penicillin and clindamycin while 13% showed intermediate susceptibility to erythromycin.

  6. Susceptibility of field-collected mosquitoes in central New Jersey to organophosphates and a pyrethroid.

    PubMed

    Sun, Debin; Indelicato, Nick; Petersen, Jack; Williges, Eric; Unlu, Isik; Farajollahi, Ary

    2014-06-01

    Chemical insecticides are the primary means to control mosquitoes, and mosquito control programs must regularly monitor for resistance of mosquito vectors to commonly used insecticides to ensure the efficacy and sustainability of active ingredients. We performed insecticide resistance bioassays to test the susceptibility of field-collected mosquitoes in central New Jersey to 1 larvicide (temephos) and 2 adulticides (malathion and sumithrin). Larval susceptibility of Culex pipiens pipiens to temephos provided median concentration (LC50) and 95% lethal concentration (LC95) values of 1.108 microg/l and 2.02 microg/l, respectively. Bottle bioassays of adult Aedes albopictus showed that 100% mortality was achieved at 35-min exposure to sumithrin and at 40-min to malathion. Baseline values were obtained using both temephos and sumithrin. Our bioassays indicate satisfactory susceptibility to temephos and sumithrin in Ae. albopictus and Cx. p. pipiens field populations in central New Jersey. Despite constant field use, both products are still effective and can be used adequately for control of the test species. However, the susceptibility of target insects to various formulations should be closely monitored periodically to ensure continual efficacy.

  7. Characterization of levofloxacin non-susceptible clinical Streptococcus pyogenes isolated in the central part of Italy.

    PubMed

    Petrelli, D; Di Luca, M C; Prenna, M; Bernaschi, P; Repetto, A; Vitali, L A

    2014-02-01

    We investigated the prevalence, genetics, and clonality of fluoroquinolone non-susceptible isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes in the central part of Italy. S. pyogenes strains (n = 197) were isolated during 2012 from patients with tonsillopharyngitis, skin, wound or invasive infections and screened for fluoroquinolone non-susceptibility (resistance to norfloxacin and levofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) = 2 mg/L) following EUCAST guidelines. First-step topoisomerase parC and gyrA substitutions were investigated using sequencing analysis. Clonality was determined by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE; SmaI digestion) and by emm typing. The fluoroquinolone non-susceptible phenotype was identified in 18 isolates (9.1 %) and correlated with mutations in parC, but not in gyrA, the most frequent leading to substitution of the serine at position 79 with an alanine. Most of the fluoroquinolone non-susceptible isolates belonged to the emm-type 6, even if other emm-types were also represented (emm75, emm89, and emm2). A significant level of association was measured between PFGE and both emm type and substitutions in parC. The prevalence of fluoroquinolone non-susceptible Streptococcus pyogenes isolates in Italy is of concern and, although the well-known emm type 6 is dominant, other types are appearing and spreading.

  8. Mitochondrial Genomes of Giant Deers Suggest their Late Survival in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Immel, Alexander; Drucker, Dorothée G; Bonazzi, Marion; Jahnke, Tina K; Münzel, Susanne C; Schuenemann, Verena J; Herbig, Alexander; Kind, Claus-Joachim; Krause, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    The giant deer Megaloceros giganteus is among the most fascinating Late Pleistocene Eurasian megafauna that became extinct at the end of the last ice age. Important questions persist regarding its phylogenetic relationship to contemporary taxa and the reasons for its extinction. We analyzed two large ancient cervid bone fragments recovered from cave sites in the Swabian Jura (Baden-Württemberg, Germany) dated to 12,000 years ago. Using hybridization capture in combination with next generation sequencing, we were able to reconstruct nearly complete mitochondrial genomes from both specimens. Both mtDNAs cluster phylogenetically with fallow deer and show high similarity to previously studied partial Megaloceros giganteus DNA from Kamyshlov in western Siberia and Killavullen in Ireland. The unexpected presence of Megaloceros giganteus in Southern Germany after the Ice Age suggests a later survival in Central Europe than previously proposed. The complete mtDNAs provide strong phylogenetic support for a Dama-Megaloceros clade. Furthermore, isotope analyses support an increasing competition between giant deer, red deer, and reindeer after the Last Glacial Maximum, which might have contributed to the extinction of Megaloceros in Central Europe.

  9. Mitochondrial Genomes of Giant Deers Suggest their Late Survival in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Immel, Alexander; Drucker, Dorothée G; Bonazzi, Marion; Jahnke, Tina K; Münzel, Susanne C; Schuenemann, Verena J; Herbig, Alexander; Kind, Claus-Joachim; Krause, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    The giant deer Megaloceros giganteus is among the most fascinating Late Pleistocene Eurasian megafauna that became extinct at the end of the last ice age. Important questions persist regarding its phylogenetic relationship to contemporary taxa and the reasons for its extinction. We analyzed two large ancient cervid bone fragments recovered from cave sites in the Swabian Jura (Baden-Württemberg, Germany) dated to 12,000 years ago. Using hybridization capture in combination with next generation sequencing, we were able to reconstruct nearly complete mitochondrial genomes from both specimens. Both mtDNAs cluster phylogenetically with fallow deer and show high similarity to previously studied partial Megaloceros giganteus DNA from Kamyshlov in western Siberia and Killavullen in Ireland. The unexpected presence of Megaloceros giganteus in Southern Germany after the Ice Age suggests a later survival in Central Europe than previously proposed. The complete mtDNAs provide strong phylogenetic support for a Dama-Megaloceros clade. Furthermore, isotope analyses support an increasing competition between giant deer, red deer, and reindeer after the Last Glacial Maximum, which might have contributed to the extinction of Megaloceros in Central Europe. PMID:26052672

  10. Mitochondrial Genomes of Giant Deers Suggest their Late Survival in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Immel, Alexander; Drucker, Dorothée G.; Bonazzi, Marion; Jahnke, Tina K.; Münzel, Susanne C.; Schuenemann, Verena J.; Herbig, Alexander; Kind, Claus-Joachim; Krause, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    The giant deer Megaloceros giganteus is among the most fascinating Late Pleistocene Eurasian megafauna that became extinct at the end of the last ice age. Important questions persist regarding its phylogenetic relationship to contemporary taxa and the reasons for its extinction. We analyzed two large ancient cervid bone fragments recovered from cave sites in the Swabian Jura (Baden-Württemberg, Germany) dated to 12,000 years ago. Using hybridization capture in combination with next generation sequencing, we were able to reconstruct nearly complete mitochondrial genomes from both specimens. Both mtDNAs cluster phylogenetically with fallow deer and show high similarity to previously studied partial Megaloceros giganteus DNA from Kamyshlov in western Siberia and Killavullen in Ireland. The unexpected presence of Megaloceros giganteus in Southern Germany after the Ice Age suggests a later survival in Central Europe than previously proposed. The complete mtDNAs provide strong phylogenetic support for a Dama-Megaloceros clade. Furthermore, isotope analyses support an increasing competition between giant deer, red deer, and reindeer after the Last Glacial Maximum, which might have contributed to the extinction of Megaloceros in Central Europe. PMID:26052672

  11. IgG subclass responses to Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus infection and immunization suggest a dominant role for Th1 cells in susceptible mouse strains.

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, J D; Waltenbaugh, C; Miller, S D

    1992-01-01

    Inbred mouse strains differ in susceptibility to Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV)-induced demyelinating disease. A strong correlation between disease susceptibility and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) has been previously demonstrated, but no strong correlation between disease susceptibility and total anti-TMEV ELISA titres was shown. Since both DTH and IgG2a antibody production are regulated by CD4+ Th1 cells, we investigated three strains of mice to determine whether antivirus IgG2a antibody levels, like DTH in previous studies, correlated with disease susceptibility. Susceptible SJL/J, intermediately susceptible C3H/HeJ, and resistant C57BL/6 mice were infected intracerebrally (i.c.) with the BeAn strain of TMEV and monitored for clinical signs of demyelination and for levels of TMEV-specific antibody of different IgG subclasses using a particle concentration fluorescence immunoassay (PCFIA). Resistant C57BL/6 mice were found to have significantly lower concentrations of total anti-TMEV antibody than susceptible SJL/J mice and intermediately susceptible C3H/HeJ mice show variable antibody responses. A predominance of anti-TMEV IgG2a (Th1 regulated) antibody was seen in susceptible and intermediately susceptible mice, whereas resistant mice displayed a predominant anti-TMEV IgG1 (Th2 regulated) response accompanied by a marked deficiency of IgG2a. In contrast, immunization of C57BL/6 mice with UV-inactivated TMEV in adjuvant revealed that this strain was not defective either in its ability to generate high levels of anti-TMEV antibody or in its ability to produce IgG2a antibody. These results suggest that the antivirus IgG subclass profile is dependent upon the immunization route, virus viability and/or the use of adjuvant and that the levels of antivirus subclasses may be predictive of disease susceptibility. PMID:1350571

  12. Lengthened Cutaneous Silent Period in Fibromyalgia Suggesting Central Sensitization as a Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Yong Seo; Kim, Byung-Jo

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of fibromyalgia (FM) has not been clearly elucidated, but central sensitization, which plays an important role in the development of neuropathic pain, is considered to be the main mechanism. The cutaneous silent period (CSP), which is a spinal reflex mediated by A-delta cutaneous afferents, is useful for the evaluation of sensorimotor integration at the spinal and supraspinal levels. To understand the pathophysiology of FM, we compared CSP patterns between patients with FM and normal healthy subjects. Twenty-four patients with FM diagnosed in accordance with the 1990 American College of Rheumatology classification system and 24 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers were recruited. The CSP was measured from the abductor pollicis brevis muscle. Demographic data, number of tender points, and visual analog scale and FM impact questionnaire scores were collected. The measured CSP and clinical parameters of the patient and control groups were compared. In addition, possible correlations between the CSP parameters and the other clinical characteristics were analyzed. Mean CSP latencies did not differ between patients (55.50 ± 10.97 ms) and healthy controls (60.23 ± 11.87 ms; p = 0.158), although the mean CSP duration was significantly longer in patients (73.75 ± 15.67 ms) than in controls (63.50 ± 14.05 ms; p = 0.021). CSP variables did not correlate with any clinical variables. The significantly longer CSP duration in FM patients suggests central dysregulation at the spinal and supraspinal levels, rather than peripheral small fiber dysfunction. PMID:26871583

  13. New Findings in eNOS gene and Thalidomide Embryopathy Suggest pre-transcriptional effect variants as susceptibility factors.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Thayne Woycinck; Fraga, Lucas Rosa; Tovo-Rodrigues, Luciana; Sanseverino, Maria Teresa Vieira; Hutz, Mara Helena; Schuler-Faccini, Lavínia; Vianna, Fernanda Sales Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Antiangiogenic properties of thalidomide have created an interest in the use of the drug in treatment of cancer. However, thalidomide is responsible for thalidomide embryopathy (TE). A lack of knowledge regarding the mechanisms of thalidomide teratogenesis acts as a barrier in the aim to synthesize a safer analogue of thalidomide. Recently, our group detected a higher frequency of alleles that impair the pro-angiogenic mechanisms of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), coded by the NOS3 gene. In this study we evaluated variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) functional polymorphism in intron 4 of NOS3 in individuals with TE (38) and Brazilians without congenital anomalies (136). Haplotypes were estimated for this VNTR with previously analyzed polymorphisms, rs2070744 (-786C > T) and rs1799983 (894T > G), in promoter region and exon 7, respectively. Haplotypic distribution was different between the groups (p = 0.007). Alleles -786C (rs2070744) and 4b (VNTR), associated with decreased NOS3 expression, presented in higher frequency in TE individuals (p = 0.018; OR = 2.57; IC = 1.2-5.8). This association was not identified with polymorphism 894T > G (p = 0.079), which influences eNOS enzymatic activity. These results suggest variants in NOS3, with pre-transcriptional effects as susceptibility factors, influencing the risk TE development. This finding generates insight for a new approach to research that pursues a safer analogue. PMID:27004986

  14. New Findings in eNOS gene and Thalidomide Embryopathy Suggest pre-transcriptional effect variants as susceptibility factors

    PubMed Central

    Kowalski, Thayne Woycinck; Fraga, Lucas Rosa; Tovo-Rodrigues, Luciana; Sanseverino, Maria Teresa Vieira; Hutz, Mara Helena; Schuler-Faccini, Lavínia; Vianna, Fernanda Sales Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Antiangiogenic properties of thalidomide have created an interest in the use of the drug in treatment of cancer. However, thalidomide is responsible for thalidomide embryopathy (TE). A lack of knowledge regarding the mechanisms of thalidomide teratogenesis acts as a barrier in the aim to synthesize a safer analogue of thalidomide. Recently, our group detected a higher frequency of alleles that impair the pro-angiogenic mechanisms of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), coded by the NOS3 gene. In this study we evaluated variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) functional polymorphism in intron 4 of NOS3 in individuals with TE (38) and Brazilians without congenital anomalies (136). Haplotypes were estimated for this VNTR with previously analyzed polymorphisms, rs2070744 (−786C > T) and rs1799983 (894T > G), in promoter region and exon 7, respectively. Haplotypic distribution was different between the groups (p = 0.007). Alleles −786C (rs2070744) and 4b (VNTR), associated with decreased NOS3 expression, presented in higher frequency in TE individuals (p = 0.018; OR = 2.57; IC = 1.2–5.8). This association was not identified with polymorphism 894T > G (p = 0.079), which influences eNOS enzymatic activity. These results suggest variants in NOS3, with pre-transcriptional effects as susceptibility factors, influencing the risk TE development. This finding generates insight for a new approach to research that pursues a safer analogue. PMID:27004986

  15. A genome-wide association study follow-up suggests a possible role for PPARG in systemic sclerosis susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) comprising a French cohort of systemic sclerosis (SSc) reported several non-HLA single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) showing a nominal association in the discovery phase. We aimed to identify previously overlooked susceptibility variants by using a follow-up strategy. Methods Sixty-six non-HLA SNPs showing a P value <10-4 in the discovery phase of the French SSc GWAS were analyzed in the first step of this study, performing a meta-analysis that combined data from the two published SSc GWASs. A total of 2,921 SSc patients and 6,963 healthy controls were included in this first phase. Two SNPs, PPARG rs310746 and CHRNA9 rs6832151, were selected for genotyping in the replication cohort (1,068 SSc patients and 6,762 healthy controls) based on the results of the first step. Genotyping was performed by using TaqMan SNP genotyping assays. Results We observed nominal associations for both PPARG rs310746 (PMH = 1.90 × 10-6, OR, 1.28) and CHRNA9 rs6832151 (PMH = 4.30 × 10-6, OR, 1.17) genetic variants with SSc in the first step of our study. In the replication phase, we observed a trend of association for PPARG rs310746 (P value = 0.066; OR, 1.17). The combined overall Mantel-Haenszel meta-analysis of all the cohorts included in the present study revealed that PPARG rs310746 remained associated with SSc with a nominal non-genome-wide significant P value (PMH = 5.00 × 10-7; OR, 1.25). No evidence of association was observed for CHRNA9 rs6832151 either in the replication phase or in the overall pooled analysis. Conclusion Our results suggest a role of PPARG gene in the development of SSc. PMID:24401602

  16. An innovative tool for landslide susceptibility mapping in Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saponaro, Annamaria; Pilz, Marco; Wieland, Marc; Bindi, Dino; Parolai, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    Kyrgyzstan is among the most exposed countries in the world to landslide susceptibility. The high seismicity of the area, the presence of high mountain ridges and topographic relieves, the geology of the local materials and the occurrence of heavy precipitations represent the main factors responsible for slope failures. In particular, the large variability of material properties and slope conditions as well as the difficulties in forecasting heavy precipitations locally and in quantifying the level of ground shaking call for harmonized procedures for reducing the negative impact of these factors. Several studies have recently been carried out aiming at preparing landslide susceptibility and hazard maps; however, some of them - qualitative-based - suffer from the application of subjective decision rules from experts in the classification of parameters that influence the occurrence of a landslide. On the other hand, statistical methods provide objectivity over qualitative ones since they allow a numerical evaluation of landslide spatial distribution with landslide potential factors. For this reason, we will make use of a bivariate technique known as Weight-Of-Evidence method to evaluate the influence of landslide predictive factors. The aim of this study is to identify areas in Kyrgyzstan being more prone to earthquake-triggered landslides. An innovative approach which exploits the new advances of GIS technology together with statistical concepts is presented. A range of conditioning factors and their potential impact on landslide activation is quantitatively assessed on the basis of landslide spatial distribution and seismic zonation. Results show areas which are more susceptible to landslides induced by earthquakes. Our approach can be used to fill the gap of subjectivity that typically affects already performed qualitative analysis. The resulting landslide susceptibility map represents a potentially supportive tool for disaster management and planning activities

  17. Complex central structures suggest complex evolutionary paths for barred S0 galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dullo, Bililign T.; Martínez-Lombilla, Cristina; Knapen, Johan H.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate three barred lenticular galaxies (NGC 2681, NGC 3945 and NGC 4371), which were previously reported to have complex central structures but without a detailed structural analysis of these galaxies' high-resolution data. We have therefore performed four- to six-component (pseudo-)bulge/disc/bar/ring/point source) decompositions of the composite (Hubble Space Telescope plus ground-based) surface brightness profiles. We find that NGC 2681 hosts three bars, while NGC 3945 and NGC 4371 are double- and single-barred galaxies, respectively, in agreement with past isophotal analysis. We find that the bulges in these galaxies are compact, and have Sérsic indices of n ˜ 2.2-3.6 and stellar masses of M* ˜ 0.28 × 1010-1.1 × 1010 M⊙. NGC 3945 and NGC 4371 have intermediate-scale `pseudo-bulges' that are well described by a Sérsic model with low n ≲ 0.5 instead of an exponential (n = 1) profile as done in the past. We measure emission line fluxes enclosed within nine different elliptical apertures, finding that NGC 2681 has a low-ionization nuclear emission region (LINER)-type emission inside R ˜ 3 arcsec, but the emission line due to star formation is significant when aperture size is increased. In contrast, NGC 3945 and NGC 4371 have composite (active galactic nucleus plus star-forming)- and LINER-type emissions inside and outside R ˜ 2 arcsec, respectively. Our findings suggest that the three galaxies have experienced a complex evolutionary path. The bulges appear to be consequences of an earlier violent merging event while subsequent disc formation via gas accretion and bar-driven perturbations may account for the build-up of pseudo-bulges, bars, rings and point sources.

  18. Susceptibility of central Red Sea corals during a major bleaching event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furby, K. A.; Bouwmeester, J.; Berumen, M. L.

    2013-06-01

    A major coral bleaching event occurred in the central Red Sea near Thuwal, Saudi Arabia, in the summer of 2010, when the region experienced up to 10-11 degree heating weeks. We documented the susceptibility of various coral taxa to bleaching at eight reefs during the peak of this thermal stress. Oculinids and agaricids were most susceptible to bleaching, with up to 100 and 80 % of colonies of these families, respectively, bleaching at some reefs. In contrast, some families, such as mussids, pocilloporids, and pectinids showed low levels of bleaching (<20 % on average). We resurveyed the reefs 7 months later to estimate subsequent mortality. Mortality was highly variable among taxa, with some taxa showing evidence of full recovery and some (e.g., acroporids) apparently suffering nearly complete mortality. The unequal mortality among families resulted in significant change in community composition following the bleaching. Significant factors in the likelihood of coral bleaching during this event were depth of the reef and distance of the reef from shore. Shallow reefs and inshore reefs had a higher prevalence of bleaching. This bleaching event shows that Red Sea reefs are subject to the same increasing pressures that reefs face worldwide. This study provides a quantitative, genus-level assessment of the vulnerability of various coral groups from within the Red Sea to bleaching and estimates subsequent mortality. As such, it can provide valuable insights into the future for reef communities in the Red Sea.

  19. GIS-analysis of gully erosion susceptibility: a key study in north-central Sicily, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnesi, Valerio; Angileri, Silvia; Cappadonia, Chiara; Conoscenti, Christian; Costanzo, Dario; Maerker, Michael; Rotigliano, Edoardo

    2010-05-01

    Erosion by water is responsible for severe geo-environmental problems in semi-humid to arid Mediterranean areas. Large sectors of Sicily are affected by intense soil erosion phenomena leading to severe damages in agriculture lands that, in some cases, experience high soil loss rates. An important contribution to sediment yield from these areas is given by gully erosion phenomena; the latter, in the last decades, attracted attention of many researches that developed and applied methods to quantify soil loss volumes and to evaluate proneness of territory to this process. The present research aims to assess gully erosion susceptibility in the basin of the San Giorgio torrent, a mountain stream flowing in north-central Sicily and draining an area of about 9.5 km2; the watershed, which is mainly covered by arable lands, has highly erodible slopes characterized by the outcropping of clays and marls. In order to predict gully erosion susceptibility, a multivariate geostatistical approach is adopted here. In particular, the method is based on the definition of spatial relationships between the geographical variability of a set of controlling factors and the occurrence of gullies on slopes; the linear density of gullies computed on homogeneous domains is selected as the probabilistic function expressing how proneness to gully erosion spatially changes in the studied area. Available thematic maps, which were integrated by field and remote surveys, and a high quality DEM, were used to derive eight layers of terrain variables, selected according to geomorphological criteria and expressing both soil erodibility (bedrock lithology, land use) and erosivity of flowing waters (slope angle, Stream Power Index, SL-factor, Topographic Wetness Index, plan and profile curvature). All the parameters were computed for homogeneous spatial domains, created by intersecting a grid of 50m square polygons and a layer of slope units automatically derived from DEM; therefore, the eight layers

  20. Maps of Quaternary Deposits and Liquefaction Susceptibility in the Central San Francisco Bay Region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Witter, Robert C.; Knudsen, Keith L.; Sowers, Janet M.; Wentworth, Carl M.; Koehler, Richard D.; Randolph, Carolyn E.; Brooks, Suzanna K.; Gans, Kathleen D.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents a map and database of Quaternary deposits and liquefaction susceptibility for the urban core of the San Francisco Bay region. It supercedes the equivalent area of U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 00-444 (Knudsen and others, 2000), which covers the larger 9-county San Francisco Bay region. The report consists of (1) a spatial database, (2) two small-scale colored maps (Quaternary deposits and liquefaction susceptibility), (3) a text describing the Quaternary map and liquefaction interpretation (part 3), and (4) a text introducing the report and describing the database (part 1). All parts of the report are digital; part 1 describes the database and digital files and how to obtain them by downloading across the internet. The nine counties surrounding San Francisco Bay straddle the San Andreas fault system, which exposes the region to serious earthquake hazard (Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities, 1999). Much of the land adjacent to the Bay and the major rivers and streams is underlain by unconsolidated deposits that are particularly vulnerable to earthquake shaking and liquefaction of water-saturated granular sediment. This new map provides a consistent detailed treatment of the central part of the 9-county region in which much of the mapping of Open-File Report 00-444 was either at smaller (less detailed) scale or represented only preliminary revision of earlier work. Like Open-File Report 00-444, the current mapping uses geomorphic expression, pedogenic soils, inferred depositional environments, and geologic age to define and distinguish the map units. Further scrutiny of the factors controlling liquefaction susceptibility has led to some changes relative to Open-File Report 00-444: particularly the reclassification of San Francisco Bay mud (Qhbm) to have only MODERATE susceptibility and the rating of artificial fills according to the Quaternary map units inferred to underlie them (other than dams - adf). The two colored

  1. Ex Vivo Drug Susceptibility Testing and Molecular Profiling of Clinical Plasmodium falciparum Isolates from Cambodia from 2008 to 2013 Suggest Emerging Piperaquine Resistance.

    PubMed

    Chaorattanakawee, Suwanna; Saunders, David L; Sea, Darapiseth; Chanarat, Nitima; Yingyuen, Kritsanai; Sundrakes, Siratchana; Saingam, Piyaporn; Buathong, Nillawan; Sriwichai, Sabaithip; Chann, Soklyda; Se, Youry; Yom, You; Heng, Thay Kheng; Kong, Nareth; Kuntawunginn, Worachet; Tangthongchaiwiriya, Kuntida; Jacob, Christopher; Takala-Harrison, Shannon; Plowe, Christopher; Lin, Jessica T; Chuor, Char Meng; Prom, Satharath; Tyner, Stuart D; Gosi, Panita; Teja-Isavadharm, Paktiya; Lon, Chanthap; Lanteri, Charlotte A

    2015-08-01

    Cambodia's first-line artemisinin combination therapy, dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PPQ), is no longer sufficiently curative against multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria at some Thai-Cambodian border regions. We report recent (2008 to 2013) drug resistance trends in 753 isolates from northern, western, and southern Cambodia by surveying for ex vivo drug susceptibility and molecular drug resistance markers to guide the selection of an effective alternative to DHA-PPQ. Over the last 3 study years, PPQ susceptibility declined dramatically (geomean 50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] increased from 12.8 to 29.6 nM), while mefloquine (MQ) sensitivity doubled (67.1 to 26 nM) in northern Cambodia. These changes in drug susceptibility were significantly associated with a decreased prevalence of P. falciparum multidrug resistance 1 gene (Pfmdr1) multiple copy isolates and coincided with the timing of replacing artesunate-mefloquine (AS-MQ) with DHA-PPQ as the first-line therapy. Widespread chloroquine resistance was suggested by all isolates being of the P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter gene CVIET haplotype. Nearly all isolates collected from the most recent years had P. falciparum kelch13 mutations, indicative of artemisinin resistance. Ex vivo bioassay measurements of antimalarial activity in plasma indicated 20% of patients recently took antimalarials, and their plasma had activity (median of 49.8 nM DHA equivalents) suggestive of substantial in vivo drug pressure. Overall, our findings suggest DHA-PPQ failures are associated with emerging PPQ resistance in a background of artemisinin resistance. The observed connection between drug policy changes and significant reduction in PPQ susceptibility with mitigation of MQ resistance supports reintroduction of AS-MQ, in conjunction with monitoring of the P. falciparum mdr1 copy number, as a stop-gap measure in areas of DHA-PPQ failure.

  2. Ex Vivo Drug Susceptibility Testing and Molecular Profiling of Clinical Plasmodium falciparum Isolates from Cambodia from 2008 to 2013 Suggest Emerging Piperaquine Resistance.

    PubMed

    Chaorattanakawee, Suwanna; Saunders, David L; Sea, Darapiseth; Chanarat, Nitima; Yingyuen, Kritsanai; Sundrakes, Siratchana; Saingam, Piyaporn; Buathong, Nillawan; Sriwichai, Sabaithip; Chann, Soklyda; Se, Youry; Yom, You; Heng, Thay Kheng; Kong, Nareth; Kuntawunginn, Worachet; Tangthongchaiwiriya, Kuntida; Jacob, Christopher; Takala-Harrison, Shannon; Plowe, Christopher; Lin, Jessica T; Chuor, Char Meng; Prom, Satharath; Tyner, Stuart D; Gosi, Panita; Teja-Isavadharm, Paktiya; Lon, Chanthap; Lanteri, Charlotte A

    2015-08-01

    Cambodia's first-line artemisinin combination therapy, dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PPQ), is no longer sufficiently curative against multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria at some Thai-Cambodian border regions. We report recent (2008 to 2013) drug resistance trends in 753 isolates from northern, western, and southern Cambodia by surveying for ex vivo drug susceptibility and molecular drug resistance markers to guide the selection of an effective alternative to DHA-PPQ. Over the last 3 study years, PPQ susceptibility declined dramatically (geomean 50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] increased from 12.8 to 29.6 nM), while mefloquine (MQ) sensitivity doubled (67.1 to 26 nM) in northern Cambodia. These changes in drug susceptibility were significantly associated with a decreased prevalence of P. falciparum multidrug resistance 1 gene (Pfmdr1) multiple copy isolates and coincided with the timing of replacing artesunate-mefloquine (AS-MQ) with DHA-PPQ as the first-line therapy. Widespread chloroquine resistance was suggested by all isolates being of the P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter gene CVIET haplotype. Nearly all isolates collected from the most recent years had P. falciparum kelch13 mutations, indicative of artemisinin resistance. Ex vivo bioassay measurements of antimalarial activity in plasma indicated 20% of patients recently took antimalarials, and their plasma had activity (median of 49.8 nM DHA equivalents) suggestive of substantial in vivo drug pressure. Overall, our findings suggest DHA-PPQ failures are associated with emerging PPQ resistance in a background of artemisinin resistance. The observed connection between drug policy changes and significant reduction in PPQ susceptibility with mitigation of MQ resistance supports reintroduction of AS-MQ, in conjunction with monitoring of the P. falciparum mdr1 copy number, as a stop-gap measure in areas of DHA-PPQ failure. PMID:26014942

  3. Ex Vivo Drug Susceptibility Testing and Molecular Profiling of Clinical Plasmodium falciparum Isolates from Cambodia from 2008 to 2013 Suggest Emerging Piperaquine Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Chaorattanakawee, Suwanna; Saunders, David L.; Sea, Darapiseth; Chanarat, Nitima; Yingyuen, Kritsanai; Sundrakes, Siratchana; Saingam, Piyaporn; Buathong, Nillawan; Sriwichai, Sabaithip; Chann, Soklyda; Se, Youry; Yom, You; Heng, Thay Kheng; Kong, Nareth; Kuntawunginn, Worachet; Tangthongchaiwiriya, Kuntida; Jacob, Christopher; Takala-Harrison, Shannon; Plowe, Christopher; Lin, Jessica T.; Chuor, Char Meng; Prom, Satharath; Tyner, Stuart D.; Gosi, Panita; Teja-Isavadharm, Paktiya; Lon, Chanthap

    2015-01-01

    Cambodia's first-line artemisinin combination therapy, dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PPQ), is no longer sufficiently curative against multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria at some Thai-Cambodian border regions. We report recent (2008 to 2013) drug resistance trends in 753 isolates from northern, western, and southern Cambodia by surveying for ex vivo drug susceptibility and molecular drug resistance markers to guide the selection of an effective alternative to DHA-PPQ. Over the last 3 study years, PPQ susceptibility declined dramatically (geomean 50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] increased from 12.8 to 29.6 nM), while mefloquine (MQ) sensitivity doubled (67.1 to 26 nM) in northern Cambodia. These changes in drug susceptibility were significantly associated with a decreased prevalence of P. falciparum multidrug resistance 1 gene (Pfmdr1) multiple copy isolates and coincided with the timing of replacing artesunate-mefloquine (AS-MQ) with DHA-PPQ as the first-line therapy. Widespread chloroquine resistance was suggested by all isolates being of the P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter gene CVIET haplotype. Nearly all isolates collected from the most recent years had P. falciparum kelch13 mutations, indicative of artemisinin resistance. Ex vivo bioassay measurements of antimalarial activity in plasma indicated 20% of patients recently took antimalarials, and their plasma had activity (median of 49.8 nM DHA equivalents) suggestive of substantial in vivo drug pressure. Overall, our findings suggest DHA-PPQ failures are associated with emerging PPQ resistance in a background of artemisinin resistance. The observed connection between drug policy changes and significant reduction in PPQ susceptibility with mitigation of MQ resistance supports reintroduction of AS-MQ, in conjunction with monitoring of the P. falciparum mdr1 copy number, as a stop-gap measure in areas of DHA-PPQ failure. PMID:26014942

  4. Identification of potential mitochondrial CLPXP protease interactors and substrates suggests its central role in energy metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Fabian; Langer, Julian D.; Osiewacz, Heinz D.

    2015-01-01

    Maintenance of mitochondria is achieved by several mechanisms, including the regulation of mitochondrial proteostasis. The matrix protease CLPXP, involved in protein quality control, has been implicated in ageing and disease. However, particularly due to the lack of knowledge of CLPXP’s substrate spectrum, only little is known about the pathways and mechanisms controlled by this protease. Here we report the first comprehensive identification of potential mitochondrial CLPXP in vivo interaction partners and substrates using a combination of tandem affinity purification and differential proteomics. This analysis reveals that CLPXP in the fungal ageing model Podospora anserina is mainly associated with metabolic pathways in mitochondria, e.g. components of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and the tricarboxylic acid cycle as well as subunits of electron transport chain complex I. These data suggest a possible function of mitochondrial CLPXP in the control and/or maintenance of energy metabolism. Since bioenergetic alterations are a common feature of neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and ageing, our data comprise an important resource for specific studies addressing the role of CLPXP in these adverse processes. PMID:26679294

  5. Vertical and horizontal distribution of magnetic susceptibility and metal contents in an industrial district of central Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naimi, Salman; Ayoubi, Shamsollah

    2013-09-01

    This study was conducted to determine the vertical and horizontal distribution of selected metals and magnetic susceptibility (χlf) in an industrial site located in Isfahan province, central Iran. For this purpose, we used a grid sampling methodology and excavated 202 profiles. Soil samples were then collected from 0-30, 60-90, and 120-150 cm depths. The mass magnetic susceptibility (χ) of the soil samples was measured at both low and high frequencies (χlf and χhf) using the Bartington MS2 dual frequency sensor; and χfd was also calculated. Soil samples were also analyzed for iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr) and cobalt (Co) concentrations. The results showed that there were positive significant correlations among selected metals including Zn, Pb, Fe and Mn, which were mainly added through coal fly ash from an iron smelting factory at the studied site, while the concentration of Ni, Cr and Co was mainly controlled by the parent material of the soils. The trends in results at the site of study were similar in vertical and horizontal distribution for the industrial originated metals as judged by pollution load index (PLI) using χlf. The results of SEM/EDX also confirmed the presence of spheroid of magnetic particles in the surface soil samples taken in close proximity of the factory. Based on the results using the contamination factors (CF) determined for selected metals, the following order was observed: Pb > Zn > Mn > Fe > Cu > Ni ≥ Co > Cr. The results also suggested that magnetic methods could be used to estimate the metal contamination from anthropogenic sources in industrial soils.

  6. Crystallographic Studies of Prion Protein (PrP) Segments Suggest How Structural Changes Encoded by Polymorphism at Residue 129 Modulate Susceptibility to Human Prion Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Apostol, Marcin I.; Sawaya, Michael R.; Cascio, Duilio; Eisenberg, David

    2010-09-23

    A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in codon 129 of the human prion gene, leading to a change from methionine to valine at residue 129 of prion protein (PrP), has been shown to be a determinant in the susceptibility to prion disease. However, the molecular basis of this effect remains unexplained. In the current study, we determined crystal structures of prion segments having either Met or Val at residue 129. These 6-residue segments of PrP centered on residue 129 are 'steric zippers,' pairs of interacting {beta}-sheets. Both structures of these 'homozygous steric zippers' reveal direct intermolecular interactions between Met or Val in one sheet and the identical residue in the mating sheet. These two structures, plus a structure-based model of the heterozygous Met-Val steric zipper, suggest an explanation for the previously observed effects of this locus on prion disease susceptibility and progression.

  7. Genome-wide association study in East Asians suggests UHMK1 as a novel bone mineral density susceptibility gene.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyung Jin; Park, Hyojung; Zhang, Lei; Kim, Jung Hee; Kim, Ye An; Yang, Jae-Yeon; Pei, Yu-Fang; Tian, Qing; Shen, Hui; Hwang, Joo-Yeon; Deng, Hong-Wen; Cho, Nam H; Shin, Soo

    2016-10-01

    To identify genetic variants that influence bone mineral density (BMD) in East Asians, we performed a quantitative trait analysis of lumbar spine, total hip and femoral neck BMD in a Korean population-based cohort (N=2729) and follow-up replication analysis in a Chinese Han population and two Caucasian populations (N=1547, 2250 and 987, respectively). From the meta-analysis of the stage 1 discovery analysis and stage 2 replication analysis, we identified four BMD loci that reached near-genome-wide significance level (P<5×10(-7)). One locus on 1q23 (UHMK1, rs16863247, P=4.1×10(-7) for femoral neck BMD and P=3.2×10(-6) for total hip BMD) was a novel BMD signal. Interestingly, rs16863247 was very rare in Caucasians (minor allele frequency<0.01), indicating that this association could be specific to East Asians. In gender specific analysis, rs1160574 on 1q32 (KCNH1) was associated with femoral neck BMD (P=2.1×10(-7)) in female subjects. rs9371538 in the known BMD region on 6q25 ESR1 was associated with lumbar spine BMD (P=5.6×10(-9)). rs7776725 in the known BMD region on 7q31 WTN16 was associated with total hip BMD (P=8.6×10(-9)). In osteoblasts, endogenous UHMK1 expression was increased during differentiation and UHMK1 knockdown decreased its differentiation, while UHMK1 overexpression increased its differentiation. In osteoclasts, endogenous UHMK1 expression was decreased during differentiation and UHMK1 knockdown increased its differentiation, while UHMK1 overexpression decreased its differentiation. In conclusion, our genome-wide association study identified the UHMK1 gene as a novel BMD locus specific to East Asians. Functional studies suggest a role of UHMK1 on regulation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. PMID:27424934

  8. Investigation of six testicular germ cell tumor susceptibility genes suggests a parent-of-origin effect in SPRY4.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Robert; Andreassen, Kristine E; Kristiansen, Wenche; Aschim, Elin L; Bremnes, Roy M; Dahl, Olav; Fosså, Sophie D; Klepp, Olbjørn; Langberg, Carl W; Solberg, Arne; Tretli, Steinar; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Adami, Hans-Olov; Haugen, Trine B; Grotmol, Tom; Wiklund, Fredrik

    2013-08-15

    Recent genome-wide association studies have identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) risk in the genes ATF7IP, BAK1, DMRT1, KITLG, SPRY4 and TERT. In the present study, we validate these associations in a Scandinavian population, and explore effect modification by parental sex and differences in associations between the major histological subtypes seminoma and non-seminoma. A total of 118 SNPs in the six genes were genotyped in a population-based Swedish-Norwegian sample comprising 831 TGCT case-parent triads, 474 dyads, 712 singletons and 3919 population controls. Seven hundred and thirty-four additional SNPs were imputed using reference haplotypes from the 1000 genomes project. SNP-TGCT association was investigated using a likelihood-based association test for nuclear families and unrelated subjects implemented in the software package UNPHASED. Forward stepwise regression within each gene was applied to determine independent association signals. Effect modifications by parent-of-origin and effect differences between histological subtypes were explored. We observed strong association between SNPs in all six genes and TGCT (lowest P-value per gene: ATF7IP 6.2 × 10(-6); BAK1 2.1 × 10(-10); DMRT1 6.7 × 10(-25); KITLG 2.1 × 10(-48); SPRY4 1.4 × 10(-29); TERT 1.8 × 10(-18)). Stepwise regression indicated three independent signals for BAK1 and TERT, two for SPRY4 and one each for DMRT1, ATF7IP and KITLG. A significant parent-of-origin effect was observed for rs10463352 in SPRY4 (maternal odds ratio = 1.72, paternal odds ratio = 0.99, interaction P = 0.0013). No significant effect differences between seminomas and non-seminomas were found. In summary, we validated previously reported genetic associations with TGCT in a Scandinavian population, and observed suggestive evidence of a parent-of-origin effect in SPRY4. PMID:23640991

  9. Female rats are more susceptible to central nervous system oxygen toxicity than male rats.

    PubMed

    Held, Heather E; Pilla, Raffaele; Ciarlone, Geoffrey E; Landon, Carol S; Dean, Jay B

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Tonic-clonic seizures typify central nervous system oxygen toxicity (CNS-OT) in humans and animals exposed to high levels of oxygen, as are encountered during scuba diving. We previously demonstrated that high doses of pseudoephedrine (PSE) decrease the latency to seizure (LS) for CNS-OT in young male rats. This study investigated whether female rats respond similarly to PSE and hyperbaric oxygen (HBO). We implanted 60 virgin stock (VS) and 54 former breeder (FB) female rats with radio-telemetry devices that measured brain electrical activity. One week later, rats were gavaged with saline or PSE in saline (40, 80, 120, 160, or 320 mg/kg) before diving to five atmospheres absolute in 100% oxygen. The time between reaching maximum pressure and exhibiting seizure was LS. Vaginal smears identified estrus cycle phase. PSE did not decrease LS for VS or FB, primarily because they exhibited low LS for all conditions tested. VS had shorter LS than males at 0, 40, and 80 mg/kg (-42, -49, and -57%, respectively). FB also had shorter LS than males at 0, 40, and 80 mg/kg (-60, -86, and -73%, respectively). FB were older than VS (286 ± 10 days vs. 128 ± 5 days) and weighed more than VS (299 ± 2.7 g vs. 272 ± 2.1 g). Males tested were younger (88 ± 2 days), heavier (340 ± 4.5 g), and gained more weight postoperatively (7.2 ± 1.6 g) than either VS (-0.4 ± 1.5 g) or FB (-1.6 ± 1.5 g); however, LS correlated poorly with age, body mass, change in body mass, and estrus cycle phase. We hypothesize that differences in sex hormones underlie females' higher susceptibility to CNS-OT than males. PMID:24771690

  10. Female rats are more susceptible to central nervous system oxygen toxicity than male rats.

    PubMed

    Held, Heather E; Pilla, Raffaele; Ciarlone, Geoffrey E; Landon, Carol S; Dean, Jay B

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Tonic-clonic seizures typify central nervous system oxygen toxicity (CNS-OT) in humans and animals exposed to high levels of oxygen, as are encountered during scuba diving. We previously demonstrated that high doses of pseudoephedrine (PSE) decrease the latency to seizure (LS) for CNS-OT in young male rats. This study investigated whether female rats respond similarly to PSE and hyperbaric oxygen (HBO). We implanted 60 virgin stock (VS) and 54 former breeder (FB) female rats with radio-telemetry devices that measured brain electrical activity. One week later, rats were gavaged with saline or PSE in saline (40, 80, 120, 160, or 320 mg/kg) before diving to five atmospheres absolute in 100% oxygen. The time between reaching maximum pressure and exhibiting seizure was LS. Vaginal smears identified estrus cycle phase. PSE did not decrease LS for VS or FB, primarily because they exhibited low LS for all conditions tested. VS had shorter LS than males at 0, 40, and 80 mg/kg (-42, -49, and -57%, respectively). FB also had shorter LS than males at 0, 40, and 80 mg/kg (-60, -86, and -73%, respectively). FB were older than VS (286 ± 10 days vs. 128 ± 5 days) and weighed more than VS (299 ± 2.7 g vs. 272 ± 2.1 g). Males tested were younger (88 ± 2 days), heavier (340 ± 4.5 g), and gained more weight postoperatively (7.2 ± 1.6 g) than either VS (-0.4 ± 1.5 g) or FB (-1.6 ± 1.5 g); however, LS correlated poorly with age, body mass, change in body mass, and estrus cycle phase. We hypothesize that differences in sex hormones underlie females' higher susceptibility to CNS-OT than males.

  11. Antifungal susceptibility of clinical and environmental Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii isolates in Jabalpur, a city of Madhya Pradesh in Central India

    PubMed Central

    Gutch, Ruchi Sethi; Nawange, Shesh Rao; Singh, Shankar Mohan; Yadu, Ruchika; Tiwari, Aditi; Gumasta, Richa; Kavishwar, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we present antifungal susceptibility data of clinical and environmental isolates of Central Indian Cryptococcus neoformans (Serotype A, n = 8 and n = 50 respectively) and Cryptococcus gattii (Serotype B, n = 01 and n = 04 respectively). Susceptibilities to fluconazole, itraconazole and ketoconazole were determined by using NCCLS broth micro-dilution methodology. The total number of resistant strains for fluconazole in case of C. neoformans and C. gattii showed a significant difference by using chi-square test (p < 0.05*), while considering fisher's exact p value was nonsignificant (p > 0.05). However, the total number of resistant strains for itraconazole and ketoconazole was not found statistically significant. A comparison of geometric means of clinical and environmental strains of C. gattii and C. neoformans was not found statistically significant using student ‘t’ test (p value > 0.05 NS). Though less, the antifungal data obtained in this study suggests that primary resistance among environmental and clinical isolates of C. neoformans and C. gattii against tested antifungal was present and C. gattii comparatively was less susceptible than C. neoformans var. grubii isolates to fluconazole than to itraconazole and ketoconazole. A continuous surveillance of antifungal susceptibility of clinical and environmental isolates of C. neoformans and C. gattii is desirable to monitor the emergence of any resistant strains for better management of cryptococcosis patients. PMID:26691471

  12. Microsatellite data suggest significant population structure and differentiation within the malaria vector Anopheles darlingi in Central and South America

    PubMed Central

    Mirabello, Lisa; Vineis, Joseph H; Yanoviak, Stephen P; Scarpassa, Vera M; Póvoa, Marinete M; Padilla, Norma; Achee, Nicole L; Conn, Jan E

    2008-01-01

    Background Anopheles darlingi is the most important malaria vector in the Neotropics. An understanding of A. darlingi's population structure and contemporary gene flow patterns is necessary if vector populations are to be successfully controlled. We assessed population genetic structure and levels of differentiation based on 1,376 samples from 31 localities throughout the Peruvian and Brazilian Amazon and Central America using 5–8 microsatellite loci. Results We found high levels of polymorphism for all of the Amazonian populations (mean RS = 7.62, mean HO = 0.742), and low levels for the Belize and Guatemalan populations (mean RS = 4.3, mean HO = 0.457). The Bayesian clustering analysis revealed five population clusters: northeastern Amazonian Brazil, southeastern and central Amazonian Brazil, western and central Amazonian Brazil, Peruvian Amazon, and the Central American populations. Within Central America there was low non-significant differentiation, except for between the populations separated by the Maya Mountains. Within Amazonia there was a moderate level of significant differentiation attributed to isolation by distance. Within Peru there was no significant population structure and low differentiation, and some evidence of a population expansion. The pairwise estimates of genetic differentiation between Central America and Amazonian populations were all very high and highly significant (FST = 0.1859 – 0.3901, P < 0.05). Both the DA and FST distance-based trees illustrated the main division to be between Central America and Amazonia. Conclusion We detected a large amount of population structure in Amazonia, with three population clusters within Brazil and one including the Peru populations. The considerable differences in Ne among the populations may have contributed to the observed genetic differentiation. All of the data suggest that the primary division within A. darlingi corresponds to two white gene genotypes between Amazonia (genotype 1) and

  13. Microsatellite genotyping of medieval cattle from central Italy suggests an old origin of Chianina and Romagnola cattle

    PubMed Central

    Gargani, Maria; Pariset, Lorraine; Lenstra, Johannes A.; De Minicis, Elisabetta; Valentini, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of DNA from archeological remains is a valuable tool to interpret the history of ancient animal populations. So far most studies of ancient DNA target mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which reveals maternal lineages, but only partially the relationships of current breeds and ancient populations. In this study we explore the feasibility of nuclear DNA analysis. DNA was extracted from 1000-years old cattle bone collected from Ferento, an archeological site in central Italy. Amplification of 15 microsatellite FAO-recommended markers with PCR products yielded genotypes for four markers. Expected heterozygosity was comparable with values of modern breeds, but observed heterozygosity was underestimated due to allelic loss. Genetic distances suggested a position intermediate between (1) Anatolian, Balkan, Sicilian and South-Italian cattle and (2) the Iberian, North-European and Central-European cattle, but also a clear relationship with two central-Italian breeds, Chianina and Romagnola. This suggests that these breeds are derived from medieval cattle living in the same area. Our results illustrate the potential of ancient DNA for reconstructing the history of local cattle husbandry. PMID:25788902

  14. Cretaceous stratigraphic sequences of north-central California suggest a discontinuity in the Late Cretaceous forearc basin

    SciTech Connect

    Haggart, J.W.

    1986-10-01

    The Cretaceous sedimentary succession preserved east of Redding, at the northern end of California's Great Valley, indicates that marine deposition was widespread in the region for only two periods during the Late Cretaceous. If it is assumed that there was minimal Cenozoic offset between the northern Sierra Nevada and eastern Klamath Mountains terranes, Cretaceous sedimentation in this region was most likely restricted to a narrow trough and was not a continuation of the wide, Cretaceous forearc basin of central California. The dissimilar depositional histories of the Redding basin and the Hornbrook basin of north-central California suggest that the basins were not linked continuously during the Late Cretaceous. A thick section of Cretaceous strata beneath the southwestern Modoc Plateau is considered unlikely.

  15. Susceptibility of inbred mice to chronic central nervous system infection by Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus.

    PubMed

    Lipton, H L; Dal Canto, M C

    1979-10-01

    The present study demonstrated that the clinicopathological expression of the late demyelinating disease due to chronic central nervous system infection by Theiler's mouse encephalomyelitis virus was dependent, at least in part, on the strain of mouse used as host. A range of involvement was observed, with late disease being most severe in the SJL strain, intermediate in the CBA and C3H/He strains, and least in C57BL/6 mice. The lack of clinical signs in seven other inbred strains of mice indicates that their response to chronic infection was similar to C57BL/6 mice. SJL, CBA, C3H/He, and C57BL/6 mice all generated similar levels of neutralizing antibody. A correlation between the severity of late disease and central nervous system virus content was not demonstrated, which indirectly suggests an immunopathological rather than a cytolytic mechanism of myelin injury during the late disease period. Finally, in addition to being more extensive, SJL demyelinating lesions contained a disproportionately large number of macrophages compared with those of similar lesions in CBA and C3H/He mice.

  16. Modern and long-term evaporation of central Andes surface waters suggests paleo archives underestimate Neogene elevations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorella, Richard P.; Poulsen, Christopher J.; Pillco Zolá, Ramiro S.; Jeffery, M. Louise; Ehlers, Todd A.

    2015-12-01

    Central Andean paleoelevations reconstructed from stable isotope and paleofloral data imply a large magnitude (>2 km) Miocene-to-modern surface uplift. However, the isotopic relationships between precipitation, surface waters, and soil waters upon which these reconstructions are based remain poorly constrained for both past, and in many cases, modern conditions. We quantify the relationships between central Andean precipitation and surface waters by measuring the isotopic composition of 249 stream water samples (δ18O and δD) collected between April 2009 and October 2012. The isotopic compositions of stream waters match precipitation along the eastern flank. In contrast, Altiplano surface waters possess a lower δD-δ18O slope (4.59 vs ∼8 for meteoric waters) not observed in precipitation, which signals heavy isotope evaporative enrichment in surface waters. Paleoclimate models indicate that highly evaporative conditions have persisted on the plateau throughout Andean uplift, and that conditions may have been more evaporative when the Andes were lower. Thus, more ancient proxy materials may have a greater evaporative bias than previously recognized and paleoelevation reconstructions from stable isotope based central Andean plateau proxy materials likely overstate Miocene-to-present surface uplift. We propose Altiplano paleoelevations of 1-2 km at 24.5 Ma, 1.5-2.9 km by 11.45 Ma, and modern elevations by ∼6 Ma based on the lightest isotopic compositions observed in Altiplano proxy materials, which are least likely to be influenced by evaporation. These constraints limit total late-Miocene-to-modern uplift to <2.2 km, are more consistent with crustal shortening records, and suggest that plateau uplift may have been more spatially uniform than suggested by previous interpretations of stable isotope proxies.

  17. Antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria isolated from pinnipeds stranded in central and northern California.

    PubMed

    Johnson, S P; Nolan, S; Gulland, F M

    1998-09-01

    Over a 2-yr period (1994-1995), the antimicrobial susceptibilities of 129 bacterial isolates recovered from live stranded California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), and northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) were studied. Nineteen genera of bacteria were isolated from various sites of inflammation; abscesses and umbilici were the most common sites. Seventy-two percent of the bacterial isolated were gram negative, and the Enterobacteriaceae (Escherichia coli, Proteus spp., Klebsiella spp., Salmonella spp.) accounted for 75% of the gram-negative isolates. All of the gram-positive isolates were either Enterococcus spp. or Staphylococcus aureus. Multiple drug resistance was present in all but one of the bacterial isolates. The gram-positive bacteria were most susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (77% of 36 isolates) and least susceptible to lincomycin (18% of 11 isolates). The gram-negative bacteria were most susceptible to amikacin (91% of 91 isolates) and least susceptible to clindamycin (3% of 109 isolates). PMID:9809600

  18. Susceptibility-weighted imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging findings in central nervous system monomorphic B cell post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder before and after treatment and comparison with primary B cell central nervous system lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Ginat, Daniel Thomas; Purakal, Alixandra; Pytel, Peter

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the MRI features of monomorphic central nervous system post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (CNS PTLD), including diffusion-weighted and susceptibility-weighted sequences before and after treatment and to compare the imaging findings with those of primary central nervous system B cell lymphoma (PCNS BCL). Retrospective review of the brain MRI characteristics in patients with pathology proven monomorphic CNS PTLD and PCNS BCL was performed. In particular, the enhancement, diffusion-weighted, susceptibility-weighted MRI characteristics of the lesions were evaluated. In addition, the diffusion-weighted, susceptibility-weighted MRI features after treatment for CNS PTLD were evaluated. A total of 12 lesions in six patients with CNS PTLD and 12 lesions in nine patients with PCNS BCL were identified on MRI. Among the CNS PTLD lesions with post-contrast images, 80 % demonstrated peripheral enhancement. All of the CNS PTLD lesions contained foci of intratumoral susceptibility signal (ITSS) and the average mean ADC values and ratios were 0.892 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s (standard deviation: 0.082 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s) and 1.19 (standard deviation: 0.15), respectively. On the other hand, 75 % of the PCNS BCL displayed diffuse enhancement, two cases (16.7 %) contained ITSS, and the mean ADC values and ratios were 0.721 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s (standard deviation: 0.093 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s), and 0.99 (standard deviation: 0.17), respectively. Thus, the presence of heterogeneous lesions with ITSS that do not necessarily have as extensive restricted diffusion as PCNS BCL is suggestive of CNS PTLD in the appropriate clinical setting. The preliminary data in this series suggests that diffusion-weighted imaging may serve as a useful biomarker for monitoring treatment response, in which successful treatment of CNS PTLD may result in increased ADC values. In addition, foci of susceptibility effect in CNS PTLD tend to persist or increase over the course of

  19. Characterization of the inflammatory response in the central nervous system of mice susceptible or resistant to demyelination by Theiler's virus.

    PubMed

    Lindsley, M D; Rodriguez, M

    1989-04-15

    Intracerebral inoculation of mice with Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus results in an intense inflammatory response of mononuclear leukocytes which infiltrate into the central nervous system. Resistant strains of mice have the ability to clear virus whereas susceptible strains become infected persistently and are associated with chronic demyelination which is proposed to be immune-mediated. In an attempt to better understand the role of the immune response during demyelination, mononuclear leukocytes were isolated from the central nervous system of infected mice and stained by an immunoperoxidase technique with anti-Thy-1.2, anti-L3T4, anti-Lyt-2 and anti-MAC-1 mAb. Infection of susceptible SJL/J mice resulted in a biphasic immune response which peaked on days 7 and 27 post-infection. In contrast, a single peak (day 7) was observed in resistant C57BL/10SNJ mice. The presence of Thy-1.2, L3T4, and MAC-1+ cells was similar between the two strains. However, although the number of Lyt-2+ cells peaked on day 7 in C57BL/10SNJ mice, they were not detected in SJL/J mice until 14 days post-infection and gradually increased in number over the course of infection. To further study the role of T cells in demyelination, serial frozen sections of brain and spinal cord were stained for the presence of Lyt-2 and L3T4+ cells in the lesions of chronically infected SJL/J mice. L3T4+ cells were observed predominantly in perivascular regions while Lyt-2+ cells were observed infiltrating the parenchyma. These results provide further evidence that Lyt-2+ lymphocytes are important in the mechanism of susceptibility/resistance to Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus-induced demyelination.

  20. Predictive landslide susceptibility analysis along the mountain highway in central Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shou, Keh-Jian; Lin, Zora

    2016-04-01

    Climate change caused by global warming affects Taiwan significantly for the past decade. The increasing frequency of extreme rainfall events, in which concentrated and intensive rainfalls generally cause geohazards including landslides and debris flows. The extraordinary Typhoon Morakot hit Southern Taiwan, on August 8, 2009, and induced serious flooding and landslides. Considering the existence of various types of large scale landslides (shallow and deep-seated) and the importance of protection targets (the landslide might affect a residential area, cut a road, isolate a village, etc.), this study aims to analyze the landslide susceptibility along the Nantou County Road # 89 of Taiwan, in the upstream of Wu River. This study employs rainfall frequency analysis together with the atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) downscaling estimation to understand the temporal rainfall trends, distributions, and intensities in the Wu River watershed. Based on the data of Li-DAR and the information from boreholes, the temporal behavior and the complex mechanism of large scale landslides were analyzed. To assess the spatial hazard of the landslides, landslide susceptibility analysis was also implemented. The results of this study can be applied for risk prevention and management in the study area.

  1. Intrinsic Functional Hypoconnectivity in Core Neurocognitive Networks Suggests Central Nervous System Pathology in Patients with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Zinn, Marcie L; Zinn, Mark A; Jason, Leonard A

    2016-09-01

    Exact low resolution electromagnetic tomography (eLORETA) was recorded from nineteen EEG channels in nine patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) and 9 healthy controls to assess current source density and functional connectivity, a physiological measure of similarity between pairs of distributed regions of interest, between groups. Current source density and functional connectivity were measured using eLORETA software. We found significantly decreased eLORETA source analysis oscillations in the occipital, parietal, posterior cingulate, and posterior temporal lobes in Alpha and Alpha-2. For connectivity analysis, we assessed functional connectivity within Menon triple network model of neuropathology. We found support for all three networks of the triple network model, namely the central executive network (CEN), salience network (SN), and the default mode network (DMN) indicating hypo-connectivity in the Delta, Alpha, and Alpha-2 frequency bands in patients with ME compared to controls. In addition to the current source density resting state dysfunction in the occipital, parietal, posterior temporal and posterior cingulate, the disrupted connectivity of the CEN, SN, and DMN appears to be involved in cognitive impairment for patients with ME. This research suggests that disruptions in these regions and networks could be a neurobiological feature of the disorder, representing underlying neural dysfunction.

  2. Determination of hot-spot susceptibility of multistring photovoltaic modules in a central-station application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, C. C.; Weaver, R. W.; Ross, R. G., Jr.; Spencer, R.; Arnett, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    Part of the effort of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Flat-Plate Solar Array Project (FSA) includes a program to improve module and array reliability. A collaborative activity with industry dealing with the problem of hot-spot heating due to the shadowing of photovoltaic cells in modules and arrays containing several paralleled cell strings is described. The use of multiparallel strings in large central-station arrays introduces the likelihood of unequal current sharing and increased heating levels. Test results that relate power dissipated, current imbalance, cross-strapping frequency, and shadow configuration to hot-spot heating levels are presented. Recommendations for circuit design configurations appropriate to central-station applications that reduce the risk of hot-spot problems are offered. Guidelines are provided for developing hot-spot tests for arrays when current imbalance is a threat.

  3. GWAS of follicular lymphoma reveals allelic heterogeneity at 6p21.32 and suggests shared genetic susceptibility with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Smedby, Karin E; Foo, Jia Nee; Skibola, Christine F; Darabi, Hatef; Conde, Lucia; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Kumar, Vikrant; Chang, Ellen T; Rothman, Nathaniel; Cerhan, James R; Brooks-Wilson, Angela R; Rehnberg, Emil; Irwan, Ishak D; Ryder, Lars P; Brown, Peter N; Bracci, Paige M; Agana, Luz; Riby, Jacques; Cozen, Wendy; Davis, Scott; Hartge, Patricia; Morton, Lindsay M; Severson, Richard K; Wang, Sophia S; Slager, Susan L; Fredericksen, Zachary S; Novak, Anne J; Kay, Neil E; Habermann, Thomas M; Armstrong, Bruce; Kricker, Anne; Milliken, Sam; Purdue, Mark P; Vajdic, Claire M; Boyle, Peter; Lan, Qing; Zahm, Shelia H; Zhang, Yawei; Zheng, Tongzhang; Leach, Stephen; Spinelli, John J; Smith, Martyn T; Chanock, Stephen J; Padyukov, Leonid; Alfredsson, Lars; Klareskog, Lars; Glimelius, Bengt; Melbye, Mads; Liu, Edison T; Adami, Hans-Olov; Humphreys, Keith; Liu, Jianjun

    2011-04-01

    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) represents a diverse group of hematological malignancies, of which follicular lymphoma (FL) is a prevalent subtype. A previous genome-wide association study has established a marker, rs10484561 in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II region on 6p21.32 associated with increased FL risk. Here, in a three-stage genome-wide association study, starting with a genome-wide scan of 379 FL cases and 791 controls followed by validation in 1,049 cases and 5,790 controls, we identified a second independent FL-associated locus on 6p21.32, rs2647012 (OR(combined)  = 0.64, P(combined)  = 2 × 10(-21)) located 962 bp away from rs10484561 (r(2)<0.1 in controls). After mutual adjustment, the associations at the two SNPs remained genome-wide significant (rs2647012:OR(adjusted)  = 0.70, P(adjusted)  =  4 × 10(-12); rs10484561:OR(adjusted)  = 1.64, P(adjusted)  = 5 × 10(-15)). Haplotype and coalescence analyses indicated that rs2647012 arose on an evolutionarily distinct haplotype from that of rs10484561 and tags a novel allele with an opposite (protective) effect on FL risk. Moreover, in a follow-up analysis of the top 6 FL-associated SNPs in 4,449 cases of other NHL subtypes, rs10484561 was associated with risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (OR(combined)  = 1.36, P(combined)  =  1.4 × 10(-7)). Our results reveal the presence of allelic heterogeneity within the HLA class II region influencing FL susceptibility and indicate a possible shared genetic etiology with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. These findings suggest that the HLA class II region plays a complex yet important role in NHL.

  4. GWAS of Follicular Lymphoma Reveals Allelic Heterogeneity at 6p21.32 and Suggests Shared Genetic Susceptibility with Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Skibola, Christine F.; Darabi, Hatef; Conde, Lucia; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Kumar, Vikrant; Chang, Ellen T.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Cerhan, James R.; Brooks-Wilson, Angela R.; Rehnberg, Emil; Irwan, Ishak D.; Ryder, Lars P.; Brown, Peter N.; Bracci, Paige M.; Agana, Luz; Riby, Jacques; Cozen, Wendy; Davis, Scott; Hartge, Patricia; Morton, Lindsay M.; Severson, Richard K.; Wang, Sophia S.; Slager, Susan L.; Fredericksen, Zachary S.; Novak, Anne J.; Kay, Neil E.; Habermann, Thomas M.; Armstrong, Bruce; Kricker, Anne; Milliken, Sam; Purdue, Mark P.; Vajdic, Claire M.; Boyle, Peter; Lan, Qing; Zahm, Shelia H.; Zhang, Yawei; Zheng, Tongzhang; Leach, Stephen; Spinelli, John J.; Smith, Martyn T.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Padyukov, Leonid; Alfredsson, Lars; Klareskog, Lars; Glimelius, Bengt; Melbye, Mads; Liu, Edison T.; Adami, Hans-Olov; Humphreys, Keith; Liu, Jianjun

    2011-01-01

    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) represents a diverse group of hematological malignancies, of which follicular lymphoma (FL) is a prevalent subtype. A previous genome-wide association study has established a marker, rs10484561 in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II region on 6p21.32 associated with increased FL risk. Here, in a three-stage genome-wide association study, starting with a genome-wide scan of 379 FL cases and 791 controls followed by validation in 1,049 cases and 5,790 controls, we identified a second independent FL–associated locus on 6p21.32, rs2647012 (ORcombined = 0.64, Pcombined = 2×10−21) located 962 bp away from rs10484561 (r2<0.1 in controls). After mutual adjustment, the associations at the two SNPs remained genome-wide significant (rs2647012:ORadjusted = 0.70, Padjusted = 4×10−12; rs10484561:ORadjusted = 1.64, Padjusted = 5×10−15). Haplotype and coalescence analyses indicated that rs2647012 arose on an evolutionarily distinct haplotype from that of rs10484561 and tags a novel allele with an opposite (protective) effect on FL risk. Moreover, in a follow-up analysis of the top 6 FL–associated SNPs in 4,449 cases of other NHL subtypes, rs10484561 was associated with risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (ORcombined = 1.36, Pcombined = 1.4×10−7). Our results reveal the presence of allelic heterogeneity within the HLA class II region influencing FL susceptibility and indicate a possible shared genetic etiology with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. These findings suggest that the HLA class II region plays a complex yet important role in NHL. PMID:21533074

  5. SNP screening of central MHC-identified HLA-DMB as a candidate susceptibility gene for HIV-related Kaposi's sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Aissani, B; Boehme, A K; Wiener, H W; Shrestha, S; Jacobson, L P; Kaslow, R A

    2014-09-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region on chromosome 6p21.3 is suspected to host susceptibility loci for HIV-related Kaposi's sarcoma (HIV-KS). A nested case-control study in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study was designed to conduct fine genetic association mapping across central MHC. Individuals co-infected with HIV-1 and human herpes virus-8 who later developed KS were defined as cases (n=354) and were matched 1:1 with co-infected KS-free controls. We report data for new independent MHC class II and III susceptibility loci. In particular, class II HLA-DMB emerged as a strong candidate, with the intronic variant rs6902982 A>G associated with a fourfold increase of risk (odds ratio (OR)=4.09; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.90-8.80; P=0.0003). A striking multiplicative effect on the estimated risk was associated with further carriage of two non-synonymous variants, rs1800453 A>G (Asp697Gly) and rs4148880 A>G (Ile393Val), in the linked TAP1 gene (OR=10.5; 95% CI=2.54-43.6; P=0.0012). The class III susceptibility variant is moderately associated with HIV-KS and lies within a 120-kb-long haplotype (OR=1.52; 95% CI=1.01-2.28; P=0.047) formed by rs7029 A>G (GPANK1 3' untranslated region), rs1065356 G>A (LY6G6C), rs3749953 A>G (MSH5-SAPCD1 read through) and rs707926 G>A (VARS). Our data suggest that antigen processing by MHC class II molecules is a target pathway in the pathogenesis of HIV-KS.

  6. Landslide Susceptibility Assessment in the Central Part of Republic of Moldova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ercanoglu, Murat; Boboc, Nicolae; Sirodoev, Igor; Ahmet Temiz, F.; Sirodoev, Ghenadi

    2010-05-01

    There has been an increasing interest in natural hazard assessments within the scientific community, particularly in the last two decades. In other respect, there is also a dramatically rising trend in the number of natural hazards. Growing population and expansion of settlements and lifelines over hazardous areas have largely increased the impact of natural disasters both in industrialized and developing countries. Furthermore, natural disasters such as earthquakes, landslides, floods have dramatic effects on human life, infrastructures, environment, and so on. Landslides, one of the most destructive natural hazards, constitute a major geological hazard throughout the world, like in Turkey and Moldova. There are a lot of regions affected by landslides in Turkey (particularly the West, Middle and East Black Sea Region) and Moldova (e.g.: area between Nisporeni, Calarasi, Balti, Western Rezina District, Codri Hills in Central Moldova etc.), and consequences of landslides are of great importance in the two countries. In the last 50 years' period, only the economic loss due to landslides in Turkey is estimated about 5 billion , and 12.5 % of the whole settlement areas, including big and populated cities, are facing landslide threat. Similar to Turkey, there are about 16000 areas affected by landslides in Moldova. In February-March, 1998 the intensity of landslides in the central part of Moldova, including Chisinau, considerably increased. In total, 357 private households involving 1400 people were affected, 214 houses were destroyed, and 137 were damaged. The total national damage accounted for 44.3 million Lei. At present on Moldavian territory, there are more than 17000 landslides of various types. These landslides are mostly located within Central Moldavian heights, one of the most complicated geomorphologic structure and territory's fragmentation. Among major landslide triggering factors, in addition to natural ones, one should also consider the anthropogenic

  7. Ancient DNA Analysis Suggests Negligible Impact of the Wari Empire Expansion in Peru's Central Coast during the Middle Horizon.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Guido; Barreto Romero, María Inés; Flores Espinoza, Isabel; Cooper, Alan; Fehren-Schmitz, Lars; Llamas, Bastien; Haak, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of ancient human DNA from South America allows the exploration of pre-Columbian population history through time and to directly test hypotheses about cultural and demographic evolution. The Middle Horizon (650-1100 AD) represents a major transitional period in the Central Andes, which is associated with the development and expansion of ancient Andean empires such as Wari and Tiwanaku. These empires facilitated a series of interregional interactions and socio-political changes, which likely played an important role in shaping the region's demographic and cultural profiles. We analyzed individuals from three successive pre-Columbian cultures present at the Huaca Pucllana archaeological site in Lima, Peru: Lima (Early Intermediate Period, 500-700 AD), Wari (Middle Horizon, 800-1000 AD) and Ychsma (Late Intermediate Period, 1000-1450 AD). We sequenced 34 complete mitochondrial genomes to investigate the potential genetic impact of the Wari Empire in the Central Coast of Peru. The results indicate that genetic diversity shifted only slightly through time, ruling out a complete population discontinuity or replacement driven by the Wari imperialist hegemony, at least in the region around present-day Lima. However, we caution that the very subtle genetic contribution of Wari imperialism at the particular Huaca Pucllana archaeological site might not be representative for the entire Wari territory in the Peruvian Central Coast. PMID:27248693

  8. Anaesthetic management of coronary artery bypass grafting in a patient with central core disease and susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia on statin therapy.

    PubMed

    Johi, R R; Mills, R; Halsall, P J; Hopkins, P M

    2003-11-01

    Central core disease and malignant hyperthermia (MH) are both associated with mutations in the RYR1 gene. We report the anaesthetic management of one such patient presenting for coronary artery bypass grafting. Her medication included aspirin 75 mg, atorvastatin 20 mg, isosorbide mononitrate 60 mg, atenolol 25 mg and glyceryl trinitrite sublingual spray as required. The use of aprotinin, statins and moderate hypothermia in patients with central core disease and known susceptibility to MH has not been documented.

  9. A novel resistance mechanism to triclosan that suggests horizontal gene transfer and demonstrates a potential selective pressure for reduced biocide susceptibility in clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Ciusa, Maria Laura; Furi, Leonardo; Knight, Daniel; Decorosi, Francesca; Fondi, Marco; Raggi, Carla; Coelho, Joana Rosado; Aragones, Luis; Moce, Laura; Visa, Pilar; Freitas, Ana Teresa; Baldassarri, Lucilla; Fani, Renato; Viti, Carlo; Orefici, Graziella; Martinez, Jose Luis; Morrissey, Ian; Oggioni, Marco Rinaldo

    2012-09-01

    The widely used biocide triclosan selectively targets FabI, the NADH-dependent trans-2-enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase, which is an important target for narrow-spectrum antimicrobial drug development. In relation to the growing concern about biocide resistance, we compared in vitro mutants and clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus with reduced triclosan susceptibility. Clinical isolates of S. aureus as well as laboratory-generated mutants were assayed for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) phenotypes and genotypes related to reduced triclosan susceptibility. A potential epidemiological cut-off (ECOFF) MBC of >4 mg/L was observed for triclosan in clinical isolates of S. aureus. These showed significantly lower MICs and higher MBCs than laboratory mutants. These groups of strains also had few similarities in the triclosan resistance mechanism. Molecular analysis identified novel resistance mechanisms linked to the presence of an additional sh-fabI allele derived from Staphylococcus haemolyticus. The lack of predictive value of in-vitro-selected mutations for clinical isolates indicates that laboratory tests in the present form appear to be of limited value. More importantly, detection of sh-fabI as a novel resistance mechanism with high potential for horizontal gene transfer demonstrates for the first time that a biocide could exert a selective pressure able to drive the spread of a resistance determinant in a human pathogen.

  10. Distribution of capsular types and antibiotic susceptibility of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from aborigines in central Australia.

    PubMed Central

    Gratten, M; Torzillo, P; Morey, F; Dixon, J; Erlich, J; Hagger, J; Henrichsen, J

    1996-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae strains isolated from 203 episodes of invasive disease in central Australian Aborigines were studied. Capsular types from children aged 0 to 4 years (n = 89) belonged most commonly to types 14, 6B, 9V, 4, 18C, and 19F, which together accounted for 67% of the pediatric strains. In adults (n = 98), types 1, 7F, 3, 4, 12F, and 8 contributed 68% of the isolates. Of 114 pneumococci from patients 5 years and older, 102 (89.5%) were types represented in the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. The MICs of five antibiotics were determined for 201 strains by using the E-Test (AB Biodisk). No chloramphenicol or ceftriaxone resistance was found, but 46 strains (22.9%) showed diminished susceptibility to one or more of the drugs penicillin, erythromycin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Penicillin resistance occurred in 15.4% of all isolates tested but only within the intermediate range (0.1 to 1.0 microgram/ml). Resistance to trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole affected 13.9% of the pneumococci tested. All type 23F and most type 19F organisms were resistant to one or more antibiotics. Resistance was significantly more common in pediatric isolates than in those from adults (chi 2(1) = 14.1; P < 0.001). PMID:8789011

  11. Magnetic Susceptibility and Mineral Zonations Controlled by Provenance in Loess along the Illinois and Central Mississippi River Valleys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grimley, D.A.; Follmer, L.R.; McKay, E.D.

    1998-01-01

    Magnetic susceptibility (MS) patterns have proven useful for regional stratigraphic correlations of zones within thick, oxidized Peoria and Roxana Silts along the Illinois and Central Mississippi River valleys for more than 350 km. Variations in MS of C horizon loess are controlled by silt-sized magnetite content and are interpreted to reflect changes in sediment provenance due to fluctuations of the Superior and Lake Michigan glacier lobes and the diversion of the Mississippi River to its present course. Grain size distributions and scanning electron microscopic observations indicate that stratigraphic changes in MS are not significantly influenced by eolian sorting or diagenetic dissolution, respectively. Three compositional zones (lower, middle, and upper) are delineated within Peoria Silt which usually can be traced in the field by MS, the occurrence of clay beds, interstadial soils, and/or subtle color changes. These zones can be correlated with, but are generally of more practical use than, previously studied dolomite zones (McKay, 1977) or clay mineral zones (Frye et al., 1968). However, mineralogical analyses can help to substantiate zone boundaries when in question. MS and compositional zones may indirectly record a climatic signal, primarily through the effect that global cooling has had on ice lobe fluctuations in the Upper Mississippi drainage basin. ?? 1998 University of Washington.

  12. X-ray absorption lines suggest matter infalling onto the central black-hole of Mrk 509

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadina, M.; Cappi, M.; Malaguti, G.; Ponti, G.; de Rosa, A.

    2005-11-01

    Evidence for both red- and blue-shifted absorption lines due to ionized Fe in the X-ray spectrum of the Seyfert 1 galaxy Mrk 509 is reported. These features appear to be transient on time-scales as short as ~20 ks, and have been observed with two different satellites, BeppoSAX and XMM-Newton. The red- and blue-shifted lines are found at E˜5.5 keV and ~8.1-8.3 keV (rest-frame), respectively. The first is seen in one out of six BeppoSAX observations, the latter is seen by both satellites. Under the assumption that the absorption is due to either H- or He-like Iron, the implied velocities for the absorbing matter are v˜0.15-0.2 c, in both outward and inward directions. An alternative explanation in terms of gravitational red-shift for the ~5.5 keV line cannot be ruled out with the current data. We argue, however, that the temporal patterns and sporadic nature of the lines are more easily reconciled with models that predict important radial motions close to the central black hole, such as the "aborted jet" model, the "thundercloud" model, or magneto-hydrodynamical models of jets and accretion-disks.

  13. High adenylyl cyclase activity and in vivo cAMP fluctuations in corals suggest central physiological role

    PubMed Central

    Barott, K. L.; Helman, Y.; Haramaty, L.; Barron, M. E.; Hess, K. C.; Buck, J.; Levin, L. R.; Tresguerres, M.

    2013-01-01

    Corals are an ecologically and evolutionarily significant group, providing the framework for coral reef biodiversity while representing one of the most basal of metazoan phyla. However, little is known about fundamental signaling pathways in corals. Here we investigate the dynamics of cAMP, a conserved signaling molecule that can regulate virtually every physiological process. Bioinformatics revealed corals have both transmembrane and soluble adenylyl cyclases (AC). Endogenous cAMP levels in live corals followed a potential diel cycle, as they were higher during the day compared to the middle of the night. Coral homogenates exhibited some of the highest cAMP production rates ever to be recorded in any organism; this activity was inhibited by calcium ions and stimulated by bicarbonate. In contrast, zooxanthellae or mucus had >1000-fold lower AC activity. These results suggest that cAMP is an important regulator of coral physiology, especially in response to light, acid/base disturbances and inorganic carbon levels. PMID:23459251

  14. Susceptibility of field populations of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, to a selection of insecticides in Central China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuzhen; Zhang, Xiaolei; Shen, Jun; Mao, Kaikai; You, Hong; Li, Jianhong

    2016-09-01

    The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is a globally distributed and important economic pest. Chemical control is the primary approach to regulate populations of this pest. However, resistance to insecticides evolves following heavy and frequent use. Therefore, the insecticide resistance in field populations of P. xylostella collected from Central China from 2013 to 2014 was determined with a leaf-dipping method. Based on the results of the monitoring, P. xylostella has developed high levels of resistance to beta-cypermethrin (resistance ratio=69.76-335.76-fold), Bt (WG-001) (RR=35.43-167.36), and chlorfluazuron (RR=13.60-104.95) and medium levels of resistance to chlorantraniliprole (RR=1.19-14.26), chlorfenapyr (RR=4.22-13.44), spinosad (RR=5.89-21.45), indoxacarb (RR=4.01-34.45), and abamectin (RR=23.88-95.15). By contrast, the field populations of P. xylostella remained susceptible to or developed low levels of resistance to diafenthiuron (RR=1.61-8.05), spinetoram (RR=0.88-2.35), and cyantraniliprole (RR=0.4-2.15). Moreover, the LC50 values of field populations of P. xylostella were highly positively correlated between chlorantraniliprole and cyantraniliprole (r=0.88, P=0.045), chlorantraniliprole and spinosad (r=0.66, P=0.039), spinosad and diafenthiuron (r=0.57, P=0.0060), and chlorfenapyr and diafenthiuron (r=0.51, P=0.016). Additionally, the activities of detoxification enzymes in field populations of P. xylostella were significantly positively correlated with the log LC50 values of chlorantraniliprole and spinosad. The results of this study provide an important base for developing effective and successful strategies to manage insecticide resistance in P. xylostella. PMID:27521911

  15. Susceptibility of field populations of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, to a selection of insecticides in Central China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuzhen; Zhang, Xiaolei; Shen, Jun; Mao, Kaikai; You, Hong; Li, Jianhong

    2016-09-01

    The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is a globally distributed and important economic pest. Chemical control is the primary approach to regulate populations of this pest. However, resistance to insecticides evolves following heavy and frequent use. Therefore, the insecticide resistance in field populations of P. xylostella collected from Central China from 2013 to 2014 was determined with a leaf-dipping method. Based on the results of the monitoring, P. xylostella has developed high levels of resistance to beta-cypermethrin (resistance ratio=69.76-335.76-fold), Bt (WG-001) (RR=35.43-167.36), and chlorfluazuron (RR=13.60-104.95) and medium levels of resistance to chlorantraniliprole (RR=1.19-14.26), chlorfenapyr (RR=4.22-13.44), spinosad (RR=5.89-21.45), indoxacarb (RR=4.01-34.45), and abamectin (RR=23.88-95.15). By contrast, the field populations of P. xylostella remained susceptible to or developed low levels of resistance to diafenthiuron (RR=1.61-8.05), spinetoram (RR=0.88-2.35), and cyantraniliprole (RR=0.4-2.15). Moreover, the LC50 values of field populations of P. xylostella were highly positively correlated between chlorantraniliprole and cyantraniliprole (r=0.88, P=0.045), chlorantraniliprole and spinosad (r=0.66, P=0.039), spinosad and diafenthiuron (r=0.57, P=0.0060), and chlorfenapyr and diafenthiuron (r=0.51, P=0.016). Additionally, the activities of detoxification enzymes in field populations of P. xylostella were significantly positively correlated with the log LC50 values of chlorantraniliprole and spinosad. The results of this study provide an important base for developing effective and successful strategies to manage insecticide resistance in P. xylostella.

  16. Transcriptomic analysis of the hippocampus from six inbred strains of mice suggests a basis for sex-specific susceptibility and severity of neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Vied, Cynthia; Ray, Surjyendu; Badger, Crystal-Dawn; Bundy, Joseph L; Arbeitman, Michelle N; Nowakowski, Richard S

    2016-09-01

    Identifying sex differences in gene expression within the brain is critical for determining why multiple neurological and behavioral disorders differentially affect males and females. Several disorders are more common or severe in males (e.g., autism and schizophrenia) or in females (e.g., Alzheimer's disease and depression). We analyzed transcriptomic data from the mouse hippocampus of six inbred strains (129S1/SvImJ, A/J, C57BL/6J, DBA/1J, DBA/2J, and PWD/Ph) to provide a perspective on differences between male and female gene expression. Our data show that 1) gene expression differences in males vs. females varies substantially across the strains, 2) only a few genes are differentially expressed across all of the strains (termed core genes), and 3) >2,600 genes differ in the individual strain comparisons (termed noncore genes). We found that DBA/2J uniquely has a substantial majority (89%) of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that are more highly expressed in females than in males (female-biased); 129/SvImJ has a majority (69%) of DEGs that are more highly expressed in males. To gain insight into the function of the DEGs, we examined gene ontology and pathway and phenotype enrichment and found significant enrichment in phenotypes related to abnormal nervous system morphology and physiology, among others. In addition, several pathways are enriched significantly, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), with 32 genes implicated in AD, eight of which are male-biased. Three of the male-biased genes have been implicated in a neuroprotective role in AD. Our transcriptomic data provide new insight into the possible genetic bases for sex-specific susceptibility and severity of brain disorders. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2696-2710, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Transcriptomic analysis of the hippocampus from six inbred strains of mice suggests a basis for sex-specific susceptibility and severity of neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Vied, Cynthia; Ray, Surjyendu; Badger, Crystal-Dawn; Bundy, Joseph L; Arbeitman, Michelle N; Nowakowski, Richard S

    2016-09-01

    Identifying sex differences in gene expression within the brain is critical for determining why multiple neurological and behavioral disorders differentially affect males and females. Several disorders are more common or severe in males (e.g., autism and schizophrenia) or in females (e.g., Alzheimer's disease and depression). We analyzed transcriptomic data from the mouse hippocampus of six inbred strains (129S1/SvImJ, A/J, C57BL/6J, DBA/1J, DBA/2J, and PWD/Ph) to provide a perspective on differences between male and female gene expression. Our data show that 1) gene expression differences in males vs. females varies substantially across the strains, 2) only a few genes are differentially expressed across all of the strains (termed core genes), and 3) >2,600 genes differ in the individual strain comparisons (termed noncore genes). We found that DBA/2J uniquely has a substantial majority (89%) of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that are more highly expressed in females than in males (female-biased); 129/SvImJ has a majority (69%) of DEGs that are more highly expressed in males. To gain insight into the function of the DEGs, we examined gene ontology and pathway and phenotype enrichment and found significant enrichment in phenotypes related to abnormal nervous system morphology and physiology, among others. In addition, several pathways are enriched significantly, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), with 32 genes implicated in AD, eight of which are male-biased. Three of the male-biased genes have been implicated in a neuroprotective role in AD. Our transcriptomic data provide new insight into the possible genetic bases for sex-specific susceptibility and severity of brain disorders. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2696-2710, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26917114

  18. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility data bearing on the transport direction of mid-tertiary regional ignimbrites, Candelaria Hills area, West-Central Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petronis, Michael S.; Geissman, John W.

    2009-03-01

    In west-central Nevada, the Oligocene Candelaria pyroclastic sequence reaches a local thickness of up to 1.3 km, in what has been referred to as the Candelaria trough, but more generally the accumulation of ash-flow tuffs and related volcanic rocks is less than 300 m thick. Complete to near complete outcrops are scattered over about 3200 km2 in the Candelaria Hills and surrounding ranges of the Southern Walker Lane structural zone. Three regionally extensive compound cooling units within the overall sequence (25.8 Ma Metallic City, 24.1 Ma Belleville, and 23.7 Ma Candelaria Junction Tuffs) have distinguishing characteristics and are the focus of study. At 106 sites, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) data provide an estimate of transport direction of each tuff. Inferred transport directions based on the AMS data are corrected for a modest clockwise, yet variable magnitude, vertical axis rotation that affected these rocks in late Miocene to Pliocene time, as revealed by paleomagnetic studies. The AMS data show a somewhat orderly pattern of magnetic fabrics that we interpret to define unique transport directions for the Metallic City and Candelaria Junction Tuffs. The low susceptibility and degree of anisotropy of the Belleville Tuff limits our interpretation from this pyroclastic deposit. The Metallic City and Candelaria Junction Tuffs typically show gentle, south-southeast and southeast dipping magnetic fabric imbrication, respectively, and very gently plunging magnetic lineations. These AMS fabric elements indicate the tuffs were transported to the north-northwest and northwest, respectively. The AMS fabric data from the Metallic City and Candelaria Junction Tuffs suggest relatively unrestricted flow during emplacement. Evidence across the 3,200 km2 area to support more regionally controlled channelized flow into and/or flow along the east northeast-west southwest axis of the Candelaria trough is lacking. The ignimbrites clearly filled a topographic

  19. Central European parasitic flatworms of the family Renicolidae Dollfus, 1939 (Trematoda: Plagiorchiida): molecular and comparative morphological analysis rejects the synonymization of Renicola pinguis complex suggested by Odening.

    PubMed

    Heneberg, Petr; Sitko, Jiljí; Bizos, Jiří; Horne, Elizabeth C

    2016-10-01

    The Renicolidae are digenean parasites of piscivorous and molluscivorous birds. Although they exhibit few morphological autapomorphies and are highly variable, the numerous suggested re-classifications within the family have never been supported by any molecular analyses. We address the possible synonymization of species within the Renicola pinguis complex suggested previously by Odening. We provide and analyse sequences of two nuclear (ITS2, 28S rDNA) and two mitochondrial (CO1, ND1) DNA loci of central European species of the Renicolidae, namely Renicola lari, Renicola pinguis and Renicola sternae sp. n., and we also provide first sequences of Renicola sloanei. The combined molecular and comparative morphological analysis confirms the previously questioned validity of the three Renicola spp. of highly similar morphology, which display strict niche separation in terms of host specificity and selectivity. We identify two previously unreported clades within the genus Renicola; however, only one of them is supported by the analysis of adult worms. We also provide comparative measurements of the three examined closely related central European renicolids, and describe the newly proposed tern-specialized species Renicola sternae sp. n., which was previously repeatedly misidentified as Renicola paraquinta. Based on the extensive dataset collected in 1962-2015, we update the host spectrum of Renicolidae parasitizing central European birds (Renicola bretensis, R. lari, Renicola mediovitellata, R. pinguis, Renicola secunda and R. sternae sp. n.) and discuss their host-specific prevalence and intensity of infections. PMID:27356772

  20. Susceptibility to acidic precipitation contributes to the decline of the terricolous lichens Cetraria aculeata and Cetraria islandica in central Europe.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Markus

    2008-04-01

    The effective quantum yield of photochemical energy conversion in photosystem II (Phi2) was shown to be reduced in the terricolous lichens Cetraria aculeata and Cetraria islandica by short-term exposure to aqueous SO2 at pH values occurring in the precipitation of areas with high SO2 pollution. Significant reduction of Phi2 was found at pHsuggests that sensitivity to SO2 (primarily associated with epiphytic lichens in the past) has contributed to the decline of both species in central Europe. In C. islandica, but not in C. aculeata, thalli with the natural content of lichen substances were more tolerant to SO2 than thalli where the extracellular lichen substances were extracted before the experiment. This supports published results that the depsidone fumarprotocetraric acid, a major lichen substance of C. islandica, increases the pollution tolerance in lichens.

  1. Resequencing and association analysis of coding regions at twenty candidate genes suggest a role for rare risk variation at AKAP9 and protective variation at NRXN1 in schizophrenia susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Rama, José Javier; Arrojo, Manuel; Sobrino, Beatriz; Amigo, Jorge; Brenlla, Julio; Agra, Santiago; Paz, Eduardo; Brión, María; Carracedo, Ángel; Páramo, Mario; Costas, Javier

    2015-01-01

    A fraction of genetic risk to develop schizophrenia may be due to low-frequency variants. This multistep study attempted to find low-frequency variants of high effect at coding regions of eleven schizophrenia susceptibility genes supported by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and nine genes for the DISC1 interactome, a susceptibility gene-set. During the discovery step, a total of 125 kb per sample were resequenced in 153 schizophrenia patients and 153 controls from Galicia (NW Spain), and the cumulative role of low-frequency variants at a gene or at the DISC1 gene-set were analyzed by burden and variance-based tests. Relevant results were meta-analyzed when appropriate data were available. In addition, case-only putative damaging variants were genotyped in a further 419 cases and 398 controls. The discovery step revealed a protective effect of rare missense variants at NRXN1, a result supported by meta-analysis (OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.47-0.94, P = 0.021, based on 3848 patients and 3896 controls from six studies). The follow-up step based on case-only putative damaging variants revealed a promising risk variant at AKAP9. This variant, K873R, reached nominal significance after inclusion of 240 additional Spanish controls from databases. The variant, located in an ADCY2 binding region, is absent from large public databases. Interestingly, GWAS revealed an association between common ADCY2 variants and bipolar disorder, a disorder with considerable genetic overlap with schizophrenia. These data suggest a role of rare missense variants at NRXN1 and AKAP9 in schizophrenia susceptibility, probably related to alteration of the excitatory/inhibitory synaptic balance, deserving further investigation.

  2. Resequencing and association analysis of coding regions at twenty candidate genes suggest a role for rare risk variation at AKAP9 and protective variation at NRXN1 in schizophrenia susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Rama, José Javier; Arrojo, Manuel; Sobrino, Beatriz; Amigo, Jorge; Brenlla, Julio; Agra, Santiago; Paz, Eduardo; Brión, María; Carracedo, Ángel; Páramo, Mario; Costas, Javier

    2015-01-01

    A fraction of genetic risk to develop schizophrenia may be due to low-frequency variants. This multistep study attempted to find low-frequency variants of high effect at coding regions of eleven schizophrenia susceptibility genes supported by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and nine genes for the DISC1 interactome, a susceptibility gene-set. During the discovery step, a total of 125 kb per sample were resequenced in 153 schizophrenia patients and 153 controls from Galicia (NW Spain), and the cumulative role of low-frequency variants at a gene or at the DISC1 gene-set were analyzed by burden and variance-based tests. Relevant results were meta-analyzed when appropriate data were available. In addition, case-only putative damaging variants were genotyped in a further 419 cases and 398 controls. The discovery step revealed a protective effect of rare missense variants at NRXN1, a result supported by meta-analysis (OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.47-0.94, P = 0.021, based on 3848 patients and 3896 controls from six studies). The follow-up step based on case-only putative damaging variants revealed a promising risk variant at AKAP9. This variant, K873R, reached nominal significance after inclusion of 240 additional Spanish controls from databases. The variant, located in an ADCY2 binding region, is absent from large public databases. Interestingly, GWAS revealed an association between common ADCY2 variants and bipolar disorder, a disorder with considerable genetic overlap with schizophrenia. These data suggest a role of rare missense variants at NRXN1 and AKAP9 in schizophrenia susceptibility, probably related to alteration of the excitatory/inhibitory synaptic balance, deserving further investigation. PMID:25943950

  3. Identification, clinical aspects, susceptibility pattern, and molecular epidemiology of beta-haemolytic group G Streptococcus anginosus group isolates from central Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yi-Cheng; Lo, Hsueh-Hsia

    2013-07-01

    No literature is available on the prevalence and clinical aspects of beta-haemolytic group G Streptococcus anginosus group in central Taiwan. In this study, we used 16S rRNA gene sequencing and 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer sequencing (where necessary) as the gold standard for molecular identification. Twenty-seven S. anginosus group isolates were identified from 273 beta-haemolytic GGS isolates collected from patients in central Taiwan between February 2007 and August 2011. Of the 27 isolates, 22 were S. anginosus and 5 were Streptococcus constellatus. The 3 commercial methods, Rapid ID 32 Strep, API 20 Strep, and Vitek 2 GP card, identified 77.8%, 40.7%, and 37.0% of S. anginosus group isolates, respectively, with acceptable %ID or probability level. All the S. constellatus isolates possessed the lmb gene (encoding laminin-binding protein); however, none of the S. anginosus isolates possessed this gene. All the 27 isolates were susceptible to penicillin. Five S. anginosus group isolates (18.5%) were resistant to erythromycin. The resistance genes, ermB and mefA, were detected in 3 (2 S. anginosus and 1 S. constellatus) and 2 (2 S. anginosus) isolates, respectively. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis showed that most S. anginosus group isolates were genetically diverse. This is the first study to evaluate 3 commercial methods for the identification of beta-haemolytic group G S. anginosus group species, and only the Rapid ID 32 Strep system showed considerable ability. The clinical aspects, susceptibility pattern, and molecular epidemiology of beta-haemolytic group G S. anginosus group isolates from central Taiwan were also first presented.

  4. A comprehensive, genome-wide analysis of autophagy-related genes identified in tobacco suggests a central role of autophagy in plant response to various environmental cues

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xue-mei; Zhao, Peng; Wang, Wei; Zou, Jie; Cheng, Tian-he; Peng, Xiong-bo; Sun, Meng-xiang

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism in both animals and plants, which has been shown to be involved in various essential developmental processes in plants. Nicotiana tabacum is considered to be an ideal model plant and has been widely used for the study of the roles of autophagy in the processes of plant development and in the response to various stresses. However, only a few autophagy-related genes (ATGs) have been identified in tobacco up to now. Here, we identified 30 ATGs belonging to 16 different groups in tobacco through a genome-wide survey. Comprehensive expression profile analysis reveals an abroad expression pattern of these ATGs, which could be detected in all tissues tested under normal growth conditions. Our series tests further reveal that majority of ATGs are sensitive and responsive to different stresses including nutrient starvation, plant hormones, heavy metal and other abiotic stresses, suggesting a central role of autophagy, likely as an effector, in plant response to various environmental cues. This work offers a detailed survey of all ATGs in tobacco and also suggests manifold functions of autophagy in both normal plant growth and plant response to environmental stresses. PMID:26205094

  5. Safety assessment of 4'-thio-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine in the beagle dog suggests a drug-induced centrally mediated effect on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

    PubMed

    Colagiovanni, Dorothy B; Drolet, Daniel W; Dihel, Larry; Meyer, Dennis J; Hart, Karen; Wolf, Julie

    2006-01-01

    4'-Thio-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (OSI-7836) is a nucleoside analogue with structural similarity to gemcitabine and cytarabine (ara-C). Myelosuppression, reversible transaminase elevations, and flu-like symptoms are common side effects associated with human use of gemcitabine and ara-C. Fatigue is also associated with the use of gemcitabine and OSI-7836 in humans. To better understand the toxicity of OSI-7836, subchronic studies were conducted in dogs. OSI-7836 was administered on days 1 and 8 or on days 1, 2, and 3 of a 21-day dose regimen. These schedules attempted to match clinical trial dosing regimens. Routine toxicity study end points demonstrated that OSI-7836 was primarily cytotoxic to the gastrointestinal tract, bone marrow, and testes; the myelotoxicity was mild and reversible. Plasma pharmacokinetics were dose-linear with an elimination half-life of 2.2 h. Follow-up single dose experiments in dogs assessed drug effects on lymphocyte subpopulations and on adrenal and thyroid function. Populations of T and B cells were equally reduced following OSI-7836 administration. There were no adverse effects on thyroid function, but there were marked reductions in circulating cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone concentrations suggesting a centrally mediated impairment of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. These findings show a toxicological profile with OSI-7836 similar to other nucleoside analogues and suggest that the beagle is a model for studying one possible cause of OSI-7836-related fatigue, impaired function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

  6. Expression of T cell receptor V beta transcripts in central nervous system of mice susceptible and resistant to Theiler's virus-induced demyelination.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, M; Prayoonwiwat, N; Zhou, P; David, C

    1993-08-01

    We utilized the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to examine for preferential expression of T cell receptor (TcR) V beta s in T cells infiltrating the central nervous system (CNS) of mice infected with Theiler's virus. Infection of susceptible strains of mice with Theiler's virus results in demyelinating disease similar to multiple sclerosis. At 7 days following infection, no difference was observed in TcR V beta usage in lymphocytes infiltrating the CNS between resistant (B10.K) and susceptible (B10.Q or SJL/J) mice. In susceptible mice with prominent demyelination (day 45 and 238 following infection), no preferential expression of TcR V beta s was observed in the CNS. There is strong evidence that T cells play a major role in pathogenesis of TMEV-induced demyelination. There is increasing evidence using recombinant inbred strain mice with TcR V beta deletions that T cells expressing certain TcR V beta genes may be critical in the disease process. Yet, analysis of TcR V beta expression on T cells in CNS using PCR technology did not provide a way to dissect which antigen-specific T cells play a role in disease. These results confirm that during active demyelination specific as well as non-specific T cells are recruited to the CNS. Even though the pathogenesis of TMEV-induced disease may not be identical to that in multiple sclerosis, it is unlikely that similar approaches utilizing polymerase chain reaction will provide insights to the role of T cell receptors in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis.

  7. Inference of the Arabidopsis Lateral Root Gene Regulatory Network Suggests a Bifurcation Mechanism That Defines Primordia Flanking and Central Zones[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Lavenus, Julien; Goh, Tatsuaki; Guyomarc’h, Soazig; Hill, Kristine; Lucas, Mikael; Voß, Ute; Kenobi, Kim; Wilson, Michael H.; Farcot, Etienne; Hagen, Gretchen; Guilfoyle, Thomas J.; Fukaki, Hidehiro; Laplaze, Laurent; Bennett, Malcolm J.

    2015-01-01

    A large number of genes involved in lateral root (LR) organogenesis have been identified over the last decade using forward and reverse genetic approaches in Arabidopsis thaliana. Nevertheless, how these genes interact to form a LR regulatory network largely remains to be elucidated. In this study, we developed a time-delay correlation algorithm (TDCor) to infer the gene regulatory network (GRN) controlling LR primordium initiation and patterning in Arabidopsis from a time-series transcriptomic data set. The predicted network topology links the very early-activated genes involved in LR initiation to later expressed cell identity markers through a multistep genetic cascade exhibiting both positive and negative feedback loops. The predictions were tested for the key transcriptional regulator AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR7 node, and over 70% of its targets were validated experimentally. Intriguingly, the predicted GRN revealed a mutual inhibition between the ARF7 and ARF5 modules that would control an early bifurcation between two cell fates. Analyses of the expression pattern of ARF7 and ARF5 targets suggest that this patterning mechanism controls flanking and central zone specification in Arabidopsis LR primordia. PMID:25944102

  8. Landslide susceptibility-certainty mapping by a multi-method approach: A case study in the Tertiary basin of Puy-en-Velay (Massif central, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poiraud, Alexandre

    2014-07-01

    The present study discusses the use of integrated variables along with a combination of multi-method forecasts for landslide susceptibility mapping. The study area is located in the south-eastern French Massif central, a volcanic region containing Tertiary sedimentary materials that are prone to landslides. The flowage-type landslides within the study area are very slow-moving phenomena which affect the infrastructures and human settlements. The modelling process is based on a training set of landslides (70% of total landslides) and a set of controlling factor (slope, lithology, surficial formation, the topographic wetness index, the topographic position index, distance to thalweg, and aspect). We create a composite variable (or integrated variable), corresponding to the union of geology and surficial formation, in order to avoid the conditional dependence between these two variables and to build a geotechnical variable. We use five classical modelling methods (index, weight-of-evidence, logistic regression, decision tree, and unique condition unit) with the same training set but with different architectures of input data made up of controlling factors. All the models are tested with a validation group (30% of total landslides), using the Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (AUC) to quantify their predictive performance. We finally select a single “best” model for each method. However, these five models are all equivalent in quality, despite their differences in detail, so no single model stands out against another. Finally, we combine the five models into a unique susceptibility map with a calculation of median susceptibility class. The final AUC value of this combined map is better than that for a single model (except for Unique Condition Unit), and we can evaluate the certainty of the susceptibility class pixel by pixel. In agreement with the sparse literature on this topic, we conclude that i) integrated variables increase the performance

  9. Oroclinal bending of the Juan Fernández Ridge suggested by geohistory analysis of the Bahía Inglesa Formation, north-central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Roux, Jacobus P.; Achurra, Luciano; Henríquez, Álvaro; Carreño, Catalina; Rivera, Huber; Suárez, Mario E.; Ishman, Scott E.; Pyenson, Nicholas D.; Gutstein, Carolina S.

    2016-03-01

    The stratigraphy of the Bahía Inglesa Formation in the Caldera Basin west of Copiapó, (north-central Chile) is revised, based on hitherto unpublished stratigraphic sections and 87Sr/86Sr dating. The depositional environment varied from a rocky shoreline to the upper continental slope, with sea-level oscillations and tectonic movements causing numerous local unconformities as well as lateral and vertical facies changes. Geohistory and sedimentological analyses show that the area was close to the concurrent sea level at about 15.3 Ma, but at the same time being elevated about 100 m above the present sea level. Although the basin then subsided at least 350 m until around 6 Ma, marine deposition was only recorded after 10.4 Ma. This suggests that the sea level initially dropped faster than the rate of subsidence so that subaerial erosion occurred. The period of subaerial exposure before 10.4 Ma can be attributed to the presence of a NE-trending branch of the Juan Fernández Ridge below the continental crust at this time, whereas the ensuing subsidence was due to subduction erosion and crustal accommodation in its wake as it migrated south along the South American coastline. The subsequent uplift of at least 250 m can be explained by an acceleration in plate expansion and isostatic rebound of the continental crust after being partially submerged in the upper mantle. The uplift-subsidence-uplift pattern mirrors those recorded around the Nazca Ridge in Peru, as well as in similar basins to the south of Caldera. However, a higher southward migration rate of the Juan Fernández Ridge against the edge of the South American Plate and less intense uplift-subsidence-uplift cycles are recorded in the latter basins. This can possibly be attributed to oroclinal bending of the ridge due to friction with the overlying continental plate, which diminished the angle of incidence and the intensity of the stress field, but increased the migration velocity of the ridge relative to the

  10. Landslide susceptibility analysis in central Vietnam based on an incomplete landslide inventory: Comparison of a new method to calculate weighting factors by means of bivariate statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinhardt, Markus; Fink, Manfred; Tünschel, Hannes

    2015-04-01

    Vietnam is regarded as a country strongly impacted by climate change. Population and economic growth result in additional pressures on the ecosystems in the region. In particular, changes in landuse and precipitation extremes lead to a higher landslide susceptibility in the study area (approx. 12,400 km2), located in central Vietnam and impacted by a tropical monsoon climate. Hence, this natural hazard is a serious problem in the study area. A probability assessment of landslides is therefore undertaken through the use of bivariate statistics. However, the landslide inventory based only on field campaigns does not cover the whole area. To avoid a systematic bias due to the limited mapping area, the investigated regions are depicted as the viewshed in the calculations. On this basis, the distribution of the landslides is evaluated in relation to the maps of 13 parameters, showing the strongest correlation to distance to roads and precipitation increase. An additional weighting of the input parameters leads to better results, since some parameters contribute more to landslides than others. The method developed in this work is based on the validation of different parameter sets used within the statistical index method. It is called "omit error" because always omitting another parameter leads to the weightings, which describe how strong every single parameter improves or reduces the objective function. Furthermore, this approach is used to find a better input parameter set by excluding some parameters. After this optimization, nine input parameters are left, and they are weighted by the omit error method, providing the best susceptibility map with a success rate of 92.9% and a prediction rate of 92.3%. This is an improvement of 4.4% and 4.2%, respectively, compared to the basic statistical index method with the 13 input parameters.

  11. Susceptibility Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... page helpful? Also known as: Sensitivity Testing; Drug Resistance Testing; Culture and Sensitivity; C & S; Antimicrobial Susceptibility Formal name: Bacterial and Fungal Susceptibility Testing Related tests: Urine Culture ; ...

  12. Molecular genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii from Central and South America revealed highly diverse populations and suggested possible different origins of the three archetypal lineages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most T. gondii strains in North America and Europe belong to three archetypal clonal lineages including the Type I, II and III but, isolates from Brazil are highly diverse. Here, we analyzed 164 T. gondii isolates from three countries in Central America (Guatemala, Nicaragua, Costa Rica), from one c...

  13. Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species from bovine subclinical mastitis in dairy herds in the central region of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Raspanti, Claudia G; Bonetto, Cesar C; Vissio, Claudina; Pellegrino, Matías S; Reinoso, Elina B; Dieser, Silvana A; Bogni, Cristina I; Larriestra, Alejandro J; Odierno, Liliana M

    2016-01-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are a common cause of bovine subclinical mastitis (SCM). The prevalence of CNS species causing SCM identified by genotyping varies among countries. Overall, the antimicrobial resistance in this group of organisms is increasing worldwide; however, little information exists about a CNS species resistant to antibiotics. The aim of the present study was to genotypically characterize CNS at species level and to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance profiles of CNS species isolated from bovine SCM in 51 dairy herds located in the central region of the province of Cordoba, Argentina. In this study, we identified 219 CNS isolates at species level by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism of the groEL gene. Staphylococcus chromogenes (46.6%) and Staphylococcus haemolyticus (32%) were the most prevalent species. A minimum of three different CNS species were present in 41.2% of the herds. S. chromogenes was isolated from most of the herds (86.3%), whereas S. haemolyticus was isolated from 66.7% of them. The broth microdilution method was used to test in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility. Resistance to a single compound or two related compounds was expressed in 43.8% of the isolates. S. chromogenes and S. haemolyticus showed a very high proportion of isolates resistant to penicillin. Resistance to two or more non-related antimicrobials was found in 30.6% of all CNS. S. haemolyticus exhibited a higher frequency of resistance to two or more non-related antimicrobials than S. chromogenes.

  14. Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species from bovine subclinical mastitis in dairy herds in the central region of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Raspanti, Claudia G; Bonetto, Cesar C; Vissio, Claudina; Pellegrino, Matías S; Reinoso, Elina B; Dieser, Silvana A; Bogni, Cristina I; Larriestra, Alejandro J; Odierno, Liliana M

    2016-01-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are a common cause of bovine subclinical mastitis (SCM). The prevalence of CNS species causing SCM identified by genotyping varies among countries. Overall, the antimicrobial resistance in this group of organisms is increasing worldwide; however, little information exists about a CNS species resistant to antibiotics. The aim of the present study was to genotypically characterize CNS at species level and to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance profiles of CNS species isolated from bovine SCM in 51 dairy herds located in the central region of the province of Cordoba, Argentina. In this study, we identified 219 CNS isolates at species level by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism of the groEL gene. Staphylococcus chromogenes (46.6%) and Staphylococcus haemolyticus (32%) were the most prevalent species. A minimum of three different CNS species were present in 41.2% of the herds. S. chromogenes was isolated from most of the herds (86.3%), whereas S. haemolyticus was isolated from 66.7% of them. The broth microdilution method was used to test in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility. Resistance to a single compound or two related compounds was expressed in 43.8% of the isolates. S. chromogenes and S. haemolyticus showed a very high proportion of isolates resistant to penicillin. Resistance to two or more non-related antimicrobials was found in 30.6% of all CNS. S. haemolyticus exhibited a higher frequency of resistance to two or more non-related antimicrobials than S. chromogenes. PMID:26935912

  15. Ancient DNA Analysis Suggests Negligible Impact of the Wari Empire Expansion in Peru’s Central Coast during the Middle Horizon

    PubMed Central

    Barreto Romero, María Inés; Flores Espinoza, Isabel; Cooper, Alan; Fehren-Schmitz, Lars

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of ancient human DNA from South America allows the exploration of pre-Columbian population history through time and to directly test hypotheses about cultural and demographic evolution. The Middle Horizon (650–1100 AD) represents a major transitional period in the Central Andes, which is associated with the development and expansion of ancient Andean empires such as Wari and Tiwanaku. These empires facilitated a series of interregional interactions and socio-political changes, which likely played an important role in shaping the region’s demographic and cultural profiles. We analyzed individuals from three successive pre-Columbian cultures present at the Huaca Pucllana archaeological site in Lima, Peru: Lima (Early Intermediate Period, 500–700 AD), Wari (Middle Horizon, 800–1000 AD) and Ychsma (Late Intermediate Period, 1000–1450 AD). We sequenced 34 complete mitochondrial genomes to investigate the potential genetic impact of the Wari Empire in the Central Coast of Peru. The results indicate that genetic diversity shifted only slightly through time, ruling out a complete population discontinuity or replacement driven by the Wari imperialist hegemony, at least in the region around present-day Lima. However, we caution that the very subtle genetic contribution of Wari imperialism at the particular Huaca Pucllana archaeological site might not be representative for the entire Wari territory in the Peruvian Central Coast. PMID:27248693

  16. Identification of the Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Receptor-related Protein-1 Interactome in Central Nervous System Myelin Suggests a Role in the Clearance of Necrotic Cell Debris*

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Castaneda, Anthony; Arandjelovic, Sanja; Stiles, Travis L.; Schlobach, Ryan K.; Mowen, Kerri A.; Gonias, Steven L.; Gaultier, Alban

    2013-01-01

    In the central nervous system (CNS), fast neuronal signals are facilitated by the oligodendrocyte-produced myelin sheath. Oligodendrocyte turnover or injury generates myelin debris that is usually promptly cleared by phagocytic cells. Failure to remove dying oligodendrocytes leads to accumulation of degraded myelin, which, if recognized by the immune system, may contribute to the development of autoimmunity in diseases such as multiple sclerosis. We recently identified low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1) as a novel phagocytic receptor for myelin debris. Here, we report characterization of the LRP1 interactome in CNS myelin. Fusion proteins were designed corresponding to the extracellular ligand-binding domains of LRP1. LRP1 partners were isolated by affinity purification and characterized by mass spectrometry. We report that LRP1 binds intracellular proteins via its extracellular domain and functions as a receptor for necrotic cells. Peptidyl arginine deiminase-2 and cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase are novel LRP1 ligands identified in our screen, which interact with full-length LRP1. Furthermore, the extracellular domain of LRP1 is a target of peptidyl arginine deiminase-2-mediated deimination in vitro. We propose that LRP1 functions as a receptor for endocytosis of intracellular components released during cellular damage and necrosis. PMID:23264627

  17. Event sand layers suggesting the possibility of tsunami deposits identified in the upper Holocene sequence nearby the Kuwana fault, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niwa, Y.; Sugai, T.; Matsuzaki, H.

    2012-12-01

    The Kuwana fault is located on coastal area situated on inner part of the Ise Bay, central Japan, which opens to the Nankai Trough. This reverse fault displaces a late Pleistocene terrace surface with 1 to 2 mm/yr of average vertical slip rate, and a topset of delta at several meters, respectively. And, this fault is estimated to have generated two historical earthquakes (the AD 745 Tempyo and the AD 1586 Tensho earthquakes). We identified two event sand layers from upper Holocene sequence on the upthrown side of the Kuwana fault. Upper Holocene deposits in this study area show prograding delta sequence; prodelta mud, delta front sandy silt to sand, and flood plain sand/mud, respectively, from lower to upper. Two sand layers intervene in delta front sandy silt layer, respectively. Lower sand layer (S1) shows upward-coarsening succession, whereas upper sand layer (S2) upward-fining succession. These sand layers contain sharp contact, rip-up crust, and shell fragment, indicating strong stream flow. Radiocarbon ages show that these strong stream flow events occurred between 3000 and 1600 years ago. Decreasing of salinity is estimated from decreasing trend of electrical conductivity (EC) across S1. Based on the possibility that decreasing of salinity can be occurred by shallowing of water depth caused by coseismic uplift, and that S1 can be correlated with previously known faulting event on the Kuwana fault, S1 is considered to be tsunami deposits caused by faulting on the Kuwana fault. On the other hand, S2, which cannot be correlated with previously known faulting events on the Kuwana fault, may be tsunami deposits by ocean-trench earthquake or storm deposits. In the presentation, we will discuss more detail correlation of these sand deposits not only in the upthrown side of the Kuwana fault, but also downthrown side of the fault.

  18. Comparative geochemical, magnetic susceptibility, and fluid inclusion studies on the Paleoproterozoic Malanjkhand and Dongargarh granitoids, Central India and implications to metallogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandit, Dinesh; Panigrahi, Mruganka K.; Moriyama, Takeru; Ishihara, Shunso

    2014-10-01

    The Malanjkhand granodiorite (MG) hosting economic copper mineralization and the hitherto barren Dongargarh granitoids (DG) have subtle differences in their petrographic and bulk geochemical features. The two plutons are contiguous and occur in the northern part of the Bhandara Craton in Central India with intervening volcanosedimentary sequence of the Dongargarh Supergroup amidst older gneisses. The Dongargarh granitoids studied in two smaller units have higher bulk magnetic susceptibility than the Cu-bearing MG; the majority of samples studied from the latter being ilmenite-series rocks. DG crystallized at higher pressures compared to MG. Plagioclase composition ranges from albite to high bytownite in MG, whereas its compositional range is restricted to high andesine in DG. However, both intrusions give identical temperature ranges estimated by binary feldspar thermometry. Biotite in MG shows higher Fe/Mg ratios, as well as a greater range of compositional variation, than that in DG. MG has a moderately fractionated rare earth element distribution pattern without any significant Eu anomaly, showing depletion in mid-range rare earth elements (REE) and no depletion in heavy REE. DG is characterized by a prominent negative Eu anomaly. Geochemical features indicate subtle differences in the nature of source rocks and/or melting processes responsible for the generation of the two granitoids. MG displays more consistent bulk chemical features and is possibly a result of crystallization from a homogeneous granodioritic melt. DG displays a greater diversity and possibly incorporated a significant felsic crustal component that contributed to the parent melt. A fluid inclusion study of quartz grains from the granitoids and barren quartz veins occurring in MG indicates identical low-temperature nature of the fluid in both cases. They differ from the fluid in the mineralized zone in MG in the absence of a high-temperature component and CO2 in the fluid. Late-stage fluids in

  19. Paleointensity confirms cm-scale sedimentation rates and suggests intervals with non-uniform deposition on the Lomonosov Ridge, central Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovlie, R.; Jakobsson, M.; Backman, J.

    2002-12-01

    becomes blurred. Depth-age plots show two linear segments (similar slopes) separated by a short break, suggesting a temporary change in sedimentation rate (hiatus?). The break corresponds with anomalous variations in the compositional S-0.3T-parameter. 1Jakobsson M., øvlie R., An-Hanbali H., Arnold E., Backman J. and Mörth M., 2000. Manganese and color cycles in Arctic Ocean sediments constrain Pleistocene chronology. Geology, 28, 23-26.

  20. Mice with different susceptibility to tick-borne encephalitis virus infection show selective neutralizing antibody response and inflammatory reaction in the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The clinical course of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), a disease caused by TBE virus, ranges from asymptomatic or mild influenza-like infection to severe debilitating encephalitis or encephalomyelitis. Despite the medical importance of this disease, some crucial steps in the development of encephalitis remain poorly understood. In particular, the basis of the disease severity is largely unknown. Methods TBE virus growth, neutralizing antibody response, key cytokine and chemokine mRNA production and changes in mRNA levels of cell surface markers of immunocompetent cells in brain were measured in mice with different susceptibilities to TBE virus infection. Results An animal model of TBE based on BALB/c-c-STS/A (CcS/Dem) recombinant congenic mouse strains showing different severities of the infection in relation to the host genetic background was developed. After subcutaneous inoculation of TBE virus, BALB/c mice showed medium susceptibility to the infection, STS mice were resistant, and CcS-11 mice were highly susceptible. The resistant STS mice showed lower and delayed viremia, lower virus production in the brain and low cytokine/chemokine mRNA production, but had a strong neutralizing antibody response. The most sensitive strain (CcS-11) failed in production of neutralizing antibodies, but exhibited strong cytokine/chemokine mRNA production in the brain. After intracerebral inoculation, all mouse strains were sensitive to the infection and had similar virus production in the brain, but STS mice survived significantly longer than CcS-11 mice. These two strains also differed in the expression of key cytokines/chemokines, particularly interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10/CXCL10) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) in the brain. Conclusions Our data indicate that the genetic control is an important factor influencing the clinical course of TBE. High neutralizing antibody response might be crucial for preventing host fatality, but high

  1. Mouse hepatitis virus type 4 (JHM strains). induced fatal central nervous system disease. I. genetic control and murine neuron as the susceptible site of disease

    PubMed Central

    1981-01-01

    Mouse hepatitis virus (JHM strain) type 4 induces acute encephalitis followed by death in many strains of laboratory mice. Immunohistochemical study in vivo and analysis of mouse neuronal cells in vitro both indicate that the target cells in this infection is the neuron. Further, examination of several inbred mouse strains and neuronal cells from them shows that disease expression is controlled by a single autosomal gene action at the level of the neuronal cell. Susceptibility is dominant but not H-2 linked. However, cultured neuronal cells and macrophages from SJL/J mice, which are resistant to this infection, fail to make significant amounts of infectious virus after an appropriate viral inoculation. Apparently the defect is not at the level of the virus-cell receptor, because these cells, in part, express viral antigens. PMID:6265583

  2. Using the statistical analysis method to assess the landslide susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Hsun-Chuan; Chen, Bo-An; Wen, Yo-Ting

    2015-04-01

    This study assessed the landslide susceptibility in Jing-Shan River upstream watershed, central Taiwan. The landslide inventories during typhoons Toraji in 2001, Mindulle in 2004, Kalmaegi and Sinlaku in 2008, Morakot in 2009, and the 0719 rainfall event in 2011, which were established by Taiwan Central Geological Survey, were used as landslide data. This study aims to assess the landslide susceptibility by using different statistical methods including logistic regression, instability index method and support vector machine (SVM). After the evaluations, the elevation, slope, slope aspect, lithology, terrain roughness, slope roughness, plan curvature, profile curvature, total curvature, average of rainfall were chosen as the landslide factors. The validity of the three established models was further examined by the receiver operating characteristic curve. The result of logistic regression showed that the factor of terrain roughness and slope roughness had a stronger impact on the susceptibility value. Instability index method showed that the factor of terrain roughness and lithology had a stronger impact on the susceptibility value. Due to the fact that the use of instability index method may lead to possible underestimation around the river side. In addition, landslide susceptibility indicated that the use of instability index method laid a potential issue about the number of factor classification. An increase of the number of factor classification may cause excessive variation coefficient of the factor. An decrease of the number of factor classification may make a large range of nearby cells classified into the same susceptibility level. Finally, using the receiver operating characteristic curve discriminate the three models. SVM is a preferred method than the others in assessment of landslide susceptibility. Moreover, SVM is further suggested to be nearly logistic regression in terms of recognizing the medium-high and high susceptibility.

  3. Ground-water quality and susceptibility of ground water to effects from domestic wastewater disposal in eastern Bernalillo County, central New Mexico, 1990-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanchard, Paul J.; Kues, Georgianna E.

    1999-01-01

    Eastern Bernalillo County is a historically rural, mountainous area east of Albuquerque, New Mexico. Historically, the primary economic activity consisted of subsistence farming and ranching and support of these activities from small communities. During the last 40 to 50 years, however, the area increasingly has become the site of residential developments. Homes in these developments typically are on 1- to 2-acre lots and are serviced by individual wells and septic systems. Between 1970 and 1990, the population of the area increased from about 4,000 to more than 12,000, and housing units increased from about 1,500 to more than 5,000. Results of analysis of water samples collected from 121 wells throughout eastern Bernalillo County in 1990 indicated that (1) total-nitrate concentrations in 10 samples exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency national primary drinking-water regulation maximum contaminant level of 10 milligrams per liter as nitrogen; (2) total-nitrate concentrations may be related to the length of time an area has been undergoing development; and (3) large dissolved-chloride concentrations may result from geologic origins, such as interbedded salt deposits or upward movement of saline ground water along faults and fractures, as well as from domestic wastewater disposal. Ground water throughout eastern Bernalillo County was assessed to be highly susceptible to contamination by overlying domestic wastewater disposal because (1) soils in more than 95 percent of eastern Bernalillo County were determined by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service to have severe limitations for use as septic-system absorption fields and (2) a fractured carbonate geologic terrane, which typically has large secondary permeability and limited sorption capacity, is at the surface or underlying unconsolidated material in 73 percent of the area. Ground-water-level rises following an episodal precipitation event during July 22-27, 1991

  4. High-field (9.4 T) MRI of brain dysmyelination by quantitative mapping of magnetic susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunlei; Li, Wei; Johnson, G Allan; Wu, Bing

    2011-06-01

    The multilayered myelin sheath wrapping around nerve axons is essential for proper functioning of the central nervous system. Abnormal myelination leads to a wide range of neurological diseases and developmental disorders. Non-invasive imaging of myelin content is of great clinical importance. The present work demonstrated that loss of myelin in the central nervous system of the shiverer mouse results in a dramatic reduction of magnetic susceptibility in white matter axons. The reduction resulted in a near extinction of susceptibility contrast between gray and white matter. Quantitative magnetic susceptibility imaging and diffusion tensor imaging were conducted on a group of control and shiverer mice at 9.4 T. We measured the resonance frequency distribution of the whole brain for each mouse. Magnetic susceptibility maps were computed and compared between the two groups. It was shown that the susceptibility contrast between gray and white matter was reduced by 96% in the shiverer compared to the controls. Diffusion measurements further confirmed intact fiber pathways in the shiverer mice, ruling out the possibility of axonal injury and its potential contribution to the altered susceptibility. As an autosomal recessive mutation, shiverer is characterized by an almost total lack of central nervous system myelin. Our data provide new evidences indicating that myelin is the predominant source of susceptibility differences between deep gray and white matter observed in magnetic resonance imaging. More importantly, the present study suggests that quantitative magnetic susceptibility is a potential endogenous biomarker for myelination.

  5. Hypnosis, suggestion, and suggestibility: an integrative model.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Kirsch, Irving

    2015-01-01

    This article elucidates an integrative model of hypnosis that integrates social, cultural, cognitive, and neurophysiological variables at play both in and out of hypnosis and considers their dynamic interaction as determinants of the multifaceted experience of hypnosis. The roles of these variables are examined in the induction and suggestion stages of hypnosis, including how they are related to the experience of involuntariness, one of the hallmarks of hypnosis. It is suggested that studies of the modification of hypnotic suggestibility; cognitive flexibility; response sets and expectancies; the default-mode network; and the search for the neurophysiological correlates of hypnosis, more broadly, in conjunction with research on social psychological variables, hold much promise to further understanding of hypnosis.

  6. Evaluation of Little Ice Age cooling in Western Central Andes, suggested by paleoELAs, in contrast with global warming since late 19th century deduced from instrumental records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubeda, Jose; Palacios, David; Campos, Néstor; Giraldez, Claudia; García, Eduardo; Quiros, Tatiana

    2015-04-01

    This paper attempts to evaluate climate cooling (°C) during the glacial expansion phases using the product GTV•ΔELA, where GTV is the vertical air temperature gradient (°C/m) and ΔELA (m) the difference in level observed between the Equilibrium Line Altitude (ELA) reconstructions for current and past glaciers. With this aim the Area x Altitude Balance Ratio-(AABR) method was used to produce reconstructions of present ELAs (2002-2010) and paleoELAs corresponding to the last glacier advance phase. The reconstructions were produced in three study areas located along a N-S transect of the western cordillera in the Central Andes: the south-western sector of the Nevado Hualcán (9°S, 77°W; Giráldez 2011); the southern slope of the Cordillera Pariaqaqa (12°S, 76°W; Quirós, 2013) and the NW, NE, SE and SW quadrants of the Nevado Coropuna (16°S, 72°W; García 2013; Úbeda 2011; Campos, 2012). The three mountains exceed 6000 m altitude, their summit areas are covered by glaciers, and on their slopes there are existing well-conserved moraines deposited by the last advances near the present front of the ice masses. Although there are no absolute dates to confirm this hypothesis, it has been assumed that the last glacial advances occurred during the Little Ice Age (LIA), which the oxygen isotopes of the Nevado Huascarán (9°S, 77°W) date to the period 1500-1890. For the Hualcán and Pariaqaqa the mean global value of the Earth's GTV (6.5°C/km) was used, considered valid for the Tropics. On the Coropuna a GTV=8.4°C/km was used, based on high resolution sensors installed in situ since 2007 (Úbeda 2011). This gradient is approaching the upper limit of the dry adiabatic gradient (9.8°C/km), as the Coropuna region is more arid than the other case study areas. The climate cooling estimates deduced from the product GTV•ΔELA were compared with the global warming shown by the 1880-2012 series, ΔT=0.85°C, and 1850/1900-2003/2012, ΔT=0.78°C. The differences are

  7. Open to Suggestion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Reading, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Offers (1) suggestions for improving college students' study skills; (2) a system for keeping track of parent, teacher, and community contacts; (3) suggestions for motivating students using tic tac toe; (4) suggestions for using etymology to improve word retention; (5) a word search grid; and (6) suggestions for using postcards in remedial reading…

  8. The Life of Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Cathie

    2010-01-01

    Using the notion of a suggestion, or rather charting the life of suggestions, this article considers the happenings of chance and embodiment as the "problems that got away." The life of suggestions helps us to ask how connectivities are made, how desire functions, and how "immanence" rather than "transcendence" can open up the politics and ethics…

  9. [Genetic susceptibility to herpes simplex encephalitis].

    PubMed

    Rozenberg, F

    2013-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a rare but severe complication of frequent and mostly benign infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV). Although rapid and sensitive diagnosis tools and active antiviral drugs are available, HSE morbidity/mortality levels remain unsatisfactory. Molecular and cellular determinants of HSE are incompletely understood. The rarity and severity of the disease have suggested an increased susceptibility of some subjects to HSV infection. Numerous experimental studies have investigated the respective role of host and viral factors in HSE. The results of these studies have illustrated the major role of the innate immune response, in particular interferons (IFNs), in limiting access of the virus into and/or virus replication in the central nervous system (CNS). In a few children with HSE, specific defects of the immune innate response have been identified, which impair the IFN-α/β and IFN-λ production of fibroblasts and/or neurons infected with HSV and render these cells more permissive to infection. The mutations affect proteins involved in the IFN pathway induced by stimulation of the TLR3 receptor. The patients' susceptibility to infection is restricted to HSV CNS invasion, underlining the major role of TLR3 in CNS protection against viral infection. The incomplete clinical penetrance of these molecular defects suggests that other factors (age, infectious dose) are involved in HSE. Whether pathogenesis of adult HSE is similar has not been investigated.

  10. NRAMP1 and VDR Gene Polymorphisms in Susceptibility to Tuberculosis in Venezuelan Population

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Mestre, Mercedes; Villasmil, Ángel; Takiff, Howard; Fuentes Alcalá, Zhenia

    2015-01-01

    Natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (Nramp1) and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) are central components of the innate and adaptive immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and associations between susceptibility to tuberculosis and polymorphisms in the genes NRAMP and VDR have been sought in geographically diverse populations. We investigated associations of NRAMP1 and VDR gene polymorphisms with susceptibility to TB in the Venezuelan population. The results suggest the absence of any association between VDR variants FokI, ApaI, and TaqI and susceptibility to tuberculosis. In contrast, the NRAMP1 3′UTR variants were associated with susceptibility to M. tuberculosis infection, as seen in the comparisons between TST+ and TST− controls, and also with progression to TB disease, as shown in the comparisons between TB patients and TST+ controls. This study confirms the previously described association of the NRAMP1 3′UTR polymorphism with M. tuberculosis infection and disease progression. PMID:26578819

  11. Chemistry Curricula. Course Suggestions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

    Listings of suggested topics aimed at helping university and college faculties plan courses in the main areas of the chemistry curricula are provided. The suggestions were originally offered as appendices to the American Chemical Society's (ACS) Committee on Professional Training's 1983 guidelines for ACS-approved schools. The course data included…

  12. Open to Suggestion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Reading, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Contributors offer suggestions concerning parents as reading stimulators, book discussions, a test bank for the secondary school/college reading lab, standardized reading tests, television reading, plagiarism, vocabulary development, and book reports. (FL)

  13. [Therapy and suggestion].

    PubMed

    Barrucand, D; Paille, F

    1986-12-01

    Therapy and suggestion are closely related. That is clear for the ancient time: primitive medicine gives a good place to the Word. In plant, animal or mineral remedies, the suggestion is clearly preponderant. Towards the end of the 19th century, the "Ecole de Nancy" sets up a real theory of the suggestion, and Bernheim, its leader, bases hypnosis, then psychotherapy on this concept. Thereafter Coué will bring up the "conscious autosuggestion". Today, despite the progress of scientific medicine, the part of suggestion is still very important in medical therapy (with or without drugs), or in chirurgical therapy; this part is also very important in psychotherapies, whatever has been said in this field. This has to be known and used consciously in the doctor-patient relation, which is always essential in the therapeutic effectiveness.

  14. Alate susceptibility in ants

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Eddie K H; Frederickson, Megan E

    2014-01-01

    Pathogens are predicted to pose a particular threat to eusocial insects because infections can spread rapidly in colonies with high densities of closely related individuals. In ants, there are two major castes: workers and reproductives. Sterile workers receive no direct benefit from investing in immunity, but can gain indirect fitness benefits if their immunity aids the survival of their fertile siblings. Virgin reproductives (alates), on the other hand, may be able to increase their investment in reproduction, rather than in immunity, because of the protection they receive from workers. Thus, we expect colonies to have highly immune workers, but relatively more susceptible alates. We examined the survival of workers, gynes, and males of nine ant species collected in Peru and Canada when exposed to the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. For the seven species in which treatment with B. bassiana increased ant mortality relative to controls, we found workers were significantly less susceptible compared with both alate sexes. Female and male alates did not differ significantly in their immunocompetence. Our results suggest that, as with other nonreproductive tasks in ant colonies like foraging and nest maintenance, workers have primary responsibility for colony immunity, allowing alates to specialize on reproduction. We highlight the importance of colony-level selection on individual immunity in ants and other eusocial organisms. PMID:25540683

  15. Alate susceptibility in ants.

    PubMed

    Ho, Eddie K H; Frederickson, Megan E

    2014-11-01

    Pathogens are predicted to pose a particular threat to eusocial insects because infections can spread rapidly in colonies with high densities of closely related individuals. In ants, there are two major castes: workers and reproductives. Sterile workers receive no direct benefit from investing in immunity, but can gain indirect fitness benefits if their immunity aids the survival of their fertile siblings. Virgin reproductives (alates), on the other hand, may be able to increase their investment in reproduction, rather than in immunity, because of the protection they receive from workers. Thus, we expect colonies to have highly immune workers, but relatively more susceptible alates. We examined the survival of workers, gynes, and males of nine ant species collected in Peru and Canada when exposed to the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. For the seven species in which treatment with B. bassiana increased ant mortality relative to controls, we found workers were significantly less susceptible compared with both alate sexes. Female and male alates did not differ significantly in their immunocompetence. Our results suggest that, as with other nonreproductive tasks in ant colonies like foraging and nest maintenance, workers have primary responsibility for colony immunity, allowing alates to specialize on reproduction. We highlight the importance of colony-level selection on individual immunity in ants and other eusocial organisms. PMID:25540683

  16. A few minor suggestions.

    PubMed

    Michael, J; Clark, J W

    2001-05-01

    We agree with almost all of the analysis in this excellent presentation of the molecular view of avoidance behavior. A few suggestions are made as follows: Referring to response-generated stimuli as ''readily observable" seems not quite right for the kinesthetic components of such stimuli, although their scientific legitimacy is not questioned. Interpreting response-generated stimuli as a form of positive reinforcement is contested, and an alternative interpretation is offered. A possibly simpler interpretation of the Sidman (1962) two-lever experiment is suggested. We question Dinsmoor's (2001) explanation for warning stimuli not being avoided, except for the reference to the weakness of third-order conditioning effects. A final question is raised regarding the nature of the variables that are responsible for the momentary evocation of the avoidance response.

  17. Reactivation of Memory by Hypnosis and Suggestion. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, Perry; Cooper, Leslie M.

    This study tested the hypothesis that the memory of meaningful material can be reactivated without relearning by means of hypnotic suggestion. Very susceptible (T) and non-susceptible (UT) subjects were sought from among those who volunteered for the experiment. Two forms of a memory test for connected meaningful material were developed. Each form…

  18. Central hemodynamics and target organ damage in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Junichiro

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in technology have enabled the noninvasive evaluation of pulsatile hemodynamics in the central aorta; namely, central pressure and flow measurements. The central blood pressure represents the true load imposed on the heart, kidney and brain, and the central blood flow influences the local flow into these vital organs. An elevation of the central blood pressure has a direct, adverse impact on the target organ and, thus, the cardiovascular prognosis in patients with hypertension. A decrease in the central blood flow can cause organ dysfunction and failure. The central pressure and flow dynamics were conventionally regarded as unidirectional from the heart to the periphery. However, current evidence suggests that it should be recognized as a bidirectional interplay between the central and peripheral arteries. Specifically, the pressure pulse wave is not only transmitted forward to the periphery but also reflected backward to the central aorta. The flow pulse wave is also composed of the forward and reverse components. Aortic stiffening and arteriolar remodeling due to hypertension not only augment the central pressure by increasing the wave reflection but also may alter the central bidirectional flow, inducing hemodynamic damage/dysfunction in susceptible organs. Therefore, central hemodynamic monitoring has the potential to provide a diagnostic and therapeutic basis for preventing systemic target organ damage and for offering personalized therapy suitable for the arterial properties in each patient with hypertension. This brief review will summarize hypothetical mechanisms for the association between the central hemodynamics and hypertensive organ damage in the heart, kidney and brain.

  19. Measuring Children's Suggestibility in Forensic Interviews.

    PubMed

    Volpini, Laura; Melis, Manuela; Petralia, Stefania; Rosenberg, Melina D

    2016-01-01

    According to the scientific literature, childrens' cognitive development is not complete until adolescence. Therefore, the problems inherent in children serving as witnesses are crucial. In preschool-aged children, false memories may be identified because of misinformation and insight bias. Additionally, they are susceptible of suggestions. The aim of this study was to verify the levels of suggestibility in children between three and 5 years of age. Ninety-two children were examined (44 male, 48 female; M = 4.5 years, SD = 9.62). We used the correlation coefficient (Pearson's r) and the averages variance by SPSS statistical program. The results concluded that: younger children are almost always more susceptible to suggestibility. The dimension of immediate recall was negatively correlates with that of total suggestibility (r = -0.357 p < 0.001). Social compliance and source monitoring errors contribute to patterns of suggestibility, because older children shift their answers more often (r = 0.394 p < 0.001). Younger children change their answers more times (r = -0.395 p < 0.001). PMID:27404406

  20. Asymmetric otolith function and increased susceptibility to motion sickness during exposure to variations in gravitoinertial acceleration level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lackner, James R.; Graybiel, Ashton; Johnson, Walter H.; Money, Kenneth E.

    1987-01-01

    Von Baumgarten and coworkers (1979, 1981) have suggested that asymmetries in otolith function between the left and right labyrinths may result from differences in otoconial mass and could play a role in space motion sickness. Such asymmetries would be centrally compensated for under terrestrial conditions, but on exposure to weightlessness the persisting central compensation would produce a central imbalance that could lead to motion sickness. In this work ocular counterrolling was used as a way of measuring the relative 'efficiency' of the left and right otoliths; the ocular counterrolling scores of individuals were compared with their susceptibility to motion sickness during passive exposure to variations in Gz in parabolic flight maneuvers. The experimental findings indicate that large asymmetries in counterrolling for leftward and rightward body tilts are associated with greater susceptibility to motion sickness in parabolic flight.

  1. Properties of magnetoelectric susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Junyi; Li, Jiefang; Viehland, Dwight; Bichurin, M. I.

    2006-03-01

    The magnetoelectric (ME) susceptibility is the principle property of ME materials, determining the connection between polarization (or electric induction) and an external magnetic field. Since measurement of the ME susceptibility over a wide frequency range [1] and the design of new ME devices require more information about the ME susceptibility, the present work has focused on this property in detail. First, we consider the ME susceptibility as a complex parameter with both real and the imaginary parts, advancing a methodology for measurement of these values. Second, we have analyzed the ME susceptibility, for example a trilayer laminate composite of Terfenol-D/PZT, Terfenol-D, and found a maximum value of ˜3.5x10-7s/m in the electromechanical resonance range. In addition, we have studied the internal structure of the ME susceptibility: i.e., its dependencies on phase volume fractions, layer thickness, and choice of materials couple. Our results for the ME susceptibility will allow it to be more correctly used both as a fundamental materials property and also in potential ME device applications. [1] M.I. Bichurin, V.M. Petrov,Yu.V. Kiliba, and G. Srinivasan. Phys. Rev. B 66, 134404 (2002).

  2. Magnetic Susceptibility in Liquid In Se System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Keiji; Usuki, Takeshi; Tamaki, Shigeru

    1998-09-01

    The magnetic susceptibility of the liquid In1-xSex system have been measured as functions of concentration and temperature. The magnetic susceptibility of the system shows a broad diamagnetic maximum near x=0.58. This behaviour corresponds to the concentration variation of electronic conductivity reported previously and supports our previous suggestion of the valence fluctuation of In ions. By using the data of magnetic susceptibility with known electronic conductivity and thermoelectric power data, the density of state N(E) have been determined and the diamagnetic susceptibility due to ion core, χd, has also been obtained. The obtained value of χd suggests the occurrence of monovalent In ion near the composition x=0.58.

  3. Antifungal susceptibility testing.

    PubMed Central

    Rex, J H; Pfaller, M A; Rinaldi, M G; Polak, A; Galgiani, J N

    1993-01-01

    Unlike antibacterial susceptibility testing, reliable antifungal susceptibility testing is still largely in its infancy. Many methods have been described, but they produce widely discrepant results unless such factors as pH, inoculum size, medium formulation, incubation time, and incubation temperature are carefully controlled. Even when laboratories agree upon a common method, interlaboratory agreement may be poor. As a result of numerous collaborative projects carried out both independently and under the aegis of the Subcommittee on Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, the effects of varying these factors have been extensively studied and a standard method which minimizes interlaboratory variability during the testing of Candida spp. and Cryptococcus neoformans has been proposed. This review summarizes this work, reviews the strengths and weaknesses of the proposed susceptibility testing standard, and identifies directions for future work. PMID:8269392

  4. Retrieval enhances eyewitness suggestibility to misinformation in free and cued recall.

    PubMed

    Wilford, Miko M; Chan, Jason C K; Tuhn, Sam J

    2014-03-01

    Immediately recalling a witnessed event can increase people's susceptibility to later postevent misinformation. But this retrieval-enhanced suggestibility (RES) effect has been shown only when the initial recall test included specific questions that reappeared on the final test. Moreover, it is unclear whether this phenomenon is affected by the centrality of event details. These limitations make it difficult to generalize RES to criminal investigations, which often begin with free recall prior to more specific queries from legal officials and attorneys. In 3 experiments, we examined the influence of test formats (free recall vs. cued recall) and centrality of event details (central vs. peripheral) on RES. In Experiment 1, both the initial and final tests were cued recall. In Experiment 2, the initial test was free recall and the final test was cued recall. In Experiment 3, both the initial and final tests were free recall. Initial testing increased misinformation reporting on the final test for peripheral details in all experiments, but the effect was significant for central details only after aggregating the data from all 3 experiments. These results show that initial free recall can produce RES, and more broadly, that free recall can potentiate subsequent learning of complex prose materials. PMID:24000960

  5. Genetic susceptibility to symptomatic norovirus infection in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Bucardo, Filemon; Kindberg, Elin; Paniagua, Margarita; Grahn, Ammi; Larson, Göran; Vildevall, Malin; Svensson, Lennart

    2009-04-01

    Host genetic resistance to Norovirus (NoV) has been observed in challenge and outbreak studies in populations from Europe, Asia, and USA. In this study, we have investigated if histo-blood group antigens can predict susceptibility to diarrhea caused by NoV in Nicaragua, Central America, and if this can be reflected in antibody-prevalence and titer to NoV among individuals with different histo-blood group antigen phenotypes. Investigation of 28 individuals infected with NoV and 131 population controls revealed 6% of non-secretors in the population and nil non-secretors among patients infected with NoV, suggesting that non-secretors may be protected against NoV disease in Nicaragua. Surprisingly, 25% of the population was Lewis negative (Le(a-b-)). NoV infections with genogroup I (GI) and GII occurred irrespective of Lewis genotype, but none of the Lewis a positive (Le(a + b-)) were infected. The globally dominating GII.4 virus infected individuals of all blood groups except AB (n = 5), while the GI viruses (n = 4) infected only blood type O individuals. Furthermore, O blood types were susceptible to infections with GI.4, GII.4, GII.7, GII.17, and GII.18-Nica viruses, suggesting that secretors with blood type O are susceptible (OR = 1.52) and non-secretors resistant. The overall antibody-prevalence to NoV GII.3 VLP was 62% with the highest prevalence among blood type B carriers (70%) followed by A (68%) and O (62%). All four investigated individuals carrying blood type AB were antibody-negative. Among secretors, 63% were antibody-positive compared to 33% among non-secretors (P = 0.151). This study extends previous knowledge about the histo-blood group antigens role in NoV disease in a population with different genetic background than North American and European.

  6. Rubella susceptibility predicts measles susceptibility: implications for postpartum immunization.

    PubMed

    Libman, M D; Behr, M A; Martel, N; Ward, B J

    2000-12-01

    Measles and mumps antibody titers were measured in 262 pregnant women who were either positive (n=128) or negative (n=134) for rubella antibodies. Susceptibility to measles and mumps was detected in 4.6% (12/262) and 7.6% (14/184) of the women, respectively. Of the rubella-susceptible group, 8.2% were also measles susceptible, whereas only 0.8% of the rubella-immune women were measles susceptible. Susceptibility to mumps was evenly divided between rubella-susceptible (7.8%) and rubella-immune (7.4%) groups.

  7. Resisting Suggestive Questions: Can Theory of Mind Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Lisa; Okamoto, Yukari

    2006-01-01

    Children's credibility as witnesses in court cases has become an important issue in recent years. When testifying, younger children are considered to be more susceptible to suggestion than are older children. The present study examined the possibility that knowledge of an interviewer's mental states (intention and false belief, in this study)…

  8. Deepening Sleep by Hypnotic Suggestion

    PubMed Central

    Cordi, Maren J.; Schlarb, Angelika A.; Rasch, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Slow wave sleep (SWS) plays a critical role in body restoration and promotes brain plasticity; however, it markedly declines across the lifespan. Despite its importance, effective tools to increase SWS are rare. Here we tested whether a hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” extends the amount of SWS. Design: Within-subject, placebo-controlled crossover design. Setting: Sleep laboratory at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. Participants: Seventy healthy females 23.27 ± 3.17 y. Intervention: Participants listened to an auditory text with hypnotic suggestions or a control tape before napping for 90 min while high-density electroencephalography was recorded. Measurements and Results: After participants listened to the hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” subsequent SWS was increased by 81% and time spent awake was reduced by 67% (with the amount of SWS or wake in the control condition set to 100%). Other sleep stages remained unaffected. Additionally, slow wave activity was significantly enhanced after hypnotic suggestions. During the hypnotic tape, parietal theta power increases predicted the hypnosis-induced extension of SWS. Additional experiments confirmed that the beneficial effect of hypnotic suggestions on SWS was specific to the hypnotic suggestion and did not occur in low suggestible participants. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of hypnotic suggestions to specifically increase the amount and duration of slow wave sleep (SWS) in a midday nap using objective measures of sleep in young, healthy, suggestible females. Hypnotic suggestions might be a successful tool with a lower risk of adverse side effects than pharmacological treatments to extend SWS also in clinical and elderly populations. Citation: Cordi MJ, Schlarb AA, Rasch B. Deepening sleep by hypnotic suggestion. SLEEP 2014;37(6):1143-1152. PMID:24882909

  9. Marijuana Usage and Hypnotic Susceptibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franzini, Louis R.; McDonald, Roy D.

    1973-01-01

    Anonymous self-reported drug usage data and hypnotic susceptibility scores were obtained from 282 college students. Frequent marijuana users (more than 10 times) showed greater susceptibility to hypnosis than nonusers. (Author)

  10. Electron spin susceptibility of superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Levitov, L.S.; Nazarov, Y.V.; Eliashberg, G.M.

    1985-03-10

    The effect of spin polarization due to the Meissner currents on the electron spin susceptibility of a superconductor is studied. This effect accounts for a susceptibility considerably stronger than that of a normal metal. The spin distribution is discussed.

  11. Locating influential nodes via dynamics-sensitive centrality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Lin, Jian-Hong; Guo, Qiang; Zhou, Tao

    2016-02-01

    With great theoretical and practical significance, locating influential nodes of complex networks is a promising issue. In this paper, we present a dynamics-sensitive (DS) centrality by integrating topological features and dynamical properties. The DS centrality can be directly applied in locating influential spreaders. According to the empirical results on four real networks for both susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) and susceptible-infected (SI) spreading models, the DS centrality is more accurate than degree, k-shell index and eigenvector centrality.

  12. Legal Education Reform: Modest Suggestions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Alan

    2001-01-01

    Based on harsh criticism of legal education by students, offers suggestions for improvement that do not require additional time for law studies, will increase the exposure of students both to law as practice and to law as an intellectual discipline, and involve no greater burden on law schools. A main suggestion involves elimination of teaching…

  13. Susceptibility to Theiler's virus-induced demyelination. Mapping of the gene within the H-2D region.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, M; Leibowitz, J; David, C S

    1986-03-01

    Demyelination induced by Theiler's virus was examined in mouse strains with congeneic recombinant haplotypes. Light and electron microscopy of spinal cord sections from mice with s, q, v, p, and f H-2D alleles showed perivascular inflammation and primary demyelination. The presence of susceptible haplotypes in the K or I region did not correlate with pathologic abnormalities. The Qa, Tla, PgK, and UpG genes did not appear to be critical in determining susceptibility to disease. However, mutation in the H-2D genes altered the susceptibility to virus-induced demyelination. B10.D2dm1 mice, which have deletions in the 3' end of Dd and the 5' end of Ld, showed prominent demyelination and clinical deficits. In contrast, BALB/c-dm2, which have a deletion of the entire L gene, showed no pathologic changes. Central nervous system virus titers correlated with susceptibility to demyelination; both resistant and susceptible strains had a strong humoral immune response to the virus. The findings in the congeneic recombinant mice and in mice mutant in the H-2D region strongly suggest that at least one of the genes critical for determining virus-induced demyelination maps to the 3' end of the H-2D gene.

  14. Identifying influential and susceptible members of social networks.

    PubMed

    Aral, Sinan; Walker, Dylan

    2012-07-20

    Identifying social influence in networks is critical to understanding how behaviors spread. We present a method that uses in vivo randomized experimentation to identify influence and susceptibility in networks while avoiding the biases inherent in traditional estimates of social contagion. Estimation in a representative sample of 1.3 million Facebook users showed that younger users are more susceptible to influence than older users, men are more influential than women, women influence men more than they influence other women, and married individuals are the least susceptible to influence in the decision to adopt the product offered. Analysis of influence and susceptibility together with network structure revealed that influential individuals are less susceptible to influence than noninfluential individuals and that they cluster in the network while susceptible individuals do not, which suggests that influential people with influential friends may be instrumental in the spread of this product in the network.

  15. Genetic susceptibility to endomyocardial fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Beaton, Andrea; Sable, Craig; Brown, Juliette; Hoffman, Joshua; Mungoma, Michael; Mondo, Charles; Cereb, Nezith; Brown, Colin; Summar, Marshall; Freers, Jurgen; Ferreira, Maria Beatriz; Yacoub, Magdi; Mocumbi, Ana Olga

    2014-01-01

    Background: Endomyocardial fibrosis (EMF) is the most common form of restrictive cardiomyopathy worldwide. It has been linked to poverty and various environmental factors, but—for unknown reasons—only some people who live in similar conditions develop the disease. EMF cases cluster within both families and ethnic groups, suggesting a role for a genetic factor in host susceptibility. The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system is associated with predisposition to various diseases. This two-center study was designed to investigate variation in the HLA system between EMF patients and unaffected controls. We provide the first genetic investigation of patients with EMF, as well as a comprehensive review of the literature. Methods: HLA class I (HLA-A, -B, -C) and class II (DRB1, DQB1) types were determined in 71 patients with severe EMF and 137 controls from Uganda and Mozambique. Chi Square analysis was used to identify any significant difference in frequency of class I and class II HLA types between cases and controls. Results: Compared to ethnically matched controls, HLA-B*58 occurred more frequently in Mozambique patients with EMF and HLA-A*02:02 occurred more frequently in Ugandan patients with EMF. Conclusions: Ample subjective evidence in the historical literature suggests the importance of a genetically susceptible host in EMF development. In this first formal genetic study, we found HLA alleles associated with cases of EMF in two populations from sub-Saharan Africa, with EMF patients being more likely than controls to have the HLA-B*58 allele in Mozambique (p-0.03) and the HLA-A*02:02 in Uganda (p = 0.005). Further investigations are needed to more fully understand the role of genetics in EMF development. PMID:25780800

  16. Exome sequencing followed by genotyping suggests SYPL2 as a susceptibility gene for morbid obesity

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Hong; Arner, Peter; Gerdhem, Paul; Strawbridge, Rona J; Näslund, Erik; Thorell, Anders; Hamsten, Anders; Kere, Juha; Dahlman, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Recently developed high-throughput sequencing technology shows power to detect low-frequency disease-causing variants by deep sequencing of all known exons. We used exome sequencing to identify variants associated with morbid obesity. DNA from 100 morbidly obese adult subjects and 100 controls were pooled (n=10/pool), subjected to exome capture, and subsequent sequencing. At least 100 million sequencing reads were obtained from each pool. After several filtering steps and comparisons of observed frequencies of variants between obese and non-obese control pools, we systematically selected 144 obesity-enriched non-synonymous, splicing site or 5′ upstream single-nucleotide variants for validation. We first genotyped 494 adult subjects with morbid obesity and 496 controls. Five obesity-associated variants (nominal P-value<0.05) were subsequently genotyped in 1425 morbidly obese and 782 controls. Out of the five variants, only rs62623713:A>G (NM_001040709:c.A296G:p.E99G) was confirmed. rs62623713 showed strong association with body mass index (beta=2.13 (1.09, 3.18), P=6.28 × 10−5) in a joint analysis of all 3197 genotyped subjects and had an odds ratio of 1.32 for obesity association. rs62623713 is a low-frequency (2.9% minor allele frequency) non-synonymous variant (E99G) in exon 4 of the synaptophysin-like 2 (SYPL2) gene. rs62623713 was not covered by Illumina or Affymetrix genotyping arrays used in previous genome-wide association studies. Mice lacking Sypl2 has been reported to display reduced body weight. In conclusion, using exome sequencing we identified a low-frequency coding variant in the SYPL2 gene that was associated with morbid obesity. This gene may be involved in the development of excess body fat. PMID:25406998

  17. Exome sequencing followed by genotyping suggests SYPL2 as a susceptibility gene for morbid obesity.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Hong; Arner, Peter; Gerdhem, Paul; Strawbridge, Rona J; Näslund, Erik; Thorell, Anders; Hamsten, Anders; Kere, Juha; Dahlman, Ingrid

    2015-09-01

    Recently developed high-throughput sequencing technology shows power to detect low-frequency disease-causing variants by deep sequencing of all known exons. We used exome sequencing to identify variants associated with morbid obesity. DNA from 100 morbidly obese adult subjects and 100 controls were pooled (n=10/pool), subjected to exome capture, and subsequent sequencing. At least 100 million sequencing reads were obtained from each pool. After several filtering steps and comparisons of observed frequencies of variants between obese and non-obese control pools, we systematically selected 144 obesity-enriched non-synonymous, splicing site or 5' upstream single-nucleotide variants for validation. We first genotyped 494 adult subjects with morbid obesity and 496 controls. Five obesity-associated variants (nominal P-value<0.05) were subsequently genotyped in 1425 morbidly obese and 782 controls. Out of the five variants, only rs62623713:A>G (NM_001040709:c.A296G:p.E99G) was confirmed. rs62623713 showed strong association with body mass index (beta=2.13 (1.09, 3.18), P=6.28 × 10(-5)) in a joint analysis of all 3197 genotyped subjects and had an odds ratio of 1.32 for obesity association. rs62623713 is a low-frequency (2.9% minor allele frequency) non-synonymous variant (E99G) in exon 4 of the synaptophysin-like 2 (SYPL2) gene. rs62623713 was not covered by Illumina or Affymetrix genotyping arrays used in previous genome-wide association studies. Mice lacking Sypl2 has been reported to display reduced body weight. In conclusion, using exome sequencing we identified a low-frequency coding variant in the SYPL2 gene that was associated with morbid obesity. This gene may be involved in the development of excess body fat. PMID:25406998

  18. Whole-Exome Sequencing Suggests LAMB3 as a Susceptibility Gene for Morbid Obesity.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Hong; Kulyté, Agné; Näslund, Erik; Thorell, Anders; Gerdhem, Paul; Kere, Juha; Arner, Peter; Dahlman, Ingrid

    2016-10-01

    Identification of rare sequencing variants with a larger functional impact has the potential to highlight new pathways contributing to obesity. Using whole-exome sequencing followed by genotyping, we have identified a low-frequency coding variant rs2076349 (V527M) in the laminin subunit β3 (LAMB3) gene showing strong association with morbid obesity and thereby risk of type 2 diabetes. We exome-sequenced 200 morbidly obese subjects and 100 control subjects with pooled DNA samples. After several filtering steps, we retained 439 obesity-enriched low-frequency coding variants. Associations between genetic variants and obesity were validated sequentially in two case-control cohorts. In the final analysis of 1,911 morbidly obese and 1,274 control subjects, rs2076349 showed strong association with obesity (P = 9.67 × 10(-5); odds ratio 1.84). This variant was also associated with BMI and fasting serum leptin. Moreover, LAMB3 expression in adipose tissue was positively correlated with BMI and adipose morphology (few but large fat cells). LAMB3 knockdown by small interfering RNA in human adipocytes cultured in vitro inhibited adipogenesis. In conclusion, we identified a previously not reported low-frequency coding variant that was associated with morbid obesity in the LAMB3 gene. This gene may be involved in the development of excess body fat. PMID:27431458

  19. 10 Suggestions for Enhancing Lecturing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitzmann, Ray

    2010-01-01

    Criticism of the lecture method remains a staple of discussion and writing in academia--and most of the time it's deserved! Those interested in improving this aspect of their teaching might wish to consider some or all of the following suggestions for enhancing lectures. These include: (1) Lectures must start with a "grabber"; (2) Lectures must be…

  20. Models: Caveats, Reflections, and Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirschling, Wayne R.

    1976-01-01

    Noting that mathematical modeling is a relatively new phenomenon in higher education and that much can be learned from the misdirections and mistakes that characterize modeling in general, the author describes major criticisms of modeling and suggests improvements, particularly in communication between modelers and potential model users. (JT)

  1. Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Seiler, Stephan; Deistung, Andreas; Schweser, Ferdinand; Franthal, Sebastian; Homayoon, Nina; Katschnig-Winter, Petra; Koegl-Wallner, Mariella; Pendl, Tamara; Stoegerer, Eva Maria; Wenzel, Karoline; Fazekas, Franz; Ropele, Stefan; Reichenbach, Jürgen Rainer; Schmidt, Reinhold; Schwingenschuh, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Background Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and R2* relaxation rate mapping have demonstrated increased iron deposition in the substantia nigra of patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, the findings in other subcortical deep gray matter nuclei are converse and the sensitivity of QSM and R2* for morphological changes and their relation to clinical measures of disease severity has so far been investigated only sparsely. Methods The local ethics committee approved this study and all subjects gave written informed consent. 66 patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease and 58 control subjects underwent quantitative MRI at 3T. Susceptibility and R2* maps were reconstructed from a spoiled multi-echo 3D gradient echo sequence. Mean susceptibilities and R2* rates were measured in subcortical deep gray matter nuclei and compared between patients with PD and controls as well as related to clinical variables. Results Compared to control subjects, patients with PD had increased R2* values in the substantia nigra. QSM also showed higher susceptibilities in patients with PD in substantia nigra, in the nucleus ruber, thalamus, and globus pallidus. Magnetic susceptibility of several of these structures was correlated with the levodopa-equivalent daily dose (LEDD) and clinical markers of motor and non-motor disease severity (total MDS-UPDRS, MDS-UPDRS-I and II). Disease severity as assessed by the Hoehn & Yahr scale was correlated with magnetic susceptibility in the substantia nigra. Conclusion The established finding of higher R2* rates in the substantia nigra was extended by QSM showing superior sensitivity for PD-related tissue changes in nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathways. QSM additionally reflected the levodopa-dosage and disease severity. These results suggest a more widespread pathologic involvement and QSM as a novel means for its investigation, more sensitive than current MRI techniques. PMID:27598250

  2. Local quantum thermal susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    De Pasquale, Antonella; Rossini, Davide; Fazio, Rosario; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    Thermodynamics relies on the possibility to describe systems composed of a large number of constituents in terms of few macroscopic variables. Its foundations are rooted into the paradigm of statistical mechanics, where thermal properties originate from averaging procedures which smoothen out local details. While undoubtedly successful, elegant and formally correct, this approach carries over an operational problem, namely determining the precision at which such variables are inferred, when technical/practical limitations restrict our capabilities to local probing. Here we introduce the local quantum thermal susceptibility, a quantifier for the best achievable accuracy for temperature estimation via local measurements. Our method relies on basic concepts of quantum estimation theory, providing an operative strategy to address the local thermal response of arbitrary quantum systems at equilibrium. At low temperatures, it highlights the local distinguishability of the ground state from the excited sub-manifolds, thus providing a method to locate quantum phase transitions. PMID:27681458

  3. Consumer hypnotic-like suggestibility: possible mechanism in compulsive purchasing.

    PubMed

    Prete, M Irene; Guido, Gianluigi; Pichierri, Marco

    2013-08-01

    The authors hypothesize a concept, Consumer Hypnotic-Like Suggestibility (CHLS), defined as an altered state of consciousness, as a state causing a tendency to respond positively to messages aimed at inducing consumers to make unplanned purchases. This study aims to investigate the associations of CHLS with interpersonal variables and compulsive purchasing--a frequent and uncontrollable preoccupation with buying or impulses to buy. A study was conducted on a sample of 232 subjects (n = 111 men; M age = 41 yr.), through the administration of a questionnaire, which measured: CHLS, compulsive purchasing, consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence (the necessity to enhance one's image in the opinion of others through the consumption of products), and consumer atmospherics, i.e., environmental stimuli known to influence purchasing decisions. Modeling and mediation analyses suggested that internal and external drivers--Consumer Susceptibility to Interpersonal Influence and atmospherics--are positively related to CHLS which affects compulsive purchasing.

  4. Consumer hypnotic-like suggestibility: possible mechanism in compulsive purchasing.

    PubMed

    Prete, M Irene; Guido, Gianluigi; Pichierri, Marco

    2013-08-01

    The authors hypothesize a concept, Consumer Hypnotic-Like Suggestibility (CHLS), defined as an altered state of consciousness, as a state causing a tendency to respond positively to messages aimed at inducing consumers to make unplanned purchases. This study aims to investigate the associations of CHLS with interpersonal variables and compulsive purchasing--a frequent and uncontrollable preoccupation with buying or impulses to buy. A study was conducted on a sample of 232 subjects (n = 111 men; M age = 41 yr.), through the administration of a questionnaire, which measured: CHLS, compulsive purchasing, consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence (the necessity to enhance one's image in the opinion of others through the consumption of products), and consumer atmospherics, i.e., environmental stimuli known to influence purchasing decisions. Modeling and mediation analyses suggested that internal and external drivers--Consumer Susceptibility to Interpersonal Influence and atmospherics--are positively related to CHLS which affects compulsive purchasing. PMID:24340808

  5. Altered coriolis stress susceptibility in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Lockette, W; Shepard, N; Lyos, A; Boismier, T; Mers, A

    1991-08-01

    Patients with hypertension frequently have vague complaints of dizziness and many other symptoms experienced by healthy individuals with motion sickness. We examined vestibular function in patients with essential hypertension, and we determined whether patients with essential hypertension are more prone to motion sickness using Coriolis stress testing. Vestibular function and Coriolis stress susceptibility were measured in 12 normotensive (NT) and seven asymptomatic patients with mild essential hypertension (HT). The Coriolis stress susceptibility index (CSSI) was calculated from the number of head movements in the four cardinal directions an individual could complete while being rotated in a computerized chair at increasing velocity before they developed motion sickness. The patients with hypertension had normal vestibular function and normal vestibuloocular responses as measured by standard techniques. Subjects with hypertension had significantly decreased Coriolis stress susceptibility scores compared to normotensive subjects (NT, 29.70 +/- 4.8; v HT, 5.48 +/- 2.0, P less than .001) and significantly decreased suppression of postrotatory nystagmus (NT, 44.5% +/- 3.8; v HT, 19.1% +/- 6.9, P less than .05). Medical treatment of hypertension did not result in an increased tolerance to provocative stimuli for motion sickness. It is suggested from our data that an increased susceptibility to motion sickness and abnormal vestibular responses to normal motion may account for many of the vague symptoms of "dizziness" reported by a large number of hypertensive patients.

  6. Ferrimagnetic susceptibility contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Bach-Gansmo, T

    1993-01-01

    Contrast agents based on superparamagnetic particles have been in clinical development for more than 5 years, and the complexity of their effects is still not elucidated. The relaxivities are frequently used to give an idea of their efficacy, but these parameters can only be used if they are concentration independent. For large superparamagnetic systems, the evolution of the transverse magnetization is biexponential, after an initial loss of magnetization. Both these characteristics of large superparamagnetic systems should lead to prudence in using the relaxivities as indicators of contrast medium efficacy. Susceptibility induced artefacts have been associated with the use of superparamagnetic contrast agents since the first imaging evaluation took place. The range of concentrations where good contrast effect was achieved without inducing artefacts, as well as blurring and metal artefacts were evaluated. The influence of motion on the induction of artefacts was studied, and compared to the artefacts induced by a paramagnetic agent subject to motion. With a suitable concentration of a negative contrast agent, a signal void could be achieved in the region prone to motion, and no artefacts were induced. If the concentration was too high, a displacement of the region close to the contrast agent was observed. The artefacts occurred in a volume surrounding the contrast agent, i.e., also outside the imaging plane. In comparison a positive, paramagnetic contrast agent induced heavy artefacts in the phase encoding direction, appearing as both high intensity regions and black holes, in a mosaic pattern. Clinical trials of the oral contrast agent OMP for abdominal MR imaging showed this agent to be safe and efficacious. OMP increased the diagnostic efficacy of abdominal MR imaging in 2 of 3 cases examined, with a significant decrease in motion artefacts. Susceptibility contrast agents may also be of use in the evaluation of small lesions in the liver. Particulate material

  7. Beyond diathesis stress: differential susceptibility to environmental influences.

    PubMed

    Belsky, Jay; Pluess, Michael

    2009-11-01

    Evolutionary-biological reasoning suggests that individuals should be differentially susceptible to environmental influences, with some people being not just more vulnerable than others to the negative effects of adversity, as the prevailing diathesis-stress view of psychopathology (and of many environmental influences) maintains, but also disproportionately susceptible to the beneficial effects of supportive and enriching experiences (or just the absence of adversity). Evidence consistent with the proposition that individuals differ in plasticity is reviewed. The authors document multiple instances in which (a) phenotypic temperamental characteristics, (b) endophenotypic attributes, and (c) specific genes function less like "vulnerability factors" and more like "plasticity factors," thereby rendering some individuals more malleable or susceptible than others to both negative and positive environmental influences. Discussion focuses upon limits of the evidence, statistical criteria for distinguishing differential susceptibility from diathesis stress, potential mechanisms of influence, and unknowns in the differential-susceptibility equation.

  8. Insecticide susceptibility of Euschistus heros (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sosa-Gómez, Daniel R; Da Silva, Jovenil J; Lopes, Ivani de Oliveira Negrao; Corso, Ivan C; Almeida, Alvaro M R; De Moraes, Giorla C Piubelli; Baur, Matrhew E

    2009-06-01

    Euschistus heros (F.) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) is the most prevalent stink bug pest in Brazil, and populations can be difficult to manage using organophosphates or endosulfan. Because E. heros is difficult to rear in the laboratory, no baseline insecticide susceptibility data have been published. Therefore, we conducted dose-mortality studies using field-collected insects, and, using the results from the dose-mortality studies, we surveyed susceptibility to acephate, methamidophos, and endosulfan in populations from southern and central Brazil. In addition, esterase activity was evaluated among populations as these enzymes have been related to organophosphate resistance. Finally, newer chemistries were evaluated for E. heros population management in small-plot field studies. In the dose-mortality bioassays, variation in susceptibility to methamidophos and endosulfan among populations was significant, but the variation in susceptibility to acephate was not. The population from Londrina (at the Embrapa Soybean Research Station, northern Parana state) was among the most susceptible, whereas the population from Pedrinhas Paulista (southwestern Sao Paulo state) was among the least susceptible. Significant variation among populations was observed in esterase activity with the population from Pedrinhas Paulista having the highest esterase levels and the population from Londrina having among the lowest levels. To survey populations, we used the dose-mortality data for the Londrina population (because it was, consistently, one of the most susceptible populations) to estimate the insecticide concentration that killed 99% of the population (LC99). The corresponding doses were 5.9 microg (AI) of acephate adult(-1), 0.7 microg (AI) methamidophos adult(-1), and 1,600 microg (AI) endosulfan adult(-1). The survey data confirmed the data from the dose-mortality bioassays in that the population from Pedrinhas Paulista was identified as one of the least susceptible and the

  9. Cumulative role of rare and common putative functional genetic variants at NPAS3 in schizophrenia susceptibility.

    PubMed

    González-Peñas, Javier; Arrojo, Manuel; Paz, Eduardo; Brenlla, Julio; Páramo, Mario; Costas, Javier

    2015-10-01

    Schizophrenia may be considered a human-specific disorder arisen as a maladaptive by-product of human-specific brain evolution. Therefore, genetic variants involved in susceptibility to schizophrenia may be identified among those genes related to acquisition of human-specific traits. NPAS3, a transcription factor involved in central nervous system development and neurogenesis, seems to be implicated in the evolution of human brain, as it is the human gene with most human-specific accelerated elements (HAEs), i.e., .mammalian conserved regulatory sequences with accelerated evolution in the lineage leading to humans after human-chimpanzee split. We hypothesize that any nucleotide variant at the NPAS3 HAEs may lead to altered susceptibility to schizophrenia. Twenty-one variants at these HAEs detected by the 1000 genomes Project, as well as five additional variants taken from psychiatric genome-wide association studies, were genotyped in 538 schizophrenic patients and 539 controls from Galicia. Analyses at the haplotype level or based on the cumulative role of the variants assuming different susceptibility models did not find any significant association in spite of enough power under several plausible scenarios regarding direction of effect and the specific role of rare and common variants. These results suggest that, contrary to our hypothesis, the special evolution of the NPAS3 HAEs in Homo relaxed the strong constraint on sequence that characterized these regions during mammalian evolution, allowing some sequence changes without any effect on schizophrenia risk. PMID:25982957

  10. Spatial Resolution Effects of Digital Terrain Models on Landslide Susceptibility Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, K. T.; Dou, J.; Chang, Y.; Kuo, C. P.; Xu, K. M.; Liu, J. K.

    2016-06-01

    The purposes of this study are to identify the maximum number of correlated factors for landslide susceptibility mapping and to evaluate landslide susceptibility at Sihjhong river catchment in the southern Taiwan, integrating two techniques, namely certainty factor (CF) and artificial neural network (ANN). The landslide inventory data of the Central Geological Survey (CGS, MOEA) in 2004-2014 and two digital elevation model (DEM) datasets including a 5-meter LiDAR DEM and a 30-meter Aster DEM were prepared. We collected thirteen possible landslide-conditioning factors. Considering the multi-collinearity and factor redundancy, we applied the CF approach to optimize these thirteen conditioning factors. We hypothesize that if the CF values of the thematic factor layers are positive, it implies that these conditioning factors have a positive relationship with the landslide occurrence. Therefore, based on this assumption and positive CF values, seven conditioning factors including slope angle, slope aspect, elevation, terrain roughness index (TRI), terrain position index (TPI), total curvature, and lithology have been selected for further analysis. The results showed that the optimized-factors model provides a better accuracy for predicting landslide susceptibility in the study area. In conclusion, the optimized-factors model is suggested for selecting relative factors of landslide occurrence.

  11. 32 CFR 1900.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC... complaints. The Agency welcomes suggestions or complaints with regard to its administration of the Freedom of... suggestion or complaint should identify the specific purpose and the issues for consideration. The...

  12. 32 CFR 1907.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY... General § 1907.04 Suggestions and complaints. The Agency welcomes suggestions or complaints with regard to... specific purpose and the issues for consideration. The Agency will respond to all...

  13. 32 CFR 1900.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC... complaints. The Agency welcomes suggestions or complaints with regard to its administration of the Freedom of... suggestion or complaint should identify the specific purpose and the issues for consideration. The...

  14. 32 CFR 1900.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC... complaints. The Agency welcomes suggestions or complaints with regard to its administration of the Freedom of... suggestion or complaint should identify the specific purpose and the issues for consideration. The...

  15. 32 CFR 1907.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY... General § 1907.04 Suggestions and complaints. The Agency welcomes suggestions or complaints with regard to... specific purpose and the issues for consideration. The Agency will respond to all...

  16. 32 CFR 1907.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY... General § 1907.04 Suggestions and complaints. The Agency welcomes suggestions or complaints with regard to... specific purpose and the issues for consideration. The Agency will respond to all...

  17. 32 CFR 1900.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC... complaints. The Agency welcomes suggestions or complaints with regard to its administration of the Freedom of... suggestion or complaint should identify the specific purpose and the issues for consideration. The...

  18. 32 CFR 1900.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1900.04 Section 1900.04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC ACCESS TO CIA RECORDS UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT (FOIA) General § 1900.04 Suggestions...

  19. Variations in concepts of "susceptibility" in risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Parkin, R T; Balbus, J M

    2000-10-01

    The Food Quality Protection Act and the 1996 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act are two of the most recent examples of legislation calling for protection of susceptible subpopulations. As regulatory deadlines draw nearer, controversies in scientific and policy arenas increase about incorporating susceptibility in risk assessment. The previously accepted working definition of "susceptibility" has already been called into question. Part of the controversy results from different disciplines conceiving of susceptibility in different ways. Understanding the conceptual differences embodied within definitions can provide a basis on which a revised working definition may be developed across disciplines. The purposes of this article are to describe the varying definitions of susceptibility, discuss the differing concepts incorporated in the definitions, and recommend ways in which susceptibility may be defined and framed to meet current risk assessment needs. The present analysis of definitions from the fields of ecology, biology, engineering, medicine, epidemiology, and toxicology revealed different emphases that relate to the underlying perspectives and methods of each field. It is likely that susceptibility will need to be formally defined for public policy purposes, but until that time, the use of more informal communication and decision-making processes is suggested to develop and utilize a new working consensus on the definition of susceptibility. PMID:11110208

  20. Susceptibility to aflatoxin contamination among maize landraces from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Beltran, Alejandro; Guerrero-Herrera, Manuel D J; Ortega-Corona, Alejandro; Vidal-Martinez, Victor A; Cotty, Peter J

    2014-09-01

    Maize, the critical staple food for billions of people, was domesticated in Mexico about 9,000 YBP. Today, a great array of maize landraces (MLRs) across rural Mexico is harbored in a living library that has been passed among generations since before the establishment of the modern state. MLRs have been selected over hundreds of generations by ethnic groups for adaptation to diverse environmental settings. The genetic diversity of MLRs in Mexico is an outstanding resource for development of maize cultivars with beneficial traits. Maize is frequently contaminated with aflatoxins by Aspergillus flavus, and resistance to accumulation of these potent carcinogens has been sought for over three decades. However, MLRs from Mexico have not been evaluated as potential sources of resistance. Variation in susceptibility to both A. flavus reproduction and aflatoxin contamination was evaluated on viable maize kernels in laboratory experiments that included 74 MLR accessions collected from 2006 to 2008 in the central west and northwest regions of Mexico. Resistant and susceptible MLR accessions were detected in both regions. The most resistant accessions accumulated over 99 % less aflatoxin B1 than did the commercial hybrid control Pioneer P33B50. Accessions supporting lower aflatoxin accumulation also supported reduced A. flavus sporulation. Sporulation on the MLRs was positively correlated with aflatoxin accumulation (R = 0.5336, P < 0.0001), suggesting that resistance to fungal reproduction is associated with MLR aflatoxin resistance. Results of the current study indicate that MLRs from Mexico are potentially important sources of aflatoxin resistance that may contribute to the breeding of commercially acceptable and safe maize hybrids and/or open pollinated cultivars for human and animal consumption. PMID:25198847

  1. Susceptibility to aflatoxin contamination among maize landraces from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Beltran, Alejandro; Guerrero-Herrera, Manuel D J; Ortega-Corona, Alejandro; Vidal-Martinez, Victor A; Cotty, Peter J

    2014-09-01

    Maize, the critical staple food for billions of people, was domesticated in Mexico about 9,000 YBP. Today, a great array of maize landraces (MLRs) across rural Mexico is harbored in a living library that has been passed among generations since before the establishment of the modern state. MLRs have been selected over hundreds of generations by ethnic groups for adaptation to diverse environmental settings. The genetic diversity of MLRs in Mexico is an outstanding resource for development of maize cultivars with beneficial traits. Maize is frequently contaminated with aflatoxins by Aspergillus flavus, and resistance to accumulation of these potent carcinogens has been sought for over three decades. However, MLRs from Mexico have not been evaluated as potential sources of resistance. Variation in susceptibility to both A. flavus reproduction and aflatoxin contamination was evaluated on viable maize kernels in laboratory experiments that included 74 MLR accessions collected from 2006 to 2008 in the central west and northwest regions of Mexico. Resistant and susceptible MLR accessions were detected in both regions. The most resistant accessions accumulated over 99 % less aflatoxin B1 than did the commercial hybrid control Pioneer P33B50. Accessions supporting lower aflatoxin accumulation also supported reduced A. flavus sporulation. Sporulation on the MLRs was positively correlated with aflatoxin accumulation (R = 0.5336, P < 0.0001), suggesting that resistance to fungal reproduction is associated with MLR aflatoxin resistance. Results of the current study indicate that MLRs from Mexico are potentially important sources of aflatoxin resistance that may contribute to the breeding of commercially acceptable and safe maize hybrids and/or open pollinated cultivars for human and animal consumption.

  2. Magnetic susceptibility of petroleum reservoir fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivakhnenko, Oleksandr P.; Potter, David K.

    A knowledge of the magnetic properties of petroleum reservoir fluids may provide new techniques for improved reservoir characterisation, petroleum exploration and production. However, magnetic information is currently scarce for the vast majority of reservoir fluids. For instance, there is little in the literature concerning basic magnetic susceptibility values of crude oils or formation waters. We have therefore measured the mass magnetic susceptibility ( χm) of several crude oils, refined oil fractions, and formation waters from local and world-wide sites. All the fluids measured were diamagnetic, however there were distinct differences in magnitude between the different fluid types. In particular, χm for the crude oils was more negative than for the formation waters of the same locality. The magnetic susceptibility of the oils appears to be related to their main physical and chemical properties. The results correlated with the density, residue content, API (American Petroleum Institute) gravity, viscosity, sulphur content and metal concentration of the fluids. Light fractions of crude oil were the most diamagnetic. The magnetic measurements potentially allow physical and chemical differences between the fluids to be rapidly characterised. The results suggest other possible applications, such as passive in situ magnetic susceptibility sensors for fluid monitoring (for example, the onset of water breakthrough, or the detection of migrating fines) in reservoirs, which would provide an environmentally friendly alternative to radioactive tracers. The mass magnetic susceptibilities of the fluids in relation to typical reservoir minerals may also play a role in fluid-rock interactions, such as studies of wettability. The χm of crude oil from the various world-wide oil provinces that were tested also showed some differences, possibly reflecting broad physical and chemical features of the geological history of each province.

  3. [Antimicrobial susceptibility in Chile 2012].

    PubMed

    Cifuentes-D, Marcela; Silva, Francisco; García, Patricia; Bello, Helia; Briceño, Isabel; Calvo-A, Mario; Labarca, Jaime

    2014-04-01

    Bacteria antimicrobial resistance is an uncontrolled public health problem that progressively increases its magnitude and complexity. The Grupo Colaborativo de Resistencia, formed by a join of experts that represent 39 Chilean health institutions has been concerned with bacteria antimicrobial susceptibility in our country since 2008. In this document we present in vitro bacterial susceptibility accumulated during year 2012 belonging to 28 national health institutions that represent about 36% of hospital discharges in Chile. We consider of major importance to report periodically bacteria susceptibility so to keep the medical community updated to achieve target the empirical antimicrobial therapies and the control measures and prevention of the dissemination of multiresistant strains.

  4. [Manganese neurotoxic effect and its susceptibility biomarkers of choice].

    PubMed

    Shao, Hua

    2015-10-01

    Long-term occupational exposure to manganese might cause manganese poisoning, which would had adverse effects on nervous system of workers. The basal nucleus was damaged and dopaminergic neuron was injuried by manganese. The mechanism could be related with interfering the energy metabolism of central nerve, changing neurotransmitters, activating oxidation system and so on. Genetic factors may also plays a significant role in the neurotoxicity caused by manganese. Study the effects of manganese exposure biomarker, the neurotoxicity of biomarkers and the genetic susceptibility to early and susceptibility biomarkers will contribute to the prevention and control of manganese neurotoxicity.

  5. Individual differences in susceptibility to inattentional blindness.

    PubMed

    Seegmiller, Janelle K; Watson, Jason M; Strayer, David L

    2011-05-01

    Inattentional blindness refers to the finding that people do not always see what appears in their gaze. Though inattentional blindness affects large percentages of people, it is unclear if there are individual differences in susceptibility. The present study addressed whether individual differences in attentional control, as reflected by variability in working memory capacity, modulate susceptibility to inattentional blindness. Participants watched a classic inattentional blindness video (Simons & Chabris, 1999) and were instructed to count passes among basketball players, wherein 58% noticed the unexpected: a person wearing a gorilla suit. When participants were accurate with their pass counts, individuals with higher working memory capacity were more likely to report seeing the gorilla (67%) than those with lesser working memory capacity (36%). These results suggest that variability in attentional control is a potential mechanism underlying the apparent modulation of inattentional blindness across individuals.

  6. Cognitive Factors in Hypnotic Susceptibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Robert D.; Field, Peter B.

    1971-01-01

    This research explored the influence of cognitive variables on susceptibility to hypnosis. The three variables of concern in the present study are automatization, attention, and body experience. The results are summarized. (Author)

  7. Perceptual Load Affects Eyewitness Accuracy and Susceptibility to Leading Questions.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Gillian; Greene, Ciara M

    2016-01-01

    Load Theory (Lavie, 1995, 2005) states that the level of perceptual load in a task (i.e., the amount of information involved in processing task-relevant stimuli) determines the efficiency of selective attention. There is evidence that perceptual load affects distractor processing, with increased inattentional blindness under high load. Given that high load can result in individuals failing to report seeing obvious objects, it is conceivable that load may also impair memory for the scene. The current study is the first to assess the effect of perceptual load on eyewitness memory. Across three experiments (two video-based and one in a driving simulator), the effect of perceptual load on eyewitness memory was assessed. The results showed that eyewitnesses were less accurate under high load, in particular for peripheral details. For example, memory for the central character in the video was not affected by load but memory for a witness who passed by the window at the edge of the scene was significantly worse under high load. High load memories were also more open to suggestion, showing increased susceptibility to leading questions. High visual perceptual load also affected recall for auditory information, illustrating a possible cross-modal perceptual load effect on memory accuracy. These results have implications for eyewitness memory researchers and forensic professionals. PMID:27625628

  8. Perceptual Load Affects Eyewitness Accuracy and Susceptibility to Leading Questions

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Gillian; Greene, Ciara M.

    2016-01-01

    Load Theory (Lavie, 1995, 2005) states that the level of perceptual load in a task (i.e., the amount of information involved in processing task-relevant stimuli) determines the efficiency of selective attention. There is evidence that perceptual load affects distractor processing, with increased inattentional blindness under high load. Given that high load can result in individuals failing to report seeing obvious objects, it is conceivable that load may also impair memory for the scene. The current study is the first to assess the effect of perceptual load on eyewitness memory. Across three experiments (two video-based and one in a driving simulator), the effect of perceptual load on eyewitness memory was assessed. The results showed that eyewitnesses were less accurate under high load, in particular for peripheral details. For example, memory for the central character in the video was not affected by load but memory for a witness who passed by the window at the edge of the scene was significantly worse under high load. High load memories were also more open to suggestion, showing increased susceptibility to leading questions. High visual perceptual load also affected recall for auditory information, illustrating a possible cross-modal perceptual load effect on memory accuracy. These results have implications for eyewitness memory researchers and forensic professionals. PMID:27625628

  9. Perceptual Load Affects Eyewitness Accuracy and Susceptibility to Leading Questions

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Gillian; Greene, Ciara M.

    2016-01-01

    Load Theory (Lavie, 1995, 2005) states that the level of perceptual load in a task (i.e., the amount of information involved in processing task-relevant stimuli) determines the efficiency of selective attention. There is evidence that perceptual load affects distractor processing, with increased inattentional blindness under high load. Given that high load can result in individuals failing to report seeing obvious objects, it is conceivable that load may also impair memory for the scene. The current study is the first to assess the effect of perceptual load on eyewitness memory. Across three experiments (two video-based and one in a driving simulator), the effect of perceptual load on eyewitness memory was assessed. The results showed that eyewitnesses were less accurate under high load, in particular for peripheral details. For example, memory for the central character in the video was not affected by load but memory for a witness who passed by the window at the edge of the scene was significantly worse under high load. High load memories were also more open to suggestion, showing increased susceptibility to leading questions. High visual perceptual load also affected recall for auditory information, illustrating a possible cross-modal perceptual load effect on memory accuracy. These results have implications for eyewitness memory researchers and forensic professionals.

  10. Central line infections - hospitals

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection; CVC - infection; Central venous device - infection; Infection control - central line infection; Nosocomial infection - central line infection; Hospital acquired infection - central line infection; Patient safety - central ...

  11. In vitro susceptibility of Bacillus spp. to selected antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed Central

    Weber, D J; Saviteer, S M; Rutala, W A; Thomann, C A

    1988-01-01

    Although often dismissed as contaminants when isolated from blood cultures, Bacillus spp. are increasingly recognized as capable of causing serious systemic infections. As part of a clinical-microbiological study, 89 strains of Bacillus spp. isolated from clinical blood cultures between 1981 and 1985 had their species determined and were tested for antimicrobial agent susceptibility to 18 antibiotics. Species of isolates were determined by the API 50CH and API 20E systems. Bacillus cereus (54 strains) was the most common species isolated, followed by B. megaterium (13 strains), B. polymyxa (5 strains), B. pumilus (4 strains), B. subtilis (4 strains), B. circulans (3 strains), B. amyloliquefaciens (2 strains), B. licheniformis (1 strain), and Bacillus spp. (3 strains). Microdilution MIC susceptibility tests revealed all B. cereus strains to be susceptible to imipenem, vancomycin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, and ciprofloxacin. Non-B. cereus strains were most susceptible to imipenem, vancomycin, LY146032, and ciprofloxacin. Disk susceptibility testing suggested that B. cereus was rarely susceptible to penicillins, semisynthetic penicillins, or cephalosporins with the exception of mezlocillin. In contrast, many non-B. cereus strains were susceptible to penicillins, semisynthetic penicillins, and cephalosporins, but marked variability was noted among species. PMID:3395100

  12. Measuring multipartite entanglement through dynamic susceptibilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauke, Philipp; Heyl, Markus; Tagliacozzo, Luca; Zoller, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Entanglement is considered an essential resource in quantum technologies, and central to the understanding of quantum many-body physics. Developing protocols to detect and quantify the entanglement of many-particle quantum states is thus a key challenge for present experiments. Here, we show that the quantum Fisher information, a witness for genuinely multipartite entanglement, becomes measurable for thermal ensembles by means of the dynamic susceptibility--that is, with resources readily available in present cold atomic-gas and condensed-matter experiments. This establishes a connection between multipartite entanglement and many-body correlations contained in response functions, with immediate implications close to quantum phase transitions, where the quantum Fisher information becomes universal, allowing us to identify strongly entangled phase transitions with a divergent multipartite entanglement. We illustrate our framework using paradigmatic quantum Ising models, and point out potential signatures in optical-lattice experiments and strongly correlated materials.

  13. Xylazine emesis, yohimbine and motion sickness susceptibility in the cat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucot, James B.; Crampton, George H.

    1986-01-01

    The possible role of the alpha-2 adrenoceptors in xylazine-induced vomiting and in motion sickness was investigated. Cats were divided into two groups according to motion sickness susceptibility and were observed after s.c. injections of xylazine. The incidence of vomiting increased with the dose, and at each dose the high susceptibility group had a greater emetic incidence than the low susceptibility group. In another experiment with cats divided into two groups according to motion sickness susceptibility, s.c. administration of yohimbine effectively antagonized the xylazine-induced emesis in both susceptibility groups. The cats in the latter experiment were then challenged with a motion sickness stimulus after s.c. pretreatment with yohimbine. Yohimbine failed to prevent motion sickness but did occasion an unexplained variability in the incidence of vomiting. These findings suggest that the emetic effect of xylazine results from stimulation of alpha-2 adrenoceptors but that these receptors are not fundamental to feline motion sickness. The fact that susceptibilities to xylazine-induced emesis and to motion sickness are correlated suggests a point of interaction other than the area postrema, which is known to be essential for xylazine-induced vomiting but not for motion sickness in the cat.

  14. Genetic susceptibility to radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, E. J.; Brenner, D. J.; Worgul, B.; Smilenov, L.

    In the context of space radiation, it is important to know whether the human population includes genetically predisposed radiosensitive subsets. One possibility is that haploinsufficiency for ATM confers radiosensitivity, and this defect involves 1-3% of the population. Using knock-out mice we chose to study cataractogenesis in the lens and oncogenic transformation in mouse embryo fibroblasts to assay for effects of ATM deficiency. Radiation induced cataracts appeared earlier in the heterozygous versus wild-type animals following exposure to either gamma rays or 1 GeV/nucleon iron ions. In addition, it was found that embryo fibroblasts of Atm heterozygotes showed an increased incidence of oncogenic transformation compared with their normal litter-matched counterparts. From these data we suggest that Ataxia Telangiectasia heterozygotes could indeed represent a societally-significant radiosensitive subpopulation.

  15. Susceptibility Genes in Thyroid Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Ban, Yoshiyuki; Tomer, Yaron

    2005-01-01

    The autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) are complex diseases which are caused by an interaction between susceptibility genes and environmental triggers. Genetic susceptibility in combination with external factors (e.g. dietary iodine) is believed to initiate the autoimmune response to thyroid antigens. Abundant epidemiological data, including family and twin studies, point to a strong genetic influence on the development of AITD. Various techniques have been employed to identify the genes contributing to the etiology of AITD, including candidate gene analysis and whole genome screening. These studies have enabled the identification of several loci (genetic regions) that are linked with AITD, and in some of these loci, putative AITD susceptibility genes have been identified. Some of these genes/loci are unique to Graves' disease (GD) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) and some are common to both the diseases, indicating that there is a shared genetic susceptibility to GD and HT. The putative GD and HT susceptibility genes include both immune modifying genes (e.g. HLA, CTLA-4) and thyroid specific genes (e.g. TSHR, Tg). Most likely, these loci interact and their interactions may influence disease phenotype and severity. PMID:15712599

  16. Susceptibility to decubitus ulcer formation.

    PubMed

    Meijer, J H; Germs, P H; Schneider, H; Ribbe, M W

    1994-03-01

    The hypothesis of blood-flow recovery time after pressure relief was prospectively evaluated as a measure of a patient's susceptibility to develop decubitus ulcers. This blood-flow recovery time was measured using the noninvasive pressure-temperature-time (PTT) method, which uses a 10-minute test-pressure stimulus. The blood-flow response after pressure relief was measured by means of skin-temperature measurements. The evaluation was performed in a group of 109 elderly nursing home patients. A pressure-index was used as a measure for the intensity and duration of pressure and shear forces, to which a patient was exposed, to measure a set of external determinants that are independent of the susceptibility. Both the blood-flow recovery time and the pressure-index were found to correlate significantly with the risk to develop decubitus. A conceptualization of the relationship between the risk, on the one hand, and the susceptibility and the external determinants, on the other hand, is presented, assuming independence (orthogonality) of both sets of determinants. Based on this conceptualization, a three-dimensional risk-relationship was constructed. It is concluded that the blood-flow recovery time can be considered to be a measure for the susceptibility. Further, the conceptualization provides valuable insight into the risk-relationships and forms a base for future research with regard to susceptibility. PMID:8129586

  17. Landslide Susceptibility Assessment Through Fuzzy Logic Inference System (flis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibi, T.; Gul, Y.; Rahman, A. Abdul; Riaz, M.

    2016-09-01

    Landslide is among one of the most important natural hazards that lead to modification of the environment. It is a regular feature of a rapidly growing district Mansehra, Pakistan. This caused extensive loss of life and property in the district located at the foothills of Himalaya. Keeping in view the situation it is concluded that besides structural approaches the non-structural approaches such as hazard and risk assessment maps are effective tools to reduce the intensity of damage. A landslide susceptibility map is base for engineering geologists and geomorphologists. However, it is not easy to produce a reliable susceptibility map due to complex nature of landslides. Since 1980s, several mathematical models have been developed to map landslide susceptibility and hazard. Among various models this paper is discussing the effectiveness of fuzzy logic approach for landslide susceptibility mapping in District Mansehra, Pakistan. The factor maps were modified as landslide susceptibility and fuzzy membership functions were assessed for each class. Likelihood ratios are obtained for each class of contributing factors by considering the expert opinion. The fuzzy operators are applied to generate landslide susceptibility maps. According to this map, 17% of the study area is classified as high susceptibility, 32% as moderate susceptibility, 51% as low susceptibility and areas. From the results it is found that the fuzzy model can integrate effectively with various spatial data for landslide hazard mapping, suggestions in this study are hope to be helpful to improve the applications including interpretation, and integration phases in order to obtain an accurate decision supporting layer.

  18. 32 CFR 1907.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CHALLENGES TO CLASSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS BY AUTHORIZED HOLDERS PURSUANT TO § 1.9 OF EXECUTIVE ORDER 12958... its administration of the Executive Order. Letters of suggestion or complaint should identify...

  19. 32 CFR 1907.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CHALLENGES TO CLASSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS BY AUTHORIZED HOLDERS PURSUANT TO § 1.9 OF EXECUTIVE ORDER 12958... its administration of the Executive Order. Letters of suggestion or complaint should identify...

  20. 32 CFR 1901.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 General § 1901.04 Suggestions and complaints. The Agency welcomes... specific purpose and the issues for consideration. The Agency will respond to all...

  1. 32 CFR 1901.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 General § 1901.04 Suggestions and complaints. The Agency welcomes... specific purpose and the issues for consideration. The Agency will respond to all...

  2. 32 CFR 1901.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 General § 1901.04 Suggestions and complaints. The Agency welcomes... specific purpose and the issues for consideration. The Agency will respond to all...

  3. 32 CFR 1901.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 General § 1901.04 Suggestions and complaints. The Agency welcomes... specific purpose and the issues for consideration. The Agency will respond to all...

  4. 32 CFR 1901.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 General § 1901.04 Suggestions and complaints. The Agency welcomes... specific purpose and the issues for consideration. The Agency will respond to all...

  5. Linking landslide susceptibility to sediment yield in the Romanian Carpathians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broeckx, Jente; Vanmaercke, Matthias; Bǎlteanu, Dan; Chendeş, Viorel; Sima, Mihaela; Enciu, Petru; Poesen, Jean

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies revealed the importance of seismic activity in explaining regional patterns of catchment sediment yield (SY). This relation is often explained by the fact that seismic activity induces landslides that contribute to SY. Nevertheless, only a few studies focused on the effects of landslides on SY and even fewer studies have explored the potential of landslide susceptibility as a predictor for SY. The objective of this study is therefore to explore the potential of landslide susceptibility maps to explain the spatial variation of SY in the Romanian Carpathians, a region with moderate to high seismicity. 133 catchments, covering 63% of Romania, for which SY was measured during a period of at least 10 years and for which SY was not significantly affected by upstream reservoirs, were compiled and selected. 78 of these catchments were 'less disturbed', being covered for at least 50% by forest and semi-natural areas and confined to the Carpathian mountains. Landslide susceptibility in each catchment was assessed, using an earlier published state of the art landslide susceptibility map of Romania. Mean landslide susceptibility for each catchment shows a highly significant correlation with SY (r² = 0.44). This indicates that landslides are an important contributor to SY in Romania and suggests that regional and national landslide susceptibility maps can indeed be a useful tool to predict SY. Nevertheless, the susceptibility map did not explain much more of the observed variance in SY than some other individual catchment characteristics such as seismicity (r² = 0.40) and lithology (r² = 0.33). Also taking into account the spatial patterns of landslide susceptibility within the catchment did not significantly improve the observed correlations. Surprisingly, topography showed a nonsignificant correlation with SY, which can be attributed to the overwhelming effect of seismicity and lithology. Overall, our results suggest that seismicity is indeed a highly

  6. Transgenerational epigenetic effects of the Apobec1 cytidine deaminase deficiency on testicular germ cell tumor susceptibility and embryonic viability.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Vicki R; Heaney, Jason D; Tesar, Paul J; Davidson, Nicholas O; Nadeau, Joseph H

    2012-10-01

    Environmental agents and genetic variants can induce heritable epigenetic changes that affect phenotypic variation and disease risk in many species. These transgenerational effects challenge conventional understanding about the modes and mechanisms of inheritance, but their molecular basis is poorly understood. The Deadend1 (Dnd1) gene enhances susceptibility to testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) in mice, in part by interacting epigenetically with other TGCT modifier genes in previous generations. Sequence homology to A1cf, the RNA-binding subunit of the ApoB editing complex, raises the possibility that the function of Dnd1 is related to Apobec1 activity as a cytidine deaminase. We conducted a series of experiments with a genetically engineered deficiency of Apobec1 on the TGCT-susceptible 129/Sv inbred background to determine whether dosage of Apobec1 modifies susceptibility, either alone or in combination with Dnd1, and either in a conventional or a transgenerational manner. In the paternal germ-lineage, Apobec1 deficiency significantly increased susceptibility among heterozygous but not wild-type male offspring, without subsequent transgenerational effects, showing that increased TGCT risk resulting from partial loss of Apobec1 function is inherited in a conventional manner. By contrast, partial deficiency in the maternal germ-lineage led to suppression of TGCTs in both partially and fully deficient males and significantly reduced TGCT risk in a transgenerational manner among wild-type offspring. These heritable epigenetic changes persisted for multiple generations and were fully reversed after consecutive crosses through the alternative germ-lineage. These results suggest that Apobec1 plays a central role in controlling TGCT susceptibility in both a conventional and a transgenerational manner.

  7. Genetic susceptibility to radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, E. J.; Brenner, D. J.; Worgul, B.; Smilenov, L.

    In the context of space radiation, it is important to know whether the human population includes genetically predisposed radiosensitive subsets. One possibility is that haploinsufficiency for ATM confers radiosensitivity, and this defect involves 1 3% of the population. Using knock-out mice we chose to study cataractogenesis in the lens and oncogenic transformation in mouse embryo fibroblasts to assay for effects of ATM deficiency. Radiation induced cataracts appeared earlier in the heterozygous versus wild-type animals following exposure to either gamma rays or 1 GeV/nucleon iron ions. In addition, it was found that embryo fibroblasts of Atm heterozygotes showed an increased incidence of oncogenic transformation compared with their normal litter-matched counterparts. From these data we suggest that Ataxia Telangiectasia heterozygotes could indeed represent a societally significant radiosensitive subpopulation. Knock-out mice are now available for other genes including BRCA1 and 2, and Mrad9. An exciting possibility is the creation of double heterozygotes for pairs of mutated genes that function in the same signal transduction pathway, and consequently confer even greater radiosensitivity.

  8. Central Sleep Apnea at High Altitude.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Keith R; Ainslie, Philip N

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of central sleep apnea (CSA) at high altitude is usually attributed to Angelo Mosso who published in 1898. It can occur in susceptible individuals at altitude above 2000 m, but at very high altitude, say above 5000 m, it will occur in most subjects. Severity is correlated with ventilatory responsiveness, particularly to hypoxia. Theoretically, it should spontaneously improve with time and acclimatization. Although the time course of resolution is not well described, it appears to persist for more than a month at 5000 m.It occurs due to the interaction of hypocapnia with stages 1 and 2 NREM sleep, in the presence of increased loop-gain. The hypocapnia is secondary to hypoxic ventilatory drive. With acclimatization, one might expect that the increase in PaO2 and cerebral blood flow (CBF) would mitigate the CSA. However, over time, both the hypoxic and hypercapnic ventilatory responses increase, causing an increase in loop gain which is a counteracting force.The severity of the CSA can be reduced by descent, supplemental oxygen therapy, oral or intravenous acetazolamide. Recent studies suggest that acute further increases in cerebral blood flow will substantially, but temporarily, reduce central sleep apnea, without altering acid based balance. Very recently, bi-level noninvasive ventilation has also been shown to help (mechanism unknown). Sleep quality can be improved independent of the presence of CSA by the use of benzodiazepine sedation. PMID:27343103

  9. Antibacterial susceptibility of plaque bacteria.

    PubMed

    Newman, M G; Hulem, C; Colgate, J; Anselmo, C

    1979-07-01

    Selected anaerobic, capnophilic and facultative bacteria isolated from patients with various forms of periodontal health and disease were tested for their susceptibility to antibiotics and antimicrobial agents. Specific bactericidal and minimum inhibitory concentrations were compared to disc zone diameters, thereby generating new standards for the potential selection of antimicrobial agents. PMID:286720

  10. Antibacterial susceptibility of plaque bacteria.

    PubMed

    Newman, M G; Hulem, C; Colgate, J; Anselmo, C

    1979-07-01

    Selected anaerobic, capnophilic and facultative bacteria isolated from patients with various forms of periodontal health and disease were tested for their susceptibility to antibiotics and antimicrobial agents. Specific bactericidal and minimum inhibitory concentrations were compared to disc zone diameters, thereby generating new standards for the potential selection of antimicrobial agents.

  11. Behavioural phenotypes predict disease susceptibility and infectiousness.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Alessandra; Kirschman, Lucas; Warne, Robin W

    2016-08-01

    Behavioural phenotypes may provide a means for identifying individuals that disproportionally contribute to disease spread and epizootic outbreaks. For example, bolder phenotypes may experience greater exposure and susceptibility to pathogenic infection because of distinct interactions with conspecifics and their environment. We tested the value of behavioural phenotypes in larval amphibians for predicting ranavirus transmission in experimental trials. We found that behavioural phenotypes characterized by latency-to-food and swimming profiles were predictive of disease susceptibility and infectiousness defined as the capacity of an infected host to transmit an infection by contacts. While viral shedding rates were positively associated with transmission, we also found an inverse relationship between contacts and infections. Together these results suggest intrinsic traits that influence behaviour and the quantity of pathogens shed during conspecific interactions may be an important contributor to ranavirus transmission. These results suggest that behavioural phenotypes provide a means to identify individuals more likely to spread disease and thus give insights into disease outbreaks that threaten wildlife and humans. PMID:27555652

  12. Postexercise Hypotension: Central Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chao-Yin; Bonham, Ann C.

    2010-01-01

    A single bout of exercise can lead to a postexercise decrease in blood pressure in hypertensive individuals, called postexercise hypotension. Compelling evidence suggests that the central baroreflex pathway plays a crucial role in the development of postexercise hypotension. This review focuses on the exercise-induced changes in brainstem nuclei involved in blood pressure regulation. PMID:20577060

  13. Linezolid susceptibility in Helicobacter pylori, including strains with multidrug resistance.

    PubMed

    Boyanova, Lyudmila; Evstatiev, Ivailo; Gergova, Galina; Yaneva, Penka; Mitov, Ivan

    2015-12-01

    Only a few studies have evaluated Helicobacter pylori susceptibility to linezolid. The aim of the present study was to assess linezolid susceptibility in H. pylori, including strains with double/multidrug resistance. The susceptibility of 53 H. pylori strains was evaluated by Etest and a breakpoint susceptibility testing method. Helicobacter pylori resistance rates were as follows: amoxicillin, 1.9%; metronidazole, 37.7%; clarithromycin, 17.0%; tetracycline, 1.9%; levofloxacin, 24.5%; and linezolid (>4 mg/L), 39.6%. The linezolid MIC50 value was 31.2-fold higher than that of clarithromycin and 10.5-fold higher than that of levofloxacin; however, 4 of 11 strains with double/multidrug resistance were linezolid-susceptible. The MIC range of the oxazolidinone agent was larger (0.125-64 mg/L) compared with those in the previous two reports. The linezolid resistance rate was 2.2-fold higher in metronidazole-resistant strains and in strains resistant to at least one antibiotic compared with the remaining strains. Briefly, linezolid was less active against H. pylori compared with clarithromycin and levofloxacin, and linezolid resistance was linked to resistance to metronidazole as well as to resistance to at least one antibiotic. However, linezolid activity against some strains with double/multidrug resistance may render the agent appropriate to treat some associated H. pylori infections following in vitro susceptibility testing of the strains. Clinical trials are required to confirm this suggestion.

  14. Variants in the inflammatory IL6 and MPO genes modulate stroke susceptibility through main effects and gene–gene interactions

    PubMed Central

    Manso, Helena; Krug, Tiago; Sobral, João; Albergaria, Isabel; Gaspar, Gisela; Ferro, José M; Oliveira, Sofia A; Vicente, Astrid M

    2011-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that inflammation within the central nervous system contributes to stroke risk and recovery. Inflammatory conditions increase stroke risk, and the inflammatory response is of major importance in recovery and healing processes after stroke. We investigated the role of inflammatory genes IL1B, IL6, MPO, and TNF in stroke susceptibility and recovery in a population sample of 672 patients and 530 controls, adjusting for demographic, clinical and lifestyle risk factors, and stroke severity parameters. We also considered the likely complexity of inflammatory mechanisms in stroke, by assessing the combined effects of multiple genes. Two interleukin 6 (IL6) and one myeloperoxidase (MPO) single-nucleotide polymorphisms were significantly associated with stroke risk (0.022susceptibility (P=0.031 after 1,000 permutations). In a subset of 546 patients, one IL6 haplotype was associated with stroke outcome at 3 months (correctedP=0.024), an intriguing finding warranting further validation. Our findings support the association of the IL6 gene and present novel evidence for the involvement of MPO in stroke susceptibility, suggesting a modulation of stroke risk by main gene effects, clinical and lifestyle factors, and gene–gene interactions. PMID:21407237

  15. Comparative analysis of a putative tuberculosis-susceptibility gene, MC3R, and pseudogene sequences in cattle, African buffalo, hyena, rhinoceros and other African bovids and ruminants.

    PubMed

    Müller, A; Möller, M; Adams, L A; Warren, R M; Hoal, E G; van Helden, P D

    2012-01-01

    Studies in humans have suggested the possible involvement of melanocortin-3-receptor (MC3R) and other components of the central melanocortin system in host defense against mycobacteria. We report a genomic DNA nucleotide sequence highly homologous to human MC3R in several bovids and non-bovid African wildlife species. Nucleotide sequence analysis indicates that the orthologous genes of cattle and buffalo are highly homologous (89.4 and 90%, respectively) to the human MC3R gene. Sequence results also identified a typical non-functional, duplicated pseudogene, MC3RP, in 7 species from the family Bovidae. No pseudogene was found in animals outside Bovidae. The presence of the pseudogene in tuberculosis-susceptible species could have possible immunomodulatory effects on susceptibility to bovine tuberculosis infection, as well as a considerable influence on energy metabolism and food conversion efficiency. PMID:22286663

  16. Comparative analysis of a putative tuberculosis-susceptibility gene, MC3R, and pseudogene sequences in cattle, African buffalo, hyena, rhinoceros and other African bovids and ruminants.

    PubMed

    Müller, A; Möller, M; Adams, L A; Warren, R M; Hoal, E G; van Helden, P D

    2012-01-01

    Studies in humans have suggested the possible involvement of melanocortin-3-receptor (MC3R) and other components of the central melanocortin system in host defense against mycobacteria. We report a genomic DNA nucleotide sequence highly homologous to human MC3R in several bovids and non-bovid African wildlife species. Nucleotide sequence analysis indicates that the orthologous genes of cattle and buffalo are highly homologous (89.4 and 90%, respectively) to the human MC3R gene. Sequence results also identified a typical non-functional, duplicated pseudogene, MC3RP, in 7 species from the family Bovidae. No pseudogene was found in animals outside Bovidae. The presence of the pseudogene in tuberculosis-susceptible species could have possible immunomodulatory effects on susceptibility to bovine tuberculosis infection, as well as a considerable influence on energy metabolism and food conversion efficiency.

  17. Variants of the SFTPA1 and SFTPA2 genes and susceptibility to tuberculosis in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Malik, S; Greenwood, C M T; Eguale, T; Kifle, A; Beyene, J; Habte, A; Tadesse, A; Gebrexabher, H; Britton, S; Schurr, E

    2006-02-01

    Lungs are the central organ affected and targeted by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and immune processes in the lung are of critical importance in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis. A major lung defense against invading pathogens is provided by surfactant protein A, a multi-chain protein encoded by the SFTPA1 and SFTPA2 genes. Here, we investigated polymorphisms in the SFTPA1 and SFTPA2 genes for association with tuberculosis in 181 Ethiopian families comprising 226 tuberculosis cases. Four polymorphisms, SFTPA1 307A, SFTPA1 776T, SFTPA2 355C, and SFTPA2 751C, were associated with tuberculosis (P=0.00008; P=0.019, P=0.029 and P=0.042, respectively). Additional subgroup analysis in male, female and more severely affected patients provided evidence for SFTPA1/2-covariate interaction. Finally, out of five intragenic haplotypes identified in the SFTPA1 gene and nine identified in the SFTPA2 gene, 1A(3) was most significantly associated with tuberculosis susceptibility (P=0.026). These findings suggest that SFTPA1 and SFTPA2 modify the risk of tuberculosis susceptibility and that this risk is influenced by additional covariates. PMID:16292672

  18. Influence of tectonic folding on rockfall susceptibility, American Fork Canyon, Utah, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coe, J.A.; Harp, E.L.

    2007-01-01

    We examine rockfall susceptibility of folded strata in the Sevier fold-thrust belt exposed in American Fork Canyon in north-central Utah. Large-scale geologic mapping, talus production data, rock-mass-quality measurements, and historical rockfall data indicate that rockfall susceptibility is correlated with limb dip and curvature of the folded, cliff-forming Mississippian limestones. On fold limbs, rockfall susceptibility increases as dip increases. This relation is controlled by several factors, including an increase in adverse dip conditions and apertures of discontinuities, and shearing by flexural slip during folding that has reduced the friction angles of discontinuities by smoothing surface asperities. Susceptibility is greater in fold hinge zones than on adjacent limbs primarily because there are greater numbers of discontinuities in hinge zones. We speculate that susceptibility increases in hinge zones as fold curvature becomes tighter.

  19. Biofilm susceptibility to metal toxicity.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Joe J; Ceri, Howard; Stremick, Carol A; Turner, Raymond J

    2004-12-01

    This study compared bacterial biofilm and planktonic cell susceptibility to metal toxicity by evaluating the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), the planktonic minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), and minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) using the MBEC device. In total, 17 metal cations and oxyanions, chosen to represent groups VIB to VIA of the periodic table, were each tested on biofilm and planktonic cultures of Escherichia coli JM109, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. In contrast to control antibiotic assays, where biofilm cultures were 2 to 64 times less susceptible to killing than logarithmically growing planktonic bacteria, metal compounds killed planktonic and biofilm cultures at the same concentration in the vast majority of combinations. Our data indicate that, under the conditions reported, growth in a biofilm does not provide resistance to bacteria against killing by metal cations or oxyanions.

  20. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma hyorhinis.

    PubMed

    Wu, C C; Shryock, T R; Lin, T L; Faderan, M; Veenhuizen, M F

    2000-09-15

    A broth microdilution technique was used to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of 15 field isolates of Mycoplasma hyorhinis to 10 antimicrobial agents, representative of different classes, and contrasting newer agents to existing ones. For the macrolides, the MIC(90) for tylosin and tilmicosin was 1 and 4 microg/ml, respectively, but was > or = 16 microg/ml for erythromycin. Tetracycline, lincomycin and enrofloxacin each had an MIC(90) of 2 microg/ml. The mycoplasma had similar levels of susceptibility to the aminoglycoside and aminocyclictol classes exhibiting an MIC(90) of 4 microg/ml for gentamicin and 2 microg/ml for spectinomycin. The isolates exhibited high MICs to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole with an MIC(90) > or = 16/304 microg/ml. In summary, M. hyorhinis isolates from the US had low MICs against a variety of antimicrobials tested, with the exception of erythromycin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. PMID:10925038

  1. Are Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders Susceptible to Contour Illusions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milne, Elizabeth; Scope, Alison

    2008-01-01

    Children with autism have been shown to be less susceptible to Kanisza type contour illusions than children without autism (Happe, 1996). Other authors have suggested that this finding could be explained by the fact that participants with autism were required to make a potentially ambiguous verbal response which may have masked whether or not they…

  2. Parenting and Preschoolers' Executive Functioning: A Case of Differential Susceptibility?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochette, Émilie; Bernier, Annie

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of theoretical and empirical work has been attempting to answer the questions of how and how much of the effects of children's early experience may depend on their inner characteristics. Theory and evidence suggest that some children, notably those with difficult temperaments, are more susceptible to both negative and positive…

  3. Differential Susceptibility to Parenting and Quality Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluess, Michael; Belsky, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Research on differential susceptibility to rearing suggests that infants with difficult temperaments are disproportionately affected by parenting and child care quality, but a major U.S. child care study raises questions as to whether quality of care influences social adjustment. One thousand three hundred sixty-four American children from…

  4. Beyond Diathesis Stress: Differential Susceptibility to Environmental Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belsky, Jay; Pluess, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Evolutionary-biological reasoning suggests that individuals should be differentially susceptible to environmental influences, with some people being not just more vulnerable than others to the negative effects of adversity, as the prevailing diathesis-stress view of psychopathology (and of many environmental influences) maintains, but also…

  5. Cell-type-specific enrichment of risk-associated regulatory elements at ovarian cancer susceptibility loci

    PubMed Central

    Coetzee, Simon G.; Shen, Howard C.; Hazelett, Dennis J.; Lawrenson, Kate; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline; Tyrer, Jonathan; Rhie, Suhn K.; Levanon, Keren; Karst, Alison; Drapkin, Ronny; Ramus, Susan J.; Couch, Fergus J.; Offit, Kenneth; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Monteiro, Alvaro N.A.; Antoniou, Antonis; Freedman, Matthew; Coetzee, Gerhard A.; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Noushmehr, Houtan; Gayther, Simon A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the regulatory landscape of the human genome is a central question in complex trait genetics. Most single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with cancer risk lie in non-protein-coding regions, implicating regulatory DNA elements as functional targets of susceptibility variants. Here, we describe genome-wide annotation of regions of open chromatin and histone modification in fallopian tube and ovarian surface epithelial cells (FTSECs, OSECs), the debated cellular origins of high-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSOCs) and in endometriosis epithelial cells (EECs), the likely precursor of clear cell ovarian carcinomas (CCOCs). The regulatory architecture of these cell types was compared with normal human mammary epithelial cells and LNCaP prostate cancer cells. We observed similar positional patterns of global enhancer signatures across the three different ovarian cancer precursor cell types, and evidence of tissue-specific regulatory signatures compared to non-gynecological cell types. We found significant enrichment for risk-associated SNPs intersecting regulatory biofeatures at 17 known HGSOC susceptibility loci in FTSECs (P = 3.8 × 10−30), OSECs (P = 2.4 × 10−23) and HMECs (P = 6.7 × 10−15) but not for EECs (P = 0.45) or LNCaP cells (P = 0.88). Hierarchical clustering of risk SNPs conditioned on the six different cell types indicates FTSECs and OSECs are highly related (96% of samples using multi-scale bootstrapping) suggesting both cell types may be precursors of HGSOC. These data represent the first description of regulatory catalogues of normal precursor cells for different ovarian cancer subtypes, and provide unique insights into the tissue specific regulatory variation with respect to the likely functional targets of germline genetic susceptibility variants for ovarian cancer. PMID:25804953

  6. Hypnosis, hypnotic suggestibility, memory, and involvement in films.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Reed; Lynn, Steven Jay; Condon, Liam

    2015-05-01

    Our research extends studies that have examined the relation between hypnotic suggestibility and experiential involvement and the role of an hypnotic induction in enhancing experiential involvement (e.g., absorption) in engaging tasks. Researchers have reported increased involvement in reading (Baum & Lynn, 1981) and music-listening (Snodgrass & Lynn, 1989) tasks during hypnosis. We predicted a similar effect for film viewing: greater experiential involvement in an emotional (The Champ) versus a non-emotional (Scenes of Toronto) film. We tested 121 participants who completed measures of absorption and trait dissociation and the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility and then viewed the two films after either an hypnotic induction or a non-hypnotic task (i.e., anagrams). Experiential involvement varied as a function of hypnotic suggestibility and film clip. Highly suggestible participants reported more state depersonalization than less suggestible participants, and depersonalization was associated with negative affect; however, we observed no significant correlation between hypnotic suggestibility and trait dissociation. Although hypnosis had no effect on memory commission or omission errors, contrary to the hypothesis that hypnosis facilitates absorption in emotionally engaging tasks, the emotional film was associated with more commission and omission errors compared with the non-emotional film.

  7. Genetically susceptible mice remain proportionally more susceptible to tuberculosis after vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Medina, E; North, R J

    1999-01-01

    DBA/2 mice are much more susceptible to infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis than major histocompatibility complex-compatible BALB/c mice. It is shown here that, although vaccination provided mice of both strains with a capacity to reduce the level of infection in their lungs, vaccinated DBA/2 mice remained much more susceptible in this organ than vaccinated BALB/c mice. Consequently, the former mice developed more lung pathology and died much earlier than the latter. On the other hand, colony-forming unit counts and histology suggest that vaccination provided mice of both strains with an increased and equal ability to express immunity in the liver and spleen, thereby indicating that they possessed equal systemic levels of vaccine-induced immunity at the time of M. tuberculosis challenge. The results indicate that inefficient expression of immunity in the lungs is likely to prove an obstacle to successful vaccination against tuberculosis in resistant and susceptible mouse strains, but more so in the latter strains. PMID:10233673

  8. Susceptibility of Primary Sensory Cortex to Spreading Depolarizations

    PubMed Central

    Bogdanov, Volodymyr B.; Middleton, Natalie A.; Theriot, Jeremy J.; Parker, Patrick D.; Abdullah, Osama M.; Ju, Y. Sungtaek; Hartings, Jed A.

    2016-01-01

    Spreading depolarizations (SDs) are recognized as actors in neurological disorders as diverse as migraine and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Migraine aura involves sensory percepts, suggesting that sensory cortices might be intrinsically susceptible to SDs. We used optical imaging, MRI, and field potential and potassium electrode recordings in mice and electrocorticographic recordings in humans to determine the susceptibility of different brain regions to SDs. Optical imaging experiments in mice under isoflurane anesthesia showed that both cortical spreading depression and terminal anoxic depolarization arose preferentially in the whisker barrel region of parietal sensory cortex. MRI recordings under isoflurane, ketamine/xylazine, ketamine/isoflurane, and urethane anesthesia demonstrated that the depolarizations did not propagate from a subcortical source. Potassium concentrations showed larger increases in sensory cortex, suggesting a mechanism of susceptibility. Sensory stimulation biased the timing but not the location of depolarization onset. In humans with TBI, there was a trend toward increased incidence of SDs in parietal/temporal sensory cortex compared with other regions. In conclusion, SDs are inducible preferentially in primary sensory cortex in mice and most likely in humans. This tropism can explain the predominant sensory phenomenology of migraine aura. It also demonstrates that sensory cortices are vulnerable in brain injury. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Spreading depolarizations (SDs) are involved in neurologic disorders as diverse as migraine and traumatic brain injury. In migraine, the nature of aura symptoms suggests that sensory cortex may be preferentially susceptible. In brain injury, SDs occur at a vulnerable time, during which the issue of sensory stimulation is much debated. We show, in mouse and human, that sensory cortex is more susceptible to SDs. We find that sensory stimulation biases the timing but not the location of the depolarizations

  9. Theory of Orbital Susceptibility on Excitonic Insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, Hiroyasu; Ogata, Masao

    2016-09-01

    We study the temperature dependence of the orbital susceptibility of an excitonic insulator on the basis of a two-band model. It is shown that a drastic change (an anomalous enhancement) in susceptibility as a function of temperature occurs owing to the occurrence of additional orbital susceptibility due to the excitonic gap. We calculate explicitly the temperature dependence of orbital susceptibility for a model of Ta2NiSe5, and show that the result is consistent with experimental results.

  10. Indianapolis Plan Suggests Blueprint for Other Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2012-01-01

    An Indianapolis-based nonprofit organization has crafted a sweeping plan for reworking the 33,000-student Indianapolis school system that would place the district under the control of the city's mayor, pare down the money spent in central administration, and give principals broad authority to hire and fire teachers. The reform plan created by the…

  11. Suggestibility and negative priming: two replication studies.

    PubMed

    David, Daniel; Brown, Richard J

    2002-07-01

    Research suggests that inhibiting the effect of irrelevant stimuli on subsequent thought and action (cognitive inhibition) may be an important component of suggestibility. Two small correlation studies were conducted to address the relationship between different aspects of suggestibility and individual differences in cognitive inhibition, operationalized as the degree of negative priming generated by to-be-ignored stimuli in a semantic categorization task. The first study found significant positive correlations between negative priming, hypnotic suggestibility, and creative imagination; a significant negative correlation was obtained between negative priming and interrogative suggestibility, demonstrating the discriminant validity of the study results. The second study replicated the correlation between negative priming and hypnotic suggestibility, using a different suggestibility measurement procedure that assessed subjective experience and hypnotic involuntariness as well as objective responses to suggestions. These studies support the notion that the ability to engage in cognitive inhibition may be an important component of hypnotic responsivity and maybe of other forms of suggestibility.

  12. Receptive fields, geometry and conduction block of sensory neurones in the central nervous system of the leech.

    PubMed Central

    Yau, K W

    1976-01-01

    1. In segmental ganglia of the leech, the cutaneous mechanosensory neurones responding to to touch innervated the skin of their own segment and of part of the anterior and posterior adjacent segments. Each touch receptive field could be divided into three non-overlapping areas: a central part innervated by the branches of the cell which ran in the nerve roots of the ganglion containing the cell body, and anterior and posterior parts innervated by its branches which ran in the nerve roots of the anterior and posterior adjacent ganglia. 2. Impulses originating from the anterior and posterior parts of the receptive fields were susceptible to conduction block within the central nervous system when the touch cells fired repetitively at frequencies that could readily be elicited with weak mechanical stimulation. In contrast, impulses originating from the central part of the receptive fields were less susceptible to block. 3. The morphology of touch cells revealed by intracellular injection of horseradish peroxidase suggested that conduction block occurred at specific bifurcation points where small cell processes joined the main process. Different physiological experiments supported this conclusion. 4. In some touch cells, bifurcation points with particularly low safety margins of conduction operated as low-pass filters, limiting the frequency of impulses capable of invading certain branches. 5. The results suggest that mechanical stimuli which would likely be encountered by the animal can lead to conduction block within its central nervous system and as a result modify its integrative activities. PMID:1018277

  13. Dengue-2 virus carrying capacity of Thai Aedes aegypti strains with different susceptibility to deltamethrin.

    PubMed

    Phanpoowong, Theerawit; Lek-Uthai, Usa; Thongrungkiat, Supatra; Komalamisra, Narumon; Srisawat, Raweewan; Russell, Bruce; Renia, Laurent

    2012-05-01

    Deltamethrin-resistant Aedes aegypti currently threatens the effectiveness of dengue hemorrhagic fever control operations in Thailand. Although a previous study has suggested that insecticide resistance may increase Ae. aegypti susceptibility to dengue-2 virus infection, our experimental data showed no significant association between laboratory-induced deltamethrin-resistance in a Thai Ae. aegypti isolate and its susceptibility to dengue -2 infection.

  14. Retiring the central executive.

    PubMed

    Logie, Robert H

    2016-10-01

    Reasoning, problem solving, comprehension, learning and retrieval, inhibition, switching, updating, or multitasking are often referred to as higher cognition, thought to require control processes or the use of a central executive. However, the concept of an executive controller begs the question of what is controlling the controller and so on, leading to an infinite hierarchy of executives or "homunculi". In what is now a QJEP citation classic, Baddeley [Baddeley, A. D. (1996). Exploring the central executive. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 49A, 5-28] referred to the concept of a central executive in cognition as a "conceptual ragbag" that acted as a placeholder umbrella term for aspects of cognition that are complex, were poorly understood at the time, and most likely involve several different cognitive functions working in concert. He suggested that with systematic empirical research, advances in understanding might progress sufficiently to allow the executive concept to be "sacked". This article offers an overview of the 1996 article and of some subsequent systematic research and argues that after two decades of research, there is sufficient advance in understanding to suggest that executive control might arise from the interaction among multiple different functions in cognition that use different, but overlapping, brain networks. The article concludes that the central executive concept might now be offered a dignified retirement.

  15. Retiring the central executive.

    PubMed

    Logie, Robert H

    2016-10-01

    Reasoning, problem solving, comprehension, learning and retrieval, inhibition, switching, updating, or multitasking are often referred to as higher cognition, thought to require control processes or the use of a central executive. However, the concept of an executive controller begs the question of what is controlling the controller and so on, leading to an infinite hierarchy of executives or "homunculi". In what is now a QJEP citation classic, Baddeley [Baddeley, A. D. (1996). Exploring the central executive. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 49A, 5-28] referred to the concept of a central executive in cognition as a "conceptual ragbag" that acted as a placeholder umbrella term for aspects of cognition that are complex, were poorly understood at the time, and most likely involve several different cognitive functions working in concert. He suggested that with systematic empirical research, advances in understanding might progress sufficiently to allow the executive concept to be "sacked". This article offers an overview of the 1996 article and of some subsequent systematic research and argues that after two decades of research, there is sufficient advance in understanding to suggest that executive control might arise from the interaction among multiple different functions in cognition that use different, but overlapping, brain networks. The article concludes that the central executive concept might now be offered a dignified retirement. PMID:26821744

  16. Chemical oxidation decreases proteolytic susceptibility of skeletal muscle myofibrillar proteins.

    PubMed

    Morzel, Martine; Gatellier, Philippe; Sayd, Thierry; Renerre, Michel; Laville, Elisabeth

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of chemical oxidation on proteolysis susceptibility of myofibrillar proteins. Myofibrils were prepared from pig M. longissimus dorsi and oxidised by a hydroxyl radical generating system. Protein oxidation level was measured by the carbonyl content, free thiol group content and bityrosine formation. Oxidised or non-oxidised myofibrillar proteins were exposed to papain and proteolysis was estimated by fluorescence using fluorescamine. Oxidation of myofibrillar proteins was dependent upon the oxidising agent concentration. Disulfide bridge and bityrosine formation indicated that oxidation by OH° can induce protein polymerization. Electrophoretic study showed that myosin was the protein most sensitive to oxidation. Results showed a direct and quantitative relationship between protein damages by hydroxyl radical and decreased proteolytic susceptibility. Electrophoretic observations suggest that polymerization and aggregation may explain in part decreased susceptibility of myofibrillar proteins to proteolysis. PMID:22062494

  17. Mitochondrial Genetics & Obesity: Evolutionary Adaptation & Contemporary Disease Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Dunham-Snary, Kimberly J.; Ballinger, Scott W.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a leading risk factor for a variety of metabolic diseases including cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer. Although in its simplest terms, obesity may be thought of as a consequence of excessive caloric intake and sedentary lifestyle, it is also evident that individual propensity for weight gain can vary. The etiology of individual susceptibility to obesity appears to be complex – involving a combination of environmental – genetic interactions. Herein, we suggest that the mitochondrion plays a major role in influencing individual susceptibility to this disease via mitochondrial – nuclear interaction processes, and that environmentally influenced selection events for mitochondrial function that conveyed increased reproductive and survival success during the global establishment of human populations during prehistoric times can influence individual susceptibility to weight gain and obesity. PMID:24075923

  18. Suggested posthypnotic amnesia in psychiatric patients and normals.

    PubMed

    Frischholz, Edward J; Lipman, Laurie S; Braun, Bennett G; Sachs, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined both quantitative and qualitative hypnotizability differences among four psychiatric patient groups (dissociative disorder (n = 17), schizophrenic (n = 13), mood disorder (n = 14), and anxiety disorder (n = 14) patients), and normals (college students (n = 63)). Dissociative disorder patients earned significantly higher corrected total scores on the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C (mean = 7.94), than all other groups. Likewise, dissociative disorder patients initially recalled significantly fewer items when the posthypnotic amnesia suggestion was in effect (mean = .41) and reversed significantly more items when the suggestion was canceled (mean = 3.82) than all other groups. In contrast, schizophrenic patients recalled significantly fewer items when the amnesia suggestion was in effect (mean = 1.85) and reversed significantly fewer items when it was canceled (mean = .77) than the remaining groups. This qualitative difference between schizophrenic patients and the other groups on the suggested posthypnotic amnesia item was observed even though there were no significant quantitative differences between groups in overall hypnotic responsivity.

  19. 29 CFR 785.45 - Suggestion systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR..., Medical Attention, Civic and Charitable Work, and Suggestion Systems § 785.45 Suggestion systems... general suggestion system is not working time, but if employees are permitted to work on...

  20. Temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibility in the vicinity of martensitic transformation in ferromagnetic shape memory alloys.

    PubMed

    Zablotskii, V; Pérez-Landazábal, J I; Recarte, V; Gómez-Polo, C

    2010-08-11

    Temperature dependences of low-field quasistatic magnetic susceptibility in the vicinity of martensitic transitions in an NiFeGa alloy are studied both by experiment and analytically. Pronounced reversible jumps of the magnetic susceptibility were observed near the martensitic transition temperature. A general description of the temperature dependences of the susceptibility in ferromagnetic austenite and martensite phases and the susceptibility jump at the transition is suggested. As a result, the main factors governing the temperature dependences of the magnetic susceptibility in the magnetic shape memory alloys are revealed. The magnetic susceptibility jump value is found to be related to changes of: (i) magnetic anisotropy; (ii) magnetic domain wall geometrical constraints (those determined by the alignment and size of twin variants) and (iii) mean magnetic domain spacing.

  1. In vitro drug susceptibility of Mycobacterium other than tubercle bacilli.

    PubMed

    Imwidthaya, P; Komolpis, P; Suthiravitayavaniz, K; Rienthong, S

    1990-08-01

    MOTT were isolated from clinical specimens from the Division of Mycobacteriology, Department of Microbiology, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, and also from natural sources, namely water and soil in the Bangkok area from January to December, 1987. The strains isolated were as follows: 30 M. fortuitum fortuitum, 5 M. fortuitum peregrinum 3 M. fortuitum 3 rd. biovariant complex, 3 M. chelonae chelonae, 7 M. chelonae abscessus. Of these, 5 strains were isolated from clinical specimens and the other 43 were from the environment. The pattern of drug susceptibility to antituberculous and antimicrobial agents revealed that they were resistant to antituberculous agents but susceptible to aminoglycosides (which contain a central ring of 2-deoxystreptamine) such as amikacin (83% of cultures), netilmicin (83%), gentamicin (77%) and kanamycin (75%). Some strains were sensitive to tetracyclines (35%), but all were resistant to penicillins and cephalosporins. PMID:2262746

  2. Antifungal susceptibility of Malassezia pachydermatis biofilm.

    PubMed

    Figueredo, Luciana A; Cafarchia, Claudia; Otranto, Domenico

    2013-11-01

    Antifungal resistance has been associated with biofilm formation in many microorganisms, but not yet in Malassezia pachydermatis. This saprophytic yeast can cause otitis and dermatitis in dogs and has emerged as an important human pathogen, responsible for systemic infections in neonates in intensive care units. This study aims to evaluate the in vitro antifungal susceptibility of M. pachydermatis strains, in both their planktonic and sessile forms, to fluconazole, miconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, terbinafine and voriconazole using the XTT assay and Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) microdilution method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values recorded for each drug were significantly higher for sessile cells relative to planktonic cells to the extent that ≥ 90% of M. pachydermatis strains in their sessile form were classified as resistant to all antifungal agents tested. Data suggest that M. pachydermatis biofilm formation is associated with antifungal resistance, paving the way towards investigating drug resistance mechanisms in Malassezia spp. PMID:23834283

  3. Orbital diamagnetic susceptibility in excitonic condensation phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Koudai; Ohta, Yukinori

    2016-08-01

    We study the orbital diamagnetic susceptibility in excitonic condensation phase using the mean-field approximation for a two-band model defined on a square lattice. We find that, in semiconductors, the excitonic condensation acquires a finite diamagnetic susceptibility due to spontaneous hybridization between the valence and the conduction bands, whereas in semimetals, the diamagnetic susceptibility in the normal phase is suppressed by the excitonic condensation. We also study the orbital diamagnetic and Pauli paramagnetic susceptibilities of Ta2NiSe5 using a two-dimensional three-band model and find that the calculated temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility is in qualitative agreement with experiment.

  4. Multiple HLA Epitopes Contribute to Type 1 Diabetes Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Roark, Christina L.; Anderson, Kirsten M.; Simon, Lucas J.; Schuyler, Ronald P.; Aubrey, Michael T.; Freed, Brian M.

    2014-01-01

    Disease susceptibility for type 1 diabetes is strongly associated with the inheritance of specific HLA alleles. However, conventional allele frequency analysis can miss HLA associations because many alleles are rare. In addition, disparate alleles that have similar peptide-binding sites, or shared epitopes, can be missed. To identify the HLA shared epitopes associated with diabetes, we analyzed high-resolution genotyping for class I and class II loci. The HLA epitopes most strongly associated with susceptibility for disease were DQB1 A57, DQA1 V76, DRB1 H13, and DRB1 K71, whereas DPB1 YD9,57, HLA-B C67, and HLA-C YY9,116 were more weakly associated. The HLA epitopes strongly associated with resistance were DQB1 D57, DQA1 Y80, DRB1 R13, and DRB1 A71. A dominant resistance phenotype was observed for individuals bearing a protective HLA epitope, even in the presence of a susceptibility epitope. In addition, an earlier age of disease onset correlated with significantly greater numbers of susceptibility epitopes and fewer resistance epitopes (P < 0.0001). The prevalence of both DQ and DR susceptibility epitopes was higher in patients than in control subjects and was not exclusively a result of linkage disequilibrium, suggesting that multiple HLA epitopes may work together to increase the risk of developing diabetes. PMID:24357703

  5. Suggestive techniques connected to medical interventions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The paper introduces a series of articles where several detailed clinical examples will be presented on the effectiveness of using suggestive techniques in various fields of interventional medicine. The aim of this series is to raise the attention to the patients heightened openness to suggestions. By recognizing the unavoidable nature of suggestive effects on one hand we can eliminate unfavourable, negative suggestions and on the other hand go on and consciously apply positive, helpful variations. Research materials, reviews and case study will describe the way suggestions can reduce anxiety and stress connected to medical intervention, improve subjective well-being and cooperation, and increase efficiency by reducing treatment costs. PMID:24265898

  6. The influence of suggestibility on memory.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Serge; Collins, Thérèse; Gounden, Yannick; Roediger, Henry L

    2011-06-01

    We provide a translation of Binet and Henri's pioneering 1894 paper on the influence of suggestibility on memory. Alfred Binet (1857-1911) is famous as the author who created the IQ test that bears his name, but he is almost unknown as the psychological investigator who generated numerous original experiments and fascinating results in the study of memory. His experiments published in 1894 manipulated suggestibility in several ways to determine effects on remembering. Three particular modes of suggestion were employed to induce false recognitions: (1) indirect suggestion by a preconceived idea; (2) direct suggestion; and (3) collective suggestion. In the commentary we suggest that Binet and Henri's (1894) paper written over 115 years ago is still highly relevant even today. In particular, Binet's legacy lives on in modern research on misinformation effects in memory, in studies of conformity, and in experiments on the social contagion of memory.

  7. Spacecraft materials HCl susceptibility assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, C.-T.; Liu, De-Ling; Kim, Hyun; Alaan, Diana R.

    2014-09-01

    The susceptibility of spacecraft materials to HCl exposure was investigated in light of concerns to potential contamination during evolved expendable launch vehicle (EELV) overflight scenarios. Overflight refers to the circumstance where one spacecraft, resident on a launch pad, may be exposed to HCl generated from an earlier solid rocket launch at an adjacent pad. One aspect of the overflight risk assessments involves spacecraft materials susceptibility to HCl exposure. This study examined a wide range of spacecraft materials after being exposed to HCl vapor in a well-characterized facility. Sample thermal/optical and electrostatic dissipation properties, as well as surface chemical and morphological features, were characterized before and after the HCl exposure. All materials tested, except for indium tin oxide (ITO) coated Kapton film, showed no significant degradation after HCl exposure of up to 4800 ppb-hr. The ITO coated Kapton sample showed slight signs of degradation after being exposed to 500 ppb-hr HCl, as the surface resistance was increased by a factor of 5. However, the potential HCl dose inside the payload fairing (PLF) was estimated to be far below 500 ppb-hr in an EELV overflight event. These results, along with other relevant laboratory test data on the HCl removal efficiency of the filtration media used on the launch sites, provide the technical rationale that properly filtered air as the PLF purge should pose little risk in terms of HCl contamination under EELV overflight scenarios.

  8. Grain-size Distributions from Deconvolved Broadband Magnetic Susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuma, K.

    2014-12-01

    A magnetic susceptibility meter with several-decade frequency band has recently made it possible to obtain superparamagnetic grain-size distributions only by room-temperature measurement. A rigorous deconvolution scheme of frequency dependence of susceptibility is already available. I have made some corrections on the deconvolution scheme and present its applications to broadband susceptibility data on loess and volcanic rocks. Deconvolution of frequency dependence of susceptibility was originally developed by Shchervakov and Fabian [2005]. Suppose an ensemble of grains distributed for two independent variables of volume (grain-size) and energy barrier. Applying alternating magnetic field with varying frequency results in differentiating grains by energy barrier - not directly by volume. Since the response function for frequency is known, deconvolution of frequency dependence of susceptibility provide a rigorous solution for the second moment of volume on the volume-energy barrier distribution. Based on a common assumption of a linear relation between volume and energy barrier, we can obtain analytical volume or grain-size distributions of superparamagnetic grains. A ZH broadband susceptibility meter comprises of two separated devices for lower (SM-100, 65 - 16kHz) and higher (SM-105, 16k - 512kHz) frequency ranges. At every frequency susceptibility calibration was conducted using three kinds of paramagnetic rare earth oxides [Fukuma and Torii, 2011]. Almost all samples exhibited seemingly linear dependences of in-phase susceptibility on logarithmic frequency. This indicates that the measured data do not suffer serious noise, and that the second moment of volume is relatively constant against energy barrier. Nonetheless, third-order polynomial fittings revealed slight deflections from the quasi-linear susceptibility - logarithmic frequency relations. Deconvolving the polynomials showed that such slight defections come from peaks or troughs in varying second moment

  9. Optimal control in a model of malaria with differential susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hincapié, Doracelly; Ospina, Juan

    2014-06-01

    A malaria model with differential susceptibility is analyzed using the optimal control technique. In the model the human population is classified as susceptible, infected and recovered. Susceptibility is assumed dependent on genetic, physiological, or social characteristics that vary between individuals. The model is described by a system of differential equations that relate the human and vector populations, so that the infection is transmitted to humans by vectors, and the infection is transmitted to vectors by humans. The model considered is analyzed using the optimal control method when the control consists in using of insecticide-treated nets and educational campaigns; and the optimality criterion is to minimize the number of infected humans, while keeping the cost as low as is possible. One first goal is to determine the effects of differential susceptibility in the proposed control mechanism; and the second goal is to determine the algebraic form of the basic reproductive number of the model. All computations are performed using computer algebra, specifically Maple. It is claimed that the analytical results obtained are important for the design and implementation of control measures for malaria. It is suggested some future investigations such as the application of the method to other vector-borne diseases such as dengue or yellow fever; and also it is suggested the possible application of free software of computer algebra like Maxima.

  10. Maltreated Children's Memory: Accuracy, Suggestibility, and Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisen, Mitchell L.; Goodman, Gail S.; Qin, Jianjian; Davis, Suzanne; Crayton, John

    2007-01-01

    Memory, suggestibility, stress arousal, and trauma-related psychopathology were examined in 328 3- to 16-year-olds involved in forensic investigations of abuse and neglect. Children's memory and suggestibility were assessed for a medical examination and venipuncture. Being older and scoring higher in cognitive functioning were related to fewer…

  11. COMPARATIVE MICROARRAY EXPRESSION ANALYSIS OF SELECTED CANCER RELEVANT GENES IN HYPERTENSIVE RESISTANT VERSUS SUSCEPTIBLE RODENT STRAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hypertension and cancer are prevalent diseases. Epidemiological studies suggest that hypertension may increase the long term risk of cancer. Identification of resistance and/or susceptibility genes using rodent models could provide important insights into the management and treat...

  12. Quercetin reduces susceptibility to influenza infection following stressful exercise.

    PubMed

    Davis, J M; Murphy, E A; McClellan, J L; Carmichael, M D; Gangemi, J D

    2008-08-01

    Exercise stress is associated with increased risk for upper respiratory tract infection. We have shown that exercise stress can increase susceptibility to infection. Quercetin, a flavonoid present in a wide variety of fruits and vegetables, has been reported to inhibit infectivity and replication of a broad spectrum of viruses and may offset the increase in susceptibility to infection associated with stressful exercise. This study examined the effects of quercetin feedings on susceptibility to the influenza virus A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1) following stressful exercise. Mice were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups: exercise-placebo, exercise-quercetin, control-placebo, or control-quercetin. Exercise consisted of a run to fatigue (approximately 140 min) on a treadmill for 3 consecutive days. Quercetin (12.5 mg/kg) was administered via gavage for 7 days before viral challenge. At 30 min after the last bout of exercise or rest, mice (n=23-30) were intranasally inoculated with a standardized dose of influenza virus (0.04 hemagglutinating units). Mice were monitored daily for morbidity (time to sickness), symptom severity, and mortality (time to death) for 21 days. Exercise stress was associated with an increased susceptibility to infection [morbidity, mortality, and symptom severity on days 5-7 (P<0.05)]; quercetin offset the increase in susceptibility to infection [morbidity, mortality, and symptom severity on days 5-7 (P<0.05)] that was associated with stressful exercise. These data suggest that short-term quercetin feedings may prove to be an effective strategy to lessen the impact of stressful exercise on susceptibility to respiratory infection.

  13. Toxicity and transcriptomic analysis in Hyalella azteca suggests increased exposure and susceptibility of epibenthic organisms to Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are expected to make their way into the aquatic environment where sedimentation of particles will likely occur, putting benthic organisms at particular risk. Therefore, organisms such as Hyalella azteca, an epibenthic crustacean which forages at the sediment ...

  14. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus mutants expressing reduced susceptibility to common house-cleaners

    PubMed Central

    Davis, A.O.; O’Leary, J.O.; Muthaiyan, A.; Langevin, M.J.; Delgado, A.; Abalos, A.T.; Fajardo, A.R.; Marek, J.; Wilkinson, B.J.; Gustafson, J.E.

    2013-01-01

    Aims To characterize mutants of Staphylococcus aureus expressing reduced susceptibility to house cleaners (HC), assess the impact of the alternative sigma factor SigB on HC susceptibility, and determine the MIC of clinical methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) to a HC. Methods and Results Susceptibility to HC, HC components, H2O2, vancomycin and oxacillin and physiological parameters were determined for HC-reduced susceptibility (HCRS) mutants, parent strain COL and COLsigB::kan. HCRS mutants selected with three HC expressed reduced susceptibility to multiple HC, HC components, H2O2 and vancomycin. Two unique HCRS mutants also lost the methicillin resistance determinant. In addition, all HCRS mutants exhibited better growth at two temperatures, and one HCRS mutant expressed reduced carotenoid production. COLsigB::kan demonstrated increased susceptibility to all HC and many HC components. sigB operon mutations were not detected in one HCRS mutant background. Of 76 clinical MRSA, 20 exhibited reduced susceptibility to a HC. Conclusions HCRS mutants demonstrate altered susceptibility to multiple antimicrobials. While sigB is required for full HC resistance, one HCRS mechanism does not involve sigB operon mutations. Clinical MRSA expressing reduced susceptibility to a common HC were detected. Significance and Impact of the Study This study suggests that HCRS mutants are not protected against, nor selected by, practical HC concentrations. PMID:15659191

  15. Induction Technique: Beyond Simple Response to Suggestion.

    PubMed

    Barabasz, Arreed; Barabasz, Marianne

    2016-10-01

    The hypnotic induction is intended to induce hypnosis. This implies that what is sought is intended to go beyond what might be wrought by mere suggestion, expectancy, and social influence. The experimentally controlled research showing that the induction makes a difference and how small changes in wording of suggestions can produce orthogonal responses is briefly reviewed. This article explains the principles of induction and three critical phases of hypnotic induction in detail. An arm levitation scripted protocol demonstrating how to respond to the patient using the three phases to maximize responses to hypnotic suggestions is presented. PMID:27586048

  16. Polymorphic Variation in Susceptibility and Metabolism of Triclosan-Resistant Mutants of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae Clinical Strains Obtained after Exposure to Biocides and Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Curiao, Tânia; Marchi, Emmanuela; Viti, Carlo; Oggioni, Marco R.; Baquero, Fernando; Martinez, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to biocides may result in cross-resistance to other antimicrobials. Changes in biocide and antibiotic susceptibilities, metabolism, and fitness costs were studied here in biocide-selected Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae mutants. E. coli and K. pneumoniae mutants with various degrees of triclosan susceptibility were obtained after exposure to triclosan (TRI), benzalkonium chloride (BKC), chlorhexidine (CHX) or sodium hypochlorite (SHC), and ampicillin or ciprofloxacin. Alterations in antimicrobial susceptibility and metabolism in mutants were tested using Phenotype MicroArrays. The expression of AcrAB pump and global regulators (SoxR, MarA, and RamA) was measured by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR), and the central part of the fabI gene was sequenced. The fitness costs of resistance were assessed by a comparison of relative growth rates. Triclosan-resistant (TRIr) and triclosan-hypersusceptible (TRIhs) mutants of E. coli and K. pneumoniae were obtained after selection with biocides and/or antibiotics. E. coli TRIr mutants, including those with mutations in the fabI gene or in the expression of acrB, acrF, and marA, exhibited changes in susceptibility to TRI, CHX, and antibiotics. TRIr mutants for which the TRI MIC was high presented improved metabolism of carboxylic acids, amino acids, and carbohydrates. In TRIr mutants, resistance to one antimicrobial provoked hypersusceptibility to another one(s). TRIr mutants had fitness costs, particularly marA-overexpressing (E. coli) or ramA-overexpressing (K. pneumoniae) mutants. TRI, BKC, and CIP exposure frequently yielded TRIr mutants exhibiting alterations in AraC-like global regulators (MarA, SoxR, and RamA), AcrAB-TolC, and/or FabI, and influencing antimicrobial susceptibility, fitness, and metabolism. These various phenotypes suggest a trade-off of different selective processes shaping the evolution toward antibiotic/biocide resistance and influencing other adaptive traits. PMID

  17. Flavivirus susceptibility in Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Black, William C; Bennett, Kristine E; Gorrochótegui-Escalante, Norma; Barillas-Mury, Carolina V; Fernández-Salas, Ildefonso; de Lourdes Muñoz, María; Farfán-Alé, José A; Olson, Ken E; Beaty, Barry J

    2002-01-01

    Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of yellow fever (YF) and dengue fever (DF) flaviviruses worldwide. In this review we focus on past and present research on genetic components and environmental factors in Aedes aegypti that appear to control flavivirus transmission. We review genetic relationships among Ae. aegypti populations throughout the world and discuss how variation in vector competence is correlated with overall genetic differences among populations. We describe current research into how genetic and environmental factors jointly affect distribution of vector competence in natural populations. Based on this information, we propose a population genetic model for vector competence and discuss our recent progress in testing this model. We end with a discussion of approaches being taken to identify the genes that may control flavivirus susceptibility in Ae. aegypti.

  18. Exploring Genetic Susceptibility to Fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong-Jin; Kang, Ji-Hyoun; Yim, Yi-Rang; Kim, Ji-Eun; Lee, Jeong-Won; Lee, Kyung-Eun; Wen, Lihui; Kim, Tae-Jong; Park, Yong-Wook

    2015-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) affects 1% to 5% of the population, and approximately 90% of the affected individuals are women. FM patients experience impaired quality of life and the disorder places a considerable economic burden on the medical care system. With the recognition of FM as a major health problem, many recent studies have evaluated the pathophysiology of FM. Although the etiology of FM remains unknown, it is thought to involve some combination of genetic susceptibility and environmental exposure that triggers further alterations in gene expression. Because FM shows marked familial aggregation, most previous research has focused on genetic predisposition to FM and has revealed associations between genetic factors and the development of FM, including specific gene polymorphisms involved in the serotonergic, dopaminergic, and catecholaminergic pathways. The aim of this review was to discuss the current evidence regarding genetic factors that may play a role in the development and symptom severity of FM. PMID:26306300

  19. Individual susceptibility to alcoholic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Apte, Minoti V; Pirola, Romano C; Wilson, Jeremy S

    2008-03-01

    The observation that only a minority of heavy drinkers develop pancreatitis has prompted an intensive search for a trigger factor/cofactor/susceptibility factor that may precipitate a clinical attack. Putative susceptibility factors examined so far include diet, smoking, amount and type of alcohol consumed, the pattern of drinking and lipid intolerance. In addition, a range of inherited factors have been assessed including blood group antigens, human leukocyte antigen serotypes, alpha-1-antitrypsin phenotypes and several genotypes. The latter group comprises mutations/polymorphisms in genes related to alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, detoxifying enzymes, pancreatic digestive enzymes, pancreatic enzyme inhibitors, cystic fibrosis and cytokines. Disappointingly, despite this concerted research effort, no clear association has been established between the above factors and alcoholic pancreatitis. Experimentally, the secretagogue cholecystokinin (CCK) has been investigated as a candidate 'trigger' for alcoholic pancreatitis. However, the clinical relevance of CCK as a trigger factor has to be questioned, as it is difficult to envisage a situation in humans where abnormally high levels of CCK would be released into the circulation to trigger pancreatitis in alcoholics. In contrast, bacterial endotoxemia is a candidate cofactor that does have relevance to the clinical situation. Plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS, an endotoxin) levels are significantly higher in drinkers (either after chronic alcohol intake or a single binge) compared to non-drinkers. We have recently shown that alcohol-fed animals challenged with otherwise innocuous doses of LPS exhibit significant pancreatic injury. Moreover, repeated LPS exposure in alcohol-fed rats leads to progressive injury to the gland characterized by significant pancreatic fibrosis. These studies support the concept that endotoxin may be an important factor in the initiation and progression of alcoholic pancreatitis. Scope remains for

  20. Paleoclimatic forcing of magnetic susceptibility variations in Alaskan loess during the late Quaternary

    SciTech Connect

    Beget, J.E.; Stone, D.B.; Hawkins, D.B. )

    1990-01-01

    Visual matches and statistical tests suggest correlations between marine isotope curves, retrodictive solar insolation at lat 65{degree}N, and magnetic susceptibility profiles through late Quaternary age Alaskan loess sections. The susceptibility changes largely appear to reflect variability in magnetite content due to climatically controlled changes in wind intensity and competence. Magnetic susceptibility profiles through massive loess can provide stratigraphic context for intercalated paleosols and tephras. A prominent paleosol correlated with marine isotope stage 5 occurs several metres above the Old Crow ash in loess sections, indicating that this important tephra is older than suggested by thermoluminescence dates, and may have been deposited ca. 215 {plus minus}25 ka.

  1. Suggested Minimum Cataloging Standards for Arizona.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Sharon

    1979-01-01

    Notes problems with cataloging library materials in the small and medium sized public library and suggests interpretations of the Anglo-American cataloging rules, with recommendations for their adaptation to smaller libraries. (CWM)

  2. Methodology for determining susceptibility of rough rice to Rhyzopertha dominica (L.) and Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Varieties of rough rice, Oryzae sativa (L)., were obtained from different sources in the south-central United States and evaluated for susceptibility to the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (Fab.), and the Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier), in laboratory studies. Adult R. ...

  3. Candida and candidaemia. Susceptibility and epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling

    2013-11-01

    specific incidence rate was comparable in children and the younger adults with that in the other Nordic countries it was notably higher in the elderly population. This in combination with the fact that it is increasing specifically in the elderly men and that the incidence rates in the Nordic countries were comparable two decades back suggest that host specific factors including antifungal consumption rather than genetic differences in susceptibility to fungaemia account for the differences, and hence that it is possibly modifiable by implementing relevant measures. Hence, it was important to investigate the underlying clinical conditions and diagnostic factors and the outcome in Danish patients with fungaemia. In this study we demonstrated that two thirds of the patients had received abdominal surgery or intensive care treatment prior to the development of the fungaemia, a proportion that is higher than in most other studies. We also demonstrated that unless surveillance cultures are handled with careful attention the detection of non-C. albicans may go unnoticed which imply a risk of inappropriate treatment in cases involving intrinsically resistant species. Finally, we demonstrated the necessity of using a fungal blood culture flask in addition to the conventional aerobic and anaerobic ones if all C. glabrata infections (BACTEC) and all polymicrobial infections (BacT/ALERT) are to be diagnosed. Hence close monitoring with the use of improved diagnostic options (such as frequent BC including a mycosis bottle, surveillance cultures and mannan antigen and antibody screening) of particularly ICU and abdominal surgery patients may help better identify patients with fungaemia and allow early treatment. With respect to treatment and outcome we found that the fluconazole resistant species C. glabrata, C. krusei and S. cerevisiae were significantly more common in patients exposed to at least 7 days of antifungal prophylaxis (mainly fluconazole). We also demonstrated that a

  4. Candida and candidaemia. Susceptibility and epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling

    2013-11-01

    specific incidence rate was comparable in children and the younger adults with that in the other Nordic countries it was notably higher in the elderly population. This in combination with the fact that it is increasing specifically in the elderly men and that the incidence rates in the Nordic countries were comparable two decades back suggest that host specific factors including antifungal consumption rather than genetic differences in susceptibility to fungaemia account for the differences, and hence that it is possibly modifiable by implementing relevant measures. Hence, it was important to investigate the underlying clinical conditions and diagnostic factors and the outcome in Danish patients with fungaemia. In this study we demonstrated that two thirds of the patients had received abdominal surgery or intensive care treatment prior to the development of the fungaemia, a proportion that is higher than in most other studies. We also demonstrated that unless surveillance cultures are handled with careful attention the detection of non-C. albicans may go unnoticed which imply a risk of inappropriate treatment in cases involving intrinsically resistant species. Finally, we demonstrated the necessity of using a fungal blood culture flask in addition to the conventional aerobic and anaerobic ones if all C. glabrata infections (BACTEC) and all polymicrobial infections (BacT/ALERT) are to be diagnosed. Hence close monitoring with the use of improved diagnostic options (such as frequent BC including a mycosis bottle, surveillance cultures and mannan antigen and antibody screening) of particularly ICU and abdominal surgery patients may help better identify patients with fungaemia and allow early treatment. With respect to treatment and outcome we found that the fluconazole resistant species C. glabrata, C. krusei and S. cerevisiae were significantly more common in patients exposed to at least 7 days of antifungal prophylaxis (mainly fluconazole). We also demonstrated that a

  5. Genomewide meta-analysis identifies novel multiple sclerosis susceptibility loci

    PubMed Central

    Patsopoulos, Nikolaos A.; de Bakker, Paul I.W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To perform a one-stage meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility and explore functional consequences of new susceptibility loci. Methods We synthesized 7 MS GWAS. Each dataset was imputed using HapMap phase II and a per-SNP meta-analysis was performed across the 7 datasets. We explored RNA expression data using a quantitative trait analysis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 228 subjects with demyelinating disease. Results We meta-analyzed 2,529,394 unique SNPs in 5,545 cases and 12,153 controls. We identified three novel susceptibility alleles: rs170934T at 3p24.1 (OR=1.17, P = 1.6 × 10−8) near EOMES, rs2150702G in the second intron of MLANA on chromosome 9p24.1 (OR = 1.16, P = 3.3 × 10−8), and rs6718520A in an intergenic region on chromosome 2p21, with THADA as the nearest flanking gene (OR = 1.17, P = 3.4 × 10−8). The three new loci do not have a strong “cis” effect on RNA expression in PBMCs. Ten other susceptibility loci had a suggestive P<1×10−6, some of which have evidence of association in other inflammatory diseases, i.e. IL12B, TAGAP, PLEK, and ZMIZ1. Interpretation We have performed a meta-analysis of GWAS in MS that more than doubles the size of previous gene discovery efforts and highlights three novel MS susceptibility loci. These and additional loci with suggestive evidence of association are excellent candidates for further investigations to refine and validate their role in the genetic architecture of MS. PMID:22190364

  6. Susceptibility of SCADA systems and the energy sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goike, Lindsay

    The research in this paper focused on analyzing SCADA systems in the energy sector for susceptibility to cyber attacks, in furtherance of providing suggestions to mitigate current and future cyber attacks. The research will be addressing the questions: how are SCADA systems susceptible to cyber attacks, and what are the suggested ways to mitigate both current and future cyber attacks. The five main categories of security vulnerabilities facing current SCADA systems were found to be: connectivity to the Internet, failure to plan, interdependency of sectors, numerous different types of threats, and outdated software. Some of the recommendations mentioned to mitigate current and future risks were: virtual private networks, risk assessments, increased physical security, updating of software, and firewalls.

  7. The effects of methaqualone on the seizure susceptibility of mice.

    PubMed

    Boggan, W O; Meyer, J S; Steinberg, R M; Worthington, C

    1977-08-31

    Methaqualone produces dose- and time-dependent decreases in susceptibility to electrically, chemically, and sound-induced seizures. The antagonism of methaqualone to electroconvulsive shock can be dissociated from its effects on temperature regulation and plasma corticosterone. Studies with SKF525A, a drug known to block enzymes in the liver that metabolize drugs, suggest that methaqualone, rather than a metabolite produced in the liver, is responsible for its anticonvulsant effects. Tolerance to the anticonvulsant effects of methaqualone is also demonstrated.

  8. Temporal interactions facilitate endemicity in the susceptible-infected-susceptible epidemic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speidel, Leo; Klemm, Konstantin; Eguíluz, Víctor M.; Masuda, Naoki

    2016-07-01

    Data of physical contacts and face-to-face communications suggest temporally varying networks as the media on which infections take place among humans and animals. Epidemic processes on temporal networks are complicated by complexity of both network structure and temporal dimensions. Theoretical approaches are much needed for identifying key factors that affect dynamics of epidemics. In particular, what factors make some temporal networks stronger media of infection than other temporal networks is under debate. We develop a theory to understand the susceptible-infected-susceptible epidemic model on arbitrary temporal networks, where each contact is used for a finite duration. We show that temporality of networks lessens the epidemic threshold such that infections persist more easily in temporal networks than in their static counterparts. We further show that the Lie commutator bracket of the adjacency matrices at different times is a key determinant of the epidemic threshold in temporal networks. The effect of temporality on the epidemic threshold, which depends on a data set, is approximately predicted by the magnitude of a commutator norm.

  9. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility in alkali feldspar and plagioclase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biedermann, Andrea R.; Pettke, Thomas; Angel, Ross J.; Hirt, Ann M.

    2016-04-01

    Feldspars are the most abundant rock-forming minerals in the Earth's crust, but their magnetic properties have not been rigorously studied. This work focuses on the intrinsic magnetic anisotropy of 31 feldspar samples with various chemical compositions. Because feldspar is often twinned or shows exsolution textures, measurements were performed on twinned and exsolved samples as well as single crystals. The anisotropy is controlled by the diamagnetic susceptibility and displays a consistent orientation of principal susceptibility axes; the most negative or minimum susceptibility is parallel to [010], and the maximum (least negative) is close to the crystallographic [001] axis. However, the magnetic anisotropy is weak when compared to other rock-forming minerals, 1.53 × 10-9 m3 kg-1 at maximum. Therefore, lower abundance minerals, such as augite, hornblende or biotite, often dominate the bulk paramagnetic anisotropy of a rock. Ferromagnetic anisotropy is not significant in most samples. In the few samples that do show ferromagnetic anisotropy, the principal susceptibility directions of the ferromagnetic subfabric do not display a systematic orientation with respect to the feldspar lattice. These results suggest that palaeointensity estimates of the geomagnetic field made on single crystals of feldspar will not be affected by a systematic orientation of the ferromagnetic inclusions within the feldspar lattice.

  10. Xenopsylla cheopis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) susceptibility to Deltamethrin in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Sebastien; Miarinjara, Adélaïde; Elissa, Nohal

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of bubonic plague in Madagascar is high. This study reports the susceptibility of 32 different populations of a vector, the flea Xenopsylla cheopis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae), to the insecticide Deltamethrin. Despite the use of Deltamethrin against fleas, plague epidemics have re-emerged in Madagascar. The majority of the study sites were located in the Malagasy highlands where most plague cases have occurred over the last 10 years. X. cheopis fleas were tested for susceptibility to Deltamethrin (0.05%): only two populations were susceptible to Deltamethrin, four populations were tolerant and 26 populations were resistant. KD50 (50% Knock-Down) and KD90 (90% Knock-Down) times were determined, and differed substantially from 9.4 to 592.4 minutes for KD50 and 10.4 min to 854.3 minutes for KD90. Susceptibility was correlated with latitude, but not with longitude, history of insecticide use nor date of sampling. Combined with the number of bubonic plague cases, our results suggest that an immediate switch to an insecticide other than Deltamethrin is required for plague vector control in Madagascar.

  11. HLA-G and susceptibility to develop celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Catamo, Eulalia; Zupin, Luisa; Segat, Ludovica; Celsi, Fulvio; Crovella, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    The Human Leukocyte Antigen-G has immunomodulatory function and its expression has been associated with several diseases. In our study we analyzed HLA-G polymorphisms in order to evaluate their possible association with susceptibility to celiac disease development. A total of 420 celiac patients and 509 controls were genotyped for HLA-G polymorphisms. We sequenced 800bp upstream the ATG codon (5' upstream regulatory region) and the whole 3' untranslated region of the HLA-G gene, whereas the ΔC deletion at exon 3 was detected by RFLP-PCR. Five polymorphisms (namely -477 C>G, -369 C>A, 14bp del/ins, 3187 A>G, 3196 C>G) and one haplotype (TCGGTACGAAITCCCGAG) were significantly more frequent in celiac patients than controls and associated with increased disease susceptibility. The 14bp I/I, 3187 G/G, 3196 G/G genotypes and TCGGTACGAAITCCCGAG haplotype, were still significantly associated with increased disease susceptibility (and in addition also the 3003 C/C genotype) when the analysis was restricted to patients and controls presenting the DQ2.5 or DQ8 HLA-DQ celiac disease risk haplotypes. Our findings indicate an association between HLA-G gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to celiac disease development, suggesting that HLA-G molecule is possibly involved in the pathogenesis of the disease.

  12. Suggestions for Structuring a Research Article

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, James D.; Reiser, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers often experience difficulty as they attempt to prepare journal articles that describe their work. The purpose of this article is to provide researchers in the field of education with a series of suggestions as to how to clearly structure each section of a research manuscript that they intend to submit for publication in a scholarly…

  13. Technology Is Power: Suggestions for Beginning Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanklin, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Shanklin knows it can be hard for new teachers to incorporate all they know about technology with the realities of a classroom. She suggests setting incremental, monthly technology goals; investing in equipment; assessing students' grasp of the technology at their disposal and their use of it in classroom projects; searching purposefully for…

  14. Physics Courses--Some Suggested Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swetman, T. P.

    1972-01-01

    To communicate the relevance and excitement of science activity to students, the use of more imaginative, and even openly speculative, case studies in physics courses is suggested. Some useful examples are Magnetic Monopoles, Constants, Black Holes, Antimatter, Zero Mass Particles, Tachyons, and the Bootstrap Hypothesis. (DF)

  15. Seven Salutary Suggestions for Counselor Stamina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborn, Cynthia J.

    2004-01-01

    Counselor stamina is deemed essential in the midst of a consistently challenging, complex, and changing mental health care environment. Rather than perpetuating conversations about "burnout" and "burnout prevention," this article provides a salutary or health-promoting perspective. Seven suggestions for counselor stamina are presented and…

  16. Integrating Composition and Literature: Some Practical Suggestions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daiker, Donald A.

    This paper suggests that it is possible to construct a course that integrates the teaching of composition with the teaching of literature without allowing the secondary goal of heightened literary understanding to overwhelm the primary goal of improved expository writing. It presents a syllabus for a four-week unit on Ernest Hemingway's "The Sun…

  17. Current Research: 2013 Summer Reading Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2013

    2013-01-01

    To supplement the summer reading of National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) members, the NSTA Committee on Research in Science Education suggested a list of science education research articles that were published in the journals of NSTA's affiliates in 2012. These articles covered a variety of topics that include learning about…

  18. Accounting: Suggested Content for Postsecondary Tax Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Patricia H.; Morgan, Samuel D.

    1978-01-01

    Surveys of community college graduates and of certified public accountants were made to determine employment relevance of the accounting curriculum. The article suggests topics from the study data which should be included in taxation courses, e.g., income tax accounting, corporate taxation accounting, and tax law. (MF)

  19. Minimum Competency Program, Citizenship: Suggestions for Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Education, Richmond.

    This monograph explains the need for graduating high school seniors to demonstrate minimum competence in citizenship and suggests performance-related assessment tasks to help school authorities determine whether these competency requirements have been met. Minimum citizenship competencies are interpreted to include essential skills and concepts…

  20. Family Living: Suggestions for Effective Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Lilian G.; And Others

    Suggestions for effective parenting of preschool children are provided in 33 brief articles on children's feelings concerning self-esteem; fear; adopted children; the birth of a sibling; death; depression; and coping with stress, trauma, and divorce. Children's behavior is discussed in articles on toddlers' eating habits, punishment and…

  1. Precis Writing: Suggestions for Instruction in Summarizing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromley, Karen D'Angelo; McKeveny, Laurie

    1986-01-01

    Offers suggestions for successful instruction in precis writing--a paraphrase or abstract that condenses an original composition but retains its information, essence, and point of view. Observes that this is a strategy that develops vocabulary, promotes critical reading and comprehension, and improves learning in general. (HOD)

  2. Leadership Theories--Managing Practices, Challenges, Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    A shortage of community college executives due to the number of retirements occurring among current leaders is predicted. An examination of three leadership theories--servant-leadership, business leadership and transformational leadership--suggests techniques for potential community college leaders. Servant-leaders focus on the needs of their…

  3. Qualitative Research Articles: Guidelines, Suggestions and Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crescentini, Alberto; Mainardi, Giuditta

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to give ideas and suggestions to avoid some typical problems of qualitative articles. The aim is not to debate quality in qualitative research but to indicate some practical solutions. Design/methodology/approach: The paper discusses the design of qualitative research and the structure of a qualitative article…

  4. Youth Physical Fitness. Suggestions for School Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, Washington, DC.

    This book, divided into three main parts--basic, advanced, and comprehensive programs--suggests (a) basic physical education programs designed to assist classroom teachers inexperienced in physical education to develop activities that will make a contribution to the physical fitness of the children in their charge and (b) advanced activities…

  5. Stakeholder Involvement in Evaluation: Suggestions for Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reineke, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    Based on experiences in working with school district staff, suggestions for enhancing evaluation use through stakeholder involvement are discussed in terms of who should be involved, when involvement should occur, and how stakeholders should be involved via a dialogue-dependent process. (SLD)

  6. Studies and Suggestions on Prewriting Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Shigao; Dai, Weiping

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies and suggests the need for writing instruction by which students can experience writing as a creative process in exploring and communicating meaning. The prewriting activities generate ideas which can encourage a free flow of thoughts and help students discover both what they want to say and how to say it on paper. Through the…

  7. Suggestions for Teaching the Migratory Pupil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Dolly; And Others

    Suggestions for teachers of migrant children are offered in seven individual teaching guides which were developed as part of a research and curriculum development project to improve the teaching of migratory pupils. Levels of study include grades four, five, six, and seven, and one general unit deals with providing an effective learning…

  8. Differential susceptibility of macrophage cell lines to Bacillus anthracis-Vollum 1B.

    PubMed

    Gutting, B W; Gaske, K S; Schilling, A S; Slaterbeck, A F; Sobota, L; Mackie, R S; Buhr, T L

    2005-03-01

    Bacillus anthracis (BA) is a spore forming bacterium and the causative agent of anthrax disease. Macrophages (Mphis) play a central role in anthrax disease. An important step in disease progression is the ability of BA to secrete lethal toxin (LeTx) that kills Mphis. LeTx is a heterodimer composed of protective antigen (PA) and lethal factor (LF). Researchers have shown that Mphi cell lines demonstrate differential susceptibility to purified LeTx; for example RAW264.7 and J774A.1 Mphis are sensitive to LeTx whereas IC-21 Mphis are resistant. Research has also suggested that exogenous factors, including other BA proteins, can influence the activity of LeTx. For this reason, the objective of the current work was to examine if RAW264.7, J774A.1, and IC-21 Mphis demonstrated differential susceptibility when cultured with a LeTx-producing strain of BA. Here, we co-cultured Mphis with LeTx+ Vollum 1B (V1B) spores for >15 h and assayed for Mphi cell death by morphology, trypan blue (TB) staining, neutral red (NR) activity, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in the culture media. Following the addition of V1B spores, necrosis (approximately 50% mortality) was observed in RAW264.7 and J774A.1 Mphis at 7.5 and 10 h, respectively. By 15 h, both RAW264.7 and J774A.1 Mphis demonstrated 100% mortality. In contrast, IC-21 Mphis, under identical culture conditions, remained viable (98%) and activated throughout the course of the experiment (>24 h). The mechanism of RAW264.7 cell death appeared to involve LeTx because the V1B-induced cytotoxicity was dose-dependently reversed by the addition of anti-PA antibody to the culture media. These observations suggest there is differential susceptibility of Mphi cell lines to the LeTx+ V1B strain of BA. Further development of this in vitro model may be useful to further characterize the interactions between Mphis and BA spores. PMID:15649636

  9. NMR Spectroscopy Identifies Metabolites Translocated from Powdery Mildew Resistant Rootstocks to Susceptible Watermelon Scions.

    PubMed

    Mahmud, Iqbal; Kousik, Chandrasekar; Hassell, Richard; Chowdhury, Kamal; Boroujerdi, Arezue F

    2015-09-16

    Powdery mildew (PM) disease causes significant loss in watermelon. Due to the unavailability of a commercial watermelon variety that is resistant to PM, grafting susceptible cultivars on wild resistant rootstocks is being explored as a short-term management strategy to combat this disease. Nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolic profiles of susceptible and resistant rootstocks of watermelon and their corresponding susceptible scions (Mickey Lee) were compared to screen for potential metabolites related to PM resistance using multivariate principal component analysis. Significant score plot differences between the susceptible and resistant groups were revealed through Mahalanobis distance analysis. Significantly different spectral buckets and their corresponding metabolites (including choline, fumarate, 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetate, and melatonin) have been identified quantitatively using multivariate loading plots and verified by volcano plot analyses. The data suggest that these metabolites were translocated from the powdery mildew resistant rootstocks to their corresponding powdery mildew susceptible scions and can be related to PM disease resistance. PMID:26302171

  10. NMR Spectroscopy Identifies Metabolites Translocated from Powdery Mildew Resistant Rootstocks to Susceptible Watermelon Scions.

    PubMed

    Mahmud, Iqbal; Kousik, Chandrasekar; Hassell, Richard; Chowdhury, Kamal; Boroujerdi, Arezue F

    2015-09-16

    Powdery mildew (PM) disease causes significant loss in watermelon. Due to the unavailability of a commercial watermelon variety that is resistant to PM, grafting susceptible cultivars on wild resistant rootstocks is being explored as a short-term management strategy to combat this disease. Nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolic profiles of susceptible and resistant rootstocks of watermelon and their corresponding susceptible scions (Mickey Lee) were compared to screen for potential metabolites related to PM resistance using multivariate principal component analysis. Significant score plot differences between the susceptible and resistant groups were revealed through Mahalanobis distance analysis. Significantly different spectral buckets and their corresponding metabolites (including choline, fumarate, 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetate, and melatonin) have been identified quantitatively using multivariate loading plots and verified by volcano plot analyses. The data suggest that these metabolites were translocated from the powdery mildew resistant rootstocks to their corresponding powdery mildew susceptible scions and can be related to PM disease resistance.

  11. Genetic relatedness and antifungal susceptibility profile of Candida albicans isolates from fungaemia patients.

    PubMed

    Costa-de-Oliveira, Sofia; Sousa, Inês; Correia, Alexandra; Sampaio, Paula; Pais, Célia; Rodrigues, Acácio Gonçalves; Pina-Vaz, Cidália

    2011-04-01

    A prospective study to assess fungaemia was conducted for 12 months at a Portuguese University Hospital. A total of 35 Candida albicans isolates obtained from 12 patients with fungaemia were compared by a multiplex PCR system using four microsatellite loci. Blood isolates were evaluated against concomitant isolates from urine, lower respiratory secretions and central venous catheters, as well as with successive isolates recovered from recurrent episodes of fungaemia. The data analyzed included the department of admission, underlying diseases and antifungal therapy. The susceptibility phenotypes of all isolates to amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole and caspofungin were determined according to the CLSI M27-A3 protocol. We observed a high degree of similarity between successive blood isolates and between blood and concomitant isolates from other sites of the same patient. This is suggestive of the recurrence of fungaemia and was due to the same strain, possibly as a result of the failure of antifungal therapy. The genetic similarity observed between some strains isolated from different patients suggested the likelihood that they were hospital acquired. Distinct patients were infected by the same strain at different time periods, and an increase in antifungal resistance was observed over time for some of these strains. Hospital-acquired exogenous nosocomial infections can be associated with higher risks of antifungal resistance and need to be closely monitored. Particular attention should also be given to endogenous non-blood Candida isolates which can be critical in high risk patients, as they often can become invasive in immunodeficient individuals.

  12. Reduced thrombin generation increases host susceptibility to group A streptococcal infection

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hongmin; Wang, Xixi; Degen, Jay L.

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial plasminogen activators are commonplace among microbial pathogens, implying a central role of host plasmin in supporting bacterial virulence. Group A streptococci (GAS) secrete streptokinase, a specific activator of human plasminogen (PLG). The critical contribution of the streptokinase-PLG interaction to GAS pathogenicity was recently demonstrated using mice expressing human PLG. To examine the importance of thrombin generation in antimicrobial host defense, we challenged mice with deficiency of factor V (FV) in either the plasma or platelet compartment. Reduction of FV in either pool resulted in markedly increased mortality after GAS infection, with comparison to heterozygous F5-deficient mice suggesting a previously unappreciated role for the platelet FV pool in host defense. Mice with complete deficiency of fibrinogen also demonstrated markedly increased mortality to GAS infection relative to controls. Although FV Leiden may be protective in the setting of severe sepsis in humans, no significant survival advantage was observed in GAS-infected mice carrying the FV Leiden mutation. Taken together, our data support the hypothesis that local thrombosis/fibrin deposition limits the survival and dissemination of at least a subset of microbial pathogens and suggest that common variation in hemostatic factors among humans could affect host susceptibility to a variety of infectious diseases. PMID:19056689

  13. Metabolic polymorphisms and cancer susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Smith, G; Stanley, L A; Sim, E; Strange, R C; Wolf, C R

    1995-01-01

    The vast majority of cancers arise as a consequence of exposure to environmental agents that are toxic or mutagenic. In response to this, all higher organisms have evolved complex mechanisms by which they can protect themselves from environmental challenge. In many cases, this involves an adaptive response in which the levels of expression of enzymes active in the metabolism and detoxification of the foreign chemical are induced. The best characterized of these enzyme systems are the cytochrome P450s, the GSTs and the NATs. An unfortunate consequence of many of these reactions, however, is the creation of a toxic or mutagenic reaction product from chemicals that require metabolic activation before realizing their full carcinogenic potential. Altered expression of one or more of these drug metabolizing enzymes can therefore be predicted to have profound toxicological consequences. Genetic polymorphisms with well defined associated phenotypes have now been characterized in P450, GST and NAT genes. Indeed, many of these polymorphisms have been associated with decreased or increased metabolism of many tumour promoters and chemical carcinogens and hence offer protection against or increased susceptibility to many distinct tumour types.

  14. Susceptibility genes in movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Sonja; Singleton, Andrew

    2008-05-15

    During the last years, remarkable progress in our understanding of molecular genetic mechanisms underlying movement disorders has been achieved. The successes of linkage studies, followed by positional cloning, have dominated the last decade and several genes underlying monogenic disorders have been discovered. The pathobiological understanding garnered from these mutations has laid the foundation for much of the search for genetic loci that confer risk for, rather than cause, disease. With the introduction of whole genome association studies as a novel tool to investigate genetic variation underlying common, complex diseases, a new era in neurogenomics has just begun. As the field rapidly moves forward several new challenges and critical questions in clinical care have to be addressed. In this review, we summarize recent advances in the discovery of susceptibility loci underlying major movement disorders, explain the newest methodologies and tools employed for finding and characterizing genes and discuss how insights into the molecular genetic basis of neurological disorders will impact therapeutic concepts in patient care.

  15. THE ENVIRONMENT AND SUSCEPTIBILITY TO SCHIZOPHRENIA

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Alan S.

    2010-01-01

    In the present article the putative role of environmental factors in schizophrenia is reviewed and synthesized. Accumulating evidence from recent studies suggests that environmental exposures may play a more significant role in the etiopathogenesis of this disorder than previously thought. This expanding knowledge base is largely a consequence of refinements in the methodology of epidemiologic studies, including birth cohort investigations, and in preclinical research that has been inspired by the evolving literature on animal models of environmental exposures. The bulk of evidence supports a contribution of environmental factors acting during fetal and perinatal life; these include infections, nutritional deficiencies, paternal age, fetal/neonatal hypoxic insults, maternal stress and other exposures. A considerable amount of data supports cannabis use in adolescence, migration, unfavorable neighborhood environments, and possibly infections at different points in the lifespan as risk factors for schizophrenia. Animal models have yielded evidence suggesting that these exposures cause brain and behavioral phenotypes that are analogous to findings observed in patients with schizophrenia. It is suggested that future studies attempt to replicate these findings, identify new risk factors, explore the gestational specificity of environmental insults, elaborate developmental trajectories, and examine relationships between environmental exposures and structural and functional brain anomalies in schizophrenia patients. Future research on gene-environment interactions and epigenetic effects of environmental exposures should shed further light on genes and exposures that may not be identified in the absence of these integrated approaches. Moreover, translational studies should further facilitate the discovery of neurodevelopmental mechanisms that increase susceptibility to schizophrenia. The study of environmental factors in schizophrenia may have important implications for

  16. Simple nonlinear models suggest variable star universality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, John F.; Kohar, Vivek; Kia, Behnam; Hippke, Michael; Learned, John G.; Ditto, William L.

    2016-02-01

    Dramatically improved data from observatories like the CoRoT and Kepler spacecraft have recently facilitated nonlinear time series analysis and phenomenological modeling of variable stars, including the search for strange (aka fractal) or chaotic dynamics. We recently argued [Lindner et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114 (2015) 054101] that the Kepler data includes "golden" stars, whose luminosities vary quasiperiodically with two frequencies nearly in the golden ratio, and whose secondary frequencies exhibit power-law scaling with exponent near -1.5, suggesting strange nonchaotic dynamics and singular spectra. Here we use a series of phenomenological models to make plausible the connection between golden stars and fractal spectra. We thereby suggest that at least some features of variable star dynamics reflect universal nonlinear phenomena common to even simple systems.

  17. Cajal's brief experimentation with hypnotic suggestion.

    PubMed

    Stefanidou, Maria; Solà, Carme; Kouvelas, Elias; del Cerro, Manuel; Triarhou, Lazaros C

    2007-01-01

    Spanish histologist Santiago Ramón y Cajal, one of the most notable figures in Neuroscience, and winner, along with Camillo Golgi, of the 1906 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discoveries on the structure of the nervous system, did not escape experimenting with some of the psychiatric techniques available at the time, mainly hypnotic suggestion, albeit briefly. While a physician in his thirties, Cajal published a short article under the title, "Pains of labour considerably attenuated by hypnotic suggestion" in Gaceta Médica Catalana. That study may be Cajal's only documented case in the field of experimental psychology. We here provide an English translation of the original Spanish text, placing it historically within Cajal's involvement with some of the key scientific and philosophical issues at the time.

  18. [Suggestions to improve dentist-endodontist collaboration].

    PubMed

    Zabalegui, B; Zabalegui, I; Flores, L

    1989-01-01

    Referrals from the general dentist to the endodontist are in some occasions complicated with lack of proper communication among dentist-patient-specialist, resulting in the loss of confidence or even the patient. Suggestions to improve this communication are discussed, which will provide the patient a higher confidence in the indicated endodontic treatment and a better dental service. It will also enhance the prestige of the general dentists' and specialists' practice.

  19. [Suggestions to improve dentist-endodontist collaboration].

    PubMed

    Zabalegui, B; Zabalegui, I; Flores, L

    1989-01-01

    Referrals from the general dentist to the endodontist are in some occasions complicated with lack of proper communication among dentist-patient-specialist, resulting in the loss of confidence or even the patient. Suggestions to improve this communication are discussed, which will provide the patient a higher confidence in the indicated endodontic treatment and a better dental service. It will also enhance the prestige of the general dentists' and specialists' practice. PMID:2640034

  20. Mexican Trypanosoma cruzi isolates: in vitro susceptibility of epimastigotes to anti-trypanosoma cruzi drugs and metacyclic forms to complement-mediated lysis.

    PubMed

    León-Pérez, Floribeth; Gómez-Garcia, Lorena; Alejandre-Aguilar, R; López, R; Monteón, V M

    2007-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi has a clonal organization with an ample array of genetic and phenotypic features and probably anaploid constitution. Consequently, the biological behavior, biochemistry, and molecular attributes may be distinctive for each parasite strain in different geographical regions. As far as we know, there is no published information on the susceptibility of Mexican T. cruzi stocks to anti-T. cruzi drugs such as benznidazole and gentian violet, or on its resistance to complement-mediated lysis. We studied 10 Mexican T. cruzi isolates from different geographical areas, such as the pacific coast (Oaxaca, Guerrero, and Nayarit States), central part of Mexico (Guanajuato State), Gulf of Mexico (Veracruz State), and the Yucatan Peninsula (Campeche State). We searched for the natural resistance to drugs in in vitro assay against the 10 Mexican isolates using epimastigote forms and the complement-mediated lysis using metacyclic trypomastigotes insect-derived in three of them (one for each geographic region). In general, we observed high resistance to benznidazole in all the Mexican isolates tested, but in the complement-mediated lysis test, they showed moderate to high susceptibility. Although it is necessary to expand this study by using trypomastigotes and the intracellular form to verify its biological role, we suggest that Mexican T. cruzi parasites may have a variable susceptibility to antibody-mediated lysis and high resistance to benznidazole.

  1. Dynamic insecticide susceptibility changes in Florida populations of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Siddharth; Killiny, Nabil; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2013-02-01

    Five field populations of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama from various regions of Florida were evaluated in 2011 for resistance to commonly used insecticides. Three diagnostic doses (LD50, LD75, and LD95), developed in 2009 using a laboratory susceptible population, were used to measure changes in susceptibility levels of field-collected populations as compared with a susceptible laboratory population. Further reductions in the susceptibility levels of D. citri to chlorpyriphos and fenpropathrin were determined, compared with results obtained in 2010. Mean percent mortality obtained from all five locations was significantly lower than observed with the laboratory susceptible population for all insecticides tested. Previously, expression of five CYP4 genes was implicated in contributing to insecticide metabolism in D. citri. In the current study, we compared the relative expression of these five CYP4 genes and their associated levels of protein expression among field-collected and laboratory susceptible populations. Expression of all CYP4 genes investigated was higher in field-collected populations when normalized against the laboratory susceptible population. There was an increased signal of a band corresponding to a 45 kDa protein in four of the five field populations as measured by the Western blot assay, which suggests increased production of cytochrome P450 enzymes. The current results indicate that insecticide resistance continues to increase in Florida populations ofD. citri, particularly to chlorpyriphos and fenpropathrin. However, there was no further decrease in susceptibility of Florida populations of D. citri to neonicotinoid insecticides in 2011 as compared with previous years.

  2. Satellite estimates of precipitation susceptibility in low-level marine stratiform clouds

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Terai, C. R.; Wood, R.; Kubar, T. L.

    2015-09-05

    Quantifying the sensitivity of warm rain to aerosols is important for constraining climate model estimates of aerosol indirect effects. In this study, the precipitation sensitivity to cloud droplet number concentration (Nd) in satellite retrievals is quantified by applying the precipitation susceptibility metric to a combined CloudSat/Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data set of stratus and stratocumulus clouds that cover the tropical and subtropical Pacific Ocean and Gulf of Mexico. We note that consistent with previous observational studies of marine stratocumulus, precipitation susceptibility decreases with increasing liquid water path (LWP), and the susceptibility of the mean precipitation rate R is nearly equalmore » to the sum of the susceptibilities of precipitation intensity and of probability of precipitation. Consistent with previous modeling studies, the satellite retrievals reveal that precipitation susceptibility varies not only with LWP but also with Nd. Puzzlingly, negative values of precipitation susceptibility are found at low LWP and high Nd. There is marked regional variation in precipitation susceptibility values that cannot simply be explained by regional variations in LWP and Nd. This suggests other controls on precipitation apart from LWP and Nd and that precipitation susceptibility will need to be quantified and understood at the regional scale when relating to its role in controlling possible aerosol-induced cloud lifetime effects.« less

  3. Satellite estimates of precipitation susceptibility in low-level marine stratiform clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Terai, C. R.; Wood, R.; Kubar, T. L.

    2015-09-05

    Quantifying the sensitivity of warm rain to aerosols is important for constraining climate model estimates of aerosol indirect effects. In this study, the precipitation sensitivity to cloud droplet number concentration (Nd) in satellite retrievals is quantified by applying the precipitation susceptibility metric to a combined CloudSat/Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data set of stratus and stratocumulus clouds that cover the tropical and subtropical Pacific Ocean and Gulf of Mexico. We note that consistent with previous observational studies of marine stratocumulus, precipitation susceptibility decreases with increasing liquid water path (LWP), and the susceptibility of the mean precipitation rate R is nearly equal to the sum of the susceptibilities of precipitation intensity and of probability of precipitation. Consistent with previous modeling studies, the satellite retrievals reveal that precipitation susceptibility varies not only with LWP but also with Nd. Puzzlingly, negative values of precipitation susceptibility are found at low LWP and high Nd. There is marked regional variation in precipitation susceptibility values that cannot simply be explained by regional variations in LWP and Nd. This suggests other controls on precipitation apart from LWP and Nd and that precipitation susceptibility will need to be quantified and understood at the regional scale when relating to its role in controlling possible aerosol-induced cloud lifetime effects.

  4. Satellite estimates of precipitation susceptibility in low-level marine stratiform clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terai, C. R.; Wood, R.; Kubar, T. L.

    2015-09-01

    Quantifying the sensitivity of warm rain to aerosols is important for constraining climate model estimates of aerosol indirect effects. In this study, the precipitation sensitivity to cloud droplet number concentration (Nd) in satellite retrievals is quantified by applying the precipitation susceptibility metric to a combined CloudSat/Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data set of stratus and stratocumulus clouds that cover the tropical and subtropical Pacific Ocean and Gulf of Mexico. Consistent with previous observational studies of marine stratocumulus, precipitation susceptibility decreases with increasing liquid water path (LWP), and the susceptibility of the mean precipitation rate R is nearly equal to the sum of the susceptibilities of precipitation intensity and of probability of precipitation. Consistent with previous modeling studies, the satellite retrievals reveal that precipitation susceptibility varies not only with LWP but also with Nd. Puzzlingly, negative values of precipitation susceptibility are found at low LWP and high Nd. There is marked regional variation in precipitation susceptibility values that cannot simply be explained by regional variations in LWP and Nd. This suggests other controls on precipitation apart from LWP and Nd and that precipitation susceptibility will need to be quantified and understood at the regional scale when relating to its role in controlling possible aerosol-induced cloud lifetime effects.

  5. Susceptibility to Theiler's virus-induced demyelinating disease correlates with astrocyte class II induction and antigen presentation.

    PubMed Central

    Borrow, P; Nash, A A

    1992-01-01

    Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) is a picornavirus which induces a chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in certain susceptible mouse strains. Demyelination has been shown to result from immunopathological responses mediated by CD4+, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-restricted T cells. As little or no class II is expressed in the normal mouse CNS, the ability of astrocytes to express these proteins and present antigen to T cells from TMEV-infected mice was investigated here. It is shown that astrocytes are capable of presenting TMEV to virus-specific T cells in vitro, and that this ability is dependent on prior induction of MHC class II by interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) treatment. Unlike other viruses such as murine hepatitis virus-JHM (a coronavirus) and measles, TMEV is not capable of inducing class II on astrocytes directly. There is a correlation between the ease of class II induction on astrocytes from different mouse strains by IFN-gamma and mouse strain susceptibility to TMEV-induced demyelinating disease. These results suggest that following viral infection and initial T-cell infiltration into the CNS, class II induction on astrocytes is a key step allowing local antigen presentation and amplification of immunopathological responses within the CNS and hence the development of demyelinating disease. PMID:1628891

  6. Susceptibility to Theiler's virus-induced demyelinating disease correlates with astrocyte class II induction and antigen presentation.

    PubMed

    Borrow, P; Nash, A A

    1992-05-01

    Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) is a picornavirus which induces a chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in certain susceptible mouse strains. Demyelination has been shown to result from immunopathological responses mediated by CD4+, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-restricted T cells. As little or no class II is expressed in the normal mouse CNS, the ability of astrocytes to express these proteins and present antigen to T cells from TMEV-infected mice was investigated here. It is shown that astrocytes are capable of presenting TMEV to virus-specific T cells in vitro, and that this ability is dependent on prior induction of MHC class II by interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) treatment. Unlike other viruses such as murine hepatitis virus-JHM (a coronavirus) and measles, TMEV is not capable of inducing class II on astrocytes directly. There is a correlation between the ease of class II induction on astrocytes from different mouse strains by IFN-gamma and mouse strain susceptibility to TMEV-induced demyelinating disease. These results suggest that following viral infection and initial T-cell infiltration into the CNS, class II induction on astrocytes is a key step allowing local antigen presentation and amplification of immunopathological responses within the CNS and hence the development of demyelinating disease.

  7. Planktonic foraminiferal oxygen isotope analysis by ion microprobe technique suggests warm tropical sea surface temperatures during the Early Paleogene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozdon, Reinhard; Kelly, D. Clay; Kita, Noriko T.; Fournelle, John H.; Valley, John W.

    2011-09-01

    Cool tropical sea surface temperatures (SSTs) are reported for warm Paleogene greenhouse climates based on the δ18O of planktonic foraminiferal tests. These results are difficult to reconcile with models of greenhouse gas-forced climate. It has been suggested that this "cool tropics paradox" arises from postdepositional alteration of foraminiferal calcite, yielding erroneously high δ18O values. Recrystallization of foraminiferal tests is cryptic and difficult to quantify, and the compilation of robust δ18O records from moderately altered material remains challenging. Scanning electron microscopy of planktonic foraminiferal chamber-wall cross sections reveals that the basal area of muricae, pustular outgrowths on the chamber walls of species belonging to the genus Morozovella, contain no mural pores and may be less susceptible to postdepositional alteration. We analyzed the δ18O in muricae bases of morozovellids from the central Pacific (Ocean Drilling Program Site 865) by ion microprobe using 10 μm pits with an analytical reproducibility of ±0.34‰ (2 standard deviations). In situ measurements of δ18O in these domains yield consistently lower values than those published for conventional multispecimen analyses. Assuming that the original δ18O is largely preserved in the basal areas of muricae, this new δ18O record indicates Early Paleogene (˜49-56 Ma) tropical SSTs in the central Pacific were 4°-8°C higher than inferred from the previously published δ18O record and that SSTs reached at least ˜33°C during the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum. This study demonstrates the utility of ion microprobe analysis for generating more reliable paleoclimate records from moderately altered foraminiferal tests preserved in deep-sea sediments.

  8. Reduced susceptibility to confirmation bias in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Doll, Bradley B; Waltz, James A; Cockburn, Jeffrey; Brown, Jaime K; Frank, Michael J; Gold, James M

    2014-06-01

    Patients with schizophrenia (SZ) show cognitive impairments on a wide range of tasks, with clear deficiencies in tasks reliant on prefrontal cortex function and less consistently observed impairments in tasks recruiting the striatum. This study leverages tasks hypothesized to differentially recruit these neural structures to assess relative deficiencies of each. Forty-eight patients and 38 controls completed two reinforcement learning tasks hypothesized to interrogate prefrontal and striatal functions and their interaction. In each task, participants learned reward discriminations by trial and error and were tested on novel stimulus combinations to assess learned values. In the task putatively assessing fronto-striatal interaction, participants were (inaccurately) instructed that one of the stimuli was valuable. Consistent with prior reports and a model of confirmation bias, this manipulation resulted in overvaluation of the instructed stimulus after its true value had been experienced. Patients showed less susceptibility to this confirmation bias effect than did controls. In the choice bias task hypothesized to more purely assess striatal function, biases in endogenously and exogenously chosen actions were assessed. No group differences were observed. In the subset of participants who showed learning in both tasks, larger group differences were observed in the confirmation bias task than in the choice bias task. In the confirmation bias task, patients also showed impairment in the task conditions with no prior instruction. This deficit was most readily observed on the most deterministic discriminations. Taken together, these results suggest impairments in fronto-striatal interaction in SZ, rather than in striatal function per se.

  9. Cataracts Heavy Ions and Individual Susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, E.; Worgul, B.; Brenner, D.; Smilenov, L.

    Ocular cataracts represents one of the few legacies of space flight evident in a significant proportion of astronauts X-rays are known to induce cataracts Heavy ions are known to be much more effective per unit dose than gamma -rays The object of this present study was to identify genes that confer individual susceptibility and to estimate RBE values Wild type mice were compared with animals heterozygous for Atm Mrad9 or BRCA1 or animals that were double heterozygotes for pairs of genes Mice were irradiated with x-rays at Columbia University in New York City or with heavy ions 1GeV amu 56 Fe ions at Brookhaven National Laboratory Haploinsufficiency for either Atm or mRAD9 resulted in cataracts appearing earlier than in wild type animals whether exposed to gamma -rays or heavy ions Double heterozygotes were more radiosensitive than animals haploinsufficient for either gene alone Heavy ions were much more effective than x-rays in inducing cataracts of all grades in animals of all genotypes A detailed analysis suggest that the RBE varies to some extent with the genotype of the animal and the cataract grade

  10. Guidelines and Suggestions for Balloon Gondola Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franco, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    The Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility is responsible for ensuring that science payloads meet the appropriate design requirements. The ultimate goal is to ensure that payloads stay within the allowable launch limits as well as survive the termination event. The purpose of this presentation is to provide some general guidelines for Gondola Design. These include rules and reasons on why CSBF has a certain preference and location for certain components within the gondola as well as other suggestions. Additionally, some recommendations are given on how to avoid common pitfalls.

  11. Diagnostic inflation: causes and a suggested cure.

    PubMed

    Batstra, Laura; Frances, Allen

    2012-06-01

    There have been a striking diagnostic inflation and a corresponding increase in the use of psychotropic drugs during the past 30 years. DSM-5, scheduled to appear in May 2013, proposes another grand expansion of mental illness. In this article, we will review the causes of diagnostic exuberance and associated medical treatment. We will then suggest a method of stepped care combined with stepped diagnosis, which may reduce overdiagnosis without risking undertreatment of those who really need help. The goal is to control diagnostic inflation, to reduce the harms and costs of unnecessary treatment, and to save psychiatry from overdiagnosis and ridicule.

  12. Dinosaur Peptides Suggest Mechanisms of Protein Survival

    SciTech Connect

    San Antonio, James D.; Schweitzer, Mary H.; Jensen, Shane T.; Kalluri, Raghu; Buckley, Michael; Orgel, Joseph P.R.O.

    2011-09-16

    Eleven collagen peptide sequences recovered from chemical extracts of dinosaur bones were mapped onto molecular models of the vertebrate collagen fibril derived from extant taxa. The dinosaur peptides localized to fibril regions protected by the close packing of collagen molecules, and contained few acidic amino acids. Four peptides mapped to collagen regions crucial for cell-collagen interactions and tissue development. Dinosaur peptides were not represented in more exposed parts of the collagen fibril or regions mediating intermolecular cross-linking. Thus functionally significant regions of collagen fibrils that are physically shielded within the fibril may be preferentially preserved in fossils. These results show empirically that structure-function relationships at the molecular level could contribute to selective preservation in fossilized vertebrate remains across geological time, suggest a 'preservation motif', and bolster current concepts linking collagen structure to biological function. This non-random distribution supports the hypothesis that the peptides are produced by the extinct organisms and suggests a chemical mechanism for survival.

  13. Anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility of gallium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pankey, T.

    1960-01-01

    The bulk magnetic susceptibilities of single gallium crystals and polycrystalline gallium spheres were measured at 25??C. The following anisotropic diamagnetic susceptibilities were found: a axis (-0.119??0. 001)??10-6 emu/g, b axis (-0.416??0.002)??10 -6 emu/g, and c axis (-0.229??0.001) emu/g. The susceptibility of the polycrystalline spheres, assumed to be the average value for the bulk susceptibility of gallium, was (-0.257??0.003)??10-6 emu/g at 25??C, and (-0.299??0.003)??10-6 emu/g at -196??C. The susceptibility of liquid gallium was (0.0031??0.001) ??10-6 emu/g at 30??C and 100??C. Rotational diagrams of the susceptibilities in the three orthogonal planes of the unit cell were not sinusoidal. The anisotropy in the single crystals was presumably caused by the partial overlap of Brillouin zone boundaries by the Fermi-energy surface. The large change in susceptibility associated with the change in state was attributed to the absence of effective mass influence in the liquid state. ?? 1960 The American Institute of Physics.

  14. Pitfalls in statistical landslide susceptibility modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Boris; Vorpahl, Peter; Märker, Michael; Elsenbeer, Helmut

    2010-05-01

    The use of statistical methods is a well-established approach to predict landslide occurrence probabilities and to assess landslide susceptibility. This is achieved by applying statistical methods relating historical landslide inventories to topographic indices as predictor variables. In our contribution, we compare several new and powerful methods developed in machine learning and well-established in landscape ecology and macroecology for predicting the distribution of shallow landslides in tropical mountain rainforests in southern Ecuador (among others: boosted regression trees, multivariate adaptive regression splines, maximum entropy). Although these methods are powerful, we think it is necessary to follow a basic set of guidelines to avoid some pitfalls regarding data sampling, predictor selection, and model quality assessment, especially if a comparison of different models is contemplated. We therefore suggest to apply a novel toolbox to evaluate approaches to the statistical modelling of landslide susceptibility. Additionally, we propose some methods to open the "black box" as an inherent part of machine learning methods in order to achieve further explanatory insights into preparatory factors that control landslides. Sampling of training data should be guided by hypotheses regarding processes that lead to slope failure taking into account their respective spatial scales. This approach leads to the selection of a set of candidate predictor variables considered on adequate spatial scales. This set should be checked for multicollinearity in order to facilitate model response curve interpretation. Model quality assesses how well a model is able to reproduce independent observations of its response variable. This includes criteria to evaluate different aspects of model performance, i.e. model discrimination, model calibration, and model refinement. In order to assess a possible violation of the assumption of independency in the training samples or a possible

  15. Tracking changes in the susceptibility of forest land infested with gypsy moth. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Gansner, D.A.; Quimby, J.W.; King, S.L.; Arner, S.L.; Drake, D.A.

    1994-08-01

    The report questions the forest land subject to intensive outbreaks of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) which become less susceptible to defoliation. A model for estimating the lifelihood of gypsy moth defoliation has been developed and validated. It was applied to forest-inventory plot data to quantity trends in the susceptibility of forest land in south-central Pennsylvania during a period of intensive infestation. Results show that even though susceptibility of the region's forest apparently has declined, the potential for future infestations remains relatively high.

  16. Arginine depletion increases susceptibility to serious infections in preterm newborns

    PubMed Central

    Badurdeen, Shiraz; Mulongo, Musa; Berkley, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm newborns are highly susceptible to bacterial infections. This susceptibility is regarded as being due to immaturity of multiple pathways of the immune system. However, it is unclear whether a mechanism that unifies these different, suppressed pathways exists. Here, we argue that the immune vulnerability of the preterm neonate is critically related to arginine depletion. Arginine, a “conditionally essential” amino acid, is depleted in acute catabolic states, including sepsis. Its metabolism is highly compartmentalized and regulated, including by arginase-mediated hydrolysis. Recent data suggest that arginase II-mediated arginine depletion is essential for the innate immune suppression that occurs in newborn models of bacterial challenge, impairing pathways critical for the immune response. Evidence that arginine depletion mediates protection from immune activation during first gut colonization suggests a regulatory role in controlling gut-derived pathogens. Clinical studies show that plasma arginine is depleted during sepsis. In keeping with animal studies, small clinical trials of L-arginine supplementation have shown benefit in reducing necrotizing enterocolitis in premature neonates. We propose a novel, broader hypothesis that arginine depletion during bacterial challenge is a key factor limiting the neonate's ability to mount an adequate immune response, contributing to the increased susceptibility to infections, particularly with respect to gut-derived sepsis. PMID:25360828

  17. [Stress and susceptibility to infection].

    PubMed

    Kaulfersch, W; Kurz, R; Hitzig, W

    1992-01-01

    The influence of various stressors upon the human immune system, was and presently is the subject of many clinically oriented as well as experimental studies. Even though it is not always clear how relevant the reported observations are in behalf to the beginning, the course and the outcome of infectious, neoplastic and autoimmune diseases, there is hardly any doubt, that stress may influence multiple aspects of the immune answer. The sensitivity of the immune system to stress factors is not merely fortuitous, but is an indirect consequence of the regulatory reciprocal influences between the immune system and the central nervous system. These interconnections seem to represent building blocks of a long-loop regulatory feedback-system, which plays an important role in the coordination of stressors and psychological influences upon the course of infections and inflammatory diseases. PMID:1408289

  18. Central venous line - infants

    MedlinePlus

    CVL - infants; Central catheter - infants - surgically placed ... plastic tube that is put into a large vein in the chest. WHY IS A ... central catheter (PICC) or midline central catheter (MCC). A CVL ...

  19. Bacterial survival strategies suggest rethinking cancer cooperativity.

    PubMed

    Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Coffey, Donald S; Levine, Herbert

    2012-09-01

    Despite decades of a much improved understanding of cancer biology, we are still baffled by questions regarding the deadliest traits of malignancy: metastatic colonization, dormancy and relapse, and the rapid evolution of multiple drug and immune resistance. New ideas are needed to resolve these critical issues. Relying on finding and demonstrating parallels between collective behavior capabilities of cancer cells and that of bacteria, we suggest communal behaviors of bacteria as a valuable model system for new perspectives and research directions. Understanding the ways in which bacteria thrive in competitive habitats and their cooperative strategies for surviving extreme stress can shed light on cooperativity in tumorigenesis and portray tumors as societies of smart communicating cells. This may translate into progress in fathoming cancer pathogenesis. We outline new experiments to test the cancer cooperativity hypothesis and reason that cancer may be outsmarted through its own 'social intelligence'. PMID:22750098

  20. Proactive and retroactive effects of negative suggestion.

    PubMed

    Brown, Alan S; Brown, Christine M; Mosbacher, Joy L; Dryden, W Erich

    2006-11-01

    The negative effects of false information presented either prior to (proactive interference; PI) or following (retroactive interference; RI) true information was examined with word definitions (Experiment 1) and trivia facts (Experiment 2). Participants were explicitly aware of which information was true and false when shown, and true-false discrimination was evaluated via multiple-choice tests. Negative suggestion, defined as poorer performance on interference items than noninterference (control) items, consistently occurred when the wrong information followed the correct information (RI) but not when it preceded the correct information (PI). These effects did not change as a function of retention interval (immediate, 1 week, or 3 weeks) or number of incorrect alternatives (1 or 3). Implications of this outcome for experiencing incorrect information in both academic and nonacademic situations are considered.

  1. Chest magnetic resonance imaging: a protocol suggestion*

    PubMed Central

    Hochhegger, Bruno; de Souza, Vinícius Valério Silveira; Marchiori, Edson; Irion, Klaus Loureiro; Souza Jr., Arthur Soares; Elias Junior, Jorge; Rodrigues, Rosana Souza; Barreto, Miriam Menna; Escuissato, Dante Luiz; Mançano, Alexandre Dias; Araujo Neto, César Augusto; Guimarães, Marcos Duarte; Nin, Carlos Schuler; Santos, Marcel Koenigkam; Silva, Jorge Luiz Pereira e

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years, with the development of ultrafast sequences, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been established as a valuable diagnostic modality in body imaging. Because of improvements in speed and image quality, MRI is now ready for routine clinical use also in the study of pulmonary diseases. The main advantage of MRI of the lungs is its unique combination of morphological and functional assessment in a single imaging session. In this article, the authors review most technical aspects and suggest a protocol for performing chest MRI. The authors also describe the three major clinical indications for MRI of the lungs: staging of lung tumors; evaluation of pulmonary vascular diseases; and investigation of pulmonary abnormalities in patients who should not be exposed to radiation. PMID:26811555

  2. Magnetic susceptibility of tetragonal titanium dioxide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senftle, F.E.; Pankey, T.; Grant, F.A.

    1960-01-01

    Careful measurements have been made of the magnetic susceptibility of the rutile and anatase crystalline forms of titanium dioxide. The magnetic susceptibility of a single crystal of high-purity rutile was found to be (0.067??0.0015)??10-6 emu per gram, and was temperature-independent from 55??to 372??K. Difficulty was encountered in obtaining a good value of the magnetic susceptibility of anatase because of impurities. However, a value of 0.02??10-6 emu per gram was obtained as a maximum value for anatase powder. A discussion is given for the different values obtained for anatase and rutile. ?? 1960 The American Physical Society.

  3. Absolute method of measuring magnetic susceptibility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorpe, A.; Senftle, F.E.

    1959-01-01

    An absolute method of standardization and measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of small samples is presented which can be applied to most techniques based on the Faraday method. The fact that the susceptibility is a function of the area under the curve of sample displacement versus distance of the magnet from the sample, offers a simple method of measuring the susceptibility without recourse to a standard sample. Typical results on a few substances are compared with reported values, and an error of less than 2% can be achieved. ?? 1959 The American Institute of Physics.

  4. Chinese hyper-susceptibility to vection-induced motion sickness.

    PubMed

    Stern, R M; Hu, S; LeBlanc, R; Koch, K L

    1993-09-01

    Little is known about the factors that control individual differences in susceptible to motion sickness. A serendipitous observation in our laboratory that most Chinese subjects become motion sick prompted this study. We used a rotating optokinetic drum to provoke motion sickness and compared gastric responses and symptom reports of Chinese, European-American, and African-American subjects. There was no difference in the responses of European-American and African-American subjects; however, Chinese subjects showed significantly greater disturbances in gastric activity and reported significantly more severe symptoms. We suggest that this hyper-susceptibility presents a natural model for the study of physiological mechanisms of nausea and other symptoms of motion sickness.

  5. Optical measurement of anisotropic magnetic susceptibility for diamagnetic fine particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitamura, Naoyuki; Takahashi, Kohki; Mogi, Iwao; Awaji, Satoshi; Watanabe, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    We have developed an apparatus that allows the observation of the transient rotational motion of fine particles under a high magnetic field in order to determine anisotropic magnetic susceptibility. The anisotropic susceptibilities of spherical nanoparticles of bismuth and commercially available carbon nanofibers were determined. The estimated Δχ = 3.9 × 10-5 of spherical bismuth nanoparticles with a diameter of 370 nm was fairly consistent with the value determined previously by the magnetic field dependence of diffraction peak intensity in the X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern, but was slightly smaller than the value for the bulk crystal. In contrast, the transient behavior of carbon nanofibers did not obey the theoretical motion of a single crystal. The wide distribution of fiber lengths, the irregularity of the structure in the fiber, and the connections between the fibers are suggested for the anomalous behavior.

  6. HLA-associated susceptibility to HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed Central

    Fabio, G; Scorza, R; Lazzarin, A; Marchini, M; Zarantonello, M; D'Arminio, A; Marchisio, P; Plebani, A; Luzzati, R; Costigliola, P

    1992-01-01

    We studied HLA antigen distribution of 50 heterosexual partners of HIV+ drug abusers with more than 1 year of sexual exposure to HIV, 36 children born to seropositive mothers and 61 haemophiliac patients exposed to presumably infectious clotting factor concentrates. B52 and B44 antigens were associated with HIV resistance while B51 was associated with HIV susceptibility. Forty-nine HIV+ drug abusers, spouses of heterosexual partners studied and 25 HIV+ mothers of the children were also typed. DR11 phenotype was associated with infectiousness of HIV+ subjects. Our data suggest that the HLA region controls susceptibility to infection with HIV and infectiousness of HIV+ subjects in different risk groups. PMID:1733633

  7. Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing of Gram-Negative Nonfermentative Bacilli

    PubMed Central

    Ruddell, K. A.; Anselmo, C. R.

    1975-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine if current methods of antibiotic susceptibility testing could be successfully applied to the gram-negative nonfermentative bacilli. Using clinical isolates and reference strains, experiments were conducted on the inherent reliability of the Bauer-Kirby method, as well as the effect of certain modifications on the method such as elimination of the 2- to 5-h incubation in broth and use of different agar media. Results obtained using these modifications were compared to the results obtained by the standard method. It was shown that the two modifications investigated had a significant effect on the interpretation of zone diameters. It was further shown that the standard Bauer-Kirby method with some exceptions correlates with minimal inhibitory concentrations as determined by broth dilution methods. Results suggest that the Bauer-Kirby method may be a reliable technique for testing the antibiotic susceptibility of the nonfermentative bacilli. PMID:1147576

  8. Extended biofilm susceptibility assay for Staphylococcus aureus bovine mastitis isolates: evidence for association between genetic makeup and biofilm susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Melchior, M B; van Osch, M H J; Lam, T J G M; Vernooij, J C M; Gaastra, W; Fink-Gremmels, J

    2011-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most prevalent causes of bovine mastitis. The antimicrobial treatment of this disease is currently based on antimicrobial susceptibility tests according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute standards. However, various authors have shown a discrepancy between the results of this standard susceptibility test and the actual cure rate of the applied antimicrobial treatment. Increasing evidence suggests that in vivo biofilm formation by Staph. aureus, which is not assessed in the antimicrobial susceptibility tests, is associated with this problem, resulting in disappointing cure rates, especially for infections of longer duration. Previous data obtained with a limited number of strains showed that the extended biofilm antimicrobial susceptibility (EBS) assay reveals differences between strains, which cannot be derived from a standard susceptibility test or from a 24-h biofilm susceptibility test. The objective of this study was to test a collection of Staph. aureus bovine mastitis strains in the EBS assay and to model the effect of antimicrobial exposure, duration of antimicrobial exposure, and genotype profile of the strains on antimicrobial susceptibility. With the results from a previous study with the same collection of strains, the effect of genotype represented by accessory gene regulator gene (agr-type), the presence of insertional sequence 257 (IS257), intercellular adhesion (ica), and the β-lactamase (blaZ) gene were entered as explanatory factors in a logistic regression model. The agr locus of Staph. aureus controls the expression of most of the virulence factors, represses the transcription of several cell wall-associated proteins, and activates several exoproteins during the post-exponential phase. The IS257 gene has been related to biofilm formation in vitro and was found earlier in 50% of the agr-type 2 strains. The ica gene cluster encodes for the production of an extracellular polysaccharide adhesin, termed

  9. Extended biofilm susceptibility assay for Staphylococcus aureus bovine mastitis isolates: evidence for association between genetic makeup and biofilm susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Melchior, M B; van Osch, M H J; Lam, T J G M; Vernooij, J C M; Gaastra, W; Fink-Gremmels, J

    2011-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most prevalent causes of bovine mastitis. The antimicrobial treatment of this disease is currently based on antimicrobial susceptibility tests according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute standards. However, various authors have shown a discrepancy between the results of this standard susceptibility test and the actual cure rate of the applied antimicrobial treatment. Increasing evidence suggests that in vivo biofilm formation by Staph. aureus, which is not assessed in the antimicrobial susceptibility tests, is associated with this problem, resulting in disappointing cure rates, especially for infections of longer duration. Previous data obtained with a limited number of strains showed that the extended biofilm antimicrobial susceptibility (EBS) assay reveals differences between strains, which cannot be derived from a standard susceptibility test or from a 24-h biofilm susceptibility test. The objective of this study was to test a collection of Staph. aureus bovine mastitis strains in the EBS assay and to model the effect of antimicrobial exposure, duration of antimicrobial exposure, and genotype profile of the strains on antimicrobial susceptibility. With the results from a previous study with the same collection of strains, the effect of genotype represented by accessory gene regulator gene (agr-type), the presence of insertional sequence 257 (IS257), intercellular adhesion (ica), and the β-lactamase (blaZ) gene were entered as explanatory factors in a logistic regression model. The agr locus of Staph. aureus controls the expression of most of the virulence factors, represses the transcription of several cell wall-associated proteins, and activates several exoproteins during the post-exponential phase. The IS257 gene has been related to biofilm formation in vitro and was found earlier in 50% of the agr-type 2 strains. The ica gene cluster encodes for the production of an extracellular polysaccharide adhesin, termed

  10. Control of Staphylococcal Adhesion to Polymethylmethacrylate and Enhancement of Susceptibility to Antibiotics by Poloxamer 407

    PubMed Central

    Veyries, Marie-Laure; Faurisson, Francois; Joly-Guillou, Marie-Laure; Rouveix, Bernard

    2000-01-01

    We studied the antiadhesive effect of Poloxamer 407 (P407), together with modifications in the antimicrobial susceptibility of residual adherent staphylococci. Bacterial adherence was markedly inhibited (77% to more than 99.9%) whether polymethylmethacrylate was exposed to P407 before or during the adherence assay. Furthermore, residual adherent staphylococci appeared to be more susceptible to antibiotic activity, suggesting that combination of P407 with antibiotics could be a promising approach to the prevention of infection of foreign material. PMID:10722521

  11. Small-angle neutron scattering of nanocrystalline terbium with random paramagnetic susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Balaji, G; Ghosh, S; Döbrich, F; Eckerlebe, H; Weissmüller, J

    2008-06-01

    We report magnetic small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) data for the nanocrystalline rare earth metal Terbium in its paramagnetic state. Whereas critical scattering dominates at large momentum transfer, q, the (magnetic-) field response of the scattering at small q arises from the spatial nonuniformity of the paramagnetic susceptibility tensor. The finding of an interrelation between SANS and the susceptibility suggests a way for characterizing the nonuniform magnetic interactions in hard magnets by neutron scattering. PMID:18643454

  12. Pattern Genes Suggest Functional Connectivity of Organs.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yangmei; Pan, Jianbo; Cai, Meichun; Yao, Lixia; Ji, Zhiliang

    2016-05-26

    Human organ, as the basic structural and functional unit in human body, is made of a large community of different cell types that organically bound together. Each organ usually exerts highly specified physiological function; while several related organs work smartly together to perform complicated body functions. In this study, we present a computational effort to understand the roles of genes in building functional connection between organs. More specifically, we mined multiple transcriptome datasets sampled from 36 human organs and tissues, and quantitatively identified 3,149 genes whose expressions showed consensus modularly patterns: specific to one organ/tissue, selectively expressed in several functionally related tissues and ubiquitously expressed. These pattern genes imply intrinsic connections between organs. According to the expression abundance of the 766 selective genes, we consistently cluster the 36 human organs/tissues into seven functional groups: adipose &gland, brain, muscle, immune, metabolism, mucoid and nerve conduction. The organs and tissues in each group either work together to form organ systems or coordinate to perform particular body functions. The particular roles of specific genes and selective genes suggest that they could not only be used to mechanistically explore organ functions, but also be designed for selective biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

  13. [Evidence that suggest the reality of reincarnation].

    PubMed

    Bonilla, Ernesto

    2015-06-01

    Worldwide, children can be found who reported that they have memories of a previous life. More than 2,500 cases have been studied and their specifications have been published and preserved in the archives of the Division of Perceptual Studies at the University of Virginia (United States). Many of those children come from countries where the majority of the inhabitants believe in reincarnation, but others come from countries with different cultures and religions that reject it. In many cases, the revelations of the children have been verified and have corresponded to a particular individual, already dead. A good number of these children have marks and birth defects corresponding to wounds on the body of his previous personality. Many have behaviors related to their claims to their former life: phobias, philias, and attachments. Others seem to recognize people and places of his supposed previous life, and some of their assertions have been made under controlled conditions. The hypothesis of reincarnation is controversial. We can never say that it does not occur, or will obtain conclusive evidence that it happens. The cases that have been described so far, isolated or combined, do not provide irrefutable proof of reincarnation, but they supply evidence that suggest its reality.

  14. Arsenic and bladder cancer: observations and suggestions.

    PubMed

    Radosavljević, Vladan; Jakovljević, Branko

    2008-10-01

    Arsenic from drinking water is a well-known risk factor for bladder cancer. The purpose of this paper is to systematize some important yet often overlooked facts considering the relationship between arsenic exposure and the occurrence of bladder cancer. Since the exposure to inorganic arsenic from food, inhaled air, and skin absorption as well as arsenic methylation ability are not fully investigated, our assumption is that the exposure of arsenic only from drinking water is underestimated and its role as a risk factor is highly overestimated. This paper proposes some qualitative and quantitative parameters of arsenic as a risk factor for bladder cancer. The recommended qualitative parameters of arsenic intake are first, pathways of exposure, and second, toxicity and metabolism. The suggested quantitative parameters of arsenic intake include amounts of arsenic absorbed in the body, duration of arsenic exposure, and duration of arsenic presence in the urinary bladder. This approach can be implemented in a systematic classification and explanation of various risk factors and their mutual interactions for other types of cancer or diseases in general.

  15. Pattern Genes Suggest Functional Connectivity of Organs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yangmei; Pan, Jianbo; Cai, Meichun; Yao, Lixia; Ji, Zhiliang

    2016-05-01

    Human organ, as the basic structural and functional unit in human body, is made of a large community of different cell types that organically bound together. Each organ usually exerts highly specified physiological function; while several related organs work smartly together to perform complicated body functions. In this study, we present a computational effort to understand the roles of genes in building functional connection between organs. More specifically, we mined multiple transcriptome datasets sampled from 36 human organs and tissues, and quantitatively identified 3,149 genes whose expressions showed consensus modularly patterns: specific to one organ/tissue, selectively expressed in several functionally related tissues and ubiquitously expressed. These pattern genes imply intrinsic connections between organs. According to the expression abundance of the 766 selective genes, we consistently cluster the 36 human organs/tissues into seven functional groups: adipose & gland, brain, muscle, immune, metabolism, mucoid and nerve conduction. The organs and tissues in each group either work together to form organ systems or coordinate to perform particular body functions. The particular roles of specific genes and selective genes suggest that they could not only be used to mechanistically explore organ functions, but also be designed for selective biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

  16. Membrane proteomics of phagosomes suggests a connection to autophagy

    SciTech Connect

    Shui, Wenqing; Sheu, Leslie; Liu, Jun; Smart, Brian; Petzold, Christopher J.; Hsieh, Tsung-yen; Pitcher, Austin; Keasling*, Jay D.; Bertozzi*, Carolyn R.

    2008-11-25

    Phagocytosis is the central process by which macrophage cellsinternalize and eliminate infectious microbes as well as apoptoticcells. During maturation, phagosomes containing engulfed particlesfuse with various endosomal compartments through theaction of regulatory molecules on the phagosomal membrane. Inthis study, we performed a proteomic analysis of the membranefraction from latex bead-containing (LBC) phagosomes isolatedfrom macrophages. The profile, which comprised 546 proteins,suggests diverse functions of the phagosome and potential connectionsto secretory processes, toll-like receptor signaling, andautophagy. Many identified proteins were not previously knownto reside in the phagosome. We characterized several proteins inLBC phagosomes that change in abundance on induction of autophagy,a process that has been previously implicated in the hostdefense against microbial pathogens. These observations suggestcrosstalk between autophagy and phagocytosis that may be relevantto the innate immune response of macrophages.

  17. Macaque models of enhanced susceptibility to HIV.

    PubMed

    Henning, Tara R; McNicholl, Janet M; Vishwanathan, Sundaram A; Kersh, Ellen N

    2015-01-01

    There are few nonhuman primate models of enhanced HIV susceptibility. Such models can improve comprehension of HIV acquisition risk factors and provide rigorous testing platforms for preclinical prevention strategies. This paper reviews past, current, and proposed research on macaque HIV acquisition risk models and identifies areas where modeling is significantly lacking. We compare different experimental approaches and provide practical considerations for designing macaque susceptibility studies. Modifiable (mucosal and systemic coinfections, hormonal contraception, and rectal lubricants) and non-modifiable (hormonal fluctuations) risk factors are highlighted. Risk acquisition models via vaginal, rectal, and penile challenge routes are discussed. There is no consensus on the best statistical model for evaluating increased susceptibility, and additional research is required. The use of enhanced susceptibility macaque models would benefit multiple facets of the HIV research field, including basic acquisition and pathogenesis studies as well as the vaccine and other biomedical preventions pipeline.

  18. Dynamic spin susceptibility of interacting electron systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyuzin, Vladimir; Maslov, Dmitrii

    2015-03-01

    We study the dynamic spin susceptibility of interacting electrons in spatial dimensions from one to three. In all cases, backscattering processes result in non-zero imaginary part of the spin susceptibility above the particle-hole continuum of non-interacting electrons. In one dimension, we employ the renormalization group to go beyond the second order and obtain a general expression for the spin susceptibility. In higher dimensions, we show that the imaginary part of the spin susceptibility arises from the same mechanism as non-analytic corrections to the Fermi-liquid theory. We relate the obtained results to the lifetime of collective spin modes. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation via Grant NSF DMR-1308972.

  19. An investigation on magnetic susceptibility of hazardous saline-alkaline soils from the contaminated Hai River Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Pingguo; Mao, Renzhao; Shao, Hongbo

    2009-12-15

    Magnetic susceptibility can provide rich environmental information, especially for hazardous heavy metals and saline-alkaline in the contaminated soils. Magnetic susceptibility in four vertical profiles from saline-alkaline soils in lower Hai River basin was investigated. Soil sites were extended from alluvial fan to coastal plain areas. They are aligned along a latitudinal strip. Magnetic parameters including low/high frequency susceptibility, frequency-dependent susceptibility was measured. Moreover, some standard pedological parameters such as pH value and organic matter content were also determined. The results showed that low frequency magnetic susceptibility values is very high at the surface and decreases with the profile to a low value. In all profiles from alluvial fan frequency-dependent susceptibility greater than 3% may suggest the presence of relatively more super-paramagnetic particles. Magnetic susceptibility showed obvious vertical distribution in alluvial fan higher than coastal plain. No significant correlations between organic matter, pH and low frequency magnetic susceptibility were found, while there is a negative correlation between organic matter and frequency-dependent susceptibility. A positive correlation between pH and frequency-dependent susceptibility was found in the study areas. PMID:19643536

  20. Landslide susceptibility map: from research to application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorucci, Federica; Reichenbach, Paola; Ardizzone, Francesca; Rossi, Mauro; Felicioni, Giulia; Antonini, Guendalina

    2014-05-01

    Susceptibility map is an important and essential tool in environmental planning, to evaluate landslide hazard and risk and for a correct and responsible management of the territory. Landslide susceptibility is the likelihood of a landslide occurring in an area on the basis of local terrain conditions. Can be expressed as the probability that any given region will be affected by landslides, i.e. an estimate of "where" landslides are likely to occur. In this work we present two examples of landslide susceptibility map prepared for the Umbria Region and for the Perugia Municipality. These two maps were realized following official request from the Regional and Municipal government to the Research Institute for the Hydrogeological Protection (CNR-IRPI). The susceptibility map prepared for the Umbria Region represents the development of previous agreements focused to prepare: i) a landslide inventory map that was included in the Urban Territorial Planning (PUT) and ii) a series of maps for the Regional Plan for Multi-risk Prevention. The activities carried out for the Umbria Region were focused to define and apply methods and techniques for landslide susceptibility zonation. Susceptibility maps were prepared exploiting a multivariate statistical model (linear discriminant analysis) for the five Civil Protection Alert Zones defined in the regional territory. The five resulting maps were tested and validated using the spatial distribution of recent landslide events that occurred in the region. The susceptibility map for the Perugia Municipality was prepared to be integrated as one of the cartographic product in the Municipal development plan (PRG - Piano Regolatore Generale) as required by the existing legislation. At strategic level, one of the main objectives of the PRG, is to establish a framework of knowledge and legal aspects for the management of geo-hydrological risk. At national level most of the susceptibility maps prepared for the PRG, were and still are obtained

  1. Nosocomial Infections and Drug Susceptibility Patterns in Methicillin Sensitive and Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Nitish Kumar; Garg, Raina; Baliga, Shrikala; Bhat K., Gopalkrishna

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections and is known for its ability to develop resistance to antibiotics. The drug susceptibility pattern of Methicillin Sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) may vary. Aims and Objectives: This study was carried out to determine and compare the drug susceptibility patterns in nosocomial MSSA and MRSA. Material and Methods: The study was conducted between September 2009 and August 2011. Standard conventional methods were used for the isolation and identification of S. aureus. MRSA was identified by the cefoxitin (30 μg) disk method. Antibiotic susceptibility test was done using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method and the interpretation of the results was done using CLSI guidelines. Results: Out of 685 strains of S. aureus studied, 173(25.25%) were MRSA and 512 (74.25%) were MSSA. Out of 173 MRSA strains, 114(65.89%) were isolated from pus, 22(12.71%) from vaginal swab, 18(10.40%) from central catheter tip and the remaining from other specimens. All isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and least number of isolates were susceptible to penicillin. MRSA displayed significantly higher resistance to other antibiotics. 45.7% of MRSA strains were resistant to clindamycin, 64.7% to ciprofloxacin, 87.3% to cotrimoxazole, 54.3% to erythromycin, 17.3% to gentamicin, 16.8% to netilmycin, and 58.38% to tetracycline. Inducible clindamycin resistance was detected in 37 (21.38%) strains of MRSA. Conclusion: Nosocomial infections caused by MRSA is a significant problem. MRSA and MSSA differ with their susceptibility to antibiotics. All MRSA isolates in our hospitals were susceptible to vancomycin. Proper selection of the antibiotics based on antibiotic susceptibility test results is needed for effective treatment and prevention of emergence of resistance in MRSA and MSSA. PMID:24298469

  2. DOE/Simplec magnetic susceptibility logging system

    SciTech Connect

    Emilia, D.A.; Allen, J.W.; Chessmore, R.B.; Wilson, R.B.

    1981-03-01

    A magnetic susceptibility logging system has been developed which is relatively stable under normal field logging conditions and which produces logs that accurately represent in situ variations in magnetic susceptibility. However, both field and laboratory tests indicate the need for further improvement of temperature stabilization and bridge compensation; a new generation system designed by Simplec may fill that need. A cubic granite block with a magnetic susceptibility of 385 ..mu..CGS is designated as the primary calibration standard and is available for public use at the DOE facility in Grand Junction, Colorado. Models are also available for characterization of magnetic susceptibility systems. These include models to provide borehole size correction factors, thin layer interpretation parameters, reproducibility limits, longitudinal resolution, and radius of investigation. The DOE/Simplec system has a 99-percent radius of investigation, approximately equal to the coil length (15 inches), and a 99-percent thickness of investigation, approximately equal to two coil lengths. The true magnetic susceptibility and thickness of isolated layers less than two coil lengths in thickness can be obtained through use of parameters measured from their log responses. Field tests show that the system has a reproducibility of at least 5 ..mu..CGS and that logging at 25 ft/min is a good compromise between speed of operation and keeping the probe on the sidewall. Comparison of log and core magnetic susceptibility measurements confirms the fact that the logging system samples a rather large volume and that interpretive aids are necessary to unfold the true variation of magnetic susceptibility with depth. Finally, logs from known uranium-favorable environments show that magnetic susceptibility measurements can give an indication of the degree of geochemical alteration, which is one of the uranium-favorable haloes sought by exploration geologists.

  3. [Measles and chickenpox susceptibility among immigrants].

    PubMed

    Gétaz, Laurent; Casillas, Alejandra; Wolff, Hans

    2016-05-01

    Exposure of immigrants to infectious diseases in their country of origin influences their susceptibility to infections later in life. Susceptibility to certain infections may significantly differs between immigrants depending on their regions of origin. Both measles and chickenpox (varicella) are conditions for which the level of exposure in the country of origin influences the preventive measures that immigrant health providers should propose. Through these two illustrative examples, this article summarizes the practical implications for clinicians who care for immigrants originating from southern countries.

  4. An expert knowledge-based approach to landslide susceptibility mapping using GIS and fuzzy logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, A.-Xing; Wang, Rongxun; Qiao, Jianping; Qin, Cheng-Zhi; Chen, Yongbo; Liu, Jing; Du, Fei; Lin, Yang; Zhu, Tongxin

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents an expert knowledge-based approach to landslide susceptibility mapping in an effort to overcome the deficiencies of data-driven approaches. The proposed approach consists of three generic steps: (1) extraction of knowledge on the relationship between landslide susceptibility and predisposing factors from domain experts, (2) characterization of predisposing factors using GIS techniques, and (3) prediction of landslide susceptibility under fuzzy logic. The approach was tested in two study areas in China - the Kaixian study area (about 250 km2) and the Three Gorges study area (about 4600 km2). The Kaixian study area was used to develop the approach and to evaluate its validity. The Three Gorges study area was used to test both the portability and the applicability of the developed approach for mapping landslide susceptibility over large study areas. Performance was evaluated by examining if the mean of the computed susceptibility values at landslide sites was statistically different from that of the entire study area. A z-score test was used to examine the statistical significance of the difference. The computed z for the Kaixian area was 3.70 and the corresponding p-value was less than 0.001. This suggests that the computed landslide susceptibility values are good indicators of landslide occurrences. In the Three Gorges study area, the computed z was 10.75 and the corresponding p-value was less than 0.001. In addition, we divided the susceptibility value into four levels: low (0.0-0.25), moderate (0.25-0.5), high (0.5-0.75) and very high (0.75-1.0). No landslides were found for areas of low susceptibility. Landslide density was about three times higher in areas of very high susceptibility than that in the moderate susceptibility areas, and more than twice as high as that in the high susceptibility areas. The results from the Three Gorge study area suggest that the extracted expert knowledge can be extrapolated to another study area and the

  5. Employee suggestion programs: the rewards of involvement.

    PubMed

    Mishra, J M; McKendall, M

    1993-09-01

    Successful ESPs are the products of a great deal of effort by managers, administrators, teams, individuals, and reviewers, who are all striving to achieve the goals of increased profitability and enhanced employee involvement. A review of the literature indicates that there are several prescriptions that will increase the likelihood of a successful ESP (see the box). Today's American business prophets sound ceaseless calls to arms in the name of "world class performance," "global competitiveness," "total quality management," and a variety of other buzz terms. A burgeoning industry has evolved that promises, through speeches, teleconferences, seminars, and consulting contracts, to teach American organizations how to achieve excellence. In the face of a sputtering economy and unrelenting competitive pressure, today's managers must translate these laudatory ideals into hands-on reality without sacrificing the firm's profit margin to experimentation. If any idea can help an organization achieve improvement through a workable program, then that idea and that program deserve real consideration. An ESP represents an opportunity to tap the intelligence and resourcefulness of an organization's employees, and by doing so, reap significant cost savings. Those companies and managers that have an ESP program uniformly list economic advantages first when describing the benefits of their employee suggestion programs. But there is another deeper and longer term benefit inherent in an ESP. These programs allow employees to become involved in their organization; they drive deaccession to lower levels, they give employees more responsibility, they foster creative approaches to work, and they encourage creativity in pursuit of company goals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10127910

  6. Employee suggestion programs: the rewards of involvement.

    PubMed

    Mishra, J M; McKendall, M

    1993-09-01

    Successful ESPs are the products of a great deal of effort by managers, administrators, teams, individuals, and reviewers, who are all striving to achieve the goals of increased profitability and enhanced employee involvement. A review of the literature indicates that there are several prescriptions that will increase the likelihood of a successful ESP (see the box). Today's American business prophets sound ceaseless calls to arms in the name of "world class performance," "global competitiveness," "total quality management," and a variety of other buzz terms. A burgeoning industry has evolved that promises, through speeches, teleconferences, seminars, and consulting contracts, to teach American organizations how to achieve excellence. In the face of a sputtering economy and unrelenting competitive pressure, today's managers must translate these laudatory ideals into hands-on reality without sacrificing the firm's profit margin to experimentation. If any idea can help an organization achieve improvement through a workable program, then that idea and that program deserve real consideration. An ESP represents an opportunity to tap the intelligence and resourcefulness of an organization's employees, and by doing so, reap significant cost savings. Those companies and managers that have an ESP program uniformly list economic advantages first when describing the benefits of their employee suggestion programs. But there is another deeper and longer term benefit inherent in an ESP. These programs allow employees to become involved in their organization; they drive deaccession to lower levels, they give employees more responsibility, they foster creative approaches to work, and they encourage creativity in pursuit of company goals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Magnetic susceptibility anisotropy: cylindrical symmetry from macroscopically ordered anisotropic molecules and accuracy of MRI measurements using few orientations.

    PubMed

    Wisnieff, Cynthia; Liu, Tian; Spincemaille, Pascal; Wang, Shuai; Zhou, Dong; Wang, Yi

    2013-04-15

    White matter is an essential component of the central nervous system and is of major concern in neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Recent MRI studies have explored the unique anisotropic magnetic properties of white matter using susceptibility tensor imaging. However, these measurements are inhibited in practice by the large number of different head orientations needed to accurately reconstruct the susceptibility tensor. Adding reasonable constraints reduces the number of model parameters and can help condition the tensor reconstruction from a small number of orientations. The macroscopic magnetic susceptibility is decomposed as a sum of molecular magnetic polarizabilities, demonstrating that macroscopic order in molecular arrangement is essential to the existence of and symmetry in susceptibility anisotropy and cylindrical symmetry is a natural outcome of an ordered molecular arrangement. Noise propagation in the susceptibility tensor reconstruction is analyzed through its condition number, showing that the tensor reconstruction is highly susceptible to the distribution of acquired subject orientations and to the tensor symmetry properties, with a substantial over- or under-estimation of susceptibility anisotropy in fiber directions not favorably oriented with respect to the acquired orientations. It was found that a careful acquisition of three non-coplanar orientations and the use of cylindrical symmetry guided by diffusion tensor imaging allowed reasonable estimation of magnetic susceptibility anisotropy in certain major white matter tracts in the human brain. PMID:23296181

  8. MR measurement of alloy magnetic susceptibility: Towards developing tissue-susceptibility matched metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astary, Garrett W.; Peprah, Marcus K.; Fisher, Charles R.; Stewart, Rachel L.; Carney, Paul R.; Sarntinoranont, Malisa; Meisel, Mark W.; Manuel, Michele V.; Mareci, Thomas H.

    2013-08-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used to relate structure to function mapped with high-temporal resolution electrophysiological recordings using metal electrodes. Additionally, MRI may be used to guide the placement of electrodes or conductive cannula in the brain. However, the magnetic susceptibility mismatch between implanted metals and surrounding brain tissue can severely distort MR images and spectra, particularly in high magnetic fields. In this study, we present a modified MR method of characterizing the magnetic susceptibility of materials that can be used to develop biocompatible, metal alloys that match the susceptibility of host tissue in order to eliminate MR distortions proximal to the implant. This method was applied at 4.7 T and 11.1 T to measure the susceptibility of a model solid-solution alloy of Cu and Sn, which is inexpensive but not biocompatible. MR-derived relative susceptibility values of four different compositions of Cu-Sn alloy deviated by less than 3.1% from SQUID magnetometry absolute susceptibility measurements performed up to 7 T. These results demonstrate that the magnetic susceptibility varies linearly with atomic percentage in these solid-solution alloys, but are not simply the weighted average of Cu and Sn magnetic susceptibilities. Therefore susceptibility measurements are necessary when developing susceptibility-matched, solid-solution alloys for the elimination of susceptibility artifacts in MR. This MR method does not require any specialized equipment and is free of geometrical constraints, such as sample shape requirements associated with SQUID magnetometry, so the method can be used at all stages of fabrication to guide the development of a susceptibility matched, biocompatible device.

  9. MR measurement of alloy magnetic susceptibility: towards developing tissue-susceptibility matched metals.

    PubMed

    Astary, Garrett W; Peprah, Marcus K; Fisher, Charles R; Stewart, Rachel L; Carney, Paul R; Sarntinoranont, Malisa; Meisel, Mark W; Manuel, Michele V; Mareci, Thomas H

    2013-08-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used to relate structure to function mapped with high-temporal resolution electrophysiological recordings using metal electrodes. Additionally, MRI may be used to guide the placement of electrodes or conductive cannula in the brain. However, the magnetic susceptibility mismatch between implanted metals and surrounding brain tissue can severely distort MR images and spectra, particularly in high magnetic fields. In this study, we present a modified MR method of characterizing the magnetic susceptibility of materials that can be used to develop biocompatible, metal alloys that match the susceptibility of host tissue in order to eliminate MR distortions proximal to the implant. This method was applied at 4.7T and 11.1T to measure the susceptibility of a model solid-solution alloy of Cu and Sn, which is inexpensive but not biocompatible. MR-derived relative susceptibility values of four different compositions of Cu-Sn alloy deviated by less than 3.1% from SQUID magnetometry absolute susceptibility measurements performed up to 7T. These results demonstrate that the magnetic susceptibility varies linearly with atomic percentage in these solid-solution alloys, but are not simply the weighted average of Cu and Sn magnetic susceptibilities. Therefore susceptibility measurements are necessary when developing susceptibility-matched, solid-solution alloys for the elimination of susceptibility artifacts in MR. This MR method does not require any specialized equipment and is free of geometrical constraints, such as sample shape requirements associated with SQUID magnetometry, so the method can be used at all stages of fabrication to guide the development of a susceptibility matched, biocompatible device.

  10. Genetics of canine diabetes mellitus: are the diabetes susceptibility genes identified in humans involved in breed susceptibility to diabetes mellitus in dogs?

    PubMed

    Catchpole, Brian; Adams, Jamie P; Holder, Angela L; Short, Andrea D; Ollier, William E R; Kennedy, Lorna J

    2013-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a common endocrinopathy in companion animals, characterised by hyperglycaemia, glycosuria and weight loss, resulting from an absolute or relative deficiency in the pancreatic hormone insulin. There are breed differences in susceptibility to diabetes mellitus in dogs, with the Samoyed breed being overrepresented, while Boxers are relatively absent in the UK population of diabetic dogs, suggesting that genetic factors play an important role in determining susceptibility to the disease. A number of genes, linked with susceptibility to diabetes mellitus in humans, are associated with an increased risk of diabetes mellitus in dogs, some of which appear to be relatively breed-specific. Diabetes mellitus in dogs has been associated with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II genes (dog leucocyte antigen; DLA), with similar haplotypes and genotypes being identified in the most susceptible breeds. A region containing a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) and several polymorphisms have been identified in the canine insulin gene, with some alleles associated with susceptibility or resistance to diabetes mellitus in a breed-specific manner. Polymorphisms in the canine CTLA4 promoter and in other immune response genes are associated with susceptibility to diabetes mellitus in a number of pedigree breeds. Genome wide association studies are currently underway that should shed further light on the genetic factors responsible for the breed profile seen in the diabetic dog population.

  11. The Journal of Suggestive-Accelerative Learning and Teaching, Volume 3, Number 2, Summer 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuster, Donald H., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Contents of this issue are as follows: "Suggestopedia: The Use of Music and Suggestion in Learning and Hypermnesia:" by Elizabeth Risova Philipov; "A Two Year Evaluation of the Suggestive-Accelerative Learning and Teaching (SALT) Method in Central Iowa Public Schools" by D.H. Schuster and R.A. Prichard; "Improving Lecturer Performance Through…

  12. Suggestibility under Pressure: Theory of Mind, Executive Function, and Suggestibility in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karpinski, Aryn C.; Scullin, Matthew H.

    2009-01-01

    Eighty preschoolers, ages 3 to 5 years old, completed a 4-phase study in which they experienced a live event and received a pressured, suggestive interview about the event a week later. Children were also administered batteries of theory of mind and executive function tasks, as well as the Video Suggestibility Scale for Children (VSSC), which…

  13. Multifractal magnetic susceptibility distribution models of hydrothermally altered rocks in the Needle Creek Igneous Center of the Absaroka Mountains, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gettings, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic susceptibility was measured for 700 samples of drill core from thirteen drill holes in the porphyry copper-molybdenum deposit of the Stinkingwater mining district in the Absaroka Mountains, Wyoming. The magnetic susceptibility measurements, chemical analyses, and alteration class provided a database for study of magnetic susceptibility in these altered rocks. The distribution of the magnetic susceptibilities for all samples is multi-modal, with overlapping peaked distributions for samples in the propylitic and phyllic alteration class, a tail of higher susceptibilities for potassic alteration, and an approximately uniform distribution over a narrow range at the highest susceptibilities for unaltered rocks. Samples from all alteration and mineralization classes show susceptibilities across a wide range of values. Samples with secondary (supergene) alteration due to oxidation or enrichment show lower susceptibilities than primary (hypogene) alteration rock. Observed magnetic susceptibility variations and the monolithological character of the host rock suggest that the variations are due to varying degrees of alteration of blocks of rock between fractures that conducted hydrothermal fluids. Alteration of rock from the fractures inward progressively reduces the bulk magnetic susceptibility of the rock. The model introduced in this paper consists of a simulation of the fracture pattern and a simulation of the alteration of the rock between fractures. A multifractal model generated from multiplicative cascades with unequal ratios produces distributions statistically similar to the observed distributions. The reduction in susceptibility in the altered rocks was modelled as a diffusion process operating on the fracture distribution support. The average magnetic susceptibility was then computed for each block. For the purpose of comparing the model results with observation, the simulated magnetic susceptibilities were then averaged over the same interval as the

  14. In vivo differential susceptibility of sensory neurons to rabies virus infection.

    PubMed

    Velandia-Romero, Myriam L; Castellanos, Jaime E; Martínez-Gutiérrez, Marlén

    2013-08-20

    There is controversy with regard to the entry pathway of the rabies virus (RABV) into the central nervous system (CNS). Some authors have suggested that the virus inoculated at the periphery is captured and transported to CNS only by motor neurons; however, it has been reported that dorsal root ganglia (DRG) sensory neurons capture and transport the virus to the spinal cord (SC) and then to the brain. It is probable that preferences for one pathway or another depend on the site of inoculation and the post-infection time. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated different vertebral segments and post-infection times, along with the location, number, and subpopulation of sensory neurons susceptible to infection after inoculating RABV in the footpads of adult mice. It was noted that the virus inoculated in the footpad preferentially entered the CNS through the large-sized DRG sensory neurons, while infection of the motor neurons occurred later. Further, it was found that the virus was dispersed in spinal cord trans-synaptically through the interneurons, arriving at both sensory neurons and contralateral motor neurons. In conclusion, we observed that RABV inoculated in the plantar footpad is captured preferentially by large sensory neurons and is transported to the DRG, where it replicates and is spread to the SC using transynaptic jumps, infecting sensory and motor neurons at the same level before ascending to the brain.

  15. Comparative susceptibility of Deschutes River, Oregon, Tubifex tubifex populations to Myxobolus cerebralis.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Christopher M; Lorz, Harriet V; Hallett, Sascha L; Xue, Lan; Bartholomew, Jerri L

    2011-03-01

    Dams along the Deschutes River (DR) in central Oregon have blocked fish migration for over 40 years. Reestablishment of anadromous fish runs above the dams as part of a fish passage plan may introduce fish pathogens, such as Myxobolus cerebralis, the myxozoan parasite that causes salmonid whirling disease. This parasite is carried by adult salmon that stray into the DR system during their return to enzootic areas of the upper Columbia River basin, and it is now known to be established in at least one lower DR tributary. The life cycle of M. cerebralis involves two obligate hosts: a salmonid and the oligochaete worm Tubifex tubifex. To determine the likelihood of parasite establishment above the DR dams, we conducted benthic sediment surveys between 1999 and 2007 and found that T. tubifex had a patchy distribution and low relative abundance. Mitochondrial 16S ribosomal DNA gene analysis indicated that two lineages of T. tubifex (III and VI) were present both above and below the dams. Laboratory susceptibility studies to characterize differences in infection prevalence and parasite production between nine T. tubifex populations revealed that production varied considerably among exposed groups and was proportional to the number of lineage III worms present. Our results suggest that M. cerebralis could become established above the dams if infected fish are allowed passage into the upper DR system, but not all areas of the DR basin can be classified as having the same likelihood for parasite establishment, and the potential impact will be location dependent. PMID:21699131

  16. Predicted disease susceptibility in a Panamanian amphibian assemblage based on skin peptide defenses.

    PubMed

    Woodhams, Douglas C; Voyles, Jamie; Lips, Karen R; Carey, Cynthia; Rollins-Smith, Louise A

    2006-04-01

    Chytridiomycosis is an emerging infectious disease of amphibians caused by a chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. This panzootic does not equally affect all amphibian species within an assemblage; some populations decline, others persist. Little is known about the factors that affect disease resistance. Differences in behavior, life history, biogeography, or immune function may impact survival. We found that an innate immune defense, antimicrobial skin peptides, varied significantly among species within a rainforest stream amphibian assemblage that has not been exposed to B. dendrobatidis. If exposed, all amphibian species at this central Panamanian site are at risk of population declines. In vitro pathogen growth inhibition by peptides from Panamanian species compared with species with known resistance (Rana pipiens and Xenopus laevis) or susceptibility (Bufo boreas) suggests that of the nine species examined, two species (Centrolene prosoblepon and Phyllomedusa lemur) may demonstrate strong resistance, and the other species will have a higher risk of disease-associated population declines. We found little variation among geographically distinct B. dendrobatidis isolates in sensitivity to an amphibian skin peptide mixture. This supports the hypothesis that B. dendrobatidis is a generalist pathogen and that species possessing an innate immunologic defense at the time of disease emergence are more likely to survive.

  17. Differences in susceptibility of inbred mice to Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed Central

    Welkos, S L; Keener, T J; Gibbs, P H

    1986-01-01

    Animal species differ in their resistance both to infection by Bacillus anthracis and to anthrax toxin. A mouse model was developed to study the basis of the host differences and the pathogenesis of infection. When mice were infected with the virulent B. anthracis strain Vollum 1B, low 50% lethal dose (LD50) values (5 to 30 spores) were found for all 10 strains of inbred mice tested. However, analysis of time-to-death data revealed significant differences among the strains, which could be divided into three groups: most susceptible (A/J and DBA/2J); least susceptible (CBA/J, BALB/cJ, and C57BR/cdJ); and intermediate (the remaining five strains). In contrast, the mice were distinctly susceptible or resistant to lethal infection by the toxigenic, nonencapsulated Sterne vaccine strain. The LD50 for the susceptible A/J and DBA/2J mice was approximately 10(3) spores of the Sterne strain, whereas the remaining eight relatively resistant strains were killed only by 10(6) or more spores. F1 hybrid and backcross studies suggested that resistance to the Sterne strain is determined by a single dominant gene or gene complex. Mice lethally infected with B. anthracis showed an acute course of infection, characterized by extensive gelatinous edema and large concentrations of bacilli in the blood and organs (e.g., 10(9) CFU/g of spleen). The susceptibility of A/J and CBA/J mice to intravenously injected anthrax toxin components appeared to differ from their susceptibility to infection. The toxin LD50 values for both strains were similar. However, CBA/J mice died sooner than did A/J mice, with mean time to death of 0.9 and 3.7 days, respectively, in mice given 4 LD50 of toxin. The mouse model appears to be useful in studies on host resistance to anthrax and on the pathogenesis of the infection. PMID:3081444

  18. Transient Susceptibility of Root Cells in Four Common Legumes to Nodulation by Rhizobia 1

    PubMed Central

    Bhuvaneswari, T. V.; Bhagwat, Arvind A.; Bauer, Wolfgang D.

    1981-01-01

    Root cells of four common legumes were found to remain susceptible to nodulation by rhizobia for only a short period of time. Delayed inoculation experiments conducted with these legume hosts indicated that the initially susceptible region of the root became progressively less susceptible if inoculations were delayed by a few hours. Profiles of the frequency of nodule formation relative to marks indicating the regions of root and root hair development at the time of inoculation indicated that nodulation of Vigna sinensis (L.) Endl. cv California Black Eye and Medicago sativa L. cvs Moapa and Vernal roots was inhibited just below the region that was most susceptible at the time of inoculation. This result suggests the existence of a fast-acting regulatory mechanism in these hosts that prevents overnodulation. Nodulation in white clover may occur in two distinct phases. In addition to the transient susceptibility of preemergent and developing root hair cells, there appeared to be an induced susceptibility of mature clover root hair cells. A cell-free bacterial exudate preparation from Rhizobium trifolii cells was found to render mature root hair cells of white clover more rapidly susceptible to nodulation. PMID:16662065

  19. Stages of smoking acquisition versus susceptibility as predictors of smoking initiation in adolescents in primary care.

    PubMed

    Huang, Minnie; Hollis, Jack; Polen, Michael; Lapidus, Jodi; Austin, Donald

    2005-07-01

    We evaluated whether susceptibility, the stages of smoking acquisition, and socio-environmental factors can identify adolescents who will become smokers. Our data came from a randomized controlled trial of an intervention to prevent adolescent smoking. Subjects were adolescents (n=1955) ages 14-17 being seen for routine medical care. The dependent variable was 30-day smoking status at 2-year follow-up (89.6% response rate). Independent variables included susceptibility, the stages of acquisition, and socio-environmental factors. Susceptible adolescents were two to three times more likely to be smokers than non-susceptible adolescents. Compared to acquisition precontemplators, acquisition contemplators were three to five times more likely, and acquisition preparers were five to eight times more likely, to be smokers. When combined into a single measure, susceptible precontemplators were two times, contemplators were six times, and preparers were nine times more likely to be smokers than non-susceptible precontemplators. Our findings suggest that acquisition stage and susceptibility can independently predict smoking onset. They may be used together to target teens for smoking prevention efforts in the clinical setting. PMID:15925127

  20. Divergent nematic susceptibility of optimally doped Fe-based superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Jiun-Haw; Kuo, Hsueh-Hui; Fisher, Ian

    2015-03-01

    By performing differential elastoresistivity measurements on a wider range of iron based superconductors, including electron doped (Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2, Ba(Fe1-xNix)2As2),holedoped(Ba1-xKxFe2As2), isovalent substituted pnictides (BaFe2(As1-xPx)2) and chalcogenides (FeTe1-xSex), we show that a divergent nematic susceptibility in the B2g symmetry channel appears to be a generic feature of optimally doped compositions. For the specific case of optimally ``doped'' BaFe2(As1-xPx)2, the nematic susceptibility can be well fitted by a Curie-Weiss temperature dependence with critical temperature close to zero, consistent with expectations of quantum critical behavior in the absence of disorder. However for all the other optimal doped iron based superconductors, the nematic susceptibility exhibits a downward deviation from Curie-Weiss behavior, suggestive of an important role played by disorder.

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibilities and beta-lactamase characterization of Capnocytophaga species.

    PubMed Central

    Roscoe, D L; Zemcov, S J; Thornber, D; Wise, R; Clarke, A M

    1992-01-01

    Capnocytophaga species have been associated with a wide variety of infections in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. On the basis of data from antimicrobial susceptibility studies, beta-lactam antibiotics have been considered efficacious therapy. Six of 19 isolates from primarily clinical sources across Canada demonstrated beta-lactamase production, and agar dilution susceptibility testing showed broad resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. For the beta-lactamase producing isolates, clavulanate reduced the MIC of amoxicillin for 90% of the strains tested by 64-fold. Isolates were highly susceptible to clindamycin, imipenem, and ciprofloxacin. Characterization of the beta-lactamases produced by two of these isolates (Van1 and Van2) was performed. Isoelectric focusing revealed an identical isoelectric point of 5.6 for both enzymes, but they had markedly different relative hydrolysis efficiencies, and different conditions were required to extract the enzymes. This study demonstrates the production of different types of beta-lactamases by Capnocytophaga spp. and suggests the need to screen all clinical isolates of Capnocytophaga spp. for the presence of beta-lactamases. PMID:1444299

  2. Smartphone-based Data Acquisition for Landslide Susceptibility Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, J.; Lee, S.; Oh, M.; Yun, D. E.; Park, H. D.; Kim, S.

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to suggest a smartphone application for collecting geological data in the assessment process of landslide susceptibility. Spatial and geological information collection is the most crucial part in risk assessment while the evaluation of large area is often conducted using geographic information system (GIS). GIS-based landslide susceptibility assessment requires large database to ensure the reliability of analyses. The digitalized collection tool can help its users obtaining precise measurements and reducing time for the data collection process. In this study, the mobile application which measures structural information from inbuilt sensors and accepts various data types had been developed. It can collect the triggering factors that promote or inhibit the hazard occurrence in the training domain areas. The database includes various spatial information such as slope, aspect, joint set and their coordinates, as well as hazard inventory. Collected geospatial datasets with smartphone application can be applied to a series of geospatial processes regarding the assessment of the landslide susceptibility.

  3. Susceptibility of irradiated bovine aortic endothelial cells to injury

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, M.H.; Dong, Q.; Ts'ao, C.

    1988-11-01

    Using cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC), the authors attempted to determine whether prior irradiation would alter the susceptibility of these cells to three known injurious stimuli and, if so, whether the alteration would be related to radiation dose. BAEC were irradiated with 0, 5, or 10 Gy of gamma rays and, on the third postirradiation day, exposed to fibrin, nicotine, or bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS). Release of prelabeled 51Cr, representing cell lysis, cell detachment, or a combination of the two, was determined. Significant differences between irradiated and control cells were determined by using paired Student's t-tests. Irradiation did not appear to have altered the sensitivity of BAEC to fibrin-induced injury. Cells irradiated with 10 Gy of gamma rays, but generally not those irradiated with half this dose, showed a heightened susceptibility to nicotine. Contrary to the nicotine results, irradiated cells showed less cell detachment and lysis after exposure to LPS. These results suggest that the susceptibility of irradiated BAEC to harmful stimuli depends largely on the nature of the stimulus as well as the radiation dose.

  4. Network Analysis of Human Genes Influencing Susceptibility to Mycobacterial Infections.

    PubMed

    Lipner, Ettie M; Garcia, Benjamin J; Strong, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacterial infections constitute a high burden of pulmonary disease in humans, resulting in over 1.5 million deaths per year. Building on the premise that genetic factors influence the instance, progression, and defense of infectious disease, we undertook a systems biology approach to investigate relationships among genetic factors that may play a role in increased susceptibility or control of mycobacterial infections. We combined literature and database mining with network analysis and pathway enrichment analysis to examine genes, pathways, and networks, involved in the human response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacterial infections. This approach allowed us to examine functional relationships among reported genes, and to identify novel genes and enriched pathways that may play a role in mycobacterial susceptibility or control. Our findings suggest that the primary pathways and genes influencing mycobacterial infection control involve an interplay between innate and adaptive immune proteins and pathways. Signaling pathways involved in autoimmune disease were significantly enriched as revealed in our networks. Mycobacterial disease susceptibility networks were also examined within the context of gene-chemical relationships, in order to identify putative drugs and nutrients with potential beneficial immunomodulatory or anti-mycobacterial effects.

  5. Human genetic susceptibility and infection with Leishmania peruviana

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, M.A.; Davis, C.R.; Collins, A.

    1995-11-01

    Racial differences, familial clustering, and murine studies are suggestive of host genetic control of Leishmania infections. Complex segregation analysis has been carried out by use of the programs POINTER and COMDS and data from a total population survey, comprising 636 nuclear families, from an L. perurviana endemic area. The data support genetic components controlling susceptibility to clinical leishmaniasis, influencing severity of disease and resistance to disease among healthy individuals. A multifactorial model is favored over a sporadic model. Two-locus models provided the best fit to the data, the optimal model being a recessive gene (frequency .57) plus a modifier locus. Individuals infected at an early age and with recurrent lesions are genetically more susceptible than those infected with a single episode of disease at a later age. Among people with no lesions, those with a positive skin-test response are genetically less susceptible than those with a negative response. The possibility of the involvement of more than one gene together with environmental effects has implications for the design of future linkage studies. 31 refs., 7 tabs.

  6. Network Analysis of Human Genes Influencing Susceptibility to Mycobacterial Infections

    PubMed Central

    Lipner, Ettie M.; Garcia, Benjamin J.; Strong, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacterial infections constitute a high burden of pulmonary disease in humans, resulting in over 1.5 million deaths per year. Building on the premise that genetic factors influence the instance, progression, and defense of infectious disease, we undertook a systems biology approach to investigate relationships among genetic factors that may play a role in increased susceptibility or control of mycobacterial infections. We combined literature and database mining with network analysis and pathway enrichment analysis to examine genes, pathways, and networks, involved in the human response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacterial infections. This approach allowed us to examine functional relationships among reported genes, and to identify novel genes and enriched pathways that may play a role in mycobacterial susceptibility or control. Our findings suggest that the primary pathways and genes influencing mycobacterial infection control involve an interplay between innate and adaptive immune proteins and pathways. Signaling pathways involved in autoimmune disease were significantly enriched as revealed in our networks. Mycobacterial disease susceptibility networks were also examined within the context of gene-chemical relationships, in order to identify putative drugs and nutrients with potential beneficial immunomodulatory or anti-mycobacterial effects. PMID:26751573

  7. [Subclinical atherosclerosis. An objective index of susceptibility and vascular risk].

    PubMed

    Werba, P; Cuniberti, L A; Martínez, V; Rey, R H

    1999-01-01

    Clinical data suggest that the individual susceptibility to atherosclerosis is not accounted for only by exposure to classical or "emerging" vascular risk factors. Although recent investigations with transgenic animals have revealed new genetic determinants of susceptibility, little is known concerning this situation in human beings. Even though the human genome project might uncover specific genetic markers in the future, the only early and objective method to identify the susceptible individual at present is to detect atherosclerosis non-invasively. High resolution B-mode ultrasonography of superficial arteries coupled with advanced computer-assisted image processing systems is a highly reproducible method to perform a quali-quantitative early evaluation of already developed wall lesions. Clinically more significant, the detection of silent atherosclerosis has an additional value for risk factor assessment in the prediction of global vascular risk, a relevant index for decision-making in cardiovascular prevention. It is conceivable that the introduction of non-invasive measures of the atherosclerotic burden in risk stratification of asymptomatic subjects will help to target interventions for more rational risk factor control and to reduce the cost/benefit ratio of primary prevention.

  8. Primary central nervous system lymphoma: is absence of intratumoral hemorrhage a characteristic finding on MRI?

    PubMed Central

    Sakata, Akihiko; Okada, Tomohisa; Yamamoto, Akira; Kanagaki, Mitsunori; Fushimi, Yasutaka; Dodo, Toshiki; Arakawa, Yoshiki; Takahashi, Jun C; Miyamoto, Susumu; Togashi, Kaori

    2015-01-01

    Background. Previous studies have shown that intratumoral hemorrhage is a common finding in glioblastoma multi-forme, but is rarely observed in primary central nervous system lymphoma. Our aim was to reevaluate whether intratumoral hemorrhage observed on T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) as gross intratumoral hemorrhage and on susceptibility-weighted imaging as intratumoral susceptibility signal can differentiate primary central nervous system lymphoma from glioblastoma multiforme. Patients and methods. A retrospective cohort of brain tumors from August 2008 to March 2013 was searched, and 58 patients (19 with primary central nervous system lymphoma, 39 with glioblastoma multiforme) satisfied the inclusion criteria. Absence of gross intratumoral hemorrhage was examined on T2WI, and an intratumoral susceptibility signal was graded using a 3-point scale on susceptibility-weighted imaging. Results were compared between primary central nervous system lymphoma and glioblastoma multiforme, and values of P < 0.05 were considered significant. Results. Gross intratumoral hemorrhage on T2WI was absent in 15 patients (79%) with primary central nervous system lymphoma and 23 patients (59%) with glioblastoma multiforme. Absence of gross intratumoral hemorrhage could not differentiate between the two disorders (P = 0.20). However, intratumoral susceptibility signal grade 1 or 2 was diagnostic of primary central nervous system lymphoma with 78.9% sensitivity and 66.7% specificity (P < 0.001), irrespective of gross intratumoral hemorrhage. Conclusions. Low intratumoral susceptibility signal grades can differentiate primary central nervous system lymphoma from glioblastoma multiforme. However, specificity in this study was relatively low, and primary central nervous system lymphoma cannot be excluded based solely on the presence of an intratumoral susceptibility signal. PMID:26029023

  9. In Vitro Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Iran.

    PubMed

    Heidarieh, Parvin; Mirsaeidi, Mehdi; Hashemzadeh, Mohamad; Feizabadi, Mohamad Mehdi; Bostanabad, Saeed Zaker; Nobar, Mostafa Ghalami; Hashemi Shahraki, Abodolrazagh

    2016-03-01

    Many species of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have long been identified as important causes of human disease, the incidence of which is rising. Several reports have suggested increasing trend of both in vitro and in vivo resistance to available treatment regimes. The aim of this study was to evaluate antibiotic susceptibility of clinically relevant NTM isolates using standard microbroth dilution test. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed following National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards methods for NTM isolates, including 85 Mycobacterium fortuitum, 39 Mycobacterium chelonae, and 30 Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. abscessus as rapidly growing mycobacteria and 48 Mycobacterium simiae and 40 Mycobacterium kansasii as slowly growing mycobacteria. All isolates were recovered from various types of clinical samples and identified by multilocus sequence analysis. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ), amikacin, tobramycin, clarithromycin, moxifloxacin, linezolid, and imipenem showed better activity against M. fortuitum rather than meropenem, ciprofloxacin, cefoxitin, and doxycycline. Amikacin was active against 93% of M. abscessus subsp. abscessus. Linezolid, clarithromycin, cefoxitin, ciprofloxacin, imipenem, moxifloxacin, tobramycin, TMP-SMZ, doxycycline, and meropenem showed some activities on M. abscessus subsp. abscessus as well. The majority of M. abscessus subsp. abscessus and M. chelonae strains were multidrug resistant. Among the 40 isolates of M. kansasii, all were susceptible to ethambutol, isoniazid, clarithromycin, moxifloxacin, and linezolid. These isolates were also resistant to doxycycline and 50% were resistant to rifampicin and ciprofloxacin. M. simiae was resistant to clarithromycin, doxycycline, isoniazid, and TMP-SMZ, and the majority of isolates showed high levels of resistance to linezolid, ethambutol, ciprofloxacin, streptomycin, and rifampicin. The majority of M. simiae isolates were multidrug resistant. Our data

  10. Spatially explicit shallow landslide susceptibility mapping over large areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bellugi, Dino; Dietrich, William E.; Stock, Jonathan D.; McKean, Jim; Kazian, Brian; Hargrove, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in downscaling climate model precipitation predictions now yield spatially explicit patterns of rainfall that could be used to estimate shallow landslide susceptibility over large areas. In California, the United States Geological Survey is exploring community emergency response to the possible effects of a very large simulated storm event and to do so it has generated downscaled precipitation maps for the storm. To predict the corresponding pattern of shallow landslide susceptibility across the state, we have used the model Shalstab (a coupled steady state runoff and infinite slope stability model) which susceptibility spatially explicit estimates of relative potential instability. Such slope stability models that include the effects of subsurface runoff on potentially destabilizing pore pressure evolution require water routing and hence the definition of upslope drainage area to each potential cell. To calculate drainage area efficiently over a large area we developed a parallel framework to scale-up Shalstab and specifically introduce a new efficient parallel drainage area algorithm which produces seamless results. The single seamless shallow landslide susceptibility map for all of California was accomplished in a short run time, and indicates that much larger areas can be efficiently modelled. As landslide maps generally over predict the extent of instability for any given storm. Local empirical data on the fraction of predicted unstable cells that failed for observed rainfall intensity can be used to specify the likely extent of hazard for a given storm. This suggests that campaigns to collect local precipitation data and detailed shallow landslide location maps after major storms could be used to calibrate models and improve their use in hazard assessment for individual storms.

  11. Capsule enlargement in Cryptococcus neoformans confers resistance to oxidative stress suggesting a mechanism for intracellular survival.

    PubMed

    Zaragoza, Oscar; Chrisman, Cara J; Castelli, Maria Victoria; Frases, Susana; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Rodríguez-Tudela, Juan Luis; Casadevall, Arturo

    2008-10-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is a facultative intracellular pathogen. The most distinctive feature of C. neoformans is a polysaccharide capsule that enlarges depending on environmental stimuli. The mechanism by which C. neoformans avoids killing during phagocytosis is unknown. We hypothesized that capsule growth conferred resistance to microbicidal molecules produced by the host during infection, particularly during phagocytosis. We observed that capsule enlargement conferred resistance to reactive oxygen species produced by H(2)O(2) that was not associated with a higher catalase activity, suggesting a new function for the capsule as a scavenger of reactive oxidative intermediates. Soluble capsular polysaccharide protected C. neoformans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae from killing by H(2)O(2). Acapsular mutants had higher susceptibility to free radicals. Capsular polysaccharide acted as an antioxidant in the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction coupled to beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)/phenazine methosulfate (PMS) assay. Capsule enlargement conferred resistance to antimicrobial peptides and the antifungal drug Amphotericin B. Interestingly, the capsule had no effect on susceptibility to azoles and increased susceptibility to fluconazole. Capsule enlargement reduced phagocytosis by environmental predators, although we also noticed that in this system, starvation of C. neoformans cells produced resistance to phagocytosis. Our results suggest that capsular enlargement is a mechanism that enhances C. neoformans survival when ingested by phagocytic cells.

  12. Capsule enlargement in Cryptococcus neoformans confers resistance to oxidative stress suggesting a mechanism for intracellular survival

    PubMed Central

    Zaragoza, Oscar; Chrisman, Cara J.; Castelli, Maria Victoria; Frases, Susana; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Rodríguez-Tudela, Juan Luis; Casadevall, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Summary Cryptococcus neoformans is a facultative intracellular pathogen. The most distinctive feature of C. neoformans is a polysaccharide capsule that enlarges depending on environmental stimuli. The mechanism by which C. neoformans avoids killing during phagocytosis is unknown. We hypothesized that capsule growth conferred resistance to microbicidal molecules produced by the host during infection, particularly during phagocytosis. We observed that capsule enlargement conferred resistance to reactive oxygen species produced by H2O2 that was not associated with a higher catalase activity, suggesting a new function for the capsule as a scavenger of reactive oxidative intermediates. Soluble capsular polysaccharide protected C. neoformans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae from killing by H2O2. Acapsular mutants had higher susceptibility to free radicals. Capsular polysaccharide acted as an antioxidant in the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction coupled to β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)/phenazine methosulfate (PMS) assay. Capsule enlargement conferred resistance to antimicrobial peptides and the antifungal drug Amphotericin B. Interestingly, the capsule had no effect on susceptibility to azoles and increased susceptibility to fluconazole. Capsule enlargement reduced phagocytosis by environmental predators, although we also noticed that in this system, starvation of C. neoformans cells produced resistance to phagocytosis. Our results suggest that capsular enlargement is a mechanism that enhances C. neoformans survival when ingested by phagocytic cells. PMID:18554313

  13. Sex-specific differences in pathogen susceptibility in honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Retschnig, Gina; Williams, Geoffrey R; Mehmann, Marion M; Yañez, Orlando; de Miranda, Joachim R; Neumann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Sex-related differences in susceptibility to pathogens are a common phenomenon in animals. In the eusocial Hymenoptera the two female castes, workers and queens, are diploid and males are haploid. The haploid susceptibility hypothesis predicts that haploid males are more susceptible to pathogen infections compared to females. Here we test this hypothesis using adult male (drone) and female (worker) honey bees (Apis mellifera), inoculated with the gut endoparasite Nosema ceranae and/or black queen cell virus (BQCV). These pathogens were chosen due to previously reported synergistic interactions between Nosema apis and BQCV. Our data do not support synergistic interactions between N. ceranae and BQCV and also suggest that BQCV has limited effect on both drone and worker health, regardless of the infection level. However, the data clearly show that, despite lower levels of N. ceranae spores in drones than in workers, Nosema-infected drones had both a higher mortality and a lower body mass than non-infected drones, across all treatment groups, while the mortality and body mass of worker bees were largely unaffected by N. ceranae infection, suggesting that drones are more susceptible to this pathogen than workers. In conclusion, the data reveal considerable sex-specific differences in pathogen susceptibility in honey bees and highlight the importance of ultimate measures for determining susceptibility, such as mortality and body quality, rather than mere infection levels.

  14. Sex-specific differences in pathogen susceptibility in honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Retschnig, Gina; Williams, Geoffrey R; Mehmann, Marion M; Yañez, Orlando; de Miranda, Joachim R; Neumann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Sex-related differences in susceptibility to pathogens are a common phenomenon in animals. In the eusocial Hymenoptera the two female castes, workers and queens, are diploid and males are haploid. The haploid susceptibility hypothesis predicts that haploid males are more susceptible to pathogen infections compared to females. Here we test this hypothesis using adult male (drone) and female (worker) honey bees (Apis mellifera), inoculated with the gut endoparasite Nosema ceranae and/or black queen cell virus (BQCV). These pathogens were chosen due to previously reported synergistic interactions between Nosema apis and BQCV. Our data do not support synergistic interactions between N. ceranae and BQCV and also suggest that BQCV has limited effect on both drone and worker health, regardless of the infection level. However, the data clearly show that, despite lower levels of N. ceranae spores in drones than in workers, Nosema-infected drones had both a higher mortality and a lower body mass than non-infected drones, across all treatment groups, while the mortality and body mass of worker bees were largely unaffected by N. ceranae infection, suggesting that drones are more susceptible to this pathogen than workers. In conclusion, the data reveal considerable sex-specific differences in pathogen susceptibility in honey bees and highlight the importance of ultimate measures for determining susceptibility, such as mortality and body quality, rather than mere infection levels. PMID:24465518

  15. Sex-Specific Differences in Pathogen Susceptibility in Honey Bees (Apis mellifera)

    PubMed Central

    Retschnig, Gina; Williams, Geoffrey R.; Mehmann, Marion M.; Yañez, Orlando; de Miranda, Joachim R.; Neumann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Sex-related differences in susceptibility to pathogens are a common phenomenon in animals. In the eusocial Hymenoptera the two female castes, workers and queens, are diploid and males are haploid. The haploid susceptibility hypothesis predicts that haploid males are more susceptible to pathogen infections compared to females. Here we test this hypothesis using adult male (drone) and female (worker) honey bees (Apis mellifera), inoculated with the gut endoparasite Nosema ceranae and/or black queen cell virus (BQCV). These pathogens were chosen due to previously reported synergistic interactions between Nosema apis and BQCV. Our data do not support synergistic interactions between N. ceranae and BQCV and also suggest that BQCV has limited effect on both drone and worker health, regardless of the infection level. However, the data clearly show that, despite lower levels of N. ceranae spores in drones than in workers, Nosema-infected drones had both a higher mortality and a lower body mass than non-infected drones, across all treatment groups, while the mortality and body mass of worker bees were largely unaffected by N. ceranae infection, suggesting that drones are more susceptible to this pathogen than workers. In conclusion, the data reveal considerable sex-specific differences in pathogen susceptibility in honey bees and highlight the importance of ultimate measures for determining susceptibility, such as mortality and body quality, rather than mere infection levels. PMID:24465518

  16. Circuit-wide Transcriptional Profiling Reveals Brain Region-Specific Gene Networks Regulating Depression Susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Bagot, Rosemary C; Cates, Hannah M; Purushothaman, Immanuel; Lorsch, Zachary S; Walker, Deena M; Wang, Junshi; Huang, Xiaojie; Schlüter, Oliver M; Maze, Ian; Peña, Catherine J; Heller, Elizabeth A; Issler, Orna; Wang, Minghui; Song, Won-Min; Stein, Jason L; Liu, Xiaochuan; Doyle, Marie A; Scobie, Kimberly N; Sun, Hao Sheng; Neve, Rachael L; Geschwind, Daniel; Dong, Yan; Shen, Li; Zhang, Bin; Nestler, Eric J

    2016-06-01

    Depression is a complex, heterogeneous disorder and a leading contributor to the global burden of disease. Most previous research has focused on individual brain regions and genes contributing to depression. However, emerging evidence in humans and animal models suggests that dysregulated circuit function and gene expression across multiple brain regions drive depressive phenotypes. Here, we performed RNA sequencing on four brain regions from control animals and those susceptible or resilient to chronic social defeat stress at multiple time points. We employed an integrative network biology approach to identify transcriptional networks and key driver genes that regulate susceptibility to depressive-like symptoms. Further, we validated in vivo several key drivers and their associated transcriptional networks that regulate depression susceptibility and confirmed their functional significance at the levels of gene transcription, synaptic regulation, and behavior. Our study reveals novel transcriptional networks that control stress susceptibility and offers fundamentally new leads for antidepressant drug discovery.

  17. Calcium handling by platelets from normal and malignant hyperthermia-susceptible pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, K.E.; Brooks, R.R.; Bonk, K.R.; Carpenter, J.F. )

    1991-01-01

    Platelets from normal and malignant hyperthermia (MH)-susceptible pigs were evaluated for differences in {sup 45}calcium uptake in the absence or presence of caffeine, halothane, or halothane and caffeine together. There were no statistically significant differences in basal or halothane-inhibited calcium uptake by platelets from either source. There was a small statistically significant difference in calcium uptake between platelets from normal and MH-susceptible pigs in the presence of 16 mM caffeine and 0.5% halothane. Calcium uptake by platelets from one pedigree of MH-susceptible pigs were stimulated in a concentration-dependent manner by caffeine. These data suggest that exposure of platelets to caffeine may have potential for identifying MH-susceptibility.

  18. Circuit-wide Transcriptional Profiling Reveals Brain Region-Specific Gene Networks Regulating Depression Susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Bagot, Rosemary C; Cates, Hannah M; Purushothaman, Immanuel; Lorsch, Zachary S; Walker, Deena M; Wang, Junshi; Huang, Xiaojie; Schlüter, Oliver M; Maze, Ian; Peña, Catherine J; Heller, Elizabeth A; Issler, Orna; Wang, Minghui; Song, Won-Min; Stein, Jason L; Liu, Xiaochuan; Doyle, Marie A; Scobie, Kimberly N; Sun, Hao Sheng; Neve, Rachael L; Geschwind, Daniel; Dong, Yan; Shen, Li; Zhang, Bin; Nestler, Eric J

    2016-06-01

    Depression is a complex, heterogeneous disorder and a leading contributor to the global burden of disease. Most previous research has focused on individual brain regions and genes contributing to depression. However, emerging evidence in humans and animal models suggests that dysregulated circuit function and gene expression across multiple brain regions drive depressive phenotypes. Here, we performed RNA sequencing on four brain regions from control animals and those susceptible or resilient to chronic social defeat stress at multiple time points. We employed an integrative network biology approach to identify transcriptional networks and key driver genes that regulate susceptibility to depressive-like symptoms. Further, we validated in vivo several key drivers and their associated transcriptional networks that regulate depression susceptibility and confirmed their functional significance at the levels of gene transcription, synaptic regulation, and behavior. Our study reveals novel transcriptional networks that control stress susceptibility and offers fundamentally new leads for antidepressant drug discovery. PMID:27181059

  19. Adolescent neurobiological susceptibility to social context.

    PubMed

    Schriber, Roberta A; Guyer, Amanda E

    2016-06-01

    Adolescence has been characterized as a period of heightened sensitivity to social contexts. However, adolescents vary in how their social contexts affect them. According to neurobiological susceptibility models, endogenous, biological factors confer some individuals, relative to others, with greater susceptibility to environmental influences, whereby more susceptible individuals fare the best or worst of all individuals, depending on the environment encountered (e.g., high vs. low parental warmth). Until recently, research guided by these theoretical frameworks has not incorporated direct measures of brain structure or function to index this sensitivity. Drawing on prevailing models of adolescent neurodevelopment and a growing number of neuroimaging studies on the interrelations among social contexts, the brain, and developmental outcomes, we review research that supports the idea of adolescent neurobiological susceptibility to social context for understanding why and how adolescents differ in development and well-being. We propose that adolescent development is shaped by brain-based individual differences in sensitivity to social contexts - be they positive or negative - such as those created through relationships with parents/caregivers and peers. Ultimately, we recommend that future research measure brain function and structure to operationalize susceptibility factors that moderate the influence of social contexts on developmental outcomes. PMID:26773514

  20. Optimal magnetic susceptibility matching in 3D.

    PubMed

    Jia, Feng; Kumar, Rajesh; Korvink, Jan G

    2013-04-01

    When an object is inserted into the strong homogeneous magnetic field of a magnetic resonance magnet, its intrinsic relative susceptibility can cause unwanted local magnetic field inhomogeneities in the space surrounding the object. As is known, this effect can be partially countered by selectively adding material layers with opposing sign in susceptibility to the part. The determination of an optimal magnetic susceptibility distribution is an inverse problem, in which the susceptibility-induced inhomogeneity of the magnetic field inside a region of interest is reduced by redistributing the placement of materials in the design domain. This article proposes an efficient numerical topology optimization method for obtaining an optimal magnetic susceptibility distribution, in particular, for which the induced spatial magnetic field inhomogeneity is minimized. Using a material density function as a design variable, the value of the magnetic field inside a computational domain is determined using a finite element method. The first-order sensitivity of the objective function is calculated using an adjoint equation method. Numerical examples on a variety of design domain geometries illustrate the effectiveness of the optimization method. The method is of specific interest for the design of interventional magnetic resonance devices. It is a particularly useful method if passive shimming of magnetic resonance equipment is aimed for. PMID:22576319

  1. Assessment of susceptibility to measles and rubella.

    PubMed

    Preblud, S R; Gross, F; Halsey, N A; Hinman, A R; Herrmann, K L; Koplan, J P

    1982-02-26

    We conducted a serological and questionnaire study of 755 US Merchant Marine Academy cadets (aged 16 to 29 years) and their parents to determine the cadets' susceptibility rate to measles and rubella and to see if there was any difference in the accuracy of cadet and parental histories of previous infection and vaccination. Approximately 4% of the cadets were susceptibility. We also determined the costs and the effectiveness of three alternative strategies for vaccinating susceptible adolescents and young adults: (1) vaccinating all persons regardless of past history; (2) serologically screening all persons and vaccinating only those who were susceptible; and (3) vaccinating all individuals who do not have physician-documented proof of proper vaccination, past infection (measles only), or serological immunity. The cost savings among the three alternatives are dependent on the proportion of potential vaccinees with records available for review and must be balanced against the proportion of susceptible persons protected by each alternative. We also found that a combined vaccination program for both measles and rubella is less costly than a program aimed at providing immunity to only one of the two diseases. PMID:7057602

  2. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Enteric Gram Negative Facultative Anaerobe Bacilli in Aerobic versus Anaerobic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Amachawadi, Raghavendra G.; Renter, David G.; Volkova, Victoriya V.

    2016-01-01

    suggested that during first days in anaerobic conditions the susceptibility changes with time. The results demonstrate that assessing effects of antimicrobial treatments on resistance in the host’s enteric bacteria that are Gram negative facultative Anaerobe Bacilli requires data on the bacterial antimicrobial susceptibility in the conditions resembling those in the intestine. PMID:27191612

  3. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Enteric Gram Negative Facultative Anaerobe Bacilli in Aerobic versus Anaerobic Conditions.

    PubMed

    DeMars, Zachary; Biswas, Silpak; Amachawadi, Raghavendra G; Renter, David G; Volkova, Victoriya V

    2016-01-01

    suggested that during first days in anaerobic conditions the susceptibility changes with time. The results demonstrate that assessing effects of antimicrobial treatments on resistance in the host's enteric bacteria that are Gram negative facultative Anaerobe Bacilli requires data on the bacterial antimicrobial susceptibility in the conditions resembling those in the intestine. PMID:27191612

  4. Chinese hyper-susceptibility to vection-induced motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Robert M.; Hu, Senqi; Leblanc, Ree; Koch, Kenneth L.

    1993-01-01

    Little is known about the factors that control individual differences in susceptible to motion sickness. A serendipitous observation in our laboratory that most Chinese subjects become motion sick prompted this study. We used a rotating optokinetic drum to provoke motion sickness and compared gastric responses and symptom reports of Chinese, European-American, and African-American subjects. There was no difference in the responses of European-American and African-American subjects; however, Chinese subjects showed significantly greater disturbances in gastric activity and reported significantly more severe symptoms. We suggest that this hypersusceptibility presents a natural model for the study of physiological mechanisms of nausea and other symptoms of motion sickness.

  5. Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging and Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chunlei; Li, Wei; Tong, Karen A.; Yeom, Kristen W.; Kuzminski, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique that enhances image contrast by using the susceptibility differences between tissues. It is created by combining both magnitude and phase in the gradient echo data. SWI is sensitive to both paramagnetic and diamagnetic substances which generate different phase shift in MRI data. SWI images can be displayed as a minimum intensity projection that provides high resolution delineation of the cerebral venous architecture, a feature that is not available in other MRI techniques. As such, SWI has been widely applied to diagnose various venous abnormalities. SWI is especially sensitive to deoxygenated blood and intracranial mineral deposition and, for that reason, has been applied to image various pathologies including intracranial hemorrhage, traumatic brain injury, stroke, neoplasm, and multiple sclerosis. SWI, however, does not provide quantitative measures of magnetic susceptibility. This limitation is currently being addressed with the development of quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and susceptibility tensor imaging (STI). While QSM treats susceptibility as isotropic, STI treats susceptibility as generally anisotropic characterized by a tensor quantity. This article reviews the basic principles of SWI, its clinical and research applications, the mechanisms governing brain susceptibility properties, and its practical implementation, with a focus on brain imaging. PMID:25270052

  6. Differential Susceptibility Experiments: Going beyond Correlational Evidence--Comment on beyond Mental Health, Differential Susceptibility Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2012-01-01

    Reviewing the studies on differential susceptibility presented in this section, we argue that the time is ripe to go beyond correlational designs to differential susceptibility experiments. In such experiments, randomization prevents hidden moderator effects on the environment and guarantees the independence of moderator and outcome, while the…

  7. Susceptibility-weighted imaging and quantitative susceptibility mapping in the brain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunlei; Li, Wei; Tong, Karen A; Yeom, Kristen W; Kuzminski, Samuel

    2015-07-01

    Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique that enhances image contrast by using the susceptibility differences between tissues. It is created by combining both magnitude and phase in the gradient echo data. SWI is sensitive to both paramagnetic and diamagnetic substances which generate different phase shift in MRI data. SWI images can be displayed as a minimum intensity projection that provides high resolution delineation of the cerebral venous architecture, a feature that is not available in other MRI techniques. As such, SWI has been widely applied to diagnose various venous abnormalities. SWI is especially sensitive to deoxygenated blood and intracranial mineral deposition and, for that reason, has been applied to image various pathologies including intracranial hemorrhage, traumatic brain injury, stroke, neoplasm, and multiple sclerosis. SWI, however, does not provide quantitative measures of magnetic susceptibility. This limitation is currently being addressed with the development of quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and susceptibility tensor imaging (STI). While QSM treats susceptibility as isotropic, STI treats susceptibility as generally anisotropic characterized by a tensor quantity. This article reviews the basic principles of SWI, its clinical and research applications, the mechanisms governing brain susceptibility properties, and its practical implementation, with a focus on brain imaging.

  8. Susceptibility to praziquantel of male and female cercariae of praziquantel-resistant and susceptible isolates of Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Liang, Y-S; Wang, W; Dai, J-R; Li, H-J; Tao, Y-H; Zhang, J-F; Li, W; Zhu, Y-C; Coles, G C; Doenhoff, M J

    2010-06-01

    Praziquantel (PZQ) is now widely used for the treatment of human schistosomiasis. However, in recent years, there has been a growing concern about the resistance of Schistosoma to PZQ. The mechanisms of PZQ action against Schistosoma and resistance of Schistosoma to PZQ are poorly understood. Here, we report differential susceptibilities to PZQ between male and female cercariae in the PZQ-susceptible and PZQ-resistant isolates of Schistosoma mansoni, using tail loss as a measurement of PZQ action. The miracidia were collected by hatching eggs collected from faeces of infected mice. Single-sex cercaria lines were made by infecting a single Biomphalaria glabrata snail with a single miracidium. The sex of each single-sex cercaria line was identified by a direct W1-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Single-sex cercariae of two isolates were exposed to four different concentrations of PZQ, respectively. The tail shedding of cercariae was observed under a dissecting microscope for five time points up to 100 min after adding PZQ. The results showed that male cercariae have higher tail-shedding rates than that of female cercariae when PZQ-susceptible isolates of S. mansoni are exposed to the same concentration of PZQ. But this phenomenon was not observed in the PZQ-resistant isolates. This sexual differential resistance phenomenon of S. mansoni suggests that resistance to PZQ is induced by decreasing the PZQ susceptibility of male worms. The experiment described here may also be useful for developing tests to detect PZQ resistance in the field. PMID:19765323

  9. Bayesian multinomial probit modeling of daily windows of susceptibility for maternal PM2.5 exposure and congenital heart defects

    EPA Science Inventory

    Past epidemiologic studies suggest maternal ambient air pollution exposure during critical periods of the pregnancy is associated with fetal development. We introduce a multinomial probit model that allows for the joint identification of susceptible daily periods during the pregn...

  10. Magnetic Susceptibility in the Vertebral Column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schick, F.; Nagele, T.; Lutz, O.; Pfeffer, K.; Giehl, J.

    1994-01-01

    A magnetic resonance method is described which provides good-quality field-mapping images of the spine, although the in vivo signals from red bone marrow of the vertebral bodies exhibit similar fractions of lipid and water protons with their chemical-shift difference of 3.4 ppm. The susceptibilities of bone marrow and intervertebral disks were examined in 20 cadaveric human spines, 9 healthy volunteers, and 9 patients with degenerative disk alterations. The influence of geometrical properties was studied in cylindrical spine phantoms of different size and contents with different susceptibility. The measurements reveal interindividual differences of the susceptibility of the intervertebral disks in healthy subjects. Three out of nine degenerated disks with low signal in T2-weighted spin-echo images showed irregularities of the field distribution within the nucleus pulposus.

  11. Magnetic susceptibility of nanoscale Kondo systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skomski, R.; Zhang, R.; Kharel, P.; Enders, A.; Liou, S.-H.; Sellmyer, D. J.

    2010-05-01

    The mesoscopic Kondo effect in metallic nanoparticles containing a magnetic impurity is investigated by model calculations. A Maxwell-Garnett approach is used to approximately determine the resistivity of doped nanoparticles in a matrix, and the magnetic susceptibility is estimated from the confinement of the conduction electrons. Conductivity measurements of nanoparticles embedded in a matrix are difficult to realize, because metallic matrices distort the Kondo cloud, whereas insulating or semiconducting matrices yield a very weak signal. By comparison, susceptibility measurements do not suffer from these shortcomings. The Kondo effect survives in nanoparticles even if the cluster size is much smaller than the Kondo screening cloud, but the effective Curie constant becomes constant below a particle-size dependent transition temperature and the temperature dependence of the susceptibility is no longer universal.

  12. Calorie restriction and susceptibility to intact pathogens

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Long-term calorie restriction (CR) causes numerous physiological changes that ultimately increase mean and maximum lifespan of most species examined to date. One physiological change that occurs with CR is enhanced immune function, as tested using antigens and mitogens to stimulate an immune response. Fewer studies have used intact pathogen exposure to test whether the enhanced capacity of the immune response during CR actually decreases susceptibility of hosts to their pathogens. So far, studies using intact bacteria, virus, and helminth worm exposure indicate that, despite similar or enhanced immune system function, CR hosts are more susceptible to infection by intact pathogens than their fully fed counterparts. Long-term CR studies that examine susceptibility to a variety of parasite taxa will help determine if direct CR or CR mimetics will be beneficial to people living in pathogen-rich environments. PMID:19424864

  13. Light scalar susceptibilities and isospin breaking

    SciTech Connect

    Andres, R. Torres; Nicola, A. Gomez

    2010-12-28

    Making a thermal analysis in the context of NLO SU(3) Chiral Perturbation Theory we see that isospin breaking (IB) corrections (both electromagnetic and QCD ones) to quark condensates are of order O(e{sup 2}) and O({epsilon}), with {epsilon} the {pi}{sup 0}-{eta} mixing angle. However the combination {chi}{sub uu}-{chi}{sub ud} of flavour breaking susceptibilities, which vanishes in the isospin limit and can be identified essentially with the connected susceptibility, has an order O(1) contribution enhanced with T because of the {pi}{sup 0}-{eta}) mixing. Finally we present a thermal sum rule that relates quark condensate ratios and the light scalar susceptibility without IB, {chi}(T)-{chi}(0).

  14. Endocrine correlates of susceptibility to motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    Motion sickness releases ACTH, epinerphrine, and norepinephrine. The endocrine responses to motion sickness, adaptive responses leading to the resolution of the syndrome, and the way in which antimotion-sickness drugs influence the endocrine responses were studied. Susceptible or insusceptible subjects were administered antimotion-sickness drugs prior to stressful stimulation. Insusceptible subjects displayed more pronounced elevations of ACTH, epinephrine, and norepinephrine after stressful motion. Predrug levels of ACTH were higher in insusceptible subjects (p less than 0.01). Acute blockade of hormone responses to stressful motion or alteration of levels of ACTH by drugs were not correlated with individual susceptibility. No correlation was apparent between epinephrine and ACTH release. These endocrine differences may represent neurochemical markers for susceptibility to motion, stress, or general adaptability, and it may be that the chronic modulation of their levels might be more effective in preventing motion sickness than the acute blockage or stimulation of specific receptors.

  15. Preliminary non-invasive measurement of magnetic susceptibility of the frontal lobe: a possible antecedent marker for Alzheimer's disease.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kletetschka, G.; Mikula, V.; Adachi, T.; Fuller, M.

    2007-12-01

    It is generally recognized that the amount of iron in the brain increases with age. Magnetic work on post mortem tissue from Alzheimer's patients has indicated the presence of magnetite and there seems to be a direct relation between magnetite and Alzheimer's disease. We measured the magnetic susceptibility of the frontal lobe of subjects using a sensitive susceptibility meter SM30 placed against the forehead. This is a very simple and speedy observation normally made by geologists to investigate rock outcrops. Preliminary measurements were performed on 53 persons, whose ages ranged from 3 to 92 and included several Alzheimer's patients. The magnetic susceptibiIity is negative, reflecting the dominant diamagnetism of brain tissue. The positive susceptibility of ferrimagnetic material present therefore reduces this negative number. Interestingly the magnetic susceptibility of 3 of the Alzheimer patients was among the 5 lowest negative susceptibilities measured. The mean value of magnetic susceptibility of the population is close to -6e-6 SI units. Alzheimer patients show slightly higher values, closer to -5e-6 SI units. The susceptibilities of the Alzheimer's patients can be distinguished at one standard deviation from the whole population tested. The mean susceptibility of the Alzheimer's patients is also greater than the mean value from patients of the same age group, but it cannot be distinguished at one standard deviation. We speculate that the source of the positive susceptibility contribution may be magnetite. We suggest that extensions of this observation may serve as an antecedent marker of the onset of Alzheimer's disease.

  16. Bipolar disorder: idioms of susceptibility and disease and the role of 'genes' in illness explanations.

    PubMed

    Baart, Ingrid; Widdershoven, Guy

    2013-11-01

    This qualitative study explores (1) how members of the Dutch Association for People with Bipolar Disorder explain the affliction of bipolar disorder; (2) the relationship between genetic, environmental and personal factors in these explanations and (3) the relationship between illness explanations, self-management and identity. A total of 40 participants took part in seven different focus group discussions. The results demonstrate that there are two different explanatory idioms, each one centred around an opposing concept, that is, susceptibility and disease. Individuals who construct explanations around the concept of 'disease' attach more importance to 'genes and chemicals' than to environmental components in the onset of the disorder, whereas individuals adhering to the central concept of 'susceptibility' tend to do this much less. Compared with individuals using the 'susceptibility' idiom, those who use a 'disease' idiom tend to observe fewer possibilities for self-management and are less inclined to construct normalcy through a quest for personal growth. Stories of suffering seem more integral to the 'disease' idiom than to the 'susceptibility' idiom. The 'disease' idiom seems less integrated in a contemporary surveillance psychiatric discourse than the 'susceptibility' idiom; however, both vocabularies can offer normative constraints.

  17. Quantitative Microplate-Based Growth Assay for Determination of Antifungal Susceptibility of Histoplasma capsulatum Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Goughenour, Kristie D.; Balada-Llasat, Joan-Miquel

    2015-01-01

    Standardized methodologies for determining the antifungal susceptibility of fungal pathogens is central to the clinical management of invasive fungal disease. Yeast-form fungi can be tested using broth macrodilution and microdilution assays. Reference procedures exist for Candida species and Cryptococcus yeasts; however, no standardized methods have been developed for testing the antifungal susceptibility of yeast forms of the dimorphic systemic fungal pathogens. For the dimorphic fungal pathogen Histoplasma capsulatum, susceptibility to echinocandins differs for the yeast and the filamentous forms, which highlights the need to employ Histoplasma yeasts, not hyphae, in antifungal susceptibility tests. To address this, we developed and optimized methodology for the 96-well microtiter plate-based measurement of Histoplasma yeast growth in vitro. Using optical density, the assay is quantitative for fungal growth with a dynamic range greater than 30-fold. Concentration and assay reaction time parameters were also optimized for colorimetric (MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] reduction) and fluorescent (resazurin reduction) indicators of fungal vitality. We employed this microtiter-based assay to determine the antifungal susceptibility patterns of multiple clinical isolates of Histoplasma representing different phylogenetic groups. This methodology fulfills a critical need for the ability to monitor the effectiveness of antifungals on Histoplasma yeasts, the morphological form present in mammalian hosts and, thus, the form most relevant to disease. PMID:26246483

  18. Homeostasis, Inflammation, and Disease Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Kotas, Maya E.; Medzhitov, Ruslan

    2015-01-01

    While modernization has dramatically increased lifespan, it has also witnessed the increasing prevalence of diseases such as obesity, hypertension and type 2 diabetes. Such chronic, acquired diseases result when normal physiologic control goes awry and may thus be viewed as failures of homeostasis. However, while nearly every process in human physiology relies on homeostatic mechanisms for stability, only some have demonstrated vulnerability to dysregulation. Additionally, chronic inflammation is a common accomplice of the diseases of homeostasis, yet the basis for this connection is not fully understood. Here we review the design of homeostatic systems and discuss universal features of control circuits that operate at the cellular, tissue and organismal levels. We suggest a framework for classification of homeostatic signals that is based on different classes of homeostatic variables they report on. Finally, we discuss how adaptability of homeostatic systems with adjustable set points creates vulnerability to dysregulation and disease. This framework highlights the fundamental parallels between homeostatic and inflammatory control mechanisms and provides a new perspective on the physiological origin of inflammation. PMID:25723161

  19. Transition in magnetic fabric types in progressively deformed, fine-grained sedimentary rocks of Central Armorica (Brittany, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haerinck, Tom; Hirt, Ann M.; Debacker, Timothy N.; Sintubin, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    The anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) of progressively deformed, fine-grained sedimentary rocks is determined for different tectonometamorphic settings in Central Armorica (Brittany, France). Low-temperature AMS and high-field torque magnetometry on a representative selection of samples indicate that the magnetic fabric is dominantly paramagnetic and the ferromagnetic (s.l.) contribution can be neglected. The AMS documents a progressive transition of intermediate fabrics to tectonic fabrics and increasingly stronger developed tectonic fabrics. An integrated magnetic-mineralogical approach is performed in order to assess whether we can use this evolution as a quantitative indicator for the intensity of cleavage development in Central Armorica. During the magnetic fabric transition, the maximum susceptibility axis (K1) remains stationary oriented parallel to the bedding - cleavage intersection, whereas the minimum susceptibility axis (K3) orientation distribution changes from a moderate girdle distribution in the intermediate fabric types, to a strongly clustered distribution parallel to the cleavage pole for the tectonic fabric types. A Woodcock two-axis ratio plot is used to evaluate this change in K3 distribution. This shows a regional pattern with intermediate fabrics in the southern part of Central Armorica and tectonic fabrics in the northern part of Central Armorica. Quantitative analysis of the observed magnetic fabrics shows that the fabric transition described above is accompanied by an evolution from prolate susceptibility ellipsoids with a relatively low degree of anisotropy to oblate ellipsoid with an increasingly higher degree of anisotropy. In a graph of the shape parameter T against the corrected degree of anisotropy PJ, this evolution has a hockey-stick shaped pattern with the vertical branch reflecting the actual transition from intermediate to tectonic fabric type and the horizontal branch reflecting progressively stronger developed

  20. National landslide susceptibility map for Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glade, T.; Dikau, R.; Bell, R.

    2003-04-01

    Landslide susceptibility is generally based on historical data and field mapping, Resulting maps usually cover regions ranging between local and regional scales. However, also national scale analysis is important to delineate regions most prone to landsliding. Herein it is crucial to define the parameters, which are most important within this scale, and indeed, which can be derived from national data sets. This study aims to demonstrate a method on how to obtain national scale landslide susceptibility maps. In this study, German landslide literature was extensively reviewed. Due to the varying nature of the different sources and publications, only the information on lithology and slope angle was compiled. To include local knowledge, returned questionnaires send to experts in landslide research were evaluated and respective information summarized. For regions with no information, generalized geotechnical properties for existing lithology were applied. Additionally, a geological map at a scale of 1:1.000.000 and a nationwide digital terrain model with a resolution of 25 m x 25 m were available. The combination of slope angle and lithology was qualitatively classified in negligible, minor, moderate and high landslide susceptibility classes and applied to the data. Due to the resolution of the geology map, the 25 m resolution has been aggregated to 150 m, which seemed appropriate considering the extend of most of the landslides. Coastal landslide susceptibility has been derived from an existing data set. The map delineates areas of different landslide susceptibilities. The regions include cuestas, steep slopes in rolling midland topography and in the Alps, as well as slopes of deeply dissected rivers. Work in progress includes an evaluation of the calculated landslide susceptibility map using regional data sets. Although it is a preliminary result, this study presents the potential of such maps for planning and management purposes.

  1. Mechanisms of magnetic stimulation of central nervous system neurons.

    PubMed

    Pashut, Tamar; Wolfus, Shuki; Friedman, Alex; Lavidor, Michal; Bar-Gad, Izhar; Yeshurun, Yosef; Korngreen, Alon

    2011-03-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a stimulation method in which a magnetic coil generates a magnetic field in an area of interest in the brain. This magnetic field induces an electric field that modulates neuronal activity. The spatial distribution of the induced electric field is determined by the geometry and location of the coil relative to the brain. Although TMS has been used for several decades, the biophysical basis underlying the stimulation of neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) is still unknown. To address this problem we developed a numerical scheme enabling us to combine realistic magnetic stimulation (MS) with compartmental modeling of neurons with arbitrary morphology. The induced electric field for each location in space was combined with standard compartmental modeling software to calculate the membrane current generated by the electromagnetic field for each segment of the neuron. In agreement with previous studies, the simulations suggested that peripheral axons were excited by the spatial gradients of the induced electric field. In both peripheral and central neurons, MS amplitude required for action potential generation was inversely proportional to the square of the diameter of the stimulated compartment. Due to the importance of the fiber's diameter, magnetic stimulation of CNS neurons depolarized the soma followed by initiation of an action potential in the initial segment of the axon. Passive dendrites affect this process primarily as current sinks, not sources. The simulations predict that neurons with low current threshold are more susceptible to magnetic stimulation. Moreover, they suggest that MS does not directly trigger dendritic regenerative mechanisms. These insights into the mechanism of MS may be relevant for the design of multi-intensity TMS protocols, may facilitate the construction of magnetic stimulators, and may aid the interpretation of results of TMS of the CNS. PMID:21455288

  2. Retrieval Can Increase or Decrease Suggestibility Depending on How Memory Is Tested: The Importance of Source Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Jason C. K.; Wilford, Miko M.; Hughes, Katharine L.

    2012-01-01

    Taking an intervening test between learning episodes can enhance later source recollection. Paradoxically, testing can also increase people's susceptibility to the misinformation effect--a finding termed retrieval-enhanced suggestibility (RES, Chan, Thomas, & Bulevich, 2009). We conducted three experiments to examine this apparent contradiction.…

  3. Class I-deficient resistant mice intracerebrally inoculated with Theiler's virus show an increased T cell response to viral antigens and susceptibility to demyelination.

    PubMed

    Pullen, L C; Miller, S D; Dal Canto, M C; Kim, B S

    1993-09-01

    Intracerebral inoculation of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) results in immune-mediated demyelination in susceptible mouse strains. The histology of TMEV-induced demyelination is similar to that seen in patients suffering from multiple sclerosis. It was previously shown that the susceptibility of mice to TMEV-induced demyelination in certain strain combinations is closely associated with the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I locus. Here we examine disease susceptibility of beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2M)-deficient transgenic mice lacking class I expression and functional CD8+ T cells. In contrast to TMEV-infected parental C57BL/6 mice, the transgenics develop high levels of virus-specific DTH and T cell proliferation accompanied by an increased frequency of central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating lesions. However, clinical signs of demyelination were not noted. Neither antibody titer nor viral persistence were significantly affected in the beta 2M-deficient mice. These results suggest that in the absence of functional class I/CD8+ cells, the class II-restricted T cell response to TMEV is enhanced and CNS pathogenesis is heightened, although the level is not severe enough to result in clinical disease. When the TMEV-infected mice were subcutaneously immunized with virus, however, the beta 2M-deficient mice displayed clinical symptoms. Therefore, our results strongly suggest that CD8+ T cells do not directly contribute to CNS demyelination. In contrast, such T cells appear to be primarily involved in down-regulation of a potentially damaging CD4+ T cell response in resistant animals, although some of the T cells may play a role in clearing viral persistence in the CNS, resulting in the protection of the host from viral demyelination.

  4. [Rapid antibiotic susceptibility test in Clinical Microbiology].

    PubMed

    March Rosselló, Gabriel Alberto; Bratos Pérez, Miguel Ángel

    2016-01-01

    The most widely used antibiotic susceptibility testing methods in Clinical Microbiology are based on the phenotypic detection of antibiotic resistance by measuring bacterial growth in the presence of the antibiotic being tested. These conventional methods take typically 24hours to obtain results. A review is presented here of recently developed techniques for the rapid determination of antibiotic susceptibility. Data obtained with different methods such as molecular techniques, flow cytometry, chemiluminescence, mass spectrometry, commercial methods used in routine work, colorimetric methods, nephelometry, microarrays, microfluids, and methods based on cell disruption and sequencing, are analyzed and discussed in detail.

  5. [Measles and chickenpox susceptibility among immigrants].

    PubMed

    Gétaz, Laurent; Casillas, Alejandra; Wolff, Hans

    2016-05-01

    Exposure of immigrants to infectious diseases in their country of origin influences their susceptibility to infections later in life. Susceptibility to certain infections may significantly differs between immigrants depending on their regions of origin. Both measles and chickenpox (varicella) are conditions for which the level of exposure in the country of origin influences the preventive measures that immigrant health providers should propose. Through these two illustrative examples, this article summarizes the practical implications for clinicians who care for immigrants originating from southern countries. PMID:27323481

  6. Susceptibility of large populations of coupled oscillators.

    PubMed

    Daido, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    It is an important and interesting problem to elucidate how the degree of phase order in a large population of coupled oscillators responds to a synchronizing periodic force from the outside. Here this problem is studied analytically as well as numerically by introducing the concept of susceptibility for globally coupled phase oscillators with either nonrandom or random interactions. It is shown that the susceptibility diverges at the critical point in the nonrandom case with Widom's equality satisfied, while it exhibits a cusp in the most random case.

  7. [Pattern of antimicrobial susceptibility of enterococci strains].

    PubMed

    Hoyos, A; Gutiérrez, J; Piédrola, G

    1995-04-01

    Enterococci resistance to antimicrobials has increased lately. We studied the susceptibility to 12 antimicrobials of 150 enterococci strains coming from hospitalized and outpatients, using the agar dilution method. Teicoplanin, followed by imipenem and amoxicilin-clavulanic acid had the lower minimal inhibitory concentrations. No strains of E faecalis was resistant to ampicillin, whereas 14% of E faecium had minimal inhibitory concentrations over 8 micrograms/ml. The high minimal inhibitory concentrations of cefpirome (64 micrograms/ml) renders this antimicrobial useless in the treatment of enterococcal infections. Betalactamase production and resistance to glucopeptides were not detected. Antimicrobial susceptibility of strains coming for hospitalized or outpatients were similar.

  8. The Video Suggestibility Scale for Children: how generalizable is children's performance to other measures of suggestibility?

    PubMed

    McFarlane, Felicity; Powell, Martine B

    2002-01-01

    This study explored the generalizability of the Video Suggestibility Scale for Children (VSSC), which was developed by Scullin and colleagues (Scullin & Ceci, 2001; Scullin & Hembrooke, 1998) as a tool for discriminating among children (aged three to five years) who have different levels of suggestibility. The VSSC consists of two subscales; Yield (a measure of children's willingness to acquiesce to misleading questions) and Shift (a measure of children's tendency to change their responses after feedback from the interviewer). Children's (N = 77) performance on each of the subscales was compared with their performance using several other measures of suggestibility. These measures included children's willingness to assent to a false event as well as the number of false interviewer suggestions and false new details that the children provided when responding to cued-recall questions about an independent true-biased and an independent false (non-experienced) event. An independent samples t-test revealed that those children who assented to the false event generated higher scores on the Yield measure. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that Yield was a significant predictor of the number of false details reported about the false activity, but not the true-biased activity. There was no significant relationship between the Shift subscale and any of the dependent variables. The potential contribution of the VSSC for forensic researchers and practitioners is discussed.

  9. Replication of Early B-cell Factor 1 (EBF1) Gene-by-psychosocial Stress Interaction Effects on Central Adiposity in a Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Min, Jin-Young

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Central obesity plays a major role in the development of many chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease and cancer. Chronic stress may be involved in the pathophysiology of central obesity. Although several large-scale genome-wide association studies have reported susceptibility genes for central adiposity, the effects of interactions between genes and psychosocial stress on central adiposity have rarely been examined. A recent study focusing on Caucasians discovered the novel gene early B-cell factor 1 (EBF1), which was associated with central obesity-related traits via interactions with stress levels. We aimed to evaluate EBF1 gene-by-stress interaction effects on central adiposity traits, including visceral adipose tissue (VAT), in Korean adults. Methods A total of 1467 Korean adults were included in this study. We selected 22 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the EBF1 gene and analyzed their interactions with stress on central adiposity using additive, dominant, and recessive genetic modeling. Results The four SNPs that had strong linkage disequilibrium relationships (rs10061900, rs10070743, rs4704967, and rs10056564) demonstrated significant interactions with the waist-hip ratio in the dominant model (pint<0.007). In addition, two other SNPs (rs6556377 and rs13180086) were associated with VAT by interactions with stress levels, especially in the recessive genetic model (pint<0.007). As stress levels increased, the mean values of central adiposity traits according to SNP genotypes exhibited gradual but significant changes (p<0.05). Conclusions These results suggest that the common genetic variants for EBF1 are associated with central adiposity through interactions with stress levels, emphasizing the importance of managing stress in the prevention of central obesity. PMID:27744667

  10. Centralize Printing, and Save.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Kathleen

    1984-01-01

    Describes the operations of a centralized printing office in a California school district. Centralization greatly increased the efficiency and lowered the cost of generating publications, information services, newsletters, and press releases throughout the school year. (TE)

  11. Central venous catheters - ports

    MedlinePlus

    Central venous catheter - subcutaneous; Port-a-Cath; InfusaPort; PasPort; Subclavian port; Medi - port; Central venous line - port ... Catheters are used when you need medical treatment over a long period of time. For example, you ...

  12. Superficial scald susceptibility and a-farnesene metabolism in ‘Bartlett’ pears grown in California and Washington

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Bartlett’ pears grown in northern California (CA) consistently show development of the physiological storage disorder superficial scald, particularly after prolonged storage of 4–5 months in air. In contrast, fruit of this cultivar grown in central Washington (WA) are typically less susceptible to ...

  13. Comparison of different EEG features in estimation of hypnosis susceptibility level.

    PubMed

    Baghdadi, Golnaz; Nasrabadi, Ali Motie

    2012-05-01

    Hypnosis has long been known to be associated with heightened control over physical processes and researchers put it under consideration because of its usage as a therapeutic tool in many medical and psychological problems. Determination of hypnosis susceptibility level is important before prescribing any hypnotic treatment. In this study different features are introduced to classify hypnotizability levels. These features were extracted from electroencephalogram (EEG) signals which were recorded from 32 subjects during hypnosis suggestion. Based on the obtained result, a method was suggested to estimate the hypnosis susceptibility level from hypnosis EEG signals instead of using traditional clinical subjective tests.

  14. Coverage centralities for temporal networks*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaguchi, Taro; Yano, Yosuke; Yoshida, Yuichi

    2016-02-01

    Structure of real networked systems, such as social relationship, can be modeled as temporal networks in which each edge appears only at the prescribed time. Understanding the structure of temporal networks requires quantifying the importance of a temporal vertex, which is a pair of vertex index and time. In this paper, we define two centrality measures of a temporal vertex based on the fastest temporal paths which use the temporal vertex. The definition is free from parameters and robust against the change in time scale on which we focus. In addition, we can efficiently compute these centrality values for all temporal vertices. Using the two centrality measures, we reveal that distributions of these centrality values of real-world temporal networks are heterogeneous. For various datasets, we also demonstrate that a majority of the highly central temporal vertices are located within a narrow time window around a particular time. In other words, there is a bottleneck time at which most information sent in the temporal network passes through a small number of temporal vertices, which suggests an important role of these temporal vertices in spreading phenomena. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Temporal Network Theory and Applications", edited by Petter Holme.Supplementary material in the form of one pdf file available from the Journal web page at http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjb/e2016-60498-7

  15. Early Zebrafish Embryogenesis Is Susceptible to Developmental TDCPP Exposure

    PubMed Central

    McGee, Sean P.; Cooper, Ellen M.; Stapleton, Heather M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Chlorinated phosphate esters (CPEs) are widely used as additive flame retardants for low-density polyurethane foams and have frequently been detected at elevated concentrations within indoor environmental media. Objectives: To begin characterizing the potential toxicity of CPEs on early vertebrate development, we examined the developmental toxicity of four CPEs used in polyurethane foam: tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP), tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP), and 2,2-bis(chloromethyl)propane-1,3-diyl tetrakis(2-chlorethyl) bis(phosphate) (V6). Methods: Using zebrafish as a model for vertebrate embryogenesis, we first screened the potential teratogenic effects of TDCPP, TCEP, TCPP, and V6 using a developmental toxicity assay. Based on these results, we focused on identification of susceptible windows of developmental TDCPP exposure as well as evaluation of uptake and elimination of TDCPP and bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate (BDCPP, the primary metabolite) within whole embryos. Finally, because TDCPP-specific genotoxicity assays have, for the most part, been negative in vivo and because zygotic genome remethylation is a key biological event during cleavage, we investigated whether TDCPP altered the status of zygotic genome methylation during early zebrafish embryogenesis. Results: Overall, our findings suggest that the cleavage period during zebrafish embryogenesis is susceptible to TDCPP-induced delays in remethylation of the zygotic genome, a mechanism that may be associated with enhanced developmental toxicity following initiation of TDCPP exposure at the start of cleavage. Conclusions: Our results suggest that further research is needed to better understand the effects of a widely used and detected CPE within susceptible windows of early vertebrate development. PMID:23017583

  16. Genetic Characterization of Optochin-Susceptible Viridans Group Streptococci

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Galiano, Antonio J.; Balsalobre, Luz; Fenoll, Asunción; de la Campa, Adela G.

    2003-01-01

    Two clinical isolates of viridans group streptococci (VS) with different degrees of susceptibility to optochin (OPT), i.e., fully OPT-susceptible (Opts) VS strain 1162/99 (for which the MIC was equal to that for Streptococcus pneumoniae, 0.75 μg/ml) and intermediate Opts VS strain 1174/97 (MIC, 6 μg/ml) were studied. Besides being OPT susceptible, they showed characteristics typical of VS, such as bile insolubility; lack of reaction with pneumococcal capsular antibodies; and lack of hybridization with rRNA (AccuProbe)-, lytA-, and pnl-specific pneumococcal probes. However, these VS Opts strains and VS type strains hybridized with ant, a gene not present in S. pneumoniae. A detailed characterization of the genes encoding the 16S rRNA and SodA classified isolates 1162/99 and 1174/97 as Streptococcus mitis. Analysis of the atpCAB region, which encodes the c, a, and b subunits of the F0F1 H+-ATPase, the target of optochin, revealed high degrees of similarity between S. mitis 1162/99 and S. pneumoniae in atpC, atpA, and the N terminus of atpB. Moreover, amino acid identity between S. mitis 1174/97 and S. pneumoniae was found in α helix 5 of the a subunit. The organization of the chromosomal region containing the atp operon of the two Opts VS and VS type strains was spr1284-atpC, with spr1284 being located 296 to 556 bp from atpC, whereas in S. pneumoniae this distance was longer than 68 kb. In addition, the gene order in S. pneumoniae was IS1239-74 bp-atpC. The results suggest that the full OPT susceptibility of S. mitis 1162/99 is due to the acquisition of atpC, atpA, and part of atpB from S. pneumoniae and that the intermediate OPT susceptibility of S. mitis 1174/97 correlates with the amino acid composition of its a subunit. PMID:14506029

  17. Global Association between Thermophilicity and Vancomycin Susceptibility in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Chayan; Alam, Masrure; Mandal, Subhrangshu; Haldar, Prabir K.; Bhattacharya, Sabyasachi; Mukherjee, Trinetra; Roy, Rimi; Rameez, Moidu J.; Misra, Anup K.; Chakraborty, Ranadhir; Nanda, Ashish K.; Mukhopadhyay, Subhra K.; Ghosh, Wriddhiman

    2016-01-01

    Exploration of the aquatic microbiota of several circum-neutral (6.0–8.5 pH) mid-temperature (55–85°C) springs revealed rich diversities of phylogenetic relatives of mesophilic bacteria, which surpassed the diversity of the truly-thermophilic taxa. To gain insight into the potentially-thermophilic adaptations of the phylogenetic relatives of Gram-negative mesophilic bacteria detected in culture-independent investigations we attempted pure-culture isolation by supplementing the enrichment media with 50 μg ml−1 vancomycin. Surprisingly, this Gram-positive-specific antibiotic eliminated the entire culturable-diversity of chemoorganotrophic and sulfur-chemolithotrophic bacteria present in the tested hot water inocula. Moreover, it also killed all the Gram-negative hot-spring isolates that were obtained in vancomycin-free media. Concurrent literature search for the description of Gram-negative thermophilic bacteria revealed that at least 16 of them were reportedly vancomycin-susceptible. While these data suggested that vancomycin-susceptibility could be a global trait of thermophilic bacteria (irrespective of their taxonomy, biogeography and Gram-character), MALDI Mass Spectroscopy of the peptidoglycans of a few Gram-negative thermophilic bacteria revealed that tandem alanines were present in the fourth and fifth positions of their muropeptide precursors (MPPs). Subsequent phylogenetic analyses revealed a close affinity between the D-alanine-D-alanine ligases (Ddl) of taxonomically-diverse Gram-negative thermophiles and the thermostable Ddl protein of Thermotoga maritima, which is well-known for its high specificity for alanine over other amino acids. The Ddl tree further illustrated a divergence between the homologs of Gram-negative thermophiles and mesophiles, which broadly coincided with vancomycin-susceptibility and vancomycin-resistance respectively. It was thus hypothesized that thermophilic Ddls have been evolutionarily selected to favor a D

  18. Global Association between Thermophilicity and Vancomycin Susceptibility in Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Roy, Chayan; Alam, Masrure; Mandal, Subhrangshu; Haldar, Prabir K; Bhattacharya, Sabyasachi; Mukherjee, Trinetra; Roy, Rimi; Rameez, Moidu J; Misra, Anup K; Chakraborty, Ranadhir; Nanda, Ashish K; Mukhopadhyay, Subhra K; Ghosh, Wriddhiman

    2016-01-01

    Exploration of the aquatic microbiota of several circum-neutral (6.0-8.5 pH) mid-temperature (55-85°C) springs revealed rich diversities of phylogenetic relatives of mesophilic bacteria, which surpassed the diversity of the truly-thermophilic taxa. To gain insight into the potentially-thermophilic adaptations of the phylogenetic relatives of Gram-negative mesophilic bacteria detected in culture-independent investigations we attempted pure-culture isolation by supplementing the enrichment media with 50 μg ml(-1) vancomycin. Surprisingly, this Gram-positive-specific antibiotic eliminated the entire culturable-diversity of chemoorganotrophic and sulfur-chemolithotrophic bacteria present in the tested hot water inocula. Moreover, it also killed all the Gram-negative hot-spring isolates that were obtained in vancomycin-free media. Concurrent literature search for the description of Gram-negative thermophilic bacteria revealed that at least 16 of them were reportedly vancomycin-susceptible. While these data suggested that vancomycin-susceptibility could be a global trait of thermophilic bacteria (irrespective of their taxonomy, biogeography and Gram-character), MALDI Mass Spectroscopy of the peptidoglycans of a few Gram-negative thermophilic bacteria revealed that tandem alanines were present in the fourth and fifth positions of their muropeptide precursors (MPPs). Subsequent phylogenetic analyses revealed a close affinity between the D-alanine-D-alanine ligases (Ddl) of taxonomically-diverse Gram-negative thermophiles and the thermostable Ddl protein of Thermotoga maritima, which is well-known for its high specificity for alanine over other amino acids. The Ddl tree further illustrated a divergence between the homologs of Gram-negative thermophiles and mesophiles, which broadly coincided with vancomycin-susceptibility and vancomycin-resistance respectively. It was thus hypothesized that thermophilic Ddls have been evolutionarily selected to favor a D-ala-D-ala bonding

  19. Methodology for Elaborating Regional Susceptibility Maps of Slope Instability: the State of Guerrero (mexico) Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Huesca, A. E.; Ferrés, D.; Domínguez-M, L.

    2013-05-01

    Numerous cases of different types of slope instability occur every year in the mountain areas of México. Sometimes these instabilities severely affect the exposed communities, roads and infrastructure, causing deaths and serious material damage, mainly in the states of Puebla, Veracruz, Oaxaca, Guerrero and Chiapas, at the central and south sectors of the country. The occurrence of the slope instability is the result of the combination of climatic, geologic, hydrologic, geomorphologic and anthropogenic factors. The National Center for Disaster Prevention (CENAPRED) is developing several projects in order to offer civil protection authorities of the Mexican states some methodologies to address the hazard assessment for different natural phenomena in a regional level. In this framework, during the past two years, a methodology was prepared to construct susceptibility maps for slope instability at regional (≤ 1:100 000) and national (≤ 1:1 000 000) levels. This research was addressed in accordance to the criteria established by the International Association of Engineering Geology, which is the highest international authority in this topic. The state of Guerrero has been taken as a pilot scheme to elaborate the susceptibility map for slope instability at a regional level. The major constraints considered in the methodology to calculate susceptibility are: a) the slope of the surface, b) the geology and c) the land use, which were integrated using a Geographic Information System (GIS). The arithmetic sum and weighting factors to obtain the final susceptibility map were based on the average values calculated in the individual study of several cases of slope instability occurred in the state in the past decade. For each case, the evaluation format proposed by CENAPRED in 2006 in the "Guía Básica para la elaboración de Atlas Estatales y Municipales de Peligros y Riesgos" to evaluate instabilities in a local level, was applied. The resulting susceptibility map shows

  20. Food makes you a target: disentangling genetic, physiological, and behavioral effects determining susceptibility to infection.

    PubMed

    Seppälä, Otto; Karvonen, Anssi; Haataja, Maarit; Kuosa, Marja; Jokela, Jukka

    2011-05-01

    Genetics, physiology, and behavior are all expected to influence the susceptibility of hosts to parasites. Furthermore, interactions between genetic and other factors are suggested to contribute to the maintenance of genetic polymorphism in resistance when the relative susceptibility of host genotypes is context dependent. We used a maternal sibship design and long- and short-term food deprivation treatments to test the role of family-level genetic variation, body condition, physiological state, and foraging behavior on the susceptibility of Lymnaea stagnalis snails to infection by a trematode parasite that uses chemical cues to locate its hosts. In experimental exposures, we found that snails in the long-term food deprivation treatment contracted fewer parasites than snails that were continuously well-fed, possibly because well-fed snails grew larger and attracted more transmission stages. When we kept the long-term feeding rates the same, but manipulated the physiological state and foraging behavior of the snails with short-term food deprivation treatment, we found that snails that were fed before the exposure contracted more parasites than snails that were fed during the exposure. This suggests that direct physiological effects of food processing, but not foraging behavior, predisposed snails to infection. Feeding treatments also affected the family-level variation in snail susceptibility, suggesting that the relative susceptibility of host genotypes was context dependent.

  1. Children's Memory for Their Mother's Murder: Accuracy, Suggestibility, and Resistance to Suggestion.

    PubMed

    McWilliams, Kelly; Narr, Rachel; Goodman, Gail S; Ruiz, Sandra; Mendoza, Macaria

    2013-01-31

    From its inception, child eyewitness memory research has been guided by dramatic legal cases that turn on the testimony of children. Decades of scientific research reveal that, under many conditions, children can provide veracious accounts of traumatic experiences. Scientific studies also document factors that lead children to make false statements. In this paper we describe a legal case in which children testified about their mother's murder. We discuss factors that may have influenced the accuracy of the children's eyewitness memory. Children's suggestibility and resistance to suggestion are illustrated. Expert testimony, based on scientific research, can aid the trier of fact when children provide crucial evidence in criminal investigations and courtroom trials about tragic events. PMID:23362807

  2. High postnatal susceptibility of hippocampal cytoskeleton in response to ethanol exposure during pregnancy and lactation.

    PubMed

    Reis, Karina Pires; Heimfarth, Luana; Pierozan, Paula; Ferreira, Fernanda; Loureiro, Samanta Oliveira; Fernandes, Carolina Gonçalves; Carvalho, Rônan Vivian; Pessoa-Pureur, Regina

    2015-11-01

    Ethanol exposure to offspring during pregnancy and lactation leads to developmental disorders, including central nervous system dysfunction. In the present work, we have studied the effect of chronic ethanol exposure during pregnancy and lactation on the phosphorylating system associated with the astrocytic and neuronal intermediate filament (IF) proteins: glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and neurofilament (NF) subunits of low, medium, and high molecular weight (NFL, NFM, and NFH, respectively) in 9- and 21-day-old pups. Female rats were fed with 20% ethanol in their drinking water during pregnancy and lactation. The homeostasis of the IF phosphorylation was not altered in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, or hippocampus of 9-day-old pups. However, GFAP, NFL, and NFM were hyperphosphorylated in the hippocampus of 21-day-old pups. PKA had been activated in the hippocampus, and Ser55 in the N-terminal region of NFL was hyperphosphorylated. In addition, JNK/MAPK was activated and KSP repeats in the C-terminal region of NFM were hyperphosphorylated in the hippocampus of 21-day-old pups. Decreased NFH immunocontent but an unaltered total NFH/phosphoNFH ratio suggested altered stoichiometry of NFs in the hippocampus of ethanol-exposed 21-day-old pups. In contrast to the high susceptibility of hippocampal cytoskeleton in developing rats, the homeostasis of the cytoskeleton of ethanol-fed adult females was not altered. Disruption of the cytoskeletal homeostasis in neural cells supports the view that regions of the brain are differentially vulnerable to alcohol insult during pregnancy and lactation, suggesting that modulation of JNK/MAPK and PKA signaling cascades target the hippocampal cytoskeleton in a window of vulnerability in 21-day-old pups. Our findings are relevant, since disruption of the cytoskeleton in immature hippocampus could contribute to later hippocampal damage associated with ethanol toxicity.

  3. Differential Susceptibilities of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Americas to Zika Virus

    PubMed Central

    Vazeille, Marie; Yebakima, André; Girod, Romain; Goindin, Daniella; Dupont-Rouzeyrol, Myrielle; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Failloux, Anna-Bella

    2016-01-01

    Background Since the major outbreak in 2007 in the Yap Island, Zika virus (ZIKV) causing dengue-like syndromes has affected multiple islands of the South Pacific region. In May 2015, the virus was detected in Brazil and then spread through South and Central America. In December 2015, ZIKV was detected in French Guiana and Martinique. The aim of the study was to evaluate the vector competence of the mosquito spp. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Caribbean (Martinique, Guadeloupe), North America (southern United States), South America (Brazil, French Guiana) for the currently circulating Asian genotype of ZIKV isolated from a patient in April 2014 in New Caledonia. Methodology/Principal Findings Mosquitoes were orally exposed to an Asian genotype of ZIKV (NC-2014-5132). Upon exposure, engorged mosquitoes were maintained at 28°±1°C, a 16h:8h light:dark cycle and 80% humidity. 25–30 mosquitoes were processed at 4, 7 and 14 days post-infection (dpi). Mosquito bodies (thorax and abdomen), heads and saliva were analyzed to measure infection, dissemination and transmission, respectively. High infection but lower disseminated infection and transmission rates were observed for both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Ae. aegypti populations from Guadeloupe and French Guiana exhibited a higher dissemination of ZIKV than the other Ae. aegypti populations examined. Transmission of ZIKV was observed in both mosquito species at 14 dpi but at a low level. Conclusions/Significance This study suggests that although susceptible to infection, Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were unexpectedly low competent vectors for ZIKV. This may suggest that other factors such as the large naïve population for ZIKV and the high densities of human-biting mosquitoes contribute to the rapid spread of ZIKV during the current outbreak. PMID:26938868

  4. Neuropsychological deficits in mice depleted of the schizophrenia susceptibility gene CSMD1.

    PubMed

    Steen, Vidar M; Nepal, Chirag; Ersland, Kari M; Holdhus, Rita; Nævdal, Marianne; Ratvik, Siri M; Skrede, Silje; Håvik, Bjarte

    2013-01-01

    Recent meta-analyses of schizophrenia genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified the CUB and SUSHI multiple domains 1 (CSMD1) gene as a statistically strong risk factor. CSMD1 is a complement control-related protein suggested to inhibit the classical complement pathway, being expressed in developing neurons. However, expression of CSMD1 is largely uncharacterized and relevance for behavioral phenotypes is not previously demonstrated. Here, we assess neuropsychological behaviors of a Csmd1 knockout (KO) mouse in a selection of standard behavioral tests. Deregulation of neuropsychological responses were observed in both the open field and the elevated plus maze tests, in which KO mice spent 55% and 33% less time than WT littermate mice in open areas, respectively. Altered behaviors were also observed in tail suspension and to higher acoustic stimuli, for which Csmd1 KO mice showed helplessness and moderate increase in startle amplitude, respectively. Furthermore, Csmd1 KO mice also displayed increased weight-gain and glucose tolerance, similar to a major phenotype of the metabolic syndrome that also has been associated to the human CSMD1 locus. Consistent with a role in the control of behaviors, Csmd1 was found highly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), and with some expression in visceral fat and ovary, under tissue-specific control by a novel promoter-associated lncRNA. In summary, disruption of Csmd1 induces behaviors reminiscent of blunted emotional responses, anxiety and depression. These observations suggest an influence of the CSMD1 schizophrenia susceptibility gene on psychopathology and endophenotypes of the negative symptom spectra. PMID:24244513

  5. Cross Fostering Experiments Suggest That Mice Songs Are Innate

    PubMed Central

    Kikusui, Takefumi; Nakanishi, Kaori; Nakagawa, Ryoko; Nagasawa, Miho; Mogi, Kazutaka; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2011-01-01

    Background Vocal learning is a central functional constituent of human speech, and recent studies showing that adult male mice emit ultrasonic sound sequences characterized as “songs” have suggested that the ultrasonic courtship sounds of mice provide a mammalian model of vocal learning. Objectives We tested whether mouse songs are learned, by examining the relative role of rearing environment in a cross-fostering experiment. Methods and Findings We found that C57BL/6 and BALB/c males emit a clearly different pattern of songs with different frequency and syllable compositions; C57BL/6 males showed a higher peak frequency of syllables, shorter intervals between syllables, and more upward frequency modulations with jumps, whereas BALB/c males produced more “chevron” and “harmonics” syllables. To establish the degree of environmental influences in mouse song development, sons of these two strains were cross-fostered to another strain of parents. Songs were recorded when these cross-fostered pups were fully developed and their songs were compared with those of male mice reared by the genetic parents. The cross-fostered animals sang songs with acoustic characteristics - including syllable interval, peak frequency, and modulation patterns - similar to those of their genetic parents. In addition their song elements retained sequential characteristics similar to those of their genetic parents' songs. Conclusion These results do not support the hypothesis that mouse “song” is learned; we found no evidence for vocal learning of any sort under the conditions of this experiment. Our observation that the strain-specific character of the song profile persisted even after changing the developmental auditory environment suggests that the structure of these courtship sound sequences is under strong genetic control. Thus, the usefulness of mouse “song” as a model of mammalian vocal learning is limited, but mouse song has the potential to be an indispensable model

  6. Niche convergence suggests functionality of the nocturnal fovea

    PubMed Central

    Moritz, Gillian L.; Melin, Amanda D.; Tuh Yit Yu, Fred; Bernard, Henry; Ong, Perry S.; Dominy, Nathaniel J.

    2014-01-01

    The fovea is a declivity of the retinal surface associated with maximum visual acuity. Foveae are widespread across vertebrates, but among mammals they are restricted to haplorhine primates (tarsiers, monkeys, apes, and humans), which are primarily diurnal. Thus primates have long contributed to the view that foveae are functional adaptations to diurnality. The foveae of tarsiers, which are nocturnal, are widely interpreted as vestigial traits and therefore evidence of a diurnal ancestry. This enduring premise is central to adaptive hypotheses on the origins of anthropoid primates; however, the question of whether tarsier foveae are functionless anachronisms or nocturnal adaptations remains open. To explore this question, we compared the diets of tarsiers (Tarsius) and scops owls (Otus), taxa united by numerous anatomical homoplasies, including foveate vision. A functional interpretation of these homoplasies predicts dietary convergence. We tested this prediction by analyzing stable isotope ratios that integrate dietary information. In Borneo and the Philippines, the stable carbon isotope compositions of Tarsius and Otus were indistinguishable, whereas the stable nitrogen isotope composition of Otus was marginally higher than that of Tarsius. Our results indicate that species in both genera consumed mainly ground-dwelling prey. Taken together, our findings support a functional interpretation of the many homoplasies shared by tarsiers and scops owls, including a retinal fovea. We suggest that the fovea might function similarly in tarsiers and scops owls by calibrating the auditory localization pathway. The integration of auditory localization and visual fixation during prey detection and acquisition might be critical at low light levels. PMID:25120441

  7. Individual Differences in Susceptibility to Inattentional Blindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seegmiller, Janelle K.; Watson, Jason M.; Strayer, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Inattentional blindness refers to the finding that people do not always see what appears in their gaze. Though inattentional blindness affects large percentages of people, it is unclear if there are individual differences in susceptibility. The present study addressed whether individual differences in attentional control, as reflected by…

  8. AGE-RELATED SUSCEPTIBILITY: A GENOMICS APPROACH.

    EPA Science Inventory

    By the year 2030 more than 70 million Americans will be over the age of 65. These older adults are a subpopulation that may have special susceptibility to toxic insult due to critical characteristics of their life-stage. Current EPA testing guidelines do not identify the elderl...

  9. Parasitism enhances tilapia susceptibility to Flavobacterium columnare

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flavobacterium columnare, a Gram-negative bacterium, is the causative agent of columnaris disease. Many commercially important freshwater fish worldwide are susceptible to columnaris disease that can result in high fish mortality. Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) is a protozoan parasite in many ...

  10. The magnetic susceptibility of European agricultural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabian, K.; Reimann, C.

    2012-04-01

    The GEMAS (Geochemical mapping of agricultural soils) project, a cooperation project between EuroGeoSurveys and Eurometaux, aims at providing soil quality data for Europe. Samples of arable soil were taken during 2008 at an average density of 1 site/2500 km2 covering the member states of the European Union (except Malta and Romania) and several neighbouring countries (e.g., Norway, Serbia, Ukraine). While the primary aim of the GEMAS project is to produce REACH (Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of CHemicals - EC, 2006) consistent soil geochemistry data at the continental scale, the data set is also optimally apt to provide the first continental scale overview of magnetic properties in European soils. Soil samples from the upper 20 cm were taken as composites from 5 sites spread over a ca. 100 m2 area in a large agricultural field (Ap-sample). The samples were air dried and sieved to pass a 2 mm nylon screen. Weight normalized magnetic susceptibility of these dried samples was measured using a Sapphire Instruments SI2B susceptibility meter with dynamic background removal. The here presented maps of magnetic susceptibility in relation to geochemical composition and geological structures for the first time allow to outline the large scale influence of tectonics and climate on magnetic mineral concentration in European soils. The data set also provides the background variability for regional studies aiming to relate magnetic susceptibility of soils to local contamination sources.

  11. Climate change and corn susceptibility to mycotoxins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize is an essential part of the world’s grain supply, but climate change has the potential to increase maize susceptibility to mycotoxigenic fungal pathogens and reduce food security and safety. While rising atmospheric [CO2] is a driving force of climate change, our understanding of how elevated ...

  12. Susceptibility of pathogenic and nonpathogenic Naegleria ssp

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, L.Y.

    1988-01-01

    The susceptibility of four species of Naegleria amoebae to complement-mediated lysis was determined. The amoebicidal activity of normal human serum (NHS) and normal guinea pig serum (NGPS) for Naegleria amoebae was measured by an in vitro cytotoxicity assay. Release of radioactivity from amoebae labeled with {sup 3}H-uridine and visual observation with a compound microscope were used as indices of lysis. Susceptibility or resistance to complement-mediated lysis in vitro correlated with the in vivo pathogenic potential. Nonpathogenic Naegleria amoebae were lysed at a faster rate and at higher cell concentrations than were pathogenic amoebae. Electrophoretic analysis of NHS incubated with pathogenic or nonpathogenic Naegleria spp. demonstrated that amoebae activate the complement cascade resulting in the production of C3 and C5 complement cleavage products. Treatment with papain or trypsin for 1 h, but not with sialidase, increase the susceptibility of highly pathogenic, mouse-passaged N. fowleri to lysis. Treatment with actinomycin D, cycloheximide or various protease inhibitors for 4 h did not increase susceptibility to lysis. Neither a repair process involving de novo protein synthesis nor a complement-inactivating protease appear to account for the increase resistance of N. fowleri amoebae to complement-mediated lysis. A binding study with {sup 125}I radiolabeled C9 indicated that the terminal complement component does not remain stably bound to the membrane of pathogenic amoebae.

  13. Update in genetic susceptibility in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Potrony, Miriam; Badenas, Celia; Aguilera, Paula; Puig-Butille, Joan Anton; Carrera, Cristina; Malvehy, Josep; Puig, Susana

    2015-09-01

    Melanoma is the most deadly of the common skin cancers and its incidence is rapidly increasing. Approximately 10% of cases occur in a familial context. To date, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A), which was identified as the first melanoma susceptibility gene more than 20 years ago, is the main high-risk gene for melanoma. A few years later cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) was also identified as a melanoma susceptibility gene. The technologic advances have allowed the identification of new genes involved in melanoma susceptibility: Breast cancer 1 (BRCA1) associated protein 1 (BAP1), CXC genes, telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), protection of telomeres 1 (POT1), ACD and TERF2IP, the latter four being involved in telomere maintenance. Furthermore variants in melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) give a moderately increased risk to develop melanoma. Melanoma genetic counseling is offered to families in order to better understand the disease and the genetic susceptibility of developing it. Genetic counseling often implies genetic testing, although patients can benefit from genetic counseling even when they do not fulfill the criteria for these tests. Genetic testing for melanoma predisposition mutations can be used in clinical practice under adequate selection criteria and giving a valid test interpretation and genetic counseling to the individual.

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING BREAST CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Factors Affecting Breast Cancer Susceptibility
    Suzanne. E. Fenton
    US EPA, ORD, MD-67 NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711.

    Breast cancer is still the most common malignancy afflicting women in the Western world. Alt...

  15. Update in genetic susceptibility in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Potrony, Miriam; Badenas, Celia; Aguilera, Paula; Puig-Butille, Joan Anton; Carrera, Cristina; Malvehy, Josep; Puig, Susana

    2015-09-01

    Melanoma is the most deadly of the common skin cancers and its incidence is rapidly increasing. Approximately 10% of cases occur in a familial context. To date, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A), which was identified as the first melanoma susceptibility gene more than 20 years ago, is the main high-risk gene for melanoma. A few years later cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) was also identified as a melanoma susceptibility gene. The technologic advances have allowed the identification of new genes involved in melanoma susceptibility: Breast cancer 1 (BRCA1) associated protein 1 (BAP1), CXC genes, telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), protection of telomeres 1 (POT1), ACD and TERF2IP, the latter four being involved in telomere maintenance. Furthermore variants in melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) give a moderately increased risk to develop melanoma. Melanoma genetic counseling is offered to families in order to better understand the disease and the genetic susceptibility of developing it. Genetic counseling often implies genetic testing, although patients can benefit from genetic counseling even when they do not fulfill the criteria for these tests. Genetic testing for melanoma predisposition mutations can be used in clinical practice under adequate selection criteria and giving a valid test interpretation and genetic counseling to the individual. PMID:26488006

  16. Fast measurement of bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappelle, E. W.; Picciolo, G. L.; Schrock, C. G.

    1977-01-01

    Method, based on photoanalysis of adenosine triphosphate using light-emitting reaction with luciferase-luciferin technique, saves time by eliminating isolation period required by conventional methods. Technique is also used to determine presence of infection as well as susceptibilities to several antibiotics.

  17. Update in genetic susceptibility in melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Potrony, Miriam; Badenas, Celia; Aguilera, Paula; Puig-Butille, Joan Anton; Carrera, Cristina; Malvehy, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma is the most deadly of the common skin cancers and its incidence is rapidly increasing. Approximately 10% of cases occur in a familial context. To date, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A), which was identified as the first melanoma susceptibility gene more than 20 years ago, is the main high-risk gene for melanoma. A few years later cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) was also identified as a melanoma susceptibility gene. The technologic advances have allowed the identification of new genes involved in melanoma susceptibility: Breast cancer 1 (BRCA1) associated protein 1 (BAP1), CXC genes, telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), protection of telomeres 1 (POT1), ACD and TERF2IP, the latter four being involved in telomere maintenance. Furthermore variants in melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) give a moderately increased risk to develop melanoma. Melanoma genetic counseling is offered to families in order to better understand the disease and the genetic susceptibility of developing it. Genetic counseling often implies genetic testing, although patients can benefit from genetic counseling even when they do not fulfill the criteria for these tests. Genetic testing for melanoma predisposition mutations can be used in clinical practice under adequate selection criteria and giving a valid test interpretation and genetic counseling to the individual. PMID:26488006

  18. Novel Cleft Susceptibility Genes in Chromosome 6q

    PubMed Central

    Letra, A.; Menezes, R.; Fonseca, R.F.; Govil, M.; McHenry, T.; Murphy, M.J.; Hennebold, J.D.; Granjeiro, J.M.; Castilla, E.E.; Orioli, I.M.; Martin, R.; Marazita, M.L.; Bjork, B.C.; Vieira, A.R.

    2010-01-01

    Cleft lip/palate is a defect of craniofacial development. In previous reports, chromosome 6q has been suggested as a candidate region for cleft lip/palate. A multipoint posterior probability of linkage analysis of multiplex families from the Philippines attributed an 88% probability of harboring a cleft-susceptibility gene to a narrower region on bands 6q14.2-14.3. We genotyped 2732 individuals from families and unrelated individuals with and without clefts to investigate the existence of possible cleft-susceptibility genes in this region. We found association of PRSS35 and SNAP91 genes with cleft lip/palate in the case-control cohort and in Caucasian families. Haplotype analyses support the individual associations with PRSS35. We found Prss35 expression in the head and palate of mouse embryos at critical stages for palatogenesis, whereas Snap91 was expressed in the adult brain. We provide further evidence of the involvement of chromosome 6q in cleft lip/palate and suggest PRSS35 as a novel candidate gene. PMID:20511563

  19. The menstrual cycle and susceptibility to coriolis-induced sickness.

    PubMed

    Cheung, B; Heskin, R; Hofer, K; Gagnon, M

    2001-01-01

    Survey studies on motion sickness susceptibility suggest that females tend to report greater severity in illness and higher incidence of vomiting than males. Menstruation is said to be a contributing factor. A recent study suggested that females were least susceptible to seasickness during ovulation in a "round the world" yacht race. Sixteen subjects (18-36 years old) were exposed to Coriolis cross-coupling stimulation in the laboratory. They were tested once during permenstruation (Day 1-5), ovulation (Day 12-15) and premenstruation (Day 24-28), based on a normalized 28-day cycle, in a randomised design. Physiological measurements of motion sickness included forearm and calf cutaneous blood flow. Subjective evaluation of sickness symptoms was based on Graybiel's diagnostic criteria and Golding's rating method. Our results indicated that under controlled laboratory conditions, different phases of the menstrual cycle appear to have no influence on subjective symptoms of motion sickness or on cutaneous blood flow increase in the forearm and calf. The lack of commonality between the types and levels of hormones that are released during motion sickness and those that are involved in different menstrual phases appears to support our findings.

  20. Phylogeny, life history, and ecology contribute to differences in amphibian susceptibility to ranaviruses.

    PubMed

    Hoverman, Jason T; Gray, Matthew J; Haislip, Nathan A; Miller, Debra L

    2011-09-01

    Research that identifies the potential host range of generalist pathogens as well as variation in host susceptibility is critical for understanding and predicting the dynamics of infectious diseases within ecological communities. Ranaviruses have been linked to amphibian die-off events worldwide with the greatest number of reported mortality events occurring in the United States. While reports of ranavirus-associated mortality events continue to accumulate, few data exist comparing the relative susceptibility of different species. Using a series of laboratory exposure experiments and comparative phylogenetics, we compared the susceptibilities of 19 amphibian species from two salamander families and five anurans families for two ranavirus isolates: frog virus 3 (FV3) and an FV3-like isolate from an American bullfrog culture facility. We discovered that ranaviruses were capable of infecting 17 of the 19 larval amphibian species tested with mortality ranging from 0 to 100%. Phylogenetic comparative methods demonstrated that species within the anuran family Ranidae were generally more susceptible to ranavirus infection compared to species from the other five families. We also found that susceptibility to infection was associated with species that breed in semi-permanent ponds, develop rapidly as larvae, and have limited range sizes. Collectively, these results suggest that phylogeny, life history characteristics, and habitat associations of amphibians have the potential to impact susceptibility to ranaviruses. PMID:22071720

  1. Differential susceptibility to the environment: Are developmental models compatible with the evidence from twin studies?

    PubMed

    Del Giudice, Marco

    2016-08-01

    According to models of differential susceptibility, the same neurobiological and temperamental traits that determine increased sensitivity to stress and adversity also confer enhanced responsivity to the positive aspects of the environment. Differential susceptibility models have expanded to include complex developmental processes in which genetic variation interacts with exposure to early environmental factors, such as prenatal stress hormones and family conflict. In this study I employed a simulation approach to explore whether, and under what conditions, developmental models of differential susceptibility are compatible with the cumulative findings from twin studies of personality and behavior, which consistently show sizable effects of genetic and nonshared environmental factors and small to negligible effects of the shared environment. Simulation results showed that, to a first approximation, current alternative models of differential susceptibility are all equally compatible with the evidence from twin research; that sizable interaction effects involving individual differences in plasticity are plausible, but only if direct environmental effects are correspondingly weak; and that a major role of shared environmental factors is plausible in early development (consistent with the developmental mechanisms postulated in the differential susceptibility literature) but not in later development. These results support the general plausibility of differential susceptibility models and suggest some realistic constraints on their assumptions. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27455408

  2. Susceptibility indexing method for irrigation water management planning: applications to K. Menderes river basin, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Pusatli, O Tolga; Camur, M Zeki; Yazicigil, Hasan

    2009-01-01

    A susceptibility indexing method was developed based on vulnerability and quality indices. The contamination susceptibility index (SI) at a given location was calculated by taking the product of the vulnerability index (VI) and the quality index (QI): SI=VIxQI. This method incorporates both hydrogeological and hydrochemical data for a comprehensive index mapping. The DRASTIC index methodology was used for the hydrogeological data evaluations. The quality index calculation procedure based on a water quality classification scheme was introduced to evaluate hydrochemical data. The suggested susceptibility indexing method was applied to the Küçük Menderes river basin located in western Turkey. The susceptibility index map shows both hydrogeological and hydrochemical data related to the contamination problem including areas that should be taken into consideration during water management planning. The index map indicates that the most susceptible groundwater is located along the river channel between Kiraz and Tire towns, in the Selçuk area and along the Fertek stream channel to the north of Torbali town. The results indicate that the incorporation of both hydrogeological and hydrochemical datasets enables more realistic evaluations than those of an individual dataset to estimate the groundwater contamination susceptibility of an aquifer. The numerical procedure applied could be extended further by including other parameters such as retardation, potential contaminant sources, etc. that affect the water quality in a given basin.

  3. Integrating Susceptibility into Environmental Policy: An Analysis of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for Lead

    PubMed Central

    Chari, Ramya; Burke, Thomas A.; White, Ronald H.; Fox, Mary A.

    2012-01-01

    Susceptibility to chemical toxins has not been adequately addressed in risk assessment methodologies. As a result, environmental policies may fail to meet their fundamental goal of protecting the public from harm. This study examines how characterization of risk may change when susceptibility is explicitly considered in policy development; in particular we examine the process used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to set a National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for lead. To determine a NAAQS, EPA estimated air lead-related decreases in child neurocognitive function through a combination of multiple data elements including concentration-response (CR) functions. In this article, we present alternative scenarios for determining a lead NAAQS using CR functions developed in populations more susceptible to lead toxicity due to socioeconomic disadvantage. The use of CR functions developed in susceptible groups resulted in cognitive decrements greater than original EPA estimates. EPA’s analysis suggested that a standard level of 0.15 µg/m3 would fulfill decision criteria, but by incorporating susceptibility we found that options for the standard could reasonably be extended to lower levels. The use of data developed in susceptible populations would result in the selection of a more protective NAAQS under the same decision framework applied by EPA. Results are used to frame discussion regarding why cumulative risk assessment methodologies are needed to help inform policy development. PMID:22690184

  4. Meta-analysis and genome-wide interpretation of genetic susceptibility to drug addiction

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Classical genetic studies provide strong evidence for heritable contributions to susceptibility to developing dependence on addictive substances. Candidate gene and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have sought genes, chromosomal regions and allelic variants likely to contribute to susceptibility to drug addiction. Results Here, we performed a meta-analysis of addiction candidate gene association studies and GWAS to investigate possible functional mechanisms associated with addiction susceptibility. From meta-data retrieved from 212 publications on candidate gene association studies and 5 GWAS reports, we linked a total of 843 haplotypes to addiction susceptibility. We mapped the SNPs in these haplotypes to functional and regulatory elements in the genome and estimated the magnitude of the contributions of different molecular mechanisms to their effects on addiction susceptibility. In addition to SNPs in coding regions, these data suggest that haplotypes in gene regulatory regions may also contribute to addiction susceptibility. When we compared the lists of genes identified by association studies and those identified by molecular biological studies of drug-regulated genes, we observed significantly higher participation in the same gene interaction networks than expected by chance, despite little overlap between the two gene lists. Conclusions These results appear to offer new insights into the genetic factors underlying drug addiction. PMID:21999673

  5. Central Gain Control in Tinnitus and Hyperacusis

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach, Benjamin D.; Rodrigues, Paulo V.; Salvi, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss induced by noise or ototoxic drug exposure reduces the neural activity transmitted from the cochlea to the central auditory system. Despite a reduced cochlear output, neural activity from more central auditory structures is paradoxically enhanced at suprathreshold intensities. This compensatory increase in the central auditory activity in response to the loss of sensory input is referred to as central gain enhancement. Enhanced central gain is hypothesized to be a potential mechanism that gives rise to hyperacusis and tinnitus, two debilitating auditory perceptual disorders that afflict millions of individuals. This review will examine the evidence for gain enhancement in the central auditory system in response to cochlear damage. Further, it will address the potential cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this enhancement and discuss the contribution of central gain enhancement to tinnitus and hyperacusis. Current evidence suggests that multiple mechanisms with distinct temporal and spectral profiles are likely to contribute to central gain enhancement. Dissecting the contributions of these different mechanisms at different levels of the central auditory system is essential for elucidating the role of central gain enhancement in tinnitus and hyperacusis and, most importantly, the development of novel treatments for these disorders. PMID:25386157

  6. Comparison of Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Urogenital Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates Obtained from Women and Men

    PubMed Central

    Kidd, Sarah; Moore, Page C.; Kirkcaldy, Robert D.; Philip, Susan S.; Wiesenfeld, Harold C.; Papp, John R.; Kerndt, Peter R.; Venkatasubramanian, Lalitha; Ghanem, Khalil G.; Hook, Edward W.

    2015-01-01

    Background The United States’ (US) system for gonococcal antimicrobial susceptibility surveillance monitors trends exclusively among men with urethral infection, the population from whom the yield of gonococcal culture is highest. Little is known about the susceptibility of female urogenital isolates, and it is unclear whether gonococcal susceptibility among men who report sex exclusively with women (MSW) is representative of susceptibility among women. Methods Using isolates collected during a recent treatment trial in five US cities, we performed a secondary analysis to compare antimicrobial susceptibilities of N. gonorrhoeae urogenital isolates obtained from women, MSW, and men who have sex with men (MSM). Pre-treatment isolates were collected from trial participants; minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by agar dilution. Geometric mean MICs were adjusted for geographic location using general linear models. Results Susceptibility data for urogenital isolates from 56 women, 252 MSW, and 170 MSM were studied. The adjusted geometric mean ceftriaxone MIC was similar among women (0.0067 μg/ml, 95% CI 0.0049–0.0092 μg/ml) and MSW (0.0060 μg/ml, 95% CI 0.0053–0.0066 μg/ml). In contrast, the adjusted geometric mean ceftriaxone MIC was higher among MSM (0.0098 μg/ml, 95% CI 0.0082–0.0119 μg/ml) than MSW. This same pattern was observed for other antimicrobials, including cefixime and azithromycin Conclusions Ceftriaxone, cefixime, and azithromycin MICs were higher among MSM than MSW, but were similar among women and MSW. These findings suggest that gonococcal antimicrobial susceptibility surveillance based on urethral isolates from MSW may adequately represent susceptibility of urogenital N. gonorrhoeae in women. PMID:26165435

  7. Hyperinducibility of Ia antigen on astrocytes correlates with strain-specific susceptibility to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed Central

    Massa, P T; ter Meulen, V; Fontana, A

    1987-01-01

    In search of a phenotypic marker determining genetically controlled susceptibility to delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions in the brain--in particular, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)--we have compared the gamma-interferon (IFN-gamma) induction of Ia molecules on astrocytes and macrophages from rat and mouse strains that are susceptible or resistant to this disease. We focused on Ia expression because DTH reactions to self or foreign antigens are largely mediated by lymphocytes restricted by class II (Ia) antigens of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Our data demonstrate that Lewis (fully susceptible) and Brown Norway (BN) (fully resistant) rats are very different in that Lewis astrocytes express much higher levels of Ia than BN astrocytes. Similar data were obtained from an analysis of EAE-susceptible and -resistant mouse strains (SJL and BALB/c, respectively), which suggests that this phenomenon may be universal and not limited to only one mammalian species. At least one gene responsible for Ia hyperinduction is located outside the rat RT-1 or the mouse MHC locus. Animals congenic at the RT-1 or MHC locus of the resistant strain but with background genes of the susceptible strain exhibit intermediate levels of Ia compared to fully resistant and susceptible rodents, which fits well with the reduced EAE susceptibility of these congenic animals. Furthermore, hyperinduction of Ia is astrocyte specific, since peritoneal macrophages of susceptible and resistant strains exhibit identical profiles of Ia induction. Thus, astrocyte Ia hyperinducibility may be a major strain- and tissue-specific factor that contributes to Ia-restricted DTH reactions in the brain. Images PMID:3495802

  8. Brain systems underlying susceptibility to helplessness and depression.

    PubMed

    Shumake, J; Gonzalez-Lima, F

    2003-09-01

    There has been a relative lack of research into the neurobiological predispositions that confer vulnerability to depression. This article reviews functional brain mappings from a genetic animal model, the congenitally helpless rat, which is predisposed to develop learned helplessness. Neurometabolic findings from this model are integrated with the neuroscientific literature from other animal models of depression as well as depressed humans. Changes in four major brain systems are suggested to underlie susceptibility to helplessness and possibly depression: (a) an unbalanced prefrontal-cingulate cortical system, (b) a dissociated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, (c) a dissociated septal-hippocampal system, and (d) a hypoactive brain reward system, as exemplified by a hypermetabolic habenula-interpeduncular nucleus pathway and a hypometabolic ventral tegmental area-striatum pathway. Functional interconnections and causal relationships among these systems are considered and further experiments are suggested, with theoretical attention to how an abnormality in any one system could affect the others.

  9. Does Titan's Slightly Oblate Shape suggest a Capture Origin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prentice, A. J.

    2010-12-01

    Cassini radar observations show that Titan is slightly oblate (Zebker et al, 2009 Science 324 921). The average polar radius falls short of the expected value by 120 m. The synchronously rotating ellipsoid of uniform density that best matches Titan’s shape has a spin rate that is 1.12 times faster than the present rate. Next, a freely-spinning, uniform-density, oblate spheroid of Titan’s mass and mean size which best fits the satellite’s shape has a polar radius which equals the observed value exactly. The spin rate of this hydrostatic equilibrium object is 1.97 times the present value. These calculation are based on the theory of rotating fluid satellites developed by Dermott (1988, Icarus 37 575). The Titan shape data, along with the existence of the non-zero value of the eccentricity of Titan’s orbit, re-awaken the possibility that Titan did not originally condense in orbit about Saturn (Prentice, 1980 JPL Publication 80-80; 1984 Earth, Moon and Planets 30 209). Instead, it is suggested that Titan first condensed as a secondary solid embryo within the gas ring that was shed by protosolar cloud (hereafter PSC) at Saturn’s orbital distance from the Sun. By forming in a free orbit about the PSC, Titan’s shape would have initially been that of an oblate spheroid, like Ceres. Next, the condensate that forms in the PSC gas ring of temperature 94 K consists of anhydrous rock (mass fraction 0.4925), water ice (0.4739) and graphite (0.0336). Its mean density at 94 K is 1.5221 g/cm3 (Prentice, 2006 Publ. Astron. Soc. Australia 23 1; 2007 38th LPSC, 2402.pdf). The gravity measurements of Iess et al (2010 Science 327 1367) have revealed that the interior of Titan is in a state of incomplete separation between the rock and ice phases. The axial moment of inertia is C/MR2 = 0.342. The gravity data suggest that the interior of Titan is cold and that its structure consists of a central core of rock and ice that is surmounted by a mantle of pure ice. The non

  10. INCREASED SUSCEPTIBILITY OF ADULTS FOLLOWING DEVELOPMENT EXPOSURE TO NEUROTOXICANTS: ANOTHER SUSCEPTIBLE POPULATION?

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is considerable public and regulatory interest in the adverse outcomes of developmental exposure to toxicants. The 1996 Food Quality Protection Act spurred research on understanding potential neurotoxic, immunotoxic, and endocrine outcomes in susceptible populations, parti...

  11. Magnetic Susceptibility of Wet vs. Dry Sediment and Mass Normalized vs. Volume Normalized Magnetic Susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kletetschka, G.; Hruba, J.; Nabelek, L.

    2015-12-01

    The measurement of magnetic susceptibility in sediments represents a fast and non-destructive technique that can be used to deduce the concentration of magnetic minerals [1, 2]. Magnetic minerals change their magnetic properties with temperature [3]. Heating (during a fire, laboratory, with the purpose of manufacturing a product, etc.) can modify a number of sediment properties [4, 5]. Heat-induced sediment mineralogical changes may cause irreversible changes in the sediment mineral structure and composition, and they occur at a wide range of temperature [6]. We provided measurements of magnetic susceptibility on samples from the Stara Jimka (SJ) paleo lacustrine site in the Bohemian Forest using magnetic susceptibility meter MS-30. Sediment samples of approximately 0.2 cm thickness were weighed and put into plastic containers. First, measurements of magnetic susceptibility were taken on wet samples. Then the containers were put into the oven and sediment was dried at temperature of 110°C. After drying and cooling to room temperature, measurements of magnetic susceptibility were repeated. Dry samples were also weighed. Comparison of magnetic susceptibility of dry versus wet samples showed higher values of magnetic susceptibility of dry samples. This enhancement was probably caused during oven-drying, when constituents of sediment (mainly clays) underwent heat-induced changes. We also compared volume normalized values of magnetic susceptibility with mass normalized values. Mass normalized magnetic susceptibility was burdened by greater noise. References: [1] QUIJANO, L. et al. 2001. Magnetic Susceptibilty in Topsoils and Bulk Cores of Cultivated Calcisols. [2] DEARING, J. A. 1994. Environmental Magnetic Susceptibility. [3] HANESCH, M. and SCHOLGER, R. 2005. The Influence of Soil Type on the Magnetic Susceptibility Measured throughout Soil Profiles. [4] FARWIG, V. J. et al. 2004. The Effects of Heating on Mineral Magnetic Enhancement of Soils. [5] KLETETSCHKA, G

  12. Polymorphic variation in susceptibility and metabolism of triclosan-resistant mutants of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical strains obtained after exposure to biocides and antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Curiao, Tânia; Marchi, Emmanuela; Viti, Carlo; Oggioni, Marco R; Baquero, Fernando; Martinez, José Luis; Coque, Teresa M

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to biocides may result in cross-resistance to other antimicrobials. Changes in biocide and antibiotic susceptibilities, metabolism, and fitness costs were studied here in biocide-selected Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae mutants. E. coli and K. pneumoniae mutants with various degrees of triclosan susceptibility were obtained after exposure to triclosan (TRI), benzalkonium chloride (BKC), chlorhexidine (CHX) or sodium hypochlorite (SHC), and ampicillin or ciprofloxacin. Alterations in antimicrobial susceptibility and metabolism in mutants were tested using Phenotype MicroArrays. The expression of AcrAB pump and global regulators (SoxR, MarA, and RamA) was measured by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR), and the central part of the fabI gene was sequenced. The fitness costs of resistance were assessed by a comparison of relative growth rates. Triclosan-resistant (TRI(r)) and triclosan-hypersusceptible (TRI(hs)) mutants of E. coli and K. pneumoniae were obtained after selection with biocides and/or antibiotics. E. coli TRI(r) mutants, including those with mutations in the fabI gene or in the expression of acrB, acrF, and marA, exhibited changes in susceptibility to TRI, CHX, and antibiotics. TRI(r) mutants for which the TRI MIC was high presented improved metabolism of carboxylic acids, amino acids, and carbohydrates. In TRI(r) mutants, resistance to one antimicrobial provoked hypersusceptibility to another one(s). TRI(r) mutants had fitness costs, particularly marA-overexpressing (E. coli) or ramA-overexpressing (K. pneumoniae) mutants. TRI, BKC, and CIP exposure frequently yielded TRI(r) mutants exhibiting alterations in AraC-like global regulators (MarA, SoxR, and RamA), AcrAB-TolC, and/or FabI, and influencing antimicrobial susceptibility, fitness, and metabolism. These various phenotypes suggest a trade-off of different selective processes shaping the evolution toward antibiotic/biocide resistance and influencing other adaptive

  13. Debris-flow susceptibility map of Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komac, M.; Kumelj, Š.; Ribičič, M.

    2009-04-01

    Until now debris-flow susceptibility was relatively poorly investigated in Slovenia. Regarding lack of such studies »Map of debris-flow susceptibility in Slovenia in scale 1.250.000« was elaborated using GIS and the latest spatial data was used; among them the latest lithological map of Slovenia in scale 1:250.000. For the creation of debris-flow susceptibility map of Slovenia in scale 1:250.000 seven considered most important factors were used that were divided into two groups: 1) initial factors that precondition debris-flows: lithology, slope angle, slope potential, 48-hours precipitation and 2) transport factors that contribute to higher probability of the transport of debris-flow material: terrain convexity, energy potential of streams, distance to surface water. Using linear weighted sum the precondition information layer was derived, and the same principal was used to derive transport information layer. Both layers were joined into final susceptibility assessment, again with consideration of their importance to contribute to debris-flow occurrence. Different weights were applied to chosen parameters, which resulted in several different models that were evaluated according to historical or recent debris-flow phenomena. Expert estimation was used to define the torrential areas with high probability of the debris-flow occurrence. The emphasis was on location rather than on the time of the debris-flow occurrence. There were unfortunately no adequate representative data about debris-flow in Slovenia (debris flow cadastre does not exist and not many historical studies have been done so far) for the quantitative statistical analysis. Hence only expert estimation approach was possible, based on the experience and historical events gathered from chronicles and eyewitness. Such an approach is mainly limited by subjectivity and has difficulties with sound argumentation, but at the given state it was the only possible approach. Based upon spatial analyses of four

  14. Rapid cytometric antibiotic susceptibility testing utilizing adaptive multidimensional statistical metrics.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tzu-Hsueh; Ning, Xinghai; Wang, Xiaojian; Murthy, Niren; Tzeng, Yih-Ling; Dickson, Robert M

    2015-02-01

    Flow cytometry holds promise to accelerate antibiotic susceptibility determinations; however, without robust multidimensional statistical analysis, general discrimination criteria have remained elusive. In this study, a new statistical method, probability binning signature quadratic form (PB-sQF), was developed and applied to analyze flow cytometric data of bacterial responses to antibiotic exposure. Both sensitive lab strains (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and a multidrug resistant, clinically isolated strain (E. coli) were incubated with the bacteria-targeted dye, maltohexaose-conjugated IR786, and each of many bactericidal or bacteriostatic antibiotics to identify changes induced around corresponding minimum inhibition concentrations (MIC). The antibiotic-induced damages were monitored by flow cytometry after 1-h incubation through forward scatter, side scatter, and fluorescence channels. The 3-dimensional differences between the flow cytometric data of the no-antibiotic treated bacteria and the antibiotic-treated bacteria were characterized by PB-sQF into a 1-dimensional linear distance. A 99% confidence level was established by statistical bootstrapping for each antibiotic-bacteria pair. For the susceptible E. coli strain, statistically significant increments from this 99% confidence level were observed from 1/16x MIC to 1x MIC for all the antibiotics. The same increments were recorded for P. aeruginosa, which has been reported to cause difficulty in flow-based viability tests. For the multidrug resistant E. coli, significant distances from control samples were observed only when an effective antibiotic treatment was utilized. Our results suggest that a rapid and robust antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST) can be constructed by statistically characterizing the differences between sample and control flow cytometric populations, even in a label-free scheme with scattered light alone. These distances vs paired controls coupled with rigorous

  15. Aphid-encoded variability in susceptibility to a parasitoid

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many animals exhibit variation in resistance to specific natural enemies. Such variation may be encoded in their genomes or derived from infection with protective symbionts. The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, for example, exhibits tremendous variation in susceptibility to a common natural enemy, the parasitic wasp Aphidius ervi. Pea aphids are often infected with the heritable bacterial symbiont, Hamiltonella defensa, which confers partial to complete resistance against this parasitoid depending on bacterial strain and associated bacteriophages. That previous studies found that pea aphids without H. defensa (or other symbionts) were generally susceptible to parasitism, together with observations of a limited encapsulation response, suggested that pea aphids largely rely on infection with H. defensa for protection against parasitoids. However, the limited number of uninfected clones previously examined, and our recent report of two symbiont-free resistant clones, led us to explicitly examine aphid-encoded variability in resistance to parasitoids. Results After rigorous screening for known and unknown symbionts, and microsatellite genotyping to confirm clonal identity, we conducted parasitism assays using fifteen clonal pea aphid lines. We recovered significant variability in aphid-encoded resistance, with variation levels comparable to that contributed by H. defensa. Because resistance can be costly, we also measured aphid longevity and cumulative fecundity of the most and least resistant aphid lines under permissive conditions, but found no trade-offs between higher resistance and these fitness parameters. Conclusions These results indicate that pea aphid resistance to A. ervi is more complex than previously appreciated, and that aphids employ multiple tactics to aid in their defense. While we did not detect a tradeoff, these may become apparent under stressful conditions or when resistant and susceptible aphids are in direct competition. Understanding

  16. Red Blood Cell Polymorphism and Susceptibility to Plasmodium vivax

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Peter A.; Ferreira, Marcelo U.; Howes, Rosalind E.; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile

    2013-01-01

    Resistance to Plasmodium vivax blood-stage infection has been widely recognised to result from absence of the Duffy (Fy) blood group from the surface of red blood cells (RBCs) in individuals of African descent. Interestingly, recent studies from different malaria-endemic regions have begun to reveal new perspectives on the association between Duffy gene polymorphism and P. vivax malaria. In Papua New Guinea and the Americas, heterozygous carriers of a Duffy-negative allele are less susceptible to P. vivax infection than Duffy-positive homozygotes. In Brazil, studies show that the Fya antigen, compared to Fyb, is associated with lower binding to the P. vivax Duffy-binding protein and reduced susceptibility to vivax malaria. Additionally, it is interesting that numerous studies have now shown that P. vivax can infect RBCs and cause clinical disease in Duffy-negative people. This suggests that the relationship between P. vivax and the Duffy antigen is more complex than customarily described. Evidence of P. vivax Duffy-independent red cell invasion indicates that the parasite must be evolving alternative red cell invasion pathways. In this chapter, we review the evidence for P. vivax Duffy-dependent and Duffy-independent red cell invasion. We also consider the influence of further host gene polymorphism associated with malaria endemicity on susceptibility to vivax malaria. The interaction between the parasite and the RBC has significant potential to influence the effectiveness of P. vivax-specific vaccines and drug treatments. Ultimately, the relationships between red cell polymorphisms and P. vivax blood-stage infection will influence our estimates on the population at risk and efforts to eliminate vivax malaria. PMID:23384621

  17. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Microorganisms Isolated from Periapical Periodontitis Lesions.

    PubMed

    Narita, Masato; Shibahara, Takahiko; Takano, Nobuo; Fujii, Rie; Okuda, Katsuji; Ishihara, Kazuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Periapical periodontitis usually results from microbial infection, with these microorganisms occasionally migrating to the root canal, which can lead to further, potentially life-threatening, complications. Here, the susceptibility of 27 bacterial strains to various antimicrobial agents was evaluated. These strains comprised 13 species; 16 of the strains were clinical isolates from periapical lesions. Each strain was inoculated onto blood agar plates containing one of the antimicrobial agents. The plates were incubated anaerobically at 37°C for 96 hr and the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) determined. Ten strains required an MIC of 32 μg/ml or greater for amoxicillin, 6 for cefmetazole, and 5 for cefcapene among β-lactam antibiotics; 8 strains required an MIC of 32 μg/ml or greater for clindamycin, 4 for azithromycin, and 11 for clarithromycin among macrolide antibiotics; 3 strains required an MIC of 32 μg/ml or greater for ciprofloxacin and 2 for ofloxacin among fluoroquinolones. The effect of cefcapene on 5 strains was evaluated after biofilm formation to investigate the relationship between biofilm formation and susceptibility. All strains showed a decrease in susceptibility after biofilm formation. The results revealed that several antimicrobial agents commonly used in a clinical setting, including amoxicillin, cefmetazole, and clindamycin, are potentially effective in the treatment of orofacial odontogenic infections. The development of resistant strains, however, means that this can no longer be guaranteed. In addition, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin were more effective than the 3 β-lactam antibiotics tested. These results suggest that sensitivity testing is needed if odontogenic infections are to be treated safely and effectively. PMID:27665691

  18. RAD51 and Breast Cancer Susceptibility: No Evidence for Rare Variant Association in the Breast Cancer Family Registry Study

    PubMed Central

    Le Calvez-Kelm, Florence; Oliver, Javier; Damiola, Francesca; Forey, Nathalie; Robinot, Nivonirina; Durand, Geoffroy; Voegele, Catherine; Vallée, Maxime P.; Byrnes, Graham; Registry, Breast Cancer Family; Hopper, John L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Andrulis, Irene L.; John, Esther M.; Tavtigian, Sean V.; Lesueur, Fabienne

    2012-01-01

    Background Although inherited breast cancer has been associated with germline mutations in genes that are functionally involved in the DNA homologous recombination repair (HRR) pathway, including BRCA1, BRCA2, TP53, ATM, BRIP1, CHEK2 and PALB2, about 70% of breast cancer heritability remains unexplained. Because of their critical functions in maintaining genome integrity and already well-established associations with breast cancer susceptibility, it is likely that additional genes involved in the HRR pathway harbor sequence variants associated with increased risk of breast cancer. RAD51 plays a central biological function in DNA repair and despite the fact that rare, likely dysfunctional variants in three of its five paralogs, RAD51C, RAD51D, and XRCC2, have been associated with breast and/or ovarian cancer risk, no population-based case-control mutation screening data are available for the RAD51 gene. We thus postulated that RAD51 could harbor rare germline mutations that confer increased risk of breast cancer. Methodology/Principal Findings We screened the coding exons and proximal splice junction regions of the gene for germline sequence variation in 1,330 early-onset breast cancer cases and 1,123 controls from the Breast Cancer Family Registry, using the same population-based sampling and analytical strategy that we developed for assessment of rare sequence variants in ATM and CHEK2. In total, 12 distinct very rare or private variants were characterized in RAD51, with 10 cases (0.75%) and 9 controls (0.80%) carrying such a variant. Variants were either likely neutral missense substitutions (3), silent substitutions (4) or non-coding substitutions (5) that were predicted to have little effect on efficiency of the splicing machinery. Conclusion Altogether, our data suggest that RAD51 tolerates so little dysfunctional sequence variation that rare variants in the gene contribute little, if anything, to breast cancer susceptibility. PMID:23300655

  19. Host susceptibility of citrus cultivars to Queensland fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Lloyd, A C; Hamacek, E L; Smith, D; Kopittke, R A; Gu, H

    2013-04-01

    Citrus crops are considered to be relatively poor hosts for Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), as for other tephritid species. Australian citrus growers and crop consultants have reported observable differences in susceptibility of different citrus cultivars under commercial growing conditions. In this study we conducted laboratory tests and field surveys to determine susceptibility to B. tryoni of six citrus cultivars [(Eureka lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck); Navel and Valencia oranges (C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck); and Imperial, Ellendale, and Murcott mandarins (C. reticulata Blanco). The host susceptibility of these citrus cultivars was quantified by a Host Susceptibility Index, which is defined as the number of adult flies produced per gram of fruit infested at a calculated rate of one egg per gram of fruit. The HSI was ranked as Murcott (0.083) > Imperial (0.052) > Navel (0.026) - Ellendale (0.020) > Valencia (0.008) > Eureka (yellow) (0.002) > Eureka (green) (0). Results of the laboratory study were in agreement with the level of field infestation in the four citrus cultivars (Eureka lemon, Imperial, Ellendale, and Murcott mandarins) that were surveyed from commercial orchards under baiting treatments against fruit flies in the Central Burnett district of Queensland. Field surveys of citrus hosts from the habitats not subject to fruit fly management showed that the numbers of fruit flies produced per gram of fruit were much lower, compared with the more susceptible noncitrus hosts, such as guava (Psidium guajava L.), cherry guava (P. littorale Raddi), mulberry (Morus nigra L.), loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.), and pear (Pyrus communis L.). Therefore, the major citrus crops commercially cultivated in Australia have a relatively low susceptibility to B. tryoni, with Eureka lemons being a particularly poor host for this tephritid fruit fly. PMID:23786078

  20. Host susceptibility of citrus cultivars to Queensland fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Lloyd, A C; Hamacek, E L; Smith, D; Kopittke, R A; Gu, H

    2013-04-01

    Citrus crops are considered to be relatively poor hosts for Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), as for other tephritid species. Australian citrus growers and crop consultants have reported observable differences in susceptibility of different citrus cultivars under commercial growing conditions. In this study we conducted laboratory tests and field surveys to determine susceptibility to B. tryoni of six citrus cultivars [(Eureka lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck); Navel and Valencia oranges (C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck); and Imperial, Ellendale, and Murcott mandarins (C. reticulata Blanco). The host susceptibility of these citrus cultivars was quantified by a Host Susceptibility Index, which is defined as the number of adult flies produced per gram of fruit infested at a calculated rate of one egg per gram of fruit. The HSI was ranked as Murcott (0.083) > Imperial (0.052) > Navel (0.026) - Ellendale (0.020) > Valencia (0.008) > Eureka (yellow) (0.002) > Eureka (green) (0). Results of the laboratory study were in agreement with the level of field infestation in the four citrus cultivars (Eureka lemon, Imperial, Ellendale, and Murcott mandarins) that were surveyed from commercial orchards under baiting treatments against fruit flies in the Central Burnett district of Queensland. Field surveys of citrus hosts from the habitats not subject to fruit fly management showed that the numbers of fruit flies produced per gram of fruit were much lower, compared with the more susceptible noncitrus hosts, such as guava (Psidium guajava L.), cherry guava (P. littorale Raddi), mulberry (Morus nigra L.), loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.), and pear (Pyrus communis L.). Therefore, the major citrus crops commercially cultivated in Australia have a relatively low susceptibility to B. tryoni, with Eureka lemons being a particularly poor host for this tephritid fruit fly.

  1. Central line complications

    PubMed Central

    Kornbau, Craig; Lee, Kathryn C; Hughes, Gwendolyn D; Firstenberg, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Central venous access is a common procedure performed in many clinical settings for a variety of indications. Central lines are not without risk, and there are a multitude of complications that are associated with their placement. Complications can present in an immediate or delayed fashion and vary based on type of central venous access. Significant morbidity and mortality can result from complications related to central venous access. These complications can cause a significant healthcare burden in cost, hospital days, and patient quality of life. Advances in imaging, access technique, and medical devices have reduced and altered the types of complications encountered in clinical practice; but most complications still center around vascular injury, infection, and misplacement. Recognition and management of central line complications is important when caring for patients with vascular access, but prevention is the ultimate goal. This article discusses common and rare complications associated with central venous access, as well as techniques to recognize, manage, and prevent complications. PMID:26557487

  2. Preoperative determination of susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Carson, J M; Van Sickels, J E

    1982-07-01

    A careful individual and family history is of utmost importance in evaluating MH susceptibility. Patients having myopathy with or without a significant family history of MH must be suspected of having the condition. The initial evaluation should include routine blood studies and CPK determinations in addition to an electrocardiogram. Full evaluation differentiating rigid from nonrigid types must include a muscle biopsy for microscopic and contraction studies. Platelet ATP depletion with exposure to halothane shows promise as a prescreening test. Susceptible patients can be given both general and local anesthetics if the surgeon and support personnel have a thorough understanding of MH and if proper precautions have been taken and preparation of facilities has been made. PMID:6953194

  3. Lactobacillus species: taxonomic complexity and controversial susceptibilities.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Ellie J C; Tyrrell, Kerin L; Citron, Diane M

    2015-05-15

    The genus Lactobacillus is a taxonomically complex and is composed of over 170 species that cannot be easily differentiated phenotypically and often require molecular identification. Although they are part of the normal human gastrointestinal and vaginal flora, they can also be occasional human pathogens. They are extensively used in a variety of commercial products including probiotics. Their antimicrobial susceptibilities are poorly defined in part because of their taxonomic complexity and are compounded by the different methods recommended by Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute and International Dairy Foundation. Their use as probiotics for prevention of Clostridium difficile infection is prevalent among consumers worldwide but raises the question of will the use of any concurrent antibiotic effect their ability to survive. Lactobacillus species are generally acid resistant and are able to survive ingestion. They are generally resistant to metronidazole, aminoglycosides and ciprofloxacin with L. acidophilus being susceptible to penicillin and vancomycin, whereas L. rhamnosus and L. casei are resistant to metronidazole and vancomycin.

  4. Lactobacillus species: taxonomic complexity and controversial susceptibilities.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Ellie J C; Tyrrell, Kerin L; Citron, Diane M

    2015-05-15

    The genus Lactobacillus is a taxonomically complex and is composed of over 170 species that cannot be easily differentiated phenotypically and often require molecular identification. Although they are part of the normal human gastrointestinal and vaginal flora, they can also be occasional human pathogens. They are extensively used in a variety of commercial products including probiotics. Their antimicrobial susceptibilities are poorly defined in part because of their taxonomic complexity and are compounded by the different methods recommended by Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute and International Dairy Foundation. Their use as probiotics for prevention of Clostridium difficile infection is prevalent among consumers worldwide but raises the question of will the use of any concurrent antibiotic effect their ability to survive. Lactobacillus species are generally acid resistant and are able to survive ingestion. They are generally resistant to metronidazole, aminoglycosides and ciprofloxacin with L. acidophilus being susceptible to penicillin and vancomycin, whereas L. rhamnosus and L. casei are resistant to metronidazole and vancomycin. PMID:25922408

  5. Magnetization and magnetic susceptibility of kunzite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartkowska, J. A.; Cisowski, J.; Voiron, J.; Heimann, J.; Czaja, M.; Mazurak, Z.

    2000-11-01

    We have studied the high-field magnetization up to 14.5 T and magnetic susceptibility in the temperature range 1.6-400 K of three different samples of natural kunzite crystals, being a variety of spodumene (LiAlSi 2O 6) and containing transition metal ions. It appears that the total magnetization and susceptibility consist of the paramagnetic contribution following from the temperature-dependent Brillouin-type behavior of magnetic ions and temperature-independent diamagnetic contribution of the spodumene matrix which we have found as being equal to -3.5×10 -7 emu/g. We have identified the Mn 2+ ions as the dominant ones in the kunzites studied and we have determined the molar concentration of these ions as lying in the range 0.2-0.4%.

  6. Affiliation with Antisocial Peers, Susceptibility to Peer Influence, and Antisocial Behavior during the Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Kathryn C.; Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Developmental theories suggest that affiliation with deviant peers and susceptibility to peer influence are important contributors to adolescent delinquency, but it is unclear how these variables impact antisocial behavior during the transition to adulthood, a period when most delinquent individuals decline in antisocial behavior. Using data from…

  7. FACTORS AFFECTING SUSCEPTIBILITY OF THE CORAL MONTASTRAEA FAVEOLATE TO BLACK-BAND DISEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Black-band disease affects many species of tropical reef-building corals, but it is unclear what factors contribute to the disease-susceptibility of individual corals or how the disease is transmitted between colonies. Studies have suggested that the ability of black-band disease...

  8. Differential susceptibilities to azithromycin treatment of chlamydial infection in the gastrointestinal tract and cervix

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evidence from animal studies suggests that chlamydiae may persist in the gastrointestinal tract (GI) and be a reservoir for reinfection of the genital tract. We hypothesize that there may be a differential susceptibility of organisms in the GI and genital tracts. To determine the effect of azithromy...

  9. Oncoplastic central quadrantectomies

    PubMed Central

    Pasta, Vittorio; D’Orazi, Valerio; Merola, Raffaele; Frusone, Federico; Amabile, Maria Ida; Buè, Rosanna; Monti, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Tumors localized in the central quadrant (centrally located breast tumors) have always represented a challenge for the surgeon because of the critical aesthetical matters related to the nipple-areola complex (NAC). Many years of experience with breast cancer patients treated by using various oncoplastic techniques, has allowed us to develop the modified hemibatwing for the treatment of central breast tumors, where the NAC is involved. Modified hemibatwing—along with the removal of the NAC—is a useful oncoplastic technique and it represents an ideal option for the treatment of central tumors because it assures oncological safety, a reduced surgical timetable and greater aesthetical results. PMID:27563564

  10. Oncoplastic central quadrantectomies.

    PubMed

    Pasta, Vittorio; D'Orazi, Valerio; Merola, Raffaele; Frusone, Federico; Amabile, Maria Ida; De Luca, Alessandro; Buè, Rosanna; Monti, Marco

    2016-08-01

    Tumors localized in the central quadrant (centrally located breast tumors) have always represented a challenge for the surgeon because of the critical aesthetical matters related to the nipple-areola complex (NAC). Many years of experience with breast cancer patients treated by using various oncoplastic techniques, has allowed us to develop the modified hemibatwing for the treatment of central breast tumors, where the NAC is involved. Modified hemibatwing-along with the removal of the NAC-is a useful oncoplastic technique and it represents an ideal option for the treatment of central tumors because it assures oncological safety, a reduced surgical timetable and greater aesthetical results. PMID:27563564

  11. Topological susceptibility with the improved Asqtad action

    SciTech Connect

    C. Bernard et al.

    2004-01-06

    As a test of the chiral properties of the improved Asqtad (staggered fermion) action, we have been measuring the topological susceptibility as a function of quark masses for 2 + 1 dynamical flavors. We report preliminary results, which show reasonable agreement with leading order chiral perturbation theory for lattice spacing less than 0.1 fm. The total topological charge, however, shows strong persistence over Monte Carlo time.

  12. Chiral susceptibility in an effective interaction model

    SciTech Connect

    Min He; Yu Jiang; Sun Weimin; Zong Hongshi

    2008-04-01

    A closed integral expression for the chiral susceptibility at finite temperature is derived. The corresponding disconnected part, which proves to be of major physical relevance and free from the additive quadratic ultraviolet divergence, is identified. Then a calculation based on an effective model gluon propagator is conducted within the framework of the Dyson-Schwinger equations for two flavors in the chiral limit. A narrow, divergent peak is observed as temperature varies, and its implications are discussed.

  13. In vitro susceptibility testing of Dientamoeba fragilis.

    PubMed

    Nagata, N; Marriott, D; Harkness, J; Ellis, J T; Stark, D

    2012-01-01

    Dientamoeba fragilis is a commonly encountered trichomonad which has been implicated as a cause of gastrointestinal disease in humans. Despite the frequency of reports recording infections with this parasite, little research has been undertaken in terms of antimicrobial susceptibility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of D. fragilis to several commonly used antiparasitic agents: diloxanide furoate, furazolidone, iodoquinol, metronidazole, nitazoxanide, ornidazole, paromomycin, secnidazole, ronidazole, tetracycline, and tinidazole. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed on four clinical strains of D. fragilis, designated A, E, M, and V, respectively. Molecular testing followed, and all strains were determined to be genotype 1. The activities of antiprotozoal compounds at concentrations ranging from 2 μg/ml to 500 μg/ml were determined via cell counts of D. fragilis trophozoites grown in dixenic culture. Minimum lethal concentrations (MLCs) were as follows: ornidazole, 8 to 16 μg/ml; ronidazole, 8 to 16 μg/ml; tinidazole, 31 μg/ml; metronidazole, 31 μg/ml; secnidazole, 31 to 63 μg/ml; nitazoxanide, 63 μg/ml; tetracycline, 250 μg/ml; furazolidone, 250 to 500 μg/ml; iodoquinol, 500 μg/ml; paromomycin, 500 μg/ml; and diloxanide furoate, >500 μg/ml. This is the first study to report the profiles of susceptibility to a wide range of commonly used treatments for clinical isolates of D. fragilis. Our study indicated 5-nitroimidazole derivatives to be the most active compounds in vitro against D. fragilis. PMID:22024820

  14. In Vitro Susceptibility Testing of Dientamoeba fragilis

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, N.; Marriott, D.; Harkness, J.; Ellis, J. T.

    2012-01-01

    Dientamoeba fragilis is a commonly encountered trichomonad which has been implicated as a cause of gastrointestinal disease in humans. Despite the frequency of reports recording infections with this parasite, little research has been undertaken in terms of antimicrobial susceptibility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of D. fragilis to several commonly used antiparasitic agents: diloxanide furoate, furazolidone, iodoquinol, metronidazole, nitazoxanide, ornidazole, paromomycin, secnidazole, ronidazole, tetracycline, and tinidazole. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed on four clinical strains of D. fragilis, designated A, E, M, and V, respectively. Molecular testing followed, and all strains were determined to be genotype 1. The activities of antiprotozoal compounds at concentrations ranging from 2 μg/ml to 500 μg/ml were determined via cell counts of D. fragilis trophozoites grown in dixenic culture. Minimum lethal concentrations (MLCs) were as follows: ornidazole, 8 to 16 μg/ml; ronidazole, 8 to 16 μg/ml; tinidazole, 31 μg/ml; metronidazole, 31 μg/ml; secnidazole, 31 to 63 μg/ml; nitazoxanide, 63 μg/ml; tetracycline, 250 μg/ml; furazolidone, 250 to 500 μg/ml; iodoquinol, 500 μg/ml; paromomycin, 500 μg/ml; and diloxanide furoate, >500 μg/ml. This is the first study to report the profiles of susceptibility to a wide range of commonly used treatments for clinical isolates of D. fragilis. Our study indicated 5-nitroimidazole derivatives to be the most active compounds in vitro against D. fragilis. PMID:22024820

  15. Human variability and susceptibility to trichloroethylene.

    PubMed Central

    Pastino, G M; Yap, W Y; Carroquino, M

    2000-01-01

    Although humans vary in their response to chemicals, comprehensive measures of susceptibility have generally not been incorporated into human risk assessment. The U.S. EPA dose-response-based risk assessments for cancer and the RfD/RfC (reference dose-reference concentration) approach for noncancer risk assessments are assumed to protect vulnerable human subgroups. However, these approaches generally rely on default assumptions and do not consider the specific biological basis for potential susceptibility to a given toxicant. In an effort to focus more explicitly on this issue, this article addresses biological factors that may affect human variability and susceptibility to trichloroethylene (TCE), a widely used halogenated industrial solvent. In response to Executive Order 13045, which requires federal agencies to make protection of children a high priority in implementing their policies and to take special risks to children into account when developing standards, this article examines factors that may affect risk of exposure to TCE in children. The influence of genetics, sex, altered health state, coexposure to alcohol, and enzyme induction on TCE toxicity are also examined. PMID:10807552

  16. Mechanisms underlying Children's susceptibility to environmental toxicants.

    PubMed Central

    Faustman, E M; Silbernagel, S M; Fenske, R A; Burbacher, T M; Ponce, R A

    2000-01-01

    An important public health challenge has been the need to protect children's health. To accomplish this goal, the scientific community needs scientifically based child-specific risk assessment methods. Critical to their development is the need to understand mechanisms underlying children's sensitivity to environmental toxicants. Risk is defined as the probability of adverse outcome and when applied to environmental risk assessment is usually defined as a function of both toxicity and exposure. To adequately evaluate the potential for enhanced health risks during development, both child-specific factors affecting toxicity and exposure need to be considered. In the first section of this article, example mechanisms of susceptibility relevant for toxicity assessment are identified and discussed. In the second section, examples of exposure factors that help define children's susceptibility are presented. Examples of pesticide research from the newly funded Child Health Center at the University of Washington will be given for illustration. The final section discusses the importance of putting these considerations of children's susceptibility into an overall framework for ascertaining relevancy for human risk assessment. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:10698720

  17. CONSIDERATION OF CHILDREN'S DISTINCTIVE SUSCEPTIBILITY IN ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Consideration of children's distinctive susceptibility in environmental health studies.
    Pauline Mendola (US EPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711)

    Children are a particularly susceptible subpopulation with ...

  18. Stochastic simulations suggest that HIV-1 survives close to its error threshold.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Kushal; Balagam, Rajesh; Vishnoi, Nisheeth K; Dixit, Narendra M

    2012-01-01

    The use of mutagenic drugs to drive HIV-1 past its error threshold presents a novel intervention strategy, as suggested by the quasispecies theory, that may be less susceptible to failure via viral mutation-induced emergence of drug resistance than current strategies. The error threshold of HIV-1, μ c, however, is not known. Application of the quasispecies theory to determine μ c poses significant challenges: Whereas the quasispecies theory considers the asexual reproduction of an infinitely large population of haploid individuals, HIV-1 is diploid, undergoes recombination, and is estimated to have a small effective population size in vivo. We performed population genetics-based stochastic simulations of the within-host evolution of HIV-1 and estimated the structure of the HIV-1 quasispecies and μ c. We found that with small mutation rates, the quasispecies was dominated by genomes with few mutations. Upon increasing the mutation rate, a sharp error catastrophe occurred where the quasispecies became delocalized in sequence space. Using parameter values that quantitatively captured data of viral diversification in HIV-1 patients, we estimated μ c to be 7 x 10(-5)-1 x 10(-4) substitutions/site/replication, ≈ 2-6 fold higher than the natural mutation rate of HIV-1, suggesting that HIV-1 survives close to its error threshold and may be readily susceptible to mutagenic drugs. The latter estimate was weakly dependent on the within-host effective population size of HIV-1. With large population sizes and in the absence of recombination, our simulations converged to the quasispecies theory, bridging the gap between quasispecies theory and population genetics-based approaches to describing HIV-1 evolution. Further, μ c increased with the recombination rate, rendering HIV-1 less susceptible to error catastrophe, thus elucidating an added benefit of recombination to HIV-1. Our estimate of μ c may serve as a quantitative guideline for the use of mutagenic drugs against

  19. Aging increases the susceptibility to develop anhedonia in male rats.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Pérez, J J; Martínez-Mota, L; Fernández-Guasti, A

    2008-12-12

    The objective of this study was to establish the effect of aging on the development of anhedonia, a core feature of depression. Young and old male Wistar rats (of around 3-5 and 12-15 months, respectively) were exposed to a chronic variable stress (CVS) schedule for 3 weeks. CVS produced anhedonia, indicated by a reduction in the intake of a sucrose solution (1%), in 8 out of 23 (35%) young rats and in 19 out of 26 (73%) old rats, implying that old animals are more susceptible to stress and develop anhedonia more readily than young animals. Young and old anhedonic rats showed a similar temporal course in the reduction of sucrose consumption, reaching the anhedonic state after 2 weeks of CVS exposure. Compared with young animals, old rats had lower basal serum testosterone and estradiol levels. The systemic levels of corticosterone did not vary between both age groups. No significant pathological condition was detected in old animals. It is suggested that the higher susceptibility to develop anhedonia in male rats could be associated to neuroendocrine changes consequent to aging.

  20. Automatic vessel removal in gliomas from dynamic susceptibility contrast imaging.

    PubMed

    Emblem, Kyrre E; Due-Tonnessen, Paulina; Hald, John K; Bjornerud, Atle

    2009-05-01

    The presence of macroscopic vessels within the tumor region is a potential confounding factor in MR-based dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC)-enhanced glioma grading. In order to distinguish between such vessels and the elevated cerebral blood volume (CBV) of brain tumors, we propose a vessel segmentation technique based on clustering of multiple parameters derived from the dynamic contrast-enhanced first-pass curve. A total of 77 adult patients with histologically-confirmed gliomas were imaged at 1.5T and glioma regions-of-interest (ROIs) were derived from the conventional MR images by a neuroradiologist. The diagnostic accuracy of applying vessel exclusion by segmentation of glioma ROIs with vessels included was assessed using a histogram analysis method and compared to glioma ROIs with vessels included. For all measures of diagnostic efficacy investigated, the highest values were observed when the glioma diagnosis was based on vessel segmentation in combination with an initial mean transit time (MTT) mask. Our results suggest that vessel segmentation based on DSC parameters may improve the diagnostic efficacy of glioma grading. The proposed vessel segmentation is attractive because it provides a mask that covers all pixels affected by the intravascular susceptibility effect. PMID:19253390

  1. Susceptibility of avian hosts to experimental Gymnophalloides seoi infection.

    PubMed

    Ryang, Y S; Yoo, J C; Lee, S H; Chai, J Y

    2001-04-01

    To determine whether avian species are susceptible to infection with Gymnophalloides seoi (a human-infecting intestinal trematode), we exposed 7 species of birds with metacercariae obtained from oysters. The birds were necropsied at days 2, 4, and 6 postinfection (PI). The highest worm recovery at day 6 PI was obtained from the Kentish plover (Charadrius alexandrinus; mean = 56.0%), followed by the Mongolian plover (C. mongolus; 49.3%), and the grey plover (Pluvialis squatarola; 32.3%). In contrast, no mature worms were recovered from the great knot (Calidris tenuirostris), dunlin (C. alpina), black-tailed gull (Larus crassirostris), and mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). Among the plovers, the worms attained the greatest size at day 6 PI (254.1 x 190.4 microm) in the Kentish plover, with a significantly higher number of eggs in the uterus. The 3 species of plovers are highly susceptible to experimental G. seoi infection, suggesting that they could play a role as definitive hosts for these worms in nature.

  2. Susceptibility to febrile seizures: more than just a faulty thermostat!

    PubMed

    Prasad, Asuri N; Seshia, Shashi S

    2009-05-01

    Febrile seizures, always a hot topic, continue to fire up the interest of a wide spectrum of clinical and basic neuroscientists. Several clinical investigators, amongst them the Halifax group (spearheaded by the Camfields to whom we owe a great debt of gratitude for their contributions in this field), have provided us with a sound foundation for clinical management. We now need to explore febrile seizures in new ways to clarify factors and identify mechanisms that contribute to the intriguing age-dependent susceptibility. The complex processes involved in thermoregulation and the febrile response are important pieces of the puzzle. The contributory factors are likely different for isolated simple febrile, recurrent febrile and complex febrile seizures. A 'systems biology approach' is needed to investigate the intricate genome-proteome-metabolome interaction in determining susceptibility. Population studies that incorporate current clinical, experimental, infectious and molecular genetic knowledge in their concept and design will help to 'conquer' the final frontiers of febrile seizures. In 2006, Engel suggested that febrile seizures could 'encompass many different entities', an increasingly plausible opinion. A higher profile for febrile seizures and related syndromes in the ILAE classification scheme will further catalyze progress in the field. The resultant knowledge can only improve management. PMID:19534326

  3. Motion sickness susceptibility in parabolic flight and velocity storage activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dizio, Paul; Lackner, James R.

    1991-01-01

    In parabolic flight experiments, postrotary nystagmus is as found to be differentially suppressed in free fall (G) and in a high gravitoinertial force (1.8 G) background relative to 1 G. In addition, the influence of postrotary head movements on nystagmus suppression was found to be contingent on G-dependency of the velocity storage and dumping mechanisms. Here, susceptibility to motion sickness during head movements in 0 G and 1.8 G was rank-correlated with the following: (1) the decay time constant of the slow phase velocity of postrotary nystagmus under 1 G, no head movement, baseline conditions, (2) the extent of time constant reduction elicited in 0 G and 1.8 G; (3) the extent of time constant reduction elicited by head tilts in 1 G; and (4) changes in the extent of time constants reduction in 0 G and 1.8 G over repeated tests. Susceptibility was significantly correlated with the extent to which a head movement reduced the time constant in 1 G, was weakly correlated with the baseline time constant, but was not correlated with the extent of reduction in 0 G or 1.8 G. This pattern suggests a link between mechanisms evoking symptoms of space motion sickness and the mechanisms of velocity storage and dumping. Experimental means of evaluating this link are described.

  4. Klotho gene polymorphisms are related to colorectal cancer susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chang; Cui, Wei; Wang, Li; Yan, Lei; Ruan, Xinjian; Liu, Yanfang; Jia, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xia

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of Klotho gene G-395A and C1818T polymorphisms with colorectal cancer (CRC) susceptibility. Methods: 125 CRC patients and 125 controls were enrolled in the study. G-395A and C1818T polymorphisms were genotyped with polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technology. Haploview software was utilized to conduct linkage disequilibrium and haplotype analysis. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were used to analyze the correlation of genotypes and haplotypes with CRC susceptibility. Results: AA and GA genotypes of G-395A polymorphisms were related with CRC risk (AA: OR = 4.161, 95% CI = 1.437-12.053; GA: OR = 1.958, 95% CI = 1.133-3.385). The frequency of A allele was much higher in case group, compared with controls (31.2% vs.17.6%) and the value of OR AND 95% CI suggested that A allele served as a risk factor for CRC (OR = 2.123, 95% CI = 1.393-3.236). Haplotypes analysis indicated that A-C and A-T haplotypes were significantly associated with risk of CRC (OR = 1.822, 95% CI = 1.124-2.954; OR = 2.877, 95% CI = 1.340-6.176). Conclusion: G-395A polymorphism of Klotho gene could increase the risk of CRC. PMID:26261651

  5. Genetic susceptibility to obesity and metabolic syndrome in childhood.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Concepción M; Olza, Josune; Gil, Angel

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is one of the major public health problems worldwide. It is a chronic, complex, and multifactorial origin disease characterised by body fat excess mainly due to an imbalance between dietary intake and energy expenditure. One of the major complications of obesity is metabolic syndrome, which comprises anthropometrical, clinical, and metabolic dysfunctions that predispose the affected individual to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. It is hypothesised that the variability in the susceptibility to obesity-mediated metabolic complications involves both environmental and genetic factors. Whereas advances in the knowledge of the variations in the human genome have led to the identification of susceptibility genes that contribute to obesity and related disorders, relatively few studies have specifically focused on the interactions between obesity and genetic polymorphisms and the development of metabolic complications. Despite these limited efforts, an increasing amount of evidence suggests that the effects of some gene variants on metabolic traits are modified by or present only in the setting of obesity. Furthermore, some of these loci may have larger effects on metabolic phenotypes in the presence of certain dietary or lifestyle factors. In the present manuscript, we reviewed the genes and their variants that have been evidenced to play a role in obesity-associated metabolic complications through genetic association studies, including candidate gene and genome-wide association approaches in adults and children.

  6. Susceptibility of Peruvian mosquitoes to eastern equine encephalitis virus.

    PubMed

    Turell, M J; O'Guinn, M L; Dohm, D; Zyzak, M; Watts, D; Fernandez, R; Calampa, C; Klein, T A; Jones, J W

    2008-07-01

    Mosquitoes were collected in the Amazon Basin, near Iquitos, Peru, and used in experimental studies to evaluate their susceptibility to strains of eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) that were isolated from mosquitoes captured within 20 km of Iquitos. When fed on hamsters or chickens with a viremia of 4105 plaque-forming units (PFU) of EEEV/ml, Culex pedroi Sirivanakarn and Belkin, Aedesfulvus (Wiedemann), Psorophora albigenu (Peryassu), and Psorophoraferox (Von Humboldt) were susceptible to infection, whereas none of the Aedes serratus (Theobald), Culex vomerifer Komp, Culex gnomatos Sallum, Huchings, and Ferreira, Culex portesi Senevet and Abonnenc, or Culex coronator Dyar and Knab became infected, even though they fed on the same viremic blood sources. When these mosquito species fed on animals with viremias of approximately 10(8) PFU/ml, Cx. pedroi, Ae.II (Brazil-Peru) and a lineage III (Argentina-Panama) isolate of EEEV. This study, combined with the repeated isolation of strains of EEEV from Cx. pedroi captured in the Amazon Basin region of Peru, suggests that Cx. pedroi may be the primary enzootic vector of EEEV in this region.

  7. Effect of Pili on Susceptibility of Escherichia coli to Phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Silverblatt, Fredric J.; Dreyer, Jerrold S.; Schauer, Susan

    1979-01-01

    The degree of piliation of 20 clinical isolates of Escherichia coli was correlated with their susceptibility to phagocytosis by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Piliation was quantitated by negative staining, and phagocytosis was quantitated by a monolayer technique. Ingestion was confirmed by electron microscopy. In the absence of source of opsonins, there was a positive correlation between the degree of piliation and susceptibility to phagocytosis (y = 0.83x + 19.58; correlation coefficient = 0.65; P < 0.01). Heavily piliated strains were no longer phagocytized after their pili were removed by ultraviolet irradiation. Phagocytosis was reduced 75% in the presence of 0.1 M d-mannose, an agent which competitively inhibits binding of pili to cell surfaces. l-Mannose, d-glucose, and d-galactose were much less inhibitory. The viability of piliated organisms was reduced by 1 log after 1 h of incubation with polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Addition of 10% fresh human serum increased both the rate and completeness of killing. These observations suggest that polymorphonuclear leukocytes may interact with the pili of E. coli to promote phagocytosis. This phenomenon may have clinical relevance in situations where normal opsonic activity is poor, such as the renal medulla. Images PMID:378843

  8. Report of Two Fatal Cases of Mycobacterium mucogenicum Central Nervous System Infection in Immunocompetent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Adékambi, Toïdi; Foucault, Cedric; La Scola, Bernard; Drancourt, Michel

    2006-01-01

    Neurological infections due to rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) have rarely been reported. We recently investigated two unrelated immunocompetent patients, one with community-acquired lymphocytic meningitis and the other with cerebral thrombophlebitis. Mycobacterium mucogenicum was isolated in pure culture and detected by PCR sequencing of cerebrospinal fluid samples. Both patients eventually died. The two isolates exhibited an overlapping antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. They were susceptible in vitro to tetracyclines, macrolides, quinolones, amikacin, imipenem, cefoxitin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and resistant to ceftriaxone. They shared 100% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with M. mucogenicum ATCC 49650T over 1,482 bp. Their partial rpoB sequences shared 97.8% and 98.1% similarity with M. mucogenicum ATCC 49650T, suggesting that the two isolates were representative of two sequevars of M. mucogenicum species. This case report should make clinicians aware that M. mucogenicum, an RGM frequently isolated from tap water or from respiratory specimens and mostly without clinical significance, can even be encountered in the central nervous system of immunocompetent patients. PMID:16517863

  9. Antibiotic resistance genes & susceptibility patterns in staphylococci

    PubMed Central

    Duran, Nizami; Ozer, Burcin; Duran, Gulay Gulbol; Onlen, Yusuf; Demir, Cemil

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: This study was carried out to evaluate the association between the antibiotic susceptibility patterns and the antibiotic resistance genes in staphylococcal isolates obtained from various clinical samples of patients attending a teaching hospital in Hatay, Turkey. Methods: A total of 298 staphylococci clinical isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The genes implicated in resistance to oxacillin (mecA), gentamicin (aac(6’)/aph(2”), aph(3’-IIIa, ant(4’)-Ia), erythromycin (ermA, ermB, ermC, and msrA), tetracyclin (tetK, tetM), and penicillin (blaZ) were amplified using multiplex PCR method. Results: Methicillin resistance rate among 139 Staphlococcus aureus isolates was 16.5 and 25.9 per cent of S. aureus carried mecA gene. Of the 159 CoNS isolates, methicillin resistance rate was 18.9 and 29.6 per cent carried mecA gene. Ninety four isolates identified as gentamicin resistant phenotypically, contained at least one of the gentamicin resistance genes [aac(6’)/aph(2”), aph(3’)-IIIa, ant(4’)-Ia], 17 gentamicin-susceptible isolates were found as positive in terms of one or more resistance genes [aac(6’)/aph(2”), aph(3’)-IIIa, ant(4’)-Ia] by multiplex PCR. A total of 165 isolates were resistant to erythromycin, and contained at least one of the erythromycin resistance genes (ermA, ermB, ermC and msrA). Phenotypically, 106 staphylococcal isolates were resistant to tetracycline, 121 isolates carried either tetK or tetM or both resistance genes. The majority of staphylococci tested possessed the blaZ gene (89.9%). Interpretation & conclusions: The present results showed that the phenotypic antibiotic susceptibility patterns were not similar to those obtained by genotyping done by multiplex PCR. Rapid and reliable methods for antibiotic susceptibility are important to determine the appropriate therapy decisions. Multiplex PCR can be used for confirmation of the results obtained by conventional

  10. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing, Drug Resistance Mechanisms, and Therapy of Infections with Nontuberculous Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Nash, Kevin A.; Wallace, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Within the past 10 years, treatment and diagnostic guidelines for nontuberculous mycobacteria have been recommended by the American Thoracic Society (ATS) and the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). Moreover, the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) has published and recently (in 2011) updated recommendations including suggested antimicrobial and susceptibility breakpoints. The CLSI has also recommended the broth microdilution method as the gold standard for laboratories performing antimicrobial susceptibility testing of nontuberculous mycobacteria. This article reviews the laboratory, diagnostic, and treatment guidelines together with established and probable drug resistance mechanisms of the nontuberculous mycobacteria. PMID:22763637

  11. Magnetic susceptibility measurement of solid oxygen at pressures up to 3.3 GPa

    SciTech Connect

    Mito, M. Yamaguchi, S.; Tsuruda, H.; Deguchi, H.; Ishizuka, M.

    2014-01-07

    The magnetic susceptibility of solid oxygen had long been observed only in the restricted pressure region below 0.8 GPa. We succeeded in extending the pressure region up to 3.3 GPa by clamping condensed oxygen in the sample chamber of a miniature diamond anvil cell and measuring the dc magnetic susceptibility using a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer. In this experiment, the well-known α–β and β–γ transitions are observed in the phase diagram, suggesting consistency with the previous results of X-ray and Raman studies. In addition, a new magnetic anomaly is observed in the β phase.

  12. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Helicobacter felis, H. bizzozeronii, and H. salomonis.

    PubMed

    Van den Bulck, K; Decostere, A; Gruntar, I; Baele, M; Krt, B; Ducatelle, R; Haesebrouck, F

    2005-07-01

    The susceptibilities of Helicobacter felis (15 strains), H. bizzozeronii (7 strains), and H. salomonis (3 strains) to 10 antimicrobial agents were investigated by determination of the MIC using the agar dilution method. No consistent differences were noticed between the different Helicobacter species, which were all highly susceptible to ampicillin, clarithromycin, tetracycline, tylosin, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, and neomycin, as demonstrated by low MICs. Higher MICs were obtained for lincomycin (up to 8 microg/ml) and spectinomycin (up to 4 microg/ml). Two H. felis strains showed a MIC of 16 microg/ml for metronidazole, suggesting acquired resistance to this antimicrobial agent. PMID:15980383

  13. Localization of a breast cancer susceptibility gene, BRCA2, to chromosome 13q12-13

    SciTech Connect

    Wooster, R.; Mangion, J.; Quirk, Y.; Collins, N.; Seal, S.; Ford, D.; Averill, D. ); Neuhausen, S.L.; Nguyen, K.; Tran, T. )

    1994-09-30

    A small proportion of breast cancer, in particular those cases arising at a young age, is due to the inheritance of dominant susceptibility genes conferring a high risk of the disease. A genomic linkage search was performed with 15 high-risk breast cancer families that were unlinked to the BRCA1 locus on chromosome 17q21. This analysis localized a second breast cancer susceptibility locus, BRCA2, to a 6-centimorgan interval on chromosome 13q12-13. Preliminary, evidence suggests that BRCA2 confers a high risk of breast cancer but, unlike BRCA1, does not confer a substantially elevated risk of ovarian cancer.

  14. Aquifer susceptibility in Virginia, 1998-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelms, David L.; Harlow,, George E.; Plummer, L. Niel; Busenberg, Eurybiades

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Virginia Department of Health, sampled water from 171 wells and springs across the Commonwealth of Virginia between 1998 and 2000 as part of the Virginia Aquifer Susceptibility study. Most of the sites sampled are public water supplies that are part of the comprehensive Source Water Assessment Program for the Commonwealth. The fundamental premise of the study was that the identification of young waters (less than 50 years) by multiple environmental tracers could be used as a guide for classifying aquifers in terms of susceptibility to contamination from near-surface sources. Environmental tracers, including chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), tritium (3H), and tritium/helium-3 (3H/3He), and carbon isotopes (14C and d13C) were used to determine the age of water discharging from wells and springs. Concentrations of CFCs greater than 5 picograms per kilogram and 3H concentrations greater than 0.6 tritium unit were used as thresholds to indicate that parts of the aquifer sampled have a component of young water and are, therefore, susceptible to near-surface contamination. Concentrations of CFCs exceeded the susceptibility threshold in 22 percent of the wells and in one spring sampled in the Coastal Plain regional aquifer systems. About 74 percent of the samples from wells with the top of the first water zone less than 100 feet below land surface exceeded the threshold values, and water supplies developed in the upper 100 feet of the Coastal Plain are considered to be susceptible to contamination from near-surface sources. The maximum depth to the top of the screened interval for wells that contained CFCs was less than 150 feet. Wells completed in the deep confined aquifers in the Coastal Plain generally contain water older than 1,000 years, as indicated by carbon-14 dating, and are not considered to be susceptible to contamination under natural conditions. All of the water samples from wells

  15. Susceptibility Testing and Molecular Classification of Paecilomyces spp.▿

    PubMed Central

    Castelli, Maria Victoria; Alastruey-Izquierdo, Ana; Cuesta, Isabel; Monzon, Araceli; Mellado, Emilia; Rodriguez-Tudela, Juan L.; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    In vitro susceptibility profiles of 58 Paecilomyces clinical isolates are reported. Amphotericin B, itraconazole, and echinocandins showed poor activity against Paecilomyces lilacinus, while the new triazoles were active against it. Paecilomyces variotii exhibited a different susceptibility pattern, being susceptible to most antifungal agents apart from voriconazole and ravuconazole. PMID:18519716

  16. In vitro antifungal susceptibility profile and correlation of mycelial and yeast forms of molecularly characterized Histoplasma capsulatum strains from India.

    PubMed

    Kathuria, Shallu; Singh, Pradeep K; Meis, Jacques F; Chowdhary, Anuradha

    2014-09-01

    The antifungal susceptibility profiles of the mycelial and yeast forms of 23 Histoplasma capsulatum strains from pulmonary and disseminated histoplasmosis patients in India are reported here. The MIC data of this dimorphic fungus had good agreement between both forms for azoles, amphotericin B, and caspofungin. Therefore, the use of mycelial inocula for H. capsulatum antifungal susceptibility testing is suggested, which is less time-consuming vis-à-vis the yeast form, which requires 6 to 8 weeks for conversion. PMID:24982084

  17. Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation susceptibility of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus compared with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus.

    PubMed

    Green, Christopher F; Elbe, Laura A; Neal, Tyler D; Lowe, John J; Gibbs, Shawn G

    2015-11-01

    Antibiotic misuse and overuse in both the healthcare and agricultural fields have dramatically increased the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in human pathogens. Two strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (ATCC 43330 and a wild-type) and 1 strain of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (ATCC 25923) were challenged (9 runs in triplicate) in a preliminary study with ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) doses ranging from 0.25 to 3.00 mJ/cm(2). The mean percent kill was calculated for each strain when compared with the control plates (no exposure to UVGI). Then, each strain was challenged (22 runs in triplicate) with UVGI doses of 2.00, 2.50, and 3.00 mJ/cm(2). The results suggest a difference between the doses required to disinfect surfaces with each strain. Assuming a standard error rate of α = 0.05, there was a significant difference in variance between the MRSA (ATCC 43330 and wild type) strains and the S. aureus (ATCC 25923) methicillin-susceptible strain.

  18. Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation susceptibility of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus compared with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus.

    PubMed

    Green, Christopher F; Elbe, Laura A; Neal, Tyler D; Lowe, John J; Gibbs, Shawn G

    2015-11-01

    Antibiotic misuse and overuse in both the healthcare and agricultural fields have dramatically increased the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in human pathogens. Two strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (ATCC 43330 and a wild-type) and 1 strain of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (ATCC 25923) were challenged (9 runs in triplicate) in a preliminary study with ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) doses ranging from 0.25 to 3.00 mJ/cm(2). The mean percent kill was calculated for each strain when compared with the control plates (no exposure to UVGI). Then, each strain was challenged (22 runs in triplicate) with UVGI doses of 2.00, 2.50, and 3.00 mJ/cm(2). The results suggest a difference between the doses required to disinfect surfaces with each strain. Assuming a standard error rate of α = 0.05, there was a significant difference in variance between the MRSA (ATCC 43330 and wild type) strains and the S. aureus (ATCC 25923) methicillin-susceptible strain. PMID:26376157

  19. Organizational centralization in radiology.

    PubMed

    Aas, I H Monrad

    2006-01-01

    Traditionally, hospitals have a radiology department, where images are taken and interpretation occurs. Teleradiology makes it possible to capture images in one location and transmit them elsewhere for interpretation. Organizational centralization of radiology interpretations is therefore of interest. Empirical data have been collected in qualitative interviews of 26 resource persons with substantial experience with picture archiving and communication systems and teleradiology, from 12 departments of radiology in Norway. The response rate was 90%. A total of 21 theoretically possible types of centralization of image interpretation were identified, representing combinations of three categories of geographical centralization, and seven categories of centralization according to function. Various advantages and disadvantages of centralization were identified. Organizational changes may be decisive for the future of teleradiology, but it may be wise to plan for change in small steps, since we know little about how broad future organizational changes based on teleradiology will be, or what will decide how far particular organizations will go. PMID:16438776

  20. Secondhand smoke exposure and other correlates of susceptibility to smoking: a propensity score matching approach.

    PubMed

    McIntire, Russell K; Nelson, Ashlyn A; Macy, Jonathan T; Seo, Dong-Chul; Kolbe, Lloyd J

    2015-09-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is responsible for numerous diseases of the lungs and other bodily systems among children. In addition to the adverse health effects of SHS exposure, studies show that children exposed to SHS are more likely to smoke in adolescence. Susceptibility to smoking is a measure used to identify adolescent never-smokers who are at risk for smoking. Limited research has been conducted on the influence of SHS on susceptibility to smoking. The purpose of this study was to determine a robust measure of the strength of correlation between SHS exposure and susceptibility to smoking among never-smoking U.S. adolescents. This study used data from the 2009 National Youth Tobacco Survey to identify predictors of susceptibility to smoking in the full (pre-match) sample of adolescents and a smaller (post-match) sample created by propensity score matching. Results showed a significant association between SHS exposure and susceptibility to smoking among never-smoking adolescents in the pre-match (OR=1.47) and post-match (OR=1.52) samples. The odds ratio increase after matching suggests that the strength of the relationship was underestimated in the pre-match sample. Other significant correlates of susceptibility to smoking identified include: gender, race/ethnicity, personal income, smoke-free home rules, number of smoking friends, perception of SHS harm, perceived benefits of smoking, and exposure to pro-tobacco media messages. The use of propensity score matching procedures reduced bias in the post-match sample, and provided a more robust estimate of the influence of SHS exposure on susceptibility to smoking, compared to the pre-match sample estimates.

  1. Variation in erythromycin and clindamycin susceptibilities of Streptococcus pneumoniae by four test methods.

    PubMed Central

    Fasola, E L; Bajaksouzian, S; Appelbaum, P C; Jacobs, M R

    1997-01-01

    Susceptibilities of 124 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae to erythromycin and clindamycin were determined by the National Committee for the Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) broth microdilution method, with incubation for 20 to 24 h in ambient air and with modifications of this method by incubation for up to 48 h in air and CO2. Strains were also tested by agar dilution, E-test, and disk diffusion; good correlation was obtained with these methods, with clear separation into bimodal populations of susceptible and resistant stains. The broth microdilution method, however, using incubation in air for 24 h (NCCLS method), misclassified 4 of 92 erythromycin-resistant strains (1 as susceptible and 3 as intermediate) and 25 of 58 clindamycin-resistant strains (all as susceptible). With the exception of one strain with clindamycin, susceptible and resistant strains were correctly classified by the microdilution method with incubation in CO2 for 24 h or in ambient air for 48 h. Disk diffusion, agar dilution, and E-test methods with incubation in 5% CO2 are therefore reliable methods for susceptibility testing of pneumococci against these agents. However, the NCCLS microdilution method, which specifies incubation for 20 to 24 h in ambient air, produced significant very major errors (43%) clindamycin. Modification of the microdilution method by incubation in 5% CO2 or by extension of incubation time in ambient air to 48 h corrected these errors. Disk diffusion, however, was shown to be a simple, convenient, and reliable method for susceptibility testing of pneumococci to erythromycin and clindamycin and is suggested as the method of choice for these agents. PMID:8980768

  2. Electrotonic remodeling following myocardial infarction in dogs susceptible and resistant to sudden cardiac death.

    PubMed

    Del Rio, Carlos L; McConnell, Patrick I; Kukielka, Monica; Dzwonczyk, Roger; Clymer, Bradley D; Howie, Michael B; Billman, George E

    2008-02-01

    Passive electrical remodeling following myocardial infarction (MI) is well established. These changes can alter electrotonic loading and trigger the remodeling of repolarization currents, a potential mechanism for ventricular fibrillation (VF). However, little is known about the role of passive electrical markers as tools to identify VF susceptibility post-MI. This study investigated electrotonic remodeling in the post-MI ventricle, as measured by myocardial electrical impedance (MEI), in animals prone to and resistant to VF. MI was induced in dogs by a two-stage left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery ligation. Before infarction, MEI electrodes were placed in remote (left circumflex, LCX) and infarcted (LAD) myocardium. MEI was measured in awake animals 1, 2, 7, and 21 days post-MI. Subsequently, VF susceptibility was tested by a 2-min LCX occlusion during exercise; 12 animals developed VF (susceptible, S) and 12 did not (resistant, R). The healing infarct had lower MEI than the normal myocardium. This difference was stable by day 2 post-MI (287 +/- 32 Omega vs. 425 +/- 62 Omega, P < 0.05). Significant differences were observed between resistant and susceptible animals 7 days post-MI; susceptible dogs had a wider electrotonic gradient between remote and infarcted myocardium (R: 89 +/- 60 Omega vs. S: 180 +/- 37 Omega). This difference increased over time in susceptible animals (252 +/- 53 Omega at 21 days) due to post-MI impedance changes on the remote myocardium. These data suggest that early electrotonic changes post-MI could be used to assess later arrhythmia susceptibility. In addition, passive-electrical changes could be a mechanism driving active-electrical remodeling post-MI, thereby facilitating the induction of arrhythmias.

  3. Expert opinion on landslide susceptibility elicted by probabilistic inversion from scenario rankings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Katy; Dashwood, Claire; Lark, Murray

    2016-04-01

    For many natural hazards the opinion of experts, with experience in assessing susceptibility under different circumstances, is a valuable source of information on which to base risk assessments. This is particularly important where incomplete process understanding, and limited data, limit the scope to predict susceptibility by mechanistic or statistical modelling. The expert has a tacit model of a system, based on their understanding of processes and their field experience. This model may vary in quality, depending on the experience of the expert. There is considerable interest in how one may elicit expert understanding by a process which is transparent and robust, to provide a basis for decision support. One approach is to provide experts with a set of scenarios, and then to ask them to rank small overlapping subsets of these with respect to susceptibility. Methods of probabilistic inversion have been used to compute susceptibility scores for each scenario, implicit in the expert ranking. It is also possible to model these scores as functions of measurable properties of the scenarios. This approach has been used to assess susceptibility of animal populations to invasive diseases, to assess risk to vulnerable marine environments and to assess the risk in hypothetical novel technologies for food production. We will present the results of a study in which a group of geologists with varying degrees of expertise in assessing landslide hazards were asked to rank sets of hypothetical simplified scenarios with respect to land slide susceptibility. We examine the consistency of their rankings and the importance of different properties of the scenarios in the tacit susceptibility model that their rankings implied. Our results suggest that this is a promising approach to the problem of how experts can communicate their tacit model of uncertain systems to those who want to make use of their expertise.

  4. Antifungal susceptibility of invasive Candida bloodstream isolates from the Asia-Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Tan, Thean Yen; Hsu, Li Yang; Alejandria, Marissa M; Chaiwarith, Romanee; Chinniah, Terrence; Chayakulkeeree, Methee; Choudhury, Saugata; Chen, Yen Hsu; Shin, Jong Hee; Kiratisin, Pattarachai; Mendoza, Myrna; Prabhu, Kavitha; Supparatpinyo, Khuanchai; Tan, Ai Ling; Phan, Xuan Thi; Tran, Thi Thanh Nga; Nguyen, Gia Binh; Doan, Mai Phuong; Huynh, Van An; Nguyen, Su Minh Tuyet; Tran, Thanh Binh; Van Pham, Hung

    2016-07-01

    Bloodstream infections caused by Candida species are of increasing importance and associated with significant mortality. We performed a multi-centre prospective observational study to identify the species and antifungal susceptibilities of invasive bloodstream isolates of Candida species in the Asia-Pacific region. The study was carried out over a two year period, involving 13 centers from Brunei, Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam. Identification of Candida species was performed at each study center, and reconfirmed at a central laboratory. Susceptibility testing was performed using a commercial broth dilution panel (Sensititre YeastOne YST-010, Thermofisher, United Kingdom) with susceptibility categorisation (S = susceptible, S-DD = susceptible dose-dependent) applied using breakpoints from the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute. Eight hundred and sixty-one Candida isolates were included in the study. The most common species were C. albicans (35.9%), C. tropicalis (30.7%), C. parapsilosis (15.7%), and C. glabrata (13.6%). Non-albicans species exceeded C. albicans species in centers from all countries except Taiwan. Fluconazole susceptibility was almost universal for C. albicans (S = 99.7%) but lower for C. tropicalis (S = 75.8%, S-DD = 6.1%), C. glabrata (S-DD = 94.9%), and C. parapsilosis (S = 94.8%). Echinocandins demonstrated high rates of in vitro susceptibility (S>99%) against C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. parapsilosis This study demonstrates that non-albicans species are the most common isolates from bloodstream infections in most countries in the Asia-Pacific region, with C. tropicalis as the predominant species. Because of the prevalence of reduced susceptibility to fluconazole in non-albicans species, the study indicates that echinocandins should be the antifungal of choice in clinically unstable or high-risk patients with documented candidemia.

  5. A multidisciplinary approach for analysing landslide susceptibility in Abruzzo piedmont (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciarra, Marco; Urbano, Tullio; Coco, Laura

    2016-04-01

    Landslide susceptibility is the probability or likelihood that a landslide phenomenon happens in a specific area and in a not determined date, based on the correlation of controlling factors with distribution of past events. The present work presents a landslide susceptibility analysis assessment in the Feltrino Stream basin and minor surrounding coastal basins in south-eastern Abruzzo Region (Central Italy). The work was based on a multidisciplinary approach involving GIS (Geographic Information System) processing and geomorphological field survey. The study area, as well as the whole Italian Adriatic hills, is characterized by moderate to high landslide susceptibility, because of the complex geological, geomorphological and climatic features. Geologically, the bedrock is mainly characterised by marine deposits composed by clay-sandstone-conglomerate lithology belonging to Upper Pliocene - Lower Pleistocene, and locally by marine to continental transitional deposits belonging to Middle Pleistocene. The bedrock is largely covered by near-surface continental deposits composed by clay-silt-sand-gravel lithology ranging in age from Upper Pleistocene to Holocene. From the geomorphological viewpoint, the area is involved in different landslides phenomena (rock falls, rotational, translational and complex landslides, earth flows) which affect ~15% of the overall surface area. The landslide susceptibility study was carried out through a geostatistical analysis of landslides driver factors. Air-photos analysis was conducted for larger landslides and hillslope areas. The identified landslides were corroborated through a detailed geomorphological field survey. The methodology involved three main steps. Firstly, the main driver factors, directly or indirectly linked to slope instability, were defined and mapped by DTM processing, air-photos analysis and detailed geomorphological field survey. Morphological, geological and geomorphological factors were considered: slope

  6. Central regions of keloids are severely ischaemic.

    PubMed

    Touchi, Ryoma; Ueda, Koichi; Kurokawa, Norifumi; Tsuji, Motomu

    2016-02-01

    We classified scars as keloids, hypertrophic scars and mature scars, and then examined the scars for differences in central and marginal vascularization. We found significant differences in localized hypoxia-induced factor-1α (HIF-1α) expression and vascular density in keloids, but no localized differences in hypertrophic or mature scars. The central areas of keloids exhibited higher HIF-1α expression and lower vascular density than marginal areas, suggesting that the former are severely ischaemic. PMID:26794626

  7. Effect of Object Orientation Angle on T2* Image and Reconstructed Magnetic Susceptibility: Numerical Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zikuan; Calhoun, Vince

    2013-01-01

    The magnetic field resulting from material magnetization in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has an object orientation effect, which produces an orientation dependence for acquired T2* images. On one hand, the orientation effect can be exploited for object anisotropy investigation (via multi-angle imaging); on the other hand, it is desirable to remove the orientation dependence using magnetic susceptibility reconstruction. In this report, we design a stick-star digital phantom to simulate multiple orientations of a stick-like object and use it to conduct various numerical simulations. Our simulations show that the object orientation effect is not propagated to the reconstructed magnetic susceptibility distribution. This suggests that accurate susceptibility reconstruction methods should be largely orientation independent. PMID:25114542

  8. Unique Activity Spectrum of Colicin FY: All 110 Characterized Yersinia enterocolitica Isolates Were Colicin FY Susceptible

    PubMed Central

    Bosák, Juraj; Micenková, Lenka; Vrba, Martin; Ševčíková, Alena; Dědičová, Daniela; Garzetti, Debora; Šmajs, David

    2013-01-01

    Colicin FY is a plasmid encoded toxin that recognizes a yersinia-specific outer membrane protein (YiuR) as a receptor molecule. We have previously shown that the activity spectrum of colicin FY comprises strains of the genus Yersinia. In this study, we analyzed the activity of colicin FY against 110 Yersinia enterocolitica isolates differing in geographical origin and source. All isolates were characterized through analysis of 16S rRNA genes, serotyping, biotyping, restriction profiling of genomic DNA, detection of virulence markers and susceptibility to antibiotics. This confirmed the broad variability of the collection, in which all 110 Y. enterocolitica isolates, representing 77 various strains, were inhibited by colicin FY. Although isolates showed variable levels of susceptibility to colicin FY, it was not associated with any strain characteristic. The universal susceptibility of Y. enterocolitica strains to colicin FY together with the absence of activity towards strains outside the Yersinia genus suggests potential therapeutic applications for colicin FY. PMID:24339971

  9. Enterococcus faecalis cytolysin without effect on the intestinal growth of susceptible enterococci in mice.

    PubMed

    Huycke, M M; Joyce, W A; Gilmore, M S

    1995-07-01

    A murine model was developed to determine whether the Enterococcus faecalis cytolysin, through its bacteriolytic action on gram-positive bacteria, could promote intestinal overgrowth of cytolytic strains. Sets of E. faecalis strains with varying cytolytic production and susceptibility to cytolytic activity were mixed 1:1 and allowed to compete in vitro in broth or in vivo after orogastric administration in mice pretreated with antibiotics. In general, cytolytic strains outgrew, by as much as 2000-fold, competing cytolysin-susceptible or -hypersusceptible strains in vitro. In contrast, no growth advantage was observed in vivo, despite similar transient colonization of the murine intestinal tract by both cytolytic and cytolysin-susceptible strains. These data suggest that cytolysin plays little role in promoting intestinal overgrowth of enterococci through bacteriolytic activity. PMID:7797930

  10. Best Linear Unbiased Prediction of Individual Polygenic Susceptibility to Sporadic Vascular Dementia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chaeyoung

    2016-05-31

    Genetic factors of sporadic vascular dementia have been quite limitedly understood. Many underlying polygenes are suspected to contribute to susceptibility to sporadic vascular dementia as a typical complex disease although they have not been identified from genome-wide association studies. This study suggests a stochastic prediction of individual polygenetic susceptibility to sporadic vascular dementia using best linear unbiased prediction in a mixed model framework. The prediction shows a relative degree of individual genetic susceptibility to the disease that reflects its integrative polygenetic factors across the genome. The estimate should take into account heritability and the prevalence of sporadic vascular dementia to cope with the disease. This offers a model for application of a genetic blueprint for a complex disease to personalized preventive medicine. PMID:27258425

  11. Effect of Grain Boundary Character Distribution on the Adiabatic Shear Susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang; Jiang, Lihong; Luo, Shuhong; Hu, Haibo; Tang, Tiegang; Zhang, Qingming

    2016-11-01

    The adiabatic shear susceptibility of AISI321 stainless steels with different grain boundary character distributions (GBCDs) was investigated by means of split-Hopkinson pressure bar. The results indicate that the width of the adiabatic shear band of the specimen after thermomechanical processing (TMP) treatment is narrower. The comparison of the stress collapse time, the critical stress, and the adiabatic shear forming energy suggests that the TMP specimens have lower adiabatic shear susceptibility than that of the solution-treated samples under the same loading condition. GBCD and grain size affected the adiabatic shear susceptibility. The high-angle boundary network of the TMP specimens was interrupted or replaced by the special grain boundary, and smaller grain size hindered the adiabatic shearing.

  12. Bacterial Manipulation of NK Cell Regulatory Activity Increases Susceptibility to Listeria monocytogenes Infection

    PubMed Central

    Guthrie, Brandon S.; Schmidt, Rebecca L.; Jamieson, Amanda; Merkel, Patricia; Knight, Vijaya; Cole, Caroline M.; Raulet, David H.; Lenz, Laurel L.

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells produce interferon (IFN)-γ and thus have been suggested to promote type I immunity during bacterial infections. Yet, Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) and some other pathogens encode proteins that cause increased NK cell activation. Here, we show that stimulation of NK cell activation increases susceptibility during Lm infection despite and independent from robust NK cell production of IFNγ. The increased susceptibility correlated with IL-10 production by responding NK cells. NK cells produced IL-10 as their IFNγ production waned and the Lm virulence protein p60 promoted induction of IL-10 production by mouse and human NK cells. NK cells consequently exerted regulatory effects to suppress accumulation and activation of inflammatory myeloid cells. Our results reveal new dimensions of the role played by NK cells during Lm infection and demonstrate the ability of this bacterial pathogen to exploit the induction of regulatory NK cell activity to increase host susceptibility. PMID:27295349

  13. In vitro susceptibility of fungi to killing by neutrophil granulocytes discriminates between primary pathogenicity and opportunism.

    PubMed Central

    Schaffner, A; Davis, C E; Schaffner, T; Markert, M; Douglas, H; Braude, A I

    1986-01-01

    Pathogenic fungi, according to their propensity to cause infection of apparently normal individuals, can be grouped into either primary pathogens (e.g., Coccidioides, Histoplasma, Paracoccidioides, Blastomyces, and Sporothrix) or opportunists (e.g., Candida, Mucoraceae, Aspergillus spp., Petriellidium, and Trichosporon). There is, however, no unifying concept explaining the difference between the virulence of the two fungal categories. Previously we have speculated that neutrophils are the common denominator of the high natural resistance to opportunistic fungi. Accordingly, we then compared the susceptibility to killing by neutrophil granulocytes of Histoplasma, Blastomyces, Paracoccidioides, and Sporothrix with that of 14 opportunistic fungi. We found the four virulent dimorphic yeasts, in contrast to opportunistic fungi, to be resistant to killing by neutrophils. Virulent dimorphic yeasts were ingested by neutrophils, and triggered a respiratory burst comparably to opportunists but were less susceptible to hydrogen peroxide, suggesting that differences in the susceptibility to microbicidal products of leukocytes may explain the difference in virulence. Images PMID:3734102

  14. Susceptibility testing of urinary isolates of Escherichia coli to mecillinam using NCCLS methodology.

    PubMed

    Skov, Robert; Frimodt-Moller, Niels; Menday, Paul; Espersen, Frank

    2005-03-01

    Criteria for susceptibility testing of mecillinam against 533 isolates of Escherichia coli and a further 309 Enterobacteriaceae, according to NCCLS methodology, were determined. Correlation of MIC to inhibition zones was good for all species. For urinary isolates of E. coli, the following agar dilution breakpoints and corresponding interpretive zone diameters seem appropriate: < or = 8 mg/L/> or = 15 mm for susceptible; 16 mg/L/12-14 mm for intermediate susceptible and > or = 32 mg/L/< or = 11 mm for resistant. The appearance of isolated colonies within the inhibition zone was sometimes noted with disc diffusion, particularly for non-E. coli Enterobacteriaceae. The relevance of these colonies to clinical (bacteriological) efficacy was determined and the results suggested that they could be ignored when testing urinary E. coli.

  15. Enhanced brain susceptibility to negative stimuli in adolescents: ERP evidences

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jiajin; Ju, Enxia; Meng, Xianxin; Chen, Xuhai; Zhu, Siyu; Yang, Jiemin; Li, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies investigated neural substrates of emotional face processing in adolescents and its comparison with adults. As emotional faces elicit more of emotional expression recognition rather than direct emotional responding, it remains undetermined how adolescents are different from adults in brain susceptibility to emotionally stressful stimuli. Methods: Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) were recorded for highly negative (HN), moderately negative (MN), and neutral pictures in 20 adolescents and 20 adults while subjects performed a standard/deviant distinction task by pressing different keys, irrespective of the emotionality of deviant stimuli. Results: Adolescents exhibited more negative amplitudes for HN vs. neutral pictures in N1 (100–150 ms), P2 (130–190 ms), N2 (210–290 ms), and P3 (360–440 ms) components. In addition, adolescents showed more negative amplitudes for MN compared to neutral pictures in N1, P2, and N2 components. By contrast, adults exhibited significant emotion effects for HN stimuli in N2 and P3 amplitudes but not in N1 and P2 amplitudes, and they did not exhibit a significant emotion effect for MN stimuli at all these components. In the 210–290 ms time interval, the emotion effect for HN stimuli was significant across frontal and central regions in adolescents, while this emotion effect was noticeable only in the central region for adults. Conclusions: Adolescents are more emotionally sensitive to negative stimuli compared to adults, regardless of the emotional intensity of the stimuli, possibly due to the immature prefrontal control system over the limbic emotional inputs during adolescence. PMID:25972790

  16. In vitro prion protein conversion suggests risk of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Morawski, A.R.; Carlson, C.M.; Chang, H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) affect both domestic sheep (scrapie) and captive and free-ranging cervids (chronic wasting disease; CWD). The geographical range of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis; BHS) overlaps with states or provinces that have contained scrapie-positive sheep or goats and areas with present epizootics of CWD in cervids. No TSEs have been documented in BHS, but the susceptibility of this species to TSEs remains unknown. Results: We acquired a library of BHS tissues and found no evidence of preexisting TSEs in these animals. The prion protein gene (Prnp) in all BHS in our library was identical to scrapie-susceptible domestic sheep (A136R 154Q171). Using an in vitro prion protein conversion assay, which has been previously used to assess TSE species barriers and, in our study appears to recollect known species barriers in mice, we assessed the potential transmissibility of TSEs to BHS. As expected based upon Prnp genotype, we observed BHS prion protein conversion by classical scrapie agent and evidence for a species barrier between transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) and BHS. Interestingly, our data suggest that the species barrier of BHS to white-tailed deer or wapiti CWD agents is likely low. We also used protein misfolding cyclic amplification to confirm that CWD, but not TME, can template prion protein misfolding in A136R 154Q171genotype sheep. Conclusions: Our results indicate the in vitro conversion assay used in our study does mimic the species barrier of mice to the TSE agents that we tested. Based on Prnp genotype and results from conversion assays, BHS are likely to be susceptible to infection by classical scrapie. Despite mismatches in amino acids thought to modulate prion protein conversion, our data indicate that A136R154Q171 genotype sheep prion protein is misfolded by CWD agent, suggesting that these animals could be susceptible to CWD. Further investigation of TSE transmissibility to BHS, including

  17. Susceptibility genes and pharmacogenetics in ocular inflammatory disorders.

    PubMed

    Liu, Baoying; Sen, H Nida; Nussenblatt, Robert

    2012-10-01

    Ocular inflammatory disorders encompass uveitis, scleritis, keratitis, and other ocular diseases where inflammation may play a role. Although age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is clinically characterized by degenerative changes in the macula, accumulating evidence suggests that inflammation plays an important role in its pathogenesis. Pharmacogenetics is the study of the influence of genetic variation and its effects on drug efficacy or toxicity. There are no pharmacogenetic studies in uveitis and very few in AMD therapies. In this review, the authors describe the susceptibility genes related to uveitis and AMD and the important advances in pharmacogenetic research in relation to AMD and uveitis therapy. They propose polygenic and composite models of treatment responses to fulfill individualized drug therapy in intraocular inflammatory disorders. PMID:22974049

  18. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Brachyspira intermedia isolates from European layers.

    PubMed

    Verlinden, Marc; Boyen, Filip; Pasmans, Frank; Garmyn, An; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Martel, An

    2011-09-01

    A broth microdilution method was used to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of 20 Brachyspira intermedia isolates obtained from different layer flocks in Belgium and The Netherlands between 2008 and 2010. The antimicrobial agents used were tylosin, tilmicosin, tiamulin, valnemulin, doxycycline, and lincomycin. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) distribution patterns of tylosin, tilmicosin, lincomycin, and doxycycline were bimodal, demonstrating acquired resistance against doxycycline in three strains, against the macrolides in two strains, and against lincomycin in one strain. The MICs of tiamulin and valnemulin showed a monomodal distribution, but with tailing toward the higher MIC values, possibly suggesting low-level acquired resistance in six isolates. Sequencing revealed a G1058C mutation in the 16S rRNA gene in all doxycycline-resistant strains. The strain resistant to tylosin, tilmicosin, and lincomycin had an A2058T mutation in the 23S rRNA gene. PMID:21663534

  19. In vitro susceptibility of porcine respiratory pathogens to tilmicosin.

    PubMed

    DeRosa, D C; Veenhuizen, M F; Bade, D J; Shryock, T R

    2000-11-01

    Bacterial isolates obtained from swine with various clinical diseases were tested for susceptibility to tilmicosin by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion tests using National Committee on Clinical Laboratory Standards methodology. The tilmicosin MIC90 was < or =0.125 microg/ml for Erysiopelothrix rhusiopathiae, < or = 1 microg/ml for Haemophilus parasuis isolates, 8 microg/ml for Actinobacillus suis and Pasteurella multocida type A, 16 microg/ml for toxigenic and nontoxigenic P. multocida type D, 64 microg/ml for Bordetella bronchiseptica, and >128 microg/ml for Staphylococcus hyicus and Streptococcus suis. The results of disk diffusion testing matched well with the MIC results for each pathogen. This in vitro survey of tilmicosin activity against various swine isolates suggests that further clinical evaluation of tilmicosin in swine may be warranted for disease associated with E. rhusiopathiae, H. parasuis, and A. suis but not B. bronchiseptica, S. suis, or S. hyicus. PMID:11108454

  20. Evaluation for malignant hyperthermia susceptibility in black-tailed deer.

    PubMed

    Antognini, J F; Eisele, P H; Gronert, G A

    1996-10-01

    To investigate a possible link of malignant hyperthermia to capture myopathy, between June 1990 and July 1993 we anesthetized four black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) and challenged them with halothane and succinylcholine. Halothane had no significant effect on oxygen consumption. Succinylcholine significantly (P < 0.05) increased cardiac output (mean +/- SD), from 2.94 +/- 1.05 l/min to 5.26 +/- 1.79 l/min, and oxygen consumption, from 5.5 +/- 2.1 ml/kg/min to 10.1 +/- 2.9 ml/kg/min. Muscle biopsy specimens tested for malignant hyperthermia susceptibility responded normally to halothane and caffeine. We conclude that these deer did not experience malignant hyperthermia; suggesting no link to capture myopathy.

  1. Towards a Remote Sensing Based Assessment of Land Susceptibility to Degradation: Examining Seasonal Variation in Land Use-Land Cover for Modelling Land Degradation in a Semi-Arid Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashame, Gofamodimo; Akinyemi, Felicia

    2016-06-01

    Land degradation (LD) is among the major environmental and anthropogenic problems driven by land use-land cover (LULC) and climate change worldwide. For example, poor LULC practises such as deforestation, livestock overstocking, overgrazing and arable land use intensification on steep slopes disturbs the soil structure leaving the land susceptible to water erosion, a type of physical land degradation. Land degradation related problems exist in Sub-Saharan African countries such as Botswana which is semi-arid in nature. LULC and LD linkage information is still missing in many semi-arid regions worldwide.Mapping seasonal LULC is therefore very important in understanding LULC and LD linkages. This study assesses the impact of seasonal LULC variation on LD utilizing Remote Sensing (RS) techniques for Palapye region in Central District, Botswana. LULC classes for the dry and rainy seasons were classified using LANDSAT 8 images at Level I according to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) International Organization of Standardization (ISO) code 19144. Level I consists of 10 LULC classes. The seasonal variations in LULC are further related to LD susceptibility in the semi-arid context. The results suggest that about 985 km² (22%) of the study area is susceptible to LD by water, major LULC types affected include: cropland, paved/rocky material, bare land, built-up area, mining area, and water body. Land degradation by water susceptibility due to seasonal land use-land cover variations is highest in the east of the study area where there is high cropland to bare land conversion.

  2. Who bites the bullet first? The susceptibility of leopards Panthera pardus to trophy hunting.

    PubMed

    Braczkowski, Alex Richard; Balme, Guy Andrew; Dickman, Amy; Macdonald, David Whyte; Fattebert, Julien; Dickerson, Tristan; Johnson, Paul; Hunter, Luke

    2015-01-01

    Reliable data is fundamentally important for managing large carnivore populations, and vital for informing hunting quota levels if those populations are subject to trophy hunting. Camera-trapping and spoor counts can provide reliable population estimates for many carnivores, but governments typically lack the resources to implement such surveys over the spatial scales required to inform robust quota setting. It may therefore be prudent to shift focus away from estimating population size and instead focus on monitoring population trend. In this paper we assess the susceptibility of African leopards Panthera pardus to trophy hunting. This has management ramifications, particularly if the use of harvest composition is to be explored as a metric of population trend. We explore the susceptibility of different leopard age and sex cohorts to trophy hunting; first by examining their intrinsic susceptibility to encountering trophy hunters using camera-traps as surrogates, and second by assessing their extrinsic susceptibility using photographic questionnaire surveys to determine their attractiveness to hunters. We show that adult male and female leopards share similar incident rates to encountering hunters but adult males are the most susceptible to hunting due to hunter preference for large trophies. In contrast, sub-adult leopards rarely encounter hunters and are the least attractive trophies. We suggest that our findings be used as a foundation for the exploration of a harvest composition scheme in the Kwazulu-Natal and Limpopo provinces where post mortem information is collected from hunted leopards and submitted to the local provincial authorities.

  3. Seizure-induced disinhibition of the HPA axis increases seizure susceptibility.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Kate K; Hooper, Andrew; Wakefield, Seth; Maguire, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Stress is the most commonly reported precipitating factor for seizures. The proconvulsant actions of stress hormones are thought to mediate the effects of stress on seizure susceptibility. Interestingly, epileptic patients have increased basal levels of stress hormones, including corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and corticosterone, which are further increased following seizures. Given the proconvulsant actions of stress hormones, we proposed that seizure-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may contribute to future seizure susceptibility. Consistent with this hypothesis, our data demonstrate that pharmacological induction of seizures in mice with kainic acid or pilocarpine increases circulating levels of the stress hormone, corticosterone, and exogenous corticosterone administration is sufficient to increase seizure susceptibility. However, the mechanism(s) whereby seizures activate the HPA axis remain unknown. Here we demonstrate that seizure-induced activation of the HPA axis involves compromised GABAergic control of CRH neurons, which govern HPA axis function. Following seizure activity, there is a collapse of the chloride gradient due to changes in NKCC1 and KCC2 expression, resulting in reduced amplitude of sIPSPs and even depolarizing effects of GABA on CRH neurons. Seizure-induced activation of the HPA axis results in future seizure susceptibility which can be blocked by treatment with an NKCC1 inhibitor, bumetanide, or blocking the CRH signaling with Antalarmin. These data suggest that compromised GABAergic control of CRH neurons following an initial seizure event may cause hyperexcitability of the HPA axis and increase future seizure susceptibility.

  4. Clinical and microbiological characteristics of tigecycline non-susceptible Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Resistance among Klebsiella pneumoniae to most antibiotics is on the rise. Tigecycline has been considered as one of the few therapeutic options available to treat multidrug-resistant bacteria. We investigated the clinical and microbiological characteristics of tigecycline non-susceptible K. pneumoniae bacteremia. Methods Adult patients with tigecycline non-susceptible K. pneumoniae bacteremia at a medical center in Taiwan over a 3-year period were enrolled. K. pneumoniae isolates were identified by the E-test using criteria set by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Data on the clinical features of patients were collected from medical records. Genes for β-lactamases, antimicrobial susceptibilities and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) results were determined for all isolates. Results Of 36 patients, 27 had nosocomial bacteremia. Overall 28-day mortality was 38.9%. The MIC50 and MIC90 of tigecycline were 6 and 8 mg/L, respectively. No carbapenemase was detected among the 36 isolates. Twenty isolates carried extended spectrum β-lactamases and/or DHA-1 genes. No major cluster of isolates was found among the 36 isolates by PFGE. Intensive care unit onset of tigecycline non-susceptible Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia was the only independent risk factor for 28-day mortality. Conclusions The high mortality of patients with tigecycline non-susceptible K. pneumoniae bacteremia may suggest a critical problem. Further study to identify the possible risk factors for its development and further investigation of this type of bacteremia is necessary. PMID:24380631

  5. Susceptibility to disease varies with ontogeny and immunocompetence in a threatened amphibian.

    PubMed

    Abu Bakar, Amalina; Bower, Deborah S; Stockwell, Michelle P; Clulow, Simon; Clulow, John; Mahony, Michael J

    2016-08-01

    Ontogenetic changes in disease susceptibility have been demonstrated in many vertebrate taxa, as immature immune systems and limited prior exposure to pathogens can place less developed juveniles at a greater disease risk. By causing the disease chytridiomycosis, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) infection has led to the decline of many amphibian species. Despite increasing knowledge on how Bd varies in its effects among species, little is known on the interaction between susceptibility and development within host species. We compared the ontogenetic susceptibility of post-metamorphic green and golden bell frogs Litoria aurea to chytridiomycosis by simultaneously measuring three host-pathogen responses as indicators of the development of the fungus-infection load, survival rate, and host immunocompetence-following Bd exposure in three life stages (recently metamorphosed juveniles, subadults, adults) over 95 days. Frogs exposed to Bd as recently metamorphosed juveniles acquired higher infection loads and experienced lower immune function and lower survivorship than subadults and adults, indicating an ontogenetic decline in chytridiomycosis susceptibility. By corresponding with an intrinsic developmental maturation in immunocompetence seen in uninfected frogs, we suggest these developmental changes in host susceptibility in L. aurea may be immune mediated. Consequently, the physiological relationship between ontogeny and immunity may affect host population structure and demography through variation in life stage survival, and understanding this can shape management targets for effective amphibian conservation. PMID:27021312

  6. Editorial--Avoiding Unethical Helicobacter pylori Clinical Trials: Susceptibility-Based Studies and Probiotics as Adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Graham, David Y

    2015-10-01

    As a general rule, any clinical study where the result is already known or when the investigator(s) compares an assigned treatment against another assigned treatment known to be ineffective in the study population (e.g., in a population with known clarithromycin resistance) is unethical. As susceptibility-based therapy will always be superior to empiric therapy in any population with a prevalence of antimicrobial resistance >0%, any trial that randomizes susceptibility-based therapy with empiric therapy would be unethical. The journal Helicobacter welcomes susceptibility or culture-guided studies, studies of new therapies, and studies of adjuvants and probiotics. However, the journal will not accept for review any study we judge to be lacking clinical equipoise or which assign subjects to a treatment known to be ineffective, such as a susceptibility-based clinical trial with an empiric therapy comparator. To assist authors, we provide examples and suggestions regarding trial design for comparative studies, for susceptibility-based studies, and for studies testing adjuvants or probiotics.

  7. Near-Global Survey of Cloud Column Susceptibilities Using ISCCP Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Qingyuan; Rossow, William B.; Chou, Joyce; Welch, Ronald M.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A new parameter, cloud column susceptibility, is introduced to study the aerosol indirect effect. There are several advantages of this new parameter in comparison with the traditional cloud susceptibility. First, no assumptions about constant liquid water content and cloud layer thickness are required in calculations so that errors caused by these assumptions can be avoided. Second, no a priori knowledge of liquid water content is necessary in remote sensing, which makes global survey by satellite data possible even though liquid water content may change significantly. Third, this new parameter can deal with variations of cloud geometrical thickness during cloud-aerosol interactions, which are evidenced by Without assuming how cloud droplet size will respond to changes of number concentration, this new parameter describes the aerosol indirect effect more directly. It addresses the question of how cloud albedo changes with increasing column number concentrations of cloud droplets, which is resulted from cloud-aerosol interactions. In this study, two approaches are used to retrieve cloud column susceptibility by satellite data. The results of both approaches show a striking contrast of cloud column susceptibilities between continental and maritime. Between the two approaches, the one that uses no assumption of constant liquid water content leads to smaller, some times even negative, cloud column susceptibilities. This finding suggests that the aerosol indirect effect may be overestimated if the assumption of constant liquid water content is used in model studies.

  8. An Induced Susceptibility Response in Soybean Promotes Avirulent Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Populations on Resistant Soybean.

    PubMed

    Varenhorst, A J; McCarville, M T; O'Neal, M E

    2015-06-01

    Observations of virulent Aphis glycines Matsumura populations on resistant soybean in North America occurred prior to the commercial release of Rag genes. Laboratory assays confirmed the presence of four A. glycines biotypes in North America defined by their virulence to the Rag1 and Rag2 genes. Avirulent and virulent biotypes can co-occur and potentially interact on soybean, which may result in induced susceptibility. We conducted a series of experiments to determine if the survival of avirulent biotypes on susceptible and resistant soybean containing the Rag1 or Rag1 + Rag2 genes was affected by the presence of either avirulent or virulent conspecifics. Regardless of virulence to Rag genes, initial feeding by conspecifics increased the survival of subsequent A. glycines populations on both susceptible and resistant soybean. Avirulent populations increased at the same rate as virulent populations if the resistant plants were initially colonized with virulent aphids. These results are the first to demonstrate that virulent A. glycines increase the suitability of resistant soybean for avirulent conspecifics, thus explaining the lack of genetic differentiation observed in North America between A. glycines populations on resistant and susceptible soybean. These results suggest the occurrence of virulence toward Rag genes in North America may be overestimated. In addition this may alter the selection pressure for virulence genes to increase in a population. Therefore, insect resistance management models for A. glycines may need to incorporate induced susceptibility factors to determine the relative durability of resistance genes.

  9. Non-smoking youths' "perceived" addiction to tobacco is associated with their susceptibility to future smoking.

    PubMed

    Okoli, Chizimuzo T C; Richardson, Chris G; Ratner, Pamela A; Johnson, Joy L

    2009-12-01

    Smoking initiation places adolescents at risk for adult onset diseases, including heart disease, respiratory illness, and cancer. Adolescents that smoke have levels of 'perceived' tobacco addiction that are associated with several measures of nicotine dependence. Nonsmoking adolescents also report feeling addicted to tobacco even with minimal or no prior tobacco use, suggesting some vulnerability to tobacco use. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between perceived tobacco addiction and smoking susceptibility among adolescents with very minimal tobacco use. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted of data obtained from 5155 nonsmokers who completed the British Columbia Youth Survey of Smoking and Health II, a school-based survey conducted during 2004. Measures included demographics, tobacco use (ever puffed a cigarette), substance use (marijuana and alcohol), exposure to family members' smoking in the home, peers' tobacco use, depressive symptoms, perceived physical and mental addiction to tobacco, and smoking susceptibility. The adolescents who were most susceptible to smoking were female, younger and in a lower school grade; had ever puffed a cigarette, had used alcohol or marijuana; had family members or peers who smoked; had higher depression scores, and higher perceived physical and mental addiction to tobacco. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, perceived mental addiction but not perceived physical addiction to tobacco was significantly associated with smoking susceptibility. Understanding factors associated with smoking initiation, and ways to identify "at- risk" adolescents can enhance early intervention and prevention programs. Perceived mental addiction to tobacco appears to be an important indicator of smoking susceptibility. PMID:19643546

  10. Who Bites the Bullet First? The Susceptibility of Leopards Panthera pardus to Trophy Hunting

    PubMed Central

    Braczkowski, Alex Richard; Balme, Guy Andrew; Dickman, Amy; Macdonald, David Whyte; Fattebert, Julien; Dickerson, Tristan; Johnson, Paul; Hunter, Luke

    2015-01-01

    Reliable data is fundamentally important for managing large carnivore populations, and vital for informing hunting quota levels if those populations are subject to trophy hunting. Camera-trapping and spoor counts can provide reliable population estimates for many carnivores, but governments typically lack the resources to implement such surveys over the spatial scales required to inform robust quota setting. It may therefore be prudent to shift focus away from estimating population size and instead focus on monitoring population trend. In this paper we assess the susceptibility of African leopards Panthera pardus to trophy hunting. This has management ramifications, particularly if the use of harvest composition is to be explored as a metric of population trend. We explore the susceptibility of different leopard age and sex cohorts to trophy hunting; first by examining their intrinsic susceptibility to encountering trophy hunters using camera-traps as surrogates, and second by assessing their extrinsic susceptibility using photographic questionnaire surveys to determine their attractiveness to hunters. We show that adult male and female leopards share similar incident rates to encountering hunters but adult males are the most susceptible to hunting due to hunter preference for large trophies. In contrast, sub-adult leopards rarely encounter hunters and are the least attractive trophies. We suggest that our findings be used as a foundation for the exploration of a harvest composition scheme in the Kwazulu-Natal and Limpopo provinces where post mortem information is collected from hunted leopards and submitted to the local provincial authorities. PMID:25860139

  11. IL18 Gene Variants Influence the Susceptibility to Chagas Disease.

    PubMed

    Leon Rodriguez, Daniel A; Carmona, F David; Echeverría, Luis Eduardo; González, Clara Isabel; Martin, Javier

    2016-03-01

    Chagas disease is a parasitic disorder caused by the infection with the flagellated protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. According to the World Health Organization, more than six million people are currently infected in endemic regions. Genetic factors have been proposed to influence predisposition to infection and development of severe clinical phenotypes like chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC). Interleukin 18 (IL18) encodes a proinflammatory cytokine that has been proposed to be involved in controlling T. cruzi infection. In this study, we analyzed the possible role of six IL18 gene variants (rs5744258, rs360722, rs2043055, rs187238, rs1946518 and rs360719), which cover most of the variation within the locus, in the susceptibility to infection by T. cruzi and/or CCC. In total, 1,171 individuals from a Colombian region endemic for Chagas disease, classified as seronegative (n = 595), seropositive asymptomatic (n = 175) and CCC (n = 401), were genotyped using TaqMan probes. Significant associations with T. cruzi infection were observed when comparing seronegative and seropositive individuals for rs187238 (P = 2.18E-03, OR = 0.77), rs360719 (P = 1.49E-03, OR = 0.76), rs2043055 (P = 2.52E-03, OR = 1.29), and rs1946518 (P = 0.0162, OR = 1.22). However, dependence analyses suggested that the association was mainly driven by the polymorphism rs360719. This variant is located within the promoter region of the IL18 gene, and it has been described that it creates a binding site for the transcription factor OCT-1 affecting IL-18 expression levels. In addition, no evidence of association was observed between any of the analyzed IL18 gene polymorphisms and the development of CCC. In summary, our data suggest that genetic variation within the promoter region of IL18 is directly involved in the susceptibility to infection by T. cruzi, which provides novel insight into disease pathophysiology and adds new perspectives to achieve a more effective disease control.

  12. The sedimentary records of Holocene environmental changes from the Central High of the Sea of Marmara

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filikci, Betul; Çağatay, Namık; Kadir Eriş, Kürşad; Akyol, Mustafa; Yalamaz, Burak; Uçarkuş, Gülsen; Henry, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    The Sea of Marmara (SoM) is located between the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea, to which it is connected via the Istanbul (Bosphorus) and Canakkale (Dardanelles) straits having sill depths of 65 and 35 m, respectively. It has a two-way water mass exchange with a permanent pycnocline located at 20-25 m water depth. With the objective of determining Holocene paleoenvironmental changes, we studied a 8.36 m-long piston core recovered from the Central High of the SoM at a water depth of 835 m, using multiproxy analyses such as total organic and inorganic carbon, high resolution µ-XRF core scanner analysis, grain size, magnetic susceptibility and density. A 2 cm-thick tephra layer with high K and Zr and relatively low magnetic susceptibility occurs at 2.1 meter below sea floor (mbsf), which is correlated with the Avellino (Somma-Vesuvius, Italy) eruption dated at 3.9 ka BP, according to the previous studies. Using this age and assuming a uniform sedimentation rate, the base of the core dates back to ca 8 ka BP. The core includes organic-rich (sapropelic) sediments with 1.5 % to 2.2%) in its top 3.5 m and bottom 1 m. Sapropelic layers are olive green and in part laminated, and contain occasional reddish brown spots and laminae formed by oxidation of iron monosulphides. The core also contains some few mm- to cm-thick sandy-silty mass-flow units below 2.4 mbsf, some of which could have been triggered by the earthquake activity on the Central High segment of the North Anatolian Fault, just a few km away from the core location. Variations in Ca-Ti ratio suggest millennial-scale climatic changes during the Holocene. Keywords: Sea of Marmara, Holocene paleoenvironmental records, tephra, turbidites, TOC analysis, XRF analysis, physical properties.

  13. TLR4 polymorphism and periodontitis susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Su-Han; Guan, Xiao-Yan; Liang, Wen-Hong; Bai, Guo-Hui; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Many primary and secondary studies reported the association between Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) polymorphism and periodontitis susceptibility, which mainly focused on TLR4–299A>G or TLR4–399C>T of Caucasian, however, these studies had different conclusions. The aim of this study was to reassess relative studies about TLR4 polymorphism and periodontitis susceptibility, and update meta-analysis. Methods: We searched the electronic database including CNKI (Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure), PubMed, Embase, and hand searched relative studies until January 4, 2016. Two authors selected studies according to inclusion and exclusion criteria, assessed studies using Newcastle-Ottawa Scale case control study (NOS), and calculated the combined effect size using STATA software, version 12.0. Results: This meta-analysis included 18 studies, containing 2453 healthy participants and 2987 patients with chronic periodontitis (CP) and 462 patients with aggressive periodontitis (AP). There was a significance between TLR4C>G (rs7873784) allele and CP in Asian, and its recessive model was also significant (for C vs G: odds ratio [OR] = 0.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.54–0.95, I2 = 0%; for CC + CG vs GG: OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.49–0.89, I2 = 0%). However, we did not detect any significant relevance between other TLR4 polymorphism and periodontitis susceptibility in overall and subgroup analyses. The sensitive analysis showed that dropping any single studies did not affect the pooled-analysis results. Publication bias was not detected. Conclusions: The meta-analysis found association between TLR4C>G (rs7873784) allele and CP in Asian and it may passed on to offsprings in the form of recessiveness. However, further studies about the association between TLR4C>G (rs7873784) and CP is warranted to confirm. PMID:27603404

  14. Ubiquitous urease affects soybean susceptibility to fungi.

    PubMed

    Wiebke-Strohm, Beatriz; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Margis-Pinheiro, Márcia; Bencke, Marta; Bücker-Neto, Lauro; Becker-Ritt, Arlete B; Martinelli, Anne H S; Rechenmacher, Ciliana; Polacco, Joseph C; Stolf, Renata; Marcelino, Francismar C; Abdelnoor, Ricardo V; Homrich, Milena S; Del Ponte, Emerson M; Carlini, Celia R; De Carvalho, Mayra C C G; Bodanese-Zanettini, Maria Helena

    2012-05-01

    The soybean ubiquitous urease (encoded by GmEu4) is responsible for recycling metabolically derived urea. Additional biological roles have been demonstrated for plant ureases, notably in toxicity to other organisms. However, urease enzymatic activity is not related to its toxicity. The role of GmEu4 in soybean susceptibility to fungi was investigated in this study. A differential expression pattern of GmEu4 was observed in susceptible and resistant genotypes of soybeans over the course of a Phakopsora pachyrhizi infection, especially 24 h after infection. Twenty-nine adult, transgenic soybean plants, representing six independently transformed lines, were obtained. Although the initial aim of this study was to overexpress GmEu4, the transgenic plants exhibited GmEu4 co-suppression and decreased ureolytic activity. The growth of Rhizoctonia solani, Phomopsis sp., and Penicillium herguei in media containing a crude protein extract from either transgenic or non-transgenic leaves was evaluated. The fungal growth was higher in the protein extracts from transgenic urease-deprived plants than in extracts from non-transgenic controls. When infected by P. pachyrhizi uredospores, detached leaves of urease-deprived plants developed a significantly higher number of lesions, pustules and erupted pustules than leaves of non-transgenic plants containing normal levels of the enzyme. The results of the present work show that the soybean plants were more susceptible to fungi in the absence of urease. It was not possible to overexpress active GmEu4. For future work, overexpression of urease fungitoxic peptides could be attempted as an alternative approach.

  15. NBN Gene Polymorphisms and Cancer Susceptibility: A Systemic Review

    PubMed Central

    Berardinelli, Francesco; di Masi, Alessandra; Antoccia, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between DNA repair failure and cancer is well established as in the case of rare, high penetrant genes in high cancer risk families. Beside this, in the last two decades, several studies have investigated a possible association between low penetrant polymorphic variants in genes devoted to DNA repair pathways and risk for developing cancer. This relationship would be also supported by the observation that DNA repair processes may be modulated by sequence variants in DNA repair genes, leading to susceptibility to environmental carcinogens. In this framework, the aim of this review is to provide the reader with the state of the art on the association between common genetic variants and cancer risk, limiting the attention to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the NBN gene and providing the various odd ratios (ORs). In this respect, the NBN protein, together with MRE11 and RAD50, is part of the MRN complex which is a central player in the very early steps of sensing and processing of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), in telomere maintenance, in cell cycle control, and in genomic integrity in general. So far, many papers were devoted to ascertain possible association between common synonymous and non-synonymous NBN gene polymorphisms and increased cancer risk. However, the results still remain inconsistent and inconclusive also in meta-analysis studies for the most investigated E185Q NBN miscoding variant. PMID:24396275

  16. [Modern diagnostic approaches to malignant hyperthermia susceptibility].

    PubMed

    Kazantseva, A A; Lebedinskiĭ, K M

    2014-01-01

    Malignant hyperthermia is a well-known rare life-threatening autosomal-dominant pharmacogenetic disease, The arti- cle deals with a halothane-caffeine contracture test. The test is a model of muscle reaction to triggers in-vitro and it is the "golden standard" for malignant hyperthermia susceptibility (MHS) diagnosis. Genetic analysis is less invasive, but its sensitivity is significantly lower. The review discusses both the methods which are essential to be completely reproduced in Russia, and their role in modern approach to MHS diagnosis. PMID:25549489

  17. Susceptibility-weighted Imaging in Neurovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Heyn, Chris; Alcaide-Leon, Paula; Bharatha, Aditya; Sussman, Marshall S; Kucharczyk, Walter; Mandell, Daniel M

    2016-04-01

    Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) has become an important imaging sequence in the evaluation of patients with neurovascular disease. In this review, we provide a general overview of the physics of SWI and describe how image contrast is produced with this technique. We provide a general approach and differential diagnosis for 2 commonly encountered radiographic patterns seen with SWI in neurovascular disease. Finally, we discuss specific neurovascular applications of SWI, including its application in acute stroke, vascular malformations, venous thrombosis, and evaluation of cerebral microbleeds.

  18. Susceptibility of radiation chimeras to Trypanosoma cruzi

    SciTech Connect

    Trischmann, T.M.

    1982-05-01

    Reciprocal bone marrow transfers were performed with C3H/HeJ mice, which are susceptible to infection with the Brazil strain of Trypanosoma cruzi, and resistant F1 (C3H/HeJ X C57BL/6J) mice. Mice reconstituted after lethal irradiation with syngeneic bone marrow displayed the resistance phenotype of the strain used, but neither C3H mice reconstituted with F1 bone marrow cells nor F1 mice reconstituted with C3H bone marrow cells survived challenge. Resistance to T. cruzi appears to be dependent upon factors associated both with host background and with bone marrow-derived cells.

  19. Imaging central pain syndromes.

    PubMed

    Veldhuijzen, Dieuwke S; Greenspan, Joel D; Kim, Jong H; Coghill, Robert C; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Ohara, Shinji; Lenz, Frederick A

    2007-06-01

    Anatomic, functional, and neurochemical imaging studies have provided new investigative tools in the study of central pain. High-resolution imaging studies allow for precise determination of lesion location, whereas functional neuroimaging studies measure pathophysiologic consequences of injury to the central nervous system. Additionally, magnetic resonance spectroscopy evaluates lesion-induced neurochemical changes in specific brain regions that may be related to central pain. The small number of studies to date precludes definitive conclusions, but the recent findings provide information that either supports or refutes current hypotheses and can serve to generate new ideas.

  20. ASNT central certification program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spring, Robert W.; Snell, John R., Jr.

    1997-04-01

    The American Society of Nondestructive Testing (ASNT) has recently established a new central certification program. This program will allow individuals who meet the requirements to receive a 'portable' certificate. Augmenting the existing employer-based certification, this program will have significant impact on industries that may ultimately require nondestructive testing (NDT) personnel to have central certification. This paper explains show ASNT has structured central certification and when and how it will effect thermal/infrared thermography (T/IRT) personnel. The paper also discusses the industry specific certification process.