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Sample records for suggests cross-species interactome

  1. Distribution of baboon endogenous virus among species of African monkeys suggests multiple ancient cross-species transmissions in shared habitats.

    PubMed Central

    van der Kuyl, A C; Dekker, J T; Goudsmit, J

    1995-01-01

    PCR amplification of baboon endogenous virus (BaEV) long terminal repeat, reverse transcriptase gene, and env fragments from 24 different species of African monkeys indicates that BaEV is less widespread than was formerly thought. Instead of being present in every species of African primates, BaEV can be found only in baboons, geladas, and mangabeys (all belonging to the Papionini tribe) and in African green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops)subspecies. BaEV, which can be activated from baboon and gelada tissues, was most likely introduced in the germ line only recently (less than a few million years ago) and has not been inherited from a common ancestor of all extant African monkeys. Neighbor-joining and maximum-likelihood analyses of the sequences obtained showed that two distinct virus clusters can be distinguished: the first containing baboon, gelada, and African green monkey BaEV sequences and the second consisting of mandrill and mangabey BaEV sequences. This viral evolutionary tree does not follow host phylogeny, indicating the cross-species transmissions and multiple germ line fixations of the virus must have occurred in the past. BaEV sequences are found in monkeys inhabiting savannas (baboons, geladas, and African green monkeys) as well as forests (managabeys and mandrills) and cluster according to the habitats of their hosts, providing evidence for cross-species transmission in shared habitats. PMID:7494300

  2. A Novel Endogenous Betaretrovirus in the Common Vampire Bat (Desmodus rotundus) Suggests Multiple Independent Infection and Cross-Species Transmission Events

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, M. Lisandra Zepeda; Heeger, Felix; Loza-Rubio, Elizabeth; Rojas-Anaya, Edith; Méndez-Ojeda, Maria L.; Taboada, Blanca; Mazzoni, Camila J.; Arias, Carlos F.

    2015-01-01

    The Desmodus rotundus endogenous betaretrovirus (DrERV) is fixed in the vampire bat D. rotundus population and in other phyllostomid bats but is not present in all species from this family. DrERV is not phylogenetically related to Old World bat betaretroviruses but to betaretroviruses from rodents and New World primates, suggesting recent cross-species transmission. A recent integration age estimation of the provirus in some taxa indicates that an exogenous counterpart might have been in recent circulation. PMID:25717107

  3. A novel endogenous betaretrovirus in the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) suggests multiple independent infection and cross-species transmission events.

    PubMed

    Escalera-Zamudio, Marina; Mendoza, M Lisandra Zepeda; Heeger, Felix; Loza-Rubio, Elizabeth; Rojas-Anaya, Edith; Méndez-Ojeda, Maria L; Taboada, Blanca; Mazzoni, Camila J; Arias, Carlos F; Greenwood, Alex D

    2015-05-01

    The Desmodus rotundus endogenous betaretrovirus (DrERV) is fixed in the vampire bat D. rotundus population and in other phyllostomid bats but is not present in all species from this family. DrERV is not phylogenetically related to Old World bat betaretroviruses but to betaretroviruses from rodents and New World primates, suggesting recent cross-species transmission. A recent integration age estimation of the provirus in some taxa indicates that an exogenous counterpart might have been in recent circulation.

  4. Characterization of the Human NEK7 Interactome Suggests Catalytic and Regulatory Properties Distinct from Those of NEK6

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Human NEK7 is a regulator of cell division and plays an important role in growth and survival of mammalian cells. Human NEK6 and NEK7 are closely related, consisting of a conserved C-terminal catalytic domain and a nonconserved and disordered N-terminal regulatory domain, crucial to mediate the interactions with their respective proteins. Here, in order to better understand NEK7 cellular functions, we characterize the NEK7 interactome by two screening approaches: one using a yeast two-hybrid system and the other based on immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometry analysis. These approaches led to the identification of 61 NEK7 interactors that contribute to a variety of biological processes, including cell division. Combining additional interaction and phosphorylation assays from yeast two-hybrid screens, we validated CC2D1A, TUBB2B, MNAT1, and NEK9 proteins as potential NEK7 interactors and substrates. Notably, endogenous RGS2, TUBB, MNAT1, NEK9, and PLEKHA8 localized with NEK7 at key sites throughout the cell cycle, especially during mitosis and cytokinesis. Furthermore, we obtained evidence that the closely related kinases NEK6 and NEK7 do not share common interactors, with the exception of NEK9, and display different modes of protein interaction, depending on their N- and C-terminal regions, in distinct fashions. In summary, our work shows for the first time a comprehensive NEK7 interactome that, combined with functional in vitro and in vivo assays, suggests that NEK7 is a multifunctional kinase acting in different cellular processes in concert with cell division signaling and independently of NEK6. PMID:25093993

  5. Hierarchical modularity and the evolution of genetic interactomes across species.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Colm J; Roguev, Assen; Patrick, Kristin; Xu, Jiewei; Jahari, Harlizawati; Tong, Zongtian; Beltrao, Pedro; Shales, Michael; Qu, Hong; Collins, Sean R; Kliegman, Joseph I; Jiang, Lingli; Kuo, Dwight; Tosti, Elena; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Edelmann, Winfried; Keogh, Michael-Christopher; Greene, Derek; Tang, Chao; Cunningham, Pádraig; Shokat, Kevan M; Cagney, Gerard; Svensson, J Peter; Guthrie, Christine; Espenshade, Peter J; Ideker, Trey; Krogan, Nevan J

    2012-06-08

    To date, cross-species comparisons of genetic interactomes have been restricted to small or functionally related gene sets, limiting our ability to infer evolutionary trends. To facilitate a more comprehensive analysis, we constructed a genome-scale epistasis map (E-MAP) for the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, providing phenotypic signatures for ~60% of the nonessential genome. Using these signatures, we generated a catalog of 297 functional modules, and we assigned function to 144 previously uncharacterized genes, including mRNA splicing and DNA damage checkpoint factors. Comparison with an integrated genetic interactome from the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed a hierarchical model for the evolution of genetic interactions, with conservation highest within protein complexes, lower within biological processes, and lowest between distinct biological processes. Despite the large evolutionary distance and extensive rewiring of individual interactions, both networks retain conserved features and display similar levels of functional crosstalk between biological processes, suggesting general design principles of genetic interactomes.

  6. Cross-species microarray analysis with the OSCAR system suggests an INSR->Pax6->NQO1 neuro-protective pathway in aging and Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yue; He, Xin; Zhong, Sheng

    2007-01-01

    OSCAR is a web platform for cluster and cross-species analysis of microarray data. It provides a comprehensive but friendly environment to both users and algorithm developers. For users, OSCAR provides cluster tools for both single and multiple species data, together with interactive analysis features. For single species data, OSCAR currently provides Hierarchical Clustering, K-means, partition around medoids (PAM), Self-Organizing Map (SOM), Tight Clustering and a novel algorithm called ‘Consensus Tight-clustering’. The new Consensus Tight-clustering algorithm delivers robust gene clusters and its result is more resistant to false positives than other state-of-the-art algorithms. For cross-species data analysis, OSCAR provides two novel computational tools: ‘coherentCluster’, ‘coherentSubset’ and a novel visualization tool: ‘comparative heatmap’. Applying the coherentCluster algorithm to human and fly aging data, we identified several coherent clusters of genes, which share co-regulation patterns that are highly correlated with the aging process in both of the two species. One coherent cluster suggests insulin receptor (INSR) may regulate Pax6 in both species and across different tissues. Further analysis with human brain expression and pathological data suggests an INSR->Pax6->quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1)->detoxification neuro-protective pathway might be present in aging or diseased brain. For algorithm developers, OSCAR is a plug-and-play platform. With little effort, developers can plug their own algorithms into the OSCAR server without revealing the source codes, which will equip their command line executables with user-friendly interface and interactive analysis capability. In summary, OSCAR initiates an open platform for development and application of clustering and cross-species analysis programs. OSCAR stands for an open system for cluster analysis of microarray data. It is available at: http://biocomp.bioen.uiuc.edu/oscar PMID:17545194

  7. Cross-species correlation between queen mating numbers and worker ovary sizes suggests kin conflict may influence ovary size evolution in honeybees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rueppell, Olav; Phaincharoen, Mananya; Kuster, Ryan; Tingek, Salim

    2011-09-01

    During social evolution, the ovary size of reproductively specialized honey bee queens has dramatically increased while their workers have evolved much smaller ovaries. However, worker division of labor and reproductive competition under queenless conditions are influenced by worker ovary size. Little comparative information on ovary size exists in the different honey bee species. Here, we report ovariole numbers of freshly dissected workers from six Apis species from two locations in Southeast Asia. The average number of worker ovarioles differs significantly among species. It is strongly correlated with the average mating number of queens, irrespective of body size. Apis dorsata, in particular, is characterized by numerous matings and very large worker ovaries. The relation between queen mating number and ovary size across the six species suggests that individual selection via reproductive competition plays a role in worker ovary size evolution. This indicates that genetic diversity, generated by multiple mating, may bear a fitness cost at the colony level.

  8. Cross-species correlation between queen mating numbers and worker ovary sizes suggests kin conflict may influence ovary size evolution in honeybees.

    PubMed

    Rueppell, Olav; Phaincharoen, Mananya; Kuster, Ryan; Tingek, Salim

    2011-09-01

    During social evolution, the ovary size of reproductively specialized honey bee queens has dramatically increased while their workers have evolved much smaller ovaries. However, worker division of labor and reproductive competition under queenless conditions are influenced by worker ovary size. Little comparative information on ovary size exists in the different honey bee species. Here, we report ovariole numbers of freshly dissected workers from six Apis species from two locations in Southeast Asia. The average number of worker ovarioles differs significantly among species. It is strongly correlated with the average mating number of queens, irrespective of body size. Apis dorsata, in particular, is characterized by numerous matings and very large worker ovaries. The relation between queen mating number and ovary size across the six species suggests that individual selection via reproductive competition plays a role in worker ovary size evolution. This indicates that genetic diversity, generated by multiple mating, may bear a fitness cost at the colony level.

  9. Curating the innate immunity interactome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The innate immune response is the first line of defence against invading pathogens and is regulated by complex signalling and transcriptional networks. Systems biology approaches promise to shed new light on the regulation of innate immunity through the analysis and modelling of these networks. A key initial step in this process is the contextual cataloguing of the components of this system and the molecular interactions that comprise these networks. InnateDB (http://www.innatedb.com) is a molecular interaction and pathway database developed to facilitate systems-level analyses of innate immunity. Results Here, we describe the InnateDB curation project, which is manually annotating the human and mouse innate immunity interactome in rich contextual detail, and present our novel curation software system, which has been developed to ensure interactions are curated in a highly accurate and data-standards compliant manner. To date, over 13,000 interactions (protein, DNA and RNA) have been curated from the biomedical literature. Here, we present data, illustrating how InnateDB curation of the innate immunity interactome has greatly enhanced network and pathway annotation available for systems-level analysis and discuss the challenges that face such curation efforts. Significantly, we provide several lines of evidence that analysis of the innate immunity interactome has the potential to identify novel signalling, transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulators of innate immunity. Additionally, these analyses also provide insight into the cross-talk between innate immunity pathways and other biological processes, such as adaptive immunity, cancer and diabetes, and intriguingly, suggests links to other pathways, which as yet, have not been implicated in the innate immune response. Conclusions In summary, curation of the InnateDB interactome provides a wealth of information to enable systems-level analysis of innate immunity. PMID:20727158

  10. The interactome of CCT complex - A computational analysis.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Aswathy; Pullepu, Dileep; Kabir, M Anaul

    2016-10-01

    The eukaryotic chaperonin, CCT (Chaperonin Containing TCP1 or TriC-TCP-1 Ring Complex) has been subjected to physical and genetic analyses in S. cerevisiae which can be extrapolated to human CCT (hCCT), owing to its structural and functional similarities with yeast CCT (yCCT). Studies on hCCT and its interactome acquire an additional dimension, as it has been implicated in several disease conditions like neurodegeneration and cancer. We attempt to study its stress response role in general, which will be reflected in the aspects of human diseases and yeast physiology, through computational analysis of the interactome. Towards consolidating and analysing the interactome data, we prepared and compared the unique CCT-interacting protein lists for S. cerevisiae and H. sapiens, performed GO term classification and enrichment studies which provide information on the diversity in CCT interactome, in terms of protein classes in the data set. Enrichment with disease-associated proteins and pathways highlight the medical importance of CCT. Different analyses converge, suggesting the significance of WD-repeat proteins, protein kinases and cytoskeletal proteins in the interactome. The prevalence of proteasomal subunits and ribosomal proteins suggest a possible cross-talk between protein-synthesis, folding and degradation machinery. A network of chaperones and chaperonins that function in combination can also be envisaged from the CCT interactome-Hsp70 interactome analysis.

  11. Interactome Networks and Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Marc; Cusick, Michael E.; Barabási, Albert-László

    2011-01-01

    Complex biological systems and cellular networks may underlie most genotype to phenotype relationships. Here we review basic concepts in network biology, discussing different types of interactome networks and the insights that can come from analyzing them. We elaborate on why interactome networks are important to consider in biology, how they can be mapped and integrated with each other, what global properties are starting to emerge from interactome network models, and how these properties may relate to human disease. PMID:21414488

  12. Rapid, Optimized Interactomic Screening

    PubMed Central

    Hakhverdyan, Zhanna; Domanski, Michal; Hough, Loren; Oroskar, Asha A.; Oroskar, Anil R.; Keegan, Sarah; Dilworth, David J.; Molloy, Kelly R.; Sherman, Vadim; Aitchison, John D.; Fenyö, David; Chait, Brian T.; Jensen, Torben Heick; Rout, Michael P.; LaCava, John

    2015-01-01

    We must reliably map the interactomes of cellular macromolecular complexes in order to fully explore and understand biological systems. However, there are no methods to accurately predict how to capture a given macromolecular complex with its physiological binding partners. Here, we present a screen that comprehensively explores the parameters affecting the stability of interactions in affinity-captured complexes, enabling the discovery of physiological binding partners and the elucidation of their functional interactions in unparalleled detail. We have implemented this screen on several macromolecular complexes from a variety of organisms, revealing novel profiles even for well-studied proteins. Our approach is robust, economical and automatable, providing an inroad to the rigorous, systematic dissection of cellular interactomes. PMID:25938370

  13. Building the DREAM interactome.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Marcos; Villar, Diego; González, Paz; Dopazo, Xosé M; Mellstrom, Britt; Naranjo, José R

    2011-08-01

    DREAM/calsenilin/KChIP3 is a calcium binding protein of the neuronal calcium sensor superfamily. DREAM interacts with DRE (downstream regulatory element) sites in the DNA to regulate transcription and with many proteins to exert specialized functions in different subcellular compartments. Work from different laboratories has identified a growing list of interacting proteins that constitutes the DREAM interactome. The knowledge of these interactions has greatly contributed to the understanding of the various physiological functions of DREAM.

  14. Innate immunity interactome dynamics.

    PubMed

    Elzawahry, Asmaa; Patil, Ashwini; Kumagai, Yutaro; Suzuki, Yutaka; Nakai, Kenta

    2014-01-06

    Innate immune response involves protein-protein interactions, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-protein interactions and signaling cascades. So far, thousands of protein-protein interactions have been curated as a static interaction map. However, protein-protein interactions involved in innate immune response are dynamic. We recorded the dynamics in the interactome during innate immune response by combining gene expression data of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated dendritic cells with protein-protein interactions data. We identified the differences in interactome during innate immune response by constructing differential networks and identifying protein modules, which were up-/down-regulated at each stage during the innate immune response. For each protein complex, we identified enriched biological processes and pathways. In addition, we identified core interactions that are conserved throughout the innate immune response and their enriched gene ontology terms and pathways. We defined two novel measures to assess the differences between network maps at different time points. We found that the protein interaction network at 1 hour after LPS stimulation has the highest interactions protein ratio, which indicates a role for proteins with large number of interactions in innate immune response. A pairwise differential matrix allows for the global visualization of the differences between different networks. We investigated the toll-like receptor subnetwork and found that S100A8 is down-regulated in dendritic cells after LPS stimulation. Identified protein complexes have a crucial role not only in innate immunity, but also in circadian rhythms, pathways involved in cancer, and p53 pathways. The study confirmed previous work that reported a strong correlation between cancer and immunity.

  15. Manifold learning in protein interactomes.

    PubMed

    Marras, Elisabetta; Travaglione, Antonella; Capobianco, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    Many studies and applications in the post-genomic era have been devoted to analyze complex biological systems by computational inference methods. We propose to apply manifold learning methods to protein-protein interaction networks (PPIN). Despite their popularity in data-intensive applications, these methods have received limited attention in the context of biological networks. We show that there is both utility and unexplored potential in adopting manifold learning for network inference purposes. In particular, the following advantages are highlighted: (a) fusion with diagnostic statistical tools designed to assign significance to protein interactions based on pre-selected topological features; (b) dissection into components of the interactome in order to elucidate global and local connectivity organization; (c) relevance of embedding the interactome in reduced dimensions for biological validation purposes. We have compared the performances of three well-known techniques--kernel-PCA, RADICAL ICA, and ISOMAP--relatively to their power of mapping the interactome onto new coordinate dimensions where important associations among proteins can be detected, and then back projected such that the corresponding sub-interactomes are reconstructed. This recovery has been done selectively, by using significant information according to a robust statistical procedure, and then standard biological annotation has been provided to validate the results. We expect that a byproduct of using subspace analysis by the proposed techniques is a possible calibration of interactome modularity studies. Supplementary Material is available online at www.libertonlinec.com.

  16. Cross-species transmission of CWD prions.

    PubMed

    Kurt, Timothy D; Sigurdson, Christina J

    2016-01-01

    Prions cause fatal neurodegenerative diseases in humans and animals and can be transmitted zoonotically. Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a highly transmissible prion disease of wild deer and elk that affects cervids over extensive regions of the United States and Canada. The risk of cross-species CWD transmission has been experimentally evaluated in a wide array of mammals, including non-human primates and mouse models expressing human cellular prion protein. Here we review the determinants of cross-species CWD transmission, and propose a model that may explain a structural barrier for CWD transmission to humans.

  17. Viruses and interactomes in translation.

    PubMed

    Meyniel-Schicklin, Laurène; de Chassey, Benoît; André, Patrice; Lotteau, Vincent

    2012-07-01

    A decade of high-throughput screenings for intraviral and virus-host protein-protein interactions led to the accumulation of data and to the development of theories on laws governing interactome organization for many viruses. We present here a computational analysis of intraviral protein networks (EBV, FLUAV, HCV, HSV-1, KSHV, SARS-CoV, VACV, and VZV) and virus-host protein networks (DENV, EBV, FLUAV, HCV, and VACV) from up-to-date interaction data, using various mathematical approaches. If intraviral networks seem to behave similarly, they are clearly different from the human interactome. Viral proteins target highly central human proteins, which are precisely the Achilles' heel of the human interactome. The intrinsic structural disorder is a distinctive feature of viral hubs in virus-host interactomes. Overlaps between virus-host data sets identify a core of human proteins involved in the cellular response to viral infection and in the viral capacity to hijack the cell machinery for viral replication. Host proteins that are strongly targeted by a virus seem to be particularly attractive for other viruses. Such protein-protein interaction networks and their analysis represent a powerful resource from a therapeutic perspective.

  18. How perfect can protein interactomes be?

    PubMed

    Levy, Emmanuel D; Landry, Christian R; Michnick, Stephen W

    2009-03-03

    Any engineered device should certainly not contain nonfunctional components, for this would be a waste of energy and money. In contrast, evolutionary theory tells us that biological systems need not be optimized and may very well accumulate nonfunctional elements. Mutational and demographic processes contribute to the cluttering of eukaryotic genomes and transcriptional networks with "junk" DNA and spurious DNA binding sites. Here, we question whether such a notion should be applied to protein interactomes-that is, whether these protein interactomes are expected to contain a fraction of nonselected, nonfunctional protein-protein interactions (PPIs), which we term "noisy." We propose a simple relationship between the fraction of noisy interactions expected in a given organism and three parameters: (i) the number of mutations needed to create and destroy interactions, (ii) the size of the proteome, and (iii) the fitness cost of noisy interactions. All three parameters suggest that noisy PPIs are expected to exist. Their existence could help to explain why PPIs determined from large-scale studies often lack functional relationships between interacting proteins, why PPIs are poorly conserved across organisms, and why the PPI space appears to be immensely large. Finally, we propose experimental strategies to estimate the fraction of evolutionary noise in PPI networks.

  19. Dynamic Zebrafish Interactome Reveals Transcriptional Mechanisms of Dioxin Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Alexeyenko, Andrey; Wassenberg, Deena M.; Lobenhofer, Edward K.; Yen, Jerry; Linney, Elwood; Sonnhammer, Erik L. L.; Meyer, Joel N.

    2010-01-01

    Background In order to generate hypotheses regarding the mechanisms by which 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (dioxin) causes toxicity, we analyzed global gene expression changes in developing zebrafish embryos exposed to this potent toxicant in the context of a dynamic gene network. For this purpose, we also computationally inferred a zebrafish (Danio rerio) interactome based on orthologs and interaction data from other eukaryotes. Methodology/Principal Findings Using novel computational tools to analyze this interactome, we distinguished between dioxin-dependent and dioxin-independent interactions between proteins, and tracked the temporal propagation of dioxin-dependent transcriptional changes from a few genes that were altered initially, to large groups of biologically coherent genes at later times. The most notable processes altered at later developmental stages were calcium and iron metabolism, embryonic morphogenesis including neuronal and retinal development, a variety of mitochondria-related functions, and generalized stress response (not including induction of antioxidant genes). Within the interactome, many of these responses were connected to cytochrome P4501A (cyp1a) as well as other genes that were dioxin-regulated one day after exposure. This suggests that cyp1a may play a key role initiating the toxic dysregulation of those processes, rather than serving simply as a passive marker of dioxin exposure, as suggested by earlier research. Conclusions/Significance Thus, a powerful microarray experiment coupled with a flexible interactome and multi-pronged interactome tools (which are now made publicly available for microarray analysis and related work) suggest the hypothesis that dioxin, best known in fish as a potent cardioteratogen, has many other targets. Many of these types of toxicity have been observed in mammalian species and are potentially caused by alterations to cyp1a. PMID:20463971

  20. A predicted interactome for Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Geisler-Lee, Jane; O'Toole, Nicholas; Ammar, Ron; Provart, Nicholas J; Millar, A Harvey; Geisler, Matt

    2007-10-01

    The complex cellular functions of an organism frequently rely on physical interactions between proteins. A map of all protein-protein interactions, an interactome, is thus an invaluable tool. We present an interactome for Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) predicted from interacting orthologs in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), nematode worm (Caenorhabditis elegans), fruitfly (Drosophila melanogaster), and human (Homo sapiens). As an internal quality control, a confidence value was generated based on the amount of supporting evidence for each interaction. A total of 1,159 high confidence, 5,913 medium confidence, and 12,907 low confidence interactions were identified for 3,617 conserved Arabidopsis proteins. There was significant coexpression of genes whose proteins were predicted to interact, even among low confidence interactions. Interacting proteins were also significantly more likely to be found within the same subcellular location, and significantly less likely to be found in conflicting localizations than randomly paired proteins. A notable exception was that proteins located in the Golgi were more likely to interact with Golgi, vacuolar, or endoplasmic reticulum sorted proteins, indicating possible docking or trafficking interactions. These predictions can aid researchers by extending known complexes and pathways with candidate proteins. In addition we have predicted interactions for many previously unknown proteins in known pathways and complexes. We present this interactome, and an online Web interface the Arabidopsis Interactions Viewer, as a first step toward understanding global signaling in Arabidopsis, and to whet the appetite for those who are awaiting results from high-throughput experimental approaches.

  1. Centrality in the host-pathogen interactome is associated with pathogen fitness during infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crua Asensio, Núria; Muñoz Giner, Elisabet; de Groot, Natalia Sánchez; Torrent Burgas, Marc

    2017-01-01

    To perform their functions proteins must interact with each other, but how these interactions influence bacterial infection remains elusive. Here we demonstrate that connectivity in the host-pathogen interactome is directly related to pathogen fitness during infection. Using Y. pestis as a model organism, we show that the centrality-lethality rule holds for pathogen fitness during infection but only when the host-pathogen interactome is considered. Our results suggest that the importance of pathogen proteins during infection is directly related to their number of interactions with the host. We also show that pathogen proteins causing an extensive rewiring of the host interactome have a higher impact in pathogen fitness during infection. Hence, we conclude that hubs in the host-pathogen interactome should be explored as promising targets for antimicrobial drug design.

  2. Centrality in the host–pathogen interactome is associated with pathogen fitness during infection

    PubMed Central

    Crua Asensio, Núria; Muñoz Giner, Elisabet; de Groot, Natalia Sánchez; Torrent Burgas, Marc

    2017-01-01

    To perform their functions proteins must interact with each other, but how these interactions influence bacterial infection remains elusive. Here we demonstrate that connectivity in the host–pathogen interactome is directly related to pathogen fitness during infection. Using Y. pestis as a model organism, we show that the centrality-lethality rule holds for pathogen fitness during infection but only when the host–pathogen interactome is considered. Our results suggest that the importance of pathogen proteins during infection is directly related to their number of interactions with the host. We also show that pathogen proteins causing an extensive rewiring of the host interactome have a higher impact in pathogen fitness during infection. Hence, we conclude that hubs in the host–pathogen interactome should be explored as promising targets for antimicrobial drug design. PMID:28090086

  3. The HTLV-1 Tax interactome

    PubMed Central

    Boxus, Mathieu; Twizere, Jean-Claude; Legros, Sébastien; Dewulf, Jean-François; Kettmann, Richard; Willems, Luc

    2008-01-01

    The Tax1 oncoprotein encoded by Human T-lymphotropic virus type I is a major determinant of viral persistence and pathogenesis. Tax1 affects a wide variety of cellular signalling pathways leading to transcriptional activation, proliferation and ultimately transformation. To carry out these functions, Tax1 interacts with and modulates activity of a number of cellular proteins. In this review, we summarize the present knowledge of the Tax1 interactome and propose a rationale for the broad range of cellular proteins identified so far. PMID:18702816

  4. PTIR: Predicted Tomato Interactome Resource

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Junyang; Xu, Wei; Ban, Rongjun; Huang, Shengxiong; Miao, Min; Tang, Xiaofeng; Liu, Guoqing; Liu, Yongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are involved in almost all biological processes and form the basis of the entire interactomics systems of living organisms. Identification and characterization of these interactions are fundamental to elucidating the molecular mechanisms of signal transduction and metabolic pathways at both the cellular and systemic levels. Although a number of experimental and computational studies have been performed on model organisms, the studies exploring and investigating PPIs in tomatoes remain lacking. Here, we developed a Predicted Tomato Interactome Resource (PTIR), based on experimentally determined orthologous interactions in six model organisms. The reliability of individual PPIs was also evaluated by shared gene ontology (GO) terms, co-evolution, co-expression, co-localization and available domain-domain interactions (DDIs). Currently, the PTIR covers 357,946 non-redundant PPIs among 10,626 proteins, including 12,291 high-confidence, 226,553 medium-confidence, and 119,102 low-confidence interactions. These interactions are expected to cover 30.6% of the entire tomato proteome and possess a reasonable distribution. In addition, ten randomly selected PPIs were verified using yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screening or a bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay. The PTIR was constructed and implemented as a dedicated database and is available at http://bdg.hfut.edu.cn/ptir/index.html without registration. PMID:27121261

  5. Cross- species communication in bacterial world.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Sarangam; Pal, Sukla

    2017-02-20

    Biofilms are the compact association of micro organisms and the communication processes in these biofilms are always a wonder. Electrical and chemical signaling mechanism are the key to understand the bacterial communication network. Quorum sensing so far has been able to explain the coordinated motion of bacteria through its chemical signaling mechanism. Bacteria residing within biofilm communities are trivial to communicate. But the recent observation in 2017 by Humphries et al. has revealed that the ion channels enabled electrical signaling mechanism can be as powerful as to attract the distant cells i.e., this signaling mechanism are capable of holding a long range behavior. As a result long range cross species communication in the bacterial world have been possible. This substantial outcome has brought this field into a new paradigm to investigate the complex co-existence of biofilm communities and distant cells with a possible scope of application in synthetic biology. In this present article, we briefly describe this new signaling mechanism and how it gives rise to a long range communication ability in bacterial communities.

  6. Toward a cross-species understanding of empathy

    PubMed Central

    Panksepp, Jaak; Panksepp, Jules B.

    2013-01-01

    Although signs of empathy have now been well documented in non-human primates, only during the past few years have systematic observations suggested that a primal form of empathy exists in rodents. Thus, the study of empathy in animals has started in earnest. Here we review recent studies indicating that rodents are able to share states of fear, and highlight how affective neuroscience approaches to the study of primary-process emotional systems can help to delineate how primal empathy is constituted in mammalian brains. Cross-species evolutionary approaches to understanding the neural circuitry of emotional ‘contagion’ or ‘resonance’ between nearby animals, together with the underlying neurochemistries, may help to clarify the origins of human empathy. PMID:23746460

  7. PAIR: the predicted Arabidopsis interactome resource.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mingzhi; Shen, Xueling; Chen, Xin

    2011-01-01

    The predicted Arabidopsis interactome resource (PAIR, http://www.cls.zju.edu.cn/pair/), comprised of 5990 experimentally reported molecular interactions in Arabidopsis thaliana together with 145,494 predicted interactions, is currently the most comprehensive data set of the Arabidopsis interactome with high reliability. PAIR predicts interactions by a fine-tuned support vector machine model that integrates indirect evidences for interaction, such as gene co-expressions, domain interactions, shared GO annotations, co-localizations, phylogenetic profile similarities and homologous interactions in other organisms (interologs). These predictions were expected to cover 24% of the entire Arabidopsis interactome, and their reliability was estimated to be 44%. Two independent example data sets were used to rigorously validate the prediction accuracy. PAIR features a user-friendly query interface, providing rich annotation on the relationships between two proteins. A graphical interaction network browser has also been integrated into the PAIR web interface to facilitate mining of specific pathways.

  8. GENOMIC APPROACHES FOR CROSS-SPECIES EXTRAPOLATION IN TOXICOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The latest tools for investigating stress in organisms, genomic technologies provide great insight into how different organisms respond to environmental conditions. However, their usefulness needs testing, verification, and codification. Genomic Approaches for Cross-Species Extra...

  9. GENOMIC APPROACHES FOR CROSS-SPECIES EXTRAPOLATION IN TOXICOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The latest tools for investigating stress in organisms, genomic technologies provide great insight into how different organisms respond to environmental conditions. However, their usefulness needs testing, verification, and codification. Genomic Approaches for Cross-Species Extra...

  10. Complementing the Eukaryotic Protein Interactome

    PubMed Central

    Pesch, Robert; Zimmer, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Protein interaction networks are important for the understanding of regulatory mechanisms, for the explanation of experimental data and for the prediction of protein functions. Unfortunately, most interaction data is available only for model organisms. As a possible remedy, the transfer of interactions to organisms of interest is common practice, but it is not clear when interactions can be transferred from one organism to another and, thus, the confidence in the derived interactions is low. Here, we propose to use a rich set of features to train Random Forests in order to score transferred interactions. We evaluated the transfer from a range of eukaryotic organisms to S. cerevisiae using orthologs. Directly transferred interactions to S. cerevisiae are on average only 24% consistent with the current S. cerevisiae interaction network. By using commonly applied filter approaches the transfer precision can be improved, but at the cost of a large decrease in the number of transferred interactions. Our Random Forest approach uses various features derived from both the target and the source network as well as the ortholog annotations to assign confidence values to transferred interactions. Thereby, we could increase the average transfer consistency to 85%, while still transferring almost 70% of all correctly transferable interactions. We tested our approach for the transfer of interactions to other species and showed that our approach outperforms competing methods for the transfer of interactions to species where no experimental knowledge is available. Finally, we applied our predictor to score transferred interactions to 83 targets species and we were able to extend the available interactome of B. taurus, M. musculus and G. gallus with over 40,000 interactions each. Our transferred interaction networks are publicly available via our web interface, which allows to inspect and download transferred interaction sets of different sizes, for various species, and at specified

  11. A Cross-Species Study of PI3K Protein-Protein Interactions Reveals the Direct Interaction of P85 and SHP2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitkopf, Susanne B.; Yang, Xuemei; Begley, Michael J.; Kulkarni, Meghana; Chiu, Yu-Hsin; Turke, Alexa B.; Lauriol, Jessica; Yuan, Min; Qi, Jie; Engelman, Jeffrey A.; Hong, Pengyu; Kontaridis, Maria I.; Cantley, Lewis C.; Perrimon, Norbert; Asara, John M.

    2016-02-01

    Using a series of immunoprecipitation (IP) - tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) experiments and reciprocal BLAST, we conducted a fly-human cross-species comparison of the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) interactome in a drosophila S2R+ cell line and several NSCLC and human multiple myeloma cell lines to identify conserved interacting proteins to PI3K, a critical signaling regulator of the AKT pathway. Using H929 human cancer cells and drosophila S2R+ cells, our data revealed an unexpected direct binding of Corkscrew, the drosophila ortholog of the non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase type II (SHP2) to the Pi3k21B (p60) regulatory subunit of PI3K (p50/p85 human ortholog) but no association with Pi3k92e, the human ortholog of the p110 catalytic subunit. The p85-SHP2 association was validated in human cell lines, and formed a ternary regulatory complex with GRB2-associated-binding protein 2 (GAB2). Validation experiments with knockdown of GAB2 and Far-Western blots proved the direct interaction of SHP2 with p85, independent of adaptor proteins and transfected FLAG-p85 provided evidence that SHP2 binding on p85 occurred on the SH2 domains. A disruption of the SHP2-p85 complex took place after insulin/IGF1 stimulation or imatinib treatment, suggesting that the direct SHP2-p85 interaction was both independent of AKT activation and positively regulates the ERK signaling pathway.

  12. Information flow analysis of interactome networks.

    PubMed

    Missiuro, Patrycja Vasilyev; Liu, Kesheng; Zou, Lihua; Ross, Brian C; Zhao, Guoyan; Liu, Jun S; Ge, Hui

    2009-04-01

    Recent studies of cellular networks have revealed modular organizations of genes and proteins. For example, in interactome networks, a module refers to a group of interacting proteins that form molecular complexes and/or biochemical pathways and together mediate a biological process. However, it is still poorly understood how biological information is transmitted between different modules. We have developed information flow analysis, a new computational approach that identifies proteins central to the transmission of biological information throughout the network. In the information flow analysis, we represent an interactome network as an electrical circuit, where interactions are modeled as resistors and proteins as interconnecting junctions. Construing the propagation of biological signals as flow of electrical current, our method calculates an information flow score for every protein. Unlike previous metrics of network centrality such as degree or betweenness that only consider topological features, our approach incorporates confidence scores of protein-protein interactions and automatically considers all possible paths in a network when evaluating the importance of each protein. We apply our method to the interactome networks of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Caenorhabditis elegans. We find that the likelihood of observing lethality and pleiotropy when a protein is eliminated is positively correlated with the protein's information flow score. Even among proteins of low degree or low betweenness, high information scores serve as a strong predictor of loss-of-function lethality or pleiotropy. The correlation between information flow scores and phenotypes supports our hypothesis that the proteins of high information flow reside in central positions in interactome networks. We also show that the ranks of information flow scores are more consistent than that of betweenness when a large amount of noisy data is added to an interactome. Finally, we combine gene expression

  13. The role of the interactome in the maintenance of deleterious variability in human populations

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Alonso, Luz; Jiménez-Almazán, Jorge; Carbonell-Caballero, Jose; Vela-Boza, Alicia; Santoyo-López, Javier; Antiñolo, Guillermo; Dopazo, Joaquin

    2014-01-01

    Recent genomic projects have revealed the existence of an unexpectedly large amount of deleterious variability in the human genome. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain such an apparently high mutational load. However, the mechanisms by which deleterious mutations in some genes cause a pathological effect but are apparently innocuous in other genes remain largely unknown. This study searched for deleterious variants in the 1,000 genomes populations, as well as in a newly sequenced population of 252 healthy Spanish individuals. In addition, variants causative of monogenic diseases and somatic variants from 41 chronic lymphocytic leukaemia patients were analysed. The deleterious variants found were analysed in the context of the interactome to understand the role of network topology in the maintenance of the observed mutational load. Our results suggest that one of the mechanisms whereby the effect of these deleterious variants on the phenotype is suppressed could be related to the configuration of the protein interaction network. Most of the deleterious variants observed in healthy individuals are concentrated in peripheral regions of the interactome, in combinations that preserve their connectivity, and have a marginal effect on interactome integrity. On the contrary, likely pathogenic cancer somatic deleterious variants tend to occur in internal regions of the interactome, often with associated structural consequences. Finally, variants causative of monogenic diseases seem to occupy an intermediate position. Our observations suggest that the real pathological potential of a variant might be more a systems property rather than an intrinsic property of individual proteins. PMID:25261458

  14. A Proteome-wide Fission Yeast Interactome Reveals Network Evolution Principles from Yeasts to Human.

    PubMed

    Vo, Tommy V; Das, Jishnu; Meyer, Michael J; Cordero, Nicolas A; Akturk, Nurten; Wei, Xiaomu; Fair, Benjamin J; Degatano, Andrew G; Fragoza, Robert; Liu, Lisa G; Matsuyama, Akihisa; Trickey, Michelle; Horibata, Sachi; Grimson, Andrew; Yamano, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Minoru; Roth, Frederick P; Pleiss, Jeffrey A; Xia, Yu; Yu, Haiyuan

    2016-01-14

    Here, we present FissionNet, a proteome-wide binary protein interactome for S. pombe, comprising 2,278 high-quality interactions, of which ∼ 50% were previously not reported in any species. FissionNet unravels previously unreported interactions implicated in processes such as gene silencing and pre-mRNA splicing. We developed a rigorous network comparison framework that accounts for assay sensitivity and specificity, revealing extensive species-specific network rewiring between fission yeast, budding yeast, and human. Surprisingly, although genes are better conserved between the yeasts, S. pombe interactions are significantly better conserved in human than in S. cerevisiae. Our framework also reveals that different modes of gene duplication influence the extent to which paralogous proteins are functionally repurposed. Finally, cross-species interactome mapping demonstrates that coevolution of interacting proteins is remarkably prevalent, a result with important implications for studying human disease in model organisms. Overall, FissionNet is a valuable resource for understanding protein functions and their evolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A proteome-wide fission yeast interactome reveals network evolution principles from yeasts to human

    PubMed Central

    Vo, Tommy V.; Das, Jishnu; Meyer, Michael J.; Cordero, Nicolas A.; Akturk, Nurten; Wei, Xiaomu; Fair, Benjamin J.; Degatano, Andrew G.; Fragoza, Robert; Liu, Lisa G.; Matsuyama, Akihisa; Trickey, Michelle; Horibata, Sachi; Grimson, Andrew; Yamano, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Minoru; Roth, Frederick P.; Pleiss, Jeffrey A.; Xia, Yu; Yu, Haiyuan

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Here, we present FissionNet, a proteome-wide binary protein interactome for S. pombe, comprising 2,278 high-quality interactions, of which ~50% were previously not reported in any species. FissionNet unravels previously unreported interactions implicated in processes such as gene silencing and pre-mRNA splicing. We developed a rigorous network comparison framework that accounts for assay sensitivity and specificity, revealing extensive species-specific network rewiring between fission yeast, budding yeast, and human. Surprisingly, although genes are better conserved between the yeasts, S. pombe interactions are significantly better conserved in human than in S. cerevisiae. Our framework also reveals that different modes of gene duplication influence the extent to which paralogous proteins are functionally repurposed. Finally, cross-species interactome mapping demonstrates that coevolution of interacting proteins is remarkably prevalent, a result with important implications for studying human disease in model organisms. Overall, FissionNet is a valuable resource for understanding protein functions and their evolution. PMID:26771498

  16. Cross-species cloning: influence of cytoplasmic factors on development.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yong-Hua; Zhu, Zuo-Yan

    2014-06-01

    It is widely accepted that the crosstalk between naive nucleus and maternal factors deposited in the egg cytoplasm before zygotic genome activation is crucial for early development. This crosstalk may also exert some influence on later development. It is interesting to clarify the relative roles of the zygotic genome and the cytoplasmic factors in development. Cross-species nuclear transfer (NT) between two distantly related species provides a unique system to study the relative role and crosstalk between egg cytoplasm and zygotic nucleus in development. In this review, we will summarize the recent progress of cross-species NT, with emphasis on the cross-species NT in fish and the influence of cytoplasmic factors on development. Finally, we conclude that the developmental process and its evolution should be interpreted in a systemic way, rather than in a way that solely focuses on the role of the nuclear genome. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  17. Asparagine and glutamine ladders promote cross-species prion conversion.

    PubMed

    Kurt, Timothy D; Aguilar-Calvo, Patricia; Jiang, Lin; Rodriguez, José A; Alderson, Nazilla; Eisenberg, David S; Sigurdson, Christina J

    2017-09-20

    Prion transmission between species is governed in part by primary sequence similarity between the infectious prion aggregate, PrP(Sc), and the cellular prion protein of the host, PrP(C) A puzzling feature of prion formation is that certain PrP(C) sequences, such as that of bank vole, can be converted by a remarkably broad array of different mammalian prions, whereas others, such as rabbit, show robust resistance to cross-species prion conversion. To examine the structural determinants that confer susceptibility or resistance to prion conversion, we systematically tested over 40 PrP(C) variants of susceptible and resistant PrP(C) sequences in a prion conversion assay. Five key residue positions markedly impacted prion conversion, four of which were in steric zipper segments where side chains from amino acids tightly interdigitate in a dry interface. Strikingly, all 5 residue substitutions modulating prion conversion involved the gain or loss of an asparagine or glutamine residue. For 2 of 4 positions, N and Q residues were not interchangeable, revealing a strict requirement for either an N or Q residue. Bank voles have a high number of N and Q residues and a high N:Q ratio. These findings suggest that a high number of N and Q residues at specific positions may stabilize β-sheets and lower the energy barrier for crossspecies prion transmission, potentially due to hydrogen bond networks from side chain amides forming extended N/Q ladders. These data also suggest that multiple PrP(C) segments containing N/Q residues may act in concert along a replicative interface to promote prion conversion. Copyright © 2017, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  18. A human skeletal muscle interactome centered on proteins involved in muscular dystrophies: LGMD interactome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The complexity of the skeletal muscle and the identification of numerous human disease-causing mutations in its constitutive proteins make it an interesting tissue for proteomic studies aimed at understanding functional relationships of interacting proteins in both health and diseases. Method We undertook a large-scale study using two-hybrid screens and a human skeletal-muscle cDNA library to establish a proteome-scale map of protein-protein interactions centered on proteins involved in limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMD). LGMD is a group of more than 20 different neuromuscular disorders that principally affect the proximal pelvic and shoulder girdle muscles. Results and conclusion The interaction network we unraveled incorporates 1018 proteins connected by 1492 direct binary interactions and includes 1420 novel protein-protein interactions. Computational, experimental and literature-based analyses were performed to assess the overall quality of this network. Interestingly, LGMD proteins were shown to be highly interconnected, in particular indirectly through sarcomeric proteins. In-depth mining of the LGMD-centered interactome identified new candidate genes for orphan LGMDs and other neuromuscular disorders. The data also suggest the existence of functional links between LGMD2B/dysferlin and gene regulation, between LGMD2C/γ-sarcoglycan and energy control and between LGMD2G/telethonin and maintenance of genome integrity. This dataset represents a valuable resource for future functional investigations. PMID:23414517

  19. Mapping the functional yeast ABC transporter interactome.

    PubMed

    Snider, Jamie; Hanif, Asad; Lee, Mid Eum; Jin, Ke; Yu, Analyn R; Graham, Chris; Chuk, Matthew; Damjanovic, Dunja; Wierzbicka, Marta; Tang, Priscilla; Balderes, Dina; Wong, Victoria; Jessulat, Matthew; Darowski, Katelyn D; San Luis, Bryan-Joseph; Shevelev, Igor; Sturley, Stephen L; Boone, Charles; Greenblatt, Jack F; Zhang, Zhaolei; Paumi, Christian M; Babu, Mohan; Park, Hay-Oak; Michaelis, Susan; Stagljar, Igor

    2013-09-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are a ubiquitous class of integral membrane proteins of immense clinical interest because of their strong association with human disease and pharmacology. To improve our understanding of these proteins, we used membrane yeast two-hybrid technology to map the protein interactome of all of the nonmitochondrial ABC transporters in the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae and combined this data with previously reported yeast ABC transporter interactions in the BioGRID database to generate a comprehensive, integrated 'interactome'. We show that ABC transporters physically associate with proteins involved in an unexpectedly diverse range of functions. We specifically examine the importance of the physical interactions of ABC transporters in both the regulation of one another and in the modulation of proteins involved in zinc homeostasis. The interaction network presented here will be a powerful resource for increasing our fundamental understanding of the cellular role and regulation of ABC transporters.

  20. Mapping the functional yeast ABC transporter interactome

    PubMed Central

    Snider, Jamie; Hanif, Asad; Lee, Mid Eum; Jin, Ke; Yu, Analyn R.; Graham, Chris; Chuk, Matthew; Damjanovic, Dunja; Wierzbicka, Marta; Tang, Priscilla; Balderes, Dina; Wong, Victoria; Jessulat, Matthew; Darowski, Katelyn D.; Luis, Bryan-Joseph San; Shevelev, Igor; Sturley, Stephen L; Boone, Charles; Greenblatt, Jack F.; Zhang, Zhaolei; Paumi, Christian M.; Babu, Mohan; Park, Hay-Oak; Michaelis, Susan; Stagljar, Igor

    2013-01-01

    ABC transporters are a ubiquitous class of integral membrane proteins of immense clinical interest because of their strong association with human disease and pharmacology. To improve our understanding of these proteins, we used Membrane Yeast Two-Hybrid (MYTH) technology to map the protein interactome of all non-mitochondrial ABC transporters in the model organism Saccharomy cescerevisiae, and combined this data with previously reported yeast ABC transporter interactions in the BioGRID database to generate a comprehensive, integrated interactome. We show that ABC transporters physically associate with proteins involved in a surprisingly diverse range of functions. We specifically examine the importance of the physical interactions of ABC transporters in both the regulation of one another and in the modulation of proteins involved in zinc homeostasis. The interaction network presented here will be a powerful resource for increasing our fundamental understanding of the cellular role and regulation of ABC transporters. PMID:23831759

  1. Cross-Species PTM Mapping from Phosphoproteomic Data.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Rima; Yang, Jean Yee Hwa

    2017-01-01

    Protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) are crucial for signal transduction in cells. In order to understand key cell signaling events, identification of functionally important PTMs, which are more likely to be evolutionarily conserved, is necessary. In recent times, high-throughput mass spectrometry (MS) has made quantitative datasets in diverse species readily available, which has led to a growing need for tools to facilitate cross-species comparison of PTM data. Cross-species comparison of PTM sites is difficult since they often lie in structurally disordered protein domains. Current tools that address this can only map known PTMs between species based on previously annotated orthologous phosphosites and do not enable cross-species mapping of newly identified modification sites. Here, we describe an automated web-based tool, PhosphOrtholog, that accurately maps annotated and novel orthologous PTM sites from high-throughput MS-based experimental data obtained from different species without relying on existing PTM databases. Identification of conserved PTMs across species from large-scale experimental data increases our knowledgebase of evolutionarily conserved and functional PTM sites that influence most biological processes. In this Chapter, we illustrate with examples how to use PhosphOrtholog to map novel PTM sites from cross-species MS-based phosphoproteomics data.

  2. CROSS-SPECIES DOSE EXTRAPOLATION FOR DIESEL EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Models for cross-species (rat to human) dose extrapolation of diesel emission were evaluated for purposes of establishing guidelines for human exposure to diesel emissions (DE) based on DE toxicological data obtained in rats. Ideally, a model for this extrapolation would provide...

  3. CROSS-SPECIES DOSE EXTRAPOLATION FOR DIESEL EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Models for cross-species (rat to human) dose extrapolation of diesel emission were evaluated for purposes of establishing guidelines for human exposure to diesel emissions (DE) based on DE toxicological data obtained in rats. Ideally, a model for this extrapolation would provide...

  4. MULTIPLE SOLVENT EXPOSURE IN HUMANS: CROSS-SPECIES EXTRAPOLATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple Solvent Exposures in Humans:
    Cross-Species Extrapolations
    (Future Research Plan)

    Vernon A. Benignus1, Philip J. Bushnell2 and William K. Boyes2

    A few solvents can be safely studied in acute experiments in human subjects. Data exist in rats f...

  5. Interactome of E. piscicida and grouper liver proteins reveals strategies of bacterial infection and host immune response

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Zhu, Qing-feng; Peng, Xuan-xian; Peng, Bo

    2017-01-01

    The occurrence of infectious diseases is related to heterogeneous protein interactions between a host and a microbe. Therefore, elucidating the host-pathogen interplay is essential. We previously revealed the protein interactome between Edwardsiella piscicida and fish gill cells, and the present study identified the protein interactome between E. piscicida and E. drummondhayi liver cells. E. drummondhayi liver cells and bacterial pull-down approaches were used to identify E. piscicida outer membrane proteins that bind to liver cells and fish liver cell proteins that interact with bacterial cells, respectively. Eight bacterial proteins and 11 fish proteins were characterized. Heterogeneous protein-protein interactions between these bacterial cells and fish liver cells were investigated through far-Western blotting and co-immunoprecipitation. A network was constructed based on 42 heterogeneous protein-protein interactions between seven bacterial proteins and 10 fish proteins. A comparison of the new interactome with the previously reported interactome showed that four bacterial proteins overlapped, whereas all of the identified fish proteins were new, suggesting a difference between bacterial tricks for evading host immunity and the host strategy for combating bacterial infection. Furthermore, these bacterial proteins were found to regulate the expression of host innate immune-related proteins. These findings indicate that the interactome contributes to bacterial infection and host immunity. PMID:28045121

  6. Functional Integrative Levels in the Human Interactome Recapitulate Organ Organization

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Carlos; Benkahla, Alia; De Las Rivas, Javier; Brun, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Interactome networks represent sets of possible physical interactions between proteins. They lack spatio-temporal information by construction. However, the specialized functions of the differentiated cell types which are assembled into tissues or organs depend on the combinatorial arrangements of proteins and their physical interactions. Is tissue-specificity, therefore, encoded within the interactome? In order to address this question, we combined protein-protein interactions, expression data, functional annotations and interactome topology. We first identified a subnetwork formed exclusively of proteins whose interactions were observed in all tested tissues. These are mainly involved in housekeeping functions and are located at the topological center of the interactome. This ‘Largest Common Interactome Network’ represents a ‘functional interactome core’. Interestingly, two types of tissue-specific interactions are distinguished when considering function and network topology: tissue-specific interactions involved in regulatory and developmental functions are central whereas tissue-specific interactions involved in organ physiological functions are peripheral. Overall, the functional organization of the human interactome reflects several integrative levels of functions with housekeeping and regulatory tissue-specific functions at the center and physiological tissue-specific functions at the periphery. This gradient of functions recapitulates the organization of organs, from cells to organs. Given that several gradients have already been identified across interactomes, we propose that gradients may represent a general principle of protein-protein interaction network organization. PMID:21799769

  7. APID interactomes: providing proteome-based interactomes with controlled quality for multiple species and derived networks

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-López, Diego; Gutiérrez, Miguel A.; Lopes, Katia P.; Prieto, Carlos; Santamaría, Rodrigo; De Las Rivas, Javier

    2016-01-01

    APID (Agile Protein Interactomes DataServer) is an interactive web server that provides unified generation and delivery of protein interactomes mapped to their respective proteomes. This resource is a new, fully redesigned server that includes a comprehensive collection of protein interactomes for more than 400 organisms (25 of which include more than 500 interactions) produced by the integration of only experimentally validated protein–protein physical interactions. For each protein–protein interaction (PPI) the server includes currently reported information about its experimental validation to allow selection and filtering at different quality levels. As a whole, it provides easy access to the interactomes from specific species and includes a global uniform compendium of 90,379 distinct proteins and 678,441 singular interactions. APID integrates and unifies PPIs from major primary databases of molecular interactions, from other specific repositories and also from experimentally resolved 3D structures of protein complexes where more than two proteins were identified. For this purpose, a collection of 8,388 structures were analyzed to identify specific PPIs. APID also includes a new graph tool (based on Cytoscape.js) for visualization and interactive analyses of PPI networks. The server does not require registration and it is freely available for use at http://apid.dep.usal.es. PMID:27131791

  8. Receptor recognition and cross-species infections of SARS coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fang

    2013-01-01

    Receptor recognition is a major determinant of the host range, cross-species infections, and pathogenesis of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). A defined receptor-binding domain (RBD) in the SARS-CoV spike protein specifically recognizes its host receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). This article reviews the latest knowledge about how RBDs from different SARS-CoV strains interact with ACE2 from several animal species. Detailed research on these RBD/ACE2 interactions has established important principles on host receptor adaptations, cross-species infections, and future evolution of SARS-CoV. These principles may apply to other emerging animal viruses, including the recently emerged Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). This paper forms part of a series of invited articles in Antiviral Research on “From SARS to MERS: 10 years of research on highly pathogenic human coronaviruses.” PMID:23994189

  9. Microsatellites Cross-Species Amplification across Some African Cichlids.

    PubMed

    Bezault, Etienne; Rognon, Xavier; Gharbi, Karim; Baroiller, Jean-Francois; Chevassus, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    The transfer of the genomic resources developed in the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, to other Tilapiines sensu lato and African cichlid would provide new possibilities to study this amazing group from genetics, ecology, evolution, aquaculture, and conservation point of view. We tested the cross-species amplification of 32 O. niloticus microsatellite markers in a panel of 15 species from 5 different African cichlid tribes: Oreochromines (Oreochromis, Sarotherodon), Boreotilapiines (Tilapia), Chromidotilapines, Hemichromines, and Haplochromines. Amplification was successfully observed for 29 markers (91%), with a frequency of polymorphic (P(95)) loci per species around 70%. The mean number of alleles per locus and species was 3.2 but varied from 3.7 within Oreochromis species to 1.6 within the nontilapia species. The high level of cross-species amplification and polymorphism of the microsatellite markers tested in this study provides powerful tools for a wide range of molecular genetic studies within tilapia species as well as for other African cichlids.

  10. The current Salmonella-host interactome.

    PubMed

    Schleker, Sylvia; Sun, Jingchun; Raghavan, Balachandran; Srnec, Matthew; Müller, Nicole; Koepfinger, Mary; Murthy, Leelavati; Zhao, Zhongming; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella bacteria cause millions of infections and thousands of deaths every year. This pathogen has an unusually broad host range including humans, animals, and even plants. During infection, Salmonella expresses a variety of virulence factors and effectors that are delivered into the host cell triggering cellular responses through protein-protein interactions (PPI) with host cell proteins which make the pathogen's invasion and replication possible. To speed up proteomic efforts in elucidating Salmonella-host interactomes, we carried out a survey of the currently published Salmonella-host PPI. Such a list can serve as the gold standard for computational models aimed at predicting Salmonella-host interactomes through integration of large-scale biological data sources. Manual literature and database search of >2200 journal articles and >100 databases resulted in a gold standard list of currently 62 PPI, including primarily interactions of Salmonella proteins with human and mouse proteins. Only six of these interactions were directly retrievable from PPI databases and 16 were highlighted in databases featuring literature extracts. Thus, the literature survey resulted in the most complete interactome available to date for Salmonella. Pathway analysis using Ingenuity and Broad Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) software revealed among general pathways such as MAPK signaling in particular those related to cell death as well as cell morphology, turnover, and interactions, in addition to response to not only Salmonella but also other pathogenic - viral and bacterial - infections. The list of interactions is available at http://www.shiprec.org/indicationslist.htm. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Interactome disassembly during apoptosis occurs independent of caspase cleavage.

    PubMed

    Scott, Nichollas E; Rogers, Lindsay D; Prudova, Anna; Brown, Nat F; Fortelny, Nikolaus; Overall, Christopher M; Foster, Leonard J

    2017-01-12

    Protein-protein interaction networks (interactomes) define the functionality of all biological systems. In apoptosis, proteolysis by caspases is thought to initiate disassembly of protein complexes and cell death. Here we used a quantitative proteomics approach, protein correlation profiling (PCP), to explore changes in cytoplasmic and mitochondrial interactomes in response to apoptosis initiation as a function of caspase activity. We measured the response to initiation of Fas-mediated apoptosis in 17,991 interactions among 2,779 proteins, comprising the largest dynamic interactome to date. The majority of interactions were unaffected early in apoptosis, but multiple complexes containing known caspase targets were disassembled. Nonetheless, proteome-wide analysis of proteolytic processing by terminal amine isotopic labeling of substrates (TAILS) revealed little correlation between proteolytic and interactome changes. Our findings show that, in apoptosis, significant interactome alterations occur before and independently of caspase activity. Thus, apoptosis initiation includes a tight program of interactome rearrangement, leading to disassembly of relatively few, select complexes. These early interactome alterations occur independently of cleavage of these protein by caspases.

  12. Receptor recognition and cross-species infections of SARS coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang

    2013-10-01

    Receptor recognition is a major determinant of the host range, cross-species infections, and pathogenesis of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). A defined receptor-binding domain (RBD) in the SARS-CoV spike protein specifically recognizes its host receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). This article reviews the latest knowledge about how RBDs from different SARS-CoV strains interact with ACE2 from several animal species. Detailed research on these RBD/ACE2 interactions has established important principles on host receptor adaptations, cross-species infections, and future evolution of SARS-CoV. These principles may apply to other emerging animal viruses, including the recently emerged Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). This paper forms part of a series of invited articles in Antiviral Research on "From SARS to MERS: 10years of research on highly pathogenic human coronaviruses". Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Microsatellites Cross-Species Amplification across Some African Cichlids

    PubMed Central

    Bezault, Etienne; Rognon, Xavier; Gharbi, Karim; Baroiller, Jean-Francois; Chevassus, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    The transfer of the genomic resources developed in the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, to other Tilapiines sensu lato and African cichlid would provide new possibilities to study this amazing group from genetics, ecology, evolution, aquaculture, and conservation point of view. We tested the cross-species amplification of 32 O. niloticus microsatellite markers in a panel of 15 species from 5 different African cichlid tribes: Oreochromines (Oreochromis, Sarotherodon), Boreotilapiines (Tilapia), Chromidotilapines, Hemichromines, and Haplochromines. Amplification was successfully observed for 29 markers (91%), with a frequency of polymorphic (P95) loci per species around 70%. The mean number of alleles per locus and species was 3.2 but varied from 3.7 within Oreochromis species to 1.6 within the nontilapia species. The high level of cross-species amplification and polymorphism of the microsatellite markers tested in this study provides powerful tools for a wide range of molecular genetic studies within tilapia species as well as for other African cichlids. PMID:22701809

  14. Expression of DISC1-Interactome Members Correlates with Cognitive Phenotypes Related to Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Rampino, Antonio; Walker, Rosie May; Torrance, Helen Scott; Anderson, Susan Maguire; Fazio, Leonardo; Di Giorgio, Annabella; Taurisano, Paolo; Gelao, Barbara; Romano, Raffaella; Masellis, Rita; Ursini, Gianluca; Caforio, Grazia; Blasi, Giuseppe; Millar, J. Kirsty; Porteous, David John; Thomson, Pippa Ann; Bertolino, Alessandro; Evans, Kathryn Louise

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is central to the schizophrenia phenotype. Genetic and functional studies have implicated Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1), a leading candidate gene for schizophrenia and related psychiatric conditions, in cognitive function. Altered expression of DISC1 and DISC1-interactors has been identified in schizophrenia. Dysregulated expression of DISC1-interactome genes might, therefore, contribute to schizophrenia susceptibility via disruption of molecular systems required for normal cognitive function. Here, the blood RNA expression levels of DISC1 and DISC1-interacting proteins were measured in 63 control subjects. Cognitive function was assessed using neuropsychiatric tests and functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess the activity of prefrontal cortical regions during the N-back working memory task, which is abnormal in schizophrenia. Pairwise correlations between gene expression levels and the relationship between gene expression levels and cognitive function and N-back-elicited brain activity were assessed. Finally, the expression levels of DISC1, AKAP9, FEZ1, NDEL1 and PCM1 were compared between 63 controls and 69 schizophrenic subjects. We found that DISC1-interactome genes showed correlated expression in the blood of healthy individuals. The expression levels of several interactome members were correlated with cognitive performance and N-back-elicited activity in the prefrontal cortex. In addition, DISC1 and NDEL1 showed decreased expression in schizophrenic subjects compared to healthy controls. Our findings highlight the importance of the coordinated expression of DISC1-interactome genes for normal cognitive function and suggest that dysregulated DISC1 and NDEL1 expression might, in part, contribute to susceptibility for schizophrenia via disruption of prefrontal cortex-dependent cognitive functions. PMID:24940743

  15. Interactome analysis of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in murine models of colon and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Aliper, Alexander M; Frieden-Korovkina, Victoria P; Buzdin, Anton; Roumiantsev, Sergey A; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2014-11-30

    In solid cancers, myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) infiltrate (peri)tumoral tissues to induce immune tolerance and hence to establish a microenvironment permissive to tumor growth. Importantly, the mechanisms that facilitate such infiltration or a subsequent immune suppression are not fully understood. Hence, in this study, we aimed to delineate disparate molecular pathways which MDSC utilize in murine models of colon or breast cancer. Using pathways enrichment analysis, we completed interactome maps of multiple signaling pathways in CD11b+/Gr1(high/low) MDSC from spleens and tumor infiltrates of mice with c26GM colon cancer and tumor infiltrates of MDSC in 4T1 breast cancer. In both cancer models, infiltrating MDSC, but not CD11b+ splenic cells, have been found to be enriched in multiple signaling molecules suggestive of their enhanced proliferative and invasive phenotypes. The interactome data has been subsequently used to reconstruct a previously unexplored regulation of MDSC cell cycle by the c-myc transcription factor which was predicted by the analysis. Thus, this study represents a first interactome mapping of distinct multiple molecular pathways whereby MDSC sustain cancer progression.

  16. Cross-Species Rhesus Cytomegalovirus Infection of Cynomolgus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Bimber, Benjamin N.; Reed, Jason S.; Uebelhoer, Luke S.; Bhusari, Amruta; Hammond, Katherine B.; Klug, Alex; Legasse, Alfred W.; Axthelm, Michael K.; Nelson, Jay A.; Streblow, Daniel N.; Picker, Louis J.; Früh, Klaus; Sacha, Jonah B.

    2016-01-01

    Cytomegaloviruses (CMV) are highly species-specific due to millennia of co-evolution and adaptation to their host, with no successful experimental cross-species infection in primates reported to date. Accordingly, full genome phylogenetic analysis of multiple new CMV field isolates derived from two closely related nonhuman primate species, Indian-origin rhesus macaques (RM) and Mauritian-origin cynomolgus macaques (MCM), revealed distinct and tight lineage clustering according to the species of origin, with MCM CMV isolates mirroring the limited genetic diversity of their primate host that underwent a population bottleneck 400 years ago. Despite the ability of Rhesus CMV (RhCMV) laboratory strain 68–1 to replicate efficiently in MCM fibroblasts and potently inhibit antigen presentation to MCM T cells in vitro, RhCMV 68–1 failed to productively infect MCM in vivo, even in the absence of host CD8+ T and NK cells. In contrast, RhCMV clone 68–1.2, genetically repaired to express the homologues of the HCMV anti-apoptosis gene UL36 and epithelial cell tropism genes UL128 and UL130 absent in 68–1, efficiently infected MCM as evidenced by the induction of transgene-specific T cells and virus shedding. Recombinant variants of RhCMV 68–1 and 68–1.2 revealed that expression of either UL36 or UL128 together with UL130 enabled productive MCM infection, indicating that multiple layers of cross-species restriction operate even between closely related hosts. Cumulatively, these results implicate cell tropism and evasion of apoptosis as critical determinants of CMV transmission across primate species barriers, and extend the macaque model of human CMV infection and immunology to MCM, a nonhuman primate species with uniquely simplified host immunogenetics. PMID:27829026

  17. Dissection of a Ciona regulatory element reveals complexity of cross-species enhancer activity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Chung; Pauls, Stefan; Bacha, Jamil; Elgar, Greg; Loose, Matthew; Shimeld, Sebastian M.

    2014-01-01

    Vertebrate genomes share numerous conserved non-coding elements, many of which function as enhancer elements and are hypothesised to be under evolutionary constraint due to a need to be bound by combinations of sequence-specific transcription factors. In contrast, few such conserved elements can be detected between vertebrates and their closest invertebrate relatives. Despite this lack of sequence identity, cross-species transgenesis has identified some cases where non-coding DNA from invertebrates drives reporter gene expression in transgenic vertebrates in patterns reminiscent of the expression of vertebrate orthologues. Such instances are presumed to reflect the presence of conserved suites of binding sites in the regulatory regions of invertebrate and vertebrate orthologues, such that both regulatory elements can correctly interpret the trans-activating environment. Shuffling of binding sites has been suggested to lie behind loss of sequence conservation; however this has not been experimentally tested. Here we examine the underlying basis of enhancer activity for the Ciona intestinalis βγ-crystallin gene, which drives expression in the lens of transgenic vertebrates despite the Ciona lineage predating the evolution of the lens. We construct an interactive gene regulatory network (GRN) for vertebrate lens development, allowing network interactions to be robustly catalogued and conserved network components and features to be identified. We show that a small number of binding motifs are necessary for Ciona βγ-crystallin expression, and narrow down the likely factors that bind to these motifs. Several of these overlap with the conserved core of the vertebrate lens GRN, implicating these sites in cross species function. However when we test these motifs in a transgenic vertebrate they prove to be dispensable for reporter expression in the lens. These results show that current models depicting cross species enhancer function as dependent on conserved binding

  18. Restrictions to cross-species transmission of lentiviral infection gleaned from studies of FIV.

    PubMed

    VandeWoude, Sue; Troyer, Jennifer; Poss, Mary

    2010-03-15

    More than 40 species of primates and over 20 species of cats harbor antibodies that sero-react to lentiviral antigens. In nearly all cases where viral genetic analysis has been conducted, each host species is infected with a unique lentivirus. Though lentivirus clades within a species can be substantially divergent, they are typically monophyletic within that species. A notable significant departure from this observation is apparent cross-species transmission of FIV between bobcats (Lynx rufus) and pumas (Puma concolor) in Southern California that has occurred at least three times; evidence from one bobcat sequence suggests this cross-over may have also occurred in Florida between bobcats and the endangered Florida panther. Several other isolated reports demonstrate cross-species transmission of FIV isolates among captive animals housed in close proximity, and it is well established that HIV-1 and HIV-2 arose from human contact with SIV-infected non-human primates. Using an experimental model, we have determined that domestic cats (Felis catus) are susceptible to FIVs originating from pumas or lions. While infections are initially replicative, and animals seroconvert, within a relatively short period of time circulating virus is reduced to nearly undetectable levels in a majority of animals. This diminution of viral load is proportional to initial viral peak. Although viral reservoirs can be identified in gastrointestinal tissues, most viral genomes recovered peripherally are highly mutated, suggesting that the non-adapted host successfully inhibits normal viral replication, leading to replication incompetent viral progeny. Mechanisms possible for such restriction of cross-species infections in natural settings include: (1) Lack of contact conducive to lentiviral transmission between infected and shedding animals of different species; (2) Lack of suitable receptor repertoire to allow viral entry to susceptible cells of a new species; (3) Cellular machinery in the

  19. Restrictions to cross species transmission of lentiviral infection gleaned from studies of FIV

    PubMed Central

    Troyer, Jennifer; Poss, Mary

    2009-01-01

    More than 40 species of primates and over 20 species of cats harbor antibodies that sero-react to lentiviral antigens. In nearly all cases where viral genetic analysis has been conducted, each host species is infected with a unique lentivirus. Though lentivirus clades within a species can be substantially divergent, they are typically monophyletic within that species. A notable significant departure from this observation is apparent cross-species transmission of FIV between bobcats (Lynx rufus) and pumas (Puma concolor) in southern California that has occurred at least three times; evidence from one bobcat sequence suggests this cross-over may have also occurred in Florida between bobcats and the endangered Florida panther. Several other isolated reports demonstrate cross-species transmission of FIV isolates among captive animals housed in close proximity, and it is well established that HIV-1 and HIV-2 arose from human contact with SIV-infected nonhuman primates. Using an experimental model, we have determined that domestic cats (Felis catus) are susceptible to FIVs originating from pumas or lions. While infections are initially replicative, and animals seroconvert, within a relatively short period of time circulating virus is reduced to nearly undetectable levels in a majority of animals. This diminution of viral load is proportional to initial viral peak. Although viral reservoirs can be identified in gastrointestinal tissues, most viral genomes recovered peripherally are highly mutated, suggesting that the non-adapted host successfully inhibits normal viral replication, leading to replication incompetent viral progeny. Mechanisms possible for such restriction of cross-species infections in natural settings include: 1. Lack of contact conducive to lentiviral transmission between infected and shedding animals of different species; 2. Lack of suitable receptor repertoire to allow viral entry to susceptible cells of a new species; 3. Cellular machinery in the new

  20. A cross-species socio-emotional behaviour development revealed by a multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Koshiba, Mamiko; Senoo, Aya; Mimura, Koki; Shirakawa, Yuka; Karino, Genta; Obara, Saya; Ozawa, Shinpei; Sekihara, Hitomi; Fukushima, Yuta; Ueda, Toyotoshi; Kishino, Hirohisa; Tanaka, Toshihisa; Ishibashi, Hidetoshi; Yamanouchi, Hideo; Yui, Kunio; Nakamura, Shun

    2013-01-01

    Recent progress in affective neuroscience and social neurobiology has been propelled by neuro-imaging technology and epigenetic approach in neurobiology of animal behaviour. However, quantitative measurements of socio-emotional development remains lacking, though sensory-motor development has been extensively studied in terms of digitised imaging analysis. Here, we developed a method for socio-emotional behaviour measurement that is based on the video recordings under well-defined social context using animal models with variously social sensory interaction during development. The behaviour features digitized from the video recordings were visualised in a multivariate statistic space using principal component analysis. The clustering of the behaviour parameters suggested the existence of species- and stage-specific as well as cross-species behaviour modules. These modules were used to characterise the behaviour of children with or without autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). We found that socio-emotional behaviour is highly dependent on social context and the cross-species behaviour modules may predict neurobiological basis of ASDs.

  1. Cross-species identification of genomic drivers of squamous cell carcinoma development across preneoplastic intermediates

    PubMed Central

    Chitsazzadeh, Vida; Coarfa, Cristian; Drummond, Jennifer A.; Nguyen, Tri; Joseph, Aaron; Chilukuri, Suneel; Charpiot, Elizabeth; Adelmann, Charles H.; Ching, Grace; Nguyen, Tran N.; Nicholas, Courtney; Thomas, Valencia D.; Migden, Michael; MacFarlane, Deborah; Thompson, Erika; Shen, Jianjun; Takata, Yoko; McNiece, Kayla; Polansky, Maxim A.; Abbas, Hussein A.; Rajapakshe, Kimal; Gower, Adam; Spira, Avrum; Covington, Kyle R.; Xiao, Weimin; Gunaratne, Preethi; Pickering, Curtis; Frederick, Mitchell; Myers, Jeffrey N.; Shen, Li; Yao, Hui; Su, Xiaoping; Rapini, Ronald P.; Wheeler, David A.; Hawk, Ernest T.; Flores, Elsa R.; Tsai, Kenneth Y.

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cuSCC) comprises 15–20% of all skin cancers, accounting for over 700,000 cases in USA annually. Most cuSCC arise in association with a distinct precancerous lesion, the actinic keratosis (AK). To identify potential targets for molecularly targeted chemoprevention, here we perform integrated cross-species genomic analysis of cuSCC development through the preneoplastic AK stage using matched human samples and a solar ultraviolet radiation-driven Hairless mouse model. We identify the major transcriptional drivers of this progression sequence, showing that the key genomic changes in cuSCC development occur in the normal skin to AK transition. Our data validate the use of this ultraviolet radiation-driven mouse cuSCC model for cross-species analysis and demonstrate that cuSCC bears deep molecular similarities to multiple carcinogen-driven SCCs from diverse sites, suggesting that cuSCC may serve as an effective, accessible model for multiple SCC types and that common treatment and prevention strategies may be feasible. PMID:27574101

  2. The amyloid interactome: Exploring protein aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Mastrokalou, Chara V.; Hamodrakas, Stavros J.

    2017-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions are the quintessence of physiological activities, but also participate in pathological conditions. Amyloid formation, an abnormal protein-protein interaction process, is a widespread phenomenon in divergent proteins and peptides, resulting in a variety of aggregation disorders. The complexity of the mechanisms underlying amyloid formation/amyloidogenicity is a matter of great scientific interest, since their revelation will provide important insight on principles governing protein misfolding, self-assembly and aggregation. The implication of more than one protein in the progression of different aggregation disorders, together with the cited synergistic occurrence between amyloidogenic proteins, highlights the necessity for a more universal approach, during the study of these proteins. In an attempt to address this pivotal need we constructed and analyzed the human amyloid interactome, a protein-protein interaction network of amyloidogenic proteins and their experimentally verified interactors. This network assembled known interconnections between well-characterized amyloidogenic proteins and proteins related to amyloid fibril formation. The consecutive extended computational analysis revealed significant topological characteristics and unraveled the functional roles of all constituent elements. This study introduces a detailed protein map of amyloidogenicity that will aid immensely towards separate intervention strategies, specifically targeting sub-networks of significant nodes, in an attempt to design possible novel therapeutics for aggregation disorders. PMID:28249044

  3. FIV cross-species transmission: an evolutionary prospective

    PubMed Central

    Troyer, Jennifer L.; VandeWoude, Sue; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; McIntosh, Carl; Franklin, Sam; Antunes, Agostinho; Johnson, Warren; O'Brien, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    Feline and primate immunodeficiency viruses (FIVs, SIVs, and HIV) are transmitted via direct contact (e.g. fighting, sexual contact, and mother-offspring transmission). This dynamic likely poses a behavioral barrier to cross-species transmission in the wild. Recently, several host intracellular anti-viral proteins that contribute to species-specificity of primate lentiviruses have been identified revealing adaptive mechanisms that further limit spread of lentiviruses between species. Consistent with these inter-species transmission barriers, phylogenetic evidence supports the prediction that FIV transmission is an exceedingly rare event between free-ranging cat species, though it has occurred occasionally in captive settings. Recently we documented that puma and bobcats in Southern California share an FIV strain, providing an opportunity to evaluate evolution of both viral strains and host intracellular restriction proteins. These studies are facilitated by the availability of the 2X cat genome sequence annotation. In addition, concurrent viral and host genetic analyses have been used to track patterns of migration of the host species and barriers to transmission of the virus within the African lion. These studies illustrate the utility of FIV as a model to discover the variables necessary for establishment and control of lentiviral infections in new species. PMID:18299153

  4. A Plea for Cross-species Social Neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Keysers, Christian; Gazzola, Valeria

    2017-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the question of how our brain makes us sensitive to the state of conspecifics and how that affects our behaviour has undergone a profound change. Twenty years ago what would now be called social neuroscience was focused on the visual processing of facial expressions and body movements in temporal lobe structures of primates (Puce and Perrett 2003). With the discovery of mirror neurons, this changed rapidly towards the modern field of social neuroscience, in which high-level vision is but one of many focuses of interest. In this essay, we will argue that for the further progress of the field, the integration of animal neuroscience and human neuroscience is paramount. We will do so, by focusing on the field of embodied social cognition. We will first show how the combination of animal and human neuroscience was critical in how the discovery of mirror neurons placed the motor system on the map of social cognition. We will then argue why an integrated cross-species approach will be pivotal to our understanding of the neural basis of emotional empathy and its link to prosocial behaviour.

  5. Interactomic and pharmacological insights on human sirt-1.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ankush; Gautam, Vasu; Costantini, Susan; Paladino, Antonella; Colonna, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Sirt-1 is defined as a nuclear protein involved in the molecular mechanisms of inflammation and neurodegeneration through the de-acetylation of many different substrates even if experimental data in mouse suggest both its cytoplasmatic presence and nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling upon oxidative stress. Since the experimental structure of human Sirt-1 has not yet been reported, we have modeled its 3D structure, highlighted that it is composed by four different structural regions: N-terminal region, allosteric site, catalytic core and C-terminal region, and underlined that the two terminal regions have high intrinsic disorder propensity and numerous putative phosphorylation sites. Many different papers report experimental studies related to its functional activators because Sirt-1 is implicated in various diseases and cancers. The aim of this article is (i) to present interactomic studies based human Sirt-1 to understand its most important functional relationships in the light of the gene-protein interactions that control major metabolic pathways and (ii) to show by docking studies how this protein binds some activator molecules in order to evidence structural determinants, physico-chemical features and those residues involved in the formation of complexes.

  6. Interactomic and Pharmacological Insights on Human Sirt-1

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ankush; Gautam, Vasu; Costantini, Susan; Paladino, Antonella; Colonna, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Sirt-1 is defined as a nuclear protein involved in the molecular mechanisms of inflammation and neurodegeneration through the de-acetylation of many different substrates even if experimental data in mouse suggest both its cytoplasmatic presence and nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling upon oxidative stress. Since the experimental structure of human Sirt-1 has not yet been reported, we have modeled its 3D structure, highlighted that it is composed by four different structural regions: N-terminal region, allosteric site, catalytic core and C-terminal region, and underlined that the two terminal regions have high intrinsic disorder propensity and numerous putative phosphorylation sites. Many different papers report experimental studies related to its functional activators because Sirt-1 is implicated in various diseases and cancers. The aim of this article is (i) to present interactomic studies based human Sirt-1 to understand its most important functional relationships in the light of the gene–protein interactions that control major metabolic pathways and (ii) to show by docking studies how this protein binds some activator molecules in order to evidence structural determinants, physico-chemical features and those residues involved in the formation of complexes. PMID:22470339

  7. Uncovering disease-disease relationships through the incomplete human interactome

    PubMed Central

    Menche, Jörg; Sharma, Amitabh; Kitsak, Maksim; Ghiassian, Susan; Vidal, Marc; Loscalzo, Joseph; Barabási, Albert-László

    2015-01-01

    According to the disease module hypothesis the cellular components associated with a disease segregate in the same neighborhood of the human interactome, the map of biologically relevant molecular interactions. Yet, given the incompleteness of the interactome and the limited knowledge of disease-associated genes, it is not obvious if the available data has sufficient coverage to map out modules associated with each disease. Here we derive mathematical conditions for the identifiability of disease modules and show that the network-based location of each disease module determines its pathobiological relationship to other diseases. For example, diseases with overlapping network modules show significant co-expression patterns, symptom similarity, and comorbidity, while diseases residing in separated network neighborhoods are clinically distinct. These tools represent an interactome-based platform to predict molecular commonalities between clinically related diseases, even if they do not share disease genes. PMID:25700523

  8. "Fuzziness" in the celular interactome: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Welch, G Rickey

    2012-01-01

    Some historical background is given for appreciating the impact of the empirical construct known as the cellular protein-protein interactome, which is a seemingly de novo entity that has arisen of late within the context of postgenomic systems biology. The approach here builds on a generalized principle of "fuzziness" in protein behavior, proposed by Tompa and Fuxreiter.(1) Recent controversies in the analysis and interpretation of the interactome studies are rationalized historically under the auspices of this concept. There is an extensive literature on protein-protein interactions, dating to the mid-1900s, which may help clarify the "fuzziness" in the interactome picture and, also, provide a basis for understanding the physiological importance of protein-protein interactions in vivo.

  9. Next-Generation Technologies for Multiomics Approaches Including Interactome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Ohashi, Hiroyuki; Miyamoto-Sato, Etsuko

    2015-01-01

    The development of high-speed analytical techniques such as next-generation sequencing and microarrays allows high-throughput analysis of biological information at a low cost. These techniques contribute to medical and bioscience advancements and provide new avenues for scientific research. Here, we outline a variety of new innovative techniques and discuss their use in omics research (e.g., genomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics, proteomics, and interactomics). We also discuss the possible applications of these methods, including an interactome sequencing technology that we developed, in future medical and life science research. PMID:25649523

  10. A brief history of cross-species organ transplantation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Cross-species transplantation (xenotransplantation) offers the prospect of an unlimited supply of organs and cells for clinical transplantation, thus resolving the critical shortage of human tissues that currently prohibits a majority of patients on the waiting list from receiving transplants. Between the 17th and 20th centuries, blood was transfused from various animal species into patients with a variety of pathological conditions. Skin grafts were carried out in the 19th century from a variety of animals, with frogs being the most popular. In the 1920s, Voronoff advocated the transplantation of slices of chimpanzee testis into aged men whose “zest for life” was deteriorating, believing that the hormones produced by the testis would rejuvenate his patients. Following the pioneering surgical work of Carrel, who developed the technique of blood vessel anastomosis, numerous attempts at nonhuman primate organ transplantation in patients were carried out in the 20th century. In 1963–1964, when human organs were not available and chronic dialysis was not yet in use, Reemtsma transplanted chimpanzee kidneys into 13 patients, one of whom returned to work for almost 9 months before suddenly dying from what was believed to be an electrolyte disturbance. The first heart transplant in a human ever performed was by Hardy in 1964, using a chimpanzee heart, but the patient died within 2 hours. Starzl carried out the first chimpanzee-to-human liver transplantation in 1966; in 1992, he obtained patient survival for 70 days following a baboon liver transplant. With the advent of genetic engineering and cloning technologies, pigs are currently available with a number of different manipulations that protect their tissues from the human immune response, resulting in increasing pig graft survival in nonhuman primate models. Genetically modified pigs offer hope of a limitless supply of organs and cells for those in need of a transplant. PMID:22275786

  11. Cross-Species Functionality of Pararetroviral Elements Driving Ribosome Shunting

    PubMed Central

    Pooggin, Mikhail M.; Fütterer, Johannes; Hohn, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Background Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) and Rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV) belong to distinct genera of pararetroviruses infecting dicot and monocot plants, respectively. In both viruses, polycistronic translation of pregenomic (pg) RNA is initiated by shunting ribosomes that bypass a large region of the pgRNA leader with several short (s)ORFs and a stable stem-loop structure. The shunt requires translation of a 5′-proximal sORF terminating near the stem. In CaMV, mutations knocking out this sORF nearly abolish shunting and virus viability. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we show that two distant regions of the CaMV leader that form a minimal shunt configuration comprising the sORF, a bottom part of the stem, and a shunt landing sequence can be replaced by heterologous sequences that form a structurally similar configuration in RTBV without any dramatic effect on shunt-mediated translation and CaMV infectivity. The CaMV-RTBV chimeric leader sequence was largely stable over five viral passages in turnip plants: a few alterations that did eventually occur in the virus progenies are indicative of fine tuning of the chimeric sequence during adaptation to a new host. Conclusions/Significance Our findings demonstrate cross-species functionality of pararetroviral cis-elements driving ribosome shunting and evolutionary conservation of the shunt mechanism. We are grateful to Matthias Müller and Sandra Pauli for technical assistance. This work was initiated at Friedrich Miescher Institute (Basel, Switzerland). We thank Prof. Thomas Boller for hosting the group at the Institute of Botany. PMID:18286203

  12. Cross-species queries of large gene expression databases

    PubMed Central

    Le, Hai-Son; Oltvai, Zoltán N.; Bar-Joseph, Ziv

    2010-01-01

    Motivation: Expression databases, including the Gene Expression Omnibus and ArrayExpress, have experienced significant growth over the past decade and now hold hundreds of thousands of arrays from multiple species. Since most drugs are initially tested on model organisms, the ability to compare expression experiments across species may help identify pathways that are activated in a similar way in humans and other organisms. However, while several methods exist for finding co-expressed genes in the same species as a query gene, looking at co-expression of homologs or arbitrary genes in other species is challenging. Unlike sequence, which is static, expression is dynamic and changes between tissues, conditions and time. Thus, to carry out cross-species analysis using these databases, we need methods that can match experiments in one species with experiments in another species. Results: To facilitate queries in large databases, we developed a new method for comparing expression experiments from different species. We define a distance metric between the ranking of orthologous genes in the two species. We show how to solve an optimization problem for learning the parameters of this function using a training dataset of known similar expression experiments pairs. The function we learn outperforms previous methods and simpler rank comparison methods that have been used in the past for single species analysis. We used our method to compare millions of array pairs from mouse and human expression experiments. The resulting matches can be used to find functionally related genes, to hypothesize about biological response mechanisms and to highlight conditions and diseases that are activating similar pathways in both species. Availability: Supporting methods, results and a Matlab implementation are available from http://sb.cs.cmu.edu/ExpQ/ Contact: zivbj@cs.cmu.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:20702396

  13. PRIN: a predicted rice interactome network

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Protein-protein interactions play a fundamental role in elucidating the molecular mechanisms of biomolecular function, signal transductions and metabolic pathways of living organisms. Although high-throughput technologies such as yeast two-hybrid system and affinity purification followed by mass spectrometry are widely used in model organisms, the progress of protein-protein interactions detection in plants is rather slow. With this motivation, our work presents a computational approach to predict protein-protein interactions in Oryza sativa. Results To better understand the interactions of proteins in Oryza sativa, we have developed PRIN, a Predicted Rice Interactome Network. Protein-protein interaction data of PRIN are based on the interologs of six model organisms where large-scale protein-protein interaction experiments have been applied: yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), worm (Caenorhabditis elegans), fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster), human (Homo sapiens), Escherichia coli K12 and Arabidopsis thaliana. With certain quality controls, altogether we obtained 76,585 non-redundant rice protein interaction pairs among 5,049 rice proteins. Further analysis showed that the topology properties of predicted rice protein interaction network are more similar to yeast than to the other 5 organisms. This may not be surprising as the interologs based on yeast contribute nearly 74% of total interactions. In addition, GO annotation, subcellular localization information and gene expression data are also mapped to our network for validation. Finally, a user-friendly web interface was developed to offer convenient database search and network visualization. Conclusions PRIN is the first well annotated protein interaction database for the important model plant Oryza sativa. It has greatly extended the current available protein-protein interaction data of rice with a computational approach, which will certainly provide further insights into rice functional genomics and

  14. Hepatitis B virus lineages in mammalian hosts: Potential for bidirectional cross-species transmission

    PubMed Central

    Bonvicino, Cibele R; Moreira, Miguel A; Soares, Marcelo A

    2014-01-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a cosmopolitan infectious agent currently affecting over 350 million people worldwide, presently accounting for more than two billion infections. In addition to man, other hepatitis virus strains infect species of several mammalian families of the Primates, Rodentia and Chiroptera orders, in addition to birds. The mounting evidence of HBV infection in African, Asian and neotropical primates draws attention to the potential cross-species, zoonotic transmission of these viruses to man. Moreover, recent evidence also suggests the humans may also function as a source of viral infection to other mammals, particularly to domestic animals like poultry and swine. In this review, we list all evidence of HBV and HBV-like infection of nonhuman mammals and discuss their potential roles as donors or recipients of these viruses to humans and to other closely-related species. PMID:24976704

  15. Serologic survey for cross-species pathogens in urban coyotes (Canis latrans), Colorado, USA.

    PubMed

    Malmlov, Ashley; Breck, Stewart; Fry, Tricia; Duncan, Colleen

    2014-10-01

    Abstract As coyotes (Canis latrans) adapt to living in urban environments, the opportunity for cross-species transmission of pathogens may increase. We investigated the prevalence of antibodies to pathogens that are either zoonotic or affect multiple animal species in urban coyotes in the Denver metropolitan area, Colorado, USA, in 2012. We assayed for antibodies to canine parvovirus-2, canine distemper virus, rabies virus, Toxoplasma gondii, Yersinia pestis, and serotypes of Leptospira interrogans. Overall, 84% of the animals had antibodies to canine parvovirus-2, 44% for canine distemper virus, 20% for T. gondii (IgG), 28% for Y. pestis, and 4% for L. interrogans serotype Grippotyphosa. No neutralizing antibodies were detected to rabies virus, T. gondii (IgM), or L. interrogans serotypes other than Grippotyphosa. With 88% of animals exposed to at least one pathogen, our results suggest that coyotes may serve as important reservoirs and sentinels for etiologic agents.

  16. Cross Species Genomic Analysis Identifies a Mouse Model as Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma/Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Mito, Jeffrey K.; Riedel, Richard F.; Dodd, Leslie; Lahat, Guy; Lazar, Alexander J.; Dodd, Rebecca D.; Stangenberg, Lars; Eward, William C.; Hornicek, Francis J.; Yoon, Sam S.; Brigman, Brian E.; Jacks, Tyler; Lev, Dina; Mukherjee, Sayan; Kirsch, David G.

    2009-01-01

    Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma/Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma (MFH) is one of the most common subtypes of human soft tissue sarcoma. Using cross species genomic analysis, we define a geneset from the LSL-KrasG12D; Trp53Flox/Flox mouse model of soft tissue sarcoma that is highly enriched in human MFH. With this mouse geneset as a filter, we identify expression of the RAS target FOXM1 in human MFH. Expression of Foxm1 is elevated in mouse sarcomas that metastasize to the lung and tissue microarray analysis of human MFH correlates overexpression of FOXM1 with metastasis. These results suggest that genomic alterations present in human MFH are conserved in the LSL-KrasG12D; p53Flox/Flox mouse model of soft tissue sarcoma and demonstrate the utility of this pre-clinical model. PMID:19956606

  17. Ketamine Suppresses the Ventral Striatal Response to Reward Anticipation: A Cross-Species Translational Neuroimaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Francois, Jennifer; Grimm, Oliver; Schwarz, Adam J; Schweiger, Janina; Haller, Leila; Risterucci, Celine; Böhringer, Andreas; Zang, Zhenxiang; Tost, Heike; Gilmour, Gary; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Convergent evidence implicates regional neural responses to reward anticipation in the pathogenesis of several psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, where blunted ventral striatal responses to positive reward are observed in patients and at-risk populations. In vivo oxygen amperometry measurements in the ventral striatum in awake, behaving rats reveal reward-related tissue oxygen changes that closely parallel blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal changes observed in human functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), suggesting that a cross-species approach targeting this mechanism might be feasible in psychopharmacology. The present study explored modulatory effects of acute, subanaesthetic doses of ketamine—a pharmacological model widely used in psychopharmacological research, both preclinically and clinically—on ventral striatum activity during performance of a reward anticipation task in both species, using fMRI in humans and in vivo oxygen amperometry in rats. In a region-of-interest analysis conducted following a cross-over placebo and ketamine study in human subjects, an attenuated ventral striatal response during reward anticipation was observed following ketamine relative to placebo during performance of a monetary incentive delay task. In rats, a comparable attenuation of ventral striatal signal was found after ketamine challenge, relative to vehicle, in response to a conditioned stimulus that predicted delivery of reward. This study provides the first data in both species demonstrating an attenuating effect of acute ketamine on reward-related ventral striatal (O2) and fMRI signals. These findings may help elucidate a deeper mechanistic understanding of the potential role of ketamine as a model for psychosis, show that cross-species pharmacological experiments targeting reward signaling are feasible, and suggest this phenotype as a promising translational biomarker for the development of novel compounds, assessment of disease status, and

  18. Comprehensive Identification of mRNA-Binding Proteins of Leishmania donovani by Interactome Capture

    PubMed Central

    Nandan, Devki; Thomas, Sneha A.; Nguyen, Anne; Moon, Kyung-Mee; Foster, Leonard J.; Reiner, Neil E.

    2017-01-01

    Leishmania are unicellular eukaryotes responsible for leishmaniasis in humans. Like other trypanosomatids, leishmania regulate protein coding gene expression almost exclusively at the post-transcriptional level with the help of RNA binding proteins (RBPs). Due to the presence of polycystronic transcription units, leishmania do not regulate RNA polymerase II-dependent transcription initiation. Recent evidence suggests that the main control points in gene expression are mRNA degradation and translation. Protein-RNA interactions are involved in every aspect of RNA biology, such as mRNA splicing, polyadenylation, localization, degradation, and translation. A detailed picture of these interactions would likely prove to be highly informative in understanding leishmania biology and virulence. We developed a strategy involving covalent UV cross-linking of RBPs to mRNA in vivo, followed by interactome capture using oligo(dT) magnetic beads to define comprehensively the mRNA interactome of growing L. donovani amastigotes. The protein mass spectrometry analysis of captured proteins identified 79 mRNA interacting proteins which withstood very stringent washing conditions. Strikingly, we found that 49 of these mRNA interacting proteins had no orthologs or homologs in the human genome. Consequently, these may represent high quality candidates for selective drug targeting leading to novel therapeutics. These results show that this unbiased, systematic strategy has the promise to be applicable to study the mRNA interactome during various biological settings such as metabolic changes, stress (low pH environment, oxidative stress and nutrient deprivation) or drug treatment. PMID:28135300

  19. Evidence for network evolution in an arabidopsis interactome map

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plants have unique features that evolved in response to their environments and ecosystems. A full account of the complex cellular networks that underlie plant-specific functions is still missing. We describe a proteome-wide binary protein-protein interaction map for the interactome network of the pl...

  20. Human interactome resource and gene set linkage analysis for the functional interpretation of biologically meaningful gene sets.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xi; Chen, Pengcheng; Wei, Qiang; Shen, Xueling; Chen, Xin

    2013-08-15

    A molecular interaction network can be viewed as a network in which genes with related functions are connected. Therefore, at a systems level, connections between individual genes in a molecular interaction network can be used to infer the collective functional linkages between biologically meaningful gene sets. We present the human interactome resource and the gene set linkage analysis (GSLA) tool for the functional interpretation of biologically meaningful gene sets observed in experiments. GSLA determines whether an observed gene set has significant functional linkages to established biological processes. When an observed gene set is not enriched by known biological processes, traditional enrichment-based interpretation methods cannot produce functional insights, but GSLA can still evaluate whether those genes work in concert to regulate specific biological processes, thereby suggesting the functional implications of the observed gene set. The quality of human interactome resource and the utility of GSLA are illustrated with multiple assessments. http://www.cls.zju.edu.cn/hir/

  1. Interactomic approach for evaluating nucleophosmin-binding proteins as biomarkers for Ewing's sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Haga, Ayako; Ogawara, Yoko; Kubota, Daisuke; Kitabayashi, Issay; Murakami, Yasufumi; Kondo, Tadashi

    2013-06-01

    Nucleophosmin (NPM) is a novel prognostic biomarker for Ewing's sarcoma. To evaluate the prognostic utility of NPM, we conducted an interactomic approach to characterize the NPM protein complex in Ewing's sarcoma cells. A gene suppression assay revealed that NPM promoted cell proliferation and the invasive properties of Ewing's sarcoma cells. FLAG-tag-based affinity purification coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry identified 106 proteins in the NPM protein complex. The functional classification suggested that the NPM complex participates in critical biological events, including ribosome biogenesis, regulation of transcription and translation, and protein folding, that are mediated by these proteins. In addition to JAK1, a candidate prognostic biomarker for Ewing's sarcoma, the NPM complex, includes 11 proteins known as prognostic biomarkers for other malignancies. Meta-analysis of gene expression profiles of 32 patients with Ewing's sarcoma revealed that 6 of 106 were significantly and independently associated with survival period. These observations suggest a functional role as well as prognostic value of these NPM complex proteins in Ewing's sarcoma. Further, our study suggests the potential applications of interactomics in conjunction with meta-analysis for biomarker discovery.

  2. Identification, validation and cross-species transferability of novel Lavandula EST-SSRs.

    PubMed

    Adal, Ayelign M; Demissie, Zerihun A; Mahmoud, Soheil S

    2015-04-01

    We identified and characterized EST-SSRs with strong discrimination power against Lavandula angustifolia and Lavandula x intermedia . The markers also showed considerable cross-species transferability rate into six related Lavandula species. Lavenders (Lavandula) are important economical crops grown around the globe for essential oil production. In an attempt to develop genetic markers for these plants, we analyzed over 13,000 unigenes developed from L. angustifolia and L. x intermedia EST databases, and identified 3,459 simple sequence repeats (SSR), which were dominated by trinucleotides (41.2 %) and dinucleotides (31.45 %). Approximately, 19 % of the unigenes contained at least one SSR marker, over 60 % of which were localized in the UTRs. Only 252 EST-SSRs were 18 bp or longer from which 31 loci were validated, and 24 amplified discrete fragments with 85 % polymorphism in L. x intermedia and L. angustifolia. The average number of alleles in L. x intermedia and L. angustifolia were 3.42 and 3.71 per marker with average PIC values of 0.47 and 0.52, respectively. These values suggest a moderate to strong level of informativeness for the markers, with some loci producing unique fingerprints. The cross-species transferability rate of the markers ranges 50-100 % across eight species. The utility of these markers was assessed in eight Lavandula species and 15 L. angustifolia and L. x intermedia cultivars, and the dendrogram deduced from their similarity indexes successfully delineated the species into their respective sections and the cultivars into their respective species. These markers have potential for application in fingerprinting, diversity studies and marker-assisted breeding of Lavandula.

  3. Differentially expressed genes identified by cross-species microarray in the blind cavefish Astyanax.

    PubMed

    Strickler, Allen G; Jeffery, William R

    2009-03-01

    Changes in gene expression were examined by microarray analysis during development of the eyed surface dwelling (surface fish) and blind cave-dwelling (cavefish) forms of the teleost Astyanax mexicanus De Filippi, 1853. The cross-species microarray used surface and cavefish RNA hybridized to a DNA chip prepared from a closely related species, the zebrafish Danio rerio Hamilton, 1822. We identified a total of 67 differentially expressed probe sets at three days post-fertilization: six upregulated and 61 downregulated in cavefish relative to surface fish. Many of these genes function either in eye development and/or maintenance, or in programmed cell death. The upregulated probe set showing the highest mean fold change was similar to the human ubiquitin specific protease 53 gene. The downregulated probe sets showing some of the highest fold changes corresponded to genes with roles in eye development, including those encoding gamma crystallins, the guanine nucleotide binding proteins Gnat1 and Gant2, a BarH-like homeodomain transcription factor, and rhodopsin. Downregulation of gamma-crystallin and rhodopsin was confirmed by in situ hybridization and immunostaining with specific antibodies. Additional downregulated genes encode molecules that inhibit or activate programmed cell death. The results suggest that cross-species microarray can be used for identifying differentially expressed genes in cavefish, that many of these genes might be involved in eye degeneration via apoptotic processes, and that more genes are downregulated than upregulated in cavefish, consistent with the predominance of morphological losses over gains during regressive evolution. © 2009 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.

  4. Mapping RNA-RNA interactome and RNA structure in vivo by MARIO.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tri C; Cao, Xiaoyi; Yu, Pengfei; Xiao, Shu; Lu, Jia; Biase, Fernando H; Sridhar, Bharat; Huang, Norman; Zhang, Kang; Zhong, Sheng

    2016-06-24

    The pervasive transcription of our genome presents a possibility of revealing new genomic functions by investigating RNA interactions. Current methods for mapping RNA-RNA interactions have to rely on an 'anchor' protein or RNA and often require molecular perturbations. Here we present the MARIO (Mapping RNA interactome in vivo) technology to massively reveal RNA-RNA interactions from unperturbed cells. We mapped tens of thousands of endogenous RNA-RNA interactions from mouse embryonic stem cells and brain. We validated seven interactions by RNA antisense purification and one interaction using single-molecule RNA-FISH. The experimentally derived RNA interactome is a scale-free network, which is not expected from currently perceived promiscuity in RNA-RNA interactions. Base pairing is observed at the interacting regions between long RNAs, including transposon transcripts, suggesting a class of regulatory sequences acting in trans. In addition, MARIO data reveal thousands of intra-molecule interactions, providing in vivo data on high-order RNA structures.

  5. Mapping RNA–RNA interactome and RNA structure in vivo by MARIO

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tri C.; Cao, Xiaoyi; Yu, Pengfei; Xiao, Shu; Lu, Jia; Biase, Fernando H.; Sridhar, Bharat; Huang, Norman; Zhang, Kang; Zhong, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    The pervasive transcription of our genome presents a possibility of revealing new genomic functions by investigating RNA interactions. Current methods for mapping RNA–RNA interactions have to rely on an ‘anchor' protein or RNA and often require molecular perturbations. Here we present the MARIO (Mapping RNA interactome in vivo) technology to massively reveal RNA–RNA interactions from unperturbed cells. We mapped tens of thousands of endogenous RNA–RNA interactions from mouse embryonic stem cells and brain. We validated seven interactions by RNA antisense purification and one interaction using single-molecule RNA–FISH. The experimentally derived RNA interactome is a scale-free network, which is not expected from currently perceived promiscuity in RNA–RNA interactions. Base pairing is observed at the interacting regions between long RNAs, including transposon transcripts, suggesting a class of regulatory sequences acting in trans. In addition, MARIO data reveal thousands of intra-molecule interactions, providing in vivo data on high-order RNA structures. PMID:27338251

  6. Crowd Sourcing a New Paradigm for Interactome Driven Drug Target Identification in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Rohira, Harsha; Bhat, Ashwini G.; Passi, Anurag; Mukherjee, Keya; Choudhary, Kumari Sonal; Kumar, Vikas; Arora, Anshula; Munusamy, Prabhakaran; Subramanian, Ahalyaa; Venkatachalam, Aparna; S, Gayathri; Raj, Sweety; Chitra, Vijaya; Verma, Kaveri; Zaheer, Salman; J, Balaganesh; Gurusamy, Malarvizhi; Razeeth, Mohammed; Raja, Ilamathi; Thandapani, Madhumohan; Mevada, Vishal; Soni, Raviraj; Rana, Shruti; Ramanna, Girish Muthagadhalli; Raghavan, Swetha; Subramanya, Sunil N.; Kholia, Trupti; Patel, Rajesh; Bhavnani, Varsha; Chiranjeevi, Lakavath; Sengupta, Soumi; Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Atray, Naresh; Gandhi, Swati; Avasthi, Tiruvayipati Suma; Nisthar, Shefin; Anurag, Meenakshi; Sharma, Pratibha; Hasija, Yasha; Dash, Debasis; Sharma, Arun; Scaria, Vinod; Thomas, Zakir; Chandra, Nagasuma; Brahmachari, Samir K.; Bhardwaj, Anshu

    2012-01-01

    A decade since the availability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) genome sequence, no promising drug has seen the light of the day. This not only indicates the challenges in discovering new drugs but also suggests a gap in our current understanding of Mtb biology. We attempt to bridge this gap by carrying out extensive re-annotation and constructing a systems level protein interaction map of Mtb with an objective of finding novel drug target candidates. Towards this, we synergized crowd sourcing and social networking methods through an initiative ‘Connect to Decode’ (C2D) to generate the first and largest manually curated interactome of Mtb termed ‘interactome pathway’ (IPW), encompassing a total of 1434 proteins connected through 2575 functional relationships. Interactions leading to gene regulation, signal transduction, metabolism, structural complex formation have been catalogued. In the process, we have functionally annotated 87% of the Mtb genome in context of gene products. We further combine IPW with STRING based network to report central proteins, which may be assessed as potential drug targets for development of drugs with least possible side effects. The fact that five of the 17 predicted drug targets are already experimentally validated either genetically or biochemically lends credence to our unique approach. PMID:22808064

  7. Crowd sourcing a new paradigm for interactome driven drug target identification in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Vashisht, Rohit; Mondal, Anupam Kumar; Jain, Akanksha; Shah, Anup; Vishnoi, Priti; Priyadarshini, Priyanka; Bhattacharyya, Kausik; Rohira, Harsha; Bhat, Ashwini G; Passi, Anurag; Mukherjee, Keya; Choudhary, Kumari Sonal; Kumar, Vikas; Arora, Anshula; Munusamy, Prabhakaran; Subramanian, Ahalyaa; Venkatachalam, Aparna; Gayathri, S; Raj, Sweety; Chitra, Vijaya; Verma, Kaveri; Zaheer, Salman; Balaganesh, J; Gurusamy, Malarvizhi; Razeeth, Mohammed; Raja, Ilamathi; Thandapani, Madhumohan; Mevada, Vishal; Soni, Raviraj; Rana, Shruti; Ramanna, Girish Muthagadhalli; Raghavan, Swetha; Subramanya, Sunil N; Kholia, Trupti; Patel, Rajesh; Bhavnani, Varsha; Chiranjeevi, Lakavath; Sengupta, Soumi; Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Atray, Naresh; Gandhi, Swati; Avasthi, Tiruvayipati Suma; Nisthar, Shefin; Anurag, Meenakshi; Sharma, Pratibha; Hasija, Yasha; Dash, Debasis; Sharma, Arun; Scaria, Vinod; Thomas, Zakir; Chandra, Nagasuma; Brahmachari, Samir K; Bhardwaj, Anshu

    2012-01-01

    A decade since the availability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) genome sequence, no promising drug has seen the light of the day. This not only indicates the challenges in discovering new drugs but also suggests a gap in our current understanding of Mtb biology. We attempt to bridge this gap by carrying out extensive re-annotation and constructing a systems level protein interaction map of Mtb with an objective of finding novel drug target candidates. Towards this, we synergized crowd sourcing and social networking methods through an initiative 'Connect to Decode' (C2D) to generate the first and largest manually curated interactome of Mtb termed 'interactome pathway' (IPW), encompassing a total of 1434 proteins connected through 2575 functional relationships. Interactions leading to gene regulation, signal transduction, metabolism, structural complex formation have been catalogued. In the process, we have functionally annotated 87% of the Mtb genome in context of gene products. We further combine IPW with STRING based network to report central proteins, which may be assessed as potential drug targets for development of drugs with least possible side effects. The fact that five of the 17 predicted drug targets are already experimentally validated either genetically or biochemically lends credence to our unique approach.

  8. PINA v2.0: mining interactome modules.

    PubMed

    Cowley, Mark J; Pinese, Mark; Kassahn, Karin S; Waddell, Nic; Pearson, John V; Grimmond, Sean M; Biankin, Andrew V; Hautaniemi, Sampsa; Wu, Jianmin

    2012-01-01

    The Protein Interaction Network Analysis (PINA) platform is a comprehensive web resource, which includes a database of unified protein-protein interaction data integrated from six manually curated public databases, and a set of built-in tools for network construction, filtering, analysis and visualization. The second version of PINA enhances its utility for studies of protein interactions at a network level, by including multiple collections of interaction modules identified by different clustering approaches from the whole network of protein interactions ('interactome') for six model organisms. All identified modules are fully annotated by enriched Gene Ontology terms, KEGG pathways, Pfam domains and the chemical and genetic perturbations collection from MSigDB. Moreover, a new tool is provided for module enrichment analysis in addition to simple query function. The interactome data are also available on the web site for further bioinformatics analysis. PINA is freely accessible at http://cbg.garvan.unsw.edu.au/pina/.

  9. Serial interactome capture of the human cell nucleus.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Thomas; Albrecht, Anne-Susann; de Melo Costa, Veronica Rodrigues; Sauer, Sascha; Meierhofer, David; Ørom, Ulf Andersson

    2016-04-04

    Novel RNA-guided cellular functions are paralleled by an increasing number of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). Here we present 'serial RNA interactome capture' (serIC), a multiple purification procedure of ultraviolet-crosslinked poly(A)-RNA-protein complexes that enables global RBP detection with high specificity. We apply serIC to the nuclei of proliferating K562 cells to obtain the first human nuclear RNA interactome. The domain composition of the 382 identified nuclear RBPs markedly differs from previous IC experiments, including few factors without known RNA-binding domains that are in good agreement with computationally predicted RNA binding. serIC extends the number of DNA-RNA-binding proteins (DRBPs), and reveals a network of RBPs involved in p53 signalling and double-strand break repair. serIC is an effective tool to couple global RBP capture with additional selection or labelling steps for specific detection of highly purified RBPs.

  10. Charting the NF-κB Pathway Interactome Map

    PubMed Central

    Tieri, Paolo; Termanini, Alberto; Bellavista, Elena; Salvioli, Stefano; Capri, Miriam; Franceschi, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation is part of a complex physiological response to harmful stimuli and pathogenic stress. The five components of the Nuclear Factor κB (NF-κB) family are prominent mediators of inflammation, acting as key transcriptional regulators of hundreds of genes. Several signaling pathways activated by diverse stimuli converge on NF-κB activation, resulting in a regulatory system characterized by high complexity. It is increasingly recognized that the number of components that impinges upon phenotypic outcomes of signal transduction pathways may be higher than those taken into consideration from canonical pathway representations. Scope of the present analysis is to provide a wider, systemic picture of the NF-κB signaling system. Data from different sources such as literature, functional enrichment web resources, protein-protein interaction and pathway databases have been gathered, curated, integrated and analyzed in order to reconstruct a single, comprehensive picture of the proteins that interact with, and participate to the NF-κB activation system. Such a reconstruction shows that the NF-κB interactome is substantially different in quantity and quality of components with respect to canonical representations. The analysis highlights that several neglected but topologically central proteins may play a role in the activation of NF-κB mediated responses. Moreover the interactome structure fits with the characteristics of a bow tie architecture. This interactome is intended as an open network resource available for further development, refinement and analysis. PMID:22403694

  11. Proteomic data on the nuclear interactome of human MCM9

    PubMed Central

    Hutchins, James R.A.; Traver, Sabine; Coulombe, Philippe; Peiffer, Isabelle; Kitzmann, Magali; Latreille, Daniel; Méchali, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    We present data relating to the interactome of MCM9 from the nuclei of human cells. MCM9 belongs to the AAA+ superfamily, and contains an MCM domain and motifs that may confer DNA helicase activity. MCM9 has been shown to bind MCM8, and has been implicated in DNA replication and homologous recombination. However, the mechanistic basis of MCM9’s role in DNA repair is poorly understood, and proteins with which it interacts were hitherto unknown. We performed tandem affinity purification of MCM9 and its interacting proteins from nuclear extracts of human cells, followed by proteomic analysis, thereby generating a set of mass spectrometry data corresponding to the MCM9 interactome [1]. The proteomic data set comprises 29 mass spectrometry RAW files, deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium, and freely available from the PRIDE partner repository with the data set identifier PXD000212. A set of 22 interacting proteins identified from the proteomic data was used to create an MCM9-centered interactive network diagram, using the Cytoscape program. These data allow the scientific community to access, mine and explore the human nuclear MCM9 interactome. PMID:26870752

  12. Integrating the interactome and the transcriptome of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    networks are frequently organized into hubs of widely expressed proteins to which are attached various tissue- or stage-specific proteins. This is consistent with earlier analyses of human PPI data and suggests a similar organization of interaction networks across species. This organization implies that tissue or stage specific networks can be best identified from interactome data by using filters designed to include both ubiquitously expressed and specifically expressed genes and proteins. PMID:24913703

  13. Cross-Species Transmission in the Speciation of the Currently Known Murinae-Associated Hantaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xian-Dan; Wang, Wen; Guo, Wen-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-He; Xing, Jian-Guang; Chen, Sheng-Ze; Li, Ming-Hui; Chen, Yi; Xu, Jianguo; Plyusnin, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    To gain more insight into the phylogeny of Dabieshan virus (DBSV), carried by Niviventer confucianus and other Murinae-associated hantaviruses, genome sequences of novel variants of DBSV were recovered from Niviventer rats trapped in the mountainous areas of Wenzhou, China. Genetic analyses show that all known genetic variants of DBSV, including the ones identified in this study, are distinct from other Murinae-associated hantaviruses. DBSV variants show geographic clustering and high intraspecies diversity. The data suggest that DBSV is a distinct species in the genus Hantavirus. Interestingly, DBSV shows the highest sequence identity to Hantaan virus (HTNV), with a >7% difference in the sequences of the N, GPC, and L proteins, while N. confucianus is more closely related to Rattus norvegicus (the host of Seoul virus [SEOV]) than to Apodemus agrarius (the host of HTNV and Saaremaa virus [SAAV]). Further genetic analyses of all known Murinae-associated hantaviruses (both established and tentative species) show that many of them, including DBSV, may have originated from host switching. The estimation of evolutionary rates and divergence time supports the role of cross-species transmission in the evolution of Murinae-associated hantaviruses. The detection of positive selection suggests that genetic drift may contribute to the speciation of Murinae-associated hantaviruses and that adaptation has a role as well. PMID:22855492

  14. Global patterns of apparent copy number variation in birds revealed by cross-species comparative genomic hybridization.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Benjamin M; Al Mutery, Abdullah; Smith, Deborah; Völker, Martin; Hojjat, Nilofour; Raja, Sannaa; Trim, Steven; Houde, Peter; Boecklen, William J; Griffin, Darren K

    2014-04-01

    There is a growing interest in copy number variation (CNV) and the recognition of its importance in phenotype, disease, adaptation and speciation. CNV data is usually ascertained by array-CGH within-species, but similar inter-species comparisons have also been made in primates, mice and domestic mammals. Here, we conducted a broad appraisal of putative cross-species CNVs in birds, 16 species in all, using the standard array-CGH approach. Using a chicken oligonucleotide microarray, we detected 790 apparent CNVs within 135 unique regions and developed a bioinformatic tool 'CNV Analyser' for analysing and visualising cross-species data sets. We successfully addressed four hypotheses as follows: (a) Cross-species CNVs (compared to chicken) are, as suggested from preliminary evidence, smaller and fewer in number than in mammals; this 'dogma' was rejected in the light of the new evidence. (b) CNVs in birds are likely to have a functional effect through an association with genes; a large proportion of detected regions (70 %) were indeed associated with genes (suggesting functional significance), however, not necessarily more so than in mammals. (c) There are more CNVs in birds with more rearranged karyotypes; this hypothesis was rejected. Indeed, Falco species contained fewer than most with relatively standard (chicken-like) karyotypes. (d) There are more CNVs per megabase on micro-chromosomes than macrochromosomes; this hypothesis was accepted. Indeed, in species with rearranged karyotypes characterised by chromosomal fusions, the fused former microchromosomes still 'behaved' as though they were their microchromosomal ancestors. Gene ontology analysis of CNVRs revealed enrichment in immune response and antigen presentation genes and five CNVRs were perfectly correlated with the unique loss of sexual dichromatism in one Galliformes species.

  15. Interactome of the hepatitis C virus: Literature mining with ANDSystem.

    PubMed

    Saik, Olga V; Ivanisenko, Timofey V; Demenkov, Pavel S; Ivanisenko, Vladimir A

    2016-06-15

    A study of the molecular genetics mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions is of paramount importance in developing drugs against viral diseases. Currently, the literature contains a huge amount of information that describes interactions between HCV and human proteins. In addition, there are many factual databases that contain experimentally verified data on HCV-host interactions. The sources of such data are the original data along with the data manually extracted from the literature. However, the manual analysis of scientific publications is time consuming and, because of this, databases created with such an approach often do not have complete information. One of the most promising methods to provide actualisation and completeness of information is text mining. Here, with the use of a previously developed method by the authors using ANDSystem, an automated extraction of information on the interactions between HCV and human proteins was conducted. As a data source for the text mining approach, PubMed abstracts and full text articles were used. Additionally, external factual databases were analyzed. On the basis of this analysis, a special version of ANDSystem, extended with the HCV interactome, was created. The HCV interactome contains information about the interactions between 969 human and 11 HCV proteins. Among the 969 proteins, 153 'new' proteins were found not previously referred to in any external databases of protein-protein interactions for HCV-host interactions. Thus, the extended ANDSystem possesses a more comprehensive detailing of HCV-host interactions versus other existing databases. It was interesting that HCV proteins more preferably interact with human proteins that were already involved in a large number of protein-protein interactions as well as those associated with many diseases. Among human proteins of the HCV interactome, there were a large number of proteins regulated by microRNAs. It turned out that the results obtained for protein

  16. Human prion protein sequence elements impede cross-species chronic wasting disease transmission

    PubMed Central

    Kurt, Timothy D.; Jiang, Lin; Fernández-Borges, Natalia; Bett, Cyrus; Liu, Jun; Yang, Tom; Spraker, Terry R.; Castilla, Joaquín; Eisenberg, David; Kong, Qingzhong; Sigurdson, Christina J.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal prion disease of North American deer and elk and poses an unclear risk for transmission to humans. Human exposure to CWD occurs through hunting activities and consumption of venison from prion-infected animals. Although the amino acid residues of the prion protein (PrP) that prevent or permit human CWD infection are unknown, NMR-based structural studies suggest that the β2-α2 loop (residues 165–175) may impact species barriers. Here we sought to define PrP sequence determinants that affect CWD transmission to humans. We engineered transgenic mice that express human PrP with four amino acid substitutions that result in expression of PrP with a β2-α2 loop (residues 165–175) that exactly matches that of elk PrP. Compared with transgenic mice expressing unaltered human PrP, mice expressing the human-elk chimeric PrP were highly susceptible to elk and deer CWD prions but were concurrently less susceptible to human Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease prions. A systematic in vitro survey of amino acid differences between humans and cervids identified two additional residues that impacted CWD conversion of human PrP. This work identifies amino acids that constitute a substantial structural barrier for CWD transmission to humans and helps illuminate the molecular requirements for cross-species prion transmission. PMID:25705888

  17. Role of multiple hosts in the cross-species transmission and emergence of a pandemic parvovirus.

    PubMed

    Allison, Andrew B; Harbison, Carole E; Pagan, Israel; Stucker, Karla M; Kaelber, Jason T; Brown, Justin D; Ruder, Mark G; Keel, M Kevin; Dubovi, Edward J; Holmes, Edward C; Parrish, Colin R

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of cross-species virus transmission is critical to anticipating emerging infectious diseases. Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) emerged as a variant of a feline parvovirus when it acquired mutations that allowed binding to the canine transferrin receptor type 1 (TfR). However, CPV-2 was soon replaced by a variant virus (CPV-2a) that differed in antigenicity and receptor binding. Here we show that the emergence of CPV involved an additional host range variant virus that has circulated undetected in raccoons for at least 24 years, with transfers to and from dogs. Raccoon virus capsids showed little binding to the canine TfR, showed little infection of canine cells, and had altered antigenic structures. Remarkably, in capsid protein (VP2) phylogenies, most raccoon viruses fell as evolutionary intermediates between the CPV-2 and CPV-2a strains, suggesting that passage through raccoons assisted in the evolution of CPV-2a. This highlights the potential role of alternative hosts in viral emergence.

  18. Role of Multiple Hosts in the Cross-Species Transmission and Emergence of a Pandemic Parvovirus

    PubMed Central

    Allison, Andrew B.; Harbison, Carole E.; Pagan, Israel; Stucker, Karla M.; Kaelber, Jason T.; Brown, Justin D.; Ruder, Mark G.; Keel, M. Kevin; Dubovi, Edward J.; Holmes, Edward C.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of cross-species virus transmission is critical to anticipating emerging infectious diseases. Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) emerged as a variant of a feline parvovirus when it acquired mutations that allowed binding to the canine transferrin receptor type 1 (TfR). However, CPV-2 was soon replaced by a variant virus (CPV-2a) that differed in antigenicity and receptor binding. Here we show that the emergence of CPV involved an additional host range variant virus that has circulated undetected in raccoons for at least 24 years, with transfers to and from dogs. Raccoon virus capsids showed little binding to the canine TfR, showed little infection of canine cells, and had altered antigenic structures. Remarkably, in capsid protein (VP2) phylogenies, most raccoon viruses fell as evolutionary intermediates between the CPV-2 and CPV-2a strains, suggesting that passage through raccoons assisted in the evolution of CPV-2a. This highlights the potential role of alternative hosts in viral emergence. PMID:22072763

  19. Cross species selection scans identify components of C4 photosynthesis in the grasses.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pu; Studer, Anthony J; Schnable, James C; Kellogg, Elizabeth A; Brutnell, Thomas P

    2017-01-01

    C4 photosynthesis is perhaps one of the best examples of convergent adaptive evolution with over 25 independent origins in the grasses (Poaceae) alone. The availability of high quality grass genome sequences presents new opportunities to explore the mechanisms underlying this complex trait using evolutionary biology-based approaches. In this study, we performed genome-wide cross-species selection scans in C4 lineages to facilitate discovery of C4 genes. The study was enabled by the well conserved collinearity of grass genomes and the recently sequenced genome of a C3 panicoid grass, Dichanthelium oligosanthes This method, in contrast to previous studies, does not rely on any a priori knowledge of the genes that contribute to biochemical or anatomical innovations associated with C4 photosynthesis. We identified a list of 88 candidate genes that include both known and potentially novel components of the C4 pathway. This set includes the carbon shuttle enzymes pyruvate, phosphate dikinase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and NADP malic enzyme as well as several predicted transporter proteins that likely play an essential role in promoting the flux of metabolites between the bundle sheath and mesophyll cells. Importantly, this approach demonstrates the application of fundamental molecular evolution principles to dissect the genetic basis of a complex photosynthetic adaptation in plants. Furthermore, we demonstrate how the output of the selection scans can be combined with expression data to provide additional power to prioritize candidate gene lists and suggest novel opportunities for pathway engineering.

  20. Cross-species association of quail invariant chain with chicken and mouse MHC II molecules.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fangfang; Wu, Chao; Pan, Ling; Xu, Fazhi; Liu, Xuelan; Yu, Weiyi

    2013-05-01

    There are different degrees of similarity among vertebrate invariant chains (Ii). The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between quail and other vertebrate Ii MHC class II molecules. The two quail Ii isoforms (qIi-1, qIi-2) were cloned by RACE, and qRT-PCR analysis of different organs showed that their expression levels were positively correlated with MHC II gene (B-LB) transcription levels. Confocal microscopy indicated that quail full-length Ii co-localized with MHC II of quail, chicken or mouse in 293FT cells co-transfected with both genes. Immunoprecipitation and western blotting further indicated that these aggregates corresponded to polymers of Ii and MHC class II molecules. This cross-species molecular association of quail Ii with chicken and mouse MHC II suggests that Ii molecules have a high structural and functional similarity and may thereby be used as potential immune carriers across species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cross-species transcriptional network analysis defines shared inflammatory responses in murine and human lupus nephritis.

    PubMed

    Berthier, Celine C; Bethunaickan, Ramalingam; Gonzalez-Rivera, Tania; Nair, Viji; Ramanujam, Meera; Zhang, Weijia; Bottinger, Erwin P; Segerer, Stephan; Lindenmeyer, Maja; Cohen, Clemens D; Davidson, Anne; Kretzler, Matthias

    2012-07-15

    Lupus nephritis (LN) is a serious manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus. Therapeutic studies in mouse LN models do not always predict outcomes of human therapeutic trials, raising concerns about the human relevance of these preclinical models. In this study, we used an unbiased transcriptional network approach to define, in molecular terms, similarities and differences among three lupus models and human LN. Genome-wide gene-expression networks were generated using natural language processing and automated promoter analysis and compared across species via suboptimal graph matching. The three murine models and human LN share both common and unique features. The 20 commonly shared network nodes reflect the key pathologic processes of immune cell infiltration/activation, endothelial cell activation/injury, and tissue remodeling/fibrosis, with macrophage/dendritic cell activation as a dominant cross-species shared transcriptional pathway. The unique nodes reflect differences in numbers and types of infiltrating cells and degree of remodeling among the three mouse strains. To define mononuclear phagocyte-derived pathways in human LN, gene sets activated in isolated NZB/W renal mononuclear cells were compared with human LN kidney profiles. A tissue compartment-specific macrophage-activation pattern was seen, with NF-κB1 and PPARγ as major regulatory nodes in the tubulointerstitial and glomerular networks, respectively. Our study defines which pathologic processes in murine models of LN recapitulate the key transcriptional processes active in human LN and suggests that there are functional differences between mononuclear phagocytes infiltrating different renal microenvironments.

  2. Human prion protein sequence elements impede cross-species chronic wasting disease transmission.

    PubMed

    Kurt, Timothy D; Jiang, Lin; Fernández-Borges, Natalia; Bett, Cyrus; Liu, Jun; Yang, Tom; Spraker, Terry R; Castilla, Joaquín; Eisenberg, David; Kong, Qingzhong; Sigurdson, Christina J

    2015-04-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal prion disease of North American deer and elk and poses an unclear risk for transmission to humans. Human exposure to CWD occurs through hunting activities and consumption of venison from prion-infected animals. Although the amino acid residues of the prion protein (PrP) that prevent or permit human CWD infection are unknown, NMR-based structural studies suggest that the β2-α2 loop (residues 165-175) may impact species barriers. Here we sought to define PrP sequence determinants that affect CWD transmission to humans. We engineered transgenic mice that express human PrP with four amino acid substitutions that result in expression of PrP with a β2-α2 loop (residues 165-175) that exactly matches that of elk PrP. Compared with transgenic mice expressing unaltered human PrP, mice expressing the human-elk chimeric PrP were highly susceptible to elk and deer CWD prions but were concurrently less susceptible to human Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease prions. A systematic in vitro survey of amino acid differences between humans and cervids identified two additional residues that impacted CWD conversion of human PrP. This work identifies amino acids that constitute a substantial structural barrier for CWD transmission to humans and helps illuminate the molecular requirements for cross-species prion transmission.

  3. A predicted protein interactome identifies conserved global networks and disease resistance subnetworks in maize

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An interactome is the genome-wide roadmap of protein-protein interactions that occur within an organism. Interactomes for humans, the fruit fly, and now plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa have been generated using high throughput experimental methods. It is possible to use these ...

  4. Crossing species' range borders: interspecies gene exchange mediated by hybridogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Schmeller, Dirk S; Seitz, Alfred; Crivelli, Alain; Veith, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The distribution of species is limited by their ability to adapt to local environments. For adaptation by selection, genetic variability is crucial. As founder effects reduce genetic variability, extension of species' range borders is usually slow due to the reduced probability of successful colonization. However, the range limit might be extended by incorporating locally adapted genes. In western Palaearctic waterfrogs, interspecies hybrids show hemiclonal gametogenesis, are fertile and reproductively mimic one parental species. Genetic analysis, using allozyme loci, shows that they mediate gene exchange between the two parental species. Selection analysis provides evidence for local adaptation of single locus genotypes. This suggests that hybridogenesis presents a process which increases the number of neoform parental genotypes, exposing these to selection, and thereby revealing locally adapted genotypes which are essential for species range expansion. PMID:16048778

  5. Simultaneously reconstructing viral cross-species transmission history and identifying the underlying constraints

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Nuno Rodrigues; Suchard, Marc A.; Rambaut, Andrew; Streicker, Daniel G.; Lemey, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The factors that determine the origin and fate of cross-species transmission events remain unclear for the majority of human pathogens, despite being central for the development of predictive models and assessing the efficacy of prevention strategies. Here, we describe a flexible Bayesian statistical framework to reconstruct virus transmission between different host species based on viral gene sequences, while simultaneously testing and estimating the contribution of several potential predictors of cross-species transmission. Specifically, we use a generalized linear model extension of phylogenetic diffusion to perform Bayesian model averaging over candidate predictors. By further extending this model with branch partitioning, we allow for distinct host transition processes on external and internal branches, thus discriminating between recent cross-species transmissions, many of which are likely to result in dead-end infections, and host shifts that reflect successful onwards transmission in the new host species. Our approach corroborates genetic distance between hosts as a key determinant of both host shifts and cross-species transmissions of rabies virus in North American bats. Furthermore, our results indicate that geographical range overlap is a modest predictor for cross-species transmission, but not for host shifts. Although our evolutionary framework focused on the multi-host reservoir dynamics of bat rabies virus, it is applicable to other pathogens and to other discrete state transition processes. PMID:23382420

  6. Characterization of a Protein Interactome by Co-Immunoprecipitation and Shotgun Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Maccarrone, Giuseppina; Bonfiglio, Juan Jose; Silberstein, Susana; Turck, Christoph W; Martins-de-Souza, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Identifying the partners of a given protein (the interactome) may provide leads about the protein's function and the molecular mechanisms in which it is involved. One of the alternative strategies used to characterize protein interactomes consists of co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) followed by shotgun mass spectrometry. This enables the isolation and identification of a protein target in its native state and its interactome from cells or tissue lysates under physiological conditions. In this chapter, we describe a co-IP protocol for interactome studies that uses an antibody against a protein of interest bound to protein A/G plus agarose beads to isolate a protein complex. The interacting proteins may be further fractionated by SDS-PAGE, followed by in-gel tryptic digestion and nano liquid chromatography high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (nLC ESI-MS/MS) for identification purposes. The computational tools, strategy for protein identification, and use of interactome databases also will be described.

  7. Host phylogeny constrains cross-species emergence and establishment of rabies virus in bats.

    PubMed

    Streicker, Daniel G; Turmelle, Amy S; Vonhof, Maarten J; Kuzmin, Ivan V; McCracken, Gary F; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2010-08-06

    For RNA viruses, rapid viral evolution and the biological similarity of closely related host species have been proposed as key determinants of the occurrence and long-term outcome of cross-species transmission. Using a data set of hundreds of rabies viruses sampled from 23 North American bat species, we present a general framework to quantify per capita rates of cross-species transmission and reconstruct historical patterns of viral establishment in new host species using molecular sequence data. These estimates demonstrate diminishing frequencies of both cross-species transmission and host shifts with increasing phylogenetic distance between bat species. Evolutionary constraints on viral host range indicate that host species barriers may trump the intrinsic mutability of RNA viruses in determining the fate of emerging host-virus interactions.

  8. Cross-Species Transmission and Differential Fate of an Endogenous Retrovirus in Three Mammal Lineages.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Xiaoyu; Feschotte, Cédric

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) arise from retroviruses chromosomally integrated in the host germline. ERVs are common in vertebrate genomes and provide a valuable fossil record of past retroviral infections to investigate the biology and evolution of retroviruses over a deep time scale, including cross-species transmission events. Here we took advantage of a catalog of ERVs we recently produced for the bat Myotis lucifugus to seek evidence for infiltration of these retroviruses in other mammalian species (>100) currently represented in the genome sequence database. We provide multiple lines of evidence for the cross-ordinal transmission of a gammaretrovirus endogenized independently in the lineages of vespertilionid bats, felid cats and pangolin ~13-25 million years ago. Following its initial introduction, the ERV amplified extensively in parallel in both bat and cat lineages, generating hundreds of species-specific insertions throughout evolution. However, despite being derived from the same viral species, phylogenetic and selection analyses suggest that the ERV experienced different amplification dynamics in the two mammalian lineages. In the cat lineage, the ERV appears to have expanded primarily by retrotransposition of a single proviral progenitor that lost infectious capacity shortly after endogenization. In the bat lineage, the ERV followed a more complex path of germline invasion characterized by both retrotransposition and multiple infection events. The results also suggest that some of the bat ERVs have maintained infectious capacity for extended period of time and may be still infectious today. This study provides one of the most rigorously documented cases of cross-ordinal transmission of a mammalian retrovirus. It also illustrates how the same retrovirus species has transitioned multiple times from an infectious pathogen to a genomic parasite (i.e. retrotransposon), yet experiencing different invasion dynamics in different mammalian hosts.

  9. Cross-Species Transmission and Differential Fate of an Endogenous Retrovirus in Three Mammal Lineages

    PubMed Central

    Zhuo, Xiaoyu; Feschotte, Cédric

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) arise from retroviruses chromosomally integrated in the host germline. ERVs are common in vertebrate genomes and provide a valuable fossil record of past retroviral infections to investigate the biology and evolution of retroviruses over a deep time scale, including cross-species transmission events. Here we took advantage of a catalog of ERVs we recently produced for the bat Myotis lucifugus to seek evidence for infiltration of these retroviruses in other mammalian species (>100) currently represented in the genome sequence database. We provide multiple lines of evidence for the cross-ordinal transmission of a gammaretrovirus endogenized independently in the lineages of vespertilionid bats, felid cats and pangolin ~13–25 million years ago. Following its initial introduction, the ERV amplified extensively in parallel in both bat and cat lineages, generating hundreds of species-specific insertions throughout evolution. However, despite being derived from the same viral species, phylogenetic and selection analyses suggest that the ERV experienced different amplification dynamics in the two mammalian lineages. In the cat lineage, the ERV appears to have expanded primarily by retrotransposition of a single proviral progenitor that lost infectious capacity shortly after endogenization. In the bat lineage, the ERV followed a more complex path of germline invasion characterized by both retrotransposition and multiple infection events. The results also suggest that some of the bat ERVs have maintained infectious capacity for extended period of time and may be still infectious today. This study provides one of the most rigorously documented cases of cross-ordinal transmission of a mammalian retrovirus. It also illustrates how the same retrovirus species has transitioned multiple times from an infectious pathogen to a genomic parasite (i.e. retrotransposon), yet experiencing different invasion dynamics in different mammalian hosts. PMID

  10. Ultra-deep sequencing of intra-host rabies virus populations during cross-species transmission.

    PubMed

    Borucki, Monica K; Chen-Harris, Haiyin; Lao, Victoria; Vanier, Gilda; Wadford, Debra A; Messenger, Sharon; Allen, Jonathan E

    2013-11-01

    One of the hurdles to understanding the role of viral quasispecies in RNA virus cross-species transmission (CST) events is the need to analyze a densely sampled outbreak using deep sequencing in order to measure the amount of mutation occurring on a small time scale. In 2009, the California Department of Public Health reported a dramatic increase (350) in the number of gray foxes infected with a rabies virus variant for which striped skunks serve as a reservoir host in Humboldt County. To better understand the evolution of rabies, deep-sequencing was applied to 40 unpassaged rabies virus samples from the Humboldt outbreak. For each sample, approximately 11 kb of the 12 kb genome was amplified and sequenced using the Illumina platform. Average coverage was 17,448 and this allowed characterization of the rabies virus population present in each sample at unprecedented depths. Phylogenetic analysis of the consensus sequence data demonstrated that samples clustered according to date (1995 vs. 2009) and geographic location (northern vs. southern). A single amino acid change in the G protein distinguished a subset of northern foxes from a haplotype present in both foxes and skunks, suggesting this mutation may have played a role in the observed increased transmission among foxes in this region. Deep-sequencing data indicated that many genetic changes associated with the CST event occurred prior to 2009 since several nonsynonymous mutations that were present in the consensus sequences of skunk and fox rabies samples obtained from 20032010 were present at the sub-consensus level (as rare variants in the viral population) in skunk and fox samples from 1995. These results suggest that analysis of rare variants within a viral population may yield clues to ancestral genomes and identify rare variants that have the potential to be selected for if environment conditions change.

  11. CROPPER: a metagene creator resource for cross-platform and cross-species compendium studies

    PubMed Central

    Paananen, Jussi; Storvik, Markus; Wong, Garry

    2006-01-01

    Background Current genomic research methods provide researchers with enormous amounts of data. Combining data from different high-throughput research technologies commonly available in biological databases can lead to novel findings and increase research efficiency. However, combining data from different heterogeneous sources is often a very arduous task. These sources can be different microarray technology platforms, genomic databases, or experiments performed on various species. Our aim was to develop a software program that could facilitate the combining of data from heterogeneous sources, and thus allow researchers to perform genomic cross-platform/cross-species studies and to use existing experimental data for compendium studies. Results We have developed a web-based software resource, called CROPPER that uses the latest genomic information concerning different data identifiers and orthologous genes from the Ensembl database. CROPPER can be used to combine genomic data from different heterogeneous sources, allowing researchers to perform cross-platform/cross-species compendium studies without the need for complex computational tools or the requirement of setting up one's own in-house database. We also present an example of a simple cross-platform/cross-species compendium study based on publicly available Parkinson's disease data derived from different sources. Conclusion CROPPER is a user-friendly and freely available web-based software resource that can be successfully used for cross-species/cross-platform compendium studies. PMID:16995941

  12. Ecological dynamics of influenza A viruses: cross-species transmission and global migration

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Hongguang; Jin, Yuan; Hu, Mingda; Zhou, Jing; Song, Ting; Huang, Zhisong; Li, Beiping; Li, Kaiwu; Zhou, Wei; Dai, Hongmei; Shi, Weifeng; Yue, Junjie; Liang, Long

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive study of cross-species transmission and inter-regional migration would provide insights into the global ecology of influenza A viruses (IAVs). To this end, we assembled 17,241 non-redundant IAV whole-genome sequences with complete epidemiological information. We hierarchically divided the movements of IAVs into the cross-species transmission in each region and the inter-regional migration driven by each host species. We then systematically identified the potential cross-species transmission and inter-regional migration events. Cross-species transmission networks were obtained for each gene segment of the IAVs. Waterfowl, domestic birds and swine showed higher degrees of connection than did other species in all of the transmission networks. East Asia and Southeast Asia were hot regions for avian-mammal transmissions. Swine and migratory birds were the dominant species for global virus delivery. The importance of swine was reemphasized because it has not only provided an environment for adaptive evolution during the avian-human transmission of IAVs (as incubators) but also served as a key species for the global dissemination of the viruses (as carriers). Therefore, monitoring the global live trade of swine and survey of migratory birds along flyways would be beneficial for the prevention and control of IAVs. PMID:27827462

  13. Cross-species gene-family fluctuations reveal the dynamics of horizontal transfers.

    PubMed

    Grilli, Jacopo; Romano, Mariacristina; Bassetti, Federico; Cosentino Lagomarsino, Marco

    2014-06-01

    Prokaryotes vary their protein repertoire mainly through horizontal transfer and gene loss. To elucidate the links between these processes and the cross-species gene-family statistics, we perform a large-scale data analysis of the cross-species variability of gene-family abundance (the number of members of the family found on a given genome). We find that abundance fluctuations are related to the rate of horizontal transfers. This is rationalized by a minimal theoretical model, which predicts this link. The families that are not captured by the model show abundance profiles that are markedly peaked around a mean value, possibly because of specific abundance selection. Based on these results, we define an abundance variability index that captures a family's evolutionary behavior (and thus some of its relevant functional properties) purely based on its cross-species abundance fluctuations. Analysis and model, combined, show a quantitative link between cross-species family abundance statistics and horizontal transfer dynamics, which can be used to analyze genome 'flux'. Groups of families with different values of the abundance variability index correspond to genome sub-parts having different plasticity in terms of the level of horizontal exchange allowed by natural selection. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  14. Cross-species gene-family fluctuations reveal the dynamics of horizontal transfers

    PubMed Central

    Grilli, Jacopo; Romano, Mariacristina; Bassetti, Federico; Cosentino Lagomarsino, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Prokaryotes vary their protein repertoire mainly through horizontal transfer and gene loss. To elucidate the links between these processes and the cross-species gene-family statistics, we perform a large-scale data analysis of the cross-species variability of gene-family abundance (the number of members of the family found on a given genome). We find that abundance fluctuations are related to the rate of horizontal transfers. This is rationalized by a minimal theoretical model, which predicts this link. The families that are not captured by the model show abundance profiles that are markedly peaked around a mean value, possibly because of specific abundance selection. Based on these results, we define an abundance variability index that captures a family's evolutionary behavior (and thus some of its relevant functional properties) purely based on its cross-species abundance fluctuations. Analysis and model, combined, show a quantitative link between cross-species family abundance statistics and horizontal transfer dynamics, which can be used to analyze genome ‘flux’. Groups of families with different values of the abundance variability index correspond to genome sub-parts having different plasticity in terms of the level of horizontal exchange allowed by natural selection. PMID:24829449

  15. EMERGING MOLECULAR AND COMPUTATIONAL APPROACHES FOR CROSS-SPECIES EXTRAPLATIONS: A WORKSHOP SUMMARY REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Benson, W.H., R.T. Di Giulio, J.C. Cook, J. Freedman, R.L. Malek, C. Thompson and D. Versteeg. In press. Emerging Molecular and Computational Approaches for Cross-Species Extrapolations: A Workshop Summary Report (Abstract). To be presented at the SETAC Fourth World Congress, 14-...

  16. EMERGING MOLECULAR AND COMPUTATIONAL APPROACHES FOR CROSS-SPECIES EXTRAPLATIONS: A WORKSHOP SUMMARY REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Benson, W.H., R.T. Di Giulio, J.C. Cook, J. Freedman, R.L. Malek, C. Thompson and D. Versteeg. In press. Emerging Molecular and Computational Approaches for Cross-Species Extrapolations: A Workshop Summary Report (Abstract). To be presented at the SETAC Fourth World Congress, 14-...

  17. Identification of Simple Sequence Repeat Biomarkers through Cross-Species Comparison in a Tag Cloud Representation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are not only applied as genetic markers in evolutionary studies but they also play an important role in gene regulatory activities. Efficient identification of conserved and exclusive SSRs through cross-species comparison is helpful for understanding the evolutionary mechanisms and associations between specific gene groups and SSR motifs. In this paper, we developed an online cross-species comparative system and integrated it with a tag cloud visualization technique for identifying potential SSR biomarkers within fourteen frequently used model species. Ultraconserved or exclusive SSRs among cross-species orthologous genes could be effectively retrieved and displayed through a friendly interface design. Four different types of testing cases were applied to demonstrate and verify the retrieved SSR biomarker candidates. Through statistical analysis and enhanced tag cloud representation on defined functional related genes and cross-species clusters, the proposed system can correctly represent the patterns, loci, colors, and sizes of identified SSRs in accordance with gene functions, pattern qualities, and conserved characteristics among species. PMID:24800246

  18. Identifying candidate oocyte reprogramming factors using cross-species global transcriptional analysis.

    PubMed

    Awe, Jason P; Byrne, James A

    2013-04-01

    There is mounting evidence to suggest that the epigenetic reprogramming capacity of the oocyte is superior to that of the current factor-based reprogramming approaches and that some factor-reprogrammed induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) retain a degree of epigenetic memory that can influence differentiation capacity and may be linked to the observed expression of immunogenicity genes in iPSC derivatives. One hypothesis for this differential reprogramming capacity is the "chromatin loosening/enhanced reprogramming" concept, as previously described by John Gurdon and Ian Wilmut, as well as others, which postulates that the oocyte possesses factors that loosen the somatic cell chromatin structure, providing the epigenetic and transcriptional regulatory factors more ready access to repressed genes and thereby significantly increasing epigenetic reprogramming. However, to empirically test this hypothesis a list of candidate oocyte reprogramming factors (CORFs) must be ascertained that are significantly expressed in metaphase II oocytes. Previous studies have focused on intraspecies or cross-species transcriptional analysis of up to two different species of oocytes. In this study, we have identified eight CORFs (ARID2, ASF1A, ASF1B, DPPA3, ING3, MSL3, H1FOO, and KDM6B) based on unbiased global transcriptional analysis of oocytes from three different species (human, rhesus monkey, and mouse) that both demonstrate significant (p<0.05, FC>3) expression in oocytes of all three species and have well-established roles in loosening/opening up chromatin structure. We also identified an additional 15 CORFs that fit within our proposed "chromatin opening/fate transformative" (COFT) model. These CORFs may be able to augment Shinya Yamanaka's previously identified reprogramming factors (OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and cMYC) and potentially facilitate the removal of epigenetic memory in iPSCs and/or reduce the expression of immunogenicity genes in iPSC derivatives, and may have

  19. Defining a Modular Signalling Network from the Fly Interactome

    PubMed Central

    Baudot, Anaïs; Angelelli, Jean-Baptiste; Guénoche, Alain; Jacq, Bernard; Brun, Christine

    2008-01-01

    Background Signalling pathways relay information by transmitting signals from cell surface receptors to intracellular effectors that eventually activate the transcription of target genes. Since signalling pathways involve several types of molecular interactions including protein-protein interactions, we postulated that investigating their organization in the context of the global protein-protein interaction network could provide a new integrated view of signalling mechanisms. Results Using a graph-theory based method to analyse the fly protein-protein interaction network, we found that each signalling pathway is organized in two to three different signalling modules. These modules contain canonical proteins of the signalling pathways, known regulators as well as other proteins thereby predicted to participate to the signalling mechanisms. Connections between the signalling modules are prominent as compared to the other network's modules and interactions within and between signalling modules are among the more central routes of the interaction network. Conclusion Altogether, these modules form an interactome sub-network devoted to signalling with particular topological properties: modularity, density and centrality. This finding reflects the integration of the signalling system into cell functioning and its important role connecting and coordinating different biological processes at the level of the interactome. PMID:18489752

  20. Evolution of protein interactions: from interactomes to interfaces.

    PubMed

    Andreani, Jessica; Guerois, Raphael

    2014-07-15

    Protein-protein interactions lie at the heart of most cellular processes. Many experimental and computational studies aim to deepen our understanding of these interactions and improve our capacity to predict them. In this respect, the evolutionary perspective is most interesting, since the preservation of structure and function puts constraints on the evolution of proteins and their interactions. However, uncovering these constraints remains a challenge, and the description and detection of evolutionary signals in protein-protein interactions is currently a very active field of research. Here, we review recent works dissecting the mechanisms of protein-protein interaction evolution and exploring how to use evolutionary information to predict interactions, both at the global level of the interactome and at the detailed level of protein-protein interfaces. We first present to what extent protein-protein interactions are found to be conserved within interactomes and which properties can influence their conservation. We then discuss the evolutionary and co-evolutionary pressures applied on protein-protein interfaces. Finally, we describe how the computational prediction of interfaces can benefit from evolutionary inputs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. HIV–host interactome revealed directly from infected cells

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yang; Jacobs, Erica Y.; Greco, Todd M.; Mohammed, Kevin D.; Tong, Tommy; Keegan, Sarah; Binley, James M.; Cristea, Ileana M.; Fenyö, David; Rout, Michael P.; Chait, Brian T.; Muesing, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Although genetically compact, HIV-1 commandeers vast arrays of cellular machinery to sustain and protect it during cycles of viral outgrowth. Transposon-mediated saturation linker scanning mutagenesis was used to isolate fully replication-competent viruses harbouring a potent foreign epitope tag. Using these viral isolates, we performed differential isotopic labelling and affinity-capture mass spectrometric analyses on samples obtained from cultures of human lymphocytes to classify the vicinal interactomes of the viral Env and Vif proteins as they occur during natural infection. Importantly, interacting proteins were recovered without bias, regardless of their potential for positive, negative or neutral impact on viral replication. We identified specific host associations made with trimerized Env during its biosynthesis, at virological synapses, with innate immune effectors (such as HLA-E) and with certain cellular signalling pathways (for example, Notch1). We also defined Vif associations with host proteins involved in the control of nuclear transcription and nucleoside biosynthesis as well as those interacting stably or transiently with the cytoplasmic protein degradation apparatus. Our approach is broadly applicable to elucidating pathogen–host interactomes, providing high-certainty identification of interactors by their direct access during cycling infection. Understanding the pathophysiological consequences of these associations is likely to provide strategic targets for antiviral intervention. PMID:27375898

  2. Identification of the human testis protein phosphatase 1 interactome.

    PubMed

    Fardilha, Margarida; Esteves, Sara L C; Korrodi-Gregório, Luís; Vintém, Ana Paula; Domingues, Sara C; Rebelo, Sandra; Morrice, Nick; Cohen, Patricia T W; da Cruz e Silva, Odete A B; da Cruz e Silva, Edgar F

    2011-11-15

    Protein phosphorylation is a critical regulatory mechanism in cellular signalling. To this end, PP1 is a major eukaryotic serine/threonine-specific phosphatase whose cellular functions, in turn, depend on complexes it forms with PP1 interacting proteins-PIPs. The importance of the testis/sperm-enriched variant, PP1γ2, in sperm motility and spermatogenesis has previously been shown. Given the key role of PIPs, it is imperative to identify the physiologically relevant PIPs in testis and sperm. Hence, we performed Yeast Two-Hybrid screens of a human testis cDNA library using as baits the different PP1 isoforms and also a proteomic approach aimed at identifying PP1γ2 binding proteins. To the best of our knowledge this is the largest data set of the human testis PP1 interactome. We report the identification of 77 proteins in human testis and 7 proteins in human sperm that bind PP1. The data obtained increased the known PP1 interactome by reporting 72 novel interactions. Confirmation of the interaction of PP1 with 5 different proteins was also further validated by co-immunoprecipitation or protein overlays. The data here presented provides important insights towards the function of these proteins and opens new possibilities for future research. In fact, such diversity in PP1 regulators makes them excellent targets for pharmacological intervention.

  3. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Cross-Species Transmission: Implications for Emergence of New Lentiviral Infections.

    PubMed

    Lee, Justin; Malmberg, Jennifer L; Wood, Britta A; Hladky, Sahaja; Troyer, Ryan; Roelke, Melody; Cunningham, Mark; McBride, Roy; Vickers, Winston; Boyce, Walter; Boydston, Erin; Serieys, Laurel; Riley, Seth; Crooks, Kevin; VandeWoude, Sue

    2017-03-01

    Owing to a complex history of host-parasite coevolution, lentiviruses exhibit a high degree of species specificity. Given the well-documented viral archeology of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) emergence following human exposures to simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), an understanding of processes that promote successful cross-species lentiviral transmissions is highly relevant. We previously reported natural cross-species transmission of a subtype of feline immunodeficiency virus, puma lentivirus A (PLVA), between bobcats (Lynx rufus) and mountain lions (Puma concolor) for a small number of animals in California and Florida. In this study, we investigate host-specific selection pressures, within-host viral fitness, and inter- versus intraspecies transmission patterns among a larger collection of PLV isolates from free-ranging bobcats and mountain lions. Analyses of proviral and viral RNA levels demonstrate that PLVA fitness is severely restricted in mountain lions compared to that in bobcats. We document evidence of diversifying selection in three of six PLVA genomes from mountain lions, but we did not detect selection among 20 PLVA isolates from bobcats. These findings support the hypothesis that PLVA is a bobcat-adapted virus which is less fit in mountain lions and under intense selection pressure in the novel host. Ancestral reconstruction of transmission events reveals that intraspecific PLVA transmission has occurred among panthers (Puma concolor coryi) in Florida following the initial cross-species infection from bobcats. In contrast, interspecific transmission from bobcats to mountain lions predominates in California. These findings document outcomes of cross-species lentiviral transmission events among felids that compare to the emergence of HIV from nonhuman primates.IMPORTANCE Cross-species transmission episodes can be singular, dead-end events or can result in viral replication and spread in the new species. The factors that determine which outcome

  4. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Cross-Species Transmission: Implications for Emergence of New Lentiviral Infections

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Justin; Malmberg, Jennifer L.; Wood, Britta A.; Hladky, Sahaja; Troyer, Ryan; Roelke, Melody; Cunningham, Mark; McBride, Roy; Vickers, Winston; Boyce, Walter; Boydston, Erin; Serieys, Laurel; Riley, Seth; Crooks, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Owing to a complex history of host-parasite coevolution, lentiviruses exhibit a high degree of species specificity. Given the well-documented viral archeology of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) emergence following human exposures to simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), an understanding of processes that promote successful cross-species lentiviral transmissions is highly relevant. We previously reported natural cross-species transmission of a subtype of feline immunodeficiency virus, puma lentivirus A (PLVA), between bobcats (Lynx rufus) and mountain lions (Puma concolor) for a small number of animals in California and Florida. In this study, we investigate host-specific selection pressures, within-host viral fitness, and inter- versus intraspecies transmission patterns among a larger collection of PLV isolates from free-ranging bobcats and mountain lions. Analyses of proviral and viral RNA levels demonstrate that PLVA fitness is severely restricted in mountain lions compared to that in bobcats. We document evidence of diversifying selection in three of six PLVA genomes from mountain lions, but we did not detect selection among 20 PLVA isolates from bobcats. These findings support the hypothesis that PLVA is a bobcat-adapted virus which is less fit in mountain lions and under intense selection pressure in the novel host. Ancestral reconstruction of transmission events reveals that intraspecific PLVA transmission has occurred among panthers (Puma concolor coryi) in Florida following the initial cross-species infection from bobcats. In contrast, interspecific transmission from bobcats to mountain lions predominates in California. These findings document outcomes of cross-species lentiviral transmission events among felids that compare to the emergence of HIV from nonhuman primates. IMPORTANCE Cross-species transmission episodes can be singular, dead-end events or can result in viral replication and spread in the new species. The factors that determine

  5. Feline immunodeficiency virus cross-species transmission: Implications for emergence of new lentiviral infections

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Justin; Malmberg, Jennifer L.; Wood, Britta A.; Hladky, Sahaja; Troyer, Ryan; Roelke, Melody; Cunningham, Mark W.; McBride, Roy; Vickers, Winston; Boyce, Walter; Boydston, Erin E.; Serieys, Laurel E.K.; Riley, Seth P D; Crooks, Kevin R.; VandeWoude, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Owing to a complex history of host-parasite coevolution, lentiviruses exhibit a high degree of species specificity. Given the well-documented viral archeology of HIV emergence following human exposures to SIV, understanding processes that promote successful cross-species lentiviral transmissions is highly relevant. We have previously reported natural cross-species transmission of a subtype of feline immunodeficiency virus, puma lentivirus A (PLVA), between bobcats (Lynx rufus) and mountain lions (Puma concolor) in a small number of animals in California and Florida. In this study we investigate host-specific selection pressures, within-host viral fitness, and inter- vs. intra-species transmission patterns among a larger collection of PLV isolates from free-ranging bobcats and mountain lions. Analysis of proviral and viral RNA levels demonstrates that PLVA fitness is severely restricted in mountain lions compared to bobcats. We document evidence of diversifying selection in three of six PLVA genomes from mountain lions, but did not detect selection among twenty PLVA isolates from bobcats. These findings support that PLVA is a bobcat-adapted virus, which is less fit in mountain lions and under intense selection pressure in the novel host. Ancestral reconstruction of transmission events reveals intraspecific PLVA transmission has occurred among panthers (Puma concolor coryi) in Florida following initial cross-species infection from bobcats. In contrast, interspecific transmission from bobcats to mountain lions predominates in California. These findings document outcomes of cross-species lentiviral transmission events among felids that compare to emergence of HIV from nonhuman primates.IMPORTANCE Cross-species transmission episodes can be singular, dead-end events or can result in viral replication and spread in the new species. The factors that determine which outcome will occur are complex, and the risk of new virus emergence is therefore difficult to predict. Here

  6. Bacterial interactomes: Interacting protein partners share similar function and are validated in independent assays more frequently than previously reported.

    DOE PAGES

    Shatsky, Maxim; Allen, Simon; Gold, Barbara; ...

    2016-05-01

    Numerous affinity purification – mass-spectrometry (AP-MS) and yeast two hybrid (Y2H) screens have each defined thousands of pairwise protein-protein interactions (PPIs), most between functionally unrelated proteins. The accuracy of these networks, however, is under debate. Here we present an AP-MS survey of the bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris together with a critical reanalysis of nine published bacterial Y2H and AP-MS screens. We have identified 459 high confidence PPIs from D. vulgaris and 391 from Escherichia coli. Compared to the nine published interactomes, our two networks are smaller; are much less highly connected; have significantly lower false discovery rates; and are much moremore » enriched in protein pairs that are encoded in the same operon, have similar functions, and are reproducibly detected in other physical interaction assays. Lastly, our work establishes more stringent benchmarks for the properties of protein interactomes and suggests that bona fide PPIs much more frequently involve protein partners that are annotated with similar functions or that can be validated in independent assays than earlier studies suggested.« less

  7. Bacterial interactomes: Interacting protein partners share similar function and are validated in independent assays more frequently than previously reported.

    SciTech Connect

    Shatsky, Maxim; Allen, Simon; Gold, Barbara; Liu, Nancy L.; Juba, Thomas R.; Elias, Dwayne A; Reveco, Sonia A.; Prathapam, Ramadevi; He, Jennifer; Yang, Wenhong; Szakal, Evelin D.; Liu, Haichuan; Singer, Mary E.; Geller, Jil T.; Lam, Bonita R.; Saini, Avneesh; Trotter, Valentine V.; Hall, Steven C.; Fisher, Susan J.; Brenner, Steven E.; Chhabra, Swapnil; Hazen, Terry C.; Wall, Judy D.; Witkowska, Ewa; Biggin, Mark D.; Chandonia, John-Marc; Butland, Gareth

    2016-05-01

    Numerous affinity purification – mass-spectrometry (AP-MS) and yeast two hybrid (Y2H) screens have each defined thousands of pairwise protein-protein interactions (PPIs), most between functionally unrelated proteins. The accuracy of these networks, however, is under debate. Here we present an AP-MS survey of the bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris together with a critical reanalysis of nine published bacterial Y2H and AP-MS screens. We have identified 459 high confidence PPIs from D. vulgaris and 391 from Escherichia coli. Compared to the nine published interactomes, our two networks are smaller; are much less highly connected; have significantly lower false discovery rates; and are much more enriched in protein pairs that are encoded in the same operon, have similar functions, and are reproducibly detected in other physical interaction assays. Lastly, our work establishes more stringent benchmarks for the properties of protein interactomes and suggests that bona fide PPIs much more frequently involve protein partners that are annotated with similar functions or that can be validated in independent assays than earlier studies suggested.

  8. Bacterial interactomes: Interacting protein partners share similar function and are validated in independent assays more frequently than previously reported.

    SciTech Connect

    Shatsky, Maxim; Allen, Simon; Gold, Barbara; Liu, Nancy L.; Juba, Thomas R.; Elias, Dwayne A; Reveco, Sonia A.; Prathapam, Ramadevi; He, Jennifer; Yang, Wenhong; Szakal, Evelin D.; Liu, Haichuan; Singer, Mary E.; Geller, Jil T.; Lam, Bonita R.; Saini, Avneesh; Trotter, Valentine V.; Hall, Steven C.; Fisher, Susan J.; Brenner, Steven E.; Chhabra, Swapnil; Hazen, Terry C.; Wall, Judy D.; Witkowska, Ewa; Biggin, Mark D.; Chandonia, John-Marc; Butland, Gareth

    2016-05-01

    Numerous affinity purification – mass-spectrometry (AP-MS) and yeast two hybrid (Y2H) screens have each defined thousands of pairwise protein-protein interactions (PPIs), most between functionally unrelated proteins. The accuracy of these networks, however, is under debate. Here we present an AP-MS survey of the bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris together with a critical reanalysis of nine published bacterial Y2H and AP-MS screens. We have identified 459 high confidence PPIs from D. vulgaris and 391 from Escherichia coli. Compared to the nine published interactomes, our two networks are smaller; are much less highly connected; have significantly lower false discovery rates; and are much more enriched in protein pairs that are encoded in the same operon, have similar functions, and are reproducibly detected in other physical interaction assays. Lastly, our work establishes more stringent benchmarks for the properties of protein interactomes and suggests that bona fide PPIs much more frequently involve protein partners that are annotated with similar functions or that can be validated in independent assays than earlier studies suggested.

  9. Functional proteomic and interactome analysis of proteins associated with beef tenderness in angus cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Beef is a source of high quality protein for the human population, and beef tenderness has significant influence on beef palatability, consumer expectation and industry profitability. To further elucidate the factors affecting beef tenderness, functional proteomics and bioinformatics interactome ana...

  10. Comparative influenza protein interactomes identify the role of plakophilin 2 in virus restriction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lingyan; Fu, Bishi; Li, Wenjun; Patil, Girish; Liu, Lin; Dorf, Martin E.; Li, Shitao

    2017-01-01

    Cellular protein interaction networks are integral to host defence and immune signalling pathways, which are often hijacked by viruses via protein interactions. However, the comparative virus–host protein interaction networks and how these networks control host immunity and viral infection remain to be elucidated. Here, we mapped protein interactomes between human host and several influenza A viruses (IAV). Comparative analyses of the interactomes identified common and unique interaction patterns regulating innate immunity and viral infection. Functional screening of the ‘core‘ interactome consisting of common interactions identified five novel host factors regulating viral infection. Plakophilin 2 (PKP2), an influenza PB1-interacting protein, restricts IAV replication and competes with PB2 for PB1 binding. The binding competition leads to perturbation of the IAV polymerase complex, thereby limiting polymerase activity and subsequent viral replication. Taken together, comparative analyses of the influenza–host protein interactomes identified PKP2 as a natural inhibitor of IAV polymerase complex. PMID:28169297

  11. System-level insights into the cellular interactome of a non-model organism: inferring, modelling and analysing functional gene network of soybean (Glycine max).

    PubMed

    Xu, Yungang; Guo, Maozu; Zou, Quan; Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Chunyu; Liu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Cellular interactome, in which genes and/or their products interact on several levels, forming transcriptional regulatory-, protein interaction-, metabolic-, signal transduction networks, etc., has attracted decades of research focuses. However, such a specific type of network alone can hardly explain the various interactive activities among genes. These networks characterize different interaction relationships, implying their unique intrinsic properties and defects, and covering different slices of biological information. Functional gene network (FGN), a consolidated interaction network that models fuzzy and more generalized notion of gene-gene relations, have been proposed to combine heterogeneous networks with the goal of identifying functional modules supported by multiple interaction types. There are yet no successful precedents of FGNs on sparsely studied non-model organisms, such as soybean (Glycine max), due to the absence of sufficient heterogeneous interaction data. We present an alternative solution for inferring the FGNs of soybean (SoyFGNs), in a pioneering study on the soybean interactome, which is also applicable to other organisms. SoyFGNs exhibit the typical characteristics of biological networks: scale-free, small-world architecture and modularization. Verified by co-expression and KEGG pathways, SoyFGNs are more extensive and accurate than an orthology network derived from Arabidopsis. As a case study, network-guided disease-resistance gene discovery indicates that SoyFGNs can provide system-level studies on gene functions and interactions. This work suggests that inferring and modelling the interactome of a non-model plant are feasible. It will speed up the discovery and definition of the functions and interactions of other genes that control important functions, such as nitrogen fixation and protein or lipid synthesis. The efforts of the study are the basis of our further comprehensive studies on the soybean functional interactome at the genome

  12. "Controlled, cross-species dataset for exploring biases in genome annotation and modification profiles".

    PubMed

    McAfee, Alison; Michaud, Sarah; Foster, Leonard J

    2015-12-01

    Since the sequencing of the honey bee genome, proteomics by mass spectrometry has become increasingly popular for biological analyses of this insect; but we have observed that the number of honey bee protein identifications is consistently low compared to other organisms [1]. In this dataset, we use nanoelectrospray ionization-coupled liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-MS/MS) to systematically investigate the root cause of low honey bee proteome coverage. To this end, we present here data from three key experiments: a controlled, cross-species analyses of samples from Apis mellifera, Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Mus musculus and Homo sapiens; a proteomic analysis of an individual honey bee whose genome was also sequenced; and a cross-tissue honey bee proteome comparison. The cross-species dataset was interrogated to determine relative proteome coverages between species, and the other two datasets were used to search for polymorphic sequences and to compare protein cleavage profiles, respectively.

  13. Cross-species hybridization of microarrays for studying tumor transcriptome of brain metastasis.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun Sung; Kim, Sun Jin; Kim, Seung Wook; Yoon, Se-Lyun; Leem, Sun-Hee; Kim, Sang-Bae; Kim, Soo Mi; Park, Yun-Yong; Cheong, Jae-Ho; Woo, Hyun Goo; Mills, Gordon B; Fidler, Isaiah J; Lee, Ju-Seog

    2011-10-18

    Although the importance of the cellular microenvironment (soil) during invasion and metastasis of cancer cells (seed) has been well-recognized, technical challenges have limited the ability to assess the influence of the microenvironment on cancer cells at the molecular level. Here, we show that an experimental strategy, competitive cross-species hybridization of microarray experiments, can characterize the influence of different microenvironments on cancer cells by independently extracting gene expression data of cancer and host cells when human cancer cells were xenografted into different organ sites of immunocompromised mice. Surprisingly, the analysis of gene expression data showed that the brain microenvironment induces complete reprogramming of metastasized cancer cells, resulting in a gain of neuronal cell characteristics and mimicking neurogenesis during development. We also show that epigenetic changes coincide with transcriptional reprogramming in cancer cells. These observations provide proof of principle for competitive cross-species hybridization of microarray experiments to characterize the effect of the microenvironment on tumor cell behavior.

  14. Emergence of plant and rhizospheric microbiota as stable interactomes.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Prasun; Bhuyan, Soubhagya Kumar; Yadava, Pramod Kumar; Varma, Ajit; Tuteja, Narendra

    2017-03-01

    The growing human population and depletion of resources have necessitated development of sustainable agriculture. Beneficial plant-microbe associations have been known for quite some time now. To maintain sustainability, one could show better reliance upon beneficial attributes of the rhizosphere microbiome. To harness the best agronomic traits, understanding the entire process of recruitment, establishment, and maintenance of microbiota as stable interactome within the rhizosphere is important. In this article, we highlight the process of recruitment and establishment of microbiota within rhizosphere. Further, we have discussed the interlinkages and the ability of multiple (microbial and plant) partners to interact with one another forming a stable plant holobiont system. Lastly, we address the possibility of exploring the knowledge gained from the holobiont system to tailor the rhizosphere microbiome for better productivity and maintenance of agroecosystems. The article provide new insights into the broad principles of stable plant-microbe interactions which could be useful for sustaining agriculture and food security.

  15. The transcriptional interactome: gene expression in 3D.

    PubMed

    Schoenfelder, Stefan; Clay, Ieuan; Fraser, Peter

    2010-04-01

    Transcription in the eukaryotic nucleus has long been thought of as conforming to a model in which RNA polymerase complexes are recruited to and track along isolated templates. However, a more dynamic role for chromatin in transcriptional regulation is materializing: enhancer elements interact with promoters forming loops that often bridge considerable distances and genomic loci, even located on different chromosomes, undergo chromosomal associations. These associations amass to form an extensive 'transcriptional interactome', enacted at functional subnuclear compartments, to which genes dynamically relocate. The emerging view is that long-range chromosomal associations between genomic regions, and their repositioning in the three-dimensional space of the nucleus, are key contributors to the regulation of gene expression. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Vocal learning in Grey parrots: A brief review of perception, production, and cross-species comparisons.

    PubMed

    Pepperberg, Irene M

    2010-10-01

    This chapter briefly reviews what is known-and what remains to be understood-about Grey parrot vocal learning. I review Greys' physical capacities-issues of auditory perception and production-then discuss how these capacities are used in vocal learning and can be recruited for referential communication with humans. I discuss cross-species comparisons where applicable and conclude with a description of recent research that integrates issues of reference, production and perception.

  17. Approaching the Functional Annotation of Fungal Virulence Factors Using Cross-Species Genetic Interaction Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jessica C. S.; Madhani, Hiten D.

    2012-01-01

    In many human fungal pathogens, genes required for disease remain largely unannotated, limiting the impact of virulence gene discovery efforts. We tested the utility of a cross-species genetic interaction profiling approach to obtain clues to the molecular function of unannotated pathogenicity factors in the human pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. This approach involves expression of C. neoformans genes of interest in each member of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene deletion library, quantification of their impact on growth, and calculation of the cross-species genetic interaction profiles. To develop functional predictions, we computed and analyzed the correlations of these profiles with existing genetic interaction profiles of S. cerevisiae deletion mutants. For C. neoformans LIV7, which has no S. cerevisiae ortholog, this profiling approach predicted an unanticipated role in the Golgi apparatus. Validation studies in C. neoformans demonstrated that Liv7 is a functional Golgi factor where it promotes the suppression of the exposure of a specific immunostimulatory molecule, mannose, on the cell surface, thereby inhibiting phagocytosis. The genetic interaction profile of another pathogenicity gene that lacks an S. cerevisiae ortholog, LIV6, strongly predicted a role in endosome function. This prediction was also supported by studies of the corresponding C. neoformans null mutant. Our results demonstrate the utility of quantitative cross-species genetic interaction profiling for the functional annotation of fungal pathogenicity proteins of unknown function including, surprisingly, those that are not conserved in sequence across fungi. PMID:23300468

  18. Approaching the functional annotation of fungal virulence factors using cross-species genetic interaction profiling.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jessica C S; Madhani, Hiten D

    2012-01-01

    In many human fungal pathogens, genes required for disease remain largely unannotated, limiting the impact of virulence gene discovery efforts. We tested the utility of a cross-species genetic interaction profiling approach to obtain clues to the molecular function of unannotated pathogenicity factors in the human pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. This approach involves expression of C. neoformans genes of interest in each member of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene deletion library, quantification of their impact on growth, and calculation of the cross-species genetic interaction profiles. To develop functional predictions, we computed and analyzed the correlations of these profiles with existing genetic interaction profiles of S. cerevisiae deletion mutants. For C. neoformans LIV7, which has no S. cerevisiae ortholog, this profiling approach predicted an unanticipated role in the Golgi apparatus. Validation studies in C. neoformans demonstrated that Liv7 is a functional Golgi factor where it promotes the suppression of the exposure of a specific immunostimulatory molecule, mannose, on the cell surface, thereby inhibiting phagocytosis. The genetic interaction profile of another pathogenicity gene that lacks an S. cerevisiae ortholog, LIV6, strongly predicted a role in endosome function. This prediction was also supported by studies of the corresponding C. neoformans null mutant. Our results demonstrate the utility of quantitative cross-species genetic interaction profiling for the functional annotation of fungal pathogenicity proteins of unknown function including, surprisingly, those that are not conserved in sequence across fungi.

  19. Cross-Species Network Analysis Uncovers Conserved Nitrogen-Regulated Network Modules in Rice1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Obertello, Mariana; Shrivastava, Stuti; Katari, Manpreet S.; Coruzzi, Gloria M.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we used a cross-species network approach to uncover nitrogen (N)-regulated network modules conserved across a model and a crop species. By translating gene network knowledge from the data-rich model Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) to a crop, rice (Oryza sativa), we identified evolutionarily conserved N-regulatory modules as targets for translational studies to improve N use efficiency in transgenic plants. To uncover such conserved N-regulatory network modules, we first generated an N-regulatory network based solely on rice transcriptome and gene interaction data. Next, we enhanced the network knowledge in the rice N-regulatory network using transcriptome and gene interaction data from Arabidopsis and new data from Arabidopsis and rice plants exposed to the same N treatment conditions. This cross-species network analysis uncovered a set of N-regulated transcription factors (TFs) predicted to target the same genes and network modules in both species. Supernode analysis of the TFs and their targets in these conserved network modules uncovered genes directly related to N use (e.g. N assimilation) and to other shared biological processes indirectly related to N. This cross-species network approach was validated with members of two TF families in the supernode network, BASIC-LEUCINE ZIPPER TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR1-TGA and HYPERSENSITIVITY TO LOW PI-ELICITED PRIMARY ROOT SHORTENING1 (HRS1)/HRS1 Homolog family, which have recently been experimentally validated to mediate the N response in Arabidopsis. PMID:26045464

  20. Identification of cross-species shared transcriptional networks of diabetic nephropathy in human and mouse glomeruli.

    PubMed

    Hodgin, Jeffrey B; Nair, Viji; Zhang, Hongyu; Randolph, Ann; Harris, Raymond C; Nelson, Robert G; Weil, E Jennifer; Cavalcoli, James D; Patel, Jignesh M; Brosius, Frank C; Kretzler, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Murine models are valuable instruments in defining the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN), but they only partially recapitulate disease manifestations of human DN, limiting their utility. To define the molecular similarities and differences between human and murine DN, we performed a cross-species comparison of glomerular transcriptional networks. Glomerular gene expression was profiled in patients with early type 2 DN and in three mouse models (streptozotocin DBA/2, C57BLKS db/db, and eNOS-deficient C57BLKS db/db mice). Species-specific transcriptional networks were generated and compared with a novel network-matching algorithm. Three shared human-mouse cross-species glomerular transcriptional networks containing 143 (Human-DBA STZ), 97 (Human-BKS db/db), and 162 (Human-BKS eNOS(-/-) db/db) gene nodes were generated. Shared nodes across all networks reflected established pathogenic mechanisms of diabetes complications, such as elements of Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) signaling pathways. In addition, novel pathways not previously associated with DN and cross-species gene nodes and pathways unique to each of the human-mouse networks were discovered. The human-mouse shared glomerular transcriptional networks will assist DN researchers in selecting mouse models most relevant to the human disease process of interest. Moreover, they will allow identification of new pathways shared between mice and humans.

  1. A portable expression resource for engineering cross-species genetic circuits and pathways

    PubMed Central

    Kushwaha, Manish; Salis, Howard M.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic circuits and metabolic pathways can be reengineered to allow organisms to process signals and manufacture useful chemicals. However, their functions currently rely on organism-specific regulatory parts, fragmenting synthetic biology and metabolic engineering into host-specific domains. To unify efforts, here we have engineered a cross-species expression resource that enables circuits and pathways to reuse the same genetic parts, while functioning similarly across diverse organisms. Our engineered system combines mixed feedback control loops and cross-species translation signals to autonomously self-regulate expression of an orthogonal polymerase without host-specific promoters, achieving nontoxic and tuneable gene expression in diverse Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Combining 50 characterized system variants with mechanistic modelling, we show how the cross-species expression resource's dynamics, capacity and toxicity are controlled by the control loops' architecture and feedback strengths. We also demonstrate one application of the resource by reusing the same genetic parts to express a biosynthesis pathway in both model and non-model hosts. PMID:26184393

  2. Initial description of a quantitative, cross-species (chimpanzee-human) social responsiveness measure

    PubMed Central

    Marrus, Natasha; Faughn, Carley; Shuman, Jeremy; Petersen, Steve; Constantino, John; Povinelli, Daniel; Pruett, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Comparative studies of social responsiveness, an ability that is impaired in autistic spectrum disorders, can inform our understanding of both autism and the cognitive architecture of social behavior. Because there is no existing quantitative measure of social responsiveness in chimpanzees, we generated a quantitative, cross-species (human-chimpanzee) social responsiveness measure. Method We translated the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), an instrument that quantifies human social responsiveness, into an analogous instrument for chimpanzees. We then retranslated this "Chimp SRS" into a human "Cross-Species SRS" (XSRS). We evaluated three groups of chimpanzees (n=29) with the Chimp SRS and typical and autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) human children (n=20) with the XSRS. Results The Chimp SRS demonstrated strong inter-rater reliability at the three sites (ranges for individual ICCs: .534–.866 and mean ICCs: .851–.970). As has been observed in humans, exploratory principal components analysis of Chimp SRS scores supports a single factor underlying chimpanzee social responsiveness. Human subjects' XSRS scores were fully concordant with their SRS scores (r=.976, p=.001) and distinguished appropriately between typical and ASD subjects. One chimpanzee known for inappropriate social behavior displayed a significantly higher score than all other chimpanzees at its site, demonstrating the scale's ability to detect impaired social responsiveness in chimpanzees. Conclusion Our initial cross-species social responsiveness scale proved reliable and discriminated differences in social responsiveness across (in a relative sense) and within (in a more objectively quantifiable manner) humans and chimpanzees. PMID:21515200

  3. Enzyme sequence similarity improves the reaction alignment method for cross-species pathway comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Ovacik, Meric A.; Androulakis, Ioannis P.

    2013-09-15

    Pathway-based information has become an important source of information for both establishing evolutionary relationships and understanding the mode of action of a chemical or pharmaceutical among species. Cross-species comparison of pathways can address two broad questions: comparison in order to inform evolutionary relationships and to extrapolate species differences used in a number of different applications including drug and toxicity testing. Cross-species comparison of metabolic pathways is complex as there are multiple features of a pathway that can be modeled and compared. Among the various methods that have been proposed, reaction alignment has emerged as the most successful at predicting phylogenetic relationships based on NCBI taxonomy. We propose an improvement of the reaction alignment method by accounting for sequence similarity in addition to reaction alignment method. Using nine species, including human and some model organisms and test species, we evaluate the standard and improved comparison methods by analyzing glycolysis and citrate cycle pathways conservation. In addition, we demonstrate how organism comparison can be conducted by accounting for the cumulative information retrieved from nine pathways in central metabolism as well as a more complete study involving 36 pathways common in all nine species. Our results indicate that reaction alignment with enzyme sequence similarity results in a more accurate representation of pathway specific cross-species similarities and differences based on NCBI taxonomy.

  4. Toxoplasmosis and Polygenic Disease Susceptibility Genes: Extensive Toxoplasma gondii Host/Pathogen Interactome Enrichment in Nine Psychiatric or Neurological Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Carter, C. J.

    2013-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is not only implicated in schizophrenia and related disorders, but also in Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease, cancer, cardiac myopathies, and autoimmune disorders. During its life cycle, the pathogen interacts with ~3000 host genes or proteins. Susceptibility genes for multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, childhood obesity, Parkinson's disease, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (P  from  8.01E − 05  (ADHD)  to  1.22E − 71) (multiple sclerosis), and autism (P = 0.013), but not anorexia or chronic fatigue are highly enriched in the human arm of this interactome and 18 (ADHD) to 33% (MS) of the susceptibility genes relate to it. The signalling pathways involved in the susceptibility gene/interactome overlaps are relatively specific and relevant to each disease suggesting a means whereby susceptibility genes could orient the attentions of a single pathogen towards disruption of the specific pathways that together contribute (positively or negatively) to the endophenotypes of different diseases. Conditional protein knockdown, orchestrated by T. gondii proteins or antibodies binding to those of the host (pathogen derived autoimmunity) and metabolite exchange, may contribute to this disruption. Susceptibility genes may thus be related to the causes and influencers of disease, rather than (and as well as) to the disease itself. PMID:23533776

  5. A cross-modal, cross-species comparison of connectivity measures in the primate brain.

    PubMed

    Reid, Andrew T; Lewis, John; Bezgin, Gleb; Khundrakpam, Budhachandra; Eickhoff, Simon B; McIntosh, Anthony R; Bellec, Pierre; Evans, Alan C

    2016-01-15

    In systems neuroscience, the term "connectivity" has been defined in numerous ways, according to the particular empirical modality from which it is derived. Due to large differences in the phenomena measured by these modalities, the assumptions necessary to make inferences about axonal connections, and the limitations accompanying each, brain connectivity remains an elusive concept. Despite this, only a handful of studies have directly compared connectivity as inferred from multiple modalities, and there remains much ambiguity over what the term is actually referring to as a biological construct. Here, we perform a direct comparison based on the high-resolution and high-contrast Enhanced Nathan Klein Institute (NKI) Rockland Sample neuroimaging data set, and the CoCoMac database of tract tracing studies. We compare four types of commonly-used primate connectivity analyses: tract tracing experiments, compiled in CoCoMac; group-wise correlation of cortical thickness; tractographic networks computed from diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI); and correlational networks obtained from resting-state BOLD (fMRI). We find generally poor correspondence between all four modalities, in terms of correlated edge weights, binarized comparisons of thresholded networks, and clustering patterns. fMRI and DWI had the best agreement, followed by DWI and CoCoMac, while other comparisons showed striking divergence. Networks had the best correspondence for local ipsilateral and homotopic contralateral connections, and the worst correspondence for long-range and heterotopic contralateral connections. k-Means clustering highlighted the lowest cross-modal and cross-species consensus in lateral and medial temporal lobes, anterior cingulate, and the temporoparietal junction. Comparing the NKI results to those of the lower resolution/contrast International Consortium for Brain Imaging (ICBM) dataset, we find that the relative pattern of intermodal relationships is preserved, but the correspondence

  6. Analysis of the long control region of bovine papillomavirus type 1 associated with sarcoids in equine hosts indicates multiple cross-species transmission events and phylogeographical structure.

    PubMed

    Trewby, Hannah; Ayele, Gizachew; Borzacchiello, Giuseppe; Brandt, Sabine; Campo, M Saveria; Del Fava, Claudia; Marais, Johan; Leonardi, Leonardo; Vanselow, Barbara; Biek, Roman; Nasir, Lubna

    2014-12-01

    Papillomaviruses are a family of slowly evolving DNA viruses and their evolution is commonly linked to that of their host species. However, whilst bovine papillomavirus-1 (BPV-1) primarily causes warts in its natural host, the cow, it can also cause locally aggressive and invasive skin tumours in equids, known as sarcoids, and thus provides a rare contemporary example of cross-species transmission of a papillomavirus. Here, we describe the first phylogenetic analysis of BPV-1 in equine sarcoids to our knowledge, allowing us to explore the evolutionary history of BPV-1 and investigate its cross-species association with equids. A phylogenetic analysis of the BPV-1 transcriptional promoter region (the long control region or LCR) was conducted on 15 bovine and 116 equine samples from four continents. Incorporating previous estimates for evolutionary rates in papillomavirus implied that the genetic diversity in the LCR variants was ancient and predated domestication of both equids and cattle. The phylogeny demonstrated geographical segregation into an ancestral group (African, South American and Australian samples), and a more recently derived, largely European clade. Whilst our data are consistent with BPV-1 originating in cattle, we found evidence of multiple, probably relatively recent, cross-species transmission events into horses. We also demonstrated the high prevalence of one particular sequence variant (variant 20), and suggest this may indicate that this variant shows a fitness advantage in equids. Although strong host specificity remains the norm in papillomaviruses, our results demonstrate that exceptions to this rule exist and can become epidemiologically relevant.

  7. Experimental Cross-Species Infection of Common Marmosets by Titi Monkey Adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Eunice C.; Liu, Maria; Brasky, Kathleen M.; Lanford, Robert E.; Kelly, Kristi R.; Bales, Karen L.; Schnurr, David P.; Canfield, Don R.; Patterson, Jean L.; Chiu, Charles Y.

    2013-01-01

    Adenoviruses are DNA viruses that infect a number of vertebrate hosts and are associated with both sporadic and epidemic disease in humans. We previously identified a novel adenovirus, titi monkey adenovirus (TMAdV), as the cause of a fulminant pneumonia outbreak in a colony of titi monkeys (Callicebus cupreus) at a national primate center in 2009. Serological evidence of infection by TMAdV was also found in a human researcher at the facility and household family member, raising concerns for potential cross-species transmission of the virus. Here we present experimental evidence of cross-species TMAdV infection in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Nasal inoculation of a cell cultured-adapted TMAdV strain into three marmosets produced an acute, mild respiratory illness characterized by low-grade fever, reduced activity, anorexia, and sneezing. An increase in virus-specific neutralization antibody titers accompanied the development of clinical signs. Although serially collected nasal swabs were positive for TMAdV for at least 8 days, all 3 infected marmosets spontaneously recovered by day 12 post-inoculation, and persistence of the virus in tissues could not be established. Thus, the pathogenesis of experimental inoculation of TMAdV in common marmosets resembled the mild, self-limiting respiratory infection typically seen in immunocompetent human hosts rather than the rapidly progressive, fatal pneumonia observed in 19 of 23 titi monkeys during the prior 2009 outbreak. These findings further establish the potential for adenovirus cross-species transmission and provide the basis for development of a monkey model useful for assessing the zoonotic potential of adenoviruses. PMID:23894316

  8. XGSA: A statistical method for cross-species gene set analysis.

    PubMed

    Djordjevic, Djordje; Kusumi, Kenro; Ho, Joshua W K

    2016-09-01

    Gene set analysis is a powerful tool for determining whether an experimentally derived set of genes is statistically significantly enriched for genes in other pre-defined gene sets, such as known pathways, gene ontology terms, or other experimentally derived gene sets. Current gene set analysis methods do not facilitate comparing gene sets across different organisms as they do not explicitly deal with homology mapping between species. There lacks a systematic investigation about the effect of complex gene homology on cross-species gene set analysis. In this study, we show that not accounting for the complex homology structure when comparing gene sets in two species can lead to false positive discoveries, especially when comparing gene sets that have complex gene homology relationships. To overcome this bias, we propose a straightforward statistical approach, called XGSA, that explicitly takes the cross-species homology mapping into consideration when doing gene set analysis. Simulation experiments confirm that XGSA can avoid false positive discoveries, while maintaining good statistical power compared to other ad hoc approaches for cross-species gene set analysis. We further demonstrate the effectiveness of XGSA with two real-life case studies that aim to discover conserved or species-specific molecular pathways involved in social challenge and vertebrate appendage regeneration. The R source code for XGSA is available under a GNU General Public License at http://github.com/VCCRI/XGSA CONTACT: jho@victorchang.edu.au. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Initial description of a quantitative, cross-species (chimpanzee-human) social responsiveness measure.

    PubMed

    Marrus, Natasha; Faughn, Carley; Shuman, Jeremy; Petersen, Steve E; Constantino, John N; Povinelli, Daniel J; Pruett, John R

    2011-05-01

    Comparative studies of social responsiveness, an ability that is impaired in autism spectrum disorders, can inform our understanding of both autism and the cognitive architecture of social behavior. Because there is no existing quantitative measure of social responsiveness in chimpanzees, we generated a quantitative, cross-species (human-chimpanzee) social responsiveness measure. We translated the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), an instrument that quantifies human social responsiveness, into an analogous instrument for chimpanzees. We then retranslated this "Chimpanzee SRS" into a human "Cross-Species SRS" (XSRS). We evaluated three groups of chimpanzees (n = 29) with the Chimpanzee SRS and typical and human children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 20) with the XSRS. The Chimpanzee SRS demonstrated strong interrater reliability at the three sites (ranges for individual ICCs: 0.534 to 0.866; mean ICCs: 0.851 to 0.970). As has been observed in human beings, exploratory principal components analysis of Chimpanzee SRS scores supports a single factor underlying chimpanzee social responsiveness. Human subjects' XSRS scores were fully concordant with their SRS scores (r = 0.976, p = .001) and distinguished appropriately between typical and ASD subjects. One chimpanzee known for inappropriate social behavior displayed a significantly higher score than all other chimpanzees at its site, demonstrating the scale's ability to detect impaired social responsiveness in chimpanzees. Our initial cross-species social responsiveness scale proved reliable and discriminated differences in social responsiveness across (in a relative sense) and within (in a more objectively quantifiable manner) human beings and chimpanzees. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Frequent Cross-Species Transmission of Parvoviruses among Diverse Carnivore Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Allison, Andrew B.; Kohler, Dennis J.; Fox, Karen A.; Brown, Justin D.; Gerhold, Richard W.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Dubovi, Edward J.; Parrish, Colin R.

    2013-01-01

    Although parvoviruses are commonly described in domestic carnivores, little is known about their biodiversity in nondomestic species. A phylogenetic analysis of VP2 gene sequences from puma, coyote, gray wolf, bobcat, raccoon, and striped skunk revealed two major groups related to either feline panleukopenia virus (“FPV-like”) or canine parvovirus (“CPV-like”). Cross-species transmission was commonplace, with multiple introductions into each host species but, with the exception of raccoons, relatively little evidence for onward transmission in nondomestic species. PMID:23221559

  11. Frequent cross-species transmission of parvoviruses among diverse carnivore hosts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allison, Andrew B.; Kohler, Dennis J.; Fox, Karen A.; Brown, Justin D.; Gerhold, Richard W.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Dubovi, Edward J.; Parrish, Colin R.; Holmes, Edward C.

    2013-01-01

    Although parvoviruses are commonly described in domestic carnivores, little is known about their biodiversity in nondomestic species. A phylogenetic analysis of VP2 gene sequences from puma, coyote, gray wolf, bobcat, raccoon, and striped skunk revealed two major groups related to either feline panleukopenia virus (“FPV-like”) or canine parvovirus (“CPV-like”). Cross-species transmission was commonplace, with multiple introductions into each host species but, with the exception of raccoons, relatively little evidence for onward transmission in nondomestic species.

  12. Interactome mapping for analysis of complex phenotypes: insights from benchmarking binary interaction assays.

    PubMed

    Braun, Pascal

    2012-05-01

    Protein interactions mediate essentially all biological processes and analysis of protein-protein interactions using both large-scale and small-scale approaches has contributed fundamental insights to the understanding of biological systems. In recent years, interactome network maps have emerged as an important tool for analyzing and interpreting genetic data of complex phenotypes. Complementary experimental approaches to test for binary, direct interactions, and for membership in protein complexes are used to explore the interactome. The two approaches are not redundant but yield orthogonal perspectives onto the complex network of physical interactions by which proteins mediate biological processes. In recent years, several publications have demonstrated that interactions from high-throughput experiments can be equally reliable as the high quality subset of interactions identified in small-scale studies. Critical for this insight was the introduction of standardized experimental benchmarking of interaction and validation assays using reference sets. The data obtained in these benchmarking experiments have resulted in greater appreciation of the limitations and the complementary strengths of different assays. Moreover, benchmarking is a central element of a conceptual framework to estimate interactome sizes and thereby measure progress toward near complete network maps. These estimates have revealed that current large-scale data sets, although often of high quality, cover only a small fraction of a given interactome. Here, I review the findings of assay benchmarking and discuss implications for quality control, and for strategies toward obtaining a near-complete map of the interactome of an organism.

  13. SInCRe—structural interactome computational resource for Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Metri, Rahul; Hariharaputran, Sridhar; Ramakrishnan, Gayatri; Anand, Praveen; Raghavender, Upadhyayula S.; Ochoa-Montaño, Bernardo; Higueruelo, Alicia P.; Sowdhamini, Ramanathan; Chandra, Nagasuma R.; Blundell, Tom L.; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy

    2015-01-01

    We have developed an integrated database for Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (Mtb) that collates information on protein sequences, domain assignments, functional annotation and 3D structural information along with protein–protein and protein–small molecule interactions. SInCRe (Structural Interactome Computational Resource) is developed out of CamBan (Cambridge and Bangalore) collaboration. The motivation for development of this database is to provide an integrated platform to allow easily access and interpretation of data and results obtained by all the groups in CamBan in the field of Mtb informatics. In-house algorithms and databases developed independently by various academic groups in CamBan are used to generate Mtb-specific datasets and are integrated in this database to provide a structural dimension to studies on tuberculosis. The SInCRe database readily provides information on identification of functional domains, genome-scale modelling of structures of Mtb proteins and characterization of the small-molecule binding sites within Mtb. The resource also provides structure-based function annotation, information on small-molecule binders including FDA (Food and Drug Administration)-approved drugs, protein–protein interactions (PPIs) and natural compounds that bind to pathogen proteins potentially and result in weakening or elimination of host–pathogen protein–protein interactions. Together they provide prerequisites for identification of off-target binding. Database URL: http://proline.biochem.iisc.ernet.in/sincre PMID:26130660

  14. Identifying Unexpected Therapeutic Targets via Chemical-Protein Interactome

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lun; Chen, Jian; Shi, Leming; Hudock, Michael P.; Wang, Kejian; He, Lin

    2010-01-01

    Drug medications inevitably affect not only their intended protein targets but also other proteins as well. In this study we examined the hypothesis that drugs that share the same therapeutic effect also share a common therapeutic mechanism by targeting not only known drug targets, but also by interacting unexpectedly on the same cryptic targets. By constructing and mining an Alzheimer's disease (AD) drug-oriented chemical-protein interactome (CPI) using a matrix of 10 drug molecules known to treat AD towards 401 human protein pockets, we found that such cryptic targets exist. We recovered from CPI the only validated therapeutic target of AD, acetylcholinesterase (ACHE), and highlighted several other putative targets. For example, we discovered that estrogen receptor (ER) and histone deacetylase (HDAC), which have recently been identified as two new therapeutic targets of AD, might already have been targeted by the marketed AD drugs. We further established that the CPI profile of a drug can reflect its interacting character towards multi-protein sets, and that drugs with the same therapeutic attribute will share a similar interacting profile. These findings indicate that the CPI could represent the landscape of chemical-protein interactions and uncover “behind-the-scenes” aspects of the therapeutic mechanisms of existing drugs, providing testable hypotheses of the key nodes for network pharmacology or brand new drug targets for one-target pharmacology paradigm. PMID:20221449

  15. Transcriptional atlas of cardiogenesis maps congenital heart disease interactome.

    PubMed

    Li, Xing; Martinez-Fernandez, Almudena; Hartjes, Katherine A; Kocher, Jean-Pierre A; Olson, Timothy M; Terzic, Andre; Nelson, Timothy J

    2014-07-01

    Mammalian heart development is built on highly conserved molecular mechanisms with polygenetic perturbations resulting in a spectrum of congenital heart diseases (CHD). However, knowledge of cardiogenic ontogeny that regulates proper cardiogenesis remains largely based on candidate-gene approaches. Mapping the dynamic transcriptional landscape of cardiogenesis from a genomic perspective is essential to integrate the knowledge of heart development into translational applications that accelerate disease discovery efforts toward mechanistic-based treatment strategies. Herein, we designed a time-course transcriptome analysis to investigate the genome-wide dynamic expression landscape of innate murine cardiogenesis ranging from embryonic stem cells to adult cardiac structures. This comprehensive analysis generated temporal and spatial expression profiles, revealed stage-specific gene functions, and mapped the dynamic transcriptome of cardiogenesis to curated pathways. Reconciling known genetic underpinnings of CHD, we deconstructed a disease-centric dynamic interactome encoded within this cardiogenic atlas to identify stage-specific developmental disturbances clustered on regulation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), BMP signaling, NF-AT signaling, TGFb-dependent EMT, and Notch signaling. Collectively, this cardiogenic transcriptional landscape defines the time-dependent expression of cardiac ontogeny and prioritizes regulatory networks at the interface between health and disease.

  16. Proteomic Analysis of the Mediator Complex Interactome in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Uthe, Henriette; Vanselow, Jens T.; Schlosser, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Here we present the most comprehensive analysis of the yeast Mediator complex interactome to date. Particularly gentle cell lysis and co-immunopurification conditions allowed us to preserve even transient protein-protein interactions and to comprehensively probe the molecular environment of the Mediator complex in the cell. Metabolic 15N-labeling thereby enabled stringent discrimination between bona fide interaction partners and nonspecifically captured proteins. Our data indicates a functional role for Mediator beyond transcription initiation. We identified a large number of Mediator-interacting proteins and protein complexes, such as RNA polymerase II, general transcription factors, a large number of transcriptional activators, the SAGA complex, chromatin remodeling complexes, histone chaperones, highly acetylated histones, as well as proteins playing a role in co-transcriptional processes, such as splicing, mRNA decapping and mRNA decay. Moreover, our data provides clear evidence, that the Mediator complex interacts not only with RNA polymerase II, but also with RNA polymerases I and III, and indicates a functional role of the Mediator complex in rRNA processing and ribosome biogenesis. PMID:28240253

  17. Interactome Data and Databases: Different Types of Protein Interaction

    PubMed Central

    de Luis, Alberto

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, the biomolecular sciences have been driven forward by overwhelming advances in new biotechnological high-throughput experimental methods and bioinformatic genome-wide computational methods. Such breakthroughs are producing huge amounts of new data that need to be carefully analysed to obtain correct and useful scientific knowledge. One of the fields where this advance has become more intense is the study of the network of ‘protein–protein interactions’, i.e. the ‘interactome’. In this short review we comment on the main data and databases produced in this field in last 5 years. We also present a rationalized scheme of biological definitions that will be useful for a better understanding and interpretation of ‘what a protein–protein interaction is’ and ‘which types of protein–protein interactions are found in a living cell’. Finally, we comment on some assignments of interactome data to defined types of protein interaction and we present a new bioinformatic tool called APIN (Agile Protein Interaction Network browser), which is in development and will be applied to browsing protein interaction databases. PMID:18629062

  18. Transcriptional atlas of cardiogenesis maps congenital heart disease interactome

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xing; Martinez-Fernandez, Almudena; Hartjes, Katherine A.; Kocher, Jean-Pierre A.; Olson, Timothy M.; Terzic, Andre

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian heart development is built on highly conserved molecular mechanisms with polygenetic perturbations resulting in a spectrum of congenital heart diseases (CHD). However, knowledge of cardiogenic ontogeny that regulates proper cardiogenesis remains largely based on candidate-gene approaches. Mapping the dynamic transcriptional landscape of cardiogenesis from a genomic perspective is essential to integrate the knowledge of heart development into translational applications that accelerate disease discovery efforts toward mechanistic-based treatment strategies. Herein, we designed a time-course transcriptome analysis to investigate the genome-wide dynamic expression landscape of innate murine cardiogenesis ranging from embryonic stem cells to adult cardiac structures. This comprehensive analysis generated temporal and spatial expression profiles, revealed stage-specific gene functions, and mapped the dynamic transcriptome of cardiogenesis to curated pathways. Reconciling known genetic underpinnings of CHD, we deconstructed a disease-centric dynamic interactome encoded within this cardiogenic atlas to identify stage-specific developmental disturbances clustered on regulation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), BMP signaling, NF-AT signaling, TGFb-dependent EMT, and Notch signaling. Collectively, this cardiogenic transcriptional landscape defines the time-dependent expression of cardiac ontogeny and prioritizes regulatory networks at the interface between health and disease. PMID:24803680

  19. Current Approaches Toward Quantitative Mapping of the Interactome

    PubMed Central

    Buntru, Alexander; Trepte, Philipp; Klockmeier, Konrad; Schnoegl, Sigrid; Wanker, Erich E.

    2016-01-01

    Protein–protein interactions (PPIs) play a key role in many, if not all, cellular processes. Disease is often caused by perturbation of PPIs, as recently indicated by studies of missense mutations. To understand the associations of proteins and to unravel the global picture of PPIs in the cell, different experimental detection techniques for PPIs have been established. Genetic and biochemical methods such as the yeast two-hybrid system or affinity purification-based approaches are well suited to high-throughput, proteome-wide screening and are mainly used to obtain qualitative results. However, they have been criticized for not reflecting the cellular situation or the dynamic nature of PPIs. In this review, we provide an overview of various genetic methods that go beyond qualitative detection and allow quantitative measuring of PPIs in mammalian cells, such as dual luminescence-based co-immunoprecipitation, Förster resonance energy transfer or luminescence-based mammalian interactome mapping with bait control. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of different techniques and their potential applications in biomedical research. PMID:27200083

  20. A complex-based reconstruction of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae interactome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haidong; Kakaradov, Boyko; Collins, Sean R; Karotki, Lena; Fiedler, Dorothea; Shales, Michael; Shokat, Kevan M; Walther, Tobias C; Krogan, Nevan J; Koller, Daphne

    2009-06-01

    Most cellular processes are performed by proteomic units that interact with each other. These units are often stoichiometrically stable complexes comprised of several proteins. To obtain a faithful view of the protein interactome we must view it in terms of these basic units (complexes and proteins) and the interactions between them. This study makes two contributions toward this goal. First, it provides a new algorithm for reconstruction of stable complexes from a variety of heterogeneous biological assays; our approach combines state-of-the-art machine learning methods with a novel hierarchical clustering algorithm that allows clusters to overlap. We demonstrate that our approach constructs over 40% more known complexes than other recent methods and that the complexes it produces are more biologically coherent even compared with the reference set. We provide experimental support for some of our novel predictions, identifying both a new complex involved in nutrient starvation and a new component of the eisosome complex. Second, we provide a high accuracy algorithm for the novel problem of predicting transient interactions involving complexes. We show that our complex level network, which we call ComplexNet, provides novel insights regarding the protein-protein interaction network. In particular, we reinterpret the finding that "hubs" in the network are enriched for being essential, showing instead that essential proteins tend to be clustered together in essential complexes and that these essential complexes tend to be large.

  1. NEK1 kinase domain structure and its dynamic protein interactome after exposure to Cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Melo-Hanchuk, Talita D; Slepicka, Priscila Ferreira; Meirelles, Gabriela Vaz; Basei, Fernanda Luisa; Lovato, Diogo Ventura; Granato, Daniela Campos; Pauletti, Bianca Alves; Domingues, Romenia Ramos; Leme, Adriana Franco Paes; Pelegrini, Alessandra Luiza; Lenz, Guido; Knapp, Stefan; Elkins, Jonathan M; Kobarg, Jörg

    2017-07-14

    NEK family kinases are serine/threonine kinases that have been functionally implicated in the regulation of the disjunction of the centrosome, the assembly of the mitotic spindle, the function of the primary cilium and the DNA damage response. NEK1 shows pleiotropic functions and has been found to be mutated in cancer cells, ciliopathies such as the polycystic kidney disease, as well as in the genetic diseases short-rib thoracic dysplasia, Mohr-syndrome and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. NEK1 is essential for the ionizing radiation DNA damage response and priming of the ATR kinase and of Rad54 through phosphorylation. Here we report on the structure of the kinase domain of human NEK1 in its apo- and ATP-mimetic inhibitor bound forms. The inhibitor bound structure may allow the design of NEK specific chemo-sensitizing agents to act in conjunction with chemo- or radiation therapy of cancer cells. Furthermore, we characterized the dynamic protein interactome of NEK1 after DNA damage challenge with cisplatin. Our data suggest that NEK1 and its interaction partners trigger the DNA damage pathways responsible for correcting DNA crosslinks.

  2. The extracellular interactome of the human adenovirus family reveals diverse strategies for immunomodulation

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Martin, Nadia; Ramani, Sree R.; Hackney, Jason A.; Tom, Irene; Wranik, Bernd J.; Chan, Michelle; Wu, Johnny; Paluch, Maciej T.; Takeda, Kentaro; Hass, Philip E.; Clark, Hilary; Gonzalez, Lino C.

    2016-01-01

    Viruses encode secreted and cell-surface expressed proteins essential to modulate host immune defenses and establish productive infections. However, to date there has been no systematic study of the extracellular interactome of any human virus. Here we utilize the E3 proteins, diverse and rapidly evolving transmembrane-containing proteins encoded by human adenoviruses, as a model system to survey the extracellular immunomodulatory landscape. From a large-scale protein interaction screen against a microarray of more than 1,500 human proteins, we find and validate 51 previously unidentified virus–host interactions. Our results uncover conserved strategies as well as substantial diversity and multifunctionality in host targeting within and between viral species. Prominent modulation of the leukocyte immunoglobulin-like and signalling lymphocyte activation molecule families and a number of inhibitory receptors were identified as hubs for viral perturbation, suggesting unrecognized immunoregulatory strategies. We describe a virus–host extracellular interaction map of unprecedented scale that provides new insights into viral immunomodulation. PMID:27145901

  3. Predicted networks of protein-protein interactions in Stegodyphus mimosarum by cross-species comparisons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiu; Jin, Yongfeng

    2017-09-11

    Stegodyphus mimosarum is a candidate model organism belonging to the class Arachnida in the phylum Arthropoda. Studies on the biology of S. mimosarum over the past several decades have consisted of behavioral research and comparison of gene sequences based on the assembled genome sequence. Given the lack of systematic protein analyses and the rich source of information in the genome, we predicted the relationships of proteins in S. mimosarum by bioinformatics comparison with genome-wide proteins from select model organisms using gene mapping. The protein-protein interactions (PPIs) of 11 organisms were integrated from four databases (BioGrid, InAct, MINT, and DIP). Here, we present comprehensive prediction and analysis of 3810 proteins in S. mimosarum with regard to interactions between proteins using PPI data of organisms. Interestingly, a portion of the protein interactions conserved among Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Homo sapiens, Arabidopsis thaliana, and Drosophila melanogaster were found to be associated with RNA splicing. In addition, overlap of predicted PPIs in reference organisms, Gene Ontology, and topology models in S. mimosarum are also reported. Addition of Stegodyphus, a spider representative of interactomic research, provides the possibility of obtaining deeper insights into the evolution of PPI networks among different animal species. This work largely supports the utility of the "stratus clouds" model for predicted PPIs, providing a roadmap for integrative systems biology in S. mimosarum.

  4. Oncogenic nature of a novel mutant AATF and its interactome existing within human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shaveta; Kaul, Deepak; Arora, Mansi; Malik, Deepti

    2015-03-01

    Since apoptosis presents a natural defense in cancer development, the anti-apoptotic factor AATF/Che-1 has emerged as a crucial 'Epigenomic-Switch'. We have tried to understand the double-edged nature of AATF, showing for the first time the conspicuous existence of an aberrant AATF/Che-1 transcriptome encoding for 23 kDa mutant AATF protein, which evolves its unique interactome within human cancer cells derived from different tissue origins. This mutant AATF along with its interactome consisting of SP1, DNMT3B and Par-4 ensures cancer cell DNA methylation required for down-regulation of tumor suppressor genes. Hence, the proposed mutant AATF interactome-based pathway can have the inherent ability to ensure human cells become and remain cancerous.

  5. Disease networks. Uncovering disease-disease relationships through the incomplete interactome.

    PubMed

    Menche, Jörg; Sharma, Amitabh; Kitsak, Maksim; Ghiassian, Susan Dina; Vidal, Marc; Loscalzo, Joseph; Barabási, Albert-László

    2015-02-20

    According to the disease module hypothesis, the cellular components associated with a disease segregate in the same neighborhood of the human interactome, the map of biologically relevant molecular interactions. Yet, given the incompleteness of the interactome and the limited knowledge of disease-associated genes, it is not obvious if the available data have sufficient coverage to map out modules associated with each disease. Here we derive mathematical conditions for the identifiability of disease modules and show that the network-based location of each disease module determines its pathobiological relationship to other diseases. For example, diseases with overlapping network modules show significant coexpression patterns, symptom similarity, and comorbidity, whereas diseases residing in separated network neighborhoods are phenotypically distinct. These tools represent an interactome-based platform to predict molecular commonalities between phenotypically related diseases, even if they do not share primary disease genes.

  6. A protein domain-based interactome network for C. elegans early embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Boxem, Mike; Maliga, Zoltan; Klitgord, Niels; Li, Na; Lemmens, Irma; Mana, Miyeko; de Lichtervelde, Lorenzo; Mul, Joram D.; van de Peut, Diederik; Devos, Maxime; Simonis, Nicolas; Yildirim, Muhammed A.; Cokol, Murat; Kao, Huey-Ling; de Smet, Anne-Sophie; Wang, Haidong; Schlaitz, Anne-Lore; Hao, Tong; Milstein, Stuart; Fan, Changyu; Tipsword, Mike; Drew, Kevin; Galli, Matilde; Rhrissorrakrai, Kahn; Drechsel, David; Koller, Daphne; Roth, Frederick P.; Iakoucheva, Lilia M.; Dunker, A. Keith; Bonneau, Richard; Gunsalus, Kristin C.; Hill, David E.; Piano, Fabio; Tavernier, Jan; van den Heuvel, Sander; Hyman, Anthony A.; Vidal, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Summary Many protein-protein interactions are mediated through independently folding modular domains. Proteome-wide efforts to model protein-protein interaction or “interactome” networks have largely ignored this modular organization of proteins. We developed an experimental strategy to efficiently identify interaction domains and generated a domain-based interactome network for proteins involved in C. elegans early embryonic cell divisions. Minimal interacting regions were identified for over 200 proteins, providing important information on their domain organization. Furthermore, our approach increased the sensitivity of the two-hybrid system, resulting in a more complete interactome network. This interactome modeling strategy revealed new insights into C. elegans centrosome function and is applicable to other biological processes in this and other organisms. PMID:18692475

  7. RNA-Binding Proteins Revisited - The Emerging Arabidopsis mRNA Interactome.

    PubMed

    Köster, Tino; Marondedze, Claudius; Meyer, Katja; Staiger, Dorothee

    2017-04-12

    RNA-protein interaction is an important checkpoint to tune gene expression at the RNA level. Global identification of proteins binding in vivo to mRNA has been possible through interactome capture - where proteins are fixed to target RNAs by UV crosslinking and purified through affinity capture of polyadenylated RNA. In Arabidopsis over 500 RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) enriched in UV-crosslinked samples have been identified. As in mammals and yeast, the mRNA interactomes came with a few surprises. For example, a plethora of the proteins caught on RNA had not previously been linked to RNA-mediated processes, for example proteins of intermediary metabolism. Thus, the studies provide unprecedented insights into the composition of the mRNA interactome, highlighting the complexity of RNA-mediated processes.

  8. Graph-theoretical model of global human interactome reveals enhanced long-range communicability in cancer networks

    PubMed Central

    Gladilin, Evgeny

    2017-01-01

    Malignant transformation is known to involve substantial rearrangement of the molecular genetic landscape of the cell. A common approach to analysis of these alterations is a reductionist one and consists of finding a compact set of differentially expressed genes or associated signaling pathways. However, due to intrinsic tumor heterogeneity and tissue specificity, biomarkers defined by a small number of genes/pathways exhibit substantial variability. As an alternative to compact differential signatures, global features of genetic cell machinery are conceivable. Global network descriptors suggested in previous works are, however, known to potentially be biased by overrepresentation of interactions between frequently studied genes-proteins. Here, we construct a cellular network of 74538 directional and differential gene expression weighted protein-protein and gene regulatory interactions, and perform graph-theoretical analysis of global human interactome using a novel, degree-independent feature—the normalized total communicability (NTC). We apply this framework to assess differences in total information flow between different cancer (BRCA/COAD/GBM) and non-cancer interactomes. Our experimental results reveal that different cancer interactomes are characterized by significant enhancement of long-range NTC, which arises from circulation of information flow within robustly organized gene subnetworks. Although enhancement of NTC emerges in different cancer types from different genomic profiles, we identified a subset of 90 common genes that are related to elevated NTC in all studied tumors. Our ontological analysis shows that these genes are associated with enhanced cell division, DNA replication, stress response, and other cellular functions and processes typically upregulated in cancer. We conclude that enhancement of long-range NTC manifested in the correlated activity of genes whose tight coordination is required for survival and proliferation of all tumor cells

  9. Notch3 Interactome Analysis Identified WWP2 as a Negative Regulator of Notch3 Signaling in Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Bin; Wu, Ren-Chin; Zhu, Heng; Blackshaw, Seth; Shih, Ie-Ming; Wang, Tian-Li

    2014-01-01

    The Notch3 signaling pathway is thought to play a critical role in cancer development, as evidenced by the Notch3 amplification and rearrangement observed in human cancers. However, the molecular mechanism by which Notch3 signaling contributes to tumorigenesis is largely unknown. In an effort to identify the molecular modulators of the Notch3 signaling pathway, we screened for Notch3-intracellular domain (N3-ICD) interacting proteins using a human proteome microarray. Pathway analysis of the Notch3 interactome demonstrated that ubiquitin C was the molecular hub of the top functional network, suggesting the involvement of ubiquitination in modulating Notch3 signaling. Thereby, we focused on functional characterization of an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase, WWP2, a top candidate in the Notch3 interactome list. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments showed that WWP2 interacted with N3-ICD but not with intracellular domains from other Notch receptors. Wild-type WWP2 but not ligase-deficient mutant WWP2 increases mono-ubiquitination of the membrane-tethered Notch3 fragment, therefore attenuating Notch3 pathway activity in cancer cells and leading to cell cycle arrest. The mono-ubiquitination by WWP2 may target an endosomal/lysosomal degradation fate for Notch3 as suggested by the fact that the process could be suppressed by the endosomal/lysosomal inhibitor. Analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas dataset showed that the majority of ovarian carcinomas harbored homozygous or heterozygous deletions in WWP2 locus, and there was an inverse correlation in the expression levels between WWP2 and Notch3 in ovarian carcinomas. Furthermore, ectopic expression of WWP2 decreased tumor development in a mouse xenograft model and suppressed the Notch3-induced phenotypes including increase in cancer stem cell-like cell population and platinum resistance. Taken together, our results provide evidence that WWP2 serves as a tumor suppressor by negatively regulating Notch3 signaling in ovarian cancer

  10. Developing Human Radiation Biodosimetry Models: Testing Cross-Species Conversion Approaches Using an Ex Vivo Model System.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin G; Paul, Sunirmal; Briones, Natalia; Zeng, Jia; Gillis, Kristin; Wallstrom, Garrick; LaBaer, Joshua; Amundson, Sally A

    2017-06-01

    In the event of a large-scale radiation exposure, accurate and quick assessment of radiation dose received would be critical for triage and medical treatment of large numbers of potentially exposed individuals. Current methods of biodosimetry, such as the dicentric chromosome assay, are time consuming and require sophisticated equipment and highly trained personnel. Therefore, scalable biodosimetry approaches, including gene expression profiles in peripheral blood cells, are being investigated. Due to the limited availability of appropriate human samples, biodosimetry development has relied heavily on mouse models, which are not directly applicable to human response. Therefore, to explore the feasibility of using non-human primate (NHP) models to build and test a biodosimetry algorithm for use in humans, we irradiated ex vivo peripheral blood samples from both humans and rhesus macaques with doses of 0, 2, 5, 6 and 7 Gy, and compared the gene expression profiles 24 h later using Agilent human microarrays. Among the dose-responsive genes in human and using non-human primate, 52 genes showed highly correlated expression patterns between the species, and were enriched in p53/DNA damage response, apoptosis and cell cycle-related genes. When these interspecies-correlated genes were used to build biodosimetry models with using NHP data, the mean prediction accuracy on non-human primate samples was about 90% within 1 Gy of delivered dose in leave-one-out cross-validation. However, tests on human samples suggested that human gene expression values may need to be adjusted prior to application of the NHP model. A "multi-gene" approach utilizing all gene values for cross-species conversion and applying the converted values on the NHP biodosimetry models, gave a leave-one-out cross-validation prediction accuracy for human samples highly comparable (up to 94%) to that for non-human primates. Overall, this study demonstrates that a robust NHP biodosimetry model can be built

  11. COLOMBOS v3.0: leveraging gene expression compendia for cross-species analyses

    PubMed Central

    Moretto, Marco; Sonego, Paolo; Dierckxsens, Nicolas; Brilli, Matteo; Bianco, Luca; Ledezma-Tejeida, Daniela; Gama-Castro, Socorro; Galardini, Marco; Romualdi, Chiara; Laukens, Kris; Collado-Vides, Julio; Meysman, Pieter; Engelen, Kristof

    2016-01-01

    COLOMBOS is a database that integrates publicly available transcriptomics data for several prokaryotic model organisms. Compared to the previous version it has more than doubled in size, both in terms of species and data available. The manually curated condition annotation has been overhauled as well, giving more complete information about samples’ experimental conditions and their differences. Functionality-wise cross-species analyses now enable users to analyse expression data for all species simultaneously, and identify candidate genes with evolutionary conserved expression behaviour. All the expression-based query tools have undergone a substantial improvement, overcoming the limit of enforced co-expression data retrieval and instead enabling the return of more complex patterns of expression behaviour. COLOMBOS is freely available through a web application at http://colombos.net/. The complete database is also accessible via REST API or downloadable as tab-delimited text files. PMID:26586805

  12. Cross-species transmission and emergence of novel viruses from birds.

    PubMed

    Chan, Jasper Fuk-Woo; To, Kelvin Kai-Wang; Chen, Honglin; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2015-02-01

    Birds, the only living member of the Dinosauria clade, are flying warm-blooded vertebrates displaying high species biodiversity, roosting and migratory behavior, and a unique adaptive immune system. Birds provide the natural reservoir for numerous viral species and therefore gene source for evolution, emergence and dissemination of novel viruses. The intrusions of human into natural habitats of wild birds, the domestication of wild birds as pets or racing birds, and the increasing poultry consumption by human have facilitated avian viruses to cross species barriers to cause zoonosis. Recently, a novel adenovirus was exclusively found in birds causing an outbreak of Chlamydophila psittaci infection among birds and humans. Instead of being the primary cause of an outbreak by jumping directly from bird to human, a novel avian virus can be an augmenter of another zoonotic agent causing the outbreak. A comprehensive avian virome will improve our understanding of birds' evolutionary dynamics.

  13. Human adenovirus type 12: crossing species barriers to immortalize the viral genome.

    PubMed

    Doerfler, Walter

    2007-01-01

    When viruses cross species barriers, they often change their biological and pathogenetic properties. In the author's laboratory the nonproductive interaction of Syrian hamster cells with human adenovirus type 12 (Ad12) has been studied. Ad12 induces undifferentiated tumors in newborn hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) at high frequency. Ad12 inefficiently enters hamster (BHK21) cells, and only small amounts of viral DNA reach the nucleus. Viral DNA replication and late transcription are blocked. In Ad12-induced tumor cells, multiple copies of viral DNA are chromosomally integrated. The integrated viral DNA becomes de novo methylated. Cellular DNA methylation and transcription patterns in Ad12-transformed cells and in Ad12-induced tumor cells are altered. These changes may be related to the oncogenic potential of Ad12 in hamsters. In this chapter, concepts and techniques for the study of the Ad12-hamster cell system are summarized.

  14. Cross-species infection of hepatitis E virus in a zoo-like location, including birds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W; Shen, Q; Mou, J; Yang, Z B; Yuan, C L; Cui, L; Zhu, J G; Hua, X G; Xu, C M; Hu, J

    2008-08-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a zoonotic pathogen of which several species of animals are considered to be reservoirs. Thirty-eight faecal samples, obtained from 22 species of animals including birds in a wildlife first-aid centre in Eastern China, were tested for HEV RNA. Our survey revealed that in total 28.9% (95% confidence interval 14.5-43.4) of the faecal samples from various mammals and birds were HEV RNA positive. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the 11 isolates demonstrated that all sequences clustered in genotype 4 with 96-100% identity to each other. In addition, serum samples from seven animal handlers have shown that five (71.4%) were seropositive. The findings imply that cross-species infection of HEV had probably occurred in this zoo-like location, and moreover, birds can be infected naturally with mammalian HEV.

  15. Microsatellite loci in the tiger shark and cross-species amplification using pyrosequencing technology

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Natália J.; Cruz, Vanessa P.; Ashikaga, Fernando Y.; Camargo, Sâmia M.; Oliveira, Claudio; Piercy, Andrew N.; Burgess, George H.; Coelho, Rui; Santos, Miguel N.; Foresti, Fausto

    2016-01-01

    The tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier) has a global distribution in tropical and warm temperate seas, and it is caught in numerous fisheries worldwide, mainly as bycatch. It is currently assessed as near threatened by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List. In this study, we identified nine microsatellite loci through next generation sequencing (454 pyrosequencing) using 29 samples from the western Atlantic. The genetic diversity of these loci were assessed and revealed a total of 48 alleles ranging from 3 to 7 alleles per locus (average of 5.3 alleles). Cross-species amplification was successful at most loci for other species such as Carcharhinus longimanus, C. acronotus and Alopias superciliosus. Given the potential applicability of genetic markers for biological conservation, these data may contribute to the population assessment of this and other species of sharks worldwide. PMID:27635306

  16. Cross-species transferability of microsatellite markers in the genus Lippia.

    PubMed

    Santos, C P; Rocha, D S; Bajay, M M; Santos, F R C; Campos, J B; Pinheiro, J B; Zucchi, M I; Silva-Mann, R; Arrigoni-Blank, M F; Blank, A F

    2014-11-27

    The cross-species transferability of 20 microsatellite markers was tested in the genus Lippia. Eleven markers were polymorphic after screening 19 accessions of Lippia sidoides and Lippia gracilis maintained in the Active Germplasm Bank (AGB) from Universidade Federal de Sergipe. Additionally, 40 accessions of Lippia spp were collected in Sergipe to increase the germplasm bank. A total of 23, 22, and 36 alleles were identified, with an average of 2.3, 2.2, and 3.27 alleles per locus, respectively, for each group. The markers that were used were efficient tools to access genetic diversity in the germplasm bank and will be useful for further research aiming at the conservation and management of these important aromatic species.

  17. Annotated genes and nonannotated genomes: cross-species use of Gene Ontology in ecology and evolution research.

    PubMed

    Primmer, C R; Papakostas, S; Leder, E H; Davis, M J; Ragan, M A

    2013-06-01

    Recent advances in molecular technologies have opened up unprecedented opportunities for molecular ecologists to better understand the molecular basis of traits of ecological and evolutionary importance in almost any organism. Nevertheless, reliable and systematic inference of functionally relevant information from these masses of data remains challenging. The aim of this review is to highlight how the Gene Ontology (GO) database can be of use in resolving this challenge. The GO provides a largely species-neutral source of information on the molecular function, biological role and cellular location of tens of thousands of gene products. As it is designed to be species-neutral, the GO is well suited for cross-species use, meaning that, functional annotation derived from model organisms can be transferred to inferred orthologues in newly sequenced species. In other words, the GO can provide gene annotation information for species with nonannotated genomes. In this review, we describe the GO database, how functional information is linked with genes/gene products in model organisms, and how molecular ecologists can utilize this information to annotate their own data. Then, we outline various applications of GO for enhancing the understanding of molecular basis of traits in ecologically relevant species. We also highlight potential pitfalls, provide step-by-step recommendations for conducting a sound study in nonmodel organisms, suggest avenues for future research and outline a strategy for maximizing the benefits of a more ecological and evolutionary genomics-oriented ontology by ensuring its compatibility with the GO. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Cross-species chromosome painting tracks the independent origin of multiple sex chromosomes in two cofamiliar Erythrinidae fishes.

    PubMed

    Cioffi, Marcelo B; Sánchez, Antonio; Marchal, Juan A; Kosyakova, Nadezda; Liehr, Thomas; Trifonov, Vladimir; Bertollo, Luiz Ac

    2011-06-30

    The Erythrinidae fish family is characterized by a large variation with respect to diploid chromosome numbers and sex-determining systems among its species, including two multiple X1X2Y sex systems in Hoplias malabaricus and Erythrinus erythrinus. At first, the occurrence of a same sex chromosome system within a family suggests that the sex chromosomes are correlated and originated from ancestral XY chromosomes that were either homomorphic or at an early stage of differentiation. To identify the origin and evolution of these X1X2Y sex chromosomes, we performed reciprocal cross-species FISH experiments with two sex-chromosome-specific probes designed from microdissected X1 and Y chromosomes of H. malabaricus and E. erythrinus, respectively. Our results yield valuable information regarding the origin and evolution of these sex chromosome systems. Our data indicate that these sex chromosomes evolved independently in these two closed related Erythrinidae species. Different autosomes were first converted into a poorly differentiated XY sex pair in each species, and additional chromosomal rearrangements produced both X1X2Y sex systems that are currently present. Our data provide new insights into the origin and evolution of sex chromosomes, which increases our knowledge about fish sex chromosome evolution.

  19. Limitations to estimating bacterial cross-species transmission using genetic and genomic markers: inferences from simulation modeling

    PubMed Central

    Benavides, Julio A; Cross, Paul C; Luikart, Gordon; Creel, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Cross-species transmission (CST) of bacterial pathogens has major implications for human health, livestock, and wildlife management because it determines whether control actions in one species may have subsequent effects on other potential host species. The study of bacterial transmission has benefitted from methods measuring two types of genetic variation: variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). However, it is unclear whether these data can distinguish between different epidemiological scenarios. We used a simulation model with two host species and known transmission rates (within and between species) to evaluate the utility of these markers for inferring CST. We found that CST estimates are biased for a wide range of parameters when based on VNTRs and a most parsimonious reconstructed phylogeny. However, estimations of CST rates lower than 5% can be achieved with relatively low bias using as low as 250 SNPs. CST estimates are sensitive to several parameters, including the number of mutations accumulated since introduction, stochasticity, the genetic difference of strains introduced, and the sampling effort. Our results suggest that, even with whole-genome sequences, unbiased estimates of CST will be difficult when sampling is limited, mutation rates are low, or for pathogens that were recently introduced. PMID:25469159

  20. Limitations to estimating bacterial cross-species transmission using genetic and genomic markers: inferences from simulation modeling.

    PubMed

    Benavides, Julio A; Cross, Paul C; Luikart, Gordon; Creel, Scott

    2014-08-01

    Cross-species transmission (CST) of bacterial pathogens has major implications for human health, livestock, and wildlife management because it determines whether control actions in one species may have subsequent effects on other potential host species. The study of bacterial transmission has benefitted from methods measuring two types of genetic variation: variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). However, it is unclear whether these data can distinguish between different epidemiological scenarios. We used a simulation model with two host species and known transmission rates (within and between species) to evaluate the utility of these markers for inferring CST. We found that CST estimates are biased for a wide range of parameters when based on VNTRs and a most parsimonious reconstructed phylogeny. However, estimations of CST rates lower than 5% can be achieved with relatively low bias using as low as 250 SNPs. CST estimates are sensitive to several parameters, including the number of mutations accumulated since introduction, stochasticity, the genetic difference of strains introduced, and the sampling effort. Our results suggest that, even with whole-genome sequences, unbiased estimates of CST will be difficult when sampling is limited, mutation rates are low, or for pathogens that were recently introduced.

  1. Identifying a Network of Brain Regions Involved in Aversion-Related Processing: A Cross-Species Translational Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Dave J.; Northoff, Georg

    2011-01-01

    The ability to detect and respond appropriately to aversive stimuli is essential for all organisms, from fruit flies to humans. This suggests the existence of a core neural network which mediates aversion-related processing. Human imaging studies on aversion have highlighted the involvement of various cortical regions, such as the prefrontal cortex, while animal studies have focused largely on subcortical regions like the periaqueductal gray and hypothalamus. However, whether and how these regions form a core neural network of aversion remains unclear. To help determine this, a translational cross-species investigation in humans (i.e., meta-analysis) and other animals (i.e., systematic review of functional neuroanatomy) was performed. Our results highlighted the recruitment of the anterior cingulate cortex, the anterior insula, and the amygdala as well as other subcortical (e.g., thalamus, midbrain) and cortical (e.g., orbitofrontal) regions in both animals and humans. Importantly, involvement of these regions remained independent of sensory modality. This study provides evidence for a core neural network mediating aversion in both animals and humans. This not only contributes to our understanding of the trans-species neural correlates of aversion but may also carry important implications for psychiatric disorders where abnormal aversive behavior can often be observed. PMID:22102836

  2. A Cross-Species Analysis in Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors Reveals Molecular Subtypes with Distinctive Clinical, Metastatic, Developmental, and Metabolic Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Sadanandam, Anguraj; Wullschleger, Stephan; Lyssiotis, Costas A.; Grötzinger, Carsten; Barbi, Stefano; Bersani, Samantha; Körner, Jan; Wafy, Ismael; Mafficini, Andrea; Lawlor, Rita T.; Simbolo, Michele; Asara, John M.; Bläker, Hendrik; Cantley, Lewis C.; Wiedenmann, Bertram; Scarpa, Aldo; Hanahan, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Seeking to assess the representative and instructive value of an engineered mouse model of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNET) for its cognate human cancer, we profiled and compared mRNA and miRNA transcriptomes of tumors from both. Mouse PanNET tumors could be classified into two distinctive subtypes, well-differentiated islet/insulinoma tumors (IT) and poorly differentiated tumors associated with liver metastases, dubbed metastasis-like primary (MLP). Human PanNETs were independently classified into these same two subtypes, along with a third, specific gene mutation–enriched subtype. The MLP subtypes in human and mouse were similar to liver metastases in terms of miRNA and mRNA transcriptome profiles and signature genes. The human/mouse MLP subtypes also similarly expressed genes known to regulate early pancreas development, whereas the IT subtypes expressed genes characteristic of mature islet cells, suggesting different tumorigenesis pathways. In addition, these subtypes exhibit distinct metabolic profiles marked by differential pyruvate metabolism, substantiating the significance of their separate identities. SIGNIFICANCE This study involves a comprehensive cross-species integrated analysis of multi-omics profiles and histology to stratify PanNETs into subtypes with distinctive characteristics. We provide support for the RIP1-TAG2 mouse model as representative of its cognate human cancer with prospects to better understand PanNET heterogeneity and consider future applications of personalized cancer therapy. PMID:26446169

  3. Computational prediction of the human-microbial oral interactome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The oral cavity is a complex ecosystem where human chemical compounds coexist with a particular microbiota. However, shifts in the normal composition of this microbiota may result in the onset of oral ailments, such as periodontitis and dental caries. In addition, it is known that the microbial colonization of the oral cavity is mediated by protein-protein interactions (PPIs) between the host and microorganisms. Nevertheless, this kind of PPIs is still largely undisclosed. To elucidate these interactions, we have created a computational prediction method that allows us to obtain a first model of the Human-Microbial oral interactome. Results We collected high-quality experimental PPIs from five major human databases. The obtained PPIs were used to create our positive dataset and, indirectly, our negative dataset. The positive and negative datasets were merged and used for training and validation of a naïve Bayes classifier. For the final prediction model, we used an ensemble methodology combining five distinct PPI prediction techniques, namely: literature mining, primary protein sequences, orthologous profiles, biological process similarity, and domain interactions. Performance evaluation of our method revealed an area under the ROC-curve (AUC) value greater than 0.926, supporting our primary hypothesis, as no single set of features reached an AUC greater than 0.877. After subjecting our dataset to the prediction model, the classified result was filtered for very high confidence PPIs (probability ≥ 1-10−7), leading to a set of 46,579 PPIs to be further explored. Conclusions We believe this dataset holds not only important pathways involved in the onset of infectious oral diseases, but also potential drug-targets and biomarkers. The dataset used for training and validation, the predictions obtained and the network final network are available at http://bioinformatics.ua.pt/software/oralint. PMID:24576332

  4. Forward Individualized Medicine from Personal Genomes to Interactomes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiang; Kuivenhoven, Jan A; Groen, Albert K

    2015-01-01

    When considering the variation in the genome, transcriptome, proteome and metabolome, and their interaction with the environment, every individual can be rightfully considered as a unique biological entity. Individualized medicine promises to take this uniqueness into account to optimize disease treatment and thereby improve health benefits for every patient. The success of individualized medicine relies on a precise understanding of the genotype-phenotype relationship. Although omics technologies advance rapidly, there are several challenges that need to be overcome: Next generation sequencing can efficiently decipher genomic sequences, epigenetic changes, and transcriptomic variation in patients, but it does not automatically indicate how or whether the identified variation will cause pathological changes. This is likely due to the inability to account for (1) the consequences of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions, and (2) (post)transcriptional as well as (post)translational processes that eventually determine the concentration of key metabolites. The technologies to accurately measure changes in these latter layers are still under development, and such measurements in humans are also mainly restricted to blood and circulating cells. Despite these challenges, it is already possible to track dynamic changes in the human interactome in healthy and diseased states by using the integration of multi-omics data. In this review, we evaluate the potential value of current major bioinformatics and systems biology-based approaches, including genome wide association studies, epigenetics, gene regulatory and protein-protein interaction networks, and genome-scale metabolic modeling. Moreover, we address the question whether integrative analysis of personal multi-omics data will help understanding of personal genotype-phenotype relationships.

  5. Rhodopseudomonas palustris Regulons Detected by Cross-Species Analysis of Alphaproteobacterial Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Conlan, Sean; Lawrence, Charles; McCue, Lee Ann

    2005-01-01

    Rhodopseudomonas palustris, an α-proteobacterium, carries out three of the chemical reactions that support life on this planet: the conversion of sunlight to chemical-potential energy; the absorption of carbon dioxide, which it converts to cellular material; and the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia. Insight into the transcription-regulatory network that coordinates these processes is fundamental to understanding the biology of this versatile bacterium. With this goal in mind, we predicted regulatory signals genomewide, using a two-step phylogenetic-footprinting and clustering process that we had developed previously. In the first step, 4,963 putative transcription factor binding sites, upstream of 2,044 genes and operons, were identified using cross-species Gibbs sampling. Bayesian motif clustering was then employed to group the cross-species motifs into regulons. We have identified 101 putative regulons in R. palustris, including 8 that are of particular interest: a photosynthetic regulon, a flagellar regulon, an organic hydroperoxide resistance regulon, the LexA regulon, and four regulons related to nitrogen metabolism (FixK2, NnrR, NtrC, and σ54). In some cases, clustering allowed us to assign functions to proteins that previously had been annotated with only putative functions; we have identified RPA0828 as the organic hydroperoxide resistance regulator and RPA1026 as a cell cycle methylase. In addition to predicting regulons, we identified a novel inverted repeat that likely forms a highly conserved stem-loop and that occurs downstream of over 100 genes. PMID:16269786

  6. Evolutionary factors affecting the cross-species utility of newly developed microsatellite markers in seabirds.

    PubMed

    Moodley, Yoshan; Masello, Juan F; Cole, Theresa L; Calderon, Luciano; Munimanda, Gopi K; Thali, Marco R; Alderman, Rachael; Cuthbert, Richard J; Marin, Manuel; Massaro, Melanie; Navarro, Joan; Phillips, Richard A; Ryan, Peter G; Suazo, Cristián G; Cherel, Yves; Weimerskirch, Henri; Quillfeldt, Petra

    2015-09-01

    Microsatellite loci are ideal for testing hypotheses relating to genetic segregation at fine spatio-temporal scales. They are also conserved among closely related species, making them potentially useful for clarifying interspecific relationships between recently diverged taxa. However, mutations at primer binding sites may lead to increased nonamplification, or disruptions that may result in decreased polymorphism in nontarget species. Furthermore, high mutation rates and constraints on allele size may also with evolutionary time, promote an increase in convergently evolved allele size classes, biasing measures of interspecific genetic differentiation. Here, we used next-generation sequencing to develop microsatellite markers from a shotgun genome sequence of the sub-Antarctic seabird, the thin-billed prion (Pachyptila belcheri), that we tested for cross-species amplification in other Pachyptila and related sub-Antarctic species. We found that heterozygosity decreased and the proportion of nonamplifying loci increased with phylogenetic distance from the target species. Surprisingly, we found that species trees estimated from interspecific FST provided better approximations of mtDNA relationships among the studied species than those estimated using DC , even though FST was more affected by null alleles. We observed a significantly nonlinear second order polynomial relationship between microsatellite and mtDNA distances. We propose that the loss of linearity with increasing mtDNA distance stems from an increasing proportion of homoplastic allele size classes that are identical in state, but not identical by descent. Therefore, despite high cross-species amplification success and high polymorphism among the closely related Pachyptila species, we caution against the use of microsatellites in phylogenetic inference among distantly related taxa.

  7. Alternative splicing in teleost fish genomes: same-species and cross-species analysis and comparisons.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jianguo; Peatman, Eric; Wang, Wenqi; Yang, Qing; Abernathy, Jason; Wang, Shaolin; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2010-06-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) is a mechanism by which the coding diversity of the genome can be greatly increased. Rates of AS are known to vary according to the complexity of eukaryotic species potentially explaining the tremendous phenotypic diversity among species with similar numbers of coding genes. Little is known, however, about the nature or rate of AS in teleost fish. Here, we report the characteristics of AS in teleost fish and classification and frequency of five canonical AS types. We conducted both same-species and cross-species analysis utilizing the Genome Mapping and Alignment Program (GMAP) and an AS pipeline (ASpipe) to study AS in four genome-enabled species (Danio rerio, Oryzias latipes, Gasterosteus aculeatus, and Takifugu rubripes) and one species lacking a complete genome sequence, Ictalurus punctatus. AS frequency was lowest in the highly duplicated genome of zebrafish (17% of mapped genes). The compact genome of the pufferfish showed the highest occurrence of AS (approximately 43% of mapped genes). An inverse correlation between AS frequency and genome size was consistent across all analyzed species. Cross-species comparisons utilizing zebrafish as the reference genome allowed the identification of additional putative AS genes not revealed by zebrafish transcripts. Approximately, 50% of AS genes identified by same-species comparisons were shared among two or more species. A searchable website, the Teleost Alternative Splicing Database, was created to allow easy identification and visualization of AS transcripts in the studied teleost genomes. Our results and associated database should further our understanding of alternative splicing as an important functional and evolutionary mechanism in the genomes of teleost fish.

  8. Cross-Species Gene Expression Analysis of Species Specific Differences in the Preclinical Assessment of Pharmaceutical Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Okyere, John; Oppon, Ekow; Dzidzienyo, Daniel; Sharma, Lav; Ball, Graham

    2014-01-01

    Animals are frequently used as model systems for determination of safety and efficacy in pharmaceutical research and development. However, significant quantitative and qualitative differences exist between humans and the animal models used in research. This is as a result of genetic variation between human and the laboratory animal. Therefore the development of a system that would allow the assessment of all molecular differences between species after drug exposure would have a significant impact on drug evaluation for toxicity and efficacy. Here we describe a cross-species microarray methodology that identifies and selects orthologous probes after cross-species sequence comparison to develop an orthologous cross-species gene expression analysis tool. The assumptions made by the use of this orthologous gene expression strategy for cross-species extrapolation is that; conserved changes in gene expression equate to conserved pharmacodynamic endpoints. This assumption is supported by the fact that evolution and selection have maintained the structure and function of many biochemical pathways over time, resulting in the conservation of many important processes. We demonstrate this cross-species methodology by investigating species specific differences of the peroxisome proliferator-activator receptor (PPAR) α response in rat and human. PMID:24823806

  9. Domain-based prediction of the human isoform interactome provides insights into the functional impact of alternative splicing.

    PubMed

    Ghadie, Mohamed Ali; Lambourne, Luke; Vidal, Marc; Xia, Yu

    2017-08-01

    Alternative splicing is known to remodel protein-protein interaction networks ("interactomes"), yet large-scale determination of isoform-specific interactions remains challenging. We present a domain-based method to predict the isoform interactome from the reference interactome. First, we construct the domain-resolved reference interactome by mapping known domain-domain interactions onto experimentally-determined interactions between reference proteins. Then, we construct the isoform interactome by predicting that an isoform loses an interaction if it loses the domain mediating the interaction. Our prediction framework is of high-quality when assessed by experimental data. The predicted human isoform interactome reveals extensive network remodeling by alternative splicing. Protein pairs interacting with different isoforms of the same gene tend to be more divergent in biological function, tissue expression, and disease phenotype than protein pairs interacting with the same isoforms. Our prediction method complements experimental efforts, and demonstrates that integrating structural domain information with interactomes provides insights into the functional impact of alternative splicing.

  10. Construction of a Plasmodium falciparum Rab-interactome identifies CK1 and PKA as Rab-effector kinases in malaria parasites

    PubMed Central

    Rached, Fathia Ben; Ndjembo-Ezougou, Carinne; Chandran, Syama; Talabani, Hana; Yera, Hélène; Dandavate, Vrushali; Bourdoncle, Pierre; Meissner, Markus; Tatu, Utpal; Langsley, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Background information The pathology causing stages of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum reside within red blood cells that are devoid of any regulated transport system. The parasite, therefore, is entirely responsible for mediating vesicular transport within itself and in the infected erythrocyte cytoplasm, and it does so in part via its family of 11 Rab GTPases. Putative functions have been ascribed to Plasmodium Rabs due to their homology with Rabs of yeast, particularly with Saccharomyces that has an equivalent number of rab/ypt genes and where analyses of Ypt function is well characterized. Results Rabs are important regulators of vesicular traffic due to their capacity to recruit specific effectors. In order to identify P. falciparum Rab (PfRab) effectors, we first built a Ypt-interactome by exploiting genetic and physical binding data available at the Saccharomyces genome database (SGD). We then constructed a PfRab-interactome using putative parasite Rab-effectors identified by homology to Ypt-effectors. We demonstrate its potential by wet-bench testing three predictions; that casein kinase-1 (PfCK1) is a specific Rab5B interacting protein and that the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PfPKA-C) is a PfRab5A and PfRab7 effector. Conclusions The establishment of a shared set of physical Ypt/PfRab-effector proteins sheds light on a core set Plasmodium Rab-interactants shared with yeast. The PfRab-interactome should benefit vesicular trafficking studies in malaria parasites. The recruitment of PfCK1 to PfRab5B+ and PfPKA-C to PfRab5A+ and PfRab7+ vesicles, respectively, suggests that PfRab-recruited kinases potentially play a role in early and late endosome function in malaria parasites. PMID:22188458

  11. A Highly Efficient Approach to Protein Interactome Mapping Based on Collaborative Filtering Framework

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xin; You, Zhuhong; Zhou, Mengchu; Li, Shuai; Leung, Hareton; Xia, Yunni; Zhu, Qingsheng

    2015-01-01

    The comprehensive mapping of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) is highly desired for one to gain deep insights into both fundamental cell biology processes and the pathology of diseases. Finely-set small-scale experiments are not only very expensive but also inefficient to identify numerous interactomes despite their high accuracy. High-throughput screening techniques enable efficient identification of PPIs; yet the desire to further extract useful knowledge from these data leads to the problem of binary interactome mapping. Network topology-based approaches prove to be highly efficient in addressing this problem; however, their performance deteriorates significantly on sparse putative PPI networks. Motivated by the success of collaborative filtering (CF)-based approaches to the problem of personalized-recommendation on large, sparse rating matrices, this work aims at implementing a highly efficient CF-based approach to binary interactome mapping. To achieve this, we first propose a CF framework for it. Under this framework, we model the given data into an interactome weight matrix, where the feature-vectors of involved proteins are extracted. With them, we design the rescaled cosine coefficient to model the inter-neighborhood similarity among involved proteins, for taking the mapping process. Experimental results on three large, sparse datasets demonstrate that the proposed approach outperforms several sophisticated topology-based approaches significantly. PMID:25572661

  12. A Highly Efficient Approach to Protein Interactome Mapping Based on Collaborative Filtering Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xin; You, Zhuhong; Zhou, Mengchu; Li, Shuai; Leung, Hareton; Xia, Yunni; Zhu, Qingsheng

    2015-01-01

    The comprehensive mapping of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) is highly desired for one to gain deep insights into both fundamental cell biology processes and the pathology of diseases. Finely-set small-scale experiments are not only very expensive but also inefficient to identify numerous interactomes despite their high accuracy. High-throughput screening techniques enable efficient identification of PPIs; yet the desire to further extract useful knowledge from these data leads to the problem of binary interactome mapping. Network topology-based approaches prove to be highly efficient in addressing this problem; however, their performance deteriorates significantly on sparse putative PPI networks. Motivated by the success of collaborative filtering (CF)-based approaches to the problem of personalized-recommendation on large, sparse rating matrices, this work aims at implementing a highly efficient CF-based approach to binary interactome mapping. To achieve this, we first propose a CF framework for it. Under this framework, we model the given data into an interactome weight matrix, where the feature-vectors of involved proteins are extracted. With them, we design the rescaled cosine coefficient to model the inter-neighborhood similarity among involved proteins, for taking the mapping process. Experimental results on three large, sparse datasets demonstrate that the proposed approach outperforms several sophisticated topology-based approaches significantly.

  13. Deriving Heterospecific Self-Assembling Protein-Protein Interactions Using a Computational Interactome Screen.

    PubMed

    Crooks, Richard O; Baxter, Daniel; Panek, Anna S; Lubben, Anneke T; Mason, Jody M

    2016-01-29

    Interactions between naturally occurring proteins are highly specific, with protein-network imbalances associated with numerous diseases. For designed protein-protein interactions (PPIs), required specificity can be notoriously difficult to engineer. To accelerate this process, we have derived peptides that form heterospecific PPIs when combined. This is achieved using software that generates large virtual libraries of peptide sequences and searches within the resulting interactome for preferentially interacting peptides. To demonstrate feasibility, we have (i) generated 1536 peptide sequences based on the parallel dimeric coiled-coil motif and varied residues known to be important for stability and specificity, (ii) screened the 1,180,416 member interactome for predicted Tm values and (iii) used predicted Tm cutoff points to isolate eight peptides that form four heterospecific PPIs when combined. This required that all 32 hypothetical off-target interactions within the eight-peptide interactome be disfavoured and that the four desired interactions pair correctly. Lastly, we have verified the approach by characterising all 36 pairs within the interactome. In analysing the output, we hypothesised that several sequences are capable of adopting antiparallel orientations. We subsequently improved the software by removing sequences where doing so led to fully complementary electrostatic pairings. Our approach can be used to derive increasingly large and therefore complex sets of heterospecific PPIs with a wide range of potential downstream applications from disease modulation to the design of biomaterials and peptides in synthetic biology. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. High Quality Binary Protein Interaction Map of the Yeast Interactome Network

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Haiyuan; Braun, Pascal; Yildirim, Muhammed A.; Lemmens, Irma; Venkatesan, Kavitha; Sahalie, Julie; Hirozane-Kishikawa, Tomoko; Gebreab, Fana; Li, Na; Simonis, Nicolas; Hao, Tong; Rual, Jean-Franćois; Dricot, Amélie; Vazquez, Alexei; Murray, Ryan R.; Simon, Christophe; Tardivo, Leah; Tam, Stanley; Svrzikapa, Nenad; Fan, Changyu; de Smet, Anne-Sophie; Motyl, Adriana; Hudson, Michael E.; Park, Juyong; Xin, Xiaofeng; Cusick, Michael E.; Moore, Troy; Boone, Charlie; Snyder, Michael; Roth, Frederick P.; Barabási, Albert-László; Tavernier, Jan; Hill, David E.; Vidal, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Current yeast interactome network maps contain several hundred molecular complexes with limited and somewhat controversial representation of direct binary interactions. We carried out a comparative quality assessment of current yeast interactome datasets, demonstrating that high-throughput yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) provides high-quality binary interaction information. As a large fraction of the yeast binary interactome remains to be mapped, we developed an empirically-controlled mapping framework to produce a “second-generation” high-quality high-throughput Y2H dataset covering ~20% of all yeast binary interactions. Both Y2H and affinity-purification followed by mass spectrometry (AP/MS) data are of equally high quality but of a fundamentally different and complementary nature resulting in networks with different topological and biological properties. Compared to co-complex interactome models, this binary map is enriched for transient signaling interactions and inter-complex connections with a highly significant clustering between essential proteins. Rather than correlating with essentiality, protein connectivity correlates with genetic pleiotropy. PMID:18719252

  15. Construction and application of a protein and genetic interaction network (yeast interactome)

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Gregory R.; Copeland, William C.; Strand, Micheline K.

    2009-01-01

    Cytoscape is a bioinformatic data analysis and visualization platform that is well-suited to the analysis of gene expression data. To facilitate the analysis of yeast microarray data using Cytoscape, we constructed an interaction network (interactome) using the curated interaction data available from the Saccharomyces Genome Database (www.yeastgenome.org) and the database of yeast transcription factors at YEASTRACT (www.yeastract.com). These data were formatted and imported into Cytoscape using semi-automated methods, including Linux-based scripts, that simplified the process while minimizing the introduction of processing errors. The methods described for the construction of this yeast interactome are generally applicable to the construction of any interactome. Using Cytoscape, we illustrate the use of this interactome through the analysis of expression data from a recent yeast diauxic shift experiment. We also report and briefly describe the complex associations among transcription factors that result in the regulation of thousands of genes through coordinated changes in expression of dozens of transcription factors. These cells are thus able to sensitively regulate cellular metabolism in response to changes in genetic or environmental conditions through relatively small changes in the expression of large numbers of genes, affecting the entire yeast metabolome. PMID:19273534

  16. ΔF508 CFTR interactome remodeling promotes rescue of Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Pankow, Sandra; Bamberger, Casimir; Calzolari, Diego; Martínez-Bartolomé, Salvador; Lavallée-Adam, Mathieu; Balch, William E.; Yates, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Deletion of phenylalanine 508 of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) is the major cause of Cystic Fibrosis (CF), one of the most common inherited childhood diseases. The mutated CFTR anion channel is not fully glycosylated and shows minimal activity in bronchial epithelial cells of CF patients. Low temperature or inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACi) can partially rescue ΔF508 CFTR cellular processing defects and function. A favorable change of ΔF508 CFTR protein-protein interactions was proposed as mechanism of rescue, however CFTR interactome dynamics during temperature-shift and HDACi rescue are unknown. Here, we report the first comprehensive analysis of the wt and ΔF508 CFTR interactome and its dynamics during temperature shift and HDACi. By using a novel deep proteomic analysis method (CoPIT), we identified 638 individual high-confidence CFTR interactors and discovered a mutation-specific interactome, which is extensively remodeled upon rescue. Detailed analysis of the interactome remodeling identified key novel interactors, whose loss promoted enhanced CFTR channel function in primary CF epithelia or which were critical for normal CFTR biogenesis. Our results demonstrate that global remodeling of ΔF508 CFTR interactions is crucial for rescue, and provide comprehensive insight into the molecular disease mechanisms of CF caused by deletion of F508. PMID:26618866

  17. A Method to Detect Differential Gene Expression in Cross-Species Hybridization Experiments at Gene and Probe Level

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Wu, Rebekah; Felton, James; Rocke, David M.; Chakicherla, Anu

    2010-01-01

    Motivation Whole genome microarrays are increasingly becoming the method of choice to study responses in model organisms to disease, stressors or other stimuli. However, whole genome sequences are available for only some model organisms, and there are still many species whose genome sequences are not yet available. Cross-species studies, where arrays developed for one species are used to study gene expression in a closely related species, have been used to address this gap, with some promising results. Current analytical methods have included filtration of some probes or genes that showed low hybridization activities. But consensus filtration schemes are still not available. Results A novel masking procedure is proposed based on currently available target species sequences to filter out probes and study a cross-species data set using this masking procedure and gene-set analysis. Gene-set analysis evaluates the association of some priori defined gene groups with a phenotype of interest. Two methods, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) and Test of Test Statistics (ToTS) were investigated. The results showed that masking procedure together with ToTS method worked well in our data set. The results from an alternative way to study cross-species hybridization experiments without masking are also presented. We hypothesize that the multi-probes structure of Affymetrix microarrays makes it possible to aggregate the effects of both well-hybridized and poorly-hybridized probes to study a group of genes. The principles of gene-set analysis were applied to the probe-level data instead of gene-level data. The results showed that ToTS can give valuable information and thus can be used as a powerful technique for analyzing cross-species hybridization experiments. Availability Software in the form of R code is available at http://anson.ucdavis.edu/~ychen/cross-species.html Supplementary Data Supplementary data are available at http://anson.ucdavis.edu/~ychen/cross-species.html PMID

  18. Ion Channel Function and Cross-Species Determinants in Viral Assembly of Nonprimate Hepacivirus p7

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Stephanie; Bollenbach, Alexander; Doerrbecker, Juliane; Pfaender, Stephanie; Brown, Richard J. P.; Vieyres, Gabrielle; Scott, Claire; Foster, Richard; Kumar, Abhinav; Zitzmann, Nicole; Griffin, Stephen; Penin, François; Pietschmann, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nonprimate hepacivirus (NPHV), the closest homolog of hepatitis C virus (HCV) described to date, has recently been discovered in horses. Even though the two viruses share a similar genomic organization, conservation of the encoded hepaciviral proteins remains undetermined. The HCV p7 protein is localized within endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes and is important for the production of infectious particles. In this study, we analyzed the structural and functional features of NPHV p7 in addition to its role during virus assembly. Three-dimensional homology models for NPHV p7 using various nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) structures were generated, highlighting the conserved residues important for ion channel function. By applying a liposome permeability assay, we observed that NPHV p7 exhibited liposome permeability features similar to those of HCV p7, indicative of similar ion channel activity. Next, we characterized the viral protein using a p7-based trans-complementation approach. A similar subcellular localization pattern at the ER membrane was observed, although production of infectious particles was likely hindered by genetic incompatibilities with HCV proteins. To further characterize these cross-species constraints, chimeric viruses were constructed by substituting different regions of HCV p7 with NPHV p7. The N terminus and transmembrane domains were nonexchangeable and therefore constitute a cross-species barrier in hepaciviral assembly. In contrast, the basic loop and the C terminus of NPHV p7 were readily exchangeable, allowing production of infectious trans-complemented viral particles. In conclusion, comparison of NPHV and HCV p7 revealed structural and functional homology of these proteins, including liposome permeability, and broadly acting determinants that modulate hepaciviral virion assembly and contribute to the host-species barrier were identified. IMPORTANCE The recent discovery of new relatives of hepatitis C virus (HCV

  19. Molecular Epidemiology of Cross-Species Giardia duodenalis Transmission in Western Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Amanda R.; Gillespie, Thomas R.; Rwego, Innocent B.; Tranby McLachlan, Traci L.; Kent, Angela D.; Goldberg, Tony L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Giardia duodenalis is prevalent in tropical settings where diverse opportunities exist for transmission between people and animals. We conducted a cross-sectional study of G. duodenalis in people, livestock, and wild primates near Kibale National Park, Uganda, where human-livestock-wildlife interaction is high due to habitat disturbance. Our goal was to infer the cross-species transmission potential of G. duodenalis using molecular methods and to investigate clinical consequences of infection. Methodology/Principal Findings Real-time PCR on DNA extracted from fecal samples revealed a combined prevalence of G. duodenalis in people from three villages of 44/108 (40.7%), with prevalence reaching 67.5% in one village. Prevalence rates in livestock and primates were 12.4% and 11.1%, respectively. Age was associated with G. duodenalis infection in people (higher prevalence in individuals ≤15 years) and livestock (higher prevalence in subadult versus adult animals), but other potential risk factors in people (gender, contact with domestic animals, working in fields, working in forests, source of drinking water, and medication use) were not. G. duodenalis infection was not associated with gastrointestinal symptoms in people, nor was clinical disease noted in livestock or primates. Sequence analysis of four G. duodenalis genes identified assemblage AII in humans, assemblage BIV in humans and endangered red colobus monkeys, and assemblage E in livestock and red colobus, representing the first documentation of assemblage E in a non-human primate. In addition, genetic relationships within the BIV assemblage revealed sub-clades of identical G. duodenalis sequences from humans and red colobus. Conclusions/Significance Our finding of G. duodenalis in people and primates (assemblage BIV) and livestock and primates (assemblage E) underscores that cross-species transmission of multiple G. duodenalis assemblages may occur in locations such as western Uganda where people

  20. Induction of ebolavirus cross-species immunity using retrovirus-like particles bearing the Ebola virus glycoprotein lacking the mucin-like domain.

    PubMed

    Ou, Wu; Delisle, Josie; Jacques, Jerome; Shih, Joanna; Price, Graeme; Kuhn, Jens H; Wang, Vivian; Verthelyi, Daniela; Kaplan, Gerardo; Wilson, Carolyn A

    2012-01-25

    The genus Ebolavirus includes five distinct viruses. Four of these viruses cause hemorrhagic fever in humans. Currently there are no licensed vaccines for any of them; however, several vaccines are under development. Ebola virus envelope glycoprotein (GP1,2) is highly immunogenic, but antibodies frequently arise against its least conserved mucin-like domain (MLD). We hypothesized that immunization with MLD-deleted GP1,2 (GPΔMLD) would induce cross-species immunity by making more conserved regions accessible to the immune system. To test this hypothesis, mice were immunized with retrovirus-like particles (retroVLPs) bearing Ebola virus GPΔMLD, DNA plasmids (plasmo-retroVLP) that can produce such retroVLPs in vivo, or plasmo-retroVLP followed by retroVLPs. Cross-species neutralizing antibody and GP1,2-specific cellular immune responses were successfully induced. Our findings suggest that GPΔMLD presented through retroVLPs may provide a strategy for development of a vaccine against multiple ebolaviruses. Similar vaccination strategies may be adopted for other viruses whose envelope proteins contain highly variable regions that may mask more conserved domains from the immune system.

  1. Evidence That a Psychopathology Interactome Has Diagnostic Value, Predicting Clinical Needs: An Experience Sampling Study

    PubMed Central

    van Os, Jim; Lataster, Tineke; Delespaul, Philippe; Wichers, Marieke; Myin-Germeys, Inez

    2014-01-01

    measures of psychopathology, similarly moderated by momentary interactions with emotions and context. Conclusion The results suggest that psychopathology, represented as an interactome at the momentary level of temporal resolution, is informative in diagnosing clinical needs, over and above traditional symptom measures. PMID:24466189

  2. The Reactive Species Interactome: Evolutionary Emergence, Biological Significance, and Opportunities for Redox Metabolomics and Personalized Medicine.

    PubMed

    Cortese-Krott, Miriam M; Koning, Anne; Kuhnle, Gunter G C; Nagy, Peter; Bianco, Christopher L; Pasch, Andreas; Wink, David A; Fukuto, Jon M; Jackson, Alan A; van Goor, Harry; Olson, Kenneth R; Feelisch, Martin

    2017-10-01

    Oxidative stress is thought to account for aberrant redox homeostasis and contribute to aging and disease. However, more often than not, administration of antioxidants is ineffective, suggesting that our current understanding of the underlying regulatory processes is incomplete. Recent Advances: Similar to reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species, reactive sulfur species are now emerging as important signaling molecules, targeting regulatory cysteine redox switches in proteins, affecting gene regulation, ion transport, intermediary metabolism, and mitochondrial function. To rationalize the complexity of chemical interactions of reactive species with themselves and their targets and help define their role in systemic metabolic control, we here introduce a novel integrative concept defined as the reactive species interactome (RSI). The RSI is a primeval multilevel redox regulatory system whose architecture, together with the physicochemical characteristics of its constituents, allows efficient sensing and rapid adaptation to environmental changes and various other stressors to enhance fitness and resilience at the local and whole-organism level. To better characterize the RSI-related processes that determine fluxes through specific pathways and enable integration, it is necessary to disentangle the chemical biology and activity of reactive species (including precursors and reaction products), their targets, communication systems, and effects on cellular, organ, and whole-organism bioenergetics using system-level/network analyses. Understanding the mechanisms through which the RSI operates will enable a better appreciation of the possibilities to modulate the entire biological system; moreover, unveiling molecular signatures that characterize specific environmental challenges or other forms of stress will provide new prevention/intervention opportunities for personalized medicine. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.

  3. The Reactive Species Interactome: Evolutionary Emergence, Biological Significance, and Opportunities for Redox Metabolomics and Personalized Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Koning, Anne; Kuhnle, Gunter G.C.; Nagy, Peter; Bianco, Christopher L.; Pasch, Andreas; Wink, David A.; Fukuto, Jon M.; Jackson, Alan A.; van Goor, Harry; Olson, Kenneth R.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Oxidative stress is thought to account for aberrant redox homeostasis and contribute to aging and disease. However, more often than not, administration of antioxidants is ineffective, suggesting that our current understanding of the underlying regulatory processes is incomplete. Recent Advances: Similar to reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species, reactive sulfur species are now emerging as important signaling molecules, targeting regulatory cysteine redox switches in proteins, affecting gene regulation, ion transport, intermediary metabolism, and mitochondrial function. To rationalize the complexity of chemical interactions of reactive species with themselves and their targets and help define their role in systemic metabolic control, we here introduce a novel integrative concept defined as the reactive species interactome (RSI). The RSI is a primeval multilevel redox regulatory system whose architecture, together with the physicochemical characteristics of its constituents, allows efficient sensing and rapid adaptation to environmental changes and various other stressors to enhance fitness and resilience at the local and whole-organism level. Critical Issues: To better characterize the RSI-related processes that determine fluxes through specific pathways and enable integration, it is necessary to disentangle the chemical biology and activity of reactive species (including precursors and reaction products), their targets, communication systems, and effects on cellular, organ, and whole-organism bioenergetics using system-level/network analyses. Future Directions: Understanding the mechanisms through which the RSI operates will enable a better appreciation of the possibilities to modulate the entire biological system; moreover, unveiling molecular signatures that characterize specific environmental challenges or other forms of stress will provide new prevention/intervention opportunities for personalized medicine. Antioxid. Redox

  4. Multidirectional cross-species painting illuminates the history of karyotypic evolution in Perissodactyla.

    PubMed

    Trifonov, Vladimir A; Stanyon, Roscoe; Nesterenko, Anastasia I; Fu, Beiyuan; Perelman, Polina L; O'Brien, Patricia C M; Stone, Gary; Rubtsova, Nadezhda V; Houck, Marlys L; Robinson, Terence J; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Dobigny, Gauthier; Graphodatsky, Alexander S; Yang, Fengtang

    2008-01-01

    The order Perissodactyla, the group of odd-toed ungulates, includes three extant families: Equidae, Tapiridae, and Rhinocerotidae. The extremely rapid karyotypic diversification in perissodactyls has so far prevented the establishment of genome-wide homology maps between these three families by traditional cytogenetic approaches. Here we report the first genome-wide comparative chromosome maps of African rhinoceroses, four tapir species, four equine species, and humans. These maps were established by multidirectional chromosome painting, with paint probes derived from flow-sorted chromosomes of Equus grevyi, Tapirus indicus, and Ceratotherium simum as well as painting probes from horse and human. The Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus), Baird's tapir (T. bairdii), mountain tapir (T. pinchaque), lowland tapir (T. terrestris), and onager (E. hemionus onager), were studied by cross-species chromosome painting for the first time. Our results, when integrated with previously published comparative chromosome maps of the other perissodactyl species, have enabled the reconstruction of perissodactyl, ceratomorph, and equid ancestral karyotypes, and the identification of the defining evolutionary chromosomal rearrangements along each lineage. Our results allow a more reliable estimate of the mode and tempo of evolutionary chromosomal rearrangements, revealing a striking switch between the slowly evolving ceratomorphs and extremely rapidly evolving equids.

  5. COLOMBOS v3.0: leveraging gene expression compendia for cross-species analyses.

    PubMed

    Moretto, Marco; Sonego, Paolo; Dierckxsens, Nicolas; Brilli, Matteo; Bianco, Luca; Ledezma-Tejeida, Daniela; Gama-Castro, Socorro; Galardini, Marco; Romualdi, Chiara; Laukens, Kris; Collado-Vides, Julio; Meysman, Pieter; Engelen, Kristof

    2016-01-04

    COLOMBOS is a database that integrates publicly available transcriptomics data for several prokaryotic model organisms. Compared to the previous version it has more than doubled in size, both in terms of species and data available. The manually curated condition annotation has been overhauled as well, giving more complete information about samples' experimental conditions and their differences. Functionality-wise cross-species analyses now enable users to analyse expression data for all species simultaneously, and identify candidate genes with evolutionary conserved expression behaviour. All the expression-based query tools have undergone a substantial improvement, overcoming the limit of enforced co-expression data retrieval and instead enabling the return of more complex patterns of expression behaviour. COLOMBOS is freely available through a web application at http://colombos.net/. The complete database is also accessible via REST API or downloadable as tab-delimited text files. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. Cross-Species Functional Genomic Analysis Identifies Resistance Genes of the Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Valproic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Forthun, Rakel Brendsdal; SenGupta, Tanima; Skjeldam, Hanne Kim; Lindvall, Jessica Margareta; McCormack, Emmet; Gjertsen, Bjørn Tore; Nilsen, Hilde

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms of successful epigenetic reprogramming in cancer are not well characterized as they involve coordinated removal of repressive marks and deposition of activating marks by a large number of histone and DNA modification enzymes. Here, we have used a cross-species functional genomic approach to identify conserved genetic interactions to improve therapeutic effect of the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) valproic acid, which increases survival in more than 20% of patients with advanced acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Using a bidirectional synthetic lethality screen revealing genes that increased or decreased VPA sensitivity in C. elegans, we identified novel conserved sensitizers and synthetic lethal interactors of VPA. One sensitizer identified as a conserved determinant of therapeutic success of HDACi was UTX (KDM6A), which demonstrates a functional relationship between protein acetylation and lysine-specific methylation. The synthetic lethal screen identified resistance programs that compensated for the HDACi-induced global hyper-acetylation, and confirmed MAPKAPK2, HSP90AA1, HSP90AB1 and ACTB as conserved hubs in a resistance program for HDACi that are drugable in human AML cell lines. Hence, these resistance hubs represent promising novel targets for refinement of combinatorial epigenetic anti-cancer therapy. PMID:23155442

  7. Cross-species Transcriptomic Comparison of In Vitro and In Vivo Mammalian Neural Cells

    PubMed Central

    LoVerso, Peter R.; Wachter, Christopher M.; Cui, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian brain is characterized by distinct classes of cells that differ in morphology, structure, signaling, and function. Dysregulation of gene expression in these cell populations leads to various neurological disorders. Neural cells often need to be acutely purified from animal brains for research, which requires complicated procedure and specific expertise. Primary culture of these cells in vitro is a viable alternative, but the differences in gene expression of cells grown in vitro and in vivo remain unclear. Here, we cultured three major neural cell classes of rat brain (ie, neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocyte precursor cells [OPCs]) obtained from commercial sources. We measured transcript abundance of these cell types by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and compared with their counterparts acutely purified from mouse brains. Cross-species RNA-seq data analysis revealed hundreds of genes that are differentially expressed between the cultured and acutely purified cells. Astrocytes have more such genes compared to neurons and OPCs, indicating that signaling pathways are greatly perturbed in cultured astrocytes. This dataset provides a powerful resource to demonstrate the similarities and differences of biological processes in mammalian neural cells grown in vitro and in vivo at the molecular level. PMID:26640375

  8. Cross-Species Extrapolation of Models for Predicting Lead Transfer from Soil to Wheat Grain

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ke; Lv, Jialong; Dai, Yunchao; Zhang, Hong; Cao, Yingfei

    2016-01-01

    The transfer of Pb from the soil to crops is a serious food hygiene security problem in China because of industrial, agricultural, and historical contamination. In this study, the characteristics of exogenous Pb transfer from 17 Chinese soils to a popular wheat variety (Xiaoyan 22) were investigated. In addition, bioaccumulation prediction models of Pb in grain were obtained based on soil properties. The results of the analysis showed that pH and OC were the most important factors contributing to Pb uptake by wheat grain. Using a cross-species extrapolation approach, the Pb uptake prediction models for cultivar Xiaoyan 22 in different soil Pb levels were satisfactorily applied to six additional non-modeled wheat varieties to develop a prediction model for each variety. Normalization of the bioaccumulation factor (BAF) to specific soil physico-chemistry is essential, because doing so could significantly reduce the intra-species variation of different wheat cultivars in predicted Pb transfer and eliminate the influence of soil properties on ecotoxicity parameters for organisms of interest. Finally, the prediction models were successfully verified against published data (including other wheat varieties and crops) and used to evaluate the ecological risk of Pb for wheat in contaminated agricultural soils. PMID:27518712

  9. Characterization of microsatellites in Bambusa arundinacea and cross species amplification in other bamboos.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Sumitra; Rout, Gyana Ranjan

    2005-01-01

    Microsatellites, tandem repeats of short nucleotide (1-6 bp) sequences, are the DNA marker of choice because of their highly polymorphic, ubiquitous distribution within genome, ease of genotyping through polymerase chain reaction (PCR), selectively neutral, co-dominant and multi allelic nature. Six microsatellites, three polymorphic and three monomorphic, have been characterized for the first time in a bamboo species, Bambusa arudinacea belonging to the family Poaceae. The number of alleles per locus ranges form 2 to 13. Allelic diversity ranges from 0.041 to 0.870. Polymorphic information content (PIC) values for two loci were > 0.3, an indicator of polymorphic allele. Cross species amplification has been tested in other 18 bamboo species. Monomorphic simple sequence repeats (SSRs) have been found to be cross amplified in most of the tested species while polymorphic ones in only three to four species. The utility of the SSR loci in genetic diversity study of B. arundinacea and other cross amplified bamboo species have been discussed.

  10. Cross-species 3D virtual reality toolbox for visual and cognitive experiments.

    PubMed

    Doucet, Guillaume; Gulli, Roberto A; Martinez-Trujillo, Julio C

    2016-06-15

    Although simplified visual stimuli, such as dots or gratings presented on homogeneous backgrounds, provide strict control over the stimulus parameters during visual experiments, they fail to approximate visual stimulation in natural conditions. Adoption of virtual reality (VR) in neuroscience research has been proposed to circumvent this problem, by combining strict control of experimental variables and behavioral monitoring within complex and realistic environments. We have created a VR toolbox that maximizes experimental flexibility while minimizing implementation costs. A free VR engine (Unreal 3) has been customized to interface with any control software via text commands, allowing seamless introduction into pre-existing laboratory data acquisition frameworks. Furthermore, control functions are provided for the two most common programming languages used in visual neuroscience: Matlab and Python. The toolbox offers milliseconds time resolution necessary for electrophysiological recordings and is flexible enough to support cross-species usage across a wide range of paradigms. Unlike previously proposed VR solutions whose implementation is complex and time-consuming, our toolbox requires minimal customization or technical expertise to interface with pre-existing data acquisition frameworks as it relies on already familiar programming environments. Moreover, as it is compatible with a variety of display and input devices, identical VR testing paradigms can be used across species, from rodents to humans. This toolbox facilitates the addition of VR capabilities to any laboratory without perturbing pre-existing data acquisition frameworks, or requiring any major hardware changes. Copyright © 2016 Z. All rights reserved.

  11. Novel and highly informative Capsicum SSR markers and their cross-species transferability.

    PubMed

    Buso, G S C; Reis, A M M; Amaral, Z P S; Ferreira, M E

    2016-09-23

    This study was undertaken primarily to develop new simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for Capsicum. As part of this project aimed at broadening the use of molecular tools in Capsicum breeding, two genomic libraries enriched for AG/TC repeat sequences were constructed for Capsicum annuum. A total of 475 DNA clones were sequenced from both libraries and 144 SSR markers were tested on cultivated and wild species of Capsicum. Forty-five SSR markers were randomly selected to genotype a panel of 48 accessions of the Capsicum germplasm bank. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 11, with an average of 6 alleles. The polymorphism information content was on average 0.60, ranging from 0.20 to 0.83. The cross-species transferability to seven cultivated and wild Capsicum species was tested with a set of 91 SSR markers. We found that a high proportion of the loci produced amplicons in all species tested. C. frutescens had the highest number of transferable markers, whereas the wild species had the lowest. Our results indicate that the new markers can be readily used in genetic analyses of Capsicum.

  12. Cross-species assessments of motor and exploratory behavior related to bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Henry, Brook L; Minassian, Arpi; Young, Jared W; Paulus, Martin P; Geyer, Mark A; Perry, William

    2010-07-01

    Alterations in exploratory behavior are a fundamental feature of bipolar mania, typically characterized as motor hyperactivity and increased goal-directed behavior in response to environmental cues. In contrast, abnormal exploration associated with schizophrenia and depression can manifest as prominent withdrawal, limited motor activity, and inattention to the environment. While motor abnormalities are cited frequently as clinical manifestations of these disorders, relatively few empirical studies have quantified human exploratory behavior. This article reviews the literature characterizing motor and exploratory behavior associated with bipolar disorder and genetic and pharmacological animal models of the illness. Despite sophisticated assessment of exploratory behavior in rodents, objective quantification of human motor activity has been limited primarily to actigraphy studies with poor cross-species translational value. Furthermore, symptoms that reflect the cardinal features of bipolar disorder have proven difficult to establish in putative animal models of this illness. Recently, however, novel tools such as the human behavioral pattern monitor provide multivariate translational measures of motor and exploratory activity, enabling improved understanding of the neurobiology underlying psychiatric disorders.

  13. Development of polymorphic SSR markers in the razor clam (Sinonovacula constricta) and cross-species amplification.

    PubMed

    Dong, Y H; Yao, H H; Sun, C S; Lv, D M; Li, M Q; Lin, Z H

    2016-01-26

    Next-generation sequencing provides large-scale sequencing data with relative ease and at a reasonable cost, making it possible to identify a large amount of SSR markers in a timely and cost-effective manner. On the basis of the transcriptome database of Sinonovacula constricta obtained by Illumina/Solexa pyrosequencing, 60 polymorphic SSR markers were developed and characterized in 30 individuals. The number of alleles per polymorphic locus ranged from 2 to 7 with an average of 3.75 alleles. The observed and expected heterozygosities varied from 0.050 to 1.000 and from 0.050 to 0.836, respectively. Nineteen loci significantly deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P < 0.01) after Bonferroni's correction for multiple tests. In addition, interspecific transferability revealed that 20 polymorphic loci in Solen linearis were first characterized in this study. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest number of SSRs in S. constricta and the first report of cross-species amplification. These novel polymorphic SSR markers will be particularly useful for conservation genetics, evolutionary studies, genetic trait mapping, and marker assisted selection in the species.

  14. Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides bacteriophages: Genomics and cross-species host ranges.

    PubMed

    Pujato, Silvina A; Guglielmotti, Daniela M; Martínez-García, Manuel; Quiberoni, Andrea; Mojica, Francisco J M

    2017-09-18

    Unveiling virus-host interactions are relevant for understanding the biology and evolution of microbes globally, but in particular, it has also a paramount impact on the manufacture of fermented dairy products. In this study, we aim at characterizing phages infecting the commonly used heterofermentative Leuconostoc spp. on the basis of host range patterns and genome analysis. Host range of six Leuconostoc phages was investigated using three methods (efficiency of plaquing, spot and turbidity tests) against Ln. mesenteroides and Ln. pseudomesenteroides strains. Complete genome sequencing from four out of the six studied Leuconostoc phages were obtained in this work, while the remaining two have been sequenced previously. According to our results, cross-species host specificity was demonstrated, as all phages tested were capable of infecting both Ln. pseudomesenteroides and Ln. mesenteroides strains, although with different efficiency of plaquing (EOP). Phage adsorption rates and ability of low-EOP host strains to propagate phages by crossing the Leuconostoc species' barrier confirm results. At the genome level, phages CHA, CHB, Ln-7, Ln-8 and Ln-9 revealed high similarity with previously characterized phages infecting mostly Ln. mesenteroides strains, while phage LDG was highly similar to phages infecting Ln. pseudomesenteroides. Additionally, correlation between receptor binding protein (RBP) and host range patterns allowed us to unveil a finer clustering of Leuconostoc phages studied into four groups. This is the first report of overlapped phage host ranges between Leuconostoc species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Anxiety genetics – findings from cross-species genome-wide approaches

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are complex diseases, which often occur in combination with major depression, alcohol use disorder, or general medical conditions. Anxiety disorders were the most common mental disorders within the EU states in 2010 with 14% prevalence. Anxiety disorders are triggered by environmental factors in genetically susceptible individuals, and therefore genetic research offers a great route to unravel molecular basis of these diseases. As anxiety is an evolutionarily conserved response, mouse models can be used to carry out genome-wide searches for specific genes in a setting that controls for the environmental factors. In this review, we discuss translational approaches that aim to bridge results from unbiased genome-wide screens using mouse models to anxiety disorders in humans. Several methods, such as quantitative trait locus mapping, gene expression profiling, and proteomics, have been used in various mouse models of anxiety to identify genes that regulate anxiety or play a role in maintaining pathological anxiety. We first discuss briefly the evolutionary background of anxiety, which justifies cross-species approaches. We then describe how several genes have been identified through genome-wide methods in mouse models and subsequently investigated in human anxiety disorder samples as candidate genes. These studies have led to the identification of completely novel biological pathways that regulate anxiety in mice and humans, and that can be further investigated as targets for therapy. PMID:23659354

  16. Novel Microsatellite Markers of Meretrix petechialis and Cross-species Amplification in Related Taxa (Bivalvia: Veneroida)

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jung-Ha; Kim, Byeng-Hak; Park, Jung-Youn; Lee, Jung-Mi; Jeong, Ji-Eun; Lee, Jun-Sang; Ko, Hyun-Sook; Lee, Yong-Seok

    2012-01-01

    The Asian hard clam, Meretrix petechialis, is an economically important bivalve, but its catch and population sizes are decreasing rapidly, owing to many factors, including large-scale reclamation of its natural habitat on the western coast of the Korean peninsula. Attempts to restore the resources and production of this species require genetic structure and diversity information. In this study, we developed 15 microsatellite markers from a partial genomic library enriched in GT repeats. Nine of these markers were polymorphic, with an average allele number of six, and six were monomorphic in 95 tested individuals. No linkage disequilibrium was found between any pair of loci (p > 0.05), and deviations from the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) test showing excess of heterozygotes was observed in only one of nine loci. In addition, no null alleles or genetic differentiation between two tested populations were detected. A cross-species amplification in 12 species of four families resulted in two M. petechialis-specific loci and three possible universal markers. This information will be useful in the future development of high-quality artificial seedlings and sustainable resource management. PMID:23443103

  17. Evolution of genome organizations of squirrels (Sciuridae) revealed by cross-species chromosome painting.

    PubMed

    Li, Tangliang; O'Brien, Patricia C M; Biltueva, Larisa; Fu, Beiyuan; Wang, Jinhuan; Nie, Wenhui; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Graphodatsky, Alexander S; Yang, Fengtang

    2004-01-01

    With complete sets of chromosome-specific painting probes derived from flow-sorted chromosomes of human and grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis), the whole genome homologies between human and representatives of tree squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis, Callosciurus erythraeus), flying squirrels (Petaurista albiventer) and chipmunks (Tamias sibiricus) have been defined by cross-species chromosome painting. The results show that, unlike the highly rearranged karyotypes of mouse and rat, the karyotypes of squirrels are highly conserved. Two methods have been used to reconstruct the genome phylogeny of squirrels with the laboratory rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) as the out-group: (1) phylogenetic analysis by parsimony using chromosomal characters identified by comparative cytogenetic approaches; (2) mapping the genome rearrangements onto recently published sequence-based molecular trees. Our chromosome painting results, in combination with molecular data, show that flying squirrels are phylogenetically close to New World tree squirrels. Chromosome painting and G-banding comparisons place chipmunks (Tamias sibiricus ), with a derived karyotype, outside the clade comprising tree and flying squirrels. The superorder Glires (orde Rodentia + order Lagomorpha) is firmly supported by two conserved syntenic associations between human chromosomes 1 and 10p homologues, and between 9 and 11 homologues.

  18. Aleutian mink disease virus in striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis): evidence for cross-species spillover.

    PubMed

    Nituch, Larissa A; Bowman, Jeff; Wilson, Paul J; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I

    2015-04-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) causes a parvovirus infection, initially characterized in American mink (Neovison vison), that may have harmful effects on wild populations of susceptible animals. In North America, where American mink are native, the origin, host range, and prevalence of AMDV in wild species is not clear. We studied striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) and raccoons (Procyon lotor) to determine whether species sympatric with mink are potential reservoirs in the transmission of AMDV to wild mink and mink farms. Antibodies to AMDV were detected in 41% of skunk serum samples (143/347) and AMDV nucleic acids were detected in 32% (14/40) of skunk spleen samples by PCR, indicating that AMDV exposure and infection were frequent in skunks. We detected no AMDV antibodies in 144 raccoon blood samples. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a newly identified AMDV haplogroup consisting of isolates from Ontario skunks and a free-ranging domestic mink from Ontario. Our findings of frequent AMDV infection in skunks, close genetic similarity between skunk and mink AMDV isolates, and evidence of AMDV transmission from skunks to mink support the hypothesis that skunks may be acting as alternative hosts and reservoirs of AMDV to wild mink through cross-species virus spillover.

  19. Cross-species assessments of Motor and Exploratory Behavior related to Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Brook L.; Minassian, Arpi; Young, Jared W.; Paulus, Martin P.; Geyer, Mark A.; Perry, William

    2010-01-01

    Alterations in exploratory behavior are a fundamental feature of bipolar mania, typically characterized as motor hyperactivity and increased goal-directed behavior in response to environmental cues. In contrast, abnormal exploration associated with schizophrenia and depression can manifest as prominent withdrawal, limited motor activity, and inattention to the environment. While motor abnormalities are cited frequently as clinical manifestations of these disorders, relatively few empirical studies have quantified human exploratory behavior. This article reviews the literature characterizing motor and exploratory behavior associated with bipolar disorder and genetic and pharmacological animal models of the illness. Despite sophisticated assessment of exploratory behavior in rodents, objective quantification of human motor activity has been limited primarily to actigraphy studies with poor cross-species translational value. Furthermore, symptoms that reflect the cardinal features of bipolar disorder have proven difficult to establish in putative animal models of this illness. Recently, however, novel tools such as the Human Behavioral Pattern Monitor provide multivariate translational measures of motor and exploratory activity, enabling improved understanding of the neurobiology underlying psychiatric disorders. PMID:20398694

  20. Molecular signatures of longevity: Insights from cross-species comparative studies.

    PubMed

    Ma, Siming; Gladyshev, Vadim N

    2017-10-01

    Much of the current research on longevity focuses on the aging process within a single species. Several molecular players (e.g. IGF1 and MTOR), pharmacological compounds (e.g. rapamycin and metformin), and dietary approaches (e.g. calorie restriction and methionine restriction) have been shown to be important in regulating and modestly extending lifespan in model organisms. On the other hand, natural lifespan varies much more significantly across species. Within mammals alone, maximum lifespan differs more than 100 fold, but the underlying regulatory mechanisms remain poorly understood. Recent comparative studies are beginning to shed light on the molecular signatures associated with exceptional longevity. These include genome sequencing of microbats, naked mole rat, blind mole rat, bowhead whale and African turquoise killifish, and comparative analyses of gene expression, metabolites, lipids and ions across multiple mammalian species. Together, they point towards several putative strategies for lifespan regulation and cancer resistance, as well as the pathways and metabolites associated with longevity variation. In particular, longevity may be achieved by both lineage-specific adaptations and common mechanisms that apply across the species. Comparing the resulting cross-species molecular signatures with the within-species lifespan extension strategies will improve our understanding of mechanisms of longevity control and provide a starting point for novel and effective interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cross-species microarray hybridization to identify developmentally regulated genes in the filamentous fungus Sordaria macrospora.

    PubMed

    Nowrousian, Minou; Ringelberg, Carol; Dunlap, Jay C; Loros, Jennifer J; Kück, Ulrich

    2005-04-01

    The filamentous fungus Sordaria macrospora forms complex three-dimensional fruiting bodies that protect the developing ascospores and ensure their proper discharge. Several regulatory genes essential for fruiting body development were previously isolated by complementation of the sterile mutants pro1, pro11 and pro22. To establish the genetic relationships between these genes and to identify downstream targets, we have conducted cross-species microarray hybridizations using cDNA arrays derived from the closely related fungus Neurospora crassa and RNA probes prepared from wild-type S. macrospora and the three developmental mutants. Of the 1,420 genes which gave a signal with the probes from all the strains used, 172 (12%) were regulated differently in at least one of the three mutants compared to the wild type, and 17 (1.2%) were regulated differently in all three mutant strains. Microarray data were verified by Northern analysis or quantitative real time PCR. Among the genes that are up- or down-regulated in the mutant strains are genes encoding the pheromone precursors, enzymes involved in melanin biosynthesis and a lectin-like protein. Analysis of gene expression in double mutants revealed a complex network of interaction between the pro gene products.

  2. CO2 exposure as translational cross-species experimental model for panic

    PubMed Central

    Leibold, N K; van den Hove, D L A; Viechtbauer, W; Buchanan, G F; Goossens, L; Lange, I; Knuts, I; Lesch, K P; Steinbusch, H W M; Schruers, K R J

    2016-01-01

    The current diagnostic criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders are being challenged by the heterogeneity and the symptom overlap of psychiatric disorders. Therefore, a framework toward a more etiology-based classification has been initiated by the US National Institute of Mental Health, the research domain criteria project. The basic neurobiology of human psychiatric disorders is often studied in rodent models. However, the differences in outcome measurements hamper the translation of knowledge. Here, we aimed to present a translational panic model by using the same stimulus and by quantitatively comparing the same outcome measurements in rodents, healthy human subjects and panic disorder patients within one large project. We measured the behavioral–emotional and bodily response to CO2 exposure in all three samples, allowing for a reliable cross-species comparison. We show that CO2 exposure causes a robust fear response in terms of behavior in mice and panic symptom ratings in healthy volunteers and panic disorder patients. To improve comparability, we next assessed the respiratory and cardiovascular response to CO2, demonstrating corresponding respiratory and cardiovascular effects across both species. This project bridges the gap between basic and human research to improve the translation of knowledge between these disciplines. This will allow significant progress in unraveling the etiological basis of panic disorder and will be highly beneficial for refining the diagnostic categories as well as treatment strategies. PMID:27598969

  3. Polymorphic microsatellite loci identified through development and cross-species amplification within shorebirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, I.; Guzzetti, B.M.; Gust, Judy R.; Sage, G.K.; Gill, R.E.; Tibbitts, T.L.; Sonsthagen, S.A.; Talbot, S.L.

    2012-01-01

    We developed microsatellite loci for demographic assessments of shorebirds, a group with limited markers. First, we isolated five dinucleotide repeat microsatellite loci from the Black Oystercatcher (Haematopodidae: Haematopus bachmani), and three from the Bristle-thighed Curlew (Scolopacidae: Numenius tahitiensis); both species are of conservation concern. All eight loci were polymorphic in their respective target species. Hbaμ loci were characterized by two to three alleles with observed heterozygosity ranging from 0.07 to 0.33, and two to nine alleles were detected for Nut loci with observed heterozygosity ranging from 0.08 to 0.72. No linkage disequilibrium or departures from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium were observed. The eight loci were also tested for cross-species amplification in 12 other species within Charadriidae and Scolopacidae, and the results demonstrated transferability across several genera. We further tested all 14 species at 12 additional microsatellite markers developed for other shorebirds: Dunlin (Calidris alpina; four loci) and Ruff (Philomachus pugnax; eight loci). Two markers (Hbaμ4 and Ruff6) were polymorphic in 13 species, while two (Calp6 and Ruff9) were monomorphic. The remaining eight markers revealed polymorphism in one to nine species each. Our results provide further evidence that locus Ruff10 is sex-linked, contrary to the initial description. These markers can be used to enhance our understanding of shorebird biology by, for example, helping to determine migratory connectivity among breeding and wintering populations and detecting relatedness among individuals.

  4. Measurement of lentiviral vector titre and copy number by cross-species duplex quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Christodoulou, I; Patsali, P; Stephanou, C; Antoniou, M; Kleanthous, M; Lederer, C W

    2016-01-01

    Lentiviruses are the vectors of choice for many preclinical studies and clinical applications of gene therapy. Accurate measurement of biological vector titre before treatment is a prerequisite for vector dosing, and the calculation of vector integration sites per cell after treatment is as critical to the characterisation of modified cell products as it is to long-term follow-up and the assessment of risk and therapeutic efficiency in patients. These analyses are typically based on quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), but as yet compromise accuracy and comparability between laboratories and experimental systems, the former by using separate simplex reactions for the detection of endogene and lentiviral sequences and the latter by designing different PCR assays for analyses in human cells and animal disease models. In this study, we validate in human and murine cells a qPCR system for the single-tube assessment of lentiviral vector copy numbers that is suitable for analyses in at least 33 different mammalian species, including human and other primates, mouse, pig, cat and domestic ruminants. The established assay combines the accuracy of single-tube quantitation by duplex qPCR with the convenience of one-off assay optimisation for cross-species analyses and with the direct comparability of lentiviral transduction efficiencies in different species.

  5. Cross-species extrapolation of prediction model for lead transfer from soil to corn grain under stress of exogenous lead.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhaojun; Yang, Hua; Li, Yupeng; Long, Jian; Liang, Yongchao

    2014-01-01

    There has been increasing concern in recent years regarding lead (Pb) transfer in the soil-plant system. In this study the transfer of Pb (exogenous salts) was investigated from a wide range of Chinese soils to corn grain (Zhengdan 958). Prediction models were developed with combination of the Pb bioconcentration factor (BCF) of Zhengdan 958, and soil pH, organic matter (OM) content, and cation exchange capacity (CEC) through multiple stepwise regressions. Moreover, these prediction models from Zhengdan 958 were applied to other non-model corn species through cross-species extrapolation approach. The results showed that the soil pH and OM were the major factors that controlled Pb transfer from soil to corn grain. The lower pH and OM could improve the bioaccumulation of Pb in corn grain. No significant differences were found between two prediction models derived from the different exogenous Pb contents. When the prediction models were applied to other non-model corn species, the ratio ranges between the predicted BCF values and the measured BCF values were within an interval of 2-fold and close to the solid line of 1∶1 relationship. Moreover, the prediction model i.e. Log[BCF] = -0.098 pH-0.150 log[OM] -1.894 at the treatment of high Pb can effectively reduce the measured BCF intra-species variability for all non-model corn species. These suggested that this prediction model derived from the high Pb content was more adaptable to be applied to other non-model corn species to predict the Pb bioconcentration in corn grain and assess the ecological risk of Pb in different agricultural soils.

  6. Cross-Species Extrapolation of Prediction Model for Lead Transfer from Soil to Corn Grain under Stress of Exogenous Lead

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhaojun; Yang, Hua; Li, Yupeng; Long, Jian; Liang, Yongchao

    2014-01-01

    There has been increasing concern in recent years regarding lead (Pb) transfer in the soil-plant system. In this study the transfer of Pb (exogenous salts) was investigated from a wide range of Chinese soils to corn grain (Zhengdan 958). Prediction models were developed with combination of the Pb bioconcentration factor (BCF) of Zhengdan 958, and soil pH, organic matter (OM) content, and cation exchange capacity (CEC) through multiple stepwise regressions. Moreover, these prediction models from Zhengdan 958 were applied to other non-model corn species through cross-species extrapolation approach. The results showed that the soil pH and OM were the major factors that controlled Pb transfer from soil to corn grain. The lower pH and OM could improve the bioaccumulation of Pb in corn grain. No significant differences were found between two prediction models derived from the different exogenous Pb contents. When the prediction models were applied to other non-model corn species, the ratio ranges between the predicted BCF values and the measured BCF values were within an interval of 2-fold and close to the solid line of 1∶1 relationship. Moreover, the prediction model i.e. Log[BCF] = −0.098 pH-0.150 log[OM] −1.894 at the treatment of high Pb can effectively reduce the measured BCF intra-species variability for all non-model corn species. These suggested that this prediction model derived from the high Pb content was more adaptable to be applied to other non-model corn species to predict the Pb bioconcentration in corn grain and assess the ecological risk of Pb in different agricultural soils. PMID:24416440

  7. Cross-Species Protection Mediated by a Bordetella bronchiseptica Strain Lacking Antigenic Homologs Present in Acellular Pertussis Vaccines▿

    PubMed Central

    Sukumar, Neelima; Sloan, Gina Parise; Conover, Matt S.; Love, Cheraton F.; Mattoo, Seema; Kock, Nancy D.; Deora, Rajendar

    2010-01-01

    The Bordetella species are Gram-negative bacterial pathogens that are characterized by long-term colonization of the mammalian respiratory tract and are causative agents of respiratory diseases in humans and animals. Despite widespread and efficient vaccination, there has been a world-wide resurgence of pertussis, which remains the leading cause of vaccine-preventable death in developed countries. It has been proposed that current acellular vaccines (Pa) composed of only a few bacterial proteins may be less efficacious because of vaccine-induced antigenic shifts and adaptations. To gain insight into the development of a newer generation of vaccines, we constructed a Bordetella bronchiseptica strain (LPaV) that does not express the antigenic homologs included in any of the Pa vaccines currently in use. This strain also lacks adenylate cyclase toxin, an essential virulence factor, and BipA, a surface protein. While LPaV colonized the mouse nose as efficiently as the wild-type strain, it was highly deficient in colonization of the lower respiratory tract and was attenuated in induction of inflammation and injury to the lungs. Strikingly, to our surprise, we found that in an intranasal murine challenge model, LPaV elicited cross-species protection against both B. bronchiseptica and Bordetella pertussis. Our data suggest the presence of immunogenic protective components other than those included in the pertussis vaccine. Combined with the whole-genome sequences of many Bordetella spp. that are available, the results of this study should serve as a platform for strategic development of the next generation of acellular pertussis vaccines. PMID:20176797

  8. Tamoxifen-elicited uterotrophy: cross-species and cross-ligand analysis of the gene expression program

    PubMed Central

    Kwekel, Joshua C; Forgacs, Agnes L; Burgoon, Lyle D; Williams, Kurt J; Zacharewski, Timothy R

    2009-01-01

    Background Tamoxifen (TAM) is a well characterized breast cancer drug and selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) which also has been associated with a small increase in risk for uterine cancers. TAM's partial agonist activation of estrogen receptor has been characterized for specific gene promoters but not at the genomic level in vivo.Furthermore, reducing uncertainties associated with cross-species extrapolations of pharmaco- and toxicogenomic data remains a formidable challenge. Results A comparative ligand and species analysis approach was conducted to systematically assess the physiological, morphological and uterine gene expression alterations elicited across time by TAM and ethynylestradiol (EE) in immature ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats and C57BL/6 mice. Differential gene expression was evaluated using custom cDNA microarrays, and the data was compared to identify conserved and divergent responses. 902 genes were differentially regulated in all four studies, 398 of which exhibit identical temporal expression patterns. Conclusion Comparative analysis of EE and TAM differentially expressed gene lists suggest TAM regulates no unique uterine genes that are conserved in the rat and mouse. This demonstrates that the partial agonist activities of TAM extend to molecular targets in regulating only a subset of EE-responsive genes. Ligand-conserved, species-divergent expression of carbonic anhydrase 2 was observed in the microarray data and confirmed by real time PCR. The identification of comparable temporal phenotypic responses linked to related gene expression profiles demonstrates that systematic comparative genomic assessments can elucidate important conserved and divergent mechanisms in rodent estrogen signalling during uterine proliferation. PMID:19400957

  9. A Method to Detect Differential Gene expression in Cross-Species Hybridization Experiments at Gene and Probe Level

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Wu, Rebekah; Felton, James; Rocke, David M.; Chakicherla, Anu

    2010-01-01

    Motivation Whole genome microarrays are increasingly becoming the method of choice to study responses in model organisms to disease, stressors or other stimuli. However, whole genome sequences are available for only some model organisms, and there are still many species whose genome sequences are not yet available. Cross-species studies, where arrays developed for one species are used to study gene expression in a closely related species, have been used to address this gap, with some promising results. Current analytical methods have included filtration of some probes or genes that showed low hybridization activities. But consensus filtration schemes are still not available. Results A novel masking procedure is proposed based on currently available target species sequences to filter out probes and study a cross-species data set using this masking procedure and gene-set analysis. Gene-set analysis evaluates the association of some priori defined gene groups with a phenotype of interest. Two methods, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) and Test of Test Statistics (ToTS) were investigated. The results showed that masking procedure together with ToTS method worked well in our data set. The results from an alternative way to study cross-species hybridization experiments without masking are also presented. We hypothesize that the multi-probes structure of Affymetrix microarrays makes it possible to aggregate the effects of both well-hybridized and poorly-hybridized probes to study a group of genes. The principles of gene-set analysis were applied to the probe-level data instead of gene-level data. The results showed that ToTS can give valuable information and thus can be used as a powerful technique for analyzing cross-species hybridization experiments. Availability Software in the form of R code is available at http://anson.ucdavis.edu/~ychen/cross-species.html PMID:20798791

  10. Large-scale cross-species chemogenomic platform proposes a new drug discovery strategy of veterinary drug from herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chao; Yang, Yang; Chen, Xuetong; Wang, Chao; Li, Yan; Zheng, Chunli; Wang, Yonghua

    2017-01-01

    Veterinary Herbal Medicine (VHM) is a comprehensive, current, and informative discipline on the utilization of herbs in veterinary practice. Driven by chemistry but progressively directed by pharmacology and the clinical sciences, drug research has contributed more to address the needs for innovative veterinary medicine for curing animal diseases. However, research into veterinary medicine of vegetal origin in the pharmaceutical industry has reduced, owing to questions such as the short of compatibility of traditional natural-product extract libraries with high-throughput screening. Here, we present a cross-species chemogenomic screening platform to dissect the genetic basis of multifactorial diseases and to determine the most suitable points of attack for future veterinary medicines, thereby increasing the number of treatment options. First, based on critically examined pharmacology and text mining, we build a cross-species drug-likeness evaluation approach to screen the lead compounds in veterinary medicines. Second, a specific cross-species target prediction model is developed to infer drug-target connections, with the purpose of understanding how drugs work on the specific targets. Third, we focus on exploring the multiple targets interference effects of veterinary medicines by heterogeneous network convergence and modularization analysis. Finally, we manually integrate a disease pathway to test whether the cross-species chemogenomic platform could uncover the active mechanism of veterinary medicine, which is exemplified by a specific network module. We believe the proposed cross-species chemogenomic platform allows for the systematization of current and traditional knowledge of veterinary medicine and, importantly, for the application of this emerging body of knowledge to the development of new drugs for animal diseases.

  11. Interactomics profiling of the negative regulatory function of carbon monoxide on RANKL-treated RAW 264.7 cells during osteoclastogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background During osteoclastogenesis, the maturation of osteoclast (OC) progenitors is stimulated by the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL). Excess OC production plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bone disorders. Conversely, the inhibition of abnormal OC proliferation reduces inflammation-induced bone loss. Low concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) are known to decrease inflammation and OC-mediated bone erosion but the molecular mechanism is unknown. Results To obtain insight into the biological function of CO, cultured RANKL-treated RAW 264.7 cells were used in an in vitro experimental model of osteoclastogenesis. The results showed that CO inhibited: 1) tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive cell formation; 2) F-actin ring production; 3) c-fos pathway activation; 4) the expression of cathepsin K, TRAP, calcitonin receptor, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 mRNAs; 5) the expression of nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 1 in translation. Protein-protein interaction analysis predicted mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 4 as the controlling hub. Conclusions Low-concentrations of CO (250 ppm) may inhibit osteoclastogenesis. Data from STRING- and IPA-based interactome analyses suggested that the expression of proteins with the functions of signal transduction, enzymes, and epigenetic regulation are significantly altered by CO during RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. Our study provides the first interactome analysis of osteoclastogenesis, the results of which supported the negative regulation of OC differentiation by CO. PMID:24886323

  12. A comprehensive protein–protein interactome for yeast PAS kinase 1 reveals direct inhibition of respiration through the phosphorylation of Cbf1

    PubMed Central

    DeMille, Desiree; Bikman, Benjamin T.; Mathis, Andrew D.; Prince, John T.; Mackay, Jordan T.; Sowa, Steven W.; Hall, Tacie D.; Grose, Julianne H.

    2014-01-01

    Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) kinase is a sensory protein kinase required for glucose homeostasis in yeast, mice, and humans, yet little is known about the molecular mechanisms of its function. Using both yeast two-hybrid and copurification approaches, we identified the protein–protein interactome for yeast PAS kinase 1 (Psk1), revealing 93 novel putative protein binding partners. Several of the Psk1 binding partners expand the role of PAS kinase in glucose homeostasis, including new pathways involved in mitochondrial metabolism. In addition, the interactome suggests novel roles for PAS kinase in cell growth (gene/protein expression, replication/cell division, and protein modification and degradation), vacuole function, and stress tolerance. In vitro kinase studies using a subset of 25 of these binding partners identified Mot3, Zds1, Utr1, and Cbf1 as substrates. Further evidence is provided for the in vivo phosphorylation of Cbf1 at T211/T212 and for the subsequent inhibition of respiration. This respiratory role of PAS kinase is consistent with the reported hypermetabolism of PAS kinase–deficient mice, identifying a possible molecular mechanism and solidifying the evolutionary importance of PAS kinase in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. PMID:24850888

  13. Modeling neurodevelopmental cognitive deficits in tasks with cross-species translational validity.

    PubMed

    Cope, Z A; Powell, S B; Young, J W

    2016-01-01

    Numerous psychiatric disorders whose cognitive dysfunction links to functional outcome have neurodevelopmental origins including schizophrenia, autism and bipolar disorder. Treatments are needed for these cognitive deficits, which require development using animal models. Models of neurodevelopmental disorders are as varied and diverse as the disorders themselves, recreating some but not all aspects of the disorder. This variety may in part underlie why purported procognitive treatments translated from these models have failed to restore functioning in the targeted patient populations. Further complications arise from environmental factors used in these models that can contribute to numerous disorders, perhaps only impacting specific domains, while diagnostic boundaries define individual disorders, limiting translational efficacy. The Research Domain Criteria project seeks to 'develop new ways to classify mental disorders based on behavioral dimensions and neurobiological measures' in hopes of facilitating translational research by remaining agnostic toward diagnostic borders derived from clinical presentation in humans. Models could therefore recreate biosignatures of cognitive dysfunction irrespective of disease state. This review highlights work within the field of neurodevelopmental models of psychiatric disorders tested in cross-species translational cognitive paradigms that directly inform this newly developing research strategy. By expounding on this approach, the hopes are that a fuller understanding of each model may be attainable in terms of the cognitive profile elicited by each manipulation. Hence, conclusions may begin to be drawn on the nature of cognitive neuropathology on neurodevelopmental and other disorders, increasing the chances of procognitive treatment development for individuals affected in specific cognitive domains. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  14. Cross-Species Extrapolation of Prediction Models for Cadmium Transfer from Soil to Corn Grain

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hua; Li, Zhaojun; Lu, Lu; Long, Jian; Liang, Yongchao

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic heavy metal for both plants and animals. The presence of Cd in agricultural soils is of great concern regarding its transfer in the soil-plant system. This study investigated the transfer of Cd (exogenous salts) from a wide range of Chinese soils to corn grain (Zhengdan 958). Through multiple stepwise regressions, prediction models were developed, with the combination of Cd bioconcentration factor (BCF) of Zhengdan 958 and soil pH, organic matter (OM) content, and cation exchange capacity (CEC). Moreover, these prediction models from Zhengdan 958 were applied to other non-model corn species through cross-species extrapolation approach. The results showed that the pH of the soil was the most important factor that controlled Cd uptake and lower pH was more favorable for Cd bioaccumulation in corn grain. There was no significant difference among three prediction models in the different Cd levels. When the prediction models were applied to other non-model corn species, the ratio ranges between the predicted BCF values and the measured BCF values were within an interval of 2 folds and close to the solid line of 1∶1 relationship. Furthermore, these prediction models also reduced the measured BCF intra-species variability for all non-model corn species. Therefore, the prediction models established in this study can be applied to other non-model corn species and be useful for predicting the Cd bioconcentration in corn grain and assessing the ecological risk of Cd in different soils. PMID:24324636

  15. Cross-species genomics matches driver mutations and cell compartments to model ependymoma.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Robert A; Wright, Karen D; Poppleton, Helen; Mohankumar, Kumarasamypet M; Finkelstein, David; Pounds, Stanley B; Rand, Vikki; Leary, Sarah E S; White, Elsie; Eden, Christopher; Hogg, Twala; Northcott, Paul; Mack, Stephen; Neale, Geoffrey; Wang, Yong-Dong; Coyle, Beth; Atkinson, Jennifer; DeWire, Mariko; Kranenburg, Tanya A; Gillespie, Yancey; Allen, Jeffrey C; Merchant, Thomas; Boop, Fredrick A; Sanford, Robert A; Gajjar, Amar; Ellison, David W; Taylor, Michael D; Grundy, Richard G; Gilbertson, Richard J

    2010-07-29

    Understanding the biology that underlies histologically similar but molecularly distinct subgroups of cancer has proven difficult because their defining genetic alterations are often numerous, and the cellular origins of most cancers remain unknown. We sought to decipher this heterogeneity by integrating matched genetic alterations and candidate cells of origin to generate accurate disease models. First, we identified subgroups of human ependymoma, a form of neural tumour that arises throughout the central nervous system (CNS). Subgroup-specific alterations included amplifications and homozygous deletions of genes not yet implicated in ependymoma. To select cellular compartments most likely to give rise to subgroups of ependymoma, we matched the transcriptomes of human tumours to those of mouse neural stem cells (NSCs), isolated from different regions of the CNS at different developmental stages, with an intact or deleted Ink4a/Arf locus (that encodes Cdkn2a and b). The transcriptome of human supratentorial ependymomas with amplified EPHB2 and deleted INK4A/ARF matched only that of embryonic cerebral Ink4a/Arf(-/-) NSCs. Notably, activation of Ephb2 signalling in these, but not other, NSCs generated the first mouse model of ependymoma, which is highly penetrant and accurately models the histology and transcriptome of one subgroup of human supratentorial tumour. Further, comparative analysis of matched mouse and human tumours revealed selective deregulation in the expression and copy number of genes that control synaptogenesis, pinpointing disruption of this pathway as a critical event in the production of this ependymoma subgroup. Our data demonstrate the power of cross-species genomics to meticulously match subgroup-specific driver mutations with cellular compartments to model and interrogate cancer subgroups.

  16. Anthrax Vaccine Induced Antibodies Provide Cross-Species Prediction of Survival to Aerosol Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Fay, Michael P.; Follmann, Dean A.; Lynn, Freyja; Schiffer, Jarad M.; Stark, Greg; Kohberge, Robert; Quinn, Conrad P.; Nuzum, Edwin O.

    2013-01-01

    Because clinical trials to assess the efficacy of vaccines against anthrax are not ethical or feasible, licensure for new anthrax vaccines will likely involve the Food and Drug Administration’s “Animal Rule,” a set of regulations that allow approval of products based on efficacy data only in animals combined with immunogenicity and safety data in animals and humans. US government sponsored animal studies have shown anthrax vaccine efficacy in a variety of settings. We examined data from 21 of those studies to determine if an immunological bridge based on lethal toxin neutralization activity assay (TNA) can predict survival against an inhalation anthrax challenge within and across species and genera. The 21 studies were classified into 11 different settings, each of which had the same animal species, vaccine type and formulation, vaccination schedule, time of TNA measurement, and challenge time. Logistic regression models determined the contribution of vaccine dilution dose and TNA on prediction of survival. For most settings, logistic models using only TNA explained more than 75% of the survival effect of the models with dose additionally included. Cross species survival predictions using TNA were compared to the actual survival and shown to have good agreement (Cohen’s κ ranged from 0.55 to 0.78). In one study design, cynomolgus macaque data predicted 78.6% survival in rhesus macaques (actual survival 83.0%) and 72.6% in rabbits (actual survival, 64.6%). These data add support for the use of TNA as an immunological bridge between species to extrapolate data in animals to predict anthrax vaccine effectiveness in humans. PMID:22972844

  17. Cross-species transcriptomic approach reveals genes in hamster implantation sites.

    PubMed

    Lei, Wei; Herington, Jennifer; Galindo, Cristi L; Ding, Tianbing; Brown, Naoko; Reese, Jeff; Paria, Bibhash C

    2014-12-01

    The mouse model has greatly contributed to understanding molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of progesterone (P4) plus estrogen (E)-dependent blastocyst implantation process. However, little is known about contributory molecular mechanisms of the P4-only-dependent blastocyst implantation process that occurs in species such as hamsters, guineapigs, rabbits, pigs, rhesus monkeys, and perhaps humans. We used the hamster as a model of P4-only-dependent blastocyst implantation and carried out cross-species microarray (CSM) analyses to reveal differentially expressed genes at the blastocyst implantation site (BIS), in order to advance the understanding of molecular mechanisms of implantation. Upregulation of 112 genes and downregulation of 77 genes at the BIS were identified using a mouse microarray platform, while use of the human microarray revealed 62 up- and 38 down-regulated genes at the BIS. Excitingly, a sizable number of genes (30 up- and 11 down-regulated genes) were identified as a shared pool by both CSMs. Real-time RT-PCR and in situ hybridization validated the expression patterns of several up- and down-regulated genes identified by both CSMs at the hamster and mouse BIS to demonstrate the merit of CSM findings across species, in addition to revealing genes specific to hamsters. Functional annotation analysis found that genes involved in the spliceosome, proteasome, and ubiquination pathways are enriched at the hamster BIS, while genes associated with tight junction, SAPK/JNK signaling, and PPARα/RXRα signalings are repressed at the BIS. Overall, this study provides a pool of genes and evidence of their participation in up- and down-regulated cellular functions/pathways at the hamster BIS. © 2014 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  18. Oxalic acid and diacylglycerol 36:3 are cross-species markers of sleep debt.

    PubMed

    Weljie, Aalim M; Meerlo, Peter; Goel, Namni; Sengupta, Arjun; Kayser, Matthew S; Abel, Ted; Birnbaum, Morris J; Dinges, David F; Sehgal, Amita

    2015-02-24

    Sleep is an essential biological process that is thought to have a critical role in metabolic regulation. In humans, reduced sleep duration has been associated with risk for metabolic disorders, including weight gain, diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. However, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying effects of sleep loss is only in its nascent stages. In this study we used rat and human models to simulate modern-day conditions of restricted sleep and addressed cross-species consequences via comprehensive metabolite profiling. Serum from sleep-restricted rats was analyzed using polar and nonpolar methods in two independent datasets (n = 10 per study, 3,380 measured features, 407 identified). A total of 38 features were changed across independent experiments, with the majority classified as lipids (18 from 28 identified). In a parallel human study, 92 metabolites were identified as potentially significant, with the majority also classified as lipids (32 of 37 identified). Intriguingly, two metabolites, oxalic acid and diacylglycerol 36:3, were robustly and quantitatively reduced in both species following sleep restriction, and recovered to near baseline levels after sleep restriction (P < 0.05, false-discovery rate < 0.2). Elevated phospholipids were also noted after sleep restriction in both species, as well as metabolites associated with an oxidizing environment. In addition, polar metabolites reflective of neurotransmitters, vitamin B3, and gut metabolism were elevated in sleep-restricted humans. These results are consistent with induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and disruptions of the circadian clock. The findings provide a potential link between known pathologies of reduced sleep duration and metabolic dysfunction, and potential biomarkers for sleep loss.

  19. Cross-species pharmacological characterization of the allylglycine seizure model in mice and larval zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Leclercq, Karine; Afrikanova, Tatiana; Langlois, Melanie; De Prins, An; Buenafe, Olivia E; Rospo, Chiara C; Van Eeckhaut, Ann; de Witte, Peter A M; Crawford, Alexander D; Smolders, Ilse; Esguerra, Camila V; Kaminski, Rafal M

    2015-04-01

    Treatment-resistant seizures affect about a third of patients suffering from epilepsy. To fulfill the need for new medications targeting treatment-resistant seizures, a number of rodent models offer the opportunity to assess a variety of potential treatment approaches. The use of such models, however, has proven to be time-consuming and labor-intensive. In this study, we performed pharmacological characterization of the allylglycine (AG) seizure model, a simple in vivo model for which we demonstrated a high level of treatment resistance. (d,l)-Allylglycine inhibits glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) - the key enzyme in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) biosynthesis - leading to GABA depletion, seizures, and neuronal damage. We performed a side-by-side comparison of mouse and zebrafish acute AG treatments including biochemical, electrographic, and behavioral assessments. Interestingly, seizure progression rate and GABA depletion kinetics were comparable in both species. Five mechanistically diverse antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) were used. Three out of the five AEDs (levetiracetam, phenytoin, and topiramate) showed only a limited protective effect (mainly mortality delay) at doses close to the TD50 (dose inducing motor impairment in 50% of animals) in mice. The two remaining AEDs (diazepam and sodium valproate) displayed protective activity against AG-induced seizures. Experiments performed in zebrafish larvae revealed behavioral AED activity profiles highly analogous to those obtained in mice. Having demonstrated cross-species similarities and limited efficacy of tested AEDs, we propose the use of AG in zebrafish as a convenient and high-throughput model of treatment-resistant seizures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cross-species comparison of genes related to nutrient sensing mechanisms expressed along the intestine.

    PubMed

    van der Wielen, Nikkie; van Avesaat, Mark; de Wit, Nicole J W; Vogels, Jack T W E; Troost, Freddy; Masclee, Ad; Koopmans, Sietse-Jan; van der Meulen, Jan; Boekschoten, Mark V; Müller, Michael; Hendriks, Henk F J; Witkamp, Renger F; Meijerink, Jocelijn

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal chemosensory receptors and transporters are able to detect food-derived molecules and are involved in the modulation of gut hormone release. Gut hormones play an important role in the regulation of food intake and the control of gastrointestinal functioning. This mechanism is often referred to as "nutrient sensing". Knowledge of the distribution of chemosensors along the intestinal tract is important to gain insight in nutrient detection and sensing, both pivotal processes for the regulation of food intake. However, most knowledge is derived from rodents, whereas studies in man and pig are limited, and cross-species comparisons are lacking. To characterize and compare intestinal expression patterns of genes related to nutrient sensing in mice, pigs and humans. Mucosal biopsy samples taken at six locations in human intestine (n = 40) were analyzed by qPCR. Intestinal scrapings from 14 locations in pigs (n = 6) and from 10 locations in mice (n = 4) were analyzed by qPCR and microarray, respectively. The gene expression of glucagon, cholecystokinin, peptide YY, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor, taste receptor T1R3, sodium/glucose cotransporter, peptide transporter-1, GPR120, taste receptor T1R1, GPR119 and GPR93 was investigated. Partial least squares (PLS) modeling was used to compare the intestinal expression pattern between the three species. The studied genes were found to display specific expression patterns along the intestinal tract. PLS analysis showed a high similarity between human, pig and mouse in the expression of genes related to nutrient sensing in the distal ileum, and between human and pig in the colon. The gene expression pattern was most deviating between the species in the proximal intestine. Our results give new insights in interspecies similarities and provide new leads for translational research and models aiming to modulate food intake processes in man.

  1. Population genetics of Cryptosporidium meleagridis in humans and birds: evidence for cross-species transmission.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanfei; Yang, Wenli; Cama, Vitaliano; Wang, Lin; Cabrera, Lilia; Ortega, Ynes; Bern, Caryn; Feng, Yaoyu; Gilman, Robert; Xiao, Lihua

    2014-07-01

    Population genetic studies have been used to understand the transmission of pathogens in humans and animals, especially the role of zoonotic infections and evolution and dispersal of virulent subtypes. In this study, we analysed the genetic diversity and population structure of Cryptosporidium meleagridis, the only known Cryptosporidium species that infects both avian and mammalian hosts and is responsible for approximately 10% of human cryptosporidiosis in some areas. A total of 62 C. meleagridis specimens from children, AIDS patients, and birds in Lima, Peru were characterised by sequence analysis of the ssrRNA gene and five minisatellite, microsatellite and polymorphic markers in chromosome 6, including the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60), 47 kDa glycoprotein (CP47), a serine repeat antigen (MSC6-5), retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator (RPGR) and thrombospondin protein 8 (TSP8). The multilocus sequence analysis identified concurrent infections with Cryptosporidium hominis in four AIDS patients and three children. Unique subtypes of C. meleagridis ranged from eight at the gp60 locus (gene diversity -Hd=0.651), three at the RPGR (Hd=0.556), three at the MSC6-5 locus (Hd=0.242), two at TSP8 (Hd=0.198), to one at CP47 (monomorphic), much lower than that of C. hominis in the same area. Intragenic linkage disequilibrium was strong and complete at all gene loci. Intergenic linkage disequilibrium was highly significant (P<0.001) for all pairs of polymorphic loci. Two major groups of subtypes were seen, with most subtypes belonging to group 1. Within group 1, there was no clear population segregation, and two of the 14 multilocus subtypes of C. meleagridis were found in both AIDS patients and birds. We believe that these results provide the first evidence of a clonal population structure of C. meleagridis and the likely occurrence of cross-species transmission of C. meleagridis between birds and humans. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Mapping interactomes with high coverage and efficiency using the shifted transversal design.

    PubMed

    Xin, Xiaofeng; Boone, Charles; Thierry-Mieg, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    "Smart-pooling" is a strategy to achieve high efficiency, sensitivity, and specificity in large-scale yeast two-hybrid screening. In smart-pooling, reagents are multiplexed in a highly redundant manner and the positives can be read out on the final selection plates without the requirement of any extra experimental steps. We have shown that the Shifted Transversal Design (STD), a powerful theoretical construction for smart-pooling, can be used in yeast two-hybrid interactome mapping. STD pooling can achieve similar levels of sensitivity and specificity as one-on-one array-based yeast two-hybrid, while the costs and workloads are much lower. This chapter focuses on the construction and usage of STD arrays for large-scale yeast two-hybrid interactome mapping.

  3. Proteomics, metabolomics, and protein interactomics in the characterization of the molecular features of major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Martins-de-Souza, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Omics technologies emerged as complementary strategies to genomics in the attempt to understand human illnesses. In general, proteomics technologies emerged earlier than those of metabolomics for major depressive disorder (MDD) research, but both are driven by the identification of proteins and/or metabolites that can delineate a comprehensive characterization of MDD's molecular mechanisms, as well as lead to the identification of biomarker candidates of all types-prognosis, diagnosis, treatment, and patient stratification. Also, one can explore protein and metabolite interactomes in order to pinpoint additional molecules associated with the disease that had not been picked up initially. Here, results and methodological aspects of MDD research using proteomics, metabolomics, and protein interactomics are reviewed, focusing on human samples.

  4. Serum Amyloid P Component (SAP) Interactome in Human Plasma Containing Physiological Calcium Levels.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Ebbe Toftgaard; Pedersen, Kata Wolff; Marzeda, Anna Maria; Enghild, Jan J

    2017-02-14

    The pentraxin serum amyloid P component (SAP) is secreted by the liver and found in plasma at a concentration of approximately 30 mg/L. SAP is a 25 kDa homopentamer known to bind both protein and nonprotein ligands, all in a calcium-dependent manner. The function of SAP is unclear but likely involves the humoral innate immune system spanning the complement system, inflammation, and coagulation. Also, SAP is known to bind to the generic structure of amyloid deposits and possibly to protect them against proteolysis. In this study, we have characterized the SAP interactome in human plasma containing the physiological Ca(2+) concentration using SAP affinity pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation experiments followed by mass spectrometry analyses. The analyses resulted in the identification of 33 proteins, of which 24 were direct or indirect interaction partners not previously reported. The SAP interactome can be divided into categories that include apolipoproteins, the complement system, coagulation, and proteolytic regulation.

  5. Simultaneously measuring multiple protein interactions and their correlations in a cell by Protein-interactome Footprinting

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Si-Wei; Liang, Zhi; Wu, Jia-Rui

    2017-01-01

    Quantitatively detecting correlations of multiple protein-protein interactions (PPIs) in vivo is a big challenge. Here we introduce a novel method, termed Protein-interactome Footprinting (PiF), to simultaneously measure multiple PPIs in one cell. The principle of PiF is that each target physical PPI in the interactome is simultaneously transcoded into a specific DNA sequence based on dimerization of the target proteins fused with DNA-binding domains. The interaction intensity of each target protein is quantified as the copy number of the specific DNA sequences bound by each fusion protein dimers. Using PiF, we quantitatively reveal dynamic patterns of PPIs and their correlation network in E. coli two-component systems. PMID:28338015

  6. Microsatellite cross-species amplification and utility in southern African elasmobranchs: A valuable resource for fisheries management and conservation.

    PubMed

    Maduna, Simo N; Rossouw, Charné; Roodt-Wilding, Rouvay; Bester-van der Merwe, Aletta E

    2014-06-10

    Similarly to the rest of the world, southern Africa's diverse chondrichthyan fauna is currently experiencing high fishing pressures from direct and non-direct fisheries to satisfy market demands for shark products such as fins and meat. In this study, the development of microsatellite markers through cross-species amplification of primer sets previously developed for closely related species is reported as an alternative approach to de novo marker development. This included the design of four microsatellite multiplex assays and their cross-species utility in genetic diversity analysis of southern African elasmobranchs. As this study forms part of a larger project on the development of genetic resources for commercially important and endemic southern African species, Mustelus mustelus was used as a candidate species for testing these multiplex assays in down-stream applications. Thirty five microsatellite primer sets previously developed for five elasmobranch species were selected from literature for testing cross-species amplification in 16 elasmobranch species occurring in southern Africa. Cross-species amplification success rates ranged from 28.6%-71.4%. From the successfully amplified microsatellites, 22 loci were selected and evaluated for levels of polymorphism, and four multiplex assays comprising of the 22 microsatellites were successfully constructed, optimised and characterised in a panel of 87 Mustelus mustelus individuals. A total of 125 alleles were observed across all loci, with the number of alleles ranging from 3-12 alleles. Cross-species amplification of the four optimised multiplex assays was further tested on 11 commercially important and endemic southern African elasmobranch species. Percentage of polymorphism ranged from 31.8%-95.5% in these species with polymorphic information content decreasing exponentially with evolutionary distance from the source species. Cross-species amplification of the 35 microsatellites proved to be a time- and cost

  7. Microsatellite cross-species amplification and utility in southern African elasmobranchs: A valuable resource for fisheries management and conservation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Similarly to the rest of the world, southern Africa’s diverse chondrichthyan fauna is currently experiencing high fishing pressures from direct and non-direct fisheries to satisfy market demands for shark products such as fins and meat. In this study, the development of microsatellite markers through cross-species amplification of primer sets previously developed for closely related species is reported as an alternative approach to de novo marker development. This included the design of four microsatellite multiplex assays and their cross-species utility in genetic diversity analysis of southern African elasmobranchs. As this study forms part of a larger project on the development of genetic resources for commercially important and endemic southern African species, Mustelus mustelus was used as a candidate species for testing these multiplex assays in down-stream applications. Results Thirty five microsatellite primer sets previously developed for five elasmobranch species were selected from literature for testing cross-species amplification in 16 elasmobranch species occurring in southern Africa. Cross-species amplification success rates ranged from 28.6%-71.4%. From the successfully amplified microsatellites, 22 loci were selected and evaluated for levels of polymorphism, and four multiplex assays comprising of the 22 microsatellites were successfully constructed, optimised and characterised in a panel of 87 Mustelus mustelus individuals. A total of 125 alleles were observed across all loci, with the number of alleles ranging from 3–12 alleles. Cross-species amplification of the four optimised multiplex assays was further tested on 11 commercially important and endemic southern African elasmobranch species. Percentage of polymorphism ranged from 31.8%-95.5% in these species with polymorphic information content decreasing exponentially with evolutionary distance from the source species. Conclusions Cross-species amplification of the 35

  8. Next Generation Protein Interactomes for Plant Systems Biology and Biomass Feedstock Research

    SciTech Connect

    Ecker, Joseph Robert; Trigg, Shelly; Garza, Renee; Song, Haili; MacWilliams, Andrew; Nery, Joseph; Reina, Joaquin; Bartlett, Anna; Castanon, Rosa; Goubil, Adeline; Feeney, Joseph; O'Malley, Ronan; Huang, Shao-shan Carol; Zhang, Zhuzhu; Galli, Mary

    2016-11-30

    Biofuel crop cultivation is a necessary step in heading towards a sustainable future, making their genomic studies a priority. While technology platforms that currently exist for studying non-model crop species, like switch-grass or sorghum, have yielded large quantities of genomic and expression data, still a large gap exists between molecular mechanism and phenotype. The aspect of molecular activity at the level of protein-protein interactions has recently begun to bridge this gap, providing a more global perspective. Interactome analysis has defined more specific functional roles of proteins based on their interaction partners, neighborhoods, and other network features, making it possible to distinguish unique modules of immune response to different plant pathogens(Jiang, Dong, and Zhang 2016). As we work towards cultivating heartier biofuel crops, interactome data will lead to uncovering crop-specific defense and development networks. However, the collection of protein interaction data has been limited to expensive, time-consuming, hard-to-scale assays that mostly require cloned ORF collections. For these reasons, we have successfully developed a highly scalable, economical, and sensitive yeast two-hybrid assay, ProCREate, that can be universally applied to generate proteome-wide primary interactome data. ProCREate enables en masse pooling and massively paralleled sequencing for the identification of interacting proteins by exploiting Cre-lox recombination. ProCREate can be used to screen ORF/cDNA libraries from feedstock plant tissues. The interactome data generated will yield deeper insight into many molecular processes and pathways that can be used to guide improvement of feedstock productivity and sustainability.

  9. Cross-species induction and enhancement of antimicrobial activity produced by epibiotic bacteria from marine algae and invertebrates, after exposure to terrestrial bacteria.

    PubMed

    Mearns-Spragg, A; Bregu, M; Boyd, K G; Burgess, J G

    1998-09-01

    Antibiotic producing marine bacteria isolated from surfaces of the marine alga Fucus vesiculosus and the nudibranch Archidoris pseudoargus were exposed to live cells of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and heat-killed cells of Staph. aureus. Twelve out of the 16 marine strains tested showed enhanced antimicrobial activity towards Staph. aureus, E. coli and Ps. aeruginosa following this exposure. Three out of seven strains tested showed enhanced antimicrobial activity when exposed to Ps. aeruginosa and three out of seven strains showed enhanced antimicrobial activity when exposed to E. coli. These results suggest that production of antimicrobial compounds by marine bacteria can be induced by the presence of terrestrial bacteria. This appears to be the first example of cross-species induction and enhancement of antimicrobial activity in marine bacteria and has important implications for the design of antibiotic screening assays and for an understanding of microbial competition in the environment.

  10. Rabbit hepatitis E virus is an opportunistic pathogen in specific-pathogen-free rabbits with the capability of cross-species transmission.

    PubMed

    Liu, Baoyuan; Sun, Yani; Du, Taofeng; Chen, Yiyang; Wang, Xinjie; Huang, Baicheng; Li, Huixia; Nan, Yuchen; Xiao, Shuqi; Zhang, Gaiping; Hiscox, Julian A; Zhou, En-Min; Zhao, Qin

    2017-03-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been detected in rabbits, a recently identified natural reservoir. In this study, anti-HEV antibodies and viral RNA were detected in rabbits sourced from a specific-pathogen-free (SPF) rabbit vendor in Shaanxi Province, China. BLAST results of partial HEV ORF2 genes cloned here indicated that two viral strains circulated in the rabbits. Sequence determination of the complete genome (7302bp) of one strain and a partial ORF1 gene (1537bp) of the other strain showed that they shared 90% identity with one another and 78%-94% identity with other known rabbit HEVs. In addition, inoculation with rabbit HEV from SPF rabbits studied here resulted in infection of SPF pigs; this cross-species transmission was evidenced by seroconversion, viremia and faecal virus shedding. These results suggest that to prevent spread of this zoonotic pathogen, rabbits should be tested routinely for HEV RNA in SPF vendor facilities.

  11. Mining protein interactomes to improve their reliability and support the advancement of network medicine

    PubMed Central

    Alanis-Lobato, Gregorio

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput detection of protein interactions has had a major impact in our understanding of the intricate molecular machinery underlying the living cell, and has permitted the construction of very large protein interactomes. The protein networks that are currently available are incomplete and a significant percentage of their interactions are false positives. Fortunately, the structural properties observed in good quality social or technological networks are also present in biological systems. This has encouraged the development of tools, to improve the reliability of protein networks and predict new interactions based merely on the topological characteristics of their components. Since diseases are rarely caused by the malfunction of a single protein, having a more complete and reliable interactome is crucial in order to identify groups of inter-related proteins involved in disease etiology. These system components can then be targeted with minimal collateral damage. In this article, an important number of network mining tools is reviewed, together with resources from which reliable protein interactomes can be constructed. In addition to the review, a few representative examples of how molecular and clinical data can be integrated to deepen our understanding of pathogenesis are discussed. PMID:26442112

  12. A cross-species bi-clustering approach to identifying conserved co-regulated genes

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jiangwen; Jiang, Zongliang; Tian, Xiuchun; Bi, Jinbo

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: A growing number of studies have explored the process of pre-implantation embryonic development of multiple mammalian species. However, the conservation and variation among different species in their developmental programming are poorly defined due to the lack of effective computational methods for detecting co-regularized genes that are conserved across species. The most sophisticated method to date for identifying conserved co-regulated genes is a two-step approach. This approach first identifies gene clusters for each species by a cluster analysis of gene expression data, and subsequently computes the overlaps of clusters identified from different species to reveal common subgroups. This approach is ineffective to deal with the noise in the expression data introduced by the complicated procedures in quantifying gene expression. Furthermore, due to the sequential nature of the approach, the gene clusters identified in the first step may have little overlap among different species in the second step, thus difficult to detect conserved co-regulated genes. Results: We propose a cross-species bi-clustering approach which first denoises the gene expression data of each species into a data matrix. The rows of the data matrices of different species represent the same set of genes that are characterized by their expression patterns over the developmental stages of each species as columns. A novel bi-clustering method is then developed to cluster genes into subgroups by a joint sparse rank-one factorization of all the data matrices. This method decomposes a data matrix into a product of a column vector and a row vector where the column vector is a consistent indicator across the matrices (species) to identify the same gene cluster and the row vector specifies for each species the developmental stages that the clustered genes co-regulate. Efficient optimization algorithm has been developed with convergence analysis. This approach was first validated on

  13. Orbitofrontal Neuroadaptations and Cross-Species Synaptic Biomarkers in Heavy-Drinking Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Uys, Joachim D.; Woodward, John J.; Randall, Patrick K.; Ball, Lauren E.

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive impairments, uncontrolled drinking, and neuropathological cortical changes characterize alcohol use disorder. Dysfunction of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), a critical cortical subregion that controls learning, decision-making, and prediction of reward outcomes, contributes to executive cognitive function deficits in alcoholic individuals. Electrophysiological and quantitative synaptomics techniques were used to test the hypothesis that heavy drinking produces neuroadaptations in the macaque OFC. Integrative bioinformatics and reverse genetic approaches were used to identify and validate synaptic proteins with novel links to heavy drinking in BXD mice. In drinking monkeys, evoked firing of OFC pyramidal neurons was reduced, whereas the amplitude and frequency of postsynaptic currents were enhanced compared with controls. Bath application of alcohol reduced evoked firing in neurons from control monkeys, but not drinking monkeys. Profiling of the OFC synaptome identified alcohol-sensitive proteins that control glutamate release (e.g., SV2A, synaptogyrin-1) and postsynaptic signaling (e.g., GluA1, PRRT2) with no changes in synaptic GABAergic proteins. Western blot analysis confirmed the increase in GluA1 expression in drinking monkeys. An exploratory analysis of the OFC synaptome found cross-species genetic links to alcohol intake in discrete proteins (e.g., C2CD2L, DIRAS2) that discriminated between low- and heavy-drinking monkeys. Validation studies revealed that BXD mouse strains with the D allele at the C2cd2l interval drank less alcohol than B allele strains. Thus, by profiling of the OFC synaptome, we identified changes in proteins controlling glutamate release and postsynaptic signaling and discovered several proteins related to heavy drinking that have potential as novel targets for treating alcohol use disorder. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Clinical research identified cognitive deficits in alcoholic individuals as a risk factor for relapse, and alcoholic

  14. Wildlife-livestock interactions and risk areas for cross-species spread of bovine tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Meunier, Natascha V; Sebulime, Peregrine; White, Richard G; Kock, Richard

    2017-01-23

    The transmission of diseases between livestock and wildlife can be a hindrance to effective disease control. Maintenance hosts and contact rates should be explored to further understand the transmission dynamics at the wildlife-livestock interface. Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) has been shown to have wildlife maintenance hosts and has been confirmed as present in the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in the Queen Elizabeth National Park (QENP) in Uganda since the 1960s. The first aim of this study was to explore the spatio-temporal spread of cattle illegally grazing within the QENP recorded by the Uganda Wildlife Authority (UWA) rangers in a wildlife crime database. Secondly, we aimed to quantify wildlife-livestock interactions and cattle movements, on the border of QENP, using a longitudinal questionnaire completed by 30 livestock owners. From this database, 426 cattle sightings were recorded within QENP in 8 years. Thirteen (3.1%) of these came within a 300 m-4 week space-time window of a buffalo herd, using the recorded GPS data. Livestock owners reported an average of 1.04 (95% CI 0.97-1.11) sightings of Uganda kob, waterbuck, buffalo or warthog per day over a 3-month period, with a rate of 0.22 (95% CI 0.20-0.25) sightings of buffalo per farmer per day. Reports placed 85.3% of the ungulate sightings and 88.0% of the buffalo sightings as further than 50 m away. Ungulate sightings were more likely to be closer to cattle at the homestead (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1-3.6) compared with the grazing area. Each cattle herd mixed with an average of five other cattle herds at both the communal grazing and watering points on a daily basis. Although wildlife and cattle regularly shared grazing and watering areas, they seldom came into contact close enough for aerosol transmission. Between species infection transmission is therefore likely to be by indirect or non-respiratory routes, which is suspected to be an infrequent mechanism of transmission of BTB. Occasional cross-species

  15. Preclinical QT safety assessment: cross-species comparisons and human translation from an industry consortium.

    PubMed

    Holzgrefe, Henry; Ferber, Georg; Champeroux, Pascal; Gill, Michael; Honda, Masaki; Greiter-Wilke, Andrea; Baird, Theodore; Meyer, Olivier; Saulnier, Muriel

    2014-01-01

    In vivo models have been required to demonstrate relative cardiac safety, but model sensitivity has not been systematically investigated. Cross-species and human translation of repolarization delay, assessed as QT/QTc prolongation, has not been compared employing common methodologies across multiple species and sites. Therefore, the accurate translation of repolarization results within and between preclinical species, and to man, remains problematic. Six pharmaceutical companies entered into an informal consortium designed to collect high-resolution telemetered data in multiple species (dog; n=34, cynomolgus; n=37, minipig; n=12, marmoset; n=14, guinea pig; n=5, and man; n=57). All animals received vehicle and varying doses of moxifloxacin (3-100 mg/kg, p.o.) with telemetered ECGs (≥500 Hz) obtained for 20-24h post-dose. Individual probabilistic QT-RR relationships were derived for each subject. The rate-correction efficacies of the individual (QTca) and generic correction formulae (Bazett, Fridericia, and Van de Water) were objectively assessed as the mean squared slopes of the QTc-RR relationships. Normalized moxifloxacin QTca responses (Veh Δ%/μM) were derived for 1h centered on the moxifloxacin Tmax. All QT-RR ranges demonstrated probabilistic uncertainty; slopes varied distinctly by species where dog and human exhibited the lowest QT rate-dependence, which was much steeper in the cynomolgus and guinea pig. Incorporating probabilistic uncertainty, the normalized QTca-moxifloxacin responses were similarly conserved across all species, including man. The current results provide the first unambiguous evidence that all preclinical in vivo repolarization assays, when accurately modeled and evaluated, yield results that are consistent with the conservation of moxifloxacin-induced QT prolongation across all common preclinical species. Furthermore, these outcomes are directly transferable across all species including man. The consortium results indicate that the

  16. Comparative analysis estimates the relative frequencies of co-divergence and cross-species transmission within viral families

    PubMed Central

    Geoghegan, Jemma L.

    2017-01-01

    The cross-species transmission of viruses from one host species to another is responsible for the majority of emerging infections. However, it is unclear whether some virus families have a greater propensity to jump host species than others. If related viruses have an evolutionary history of co-divergence with their hosts there should be evidence of topological similarities between the virus and host phylogenetic trees, whereas host jumping generates incongruent tree topologies. By analyzing co-phylogenetic processes in 19 virus families and their eukaryotic hosts we provide a quantitative and comparative estimate of the relative frequency of virus-host co-divergence versus cross-species transmission among virus families. Notably, our analysis reveals that cross-species transmission is a near universal feature of the viruses analyzed here, with virus-host co-divergence occurring less frequently and always on a subset of viruses. Despite the overall high topological incongruence among virus and host phylogenies, the Hepadnaviridae, Polyomaviridae, Poxviridae, Papillomaviridae and Adenoviridae, all of which possess double-stranded DNA genomes, exhibited more frequent co-divergence than the other virus families studied here. At the other extreme, the virus and host trees for all the RNA viruses studied here, particularly the Rhabdoviridae and the Picornaviridae, displayed high levels of topological incongruence, indicative of frequent host switching. Overall, we show that cross-species transmission plays a major role in virus evolution, with all the virus families studied here having the potential to jump host species, and that increased sampling will likely reveal more instances of host jumping. PMID:28178344

  17. Short Communication Microsatellite loci in the tetraploid spined loach, Cobitis biwae, and cross-species amplification in four related species.

    PubMed

    Jablonska, O; Marín, A; Kowalewska, K; Fujimoto, T; Arai, K

    2016-09-23

    Fifteen microsatellite loci were identified in the tetraploid spined loach, Cobitis biwae (Teleostei: Cobitidae). Among these, 14 were polymorphic (5-31 alleles) and showed moderate to high cross-species amplification transferability in four related species, Cobitis matsubarai, Cobitis taenia, Misgurnus anguillicaudatus, and Misgurnus fossilis. The loci, described herein, will be useful for population genetics, phylogeny, parentage analysis, and detection of hybridization among Cobitis species.

  18. The Activation-Induced Assembly of an RNA/Protein Interactome Centered on the Splicing Factor U2AF2 Regulates Gene Expression in Human CD4 T Cells.

    PubMed

    Whisenant, Thomas C; Peralta, Eigen R; Aarreberg, Lauren D; Gao, Nina J; Head, Steven R; Ordoukhanian, Phillip; Williamson, Jamie R; Salomon, Daniel R

    2015-01-01

    Activation of CD4 T cells is a reaction to challenges such as microbial pathogens, cancer and toxins that defines adaptive immune responses. The roles of T cell receptor crosslinking, intracellular signaling, and transcription factor activation are well described, but the importance of post-transcriptional regulation by RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) has not been considered in depth. We describe a new model expanding and activating primary human CD4 T cells and applied this to characterizing activation-induced assembly of splicing factors centered on U2AF2. We immunoprecipitated U2AF2 to identify what mRNA transcripts were bound as a function of activation by TCR crosslinking and costimulation. In parallel, mass spectrometry revealed the proteins incorporated into the U2AF2-centered RNA/protein interactome. Molecules that retained interaction with the U2AF2 complex after RNAse treatment were designated as "central" interactome members (CIMs). Mass spectrometry also identified a second class of activation-induced proteins, "peripheral" interactome members (PIMs), that bound to the same transcripts but were not in physical association with U2AF2 or its partners. siRNA knockdown of two CIMs and two PIMs caused changes in activation marker expression, cytokine secretion, and gene expression that were unique to each protein and mapped to pathways associated with key aspects of T cell activation. While knocking down the PIM, SYNCRIP, impacts a limited but immunologically important set of U2AF2-bound transcripts, knockdown of U2AF1 significantly impairs assembly of the majority of protein and mRNA components in the activation-induced interactome. These results demonstrated that CIMs and PIMs, either directly or indirectly through RNA, assembled into activation-induced U2AF2 complexes and play roles in post-transcriptional regulation of genes related to cytokine secretion. These data suggest an additional layer of regulation mediated by the activation-induced assembly of RNA

  19. The Activation-Induced Assembly of an RNA/Protein Interactome Centered on the Splicing Factor U2AF2 Regulates Gene Expression in Human CD4 T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Aarreberg, Lauren D.; Gao, Nina J.; Head, Steven R.; Ordoukhanian, Phillip; Williamson, Jamie R.; Salomon, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Activation of CD4 T cells is a reaction to challenges such as microbial pathogens, cancer and toxins that defines adaptive immune responses. The roles of T cell receptor crosslinking, intracellular signaling, and transcription factor activation are well described, but the importance of post-transcriptional regulation by RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) has not been considered in depth. We describe a new model expanding and activating primary human CD4 T cells and applied this to characterizing activation-induced assembly of splicing factors centered on U2AF2. We immunoprecipitated U2AF2 to identify what mRNA transcripts were bound as a function of activation by TCR crosslinking and costimulation. In parallel, mass spectrometry revealed the proteins incorporated into the U2AF2-centered RNA/protein interactome. Molecules that retained interaction with the U2AF2 complex after RNAse treatment were designated as “central” interactome members (CIMs). Mass spectrometry also identified a second class of activation-induced proteins, “peripheral” interactome members (PIMs), that bound to the same transcripts but were not in physical association with U2AF2 or its partners. siRNA knockdown of two CIMs and two PIMs caused changes in activation marker expression, cytokine secretion, and gene expression that were unique to each protein and mapped to pathways associated with key aspects of T cell activation. While knocking down the PIM, SYNCRIP, impacts a limited but immunologically important set of U2AF2-bound transcripts, knockdown of U2AF1 significantly impairs assembly of the majority of protein and mRNA components in the activation-induced interactome. These results demonstrated that CIMs and PIMs, either directly or indirectly through RNA, assembled into activation-induced U2AF2 complexes and play roles in post-transcriptional regulation of genes related to cytokine secretion. These data suggest an additional layer of regulation mediated by the activation-induced assembly

  20. When humans are the exception: cross-species databases at the interface of biological and clinical research.

    PubMed

    Leonelli, Sabina

    2012-04-01

    Cross-species comparison has long been regarded as a stepping-stone for medical research, enabling the discovery and testing of prospective treatments before they undergo clinical trial on humans. Post-genomic medicine has made cross-species comparison crucial in another respect: the 'community databases' developed to collect and disseminate data on model organisms are now often used as a template for the dissemination of data on humans and as a tool for comparing results of medical significance across the human-animal boundary. This paper identifies and discusses four key problems encountered by database curators when integrating human and non-human data within the same database: (1) picking criteria for what counts as reliable evidence, (2) selecting metadata, (3) standardising and describing research materials and (4) choosing nomenclature to classify data. An analysis of these hurdles reveals epistemic disagreement and controversies underlying cross-species comparisons, which in turn highlight important differences in the experimental cultures of biologists and clinicians trying to make sense of these data. By considering database development through the eyes of curators, this study casts new light on the complex conjunctions of biological and clinical practice, model organisms and human subjects, and material and virtual sources of evidence--thus emphasizing the fragmented, localized and inherently translational nature of biomedicine.

  1. Cross-species transcriptional network analysis reveals conservation and variation in response to metal stress in cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background As one of the most dominant bacterial groups on Earth, cyanobacteria play a pivotal role in the global carbon cycling and the Earth atmosphere composition. Understanding their molecular responses to environmental perturbations has important scientific and environmental values. Since important biological processes or networks are often evolutionarily conserved, the cross-species transcriptional network analysis offers a useful strategy to decipher conserved and species-specific transcriptional mechanisms that cells utilize to deal with various biotic and abiotic disturbances, and it will eventually lead to a better understanding of associated adaptation and regulatory networks. Results In this study, the Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA) approach was used to establish transcriptional networks for four important cyanobacteria species under metal stress, including iron depletion and high copper conditions. Cross-species network comparison led to discovery of several core response modules and genes possibly essential to metal stress, as well as species-specific hub genes for metal stresses in different cyanobacteria species, shedding light on survival strategies of cyanobacteria responding to different environmental perturbations. Conclusions The WGCNA analysis demonstrated that the application of cross-species transcriptional network analysis will lead to novel insights to molecular response to environmental changes which will otherwise not be achieved by analyzing data from a single species. PMID:23421563

  2. In search for significant cognitive features in Klinefelter syndrome through cross-species comparison of a supernumerary X chromosome.

    PubMed

    Bruining, H; Swaab, H; de Sonneville, L M J; van Rijn, S; van Engeland, H; Kas, M J H

    2011-08-01

    The behavioral characterization of animals that carry genetic disorder abnormalities in a controlled genetic and environmental background may be used to identify human deficits that are significant to understand underlying neurobiological mechanisms. Here, we studied whether previously reported object recognition impairments in mice with a supernumerary X chromosome relate to specific cognitive deficits in Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY). We aimed to optimize face validity by studying temporal object recognition in human cognitive assays. Thirty-four boys with Klinefelter syndrome (mean age 12.01) were compared with 90 age-matched normal controls, on a broad range of visual object memory tasks, including tests for pattern and temporal order discrimination. The results indicate that subjects with Klinefelter syndrome have difficulty in the processing of visual object and pattern information. Visual object patterns seem difficult to discriminate especially when temporal information needs to be processed and reproduced. On the basis of cross-species comparison, we propose that impaired temporal processing of object pattern information is an important deficit in Klinefelter syndrome. The current study shows how cross-species behavioral characterization may be used as a starting point to understand the neurobiology of syndromal phenotypic expression. The features of this study may serve as markers for interventions in Klinefelter syndrome. Similar cross-species evaluations of standard mouse behavioral paradigms in different genetic contexts may be powerful tools to optimize genotype-phenotype relationships.

  3. A disease module in the interactome explains disease heterogeneity, drug response and captures novel pathways and genes in asthma.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Amitabh; Menche, Jörg; Huang, C Chris; Ort, Tatiana; Zhou, Xiaobo; Kitsak, Maksim; Sahni, Nidhi; Thibault, Derek; Voung, Linh; Guo, Feng; Ghiassian, Susan Dina; Gulbahce, Natali; Baribaud, Frédéric; Tocker, Joel; Dobrin, Radu; Barnathan, Elliot; Liu, Hao; Panettieri, Reynold A; Tantisira, Kelan G; Qiu, Weiliang; Raby, Benjamin A; Silverman, Edwin K; Vidal, Marc; Weiss, Scott T; Barabási, Albert-László

    2015-06-01

    Recent advances in genetics have spurred rapid progress towards the systematic identification of genes involved in complex diseases. Still, the detailed understanding of the molecular and physiological mechanisms through which these genes affect disease phenotypes remains a major challenge. Here, we identify the asthma disease module, i.e. the local neighborhood of the interactome whose perturbation is associated with asthma, and validate it for functional and pathophysiological relevance, using both computational and experimental approaches. We find that the asthma disease module is enriched with modest GWAS P-values against the background of random variation, and with differentially expressed genes from normal and asthmatic fibroblast cells treated with an asthma-specific drug. The asthma module also contains immune response mechanisms that are shared with other immune-related disease modules. Further, using diverse omics (genomics, gene-expression, drug response) data, we identify the GAB1 signaling pathway as an important novel modulator in asthma. The wiring diagram of the uncovered asthma module suggests a relatively close link between GAB1 and glucocorticoids (GCs), which we experimentally validate, observing an increase in the level of GAB1 after GC treatment in BEAS-2B bronchial epithelial cells. The siRNA knockdown of GAB1 in the BEAS-2B cell line resulted in a decrease in the NFkB level, suggesting a novel regulatory path of the pro-inflammatory factor NFkB by GAB1 in asthma.

  4. A disease module in the interactome explains disease heterogeneity, drug response and captures novel pathways and genes in asthma

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Amitabh; Menche, Jörg; Huang, C. Chris; Ort, Tatiana; Zhou, Xiaobo; Kitsak, Maksim; Sahni, Nidhi; Thibault, Derek; Voung, Linh; Guo, Feng; Ghiassian, Susan Dina; Gulbahce, Natali; Baribaud, Frédéric; Tocker, Joel; Dobrin, Radu; Barnathan, Elliot; Liu, Hao; Panettieri, Reynold A.; Tantisira, Kelan G.; Qiu, Weiliang; Raby, Benjamin A.; Silverman, Edwin K.; Vidal, Marc; Weiss, Scott T.; Barabási, Albert-László

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in genetics have spurred rapid progress towards the systematic identification of genes involved in complex diseases. Still, the detailed understanding of the molecular and physiological mechanisms through which these genes affect disease phenotypes remains a major challenge. Here, we identify the asthma disease module, i.e. the local neighborhood of the interactome whose perturbation is associated with asthma, and validate it for functional and pathophysiological relevance, using both computational and experimental approaches. We find that the asthma disease module is enriched with modest GWAS P-values against the background of random variation, and with differentially expressed genes from normal and asthmatic fibroblast cells treated with an asthma-specific drug. The asthma module also contains immune response mechanisms that are shared with other immune-related disease modules. Further, using diverse omics (genomics, gene-expression, drug response) data, we identify the GAB1 signaling pathway as an important novel modulator in asthma. The wiring diagram of the uncovered asthma module suggests a relatively close link between GAB1 and glucocorticoids (GCs), which we experimentally validate, observing an increase in the level of GAB1 after GC treatment in BEAS-2B bronchial epithelial cells. The siRNA knockdown of GAB1 in the BEAS-2B cell line resulted in a decrease in the NFkB level, suggesting a novel regulatory path of the pro-inflammatory factor NFkB by GAB1 in asthma. PMID:25586491

  5. Insights into gene expression changes impacting B-cell transformation: cross-species microarray analysis of bovine leukemia virus tax-responsive genes in ovine B cells.

    PubMed

    Klener, Pavel; Szynal, Maud; Cleuter, Yvette; Merimi, Makram; Duvillier, Hugues; Lallemand, Françoise; Bagnis, Claude; Griebel, Philip; Sotiriou, Christos; Burny, Arsène; Martiat, Philippe; Van den Broeke, Anne

    2006-02-01

    Large-animal models for leukemia have the potential to aid in the understanding of networks that contribute to oncogenesis. Infection of cattle and sheep with bovine leukemia virus (BLV), a complex retrovirus related to human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), is associated with the development of B-cell leukemia. Whereas the natural disease in cattle is characterized by a low tumor incidence, experimental infection of sheep leads to overt leukemia in the majority of infected animals, providing a model for studying the pathogenesis associated with BLV and HTLV-1. Tax(BLV), the major oncoprotein, initiates a cascade of events leading toward malignancy, although the basis of transformation is not fully understood. We have taken a cross-species ovine-to-human microarray approach to identify Tax(BLV)-responsive transcriptional changes in two sets of cultured ovine B cells following retroviral vector-mediated delivery of Tax(BLV). Using cDNA-spotted microarrays comprising 10,336 human genes/expressed sequence tags, we identified a cohort of differentially expressed genes, including genes related to apoptosis, DNA transcription, and repair; proto-oncogenes; cell cycle regulators; transcription factors; small Rho GTPases/GTPase-binding proteins; and previously reported Tax(HTLV-1)-responsive genes. Interestingly, genes known to be associated with human neoplasia, especially B-cell malignancies, were extensively represented. Others were novel or unexpected. The results suggest that Tax(BLV) deregulates a broad network of interrelated pathways rather than a single B-lineage-specific regulatory process. Although cross-species approaches do not permit a comprehensive analysis of gene expression patterns, they can provide initial clues for the functional roles of genes that participate in B-cell transformation and pinpoint molecular targets not identified using other methods in animal models.

  6. Multi-linear regression analysis, preliminary biotic ligand modeling, and cross species comparison of the effects of water chemistry on chronic lead toxicity in invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Esbaugh, A J; Brix, K V; Mager, E M; De Schamphelaere, K; Grosell, M

    2012-03-01

    The current study examined the chronic toxicity of lead (Pb) to three invertebrate species: the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia dubia, the snail Lymnaea stagnalis and the rotifer Philodina rapida. The test media consisted of natural waters from across North America, varying in pertinent water chemistry parameters including dissolved organic carbon (DOC), calcium, pH and total CO(2). Chronic toxicity was assessed using reproductive endpoints for C. dubia and P. rapida while growth was assessed for L. stagnalis, with chronic toxicity varying markedly according to water chemistry. A multi-linear regression (MLR) approach was used to identify the relative importance of individual water chemistry components in predicting chronic Pb toxicity for each species. DOC was an integral component of MLR models for C. dubia and L. stagnalis, but surprisingly had no predictive impact on chronic Pb toxicity for P. rapida. Furthermore, sodium and total CO(2) were also identified as important factors affecting C. dubia toxicity; no other factors were predictive for L. stagnalis. The Pb toxicity of P. rapida was predicted by calcium and pH. The predictive power of the C. dubia and L. stagnalis MLR models was generally similar to that of the current C. dubia BLM, with R(2) values of 0.55 and 0.82 for the respective MLR models, compared to 0.45 and 0.79 for the respective BLMs. In contrast the BLM poorly predicted P. rapida toxicity (R(2)=0.19), as compared to the MLR (R(2)=0.92). The cross species variability in the effects of water chemistry, especially with respect to rotifers, suggests that cross species modeling of invertebrate chronic Pb toxicity using a C. dubia model may not always be appropriate.

  7. PhosphOrtholog: a web-based tool for cross-species mapping of orthologous protein post-translational modifications.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Rima; Sadrieh, Arash; Hoffman, Nolan J; Parker, Benjamin L; Humphrey, Sean J; Stöckli, Jacqueline; Hill, Adam P; James, David E; Yang, Jean Yee Hwa

    2015-08-19

    Most biological processes are influenced by protein post-translational modifications (PTMs). Identifying novel PTM sites in different organisms, including humans and model organisms, has expedited our understanding of key signal transduction mechanisms. However, with increasing availability of deep, quantitative datasets in diverse species, there is a growing need for tools to facilitate cross-species comparison of PTM data. This is particularly important because functionally important modification sites are more likely to be evolutionarily conserved; yet cross-species comparison of PTMs is difficult since they often lie in structurally disordered protein domains. Current tools that address this can only map known PTMs between species based on known orthologous phosphosites, and do not enable the cross-species mapping of newly identified modification sites. Here, we addressed this by developing a web-based software tool, PhosphOrtholog ( www.phosphortholog.com ) that accurately maps protein modification sites between different species. This facilitates the comparison of datasets derived from multiple species, and should be a valuable tool for the proteomics community. Here we describe PhosphOrtholog, a web-based application for mapping known and novel orthologous PTM sites from experimental data obtained from different species. PhosphOrtholog is the only generic and automated tool that enables cross-species comparison of large-scale PTM datasets without relying on existing PTM databases. This is achieved through pairwise sequence alignment of orthologous protein residues. To demonstrate its utility we apply it to two sets of human and rat muscle phosphoproteomes generated following insulin and exercise stimulation, respectively, and one publicly available mouse phosphoproteome following cellular stress revealing high mapping and coverage efficiency. Although coverage statistics are dataset dependent, PhosphOrtholog increased the number of cross-species mapped sites

  8. Columbia University: Computational Human High-grade Glioblastoma Multiforme Interactome - miRNA (Post-transcriptional) Layer | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    The Human High-Grade Glioma Interactome (HGi) contains a genome-wide complement of molecular interactions that are Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM)-specific. HGi v3 contains the post-transcriptional layer of the HGi, which includes the miRNA-target (RNA-RNA) layer of the interactome. Read the Abstract

  9. Utilising the EGFR interactome to identify mechanisms of drug resistance in non-small cell lung cancer - Proof of concept towards a systems pharmacology approach.

    PubMed

    Saafan, Hisham; Foerster, Sarah; Parra-Guillen, Zinnia P; Hammer, Elke; Michaelis, Martin; Cinatl, Jindrich; Völker, Uwe; Fröhlich, Holger; Kloft, Charlotte; Ritter, Christoph A

    2016-10-30

    Drug treatment of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) positive non-small cell lung cancer has improved substantially by targeting activating mutations within the receptor tyrosine kinase domain. However, the development of drug resistance still limits this approach. As root causes, large heterogeneity between tumour entities but also within tumour cells have been suggested. Therefore, approaches to identify these multitude and complex mechanisms are urgently required. Affinity purification coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry was applied to isolate and characterise the EGFR interactome from HCC4006 non-small cell lung cancer cells and their variant HCC4006(r)ERLO(0.5) adapted to grow in the presence of therapeutically relevant concentrations of erlotinib. Bioinformatics analyses were carried out to identify proteins and their related molecular functions that interact differentially with EGFR in the untreated state or when incubated with erlotinib prior to EGFR activation. Across all experimental conditions 375 proteins were detected to participate in the EGFR interactome, 90% of which constituted a complex protein interaction network that was bioinformatically reconstructed from literature data. Treatment of HCC4006(r)ERLO(0.5) cells carrying a resistance phenotype to erlotinib was associated with an increase of protein levels of members of the clathrin-associated adaptor protein family AP2 (AP2A1, AP2A2, AP2B1), structural proteins of cytoskeleton rearrangement as well as signalling molecules such as Shc. Validation experiments confirmed activation of the Ras-Raf-Mek-Erk (MAPK)-pathway, of which Shc is an initiating adaptor molecule, in HCC4006(r)ERLO(0.5) cells. Taken together, differential proteins in the EGFR interactome of HCC4006(r)ERLO(0.5) cells were identified that could be related to multiple resistance mechanisms including alterations in growth factor receptor expression, cellular remodelling processes suggesting epithelial

  10. DPDR-CPI, a server that predicts Drug Positioning and Drug Repositioning via Chemical-Protein Interactome

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Heng; Zhang, Ping; Cao, Xi Hang; Du, Dizheng; Ye, Hao; Huang, Hui; Li, Can; Qin, Shengying; Wan, Chunling; Shi, Leming; He, Lin; Yang, Lun

    2016-01-01

    The cost of developing a new drug has increased sharply over the past years. To ensure a reasonable return-on-investment, it is useful for drug discovery researchers in both industry and academia to identify all the possible indications for early pipeline molecules. For the first time, we propose the term computational “drug candidate positioning” or “drug positioning”, to describe the above process. It is distinct from drug repositioning, which identifies new uses for existing drugs and maximizes their value. Since many therapeutic effects are mediated by unexpected drug-protein interactions, it is reasonable to analyze the chemical-protein interactome (CPI) profiles to predict indications. Here we introduce the server DPDR-CPI, which can make real-time predictions based only on the structure of the small molecule. When a user submits a molecule, the server will dock it across 611 human proteins, generating a CPI profile of features that can be used for predictions. It can suggest the likelihood of relevance of the input molecule towards ~1,000 human diseases with top predictions listed. DPDR-CPI achieved an overall AUROC of 0.78 during 10-fold cross-validations and AUROC of 0.76 for the independent validation. The server is freely accessible via http://cpi.bio-x.cn/dpdr/. PMID:27805045

  11. Magnetic nanoparticles to recover cellular organelles and study the time resolved nanoparticle-cell interactome throughout uptake.

    PubMed

    Bertoli, Filippo; Davies, Gemma-Louise; Monopoli, Marco P; Moloney, Micheal; Gun'ko, Yurii K; Salvati, Anna; Dawson, Kenneth A

    2014-08-27

    Nanoparticles in contact with cells and living organisms generate quite novel interactions at the interface between the nanoparticle surface and the surrounding biological environment. However, a detailed time resolved molecular level description of the evolving interactions as nanoparticles are internalized and trafficked within the cellular environment is still missing and will certainly be required for the emerging arena of nanoparticle-cell interactions to mature. In this paper promising methodologies to map out the time resolved nanoparticle-cell interactome for nanoparticle uptake are discussed. Thus silica coated magnetite nanoparticles are presented to cells and their magnetic properties used to isolate, in a time resolved manner, the organelles containing the nanoparticles. Characterization of the recovered fractions shows that different cell compartments are isolated at different times, in agreement with imaging results on nanoparticle intracellular location. Subsequently the internalized nanoparticles can be further isolated from the recovered organelles, allowing the study of the most tightly nanoparticle-bound biomolecules, analogous to the 'hard corona' that so far has mostly been characterized in extracellular environments. Preliminary data on the recovered nanoparticles suggest that significant portion of the original corona (derived from the serum in which particles are presented to the cells) is preserved as nanoparticles are trafficked through the cells.

  12. DPDR-CPI, a server that predicts Drug Positioning and Drug Repositioning via Chemical-Protein Interactome.

    PubMed

    Luo, Heng; Zhang, Ping; Cao, Xi Hang; Du, Dizheng; Ye, Hao; Huang, Hui; Li, Can; Qin, Shengying; Wan, Chunling; Shi, Leming; He, Lin; Yang, Lun

    2016-11-02

    The cost of developing a new drug has increased sharply over the past years. To ensure a reasonable return-on-investment, it is useful for drug discovery researchers in both industry and academia to identify all the possible indications for early pipeline molecules. For the first time, we propose the term computational "drug candidate positioning" or "drug positioning", to describe the above process. It is distinct from drug repositioning, which identifies new uses for existing drugs and maximizes their value. Since many therapeutic effects are mediated by unexpected drug-protein interactions, it is reasonable to analyze the chemical-protein interactome (CPI) profiles to predict indications. Here we introduce the server DPDR-CPI, which can make real-time predictions based only on the structure of the small molecule. When a user submits a molecule, the server will dock it across 611 human proteins, generating a CPI profile of features that can be used for predictions. It can suggest the likelihood of relevance of the input molecule towards ~1,000 human diseases with top predictions listed. DPDR-CPI achieved an overall AUROC of 0.78 during 10-fold cross-validations and AUROC of 0.76 for the independent validation. The server is freely accessible via http://cpi.bio-x.cn/dpdr/.

  13. DDI-CPI, a server that predicts drug-drug interactions through implementing the chemical-protein interactome.

    PubMed

    Luo, Heng; Zhang, Ping; Huang, Hui; Huang, Jialiang; Kao, Emily; Shi, Leming; He, Lin; Yang, Lun

    2014-07-01

    Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) may cause serious side-effects that draw great attention from both academia and industry. Since some DDIs are mediated by unexpected drug-human protein interactions, it is reasonable to analyze the chemical-protein interactome (CPI) profiles of the drugs to predict their DDIs. Here we introduce the DDI-CPI server, which can make real-time DDI predictions based only on molecular structure. When the user submits a molecule, the server will dock user's molecule across 611 human proteins, generating a CPI profile that can be used as a feature vector for the pre-constructed prediction model. It can suggest potential DDIs between the user's molecule and our library of 2515 drug molecules. In cross-validation and independent validation, the server achieved an AUC greater than 0.85. Additionally, by investigating the CPI profiles of predicted DDI, users can explore the PK/PD proteins that might be involved in a particular DDI. A 3D visualization of the drug-protein interaction will be provided as well. The DDI-CPI is freely accessible at http://cpi.bio-x.cn/ddi/.

  14. Characterization of the Cardiac Overexpression of HSPB2 Reveals Mitochondrial and Myogenic Roles Supported by a Cardiac HspB2 Interactome

    PubMed Central

    Grose, Julianne H.; Langston, Kelsey; Wang, Xiaohui; Squires, Shayne; Mustafi, Soumyajit Banerjee; Hayes, Whitney; Neubert, Jonathan; Fischer, Susan K.; Fasano, Matthew; Saunders, Gina Moore; Dai, Qiang; Christians, Elisabeth; Lewandowski, E. Douglas; Ping, Peipei; Benjamin, Ivor J.

    2015-01-01

    Small Heat Shock Proteins (sHSPs) are molecular chaperones that transiently interact with other proteins, thereby assisting with quality control of proper protein folding and/or degradation. They are also recruited to protect cells from a variety of stresses in response to extreme heat, heavy metals, and oxidative-reductive stress. Although ten human sHSPs have been identified, their likely diverse biological functions remain an enigma in health and disease, and much less is known about non-redundant roles in selective cells and tissues. Herein, we set out to comprehensively characterize the cardiac-restricted Heat Shock Protein B-2 (HspB2), which exhibited ischemic cardioprotection in transgenic overexpressing mice including reduced infarct size and maintenance of ATP levels. Global yeast two-hybrid analysis using HspB2 (bait) and a human cardiac library (prey) coupled with co-immunoprecipitation studies for mitochondrial target validation revealed the first HspB2 “cardiac interactome” to contain many myofibril and mitochondrial-binding partners consistent with the overexpression phenotype. This interactome has been submitted to the Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets (BioGRID). A related sHSP chaperone HspB5 had only partially overlapping binding partners, supporting specificity of the interactome as well as non-redundant roles reported for these sHSPs. Evidence that the cardiac yeast two-hybrid HspB2 interactome targets resident mitochondrial client proteins is consistent with the role of HspB2 in maintaining ATP levels and suggests new chaperone-dependent functions for metabolic homeostasis. One of the HspB2 targets, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), has reported roles in HspB2 associated phenotypes including cardiac ATP production, mitochondrial function, and apoptosis, and was validated as a potential client protein of HspB2 through chaperone assays. From the clientele and phenotypes identified herein, it is tempting to

  15. Detection of Genotype 4 Swine Hepatitis E Virus in Systemic Tissues in Cross-Species Infected Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qiaoxing; An, Junqing; She, Ruiping; Shi, Ruihan; Hao, Wenzhuo; Soomro, MajidHussain; Yuan, Xuerui; Yang, Jinling; Wang, Jingyuan

    2017-01-01

    Increasing evidence demonstrates that hepatitis E virus (HEV) can be transmitted across species. According to previous reports, swine HEV has two genotypes, genotype 3 and 4, and both can infect humans by the fecal-oral route. Thus, it is crucial for the control of HEV zoonotic transmission to evaluate the dynamics of viral shedding and distribution in different tissues during cross-species infection by HEV. In this study, rabbits were infected with genotype 4 swine HEV by the intraperitoneal route. The results showed that HEV RNA not only shed in the feces but also in the saliva of some rabbits during infection with swine HEV. Viremia appeared late after infection, and anti-HEV IgG was not obvious until the appearance of high viremia levels. After the rabbits were euthanized, a histopathological examination showed that the livers developed overt hepatitis accompanied by an elevation of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST). Furthermore, HEV RNA was detected in various tissues, especially in the salivary glands and tonsils. Subsequently, negative-stranded HEV RNA was practiced in tissues with positive HEV RNA, which demonstrated that HEV replicated in the tissues. Next, we harvested additional tissues from the liver, salivary gland, tonsil, spleen, thymus gland, lymph node and intestine, which are known as replication sites of swine HEV. Additionally, we also observed the HEV antigen distributed in the organs above through immunohistochemical staining. These results demonstrate that rabbits could be used as an animal model for researching cross-species infection of genotype 4 HEV. It is also noteworthy that HEV can shed in the saliva and presents the risk of droplet transmission. These new data provide valuable information for understanding cross-species infection by HEV. PMID:28129390

  16. Design factors that influence PCR amplification success of cross-species primers among 1147 mammalian primer pairs

    PubMed Central

    Housley, Donna JE; Zalewski, Zachary A; Beckett, Stephanie E; Venta, Patrick J

    2006-01-01

    Background Cross-species primers have been used with moderate success to address a variety of questions concerning genome structure, evolution, and gene function. However, the factors affecting their success have never been adequately addressed, particularly with respect to producing a consistent method to achieve high throughput. Using 1,147 mammalian cross-species primer pairs (1089 not previously reported), we tested several factors to determine their influence on the probability that a given target will amplify in a given species under a single amplification condition. These factors included: number of mismatches between the two species (the index species) used to identify conserved regions to which the primers were designed, GC-content of the gene and amplified region, CpG dinucleotides in the primer region, degree of encoded protein conservation, length of the primers, and the degree of evolutionary distance between the target species and the two index species. Results The amplification success rate for the cross-species primers was significantly influenced by the number of mismatches between the two index species (6–8% decrease per mismatch in a primer pair), the GC-content within the amplified region (for the dog, GC ≥ 50%, 56.9% amplified; GC<50%, 74.2% amplified), the degree of protein conservation (R2 = 0.14) and the relatedness of the target species to the index species. For the dog, 598 products of 930 primer pairs (64.3%) (excluding primers in which dog was an index species) were sequenced and shown to be the expected product, with an additional three percent producing the incorrect sequence. When hamster DNA was used with the single amplification condition in a microtiter plate-based format, 510 of 1087 primer pairs (46.9%) produced amplified products. The primer pairs are spaced at an average distance of 2.3 Mb in the human genome and may be used to produce up to several hundred thousand bp of species-specific sequence. Conclusion The most

  17. Design factors that influence PCR amplification success of cross-species primers among 1147 mammalian primer pairs.

    PubMed

    Housley, Donna J E; Zalewski, Zachary A; Beckett, Stephanie E; Venta, Patrick J

    2006-10-09

    Cross-species primers have been used with moderate success to address a variety of questions concerning genome structure, evolution, and gene function. However, the factors affecting their success have never been adequately addressed, particularly with respect to producing a consistent method to achieve high throughput. Using 1,147 mammalian cross-species primer pairs (1089 not previously reported), we tested several factors to determine their influence on the probability that a given target will amplify in a given species under a single amplification condition. These factors included: number of mismatches between the two species (the index species) used to identify conserved regions to which the primers were designed, GC-content of the gene and amplified region, CpG dinucleotides in the primer region, degree of encoded protein conservation, length of the primers, and the degree of evolutionary distance between the target species and the two index species. The amplification success rate for the cross-species primers was significantly influenced by the number of mismatches between the two index species (6-8% decrease per mismatch in a primer pair), the GC-content within the amplified region (for the dog, GC > or = 50%, 56.9% amplified; GC<50%, 74.2% amplified), the degree of protein conservation (R2 = 0.14) and the relatedness of the target species to the index species. For the dog, 598 products of 930 primer pairs (64.3%) (excluding primers in which dog was an index species) were sequenced and shown to be the expected product, with an additional three percent producing the incorrect sequence. When hamster DNA was used with the single amplification condition in a microtiter plate-based format, 510 of 1087 primer pairs (46.9%) produced amplified products. The primer pairs are spaced at an average distance of 2.3 Mb in the human genome and may be used to produce up to several hundred thousand bp of species-specific sequence. The most important factors influencing the

  18. Intrastriatal transplantation of cross-species fetal striatal cells reduces abnormal movements in a primate model of Huntington disease.

    PubMed Central

    Hantraye, P; Riche, D; Maziere, M; Isacson, O

    1992-01-01

    Huntington disease is a neurological movement disorder involving massive neuronal death in the caudate-putamen region of the brain. Neither preventive nor curative therapy exists for this disease. The implantation of cross-species striatal neural precursor cells into the lesioned striatum of nonhuman primates (baboons) reduced the abnormal movements seen in the disease model. These abnormal movements reappeared after immunological rejection of the implanted striatal cells and were not modified by transplantation with nonstriatal cells. These findings encourage further experimentation toward the use of cell sources other than human fetal cells in a potential clinical application to Huntington disease. Images PMID:1533285

  19. Detection of RHDV strains in the Iberian hare (Lepus granatensis): earliest evidence of rabbit lagovirus cross-species infection.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Ana M; Marques, Sara; Silva, Eliane; Magalhães, Maria J; Pinheiro, Ana; Alves, Paulo C; Le Pendu, Jacques; Esteves, Pedro J; Thompson, Gertrude; Abrantes, Joana

    2014-09-24

    Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is a highly lethal Lagovirus, family Caliciviridae, that threatens European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Although a related virus severely affects hares, cross-species infection was only recently described for new variant RHDV in Cape hares (Lepus capensis mediterraneus). We sequenced two strains from dead Iberian hares (Lepus granatensis) collected in the 1990s in Portugal. Clinical signs were compatible with a Lagovirus infection. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete capsid gene positioned them in the RHDV genogroup that circulated on the Iberian Peninsula at that time. This is the earliest evidence of RHDV affecting a species other than European rabbits.

  20. Impaired autophagy and APP processing in Alzheimer's disease: The potential role of Beclin 1 interactome.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Antero; Kaarniranta, Kai; Kauppinen, Anu; Ojala, Johanna; Haapasalo, Annakaisa; Soininen, Hilkka; Hiltunen, Mikko

    2013-01-01

    The accumulation of amyloid-β-containing neuritic plaques and intracellular tau protein tangles are key histopathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This type of pathology clearly indicates that the mechanisms of neuronal housekeeping and protein quality control are compromised in AD. There is mounting evidence that the autophagosome-lysosomal degradation is impaired, which could disturb the processing of APP and provoke AD pathology. Beclin 1 is a molecular platform assembling an interactome with stimulating and suppressive components which regulate the initiation of the autophagosome formation. Recent studies have indicated that the expression Beclin 1 is reduced in AD brain. Moreover, the deficiency of Beclin 1 in cultured neurons and transgenic mice provokes the deposition of amyloid-β peptides whereas its overexpression reduces the accumulation of amyloid-β. There are several potential mechanisms, which could inhibit the function of Beclin 1 interactome and thus impair autophagy and promote AD pathology. The mechanisms include (i) reduction of Beclin 1 expression or its increased proteolytic cleavage by caspases, (ii) sequestration of Beclin 1 to non-functional locations, such as tau tangles, (iii) formation of inhibitory complexes between Beclin 1 and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins or inflammasomes, (iv) interaction of Beclin 1 with inhibitory neurovirulent proteins, e.g. herpex simplex ICP34.5, or (v) inhibition of the Beclin 1/Vps34 complex through the activation of CDK1 and CDK5. We will shortly introduce the function of Beclin 1 interactome in autophagy and phagocytosis, review the recent evidence indicating that Beclin 1 regulates autophagy and APP processing in AD, and finally examine the potential mechanisms through which Beclin 1 dysfunction could be involved in the pathogenesis of AD.

  1. Neuregulin 1-erbB4 pathway in schizophrenia: From genes to an interactome.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Anamika; Macdonald, Mathew L; Borgmann-Winter, Karin E; Hahn, Chang-Gyu

    2010-09-30

    Recently identified candidate susceptibility genes for schizophrenia are likely to play, important roles in the pathophysiology of the illness. It is also clear, however, that the etiologic, contribution of these genes is not only via their own functions but also through interactions with other, genes and environmental factors. Genetic, transgenic and postmortem brain studies support a, potential role for NRG1-erbB4 signaling in schizophrenia. Embedded in the results of these studies, however, are clues to the notion that NRG1-erbB4 signaling does not act alone but in conjunction with, other pathways. This article aims to re-evaluate the evidence for the role of neuregulin 1 (NRG1)-erbB4 signaling in schizophrenia by focusing on its interactions with other candidate susceptibility, pathways. In addition, we consider molecular substrates upon which the NRG1-erbB4 and other, candidate pathways converge contributing to susceptibility for the illness (schizophrenia interactome). Glutamatergic signaling can be an interesting candidate for schizophrenia interactome. Schizophrenia is associated with NMDA receptor hypofunction and moreover, several susceptibility genes for, schizophrenia converge on NMDA receptor signaling. These candidate genes influence NMDA receptor, signaling via diverse mechanisms, yet all eventually impact on protein composition of NMDA receptor, complexes. Likewise, the protein associations in the receptor complexes can themselves modulate, signaling molecules of candidate genes and their pathways. Therefore, protein-protein interactions in the NMDA receptor complexes can mediate reciprocal interactions between NMDA receptor function, and susceptibility candidate pathways including NRG1-erbB4 signaling and thus can be a, schizophrenia interactome.

  2. hp-DPI: Helicobacter pylori database of protein interactomes--embracing experimental and inferred interactions.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chung-Yen; Chen, Chia-Ling; Cho, Chi-Shiang; Wang, Li-Ming; Chang, Chia-Ming; Chen, Pao-Yang; Lo, Chen-Zen; Hsiung, Chao A

    2005-04-01

    We implemented a statistical model into our protein interaction database for validation of two-hybrid assays of Helicobacter pylori, and prediction of putative protein interactions not yet discovered experimentally. To present the enormous amount of experimental and inferred protein interaction networking maps, the H.pylori Database of Protein Interactomes (hp-DPI) is developed with a succinct yet comprehensive visualization tool integrated with annotation from Genbank, GO, and KEGG. hp-DPI is first built with, but not limited to, H.pylori protein interactions and is expected to naturally include other organisms' protein interacting relationships in the future.

  3. The chicken B-cell line DT40 proteome, beadome and interactomes

    PubMed Central

    Rees, Johanna S.; Lilley, Kathryn S.; Jackson, Antony P.

    2015-01-01

    In developing a new quantitative AP-MS method for exploring interactomes in the chicken B-cell line DT40, we also surveyed the most abundant proteins in this organism and explored the likely contaminants that bind to a variety of affinity resins that would later be confirmed quantitatively [1]. We present the ‘Top 150 abundant DT40 proteins list’, the DT40 beadomes as well as protein interaction lists for the Phosphatidyl inositol 5-phosphate 4-kinase 2β and Fanconi anaemia protein complexes. PMID:26217713

  4. CROSS-SPECIES COMPARISON OF CONAZOLE FUNGICIDE METABOLITES USING RAT AND RAINBOW TROUT (ONCHLORHYNCHUS MYKISS) HEPATIC MICROSOMES AND PURIFIED HUMAN CYP 3A4

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological risk assessment frequently relies on cross-species extrapolation to predict acute toxicity from chemical exposures. A major concern for environmental risk characterization is the degree of uncertainty in assessing xenobiotic biotansformation processes. Although inheren...

  5. CROSS-SPECIES COMPARISON OF CONAZOLE FUNGICIDE METABOLITES USING RAT AND RAINBOW TROUT (ONCHLORHYNCHUS MYKISS) HEPATIC MICROSOMES AND PURIFIED HUMAN CYP 3A4

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological risk assessment frequently relies on cross-species extrapolation to predict acute toxicity from chemical exposures. A major concern for environmental risk characterization is the degree of uncertainty in assessing xenobiotic biotansformation processes. Although inheren...

  6. Cross-species amplification of microsatellite markers in Mycteria leucocephala Pennant 1769: molted feathers as successful DNA source.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Bharat Bhushan; Mustafa, Mohd; Sharma, Tusha; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Urfi, Abdul Jamil

    2014-10-01

    DNA from molted feathers is being increasingly used for genetic studies on birds. However, the DNA obtained from such non-invasive sources is often not of enough quantity and quality for isolation of new microsatellite markers. The present study examined the potential of shed feathers of near threatened Painted Stork as a source of its DNA for cross-species amplification of microsatellites. Thirty-one shed feathers of varying conditions ('good' and 'deteriorated') and sizes ('large', 'intermediate' and 'small') collected in a north Indian population were used to isolate DNA by a standard isopropanol method and 11 microsatellite markers already developed in the Wood Stork were screened for amplification. Nine plucked feathers from two dead Painted Storks were also used to compare the DNA yield and amplification success. The DNA yield of feathers varied significantly in relation to the calamus size and condition. Among molted feathers, 'good' and 'large' samples provided more DNA than 'deteriorated' and 'small' ones, respectively. 'Large' plucked feathers yielded more DNA than 'large' molted feathers. DNA was almost degraded in all the samples and ratio of absorbance at 260/280 nm varied from 1.0 to 1.8, indicating impurity in many samples. Independent of DNA yields, all microsatellites were cross-amplified in all kinds of feathers, with > 80% success in different feather categories. It is concluded that the shed feathers can be successfully used to isolate DNA in the Painted Stork and for cross-species amplification of microsatellites.

  7. Construction and accessibility of a cross-species phenotype ontology along with gene annotations for biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Sebastian; Doelken, Sandra C; Ruef, Barbara J; Bauer, Sebastian; Washington, Nicole; Westerfield, Monte; Gkoutos, George; Schofield, Paul; Smedley, Damian; Lewis, Suzanna E; Robinson, Peter N; Mungall, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    Phenotype analyses, e.g. investigating metabolic processes, tissue formation, or organism behavior, are an important element of most biological and medical research activities. Biomedical researchers are making increased use of ontological standards and methods to capture the results of such analyses, with one focus being the comparison and analysis of phenotype information between species. We have generated a cross-species phenotype ontology for human, mouse and zebrafish that contains classes from the Human Phenotype Ontology, Mammalian Phenotype Ontology, and generated classes for zebrafish phenotypes. We also provide up-to-date annotation data connecting human genes to phenotype classes from the generated ontology. We have included the data generation pipeline into our continuous integration system ensuring stable and up-to-date releases. This article describes the data generation process and is intended to help interested researchers access both the phenotype annotation data and the associated cross-species phenotype ontology. The resource described here can be used in sophisticated semantic similarity and gene set enrichment analyses for phenotype data across species. The stable releases of this resource can be obtained from http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/hp/uberpheno/.

  8. Identification of broadly conserved cross-species protective Leishmania antigen and its responding CD4+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Mou, Zhirong; Li, Jintao; Boussoffara, Thouraya; Kishi, Hiroyuki; Hamana, Hiroshi; Ezzati, Peyman; Hu, Chuanmin; Yi, Weijing; Liu, Dong; Khadem, Forough; Okwor, Ifeoma; Jia, Ping; Shitaoka, Kiyomi; Wang, Shufeng; Ndao, Momar; Petersen, Christine; Chen, Jianping; Rafati, Sima; Louzir, Hechmi; Muraguchi, Atsushi; Wilkins, John A; Uzonna, Jude E

    2015-10-21

    There is currently no clinically effective vaccine against leishmaniasis because of poor understanding of the antigens that elicit dominant T cell immunity. Using proteomics and cellular immunology, we identified a dominant naturally processed peptide (PEPCK335-351) derived from Leishmania glycosomal phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK). PEPCK was conserved in all pathogenic Leishmania, expressed in glycosomes of promastigotes and amastigotes, and elicited strong CD4(+) T cell responses in infected mice and humans. I-A(b)-PEPCK335-351 tetramer identified protective Leishmania-specific CD4(+) T cells at a clonal level, which comprised ~20% of all Leishmania-reactive CD4(+) T cells at the peak of infection. PEPCK335-351-specific CD4(+) T cells were oligoclonal in their T cell receptor usage, produced polyfunctional cytokines (interleukin-2, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor), and underwent expansion, effector activities, contraction, and stable maintenance after lesion resolution. Vaccination with PEPCK peptide, DNA expressing full-length PEPCK, or rPEPCK induced strong durable cross-species protection in both resistant and susceptible mice. The effectiveness and durability of protection in vaccinated mice support the development of a broadly cross-species protective vaccine against different forms of leishmaniasis by targeting PEPCK. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. HTLV-3/4 and simian foamy retroviruses in humans: discovery, epidemiology, cross-species transmission and molecular virology.

    PubMed

    Gessain, Antoine; Rua, Réjane; Betsem, Edouard; Turpin, Jocelyn; Mahieux, Renaud

    2013-01-05

    Non-human primates are considered to be likely sources of viruses that can infect humans and thus pose a significant threat to human population. This is well illustrated by some retroviruses, as the simian immunodeficiency viruses and the simian T lymphotropic viruses, which have the ability to cross-species, adapt to a new host and sometimes spread. This leads to a pandemic situation for HIV-1 or an endemic one for HTLV-1. Here, we present the available data on the discovery, epidemiology, cross-species transmission and molecular virology of the recently discovered HTLV-3 and HTLV-4 deltaretroviruses, as well as the simian foamy retroviruses present in different human populations at risk, especially in central African hunters. We discuss also the natural history in humans of these retroviruses of zoonotic origin (magnitude and geographical distribution, possible inter-human transmission). In Central Africa, the increase of the bushmeat trade during the last decades has opened new possibilities for retroviral emergence in humans, especially in immuno-compromised persons.

  10. A Computational Pipeline for Cross-Species Analysis of RNA-seq Data Using R and Bioconductor

    PubMed Central

    LoVerso, Peter R.; Cui, Feng

    2015-01-01

    RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has revolutionized transcriptome analysis through profiling the expression of thousands of genes at the same time. Systematic analysis of orthologous transcripts across species is critical for understanding the evolution of gene expression and uncovering important information in animal models of human diseases. Several computational methods have been published for analyzing gene expression between species, but they often lack crucial details and therefore cannot serve as a practical guide. Here, we present the first step-by-step protocol for cross-species RNA-seq analysis with a concise workflow that is largely based on the free open-source R language and Bioconductor packages. This protocol covers the entire process from short-read mapping, gene expression quantification, differential expression analysis to pathway enrichment. Many useful utilities for data visualization are included. This complete and easy-to-follow protocol provides hands-on guidance for users who are new to cross-species gene expression analysis. PMID:26692761

  11. ImmunemiR - a database of prioritized immune miRNA disease associations and its interactome.

    PubMed

    Prabahar, Archana; Natarajan, Jeyakumar

    2017-01-17

    MicroRNAs are the key regulators of gene expression and their abnormal expression in the immune system may be associated with several human diseases such as inflammation, cancer and autoimmune diseases. Elucidation of microRNA (miRNA) disease association through the interactome will deepen the understanding of its disease mechanisms. In this present study, miRNAs specific to immune related diseases were retrieved from curated databases and literature based on MeSH classification of immune system diseases. In total 245 immune miRNAs associated with 92 OMIM disease categories were identified and they are prioritized to specific immune diseases using random walk ranking algorithm. These data were compiled as ImmunemiR, a database of prioritized immune miRNA disease associations. This database provides both text based annotation information and network visualization of its interactome network. To our knowledge, ImmunemiR is the first available database to provide a comprehensive repository of human immune disease associated miRNAs with network visualization options of its target genes, protein-protein interactions (PPI).

  12. Chronically dysregulated NOTCH1 interactome in the dentate gyrus after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Puhakka, Noora; Bot, Anna Maria; Vuokila, Niina; Debski, Konrad Jozef; Lukasiuk, Katarzyna; Pitkänen, Asla

    2017-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can result in several dentate gyrus-regulated disabilities. Almost nothing is known about the chronic molecular changes after TBI, and their potential as treatment targets. We hypothesized that chronic transcriptional alterations after TBI are under microRNA (miRNA) control. Expression of miRNAs and their targets in the dentate gyrus was analyzed using microarrays at 3 months after experimental TBI. Of 305 miRNAs present on the miRNA-array, 12 were downregulated (p<0.05). In parallel, 75 of their target genes were upregulated (p<0.05). A bioinformatics analysis of miRNA targets highlighted the dysregulation of the transcription factor NOTCH1 and 39 of its target genes (NOTCH1 interactome). Validation assays confirmed downregulation of miR-139-5p, upregulation of Notch1 and its activated protein, and positive enrichment of NOTCH1 target gene expression. These findings demonstrate that miRNA-based transcriptional regulation can be present at chronic time points after TBI, and highlight the NOTCH1 interactome as one of the mechanisms behind the dentate gyrus pathology-related morbidities.

  13. Arabidopsis G-protein interactome reveals connections to cell wall carbohydrates and morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Klopffleisch, Karsten; Phan, Nguyen; Augustin, Kelsey; Bayne, Robert S; Booker, Katherine S; Botella, Jose R; Carpita, Nicholas C; Carr, Tyrell; Chen, Jin-Gui; Cooke, Thomas Ryan; Frick-Cheng, Arwen; Friedman, Erin J; Fulk, Brandon; Hahn, Michael G; Jiang, Kun; Jorda, Lucia; Kruppe, Lydia; Liu, Chenggang; Lorek, Justine; McCann, Maureen C; Molina, Antonio; Moriyama, Etsuko N; Mukhtar, M Shahid; Mudgil, Yashwanti; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Schwarz, John; Seta, Steven; Tan, Matthew; Temp, Ulrike; Trusov, Yuri; Urano, Daisuke; Welter, Bastian; Yang, Jing; Panstruga, Ralph; Uhrig, Joachim F; Jones, Alan M

    2011-01-01

    The heterotrimeric G-protein complex is minimally composed of Gα, Gβ, and Gγ subunits. In the classic scenario, the G-protein complex is the nexus in signaling from the plasma membrane, where the heterotrimeric G-protein associates with heptahelical G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), to cytoplasmic target proteins called effectors. Although a number of effectors are known in metazoans and fungi, none of these are predicted to exist in their canonical forms in plants. To identify ab initio plant G-protein effectors and scaffold proteins, we screened a set of proteins from the G-protein complex using two-hybrid complementation in yeast. After deep and exhaustive interrogation, we detected 544 interactions between 434 proteins, of which 68 highly interconnected proteins form the core G-protein interactome. Within this core, over half of the interactions comprising two-thirds of the nodes were retested and validated as genuine in planta. Co-expression analysis in combination with phenotyping of loss-of-function mutations in a set of core interactome genes revealed a novel role for G-proteins in regulating cell wall modification. PMID:21952135

  14. Interactome-transcriptome analysis discovers signatures complementary to GWAS Loci of Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing-Woei; Lee, Heung-Man; Wang, Ying; Tong, Amy Hin-Yan; Yip, Kevin Y.; Tsui, Stephen Kwok-Wing; Lok, Si; Ozaki, Risa; Luk, Andrea O; Kong, Alice P. S.; So, Wing-Yee; Ma, Ronald C. W.; Chan, Juliana C. N.; Chan, Ting-Fung

    2016-01-01

    Protein interactions play significant roles in complex diseases. We analyzed peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) transcriptome using a multi-method strategy. We constructed a tissue-specific interactome (T2Di) and identified 420 molecular signatures associated with T2D-related comorbidity and symptoms, mainly implicated in inflammation, adipogenesis, protein phosphorylation and hormonal secretion. Apart from explaining the residual associations within the DIAbetes Genetics Replication And Meta-analysis (DIAGRAM) study, the T2Di signatures were enriched in pathogenic cell type-specific regulatory elements related to fetal development, immunity and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL). The T2Di revealed a novel locus near a well-established GWAS loci AChE, in which SRRT interacts with JAZF1, a T2D-GWAS gene implicated in pancreatic function. The T2Di also included known anti-diabetic drug targets (e.g. PPARD, MAOB) and identified possible druggable targets (e.g. NCOR2, PDGFR). These T2Di signatures were validated by an independent computational method, and by expression data of pancreatic islet, muscle and liver with some of the signatures (CEBPB, SREBF1, MLST8, SRF, SRRT and SLC12A9) confirmed in PBMC from an independent cohort of 66 T2D and 66 control subjects. By combining prior knowledge and transcriptome analysis, we have constructed an interactome to explain the multi-layered regulatory pathways in T2D. PMID:27752041

  15. Targeted cross-linking-mass spectrometry determines vicinal interactomes within heterogeneous RNP complexes

    PubMed Central

    Trahan, Christian; Oeffinger, Marlene

    2016-01-01

    Proteomic and RNomic approaches have identified many components of different ribonucleoprotein particles (RNPs), yet still little is known about the organization and protein proximities within these heterogeneous and highly dynamic complexes. Here we describe a targeted cross-linking approach, which combines cross-linking from a known anchor site with affinity purification and mass spectrometry (MS) to identify the changing vicinity interactomes along RNP maturation pathways. Our method confines the reaction radius of a heterobifunctional cross-linker to a specific interaction surface, increasing the probability to capture low abundance conformations and transient vicinal interactors too infrequent for identification by traditional cross-linking-MS approaches, and determine protein proximities within RNPs. Applying the method to two conserved RNA-associated complexes in Saccharomyces cerevisae, the mRNA export receptor Mex67:Mtr2 and the pre-ribosomal Nop7 subcomplex, we identified dynamic vicinal interactomes within those complexes and along their changing pathway milieu. Our results therefore show that this method provides a new tool to study the changing spatial organization of heterogeneous dynamic RNP complexes. PMID:26657640

  16. Caspofungin exposure alters the core septin AspB interactome of Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Muñiz, José M; Renshaw, Hilary; Waitt, Greg; Soderblom, Erik J; Moseley, M Arthur; Palmer, Jonathan M; Juvvadi, Praveen R; Keller, Nancy P; Steinbach, William J

    2017-04-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus, the main etiological agent of invasive aspergillosis, is a leading cause of death in immunocompromised patients. Septins, a conserved family of GTP-binding proteins, serve as scaffolding proteins to recruit enzymes and key regulators to different cellular compartments. Deletion of the A. fumigatus septin aspB increases susceptibility to the echinocandin antifungal caspofungin. However, how AspB mediates this response to caspofungin is unknown. Here, we characterized the AspB interactome under basal conditions and after exposure to a clinically relevant concentration of caspofungin. While A. fumigatus AspB interacted with 334 proteins, including kinases, cell cycle regulators, and cell wall synthesis-related proteins under basal growth conditions, caspofungin exposure altered AspB interactions. A total of 69 of the basal interactants did not interact with AspB after exposure to caspofungin, and 54 new interactants were identified following caspofungin exposure. We generated A. fumigatus deletion strains for 3 proteins (ArpB, Cyp4, and PpoA) that only interacted with AspB following exposure to caspofungin that were previously annotated as induced after exposure to antifungal agents, yet only PpoA was implicated in the response to caspofungin. Taken together, we defined how the septin AspB interactome is altered in the presence of a clinically relevant antifungal.

  17. Mapping transcription factor interactome networks using HaloTag protein arrays.

    PubMed

    Yazaki, Junshi; Galli, Mary; Kim, Alice Y; Nito, Kazumasa; Aleman, Fernando; Chang, Katherine N; Carvunis, Anne-Ruxandra; Quan, Rosa; Nguyen, Hien; Song, Liang; Alvarez, José M; Huang, Shao-Shan Carol; Chen, Huaming; Ramachandran, Niroshan; Altmann, Stefan; Gutiérrez, Rodrigo A; Hill, David E; Schroeder, Julian I; Chory, Joanne; LaBaer, Joshua; Vidal, Marc; Braun, Pascal; Ecker, Joseph R

    2016-07-19

    Protein microarrays enable investigation of diverse biochemical properties for thousands of proteins in a single experiment, an unparalleled capacity. Using a high-density system called HaloTag nucleic acid programmable protein array (HaloTag-NAPPA), we created high-density protein arrays comprising 12,000 Arabidopsis ORFs. We used these arrays to query protein-protein interactions for a set of 38 transcription factors and transcriptional regulators (TFs) that function in diverse plant hormone regulatory pathways. The resulting transcription factor interactome network, TF-NAPPA, contains thousands of novel interactions. Validation in a benchmarked in vitro pull-down assay revealed that a random subset of TF-NAPPA validated at the same rate of 64% as a positive reference set of literature-curated interactions. Moreover, using a bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay, we confirmed in planta several interactions of biological interest and determined the interaction localizations for seven pairs. The application of HaloTag-NAPPA technology to plant hormone signaling pathways allowed the identification of many novel transcription factor-protein interactions and led to the development of a proteome-wide plant hormone TF interactome network.

  18. A core of kinase-regulated interactomes defines the neoplastic MDSC lineage

    PubMed Central

    Zudaire, Isabel; Liechtenstein, Therese; Arasanz, Hugo; Lozano, Teresa; Casares, Noelia; Chaikuad, Apirat; Knapp, Stefan; Guerrero-Setas, David; Escors, David; Kochan, Grazyna; Santamaría, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) differentiate from bone marrow precursors, expand in cancer-bearing hosts and accelerate tumor progression. MDSCs have become attractive therapeutic targets, as their elimination strongly enhances anti-neoplastic treatments. Here, immature myeloid dendritic cells (DCs), MDSCs modeling tumor-infiltrating subsets or modeling non-cancerous (NC)-MDSCs were compared by in-depth quantitative proteomics. We found that neoplastic MDSCs differentially expressed a core of kinases which controlled lineage-specific (PI3K-AKT and SRC kinases) and cancer-induced (ERK and PKC kinases) protein interaction networks (interactomes). These kinases contributed to some extent to myeloid differentiation. However, only AKT and ERK specifically drove MDSC differentiation from myeloid precursors. Interfering with AKT and ERK with selective small molecule inhibitors or shRNAs selectively hampered MDSC differentiation and viability. Thus, we provide compelling evidence that MDSCs constitute a distinct myeloid lineage distinguished by a “kinase signature” and well-defined interactomes. Our results define new opportunities for the development of anti-cancer treatments targeting these tumor-promoting immune cells. PMID:26320174

  19. Clathrin complexes with the inhibitor kappa B kinase signalosome: imaging the interactome

    PubMed Central

    Gamboni, Fabia; Escobar, Guillermo A.; Moore, Ernest E.; Dzieciatkowska, Monika; Hansen, Kirk C.; Mitra, Sanchayita; Nydam, Trevor A.; Silliman, Christopher C.; Banerjee, Anirban

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Many receptors involved with innate immunity activate the inhibitor kappa B kinase signalosome (IKK). The active complex appears to be assembled from the two kinase units, IKKα and IKKβ with the regulatory protein NEMO. Because we previously found that RNA silencing of clathrin heavy chains (CHC), in transformed human lung pneumocytes (A549), decreased TNFα‐induced signaling and phosphorylation of inhibitor kappa B (IκB), we hypothesized that CHC forms cytoplasmic complexes with members of the IKK signalosome. Widely available antibodies were used to immunoprecipitate IKKα and NEMO interactomes. Analysis of the affinity interactomes by mass spectrometry detected clathrin with both baits with high confidence. Using the same antibodies for indirect digital immunofluorescence microscopy and FRET, the CHC–IKK complexes were visualized together with NEMO or HSP90. The natural variability of protein amounts in unsynchronized A549 cells was used to obtain statistical correlation for several complexes, at natural levels and without invasive labeling. Analyses of voxel numbers indicated that: (i) CHC–IKK complexes are not part of the IKK signalosome itself but, likely, precursors of IKK–NEMO complexes. (ii) CHC–IKKβ complexes may arise from IKKβ–HSP90 complexes. PMID:24994893

  20. Interactome Mapping Reveals the Evolutionary History of the Nuclear Pore Complex.

    PubMed

    Obado, Samson O; Brillantes, Marc; Uryu, Kunihiro; Zhang, Wenzhu; Ketaren, Natalia E; Chait, Brian T; Field, Mark C; Rout, Michael P

    2016-02-01

    The nuclear pore complex (NPC) is responsible for nucleocytoplasmic transport and constitutes a hub for control of gene expression. The components of NPCs from several eukaryotic lineages have been determined, but only the yeast and vertebrate NPCs have been extensively characterized at the quaternary level. Significantly, recent evidence indicates that compositional similarity does not necessarily correspond to homologous architecture between NPCs from different taxa. To address this, we describe the interactome of the trypanosome NPC, a representative, highly divergent eukaryote. We identify numerous new NPC components and report an exhaustive interactome, allowing assignment of trypanosome nucleoporins to discrete NPC substructures. Remarkably, despite retaining similar protein composition, there are exceptional architectural dissimilarities between opisthokont (yeast and vertebrates) and excavate (trypanosomes) NPCs. Whilst elements of the inner core are conserved, numerous peripheral structures are highly divergent, perhaps reflecting requirements to interface with divergent nuclear and cytoplasmic functions. Moreover, the trypanosome NPC has almost complete nucleocytoplasmic symmetry, in contrast to the opisthokont NPC; this may reflect divergence in RNA export processes at the NPC cytoplasmic face, as we find evidence supporting Ran-dependent mRNA export in trypanosomes, similar to protein transport. We propose a model of stepwise acquisition of nucleocytoplasmic mechanistic complexity and demonstrate that detailed dissection of macromolecular complexes provides fuller understanding of evolutionary processes.

  1. Mapping transcription factor interactome networks using HaloTag protein arrays

    PubMed Central

    Yazaki, Junshi; Galli, Mary; Kim, Alice Y.; Nito, Kazumasa; Aleman, Fernando; Chang, Katherine N.; Quan, Rosa; Nguyen, Hien; Song, Liang; Alvarez, José M.; Huang, Shao-shan Carol; Chen, Huaming; Ramachandran, Niroshan; Altmann, Stefan; Gutiérrez, Rodrigo A.; Schroeder, Julian I.; Chory, Joanne; LaBaer, Joshua; Vidal, Marc; Braun, Pascal; Ecker, Joseph R.

    2016-01-01

    Protein microarrays enable investigation of diverse biochemical properties for thousands of proteins in a single experiment, an unparalleled capacity. Using a high-density system called HaloTag nucleic acid programmable protein array (HaloTag-NAPPA), we created high-density protein arrays comprising 12,000 Arabidopsis ORFs. We used these arrays to query protein–protein interactions for a set of 38 transcription factors and transcriptional regulators (TFs) that function in diverse plant hormone regulatory pathways. The resulting transcription factor interactome network, TF-NAPPA, contains thousands of novel interactions. Validation in a benchmarked in vitro pull-down assay revealed that a random subset of TF-NAPPA validated at the same rate of 64% as a positive reference set of literature-curated interactions. Moreover, using a bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay, we confirmed in planta several interactions of biological interest and determined the interaction localizations for seven pairs. The application of HaloTag-NAPPA technology to plant hormone signaling pathways allowed the identification of many novel transcription factor–protein interactions and led to the development of a proteome-wide plant hormone TF interactome network. PMID:27357687

  2. Inter-species functional interactome of nuclear steroid receptors (R1).

    PubMed

    Geronikolou, Styliani A; Pavlopoulou, Athanasia; Kanaka-Gantenbein, Christina; Chrousos, George

    2018-01-01

    Steroids exert their actions by binding to the glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid, androgen, estrogen and progesterone classes of receptors. Despite an exponential increase in our knowledge of steroid receptors, their interactions with other molecules, subcellular location and functions still need further elucidation. To unravel the mechanism(s) of action of the steroid hormones, as well as the function of their cognate nuclear receptors, an interaction network was created (henceforth referred to as "R1 Interactome")- illustrating that robust interactions have been preserved in rodents, frog, zebra fish and drosophila. The generated interactome of the retrieved orthologs across species revealed: a. interactions among surface-cytosol-nuclear receptors, and/or orphan receptors and genes, and b. nuclear corepressor 1 (NCOR1) as a major "hub", through which most steroid receptors interact. These mechanisms (i) integrate social behavior and environmental stimuli with intrinsic cellular functions, (ii) provide an explanatory mechanism of the major Public Health problem of "non-ionizing" radiation impact, surpassing the existing conflict over the "thermal"/ "non- thermal" consequences of radiation, linking all the so far proposed mechanisms, and addressing all reported effects in humans, rodents and insects, and (iii) reveal biologically or clinically important pathways and/or regulatory networks.

  3. Chronically dysregulated NOTCH1 interactome in the dentate gyrus after traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Puhakka, Noora; Bot, Anna Maria; Vuokila, Niina; Debski, Konrad Jozef; Lukasiuk, Katarzyna; Pitkänen, Asla

    2017-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can result in several dentate gyrus-regulated disabilities. Almost nothing is known about the chronic molecular changes after TBI, and their potential as treatment targets. We hypothesized that chronic transcriptional alterations after TBI are under microRNA (miRNA) control. Expression of miRNAs and their targets in the dentate gyrus was analyzed using microarrays at 3 months after experimental TBI. Of 305 miRNAs present on the miRNA-array, 12 were downregulated (p<0.05). In parallel, 75 of their target genes were upregulated (p<0.05). A bioinformatics analysis of miRNA targets highlighted the dysregulation of the transcription factor NOTCH1 and 39 of its target genes (NOTCH1 interactome). Validation assays confirmed downregulation of miR-139-5p, upregulation of Notch1 and its activated protein, and positive enrichment of NOTCH1 target gene expression. These findings demonstrate that miRNA-based transcriptional regulation can be present at chronic time points after TBI, and highlight the NOTCH1 interactome as one of the mechanisms behind the dentate gyrus pathology-related morbidities. PMID:28273100

  4. Systematic interactome mapping and genetic perturbation analysis of a C. elegans TGF-beta signaling network.

    PubMed

    Tewari, Muneesh; Hu, Patrick J; Ahn, Jin Sook; Ayivi-Guedehoussou, Nono; Vidalain, Pierre-Olivier; Li, Siming; Milstein, Stuart; Armstrong, Chris M; Boxem, Mike; Butler, Maurice D; Busiguina, Svetlana; Rual, Jean-François; Ibarrola, Nieves; Chaklos, Sabrina T; Bertin, Nicolas; Vaglio, Philippe; Edgley, Mark L; King, Kevin V; Albert, Patrice S; Vandenhaute, Jean; Pandey, Akhilesh; Riddle, Donald L; Ruvkun, Gary; Vidal, Marc

    2004-02-27

    To initiate a system-level analysis of C. elegans DAF-7/TGF-beta signaling, we combined interactome mapping with single and double genetic perturbations. Yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screens starting with known DAF-7/TGF-beta pathway components defined a network of 71 interactions among 59 proteins. Coaffinity purification (co-AP) assays in mammalian cells confirmed the overall quality of this network. Systematic perturbations of the network using RNAi, both in wild-type and daf-7/TGF-beta pathway mutant animals, identified nine DAF-7/TGF-beta signaling modifiers, seven of which are conserved in humans. We show that one of these has functional homology to human SNO/SKI oncoproteins and that mutations at the corresponding genetic locus daf-5 confer defects in DAF-7/TGF-beta signaling. Our results reveal substantial molecular complexity in DAF-7/TGF-beta signal transduction. Integrating interactome maps with systematic genetic perturbations may be useful for developing a systems biology approach to this and other signaling modules.

  5. Arabidopsis G-protein interactome reveals connections to cell wall carbohydrates and morphogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Klopffleisch, Karsten; Phan, Nguyen; Chen, Jay; Panstruga, Ralph; Uhrig, Joachim; Jones, Alan M

    2011-01-01

    The heterotrimeric G-protein complex is minimally composed of G{alpha}, G{beta}, and G{gamma} subunits. In the classic scenario, the G-protein complex is the nexus in signaling from the plasma membrane, where the heterotrimeric G-protein associates with heptahelical G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), to cytoplasmic target proteins called effectors. Although a number of effectors are known in metazoans and fungi, none of these are predicted to exist in their canonical forms in plants. To identify ab initio plant G-protein effectors and scaffold proteins, we screened a set of proteins from the G-protein complex using two-hybrid complementation in yeast. After deep and exhaustive interrogation, we detected 544 interactions between 434 proteins, of which 68 highly interconnected proteins form the core G-protein interactome. Within this core, over half of the interactions comprising two-thirds of the nodes were retested and validated as genuine in planta. Co-expression analysis in combination with phenotyping of loss-of-function mutations in a set of core interactome genes revealed a novel role for G-proteins in regulating cell wall modification.

  6. Improved microarray-based decision support with graph encoded interactome data.

    PubMed

    Daemen, Anneleen; Signoretto, Marco; Gevaert, Olivier; Suykens, Johan A K; De Moor, Bart

    2010-04-19

    In the past, microarray studies have been criticized due to noise and the limited overlap between gene signatures. Prior biological knowledge should therefore be incorporated as side information in models based on gene expression data to improve the accuracy of diagnosis and prognosis in cancer. As prior knowledge, we investigated interaction and pathway information from the human interactome on different aspects of biological systems. By exploiting the properties of kernel methods, relations between genes with similar functions but active in alternative pathways could be incorporated in a support vector machine classifier based on spectral graph theory. Using 10 microarray data sets, we first reduced the number of data sources relevant for multiple cancer types and outcomes. Three sources on metabolic pathway information (KEGG), protein-protein interactions (OPHID) and miRNA-gene targeting (microRNA.org) outperformed the other sources with regard to the considered class of models. Both fixed and adaptive approaches were subsequently considered to combine the three corresponding classifiers. Averaging the predictions of these classifiers performed best and was significantly better than the model based on microarray data only. These results were confirmed on 6 validation microarray sets, with a significantly improved performance in 4 of them. Integrating interactome data thus improves classification of cancer outcome for the investigated microarray technologies and cancer types. Moreover, this strategy can be incorporated in any kernel method or non-linear version of a non-kernel method.

  7. The timeline of corona formation around silica nanocarriers highlights the role of the protein interactome.

    PubMed

    Pisani, Cédric; Gaillard, Jean-Charles; Odorico, Michaël; Nyalosaso, Jeff L; Charnay, Clarence; Guari, Yannick; Chopineau, Joël; Devoisselle, Jean-Marie; Armengaud, Jean; Prat, Odette

    2017-02-02

    Magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles (M-MSNs) represent promising targeting tools for theranostics. Engineering the interaction of nanoparticles (NPs) with biological systems requires an understanding of protein corona formation around the nanoparticles as this drives the biological fate of nanocarriers. We investigated the behavior of proteins in contact with M-MSNs by high-throughput comparative proteomics, using human and bovine sera as biological fluids, in order to assess the adsorption dynamics of proteins in these media. Using system biology tools, and especially protein-protein interaction databases, we demonstrated how the protein network builds up within the corona over the course of the experiment. Based on these results, we introduce and discuss the role of the "corona interactome" as an important factor influencing protein corona evolution. The concept of the "corona interactome" is an original methodology which could be generalized to all NP candidates. Based on this, pre-coating nanocarriers with specific proteins presenting minimal interactions with opsonins might provide them with properties such as stealth.

  8. Interactome Mapping Reveals the Evolutionary History of the Nuclear Pore Complex

    PubMed Central

    Obado, Samson O.; Brillantes, Marc; Uryu, Kunihiro; Zhang, Wenzhu; Ketaren, Natalia E.; Chait, Brian T.; Field, Mark C.; Rout, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    The nuclear pore complex (NPC) is responsible for nucleocytoplasmic transport and constitutes a hub for control of gene expression. The components of NPCs from several eukaryotic lineages have been determined, but only the yeast and vertebrate NPCs have been extensively characterized at the quaternary level. Significantly, recent evidence indicates that compositional similarity does not necessarily correspond to homologous architecture between NPCs from different taxa. To address this, we describe the interactome of the trypanosome NPC, a representative, highly divergent eukaryote. We identify numerous new NPC components and report an exhaustive interactome, allowing assignment of trypanosome nucleoporins to discrete NPC substructures. Remarkably, despite retaining similar protein composition, there are exceptional architectural dissimilarities between opisthokont (yeast and vertebrates) and excavate (trypanosomes) NPCs. Whilst elements of the inner core are conserved, numerous peripheral structures are highly divergent, perhaps reflecting requirements to interface with divergent nuclear and cytoplasmic functions. Moreover, the trypanosome NPC has almost complete nucleocytoplasmic symmetry, in contrast to the opisthokont NPC; this may reflect divergence in RNA export processes at the NPC cytoplasmic face, as we find evidence supporting Ran-dependent mRNA export in trypanosomes, similar to protein transport. We propose a model of stepwise acquisition of nucleocytoplasmic mechanistic complexity and demonstrate that detailed dissection of macromolecular complexes provides fuller understanding of evolutionary processes. PMID:26891179

  9. Detection of driver protein complexes in breast cancer metastasis by large-scale transcriptome-interactome integration.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Maxime; Finetti, Pascal; Bertucci, Francois; Birnbaum, Daniel; Bidaut, Ghislain

    2014-01-01

    With the development of high-throughput gene expression profiling technologies came the opportunity to define genomic signatures predicting clinical condition or cancer patient outcome. However, such signatures show dependency on training set, lack of generalization, and instability, partly due to microarray data topology. Additional issues for analyzing tumor gene expression are that subtle molecular perturbations in driver genes leading to cancer and metastasis (masked in typical differential expression analysis) may provoke expression changes of greater amplitude in downstream genes (easily detected). In this chapter, we are describing an interactome-based algorithm, Interactome-Transcriptome Integration (ITI) that is used to find a generalizable signature for prediction of breast cancer relapse by superimposition of a large-scale protein-protein interaction data (human interactome) over several gene expression datasets. ITI extracts regions in the interactome whose expression is discriminating for predicting relapse-free survival in cancer and allow detection of subnetworks that constitutes a generalizable and stable genomic signature. In this chapter, we describe the practical aspects of running the full ITI pipeline (subnetwork detection and classification) on six microarray datasets.

  10. Grouping annotations on the subcellular layered interactome demonstrates enhanced autophagy activity in a recurrent experimental autoimmune uveitis T cell line.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiuzhi; Li, Jingbo; Shi, Dejing; Zhao, Yu; Dong, Yucui; Ju, Huanyu; Yang, Jinfeng; Sun, Jianhua; Li, Xia; Ren, Huan

    2014-01-01

    Human uveitis is a type of T cell-mediated autoimmune disease that often shows relapse-remitting courses affecting multiple biological processes. As a cytoplasmic process, autophagy has been seen as an adaptive response to cell death and survival, yet the link between autophagy and T cell-mediated autoimmunity is not certain. In this study, based on the differentially expressed genes (GSE19652) between the recurrent versus monophasic T cell lines, whose adoptive transfer to susceptible animals may result in respective recurrent or monophasic uveitis, we proposed grouping annotations on a subcellular layered interactome framework to analyze the specific bioprocesses that are linked to the recurrence of T cell autoimmunity. That is, the subcellular layered interactome was established by the Cytoscape and Cerebral plugin based on differential expression, global interactome, and subcellular localization information. Then, the layered interactomes were grouping annotated by the ClueGO plugin based on Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases. The analysis showed that significant bioprocesses with autophagy were orchestrated in the cytoplasmic layered interactome and that mTOR may have a regulatory role in it. Furthermore, by setting up recurrent and monophasic uveitis in Lewis rats, we confirmed by transmission electron microscopy that, in comparison to the monophasic disease, recurrent uveitis in vivo showed significantly increased autophagy activity and extended lymphocyte infiltration to the affected retina. In summary, our framework methodology is a useful tool to disclose specific bioprocesses and molecular targets that can be attributed to a certain disease. Our results indicated that targeted inhibition of autophagy pathways may perturb the recurrence of uveitis.

  11. Development, characterization and cross species amplification of polymorphic microsatellite markers from expressed sequence tags of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.).

    PubMed

    Siju, S; Dhanya, K; Syamkumar, S; Sasikumar, B; Sheeja, T E; Bhat, A I; Parthasarathy, V A

    2010-02-01

    Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) were used for the screening of type and frequency of Class I (hypervariable) simple sequence repeats (SSRs). A total of 231 microsatellite repeats were detected from 12,593 EST sequences of turmeric after redundancy elimination. The average density of Class I SSRs accounts to one SSR per 17.96 kb of EST. Mononucleotides were the most abundant class of microsatellite repeat in turmeric ESTs followed by trinucleotides. A robust set of 17 polymorphic EST-SSRs were developed and used for evaluating 20 turmeric accessions. The number of alleles detected ranged from 3 to 8 per loci. The developed markers were also evaluated in 13 related species of C. longa confirming high rate (100%) of cross species transferability. The polymorphic microsatellite markers generated from this study could be used for genetic diversity analysis and resolving the taxonomic confusion prevailing in the genus.

  12. Cross-species transmission of gibbon and orangutan hepatitis B virus to uPA/SCID mice with human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Sa-Nguanmoo, Pattaratida; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Ratanakorn, Parntep; Sugiyama, Masaya; Murakami, Shuko; Payungporn, Sunchai; Sommanustweechai, Angkana; Mizokami, Masashi; Poovorawan, Yong

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the potential of cross-species transmission of non-human primate HBV to humans, severe combined immunodeficiency mice transgenic for urokinase-type plasminogen activator, in which the mouse liver has been engrafted with human hepatocytes, were inoculated with non-human primate HBV. HBV-DNA positive serum samples from a gibbon or orangutan were inoculated into 6 chimeric mice. HBV-DNA, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), and HB core-related antigen in sera and HBV cccDNA in liver were detectable in 2 of 3 mice each from the gibbon and orangutan. Likewise, applying immunofluorescence HBV core protein was only found in human hepatocytes expressing human albumin. The HBV sequences from mouse sera were identical to those from orangutan and gibbon sera determined prior to inoculation. In conclusion, human hepatocytes have been infected with gibbon/orangutan HBV.

  13. Cross-species transferability of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) nuclear microsatellite markers to five Mexican white pines.

    PubMed

    Villalobos-Arámbula, A R; Pérez de la Rosa, J A; Arias, A; Rajora, O P

    2014-09-12

    We examined cross-species transferability and usefulness of six nuclear microsatellite markers developed in consubgeneric eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) with regard to ecologically and commercially important Mexican white pine species of conservation genetics concern: Pinus chiapensis (Mart.) Andresen, P. flexilis James, P. strobiformis Engelm., P. ayacahuite Ehrenb. Ex Schltdl, and P. ayacahuite var. veitchii (Roezl) G.R. Shaw. Four to six microsatellite loci were found to be polymorphic in different species, with moderate to high informativeness in a relatively small number of samples (PIC/HE=0.25-0.93). This successful transfer sidesteps the time- and resource-consuming development of species-specific microsatellite markers, and will facilitate population and conservation genetic studies and genetic resource management of the less studied Mexican white pines.

  14. Network and matrix analysis of the respiratory disease interactome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although respiratory diseases exhibit in a wide array of clinical manifestations, certain respiratory diseases may share related genetic mechanisms or may be influenced by similar chemical stimuli. Here we explore and infer relationships among genes, diseases, and chemicals using network and matrix based clustering methods. Results In order to better understand and elucidate these shared genetic mechanisms and chemical relationships we analyzed a comprehensive collection of gene, disease, and chemical relationships pertinent to respiratory disease, using network and matrix based analysis approaches. Our methods enabled us to analyze relationships and make biological inferences among over 200 different respiratory and related diseases, involving thousands of gene-chemical-disease relationships. Conclusions The resulting networks provided insight into shared mechanisms of respiratory disease and in some cases suggest novel targets or repurposed drug strategies. PMID:24655443

  15. Diversity of the G3 genes of human rotaviruses in isolates from Spain from 2004 to 2006: cross-species transmission and inter-genotype recombination generates alleles.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Laso, Jorge; Román, Angela; Rodriguez, Miriam; Cervera, Isabel; Head, Jacqueline; Rodríguez-Avial, Iciar; Picazo, Juan J

    2009-04-01

    Rotavirus evolves by using multiple genetic mechanisms which are an accumulation of spontaneous point mutations and reassortment events. Other mechanisms, such as cross-species transmission and inter-genotype recombination, may be also involved. One of the most interesting genotypes in the accumulation of these events is the G3 genotype. In this work, six new Spanish G3 sequences belonging to 0-2-year-old patients from Madrid were analysed and compared with 160 others of the same genotype obtained from humans and other host species to establish the evolutionary pathways of the G3 genotype. The following results were obtained: (i) there are four different lineages of the G3 genotype which have evolved in different species; (ii) Spanish G3 rotavirus sequences are most similar to the described sequences that belong to lineage I; (iii) several G3 genotype alleles were reassigned as other G genotypes; and (iv) inter-genotype recombination events in G3 viruses involving G1 and G2 were described. These findings strongly suggest multiple inter-species transmission events between different non-human mammalian species and humans.

  16. Increased prevalence of carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae in hospital setting due to cross-species transmission of the bla NDM-1 element and clonal spread of progenitor resistant strains.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuan; Chen, Gongxiang; Wu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Liangping; Cai, Jiachang; Chan, Edward W; Chen, Sheng; Zhang, Rong

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the transmission characteristics of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) strains collected from a hospital setting in China, in which consistent emergence of CRE strains were observable during the period of May 2013 to February 2014. Among the 45 CRE isolates tested, 21 (47%) strains were found to harbor the bla NDM-1 element, and the rest of 24 CRE strains were all positive for bla KPC-2. The 21 bla NDM-1-borne strains were found to comprise multiple Enterobacteriaceae species including nine Enterobacter cloacae, three Escherichia coli, three Citrobacter freundii, two Klebsiella pneumoniae, two Klebsiella oxytoca, and two Morganella morganii strains, indicating that cross-species transmission of bla NDM-1 is a common event. Genetic analyses by PFGE and MLST showed that, with the exception of E. coli and E. cloacae, strains belonging to the same species were often genetically unrelated. In addition to bla NDM-1, several CRE strains were also found to harbor the bla KPC-2, bla VIM-1, and bla IMP-4 elements. Conjugations experiments confirmed that the majority of carbapenem resistance determinants were transferable. Taken together, our findings suggest that transmission of mobile resistance elements among members of Enterobacteriaceae and clonal spread of CRE strains may contribute synergistically to a rapid increase in the population of CRE in clinical settings, prompting a need to implement more rigorous infection control measures to arrest such vicious transmission cycle in CRE-prevalent areas.

  17. The Challenge of Cancer Genomics in Rare Nervous System Neoplasms: Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors as a Paradigm for Cross-Species Comparative Oncogenomics.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Steven L

    2016-03-01

    Comprehensive genomic analyses of common nervous system cancers provide new insights into their pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment. Although analogous studies of rare nervous system tumors are needed, there are major barriers to performing such studies. Cross-species comparative oncogenomics, identifying driver mutations in mouse cancer models and validating them in human tumors, is a promising alternative. Although still in its infancy, this approach is being applied to malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs), rare Schwann cell-derived malignancies that occur sporadically, after radiotherapy, and in neurofibromatosis type 1. Studies of human neurofibromatosis type 1-associated tumors suggest that NF1 tumor suppressor loss in Schwann cells triggers cell-autonomous and intercellular changes, resulting in development of benign neurofibromas; subsequent neurofibroma-MPNST progression is caused by aberrant growth factor signaling and mutations affecting the p16(INK4A)-cyclin D1-CDK4-Rb and p19(ARF)-Mdm2-p53 cell cycle pathways. Mice with Nf1, Trp53, and/or Cdkn2a mutations that overexpress the Schwann cell mitogen neuregulin-1 or overexpress the epidermal growth factor receptor validate observations in human tumors and, to various degrees, model human tumorigenesis. Genomic analyses of MPNSTs arising in neuregulin-1 and epidermal growth factor receptor-overexpressing mice and forward genetic screens with Sleeping Beauty transposons implicate additional signaling cascades in MPNST pathogenesis. These studies confirm the utility of mouse models for MPNST driver gene discovery and provide new insights into the complexity of MPNST pathogenesis.

  18. Harnessing cross-species alignment to discover SNPs and generate a draft genome sequence of a bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis).

    PubMed

    Miller, Joshua M; Moore, Stephen S; Stothard, Paul; Liao, Xiaoping; Coltman, David W

    2015-05-20

    Whole genome sequences (WGS) have proliferated as sequencing technology continues to improve and costs decline. While many WGS of model or domestic organisms have been produced, a growing number of non-model species are also being sequenced. In the absence of a reference, construction of a genome sequence necessitates de novo assembly which may be beyond the ability of many labs due to the large volumes of raw sequence data and extensive bioinformatics required. In contrast, the presence of a reference WGS allows for alignment which is more tractable than assembly. Recent work has highlighted that the reference need not come from the same species, potentially enabling a wide array of species WGS to be constructed using cross-species alignment. Here we report on the creation a draft WGS from a single bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) using alignment to the closely related domestic sheep (Ovis aries). Two sequencing libraries on SOLiD platforms yielded over 865 million reads, and combined alignment to the domestic sheep reference resulted in a nearly complete sequence (95% coverage of the reference) at an average of 12x read depth (104 SD). From this we discovered over 15 million variants and annotated them relative to the domestic sheep reference. We then conducted an enrichment analysis of those SNPs showing fixed differences between the reference and sequenced individual and found significant differences in a number of gene ontology (GO) terms, including those associated with reproduction, muscle properties, and bone deposition. Our results demonstrate that cross-species alignment enables the creation of novel WGS for non-model organisms. The bighorn sheep WGS will provide a resource for future resequencing studies or comparative genomics.

  19. Quantitative Cross-Species Extrapolation between Humans and Fish: The Case of the Anti-Depressant Fluoxetine

    PubMed Central

    Margiotta-Casaluci, Luigi; Owen, Stewart F.; Cumming, Rob I.; de Polo, Anna; Winter, Matthew J.; Panter, Grace H.; Rand-Weaver, Mariann; Sumpter, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Fish are an important model for the pharmacological and toxicological characterization of human pharmaceuticals in drug discovery, drug safety assessment and environmental toxicology. However, do fish respond to pharmaceuticals as humans do? To address this question, we provide a novel quantitative cross-species extrapolation approach (qCSE) based on the hypothesis that similar plasma concentrations of pharmaceuticals cause comparable target-mediated effects in both humans and fish at similar level of biological organization (Read-Across Hypothesis). To validate this hypothesis, the behavioural effects of the anti-depressant drug fluoxetine on the fish model fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) were used as test case. Fish were exposed for 28 days to a range of measured water concentrations of fluoxetine (0.1, 1.0, 8.0, 16, 32, 64 µg/L) to produce plasma concentrations below, equal and above the range of Human Therapeutic Plasma Concentrations (HTPCs). Fluoxetine and its metabolite, norfluoxetine, were quantified in the plasma of individual fish and linked to behavioural anxiety-related endpoints. The minimum drug plasma concentrations that elicited anxiolytic responses in fish were above the upper value of the HTPC range, whereas no effects were observed at plasma concentrations below the HTPCs. In vivo metabolism of fluoxetine in humans and fish was similar, and displayed bi-phasic concentration-dependent kinetics driven by the auto-inhibitory dynamics and saturation of the enzymes that convert fluoxetine into norfluoxetine. The sensitivity of fish to fluoxetine was not so dissimilar from that of patients affected by general anxiety disorders. These results represent the first direct evidence of measured internal dose response effect of a pharmaceutical in fish, hence validating the Read-Across hypothesis applied to fluoxetine. Overall, this study demonstrates that the qCSE approach, anchored to internal drug concentrations, is a powerful tool to guide the

  20. Multiple Cross-Species Transmission Events of Human Adenoviruses (HAdV) during Hominine Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Hoppe, Eileen; Pauly, Maude; Gillespie, Thomas R.; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Hohmann, Gottfried; Fruth, Barbara; Karhemere, Stomy; Madinda, Nadège F.; Mugisha, Lawrence; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Todd, Angelique; Petrzelkova, Klara J.; Gray, Maryke; Robbins, Martha; Bergl, Richard A.; Wittig, Roman M.; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe; Schubert, Grit; Leendertz, Fabian H.; Ehlers, Bernhard; Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    Human adenoviruses (HAdV; species HAdV-A to -G) are highly prevalent in the human population, and represent an important cause of morbidity and, to a lesser extent, mortality. Recent studies have identified close relatives of these viruses in African great apes, suggesting that some HAdV may be of zoonotic origin. We analyzed more than 800 fecal samples from wild African great apes and humans to further investigate the evolutionary history and zoonotic potential of hominine HAdV. HAdV-B and -E were frequently detected in wild gorillas (55%) and chimpanzees (25%), respectively. Bayesian ancestral host reconstruction under discrete diffusion models supported a gorilla and chimpanzee origin for these viral species. Host switches were relatively rare along HAdV evolution, with about ten events recorded in 4.5 My. Despite presumably rare direct contact between sympatric populations of the two species, transmission events from gorillas to chimpanzees were observed, suggesting that habitat and dietary overlap may lead to fecal-oral cross-hominine transmission of HAdV. Finally, we determined that two independent HAdV-B transmission events to humans occurred more than 100,000 years ago. We conclude that HAdV-B circulating in humans are of zoonotic origin and have probably affected global human health for most of our species lifetime. PMID:25862141

  1. Linking Proteomic and Transcriptional Data through the Interactome and Epigenome Reveals a Map of Oncogene-induced Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shao-shan Carol; Clarke, David C.; Gosline, Sara J. C.; Labadorf, Adam; Chouinard, Candace R.; Gordon, William; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.; Fraenkel, Ernest

    2013-01-01

    Cellular signal transduction generally involves cascades of post-translational protein modifications that rapidly catalyze changes in protein-DNA interactions and gene expression. High-throughput measurements are improving our ability to study each of these stages individually, but do not capture the connections between them. Here we present an approach for building a network of physical links among these data that can be used to prioritize targets for pharmacological intervention. Our method recovers the critical missing links between proteomic and transcriptional data by relating changes in chromatin accessibility to changes in expression and then uses these links to connect proteomic and transcriptome data. We applied our approach to integrate epigenomic, phosphoproteomic and transcriptome changes induced by the variant III mutation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRvIII) in a cell line model of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). To test the relevance of the network, we used small molecules to target highly connected nodes implicated by the network model that were not detected by the experimental data in isolation and we found that a large fraction of these agents alter cell viability. Among these are two compounds, ICG-001, targeting CREB binding protein (CREBBP), and PKF118–310, targeting β-catenin (CTNNB1), which have not been tested previously for effectiveness against GBM. At the level of transcriptional regulation, we used chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) to experimentally determine the genome-wide binding locations of p300, a transcriptional co-regulator highly connected in the network. Analysis of p300 target genes suggested its role in tumorigenesis. We propose that this general method, in which experimental measurements are used as constraints for building regulatory networks from the interactome while taking into account noise and missing data, should be applicable to a wide range of high-throughput datasets. PMID:23408876

  2. Mollusc C-reactive protein crosses species barrier and reverses hepatotoxicity of lead in rodent models.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sandip; Chatterjee, Sarmishtha; Sarkar, Shuvasree; Agarwal, Soumik; Kundu, Rakesh; Maitra, Sudipta; Bhattacharya, Shelley

    2013-08-01

    Achatina fulica C-reactive protein (ACRP) reversed the toxic effects of lead nitrate both in vivo in mice and in vitro in rat hepatocytes restoring the basal level of cell viability, lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione and superoxides. Cytotoxicity was also significantly ameliorated in rat hepatocytes by in vitro pre-treatments with individual subunits (60, 62, 90 and 110 kDa) of ACRP. Annexin V-Cy3/CFDA dual staining showed significant reduction in the number of apoptotic hepatocytes pre-treated with ACRP. ACRP induced restoration of mitochondrial membrane potential was remarkable. ACRP pre-treatment prevented Pb-induced apoptosis mediated by caspase activation. The antagonistic effect of ACRP may be due to scavenging of reactive oxygen species which maintained the homeostasis of cellular redox potential as well as reduced glutathione status. The results suggest that ACRP crosses the species barrier and it may be utilized as a viable exogenous agent of cytoprotection against heavy metal related toxicity.

  3. Spatiotemporal interactions between wild boar and cattle: implications for cross-species disease transmission.

    PubMed

    Barasona, Jose A; Latham, M Cecilia; Acevedo, Pelayo; Armenteros, Jose A; Latham, A David M; Gortazar, Christian; Carro, Francisco; Soriguer, Ramon C; Vicente, Joaquin

    2014-12-12

    Controlling infectious diseases at the wildlife/livestock interface is often difficult because the ecological processes driving transmission between wildlife reservoirs and sympatric livestock populations are poorly understood. Thus, assessing how animals use their environment and how this affects interspecific interactions is an important factor in determining the local risk for disease transmission and maintenance. We used data from concurrently monitored GPS-collared domestic cattle and wild boar (Sus scrofa) to assess spatiotemporal interactions and associated implications for bovine tuberculosis (TB) transmission in a complex ecological and epidemiological system, Doñana National Park (DNP, South Spain). We found that fine-scale spatial overlap of cattle and wild boar was seasonally high in some habitats. In general, spatial interactions between the two species were highest in the marsh-shrub ecotone and at permanent water sources, whereas shrub-woodlands and seasonal grass-marshlands were areas with lower predicted relative interactions. Wild boar and cattle generally used different resources during winter and spring in DNP. Conversely, limited differences in resource selection during summer and autumn, when food and water availability were limiting, resulted in negligible spatial segregation and thus probably high encounter rates. The spatial gradient in potential overlap between the two species across DNP corresponded well with the spatial variation in the observed incidence of TB in cattle and prevalence of TB in wild boar. We suggest that the marsh-shrub ecotone and permanent water sources act as important points of TB transmission in our system, particularly during summer and autumn. Targeted management actions are suggested to reduce potential interactions between cattle and wild boar in order to prevent disease transmission and design effective control strategies.

  4. Impact of enrichment conditions on cross-species capture of fresh and degraded DNA.

    PubMed

    Paijmans, Johanna L A; Fickel, Joerns; Courtiol, Alexandre; Hofreiter, Michael; Förster, Daniel W

    2016-01-01

    By combining high-throughput sequencing with target enrichment ('hybridization capture'), researchers are able to obtain molecular data from genomic regions of interest for projects that are otherwise constrained by sample quality (e.g. degraded and contamination-rich samples) or a lack of a priori sequence information (e.g. studies on nonmodel species). Despite the use of hybridization capture in various fields of research for many years, the impact of enrichment conditions on capture success is not yet thoroughly understood. We evaluated the impact of a key parameter--hybridization temperature--on the capture success of mitochondrial genomes across the carnivoran family Felidae. Capture was carried out for a range of sample types (fresh, archival, ancient) with varying levels of sequence divergence between bait and target (i.e. across a range of species) using pools of individually indexed libraries on Agilent SureSelect(™) arrays. Our results suggest that hybridization capture protocols require specific optimization for the sample type that is being investigated. Hybridization temperature affected the proportion of on-target sequences following capture: for degraded samples, we obtained the best results with a hybridization temperature of 65 °C, while a touchdown approach (65 °C down to 50 °C) yielded the best results for fresh samples. Evaluation of capture performance at a regional scale (sliding window approach) revealed no significant improvement in the recovery of DNA fragments with high sequence divergence from the bait at any of the tested hybridization temperatures, suggesting that hybridization temperature may not be the critical parameter for the enrichment of divergent fragments. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Cross-species sensitivity to a novel androgen receptor agonist of potential environmental concern, spironolactone.

    PubMed

    LaLone, Carlie A; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Cavallin, Jenna E; Kahl, Michael D; Durhan, Elizabeth J; Makynen, Elizabeth A; Jensen, Kathleen M; Stevens, Kyle E; Severson, Megan N; Blanksma, Chad A; Flynn, Kevin M; Hartig, Philip C; Woodard, Jonne S; Berninger, Jason P; Norberg-King, Teresa J; Johnson, Rodney D; Ankley, Gerald T

    2013-11-01

    Spironolactone is a pharmaceutical that in humans is used to treat conditions like hirsutism, various dermatologic afflictions, and female-pattern hair loss through antagonism of the androgen receptor. Although not routinely monitored in the environment, spironolactone has been detected downstream of a pharmaceutical manufacturer, indicating a potential for exposure of aquatic species. Furthermore, spironolactone has been reported to cause masculinization of female western mosquitofish, a response indicative of androgen receptor activation. Predictive methods to identify homologous proteins to the human and western mosquitofish androgen receptor suggest that vertebrates would be more susceptible to adverse effects mediated by chemicals like spironolactone that target the androgen receptor compared with invertebrate species that lack a relevant homolog. In addition, an adverse outcome pathway previously developed for activation of the androgen receptor suggests that androgen mimics can lead to reproductive toxicity in fish. To assess this, 21-d reproduction studies were conducted with 2 fish species, fathead minnow and Japanese medaka, and the invertebrate Daphnia magna. Spironolactone significantly reduced the fecundity of medaka and fathead minnows at 50 μg/L, whereas daphnia reproduction was not affected by concentrations as large as 500 μg/L. Phenotypic masculinization of females of both fish species was observed at 5 μg/L as evidenced by formation of tubercles in fathead minnows and papillary processes in Japanese medaka. Effects in fish occurred at concentrations below those reported in the environment. These results demonstrate how a priori knowledge of an adverse outcome pathway and the conservation of a key molecular target across vertebrates can be utilized to identify potential chemicals of concern in terms of monitoring and highlight potentially sensitive species and endpoints for testing.

  6. Conservation and divergence within the clathrin interactome of Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Kalb, Ligia Cristina; Frederico, Yohana Camila A.; Boehm, Cordula; Moreira, Claudia Maria do Nascimento; Soares, Maurilio José; Field, Mark C.

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosomatids are parasitic protozoa with a significant burden on human health. African and American trypanosomes are causative agents of Nagana and Chagas disease respectively, and speciated about 300 million years ago. These parasites have highly distinct life cycles, pathologies, transmission strategies and surface proteomes, being dominated by the variant surface glycoprotein (African) or mucins (American) respectively. In African trypanosomes clathrin-mediated trafficking is responsible for endocytosis and post-Golgi transport, with several mechanistic aspects distinct from higher organisms. Using clathrin light chain (TcCLC) and EpsinR (TcEpsinR) as affinity handles, we identified candidate clathrin-associated proteins (CAPs) in Trypanosoma cruzi; the cohort includes orthologs of many proteins known to mediate vesicle trafficking, but significantly not the AP-2 adaptor complex. Several trypanosome-specific proteins common with African trypanosomes, were also identified. Fluorescence microscopy revealed localisations for TcEpsinR, TcCLC and TcCHC at the posterior region of trypomastigote cells, coincident with the flagellar pocket and Golgi apparatus. These data provide the first systematic analysis of clathrin-mediated trafficking in T. cruzi, allowing comparison between protein cohorts and other trypanosomes and also suggest that clathrin trafficking in at least some life stages of T. cruzi may be AP-2-independent. PMID:27502971

  7. Erythrocyte-based Pig-a gene mutation assay: demonstration of cross-species potential.

    PubMed

    Phonethepswath, Souk; Bryce, Steven M; Bemis, Jeffrey C; Dertinger, Stephen D

    2008-12-08

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors attach specific proteins to the cell surface of hematopoietic cells. Of the genes required to form GPI anchors, only Pig-a is located on the X-chromosome. Prior work with rats suggests that the GPI anchor deficient phenotype is a reliable indicator of Pig-a mutation [Bryce et al., Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 49 (2008) 256-264]. The current report extends this line of investigation by describing simplified blood handling procedures, and by testing the assay principle in a second species, Mus musculus. With this method, erythrocytes are isolated, incubated with anti-CD24-PE, and stained with SYTO 13. Flow cytometric analyses quantify GPI anchor-deficient erythrocytes and reticulocytes. After reconstruction experiments with mutant-mimicking cells demonstrated that the analytical performance of the method is high, CD-1 mice were treated on three occasions with 7,12-dimethyl-1,2-benz[a]anthracene (DMBA, 75 mg/kg/day) or ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU, 40 mg/kg/day). Two weeks after the final treatment, DMBA-treated mice were found to exhibit markedly elevated frequencies of GPI anchor deficient erythrocytes and reticulocytes. For the ENU experiment, blood specimens were collected at weekly intervals over a 5-week period. Whereas the frequencies of mutant reticulocytes were significantly elevated 1 week after the last administration, the erythrocyte population was unchanged until the second week. Thereafter, both populations exhibited persistently elevated frequencies for the duration of the experiment (mean frequency at termination=310x10(-6) and 523x10(-6) for erythrocyte and reticulocyte populations, respectively). These data provide evidence that Pig-a mutation does not convey an appreciable positive or negative cell survival advantage to affected erythroid progenitors, although they do suggest that affected erythrocytes have a reduced lifespan in circulation. Collectively, accumulated data support the hypothesis that flow cytometric

  8. Phylogenomic study of spiral-horned antelope by cross-species chromosome painting.

    PubMed

    Rubes, Jiri; Kubickova, Svatava; Pagacova, Eva; Cernohorska, Halina; Di Berardino, Dino; Antoninova, Marketa; Vahala, Jiri; Robinson, Terence J

    2008-01-01

    Chromosomal homologies have been established between cattle (Bos taurus, 2n = 60) and eight species of spiral-horned antelope, Tribe Tragelaphini: Nyala (Tragelaphus angasii, 2n = 55male/56female), Lesser kudu (T. imberbis, 2n = 38male,female), Bongo (T. eurycerus, 2n = 33male/34female), Bushbuck (T. scriptus, 2n = 33male/34female), Greater kudu (T. strepsiceros, 2n = 31male/32female), Sitatunga (T. spekei, 2n = 30male,female) Derby eland (Taurotragus derbianus 2n = 31male/32female) and Common eland (T. oryx 2n = 31male/32female). Chromosomes involved in centric fusions in these species were identified using a complete set of cattle painting probes generated by laser microdissection. Our data support the monophyly of Tragelaphini and a clade comprising T. scriptus, T. spekei, T. euryceros and the eland species T. oryx and T. derbianus, findings that are largely in agreement with sequence-based molecular phylogenies. In contrast, our study suggests that the arid adaptiveness of T. oryx and T. derbianus is recent. Finally, we have identified the presence of the rob(1;29) fusion as an evolutionary marker in most of the tragelaphid species investigated. This rearrangement is associated with reproductive impairment in cattle and raises questions whether subtle distinctions in breakpoint location or differential rescue during meiosis underpin the different outcomes detected among these lineages.

  9. Solutions to Peto's paradox revealed by mathematical modelling and cross-species cancer gene analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Caulin, Aleah F.; Graham, Trevor A.; Wang, Li-San; Maley, Carlo C.

    2015-06-08

    Whales have 1000-fold more cells than humans and mice have 1000-fold fewer; however, cancer risk across species does not increase with the number of somatic cells and the lifespan of the organism. This observation is known as Peto's paradox. How much would evolution have to change the parameters of somatic evolution in order to equalize the cancer risk between species that differ by orders of magnitude in size? Analysis of previously published models of colorectal cancer suggests that a two- to three-fold decrease in the mutation rate or stem cell division rate is enough to reduce a whale's cancer risk to that of a human. Similarly, the addition of one to two required tumour-suppressor gene mutations would also be sufficient. Also, we surveyed mammalian genomes and did not find a positive correlation of tumour-suppressor genes with increasing body mass and longevity. However, we found evidence of the amplification of TP53 in elephants, MAL in horses and FBXO31 in microbats, which might explain Peto's paradox in those species. Lastly, exploring parameters that evolution may have fine-tuned in large, long-lived organisms will help guide future experiments to reveal the underlying biology responsible for Peto's paradox and guide cancer prevention in humans.

  10. Solutions to Peto's paradox revealed by mathematical modelling and cross-species cancer gene analysis

    DOE PAGES

    Caulin, Aleah F.; Graham, Trevor A.; Wang, Li-San; ...

    2015-06-08

    Whales have 1000-fold more cells than humans and mice have 1000-fold fewer; however, cancer risk across species does not increase with the number of somatic cells and the lifespan of the organism. This observation is known as Peto's paradox. How much would evolution have to change the parameters of somatic evolution in order to equalize the cancer risk between species that differ by orders of magnitude in size? Analysis of previously published models of colorectal cancer suggests that a two- to three-fold decrease in the mutation rate or stem cell division rate is enough to reduce a whale's cancer riskmore » to that of a human. Similarly, the addition of one to two required tumour-suppressor gene mutations would also be sufficient. Also, we surveyed mammalian genomes and did not find a positive correlation of tumour-suppressor genes with increasing body mass and longevity. However, we found evidence of the amplification of TP53 in elephants, MAL in horses and FBXO31 in microbats, which might explain Peto's paradox in those species. Lastly, exploring parameters that evolution may have fine-tuned in large, long-lived organisms will help guide future experiments to reveal the underlying biology responsible for Peto's paradox and guide cancer prevention in humans.« less

  11. Cross-Species Interaction between Rapidly Evolving Telomere-Specific Drosophila Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Vedelek, Balázs; Blastyák, András; Boros, Imre M.

    2015-01-01

    Telomere integrity in Drosophila melanogaster is maintained by a putative multisubunit complex called terminin that is believed to act in analogy to the mammalian shelterin complex in protecting chromosome ends from being recognized as sites of DNA damage. The five proteins supposed to form the terminin complex are HP1-ORC associated protein, HP1-HOAP interacting protein, Verrocchio, Drosophila Telomere Loss/Modigliani and Heterochromatic Protein 1. Four of these proteins evolve rapidly within the Drosophila genus. The accelerated evolution of terminin components may indicate the involvement of these proteins in the process by which new species arise, as the resulting divergence of terminin proteins might prevent hybrid formation, thus driving speciation. However, terminin is not an experimentally proven entity, and no biochemical studies have been performed to investigate its assembly and action in detail. Motivated by these facts in order to initiate biochemical studies on terminin function, we attempted to reconstitute terminin by co-expressing its subunits in bacteria and investigated the possible role of the fast-evolving parts of terminin components in complex assembly. Our results suggest formation of stable subcomplexes of terminin, but not of the whole complex in vitro. We found that the accelerated evolution is restricted to definable regions of terminin components, and that the divergence of D. melanogaster Drosophila Telomere Loss and D. yakuba Verrocchio proteins does not preclude their stable interaction. PMID:26566042

  12. Local Mobile Gene Pools Rapidly Cross Species Boundaries To Create Endemicity within Global Vibrio cholerae Populations

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, Yan; Cordero, Otto X.; Takemura, Alison; Hunt, Dana E.; Schliep, Klaus; Bapteste, Eric; Lopez, Philippe; Tarr, Cheryl L.; Polz, Martin F.

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae represents both an environmental pathogen and a widely distributed microbial species comprised of closely related strains occurring in the tropical to temperate coastal ocean across the globe (Colwell RR, Science 274:2025–2031, 1996; Griffith DC, Kelly-Hope LA, Miller MA, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 75:973–977, 2006; Reidl J, Klose KE, FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 26:125–139, 2002). However, although this implies dispersal and growth across diverse environmental conditions, how locally successful populations assemble from a possibly global gene pool, relatively unhindered by geographic boundaries, remains poorly understood. Here, we show that environmental Vibrio cholerae possesses two, largely distinct gene pools: one is vertically inherited and globally well mixed, and the other is local and rapidly transferred across species boundaries to generate an endemic population structure. While phylogeographic analysis of isolates collected from Bangladesh and the U.S. east coast suggested strong panmixis for protein-coding genes, there was geographic structure in integrons, which are the only genomic islands present in all strains of V. cholerae (Chun J, et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 106:15442–15447, 2009) and are capable of acquiring and expressing mobile gene cassettes. Geographic differentiation in integrons arises from high gene turnover, with acquisition from a locally cooccurring sister species being up to twice as likely as exchange with conspecific but geographically distant V. cholerae populations. PMID:21486909

  13. Solutions to Peto's paradox revealed by mathematical modelling and cross-species cancer gene analysis.

    PubMed

    Caulin, Aleah F; Graham, Trevor A; Wang, Li-San; Maley, Carlo C

    2015-07-19

    Whales have 1000-fold more cells than humans and mice have 1000-fold fewer; however, cancer risk across species does not increase with the number of somatic cells and the lifespan of the organism. This observation is known as Peto's paradox. How much would evolution have to change the parameters of somatic evolution in order to equalize the cancer risk between species that differ by orders of magnitude in size? Analysis of previously published models of colorectal cancer suggests that a two- to three-fold decrease in the mutation rate or stem cell division rate is enough to reduce a whale's cancer risk to that of a human. Similarly, the addition of one to two required tumour-suppressor gene mutations would also be sufficient. We surveyed mammalian genomes and did not find a positive correlation of tumour-suppressor genes with increasing body mass and longevity. However, we found evidence of the amplification of TP53 in elephants, MAL in horses and FBXO31 in microbats, which might explain Peto's paradox in those species. Exploring parameters that evolution may have fine-tuned in large, long-lived organisms will help guide future experiments to reveal the underlying biology responsible for Peto's paradox and guide cancer prevention in humans.

  14. The effect of cleft lip on adults' responses to faces: cross-species findings.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Christine E; Young, Katherine S; Parsons, Emma; Dean, Annika; Murray, Lynne; Goodacre, Tim; Dalton, Louise; Stein, Alan; Kringelbach, Morten L

    2011-01-01

    Cleft lip and palate is the most common of the congenital conditions affecting the face and cranial bones and is associated with a raised risk of difficulties in infant-caregiver interaction; the reasons for such difficulties are not fully understood. Here, we report two experiments designed to explore how adults respond to infant faces with and without cleft lip, using behavioural measures of attractiveness appraisal ('liking') and willingness to work to view or remove the images ('wanting'). We found that infants with cleft lip were rated as less attractive and were viewed for shorter durations than healthy infants, an effect that was particularly apparent where the cleft lip was severe. Women rated the infant faces as more attractive than men did, but there were no differences in men and women's viewing times of these faces. In a second experiment, we found that the presence of a cleft lip in domestic animals affected adults' 'liking' and 'wanting' responses in a comparable way to that seen for human infants. Adults' responses were also remarkably similar for images of infants and animals with cleft lip, although no gender difference in attractiveness ratings or viewing times emerged for animals. We suggest that the presence of a cleft lip can substantially change the way in which adults respond to human and animal faces. Furthermore, women may respond in different ways to men when asked to appraise infant attractiveness, despite the fact that men and women 'want' to view images of infants for similar durations.

  15. Solutions to Peto's paradox revealed by mathematical modelling and cross-species cancer gene analysis

    PubMed Central

    Caulin, Aleah F.; Graham, Trevor A.; Wang, Li-San; Maley, Carlo C.

    2015-01-01

    Whales have 1000-fold more cells than humans and mice have 1000-fold fewer; however, cancer risk across species does not increase with the number of somatic cells and the lifespan of the organism. This observation is known as Peto's paradox. How much would evolution have to change the parameters of somatic evolution in order to equalize the cancer risk between species that differ by orders of magnitude in size? Analysis of previously published models of colorectal cancer suggests that a two- to three-fold decrease in the mutation rate or stem cell division rate is enough to reduce a whale's cancer risk to that of a human. Similarly, the addition of one to two required tumour-suppressor gene mutations would also be sufficient. We surveyed mammalian genomes and did not find a positive correlation of tumour-suppressor genes with increasing body mass and longevity. However, we found evidence of the amplification of TP53 in elephants, MAL in horses and FBXO31 in microbats, which might explain Peto's paradox in those species. Exploring parameters that evolution may have fine-tuned in large, long-lived organisms will help guide future experiments to reveal the underlying biology responsible for Peto's paradox and guide cancer prevention in humans. PMID:26056366

  16. Evolution of the pregnane X receptor: adaptation to cross-species differences in biliary bile salts

    PubMed Central

    Krasowski, Matthew D.; Yasuda, Kazuto; Hagey, Lee R.; Schuetz, Erin G.

    2008-01-01

    The pregnane X receptor (PXR) regulates the metabolism and elimination of bile salts, steroids, and xenobiotics. The sequence of the PXR ligand-binding domain diverges extensively between different animals suggesting inter-species differences in ligands. Of the endogenous ligands known to activate PXR, biliary bile salts vary the most across vertebrate species, ranging from 27-carbon (C27) bile alcohol sulfates (early fish, amphibians) to C24 bile acids (birds, mammals). Using a luciferase-based reporter assay, human PXR was activated by a wide variety of bile salts. In contrast, zebrafish PXR was activated efficiently only by cyprinol sulfate, the major zebrafish bile salt, but not by recent bile acids. Chicken, mouse, rat, and rabbit PXRs were all activated by species-specific bile acids and by early fish bile alcohol sulfates. In addition, phylogenetic analysis using maximum likelihood demonstrated evidence for non-neutral evolution of the PXR ligand-binding domain. PXR activation by bile salts has expanded from narrow specificity for C27 bile alcohol sulfates (early fish) to a broader specificity for recent bile acids (birds, mammals). PXR specificity for bile salts has thus paralleled the increasing complexity of the bile salt synthetic pathway during vertebrate evolution, an unusual example of ligand-receptor co-evolution in the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. PMID:15718292

  17. Cross-Species Interaction between Rapidly Evolving Telomere-Specific Drosophila Proteins.

    PubMed

    Vedelek, Balázs; Blastyák, András; Boros, Imre M

    2015-01-01

    Telomere integrity in Drosophila melanogaster is maintained by a putative multisubunit complex called terminin that is believed to act in analogy to the mammalian shelterin complex in protecting chromosome ends from being recognized as sites of DNA damage. The five proteins supposed to form the terminin complex are HP1-ORC associated protein, HP1-HOAP interacting protein, Verrocchio, Drosophila Telomere Loss/Modigliani and Heterochromatic Protein 1. Four of these proteins evolve rapidly within the Drosophila genus. The accelerated evolution of terminin components may indicate the involvement of these proteins in the process by which new species arise, as the resulting divergence of terminin proteins might prevent hybrid formation, thus driving speciation. However, terminin is not an experimentally proven entity, and no biochemical studies have been performed to investigate its assembly and action in detail. Motivated by these facts in order to initiate biochemical studies on terminin function, we attempted to reconstitute terminin by co-expressing its subunits in bacteria and investigated the possible role of the fast-evolving parts of terminin components in complex assembly. Our results suggest formation of stable subcomplexes of terminin, but not of the whole complex in vitro. We found that the accelerated evolution is restricted to definable regions of terminin components, and that the divergence of D. melanogaster Drosophila Telomere Loss and D. yakuba Verrocchio proteins does not preclude their stable interaction.

  18. Cross species fertilization and development investigated by cat sperm injection into mouse oocytes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yong-Nan; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Sun, Shao-Chen; Jin, Yong-Xun; Kim, Nam-Hyung

    2011-07-01

    The use of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in model animals is a powerful approach for the study of species-specific fertilization processes and multiploidy embryogenesis. In this study, we examined the fertilization process in mouse oocytes following injection of a single mouse or cat sperm, two mouse spermatozoa or mouse and cat spermatozoa. These treatments did not affect histone H3K9 acetylation or methylation, although the pattern of DNA methylation differed following the injection of cat sperm. Immunocytochemical staining revealed that sperm chromatin was normally incorporated with female mouse chromatin following any of the four injection scenarios. Furthermore, metaphase was successfully entered to reach a normal two-cell stage, and cell division could even persist to produce blastocyst stage embryos. In addition, both mouse and cat Pou5l and Nanog mRNA were expressed in the hybrid embryos. These results suggest that, although epigenetic modification of DNA is affected by the sperm injection treatment, fertilization and cleavage occur in a non-species-specific manner. In addition, despite abnormal division of the chromosomes, intra- and inter-species ICSI produced embryos that could develop into blastocysts.

  19. Canaries in the coal mine: a cross-species analysis of the plurality of obesity epidemics

    PubMed Central

    Klimentidis, Yann C.; Beasley, T. Mark; Lin, Hui-Yi; Murati, Giulianna; Glass, Gregory E.; Guyton, Marcus; Newton, Wendy; Jorgensen, Matthew; Heymsfield, Steven B.; Kemnitz, Joseph; Fairbanks, Lynn; Allison, David B.

    2011-01-01

    A dramatic rise in obesity has occurred among humans within the last several decades. Little is known about whether similar increases in obesity have occurred in animals inhabiting human-influenced environments. We examined samples collectively consisting of over 20 000 animals from 24 populations (12 divided separately into males and females) of animals representing eight species living with or around humans in industrialized societies. In all populations, the estimated coefficient for the trend of body weight over time was positive (i.e. increasing). The probability of all trends being in the same direction by chance is 1.2 × 10−7. Surprisingly, we find that over the past several decades, average mid-life body weights have risen among primates and rodents living in research colonies, as well as among feral rodents and domestic dogs and cats. The consistency of these findings among animals living in varying environments, suggests the intriguing possibility that the aetiology of increasing body weight may involve several as-of-yet unidentified and/or poorly understood factors (e.g. viral pathogens, epigenetic factors). This finding may eventually enhance the discovery and fuller elucidation of other factors that have contributed to the recent rise in obesity rates. PMID:21106594

  20. Cross-species analysis of genic GC3 content and DNA methylation patterns.

    PubMed

    Tatarinova, Tatiana; Elhaik, Eran; Pellegrini, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    The GC content in the third codon position (GC(3)) exhibits a unimodal distribution in many plant and animal genomes. Interestingly, grasses and homeotherm vertebrates exhibit a unique bimodal distribution. High GC(3) was previously found to be associated with variable expression, higher frequency of upstream TATA boxes, and an increase of GC(3) from 5' to 3'. Moreover, GC(3)-rich genes are predominant in certain gene classes and are enriched in CpG dinucleotides that are potential targets for methylation. Based on the GC(3) bimodal distribution we hypothesize that GC(3) has a regulatory role involving methylation and gene expression. To test that hypothesis, we selected diverse taxa (rice, thale cress, bee, and human) that varied in the modality of their GC(3) distribution and tested the association between GC(3), DNA methylation, and gene expression. We examine the relationship between cytosine methylation levels and GC(3), gene expression, genome signature, gene length, and other gene compositional features. We find a strong negative correlation (Pearson's correlation coefficient r = -0.67, P value < 0.0001) between GC(3) and genic CpG methylation. The comparison between 5'-3' gradients of CG(3)-skew and genic methylation for the taxa in the study suggests interplay between gene-body methylation and transcription-coupled cytosine deamination effect. Compositional features are correlated with methylation levels of genes in rice, thale cress, human, bee, and fruit fly (which acts as an unmethylated control). These patterns allow us to generate evolutionary hypotheses about the relationships between GC(3) and methylation and how these affect expression patterns. Specifically, we propose that the opposite effects of methylation and compositional gradients along coding regions of GC(3)-poor and GC(3)-rich genes are the products of several competing processes.

  1. The Effect of Cleft Lip on Adults' Responses to Faces: Cross-Species Findings

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Emma; Dean, Annika; Murray, Lynne; Goodacre, Tim; Dalton, Louise; Stein, Alan; Kringelbach, Morten L.

    2011-01-01

    Cleft lip and palate is the most common of the congenital conditions affecting the face and cranial bones and is associated with a raised risk of difficulties in infant-caregiver interaction; the reasons for such difficulties are not fully understood. Here, we report two experiments designed to explore how adults respond to infant faces with and without cleft lip, using behavioural measures of attractiveness appraisal (‘liking’) and willingness to work to view or remove the images (‘wanting’). We found that infants with cleft lip were rated as less attractive and were viewed for shorter durations than healthy infants, an effect that was particularly apparent where the cleft lip was severe. Women rated the infant faces as more attractive than men did, but there were no differences in men and women's viewing times of these faces. In a second experiment, we found that the presence of a cleft lip in domestic animals affected adults' ‘liking’ and ‘wanting’ responses in a comparable way to that seen for human infants. Adults' responses were also remarkably similar for images of infants and animals with cleft lip, although no gender difference in attractiveness ratings or viewing times emerged for animals. We suggest that the presence of a cleft lip can substantially change the way in which adults respond to human and animal faces. Furthermore, women may respond in different ways to men when asked to appraise infant attractiveness, despite the fact that men and women ‘want’ to view images of infants for similar durations. PMID:22016785

  2. Cross-species transferability and mapping of genomic and cDNA SSRs in pines.

    PubMed

    Chagné, D; Chaumeil, P; Ramboer, A; Collada, C; Guevara, A; Cervera, M T; Vendramin, G G; Garcia, V; Frigerio, J-M; Echt, C; Richardson, T; Plomion, C

    2004-10-01

    Two unigene datasets of Pinus taeda and Pinus pinaster were screened to detect di-, tri- and tetranucleotide repeated motifs using the SSRIT script. A total of 419 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified, from which only 12.8% overlapped between the two sets. The position of the SSRs within their coding sequences were predicted using FrameD. Trinucleotides appeared to be the most abundant repeated motif (63 and 51% in P. taeda and P. pinaster, respectively) and tended to be found within translated regions (76% in both species), whereas dinucleotide repeats were preferentially found within the 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions (75 and 65%, respectively). Fifty-three primer pairs amplifying a single PCR fragment in the source species (mainly P. taeda), were tested for amplification in six other pine species. The amplification rate with other pine species was high and corresponded with the phylogenetic distance between species, varying from 64.6% in P. canariensis to 94.2% in P. radiata. Genomic SSRs were found to be less transferable; 58 of the 107 primer pairs (i.e. 54%) derived from P. radiata amplified a single fragment in P. pinaster. Nine cDNA-SSRs were located to their chromosomes in two P. pinaster linkage maps. The level of polymorphism of these cDNA-SSRs was compared to that of previously and newly developed genomic-SSRs. Overall, genomic SSRs tend to perform better in terms of heterozygosity and number of alleles. This study suggests that useful SSR markers can be developed from pine ESTs.

  3. Cross-Species Analysis of Genic GC3 Content and DNA Methylation Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Tatarinova, Tatiana; Elhaik, Eran; Pellegrini, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    The GC content in the third codon position (GC3) exhibits a unimodal distribution in many plant and animal genomes. Interestingly, grasses and homeotherm vertebrates exhibit a unique bimodal distribution. High GC3 was previously found to be associated with variable expression, higher frequency of upstream TATA boxes, and an increase of GC3 from 5′ to 3′. Moreover, GC3-rich genes are predominant in certain gene classes and are enriched in CpG dinucleotides that are potential targets for methylation. Based on the GC3 bimodal distribution we hypothesize that GC3 has a regulatory role involving methylation and gene expression. To test that hypothesis, we selected diverse taxa (rice, thale cress, bee, and human) that varied in the modality of their GC3 distribution and tested the association between GC3, DNA methylation, and gene expression. We examine the relationship between cytosine methylation levels and GC3, gene expression, genome signature, gene length, and other gene compositional features. We find a strong negative correlation (Pearson’s correlation coefficient r = −0.67, P value < 0.0001) between GC3 and genic CpG methylation. The comparison between 5′-3′ gradients of CG3-skew and genic methylation for the taxa in the study suggests interplay between gene-body methylation and transcription-coupled cytosine deamination effect. Compositional features are correlated with methylation levels of genes in rice, thale cress, human, bee, and fruit fly (which acts as an unmethylated control). These patterns allow us to generate evolutionary hypotheses about the relationships between GC3 and methylation and how these affect expression patterns. Specifically, we propose that the opposite effects of methylation and compositional gradients along coding regions of GC3-poor and GC3-rich genes are the products of several competing processes. PMID:23833164

  4. ACAT-selective and nonselective DGAT1 inhibition: adrenocortical effects--a cross-species comparison.

    PubMed

    Floettmann, Jan Eike; Buckett, Linda K; Turnbull, Andrew V; Smith, Tim; Hallberg, Carina; Birch, Alan; Lees, David; Jones, Huw B

    2013-01-01

    Acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol O-Acyltransferase (ACAT) and Acyl-coenzyme A: diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (DGAT) enzymes play important roles in synthesizing neutral lipids, and inhibitors of these enzymes have been investigated as potential treatments for diabetes and other metabolic diseases. Administration of a Acyl-coenzyme A: diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) inhibitor with very limited cellular selectivity over ACAT resulted in significant adrenocortical degenerative changes in dogs. These changes included macrosteatotic vacuolation associated with adrenocyte cell death in the zonae glomerulosa and fasciculata and minimal to substantial mixed inflammatory cell infiltration and were similar to those described previously for some ACAT inhibitors in dogs. In the mouse, similar but only transient adrenocortical degenerative changes were seen as well as a distinctive nondegenerative reduction in cortical fine vacuolation. In the marmoset, only the distinctive nondegenerative reduction in cortical fine vacuolation was observed, suggesting that the dog, followed by the mouse, is the most sensitive species for cortical degeneration. Biochemical analysis of adrenal cholesterol and cholesteryl ester indicated that the distinctive reduction in cortical fine vacuolation correlated with a significant reduction in cholesteryl ester in the mouse and marmoset, whereas no significant reduction in cholestryl ester, but an increase in free cholesterol was observed in dogs. Administration of a DGAT1 inhibitor with markedly improved selectivity over ACAT to the marmoset and the mouse resulted in no adrenal pathology at exposures sufficient to cause substantial DGAT1 but not ACAT inhibition, thereby implicating ACAT rather than DGAT1 inhibition as the probable cause of the observed adrenal changes. Recognizing that the distinctive nondegenerative reduction in cortical fine vacuolation in the mouse could be used as a histopathological biomarker for an in vivo model of

  5. Cross-Species Analyses of the Cortical GABAergic and Subplate Neural Populations

    PubMed Central

    Clancy, Barbara; Teague-Ross, Terri J.; Nagarajan, Radhakrishnan

    2009-01-01

    Cortical GABAergic (γ-aminobutyric acidergic) neurons include a recently identified subset whose projections extend over relatively long distances in adult rodents and primates. A number of these inhibitory projection neurons are located in and above the conventionally identified white matter, suggesting their persistence from, or a correspondence with, the developmental subplate. GABAergic and subplate neurons share some unique properties unlike those of the more prevalent pyramidal neurons. To better understand the GABAergic and subplate populations, we constructed a database of neural developmental events common to the three species most frequently used in experimental studies: rat, mouse, and macaque, using data from the online database www.translatingtime.net as well as GABAergic and subplate developmental data from the empirical literature. We used a general linear model to test for similarities and differences, a valid approach because the sequence of most neurodevelopmental events is remarkably conserved across mammalian species. Similarities between the two rodent populations are striking, permitting us to identify developmental dates for GABAergic and subplate neural events in rats that were previously identified only in mice, as well as the timing in mouse development for events previously identified in rats. Primate comparative data are also compelling, although slight variability in statistical error measurement indicates differences in primate GABAergic and subplate events when compared to rodents. Although human extrapolations are challenging because fewer empirical data points are available, and because human data display more variability, we also produce estimates of dates for GABAergic and subplate neural events that have not yet been, or cannot be, determined empirically in humans. PMID:19936319

  6. A Cross-Species Analysis of MicroRNAs in the Developing Avian Face

    PubMed Central

    Powder, Kara E.; Ku, Yuan-Chieh; Brugmann, Samantha A.; Veile, Rose A.; Renaud, Nicole A.; Helms, Jill A.; Lovett, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Higher vertebrates use similar genetic tools to derive very different facial features. This diversity is believed to occur through temporal, spatial and species-specific changes in gene expression within cranial neural crest (NC) cells. These contribute to the facial skeleton and contain species-specific information that drives morphological variation. A few signaling molecules and transcription factors are known to play important roles in these processes, but little is known regarding the role of micro-RNAs (miRNAs). We have identified and compared all miRNAs expressed in cranial NC cells from three avian species (chicken, duck, and quail) before and after species-specific facial distinctions occur. We identified 170 differentially expressed miRNAs. These include thirty-five novel chicken orthologs of previously described miRNAs, and six avian-specific miRNAs. Five of these avian-specific miRNAs are conserved over 120 million years of avian evolution, from ratites to galliforms, and their predicted target mRNAs include many components of Wnt signaling. Previous work indicates that mRNA gene expression in NC cells is relatively static during stages when the beak acquires species-specific morphologies. However, miRNA expression is remarkably dynamic within this timeframe, suggesting that the timing of specific developmental transitions is altered in birds with different beak shapes. We evaluated one miRNA:mRNA target pair and found that the cell cycle regulator p27KIP1 is a likely target of miR-222 in frontonasal NC cells, and that the timing of this interaction correlates with the onset of phenotypic variation. Our comparative genomic approach is the first comprehensive analysis of miRNAs in the developing facial primordial, and in species-specific facial development. PMID:22523571

  7. Signal Integration in Quorum Sensing Enables Cross-Species Induction of Virulence in Pectobacterium wasabiae.

    PubMed

    Valente, Rita S; Nadal-Jimenez, Pol; Carvalho, André F P; Vieira, Filipe J D; Xavier, Karina B

    2017-05-23

    Bacterial communities can sense their neighbors, regulating group behaviors in response to cell density and environmental changes. The diversity of signaling networks in a single species has been postulated to allow custom responses to different stimuli; however, little is known about how multiple signals are integrated and the implications of this integration in different ecological contexts. In the plant pathogen Pectobacterium wasabiae (formerly Erwinia carotovora), two signaling networks-the N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) quorum-sensing system and the Gac/Rsm signal transduction pathway-control the expression of secreted plant cell wall-degrading enzymes, its major virulence determinants. We show that the AHL system controls the Gac/Rsm system by affecting the expression of the regulatory RNA RsmB. This regulation is mediated by ExpR2, the quorum-sensing receptor that responds to the P. wasabiae cognate AHL but also to AHLs produced by other bacterial species. As a consequence, this level of regulation allows P. wasabiae to bypass the Gac-dependent regulation of RsmB in the presence of exogenous AHLs or AHL-producing bacteria. We provide in vivo evidence that this pivotal role of RsmB in signal transduction is important for the ability of P. wasabiae to induce virulence in response to other AHL-producing bacteria in multispecies plant lesions. Our results suggest that the signaling architecture in P. wasabiae was coopted to prime the bacteria to eavesdrop on other bacteria and quickly join the efforts of other species, which are already exploiting host resources.IMPORTANCE Quorum-sensing mechanisms enable bacteria to communicate through small signal molecules and coordinate group behaviors. Often, bacteria have various quorum-sensing receptors and integrate information with other signal transduction pathways, presumably allowing them to respond to different ecological contexts. The plant pathogen Pectobacterium wasabiae has two N-acyl homoserine lactone

  8. Cross-Species Affective Neuroscience Decoding of the Primal Affective Experiences of Humans and Related Animals

    PubMed Central

    Panksepp, Jaak

    2011-01-01

    brain regions. Such findings suggest nested-hierarchies of BrainMind affective processing, with primal emotional functions being foundational for secondary-process learning and memory mechanisms, which interface with tertiary-process cognitive-thoughtful functions of the BrainMind. PMID:21915252

  9. Profiling conserved biological pathways in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disorder (ADPKD) to elucidate key transcriptomic alterations regulating cystogenesis: A cross-species meta-analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Shatakshee; Verma, Srikant Prasad; Pandey, Priyanka

    2017-09-05

    Initiation and progression of fluid filled cysts mark Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD). Thus, improved therapeutics targeting cystogenesis remains a constant challenge. Microarray studies in single ADPKD animal models species with limited sample sizes tend to provide scattered views on underlying ADPKD pathogenesis. Thus we aim to perform a cross species meta-analysis to profile conserved biological pathways that might be key targets for therapy. Nine ADPKD microarray datasets on rat, mice and human fulfilled our study criteria and were chosen. Intra-species combined analysis was performed after considering removal of batch effect. Significantly enriched GO biological processes and KEGG pathways were computed and their overlap was observed. For the conserved pathways, biological modules and gene regulatory networks were observed. Additionally, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) using Molecular Signature Database (MSigDB) was performed for genes found in conserved pathways. We obtained 28 modules of significantly enriched GO processes and 5 major functional categories from significantly enriched KEGG pathways conserved in human, mice and rats that in turn suggest a global transcriptomic perturbation affecting cyst - formation, growth and progression. Significantly enriched pathways obtained from up-regulated genes such as Genomic instability, Protein localization in ER and Insulin Resistance were found to regulate cyst formation and growth whereas cyst progression due to increased cell adhesion and inflammation was suggested by perturbations in Angiogenesis, TGF-beta, CAMs, and Infection related pathways. Additionally, networks revealed shared genes among pathways e.g. SMAD2 and SMAD7 in Endocytosis and TGF-beta. Our study suggests cyst formation and progression to be an outcome of interplay between a set of several key deregulated pathways. Thus, further translational research is warranted focusing on developing a combinatorial therapeutic

  10. Chromosomes. A comprehensive Xist interactome reveals cohesin repulsion and an RNA-directed chromosome conformation.

    PubMed

    Minajigi, Anand; Froberg, John; Wei, Chunyao; Sunwoo, Hongjae; Kesner, Barry; Colognori, David; Lessing, Derek; Payer, Bernhard; Boukhali, Myriam; Haas, Wilhelm; Lee, Jeannie T

    2015-07-17

    The inactive X chromosome (Xi) serves as a model to understand gene silencing on a global scale. Here, we perform "identification of direct RNA interacting proteins" (iDRiP) to isolate a comprehensive protein interactome for Xist, an RNA required for Xi silencing. We discover multiple classes of interactors-including cohesins, condensins, topoisomerases, RNA helicases, chromatin remodelers, and modifiers-that synergistically repress Xi transcription. Inhibiting two or three interactors destabilizes silencing. Although Xist attracts some interactors, it repels architectural factors. Xist evicts cohesins from the Xi and directs an Xi-specific chromosome conformation. Upon deleting Xist, the Xi acquires the cohesin-binding and chromosomal architecture of the active X. Our study unveils many layers of Xi repression and demonstrates a central role for RNA in the topological organization of mammalian chromosomes. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  11. A comprehensive Xist interactome reveals cohesin repulsion and an RNA-directed chromosome conformation

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Chunyao; Sunwoo, Hongjae; Kesner, Barry; Colognori, David; Lessing, Derek; Payer, Bernhard; Boukhali, Myriam; Haas, Wilhelm; Lee, Jeannie T.

    2016-01-01

    The inactive X chromosome (Xi) serves as a model to understand gene silencing on a global scale. Here, we perform “identification of direct RNA interacting proteins” (iDRiP) to isolate a comprehensive protein interactome for Xist, an RNA required for Xi silencing. We discover multiple classes of interactors, including cohesins, condensins, topoisomerases, RNA helicases, chromatin remodelers and modifiers, which synergistically repress Xi transcription. Inhibiting two or three interactors destabilizes silencing. While Xist attracts some interactors, it repels architectural factors. Xist evicts cohesins from the Xi and directs an Xi-specific chromosome conformation. Upon deleting Xist, the Xi acquires the cohesin-binding and chromosomal architecture of the active X. Our study unveils many layers of Xi repression and demonstrates a central role for RNA in the topological organization of mammalian chromosomes. PMID:26089354

  12. Preferential associations between co-regulated genes reveal a transcriptional interactome in erythroid cells.

    PubMed

    Schoenfelder, Stefan; Sexton, Tom; Chakalova, Lyubomira; Cope, Nathan F; Horton, Alice; Andrews, Simon; Kurukuti, Sreenivasulu; Mitchell, Jennifer A; Umlauf, David; Dimitrova, Daniela S; Eskiw, Christopher H; Luo, Yanquan; Wei, Chia-Lin; Ruan, Yijun; Bieker, James J; Fraser, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The discovery of interchromosomal interactions in higher eukaryotes points to a functional interplay between genome architecture and gene expression, challenging the view of transcription as a one-dimensional process. However, the extent of interchromosomal interactions and the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here we present the first genome-wide analysis of transcriptional interactions using the mouse globin genes in erythroid tissues. Our results show that the active globin genes associate with hundreds of other transcribed genes, revealing extensive and preferential intra- and interchromosomal transcription interactomes. We show that the transcription factor Klf1 mediates preferential co-associations of Klf1-regulated genes at a limited number of specialized transcription factories. Our results establish a new gene expression paradigm, implying that active co-regulated genes and their regulatory factors cooperate to create specialized nuclear hot spots optimized for efficient and coordinated transcriptional control.

  13. Ocean plankton. Determinants of community structure in the global plankton interactome.

    PubMed

    Lima-Mendez, Gipsi; Faust, Karoline; Henry, Nicolas; Decelle, Johan; Colin, Sébastien; Carcillo, Fabrizio; Chaffron, Samuel; Ignacio-Espinosa, J Cesar; Roux, Simon; Vincent, Flora; Bittner, Lucie; Darzi, Youssef; Wang, Jun; Audic, Stéphane; Berline, Léo; Bontempi, Gianluca; Cabello, Ana M; Coppola, Laurent; Cornejo-Castillo, Francisco M; d'Ovidio, Francesco; De Meester, Luc; Ferrera, Isabel; Garet-Delmas, Marie-José; Guidi, Lionel; Lara, Elena; Pesant, Stéphane; Royo-Llonch, Marta; Salazar, Guillem; Sánchez, Pablo; Sebastian, Marta; Souffreau, Caroline; Dimier, Céline; Picheral, Marc; Searson, Sarah; Kandels-Lewis, Stefanie; Gorsky, Gabriel; Not, Fabrice; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Speich, Sabrina; Stemmann, Lars; Weissenbach, Jean; Wincker, Patrick; Acinas, Silvia G; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Bork, Peer; Sullivan, Matthew B; Karsenti, Eric; Bowler, Chris; de Vargas, Colomban; Raes, Jeroen

    2015-05-22

    Species interaction networks are shaped by abiotic and biotic factors. Here, as part of the Tara Oceans project, we studied the photic zone interactome using environmental factors and organismal abundance profiles and found that environmental factors are incomplete predictors of community structure. We found associations across plankton functional types and phylogenetic groups to be nonrandomly distributed on the network and driven by both local and global patterns. We identified interactions among grazers, primary producers, viruses, and (mainly parasitic) symbionts and validated network-generated hypotheses using microscopy to confirm symbiotic relationships. We have thus provided a resource to support further research on ocean food webs and integrating biological components into ocean models. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. Genotype Correlation Analysis Reveals Pathway-Based Functional Disequilibrium and Potential Epistasis in the Human Interactome

    PubMed Central

    Bush, William S.; Haines, Jonathan L.

    2016-01-01

    Epistasis is thought to be a pervasive part of complex phenotypes due to the dynamics and complexity of biological systems, and a further understanding of epistasis in the context of biological pathways may provide insight into the etiology of complex disease. In this study, we use genotype data from the International HapMap Project to characterize the functional dependencies between alleles in the human interactome as defined by KEGG pathways. We performed chi-square tests to identify non-independence between functionally-related SNP pairs within parental Caucasian and Yoruba samples. We further refine this list by testing for skewed transmission of pseudo-haplotypes to offspring using a haplotype-based TDT test. From these analyses, we identify pathways enriched for functional disequilibrium, and a set of 863 SNP pairs (representing 453 gene pairs) showing consistent non-independence and transmission distortion. These results represent gene pairs with strong evidence of epistasis within the context of a biological function.

  15. Influenza Virus-Host Interactomes as a Basis for Antiviral Drug Development

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Tokiko; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Currently, antiviral drugs that target specific viral protein functions are available for the treatment of influenza; however, concern regarding the emergence of drug-resistant viruses is warranted, as is the urgent need for new antiviral targets, including non-viral targets, such as host cellular factors. Viruses rely on host cellular functions to replicate, and therefore a thorough understanding of the roles of virus-host interactions during influenza virus replication is essential to develop novel anti-influenza drugs that target the host factors involved in virus replication. Here, we review recent studies that used several approaches to identify host factors involved in influenza virus replication. These studies have permitted the construction of an interactome map of virus-host interactions in the influenza virus life cycle, clarifying the entire life cycle of this virus and accelerating the development of new antiviral drugs with a low propensity for the development of resistance. PMID:26364134

  16. Native Piezo2 Interactomics Identifies Pericentrin as a Novel Regulator of Piezo2 in Somatosensory Neurons.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Pratibha; Sondermann, Julia; Rouwette, Tom; Karaca, Samir; Urlaub, Henning; Mitkovski, Mišo; Gomez-Varela, David; Schmidt, Manuela

    2016-08-05

    The ability of somatosensory neurons to perceive mechanical stimuli relies on specialized mechanotransducing proteins and their molecular environment. Only recently has the identity of a major transducer of mechanical forces in vertebrates been revealed by the discovery of Piezo2. Further work has established its pivotal role for innocuous touch in mice. Therefore, Piezo2 offers a unique platform for the molecular investigation of somatosensory mechanosensation. We performed a mass spectrometry-based interactomics screen on native Piezo2 in somatosensory neurons of mouse dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Stringent and quantitative data analysis yielded the identity of 36 novel binding partners of Piezo2. The biological significance of this data set is reflected by functional experiments demonstrating a role for Pericentrin in modulating Piezo2 activity and membrane expression in somatosensory neurons. Collectively, our findings provide a framework for understanding Piezo2 physiology and serve as a rich resource for the molecular dissection of mouse somatosensation.

  17. Mining online genomic resources in Anolis carolinensis facilitates rapid and inexpensive development of cross-species microsatellite markers for the Anolis lizard genus.

    PubMed

    Wordley, Claire; Slate, Jon; Stapley, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    Online sequence databases can provide valuable resources for the development of cross-species genetic markers. In particular, mining expressed tag sequences (EST) for microsatellites and developing conserved cross-species microsatellite markers can provide a rapid and relatively inexpensive method to develop new markers for a range of species. Here, we adopt this approach to develop cross-species microsatellite markers in Anolis lizards, which is a model genus in evolutionary biology and ecology. Using EST sequences from Anolis carolinensis, we identified 127 microsatellites that satisfied our criteria, and tested 49 of these in five species of Anolis (carolinensis, distichus, apletophallus, porcatus and sagrei). We identified between 8 and 25 new variable genetic markers for five Anolis species. These markers will be a valuable resource for studies of population genetics, comparative mapping, mating systems, behavioural ecology and adaptive radiations in this diverse lineage.

  18. Regulating the regulator: Insights into the cardiac protein phosphatase 1 interactome.

    PubMed

    Chiang, David Y; Heck, Albert J R; Dobrev, Dobromir; Wehrens, Xander H T

    2016-12-01

    Reversible phosphorylation of proteins is a delicate yet dynamic balancing act between kinases and phosphatases, the disturbance of which underlies numerous disease processes. While our understanding of protein kinases has grown tremendously over the past decades, relatively little is known regarding protein phosphatases. This may be because protein kinases are great in number and relatively specific in function, and thereby amenable to be studied in isolation, whereas protein phosphatases are much less abundant and more nonspecific in their function. To achieve subcellular localization and substrate specificity, phosphatases depend on partnering with a large number of regulatory subunits, protein scaffolds and/or other interactors. This added layer of complexity presents a significant barrier to their study, but holds the key to unexplored opportunities for novel pharmacologic intervention. In this review we focus on serine/threonine protein phosphatase type-1 (PP1), which plays an important role in cardiac physiology and pathophysiology. Although much work has been done to investigate the role of PP1 in cardiac diseases including atrial fibrillation and heart failure, most of these studies were limited to examining and manipulating the catalytic subunit(s) of PP1 without adequately considering the PP1 interactors, which give specificity to PP1's functions. To complement these studies, three unbiased methods have been developed and applied to the mapping of the PP1 interactome: bioinformatics approaches, yeast two-hybrid screens, and affinity-purification mass spectrometry. The application of these complementary methods has the potential to generate a detailed cardiac PP1 interactome, which is an important step in identifying novel and targeted pharmacological interventions.

  19. A systems biology approach for the investigation of the heparin/heparan sulfate interactome.

    PubMed

    Ori, Alessandro; Wilkinson, Mark C; Fernig, David G

    2011-06-03

    A large body of evidence supports the involvement of heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans in physiological processes such as development and diseases including cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. The role of HS emerges from its ability to interact and regulate the activity of a vast number of extracellular proteins including growth factors and extracellular matrix components. A global view on how protein-HS interactions influence the extracellular proteome and, consequently, cell function is currently lacking. Here, we systematically investigate the functional and structural properties that characterize HS-interacting proteins and the network they form. We collected 435 human proteins interacting with HS or the structurally related heparin by integrating literature-derived and affinity proteomics data. We used this data set to identify the topological features that distinguish the heparin/HS-interacting network from the rest of the extracellular proteome and to analyze the enrichment of gene ontology terms, pathways, and domain families in heparin/HS-binding proteins. Our analysis revealed that heparin/HS-binding proteins form a highly interconnected network, which is functionally linked to physiological and pathological processes that are characteristic of higher organisms. Therefore, we then investigated the existence of a correlation between the expansion of domain families characteristic of the heparin/HS interactome and the increase in biological complexity in the metazoan lineage. A strong positive correlation between the expansion of the heparin/HS interactome and biosynthetic machinery and organism complexity emerged. The evolutionary role of HS was reinforced by the presence of a rudimentary HS biosynthetic machinery in a unicellular organism at the root of the metazoan lineage.

  20. A comparative study of disease genes and drug targets in the human protein interactome

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Disease genes cause or contribute genetically to the development of the most complex diseases. Drugs are the major approaches to treat the complex disease through interacting with their targets. Thus, drug targets are critical for treatment efficacy. However, the interrelationship between the disease genes and drug targets is not clear. Results In this study, we comprehensively compared the network properties of disease genes and drug targets for five major disease categories (cancer, cardiovascular disease, immune system disease, metabolic disease, and nervous system disease). We first collected disease genes from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for five disease categories and collected their corresponding drugs based on drugs' Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification. Then, we obtained the drug targets for these five different disease categories. We found that, though the intersections between disease genes and drug targets were small, disease genes were significantly enriched in targets compared to their enrichment in human protein-coding genes. We further compared network properties of the proteins encoded by disease genes and drug targets in human protein-protein interaction networks (interactome). The results showed that the drug targets tended to have higher degree, higher betweenness, and lower clustering coefficient in cancer Furthermore, we observed a clear fraction increase of disease proteins or drug targets in the near neighborhood compared with the randomized genes. Conclusions The study presents the first comprehensive comparison of the disease genes and drug targets in the context of interactome. The results provide some foundational network characteristics for further designing computational strategies to predict novel drug targets and drug repurposing. PMID:25861037

  1. A comparative study of disease genes and drug targets in the human protein interactome.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jingchun; Zhu, Kevin; Zheng, W; Xu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Disease genes cause or contribute genetically to the development of the most complex diseases. Drugs are the major approaches to treat the complex disease through interacting with their targets. Thus, drug targets are critical for treatment efficacy. However, the interrelationship between the disease genes and drug targets is not clear. In this study, we comprehensively compared the network properties of disease genes and drug targets for five major disease categories (cancer, cardiovascular disease, immune system disease, metabolic disease, and nervous system disease). We first collected disease genes from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for five disease categories and collected their corresponding drugs based on drugs' Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification. Then, we obtained the drug targets for these five different disease categories. We found that, though the intersections between disease genes and drug targets were small, disease genes were significantly enriched in targets compared to their enrichment in human protein-coding genes. We further compared network properties of the proteins encoded by disease genes and drug targets in human protein-protein interaction networks (interactome). The results showed that the drug targets tended to have higher degree, higher betweenness, and lower clustering coefficient in cancer Furthermore, we observed a clear fraction increase of disease proteins or drug targets in the near neighborhood compared with the randomized genes. The study presents the first comprehensive comparison of the disease genes and drug targets in the context of interactome. The results provide some foundational network characteristics for further designing computational strategies to predict novel drug targets and drug repurposing.

  2. Identification of Human Disease Genes from Interactome Network Using Graphlet Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lun; Wei, Dong-Qing; Qi, Ying-Xin; Jiang, Zong-Lai

    2014-01-01

    Identifying genes related to human diseases, such as cancer and cardiovascular disease, etc., is an important task in biomedical research because of its applications in disease diagnosis and treatment. Interactome networks, especially protein-protein interaction networks, had been used to disease genes identification based on the hypothesis that strong candidate genes tend to closely relate to each other in some kinds of measure on the network. We proposed a new measure to analyze the relationship between network nodes which was called graphlet interaction. The graphlet interaction contained 28 different isomers. The results showed that the numbers of the graphlet interaction isomers between disease genes in interactome networks were significantly larger than random picked genes, while graphlet signatures were not. Then, we designed a new type of score, based on the network properties, to identify disease genes using graphlet interaction. The genes with higher scores were more likely to be disease genes, and all candidate genes were ranked according to their scores. Then the approach was evaluated by leave-one-out cross-validation. The precision of the current approach achieved 90% at about 10% recall, which was apparently higher than the previous three predominant algorithms, random walk, Endeavour and neighborhood based method. Finally, the approach was applied to predict new disease genes related to 4 common diseases, most of which were identified by other independent experimental researches. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the graphlet interaction is an effective tool to analyze the network properties of disease genes, and the scores calculated by graphlet interaction is more precise in identifying disease genes. PMID:24465923

  3. A Transporter Interactome Is Essential for the Acquisition of Antimicrobial Resistance to Antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Shuster, Yonatan; Steiner-Mordoch, Sonia; Alon Cudkowicz, Noemie; Schuldiner, Shimon

    2016-01-01

    Awareness of the problem of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has escalated and drug-resistant infections are named among the most urgent problems facing clinicians today. Our experiments here identify a transporter interactome and portray its essential function in acquisition of antimicrobial resistance. By exposing E. coli cells to consecutive increasing concentrations of the fluoroquinolone norfloxacin we generated in the laboratory highly resistant strains that carry multiple mutations, most of them identical to those identified in clinical isolates. With this experimental paradigm, we show that the MDTs function in a coordinated mode to provide an essential first-line defense mechanism, preventing the drug reaching lethal concentrations, until a number of stable efficient alterations occur that allow survival. Single-component efflux transporters remove the toxic compounds from the cytoplasm to the periplasmic space where TolC-dependent transporters expel them from the cell. We postulate a close interaction between the two types of transporters to prevent rapid leak of the hydrophobic substrates back into the cell. The findings change the prevalent concept that in Gram-negative bacteria a single multidrug transporter, AcrAB-TolC type, is responsible for the resistance. The concept of a functional interactome, the process of identification of its members, the elucidation of the nature of the interactions and its role in cell physiology will change the existing paradigms in the field. We anticipate that our work will have an impact on the present strategy searching for inhibitors of AcrAB-TolC as adjuvants of existing antibiotics and provide novel targets for this urgent undertaking.

  4. Endogenous Protein Interactome of Human UDP-Glucuronosyltransferases Exposed by Untargeted Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Rouleau, Michèle; Audet-Delage, Yannick; Desjardins, Sylvie; Rouleau, Mélanie; Girard-Bock, Camille; Guillemette, Chantal

    2017-01-01

    The conjugative metabolism mediated by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase enzymes (UGTs) significantly influences the bioavailability and biological responses of endogenous molecule substrates and xenobiotics including drugs. UGTs participate in the regulation of cellular homeostasis by limiting stress induced by toxic molecules, and by controlling hormonal signaling networks. Glucuronidation is highly regulated at genomic, transcriptional, post-transcriptional and post-translational levels. However, the UGT protein interaction network, which is likely to influence glucuronidation, has received little attention. We investigated the endogenous protein interactome of human UGT1A enzymes in main drug metabolizing non-malignant tissues where UGT expression is most prevalent, using an unbiased proteomics approach. Mass spectrometry analysis of affinity-purified UGT1A enzymes and associated protein complexes in liver, kidney and intestine tissues revealed an intricate interactome linking UGT1A enzymes to multiple metabolic pathways. Several proteins of pharmacological importance such as transferases (including UGT2 enzymes), transporters and dehydrogenases were identified, upholding a potential coordinated cellular response to small lipophilic molecules and drugs. Furthermore, a significant cluster of functionally related enzymes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation, as well as in the glycolysis and glycogenolysis pathways were enriched in UGT1A enzymes complexes. Several partnerships were confirmed by co-immunoprecipitations and co-localization by confocal microscopy. An enhanced accumulation of lipid droplets in a kidney cell model overexpressing the UGT1A9 enzyme supported the presence of a functional interplay. Our work provides unprecedented evidence for a functional interaction between glucuronidation and bioenergetic metabolism. PMID:28217095

  5. A predicted protein interactome identifies conserved global networks and disease resistance subnetworks in maize

    PubMed Central

    Musungu, Bryan; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Brown, Robert L.; Fakhoury, Ahmad M.; Geisler, Matt

    2015-01-01

    Interactomes are genome-wide roadmaps of protein-protein interactions. They have been produced for humans, yeast, the fruit fly, and Arabidopsis thaliana and have become invaluable tools for generating and testing hypotheses. A predicted interactome for Zea mays (PiZeaM) is presented here as an aid to the research community for this valuable crop species. PiZeaM was built using a proven method of interologs (interacting orthologs) that were identified using both one-to-one and many-to-many orthology between genomes of maize and reference species. Where both maize orthologs occurred for an experimentally determined interaction in the reference species, we predicted a likely interaction in maize. A total of 49,026 unique interactions for 6004 maize proteins were predicted. These interactions are enriched for processes that are evolutionarily conserved, but include many otherwise poorly annotated proteins in maize. The predicted maize interactions were further analyzed by comparing annotation of interacting proteins, including different layers of ontology. A map of pairwise gene co-expression was also generated and compared to predicted interactions. Two global subnetworks were constructed for highly conserved interactions. These subnetworks showed clear clustering of proteins by function. Another subnetwork was created for disease response using a bait and prey strategy to capture interacting partners for proteins that respond to other organisms. Closer examination of this subnetwork revealed the connectivity between biotic and abiotic hormone stress pathways. We believe PiZeaM will provide a useful tool for the prediction of protein function and analysis of pathways for Z. mays researchers and is presented in this paper as a reference tool for the exploration of protein interactions in maize. PMID:26089837

  6. A Transporter Interactome Is Essential for the Acquisition of Antimicrobial Resistance to Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Shuster, Yonatan; Steiner-Mordoch, Sonia; Alon Cudkowicz, Noemie; Schuldiner, Shimon

    2016-01-01

    Awareness of the problem of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has escalated and drug-resistant infections are named among the most urgent problems facing clinicians today. Our experiments here identify a transporter interactome and portray its essential function in acquisition of antimicrobial resistance. By exposing E. coli cells to consecutive increasing concentrations of the fluoroquinolone norfloxacin we generated in the laboratory highly resistant strains that carry multiple mutations, most of them identical to those identified in clinical isolates. With this experimental paradigm, we show that the MDTs function in a coordinated mode to provide an essential first-line defense mechanism, preventing the drug reaching lethal concentrations, until a number of stable efficient alterations occur that allow survival. Single-component efflux transporters remove the toxic compounds from the cytoplasm to the periplasmic space where TolC-dependent transporters expel them from the cell. We postulate a close interaction between the two types of transporters to prevent rapid leak of the hydrophobic substrates back into the cell. The findings change the prevalent concept that in Gram-negative bacteria a single multidrug transporter, AcrAB-TolC type, is responsible for the resistance. The concept of a functional interactome, the process of identification of its members, the elucidation of the nature of the interactions and its role in cell physiology will change the existing paradigms in the field. We anticipate that our work will have an impact on the present strategy searching for inhibitors of AcrAB-TolC as adjuvants of existing antibiotics and provide novel targets for this urgent undertaking. PMID:27050393

  7. Cross-species protein sequence and gene structure prediction with fine-tuned Webscipio 2.0 and Scipio

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Obtaining transcripts of homologs of closely related organisms and retrieving the reconstructed exon-intron patterns of the genes is a very important process during the analysis of the evolution of a protein family and the comparative analysis of the exon-intron structure of a certain gene from different species. Due to the ever-increasing speed of genome sequencing, the gap to genome annotation is growing. Thus, tools for the correct prediction and reconstruction of genes in related organisms become more and more important. The tool Scipio, which can also be used via the graphical interface WebScipio, performs significant hit processing of the output of the Blat program to account for sequencing errors, missing sequence, and fragmented genome assemblies. However, Scipio has so far been limited to high sequence similarity and unable to reconstruct short exons. Results Scipio and WebScipio have fundamentally been extended to better reconstruct very short exons and intron splice sites and to be better suited for cross-species gene structure predictions. The Needleman-Wunsch algorithm has been implemented for the search for short parts of the query sequence that were not recognized by Blat. Those regions might either be short exons, divergent sequence at intron splice sites, or very divergent exons. We have shown the benefit and use of new parameters with several protein examples from completely different protein families in searches against species from several kingdoms of the eukaryotes. The performance of the new Scipio version has been tested in comparison with several similar tools. Conclusions With the new version of Scipio very short exons, terminal and internal, of even just one amino acid can correctly be reconstructed. Scipio is also able to correctly predict almost all genes in cross-species searches even if the ancestors of the species separated more than 100 Myr ago and if the protein sequence identity is below 80%. For our test cases Scipio

  8. The L1TD1 protein interactome reveals the importance of post-transcriptional regulation in human pluripotency.

    PubMed

    Emani, Maheswara Reddy; Närvä, Elisa; Stubb, Aki; Chakroborty, Deepankar; Viitala, Miro; Rokka, Anne; Rahkonen, Nelly; Moulder, Robert; Denessiouk, Konstantin; Trokovic, Ras; Lund, Riikka; Elo, Laura L; Lahesmaa, Riitta

    2015-03-10

    The RNA-binding protein L1TD1 is one of the most specific and abundant proteins in pluripotent stem cells and is essential for the maintenance of pluripotency in human cells. Here, we identify the protein interaction network of L1TD1 in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and provide insights into the interactome network constructed in human pluripotent cells. Our data reveal that L1TD1 has an important role in RNA splicing, translation, protein traffic, and degradation. L1TD1 interacts with multiple stem-cell-specific proteins, many of which are still uncharacterized in the context of development. Further, we show that L1TD1 is a part of the pluripotency interactome network of OCT4, SOX2, and NANOG, bridging nuclear and cytoplasmic regulation and highlighting the importance of RNA biology in pluripotency.

  9. Synthesis of an inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) affinity probe to study the interactome from a colon cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Yin, Meng-Xin; Catimel, Bruno; Gregory, Mark; Condron, Melanie; Kapp, Eugene; Holmes, Andrew B; Burgess, Antony W

    2016-03-14

    Inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6 or IP6) is an important signalling molecule in vesicular trafficking, neurotransmission, immune responses, regulation of protein kinases and phosphatases, activation of ion channels, antioxidant functions and anticancer activities. An IP6 probe was synthesised from myo-inositol via a derivatised analogue, which was immobilised through a terminal amino group onto Dynabeads. Systematic analysis of the IP6 interactome has been performed using the IP6 affinity probe using cytosolic extracts from the LIM1215 colonic carcinoma cell line. LC/MS/MS analysis identified 77 proteins or protein complexes that bind to IP6 specifically, including AP-2 complex proteins and β-arrestins as well as a number of novel potential IP6 interacting proteins. Bioinformatic enrichment analysis of the IP6 interactome reinforced the concept that IP6 regulates a number of biological processes including cell cycle and division, signal transduction, intracellular protein transport, vesicle-mediated transport and RNA splicing.

  10. Cross-species amplification of human microsatellite markers using noninvasive samples from white-handed gibbons (Hylobates lar).

    PubMed

    Chambers, Karen E; Reichard, Ulrich H; Möller, Asja; Nowak, Katrin; Vigilant, Linda

    2004-09-01

    Analysis of the population genetic structure and reproductive strategies of various primate species has been facilitated by cross-species amplification (i.e., the use of microsatellite markers developed in one species for analysis of another). In this study we screened 47 human-derived markers to assess their utility in the white-handed gibbon (Hylobates lar). Only eight produced accurate, reliable results, and exhibited levels of polymorphism that were adequate for individual identification. This low success rate was surprising given that human microsatellite markers typically work well in species (such as macaques) that are evolutionarily more distant from humans than are gibbons. In addition, we experienced limited success in using a set of microsatellite markers that have been reported to be useful in the closely-related H. muelleri, and applying our set of microsatellite markers to samples obtained from one H. pileatus individual. Our results emphasize the importance of extensively screening potential markers in representatives of the population of interest.

  11. Cross-Species Comparison of the Burkholderia pseudomallei, Burkholderia thailandensis, and Burkholderia mallei Quorum-Sensing Regulons

    PubMed Central

    Majerczyk, Charlotte D.; Brittnacher, Mitchell J.; Jacobs, Michael A.; Armour, Christopher D.; Radey, Matthew C.; Bunt, Richard; Hayden, Hillary S.; Bydalek, Ryland

    2014-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei, Burkholderia thailandensis, and Burkholderia mallei (the Bptm group) are close relatives with very different lifestyles: B. pseudomallei is an opportunistic pathogen, B. thailandensis is a nonpathogenic saprophyte, and B. mallei is a host-restricted pathogen. The acyl-homoserine lactone quorum-sensing (QS) systems of these three species show a high level of conservation. We used transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) to define the quorum-sensing regulon in each species, and we performed a cross-species analysis of the QS-controlled orthologs. Our analysis revealed a core set of QS-regulated genes in all three species, as well as QS-controlled factors shared by only two species or unique to a given species. This global survey of the QS regulons of B. pseudomallei, B. thailandensis, and B. mallei serves as a platform for predicting which QS-controlled processes might be important in different bacterial niches and contribute to the pathogenesis of B. pseudomallei and B. mallei. PMID:25182491

  12. Controlled vocabularies for plant anatomical parts optimized for use in data analysis tools and for cross-species studies.

    PubMed

    Meskauskiene, Rasa; Laule, Oliver; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Martin, Florian; Wyss, Markus; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Zimmermann, Philip

    2013-08-06

    It is generally accepted that controlled vocabularies are necessary to systematically integrate data from various sources. During the last decade, several plant ontologies have been developed, some of which are community specific or were developed for a particular purpose. In most cases, the practical application of these ontologies has been limited to systematically storing experimental data. Due to technical constraints, complex data structures and term redundancies, it has been difficult to apply them directly into analysis tools. Here, we describe a simplified and cross-species compatible set of controlled vocabularies for plant anatomy, focussing mainly on monocotypledonous and dicotyledonous crop and model plants. Their content was designed primarily for their direct use in graphical visualization tools. Specifically, we created annotation vocabularies that can be understood by non-specialists, are minimally redundant, simply structured, have low tree depth, and we tested them practically in the frame of Genevestigator. The application of the proposed ontologies enabled the aggregation of data from hundreds of experiments to visualize gene expression across tissue types. It also facilitated the comparison of expression across species. The described controlled vocabularies are maintained by a dedicated curation team and are available upon request.

  13. Exposure to early adversity: Points of cross-species translation that can lead to improved understanding of depression

    PubMed Central

    ANDERSEN, SUSAN L.

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between developmental exposure to adversity and affective disorders is reviewed. Adversity discussed herein includes physical and sexual abuse, neglect, or loss of a caregiver in humans. While these stressors can occur at any point during development, the unique temporal relationship to specific depressive symptoms was the focus of discussion. Further influences of stress exposure during sensitive periods can vary by gender and duration of abuse as well. Data from animal studies are presented to provide greater translational and causal understanding of how sensitive periods, different types of psychosocial stressors, and sex interact to produce depressive-like behaviors. Findings from maternal separation, isolation rearing, chronic variable stress, and peer–peer rearing paradigms clarify interpretation about how various depressive behaviors are influenced by age of exposure. Depressive behaviors are broken down into the following categories: mood and affect, anhedonia, energy, working memory, sleep–wake, appetite changes, suicide, and general malaise. Cross-species evidence from humans, nonhuman primates, rats, and mice within each of these categories is discussed. In conclusion, sensitive periods for affective-related behaviors (anxiety, mood, and controllability) occur earlier in life, while other aspects of depression are associated with adversity later during adolescence. PMID:25997766

  14. Cross-Species Withdrawal of MCL1 Facilitates Postpartum Uterine Involution in Both the Mouse and Baboon

    PubMed Central

    Kyathanahalli, Chandrashekara; Marks, Jason; Nye, Kennedy; Lao, Belinda; Albrecht, Eugene D.; Aberdeen, Graham W.; Nathanielsz, Peter W.; Jeyasuria, Pancharatnam

    2013-01-01

    A successful postpartum involution permits the postnatal uterus to rapidly regain its prepregnancy function and size to ultimately facilitate an ensuing blastocyst implantation. This study investigates the molecular mechanisms that govern the initiation of the involution process by examining the signaling events that occur as the uterus transitions from the pregnant to postnatal state. Using mouse and baboon uteri, we found a remarkable cross-species conservation at the signal transduction level as the pregnant uterus initiates and progresses through the involution process. This study originated with the observation of elevated levels of caspase-3 activation in both the laboring mouse and baboon uterus, which we found to be apoptotic in nature as evidenced by the concurrent appearance of cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. We previously defined a nonapoptotic and potential tocolytic role for uterine caspase-3 during pregnancy regulated by increased antiapoptotic signaling mediated by myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1 and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis. In contrast, this study determined that diminished antiapoptotic signaling in the postpartum uterus allowed for both endometrial apoptotic and myometrial autophagic episodes, which we speculate are responsible for the rapid reduction in size of the postpartum uterus. Using our human telomerase immortalized myometrial cell line and the Simian virus-40 immortalized endometrial cell line (12Z), we demonstrated that the withdrawal of antiapoptotic signaling was also an upstream event for both the autophagic and apoptotic processes in the human uterine myocyte and endometrial epithelial cell. PMID:24140717

  15. Cross-species amplification from crop soybean Glycine max provides informative microsatellite markers for the study of inbreeding wild relatives.

    PubMed

    Hempel, K; Peakall, R

    2003-06-01

    The development of microsatellite markers through transfer of primers from related species (cross-species amplification) remains a little-explored alternative to the de novo method in plants. In this study of 100 microsatellite loci from Glycine max, we examined two aspects of primer transfer. First, we tested if source locus properties can predict primer transfer and polymorphism in Glycine cyrtoloba and Glycine clandestina. We transferred 23 primers to G. cyrtoloba and 42 to G. clandestina, with 19 loci polymorphic within G. clandestina. However, we could not predict transfer or polymorphism from the source locus properties. Second, we evaluated the subset of 11 polymorphic loci for study in G. clandestina populations representing two local morphotypes. All loci were informative within populations (population mean He +/- SE = 0.58 +/- 0.04). We directly sequenced 28 alleles at 4 representative loci. The allelic patterns and sequencing results established that 8 of 11 loci were typical microsatellites, confirming the utility of primer transfer as an alternative to de novo development. Additionally, we found that morphotypic differentiation between populations was paralleled by changes in polymorphism level at six loci and size homoplasy at one locus. We interpret these patterns as being a product of selfing in G. clandestina. Our results demonstrate the value of allele sequence knowledge for the most effective use of microsatellites.

  16. Using cross-species comparisons and a neurobiological framework to understand early social deprivation effects on behavioral development

    PubMed Central

    BRETT, ZOË H.; HUMPHREYS, KATHRYN L.; FLEMING, ALISON S.; KRAEMER, GARY W.; DRURY, STACY S.

    2017-01-01

    Building upon the transactional model of brain development, we explore the impact of early maternal deprivation on neural development and plasticity in three neural systems: hyperactivity/impulsivity, executive function, and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis functioning across rodent, nonhuman primate, and human studies. Recognizing the complexity of early maternal–infant interactions, we limit our cross-species comparisons to data from rodent models of artificial rearing, nonhuman primate studies of peer rearing, and the relations between these two experimental approaches and human studies of children exposed to the early severe psychosocial deprivation associated with institutional care. In addition to discussing the strengths and limitations of these paradigms, we present the current state of research on the neurobiological impact of early maternal deprivation and the evidence of sensitive periods, noting methodological challenges. Integrating data across preclinical animal models and human studies, we speculate about the underlying biological mechanisms; the differential impact of deprivation due to temporal factors including onset, offset, and duration of the exposure; and the possibility and consequences of reopening of sensitive periods during adolescence. PMID:25997759

  17. Development of novel microsatellite markers for the Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) and their utility in cross-species amplification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haughey, Christy; Sage, George K.; Degange, Gabriel; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Talbot, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    The Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) is a large forest raptor with a Holarctic distribution and, in some portions of its range, a species of conservation concern. To augment previously reported genetic markers, 13 novel polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed to establish individual identification and familial relationships, to assess levels of genetic diversity, and to identify diagnostic markers. Of the 22 loci tested, 13 were polymorphic, seven were monomorphic, and two failed to amplify. This suite of microsatellite loci yielded a combined probability of parental exclusion of 98%; a single individual sampled from a North American population can be reliably identified using a combination of seven of the 13 polymorphic loci. Cross-species screening in Cooper's Hawks (A. cooperii) and Sharp-shinned Hawks (A. striatus) of the 20 loci that successfully amplified in Northern Goshawks identified 13 loci as polymorphic in each species. Six of these loci (Age1303, Age1308, Age1309, Age1312, and Age1314) appeared to be useful in distinguishing between Accipiter species. These markers will be useful to researchers investigating populations of North American accipiters.

  18. Network Modules of the Cross-Species Genotype-Phenotype Map Reflect the Clinical Severity of Human Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Han, Seong Kyu; Kim, Inhae; Hwang, Jihye; Kim, Sanguk

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in genome sequencing techniques have improved our understanding of the genotype-phenotype relationship between genetic variants and human diseases. However, genetic variations uncovered from patient populations do not provide enough information to understand the mechanisms underlying the progression and clinical severity of human diseases. Moreover, building a high-resolution genotype-phenotype map is difficult due to the diverse genetic backgrounds of the human population. We built a cross-species genotype-phenotype map to explain the clinical severity of human genetic diseases. We developed a data-integrative framework to investigate network modules composed of human diseases mapped with gene essentiality measured from a model organism. Essential and nonessential genes connect diseases of different types which form clusters in the human disease network. In a large patient population study, we found that disease classes enriched with essential genes tended to show a higher mortality rate than disease classes enriched with nonessential genes. Moreover, high disease mortality rates are explained by the multiple comorbid relationships and the high pleiotropy of disease genes found in the essential gene-enriched diseases. Our results reveal that the genotype-phenotype map of a model organism can facilitate the identification of human disease-gene associations and predict human disease progression. PMID:26301634

  19. Exposure to early adversity: Points of cross-species translation that can lead to improved understanding of depression.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Susan L

    2015-05-01

    The relationship between developmental exposure to adversity and affective disorders is reviewed. Adversity discussed herein includes physical and sexual abuse, neglect, or loss of a caregiver in humans. While these stressors can occur at any point during development, the unique temporal relationship to specific depressive symptoms was the focus of discussion. Further influences of stress exposure during sensitive periods can vary by gender and duration of abuse as well. Data from animal studies are presented to provide greater translational and causal understanding of how sensitive periods, different types of psychosocial stressors, and sex interact to produce depressive-like behaviors. Findings from maternal separation, isolation rearing, chronic variable stress, and peer-peer rearing paradigms clarify interpretation about how various depressive behaviors are influenced by age of exposure. Depressive behaviors are broken down into the following categories: mood and affect, anhedonia, energy, working memory, sleep-wake, appetite changes, suicide, and general malaise. Cross-species evidence from humans, nonhuman primates, rats, and mice within each of these categories is discussed. In conclusion, sensitive periods for affective-related behaviors (anxiety, mood, and controllability) occur earlier in life, while other aspects of depression are associated with adversity later during adolescence.

  20. Isolation and characterization of 45 Polymorphie microsatellite loci of turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus) and cross-species amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Shiying; Ma, Aijun; Wang, Xin'an; Huang, Zhihui; Xue, Baogui; Yang, Zhi; Qu, Jiangbo

    2011-03-01

    Turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus) is a flatfish species commercially important for aquaculture. In this study, we generated a microsatellite-enriched genomic DNA library for Scophthalmus maximus, and then isolated and characterized 45 microsatellite loci by genotyping 30 individuals. The observed number of alleles ranged from 2 to 19 with an average of 6.24, while the effective number of alleles ranged from 1.30 to 11.11 with an average of 3.66. The expected heterozygosities varied from 0.235 to 0.925 4 and Polymorphie information content ranged from 0.2044 to 0.903 3, with an average of 0.622. Twelve loci deviated significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and no significant linkage disequilibrium was observed between any pair of loci after Bonferroni correction. In cross-species amplification, five flatfish species ( Paralichthys lethostigma, Verasper moseri, platichthys stellatus, Hippoglossoides dubius and Cynoglossus semilaevis) showed at least one Polymorphie locus. These Polymorphie microsatellite loci should prove useful for Population analysis of turbot and other related species.

  1. SRLVs: a genetic continuum of lentiviral species in sheep and goats with cumulative evidence of cross species transmission.

    PubMed

    Leroux, Caroline; Cruz, Juliano Cezar Minardi; Mornex, Jean-François

    2010-01-01

    Lentiviruses from distinct animal species have in common their genomic organization, the induction of slowly progressive diseases over months or years, the large spectrum of induced symptoms and concerned organs, the frequent inapparent infection without any detectable clinical signs, their ability to persist into their hosts despite an often strong and mature immune response. Lentiviruses are also characterized by their genomic plasticity and the rapid evolution of the viral species. SRLVs infecting goats and sheep follow a genomic evolution pattern similar to that observed in HIV or in other lentiviruses. Based on limited number of complete sequences, they have been initially described as two distinct genetic groups evolving independently in sheep or goats, the ovine strains being closely related to each other and distinct from the caprine ones. Over the last 2 decades, the description of many partial or complete sequences of caprine and ovine field isolates from various geographical regions and their phylogenetic studies clearly evidenced the existence of a genetic continuum with viruses that did not simply clustered according to the animal species they were isolated from. Three classifications have been successively proposed and allowed to refine the SRLV phylogeny over time. Phylogenetic reconstructions support the existence of SRLV cross-species transmission in domestic and wild small ruminants.

  2. Sequential Elution Interactome Analysis of the Mind Bomb 1 Ubiquitin Ligase Reveals a Novel Role in Dendritic Spine Outgrowth*

    PubMed Central

    Mertz, Joseph; Tan, Haiyan; Pagala, Vishwajeeth; Bai, Bing; Chen, Ping-Chung; Li, Yuxin; Cho, Ji-Hoon; Shaw, Timothy; Wang, Xusheng; Peng, Junmin

    2015-01-01

    The mind bomb 1 (Mib1) ubiquitin ligase is essential for controlling metazoan development by Notch signaling and possibly the Wnt pathway. It is also expressed in postmitotic neurons and regulates neuronal morphogenesis and synaptic activity by mechanisms that are largely unknown. We sought to comprehensively characterize the Mib1 interactome and study its potential function in neuron development utilizing a novel sequential elution strategy for affinity purification, in which Mib1 binding proteins were eluted under different stringency and then quantified by the isobaric labeling method. The strategy identified the Mib1 interactome with both deep coverage and the ability to distinguish high-affinity partners from low-affinity partners. A total of 817 proteins were identified during the Mib1 affinity purification, including 56 high-affinity partners and 335 low-affinity partners, whereas the remaining 426 proteins are likely copurified contaminants or extremely weak binding proteins. The analysis detected all previously known Mib1-interacting proteins and revealed a large number of novel components involved in Notch and Wnt pathways, endocytosis and vesicle transport, the ubiquitin-proteasome system, cellular morphogenesis, and synaptic activities. Immunofluorescence studies further showed colocalization of Mib1 with five selected proteins: the Usp9x (FAM) deubiquitinating enzyme, alpha-, beta-, and delta-catenins, and CDKL5. Mutations of CDKL5 are associated with early infantile epileptic encephalopathy-2 (EIEE2), a severe form of mental retardation. We found that the expression of Mib1 down-regulated the protein level of CDKL5 by ubiquitination, and antagonized CDKL5 function during the formation of dendritic spines. Thus, the sequential elution strategy enables biochemical characterization of protein interactomes; and Mib1 analysis provides a comprehensive interactome for investigating its role in signaling networks and neuronal development. PMID:25931508

  3. Targets of drugs are generally, and targets of drugs having side effects are specifically good spreaders of human interactome perturbations

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Lopez, Áron R.; Szalay, Kristóf Z.; Türei, Dénes; Módos, Dezső; Lenti, Katalin; Korcsmáros, Tamás; Csermely, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Network-based methods are playing an increasingly important role in drug design. Our main question in this paper was whether the efficiency of drug target proteins to spread perturbations in the human interactome is larger if the binding drugs have side effects, as compared to those which have no reported side effects. Our results showed that in general, drug targets were better spreaders of perturbations than non-target proteins, and in particular, targets of drugs with side effects were also better spreaders of perturbations than targets of drugs having no reported side effects in human protein-protein interaction networks. Colorectal cancer-related proteins were good spreaders and had a high centrality, while type 2 diabetes-related proteins showed an average spreading efficiency and had an average centrality in the human interactome. Moreover, the interactome-distance between drug targets and disease-related proteins was higher in diabetes than in colorectal cancer. Our results may help a better understanding of the network position and dynamics of drug targets and disease-related proteins, and may contribute to develop additional, network-based tests to increase the potential safety of drug candidates. PMID:25960144

  4. Mammalian APE1 controls miRNA processing and its interactome is linked to cancer RNA metabolism.

    PubMed

    Antoniali, Giulia; Serra, Fabrizio; Lirussi, Lisa; Tanaka, Mikiei; D'Ambrosio, Chiara; Zhang, Shiheng; Radovic, Slobodanka; Dalla, Emiliano; Ciani, Yari; Scaloni, Andrea; Li, Mengxia; Piazza, Silvano; Tell, Gianluca

    2017-10-06

    Mammalian apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 is a DNA repair enzyme involved in genome stability and expression of genes involved in oxidative stress responses, tumor progression and chemoresistance. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 in these processes are still unclear. Recent findings point to a novel role of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 in RNA metabolism. Through the characterization of the interactomes of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 with RNA and other proteins, we demonstrate here a role for apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 in pri-miRNA processing and stability via association with the DROSHA-processing complex during genotoxic stress. We also show that endonuclease activity of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 is required for the processing of miR-221/222 in regulating expression of the tumor suppressor PTEN. Analysis of a cohort of different cancers supports the relevance of our findings for tumor biology. We also show that apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 participates in RNA-interactomes and protein-interactomes involved in cancer development, thus indicating an unsuspected post-transcriptional effect on cancer genes.APE1 plays an important role in the cellular response to oxidative stress, and mutations are linked to tumor progression and chemoresistance. Here, the authors characterize the interactions of APE1 with RNA and demonstrate a role in microRNA processing.

  5. Targets of drugs are generally, and targets of drugs having side effects are specifically good spreaders of human interactome perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Lopez, Áron R.; Szalay, Kristóf Z.; Türei, Dénes; Módos, Dezső; Lenti, Katalin; Korcsmáros, Tamás; Csermely, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Network-based methods are playing an increasingly important role in drug design. Our main question in this paper was whether the efficiency of drug target proteins to spread perturbations in the human interactome is larger if the binding drugs have side effects, as compared to those which have no reported side effects. Our results showed that in general, drug targets were better spreaders of perturbations than non-target proteins, and in particular, targets of drugs with side effects were also better spreaders of perturbations than targets of drugs having no reported side effects in human protein-protein interaction networks. Colorectal cancer-related proteins were good spreaders and had a high centrality, while type 2 diabetes-related proteins showed an average spreading efficiency and had an average centrality in the human interactome. Moreover, the interactome-distance between drug targets and disease-related proteins was higher in diabetes than in colorectal cancer. Our results may help a better understanding of the network position and dynamics of drug targets and disease-related proteins, and may contribute to develop additional, network-based tests to increase the potential safety of drug candidates.

  6. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Promotes Assembly of the p130Cas Interactome to Drive Endothelial Chemotactic Signaling and Angiogenesis*

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Ian M.; Kennedy, Susan A.; Paliashvili, Ketevan; Santra, Tapesh; Yamaji, Maiko; Lovering, Ruth C.; Britton, Gary; Frankel, Paul; Kolch, Walter; Zachary, Ian C.

    2017-01-01

    p130Cas is a polyvalent adapter protein essential for cardiovascular development, and with a key role in cell movement. In order to identify the pathways by which p130Cas exerts its biological functions in endothelial cells we mapped the p130Cas interactome and its dynamic changes in response to VEGF using high-resolution mass spectrometry and reconstruction of protein interaction (PPI) networks with the aid of multiple PPI databases. VEGF enriched the p130Cas interactome in proteins involved in actin cytoskeletal dynamics and cell movement, including actin-binding proteins, small GTPases and regulators or binders of GTPases. Detailed studies showed that p130Cas association of the GTPase-binding scaffold protein, IQGAP1, plays a key role in VEGF chemotactic signaling, endothelial polarization, VEGF-induced cell migration, and endothelial tube formation. These findings indicate a cardinal role for assembly of the p130Cas interactome in mediating the cell migratory response to VEGF in angiogenesis, and provide a basis for further studies of p130Cas in cell movement. PMID:28007913

  7. Effect of heating on the stability of amyloid A (AA) fibrils and the intra- and cross-species transmission of AA amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Saki; Murakami, Tomoaki; Inoshima, Yasuo; Ishiguro, Naotaka

    2015-01-01

    Amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis is a protein misfolding disease characterized by extracellular deposition of AA fibrils. AA fibrils are found in several tissues from food animals with AA amyloidosis. For hygienic purposes, heating is widely used to inactivate microbes in food, but it is uncertain whether heating is sufficient to inactivate AA fibrils and prevent intra- or cross-species transmission. We examined the effect of heating (at 60 °C or 100 °C) and autoclaving (at 121 °C or 135 °C) on murine and bovine AA fibrils using Western blot analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and mouse model transmission experiments. TEM revealed that a mixture of AA fibrils and amorphous aggregates appeared after heating at 100 °C, whereas autoclaving at 135 °C produced large amorphous aggregates. AA fibrils retained antigen specificity in Western blot analysis when heated at 100 °C or autoclaved at 121 °C, but not when autoclaved at 135 °C. Transmissible pathogenicity of murine and bovine AA fibrils subjected to heating (at 60 °C or 100 °C) was significantly stimulated and resulted in amyloid deposition in mice. Autoclaving of murine AA fibrils at 121 °C or 135 °C significantly decreased amyloid deposition. Moreover, amyloid deposition in mice injected with murine AA fibrils was more severe than that in mice injected with bovine AA fibrils. Bovine AA fibrils autoclaved at 121 °C or 135 °C did not induce amyloid deposition in mice. These results suggest that AA fibrils are relatively heat stable and that similar to prions, autoclaving at 135 °C is required to destroy the pathogenicity of AA fibrils. These findings may contribute to the prevention of AA fibril transmission through food materials to different animals and especially to humans.

  8. MORC1 exhibits cross-species differential methylation in association with early life stress as well as genome-wide association with MDD.

    PubMed

    Nieratschker, V; Massart, R; Gilles, M; Luoni, A; Suderman, M J; Krumm, B; Meier, S; Witt, S H; Nöthen, M M; Suomi, S J; Peus, V; Scharnholz, B; Dukal, H; Hohmeyer, C; Wolf, I A-C; Cirulli, F; Gass, P; Sütterlin, M W; Filsinger, B; Laucht, M; Riva, M A; Rietschel, M; Deuschle, M; Szyf, M

    2014-08-26

    Early life stress (ELS) is associated with increased vulnerability for diseases in later life, including psychiatric disorders. Animal models and human studies suggest that this effect is mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. In humans, epigenetic studies to investigate the influence of ELS on psychiatric phenotypes are limited by the inaccessibility of living brain tissue. Due to the tissue-specific nature of epigenetic signatures, it is impossible to determine whether ELS induced epigenetic changes in accessible peripheral cells, for example, blood lymphocytes, reflect epigenetic changes in the brain. To overcome these limitations, we applied a cross-species approach involving: (i) the analysis of CD34+ cells from human cord blood; (ii) the examination of blood-derived CD3+ T cells of newborn and adolescent nonhuman primates (Macaca mulatta); and (iii) the investigation of the prefrontal cortex of adult rats. Several regions in MORC1 (MORC family CW-type zinc finger 1; previously known as: microrchidia (mouse) homolog) were differentially methylated in response to ELS in CD34+ cells and CD3+ T cells derived from the blood of human and monkey neonates, as well as in CD3+ T cells derived from the blood of adolescent monkeys and in the prefrontal cortex of adult rats. MORC1 is thus the first identified epigenetic marker of ELS to be present in blood cell progenitors at birth and in the brain in adulthood. Interestingly, a gene-set-based analysis of data from a genome-wide association study of major depressive disorder (MDD) revealed an association of MORC1 with MDD.

  9. Cross-species amplification and polymorphism of microsatellite loci in Helicoverpa armigera and Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Brazilian cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Leite, N A; Corrêa, A S; Alves-Pereira, A; Campos, J B; Zucchi, M I; Omoto, C

    2016-04-04

    The Old World bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) was recently discovered in Brazil. This species is closely related to the New World bollworm H. zea (Boddie), and mating between these species has already been reported under laboratory conditions. Here, we tested the cross-species amplification of 20 microsatellite (SSR) loci in field populations of H. armigera and H. zea collected from Brazilian cropping systems. Seven SSR loci were successfully amplified and polymorphic in both species except for the locus HaC14, which was monomorphic for H. zea. All SSR loci were in linkage equilibrium, and deviations from Hardy- Weinberg equilibrium were only observed for the locus HarSSR1 in the HaRS-2 population, where null alleles were present. A moderate level of polymorphism was detected in H. armigera and H. zea populations with a mean allele number of 4.14, and 2.24, respectively. Interestingly, most of the populations of the recent invader H. armigera showed higher genetic diversity and inbreeding coefficients than H. zea populations. The genetic identity of each species was recovered using a STRUCTURE analysis, where the populations formed two clusters (K = 2) according to their species. STRUCTURE also suggested the occurrence of potential hybrid offspring between H. armigera and H. zea individuals in natural conditions. These SSR loci will be valuable in characterizing population differentiation, invasion routes, adaptation, reproductive behavior, and intra- and interspecific gene flow in H. armigera and H. zea populations in Brazil, the USA, and other areas where these two pests occur.

  10. MORC1 exhibits cross-species differential methylation in association with early life stress as well as genome-wide association with MDD

    PubMed Central

    Nieratschker, V; Massart, R; Gilles, M; Luoni, A; Suderman, M J; Krumm, B; Meier, S; Witt, S H; Nöthen, M M; Suomi, S J; Peus, V; Scharnholz, B; Dukal, H; Hohmeyer, C; Wolf, I A-C; Cirulli, F; Gass, P; Sütterlin, M W; Filsinger, B; Laucht, M; Riva, M A; Rietschel, M; Deuschle, M; Szyf, M

    2014-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) is associated with increased vulnerability for diseases in later life, including psychiatric disorders. Animal models and human studies suggest that this effect is mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. In humans, epigenetic studies to investigate the influence of ELS on psychiatric phenotypes are limited by the inaccessibility of living brain tissue. Due to the tissue-specific nature of epigenetic signatures, it is impossible to determine whether ELS induced epigenetic changes in accessible peripheral cells, for example, blood lymphocytes, reflect epigenetic changes in the brain. To overcome these limitations, we applied a cross-species approach involving: (i) the analysis of CD34+ cells from human cord blood; (ii) the examination of blood-derived CD3+ T cells of newborn and adolescent nonhuman primates (Macaca mulatta); and (iii) the investigation of the prefrontal cortex of adult rats. Several regions in MORC1 (MORC family CW-type zinc finger 1; previously known as: microrchidia (mouse) homolog) were differentially methylated in response to ELS in CD34+ cells and CD3+ T cells derived from the blood of human and monkey neonates, as well as in CD3+ T cells derived from the blood of adolescent monkeys and in the prefrontal cortex of adult rats. MORC1 is thus the first identified epigenetic marker of ELS to be present in blood cell progenitors at birth and in the brain in adulthood. Interestingly, a gene-set-based analysis of data from a genome-wide association study of major depressive disorder (MDD) revealed an association of MORC1 with MDD. PMID:25158004

  11. Interactomic analysis of REST/NRSF and implications of its functional links with the transcription suppressor TRIM28 during neuronal differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Namgyu; Park, Sung Jin; Haddad, Ghazal; Kim, Dae-Kyum; Park, Seon-Min; Park, Sang Ki; Choi, Kwan Yong

    2016-01-01

    RE-1 silencing transcription factor (REST) is a transcriptional repressor that regulates gene expression by binding to repressor element 1. However, despite its critical function in physiology, little is known about its interaction proteins. Here we identified 204 REST-interacting proteins using affinity purification and mass spectrometry. The interactome included proteins associated with mRNA processing/splicing, chromatin organization, and transcription. The interactions of these REST-interacting proteins, which included TRIM28, were confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and immunocytochemistry, respectively. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis revealed that neuronal differentiation-related GO terms were enriched among target genes that were co-regulated by REST and TRIM28, while the level of CTNND2 was increased by the knockdown of REST and TRIM28. Consistently, the level of CTNND2 increased while those of REST and TRIM28 decreased during neuronal differentiation in the primary neurons, suggesting that CTNND2 expression may be co-regulated by both. Furthermore, neurite outgrowth was increased by depletion of REST or TRIM28, implying that reduction of both REST and TRIM28 could promote neuronal differentiation via induction of CTNND2 expression. In conclusion, our study of REST reveals novel interacting proteins which could be a valuable resource for investigating unidentified functions of REST and also suggested functional links between REST and TRIM28 during neuronal development. PMID:27976729

  12. Cross-species chromosome painting in bats from Madagascar: the contribution of Myzopodidae to revealing ancestral syntenies in Chiroptera.

    PubMed

    Richards, Leigh R; Rambau, Ramugondo V; Lamb, Jennifer M; Taylor, Peter J; Yang, Fengtang; Schoeman, M Corrie; Goodman, Steven M

    2010-09-01

    The chiropteran fauna of Madagascar comprises eight of the 19 recognized families of bats, including the endemic Myzopodidae. While recent systematic studies of Malagasy bats have contributed to our understanding of the morphological and genetic diversity of the island's fauna, little is known about their cytosystematics. Here we investigate karyotypic relationships among four species, representing four families of Chiroptera endemic to the Malagasy region using cross-species chromosome painting with painting probes of Myotis myotis: Myzopodidae (Myzopoda aurita, 2n = 26), Molossidae (Mormopterus jugularis, 2n = 48), Miniopteridae (Miniopterus griveaudi, 2n = 46), and Vespertilionidae (Myotis goudoti, 2n = 44). This study represents the first time a member of the family Myzopodidae has been investigated using chromosome painting. Painting probes of M. myotis were used to delimit 29, 24, 23, and 22 homologous chromosomal segments in the genomes of M. aurita, M. jugularis, M. griveaudi, and M. goudoti, respectively. Comparison of GTG-banded homologous chromosomes/chromosomal segments among the four species revealed the genome of M. aurita has been structured through 14 fusions of chromosomes and chromosomal segments of M. myotis chromosomes leading to a karyotype consisting solely of bi-armed chromosomes. In addition, chromosome painting revealed a novel X-autosome translocation in M. aurita. Comparison of our results with published chromosome maps provided further evidence for karyotypic conservatism within the genera Mormopterus, Miniopterus, and Myotis. Mapping of chromosomal rearrangements onto a molecular consensus phylogeny revealed ancestral syntenies shared between Myzopoda and other bat species of the infraorders Pteropodiformes and Vespertilioniformes. Our study provides further evidence for the involvement of Robertsonian (Rb) translocations and fusions/fissions in chromosomal evolution within Chiroptera.

  13. Hebephilia as mental disorder? A historical, cross-cultural, sociological, cross-species, non-clinical empirical, and evolutionary review.

    PubMed

    Rind, Bruce; Yuill, Richard

    2012-08-01

    Blanchard et al. (2009) demonstrated that hebephilia is a genuine sexual preference, but then proposed, without argument or evidence, that it should be designated as a mental disorder in the DSM-5. A series of Letters-to-the-Editor criticized this proposal as a non sequitur. Blanchard (2009), in rebuttal, reaffirmed his position, but without adequately addressing some central criticisms. In this article, we examine hebephilia-as-disorder in full detail. Unlike Blanchard et al., we discuss definitions of mental disorder, examine extensive evidence from a broad range of sources, and consider alternative (i.e., non-pathological) explanations for hebephilia. We employed Wakefield's (1992b) harmful dysfunction approach to disorder, which holds that a condition only counts as a disorder when it is a failure of a naturally selected mechanism to function as designed, which is harmful to the individual in the current environment. We also considered a harmful-for-others approach to disorder (Brülde, 2007). Examination of historical, cross-cultural, sociological, cross-species, non-clinical empirical, and evolutionary evidence and perspectives indicated that hebephilic interest is an evolved capacity and hebephilic preference an expectable distributional variant, both of which were adaptively neutral or functional, not dysfunctional, in earlier human environments. Hebephilia's conflict with modern society makes it an evolutionary mismatch, not a genuine disorder. Though it should not be classified as a disorder, it could be entered in the DSM's V-code [corrected] section, used for non-disordered conditions that create significant problems in present-day society.

  14. Cross-species comparison of orthologous gene expression in human bladder cancer and carcinogen-induced rodent models

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yan; Liu, Pengyuan; Wen, Weidong; Grubbs, Clinton J; Townsend, Reid R; Malone, James P; Lubet, Ronald A; You, Ming

    2011-01-01

    Genes differentially expressed by tumor cells represent promising drug targets for anti-cancer therapy. Such candidate genes need to be validated in appropriate animal models. This study examined the suitability of rodent models of bladder cancer in B6D2F1 mice and Fischer-344 rats to model clinical bladder cancer specimens in humans. Using a global gene expression approach cross-species analysis showed that 13-34% of total genes in the genome were differentially expressed between tumor and normal tissues in each of five datasets from humans, rats, and mice. About 20% of these differentially expressed genes overlapped among species, corresponding to 2.6 to 4.8% of total genes in the genome. Several genes were consistently dysregulated in bladder tumors in both humans and rodents. Notably, CNN1, MYL9, PDLIM3, ITIH5, MYH11, PCP4 and FM05 were found to commonly down-regulated; while T0P2A, CCNB2, KIF20A and RRM2 were up-regulated. These genes are likely to have conserved functions contributing to bladder carcinogenesis. Gene set enrichment analysis detected a number of molecular pathways commonly activated in both humans and rodent bladder cancer. These pathways affect the cell cycle, HIF-1 and MYC expression, and regulation of apoptosis. We also compared expression changes at mRNA and protein levels in the rat model and identified several genes/proteins exhibiting concordant changes in bladder tumors, including ANXA1, ANXA2, CA2, KRT14, LDHA, LGALS4, SERPINA1, KRT18 and LDHB. In general, rodent models of bladder cancer represent the clinical disease to an extent that will allow successful mining of target genes and permit studies on the molecular mechanisms of bladder carcinogenesis. PMID:21139803

  15. Cross-species gene expression analysis identifies a novel set of genes implicated in human insulin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Rima; Khoo, Poh Sim; Tonks, Katherine; Junutula, Jagath R; Kolumam, Ganesh; Modrusan, Zora; Samocha-Bonet, Dorit; Meoli, Christopher C; Hocking, Samantha; Fazakerley, Daniel J; Stöckli, Jacqueline; Hoehn, Kyle L; Greenfield, Jerry R; Yang, Jean Yee Hwa; James, David E

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is one of the earliest predictors of type 2 diabetes. However, diagnosis of IR is limited. High fat fed mouse models provide key insights into IR. We hypothesized that early features of IR are associated with persistent changes in gene expression (GE) and endeavored to (a) develop novel methods for improving signal:noise in analysis of human GE using mouse models; (b) identify a GE motif that accurately diagnoses IR in humans; and (c) identify novel biology associated with IR in humans. We integrated human muscle GE data with longitudinal mouse GE data and developed an unbiased three-level cross-species analysis platform (single gene, gene set, and networks) to generate a gene expression motif (GEM) indicative of IR. A logistic regression classification model validated GEM in three independent human data sets (n=115). This GEM of 93 genes substantially improved diagnosis of IR compared with routine clinical measures across multiple independent data sets. Individuals misclassified by GEM possessed other metabolic features raising the possibility that they represent a separate metabolic subclass. The GEM was enriched in pathways previously implicated in insulin action and revealed novel associations between β-catenin and Jak1 and IR. Functional analyses using small molecule inhibitors showed an important role for these proteins in insulin action. This study shows that systems approaches for identifying molecular signatures provides a powerful way to stratify individuals into discrete metabolic groups. Moreover, we speculate that the β-catenin pathway may represent a novel biomarker for IR in humans that warrant future investigation.

  16. Efficient cross-species capture hybridization and next-generation sequencing of mitochondrial genomes from noninvasively sampled museum specimens

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Victor C.; Li, Gang; Helgen, Kristofer M.; Murphy, William J.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to uncover the phylogenetic history of recently extinct species and other species known only from archived museum material has rapidly improved due to the reduced cost and increased sequence capacity of next-generation sequencing technologies. One limitation of these approaches is the difficulty of isolating and sequencing large, orthologous DNA regions across multiple divergent species, which is exacerbated for museum specimens, where DNA quality varies greatly between samples and contamination levels are often high. Here we describe the use of cross-species DNA capture hybridization techniques and next-generation sequencing to selectively isolate and sequence partial to full-length mitochondrial DNA genomes from the degraded DNA of museum specimens, using probes generated from the DNA of a single extant species. We demonstrate our approach on specimens from an enigmatic gliding mammal, the Sunda colugo, which is widely distributed throughout Southeast Asia. We isolated DNA from 13 colugo specimens collected 47–170 years ago, and successfully captured and sequenced mitochondrial DNA from every specimen, frequently recovering fragments with 10%–13% sequence divergence from the capture probe sequence. Phylogenetic results reveal deep genetic divergence among colugos, both within and between the islands of Borneo and Java, as well as between the Malay Peninsula and different Sundaic islands. Our method is based on noninvasive sampling of minute amounts of soft tissue material from museum specimens, leaving the original specimen essentially undamaged. This approach represents a paradigm shift away from standard PCR-based approaches for accessing population genetic and phylogenomic information from poorly known and difficult-to-study species. PMID:21880778

  17. Interactome analyses of Salmonella pathogenicity islands reveal SicA indispensable for virulence.

    PubMed

    Lahiri, Chandrajit; Pawar, Shrikant; Sabarinathan, Radhakrishnan; Ashraf, Md Izhar; Chand, Yamini; Chakravortty, Dipshikha

    2014-12-21

    Serovars of Salmonella enterica, namely Typhi and Typhimurium, reportedly, are the bacterial pathogens causing systemic infections like gastroenteritis and typhoid fever. To elucidate the role and importance in such infection, the proteins of the Type III secretion system of Salmonella pathogenicity islands and two component signal transduction systems, have been mainly focused. However, the most indispensable of these virulent ones and their hierarchical role has not yet been studied extensively. We have adopted a theoretical approach to build an interactome comprising the proteins from the Salmonella pathogeneicity islands (SPI) and two component signal transduction systems. This interactome was then analyzed by using network parameters like centrality and k-core measures. An initial step to capture the fingerprint of the core network resulted in a set of proteins which are involved in the process of invasion and colonization, thereby becoming more important in the process of infection. These proteins pertained to the Inv, Org, Prg, Sip, Spa, Ssa and Sse operons along with chaperone protein SicA. Amongst them, SicA was figured out to be the most indispensable protein from different network parametric analyses. Subsequently, the gene expression levels of all these theoretically identified important proteins were confirmed by microarray data analysis. Finally, we have proposed a hierarchy of the proteins involved in the total infection process. This theoretical approach is the first of its kind to figure out potential virulence determinants encoded by SPI for therapeutic targets for enteric infection. A set of responsible virulent proteins was identified and the expression level of their genes was validated by using independent, published microarray data. The result was a targeted set of proteins that could serve as sensitive predictors and form the foundation for a series of trials in the wet-lab setting. Understanding these regulatory and virulent proteins would

  18. Intranuclear interactomic inhibition of NF-κB suppresses LPS-induced severe sepsis

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sung-Dong; Cheon, So Yeong; Park, Tae-Yoon; Shin, Bo-Young; Oh, Hyunju; Ghosh, Sankar; Koo, Bon-Nyeo; Lee, Sang-Kyou

    2015-08-28

    Suppression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation, which is best known as a major regulator of innate and adaptive immune responses, is a potent strategy for the treatment of endotoxic sepsis. To inhibit NF-κB functions, we designed the intra-nuclear transducible form of transcription modulation domain (TMD) of RelA (p65), called nt-p65-TMD, which can be delivered effectively into the nucleus without influencing the cell viability, and work as interactomic inhibitors via disruption of the endogenous p65-mediated transcription complex. nt-p65-TMD effectively inhibited the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-1β, or IL-6 from BV2 microglia cells stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). nt-p65-TMD did not inhibit tyrosine phosphorylation of signaling mediators such as ZAP-70, p38, JNK, or ERK involved in T cell activation, but was capable of suppressing the transcriptional activity of NF-κB without the functional effect on that of NFAT upon T-cell receptor (TCR) stimulation. The transduced nt-p65-TMD in T cell did not affect the expression of CD69, however significantly inhibited the secretion of T cell-specific cytokines such as IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-17A, or IL-10. Systemic administration of nt-p65-TMD showed a significant therapeutic effect on LPS-induced sepsis model by inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion. Therefore, nt-p65-TMD can be a novel therapeutics for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including sepsis, where a transcription factor has a key role in pathogenesis, and further allows us to discover new functions of p65 under normal physiological condition without genetic alteration. - Highlights: • The nt-p65-TMD is intra-nuclear interactomic inhibitor of endogenous p65. • The nt-p65-TMD effectively inhibited the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. • The excellent therapeutic potential of nt-p65-TMD was confirmed in sepsis model.

  19. ppiTrim: constructing non-redundant and up-to-date interactomes.

    PubMed

    Stojmirović, Aleksandar; Yu, Yi-Kuo

    2011-01-01

    Robust advances in interactome analysis demand comprehensive, non-redundant and consistently annotated data sets. By non-redundant, we mean that the accounting of evidence for every interaction should be faithful: each independent experimental support is counted exactly once, no more, no less. While many interactions are shared among public repositories, none of them contains the complete known interactome for any model organism. In addition, the annotations of the same experimental result by different repositories often disagree. This brings up the issue of which annotation to keep while consolidating evidences that are the same. The iRefIndex database, including interactions from most popular repositories with a standardized protein nomenclature, represents a significant advance in all aspects, especially in comprehensiveness. However, iRefIndex aims to maintain all information/annotation from original sources and requires users to perform additional processing to fully achieve the aforementioned goals. Another issue has to do with protein complexes. Some databases represent experimentally observed complexes as interactions with more than two participants, while others expand them into binary interactions using spoke or matrix model. To avoid untested interaction information buildup, it is preferable to replace the expanded protein complexes, either from spoke or matrix models, with a flat list of complex members. To address these issues and to achieve our goals, we have developed ppiTrim, a script that processes iRefIndex to produce non-redundant, consistently annotated data sets of physical interactions. Our script proceeds in three stages: mapping all interactants to gene identifiers and removing all undesired raw interactions, deflating potentially expanded complexes, and reconciling for each interaction the annotation labels among different source databases. As an illustration, we have processed the three largest organismal data sets: yeast, human and

  20. Identification of SRC as a potent drug target for asthma, using an integrative approach of protein interactome analysis and in silico drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, Vinay; Bagler, Ganesh

    2012-10-01

    Network-biology inspired modeling of interactome data and computational chemistry have the potential to revolutionize drug discovery by complementing conventional methods. We consider asthma, a complex disease characterized by intricate molecular mechanisms, for our study. We aim to integrate prediction of potent drug targets using graph-theoretical methods and subsequent identification of small molecules capable of modulating activity of the best target. In this work, we construct the protein interactome underlying this disease: Asthma Protein Interactome (API). Using a strategy based on network analysis of the interactome, we identify a set of potential drug targets for asthma. Topologically and dynamically, v-src sarcoma (Schmidt-Ruppin A-2) viral oncogene homolog (SRC) emerges as the most central target in API. SRC is known to play an important role in promoting airway smooth muscle cell growth and facilitating migration in airway remodeling. From interactome analysis, and with the reported role in respiratory mechanisms, SRC emerges as a promising drug target for asthma. Further, we proceed to identify leads for SRC from a public database of small molecules. We predict two potential leads for SRC using ligand-based virtual screening methodology.

  1. Hypnosis, suggestion, and suggestibility: an integrative model.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Kirsch, Irving

    2015-01-01

    This article elucidates an integrative model of hypnosis that integrates social, cultural, cognitive, and neurophysiological variables at play both in and out of hypnosis and considers their dynamic interaction as determinants of the multifaceted experience of hypnosis. The roles of these variables are examined in the induction and suggestion stages of hypnosis, including how they are related to the experience of involuntariness, one of the hallmarks of hypnosis. It is suggested that studies of the modification of hypnotic suggestibility; cognitive flexibility; response sets and expectancies; the default-mode network; and the search for the neurophysiological correlates of hypnosis, more broadly, in conjunction with research on social psychological variables, hold much promise to further understanding of hypnosis.

  2. Influenza virus-host interactome screen as a platform for antiviral drug development

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Tokiko; Kawakami, Eiryo; Shoemaker, Jason E.; Lopes, Tiago J. S.; Matsuoka, Yukiko; Tomita, Yuriko; Kozuka-Hata, Hiroko; Gorai, Takeo; Kuwahara, Tomoko; Takeda, Eiji; Nagata, Atsushi; Takano, Ryo; Kiso, Maki; Yamashita, Makoto; Sakai-Tagawa, Yuko; Katsura, Hiroaki; Nonaka, Naoki; Fujii, Hiroko; Fujii, Ken; Sugita, Yukihiko; Noda, Takeshi; Goto, Hideo; Fukuyama, Satoshi; Watanabe, Shinji; Neumann, Gabriele; Oyama, Masaaki; Kitano, Hiroaki; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Host factors required for viral replication are ideal drug targets because they are less likely than viral proteins to mutate under drug-mediated selective pressure. Although genome-wide screens have identified host proteins involved in influenza virus replication, limited mechanistic understanding of how these factors affect influenza has hindered potential drug development. We conducted a systematic analysis to identify and validate host factors that associate with influenza virus proteins and affect viral replication. After identifying over one thousand host factors that co-immunoprecipitate with specific viral proteins, we generated a network of virus-host protein interactions based on the stage of the viral lifecycle affected upon host factor down-regulation. Using compounds that inhibit these host factors, we validated several proteins, notably Golgi-specific brefeldin A resistant guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GBF1) and JAK1, as potential antiviral drug targets. Thus, virus-host interactome screens are powerful strategies to identify targetable host factors and guide antiviral drug development. PMID:25464832

  3. Influenza virus-host interactome screen as a platform for antiviral drug development.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Tokiko; Kawakami, Eiryo; Shoemaker, Jason E; Lopes, Tiago J S; Matsuoka, Yukiko; Tomita, Yuriko; Kozuka-Hata, Hiroko; Gorai, Takeo; Kuwahara, Tomoko; Takeda, Eiji; Nagata, Atsushi; Takano, Ryo; Kiso, Maki; Yamashita, Makoto; Sakai-Tagawa, Yuko; Katsura, Hiroaki; Nonaka, Naoki; Fujii, Hiroko; Fujii, Ken; Sugita, Yukihiko; Noda, Takeshi; Goto, Hideo; Fukuyama, Satoshi; Watanabe, Shinji; Neumann, Gabriele; Oyama, Masaaki; Kitano, Hiroaki; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2014-12-10

    Host factors required for viral replication are ideal drug targets because they are less likely than viral proteins to mutate under drug-mediated selective pressure. Although genome-wide screens have identified host proteins involved in influenza virus replication, limited mechanistic understanding of how these factors affect influenza has hindered potential drug development. We conducted a systematic analysis to identify and validate host factors that associate with influenza virus proteins and affect viral replication. After identifying over 1,000 host factors that coimmunoprecipitate with specific viral proteins, we generated a network of virus-host protein interactions based on the stage of the viral life cycle affected upon host factor downregulation. Using compounds that inhibit these host factors, we validated several proteins, notably Golgi-specific brefeldin A-resistant guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1 (GBF1) and JAK1, as potential antiviral drug targets. Thus, virus-host interactome screens are powerful strategies to identify targetable host factors and guide antiviral drug development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Auxotrophy and intrapopulation complementary in the 'interactome' of a cultivated freshwater model community.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Sarahi L; Buck, Moritz; McMahon, Katherine D; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Eiler, Alexander; Warnecke, Falk

    2015-09-01

    Microorganisms are usually studied either in highly complex natural communities or in isolation as monoclonal model populations that we manage to grow in the laboratory. Here, we uncover the biology of some of the most common and yet-uncultured bacteria in freshwater environments using a mixed culture from Lake Grosse Fuchskuhle. From a single shotgun metagenome of a freshwater mixed culture of low complexity, we recovered four high-quality metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) for metabolic reconstruction. This analysis revealed the metabolic interconnectedness and niche partitioning of these naturally dominant bacteria. In particular, vitamin- and amino acid biosynthetic pathways were distributed unequally with a member of Crenarchaeota most likely being the sole producer of vitamin B12 in the mixed culture. Using coverage-based partitioning of the genes recovered from a single MAG intrapopulation metabolic complementarity was revealed pointing to 'social' interactions for the common good of populations dominating freshwater plankton. As such, our MAGs highlight the power of mixed cultures to extract naturally occurring 'interactomes' and to overcome our inability to isolate and grow the microbes dominating in nature.

  5. Mapping wild-type and R345W fibulin-3 intracellular interactomes.

    PubMed

    Hulleman, John D; Genereux, Joseph C; Nguyen, Annie

    2016-12-01

    Fibulin-3 (F3) is an important, disulfide-rich, extracellular matrix glycoprotein that has been associated with a number of diseases ranging from cancer to retinal degeneration. An Arg345Trp (R345W) mutation in F3 causes the rare, autosomal dominant macular dystrophy, Malattia Leventinese. The purpose of this study was to identify and validate novel intracellular interacting partners of wild-type (WT) and R345W F3 in retinal pigment epithelium cells. We used stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) to generate 'heavy' and 'light' isotopically labeled ARPE-19 cell populations which were subsequently infected with adenovirus encoding for FLAG-tagged WT or R345W F3. After immunoprecipitation, interacting proteins were identified by multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT). We identified sixteen new intracellular F3 interacting partners, the vast majority of which are involved in protein folding and/or degradation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Eight of these interactions (ANXA5, ERdj5, PDIA4, P4HB, PDIA6, RCN1, SDF2L1, and TXNDC5) were verified at the western blotting level. These F3 interactome results can serve as the basis for pursuing targeted genetic or pharmacologic approaches in an effort to alter the fate of either WT or mutant F3.

  6. Elucidation of the Cellular Interactome of Ebola Virus Nucleoprotein and Identification of Therapeutic Targets.

    PubMed

    García-Dorival, Isabel; Wu, Weining; Armstrong, Stuart D; Barr, John N; Carroll, Miles W; Hewson, Roger; Hiscox, Julian A

    2016-12-02

    Ebola virus (EBOV) infection results in severe disease and in some cases lethal hemorrhagic fever. The infection is directed by seven viral genes that encode nine viral proteins. By definition, viruses are obligate intracellular parasites and require aspects of host cell biology in order to replicate their genetic material, assemble new virus particles, and subvert host cell antiviral responses. Currently licensed antivirals are targeted against viral proteins to inhibit their function. However, experience with treating HIV and influenza virus demonstrates that resistant viruses are soon selected. An emerging area in virology is to transiently target host cell proteins that play critical proviral roles in virus biology, especially for acute infections. This has the advantage that the protein being targeted is evolutionary removed from the genome of the virus. Proteomics can aid in discovery biology and identify cellular proteins that may be utilized by the virus to facilitate infection. This work focused on defining the interactome of the EBOV nucleoprotein and identified that cellular chaperones, including HSP70, associate with this protein to promote stability. Utilization of a mini-genome replication system based on a recent Makona isolate demonstrated that disrupting the stability of NP had an adverse effect on viral RNA synthesis.

  7. Inhibitory activities of short linear motifs underlie Hox interactome specificity in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Baëza, Manon; Viala, Séverine; Heim, Marjorie; Dard, Amélie; Hudry, Bruno; Duffraisse, Marilyne; Rogulja-Ortmann, Ana; Brun, Christine; Merabet, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Hox proteins are well-established developmental regulators that coordinate cell fate and morphogenesis throughout embryogenesis. In contrast, our knowledge of their specific molecular modes of action is limited to the interaction with few cofactors. Here, we show that Hox proteins are able to interact with a wide range of transcription factors in the live Drosophila embryo. In this context, specificity relies on a versatile usage of conserved short linear motifs (SLiMs), which, surprisingly, often restrains the interaction potential of Hox proteins. This novel buffering activity of SLiMs was observed in different tissues and found in Hox proteins from cnidarian to mouse species. Although these interactions remain to be analysed in the context of endogenous Hox regulatory activities, our observations challenge the traditional role assigned to SLiMs and provide an alternative concept to explain how Hox interactome specificity could be achieved during the embryonic development. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06034.001 PMID:25869471

  8. Characterization of the B-Raf interactome in mouse hippocampal neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Bonfiglio, Juan J; Maccarrone, Giuseppina; Rewerts, Christiane; Holsboer, Florian; Arzt, Eduardo; Turck, Christoph W; Silberstein, Susana

    2011-02-01

    B-Raf links a variety of extracellular stimuli downstream of cell surface receptors, constituting a determining factor in the ability of neurons to activate ERK. A detailed study of the B-Raf interactome is necessary to clarify the intricacy of B-Raf-dependent signal transduction. We used a mouse hippocampal cell line (HT22) that expresses B-Raf at high levels, to identify B-Raf associated proteins under endogenous expression conditions, avoiding artificial interactions from overexpression studies. We used stringent procedures to co-immunoprecipitate proteins that specifically associate with endogenous B-Raf with the help of gel electrophoresis separation and off-line LC-MALDI-MS/MS proteomic analysis. Our stringent protein identification criteria allowed confident identification of B-Raf interacting proteins under non-stimulating conditions. The presence of previously reported B-Raf interactors among the list of proteins identified confirms the quality of proteomic data. We identified tubulin and actin as B-Raf interactors for the first time, among structural and accessory proteins of cell cytoskeleton, molecular chaperones (Hsc70, GRP78), and cellular components involved in aspects of mRNA metabolism and translation. Interactions were validated in HT22 cells and in the neuronal cell line Neuro-2a providing further evidence that the identified proteins are B-Raf interactors, which constitute a basis for understanding MAPK pathway regulation in neurons.

  9. Uncover disease genes by maximizing information flow in the phenome–interactome network

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yong; Jiang, Tao; Jiang, Rui

    2011-01-01

    Motivation: Pinpointing genes that underlie human inherited diseases among candidate genes in susceptibility genetic regions is the primary step towards the understanding of pathogenesis of diseases. Although several probabilistic models have been proposed to prioritize candidate genes using phenotype similarities and protein–protein interactions, no combinatorial approaches have been proposed in the literature. Results: We propose the first combinatorial approach for prioritizing candidate genes. We first construct a phenome–interactome network by integrating the given phenotype similarity profile, protein–protein interaction network and associations between diseases and genes. Then, we introduce a computational method called MAXIF to maximize the information flow in this network for uncovering genes that underlie diseases. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this method in prioritizing candidate genes through a series of cross-validation experiments, and we show the possibility of using this method to identify diseases with which a query gene may be associated. We demonstrate the competitive performance of our method through a comparison with two existing state-of-the-art methods, and we analyze the robustness of our method with respect to the parameters involved. As an example application, we apply our method to predict driver genes in 50 copy number aberration regions of melanoma. Our method is not only able to identify several driver genes that have been reported in the literature, it also shed some new biological insights on the understanding of the modular property and transcriptional regulation scheme of these driver genes. Contact: ruijiang@tsinghua.edu.cn PMID:21685067

  10. An extracellular interactome of immunoglobulin and LRR proteins reveals receptor-ligand networks.

    PubMed

    Özkan, Engin; Carrillo, Robert A; Eastman, Catharine L; Weiszmann, Richard; Waghray, Deepa; Johnson, Karl G; Zinn, Kai; Celniker, Susan E; Garcia, K Christopher

    2013-07-03

    Extracellular domains of cell surface receptors and ligands mediate cell-cell communication, adhesion, and initiation of signaling events, but most existing protein-protein "interactome" data sets lack information for extracellular interactions. We probed interactions between receptor extracellular domains, focusing on a set of 202 proteins composed of the Drosophila melanogaster immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF), fibronectin type III (FnIII), and leucine-rich repeat (LRR) families, which are known to be important in neuronal and developmental functions. Out of 20,503 candidate protein pairs tested, we observed 106 interactions, 83 of which were previously unknown. We "deorphanized" the 20 member subfamily of defective-in-proboscis-response IgSF proteins, showing that they selectively interact with an 11 member subfamily of previously uncharacterized IgSF proteins. Both subfamilies interact with a single common "orphan" LRR protein. We also observed interactions between Hedgehog and EGFR pathway components. Several of these interactions could be visualized in live-dissected embryos, demonstrating that this approach can identify physiologically relevant receptor-ligand pairs.

  11. Mapping the Interactome of a Major Mammalian Endoplasmic Reticulum Heat Shock Protein 90

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Feng; Mohammad Rachidi, Saleh; Lundgren, Debbie; Han, David; Huang, Xiu; Zhao, Hongyu; Kimura, Yayoi; Hirano, Hisashi; Ohara, Osamu; Udono, Heichiiro; Meng, Songdong; Liu, Bei; Li, Zihai

    2017-01-01

    Up to 10% of cytosolic proteins are dependent on the mammalian heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) for folding. However, the interactors of its endoplasmic reticulum (ER) paralogue (gp96, Grp94 and HSP90b1) has not been systematically identified. By combining genetic and biochemical approaches, we have comprehensively mapped the interactome of gp96 in macrophages and B cells. A total of 511 proteins were reduced in gp96 knockdown cells, compared to levels observed in wild type cells. By immunoprecipitation, we found that 201 proteins associated with gp96. Gene Ontology analysis indicated that these proteins are involved in metabolism, transport, translation, protein folding, development, localization, response to stress and cellular component biogenesis. While known gp96 clients such as integrins, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and Wnt co-receptor LRP6, were confirmed, cell surface HSP receptor CD91, TLR4 pathway protein CD180, WDR1, GANAB and CAPZB were identified as potentially novel substrates of gp96. Taken together, our study establishes gp96 as a critical chaperone to integrate innate immunity, Wnt signaling and organ development. PMID:28056051

  12. Identification of LMO2 transcriptome and interactome in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Cubedo, Elena; Gentles, Andrew J.; Huang, Chuanxin; Natkunam, Yasodha; Bhatt, Shruti; Lu, Xiaoqing; Jiang, Xiaoyu; Romero-Camarero, Isabel; Freud, Aharon; Zhao, Shuchun; Bacchi, Carlos E.; Martínez-Climent, Jose A.; Sánchez-García, Isidro; Melnick, Ari

    2012-01-01

    LMO2 regulates gene expression by facilitating the formation of multipartite DNA-binding complexes. In B cells, LMO2 is specifically up-regulated in the germinal center (GC) and is expressed in GC-derived non-Hodgkin lymphomas. LMO2 is one of the most powerful prognostic indicators in diffuse large B-cell (DLBCL) patients. However, its function in GC B cells and DLBCL is currently unknown. In this study, we characterized the LMO2 transcriptome and transcriptional complex in DLBCL cells. LMO2 regulates genes implicated in kinetochore function, chromosome assembly, and mitosis. Overexpression of LMO2 in DLBCL cell lines results in centrosome amplification. In DLBCL, the LMO2 complex contains some of the traditional partners, such as LDB1, E2A, HEB, Lyl1, ETO2, and SP1, but not TAL1 or GATA proteins. Furthermore, we identified novel LMO2 interacting partners: ELK1, nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFATc1), and lymphoid enhancer-binding factor1 (LEF1) proteins. Reporter assays revealed that LMO2 increases transcriptional activity of NFATc1 and decreases transcriptional activity of LEF1 proteins. Overall, our studies identified a novel LMO2 transcriptome and interactome in DLBCL and provides a platform for future elucidation of LMO2 function in GC B cells and DLBCL pathogenesis. PMID:22517897

  13. The molecular basis for ANE syndrome revealed by the large ribosomal subunit processome interactome

    PubMed Central

    McCann, Kathleen L; Teramoto, Takamasa; Zhang, Jun; Tanaka Hall, Traci M; Baserga, Susan J

    2016-01-01

    ANE syndrome is a ribosomopathy caused by a mutation in an RNA recognition motif of RBM28, a nucleolar protein conserved to yeast (Nop4). While patients with ANE syndrome have fewer mature ribosomes, it is unclear how this mutation disrupts ribosome assembly. Here we use yeast as a model system and show that the mutation confers growth and pre-rRNA processing defects. Recently, we found that Nop4 is a hub protein in the nucleolar large subunit (LSU) processome interactome. Here we demonstrate that the ANE syndrome mutation disrupts Nop4’s hub function by abrogating several of Nop4’s protein-protein interactions. Circular dichroism and NMR demonstrate that the ANE syndrome mutation in RRM3 of human RBM28 disrupts domain folding. We conclude that the ANE syndrome mutation generates defective protein folding which abrogates protein-protein interactions and causes faulty pre-LSU rRNA processing, thus revealing one aspect of the molecular basis of this human disease. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16381.001 PMID:27077951

  14. Small RNA interactome of pathogenic E. coli revealed through crosslinking of RNase E.

    PubMed

    Waters, Shafagh A; McAteer, Sean P; Kudla, Grzegorz; Pang, Ignatius; Deshpande, Nandan P; Amos, Timothy G; Leong, Kai Wen; Wilkins, Marc R; Strugnell, Richard; Gally, David L; Tollervey, David; Tree, Jai J

    2017-02-01

    RNA sequencing studies have identified hundreds of non-coding RNAs in bacteria, including regulatory small RNA (sRNA). However, our understanding of sRNA function has lagged behind their identification due to a lack of tools for the high-throughput analysis of RNA-RNA interactions in bacteria. Here we demonstrate that in vivo sRNA-mRNA duplexes can be recovered using UV-crosslinking, ligation and sequencing of hybrids (CLASH). Many sRNAs recruit the endoribonuclease, RNase E, to facilitate processing of mRNAs. We were able to recover base-paired sRNA-mRNA duplexes in association with RNase E, allowing proximity-dependent ligation and sequencing of cognate sRNA-mRNA pairs as chimeric reads. We verified that this approach captures bona fide sRNA-mRNA interactions. Clustering analyses identified novel sRNA seed regions and sets of potentially co-regulated target mRNAs. We identified multiple mRNA targets for the pathotype-specific sRNA Esr41, which was shown to regulate colicin sensitivity and iron transport in E. coli Numerous sRNA interactions were also identified with non-coding RNAs, including sRNAs and tRNAs, demonstrating the high complexity of the sRNA interactome. © 2016 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  15. Target-Based Drug Repositioning Using Large-Scale Chemical-Protein Interactome Data.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Ryusuke; Iwata, Hiroaki; Mizutani, Sayaka; Yamanishi, Yoshihiro

    2015-12-28

    Drug repositioning, or the identification of new indications for known drugs, is a useful strategy for drug discovery. In this study, we developed novel computational methods to predict potential drug targets and new drug indications for systematic drug repositioning using large-scale chemical-protein interactome data. We explored the target space of drugs (including primary targets and off-targets) based on chemical structure similarity and phenotypic effect similarity by making optimal use of millions of compound-protein interactions. On the basis of the target profiles of drugs, we constructed statistical models to predict new drug indications for a wide range of diseases with various molecular features. The proposed method outperformed previous methods in terms of interpretability, applicability, and accuracy. Finally, we conducted a comprehensive prediction of the drug-target-disease association network for 8270 drugs and 1401 diseases and showed biologically meaningful examples of newly predicted drug targets and drug indications. The predictive model is useful to understand the mechanisms of the predicted drug indications.

  16. Mapping the local protein interactome of the NuA3 histone acetyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Smart, Sherri K; Mackintosh, Samuel G; Edmondson, Ricky D; Taverna, Sean D; Tackett, Alan J

    2009-01-01

    Protein–protein interactions modulate cellular functions ranging from the activity of enzymes to signal transduction cascades. A technology termed transient isotopic differentiation of interactions as random or targeted (transient I-DIRT) is described for the identification of stable and transient protein–protein interactions in vivo. The procedure combines mild in vivo chemical cross-linking and non-stringent affinity purification to isolate low abundance chromatin-associated protein complexes. Using isotopic labeling and mass spectrometric readout, purified proteins are categorized with respect to the protein ‘bait’ as stable, transient, or contaminant. Here we characterize the local interactome of the chromatin-associated NuA3 histone lysine-acetyltransferase protein complex. We describe transient associations with the yFACT nucleosome assembly complex, RSC chromatin remodeling complex and a nucleosome assembly protein. These novel, physical associations with yFACT, RSC, and Nap1 provide insight into the mechanism of NuA3-associated transcription and chromatin regulation. PMID:19621382

  17. Uncover disease genes by maximizing information flow in the phenome-interactome network.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; Jiang, Tao; Jiang, Rui

    2011-07-01

    Pinpointing genes that underlie human inherited diseases among candidate genes in susceptibility genetic regions is the primary step towards the understanding of pathogenesis of diseases. Although several probabilistic models have been proposed to prioritize candidate genes using phenotype similarities and protein-protein interactions, no combinatorial approaches have been proposed in the literature. We propose the first combinatorial approach for prioritizing candidate genes. We first construct a phenome-interactome network by integrating the given phenotype similarity profile, protein-protein interaction network and associations between diseases and genes. Then, we introduce a computational method called MAXIF to maximize the information flow in this network for uncovering genes that underlie diseases. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this method in prioritizing candidate genes through a series of cross-validation experiments, and we show the possibility of using this method to identify diseases with which a query gene may be associated. We demonstrate the competitive performance of our method through a comparison with two existing state-of-the-art methods, and we analyze the robustness of our method with respect to the parameters involved. As an example application, we apply our method to predict driver genes in 50 copy number aberration regions of melanoma. Our method is not only able to identify several driver genes that have been reported in the literature, it also shed some new biological insights on the understanding of the modular property and transcriptional regulation scheme of these driver genes. ruijiang@tsinghua.edu.cn.

  18. Genome-wide bimolecular fluorescence complementation analysis of SUMO interactome in yeast.

    PubMed

    Sung, Min-Kyung; Lim, Gyubum; Yi, Dae-Gwan; Chang, Yeon Ji; Yang, Eun Bin; Lee, Kiyoung; Huh, Won-Ki

    2013-04-01

    The definition of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) in the natural cellular context is essential for properly understanding various biological processes. So far, however, most large-scale PPI analyses have not been performed in the natural cellular context. Here, we describe the construction of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fusion library in which each endogenous gene is C-terminally tagged with the N-terminal fragment of Venus (VN) for a genome-wide bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay, a powerful technique for identifying PPIs in living cells. We illustrate the utility of the VN fusion library by systematically analyzing the interactome of the small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) and provide previously unavailable information on the subcellular localization, types, and protease dependence of SUMO interactions. Our data set is highly complementary to the existing data sets and represents a useful resource for expanding the understanding of the physiological roles of SUMO. In addition, the VN fusion library provides a useful research tool that makes it feasible to systematically analyze PPIs in the natural cellular context.

  19. Chemokine interactome mapping enables tailored intervention in acute and chronic inflammation.

    PubMed

    von Hundelshausen, Philipp; Agten, Stijn M; Eckardt, Veit; Blanchet, Xavier; Schmitt, Martin M; Ippel, Hans; Neideck, Carlos; Bidzhekov, Kiril; Leberzammer, Julian; Wichapong, Kanin; Faussner, Alexander; Drechsler, Maik; Grommes, Jochen; van Geffen, Johanna P; Li, He; Ortega-Gomez, Almudena; Megens, Remco T A; Naumann, Ronald; Dijkgraaf, Ingrid; Nicolaes, Gerry A F; Döring, Yvonne; Soehnlein, Oliver; Lutgens, Esther; Heemskerk, Johan W M; Koenen, Rory R; Mayo, Kevin H; Hackeng, Tilman M; Weber, Christian

    2017-04-05

    Chemokines orchestrate leukocyte trafficking and function in health and disease. Heterophilic interactions between chemokines in a given microenvironment may amplify, inhibit, or modulate their activity; however, a systematic evaluation of the chemokine interactome has not been performed. We used immunoligand blotting and surface plasmon resonance to obtain a comprehensive map of chemokine-chemokine interactions and to confirm their specificity. Structure-function analyses revealed that chemokine activity can be enhanced by CC-type heterodimers but inhibited by CXC-type heterodimers. Functional synergism was achieved through receptor heteromerization induced by CCL5-CCL17 or receptor retention at the cell surface via auxiliary proteoglycan binding of CCL5-CXCL4. In contrast, inhibitory activity relied on conformational changes (in CXCL12), affecting receptor signaling. Obligate CC-type heterodimers showed high efficacy and potency and drove acute lung injury and atherosclerosis, processes abrogated by specific CCL5-derived peptide inhibitors or knock-in of an interaction-deficient CXCL4 variant. Atheroprotective effects of CCL17 deficiency were phenocopied by a CCL5-derived peptide disrupting CCL5-CCL17 heterodimers, whereas a CCL5 α-helix peptide mimicked inhibitory effects on CXCL12-driven platelet aggregation. Thus, formation of specific chemokine heterodimers differentially dictates functional activity and can be exploited for therapeutic targeting. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. Quantitative study of the interactome of PKCζ involved in the EGF-induced tumor cell chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ruibing; Wang, Yanping; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Xiaofang; Zhang, Fei; Shieh, Chia-Hui Paul; Yang, De; Zhang, Ning

    2013-03-01

    Chemotaxis plays an important role in metastasis. In our previous studies, we reported that protein kinase C ζ (PKCζ) mediated cancer cell chemotaxis by regulating cytoskeleton rearrangement and cell adhesion. To further study the molecular mechanism of chemotaxis, mass spectrometry-based approaches were employed to investigate the interactome of PKCζ and its changes upon stimulation by epidermal growth factor (EGF). As a result, 233 proteins were identified as potential PKCζ binding partners. Label free quantification was applied to examine the quantitative changes of these interactions involved in the EGF induced chemotaxis. Fifteen identified proteins were enriched and 9 proteins were reduced in the presence of EGF (≥ 1.5 folds, p ≤ 0.05). The interaction between cofilin-1 (CFL1) and PKCζ was evidenced and this interaction was enhanced in the EGF induced chemotaxis signaling transduction. In addition, novel PKCζ interacting proteins potentially related with chemotaxis were characterized, such as isoform 1 of nucleophosmin (NPM1). Furthermore, Western blotting and chemotaxis assays were also applied to validate the proteomics result and explore its biological implications. Collectively, the combination of quantitative proteomics and biological assays provides a powerful strategy for elucidating the signaling pathway of tumor cell chemotaxis.

  1. Characterization and interactome study of white spot syndrome virus envelope protein VP11.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wang-Jing; Shiung, Hui-Jui; Lo, Chu-Fang; Leu, Jiann-Horng; Lai, Ying-Jang; Lee, Tai-Lin; Huang, Wei-Tung; Kou, Guang-Hsiung; Chang, Yun-Shiang

    2014-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a large enveloped virus. The WSSV viral particle consists of three structural layers that surround its core DNA: an outer envelope, a tegument and a nucleocapsid. Here we characterize the WSSV structural protein VP11 (WSSV394, GenBank accession number AF440570), and use an interactome approach to analyze the possible associations between this protein and an array of other WSSV and host proteins. Temporal transcription analysis showed that vp11 is an early gene. Western blot hybridization of the intact viral particles and fractionation of the viral components, and immunoelectron microscopy showed that VP11 is an envelope protein. Membrane topology software predicted VP11 to be a type of transmembrane protein with a highly hydrophobic transmembrane domain at its N-terminal. Based on an immunofluorescence assay performed on VP11-transfected Sf9 cells and a trypsin digestion analysis of the virion, we conclude that, contrary to topology software prediction, the C-terminal of this protein is in fact inside the virion. Yeast two-hybrid screening combined with co-immunoprecipitation assays found that VP11 directly interacted with at least 12 other WSSV structural proteins as well as itself. An oligomerization assay further showed that VP11 could form dimers. VP11 is also the first reported WSSV structural protein to interact with the major nucleocapsid protein VP664.

  2. Interactome of Radiation-Induced microRNA-Predicted Target Genes

    PubMed Central

    Lhakhang, Tenzin W.; Chaudhry, M. Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    The microRNAs (miRNAs) function as global negative regulators of gene expression and have been associated with a multitude of biological processes. The dysfunction of the microRNAome has been linked to various diseases including cancer. Our laboratory recently reported modulation in the expression of miRNA in a variety of cell types exposed to ionizing radiation (IR). To further understand miRNA role in IR-induced stress pathways, we catalogued a set of common miRNAs modulated in various irradiated cell lines and generated a list of predicted target genes. Using advanced bioinformatics tools we identified cellular pathways where miRNA predicted target genes function. The miRNA-targeted genes were found to play key roles in previously identified IR stress pathways such as cell cycle, p53 pathway, TGF-beta pathway, ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, focal adhesion pathway, MAPK signaling, thyroid cancer pathway, adherens junction, insulin signaling pathway, oocyte meiosis, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, and renal cell carcinoma pathway. Interestingly, we were able to identify novel targeted pathways that have not been identified in cellular radiation response, such as aldosterone-regulated sodium reabsorption, long-term potentiation, and neutrotrophin signaling pathways. Our analysis indicates that the miRNA interactome in irradiated cells provides a platform for comprehensive modeling of the cellular stress response to IR exposure. PMID:22924026

  3. SONAR Discovers RNA-Binding Proteins from Analysis of Large-Scale Protein-Protein Interactomes.

    PubMed

    Brannan, Kristopher W; Jin, Wenhao; Huelga, Stephanie C; Banks, Charles A S; Gilmore, Joshua M; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P; Van Nostrand, Eric L; Pratt, Gabriel A; Schwinn, Marie K; Daniels, Danette L; Yeo, Gene W

    2016-10-20

    RNA metabolism is controlled by an expanding, yet incomplete, catalog of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), many of which lack characterized RNA binding domains. Approaches to expand the RBP repertoire to discover non-canonical RBPs are currently needed. Here, HaloTag fusion pull down of 12 nuclear and cytoplasmic RBPs followed by quantitative mass spectrometry (MS) demonstrates that proteins interacting with multiple RBPs in an RNA-dependent manner are enriched for RBPs. This motivated SONAR, a computational approach that predicts RNA binding activity by analyzing large-scale affinity precipitation-MS protein-protein interactomes. Without relying on sequence or structure information, SONAR identifies 1,923 human, 489 fly, and 745 yeast RBPs, including over 100 human candidate RBPs that contain zinc finger domains. Enhanced CLIP confirms RNA binding activity and identifies transcriptome-wide RNA binding sites for SONAR-predicted RBPs, revealing unexpected RNA binding activity for disease-relevant proteins and DNA binding proteins.

  4. A comprehensive Plasmodium falciparum protein interaction map reveals a distinct architecture of a core interactome

    PubMed Central

    Wuchty, Stefan; Adams, John H.; Ferdig, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    We derive a map of protein interactions in the parasite P. falciparum from conserved interactions in S. cerevisiae, C. elegans, D. melanogaster and E. coli and pool them with experimental interaction data. The application of a clique-percolation algorithm allows us to find overlapping clusters, strongly correlated with yeast specific conserved protein complexes. Such clusters contain core activities that govern gene expression, largely dominated by components of protein production and degradation processes as well as RNA metabolism. A critical role of protein hubs in the interactome of P. falciparum is supported by their appearance in multiple clusters and the tendencies of their interactions to reach into many distinct protein clusters. Parasite proteins with a human ortholog tend to appear in single complexes. Annotating each protein with the stage where it is maximally expressed we observe a high level of cluster integrity in the ring stage. While we find no signal in the trophozoite phase, expression patterns are reversed in the schizont phase, implying a preponderance of parasite specific functions in this late, invasive schizont stage. As such, the inference of potential protein interactions and their analysis contributes to our understanding of the parasite, indicating basic pathways and processes as unique targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:19333996

  5. Proteomic Analysis of the EWS-Fli-1 Interactome Reveals the Role of the Lysosome in EWS-Fli-1 Turnover.

    PubMed

    Elzi, David J; Song, Meihua; Hakala, Kevin; Weintraub, Susan T; Shiio, Yuzuru

    2014-08-01

    Ewing sarcoma is a cancer of bone and soft tissue in children that is characterized by a chromosomal translocation involving EWS and an Ets family transcription factor, most commonly Fli-1. EWS-Fli-1 fusion accounts for 85% of cases. The growth and survival of Ewing sarcoma cells are critically dependent on EWS-Fli-1. A large body of evidence has established that EWS-Fli-1 functions as a DNA-binding transcription factor that regulates the expression of a number of genes important for cell proliferation and transformation. However, little is known about the biochemical properties of the EWS-Fli-1 protein. We undertook a series of proteomic analyses to dissect the EWS-Fli-1 interactome. Employing a proximity-dependent biotinylation technique, BioID, we identified cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CIMPR) as a protein located in the vicinity of EWS-Fli-1 within a cell. CIMPR is a cargo that mediates the delivery of lysosomal hydrolases from the trans-Golgi network to the endosome, which are subsequently transferred to the lysosomes. Further molecular cell biological analyses uncovered a role for lysosomes in the turnover of the EWS-Fli-1 protein. We demonstrate that an mTORC1 active-site inhibitor, torin 1, which stimulates the TFEB-lysosome pathway, can induce the degradation of EWS-Fli-1, suggesting a potential therapeutic approach to target EWS-Fli-1 for degradation.

  6. Proteomic Analysis of the EWS-Fli-1 Interactome Reveals the Role of the Lysosome in EWS-Fli-1 Turnover

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma is a cancer of bone and soft tissue in children that is characterized by a chromosomal translocation involving EWS and an Ets family transcription factor, most commonly Fli-1. EWS-Fli-1 fusion accounts for 85% of cases. The growth and survival of Ewing sarcoma cells are critically dependent on EWS-Fli-1. A large body of evidence has established that EWS-Fli-1 functions as a DNA-binding transcription factor that regulates the expression of a number of genes important for cell proliferation and transformation. However, little is known about the biochemical properties of the EWS-Fli-1 protein. We undertook a series of proteomic analyses to dissect the EWS-Fli-1 interactome. Employing a proximity-dependent biotinylation technique, BioID, we identified cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CIMPR) as a protein located in the vicinity of EWS-Fli-1 within a cell. CIMPR is a cargo that mediates the delivery of lysosomal hydrolases from the trans-Golgi network to the endosome, which are subsequently transferred to the lysosomes. Further molecular cell biological analyses uncovered a role for lysosomes in the turnover of the EWS-Fli-1 protein. We demonstrate that an mTORC1 active-site inhibitor, torin 1, which stimulates the TFEB-lysosome pathway, can induce the degradation of EWS-Fli-1, suggesting a potential therapeutic approach to target EWS-Fli-1 for degradation. PMID:24999758

  7. SRC Homology 2 Domain Binding Sites in Insulin, IGF-1 and FGF receptor mediated signaling networks reveal an extensive potential interactome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Specific peptide ligand recognition by modular interaction domains is essential for the fidelity of information flow through the signal transduction networks that control cell behavior in response to extrinsic and intrinsic stimuli. Src homology 2 (SH2) domains recognize distinct phosphotyrosine peptide motifs, but the specific sites that are phosphorylated and the complement of available SH2 domains varies considerably in individual cell types. Such differences are the basis for a wide range of available protein interaction microstates from which signaling can evolve in highly divergent ways. This underlying complexity suggests the need to broadly map the signaling potential of systems as a prerequisite for understanding signaling in specific cell types as well as various pathologies that involve signal transduction such as cancer, developmental defects and metabolic disorders. This report describes interactions between SH2 domains and potential binding partners that comprise initial signaling downstream of activated fibroblast growth factor (FGF), insulin (Ins), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) receptors. A panel of 50 SH2 domains screened against a set of 192 phosphotyrosine peptides defines an extensive potential interactome while demonstrating the selectivity of individual SH2 domains. The interactions described confirm virtually all previously reported associations while describing a large set of potential novel interactions that imply additional complexity in the signaling networks initiated from activated receptors. This study of pTyr ligand binding by SH2 domains provides valuable insight into the selectivity that underpins complex signaling networks that are assembled using modular protein interaction domains. PMID:22974441

  8. Investigation of Cross-Species Translatability of Pharmacological MRI in Awake Nonhuman Primate - A Buprenorphine Challenge Study

    PubMed Central

    Seah, Stephanie; Asad, Abu Bakar Ali; Baumgartner, Richard; Feng, Dai; Williams, Donald S.; Manigbas, Elaine; Beaver, John D.; Reese, Torsten; Henry, Brian; Evelhoch, Jeffrey L.; Chin, Chih-Liang

    2014-01-01

    Background Pharmacological MRI (phMRI) is a neuroimaging technique where drug-induced hemodynamic responses can represent a pharmacodynamic biomarker to delineate underlying biological consequences of drug actions. In most preclinical studies, animals are anesthetized during image acquisition to minimize movement. However, it has been demonstrated anesthesia could attenuate basal neuronal activity, which can confound interpretation of drug-induced brain activation patterns. Significant efforts have been made to establish awake imaging in rodents and nonhuman primates (NHP). Whilst various platforms have been developed for imaging awake NHP, comparison and validation of phMRI data as translational biomarkers across species remain to be explored. Methodology We have established an awake NHP imaging model that encompasses comprehensive acclimation procedures with a dedicated animal restrainer. Using a cerebral blood volume (CBV)-based phMRI approach, we have determined differential responses of brain activation elicited by the systemic administration of buprenorphine (0.03 mg/kg i.v.), a partial µ-opioid receptor agonist, in the same animal under awake and anesthetized conditions. Additionally, region-of-interest analyses were performed to determine regional drug-induced CBV time-course data and corresponding area-under-curve (AUC) values from brain areas with high density of µ-opioid receptors. Principal Findings In awake NHPs, group-level analyses revealed buprenorphine significantly activated brain regions including, thalamus, striatum, frontal and cingulate cortices (paired t-test, versus saline vehicle, p<0.05, n = 4). This observation is strikingly consistent with µ-opioid receptor distribution depicted by [6-O-[11C]methyl]buprenorphine ([11C]BPN) positron emission tomography imaging study in baboons. Furthermore, our findings are consistent with previous buprenorphine phMRI studies in humans and conscious rats which collectively demonstrate the cross-species

  9. Expression profiling and cross-species RNA interference (RNAi) of desiccation-induced transcripts in the anhydrobiotic nematode Aphelenchus avenae

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Some organisms can survive extreme desiccation by entering a state of suspended animation known as anhydrobiosis. The free-living mycophagous nematode Aphelenchus avenae can be induced to enter anhydrobiosis by pre-exposure to moderate reductions in relative humidity (RH) prior to extreme desiccation. This preconditioning phase is thought to allow modification of the transcriptome by activation of genes required for desiccation tolerance. Results To identify such genes, a panel of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) enriched for sequences upregulated in A. avenae during preconditioning was created. A subset of 30 genes with significant matches in databases, together with a number of apparently novel sequences, were chosen for further study. Several of the recognisable genes are associated with water stress, encoding, for example, two new hydrophilic proteins related to the late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) protein family. Expression studies confirmed EST panel members to be upregulated by evaporative water loss, and the majority of genes was also induced by osmotic stress and cold, but rather fewer by heat. We attempted to use RNA interference (RNAi) to demonstrate the importance of this gene set for anhydrobiosis, but found A. avenae to be recalcitrant with the techniques used. Instead, therefore, we developed a cross-species RNAi procedure using A. avenae sequences in another anhydrobiotic nematode, Panagrolaimus superbus, which is amenable to gene silencing. Of 20 A. avenae ESTs screened, a significant reduction in survival of desiccation in treated P. superbus populations was observed with two sequences, one of which was novel, while the other encoded a glutathione peroxidase. To confirm a role for glutathione peroxidases in anhydrobiosis, RNAi with cognate sequences from P. superbus was performed and was also shown to reduce desiccation tolerance in this species. Conclusions This study has identified and characterised the expression profiles of members

  10. Right Place, Wrong Species: A 20-Year Review of Rabies Virus Cross Species Transmission among Terrestrial Mammals in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Ryan M.; Gilbert, Amy; Slate, Dennis; Chipman, Richard; Singh, Amber; Cassie Wedd; Blanton, Jesse D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In the continental US, four terrestrial mammalian species are reservoirs for seven antigenic rabies virus variants. Cross species transmission (CST) occurs when a rabies virus variant causes disease in non-reservoir species. Methods This study analyzed national surveillance data for rabies in terrestrial mammals. The CST rate was defined as: number of rabid non-reservoir animals/number of rabid reservoir animals. CST rates were analyzed for trend. Clusters of high CST rate counties were evaluated using space-time scanning statistics. Results The number of counties reporting a raccoon variant CST rate >1.0 increased from 75 in 1992 to 187 in 2011; counties with skunk variant CST rates >1.0 remained unchanged during the same period. As of 2011, for every rabid raccoon reported within the raccoon variant region, there were 0.73 cases of this variant reported in non-reservoir animals. Skunks were the most common non-reservoir animal reported with the raccoon rabies variant. Domestic animals were the most common non-reservoir animal diagnosed with a skunk rabies virus variant (n = 1,601). Cross species transmission rates increased fastest among domestic animals. Conclusions Cross species transmission of rabies virus variants into non-reservoir animals increases the risk of human exposures and threatens current advances toward rabies control. Cross species transmission in raccoon rabies enzootic regions increased dramatically during the study period. Pet owners should vaccinate their dogs and cats to ensure against CST, particularly in regions with active foci of rabies circulation. Clusters of high CST activity represent areas for further study to better understand interspecies disease transmission dynamics. Each CST event has the potential to result in a rabies virus adapted for sustained transmission in a new species; therefore further understanding of the dynamics of CST may help in early detection or prevention of the emergence of new terrestrial

  11. Functional interaction of nuclear domain 10 and its components with cytomegalovirus after infections: cross-species host cells versus native cells.

    PubMed

    Cosme, Ruth Cruz; Martínez, Francisco Puerta; Tang, Qiyi

    2011-04-28

    Species-specificity is one of the major characteristics of cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) and is the primary reason for the lack of a mouse model for the direct infection of human CMV (HCMV). It has been determined that CMV cross-species infections are blocked at the post-entry level by intrinsic cellular defense mechanisms, but few details are known. It is important to explore how CMVs interact with the subnuclear structure of the cross-species host cell. In our present study, we discovered that nuclear domain 10 (ND10) of human cells was not disrupted by murine CMV (MCMV) and that the ND10 of mouse cells was not disrupted by HCMV, although the ND10-disrupting protein, immediate-early protein 1 (IE1), also colocalized with ND10 in cross-species infections. In addition, we found that the UL131-repaired HCMV strain AD169 (vDW215-BADrUL131) can infect mouse cells to produce immediate-early (IE) and early (E) proteins but that neither DNA replication nor viral particles were detectable in mouse cells. Unrepaired AD169 can express IE1 only in mouse cells. In both HCMV-infected mouse cells and MCMV-infected human cells, the knocking-down of ND10 components (PML, Daxx, and SP100) resulted in significantly increased viral-protein production. Our observations provide evidence to support our hypothesis that ND10 and ND10 components might be important defensive factors against the CMV cross-species infection.

  12. Transcript profiling of two alfalfa genotypes with contrasting cell wall composition in stems using a cross-species platform: optimizing analysis by masking biased probes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The GeneChip® Medicago Genome Array, developed for Medicago truncatula, is a suitable platform for transcript profiling in tetraploid alfalfa [Medicago sativa (L.) subsp. sativa]. However, previous research involving cross-species hybridization (CSH) has shown that sequence variation between two species can bias transcript profiling by decreasing sensitivity (number of expressed genes detected) and the accuracy of measuring fold-differences in gene expression. Results Transcript profiling using the Medicago GeneChip® was conducted with elongating stem (ES) and post-elongation stem (PES) internodes from alfalfa genotypes 252 and 1283 that differ in stem cell wall concentrations of cellulose and lignin. A protocol was developed that masked probes targeting inter-species variable (ISV) regions of alfalfa transcripts. A probe signal intensity threshold was selected that optimized both sensitivity and accuracy. After masking for both ISV regions and previously identified single-feature polymorphisms (SFPs), the number of differentially expressed genes between the two genotypes in both ES and PES internodes was approximately 2-fold greater than the number detected prior to masking. Regulatory genes, including transcription factor and receptor kinase genes that may play a role in development of secondary xylem, were significantly over-represented among genes up-regulated in 252 PES internodes compared to 1283 PES internodes. Several cell wall-related genes were also up-regulated in genotype 252 PES internodes. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR of differentially expressed regulatory and cell wall-related genes demonstrated increased sensitivity and accuracy after masking for both ISV regions and SFPs. Over 1,000 genes that were differentially expressed in ES and PES internodes of genotypes 252 and 1283 were mapped onto putative orthologous loci on M. truncatula chromosomes. Clustering simulation analysis of the differentially expressed genes suggested co

  13. Identification and functional analysis of the BIM interactome; new clues on its possible involvement in Epstein-Barr Virus-associated diseases.

    PubMed

    Rouka, Erasmia; Kyriakou, Despoina

    2015-12-01

    Epigenetic deregulation is a common feature in the pathogenesis of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-related lymphomas and carcinomas. Previous studies have demonstrated a strong association between EBV latency in B-cells and epigenetic silencing of the tumor suppressor gene BIM. This study aimed to the construction and functional analysis of the BIM interactome in order to identify novel host genes that may be targeted by EBV. Fifty-nine unique interactors were found to compose the BIM gene network. Ontological analysis at the pathway level highlighted infectious diseases along with neuropathologies. These results underline the possible interplay between the BIM interactome and EBV-associated disorders.

  14. Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification Cross-Species Products of Mouse-Adapted Scrapie Strain 139A and Hamster-Adapted Scrapie Strain 263K with Brain and Muscle Tissues of Opposite Animals Generate Infectious Prions.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chen; Han, Jun; Zhang, Jin; Wei, Jing; Zhang, Bao-Yun; Tian, Chan; Zhang, Jie; Shi, Qi; Dong, Xiao-Ping

    2017-07-01

    Transmission of prions between mammalian species is limited by a "species barrier," a biological effect involving an increase in incubation period to decrease the percentage of animals succumbing to disease. In this study, we used protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) technique, which accelerates the conversion of prion proteins in vitro. Direct interspecies PMCA involving 144 cycles confirmed that both mouse-adapted scrapie strain 139A and hamster-adapted 263K could use brain homogenates of opposite species to form proteinase K (PK)-resistant PrP proteins (PrP(res)). Newly formed interspecies prions could stably propagate themselves in subsequent serial PMCA passages. The two types of PMCA-generated cross-species PrP(res) changed their glycosylation profiles, which was similar to that observed during interspecies infection by the mouse agent 139A in vivo. These profiles were distinct from individual seeded PrP(Sc) and possessed properties of new hosts. Comparative analysis with respect to PK resistance showed no significant diversity between PMCA-PrP(res) and native PrP(Sc) or between brain and muscle PrP(res). However, PrP(res) from the relatively early cycles of serial PMCA showed lower PK resistance than those from later cycles. Inoculation of these PMCA products amplified with homogeneous or heterogeneous brain tissues (cross-species products) induced experimental transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. These results suggested that PMCA can help prion strains to overcome species barrier and to propagate efficiently both in vitro and in vivo.

  15. Interactomes to Biological Phase Space: a call to begin thinking at a new level in computational biology.

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, George S.; Brown, William Michael

    2007-09-01

    Techniques for high throughput determinations of interactomes, together with high resolution protein collocalizations maps within organelles and through membranes will soon create a vast resource. With these data, biological descriptions, akin to the high dimensional phase spaces familiar to physicists, will become possible. These descriptions will capture sufficient information to make possible realistic, system-level models of cells. The descriptions and the computational models they enable will require powerful computing techniques. This report is offered as a call to the computational biology community to begin thinking at this scale and as a challenge to develop the required algorithms and codes to make use of the new data.3

  16. Open to Suggestion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Reading, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Offers (1) suggestions for improving college students' study skills; (2) a system for keeping track of parent, teacher, and community contacts; (3) suggestions for motivating students using tic tac toe; (4) suggestions for using etymology to improve word retention; (5) a word search grid; and (6) suggestions for using postcards in remedial reading…

  17. Expanding the Interactome of the Noncanonical NF-κB Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Willmann, Katharina L.; Krolo, Ana; Knapp, Sylvia; Bennett, Keiryn L.; Boztug, Kaan

    2017-01-01

    NF-κB signaling is a central pathway of immunity and integrates signal transduction upon a wide array of inflammatory stimuli. Noncanonical NF-κB signaling is activated by a small subset of TNF family receptors and characterized by NF-κB2/p52 transcriptional activity. The medical relevance of this pathway has recently re-emerged from the discovery of primary immunodeficiency patients that have loss-of-function mutations in the MAP3K14 gene encoding NIK. Nevertheless, knowledge of protein interactions that regulate noncanonical NF-κB signaling is sparse. Here we report a detailed state-of-the-art mass spectrometry-based protein−protein interaction network including the non-canonical NF-κB signaling nodes TRAF2, TRAF3, IKKα, NIK, and NF-κB2/p100. The value of the data set was confirmed by the identification of interactions already known to regulate this pathway. In addition, a remarkable number of novel interactors were identified. We provide validation of the novel NIK and IKKα interactor FKBP8, which may regulate processes downstream of noncanonical NF-κB signaling. To understand perturbed noncanonical NF-κB signaling in the context of misregulated NIK in disease, we also provide a differential interactome of NIK mutants that cause immunodeficiency. Altogether, this data set not only provides critical insight into how protein−protein interactions can regulate immune signaling but also offers a novel resource on noncanonical NF-κB signaling. PMID:27416764

  18. A Tumorigenic Factor Interactome Connected Through Tumor Suppressor MicroRNA-198 in Human Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Marin-Muller, Christian; Li, Dali; Bharadwaj, Uddalak; Li, Min; Chen, Changyi; Hodges, Sally E.; Fisher, William E.; Mo, Qianxing; Hung, Mien-Chie; Yao, Qizhi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The majority of pancreatic cancers (PCs) overexpress mesothelin (MSLN), which contributes to enhanced proliferation, invasion and migration. However, the MSLN regulatory network is still unclear. Here, we investigated the regulation of a panel of tumorigenic factors, and explored the potential of MSLN regulated miR-198 treatment in vivo. Experimental Design The expression and functional regulation of the tumorigenic factors MSLN, NF-κB, and the homeobox transcription factors (TFs) POU2F2 (OCT-2), Pre-B-cell leukemia homeobox factor 1 (PBX-1), valosin-containing protein (VCP), and miR-198 were studied in PC cell lines, patient tumor samples and in xenograft PC mouse models. Results We found that miR-198 is downregulated in PC and is involved in an intricate reciprocal regulatory loop with MSLN, which represses miR-198 through NF-κB-mediated OCT-2 induction. Furthermore, miR-198 repression leads to overexpression of PBX-1 and VCP. The dysregulated PBX-1/VCP axis leads to increased tumorigenicity. Reconstitution of miR-198 in PC cells results in reduced tumor growth, metastasis, and increased survival through direct targeting MSLN, PBX-1, and VCP. Most interestingly, reduced levels of miR-198 in human tissue samples are associated with upregulation of these tumorigenic factors (MSLN, OCT-2, PBX-1, VCP) and predict poor survival. Reduced miR-198 expression links this tumor network signature and prognosticates poor patient outcome. High miR-198 disrupts the network and predicts better prognosis and increased survival. Conclusions MiR-198 acts as a central tumor suppressor and modulates the molecular makeup of a critical interactome in PC, indicating a potential prognostic marker signature and the therapeutic potential of attacking this tumorigenic network through a central vantage point. PMID:23989979

  19. An affinity pull-down approach to identify the plant cyclic nucleotide interactome.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Lara; Meier, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Cyclic nucleotides (CNs) are intracellular second messengers that play an important role in mediating physiological responses to environmental and developmental signals, in species ranging from bacteria to humans. In response to these signals, CNs are synthesized by nucleotidyl cyclases and then act by binding to and altering the activity of downstream target proteins known as cyclic nucleotide-binding proteins (CNBPs). A number of CNBPs have been identified across kingdoms including transcription factors, protein kinases, phosphodiesterases, and channels, all of which harbor conserved CN-binding domains. In plants however, few CNBPs have been identified as homology searches fail to return plant sequences with significant matches to known CNBPs. Recently, affinity pull-down techniques have been successfully used to identify CNBPs in animals and have provided new insights into CN signaling. The application of these techniques to plants has not yet been extensively explored and offers an alternative approach toward the unbiased discovery of novel CNBP candidates in plants. Here, an affinity pull-down technique for the identification of the plant CN interactome is presented. In summary, the method involves an extraction of plant proteins which is incubated with a CN-bait, followed by a series of increasingly stringent elutions that eliminates proteins in a sequential manner according to their affinity to the bait. The eluted and bait-bound proteins are separated by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis, excised, and digested with trypsin after which the resultant peptides are identified by mass spectrometry-techniques that are commonplace in proteomics experiments. The discovery of plant CNBPs promises to provide valuable insight into the mechanism of CN signal transduction in plants.

  20. Applying systems-level spectral imaging and analysis to reveal the organelle interactome.

    PubMed

    Valm, Alex M; Cohen, Sarah; Legant, Wesley R; Melunis, Justin; Hershberg, Uri; Wait, Eric; Cohen, Andrew R; Davidson, Michael W; Betzig, Eric; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer

    2017-06-01

    The organization of the eukaryotic cell into discrete membrane-bound organelles allows for the separation of incompatible biochemical processes, but the activities of these organelles must be coordinated. For example, lipid metabolism is distributed between the endoplasmic reticulum for lipid synthesis, lipid droplets for storage and transport, mitochondria and peroxisomes for β-oxidation, and lysosomes for lipid hydrolysis and recycling. It is increasingly recognized that organelle contacts have a vital role in diverse cellular functions. However, the spatial and temporal organization of organelles within the cell remains poorly characterized, as fluorescence imaging approaches are limited in the number of different labels that can be distinguished in a single image. Here we present a systems-level analysis of the organelle interactome using a multispectral image acquisition method that overcomes the challenge of spectral overlap in the fluorescent protein palette. We used confocal and lattice light sheet instrumentation and an imaging informatics pipeline of five steps to achieve mapping of organelle numbers, volumes, speeds, positions and dynamic inter-organelle contacts in live cells from a monkey fibroblast cell line. We describe the frequency and locality of two-, three-, four- and five-way interactions among six different membrane-bound organelles (endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi, lysosome, peroxisome, mitochondria and lipid droplet) and show how these relationships change over time. We demonstrate that each organelle has a characteristic distribution and dispersion pattern in three-dimensional space and that there is a reproducible pattern of contacts among the six organelles, that is affected by microtubule and cell nutrient status. These live-cell confocal and lattice light sheet spectral imaging approaches are applicable to any cell system expressing multiple fluorescent probes, whether in normal conditions or when cells are exposed to disturbances such as

  1. Defining the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger NHE1 interactome in triple-negative breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Amith, Schammim Ray; Vincent, Krista Marie; Wilkinson, Jodi Marie; Postovit, Lynne Marie; Fliegel, Larry

    2017-01-01

    Mounting evidence supports a major role for the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger NHE1 in cancer progression and metastasis. NHE1 is hyperactive at the onset of oncogenic transformation, resulting in intracellular alkalinization and extracellular microenvironmental acidification. These conditions promote invasion and facilitate metastasis. However, the signal pathways governing the regulation of exchanger activity are still unclear. This is especially important in the aggressively metastatic, triple-negative basal breast cancer subtype. We used affinity chromatography followed by mass spectrometry to identify novel and putative interaction partners of NHE1 in MDA-MB-231 triple-negative breast cancer cells. NHE1 associated with several types of proteins including cytoskeletal proteins and chaperones. We validated protein interactions by co-immunoprecipitation for: 14-3-3, AKT, α-enolase, CHP1, HSP70 and HSP90. Additionally, we used The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) to study NHE1 gene expression in primary patient breast tumours versus adjacent normal tissue. NHE1 expression was elevated in breast tumour samples and, when broken down by breast cancer subtype, NHE1 gene expression was significantly lower in tumours of the basal subtype compared to luminal and HER2+ subtypes. Reverse phase protein array (RPPA) analysis showed that NHE1 expression positively correlated with p90(RSK) expression in basal, but not luminal, primary tumours. Other proteins were negatively correlated with NHE1 expression in basal breast cancer tumours. Taken together, our data provides the first insight into the signalling molecules that form the NHE1 interactome in triple-negative breast cancer cells. These results will focus our search for novel targeted therapies.

  2. Heterogeneous interactome between Litopenaeus vannamei plasma proteins and Vibrio parahaemolyticus outer membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiang; She, Xin-Tao; Zhu, Qing-Feng; Li, Hui; Peng, Xuan-Xian

    2013-01-01

    A great loss has been suffered by microbial infectious diseases under intensive shrimp farming in recent years. In this background, the understanding of shrimp innate immunity becomes an importantly scientific issue, but little is known about the heterogeneous protein-protein interaction between pathogenic cells and hosts, which is a key step for the invading microbes to infect internet organs through bloodstream. In the present study, bacterial outer membrane (OM) protein array and pull-down approaches are used to isolate both Vibrio parahaemolyticus OM proteins that bind to shrimp serum proteins and the shrimp serum proteins that interact with bacterial cells, respectively. Three interacting shrimp serum proteins, hemocyanin, β-1,3-glucan binding protein and LV_HP_RA36F08r and thirty interacting OM proteins were determined. They form 63 heterogeneous protein-protein interactions. Nine out of the 30 OM proteins were randomly demonstrated to be up-regulated or down-regulated when bacterial cells were cultured with shrimp sera, indicating the biological significance of the network. The interesting findings uncover the complexity of struggle between host immunity and bacterial infection. Compared with our previous report on heterogeneous interactome between fish grill and bacterial OM proteins, the present study further extends the investigation from lower vertebrates to invertebrates and develops a bacterial OM protein array to identify the OM proteins bound with shrimp serum proteins, which elevates the frequencies of the bound OM proteins. Our results highlight the way to determine and understand the heterogeneous interaction between hosts and microbes.

  3. M-Finder: Uncovering functionally associated proteins from interactome data integrated with GO annotations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) play a key role in understanding the mechanisms of cellular processes. The availability of interactome data has catalyzed the development of computational approaches to elucidate functional behaviors of proteins on a system level. Gene Ontology (GO) and its annotations are a significant resource for functional characterization of proteins. Because of wide coverage, GO data have often been adopted as a benchmark for protein function prediction on the genomic scale. Results We propose a computational approach, called M-Finder, for functional association pattern mining. This method employs semantic analytics to integrate the genome-wide PPIs with GO data. We also introduce an interactive web application tool that visualizes a functional association network linked to a protein specified by a user. The proposed approach comprises two major components. First, the PPIs that have been generated by high-throughput methods are weighted in terms of their functional consistency using GO and its annotations. We assess two advanced semantic similarity metrics which quantify the functional association level of each interacting protein pair. We demonstrate that these measures outperform the other existing methods by evaluating their agreement to other biological features, such as sequence similarity, the presence of common Pfam domains, and core PPIs. Second, the information flow-based algorithm is employed to discover a set of proteins functionally associated with the protein in a query and their links efficiently. This algorithm reconstructs a functional association network of the query protein. The output network size can be flexibly determined by parameters. Conclusions M-Finder provides a useful framework to investigate functional association patterns with any protein. This software will also allow users to perform further systematic analysis of a set of proteins for any specific function. It is available online at http

  4. Exploring a structural protein-drug interactome for new therapeutics in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xiaodong; Wang, Fang; Li, Liwei; Bum-Erdene, Khuchtumur; Xu, David; Wang, Bo; Sinn, Anthony A; Pollok, Karen E; Sandusky, George E; Li, Lang; Turchi, John J; Jalal, Shadia I; Meroueh, Samy O

    2014-03-04

    The pharmacology of drugs is often defined by more than one protein target. This property can be exploited to use approved drugs to uncover new targets and signaling pathways in cancer. Towards enabling a rational approach to uncover new targets, we expand a structural protein-ligand interactome () by scoring the interaction among 1000 FDA-approved drugs docked to 2500 pockets on protein structures of the human genome. This afforded a drug-target network whose properties compared favorably with previous networks constructed using experimental data. Among drugs with the highest degree and betweenness two are cancer drugs and one is currently used for treatment of lung cancer. Comparison of predicted cancer and non-cancer targets reveals that the most cancer-specific compounds were also the most selective compounds. Analysis of compound flexibility, hydrophobicity, and size showed that the most selective compounds were low molecular weight fragment-like heterocycles. We use a previously-developed screening approach using the cancer drug erlotinib as a template to screen other approved drugs that mimic its properties. Among the top 12 ranking candidates, four are cancer drugs, two of them kinase inhibitors (like erlotinib). Cellular studies using non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells revealed that several drugs inhibited lung cancer cell proliferation. We mined patient records at the Regenstrief Medical Record System to explore the possible association of exposure to three of these drugs with occurrence of lung cancer. Preliminary in vivo studies using the non-small cell lung cancer (NCLSC) xenograft model showed that losartan- and astemizole-treated mice had tumors that weighed 50 (p < 0.01) and 15 (p < 0.01) percent less than the treated controls. These results set the stage for further exploration of these drugs and to uncover new drugs for lung cancer therapy.

  5. Mapping the in vitro interactome of cardiac sodium (Na(+) )-calcium (Ca(2+) ) exchanger 1 (NCX1).

    PubMed

    Lubelwana Hafver, Tandekile; Wanichawan, Pimthanya; Manfra, Ornella; de Souza, Gustavo Antonio; Lunde, Marianne; Martinsen, Marita; Louch, William Edward; Sejersted, Ole Mathias; Carlson, Cathrine Rein

    2017-09-01

    The sodium (Na(+) )-calcium (Ca(2+) ) exchanger 1 (NCX1) is an antiporter membrane protein encoded by the SLC8A1 gene. In the heart, it maintains cytosolic Ca(2+) homeostasis, serving as the primary mechanism for Ca(2+) extrusion during relaxation. Dysregulation of NCX1 is observed in end-stage human heart failure. In this study, we used affinity purification coupled with MS in rat left ventricle lysates to identify novel NCX1 interacting proteins in the heart. Two screens were conducted using: (1) anti-NCX1 against endogenous NCX1 and (2) anti-His (where His is histidine) with His-trigger factor-NCX1cyt recombinant protein as bait. The respective methods identified 112 and 350 protein partners, of which several were known NCX1 partners from the literature, and 29 occurred in both screens. Ten novel protein partners (DYRK1A, PPP2R2A, SNTB1, DMD, RABGGTA, DNAJB4, BAG3, PDE3A, POPDC2, STK39) were validated for binding to NCX1, and two partners (DYRK1A, SNTB1) increased NCX1 activity when expressed in HEK293 cells. A cardiac NCX1 protein-protein interaction map was constructed. The map was highly connected, containing distinct clusters of proteins with different biological functions, where "cell communication" and "signal transduction" formed the largest clusters. The NCX1 interactome was also significantly enriched with proteins/genes involved in "cardiovascular disease" which can be explored as novel drug targets in future research. © 2017 The Authors. Proteomics Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Visualisation and graph-theoretic analysis of a large-scale protein structural interactome

    PubMed Central

    Bolser, Dan; Dafas, Panos; Harrington, Richard; Park, Jong; Schroeder, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Background Large-scale protein interaction maps provide a new, global perspective with which to analyse protein function. PSIMAP, the Protein Structural Interactome Map, is a database of all the structurally observed interactions between superfamilies of protein domains with known three-dimensional structure in the PDB. PSIMAP incorporates both functional and evolutionary information into a single network. Results We present a global analysis of PSIMAP using several distinct network measures relating to centrality, interactivity, fault-tolerance, and taxonomic diversity. We found the following results: Centrality: we show that the center and barycenter of PSIMAP do not coincide, and that the superfamilies forming the barycenter relate to very general functions, while those constituting the center relate to enzymatic activity. Interactivity: we identify the P-loop and immunoglobulin superfamilies as the most highly interactive. We successfully use connectivity and cluster index, which characterise the connectivity of a superfamily's neighbourhood, to discover superfamilies of complex I and II. This is particularly significant as the structure of complex I is not yet solved. Taxonomic diversity: we found that highly interactive superfamilies are in general taxonomically very diverse and are thus amongst the oldest. Fault-tolerance: we found that the network is very robust as for the majority of superfamilies removal from the network will not break up the network. Conclusions Overall, we can single out the P-loop containing nucleotide triphosphate hydrolases superfamily as it is the most highly connected and has the highest taxonomic diversity. In addition, this superfamily has the highest interaction rank, is the barycenter of the network (it has the shortest average path to every other superfamily in the network), and is an articulation vertex, whose removal will disconnect the network. More generally, we conclude that the graph-theoretic and taxonomic analysis of

  7. Angiogenic growth factors interactome and drug discovery: The contribution of surface plasmon resonance.

    PubMed

    Rusnati, Marco; Presta, Marco

    2015-06-01

    Angiogenesis is implicated in several pathological conditions, including cancer, and in regenerative processes, including the formation of collateral blood vessels after stroke. Physiological angiogenesis is the outcome of a fine balance between the action of angiogenic growth factors (AGFs) and anti-angiogenic molecules, while pathological angiogenesis occurs when this balance is pushed toward AGFs. AGFs interact with multiple endothelial cell (EC) surface receptors inducing cell proliferation, migration and proteases upregulation. On the contrary, free or extracellular matrix-associated molecules inhibit angiogenesis by sequestering AGFs (thus hampering EC stimulation) or by interacting with specific EC receptors inducing apoptosis or decreasing responsiveness to AGFs. Thus, angiogenesis results from an intricate network of interactions among pro- and anti-angiogenic molecules, EC receptors and various modulators. All these interactions represent targets for the development of pro- or anti-angiogenic therapies. These aims call for suitable technologies to study the countless interactions occurring during neovascularization. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is a label-free optical technique to study biomolecular interactions in real time. It has become the golden standard technology for interaction analysis in biomedical research, including angiogenesis. From a survey of the literature it emerges that SPR has already contributed substantially to the better understanding of the neovascularization process, laying the basis for the decoding of the angiogenesis "interactome" and the identification of "hub molecules" that may represent preferential targets for an efficacious modulation of angiogenesis. Here, the still unexploited full potential of SPR is enlightened, pointing to improvements in its use for a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of neovascularization and the identification of novel anti-angiogenic drugs.

  8. Suicidality and interrogative suggestibility.

    PubMed

    Pritchard-Boone, Lea; Range, Lillian M

    2005-01-01

    All people are subject to memory suggestibility, but suicidal individuals may be especially so. The link between suicidality and suggestibility is unclear given mixed findings and methodological weaknesses of past research. To test the link between suicidality and interrogative suggestibility, 149 undergraduates answered questions about suicidal thoughts and reasons for living, and participated in a direct suggestibility procedure. As expected, suggestibility correlated with suicidality but accounted for little overall variance (4%). Mental health professionals might be able to take advantage of client suggestibility by directly telling suicidal persons to refrain from suicidal thoughts or actions.

  9. The Life of Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Cathie

    2010-01-01

    Using the notion of a suggestion, or rather charting the life of suggestions, this article conside