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Sample records for suicidal behavior integrating

  1. Suicide and Suicidal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Nock, Matthew K.; Borges, Guilherme; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Cha, Christine B.; Kessler, Ronald C.; Lee, Sing

    2008-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is a leading cause of injury and death worldwide. Information about the epidemiology of such behavior is important for policy-making and prevention. The authors reviewed government data on suicide and suicidal behavior and conducted a systematic review of studies on the epidemiology of suicide published from 1997 to 2007. The authors' aims were to examine the prevalence of, trends in, and risk and protective factors for suicidal behavior in the United States and cross-nationally. The data revealed significant cross-national variability in the prevalence of suicidal behavior but consistency in age of onset, transition probabilities, and key risk factors. Suicide is more prevalent among men, whereas nonfatal suicidal behaviors are more prevalent among women and persons who are young, are unmarried, or have a psychiatric disorder. Despite an increase in the treatment of suicidal persons over the past decade, incidence rates of suicidal behavior have remained largely unchanged. Most epidemiologic research on suicidal behavior has focused on patterns and correlates of prevalence. The next generation of studies must examine synergistic effects among modifiable risk and protective factors. New studies must incorporate recent advances in survey methods and clinical assessment. Results should be used in ongoing efforts to decrease the significant loss of life caused by suicidal behavior. PMID:18653727

  2. Suicide and suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Nock, Matthew K; Borges, Guilherme; Bromet, Evelyn J; Cha, Christine B; Kessler, Ronald C; Lee, Sing

    2008-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is a leading cause of injury and death worldwide. Information about the epidemiology of such behavior is important for policy-making and prevention. The authors reviewed government data on suicide and suicidal behavior and conducted a systematic review of studies on the epidemiology of suicide published from 1997 to 2007. The authors' aims were to examine the prevalence of, trends in, and risk and protective factors for suicidal behavior in the United States and cross-nationally. The data revealed significant cross-national variability in the prevalence of suicidal behavior but consistency in age of onset, transition probabilities, and key risk factors. Suicide is more prevalent among men, whereas nonfatal suicidal behaviors are more prevalent among women and persons who are young, are unmarried, or have a psychiatric disorder. Despite an increase in the treatment of suicidal persons over the past decade, incidence rates of suicidal behavior have remained largely unchanged. Most epidemiologic research on suicidal behavior has focused on patterns and correlates of prevalence. The next generation of studies must examine synergistic effects among modifiable risk and protective factors. New studies must incorporate recent advances in survey methods and clinical assessment. Results should be used in ongoing efforts to decrease the significant loss of life caused by suicidal behavior.

  3. Adolescent Suicide and Suicidal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Goldstein, Tina R.; Brent, David A.

    2006-01-01

    This review examines the descriptive epidemiology, and risk and protective factors for youth suicide and suicidal behavior. A model of youth suicidal behavior is articulated, whereby suicidal behavior ensues as a result of an interaction of socio-cultural, developmental, psychiatric, psychological, and family-environmental factors. On the basis of…

  4. Adolescent Suicide and Suicidal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Goldstein, Tina R.; Brent, David A.

    2006-01-01

    This review examines the descriptive epidemiology, and risk and protective factors for youth suicide and suicidal behavior. A model of youth suicidal behavior is articulated, whereby suicidal behavior ensues as a result of an interaction of socio-cultural, developmental, psychiatric, psychological, and family-environmental factors. On the basis of…

  5. An Investigation of the Relationship Between Rumination Styles, Hope, and Suicide Ideation Through the Lens of the Integrated Motivational-Volitional Model of Suicidal Behavior.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Raymond P; O'Connor, Rory C; Wingate, LaRicka R

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the roles specific ruminative styles (brooding and reflection) and hope play in the Integrated Motivational-Volitional (IMV) model of suicidal behavior. Participants were students from a large U.S. state university who were selectively sampled for the experience of recent suicide ideation. Results of a bootstrapped moderated mediation model indicated that defeat had a direct effect on suicide ideation but not an indirect effect on suicide ideation through entrapment. Brooding, but not reflection, strengthened the relationship between defeat and entrapment. Hope weakened the relationship between entrapment and suicide ideation. Implications for the assessment and treatment of suicide risk and future research directions are discussed.

  6. Prevention of suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Hegerl, Ulrich

    2016-06-01

    More than 800 000 people die every year from suicide, and about 20 times more attempt suicide. In most countries, suicide risk is highest in older males, and risk of attempted suicide is highest in younger females. The higher lethal level of suicidal acts in males is explained by the preference for more lethal methods, as well as other factors. In the vast majority of cases, suicidal behavior occurs in the context of psychiatric disorders, depression being the most important one. Improving the treatment of depression, restricting access to lethal means, and avoiding the Werther effect (imitation suicide) are central aspects of suicide prevention programs. In several European regions, the four-level intervention concept of the European Alliance Against Depression (www.EAAD.net), simultaneously targeting depression and suicidal behavior, has been found to have preventive effects on suicidal behavior. It has already been implemented in more than 100 regions in Europe.

  7. Prevention of suicidal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hegerl, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    More than 800 000 people die every year from suicide, and about 20 times more attempt suicide. In most countries, suicide risk is highest in older males, and risk of attempted suicide is highest in younger females. The higher lethal level of suicidal acts in males is explained by the preference for more lethal methods, as well as other factors. In the vast majority of cases, suicidal behavior occurs in the context of psychiatric disorders, depression being the most important one. Improving the treatment of depression, restricting access to lethal means, and avoiding the Werther effect (imitation suicide) are central aspects of suicide prevention programs. In several European regions, the four-level intervention concept of the European Alliance Against Depression (www.EAAD.net), simultaneously targeting depression and suicidal behavior, has been found to have preventive effects on suicidal behavior. It has already been implemented in more than 100 regions in Europe. PMID:27489458

  8. A pilot integrative genomics study of GABA and glutamate neurotransmitter systems in suicide, suicidal behavior, and major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Yin, Honglei; Pantazatos, Spiro P; Galfalvy, Hanga; Huang, Yung-yu; Rosoklija, Gorazd B; Dwork, Andrew J; Burke, Ainsley; Arango, Victoria; Oquendo, Maria A; Mann, Joseph John

    2016-04-01

    Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) and glutamate are the major inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitters in the mammalian central nervous system, respectively, and have been associated with suicidal behavior and major depressive disorder (MDD). We examined the relationship between genotype, brain transcriptome, and MDD/suicide for 24 genes involved in GABAergic and glutamatergic signaling. In part 1 of the study, 119 candidate SNPs in 24 genes (4 transporters, 4 enzymes, and 16 receptors) were tested for associations with MDD and suicidal behavior in 276 live participants (86 nonfatal suicide attempters with MDD and 190 non-attempters of whom 70% had MDD) and 209 postmortem cases (121 suicide deaths of whom 62% had MDD and 88 sudden death from other causes of whom 11% had MDD) using logistic regression adjusting for sex and age. In part 2, RNA-seq was used to assay isoform-level expression in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of 59 postmortem samples (21 with MDD and suicide, 9 MDD without suicide, and 29 sudden death non-suicides and no psychiatric illness) using robust regression adjusting for sex, age, and RIN score. In part 3, SNPs with subthreshold (uncorrected) significance levels below 0.05 for an association with suicidal behavior and/or MDD in part 1 were tested for eQTL effects in prefrontal cortex using the Brain eQTL Almanac (www.braineac.org). No SNPs or transcripts were significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. However, a protein coding transcript (ENST00000414552) of the GABA A receptor, gamma 2 (GABRG2) had lower brain expression postmortem in suicide (P = 0.01) and evidence for association with suicide death (P = 0.03) in a SNP that may be an eQTL in prefrontal cortex (rs424740, P = 0.02). These preliminary results implicate GABRG2 in suicide and warrant further investigation and replication in larger samples.

  9. Alcohol and suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Hufford, M R

    2001-07-01

    Alcohol dependence and alcohol intoxication are important risk factors for suicidal behavior. However, the mechanism for the relationship remains unclear. This review presents a conceptual framework relating alcohol to suicidal behavior. Distal risk factors create a statistical potential for suicide. Alcohol dependence, as well as associated comorbid psychopathology and negative life events, act as distal risk factors for suicidal behavior. Proximal risk factors determine the timing of suicidal behavior by translating the statistical potential of distal risk factors into action. The acute effects of alcohol intoxication act as important proximal risk factors for suicidal behavior among the alcoholic and nonalcoholic alike. Mechanisms responsible for alcohol's ability to increase the proximal risk for suicidal behavior include alcohol's ability to: (1) increase psychological distress, (2) increase aggressiveness, (3) propel suicidal ideation into action through suicide-specific alcohol expectancies, and (4) constrict cognition which impairs the generation and implementation of alternative coping strategies. Moreover, the proximal risk factors associated with acute intoxication are consistent with Baumeister's (1990) escape theory of suicide. Suggestions for additional research are discussed, including the possibility that a nonlinear cusp catastrophe model characterizes the relationship between alcohol intoxication and suicidal behavior.

  10. Epidemiology of Youth Suicide and Suicidal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Cash, Scottye J.; Bridge, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of Review Suicide is the third leading cause of death among young people in the U.S. and represents a significant public health problem worldwide. This review focuses on recent developments in our understanding of the epidemiology and risk factors for adolescent suicide and suicidal behavior. Recent Findings The suicide rate among children and adolescents in the U.S. has increased dramatically in recent years and has been accompanied by substantial changes in the leading methods of youth suicide, especially among young girls. Much work is currently underway to elucidate the relationships between psychopathology, substance use, child abuse, bullying, internet use, and youth suicidal behavior. Recent evidence also suggests sex-specific and moderating roles of gender in influencing risk for suicide and suicidal behavior. Summary Empirical research into the causal mechanisms underlying youth suicide and suicidal behavior is needed to inform early identification and prevention efforts. PMID:19644372

  11. Epidemiology of youth suicide and suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Cash, Scottye J; Bridge, Jeffrey A

    2009-10-01

    Suicide is the third leading cause of death among young people in the U.S. and represents a significant public health problem worldwide. This review focuses on recent developments in our understanding of the epidemiology and risk factors for adolescent suicide and suicidal behavior. The suicide rate among children and adolescents in the U.S. has increased dramatically in recent years and has been accompanied by substantial changes in the leading methods of youth suicide, especially among young girls. Much work is currently underway to elucidate the relationships between psychopathology, substance use, child abuse, bullying, internet use, and youth suicidal behavior. Recent evidence also suggests sex-specific and moderating roles of sex in influencing risk for suicide and suicidal behavior. Empirical research into the causal mechanisms underlying youth suicide and suicidal behavior is needed to inform early identification and prevention efforts.

  12. Family-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Treatments for Suicidal Adolescents and their Integration with Individual Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Karen C.; Heilbron, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    A considerable research base underscores the importance of family functioning in the risk for and treatment of adolescent suicidal thoughts and behaviors. This paper reviews the extant empirical literature documenting associations between features of the family context and adolescent suicidal thoughts and behaviors. A case example is provided to…

  13. Family-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Treatments for Suicidal Adolescents and their Integration with Individual Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Karen C.; Heilbron, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    A considerable research base underscores the importance of family functioning in the risk for and treatment of adolescent suicidal thoughts and behaviors. This paper reviews the extant empirical literature documenting associations between features of the family context and adolescent suicidal thoughts and behaviors. A case example is provided to…

  14. Epidemiology of suicidal behavior among Korean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Juon, H S; Nam, J J; Ensminger, M E

    1994-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of suicidal behaviors and their relation to background characteristics, social integration, academic stress, psychological distress, and substance use in a stratified random sample of 9886 high school students in Korea. In a multiple logistic regression, we found that depression was the strongest predictor of suicidal behaviors. The other factors significantly associated with suicidal behaviors were gender, academic stress, hostility and substance use. These results indicate that early identification of risk factors for suicidal behaviors may have potential for reducing possible future suicides.

  15. Suicidal behavior and assisted suicide in dementia.

    PubMed

    Draper, Brian M

    2015-10-01

    Concerns about suicide risk in people with dementia have been increasing in recent years along with a discourse about rational suicide and assisted suicide. A systematic narrative literature review of suicidal behavior and assisted suicide in persons with dementia. Most studies that have examined the spectrum of suicidal ideation, attempted suicide and suicide in dementia have methodological limitations but the overall suicide risk does not appear to be increased. When suicidal behavior does occur, common themes include the presence of psychiatric comorbidity, mainly depression; occurrence early in the dementia course with preserved insight and capacity; and an increased risk in younger people. The emerging discourse on rational and assisted suicide has been spurred by early and pre-symptomatic diagnosis and poses a number of ethical challenges for clinicians including the role of proxy decision-makers. Although dementia might not confer a significant overall risk for suicidal behavior, clinicians still need to consider the potential for suicide in vulnerable individuals particularly early in the dementia course.

  16. Biological basis of suicide and suicidal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Ghanshyam N

    2013-01-01

    Objective Suicide is a major public health concern as each year 30,000 people die by suicide in the US alone. In the teenage population, it is the second leading cause of death. There have been extensive studies of psychosocial factors associated with suicide and suicidal behavior. However, very little is known about the neurobiology of suicide. Recent research has provided some understanding of the neurobiology of suicide, which is the topic of this review. Methods Neurobiology of suicide has been studied using peripheral tissues, such as platelets, lymphocytes, and cerebral spinal fluid obtained from suicidal patients or from the postmortem brains of suicide victims. Results These studies have provided encouraging information with regard to the neurobiology of suicide. They show an abnormality of serotonergic mechanism, such as increased serotonin receptor subtypes and decreased serotonin metabolites, such as 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid. These studies also suggest abnormalities of receptor-linked signaling mechanisms, such as phosphoinositide and adenylyl cyclase signaling mechanisms. Other biological systems that appear to be dysregulated in suicide are the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and abnormalities of neurotrophins and neurotrophin receptors. More recently, several studies also indicate abnormalities of neuroimmune functions in suicide. Conclusions These studies have been discussed in detail in the following review. Some encouraging information has emerged, primarily related to some of these neurobiological mechanisms. It is hoped that neurobiological studies may eventually result in identifying appropriate biomarkers for suicidal behavior as well as appropriate therapeutic targets for its treatment. PMID:23773657

  17. Suicidal behavior in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Rajiv

    2005-01-01

    There is a high prevalence of suicidal behavior in individuals suffering from schizophrenia and recent investigations substantially elucidate this problem and provide useful insights about clinical risk factors, neurobiologic underpinnings and the impact of various treatments on reducing such behavior. The risk of suicide is greatest early in the course of schizophrenic illness but continues throughout life; risk factors for suicidal behavior include psychosis, depression and substance abuse. Effectively treating positive symptoms and depression, reducing substance abuse, avoiding akathisia, addressing demoralization and instilling hope are important elements in this treatment approach. The newer generation of atypical antipsychotics (particularly clozapine) and new psychologic approaches (particularly cognitive behavioral therapy) appear to be useful in reducing suicidality in schizophrenia. The significant advances in defining the neurobiologic basis of suicidality may enable the development of more effective treatments. The renewed emphasis on resilience and recovery as desired outcomes in schizophrenia and the accompanying sense of hope encourage optimism about effectively reducing suicidality in schizophrenia. Over the past 10 years, much has been learnt and hopefully this momentum will be translated into increasingly better outcomes.

  18. Integrating Motivational Interviewing and Self-Determination Theory with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to Prevent Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, Peter C.; Patrick, Heather; Wenzel, Amy; Williams, Geoffrey C.

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been found to be effective in preventing suicide-related behavior. However, it is often difficult to engage patients who are at-risk in treatment. Motivational Interviewing (MI) has been shown to increase treatment engagement and improve treatment outcomes when it is used to complement other treatments. As a…

  19. Suicide and Suicidal Behavior among Transgender Persons

    PubMed Central

    Virupaksha, H. G.; Muralidhar, Daliboyina; Ramakrishna, Jayashree

    2016-01-01

    Background: Suicide rate and suicidal tendencies among transgender persons are considerably high compared to general population. Hence, this review is an attempt to understand the issues around the suicide and suicidal behavior among transgender persons. Methodology: The literature search conducted using three sources, i.e., electronic databases (PubMed, ProQuest, Google Scholar, PsycInfo), manual search (library catalog), and gray literature (consultation with experts). Results: The suicide attempt rate among transgender persons ranges from 32% to 50% across the countries. Gender-based victimization, discrimination, bullying, violence, being rejected by the family, friends, and community; harassment by intimate partner, family members, police and public; discrimination and ill treatment at health-care system are the major risk factors that influence the suicidal behavior among transgender persons. Conclusion: In spite of facing a number of hardships in their day-to-day life, the transgender community holds a number of resiliency factors. Further, this community needs to be supported to strengthen their resiliency factors and draw culturally sensitive and transgender-inclusive suicide prevention strategies and increase protective factors to tackle this high rate of suicidality. PMID:28031583

  20. Suicide and Suicidal Behavior among Transgender Persons.

    PubMed

    Virupaksha, H G; Muralidhar, Daliboyina; Ramakrishna, Jayashree

    2016-01-01

    Suicide rate and suicidal tendencies among transgender persons are considerably high compared to general population. Hence, this review is an attempt to understand the issues around the suicide and suicidal behavior among transgender persons. The literature search conducted using three sources, i.e., electronic databases (PubMed, ProQuest, Google Scholar, PsycInfo), manual search (library catalog), and gray literature (consultation with experts). The suicide attempt rate among transgender persons ranges from 32% to 50% across the countries. Gender-based victimization, discrimination, bullying, violence, being rejected by the family, friends, and community; harassment by intimate partner, family members, police and public; discrimination and ill treatment at health-care system are the major risk factors that influence the suicidal behavior among transgender persons. In spite of facing a number of hardships in their day-to-day life, the transgender community holds a number of resiliency factors. Further, this community needs to be supported to strengthen their resiliency factors and draw culturally sensitive and transgender-inclusive suicide prevention strategies and increase protective factors to tackle this high rate of suicidality.

  1. Suicidal Behavior among Early Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gover, F. Jill

    There is a great deal of concern about teenage suicide. This study obtained a prevalence rate of suicidal behaviors among non-psychiatric early adolescents (ages 11-16) and investigated personal and family variables that may characterize the young teenagers who report varying degrees of suicidal behavior. A self-report questionnaire was…

  2. Suicidal Behavior among Early Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gover, F. Jill

    There is a great deal of concern about teenage suicide. This study obtained a prevalence rate of suicidal behaviors among non-psychiatric early adolescents (ages 11-16) and investigated personal and family variables that may characterize the young teenagers who report varying degrees of suicidal behavior. A self-report questionnaire was…

  3. Suicidal Behavior and Marital Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Alan L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents two cases chosen to draw attention to marital and developmental dynamics of suicidal behavior. Both case vignettes are based on individual interviews with suicidal persons and their spouses during the suicidal person's psychiatric hospitalization, and both include observations of the marital interaction. Case vignettes are followed by…

  4. Suicidal Behavior in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasko, Sharla Nichols

    This paper reviews studies of childhood suicide and reports findings which suggest that the incidence of suicide under the age of 14 is greatly underreported. It notes that the incidence of non-fatal suicide attempts in children is even harder to determine than is the incidence of suicide. Studies are cited which suggest that, while preadolescent…

  5. Suicidal Behavior and Alcohol Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Pompili, Maurizio; Serafini, Gianluca; Innamorati, Marco; Dominici, Giovanni; Ferracuti, Stefano; Kotzalidis, Giorgio D.; Serra, Giulia; Girardi, Paolo; Janiri, Luigi; Tatarelli, Roberto; Sher, Leo; Lester, David

    2010-01-01

    Suicide is an escalating public health problem, and alcohol use has consistently been implicated in the precipitation of suicidal behavior. Alcohol abuse may lead to suicidality through disinhibition, impulsiveness and impaired judgment, but it may also be used as a means to ease the distress associated with committing an act of suicide. We reviewed evidence of the relationship between alcohol use and suicide through a search of MedLine and PsychInfo electronic databases. Multiple genetically-related intermediate phenotypes might influence the relationship between alcohol and suicide. Psychiatric disorders, including psychosis, mood disorders and anxiety disorders, as well as susceptibility to stress, might increase the risk of suicidal behavior, but may also have reciprocal influences with alcohol drinking patterns. Increased suicide risk may be heralded by social withdrawal, breakdown of social bonds, and social marginalization, which are common outcomes of untreated alcohol abuse and dependence. People with alcohol dependence or depression should be screened for other psychiatric symptoms and for suicidality. Programs for suicide prevention must take into account drinking habits and should reinforce healthy behavioral patterns. PMID:20617037

  6. [The genetics of suicidal behavior].

    PubMed

    Ozalp, Elvan

    2009-01-01

    There is consistent evidence suggesting that genetic factors play an important role in predisposition to suicidal behavior. Family, twin, and adoption studies have demonstrated that there is a genetic dimension to suicide. Although there is some overlap between suicide and mood disorders, even among psychiatric groups with the highest risk, some patients never attempt suicide, indicating the importance of a diathesis or genetic link to suicide that is independent of the underlying psychiatric disorder. Over the last 3 decades research has shown that there is a relationship between suicide, aggressiveness, and impulsivity. It is possible that genetic factors may be related to personality traits such as impulsiveness and aggressiveness, which in turn may lead to suicide attempts. An increasing number of molecular genetic studies have been carried out among cases involving suicidal behavior and candidate genes thought to be related to suicide. The most important candidate genes include the serotonin transporters (SERTs), tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), some serotonin receptors (5HT1A, 5HT1B, and 5HT2A), catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A), and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). The aim of this review was to assess the genetic dimension of suicide behavior, both current and historical.

  7. Seasonality of Suicidal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Jong-Min; Okusaga, Olaoluwa; Postolache, Teodor T.

    2012-01-01

    A seasonal suicide peak in spring is highly replicated, but its specific cause is unknown. We reviewed the literature on suicide risk factors which can be associated with seasonal variation of suicide rates, assessing published articles from 1979 to 2011. Such risk factors include environmental determinants, including physical, chemical, and biological factors. We also summarized the influence of potential demographic and clinical characteristics such as age, gender, month of birth, socioeconomic status, methods of prior suicide attempt, and comorbid psychiatric and medical diseases. Comprehensive evaluation of risk factors which could be linked to the seasonal variation in suicide is important, not only to identify the major driving force for the seasonality of suicide, but also could lead to better suicide prevention in general. PMID:22470308

  8. Prioritizing Research to Reduce Youth Suicide and Suicidal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Horowitz, Lisa M.; Fontanella, Cynthia A.; Grupp-Phelan, Jackie; Campo, John V.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention (Action Alliance) is to reduce suicide and suicide attempts in the U.S. by 40% in the next decade. In this paper, a public health approach is applied to suicide prevention to illustrate how reductions in youth suicide and suicidal behavior might be achieved by prioritizing research in two areas: (1) increasing access to primary care–based behavioral health interventions for depressed youth; and (2) improving continuity of care for youth who present to emergency departments after a suicide attempt. Finally, some scientific, clinical, and methodologic breakthroughs needed to achieve rapid, substantial, and sustained reductions in youth suicide and suicidal behavior are discussed. PMID:25145744

  9. Prioritizing research to reduce youth suicide and suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Bridge, Jeffrey A; Horowitz, Lisa M; Fontanella, Cynthia A; Grupp-Phelan, Jackie; Campo, John V

    2014-09-01

    The goal of the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention is to reduce suicide and suicide attempts in the U.S. by 40% in the next decade. In this paper, a public health approach is applied to suicide prevention to illustrate how reductions in youth suicide and suicidal behavior might be achieved by prioritizing research in two areas: (1) increasing access to primary care-based behavioral health interventions for depressed youth and (2) improving continuity of care for youth who present to emergency departments after a suicide attempt. Finally, some scientific, clinical, and methodologic breakthroughs needed to achieve rapid, substantial, and sustained reductions in youth suicide and suicidal behavior are discussed. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Attentional Bias toward Suicide-Related Stimuli Predicts Suicidal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Christine B.; Najmi, Sadia; Park, Jennifer M.; Finn, Christine T.; Nock, Matthew K.

    2010-01-01

    A long-standing challenge for scientific and clinical work on suicidal behavior is that people often are motivated to deny or conceal suicidal thoughts. We proposed that people considering suicide would possess an objectively measurable attentional bias toward suicide-related stimuli, and that this bias would predict future suicidal behavior. Participants were 124 adults presenting to a psychiatric emergency department who were administered a modified emotional Stroop task and followed for six months. Suicide attempters showed an attentional bias toward suicide-related words relative to neutral words, and this bias was strongest among those who had made a more recent attempt. Importantly, this suicide-specific attentional bias predicted which people made a suicide attempt over the next six months, above and beyond other clinical predictors. Attentional bias toward more general negatively-valenced words did not predict any suicide-related outcomes, supporting the specificity of the observed effect. These results suggest that suicide-specific attentional bias can serve as a behavioral marker for suicidal risk, and ultimately improve scientific and clinical work on suicide-related outcomes. PMID:20677851

  11. Youth Suicidal Behavior

    MedlinePlus

    ... ii Risk Factors* Mental illness Substance abuse iv Firearms in the household vi Previous suicide attempts viii ... connectedness iii Safe schools v Reduced access to firearms vii Academic achievement ix Self-esteem xi Talking ...

  12. Measuring the suicidal mind: implicit cognition predicts suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Nock, Matthew K; Park, Jennifer M; Finn, Christine T; Deliberto, Tara L; Dour, Halina J; Banaji, Mahzarin R

    2010-04-01

    Suicide is difficult to predict and prevent because people who consider killing themselves often are unwilling or unable to report their intentions. Advances in the measurement of implicit cognition provide an opportunity to test whether automatic associations of self with death can provide a behavioral marker for suicide risk. We measured implicit associations about death/suicide in 157 people seeking treatment at a psychiatric emergency department. Results confirmed that people who have attempted suicide hold a significantly stronger implicit association between death/suicide and self than do psychiatrically distressed individuals who have not attempted suicide. Moreover, the implicit association of death/suicide with self was associated with an approximately 6-fold increase in the odds of making a suicide attempt in the next 6 months, exceeding the predictive validity of known risk factors (e.g., depression, suicide-attempt history) and both patients' and clinicians' predictions. These results provide the first evidence of a behavioral marker for suicidal behavior and suggest that measures of implicit cognition may be useful for detecting and predicting sensitive clinical behaviors that are unlikely to be reported.

  13. Suicidal Behaviors Among Muslim Women. Patterns, Pathways, Meanings, and Prevention.

    PubMed

    Canetto, Silvia Sara

    2015-01-01

    The literature on Muslim women's suicidality has been growing. Comprehensive reviews are, however, unavailable, and theory needs development. This article reviews and integrates theories and findings about Muslim women's suicidality. Two databases (PsycINFO and Web of Science) were searched for publications about Muslim women's suicidality. There is significant variability in Muslim women's patterns of suicidality across Muslim-majority communities and countries. Muslim women represent half to nearly all cases of nonfatal suicidal behavior. According to the official records of Muslim-majority countries, women's suicide mortality is lower than that of men. Community studies, however, show that in some areas, Muslim women have significantly higher suicide rates than Muslim men. Both nonfatal and fatal suicidal behaviors are most common among uneducated and poor rural young women. Muslim women's typical suicide methods vary by locale, and include self-burning, hanging, and poisoning. With regard to contexts and meanings, a recurring female script is that of suicidality as protest against and desperate escape from the oppressive regulation as well as the abuse many women endure within their families and societies. Understanding and preventing Muslim women's suicidality, and the socially sanctioned oppression it is often a response to, require system-level - not just individual-level - analyses and interventions as well as a human rights perspective.

  14. Dissociable Patterns of Neural Activity during Response Inhibition in Depressed Adolescents with and without Suicidal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Lisa A.; Batezati-Alves, Silvia C.; Almeida, Jorge R. C.; Segreti, AnnaMaria; Akkal, Dalila; Hassel, Stefanie; Lakdawala, Sara; Brent, David A.; Phillips, Mary L.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Impaired attentional control and behavioral control are implicated in adult suicidal behavior. Little is known about the functional integrity of neural circuitry supporting these processes in suicidal behavior in adolescence. Method: Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used in 15 adolescent suicide attempters with a history of…

  15. Dissociable Patterns of Neural Activity during Response Inhibition in Depressed Adolescents with and without Suicidal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Lisa A.; Batezati-Alves, Silvia C.; Almeida, Jorge R. C.; Segreti, AnnaMaria; Akkal, Dalila; Hassel, Stefanie; Lakdawala, Sara; Brent, David A.; Phillips, Mary L.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Impaired attentional control and behavioral control are implicated in adult suicidal behavior. Little is known about the functional integrity of neural circuitry supporting these processes in suicidal behavior in adolescence. Method: Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used in 15 adolescent suicide attempters with a history of…

  16. The interpersonal theory of suicide and adolescent suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Barzilay, S; Feldman, D; Snir, A; Apter, A; Carli, V; Hoven, C W; Wasserman, C; Sarchiapone, M; Wasserman, D

    2015-09-01

    Joiner's interpersonal theory of suicide (IPTS) proposes that suicide results from the combination of a perception of burdening others, social alienation, and the capability for self-harm. The theory gained some empirical support, however the overall model has yet to be tested. This study aimed to test the main predictions of IPTS in a large community sample of Israeli adolescents. 1196 Israeli Jewish and Arab high-school pupils participating in the SEYLE project completed a self-report questionnaire measuring perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, health risk behaviors, and non-suicidal self-injury (risk variables), and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts (outcome measures). The data were tested in cross-sectional regression models. Consistent with IPTS, perceived burdensomeness was found to interact with thwarted belongingness, predicting suicidal ideation. Depression mediated most of the effect of thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness on suicidal ideation. Acquired capability for self-harm, as measured by health risk behaviors and direct non-suicidal self-injurious behaviors, predicted suicide attempt. However, this mechanism operated independently from ideation rather than in interaction with it, at variance with IPTS-based predictions. The cross-sectional design precludes conclusions about causality and directionality. Proxy measures were used to test the interpersonal theory constructs. The findings support some of the IPTS predictions but not all, and imply two separate pathways for suicidal behavior in adolescents: one related to internalizing psychopathology and the other to self-harm behaviors. This conceptualization has clinical implications for the differential identification of adolescents at risk for suicidal behavior and for the development of prevention strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Gene-environment interaction and suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Roy, Alec; Sarchiopone, Marco; Carli, Vladimir

    2009-07-01

    Studies have increasingly shown that gene-environment interactions are important in psychiatry. Suicidal behavior is a major public health problem. Suicide is generally considered to be a multi-determined act involving various areas of proximal and distal risk. Genetic risk factors are estimated to account for approximately 30% to 40% of the variance in suicidal behavior. In this article, the authors review relevant studies concerning the interaction between the serotonin transporter gene and environmental variables as a model of gene-environment interactions that may have an impact on suicidal behavior. The findings reviewed here suggest that there may be meaningful interactions between distal and proximal suicide risk factors that may amplify the risk of suicidal behavior. Future studies of suicidal behavior should examine both genetic and environmental variables and examine for gene-environment interactions.

  18. The decision neuroscience perspective on suicidal behavior: evidence and hypotheses

    PubMed Central

    Dombrovski, Alexandre Y.; Hallquist, Michael N.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review Suicide attempts are usually regretted by people who survive them. Furthermore, addiction and gambling are over-represented among people who attempt or die by suicide, raising the question whether their decision-making is impaired. Advances in decision neuroscience have enabled us to investigate decision processes in suicidal people and to elucidate putative neural substrates of disadvantageous decision-making. Recent findings Early studies have linked attempted suicide to poor performance on gambling tasks. More recently, functional MRI augmented with a reinforcement learning computational model revealed that impaired decision-making in suicide attempters is paralleled by disrupted expected value (expected reward) signals in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Behavioral studies have linked increased delay discounting to low-lethality/poorly planned attempts, multiple attempts, and the co-occurrence of attempted suicide and addiction. This behavioral tendency may be related to altered integrity of the basal ganglia. By contrast, well-planned, serious suicide attempts were associated with intact/diminished delay discounting. One study has linked high-lethality suicide attempts and impaired social decision-making. Summary This emerging literature supports the notion that various impairments in decision-making – often broadly related to impulsivity – may mark different pathways to suicide. We propose that aggressive and self-destructive responses to social stressors in people prone to suicide result from a predominance of automatic, Pavlovian processes over goal-directed computations. PMID:27875379

  19. The decision neuroscience perspective on suicidal behavior: evidence and hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Dombrovski, Alexandre Y; Hallquist, Michael N

    2017-01-01

    Suicide attempts are usually regretted by people who survive them. Furthermore, addiction and gambling are over-represented among people who attempt or die by suicide, raising the question whether their decision-making is impaired. Advances in decision neuroscience have enabled us to investigate decision processes in suicidal people and to elucidate putative neural substrates of disadvantageous decision-making. Early studies have linked attempted suicide to poor performance on gambling tasks. More recently, functional MRI augmented with a reinforcement learning computational model revealed that impaired decision-making in suicide attempters is paralleled by disrupted expected value (expected reward) signals in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Behavioral studies have linked increased delay discounting to low-lethality/poorly planned attempts, multiple attempts, and the co-occurrence of attempted suicide and addiction. This behavioral tendency may be related to altered integrity of the basal ganglia. By contrast, well-planned, serious suicide attempts were associated with intact/diminished delay discounting. One study has linked high-lethality suicide attempts and impaired social decision-making. This emerging literature supports the notion that various impairments in decision-making - often broadly related to impulsivity - may mark different pathways to suicide. We propose that aggressive and self-destructive responses to social stressors in people prone to suicide result from a predominance of automatic, Pavlovian processes over goal-directed computations.

  20. An Integrative Suicide Prevention Program for Visitor Charcoal Burning Suicide and Suicide Pact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Paul W. C.; Liu, Patricia M. Y.; Chan, Wincy S. C.; Law, Y. W.; Law, Steven C. K.; Fu, King-Wa; Li, Hana S. H.; Tso, M. K.; Beautrais, Annette L.; Yip, Paul S. F.

    2009-01-01

    An integrative suicide prevention program was implemented to tackle an outbreak of visitor charcoal burning suicides in Cheung Chau, an island in Hong Kong, in 2002. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the program. The numbers of visitor suicides reduced from 37 deaths in the 51 months prior to program implementation to 6 deaths in the 42…

  1. An Integrative Suicide Prevention Program for Visitor Charcoal Burning Suicide and Suicide Pact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Paul W. C.; Liu, Patricia M. Y.; Chan, Wincy S. C.; Law, Y. W.; Law, Steven C. K.; Fu, King-Wa; Li, Hana S. H.; Tso, M. K.; Beautrais, Annette L.; Yip, Paul S. F.

    2009-01-01

    An integrative suicide prevention program was implemented to tackle an outbreak of visitor charcoal burning suicides in Cheung Chau, an island in Hong Kong, in 2002. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the program. The numbers of visitor suicides reduced from 37 deaths in the 51 months prior to program implementation to 6 deaths in the 42…

  2. Suicidal Behavior in Prodromal Huntington Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fiedorowicz, Jess G.; Mills, James A.; Ruggle, Adam; Langbehn, Douglas; Paulsen, Jane S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Several studies have suggested a greater risk of suicide in Huntington disease (HD); however, unique risk factors for suicide in HD are not established. Objective We sought to determine risk factors for suicidal behavior, defined as suicide or attempted suicide, in prodromal HD. Methods From the prospective PREDICT-HD cohort, we identified 735 cases with HD gene expansion but no manifest symptoms of HD and 194 non-gene-expanded controls. In survival analysis, a number of potential risk factors for suicidal behavior were assessed, including symptoms of depression, hopelessness, substance abuse, marital status, gender, and psychiatric history. Results During a mean of 3.7 years of prospective follow-up, 12 cases (1.6%) attempted suicide and 1 completed suicide (0.1%). No suicides were observed among controls. In univariate Cox proportional hazards regression models, a history of suicide attempts (HR 8.5, 95% CI 2.8–26.1, p < 0.0002) and a Beck Depression Inventory II score >13 (HR 7.2, 95% CI 2.3–22.0, p < 0.0006) were associated with suicidal behavior. These risk factors had independent effects in multivariate models. A history of incarceration in the past 2 years was also associated (HR 12.5, 95% CI 2.7–56.6, p < 0.002), though uncommon. No further risk factors were identified. Conclusion A history of suicide attempts and the presence of depression are strongly predictive of suicidal behavior in prodromal HD. As these risk factors are among the most robust risk factors for suicide, established suicide risk factors appear applicable to those with prodromal HD. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel PMID:21659725

  3. Impact of modeling on adolescent suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Insel, Beverly J; Gould, Madelyn S

    2008-06-01

    The evidence to date suggests that suicide modeling is a real phenomenon, although of a smaller effect size than other psychiatric and psychosocial risk factors for adolescent suicide. Multiple lines of inquiry provide converging evidence, including studies on suicide clusters, media influence on suicide (particularly coverage of nonfictional suicides), and peer influence on suicidality. Despite variations in study setting and methodology, the body of literature is consistent with a modeling hypothesis. Although advances in documentation of suicide modeling have been made over the past decade, we are still confronted by unresolved issues regarding the underlying mechanisms. Prevention and postvention strategies can be optimized to avert modeling of suicidal behavior only once research addresses the complexities and uncertainties of this phenomenon.

  4. Biological risk factors for suicidal behaviors: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chang, B P; Franklin, J C; Ribeiro, J D; Fox, K R; Bentley, K H; Kleiman, E M; Nock, M K

    2016-09-13

    Prior studies have proposed a wide range of potential biological risk factors for future suicidal behaviors. Although strong evidence exists for biological correlates of suicidal behaviors, it remains unclear if these correlates are also risk factors for suicidal behaviors. We performed a meta-analysis to integrate the existing literature on biological risk factors for suicidal behaviors and to determine their statistical significance. We conducted a systematic search of PubMed, PsycInfo and Google Scholar for studies that used a biological factor to predict either suicide attempt or death by suicide. Inclusion criteria included studies with at least one longitudinal analysis using a biological factor to predict either of these outcomes in any population through 2015. From an initial screen of 2541 studies we identified 94 cases. Random effects models were used for both meta-analyses and meta-regression. The combined effect of biological factors produced statistically significant but relatively weak prediction of suicide attempts (weighted mean odds ratio (wOR)=1.41; CI: 1.09-1.81) and suicide death (wOR=1.28; CI: 1.13-1.45). After accounting for publication bias, prediction was nonsignificant for both suicide attempts and suicide death. Only two factors remained significant after accounting for publication bias-cytokines (wOR=2.87; CI: 1.40-5.93) and low levels of fish oil nutrients (wOR=1.09; CI: 1.01-1.19). Our meta-analysis revealed that currently known biological factors are weak predictors of future suicidal behaviors. This conclusion should be interpreted within the context of the limitations of the existing literature, including long follow-up intervals and a lack of tests of interactions with other risk factors. Future studies addressing these limitations may more effectively test for potential biological risk factors.

  5. Biological risk factors for suicidal behaviors: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, B P; Franklin, J C; Ribeiro, J D; Fox, K R; Bentley, K H; Kleiman, E M; Nock, M K

    2016-01-01

    Prior studies have proposed a wide range of potential biological risk factors for future suicidal behaviors. Although strong evidence exists for biological correlates of suicidal behaviors, it remains unclear if these correlates are also risk factors for suicidal behaviors. We performed a meta-analysis to integrate the existing literature on biological risk factors for suicidal behaviors and to determine their statistical significance. We conducted a systematic search of PubMed, PsycInfo and Google Scholar for studies that used a biological factor to predict either suicide attempt or death by suicide. Inclusion criteria included studies with at least one longitudinal analysis using a biological factor to predict either of these outcomes in any population through 2015. From an initial screen of 2541 studies we identified 94 cases. Random effects models were used for both meta-analyses and meta-regression. The combined effect of biological factors produced statistically significant but relatively weak prediction of suicide attempts (weighted mean odds ratio (wOR)=1.41; CI: 1.09–1.81) and suicide death (wOR=1.28; CI: 1.13–1.45). After accounting for publication bias, prediction was nonsignificant for both suicide attempts and suicide death. Only two factors remained significant after accounting for publication bias—cytokines (wOR=2.87; CI: 1.40–5.93) and low levels of fish oil nutrients (wOR=1.09; CI: 1.01–1.19). Our meta-analysis revealed that currently known biological factors are weak predictors of future suicidal behaviors. This conclusion should be interpreted within the context of the limitations of the existing literature, including long follow-up intervals and a lack of tests of interactions with other risk factors. Future studies addressing these limitations may more effectively test for potential biological risk factors. PMID:27622931

  6. Pathways to Suicidal Behaviors in Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greening, Leilani; Stoppelbein, Laura; Fite, Paula; Dhossche, Dirk; Erath, Stephen; Brown, Jacqueline; Cramer, Robert; Young, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Path analyses were applied to test a model that includes internalizing and externalizing behavior problems as predictors of suicidal behaviors in children. Parents of an inpatient sample of boys (N = 87; M age = 9.81 years) rated the frequency of suicidal ideation and completed standardized measures of behavior problems. Blind raters rated the…

  7. Correlates of suicidal behaviors among Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Duldulao, Aileen Alfonso; Takeuchi, David T; Hong, Seunghye

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the correlates of suicidal ideation, suicide plan and suicide attempt among Asian Americans focusing on nativity and gender. Analyses are performed on data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (N = 2095), the first ever study conducted on the mental health of a national sample of Asian Americans. The sample is comprised of adults with 998 men (47%) and 1,097 (53%) women. Analysis of weighted lifetime prevalence of suicidal behaviors revealed that U.S.-born Asian American women had higher prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicide plan than U.S.-born Asian American men and immigrant Asian American men and women. In multivariate analyses controlling for socio-demographic differences such as ethnicity, marital status and income, differences in suicidal behaviors are found only between U.S.-born women and U.S.-born men. The findings demonstrate the need to disaggregate data by immigrant status as well as socio-demographic correlates.

  8. Life Cycle and Suicidal Behavior among Women

    PubMed Central

    Mendez-Bustos, Pablo; Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; Baca-García, Enrique; Ceverino, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    It is nowadays accepted that, independently of methodological issues, women commit fewer suicides than men but make more frequent attempts. Yet, female suicidal risk varies greatly along the lifetime and is linked to the most significant moments in it. A wide analysis of the existing literature was performed to provide a narrative description on the evolution of female suicidal rates from childhood to old age, considering the milestones in their life history. A detailed analysis of gender differences in suicidal behavior is key to establish preventive measures and priorities. More specific studies are needed to adapt future interventions on female suicide. PMID:23533350

  9. Non-Fatal Suicidal Behaviors in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jena, S.; Sidhartha, T.

    2004-01-01

    In the USA, suicide ranked as the third leading cause of death for adolescents in 1999. Non-fatal suicidal behaviours are suicidal thought, specific suicidal plan and suicide attempt. Prospective studies have emphasized the high subsequent suicide rates in clinically presenting suicide attempters. This study was planned to critically review the existing international literature on this area, and compare, if possible, with the Indian data. Both electronic and manual search for published and unpublished works was done for the review of this area. Both international and Indian studies on prevalence, risk factors, management, and prevention of non-fatal suicidal behaviours in adolescents were collected, analysed and reviewed. The study concludes that professionals, like general practitioners, paediatricians, school teachers, school counselors, need to be trained in identifying non-fatal suicidal behaviours in adolescents, and know when to refer them to a mental health professional or mental health service for thorough assessment and effective management. Timely and efficient management of non-fatal suicidal behaviors can prevent future suicidal attempts and completed suicide in most of this highly vulnerable population. Indian studies are very few and without robust study design. Systematic studies in India on this important topic are required. PMID:21206789

  10. Impact of psychotropic drugs on suicide and suicidal behaviors.

    PubMed

    Yerevanian, Boghos I; Choi, Young Mee

    2013-08-01

    To examine the impact of psychotropic drugs on suicide and suicidal behaviors in bipolar disorders. A Medline search of articles published from January 1960 to January 2013 was performed using relevant keywords to identify studies examining the relationship of psychotropic drugs to suicidal behaviors. The publications were further reviewed for relevant references and information. Additionally, the US Food and Drug Administration Center for Drug Evaluation Research website was searched. The available studies used differing methodologies, making interpretation of the findings difficult. Studies suggest that antidepressants may increase suicidal risk in bipolar disorder, this possibly being related to the induction of broadly defined mixed states. There is no evidence that antiepileptic drugs as a class increase suicidal risk in patients with bipolar disorder. Only lithium provides convincing data that it reduces the risk of suicide over the long term. There is little known regarding the effects of antipsychotics, as well as anti-anxiety and hypnotic drugs, on suicidal behavior. The available evidence for the impact of psychotropics on suicidal risk in patients with bipolar disorder is largely methodologically flawed and, except for a few instances, clinically not useful at this point. Adequately powered, prospective randomized controlled studies are needed to assess the impact of each class of psychotropic and each psychotropic as well as common combination therapies. Until such studies have been carried out, clinicians are urged to exercise caution in using these drugs and rely on the traditional means of carefully assessing and monitoring patients with bipolar disorder who are at high risk for suicide. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  11. Depression and Suicidal Behavior among Delinquent Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Jewelle Taylor

    1981-01-01

    The occurrence of depression and suicidal behavior in a group of delinquent females whose personality and offense patterns have been described previously is reported. Effects of personality pattern and ethnicity on depression and suicidal behavior of these delinquent females is discussed. (Author/GK)

  12. Correlates of Suicidal Behaviors Among Asian Americans

    PubMed Central

    Duldulao, Aileen Alfonso; Takeuchi, David T.; Hong, Seunghye

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the correlates of suicidal ideation, suicide plan and suicide attempt among Asian Americans focusing on nativity and gender. Analyses are performed on data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (N=2095), the first ever study conducted on the mental health of a national sample of Asian Americans. The sample is comprised of adults with 998 men (47%) and 1,097 (53%) women. Weighted logistic regression analyses reveal that US-born women have a higher percentage than other groups who have suicidal ideation, suicidal plans and attempts at suicide. In multivariate analyses controlling for socio-demographic differences such as ethnicity, marital status and income, differences in suicidal behaviors are found only between US-born women and US-born men. The findings demonstrate the need to disaggregate data by immigrant status as well as socio-demographic correlates. PMID:19591001

  13. The additive effect on suicidality of family history of suicidal behavior and early traumatic experiences.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Castroman, J; Guillaume, S; Olié, E; Jaussent, I; Baca-García, E; Courtet, P

    2015-01-01

    Family history of suicidal behavior and personal history of childhood abuse are reported risk factors for suicide attempts and suicide completion. We aim to quantify the additive effect of family history of suicidal behavior and different subtypes of childhood abuse on suicidal behavior. We examined a sample of 496 suicide attempters, comparing individuals with family history of suicidal behavior and personal history of childhood (physical or sexual) abuse, individuals with family history of suicidal behavior only, individuals with history of early traumatic experiences only, and individuals with none of these two risk factors with regards to suicidal features. An additive effect was found for the age at the first attempt in suicide attempters with both family history of suicidal behavior and either physical or sexual abuse. No significant interactions were found between family history of suicidal behavior and childhood trauma in relation to any characteristics of suicidal behavior. Subjects presenting family history of suicidal behavior and childhood abuse attempt suicide earlier in life than subjects with just one or none of them, particularly if they were sexually abused. Other suicidality indexes were only partially or not associated with this combination of risk factors. A careful assessment of patients with both family history of suicidal behavior and childhood abuse could help to prevent future suicide attempts, particularly in young people.

  14. Suicidal behavior in the older patient with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Kasckow, John; Montross, Lori; Prunty, Laurie; Fox, Lauren; Zisook, Sidney

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about treating elderly suicidal patients with schizophrenia. The purpose of this article is to review the literature dealing with this population and to discuss what is required to advance this field. Most available studies from middle-aged and older individuals suggest that risk factors include hopelessness, lower quality of life, past traumatic events, depressive symptoms, lifetime suicidal ideation and past attempts; it is not clear whether these findings are generalizable to geriatric populations. Although little treatment research has been performed in older suicidal patients with schizophrenia, an integrated psychosocial and pharmacologic approach is recommended. In addition, one recent study augmented antipsychotic treatment with an SSRI (i.e., citalopram) in a sample of middle-aged and older individuals with schizophrenia with subsyndromal depression; in that study, serotonin selective reuptake inhibitor augmentation reduced depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. More research is required to better understand suicidal behavior in older patients with schizophrenia. PMID:22028735

  15. Domains of Chronic Stress and Suicidal Behaviors among Inpatient Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettit, Jeremy W.; Green, Kelly L.; Grover, Kelly E.; Schatte, Dawnelle J.; Morgan, Sharon T.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the role of chronic stress in youth suicidal behaviors. This study examined the relations between specific domains of chronic stress and suicidal behaviors among 131 inpatient youth (M age = 15.02 years) who completed measures of stress, suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, and suicide intent. After controlling for…

  16. Domains of Chronic Stress and Suicidal Behaviors among Inpatient Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettit, Jeremy W.; Green, Kelly L.; Grover, Kelly E.; Schatte, Dawnelle J.; Morgan, Sharon T.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the role of chronic stress in youth suicidal behaviors. This study examined the relations between specific domains of chronic stress and suicidal behaviors among 131 inpatient youth (M age = 15.02 years) who completed measures of stress, suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, and suicide intent. After controlling for…

  17. Women and suicidal behavior: a cultural analysis.

    PubMed

    Canetto, Silvia Sara

    2008-04-01

    Around the world girls and women have higher rates of suicidal ideation and behavior but lower rates of suicide than boys and men. There is, however, significant variability in gender patterns and meanings suicidal behavior within and across cultures. For example, in the United States, suicide is most common among older "White" men, and is typically considered masculine behavior. Women who kill themselves are viewed as acting like men, and therefore deviant. By contrast, in other societies, including China, suicide is viewed as an act of the powerless, and is most frequent in young women. In these societies, men who kill themselves are considered weak and effeminate. The cultural diversity in gender patterns and interpretations of suicidal behavior challenges essentialist perspectives on gender and suicidal behavior. It also challenges the assumption, common in industrialized countries, that women are protected from suicide as long as they stay "feminine" and subsumed within the family. This cultural diversity also points to the pitfalls of theorizing about clinical phenomena as if they were culture-free, and calls for culturally grounded theory, research, and practice. Copyright 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Body Modification and Suicidal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicinbothem, Julie; Gonsalves, Sonia; Lester, David

    2006-01-01

    In a large sample of individuals who belong to a website for body modification, having body modifications (e.g., piercings, tattoos, scarification and surgical procedures) was associated with a higher incidence of prior suicidality (i.e., suicidal ideation and attempted suicide). However, controls for self-reported depression weakened the strength…

  19. Body Modification and Suicidal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicinbothem, Julie; Gonsalves, Sonia; Lester, David

    2006-01-01

    In a large sample of individuals who belong to a website for body modification, having body modifications (e.g., piercings, tattoos, scarification and surgical procedures) was associated with a higher incidence of prior suicidality (i.e., suicidal ideation and attempted suicide). However, controls for self-reported depression weakened the strength…

  20. Suicidal Behavior in Hospitalized Schizophrenics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasad, Ashoka Jahnavi; Kumar, Nirmal

    1988-01-01

    Compared 131 hospitalized schizophrenics who had attempted suicide within past year to 70 hospitalized schizophrenics who had not attempted suicide, using the Present State Examination depressive symptoms. Found that schizophrenics who had attempted suicide had significantly higher number of symptoms indicative of a depressive disorder. (Author/NB)

  1. Cognitive Aspects of Suicidal Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedrosian, Richard C.; Beck, Aaron T.

    1979-01-01

    Hopelessness seems to account for the bulk of the relationship between depression and suicidal intent. The Scale for Suicide Ideation seems to show promise as a predictive instrument, as a dependent variable in research on treatment efficacy, and as a tool for clinical assessment of suicide potential. (Author)

  2. Is COPD associated with suicide behavior?

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Renee D

    2011-09-01

    The goal of this study is to examine the relationship between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and suicidal ideation and suicide attempt among adults in the United States. Data were drawn from the National Comorbidity Study-Replication (NCS-R), a household probability sample of adults ages 18 and older in the United States. COPD is associated with significantly increased odds of suicidal ideation and suicide attempt, compared with those without COPD. The association between COPD and suicide attempt remained statistically significant after adjusting for demographics, depression, panic disorder, substance use and nicotine dependence. The association between COPD and suicidal ideation was no longer significant after adjusting for nicotine dependence. Our findings provide initial evidence that there is a relationship between COPD and suicidal behavior among adults in the community. Future studies that can examine the relationship between COPD and completed suicide, as well as replication of these results, would improve our understanding of whether and to what degree COPD confers an increased vulnerability for suicide behavior. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. The neurodevelopmental origins of suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Turecki, Gustavo; Ernst, Carl; Jollant, Fabrice; Labonté, Benoit; Mechawar, Naguib

    2012-01-01

    Suicide and related behaviors are complex phenomena associated with different risk factors. Although most individuals who display suicidal behavior do not have a history of early-life adversity, a significant minority does. Recent animal and human data have suggested that early-life adversity leads to epigenetic regulation of genes involved in stress-response systems. Here, we review this evidence and suggest that early-life adversity increases risk of suicide in susceptible individuals by influencing the development of stable emotional, behavioral and cognitive phenotypes that are likely to result from the epigenetic regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and other systems involved in responses to stress.

  4. Theories of suicidal behavior applied to Sylvia Plath.

    PubMed

    Lester, D

    1998-01-01

    The suicide of Sylvia Plath is examined from the perspective of 15 theories of suicidal behavior and is found to fit best with psychoanalytic and cognitive theories of suicide, in particular those of Aaron Beck, Henry Murray, and Edwin Shneidman.

  5. Suicidal Behavior in Relatives or Associates Moderates the Strength of Common Risk Factors for Suicide.

    PubMed

    Tong, Yongsheng; Phillips, Michael R; Duberstein, Paul; Zhan, Weihai

    2015-08-01

    The prevalence and odds ratios of different suicide risk factors were compared in three pairs of decedents: 80 suicides and 25 injury decedents with blood relatives with suicidal behavior history (biologically exposed); 259 suicides and 126 injury decedents with unrelated acquaintances with suicidal behavior history (socially exposed); and 471 suicides and 523 injury decedents with neither relatives nor acquaintances with suicidal behavior history (unexposed). Negative life events and high psychological stress were more common in socially exposed suicides than in other suicides. The adjusted odds ratios of most established suicide risk factors were higher in unexposed decedents than in biologically or socially exposed decedents, suggesting that the predictive value of established risk factors wanes in individuals who have been exposed to suicidal behavior in family or friends.

  6. Suicide and Suicidal-Related Behaviors among Indigenous Pacific Islanders in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Else, Iwalani; Andrade, Naleen; Nahulu, Linda

    2007-01-01

    The authors present a comprehensive review on U.S. Pacific Islander suicide and suicide-related behaviors to extend the knowledge and understanding of suicide and suicide-related behaviors among the indigenous peoples of the state of Hawai'i, the territories of American Samoa, Guam, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and the Pacific…

  7. Suicide and Suicidal-Related Behaviors among Indigenous Pacific Islanders in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Else, Iwalani; Andrade, Naleen; Nahulu, Linda

    2007-01-01

    The authors present a comprehensive review on U.S. Pacific Islander suicide and suicide-related behaviors to extend the knowledge and understanding of suicide and suicide-related behaviors among the indigenous peoples of the state of Hawai'i, the territories of American Samoa, Guam, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and the Pacific…

  8. Risk factors for suicidal behavior in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kirkcaldy, B D; Siefen, G R; Urkin, J; Merrick, J

    2006-10-01

    Adolescent suicide is today a public health problem among the leading cause of mortality among adolescents and young adults. There seems to be many reasons for this increase (which has different trends in different populations), but associations have been found with increased substance abuse, television and video violence, socio-economic status and easy access to firearms. Gender differences have also been observed with crime, suicide and substance abuse higher among males, while eating disorder, depression and suicidal behavior more prevalent among females. This paper will review prevalence and incidence of adolescent suicidal behavior, socio-demographic and psychological risk factors, associated cognitive factors and socio-economic factors. Risk factors include previous suicide attempts, a history of others in the family who have been suicidal, mental illness, alcohol and drug use, and other self-destructive behaviors as well as consideration being given to hopelessness, hostility, negative self-concept and isolation. At the individual difference level, factors such as trait depression, anger and hostility, perfectionism and social sensitivity would seem critical variables, as would age, gender and intellectual functioning. Sociological and family-related factors may also be implicated including dysfunctional family organizations, a history of physical or psychological abuse (sexual abuse) and limited extent of social support networks. A frequently reported precipitating event of suicidal behavior is family adversity including rejection, separation and interpersonal conflict. At a socio-economic level it would seem essential to provide comprehensive document about the social and economic conditions from which the adolescent comes.

  9. Perception of behavioral contagion of adolescent suicide.

    PubMed

    Range, L M; Goggin, W C; Steede, K K

    1988-01-01

    In order to assess perceptions of behavioral contagion of suicide (what people thought a disturbed adolescent would do if the teen knew about a suicide in the community), and to assess actor-observer differences in such perceptions, 142 college students were asked to view a videotaped vignette of a distressed high school student, and then to assess her potential for committing suicide, running away, entering therapy, or abusing alcohol. Subjects who were told that the teenager knew of two recent suicides in the community (contagion group) rated the young woman as more likely to commit suicide or run away than did the subjects who were not told of the suicides (noncontagion group). Subjects who were instructed to imagine that they were the teenager (actors) blamed situational factors, and in particular the teen's parents, more for her distress than did subjects who were instructed just to rate the teenager on the videotape (observers). Contagion/actors rated suicide as more likely than did any other group. Apparently, people believe that behavioral contagion occurs when a suicide is reported, and they especially perceive themselves to be influenced by such information.

  10. Suicidal Thoughts and Behavior With Antidepressant Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Robert D.; Brown, C. Hendricks; Hur, Kwan; Davis, John M.; Mann, J. John

    2012-01-01

    Context The US Food and Drug Administration issued a black box warning for antidepressants and suicidal thoughts and behavior in children and young adults. Objective To determine the short-term safety of anti-depressants by standard assessments of suicidal thoughts and behavior in youth, adult, and geriatric populations and the mediating effect of changes in depressive symptoms. Data Sources All intent-to-treat person-level longitudinal data of major depressive disorder from 12 adult, 4 geriatric, and 4 youth randomized controlled trials of fluoxetine hydrochloride and 21 adult trials of venlafaxine hydrochloride. Study Selection All sponsor-conducted randomized controlled trials of fluoxetine and venlafaxine. Data Extraction The suicide items from the Children’s Depression Rating Scale–Revised and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale as well as adverse event reports of suicide attempts and suicide during active treatment were analyzed in 9185 patients (fluoxetine: 2635 adults, 960 geriatric patients, 708 youths; venlafaxine: 2421 adults with immediate-release venlafaxine and 2461 adults with extended-release venlafaxine) for a total of 53 260 person-week observations. Data Synthesis Suicidal thoughts and behavior decreased over time for adult and geriatric patients randomized to fluoxetine or venlafaxine compared with placebo, but no differences were found for youths. In adults, reduction in suicide ideation and attempts occurred through a reduction in depressive symptoms. In all age groups, severity of depression improved with medication and was significantly related to suicide ideation or behavior. Conclusions Fluoxetine and venlafaxine decreased suicidal thoughts and behavior for adult and geriatric patients. This protective effect is mediated by decreases in depressive symptoms with treatment. For youths, no significant effects of treatment on suicidal thoughts and behavior were found, although depression responded to treatment. No evidence of increased

  11. Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures and suicidal behavior on a video/EEG telemetry unit: the need for psychiatric assessment and screening for suicide risk.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Kenneth R; Struck, Peter J

    2010-12-01

    Patients with epilepsy and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) have an increased prevalence of psychiatric illness and risk for suicidal ideation/suicidal behavior/suicide compared with the general population. Recent literature suggests that antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) used to treat epilepsy, pain, and psychiatric disorders increase the risk of suicide and that this increased risk may be AED selective. This case analyzes a suicide attempt on a video/EEG telemetry unit. Specific risk factors associated with increased risk of suicidal behaviors pertinent to this case are reviewed: epilepsy, multiple psychiatric diagnoses including affective disorder, AEDs, PNES, prior medically serious suicide attempt, and suicide attempt within the past month. Specific psychometric rating scales to screen for both psychiatric illness and suicide risk and psychiatric assessment should be integral components of the evaluation and treatment of patients on video/EEG telemetry units. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Heart rate variability and suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Scott T; Chesin, Megan; Fertuck, Eric; Keilp, John; Brodsky, Beth; Mann, J John; Sönmez, Cemile Ceren; Benjamin-Phillips, Christopher; Stanley, Barbara

    2016-06-30

    Identification of biological indicators of suicide risk is important given advantages of biomarker-based models. Decreased high frequency heart rate variability (HF HRV) may be a biomarker of suicide risk. The aim of this research was to determine whether HF HRV differs between suicide attempters and non-attempters. Using the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), we compared HF HRV between females with and without a history of suicide attempt, all with a lifetime diagnosis of a mood disorder. To investigate a potential mechanism explaining association between HF HRV and suicide, we examined the association between self-reported anger and HF HRV. Results of an Area under the Curve (AUC) analysis showed attempters had a lower cumulative HF HRV during the TSST than non-attempters. In addition, while there was no difference in self-reported anger at baseline, the increase in anger was greater in attempters, and negatively associated with HF HRV. Results suggest that suicide attempters have a reduced capacity to regulate their response to stress, and that reduced capacity to regulate anger may be a mechanism through which decreased HF HRV can lead to an increase in suicide risk. Our results have implications for the prevention of suicidal behavior in at-risk populations.

  13. Suicide attempters' memory traces of exposure to suicidal behavior: a qualitative pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ventrice, Domenico; Valach, Ladislav; Reisch, Thomas; Michel, Konrad

    2010-01-01

    In the course of their lives individuals may encounter the phenomenon of suicide in various ways, for example, directly through suicidal behavior in the family or among peers; or indirectly through hearsay, the media, literature, etc. The study investigates such memory traces (engrams) in patients with and without a suicide attempt. Ten patients from a psychiatric crisis unit who had attempted suicide and ten patients without a history of suicidal behavior were interviewed with a narrative/semistructured interviewing technique. Interviews were video-recorded and fully transcribed. Stepwise reduction of the content was used to develop categories of recurrent memories and models of suicidal behavior. Suicide attempters reported more memories of direct exposure to suicidal behavior (e.g., witnessing a suicidal act) than did patients who had no history of attempted suicide. They also reported more own suicidal crises, but associated them more often with interpersonal problems than with depression. They considered suicide more often as normal behavior than nonattempters. The total number of suicide-related memories and their origins was remarkably similar in both groups. The results suggest that direct exposure to suicidal behavior may leave engrams (memory traces) that increase an individual's susceptibility to suicidal behavior.

  14. Current Suicide Proneness and Past Suicidal Behavior in Adjudicated Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Lamis, Dorian A.

    2008-01-01

    Youth recently assigned to probation (n = 233) were assessed for current suicide proneness, depression, and hopelessness, as well as for recent suicide ideation, previous suicide ideation, or suicide attempt(s). The Life Attitudes Schedule-Short Form (LAS-SF) was used to assess suicide proneness. As per the LAS-SF, suicide proneness was defined…

  15. Current Suicide Proneness and Past Suicidal Behavior in Adjudicated Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Lamis, Dorian A.

    2008-01-01

    Youth recently assigned to probation (n = 233) were assessed for current suicide proneness, depression, and hopelessness, as well as for recent suicide ideation, previous suicide ideation, or suicide attempt(s). The Life Attitudes Schedule-Short Form (LAS-SF) was used to assess suicide proneness. As per the LAS-SF, suicide proneness was defined…

  16. [Seasons, circadian rhythms, sleep and suicidal behaviors vulnerability].

    PubMed

    Benard, V; Geoffroy, P A; Bellivier, F

    2015-09-01

    Suicidal behaviors are common in the general population and are so a major public health problem. In order to improve suicide prevention and to reduce the mortality by suicide, it appears essential to better identify suicide risk factors. Seasonality, circadian rhythms and sleep abnormalities have been already associated with numerous psychiatric disorders. This review aimed to characterize the associations between seasonality, circadian rhythms, sleep and suicidal behaviors including suicide attempts and completed suicides. We conducted a literature search between 1973 and 2015 in PubMed databases using the following terms: ("suicide" OR "suicidality" OR "suicide attempts" OR "suicidal behavior") AND ("circadian rhythms" OR "seasons" OR "sleep"). Many studies confirm a specific seasonality for suicide with a higher peak of suicides in spring for both sex and a lower peak in autumn especially for women. This distribution seems to correlate with depressive symptoms (especially for the autumn peak), gender and different types of suicide. Regarding gender and type of suicide differences, males more commonly commit violent suicide with a higher rate of suicides in spring. Suicide behaviors appear to be influenced by climatic and biological factors like sunshine, daylight cycles, temperature, air pollutants, viruses, parasites and aeroallergens. Circadian variations exist in suicide rates depending on age with a morning peak for elder and an evening peak for youth. In addition, completed suicide peak in early morning whereas suicide attempts peak rather in later afternoon. Several biomarkers dysregulation like melatonin, serotonin and cortisol may be implicated in suicide circadian variations. Furthermore, specific sleep disorders like insomnia, nightmares and sleep deprivation are common risk factors of suicide and possibly independently of the presence of depressive symptoms. Finally, the efficacy of chronotherapeutics (such as luminotherapy, dark therapy, sleep

  17. Suicidal Behavior, Smoking, and Familial Vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Julia D.; Agrawal, Arpana; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Fu, Qiang; Jacob, Theodore; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Xian, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Smoking is a well-established correlate of suicidal behavior. It is not known if familial risk factors contribute to this association. Methods: Data were obtained via semistructured interviews with 1,107 twin fathers, 1,919 offspring between ages 12–32 years, and 1,023 mothers. Familial vulnerability to nicotine dependence and suicidal behavior was modeled via father and maternal self-report of these behaviors. Multinomial logistic regression models were computed with and without familial risk factors to estimate the association between offspring ever smoking, regular smoking, nicotine dependence, and a 4-level offspring suicide variable: (a) none, (b) ideation, (c) ideation + plan, and (d) ideation + plan + attempt or ideation + attempt. All models were stratified by gender and adjusted for sociodemographics, familial risk factors including parental suicidal behavior, nicotine dependence, and conduct disorder, and offspring conduct disorder, depression, alcohol abuse/dependence, and illicit drug abuse/dependence. Results: After adjusting for covariates and familial risk factors, ever smoking was not significantly associated with suicidal behavior in males and females. In males, regular smoking was associated with ideation + plan (odds ratio [OR] = 5.47; 95% CI: 1.05–28.60), and in females, regular smoking was associated with ideation + plan + attempt or ideation + attempt. In both genders, nicotine-dependent smoking was associated with ideation + plan + attempt or ideation + attempt (males: OR = 6.59; 95% CI: 1.91–22.70, females: OR = 3.37; 95% CI: 1.25–9.04). Comparison of models with and without familial risk factors indicated that there is no mediation of smoking status and suicidal behavior by familial risk. Conclusions: Smoking and nicotine dependence are correlated with suicidal behaviour. Contributions from familial risk factors did not significantly alter this association. PMID:22080587

  18. Ketamine for Treatment of Suicidal Ideation and Reduction of Risk for Suicidal Behavior.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Faryal; McCullumsmith, Cheryl B

    2016-06-01

    Ketamine, an NMDA receptor antagonist with efficacy as a rapid anti-depressant, has early evidence for action to reduce suicidal ideation. This review will explore several important questions that arise from these studies. First, how do we measure reductions in suicidal ideation that occur over minutes to hours? Second, are the reductions in suicidal ideation after ketamine treatment solely a result of its rapid anti-depressant effect? Third, is ketamine only effective in reducing suicidal ideation in patients with mood disorders? Fourth, could ketamine's action lead us to a greater understanding of the neurobiology of suicidal processes? Last, do the reductions in depression and suicidal ideation after ketamine treatment translate into decreased risk for suicidal behavior? Our review concludes that ketamine treatment can be seen as a double-edged sword, clinically to help provide treatment for acutely suicidal patients and experimentally to explore the neurobiological nature of suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior.

  19. Emotional intelligence is a protective factor for suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Cha, Christine; Nock, Matthew

    2009-04-01

    Little is known about what factors protect against the occurrence of suicidal ideation and attempts. We tested whether emotional intelligence (EI)-the ability to perceive, integrate into thoughts, understand, and manage one's emotions-decreases the likelihood of suicidal ideation and attempts among those at risk. Adolescents (N = 54) aged 12 to 19 years were recruited from local psychiatric clinics and the community to participate in this cross-sectional laboratory-based study. Analyses examined whether the relations between childhood sexual abuse and suicidal ideation and attempts were moderated by adolescents' EI. These constructs were assessed using self-report, structured interviews, and performance-based tests, respectively. Analyses revealed that EI is a protective factor for both suicidal ideation and attempts. Specifically, childhood sexual abuse was strongly predictive of these outcomes among those with low EI, weakly predictive among those with medium EI, and completely unrelated among those with high EI. Follow-up analyses revealed that the protective effect of EI was driven primarily by differences in strategic EI (i.e., ability to understand and manage emotions) but not experiential EI (i.e., ability to perceive emotions and integrate emotions into thoughts). This study provides preliminary evidence that EI is a protective factor for suicidal ideation and attempts. Important next steps include testing the moderating influence of EI on a wider range of stressful life events and self-injurious behaviors, as well as conducting experimental studies to determine whether enhancing EI decreases the subsequent occurrence of these behavior problems.

  20. Dialectical Behavior Therapy with Suicidal Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Alec L.; Rathus, Jill H.; Linehan, Marsha M.

    2006-01-01

    Filling a tremendous need, this highly practical book adapts the proven techniques of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) to treatment of multiproblem adolescents at highest risk for suicidal behavior and self-injury. The authors are master clinicians who take the reader step by step through understanding and assessing severe emotional…

  1. Suicidal behavior and aggression-related disorders.

    PubMed

    McCloskey, Michael S; Ammerman, Brooke A

    2017-08-09

    Studies of suicidal behavior among those with aggression-related disorders (i.e. intermittent explosive disorder, borderline personality disorder, antisocial personality disorder, and conduct disorder) were examined. The presence of an aggressive disorder generally increased the risk of suicide attempts and mortality, with this effect (when examined) usually existing independent of other psychopathology. However, this may not be the case for antisocial personality disorder. Furthermore, with the exception of intermittent explosive disorder, the extant research suggests severity of aggression was associated with suicide attempt risk in aggression-related disorders. Future research is needed to better understand what mechanisms may influence the suicide-aggression relationship. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Suicidal Ideation and Behavior in Youthful Nonpsychiatric Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Calista V.; Flinn, Don E.

    1972-01-01

    The Ss reporting serious suicidal behavior in the self reported significantly more suicidal behavior in others, including relatives. Significant subgroup differences were present which suggest the possibility of a repression-sensitization continuum. (Author)

  3. Domains of chronic stress and suicidal behaviors among inpatient adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pettit, Jeremy W; Green, Kelly L; Grover, Kelly E; Schatte, Dawnelle J; Morgan, Sharon T

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the role of chronic stress in youth suicidal behaviors. This study examined the relations between specific domains of chronic stress and suicidal behaviors among 131 inpatient youth (M age = 15.02 years) who completed measures of stress, suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, and suicide intent. After controlling for demographics, diagnostic status, past history of attempt, and life event stress, the predictors of suicidal ideation were chronic stress in family relationships, close friendship, and physical health. Chronic close friendship stress also predicted suicide intent among attempters after controlling for covariates. No domain robustly predicted the presence of an attempt or moderated the relation between life event stress and suicidal behaviors. These findings highlight the role of certain domains of chronic stress in suicidal ideation and suicide intent.

  4. Relationships between suicidal behavior and personality types.

    PubMed

    Street, S; Kromrey, J D

    1994-01-01

    This study examined the hypotheses that introversion in general and the introverted-intuitive-feeling-perceiving (INFP) type as measured by the Meyers-Briggs Type Indicator are related to suicidal ideation and behaviors. Analyses of data from 330 university students found four interactive suicidal behavior risk models: introverted-perceiving (IP) (females); introverted-sensing-feeling (ISF) (males); introverted-intuitive-perceiving (INP) (males); extraverted-intuitive-judging (ENJ) (males). Study findings were interpreted in terms of implications for risk assessment and intervention.

  5. [Corticotherapy and suicidal behavior: A case report].

    PubMed

    Carle, G; Abgrall-Barbry, G

    2016-06-01

    In 2010, over 220 000 people attempted suicide in France, in other words up to one suicide attempt every 85s. Numerous risk factors are involved, including iatrogenic factors. Data from previous retrospective studies indicate, on average, 5.7 % of people treated with corticosteroids develop severe steroid-induced psychiatric disorders. Steroid-induced suicidal behavior is not explicitly specified in these studies, except for one recent descriptive study. Its prevalence remains unclear and is probably underestimated. We report the case of a 50-year-old woman treated by intravenous methylprednisolone for a relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis relapse. Two weeks following a five-day intravenous treatment, she attempted suicide by prescription drug overdose at home. In the two months leading up to this event, she described symptoms of major depressive disorder which were left untreated. In retrospect, high doses of corticosteroids seem to have played a significant role in the occurrence of transient acute suicidal behavior. The patient improved significantly under antidepressant treatment and was discharged after three weeks of hospitalization. This clinical case points out that corticosteroids are likely to precipitate suicidal behavior in a patient with a premorbid undiagnosed depressive disorder. Early detection of psychiatric disorders before starting corticotherapy seems to be essential. However, management strategies are not explicit enough in the literature to be recommended. Treatment discontinuation should not be done systematically, but tapering should be considered in combination with an antidepressant drug. A recent longitudinal study by Fardet et al. on oral corticotherapy suggests a positive correlation between steroids treatment and suicidal behavior. These results may support our clinical observation. In addition, the neurobiologic correlates may give credit to the underlying pathophysiology proposed as a potential explanation to the patient

  6. Suicide Prevention in Schools as Viewed through the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    The author has proposed a new theory of suicidal behavior--the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior (Joiner, 2005)--which attempts to answer the question "Why do people die by suicide?" In this commentary, he briefly describes the theory, and then argues that the theory's constructs may allow a new level of focus and specificity…

  7. Suicide Prevention in Schools as Viewed through the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    The author has proposed a new theory of suicidal behavior--the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior (Joiner, 2005)--which attempts to answer the question "Why do people die by suicide?" In this commentary, he briefly describes the theory, and then argues that the theory's constructs may allow a new level of focus and specificity…

  8. Genetic Influences on Suicide and Nonfatal Suicidal Behavior: Twin Study Findings

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2015-01-01

    It has been well established that suicidal behavior is familial. Twin studies provide a unique opportunity to distinguish genetic effects from other familial influences. Consistent with findings from previous twin studies, including case series and selected samples, data from the population-based Swedish Twin Registry clearly demonstrate the importance of genetic influences on suicide. Twin studies of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts also implicate genetic influences, even when accounting for the effects of psychopathology. Future work is needed to evaluate the possibility of age and gender differences in heritability of suicide and nonfatal suicidal behavior. PMID:20444580

  9. An Integrative Model of Suicidal Ideation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudd, M. David

    1990-01-01

    Presents an integrative path model that details relationships among several demographic variables, life stress, depression, hopelessness, social support, and suicidal ideation of 737 college students. Found negative life stress to be a significant predictor of both depression and hopelessness. Depression proved to be a better predictor of suicidal…

  10. Acute behavioral interventions and outpatient treatment strategies with suicidal adolescents

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Kimberly H. McManama; Singer, Jonathan B.; LeCloux, Mary; Duarté-Vélez, Yovanska; Spirito, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of suicidal thoughts and behaviors among adolescents, there is limited knowledge of effective interventions to use with this population. This paper reviews the findings of studies on behavioral interventions for adolescents who are at acute suicide risk, as well as outpatient treatment and risk management strategies with suicidal adolescents. The importance of addressing comorbid behaviors and enhancing protective factors are discussed. Cultural considerations in working with suicidal adolescents and strategies for conducting culturally competent treatment are explored. PMID:26279646

  11. Suicidal Desire and the Capability for Suicide: Tests of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior among Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Orden, Kimberly A.; Witte, Tracy K.; Gordon, Kathryn H.; Bender, Theodore W.; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior (T. E. Joiner, 2005) proposes that an individual will not die by suicide unless he or she has both the desire to die by suicide and the ability to do so. Three studies test the theory's hypotheses. In Study 1, the interaction of thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness…

  12. Suicidal Desire and the Capability for Suicide: Tests of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior among Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Orden, Kimberly A.; Witte, Tracy K.; Gordon, Kathryn H.; Bender, Theodore W.; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior (T. E. Joiner, 2005) proposes that an individual will not die by suicide unless he or she has both the desire to die by suicide and the ability to do so. Three studies test the theory's hypotheses. In Study 1, the interaction of thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness…

  13. Aggression, substance use, and suicidal behaviors in high school students.

    PubMed Central

    Garrison, C Z; McKeown, R E; Valois, R F; Vincent, M L

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. We sought to analyze the frequency and correlates of suicidal behaviors in a community sample of adolescents. METHODS. Information concerning suicidal thoughts and acts, aggressive behaviors, substance use and physical recklessness were collected with the 70-item self-report Youth Risk Behavior Survey from a statewide sample of 3764 South Carolina public high school students. RESULTS. Seventy-five percent of students reported no suicidal behaviors, 11% reported serious suicidal thoughts, 6.4% reported specific suicidal plans, 5.9% reported attempts not requiring medical care, and 1.6% reported attempts requiring medical care. All types of suicidal behaviors occurred more frequently in females than males. Odds ratios for aggressive behaviors and cigarette use were elevated across all categories of suicide behaviors, increasing in magnitude with severity of reported suicidal behavior. Substance use was associated with some but not all categories of suicidal behaviors. The relationships were most pronounced with the use of potentially more dangerous drugs. CONCLUSIONS. The results suggest that suicidal behaviors are not infrequent occurrences among adolescents and that they often coexist with other high-risk behaviors. Interventions designed to reduce suicidal behaviors should simultaneously address coexisting high-risk behaviors. PMID:8427319

  14. Suicidal Behavior among Latina College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesin, Megan S.; Jeglic, Elizabeth L.

    2012-01-01

    Latina college students are one of the fastest-growing segments of the college student population. Although there is evidence suggesting Latina high school students are at increased risk of engaging in suicidal behavior, it is unclear Bwhether this risk continues in college. Over the course of 3 years, 554 Latina college students, the majority of…

  15. Suicidal Behavior among Latina College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesin, Megan S.; Jeglic, Elizabeth L.

    2012-01-01

    Latina college students are one of the fastest-growing segments of the college student population. Although there is evidence suggesting Latina high school students are at increased risk of engaging in suicidal behavior, it is unclear Bwhether this risk continues in college. Over the course of 3 years, 554 Latina college students, the majority of…

  16. Firearms and suicide in the United States: is risk independent of underlying suicidal behavior?

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthew; Barber, Catherine; White, Richard A; Azrael, Deborah

    2013-09-15

    On an average day in the United States, more than 100 Americans die by suicide; half of these suicides involve the use of firearms. In this ecological study, we used linear regression techniques and recently available state-level measures of suicide attempt rates to assess whether, and if so, to what extent, the well-established relationship between household firearm ownership rates and suicide mortality persists after accounting for rates of underlying suicidal behavior. After controlling for state-level suicide attempt rates (2008-2009), higher rates of firearm ownership (assessed in 2004) were strongly associated with higher rates of overall suicide and firearm suicide, but not with nonfirearm suicide (2008-2009). Furthermore, suicide attempt rates were not significantly related to gun ownership levels. These findings suggest that firearm ownership rates, independent of underlying rates of suicidal behavior, largely determine variations in suicide mortality across the 50 states. Our results support the hypothesis that firearms in the home impose suicide risk above and beyond the baseline risk and help explain why, year after year, several thousand more Americans die by suicide in states with higher than average household firearm ownership compared with states with lower than average firearm ownership.

  17. Reconsidering the link between impulsivity and suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Anestis, Michael D; Soberay, Kelly A; Gutierrez, Peter M; Hernández, Theresa D; Joiner, Thomas E

    2014-11-01

    It is widely accepted that suicidal behavior often occurs with little planning. We propose, however, that suicidal behavior is rarely if ever impulsive-that it is too frightening and physically distressing to engage in without forethought-and that suicidal behavior in impulsive individuals is accounted for by painful and fearsome behaviors capable of enhancing their capacity for suicide. We conducted a meta-analysis of the association between trait impulsivity and suicidal behavior and a critical review of research considering the impulsiveness of specific suicide attempts. Meta-analytic results suggest the relationship between trait impulsivity and suicidal behavior is small. Furthermore, studies examining a mediating role of painful and provocative behaviors have uniformly supported our model. Results from our review suggest that researchers have been unable to adequately measure impulsivity of attempts and that measures sensitive to episodic planning must be developed to further our understanding of this phenomenon.

  18. The relationship between DST results and suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Black, Donald W; Monahan, Patrick O; Winokur, George

    2002-06-01

    The authors assessed the relationship between dexamethasone suppression test (DST) results and suicidal ideations and behavior. Four-hundred-twenty-three mood disorder patients admitted to a tertiary care medical center were administered the DST from 1978 to 1981. The patients were subsequently followed up to determine death status using a record-linkage method. More than 44% had abnormal cortisol suppression (nonsuppressors) at the index admission. Suppressors and nonsuppressors did not differ significantly with respect to frequency of suicidal ideations or completed suicides. Suppressors were significantly more likely than nonsuppressors to have a history of suicide attempts or to have a suicide attempt following hospital discharge. Using logistic regression, and controlling for several important variables including diagnosis, maximum postdexamethasone cortisol was not significantly associated with suicide, suicidal ideation, or suicide attempts. We conclude that an abnormal DST is not useful as a predictor of suicidal behavior.

  19. Suicidal behaviors in children and adolescents with psychotic disorders.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, Sarah Hope; Norkett, Emily; Graber, Kelsey; Tembulkar, Sahil; Morelli, Nicholas; Gonzalez-Heydrich, Joseph; D'Angelo, Eugene

    2017-01-01

    Suicide is the leading cause of premature death in individuals with psychotic disorders. Risk for onset of suicidal behaviors tends to begin in adolescence, remaining high into young adulthood. The present study aims to evaluate the interplay of early onset psychosis and suicide risk by examining suicidal behaviors (ideation, planning, and attempts) in children and adolescents with psychotic disorders (PD) compared to typically developing peers (TD). Twenty five youths were recruited and were diagnostically evaluated for psychosis. We found that the PD children exhibited significantly higher levels of suicidal behaviors than TD children, even when parsed into individual at-risk behaviors.

  20. An aeronautic suicide attempt (3). Suicide and self-destructive behavior in aviation.

    PubMed

    Mäulen, B

    1993-01-01

    Approximately 2-3% of all fatal air accidents may be attributed to suicide, and in many other accidents in aviation there are grounds for inferring that self-destructive or suicidal behavior was involved. Narcissistic personality traits are of paramount importance for the choice of this suicide method. Precursors include undetected depressions, alcoholism, and family problems of pilots.

  1. Transgender Youth and Suicidal Behaviors: Applying the Interpersonal Psychological Theory of Suicide.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Arnold H; Park, Jung Yeon; Russell, Stephen T

    2016-01-01

    The interpersonal psychological theory of suicide (IPTS) was used to examine suicidal thoughts and behaviors among 129 transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) youth. Youth were categorized according to their gender identities: female-to-male (FTM), male-to-female (MTF), female-to-different-gender (FTDG), and male-to-different gender (MTDG). Higher percentages of suicidal ideation were reported by FTDG and FTM youth; and higher percentages of suicide attempts by FTDG and MTDG youth. Perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness were significantly related to suicidal ideation and/or suicide attempts. Experiences of painful, provocative and harmful events and acquired capability significantly predicted suicide attempts. The findings support IPTS in explaining suicidal behaviors among TGNC youth. Implications for prevention and intervention efforts are discussed.

  2. Transgender Youth and Suicidal Behaviors: Applying the Interpersonal Psychological Theory of Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, Arnold H.; Park, Jung Yeon; Russell, Stephen T.

    2016-01-01

    The interpersonal psychological theory of suicide (IPTS) was used to examine suicidal thoughts and behaviors among 129 transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) youth. Youth were categorized according to their gender identities: female-to-male (FTM), male-to-female (MTF), female-to-different-gender (FTDG), and male-to-different gender (MTDG). Higher percentages of suicidal ideation were reported by FTDG and FTM youth; and higher percentages of suicide attempts by FTDG and MTDG youth. Perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness were significantly related to suicidal ideation and/or suicide attempts. Experiences of painful, provocative and harmful events and acquired capability significantly predicted suicide attempts. The findings support IPTS in explaining suicidal behaviors among TGNC youth. Implications for prevention and intervention efforts are discussed. PMID:28344728

  3. Stories worth telling: moral experiences of suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Scott J

    2014-01-01

    Moral constructions of suicide are deliberately avoided in contemporary suicidology, yet morality persists, little or imperfectly acknowledged, in its practices and in the policies, discourses, and instruments that it underpins. This study used narrative methodologies to examine the normative force of suicidology and its implications for persons who had engaged in an act of nonfatal suicidal behavior. I interviewed a convenience sample of twelve persons from two inner-urban community mental health centers who were receiving crisis and case management services after a recent act of nonfatal suicidal behavior. Interviews focused on events leading up to and after participants' suicidal behavior; the responses their suicidal behavior generated in others, including family, friends, and the health professionals caring for them; and cultural views of suicide more broadly. Analysis of these interviews revealed that, although participants' narratives were broadly consistent with a number of recognizable, canonical story formats common to our cultural repertoire of stories of suicide, they also revealed important tensions, divisions, conflicts, and challenges to contemporary suicidological discourse and practice. Despite evidence to suggest that biomedical understandings of suicide provided some therapeutic benefit to participants, they did not address important social and moral dimensions of human life or explore their connection to suicidal behavior-aspects of the suicidal event that were critical to its causation and to its retelling and "resolution." The results of this study provide important insights into the moral features of suicidal behavior, the moral and ethical implications of suicide research, and the limitations of moral and ethical discourse in suicidology.

  4. The Role of Cytokines in the Pathophysiology of Suicidal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ganança, Licínia; Oquendo, Maria A.; Tyrka, Audrey R.; Cisneros-Trujillo, Sebastian; Mann, J. John; Sublette, M. Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Objective Immune dysregulation has been implicated in depression and other psychiatric disorders. What is less clear is how immune dysregulation can affect risk of suicidal behavior. We reviewed the scientific literature concerning cytokines related to suicidal ideation, suicidal behavior and suicide, and surveyed clinical and neurobiological factors associated with cytokine levels that may modulate effects of inflammation on suicide risk. Methods We searched PubMed, Embase, Scopus and PsycINFO for relevant studies published from 1980 through February, 2015. Papers were included if they were written in English and focused on cytokine measurements in patients with suicidal behaviors. Results The literature search yielded 22 studies concerning cytokines and suicidal ideation, suicide attempts or suicide completion. The most consistent finding was elevated interleukin (IL)-6, found in 8 out of 14 studies, in CSF, blood, and postmortem brain. In one study, IL-6 in CSF was also found to be higher in violent than nonviolent attempters and to correlate with future suicide completion. Low plasma IL-2 was observed in 2 studies of suicide attempters, while divergent results were seen for tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, IL-4, and soluble Il-2 receptors. Conclusions Given the complexity suggested by the heterogenous cytokine findings, putative mediators and moderators of inflammation on suicidal behavior merit further study. Elevated IL-6 was the most robust cytokine finding, associated with suicidal ideation and both nonfatal suicide attempts and suicides. Future studies should evaluate the predictive value of high IL-6, consider how this may alter brain function to impact suicidal behavior, and explore the potential beneficial effects of reducing IL-6 on suicide risk. PMID:26546783

  5. Spirituality Moderates Hopelessness, Depression, and Suicidal Behavior among Malaysian Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Talib, Mansor Abu; Abdollahi, Abbas

    2017-06-01

    Suicide is an important public health problem for adolescents, and it is essential to increase our knowledge concerning the etiology of suicide among adolescent students. Therefore, this study was designed to examine the associations between hopelessness, depression, spirituality, and suicidal behavior, and to examine spirituality as a moderator between hopelessness, depression, and suicidal behavior among 1376 Malaysian adolescent students. The participants completed measures of depression, hopelessness, daily spiritual experience, and suicidal behavior. Structural equation modeling indicated that adolescent students high in hopelessness and depression, but also high in spirituality, had less suicidal behavior than others. These findings reinforce the importance of spirituality as a protective factor against hopelessness, depression, and suicidal behavior among Malaysian adolescent students.

  6. Suicidal behavior in dementia: a special risk in semantic dementia.

    PubMed

    Sabodash, Valeriy; Mendez, Mario F; Fong, Sylvia; Hsiao, Julia J

    2013-09-01

    Some studies report a low suicide risk in general dementia and in Alzheimer's disease (AD). To evaluate suicidal behavior among patients with semantic dementia (SD), a disorder that impairs semantic knowledge. We reviewed the presence of active suicidal behavior and related factors among 25 patients with SD compared to 111 age-matched patients with early-onset AD. In all, 5 (20%) patients with SD had suicidal behavior (2 successfully killed themselves) compared to 1 (0.9%) with AD (P < .001). There was significantly more depression and greater premorbid history of suicidal behavior among the patients with SD compared to those with AD. Among the patients with SD, those with suicidal behavior, compared to those without, had more depression and greater insight into their deficits. Patients with SD are at special risk of committing suicide, particularly if they have depression and preserved insight. Possible mechanisms include an impaired sense of semantic competence with increased impulsivity.

  7. Depression, delinquency, and suicidal behaviors among college students.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Rebecca L; Chesin, Megan S; Jeglic, Elizabeth L

    2014-01-01

    Liu (2004) investigated the interaction between delinquency and depression among adolescents and found that delinquency moderated the relationship between depression and suicidal behaviors. This study also explored the relationship between depression, delinquency, and suicidal behaviors, although delinquency was expected to mediate, as opposed to moderate, the relationship between depression and suicidal behaviors. The participants comprised 354 college students. The students completed a series of questionnaires measuring delinquent behavior, depressive symptoms, and suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Contrary to Liu's (2004) findings, delinquency was found not to moderate but rather to partially mediate the relationship between depression and suicidal behaviors. The findings suggest that for some college students, depression is associated with delinquent behaviors, which, in turn, are associated with suicidal behaviors.

  8. Grit and perseverance in suicidal behavior and non-suicidal self-injury.

    PubMed

    Anestis, Michael D; Selby, Edward A

    2015-01-01

    Data indicate persistence facilitates suicidal behavior. Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is characterized by difficulty persisting while upset. The relationship between NSSI and suicidal behavior thus may hinge upon persistence. Participants were 604 undergraduates (79.5% women; 42.4% African American; 6.1% with 1 + prior suicide attempt). Data were collected online via self-report and analyzed using hierarchical multiple regression. As expected, higher levels of grit and perseverance predicted more frequent suicide attempts. Furthermore, grit and perseverance moderated the relationship between NSSI and suicide attempts, which increased in magnitude as individuals reported greater persistence. Findings depict suicidal behavior as a deliberate pursuit of death.

  9. Effect of Exposure to Suicidal Behavior on Suicide Attempt in a High-Risk Sample of Offspring of Depressed Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Ainsley K.; Galfalvy, Hanga; Everett, Benjamin; Currier, Dianne; Zelazny, Jamie; Oquendo, Maria A.; Melhem, Nadine M.; Kolko, David; Harkavy-Friedman, Jill M.; Birmaher, Boris; Stanley, Barbara; Mann, J. John; Brent, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Exposure to suicidal behavior in peers and relatives is thought to increase risk for suicidal behavior in vulnerable individuals, possibly as a result of imitation or modeling. This study examines exposure to suicidal behavior and likelihood of suicide attempt in a high-risk cohort of offspring of a depressed parent. Method: A total of…

  10. Effect of Exposure to Suicidal Behavior on Suicide Attempt in a High-Risk Sample of Offspring of Depressed Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Ainsley K.; Galfalvy, Hanga; Everett, Benjamin; Currier, Dianne; Zelazny, Jamie; Oquendo, Maria A.; Melhem, Nadine M.; Kolko, David; Harkavy-Friedman, Jill M.; Birmaher, Boris; Stanley, Barbara; Mann, J. John; Brent, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Exposure to suicidal behavior in peers and relatives is thought to increase risk for suicidal behavior in vulnerable individuals, possibly as a result of imitation or modeling. This study examines exposure to suicidal behavior and likelihood of suicide attempt in a high-risk cohort of offspring of a depressed parent. Method: A total of…

  11. Suicidal Behavior: A Survey of Oregon High School Students, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, David

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death in the 10- to 19-year-old population in Oregon. The suicide rate has increased more than five-fold in the last three and one-half decades. This trend can be reversed by developing an understanding of the characteristics, behaviors, and events associated with suicide in at-risk youth. The Youth Risk…

  12. Laboratory Measured Behavioral Impulsivity Relates to Suicide Attempt History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Donald M.; Mathias, Charles W.; Marsh, Dawn M.; Papageorgiou, T. Dorina; Swann, Alan C.; Moeller, F. Gerard

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between laboratory behavioral measured impulsivity (using the Immediate and Delayed Memory Tasks) and suicidal attempt histories. Three groups of adults were recruited, those with either: no previous suicide attempts (Control, n = 20), only a single suicide attempt (Single, n = 20), or…

  13. Childhood Maltreatment, PTSD, and Suicidal Behavior among African American Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Martie P.; Kaslow, Nadine J.; Lane, Danielle Bradshaw; Kingree, J. B.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates how childhood maltreatment and current post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) predict nonfatal suicide attempts among 335 African American women. PTSD in combination with any of the maltreatments of childhood increased the risk of suicide attempts. Suggests that interventions designed to reduce suicidal behavior should focus on women…

  14. Surveillance of Suicidal Behavior, January through December 2014

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    cases were diagnosed with a sleep disorder.  In the year before the event, 37%, 46%, and 54% of suicide, suicide attempt, and suicidal ideation...annually by BSHOP, describes the characteristics of Soldiers who engaged in suicidal behavior and presents observed trends and changes in risk factors over ...interpreting surveillance data. Surveillance data typically improves as data collection becomes refined over time. This may result in frequencies and

  15. Improving the Prediction of Suicidal Behavior in Youth

    PubMed Central

    Glenn, Catherine R.; Nock, Matthew K.

    2015-01-01

    Suicidal behaviors increase dramatically during adolescence. In order to effectively intervene and ultimately prevent suicide in youth, the field needs to be able to identify and predict which adolescents are at greatest suicide risk. However, present knowledge of risk factors for suicide and techniques for identifying at-risk youth are insufficient. The purpose of the current manuscript is to highlight some of the key, yet unanswered, questions about the prediction of suicidal behavior in youth, and to suggest the types of research advances needed to move the field forward. PMID:23850053

  16. The spreading of suicidal behavior: The contextual effect of community household poverty on adolescent suicidal behavior and the mediating role of suicide suggestion.

    PubMed

    Bernburg, Jon Gunnar; Thorlindsson, Thorolfur; Sigfusdottir, Inga D

    2009-01-01

    Despite the longstanding interest of social researchers in the social factors that influence suicide and suicidal behavior, multilevel research on this topic has been limited. Using nested survey data on 5331 Icelandic adolescents (born in 1990 and 1991) in 83 school-communities, the current study examines the contextual effect of community household poverty on adolescent suicidal behavior (suicide ideation and suicide attempt). The findings show that the concentration of household poverty in the school-community has a significant, contextual effect on adolescent suicidal behavior. Furthermore, we test an "epidemic" explanation for this effect, examining the mediating role of suicide suggestion (contact with suicidal others). We find that suicide suggestion mediates a substantial part of the contextual effect of community household poverty on suicide attempt, while mediation is modest in the case of suicide ideation. The findings indicate that community household poverty increases the risk of adolescent suicidal behavior in part because communities in which household poverty is common entail a higher risk for adolescents of associating with suicidal others. The study demonstrates how the concentration of individual problems can have macrolevel implications, creating social mechanisms that cannot be reduced to the circumstances or characteristics of individuals.

  17. Dying online: live broadcasts of Chinese emerging adult suicides and crisis response behaviors.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jing; Zhang, Wei; Harris, Keith; Chen, Qiang; Xu, Xiaolin

    2016-08-11

    Social media and online environments are becoming increasingly popular and integral to modern lives. The online presentation of suicidal behaviors is an example of the importance of communication technologies, and the need for professionals to respond to a changing world. These types of behaviors, however, have rarely been scientifically analyzed. This study aimed to examine the behaviors of both suicide broadcasters and their audience, with attention on prevention/crisis opportunities. Multiple case studies were employed to explore live-broadcast suicide by Chinese emerging adults (aged 18-25 years). Six cases were selected (four males, two females; aged 19-24, M = 21.60, SD = 2.25), retrieved from 190 public documents (case range = 5 to 32; M = 11.50, SD = 10.37). A qualitative study based on grounded theory was adopted. Information on case background, stages, participants and their behaviors were collected. (1) Five stages of blogcast suicide incidents were revealed, including: Signaling, Initial reactions, Live blogcast of suicide attempts, Crisis responses, and Final outcomes. (2) Common behavioral trends (e.g., comforting, verbal abuse) were identified from the blogcast participants (e.g., active audience, peers, parents and police). (3) Suicide blogcasters exhibited tendencies to communicated signs of pain and cries for help. This multi-case study found live presentations of suicidal behaviors offered unique opportunities to respond to suicidal crises, and also to learn more about the relationships between suicidal people and potential help sources. Findings showed many audience members wanted to be helpful but lacked appropriate skills or knowledge. Others engaged in suicide cyberbullying. The social media is an environment in the making. This study revealed that increasing knowledge and skills for crisis response and suicide prevention is needed. Such efforts could lead to empowered netizens and a more hospitable online world.

  18. Suicidal behavior of adolescent girls: profile and meaning.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Hanna Bar; Reznik, Ilya; Mester, Roberto

    2003-01-01

    In the last two decades the incidence of adolescent suicides has been very high (though it has been on the decrease in the U.S.A. over the last four years), giving rise to a multitude of empirical and theoretical studies. The extensive knowledge that has accumulated regarding adolescent suicidal behavior has led to a more differentiated attitude. Many studies try to clarify specific needs, motivations and the conceptualization of death and suicide in various adolescent subgroups (minorities, females, homosexuals), thereby enabling more specific and exact methods of evaluation, prevention and intervention. Adolescent girls' suicidal behavior is different in many aspects from boys' suicidal behavior: Girls mortality rate from suicide is a 3-5 times lower rate than boys, but their attempted suicide rate is four to hundreds time higher. Girls suicide mainly by drugs and their suicide is mainly in reaction to interpersonal difficulties. Their motivation is often a cry for help. The comorbidity of suicide and depression is much higher for adolescent girls than boys. These differences generate a different understanding and separate treatment strategies. Two theoretical approaches that may explain the profile which characterizes suicidal girls will be presented. One has a psychological developmental context, and the other a social cultural context. Implications for specific prevention measures include legal action on pack sizes of analgesics, compulsory registration of attempted suicide and more gender specific treatment and prevention programs.

  19. Religious commitment, attitudes toward suicide, and suicidal behaviors among college students of different ethnic and religious groups in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Foo, Xiang Yi; Alwi, Muhd Najib Mohd; Ismail, Siti Irma Fadhillah; Ibrahim, Normala; Osman, Zubaidah Jamil

    2014-06-01

    The variation in suicide patterns across ethnic groups with different religious background is a puzzling social phenomenon. This study sought to examine the impact of religious commitment and attitudes toward suicide on suicidal behaviors of college students across major ethnic and religious groups in a multicultural society of Malaysia. A total of 139 college students completed Religious Commitment Inventory-10, Attitudes Toward Suicide Scale, and Suicidal Behavior Questionnaire-Revised. Findings showed significant discrepancies in attitudes toward suicide, but not suicidal behaviors across ethnic and religious groups. Suicide acceptance significantly affected suicidal behaviors as well. Although religious commitment is not associated with suicidal behaviors, its deviation is reflected in students' acceptance of suicide. Additionally, college students' suicide risk, lifetime, and recent suicide ideation, as well as their likelihood of future suicide attempt can be associated with their acceptance of suicide. The influence of attitudes toward suicide and religion, therefore, should be taken into consideration while implementing suicide prevention programs as it helps shape the norms about suicide among youths.

  20. [Suicidal behavior in adolescents--psychopathology and addictive comorbidity].

    PubMed

    Vörös, Viktor; Fekete, Sándor; Hewitt, Anthea; Osváth, Péter

    2005-06-01

    Despite of the decreasing suicide rates, the number of suicide attempts--peculiarly in the adolescent population--shows a growing tendency. Due to the small amount of study results the problem remains hard to assess. Child and Adolescent Self harm in Europe (CASE) study, allows us to explore self-reported suicidal behavior among adolescents more exactly. This European multicentre study has a special focus on adolescent suicidal behavior (suicidal thoughts, ideation, deliberate self harm, suicide attempt) and other self destructive behavior (drug, alcohol) as well as psychopathological symptoms (anxiety, depression, impulsivity, aggression) and it also investigates coping strategies, life events and family background. In the representative school-based community study an anonymous, self-reported questionnaire were conducted with 4408 (males: 2388, females: 2020) 15 and 16 year-old pupils. Out of the 4408 pupils 7.8% (males: 4.6%, females: 11.6%) of the adolescents reported former suicide attempt, 1.6% of the boys and 3.6% of the girls reported about more than one suicide attempts. According to the statistical analysis the suicidal group greatly differs from the non-suicidal one. Suicidal adolescents were more likely to use alcohol, drugs or nicotine than their non-suicidal peers. Drug abuse was four times more common among suicidal boys, and five times more common among suicidal girls than in the non-suicidal group. 30% of the boys and 13% of the girls used more than one kind of drug. The use of ecstasy and sedatohypnotic drugs showed the most spectacular difference between suicidal and non-suicidal teenagers in both genders. Suicide attempters usually had higher scores in scales measuring anxiety, depression, impulsivity, while their self-esteem was significantly lower. The comparative analysis has revealed that suicide attempters compose a subgroup with more severe psychopathology (anxiety, depression, and impulsivity), lower self-esteem and ineffective coping

  1. Feasibility of Assessing Suicide Ideation and History of Suicidal Behavior in Rural Communities.

    PubMed

    Cukrowicz, Kelly C; Brown, Sarah L; Mitchell, Sean M; Roush, Jared F; Hirsch, Jameson K

    2017-09-22

    Suicide in rural areas has not received significant attention in the research literature to this point, although suicide rates are higher among adults and older adults in rural areas than in urban areas. The aims of the study were as follows: (1) establish the feasibility of assessing suicide ideation and history of suicidal behavior; (2) determine preliminary estimates of the prevalence of suicide ideation, and history of suicide attempts; and (3) examine the effectiveness and acceptability of safety and referral plans for individuals whose responses indicated elevated suicide risk, in rural communities with limited access to referral care. Participants were 96 adults aged 40 to 85 years old (M = 57.34, SD = 11.47) residing in West Texas. Our results indicate that 26% of participants endorsed a lifetime history of suicide ideation and/or suicide attempt(s) and 12.5% reported suicide ideation in the past year. In addition, 93.4% of participants reported that participation in our suicide-focused study was an excellent or good experience. Results suggest that individuals in rural communities are willing to talk about suicide, found the experience helpful, and were satisfied with the referral process. © 2017 The American Association of Suicidology.

  2. Risk Factors for Adolescent Suicide and Suicidal Behavior: Mental and Substance Abuse Disorders, Family Environmental Factors, and Life Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brent, David A.

    1995-01-01

    Reviews psychopathologic risk factors for adolescent suicide and suicidal behavior, namely, affective, disruptive, substance abuse, psychotic, and personality disorders. Discusses interaction of psychopathology with age and gender. Reviews role of family environmental risk factors and stress events in suicide and suicidal behavior, both alone and…

  3. Pathways to suicidal behavior in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Panagioti, Maria; Gooding, Patricia A; Dunn, Graham; Tarrier, Nicholas

    2011-04-01

    This study investigated paths to suicidal behavior in 94 civilian participants with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Two statistical modeling programs, TETRAD II version 2.1 and Mplus 5.21 were used to construct a working model of suicide in PTSD. Two paths to suicidal behavior were identified. In the first path, suicidal behavior was directly associated with greater life impairment, which in turn was associated with poorer occupational and social functioning. In the second path, suicidal behavior was directly associated with depressive symptoms, which in turn were associated with more severe PTSD symptoms. Psychotropic medication, employment status, and threat to life further contributed to the model. The findings suggest that negative perceptions of functional impairment and depression are strongly associated with suicidal behavior in PTSD.

  4. Suicidality, psychopathology, and the internet: Online time vs. online behaviors.

    PubMed

    Harris, Keith M; Starcevic, Vladan; Ma, Jing; Zhang, Wei; Aboujaoude, Elias

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated whether several psychopathology variables, including suicidality, could predict the time people spend using the internet (hours online). Next, we examined a specific at-risk population (suicidal individuals) by their online behaviors, comparing suicidal individuals who went online for suicide-related purposes with suicidal individuals who did not go online for suicide-related purposes. An anonymous online sample of 713 (aged 18-71) reported hours online, psychiatric histories, and completed several standardized scales. After accounting for age and education, hierarchical regression modeling showed that the assessed psychopathology variables, including suicidality, did not explain significant variance in hours online. Hours online were better predicted by younger age, greater willingness to develop online relationships, higher perceived social support, higher curiosity, and lower extraversion. Suicidal participants, who did or did not go online for suicide-related purposes, did not differ on hours online. Multiple regression modeling showed that those who went online for suicide-related purposes were likely to be younger, more suicidal, and more willing to seek help from online mental health professionals. These findings revealed that hours online are not a valid indicator of psychopathology. However, studying online behaviors of specific at-risk groups could be informative and useful, including for suicide prevention efforts. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for adolescent depression and suicidality

    PubMed Central

    Spirito, Anthony; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Wolff, Jennifer; Uhl, Kristen

    2011-01-01

    Synopsis CBT has emerged as a well-established treatment for depression in children and adolescents but treatment trials for adolescents with suicidality are few in number, and their efficacy to date is rather limited. Although a definitive treatment for adolescent suicide attempters has yet to be established, the limited literature suggests that suicidal thoughts and behavior should be directly addressed for optimal treatment outcome. This chapter reviews the rationale underlying the use of CBT for the treatment of depression and suicidality in adolescents, the literature supporting the efficacy of CBT for depressed adolescents, and whether CBT for depression reduces suicidal thoughts and behavior. A description of some of the core cognitive, affective, and behavioral techniques used in CBT treatments of suicidal ideation and behavior in depressed adolescents is included. PMID:21440850

  6. Dating violence and suicidal behavior in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Kristin; Sher, Leo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the possible consequences of adolescent physical, emotional and sexual dating violence through a review of the literature on the topic. An electronic search of major biomedical bibliographic databases (Pubmed, ISI, PsycINFO) was used to retrieve articles providing information on the prevalence rates, risk factors, associated consequences and possible preventive measures for adolescent dating violence across different populations. Currently, there have been few longitudinal studies conducted to identify potential risk factors for entering a violent dating relationship in adolescence. Risky behaviors such as early sexual intercourse may predispose someone for victimization. Dating violence itself is also a predictor of future dating violence. Adolescent dating violence was associated with an increase in other violence-related behaviors, substance use, depression, poorer educational outcomes, posttraumatic stress, unhealthy weight control and risky sexual behavior. The association between adolescent dating violence and an increase in suicidal behavior is a major public health concern. Future research should focus on longitudinal studies so that a causal relationship between dating violence and suicidality may be better understood.

  7. Are Suicidal Behaviors Contagious in Adolescence?: Using Longitudinal Data to Examine Suicide Suggestion*

    PubMed Central

    Abrutyn, Seth; Mueller, Anna S.

    2015-01-01

    Though Durkheim argued that strong social relationships protect individuals from suicide, we posit that these relationships have the potential to increase individuals’ vulnerability when they expose them to suicidality. Using three waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we evaluate whether new suicidal thoughts and attempts are in part responses to exposure to the suicide attempts of role models, specifically friends and family. We find that the suicide attempts of role models do in fact trigger new suicidal thoughts and in some cases attempts, even after significant controls are introduced. Moreover, we find that these effects fade with time, that girls are more vulnerable to them than boys, and that the relationship to the role model—for teenagers at least—matters. Friends appear to be more salient role models for both boys and girls. Our findings suggest that exposure to suicidal behaviors in significant others may teach individuals new ways to deal with emotional distress, namely by becoming suicidal. This reinforces the idea that the structure – and content – of social networks conditions their role in preventing suicidality. Specifically, social ties can be conduits of not just social support, but also anti-social behaviors, like suicidality. PMID:26069341

  8. Are Suicidal Behaviors Contagious in Adolescence?: Using Longitudinal Data to Examine Suicide Suggestion.

    PubMed

    Abrutyn, Seth; Mueller, Anna S

    2014-04-01

    Though Durkheim argued that strong social relationships protect individuals from suicide, we posit that these relationships have the potential to increase individuals' vulnerability when they expose them to suicidality. Using three waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we evaluate whether new suicidal thoughts and attempts are in part responses to exposure to the suicide attempts of role models, specifically friends and family. We find that the suicide attempts of role models do in fact trigger new suicidal thoughts and in some cases attempts, even after significant controls are introduced. Moreover, we find that these effects fade with time, that girls are more vulnerable to them than boys, and that the relationship to the role model-for teenagers at least-matters. Friends appear to be more salient role models for both boys and girls. Our findings suggest that exposure to suicidal behaviors in significant others may teach individuals new ways to deal with emotional distress, namely by becoming suicidal. This reinforces the idea that the structure - and content - of social networks conditions their role in preventing suicidality. Specifically, social ties can be conduits of not just social support, but also anti-social behaviors, like suicidality.

  9. Childhood bullying behaviors as a risk for suicide attempts and completed suicides: a population-based birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Sourander, Andre; Niemelä, Solja; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Piha, Jorma; Tamminen, Tuula; Almqvist, Fredrik; Gould, Madelyn S

    2009-03-01

    There are no previous studies about the association of childhood bullying behavior with later suicide attempts and completed suicides among both sexes. The aim was to study associations between childhood bullying behaviors at age 8 years and suicide attempts and completed suicides up to age 25 years in a large representative population-based birth cohort. The sample includes 5,302 Finnish children born in 1981. Information about bullying was gathered at age 8 years from self-report, as well as parent and teacher reports. Information about suicide attempts requiring hospital admission and completed suicides was gathered from three different Finnish registries until the study participants were 25 years old. Regression analyses were conducted to determine whether children who experience childhood bullying behaviors are at risk for later suicide attempts and completed suicides after controlling for baseline conduct and depression symptoms. The association between bullying behavior at age 8 years and later suicide attempts and completed suicides varies by sex. Among boys, frequent bullying and victimization are associated with later suicide attempts and completed suicides but not after controlling for conduct and depression symptoms; frequent victimization among girls is associated with later suicide attempts and completed suicides, even after controlling for conduct and depression symptoms. When examining childhood bullying behavior as a risk factor for later suicide attempts and completed suicides, each sex has a different risk profile.

  10. Suicide, social integration, and masculinity in the U.S. military.

    PubMed

    Braswell, Harold; Kushner, Howard I

    2012-02-01

    Reports indicate that suicide in the U.S. military has increased significantly in recent years. This increase has been attributed to a number of factors, including more frequent deployments, more relaxed screening of recruits, combat trauma, economic difficulty amongst soldiers, and the breakdown of interpersonal relationships. In this article, we add an element that we believe is crucial to an understanding of military suicide: the socio-cultural environment of the military itself. In particular, we examine the role that the masculine ideologies governing military life play in the internalization of individual frustrations and in suicidal behavior. Suicide investigators often have ignored the role of masculine ideologies in military suicide because of the assumption that suicide results from social disintegration. In contrast, we argue that military suicide is driven largely by excessive social integration. From this perspective, current explanations of military suicide are constrained by gender and etiological assumptions. Finally, this paper suggests the implications of these findings for designing more effective prevention programs for military suicide.

  11. Animal models of suicide-trait-related behaviors.

    PubMed

    Malkesman, Oz; Pine, Daniel S; Tragon, Tyson; Austin, Daniel R; Henter, Ioline D; Chen, Guang; Manji, Husseini K

    2009-04-01

    Although antidepressants are moderately effective in treating major depressive disorder (MDD), concerns have arisen that selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are associated with suicidal thinking and behavior, especially in children, adolescents and young adults. Almost no experimental research in model systems has considered the mechanisms by which SSRIs might be associated with this potential side effect in some susceptible individuals. Suicide is a complex behavior and impossible to fully reproduce in an animal model. However, by investigating traits that show strong cross-species parallels in addition to associations with suicide in humans, animal models might elucidate the mechanisms by which SSRIs are associated with suicidal thinking and behavior. Traits linked with suicide in humans that can be successfully modeled in rodents include aggression, impulsivity, irritability and hopelessness/helplessness. Modeling these relevant traits in animals can help to clarify the impact of SSRIs on these traits, suggesting avenues for reducing suicide risk in this vulnerable population.

  12. Detecting specialization in interpersonal violence versus suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Gregory M; Posick, Chad

    2014-12-01

    Research suggests that interpersonal violence and suicidal behavior often co-occur and share a common set of risk factors. This study examined (1) the extent to which individuals specialize in interpersonal violence or suicidal behavior and (2) the shared and unique covariates of individual specialization. The Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods is a longitudinal study of youths embedded within neighborhoods in metropolitan Chicago. Interviews with youths (average age, 15 years at baseline) and their primary caregivers were conducted from 1994 to 1997 (baseline) and from 1997 to 2000 (Wave 2). Analysis used an item response theory-based statistical approach on 19,502 interpersonal violence and suicidal behavior item responses from 1,628 youths within 74 neighborhoods to assess the degree to which individuals specialize in either interpersonal violence (ranging from hitting someone to shooting someone) or suicidal behavior (ideation, planning, and attempted suicide). The extent to which variables distinguished interpersonal violence and suicidal behavior was assessed. Individuals who engaged in high levels of interpersonal violence were unlikely to engage in suicidal behavior. Conversely, individuals who engaged in high levels of suicidal behavior were also likely to engage in interpersonal violence. Several shared (e.g., residential stability, substance use) and distinguishing (e.g., exposure to violent peers, depression) correlates of interpersonal violence and suicidal behavior were detected. Interventions that address both self- and outward-directed violence must be evidence based. Addressing violence prevention among youths at risk for suicidal behavior appears warranted, but targeting risk factors for suicide among the most violent youths may not be justified. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Identifying suicidal behavior among adolescents using administrative claims data.

    PubMed

    Callahan, S Todd; Fuchs, D Catherine; Shelton, Richard C; Balmer, Leanne S; Dudley, Judith A; Gideon, Patricia S; Deranieri, Michelle M; Stratton, Shannon M; Williams, Candice L; Ray, Wayne A; Cooper, William O

    2013-07-01

    To assess the safety of psychotropic medication use in children and adolescents, it is critical to be able to identify suicidal behaviors from medical claims data and distinguish them from other injuries. The purpose of this study was to develop an algorithm using administrative claims data to identify medically treated suicidal behavior in a cohort of children and adolescents. The cohort included 80,183 youth (6-18 years) enrolled in Tennessee's Medicaid program from 1995-2006 who were prescribed antidepressants. Potential episodes of suicidal behavior were identified using external cause-of-injury codes (E-codes) and ICD-9-CM codes corresponding to the potential mechanisms of or injuries resulting from suicidal behavior. For each identified episode, medical records were reviewed to determine if the injury was self-inflicted and if intent to die was explicitly stated or could be inferred. Medical records were reviewed for 2676 episodes of potential self-harm identified through claims data. Among 1162 episodes that were classified as suicidal behavior, 1117 (96%) had a claim for suicide and self-inflicted injury, poisoning by drugs, or both. The positive predictive value of code groups to predict suicidal behavior ranged from 0-88% and improved when there was a concomitant hospitalization but with the limitation of excluding some episodes of confirmed suicidal behavior. Nearly all episodes of confirmed suicidal behavior in this cohort of youth included an ICD-9-CM code for suicide or poisoning by drugs. An algorithm combining these ICD-9-CM codes and hospital stay greatly improved the positive predictive value for identifying medically treated suicidal behavior. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Community Structural Instability, Anomie, Imitation and Adolescent Suicidal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorlindsson, Thorolfur; Bernburg, Jon Gunnar

    2009-01-01

    The current study examines the contextual effects of community structural characteristics, as well as the mediating role of key social mechanisms, on youth suicidal behavior in Iceland. We argue that the contextual influence of community structural instability on youth suicidal behavior should be mediated by weak attachment to social norms and…

  15. The Prevalence of Suicidal Behaviors Among Northern Plains American Indians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeMaster, Pamela L.; Beals, Janette; Novins, Douglas K.; Manson, Spero M.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of suicidal behaviors among 1,638 Northern Plains American Indians ages 15?57. Age and gender patterns were investigated as was comorbidity with psychiatric and substance use disorders. Data from a population-based survey indicated that suicidal behaviors were more frequently reported among females than males and…

  16. Suicidal Behavior in Long-Term Care Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osgood, Nancy J.; Brant, Barbara A.

    1990-01-01

    Surveyed administrators of 463 long-term care facilities concerning overt suicides and intentional life-threatening behaviors. Data revealed that White males were highest risk group. Refusal to eat, drink, or take medications were most common suicidal behaviors. Depression, loneliness, feelings of family rejection, and loss were significant…

  17. Community Structural Instability, Anomie, Imitation and Adolescent Suicidal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorlindsson, Thorolfur; Bernburg, Jon Gunnar

    2009-01-01

    The current study examines the contextual effects of community structural characteristics, as well as the mediating role of key social mechanisms, on youth suicidal behavior in Iceland. We argue that the contextual influence of community structural instability on youth suicidal behavior should be mediated by weak attachment to social norms and…

  18. Suicidal Behavior and Help Seeking among Diverse College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownson, Chris; Becker, Martin Swanbrow; Shadick, Richard; Jaggars, Shanna S.; Nitkin-Kaner, Yael

    2014-01-01

    Suicidal and help-seeking behaviors of students of color remain a significant problem on college campuses. Self-reported suicidal experiences and help-seeking behavior of diverse students are examined on the basis of results from a national survey of college student mental health. The results suggest significant differences in the expression of…

  19. Suicidal Behavior and Help Seeking among Diverse College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownson, Chris; Becker, Martin Swanbrow; Shadick, Richard; Jaggars, Shanna S.; Nitkin-Kaner, Yael

    2014-01-01

    Suicidal and help-seeking behaviors of students of color remain a significant problem on college campuses. Self-reported suicidal experiences and help-seeking behavior of diverse students are examined on the basis of results from a national survey of college student mental health. The results suggest significant differences in the expression of…

  20. Physical Activity, Sports Participation, and Suicidal Behavior among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David R.; Blanton, Curtis J.

    2002-01-01

    Used data from the 1995 National College Health Risk Behavior Survey to evaluate the relationship between physical activity, sports participation, and suicide among college students. Overall, selected physical activity patterns were associated in a non-systematic manner with decreased or increased odds of suicidal behavior among male and female…

  1. Improving the Short-Term Prediction of Suicidal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Glenn, Catherine R.; Nock, Matthew K.

    2015-01-01

    Aspirational Goal 3 of the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention’s Research Prioritization Task Force is to predict who is at risk for attempting suicide in the near future. Despite decades of research devoted to the study of risk and protective factors for suicide and suicidal behavior, surprisingly little is known about the short-term prediction of these behaviors. In this paper, we propose several questions that, if answered, could improve the identification of short-term, or imminent, risk for suicidal behavior. First, what factors predict the transition from suicidal thoughts to attempts? Second, what factors are particularly strong predictors of making this transition over the next hours, days, or weeks? Third, what are the most important objective markers of short-term risk for suicidal behavior? And fourth, what method of combining information about risk and protective factors yields the best prediction? We propose that the next generation of research on the assessment and prediction of suicidal behavior should shift, from cross-sectional studies of bivariate risk and protective factors, to prospective studies aimed at identifying multivariate, short-term prediction indices, examining methods of synthesizing this information, and testing the ability to predict and prevent suicidal events. PMID:25145736

  2. Blunted HPA Axis Activity in Suicide Attempters Compared to those at High Risk for Suicidal Behavior.

    PubMed

    Melhem, Nadine M; Keilp, John G; Porta, Giovanna; Oquendo, Maria A; Burke, Ainsley; Stanley, Barbara; Cooper, Thomas B; Mann, J John; Brent, David A

    2016-05-01

    Studies looking at the relationship of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to suicidal behavior and its risk factors, such as depression, childhood abuse, and impulsive aggression, report inconsistent results. These studies also do not always differentiate between subjects who go on to attempt suicide, suicidal subjects who never attempted suicide, and non-suicidal subjects with psychiatric disorders. In this study, we examined cortisol responses to an experimental stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), in 208 offspring of parents with mood disorder. Offspring suicide attempters showed lower total cortisol output (β=-0.47, 95% CI (-0.83, -0.11), p=0.01) compared with offspring with suicide-related behavior (SRB) but never attempted, non-suicidal offspring, and a healthy control group. The result remained significant even after controlling for sex, age, race, ethnicity, site, socio-economic status, and hour of the day when the TSST was conducted. Suicide attempters also showed lower baseline cortisol before the TSST (β=-0.45, 95% CI (-0.74, -0.17), p=0.002). However, there were no significant differences between the groups on cortisol reactivity to stress (β=4.5, 95% CI (-12.9, 22), p=0.61). Although subjects with suicide attempt and SRB have similar clinical and psychosocial characteristics, this is the first study to differentiate them biologically on HPA axis indices. Blunted HPA axis activity may increase risk for suicide attempt among individuals with psychopathology by reducing their ability to respond adaptively to ongoing stressors. These results may help better identify subjects at high risk for suicidal behavior for targeted prevention and intervention efforts.

  3. Healthy life behaviors and suicide probability in university students.

    PubMed

    Engin, Esra; Cuhadar, Dondu; Ozturk, Emel

    2012-02-01

    This study aims to determine the sociodemographic factors and healthy life behaviors affecting suicide and suicide probability of university students. The research was designed as a complementary study and conducted with 334 students from several faculties and colleges at Ege University, Turkey. The study findings indicated that suicide probability could be affected by the students' age, their problems at school, their troubled relations with friends, and a psychiatric disorder history within the last year. Moreover, it was concluded that the students with healthy life behaviors had significantly lower scores on the Suicide Probability Scale and its subscales.

  4. Marital Status Integration, Suicide Disapproval, and Societal Integration as Explanations of Marital Status Differences in Female Age-Specific Suicide Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutright, Phillips; Stack, Steven; Fernquist, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Sociological analyses of suicide have often neglected female suicide rates. Three competing explanations are tested to determine why the suicide rates of married women are, typically, lower than the suicide rates of women who are not married: (1) marital status integration, (2) societal integration, and (3) a nation's normative order about…

  5. Personality factors underlying suicidal behavior among military youth.

    PubMed

    Soltaninejad, Abdollah; Fathi-Ashtiani, Ali; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Mirsharafoddini, Hediye Sadat; Nikmorad, Alireza; Pilevarzadeh, Motahare

    2014-04-01

    Suicidal behavior is one the most significant mental health problems in the military. Militaries are closed systems that operate in particular situations. Military service is associated with certain stressful conditions. On this basis, there is likely of trauma in the military environment. Measures of suicidal behavior are pathologically complex. A range of biological, psychological, social, and institutional factors are involved in the incidence and prevalence of these behaviors. One of the underlying factors in suicidal behavior is individuals' personality. The study population comprised of the Iranian Armed Forces. To recruit the sample of the research, 1659 soldiers were selected by multistage sampling. Data were collected using the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSSI) and NEO-Five Factor Inventory. There was a significant positive correlation (r = 0.323) between neuroticism and suicide ideation; however, significant negative correlations existed between three other personality traits --extraversion [r = -0.306], agreeableness [r = -0.227], and conscientiousness [r = -0.271] and suicidal ideation. Unlike neuroticism, extraversion and conscientiousness personality factors could reduce significantly (as much 14% as are predicted) levels of suicidal ideation. Based on these results, neuroticism might increase suicide, but extraversion and conscientiousness personality traits are associated with a reduced risk of suicide.

  6. Personality Factors Underlying Suicidal Behavior Among Military Youth

    PubMed Central

    Soltaninejad, Abdollah; Fathi-Ashtiani, Ali; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Mirsharafoddini, Hediye Sadat; Nikmorad, Alireza; Pilevarzadeh, Motahare

    2014-01-01

    Background: Suicidal behavior is one the most significant mental health problems in the military. Militaries are closed systems that operate in particular situations. Military service is associated with certain stressful conditions. On this basis, there is likely of trauma in the military environment. Measures of suicidal behavior are pathologically complex. A range of biological, psychological, social, and institutional factors are involved in the incidence and prevalence of these behaviors. Objectives: One of the underlying factors in suicidal behavior is individuals' personality. Patients and Methods: The study population comprised of the Iranian Armed Forces. To recruit the sample of the research, 1659 soldiers were selected by multistage sampling. Data were collected using the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSSI) and NEO-Five Factor Inventory. Results: There was a significant positive correlation (r = 0.323) between neuroticism and suicide ideation; however, significant negative correlations existed between three other personality traits --extraversion [r = -0.306], agreeableness [r = -0.227], and conscientiousness [r = -0.271] and suicidal ideation. Unlike neuroticism, extraversion and conscientiousness personality factors could reduce significantly (as much 14% as are predicted) levels of suicidal ideation. Conclusions: Based on these results, neuroticism might increase suicide, but extraversion and conscientiousness personality traits are associated with a reduced risk of suicide. PMID:24910793

  7. Overcoming the Fear of Lethal Injury: Evaluating Suicidal Behavior in the Military through the Lens of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Selby, Edward A.; Anestis, Michael D.; Bender, Theodore W.; Ribeiro, Jessica D.; Nock, Matthew K.; Rudd, M. David; Bryan, Craig J.; Lim, Ingrid C.; Baker, Monty T.; Gutierrez, Peter M.; Joiner, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    Suicide rates have been increasing in military personnel since the start of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom, and it is vital that efforts be made to advance suicide risk assessment techniques and treatment for members of the military who may be experiencing suicidal symptoms. One potential way to advance the understanding of suicide in the military is through the use of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide. This theory proposes that three necessary factors are needed to complete suicide: feelings that one does not belong with other people, feelings that one is a burden on others or society, and an acquired capability to overcome the fear and pain associated with suicide. This review analyzes the various ways that military service may influence suicidal behavior and integrates these findings into an overall framework with relevant practical implications. Findings suggest that although there are many important factors in military suicide, the acquired capability may be the most impacted by military experience because combat exposure and training may cause habituation to fear of painful experiences, including suicide. Future research directions, ways to enhance risk assessment, and treatment implications are also discussed. PMID:20051309

  8. Overcoming the fear of lethal injury: evaluating suicidal behavior in the military through the lens of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide.

    PubMed

    Selby, Edward A; Anestis, Michael D; Bender, Theodore W; Ribeiro, Jessica D; Nock, Matthew K; Rudd, M David; Bryan, Craig J; Lim, Ingrid C; Baker, Monty T; Gutierrez, Peter M; Joiner, Thomas E

    2010-04-01

    Suicide rates have been increasing in military personnel since the start of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom, and it is vital that efforts be made to advance suicide risk assessment techniques and treatment for members of the military who may be experiencing suicidal symptoms. One potential way to advance the understanding of suicide in the military is through the use of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide. This theory proposes that three necessary factors are needed to complete suicide: feelings that one does not belong with other people, feelings that one is a burden on others or society, and an acquired capability to overcome the fear and pain associated with suicide. This review analyzes the various ways that military service may influence suicidal behavior and integrates these findings into an overall framework with relevant practical implications. Findings suggest that although there are many important factors in military suicide, the acquired capability may be the most impacted by military experience because combat exposure and training may cause habituation to fear of painful experiences, including suicide. Future research directions, ways to enhance risk assessment, and treatment implications are also discussed. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Community structural instability, anomie, imitation and adolescent suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Thorlindsson, Thorolfur; Bernburg, Jón Gunnar

    2009-04-01

    The current study examines the contextual effects of community structural characteristics, as well as the mediating role of key social mechanisms, on youth suicidal behavior in Iceland. We argue that the contextual influence of community structural instability on youth suicidal behavior should be mediated by weak attachment to social norms and values (anomie), and contact with suicidal others (suggestion-imitation). The data comes from a national survey of 14-16 years old adolescents. Valid questionnaires were obtained from 7018 students (response rate about 87%). The findings show that the community level of residential mobility has a positive, contextual effect on adolescent suicidal behavior. The findings also indicate that the contextual effect of residential mobility is mediated by both anomie and suggestion-imitation. The findings offer the possibility to identify communities that carry a substantial risk for adolescent suicide as well as the mechanisms that mediate the influence of community structural characteristics on adolescent risk behavior.

  10. An Exploratory Study of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury and Suicidal Behaviors in Adolescent Latinas

    PubMed Central

    Gulbas, Lauren E.; Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; De Luca, Susan M.; Tyler, Tee R.; Zayas, Luis H.

    2015-01-01

    To date, there is little research to validate empirically differences between non-suicidal self-injurious behavior (NSSI) and attempted suicide among Latina adolescents. Understanding the characteristics and contextual features of self-harmful behaviors among Latina teens is a critical public health and social justice matter given the disproportionate rates of attempted suicide and anticipated population growth of this vulnerable group. In this article, we draw on an ecodevelopmental model to focus attention on factors in the sociocultural environment that shape suicidal and non-suicidal self-injurious behaviors. Through analysis of qualitative interviews conducted with girls who used NSSI (n = 18), attempted suicide (n = 29), used NSSI and attempted suicide (n = 8,) and had no reported lifetime history of self-harm (n = 28), we describe the sociocultural factors that shaped psychosocial vulnerabilities and gave rise to decisions to use NSSI or attempt suicide. Our analysis revealed that adolescents who engaged in NSSI perceived their negative feelings as something that could be controlled through self-injurious acts, whereas powerlessness was a theme underlying the emotional states of girls who attempted suicide. When NSSI ceased to function as a mechanism for control, girls came to sudden decisions to attempt suicide. Most teens identified specific, and often multiple, situations that induced these intense affective states and shaped decisions to inflict self-harm. Two situational experiences emerged as particularly salient and promising for subsequent studies on self-harmful behaviors among Latina adolescents: transnational stress and bullying. We describe each of these and offer suggestions for future research and practice. PMID:26052816

  11. Bullying and Suicidal Ideation and Behaviors: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Melissa K.; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M.; Polanin, Joshua R.; Holland, Kristin M.; DeGue, Sarah; Matjasko, Jennifer L.; Wolfe, Misty; Reid, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Over the last decade there has been increased attention to the association between bullying involvement (as a victim, perpetrator, or bully-victim) and suicidal ideation/behaviors. We conducted a meta-analysis to estimate the association between bullying involvement and suicidal ideation and behaviors. METHODS We searched multiple online databases and reviewed reference sections of articles derived from searches to identify cross-sectional studies published through July 2013. Using search terms associated with bullying, suicide, and youth, 47 studies (38.3% from the United States, 61.7% in non-US samples) met inclusion criteria. Seven observers independently coded studies and met in pairs to reach consensus. RESULTS Six different meta-analyses were conducted by using 3 predictors (bullying victimization, bullying perpetration, and bully/victim status) and 2 outcomes (suicidal ideation and suicidal behaviors). A total of 280 effect sizes were extracted and multilevel, random effects meta-analyses were performed. Results indicated that each of the predictors were associated with risk for suicidal ideation and behavior (range, 2.12 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.67–2.69] to 4.02 [95% CI, 2.39–6.76]). Significant heterogeneity remained across each analysis. The bullying perpetration and suicidal behavior effect sizes were moderated by the study’s country of origin; the bully/victim status and suicidal ideation results were moderated by bullying assessment method. CONCLUSIONS Findings demonstrated that involvement in bullying in any capacity is associated with suicidal ideation and behavior. Future research should address mental health implications of bullying involvement to prevent suicidal ideation/behavior. PMID:25560447

  12. Bullying and suicidal ideation and behaviors: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Holt, Melissa K; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M; Polanin, Joshua R; Holland, Kristin M; DeGue, Sarah; Matjasko, Jennifer L; Wolfe, Misty; Reid, Gerald

    2015-02-01

    Over the last decade there has been increased attention to the association between bullying involvement (as a victim, perpetrator, or bully-victim) and suicidal ideation/behaviors. We conducted a meta-analysis to estimate the association between bullying involvement and suicidal ideation and behaviors. We searched multiple online databases and reviewed reference sections of articles derived from searches to identify cross-sectional studies published through July 2013. Using search terms associated with bullying, suicide, and youth, 47 studies (38.3% from the United States, 61.7% in non-US samples) met inclusion criteria. Seven observers independently coded studies and met in pairs to reach consensus. Six different meta-analyses were conducted by using 3 predictors (bullying victimization, bullying perpetration, and bully/victim status) and 2 outcomes (suicidal ideation and suicidal behaviors). A total of 280 effect sizes were extracted and multilevel, random effects meta-analyses were performed. Results indicated that each of the predictors were associated with risk for suicidal ideation and behavior (range, 2.12 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.67-2.69] to 4.02 [95% CI, 2.39-6.76]). Significant heterogeneity remained across each analysis. The bullying perpetration and suicidal behavior effect sizes were moderated by the study's country of origin; the bully/victim status and suicidal ideation results were moderated by bullying assessment method. Findings demonstrated that involvement in bullying in any capacity is associated with suicidal ideation and behavior. Future research should address mental health implications of bullying involvement to prevent suicidal ideation/behavior. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. Stress, Genes and the Biology of Suicidal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Currier, Dianne; Mann, J. John

    2009-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is in part heritable. Studies seeking the responsible candidate genes have examined genes involved in neurotransmitter systems demonstrated to have altered function in suicide and attempted suicide. These neurotransmitter systems include the serotonergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic systems and the HPA axis. With some exceptions, most notably the serotonin transporter promotor HTTLPR polymorphism, replication of candidate gene association studies findings has proven difficult. This chapter reviews what is known of specific gene effects and gene-environment interactions that influence risk for suicidal behavior. Effects of childhood stress on development and how that influences adult responses to current stress will be shown to be relevant for mood disorders, aggressive/impulsive traits and suicidal behavior. PMID:18439448

  14. The Role of Neuropeptides in Suicidal Behavior: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Pompili, Maurizio; Dwivedi, Yogesh; Girardi, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing evidence that neuropeptides may be involved in the pathophysiology of suicidal behavior. A critical review of the literature was conducted to investigate the association between neuropeptides and suicidal behavior. Only articles from peer-reviewed journals were selected for the inclusion in the present review. Twenty-six articles were assessed for eligibility but only 22 studies were included. Most studies have documented an association between suicidality and some neuropeptides such as corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), VGF, cholecystokinin, substance P, and neuropeptide Y (NPY), which have been demonstrated to act as key neuromodulators of emotional processing. Significant differences in neuropeptides levels have been found in those who have attempted or completed suicide compared with healthy controls or those dying from other causes. Despite cross-sectional associations between neuropeptides levels and suicidal behavior, causality may not be inferred. The implications of the mentioned studies were discussed in this review paper. PMID:23986909

  15. Risky behaviors and factors associated with suicide attempt in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bae, Sejong; Ye, Rong; Chen, Shande; Rivers, Patrick A; Singh, Karan P

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the behavior risk factors associated with suicide attempt in adolescents and to determine gender-specific patterns of risk factors. In 2001, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) conducted National Youth Risk Behavior Survey for 13,601 high school students in the U.S. Data were analyzed with logistic regressions to identify the risk behaviors. New significant risk factors (being offered illegal drugs at school, being abused by a boyfriend/girlfriend, gender, and ethnicity) were identified for suicidal attempt in adolescents. Patterns of risk behaviors differed among male and female groups. Several new risk behaviors associated with suicide attempt in adolescents were identified. There were notable differences in risk behaviors between two gender groups, especially in the area of depression. These findings could have potentially important implications for preventing adolescent suicide attempts.

  16. Emotional Intelligence Is a Protective Factor for Suicidal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cha, Christine B.; Nock, Matthew K.

    2009-01-01

    Emotional intelligence is found to be a protective factor for suicidal behavior after examining the relations between childhood sexual abuse and suicidal ideation and attempts to emotional intelligence. Childhood sexual abuse is found to be a strong predictive of the results.

  17. Micro- and Macrosystem Predictors of High School Male Suicidal Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck-Cross, Cathy; Cooper, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is the third leading cause of death among young people ages 15 to 19 years, with male adolescents four times more likely to die than their female peers. This study used Bronfenbrenner's bioecological model to examine micro- and macrosystems as predictors of suicidal behaviors through responses by male adolescents (N = 9,910) to a statewide…

  18. Feasibility of Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Suicidal Adolescent Inpatients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Laurence Y.; Cox, Brian J.; Gunasekara, Shiny; Miller, Alec L.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) implementation in a general child and adolescent psychiatric inpatient unit and to provide preliminary effectiveness data on DBT versus treatment as usual (TAU). Method: Sixty-two adolescents with suicide attempts or suicidal ideation were admitted to one of two…

  19. Clinical Electroencephalography and the Study of Suicide Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Struve, Frederick A.

    1986-01-01

    Shows that EEGs (electroencephalography) can be used to help screen for the presence of covert disease that may produce psychiatric depressive symptomatology, as well as to denote cerebral dysrhythmias that may directly influence suicidal behavior. The clinical EEG cannot effectively predict suicide attempt risk, nor can it reasonably guide…

  20. Micro- and Macrosystem Predictors of High School Male Suicidal Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck-Cross, Cathy; Cooper, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is the third leading cause of death among young people ages 15 to 19 years, with male adolescents four times more likely to die than their female peers. This study used Bronfenbrenner's bioecological model to examine micro- and macrosystems as predictors of suicidal behaviors through responses by male adolescents (N = 9,910) to a statewide…

  1. Emotional Intelligence Is a Protective Factor for Suicidal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cha, Christine B.; Nock, Matthew K.

    2009-01-01

    Emotional intelligence is found to be a protective factor for suicidal behavior after examining the relations between childhood sexual abuse and suicidal ideation and attempts to emotional intelligence. Childhood sexual abuse is found to be a strong predictive of the results.

  2. Parent-Adolescent Agreement Concerning Adolescents' Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klaus, Nicole M.; Mobilio, Andrea; King, Cheryl A.

    2009-01-01

    Information on history of suicidal thoughts and behaviors is critical in risk assessment, and multi-informant assessment has been recommended. Despite this, relatively little is known about parent-adolescent agreement regarding adolescent suicidality. To examine the extent and predictors of such agreement, 448 psychiatrically hospitalized…

  3. Behavioral Risk Assessment of the Guarded Suicidal Patient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Robert I.

    2008-01-01

    Psychiatrists and other mental health professionals are trained to assess patients by direct observation and examination. Short inpatient length of stay, brief outpatient visits, emergency room evaluations, and other time-limited clinical settings require rapid assessment of suicide risk. Recognition of behavioral suicide risk factors can assist…

  4. Feasibility of Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Suicidal Adolescent Inpatients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Laurence Y.; Cox, Brian J.; Gunasekara, Shiny; Miller, Alec L.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) implementation in a general child and adolescent psychiatric inpatient unit and to provide preliminary effectiveness data on DBT versus treatment as usual (TAU). Method: Sixty-two adolescents with suicide attempts or suicidal ideation were admitted to one of two…

  5. Race Differences in Strains Associated with Suicidal Behavior among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Toni Terling; Sharp, Susan F.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated suicidal strains contributing to suicidal behaviors among adolescents by race. Data from the Add Health Project support the presence of process differences by race and delineate the specific nature of these differences. For example, Blacks experience more status strains, but they are more religious than Whites (which serves to…

  6. Suicidal Behavior in the Western Pacific Region: Characteristics and Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Leo, Diego; Milner, Allison; Xiangdong, Wang

    2009-01-01

    Current knowledge of suicidal behavior in the Western Pacific region is relatively limited when compared to other areas of the world. This area is characterized by a wide diversity of social, economic, and cultural aspects that do not permit any homogenous reading of suicide phenomena. Data from countries of the region included in this article…

  7. Suicidal Behavior in the Western Pacific Region: Characteristics and Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Leo, Diego; Milner, Allison; Xiangdong, Wang

    2009-01-01

    Current knowledge of suicidal behavior in the Western Pacific region is relatively limited when compared to other areas of the world. This area is characterized by a wide diversity of social, economic, and cultural aspects that do not permit any homogenous reading of suicide phenomena. Data from countries of the region included in this article…

  8. Correlates of Suicidal Behavior among Asian American Outpatient Youths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Anna S.; Jernewall, Nadine M.; Zane, Nolan; Myers, Hector F.

    2002-01-01

    Medical record abstraction was conducted to identify correlates of suicidal behaviors in a sample of 285 Asian American youths. Acculturation interacted with risk factor of parent-child conflict to predict suicidality. Finding underscores the importance of culture as a context for determining the relevance of stressors for potentiating…

  9. Seasonality of suicide behavior in Northwest Alaska: 1990-2009.

    PubMed

    Silveira, M L; Wexler, L; Chamberlain, J; Money, K; Spencer, R M C; Reich, N G; Bertone-Johnson, E R

    2016-08-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of death worldwide, and disproportionately affects Indigenous populations. Seasonal suicide patterns are variable in the literature, and could offer novel approaches to the timing and focus of prevention efforts if better understood. With a suicide surveillance system in place since 1989, this study offers an unprecedented opportunity to explore seasonal variations in both fatal and non-fatal suicide behavior in an Indigenous Arctic region. Cross-sectional. In this descriptive study, we analyzed data collected from 1990 to 2009 in the rural northwest region of Alaska, both graphically and using the chi-squared test for multinomials. We found a significant monthly variation for suicide attempts, with a peak in suicide behavior observed between April and August (P = 0.0002). Monthly variation was more pronounced among individuals ≤29 years of age, and was present in both males and females, although the seasonal pattern differed by sex. Our findings of a significant seasonal pattern in suicide behavior, with monthly variation (summer peak) in non-fatal suicide behavior among younger age groups, and among both males and females can assist planners in targeting subpopulations for prevention at different times of the year. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. All rights reserved.

  10. Bullying and suicidal behaviors among urban high school youth.

    PubMed

    Hepburn, Lisa; Azrael, Deborah; Molnar, Beth; Miller, Matthew

    2012-07-01

    To determine whether involvement in bullying as a perpetrator, victim, or both victim and perpetrator (victim-perpetrator) was associated with a higher risk of suicidal ideation or suicide attempts among a multiethnic urban high school population in the United States. In 2008, a total of 1,838 youth in 9th-12th grades attending public high school in Boston, MA, completed an in-school, self-reported survey of health-related behaviors. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between bullying behaviors and self-reported suicidal ideation and suicide attempts within the 12 months preceding the survey. Students who reported having been involved in bullying as a perpetrator, victim, or victim-perpetrator were more likely than those who had not been involved in bullying to report having seriously considered or attempted suicide within the past year. When age, race/ethnicity, and gender were controlled, students who were victim-perpetrators of bullying were at highest risk for both suicidal ideation and suicide attempt. Urban youth who have been bullied as well as those who have bullied others are at increased risk of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Comparative study of school integration of suicidal adolescents and of non-suicidal victims of parents' neglect].

    PubMed

    Bastien, M F; Tousignant, M; Hamel, S

    1996-01-01

    This research analyzes school integration of a sample of 150 adolescents lacking parental attention. A group of 78 suicidal students is compared to a group of 72 non-suicidals. Students are 14 to 17 years old and are recruited in six schools of the Montreal region. Suicidal adolescents do not experience more problems of discipline, absenteeism, academic performance or relationship with their peers than non suicidal adolescents. However they appear less motivated in school than non suicidal adolescents being more frequently late in class. They also participate less in extracurricular activities offered by the school and experience more conflicts with the school's adults than non-suicidals. Moreover, suicidal adolescents have more characteristics related to dropping out than non suicidals. Finally, the differences observed regarding school integration highlight some signs of vulnerability associated with suicidal behaviour during adolescence when they lack parental attention.

  12. Poor social integration and suicide: fact or artifact? A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Duberstein, P R; Conwell, Y; Conner, K R; Eberly, S; Evinger, J S; Caine, E D

    2004-10-01

    Sociological studies have shown that poor social integration confers suicide risk. It is not known whether poor integration amplifies risk after adjusting statistically for the effects of mental disorders and employment status. A case-control design was used to compare 86 suicides and 86 living controls 50 years of age and older, matched on age, gender, race, and county of residence. Structured interviews were conducted with proxy respondents for suicides and controls. Social integration was defined in reference to two broad levels of analysis: family (e.g. sibship status, childrearing status) and social/ community (e.g. social interaction, religious participation, community involvement). Bivariate analyses showed that suicides were less likely to be married, have children, or live with family. They were less likely to engage in religious practice or community activities and they had lower levels of social interaction. A trimmed logistic regression model showed that marital status, social interaction and religious involvement were all associated with suicide even after statistical adjusting for the effects of affective disorder and employment status. Adding substance abuse to the model eliminated the effects of religious involvement. The association between family and social/community indicators of poor social integration and suicide is robust and largely independent of the presence of mental disorders. Findings could be used to enhance screening instruments and identify problem behaviors, such as low levels of social interaction, which could be targeted for intervention.

  13. Connectedness and Perceived Burdensomeness among Adolescents at Elevated Suicide Risk: An Examination of the Interpersonal Theory of Suicidal Behavior.

    PubMed

    Opperman, Kiel; Czyz, Ewa K; Gipson, Polly Y; King, Cheryl A

    2015-01-01

    The interpersonal theory of suicidal behavior emphasizes the constructs of perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and acquired capacity, which warrant investigation in adolescents at risk for suicide due to interpersonal stressors. This study examined one component of the interpersonal theory of suicidal behavior, "suicidal desire" (suicidal ideation), in 129 adolescents (12-15 years) recruited from a general medical emergency department who screened positive for bully victimization, bully perpetration, or low interpersonal connectedness. Greater perceived burdensomeness combined with low family connectedness was a significant predictor of suicidal ideation. This suggests the importance of addressing connectedness and perceptions of burdensomeness in prevention and early intervention efforts with at-risk adolescents.

  14. Gender Differences in Suicidal Behaviors: Mediation Role of Psychological Distress Between Alcohol Abuse/Dependence and Suicidal Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yi Jin; Burlaka, Viktor

    2017-08-14

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death among emerging adults ages 18 to 25. To examine gender differences on the mediation effect of psychological distress between alcohol abuse or dependence (AAD) and suicidal behaviors (ideation, plan, and attempt). The current study used the 2014 NSDUH public use data. Young adults aged 18 to 25 years (M = 21.02) old were selected as study participants. The three outcome variables were suicide ideation, plan, and attempt. AAD was an independent variable. As a mediation variable, psychological distress was used to test the research questions. The mediation effect was tested by using bootstrapping methods with the SPSS version of the macro (PROCESS version 2.16) developed by Preacher and Hayes. Six separate mediation analyses (three for a male and three for a female group) were conducted for different types of suicidal behaviors including ideation, plan, and attempt. Overall, psychological distress mediated the association between AAD and suicidal behaviors, except the relationship between AAD and suicide attempts among the male young adults group. The findings of the current study provide specific directions for practitioners to reduce suicide rates among young adults who are at risk for suicidal behavior.

  15. [Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI) and Suicidal Behavior Disorder in the DSM-5].

    PubMed

    Plener, Paul L; Kapusta, Nestor D; Brunner, Romuald; Kaess, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI) and Suicidal Behavior Disorder (SBD) were included as diagnostic categories in Section 3 of the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5) of the American Psychiatric Association (APA). Thus, these diagnostic entities were not recognized as formal clinical diagnoses, but rather for the first time clearly defined in a classificatory system to standardize further research in this field. This paper introduces both concepts and addresses the discussion about NSSI and suicidal behavior disorder based on a selective review of the literature. First studies using the new definitions are introduced. In Germany the prevalence of NSSI is estimated to lie at about 4 %, of SBD at about 9 %. It can be expected that in the future the new definitions will lead to a better comparability of study outcomes with regards to NSSI and suicidal behavior disorder.

  16. Revisiting the Association of Aggression and Suicidal Behavior in Schizophrenic Inpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuner, Tanja; Hubner-Liebermann, Bettina; Hausner, Helmut; Hajak, Goran; Wolfersdorf, Manfred; Spiessl, Hermann

    2011-01-01

    Our study investigated the association of aggression and suicidal behavior in schizophrenic inpatients. Eight thousand nine hundred one admissions for schizophrenia (1998-2007) to a psychiatric university hospital were included. Schizophrenic suicides (n = 7)/suicide attempters (n = 40) were compared to suicides (n = 30)/suicide attempters (n =…

  17. Revisiting the Association of Aggression and Suicidal Behavior in Schizophrenic Inpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuner, Tanja; Hubner-Liebermann, Bettina; Hausner, Helmut; Hajak, Goran; Wolfersdorf, Manfred; Spiessl, Hermann

    2011-01-01

    Our study investigated the association of aggression and suicidal behavior in schizophrenic inpatients. Eight thousand nine hundred one admissions for schizophrenia (1998-2007) to a psychiatric university hospital were included. Schizophrenic suicides (n = 7)/suicide attempters (n = 40) were compared to suicides (n = 30)/suicide attempters (n =…

  18. Bullying, psychiatric pathology and suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Dobry, Yuriy; Braquehais, María Dolores; Sher, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Bullying is a highly prevalent behavior which carries a significant social, medical and financial cost for its victims and perpetrators, with powerful and long-lasting psychological and social impact. Bullying has been defined as a specific form of intentional, repeated aggression, that involves a disparity of power between the victim(s) and perpetrator(s). The aggression can take physical, verbal or gestural forms. The behavior of bullying crosses sociodemographic categories of age, gender, ethnicity, level of academic achievement and professional environment. It has been abundantly observed by teachers and parents in elementary schools, but has also shown its negative presence in corporate boardrooms. The direct outcome of bullying, for both victims and perpetrators, is an increased risk of psychiatric disorders including depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety disorders, substance abuse and suicidal behavior. Cruelty (and bullying, as one of its manifestations) breaks the basis of morality. Mental health professionals usually treat the victims of those actions unfortunately long after they have been exposed to the harm. The evidence does not support the idea that the majority of cruel actions are intrinsically "pathological", in the sense of being motivated by "mental disorders". Therefore, only moral rules and legal actions - but not psychiatric or psychological interventions - may dissuade humans from this form of cruelty.

  19. Effects of medical interventions on suicidal behavior. Summary and conclusions.

    PubMed

    Baldessarini, R J; Jamison, K R

    1999-01-01

    An international symposium evaluated current knowledge of the epidemiology, psychobiology, and effects of medical treatment on suicidal behavior. Moderators summarized the main findings and conclusions of the participants on the basis of presentations and consensus statements at the meeting. Despite striking advances in the medical treatment of mood disorders in the past half-century, rates of suicidal acts have changed little in the general population. Evidence of reduction of long-term rates of suicidal acts in specific at-risk populations remains very limited, particularly persons with major affective illnesses and other common, primary or comorbid psychiatric and substance use disorders. It is plausible that reduction of psychiatric morbidity should limit suicidal risk, but very little is known about specific effects of most psychiatric treatments or other interventions aimed at suicide prevention. An exception is substantial evidence of lower suicidal risk during long-term lithium treatment that was not equaled with carbamazepine. However, diagnosis and timely therapeutic interventions reach only a minority of psychiatrically ill persons at risk for suicide. Renewed efforts are strongly urged to: (1) improve public and professional awareness of risk factors for suicide, (2) enhance earlier access to appropriate clinical assessment and increasingly safe and effective treatments for affective and psychotic disorders, and (3) encourage and support research to clarify specific benefits and risks of medical treatments and social interventions aimed at preventing suicide.

  20. [Association between adolescent internet addiction and suicidal behaviors].

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin-sheng; Zhang, Zhi-hua; Hao, Jia-hu; Sun, Ye-huan

    2010-10-01

    To examine the association between internet addiction and suicidal behaviors in adolescence and to explore whether the association could be partly or fully accounted by depression or/and behaviors related to the impulsivity. A total of 3507 urban adolescent students in Hefei were administered to complete the questionnaire concerning interact addiction disorder (IAD), suicidal behaviors during the 12 months preceding the survey, behaviors related to the impulsivity, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and early childhood adversities, respectively. Hierarchical logistic regressions were used to evaluate the associations and possible roles of depression and behaviors related to the impulsivity between internet addition and suicidal behaviors after adjustment for confounding factors. Of the 3507 participants, 5.2% were diagnosed as IAD, 27.4% reported suicidal ideation during the 12 months preceding the survey, with another 9.5% had a plan and 2.6% had an attempt. Internet addition was associated with suicidal ideation (OR = 1.79, 95%CI: 1.32 - 2.44), plan (OR = 2.32, 95%CI: 1.57 - 3.42), and attempt (OR = 2.08, 95%CI: 1.03 - 4.22). After adjustment for potential confounding factors, the association between internet addition and attempt was insignificant. When depression and behaviors related to the impulsivity were entered into Hierarchical regression respectively, the associations between internet addition, suicidal ideation and plan were substantially reduced. While internet addition was enter into Hierarchical regression, the associations between depression, behaviors related to the impulsivity, suicidal ideation and plan were not reduced. Adolescent internet addition seems to be associated with suicidal ideation and plan, and the association is possibly mediated by depression and behaviors related to the impulsivity.

  1. Utility of an integrated electronic suicide alert system in a psychiatric hospital.

    PubMed

    Madan, Alok; Mahoney, Jane; Allen, Jon G; Ellis, Thomas; Hardesty, Susan; Oldham, John M; Fowler, J Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Management of suicide-related behaviors in a hospital is challenging. This article (1) describes integration of an electronic suicide risk notification system to improve assessment of psychiatric inpatients, (2) details the manner in which these alerts complement standard of care, and (3) provides support of using aggregate data to inform administrative decision-making. Complementing routine clinical care and under the supervision of an assessment coordinator, adult inpatients at a specialty psychiatric hospital complete a computerized battery of outcome assessments throughout the course of their hospitalization. A critical-item response notification system for suicide-related behaviors was implemented within the larger, assessment architecture, sending an alert e-mail to unit staff if patients endorsed suicidal ideation on any 1 of 6 critical items. Analysis of aggregate data over a 19-month period reveal a linear trend of increasing rate of suicide alerts from October 2012 to April 2013 (Phase A) with a stabilization at the heightened level from July 2013 to April 2014 (Phase B), R = 0.697, P = .007. Findings suggest that more nuanced training in the management of suicide-related behavior may be necessary and that traditional approaches to staffing may need to accommodate patient acuity. The communication innovation of this system is in line with the Joint Commission's emphasis on designing and implementing patient-centered systems that enhance quality of care, including improved safety.

  2. Suicidal behavior after a traumatic event.

    PubMed

    Krysinska, Karolina; Lester, David; Martin, Graham

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on the psychosocial and psychiatric consequences (such as a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder and elevated suicide risk) for a range of traumatic life experiences, including military combat, criminal victimization, interpersonal and domestic violence, child abuse and neglect, sexual retraumatization, natural disasters, torture, and the Holocaust. Possible mechanisms mediating the relationship between trauma and suicide are presented along with suicide risk assessment implications for trauma nurses.

  3. Suicidal behavior in the Western Pacific region: characteristics and trends.

    PubMed

    De Leo, Diego; Milner, Allison; Xiangdong, Wang

    2009-02-01

    Current knowledge of suicidal behavior in the Western Pacific region is relatively limited when compared to other areas of the world. This area is characterized by a wide diversity of social, economic, and cultural aspects that do not permit any homogenous reading of suicide phenomena. Data from countries of the region included in this article suggest the existence of important differences among nations in terms of gender, age, and methods of suicide, as well role of mental illness. In addition, the Western Pacific region appears to be affected by higher rates of suicide than other areas in the world, with signs of progressive worsening in recent years and worrying predictions for the next two decades. The Suicide Trends in At-Risk Territories (START) Study, initiated by the World Health Organization Regional Office in Manila, seeks to research the incidence of both fatal and nonfatal suicidal behavior in countries of the region and to implement interventions for suicide attempters. This ambitious project is expected to standardize data collection procedures and improve the knowledge cultural factors in suicide.

  4. Assessing and managing suicidal behaviour in the primary care setting: A model for an integrated regional suicide prevention strategy.

    PubMed

    Voros, Viktor; Osvath, Peter; Fekete, Sandor

    2009-01-01

    Although suicide rates are decreasing in most countries, suicide is still a major health concern. Our aim was to introduce a complex, integrative, regional suicide prevention strategy. Based on reviewing the literature and on our previous studies we developed a suicide prevention model, which includes recognition, risk assessment and intervention. The main steps of the model are the recognition of warning signs (communicative or behavioural), exploration of crisis situation and/or psychopathologic symptoms, assessment of protective and risk factors, estimation of suicide risk and a plan for management of suicidal patients through different levels of interventions. In the management of suicidal behaviour, the complex stress-diathesis model has to be adjusted by considering biological markers and psycho-social factors. Only after the assessment of these factors can primary care professionals, as gatekeepers, manage suicidal patients effectively by using adequate psychopharmacotherapeutic and psychotherapeutic interventions in the recognition, treatment and prevention of suicidal behaviour.

  5. Asperger syndrome related suicidal behavior: two case studies.

    PubMed

    Kocourkova, Jana; Dudova, Iva; Koutek, Jiri

    2013-01-01

    Asperger syndrome hinders adaptation to developmental challenges during childhood and adolescence, particularly with regard to interpersonal relationships. Individuals with Asperger syndrome display lack of empathy and limited ability to understand social and emotional exchanges with other people. Individuals with Asperger syndrome are significantly exposed to the risk of suicidal behavior, especially during adolescence. The authors describe cases of suicidal behavior in two adolescent boys with Asperger syndrome.

  6. Asperger syndrome related suicidal behavior: two case studies

    PubMed Central

    Kocourkova, Jana; Dudova, Iva; Koutek, Jiri

    2013-01-01

    Asperger syndrome hinders adaptation to developmental challenges during childhood and adolescence, particularly with regard to interpersonal relationships. Individuals with Asperger syndrome display lack of empathy and limited ability to understand social and emotional exchanges with other people. Individuals with Asperger syndrome are significantly exposed to the risk of suicidal behavior, especially during adolescence. The authors describe cases of suicidal behavior in two adolescent boys with Asperger syndrome. PMID:24294002

  7. Cortisol levels and suicidal behavior: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Daryl B; Ferguson, Eamonn; Green, Jessica A; O'Carroll, Ronan E; O'Connor, Rory C

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is a major cause of death worldwide, responsible for 1.5% of all mortality. The causes of suicidal behavior are not fully understood. Dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, as measured by cortisol levels, is one potential risk factor. This meta-analytic review aimed (i) to estimate the strength and variability of the association between naturally fluctuating cortisol levels and suicidal behavior and (ii) to identify moderators of this relationship. A systematic literature search identified 27 studies (N=2226; 779 suicide attempters and 1447 non-attempters) that met the study eligibility criteria from a total of 417 unique records initially examined. Estimates of effect sizes (r) obtained from these studies were analysed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis. In these analyses, we compared participants identified as having a past history of suicide attempt(s) to those with no such history. Study quality, mean age of sample and percentage of male participants were examined as potential moderators. Overall, there was no significant effect of suicide group on cortisol. However, significant associations between cortisol and suicide attempts were observed as a function of age. In studies where the mean age of the sample was below 40 years the association was positive (i.e., higher cortisol was associated with suicide attempts; r=.234, p<.001), and where the mean age was 40 or above the association was negative (i.e., lower cortisol was associated with suicide attempts; r=-.129, p<.001). These findings confirm that HPA axis activity, as indicated by age-dependent variations in cortisol levels, is associated with suicidal behavior. The challenge for theory and clinical practice is to explain the complete reversal of the association with age and to identify its clinical implications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    ... perspective and act with good judgment. previous continue Substance Abuse Teens with alcohol and drug problems are also more at risk for suicidal thinking and behavior. Alcohol and some drugs have ... these substances can bring on serious depression. That's especially true ...

  9. The Addictive Model of Self-Harming (Non-suicidal and Suicidal) Behavior.

    PubMed

    Blasco-Fontecilla, Hilario; Fernández-Fernández, Roberto; Colino, Laura; Fajardo, Lourdes; Perteguer-Barrio, Rosa; de Leon, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral addictions such as gambling, sun-tanning, shopping, Internet use, work, exercise, or even love and sex are frequent, and share many characteristics and common neurobiological and genetic underpinnings with substance addictions (i.e., tolerance, withdrawal, and relapse). Recent literature suggests that both non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal behavior (SB) can also be conceptualized as addictions. The major aim of this mini review is to review the literature and explore the neurobiological and psychological mechanisms underlying the addiction to self-harming behaviors. This is a narrative review. The authors performed literature searches in PubMed and Google for suicidal behavior, self-harming, addiction, and "major repeaters." Given the scarce literature on the topic, a subset of the most closely related studies was selected. The authors also focused on three empirical studies testing the hypothesis that major repeaters (individuals with ≥5 lifetime suicide attempts) represent a distinctive suicidal phenotype and are the individuals at risk of developing an addiction to SB. The authors reviewed the concept of behavioral addictions and major repeaters, current empirical evidence testing concerning whether or not NSSI and SB can be understood as "addictions," and the putative mechanisms underlying them. Our review suggests that both NSSI and SB can be conceptualized as addictions. This is relevant because if some individual's self-harming behaviors are better conceptualized as an addiction, treatment approaches could be tailored to this addiction.

  10. Suicidal Behavior in Chemically Dependent Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavaiola, Alan A.; Lavender, Neil

    1999-01-01

    Study explores distinctions between chemically dependent suicide attempters, chemically dependent nonsuicidal adolescents, and high school students with no history of chemical dependency (N=250). Results reveal that there were significant differences between the chemically dependent groups. It was also found that the majority of suicidal gestures…

  11. Suicidal behavior in adolescents with post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Ganz, D; Sher, L

    2010-08-01

    Recently, the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adolescence is higher than the prevalence of PTSD in adult populations. PTSD and suicidality are often found in populations of adolescents presenting with other emotional disorders (particularly mood disorders), traumatic grief, childhood abuse, and/or a family or peer history of suicide. The reasons and developments of the association between PTSD and suicidality in adolescence, however, remain unclear. Core psychobiological changes contributing to PTSD affect emotion, arousal, perception of the self and the world, irritability, impulsivity, anger, aggression and depression. There is evidence that the aforementioned factors, as well as alcohol and other drug use may act to moderate the influence of stressful life events and lead to eventual suicidality. Both PTSD and suicidality in adolescents have also been hypothesized to be a result of exposure to violence and negative coping styles. There are many treatment challenges for these populations, yet the most promising prevention and treatments include suicide risk screenings, suicide education, Dialectical Behavioral Therapy, addressing associated coping mechanisms and prescribing anti-depressant and anti-anxiety medications. However, when prescribing medications, physicians do need to be careful to consider the weaknesses and strengths of each of the pharmacological options as they apply to adolescents presenting with PTSD and suicidality.

  12. Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions to Reduce Suicide Behavior: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarrier, Nicholas; Taylor, Katherine; Gooding, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Suicide behavior is a serious clinical problem worldwide, and understanding ways of reducing it is a priority. A systematic review and meta-analysis were carried out to investigate whether Cognitive-behavioral therapies (CBTs) would reduce suicide behavior. From 123 potential articles, 28 studies met the entry criteria. Overall, there was a highly…

  13. Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions to Reduce Suicide Behavior: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarrier, Nicholas; Taylor, Katherine; Gooding, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Suicide behavior is a serious clinical problem worldwide, and understanding ways of reducing it is a priority. A systematic review and meta-analysis were carried out to investigate whether Cognitive-behavioral therapies (CBTs) would reduce suicide behavior. From 123 potential articles, 28 studies met the entry criteria. Overall, there was a highly…

  14. Psychological Processes and Repeat Suicidal Behavior: A Four-Year Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Although suicidal behavior is a major public health concern, understanding of individually sensitive suicide risk mechanisms is limited. In this study, the authors investigated, for the first time, the utility of defeat and entrapment in predicting repeat suicidal behavior in a sample of suicide attempters. Method: Seventy patients hospitalized after a suicide attempt completed a range of clinical and psychological measures (depression, hopelessness, suicidal ideation, defeat, and entrapment) while in hospital. Four years later, a nationally linked database was used to determine who had been hospitalized again after a suicide attempt. Results: Over 4 years, 24.6% of linked participants were readmitted to hospital after a suicidal attempt. In univariate logistic regression analyses, defeat and entrapment as well as depression, hopelessness, past suicide attempts, and suicidal ideation all predicted suicidal behavior over this interval. However, in the multivariate analysis, entrapment and past frequency of suicide attempts were the only significant predictors of suicidal behavior. Conclusions: This longitudinal study supports the utility of a new theoretical model in the prediction of suicidal behavior. Individually sensitive suicide risk processes like entrapment could usefully be targeted in treatment interventions to reduce the risk of repeat suicidal behavior in those who have been previously hospitalized after a suicide attempt. PMID:23855989

  15. The Utility of Emergency Room Data for Record Linkage in the Study of Adolescent Suicidal Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deykin, Eva Y.

    1989-01-01

    Employed record linkage using emergency room logs to study adolescent suicidal behavior. Compared suicidal patients to age- and sex-matched adolescents being treated for reasons unrelated to suicidal behavior. Found suicidal subjects had higher risk of contact with state Department of Social Services, organization which devotes 90 percent of…

  16. Suicidal Behavior Among Inpatients with Schizophrenia and Mood Disorders in Chengdu, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ran, Mao-Sheng; Wu, Qiu-Hua; Conwell, Yeates; Chen, Eric Yu-Hai; Chan, Cecilia Lai-Wan

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the characteristics of suicidal behavior (suicide attempt or suicidal ideation) among 230 consecutively admitted inpatients with schizophrenia and mood disorders in a university hospital in China. The rate of lifetime suicidal behavior was found to be significantly higher in patients with mood disorders (62.4%) than in…

  17. Clustering of Adolescent Dating Violence, Peer Violence, and Suicidal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bossarte, Robert M.; Simon, Thomas R.; Swahn, Monica H.

    2008-01-01

    To understand the co-occurrence of multiple types of violence, the authors developed a behavioral typology based on self-reports of suicidal behaviors, physical violence, and psychological abuse. Using a sample of dating adolescents from a high-risk school district, they identified five clusters of behaviors among the 1,653 students who reported…

  18. Clustering of Adolescent Dating Violence, Peer Violence, and Suicidal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bossarte, Robert M.; Simon, Thomas R.; Swahn, Monica H.

    2008-01-01

    To understand the co-occurrence of multiple types of violence, the authors developed a behavioral typology based on self-reports of suicidal behaviors, physical violence, and psychological abuse. Using a sample of dating adolescents from a high-risk school district, they identified five clusters of behaviors among the 1,653 students who reported…

  19. Suicidal behavior and suicide among children and adolescents-risk factors and epidemiological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Dodig-Curković, Katarina; Curković, Mario; Radić, Josipa; Degmecić, Dunja; Fileković, Pavo

    2010-06-01

    In last decade suicide attempts and suicides among youngsters are increasing greatly and are one of the leading causes of mortality in this age group. Epidemiological data are pointing on more frequent trend of self-destructive behavior among youngsters in the world as well as in our country. Risk factors which influence on increasing number of suicide attempts and suicides in this age are different in etiology: interference of genetic influences, family dynamics and external environment (school, friends, social environment, peers, television, video, and internet). Croatia as a country in transition is also following trends in the world according to epidemiological data, what is for sure great challenge for all who participate in dealing with youngsters, especially psychiatric services. In the planning of treatment is very important to include family with intention to accomplish optimal therapeutic effect. Also, it is very important to warn parents on their part of responsibility in upbringing and developing of their adolescent.

  20. Habitual Starvation and Provocative Behaviors: Two Potential Routes to Extreme Suicidal Behavior in Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Selby, Edward A.; Smith, April R.; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Olmsted, Marion P.; Thornton, Laura; McFarlane, Traci L.; Berrettini, Wade H.; Brandt, Harry A.; Crawford, Steve; Fichter, Manfred M.; Halmi, Katherine A.; Jacoby, Georg E.; Johnson, Craig L.; Jones, Ian; Kaplan, Allan S.; Mitchell, James E.; Nutzinger, Detlev O.; Strober, Michael; Treasure, Janet; Woodside, D. Blake; Kaye, Walter H.; Joiner, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is perhaps the most lethal mental disorder, in part due to starvation-related health problems, but especially because of high suicide rates. One potential reason for high suicide rates in AN may be that those affected face pain and provocation on many fronts, which may in turn reduce their fear of pain and thereby increase risk for death by suicide. The purpose of the following studies was to explore whether repetitive exposure to painful and destructive behaviors such as vomiting, laxative use, and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) was a mechanism that linked AN-binge-purging (ANBP) subtype, as opposed to AN-restricting subtype (ANR), to extreme suicidal behavior. Study 1 utilized a sample of 787 individuals diagnosed with one or the other subtype of AN, and structural equation modeling results supported provocative behaviors as a mechanism linking ANBP to suicidal behavior. A second, unexpected mechanism emerged linking ANR to suicidal behavior via restricting. Study 2, which used a sample of 249 AN patients, replicated these findings, including the second mechanism linking ANR to suicide attempts. Two potential routes to suicidal behavior in AN appear to have been identified: one route through repetitive experience with provocative behaviors for ANBP, and a second for exposure to pain through the starvation of restricting in ANR. PMID:20398895

  1. Habitual starvation and provocative behaviors: two potential routes to extreme suicidal behavior in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Selby, Edward A; Smith, April R; Bulik, Cynthia M; Olmsted, Marion P; Thornton, Laura; McFarlane, Traci L; Berrettini, Wade H; Brandt, Harry A; Crawford, Steve; Fichter, Manfred M; Halmi, Katherine A; Jacoby, Georg E; Johnson, Craig L; Jones, Ian; Kaplan, Allan S; Mitchell, James E; Nutzinger, Detlev O; Strober, Michael; Treasure, Janet; Woodside, D Blake; Kaye, Walter H; Joiner, Thomas E

    2010-07-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is perhaps the most lethal mental disorder, in part due to starvation-related health problems, but especially because of high suicide rates. One potential reason for high suicide rates in AN may be that those affected face pain and provocation on many fronts, which may in turn reduce their fear of pain and thereby increase risk for death by suicide. The purpose of the following studies was to explore whether repetitive exposure to painful and destructive behaviors such as vomiting, laxative use, and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) was a mechanism that linked AN-binge-purging (ANBP) subtype, as opposed to AN-restricting subtype (ANR), to extreme suicidal behavior. Study 1 utilized a sample of 787 individuals diagnosed with one or the other subtype of AN, and structural equation modeling results supported provocative behaviors as a mechanism linking ANBP to suicidal behavior. A second, unexpected mechanism emerged linking ANR to suicidal behavior via restricting. Study 2, which used a sample of 249 AN patients, replicated these findings, including the second mechanism linking ANR to suicide attempts. Two potential routes to suicidal behavior in AN appear to have been identified: one route through repetitive experience with provocative behaviors for ANBP, and a second for exposure to pain through the starvation of restricting in ANR.

  2. Symbiosis, Empathy, Suicidal Behavior, and the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richman, Joseph

    1978-01-01

    This paper discusses the theoretical concept of symbiosis, as described by Mahler and her co-workers, and its clinical applications in suicidal situations. Also, the practical implications of the concept of symbiosis for assessment and treatment are discussed (Author)

  3. Prevention of Suicidal Behavior in Prisons

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Background: Worldwide, prisoners are at high risk of suicide. Research on near-lethal suicide attempts can provide important insights into risk and protective factors, and inform suicide prevention initiatives in prison. Aims: To synthesize findings of research on near-lethal attempts in prisons, and consider their implications for suicide prevention policies and practice, in the context of other research in custody and other settings. Method: We searched two bibliographic indexes for studies in any language on near-lethal and severe self-harm in prisoners, supplemented by targeted searches over the period 2000–2014. We extracted information on risk factors descriptively. Data were not meta-analyzed owing to heterogeneity of samples and methods. Results: We identified eight studies reporting associations between prisoner near-lethal attempts and specific factors. The latter included historical, prison-related, and clinical factors, including psychiatric morbidity and comorbidity, trauma, social isolation, and bullying. These factors were also identified as important in prisoners' own accounts of what may have contributed to their attempts (presented in four studies). Conclusion: Factors associated with prisoners' severe suicide attempts include a range of potentially modifiable clinical, psychosocial, and environmental factors. We make recommendations to address these factors in order to improve detection, management, and prevention of suicide risk in prisoners. PMID:27278569

  4. Ethnic differences in suicide behavior in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Mak, Kwok-Kei; Ho, Cyrus S H; Chua, Vincent; Ho, Roger C M

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the ethnic differences in stressors, risk, and protective factors among people who attempted suicide in Singapore. A retrospective chart review of 626 attempted suicide cases at a hospital in Singapore between 2004 and 2006 collected information on diagnosis according to DSM-IV-TR criteria. Chi-square tests was used to compare the sociodemographic characteristics, stressors, risk factors, and protective factors among Chinese, Malay, Indian, and other ethnic groups. Logistic regression was used to determine the odds ratios of having two or more stressors, risk factors, or protective factors for the four ethnic groups. Women were more likely than men to attempt suicide, although they also were more likely to have two or more suicide protective factors than men. In general, older people were more likely to have two or more suicide risk factors than the younger groups. Ethnic differences were found in history of psychiatric illnesses and unemployment among the risk factors, and for most of the protective factors, but none of the stressors. Indians were more likely to have two or more protective factors than were Chinese (OR of 7.74, 95% CI [1.04, 8.72]. Future suicide prevention programs should target young adults and strengthen the protective factors among different ethnic groups. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  5. Prevention of Suicidal Behavior in Prisons.

    PubMed

    Marzano, Lisa; Hawton, Keith; Rivlin, Adrienne; Smith, E Naomi; Piper, Mary; Fazel, Seena

    2016-09-01

    Worldwide, prisoners are at high risk of suicide. Research on near-lethal suicide attempts can provide important insights into risk and protective factors, and inform suicide prevention initiatives in prison. To synthesize findings of research on near-lethal attempts in prisons, and consider their implications for suicide prevention policies and practice, in the context of other research in custody and other settings. We searched two bibliographic indexes for studies in any language on near-lethal and severe self-harm in prisoners, supplemented by targeted searches over the period 2000-2014. We extracted information on risk factors descriptively. Data were not meta-analyzed owing to heterogeneity of samples and methods. We identified eight studies reporting associations between prisoner near-lethal attempts and specific factors. The latter included historical, prison-related, and clinical factors, including psychiatric morbidity and comorbidity, trauma, social isolation, and bullying. These factors were also identified as important in prisoners' own accounts of what may have contributed to their attempts (presented in four studies). Factors associated with prisoners' severe suicide attempts include a range of potentially modifiable clinical, psychosocial, and environmental factors. We make recommendations to address these factors in order to improve detection, management, and prevention of suicide risk in prisoners.

  6. Sociodemographic Antecedent Validators of Suicidal Behavior: A Review of Recent Literature.

    PubMed

    Conejero, Ismael; Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; Giner, Lucas; Baca-Garcia, Enrique

    2016-10-01

    Suicidal behavior and its prevention constitute a major public health issue. Etiology of suicidal behavior is multifactorial. Whereas current research is mostly focused on clinical and biological risk factors, the sociodemographic risk factors for suicidal behavior, first highlighted by Durkheim, have received less attention. Besides the well-known impact of age and gender, sociodemographic variables such as marital and parental status, education, occupation, income, employment status, religion, migration or minority status, and sexual orientation are repeatedly reported to play an important role in suicidal behavior. This narrative review aimed to summarize recent research on sociodemographic risk factors for suicidal behavior and to elicit possible implications for suicide prevention.

  7. Suicidal behavior among delinquent former child welfare clients.

    PubMed

    Björkenstam, C; Björkenstam, E; Ljung, R; Vinnerljung, B; Tuvblad, C

    2013-06-01

    Child welfare clients represent a high-risk group for delinquency and adult criminality, but also for future suicidal behavior. We examine associations between delinquency and suicidal behavior in a national child welfare population. This register-based cohort study is based on data for all Swedish former child welfare clients born between 1972 and 1981 that experienced interventions before their adolescent years. We followed 27,228 individuals from age 20 years until 31 December 2006. Juvenile delinquency was defined as being convicted of at least one crime between age 15 and 19. The risk of suicidal behavior was calculated as incidence rate ratios (IRRs). Fifteen percent of the women and 40% of the men had at least one conviction between the age 15 and 19. The adjusted risk of suicidal behavior among women with five or more convictions was 3.5 (95% CI 2.0-6.2); corresponding IRR for men was 3.9 (95% CI 3.1-4.9). Child welfare experience-specifically of out-of-home care-in combination with delinquency is a potent risk factor for suicidal behavior among young adults. However, we cannot exclude that some of this association is an epiphenomenon of uncontrolled confounders, such as impulsivity or severity of psychiatric disease. Despite this caveat, results should be disseminated to practitioners in the health and correction services.

  8. Available Supports and Coping Behaviors of Mental Health Social Workers Following Fatal and Nonfatal Client Suicidal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ting, Laura; Jacobson, Jodi M.; Sanders, Sara

    2008-01-01

    Research indicates that mental health social workers risk being confronted with fatal and nonfatal client suicidal behaviors during professional practice. Although reactions to client suicidal behavior have been documented, there is little empirical evidence about coping behaviors and available supports following client suicidal behavior. This…

  9. Available Supports and Coping Behaviors of Mental Health Social Workers Following Fatal and Nonfatal Client Suicidal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ting, Laura; Jacobson, Jodi M.; Sanders, Sara

    2008-01-01

    Research indicates that mental health social workers risk being confronted with fatal and nonfatal client suicidal behaviors during professional practice. Although reactions to client suicidal behavior have been documented, there is little empirical evidence about coping behaviors and available supports following client suicidal behavior. This…

  10. Peer Victimization and Suicidal Behaviors among High School Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crepeau-Hobson, Franci; Leech, Nancy L.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between various types of peer-directed violence and suicidal thoughts and behaviors among adolescents. A nationally representative sample of 15,425 high school students completed the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. All types of peer victimization (bullying, physical violence, and dating violence) were found to…

  11. Peer Victimization and Suicidal Behaviors among High School Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crepeau-Hobson, Franci; Leech, Nancy L.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between various types of peer-directed violence and suicidal thoughts and behaviors among adolescents. A nationally representative sample of 15,425 high school students completed the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. All types of peer victimization (bullying, physical violence, and dating violence) were found to…

  12. Disturbed sleep: linking allergic rhinitis, mood and suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Fang, Beverly J; Tonelli, Leonardo H; Soriano, Joseph J; Postolache, Teodor T

    2010-01-01

    Allergic inflammation is associated with mood disorders, exacerbation of depression, and suicidal behavior. Mediators of inflammation modulate sleep , with Th1 cytokines promoting NREM sleep and increasing sleepiness and Th2 cytokines (produced during allergic inflammation) impairing sleep. As sleep impairment is a rapidly modifiable suicide risk factor strongly associated with mood disorders, we review the literature leading to the hypothesis that allergic rhinitis leads to mood and anxiety disorders and an increased risk of suicide via sleep impairment. Specifically, allergic rhinitis can impair sleep through mechanical (obstructive) and molecular (cytokine production) processes. The high prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders and allergy, the nonabating suicide incidence, the currently available treatment modalities to treat sleep impairment and the need for novel therapeutic targets for mood and anxiety disorders, justify multilevel efforts to explore disturbance of sleep as a pathophysiological link.

  13. The Specificity of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior for Identifying Suicidal Ideation in an Online Sample.

    PubMed

    Batterham, Philip J; Calear, Alison L; van Spijker, Bregje A J

    2015-08-01

    The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior suggests that the combination of perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness predicts suicidal ideation. However, the specificity of this prediction to suicidal ideation has not been tested. This study examined whether these constructs were consistently associated with different characteristics of suicidal ideation, and whether they were associated with mental health problems more broadly, in an online sample of 1,352 Australian adults. Findings indicated that the interaction between perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness was associated only with suicidal ideation and consistent across multiple characteristics of ideation. The study broadly supported the specificity of the IPTS.

  14. Self-Injurious Behavior and Suicide Attempts among Indonesian College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tresno, Fiona; Ito, Yoshimi; Mearns, Jack

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the prevalence of self-injurious behavior and suicide attempts among college students in Indonesia and examines risk factors distinguishing between 3 groups: self-injury with suicide attempt, non-suicidal self-injury, and non-self-injury. Self-report questionnaires measuring self-injury and suicide attempts, negative mood…

  15. Self-Injurious Behavior and Suicide Attempts among Indonesian College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tresno, Fiona; Ito, Yoshimi; Mearns, Jack

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the prevalence of self-injurious behavior and suicide attempts among college students in Indonesia and examines risk factors distinguishing between 3 groups: self-injury with suicide attempt, non-suicidal self-injury, and non-self-injury. Self-report questionnaires measuring self-injury and suicide attempts, negative mood…

  16. The Relationship between Posttraumatic Stress Symptomatology and Suicidal Behavior in School-based Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazza, James J.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology and suicidal behavior, specifically suicidal ideation and suicide attempt history, while controlling for depression and gender in 106 adolescents in an urban high school. PTSD symptomatology was significantly related to suicidal ideation and showed a trend…

  17. Do theories of suicide play well together? Integrating components of the hopelessness and interpersonal psychological theories of suicide.

    PubMed

    Kleiman, Evan M; Law, Keyne C; Anestis, Michael D

    2014-04-01

    Given that suicide is a leading cause of death worldwide, there has been considerable research on theories of suicide risk. Despite the volume of such research, each theory is largely investigated in isolation and there has been little attempt to integrate them. Thus, the goal of the present study is to integrate two theories of suicide risk, Alloy and Abramson's hopelessness theory of suicide (HT) and Joiner's interpersonal psychological theory of suicide (IPTS), into one mediational model where the effects of the risk associated with the HT variables (i.e., a negative cognitive style) on suicidal ideation are transmitted by the IPTS (i.e., perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belonging) variables. Participants were 245 young adults with elevated levels of depressive symptoms who completed self-report measures of suicide risk at baseline and a measure of suicidal ideation eight weeks later. The results of a mediated model supported our hypothesis. The effects of the HT variables on suicidal ideation were mediated by the IPTS variables. Furthermore, results did not support the reverse model, suggesting specificity of the direction of our hypotheses. These findings imply that there may be merit in attempting to integrate theories of suicide risk rather than studying them in isolation.

  18. Do risk factors for suicidal behavior differ by affective disorder polarity?

    PubMed

    Fiedorowicz, J G; Leon, A C; Keller, M B; Solomon, D A; Rice, J P; Coryell, W H

    2009-05-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of death and has been strongly associated with affective disorders. The influence of affective disorder polarity on subsequent suicide attempts or completions and any differential effect of suicide risk factors by polarity were assessed in a prospective cohort. Participants with major affective disorders in the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Collaborative Depression Study (CDS) were followed prospectively for up to 25 years. A total of 909 participants meeting prospective diagnostic criteria for major depressive and bipolar disorders were followed through 4204 mood cycles. Suicidal behavior was defined as suicide attempts or completions. Mixed-effects, grouped-time survival analysis assessed risk of suicidal behavior and differential effects of risk factors for suicidal behavior by polarity. In addition to polarity, the main effects of age, gender, hopelessness, married status, prior suicide attempts and active substance abuse were modeled, with mood cycle as the unit of analysis. After controlling for age of onset, there were no differences in prior suicide attempts by polarity although bipolar participants had more prior severe attempts. During follow-up, 40 cycles ended in suicide and 384 cycles contained at least one suicide attempt. Age, hopelessness and active substance abuse but not polarity predicted suicidal behavior. The effects of risk factors did not differ by polarity. Bipolarity does not independently influence risk of suicidal behavior or alter the influence of well-established suicide risk factors within affective disorders. Suicide risk assessment strategies may continue to appraise these common risk factors without regard to mood polarity.

  19. The role of autonomy needs in suicidal ideation: integrating the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide and self-determination theory.

    PubMed

    Hill, Ryan M; Pettit, Jeremy W

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the role of autonomy satisfaction in the development of suicidal ideation by integrating two theoretical models of suicide-related behaviors. The first hypothesized a direct effect of autonomy on suicidal ideation. The second hypothesized an indirect effect of autonomy on suicidal ideation via perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness. This was a cross-sectional study of 449 college students, who were predominantly female (73.1%) and Hispanic (70.6%), with a mean age of 20.40 years (SD = 4.38, range 18-50 years). Participants were recruited from a psychology participant pool and completed self-report survey measures for course credit. The model of indirect effects provided the best fit to the data; relatedness, autonomy, and competence were significantly associated with higher thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, which, in turn, were significantly associated with higher suicidal ideation. Future studies should test this model longitudinally and consider autonomy as a possible avenue for the prevention of suicide-related behaviors.

  20. The role of parental bonding and early maladaptive schemas in the risk of suicidal behavior repetition.

    PubMed

    Dale, Rosanna; Power, Kevin; Kane, Scott; Stewart, Alex Mitchell; Murray, Lindsey

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the role of perceived parental bonding and early maladaptive schemas in suicidal behavior. Participants completed measures of perceived parental bonding; schemas; risk of repeating suicidal behavior; anxiety; and depression following their presentation at Accident and Emergency with suicidal behavior. A suicidal behavior group (n = 60) differed from a comparison clinical (n = 46) and non-clinical (n = 48) group on measures of early maladaptive schemas, anxiety, and depression. No significant difference was noted between the suicidal behavior group and the comparison clinical group on a measure of parental bonding. Within the suicidal behavior group, significant associations were indicated between perceived parental bonding and risk of repetition of suicidal behavior; and early maladaptive schemas and risk of repetition of suicidal behavior. Early maladaptive schemas were found to mediate the relationship between perceived parental bonding and risk of repetition of suicidal behavior, with schemas of Social Alienation and Defectiveness/Shame offering mediator roles. The findings of the current study emphasize the complexities of suicidal behavior and factors that are associated with suicidal behavior. Although causality cannot be assumed, the findings highlight the importance and inter-relationships of not only perceived early experiences, but of underlying schemas in relation to suicidal behavior.

  1. Perceived social support buffers the impact of PTSD symptoms on suicidal behavior: implications into suicide resilience research.

    PubMed

    Panagioti, M; Gooding, P A; Taylor, P J; Tarrier, N

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of research has highlighted the importance of identifying resilience factors against suicidal behavior. However, no previous study has investigated potential resilience factors among individuals with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). The aim of this study was to examine whether perceived social support buffered the impact of PTSD symptoms on suicidal behavior. Fifty-six individuals who had previously been exposed to a traumatic event and reported PTSD symptoms in the past month (n = 34, 60.7% participants met the full criteria for a current PTSD diagnosis) completed a range of self-report measures assessing PTSD symptoms, perceived social support and suicidal behavior. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to examine whether perceived social support moderates the effects of PTSD symptoms on suicidal behavior. The results showed that perceived social support moderated the impact of the number and severity of PTSD symptoms on suicidal behavior. For those who perceived themselves as having high levels of social support, an increased number and severity of PTSD symptoms were less likely to lead to suicidal behavior. The current findings suggest that perceived social support might confer resilience to individuals with PTSD and counter the development of suicidal thoughts and behaviors. The milieu of social support potentially provides an area of further research and an important aspect to incorporate into clinical interventions for suicidal behavior in PTSD or trauma populations. © 2013.

  2. Durkheim, social integration and suicide rates.

    PubMed

    Alaszewski, A; Manthorpe, J

    This second paper of six on the application of sociology in health care considers the work of Emile Durkheim. He was concerned with the production of social order through relationships and shared values. Durkheim conceived social phenomena as 'social facts' which could be studied, and his treatment of suicide as a case study of social fact is discussed here. His work on the processes of social cohesion has influenced the work of sociologists up to the present day.

  3. Multiple risk behaviors and suicidal ideation and behavior among Israeli and Palestinian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Harel-Fisch, Yossi; Abdeen, Ziad; Walsh, Sophie D; Radwan, Qasrowi; Fogel-Grinvald, Haya

    2012-07-01

    Based conceptually on Problem Behavior Theory, Normalization Theory and theories of adolescent ethnic identity formation this study explores relationships between individual and cumulative multiple risk behaviors and suicidal ideation and behavior among mid-adolescents in three different populations in the Middle East. Data from the 2004 Health Behavior in School-Aged Children in the Middle-East (HBSC-ME) study included 8345 10th-grade pupils in three populations: Jewish Israelis (1770), Arab Israelis (2185), and Palestinians in Gaza and the West Bank (4390). We considered risk behaviors and factors including tobacco use, bullying, medically-attended injuries, excessive time with friends, parental disconnectedness, negative school experience, truancy and poor academic performance. Substantial population differences for suicidal tendency and risk behaviors were observed, with notably high levels of suicidal ideation and behavior among Arab-Israeli youth and higher levels of risk behaviors among the Jewish and Arab-Israeli youth. For all populations suicidal tendency was at least 4 times higher among adolescents reporting 4+ risk behaviors, suggesting that similar psychosocial determinants affect patterns of risk behaviors and suicidal tendency. Results highlight the importance of understanding cultural contexts of risk behaviors and suicidal ideation and behavior.

  4. Narcissistic Personality Disorder and suicidal behavior in mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Daniel; Lawrence, Ryan; Parekh, Amrita; Galfalvy, Hanga; Blasco-Fontecilla, Hilario; Brent, David A; Mann, J John; Baca-Garcia, Enrique; Oquendo, Maria A

    2017-02-01

    The relationship of Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) to suicidal behavior is understudied. The modest body of existing research suggests that NPD is protective against low-lethality suicide attempts, but is associated with high lethality attempts. Mood-disordered patients (N = 657) received structured interviews including Axis I and II diagnosis and standardized clinical measures. Following chi-square and t-tests, a logistical regression model was constructed to identify predictors of suicide attempt. While there was no bivariate relationship of NPD on suicide attempt, in the logistic regression patients with NPD were 2.4 times less likely to make a suicide attempt (OR = 0.41; 95% CI = 0.19 - 0.88; p < 0.05), compared with non-NPD patients and controlling for possible confounding variables. NPD was not associated with attempt lethality. NPD patients were more likely to be male, to have a substance use disorder, and to have high aggression and hostility scores. Limitations include that the sample consists of only mood-disordered patients, a modest sample size of NPD, and the data are cross-sectional. The multivariate protective effect of NPD on suicide attempt is consistent with most previous research. The lower impulsivity of NPD patients and less severe personality pathology relative to other personality disorders may contribute to this effect. No relationship of NPD to attempt lethality was found, contradicting other research, but perhaps reflecting differences between study samples. Future studies should oversample NPD patients and include suicide death as an outcome. Clinical implications include discussion of individualized suicide risk assessment with NPD patients.

  5. Understanding Bhutanese Refugee Suicide Through the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, B. Heidi; Lankau, Emily W.; Ao, Trong; Benson, Molly A.; Miller, Alisa B.; Shetty, Sharmila; Cardozo, Barbara Lopes; Geltman, Paul L.; Cochran, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Attention has been drawn to high rates of suicide among refugees after resettlement and in particular among the Bhutanese refugees. This study sought to understand the apparent high rates of suicide among resettled Bhutanese refugees in the context of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior (IPTS). Expanding on a larger investigation of suicide in a randomly selected sample of Bhutanese men and women resettled in Arizona, Georgia, New York, and Texas (Ao et al., 2012), the current study focused on 2 factors, thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, examined individual and postmigration variables associated with these factors, and explored how they differed by gender. Overall, factors such as poor health were associated with perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness. For men, stressors related to employment and providing for their families were related to feeling burdensome and/or alienated from family and friends, whereas for women, stressors such as illiteracy, family conflict, and being separated from family members were more associated. IPTS holds promise in understanding suicide in the resettled Bhutanese community. PMID:25642653

  6. Understanding Bhutanese refugee suicide through the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Ellis, B Heidi; Lankau, Emily W; Ao, Trong; Benson, Molly A; Miller, Alisa B; Shetty, Sharmila; Lopes Cardozo, Barbara; Geltman, Paul L; Cochran, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Attention has been drawn to high rates of suicide among refugees after resettlement and in particular among the Bhutanese refugees. This study sought to understand the apparent high rates of suicide among resettled Bhutanese refugees in the context of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior (IPTS). Expanding on a larger investigation of suicide in a randomly selected sample of Bhutanese men and women resettled in Arizona, Georgia, New York, and Texas (Ao et al., 2012), the current study focused on 2 factors, thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, examined individual and postmigration variables associated with these factors, and explored how they differed by gender. Overall, factors such as poor health were associated with perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness. For men, stressors related to employment and providing for their families were related to feeling burdensome and/or alienated from family and friends, whereas for women, stressors such as illiteracy, family conflict, and being separated from family members were more associated. IPTS holds promise in understanding suicide in the resettled Bhutanese community.

  7. An investigation of persistence through pain and distress as an amplifier of the relationship between suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Anestis, Michael D; Capron, Daniel W

    2016-05-15

    Recent research has emphasized the importance of examining factors that strengthen the association between suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior, thereby aiding in the transition from thought to action. Theoretical and empirical work has demonstrated that suicidal desire is more strongly associated with suicidal behavior among individuals better able to tolerate distressing sensations, consistent with the notion that suicidal behavior is difficult and aversive and requires a capability to overcome otherwise daunting obstacles. Participants were 100 adults, recruited from the community, in part based upon their prior history of suicidal behavior. Each participant took part in a behavioral task during which both emotional distress and physical pain were induced. Participants were told that persistence through the end of the task would result in the ability to opt out of all but five minutes of the remaining protocol, whereas early cessation of the task would result in the administration of the entire protocol. Results indicated the relationship between current suicidal thoughts and lifetime attempts was significant only at mean and high levels of task persistence. Our results provide novel behavioral support for the importance of persistence through pain and distress in suicidal behavior.

  8. Suicide, Suicide Attempts, and Suicidal Ideation.

    PubMed

    Klonsky, E David; May, Alexis M; Saffer, Boaz Y

    2016-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Fortunately, recent developments in suicide theory and research promise to meaningfully advance knowledge and prevention. One key development is the ideation-to-action framework, which stipulates that (a) the development of suicidal ideation and (b) the progression from ideation to suicide attempts are distinct phenomena with distinct explanations and predictors. A second key development is a growing body of research distinguishing factors that predict ideation from those that predict suicide attempts. For example, it is becoming clear that depression, hopelessness, most mental disorders, and even impulsivity predict ideation, but these factors struggle to distinguish those who have attempted suicide from those who have only considered suicide. Means restriction is also emerging as a highly effective way to block progression from ideation to attempt. A third key development is the proliferation of theories of suicide that are positioned within the ideation-to-action framework. These include the interpersonal theory, the integrated motivational-volitional model, and the three-step theory. These perspectives can and should inform the next generation of suicide research and prevention.

  9. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form Markers of Future Suicidal Behavior in a Forensic Psychiatric Hospital.

    PubMed

    Tarescavage, Anthony M; Glassmire, David M; Burchett, Danielle

    2017-04-03

    Past research indicates a need to integrate objective psychological testing with clinical interview data during suicide risk assessment. The current study evaluated the utility of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) in the prediction of future suicidal behaviors in a sample of 1,110 forensic inpatients (807 males, 303 females). Results indicated that scales from all substantive domains of the MMPI-2-RF were significantly positively associated with future suicidal behaviors. Consistent with expectations, the best predictors were scale scores from the internalizing and externalizing domains of the inventory. Relative Risk Ratios indicated that individuals producing elevations on these scales were at 2 to 4 times greater risk of future suicidal behaviors compared with those who did not produce elevations. Implications of these findings and limitations of this study are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. Improving the detection and prediction of suicidal behavior among military personnel by measuring suicidal beliefs: an evaluation of the Suicide Cognitions Scale.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Craig J; David Rudd, M; Wertenberger, Evelyn; Etienne, Neysa; Ray-Sannerud, Bobbie N; Morrow, Chad E; Peterson, Alan L; Young-McCaughon, Stacey

    2014-04-01

    Newer approaches for understanding suicidal behavior suggest the assessment of suicide-specific beliefs and cognitions may improve the detection and prediction of suicidal thoughts and behaviors. The Suicide Cognitions Scale (SCS) was developed to measure suicide-specific beliefs, but it has not been tested in a military setting. Data were analyzed from two separate studies conducted at three military mental health clinics (one U.S. Army, two U.S. Air Force). Participants included 175 active duty Army personnel with acute suicidal ideation and/or a recent suicide attempt referred for a treatment study (Sample 1) and 151 active duty Air Force personnel receiving routine outpatient mental health care (Sample 2). In both samples, participants completed self-report measures and clinician-administered interviews. Follow-up suicide attempts were assessed via clinician-administered interview for Sample 1. Statistical analyses included confirmatory factor analysis, between-group comparisons by history of suicidality, and generalized regression modeling. Two latent factors were confirmed for the SCS: Unloveability and Unbearability. Each demonstrated good internal consistency, convergent validity, and divergent validity. Both scales significantly predicted current suicidal ideation (βs >0.316, ps <0.002) and significantly differentiated suicide attempts from nonsuicidal self-injury and control groups (F(6, 286)=9.801, p<0.001). Both scales significantly predicted future suicide attempts (AORs>1.07, ps <0.050) better than other risk factors. Self-report methodology, small sample sizes, predominantly male samples. The SCS is a reliable and valid measure that predicts suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among military personnel better than other well-established risk factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Impulsive Aggression, Delay Discounting, and Adolescent Suicide Attempts: Effects of Current Psychotropic Medication Use and Family History of Suicidal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Brady; McBee-Strayer, Sandra M.; Sheftall, Arielle H.; Ackerman, John; Stevens, Jack; Mendoza, Kristen; Campo, John V.; Brent, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Impulsive-aggressive behaviors have been consistently implicated in the phenomenology, neurobiology, and familial aggregation of suicidal behavior. The purpose of this study was to extend previous work by examining laboratory behavioral measures of delayed reward impulsivity and impulsive aggression in adolescent suicide attempters and never-suicidal comparison subjects. Methods: Using the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP) and the Delay Discounting Task (DDQ), the authors examined delay discounting and impulsive aggression in 40 adolescent suicide attempters, ages 13–18, and 40 never-suicidal, demographically matched psychiatric comparison subjects. Results: Overall, suicide attempters and comparison subjects performed similarly on the PSAP and DDQ. There was a significant group by current psychotropic medication use interaction (p=0.013) for mean aggressive responses on the PSAP. Group comparisons revealed that attempters emitted more aggressive responses per provocation than comparison subjects, only in those not on psychotropic medication (p=0.049), whereas for those currently treated with psychotropic medication, there were no group differences (p>0.05). This interaction effect was specific to current antidepressant use. Among all subjects, family history of suicidal behavior (suicide or suicide attempt) in first degree relatives was significantly correlated with both delay discounting (r=−0.22, p=0.049), and aggressive responding (r=0.27, p=0.015). Family history of suicidal behavior was associated with delay discounting, but not with aggressive responding on the PSAP, after controlling for relevant covariates. Conclusions: In this study, impulsive-aggressive responding was associated with suicide attempt only in those not being treated with antidepressants. Future work to replicate and extend these findings could have important therapeutic implications for the treatment of depressed suicide attempters, many of whom are

  12. Suicide in older adults: the role of emotions and cognition.

    PubMed

    Kiosses, Dimitris N; Szanto, Katalin; Alexopoulos, George S

    2014-11-01

    Suicide in older adults is a significant clinical concern. In this review of recent findings, we concentrate on the role of emotions and cognition in suicide risk and behavior in older adults. We discuss the epidemiology of suicide in older adults, integrate recent findings on non-psychotic major depression, schizophrenia and suicidal ideation, explore the relationship of emotion regulation with suicide, present recent advances on suicide in demented patients, and describe the latest developments on cognition and decision processes in suicide.

  13. The Relation Between Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Suicidal Behavior: A Systematic Review and Critical Examination of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Weismoore, Julie T.; Renshaw, Keith D.

    2013-01-01

    A large body of research suggests that child maltreatment (CM) is associated with adolescent suicidal ideation and attempts. These studies, however, have not been critically examined and summarized in a manner that allows us to draw firm conclusions and make recommendations for future research and clinical work in this area. In this review, we evaluated all of the research literature to date examining the relationship between CM and adolescent suicidal ideation and attempts. Results generally suggest that childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect are associated with adolescent suicidal ideation and attempts across community, clinical, and high-risk samples, using cross-sectional and longitudinal research designs. In most studies, these associations remain significant when controlling for covariates such as youth demographics, mental health, family, and peer-related variables. When different forms of CM are examined in the same multivariate analysis, most research suggests that each form of CM maintains an independent association with adolescent suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. However, a subset of studies yielded evidence to suggest that sexual abuse and emotional abuse may be relatively more important in explaining suicidal behavior than physical abuse or neglect. Research also suggests an additive effect—each form of CM contributes unique variance to adolescent suicide attempts. We discuss the current limitations of this literature and offer recommendations for future research. We conclude with an overview of the clinical implications of this research, including careful, detailed screening of CM history, past suicidal behavior, and current suicidal ideation, as well as the need for integrated treatment approaches that effectively address both CM and adolescent suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. PMID:23568617

  14. Predicting Suicide Risk in Trauma Exposed Veterans: The Role of Health Promoting Behaviors.

    PubMed

    DeBeer, Bryann B; Kittel, Julie A; Cook, Andrew; Davidson, Dena; Kimbrel, Nathan A; Meyer, Eric C; Gulliver, Suzy B; Morissette, Sandra B

    2016-01-01

    Returning veterans of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan experience high rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and suicidal behavior. Suicidal ideation is among the strongest risk factors for completed suicide. Some research suggests an association between PTSD and suicidal ideation, and that health-promoting behaviors-behaviors that sustain or increase well-being-play a role in this association. The current study examined whether health-promoting behaviors moderate the association between PTSD severity and suicidal ideation. Veterans of Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF; N = 108) completed measures of PTSD symptoms, trauma exposure, suicidal ideation, and health-promoting behaviors. Moderated regression was used to test the hypothesis. Results indicated that health promoting behaviors, β = -.06, p = .001, and PTSD symptoms, β = .36, p < .001, were significantly related to suicidal ideation. Consistent with our main hypothesis, the health promoting behaviors x PTSD interaction term was significantly associated with suicidal ideation, β = -.09, p = .001. The overall model accounted for 13% of the variance in suicidal ideation. Among individuals with high PTSD symptom severity, those who engaged in more health promoting behaviors reported less suicidal ideation than those who engaged in fewer health promoting behaviors. Health-promoting behaviors could be important for reducing suicidal ideation among veterans with high levels of PTSD symptoms. It is recommended that future research examine health promotion interventions as a means of reducing suicidal ideation.

  15. Ruminative subtypes and impulsivity in risk for suicidal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Valderrama, Jorge; Miranda, Regina; Jeglic, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Rumination has been previously linked to negative psychological outcomes, including depression and suicidal behavior. However, there has been conflicting research on whether or not two different subtypes of rumination – brooding and reflection – are more or less maladaptive. The present research sought to (1) examine whether individuals high in brooding but lower in reflection would show higher trait and behavioral impulsivity, relative to individuals low in brooding and low in reflection; and (2) examine impulsivity as a mediator of the relation between ruminative subtypes and suicidal ideation. In Study 1, participants (N = 78) were recruited based on high, average, and low scores on a measure of brooding and reflective rumination. Individuals who scored high in brooding and average in reflection scored significantly higher in negative urgency, that is, in the tendency to act rashly in an attempt to reduce negative affect, than did those who scored low in brooding and low in reflection. Study 2 (N = 1638) examined the relationship between ruminative subtypes, impulsivity, and suicide risk. We found an indirect relationship between brooding and suicide risk through lack of premeditation and lack of perseverance, independently of reflection. These findings are discussed in relation to cognitive risk for suicide. PMID:26791398

  16. Ruminative subtypes and impulsivity in risk for suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Valderrama, Jorge; Miranda, Regina; Jeglic, Elizabeth

    2016-02-28

    Rumination has been previously linked to negative psychological outcomes, including depression and suicidal behavior. However, there has been conflicting research on whether or not two different subtypes of rumination - brooding and reflection - are more or less maladaptive. The present research sought to (1) examine whether individuals high in brooding but lower in reflection would show higher trait and behavioral impulsivity, relative to individuals low in brooding and low in reflection; and (2) examine impulsivity as a mediator of the relation between ruminative subtypes and suicidal ideation. In Study 1, participants (N=78) were recruited based on high, average, and low scores on a measure of brooding and reflective rumination. Individuals who scored high in brooding and average in reflection scored significantly higher in negative urgency, that is, in the tendency to act rashly in an attempt to reduce negative affect, than did those who scored low in brooding and low in reflection. Study 2 (N=1638) examined the relationship between ruminative subtypes, impulsivity, and suicide risk. We found an indirect relationship between brooding and suicide risk through lack of premeditation and lack of perseverance, independently of reflection. These findings are discussed in relation to cognitive risk for suicide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Non-suicidal self-injury and suicidal behavior: prevalence, co-occurrence, and correlates of suicide among adolescents in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Yee Tak Derek; Wong, Paul Wai Ching; Lee, Antoinette Marie; Lam, Tai Hing; Fan, Yun Sun Susan; Yip, Paul Siu Fai

    2013-07-01

    Despite increasing concern over the prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) among adolescents, there is debate about its classification as a stand-alone psychiatric diagnosis. This study investigated the patterns, co-occurrence, and correlates of NSSI and other suicidal behaviors among a representative community sample of in-school adolescents. A cross-sectional survey of 2,317 adolescents was conducted. Participants were asked to self-report NSSI, suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, and psychosocial conditions over the past 12 months. Logistic regression and cumulative logit modeling analyses were conducted to investigate the different and similar correlates among these self-harm behaviors. The age-standardized prevalence rates of NSSI among male and female adolescents were estimated to be 13.4 and 19.7 %, respectively, compared with 11.1 and 10.1 % for male and female suicide attempt. Only a small proportion engaged in NSSI exclusively in the past year. NSSI by burning or reckless and risky behaviors, frequent drinking, and sexual experience were associated with increasing severity level of suicidal behaviors among individuals with NSSI. NSSI is prevalent among in-school adolescents in Hong Kong. However, it co-occurs with suicidal ideation and suicide attempt. High lethality of NSSI, frequent drinking habit, and lifetime sexual experience are suggested to be indicators for screening potential suicide attempters among those having NSSI.

  18. Relations between Nonsuicidal Self-Injury and Suicidal Behavior in Adolescence: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Grandclerc, Salome; De Labrouhe, Diane; Spodenkiewicz, Michel; Lachal, Jonathan; Moro, Marie-Rose

    2016-01-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal behaviors, both important issues in adolescent health care, are frequently associated and possibly clinically related. Our objective was to explore the views of relations between nonsuicidal self-injury and suicidal behaviors during adolescence and young adulthood (11-25 years) expressed in the scientific (medical and psychological) literature. We adopted a textual approach to the process of synthesis to tell the story of the findings from the included studies. Our narrative systematic review of 64 articles found that they share the same risk factors. Integrated models envision nonsuicidal self-injury as a gateway enabling teens to acquire the capability for suicide. Because suicidal behavior short-circuits thought, it is difficult to conceive an intention to die during adolescents' acts of self-injury. Intention is constructed by the narrative of the act, influenced by numerous elements from the psychopathologic, cultural, religious, and philosophic context. Techniques of mentalizing-based treatments and work on the meaning that adolescents attribute to their behaviors might improve care.

  19. Relations between Nonsuicidal Self-Injury and Suicidal Behavior in Adolescence: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Grandclerc, Salome; De Labrouhe, Diane; Spodenkiewicz, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal behaviors, both important issues in adolescent health care, are frequently associated and possibly clinically related. Our objective was to explore the views of relations between nonsuicidal self-injury and suicidal behaviors during adolescence and young adulthood (11–25 years) expressed in the scientific (medical and psychological) literature. We adopted a textual approach to the process of synthesis to tell the story of the findings from the included studies. Our narrative systematic review of 64 articles found that they share the same risk factors. Integrated models envision nonsuicidal self-injury as a gateway enabling teens to acquire the capability for suicide. Because suicidal behavior short-circuits thought, it is difficult to conceive an intention to die during adolescents' acts of self-injury. Intention is constructed by the narrative of the act, influenced by numerous elements from the psychopathologic, cultural, religious, and philosophic context. Techniques of mentalizing-based treatments and work on the meaning that adolescents attribute to their behaviors might improve care. PMID:27089157

  20. Self-Harm and Suicidal Behaviors in Hong Kong Adolescents: Prevalence and Psychosocial Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Yu, Lu

    2012-01-01

    The present paper examined the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of adolescent deliberate self-harm (DSH) and suicidal behavior in a representative sample of 3,328 secondary school students in Hong Kong. With reference to the previous year, 32.7% of the students reported at least one form of DSH, 13.7% of the respondents had suicide thoughts, 4.9% devised specific suicidal plans, and 4.7% had actually attempted suicide. Adolescent girls had significantly higher rates of DSH and suicidal behavior than did adolescent boys. Having remarried parents was related to an increased likelihood of DSH and suicide. While high levels of family functioning, overall positive youth development, and academic and school performance predicted low rates of DSH and suicidal behavior, cognitive and behavioral competencies were unexpectedly found to be positively associated with DSH and suicidal behavior. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:22566783

  1. Predicting Suicide Risk in Trauma Exposed Veterans: The Role of Health Promoting Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    DeBeer, Bryann B.; Kittel, Julie A.; Cook, Andrew; Davidson, Dena; Kimbrel, Nathan A.; Meyer, Eric C.; Gulliver, Suzy B.; Morissette, Sandra B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Returning veterans of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan experience high rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and suicidal behavior. Suicidal ideation is among the strongest risk factors for completed suicide. Some research suggests an association between PTSD and suicidal ideation, and that health-promoting behaviors—behaviors that sustain or increase well-being—play a role in this association. The current study examined whether health-promoting behaviors moderate the association between PTSD severity and suicidal ideation. Methods Veterans of Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF; N = 108) completed measures of PTSD symptoms, trauma exposure, suicidal ideation, and health-promoting behaviors. Results Moderated regression was used to test the hypothesis. Results indicated that health promoting behaviors, β = -.06, p = .001, and PTSD symptoms, β = .36, p < .001, were significantly related to suicidal ideation. Consistent with our main hypothesis, the health promoting behaviors x PTSD interaction term was significantly associated with suicidal ideation, β = -.09, p = .001. The overall model accounted for 13% of the variance in suicidal ideation. Among individuals with high PTSD symptom severity, those who engaged in more health promoting behaviors reported less suicidal ideation than those who engaged in fewer health promoting behaviors. Conclusions Health-promoting behaviors could be important for reducing suicidal ideation among veterans with high levels of PTSD symptoms. It is recommended that future research examine health promotion interventions as a means of reducing suicidal ideation. PMID:28002490

  2. Sadness, suicide, and sexual behavior in Arkansas: results from the youth risk behavior survey 2011.

    PubMed

    Kindrick, Clint; Gathright, Molly; Cisler, Josh M; Messias, Erick

    2013-12-01

    We used the 2011 Arkansas Youth Risk Behavior Survey to estimate the prevalence of risky sexual behavior and sexual assault and to measure its association with teen suicidality. In Arkansas, 50.3% of students reported ever having sexual intercourse, 26% onset at 14 or younger, 36 % having had more than one partner, and 10.2% having been physically forced to have sex. "Being forced to have sex" was a risk factor for depression and all components of the suicide continuum. Additionally, early onset of sexual activity and having more than one partner increased the risk for depression, suicidal ideation, plan, and attempt. Suicide is a grievous and preventable tragedy, sadly standing among the leading causes of death for teens.' In this series, we examine risk factors for suicidality among Arkansas high school students; in this installment, we examine sexual behavior. A previous study utilizing the Rhode Island Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) found an association between having forced sexual intercourse and suicide. Furthermore, an association between psychiatric disorders and risky sexual behaviors, including both early onset and number of partners was found in a birth cohort study revealed. We hypothesize that Arkansas' teens reporting risky sexual behavior and sexual assault are at higher risk of depression and suicidality as well.

  3. A Call for Research on Planned vs. Unplanned Suicidal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conner, Kenneth R.

    2004-01-01

    Unplanned acts of suicidal behavior involve little preparation or forethought whereas planned acts may be carefully conceived and implemented. Planned acts are associated with greater depression, hopelessness, and lethality, but there are meager data on other factors associated with planning. The prevention of planned and unplanned acts may…

  4. Aggression and the Risk for Suicidal Behaviors among Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greening, Leilani; Stoppelbein, Laura; Luebbe, Aaron; Fite, Paula J.

    2010-01-01

    Two subtypes of aggression--reactive and proactive--were examined to see how they relate to suicidal behaviors among young children admitted for acute psychiatric inpatient care. The children and their parents completed self-report questionnaires/interviews. Regression analyses revealed that depressed girls who scored higher on reactive aggression…

  5. Suicidal Behavior in Adolescent and Young Adult Gay Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Stephen G.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Explored relationship of homosexuality to suicidal behavior by questionnaire responses from 52 men in gay and lesbian college organizations and 56 men in homosexual rap groups. Family background of alcoholism and physical abuse, social supports perceived as rejecting homosexuality, and no religious affiliation were associated with history of…

  6. Attachment Organization and History of Suicidal Behavior in Clinical Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adam, Kenneth S.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Adolescents in psychiatric treatment (N=133) participated in a case-comparison study investigating the association of attachment patterns with a history of suicidal behaviors. Attachment patterns were assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview. In accordance with definitions provided in the scoring system, 86% of case and 78% of comparison…

  7. Suicidal behavior and attitudes in Slovak and Turkish high school students: a cross-cultural investigation.

    PubMed

    Eskin, Mehmet; Palova, Eva; Krokavcova, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Suicidal behavior and its variation across social contexts are of importance for the science of suicidology. Due to its special character controlled experimental studies on suicide are ruled out for ethical reasons. Cross-cultural studies may throw light on the etiology of both suicidal behavior and its cross-cultural variation. The present study compared suicidal behavior and attitudes in 423 Slovak and 541 Turkish high school students by means of a self-report questionnaire. The two groups reported similar percentages (Slovak = 36.4%; Turkish = 33.8%) of lifetime, past 12-months or current suicidal ideation but significantly more Turkish (12.2%) than Slovak (4.8%) students reported lifetime or past 12-months suicide attempts. Slovak adolescents displayed more liberal and permissive attitudes toward suicide, while those of Turkish adolescents were more rejecting. Turkish students rated themselves to be more religious and hence they believed to a greater extent that suicidal persons would be punished in a life after death than their Slovak peers. However, attitudes of Turkish students toward an imagined suicidal close friend were more accepting than the attitudes of Slovak students. Comparison of suicidal and nonsuicidal students revealed that those reporting suicidal ideation or attempts were more accepting of suicide and viewed suicide as a solution to a greater extent than the nonsuicidal ones. The results from this study suggest that cultural factors play a role in suicidal behavior, attitudes and reactions in a predicted direction.

  8. [Suicidal behavior prevention for children under age 13: A systematic review].

    PubMed

    Baux-Cazal, L; Gokalsing, E; Amadeo, S; Messiah, A

    2017-05-01

    Our objective was to review international literature on suicidal behavior prevention for children under age 13. We gathered all relevant articles on suicide prevention for children under 13. We researched all publications in the French and English languages in PubMed (MEDLINE), PsychINFO and SUDOC databases published until February 2014, with the keywords "child", "child preschool", "prevention and control", "suicide", and "suicide attempted". Publications were included if they described suicidal behavior prevention programs (suicide prevention programs, attempted-suicide prevention programs, suicidal ideation screening programs), and if the studies concerned children under age 13. We also included references cited in the articles if they were not already present in our searches but met inclusion criteria. Studies were excluded if they analyzed populations of children and adolescents without sub-analysis for children under age 13. A total of 350 potentially relevant articles were identified, 33 of which met the inclusion criteria, including 4 retrieved from articles' bibliography. Preventive measures against suicidal behavior for children under 13 exist and include: social programs, maltreatment prevention, curriculum-based suicide prevention programs, suicide screening in schools, gatekeepers, reduction of access of lethal means of suicide, suicide screening by primary care, and post-suicide intervention programs. Overall, the evidence was limited by methodological concerns, particularly a lack of RCTs. However, positive effects were found: school-based suicide prevention programs and gatekeepers increased knowledge about suicide and how to seek help, post-suicide programs helped to reduce psychological distress in the short term. One study showed a decreased risk of attempted-suicide after entry into the child welfare system. There are promising interventions but there is not enough scientific evidence to support any efficient preventive measure against

  9. The Moderating Effects of Parenting Styles on African-American and Caucasian Children's Suicidal Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greening, Leilani; Stoppelbein, Laura; Luebbe, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Given that parenting practices have been linked to suicidal behavior in adolescence, examining the moderating effect of parenting styles on suicidal behavior early in development could offer potential insight into possible buffers as well as directions for suicide prevention and intervention later in adolescence. Hence, the moderating effects of…

  10. Suicidal Behavior: Toward an Explanation of Differences in Female and Male Rates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Michele

    1981-01-01

    Discusses five components of a basic suicide syndrome. Examines gender differences in suicidal behavior through an analysis of male and female roles. Components include failure, commitment, rigidity, shame, and isolation. Considers the concept of autonomy in relation to sex differences in suicidal behavior. (RC)

  11. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Suicide Prevention (CBT-SP): Treatment Model, Feasibility, and Acceptability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Barbara; Brown, Gregory; Brent, David A.; Wells, Karen; Poling, Kim; Curry, John; Kennard, Betsy D.; Wagner, Ann; Cwik, Mary F.; Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Goldstein, Tina; Vitiello, Benedetto; Barnett, Shannon; Daniel, Stephanie; Hughes, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To describe the elements of a manual-based cognitive-behavioral therapy for suicide prevention (CBT-SP) and to report its feasibility in preventing the recurrence of suicidal behavior in adolescents who have recently attempted suicide. Method: The CBT-SP was developed using a risk reduction and relapse prevention approach and…

  12. Correlates of Alaska Native Fatal and Nonfatal Suicidal Behaviors 1990-2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wexler, Lisa; Hill, Ryan; Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth; Fenaughty, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Factors correlated with suicidal behavior in a predominately Alaska Native region of Alaska are described, and the correlates relating to fatal and nonfatal suicide behaviors in this indigenous population are distinguished. Suicide data from the region (1990-2001) were aggregated and compared to 2000 U.S. Census Data using chi-squared tests.…

  13. Correlates of Alaska Native Fatal and Nonfatal Suicidal Behaviors 1990-2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wexler, Lisa; Hill, Ryan; Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth; Fenaughty, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Factors correlated with suicidal behavior in a predominately Alaska Native region of Alaska are described, and the correlates relating to fatal and nonfatal suicide behaviors in this indigenous population are distinguished. Suicide data from the region (1990-2001) were aggregated and compared to 2000 U.S. Census Data using chi-squared tests.…

  14. The Moderating Effects of Parenting Styles on African-American and Caucasian Children's Suicidal Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greening, Leilani; Stoppelbein, Laura; Luebbe, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Given that parenting practices have been linked to suicidal behavior in adolescence, examining the moderating effect of parenting styles on suicidal behavior early in development could offer potential insight into possible buffers as well as directions for suicide prevention and intervention later in adolescence. Hence, the moderating effects of…

  15. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Suicide Prevention (CBT-SP): Treatment Model, Feasibility, and Acceptability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Barbara; Brown, Gregory; Brent, David A.; Wells, Karen; Poling, Kim; Curry, John; Kennard, Betsy D.; Wagner, Ann; Cwik, Mary F.; Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Goldstein, Tina; Vitiello, Benedetto; Barnett, Shannon; Daniel, Stephanie; Hughes, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To describe the elements of a manual-based cognitive-behavioral therapy for suicide prevention (CBT-SP) and to report its feasibility in preventing the recurrence of suicidal behavior in adolescents who have recently attempted suicide. Method: The CBT-SP was developed using a risk reduction and relapse prevention approach and…

  16. Thyroid axis activity and suicidal behavior in depressed patients.

    PubMed

    Duval, Fabrice; Mokrani, Marie-Claude; Lopera, Felix Gonzalez; Diep, Thanh Son; Rabia, Hassen; Fattah, Saïd

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between suicidal behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary thyroid (HPT) axis activity in depressed patients. The serum levels of thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), and free triiodothyronine (FT3) were evaluated before and after 0800 and 2300 h thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) challenges, on the same day, in 95 medication-free DSM-IV euthyroid major depressed inpatients and 44 healthy hospitalized controls. Compared to controls: (1) patients with a positive suicide history (PSH; n=53) showed lower basal FT4 (at 0800 h: p<0.005; at 2300 h: p<0.03), but normal FT3 levels, while patients with a negative suicide history (NSH; n=42) showed normal FT4 and FT3 levels; (2) TSH responses to TRH (DeltaTSH) were blunted in NSHs (at 0800 h: p<0.03; at 2300 h: p<0.00001), but not in PSHs; (3) both NSHs and PSHs showed lower DeltaDeltaTSH values (differences between 2300 h-DeltaTSH and 0800 h-DeltaTSH) (p<0.000001 and p<0.003, respectively). Compared to NSHs, basal FT4 levels were reduced in PSHs (at 0800 h: p<0.002; at 2300h: p<0.006). HPT parameters were not significantly different between recent suicide attempters (n=32) and past suicide attempters (n=21). However, compared to controls, recent suicide attempters showed lower 2300 h-DeltaTSH (p<0.04) and DeltaDeltaTSH (p<0.002) values, and lower basal FT4 values (at 0800 h: p<0.006; at 2300 h: p<0.02). Our results, obtained in a large sample of depressed inpatients, indicate that various degrees of HPT axis dysregulation are associated with the history of suicide. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Impact of bullying victimization on suicide and negative health behaviors among adolescents in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Romo, Matthew L; Kelvin, Elizabeth A

    2016-11-01

    To compare the prevalence of bullying victimization, suicidal ideation, suicidal attempts, and negative health behaviors (current tobacco use, recent heavy alcohol use, truancy, involvement in physical fighting, and unprotected sexual intercourse) in five different Latin American countries and determine the association of bullying victimization with these outcomes, exploring both bullying type and frequency. Study data were from Global School-based Student Health Surveys from Bolivia, Costa Rica, Honduras, Peru, and Uruguay, which covered nationally representative samples of school-going adolescents. The surveys used a two-stage clustered sample design, sampling schools and then classrooms. Logistic regression models were run to determine the statistical significance of associations with bullying. Among the 14 560 school-going adolescents included in this study, the prevalence of any bullying victimization in the past 30 days was 37.8%. Bullying victimization was associated with greater odds of suicidal ideation with planning (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 3.12; P < 0.0001) and at least one suicide attempt (AOR: 3.07; P < 0.0001). An increasing exposure-response effect of increasing days of bullying victimization on suicide outcomes was also observed. Bullying victimization was associated with higher odds of current tobacco use (AOR: 2.14; P < 0.0001); truancy (AOR: 1.76; P < 0.0001); physical fighting (AOR: 2.40; P < 0.0001); and unprotected sexual intercourse (AOR: 1.77; P < 0.0001). Although the prevalence of bullying victimization varied by country, its association with suicidal ideation and behavior and negative health behaviors remained relatively consistent. Addressing bullying needs to be made a priority in Latin America, and an integrated approach that also includes mental and physical health promotion is needed.

  18. Suicide Behaviors in Bipolar Disorder: A Review and Update for the Clinician.

    PubMed

    Beyer, John L; Weisler, Richard H

    2016-03-01

    Suicide behaviors (ideation, attempts, and completions) are unfortunately common in patients with bipolar disorder. It is estimated that 25 to 50% attempt suicide at least once during their lifetime, and 6% to 19% complete suicide. Risk factors include a family history of suicide, previous suicide attempts, younger age of onset, comorbid psychiatric illnesses, and psychological constructs like hopelessness. Pharmacologic treatment may impact suicidal behaviors, either increasing vulnerability or resilience. Clinicians need to be particularly sensitive to their patient's thoughts and beliefs about death, particularly during stressful times of life or when in a depressive/mixed episode of bipolar disorder.

  19. The impact of exposure to peer suicidal self-directed violence on youth suicidal behavior: a critical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Crepeau-Hobson, M Franci; Leech, Nancy L

    2014-02-01

    There is considerable evidence that being exposed to the suicide or suicidal behavior of another can increase the risk for suicide. Significant relationships between media coverage and youth suicide have been documented in the professional literature. Exposure to familial suicidal behavior has also been established as a risk factor for youth suicidal behavior; However, peer suicide exposure is not as clear cut as research results in this area have been mixed. In the current paper the empirical literature focused on the associations between exposure to peer suicides and suicide attempts and youth suicidal behavior is critically reviewed. Effect sizes were computed for each of the 23 studies included in the review to allow for cross-study comparisons. The results demonstrate that having a friend or acquaintance attempt suicide is significantly related to risk for suicidal thoughts and behavior. However, the support for the relationship between the suicide of a peer and youth suicidal behavior was less consistent. Implications for clinical practice and suicide postvention as well as areas of future research are discussed. © 2013 The American Association of Suicidology.

  20. Predictors of Suicidal Behaviors in Canadian Adolescents with No Recent History of Depression.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Murray; Colman, Ian

    2017-01-01

    We examined risk factors for suicidal behaviors (i.e., suicidal ideation and suicide attempts) in the absence of depression during adolescence. Using 6,788 adolescents from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY), we identified participants with "no recent history of depression." We then tested the effects of risk factors at age 14-15 on suicidal behaviors at age 16-17. Absence of recent depression history negatively predicted both suicidal ideation and suicide attempt. However, among those with no history of depression, substance use and the presence of a chronic illness both increased the risk of suicidal behaviors. Suicidal behavior in adolescents in the absence of depression history may be explained by factors such as substance use and chronic illness.

  1. Lethal means restriction for suicide prevention: beliefs and behaviors of emergency department providers.

    PubMed

    Betz, Marian E; Miller, Matthew; Barber, Catherine; Miller, Ivan; Sullivan, Ashley F; Camargo, Carlos A; Boudreaux, Edwin D

    2013-10-01

    We sought to examine the beliefs and behaviors of emergency department (ED) providers related to preventing suicide by reducing suicidal patients' access to lethal methods (means restriction) and identify characteristics associated with asking patients about firearm access. Physicians and nurses at eight EDs completed a confidential, voluntary survey. The response rate was 79% (n = 631); 57% of respondents were females and 49% were nurses. Less than half believed, "most" or "all" suicides are preventable. More nurses (67%) than physicians (44%) thought "most" or "all" firearm suicide decedents would have died by another method had a firearm been unavailable (P < .001). The proportion of providers who reported they "almost always" ask suicidal patients about firearm access varied across five patient scenarios: suicidal with firearm suicide plan (64%), suicidal with no suicide plan (22%), suicidal with nonfirearm plan (21%), suicidal in past month but not today (16%), and overdosed but no longer suicidal (9%). In multivariable logistic regression, physicians were more likely than nurses to "almost always" or "often" ask about a firearm across all five scenarios, as were older providers and those who believed their own provider type was responsible for assessing firearm access. Many ED providers are skeptical about the preventability of suicide and the effectiveness of means restriction, and most do not assess suicidal patients' firearm access except when a patient has a firearm suicide plan. These findings suggest the need for targeted staff education concerning means restriction for suicide prevention. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Impairments in Object Relations and Chronicity of Suicidal Behavior in Individuals With Borderline Personality Disorder.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Katie C; Meehan, Kevin B; Cain, Nicole M; Wong, Philip S; Clemence, A Jill; Stevens, Jennifer; Tillman, Jane G

    2016-02-01

    While studies have demonstrated connections between impairments in object relations and self-destructive behaviors in individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD), few have investigated whether these impairments relate to actual suicidal behaviors. The current study utilized the Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale-Global Method to investigate object relational functioning and suicidal behaviors in 131 residential treatment patients. Cognitive but not affective aspects of internalized representations predicted past suicidal behavior in BPD subjects; no relationships were found between quality of object representations and suicide in other-PD subjects. Implications of these findings for research, theory, and treatment of suicidal individuals are discussed.

  3. Love and suicide: the structure of the Affective Intensity Rating Scale (AIRS) and its relation to suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Yaseen, Zimri S; Fisher, Karin; Morales, Esperanza; Galynker, Igor I

    2012-01-01

    Suicide has been linked to intense negative affect. However, little is known about the range of affects experienced by suicidal persons, or the separate effects of affect valence and intensity. We examine a novel self-report scale, the 17-item Affective Intensity Rating Scale (AIRS), and its relation to suicidality in a high-risk sample. Patients presenting with suicidality were recruited from the Emergency Department in a large urban hospital, and completed a battery of assessments there. Structure of the AIRS was assessed using Maximum Likelihood Factor Analysis with Oblimin rotation. Convergent and divergent validity were assessed by regressing AIRS subscales against Brief Symptom Inventory subscales. Relation to suicidality was assessed by regression of suicide attempt status against scale and subscale scores, and individual items and two-way item interactions, along with significant clinical and demographic factors. 176 subjects were included in analyses. Three reliable subscales were identified within the AIRS measure: positive feelings towards self, negative feelings towards self, and negative feelings towards other. Only individual AIRS items associated significantly with suicide attempt status; strong 'feelings of love' associated positively with actual suicide attempt, while 'feelings of calm' and 'positive feelings towards self' associated negatively. Interaction analyses suggest 'calm' moderates the association of 'love' with suicide attempt. Factor analysis of the AIRS is consistent with a circumplex model of affect. Affective dimensions did not predict suicidal behavior, but intense feelings of love, particularly in the absence of protective feelings of calm or positive self-view associated with current attempt.

  4. Is there an association between insomnia symptoms, aggressive behavior, and suicidality in adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    Zschoche, Maria; Schlarb, Angelika Anita

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Sleep disturbances are a common problem during adolescence. Often there is a relationship with the mental health of the affected person. The existing literature concerning the link between sleep disturbances and aggressive behavior and sleep disturbances and suicidality during adolescence shows no clear results. The present study tested a mediation model to prove the relation between sleep problems, aggressive behavior, and suicidality during adolescence. To take the link between suicidality and depression into account, the amount of depressive symptoms was included into the mediation model. Methods A sample of 93 adolescents aged 14–18 years (30% male) was studied. A survey was conducted to interview the adolescents about their mental health, sleep-related behaviors, aggressive behavior, and suicidality. Results Sleep problems and suicidality measures were significantly related to each other. Furthermore, aggressive behavior and suicidality showed a significant relationship. The expected link between sleep problems and aggressive behavior was not significant. For the mediation model, no significant influence of aggressive behavior on the relationship between the amount of sleep problems and suicidality was found. However, the impact of depressive symptoms on the relationship between sleep problems and suicidality was significant. Conclusion Sleep problems and overall suicidality in adolescents are significantly connected, even after adjusting for several possible influencing factors. Aggressive behavior could not be confirmed as a mediator for the association between sleep problems and suicidality in adolescents. Further studies to examine the link between insomnia symptoms, aggressive behavior, and suicidality in adolescents are necessary. PMID:25767409

  5. Nonsuicidal Self-Injury and Suicidal Behavior: A Latent Class Analysis among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hamza, Chloe A.; Willoughby, Teena

    2013-01-01

    Although there is a general consensus among researchers that engagement in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is associated with increased risk for suicidal behavior, little attention has been given to whether suicidal risk varies among individuals engaging in NSSI. To identify individuals with a history of NSSI who are most at risk for suicidal behavior, we examined individual variability in both NSSI and suicidal behavior among a sample of young adults with a history of NSSI (N = 439, Mage = 19.1). Participants completed self-report measures assessing NSSI, suicidal behavior, and psychosocial adjustment (e.g., depressive symptoms, daily hassles). We conducted a latent class analysis using several characteristics of NSSI and suicidal behaviors as class indicators. Three subgroups of individuals were identified: 1) an infrequent NSSI/not high risk for suicidal behavior group, 2) a frequent NSSI/not high risk for suicidal behavior group, and 3) a frequent NSSI/high risk for suicidal behavior group. Follow-up analyses indicated that individuals in the ‘frequent NSSI/high risk for suicidal behavior’ group met the clinical-cut off score for high suicidal risk and reported significantly greater levels of suicidal ideation, attempts, and risk for future suicidal behavior as compared to the other two classes. Thus, this study is the first to identity variability in suicidal risk among individuals engaging in frequent and multiple methods of NSSI. Class 3 was also differentiated by higher levels of psychosocial impairment relative to the other two classes, as well as a comparison group of non-injuring young adults. Results underscore the importance of assessing individual differences in NSSI characteristics, as well as psychosocial impairment, when assessing risk for suicidal behavior. PMID:23544113

  6. Associations between risk behaviors and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts: do racial/ethnic variations in associations account for increased risk of suicidal behaviors among Hispanic/Latina 9th- to 12th-grade female students?

    PubMed

    Eaton, Danice K; Foti, Kathryn; Brener, Nancy D; Crosby, Alex E; Flores, Glenn; Kann, Laura

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify factors that may account for the disproportionately high prevalence of suicidal behaviors among Hispanic/Latina youth by examining whether associations of health risk behaviors with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts vary by race/ethnicity among female students. Data from the school-based 2007 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey were analyzed. Analyses were conducted among female students in grades 9 through 12 and included 21 risk behaviors related to unintentional injuries and violence; tobacco use; alcohol and other drug use; sexual behaviors that contribute to unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, including human immunodeficiency virus; physical activity; obesity and weight control; and perceived health status. With the exception of physical activity behaviors and obesity, all risk behaviors examined were associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Associations of risk behaviors with suicidal ideation varied by race/ethnicity for 5 of 21 behaviors, and for 0 of 21 behaviors for suicide attempts. Stratified analyses provided little insight into factors that may account for the higher prevalence of suicidal behaviors among Hispanic/Latina female students. These results suggest that the increased risk of suicidal behaviors among Hispanic/Latina female students cannot be accounted for by differential associations with these selected risk behaviors. Other factors, such as family characteristics, acculturation, and the socio-cultural environment, should be examined in future research.

  7. Cyber bullying and physical bullying in adolescent suicide: the role of violent behavior and substance use.

    PubMed

    Litwiller, Brett J; Brausch, Amy M

    2013-05-01

    The impact of bullying in all forms on the mental health and safety of adolescents is of particular interest, especially in the wake of new methods of bullying that victimize youths through technology. The current study examined the relationship between victimization from both physical and cyber bullying and adolescent suicidal behavior. Violent behavior, substance use, and unsafe sexual behavior were tested as mediators between two forms of bullying, cyber and physical, and suicidal behavior. Data were taken from a large risk-behavior screening study with a sample of 4,693 public high school students (mean age = 16.11, 47 % female). The study's findings showed that both physical bullying and cyber bullying associated with substance use, violent behavior, unsafe sexual behavior, and suicidal behavior. Substance use, violent behavior, and unsafe sexual behavior also all associated with suicidal behavior. Substance use and violent behavior partially mediated the relationship between both forms of bullying and suicidal behavior. The comparable amount of variance in suicidal behavior accounted for by both cyber bullying and physical bullying underscores the important of further cyber bullying research. The direct association of each risk behavior with suicidal behavior also underscores the importance of reducing risk behaviors. Moreover, the role of violence and substance use as mediating behaviors offers an explanation of how risk behaviors can increase an adolescent's likelihood of suicidal behavior through habituation to physical pain and psychological anxiety.

  8. Child and Adolescent Suicide Attempts, Suicidal Behavior, and Adverse Childhood Experiences in South Africa: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Cluver, Lucie; Orkin, Mark; Boyes, Mark E; Sherr, Lorraine

    2015-07-01

    This is the first known prospective study of child suicidal behavior in sub-Saharan Africa. Aims were to determine whether (1) cumulative exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) predicts later suicidality and (2) heightened risks are mediated by mental health disorder and drug/alcohol misuse. Longitudinal repeated interviews were conducted 1 year apart (97% retention) with 3,515 adolescents aged 10-18 years in South Africa (56% female; <2.5% refusal). Random selection of census enumeration areas from urban/rural sites within two provinces and door-to-door sampling included all homes with a resident adolescent. Measures included past-month suicide attempts, planning, and ideation, mental health disorders, drug/alcohol use, and ACE, for example, parental death by AIDS or homicide, abuse, and exposure to community violence. Analyses included multivariate logistic regression and multiple mediation tests. Past-month suicidality rates were 3.2% of adolescents attempting, 5.8% planning, and 7.2% reporting ideation. After controlling for baseline suicidality and sociodemographics, a strong, graded relationship was shown between cumulative ACE and all suicide behaviors 1 year later. Baseline mental health, but not drug/alcohol misuse, mediated relationships between ACE and subsequent suicidality. Suicide attempts rose from 1.9% among adolescents with no ACE to 6.3% among adolescents with >5 ACEs (cumulative odds ratio [OR], 2.46; confidence interval [CI], 1.00-6.05); for suicide planning, from 2.4% to 12.5% (cumulative OR, 4.40; CI, 2.08-9.29); and for suicide ideation, from 4.2% to 15.6% (cumulative OR, 2.99; CI, 1.68-5.53). Preventing and mitigating childhood adversities have the potential to reduce suicidality. Among adolescents already exposed to adversities, effective mental health services may buffer against future suicidality. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Delusional disorder: no gender differences in age at onset, suicidal ideation, or suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    González-Rodríguez, Alexandre; Molina-Andreu, Oriol; Navarro, Víctor; Gastó, Cristóbal; Penadés, Rafael; Catalán, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    To investigate gender differences in age at onset, psychopathology, and suicidal behavior rates in delusional disorder (DD). We conducted a prospective longitudinal study of 97 patients with DD. Demographic and clinical data at baseline were recorded. Gender differences were investigated by applying analysis of covariance, using age at onset and age at first psychiatric consultation as dependent variables, comorbid depression and gender as between-subject factors, and employment status, social support, and DD types as covariates. Seventy-six percent of the patients were women. The average age at onset was 48.76 ± 12.67 years, mean age at first psychiatric consultation was 54.13 ± 13.67 years, and men were more likely to be employed than women (p = 0.041). Despite the earlier age at onset and at first psychiatric consultation in men, these differences tended to disappear when adjusted for potential confounders. There were no significant gender differences in depressive comorbidity, presence of suicidal ideation and behavior, or compliance rates at follow-up. Our findings could not confirm that male and female DD patients differ in age at onset, age at first psychiatric consultation, or suicidal ideation and behavior, even after controlling for potential confounders.

  10. Suicidal behavior amongst adolescent students in south Delhi

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rahul; Grover, Vijay L.; Chaturvedi, Sanjay

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the prevalence of suicidal behavior and its epidemiological correlates amongst adolescent students in south Delhi. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study in three schools and two colleges in south Delhi. Participants: A total of 550 adolescent students aged 14 to 19 years selected by cluster sampling. Statistical Analysis: Proportions, chi square test, bivariate logistic regression. Results: About 15.8% reported having thought of attempting suicide, while 28 (5.1%) had actually attempted suicide, both being more in females than in males. Statistically significant associations were observed with the age of the student, living status of parents, working status of mother, and whether the student was working part-time. The two variables found significant on multivariate analysis were female gender and the number of role models the student had ever seen smoking or drinking. Conclusion: The prevalence of suicide-risk behavior was found to be quite high and is a matter that should evoke public health concern. PMID:19771304

  11. Association of Solitary Binge Drinking and Suicidal Behavior Among Emerging Adult College Students

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Vivian M.

    2012-01-01

    Emerging adult college students who binge drink in solitary contexts (i.e., while alone) experience greater depression and suicidal ideation than students who only binge drink in social contexts, suggesting that they may be at greater risk for suicidal behavior. This study examined the association of a previous suicide attempt, one of the best predictors of future suicide attempts and suicide, and severity of recent suicidal ideation with drinking in solitary and social contexts. Participants were binge drinking emerging adult (18- to 25-year-old) college students (N = 182) drawn from two studies of college drinkers. A logistic regression analysis revealed that both suicide attempt history and severity of suicidal ideation were significantly associated with a greater likelihood of being a solitary binge drinker as opposed to only a social binge drinker. Students with a previous suicide attempt were nearly 4 times more likely to be solitary binge drinkers. Multiple regression analyses revealed that suicide attempt history was significantly associated with greater frequency and quantity of drinking in solitary, but not social contexts. Suicidal ideation was significantly associated with drinks per solitary drinking day, but not frequency of solitary drinking once suicide attempt history was accounted for. Given the associations found between solitary binge drinking and a history of suicide attempts, as well as greater severity of recent suicidal ideation, it would appear that these students are in need of suicide prevention efforts, including treatment efforts aimed at reducing binge drinking. PMID:22288976

  12. Predictors of Suicidal Behavior in a Sample of Turkish Suicide Attempters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayar, Kemal; Kose, Samet; Acar, Burcin; Ak, Ismail; Reeves, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    In a Turkish sample, 100 suicide attempters, were compared with 60 healthy controls on measures of hopelessness, depression, and suicidal ideation. Suicide attempters were more depressive, more hopeless, and displayed greater suicidal ideation than healthy controls. Depression severity rather than hopelessness correlated with suicidal intent.…

  13. Predictors of Suicidal Behavior in a Sample of Turkish Suicide Attempters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayar, Kemal; Kose, Samet; Acar, Burcin; Ak, Ismail; Reeves, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    In a Turkish sample, 100 suicide attempters, were compared with 60 healthy controls on measures of hopelessness, depression, and suicidal ideation. Suicide attempters were more depressive, more hopeless, and displayed greater suicidal ideation than healthy controls. Depression severity rather than hopelessness correlated with suicidal intent.…

  14. Emotional dysregulation, internalizing symptoms, and self-injurious and suicidal behavior: Structural equation modeling analysis.

    PubMed

    Kranzler, Amy; Fehling, Kara B; Anestis, Michael D; Selby, Edward A

    2016-07-01

    This study used structural equation modeling to examine the relationships between emotion dysregulation, internalizing symptoms, nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), and suicide. One hundred forty-eight undergraduates completed a brief structured interview and self-report measures of emotion dysregulation, internalizing symptoms, and NSSI and suicidal behaviors. Results indicated a significant indirect effect of emotion dysregulation on NSSI via internalizing symptoms and on suicide attempts via NSSI. Findings provide a more nuanced understanding of the indirect association between emotion dysregulation and NSSI and suicidal behaviors. Implications for the potential utility of targeting internalizing symptoms as well as emotion dysregulation in interventions addressing NSSI and suicidal behaviors are discussed.

  15. Constructing the Suicide Risk Index (SRI): does it work in predicting suicidal behavior in young adults mediated by proximal factors?

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Maebh; Dooley, Barbara; Fitzgerald, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is a key concern among young adults. The aim of the study was to (1) construct a suicide risk index (SRI) based on demographic, situational, and behavioral factors known to be linked to suicidal behavior and (2) investigate whether the association between the SRI and suicidal behavior was mediated by proximal processes (personal factors, coping strategies, and emotional states). Participants consisted of 7,558 individuals aged 17-25 years (M = 20.35, SD = 1.91). Nearly 22% (n = 1,542) reported self-harm and 7% (n = 499) had attempted suicide. Mediation analysis revealed both a direct effect (ß = .299, 95% CI = [.281, .317], p < .001), and a mediated effect (ß = .204, 95% CI = [.186, .222], p < .001), between the risk index and suicidal behavior. The strongest mediators were levels of self-esteem, depression, and avoidant coping. Interventions to increase self-esteem, reduce depression, and encourage adaptive coping strategies may prevent suicidal behavior in young people.

  16. Effects of statewide job losses on adolescent suicide-related behaviors.

    PubMed

    Gassman-Pines, Anna; Ananat, Elizabeth Oltmans; Gibson-Davis, Christina M

    2014-10-01

    We investigated the impact of statewide job loss on adolescent suicide-related behaviors. We used 1997 to 2009 data from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey and the Bureau of Labor Statistics to estimate the effects of statewide job loss on adolescents' suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and suicide plans. Probit regression models controlled for demographic characteristics, state of residence, and year; samples were divided according to gender and race/ethnicity. Statewide job losses during the year preceding the survey increased girls' probability of suicidal ideation and suicide plans and non-Hispanic Black adolescents' probability of suicidal ideation, suicide plans, and suicide attempts. Job losses among 1% of a state's working-age population increased the probability of girls and Blacks reporting suicide-related behaviors by 2 to 3 percentage points. Job losses did not affect the suicide-related behaviors of boys, non-Hispanic Whites, or Hispanics. The results were robust to the inclusion of other state economic characteristics. As are adults, adolescents are affected by economic downturns. Our findings show that statewide job loss increases adolescent girls' and non-Hispanic Blacks' suicide-related behaviors.

  17. Effects of Statewide Job Losses on Adolescent Suicide-Related Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Ananat, Elizabeth Oltmans; Gibson-Davis, Christina M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the impact of statewide job loss on adolescent suicide-related behaviors. Methods. We used 1997 to 2009 data from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey and the Bureau of Labor Statistics to estimate the effects of statewide job loss on adolescents’ suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and suicide plans. Probit regression models controlled for demographic characteristics, state of residence, and year; samples were divided according to gender and race/ethnicity. Results. Statewide job losses during the year preceding the survey increased girls’ probability of suicidal ideation and suicide plans and non-Hispanic Black adolescents’ probability of suicidal ideation, suicide plans, and suicide attempts. Job losses among 1% of a state’s working-age population increased the probability of girls and Blacks reporting suicide-related behaviors by 2 to 3 percentage points. Job losses did not affect the suicide-related behaviors of boys, non-Hispanic Whites, or Hispanics. The results were robust to the inclusion of other state economic characteristics. Conclusions. As are adults, adolescents are affected by economic downturns. Our findings show that statewide job loss increases adolescent girls’ and non-Hispanic Blacks’ suicide-related behaviors. PMID:25122027

  18. Toward an understanding of late life suicidal behavior: the role of lifespan developmental theory.

    PubMed

    Fiske, Amy; O'Riley, Alisa A

    2016-01-01

    Suicidal behavior in late life differs in important ways from suicidal behavior that occurs earlier in the lifespan, suggesting the possibility of developmental differences in the etiology of suicidal behavior. This paper examines late life suicidal behavior within the context of lifespan developmental theory. This paper presents a conceptual framework for using lifespan developmental theory to better understand late life suicidal behavior. We argue that the motivational theory of lifespan development, which focuses on control, is particularly relevant to late life suicide. This theory posits that opportunities to exert control over important aspects of one's life diminish in late life as a result of declines in physical functioning and other factors, and that successful aging is associated with adaptive regulation of this developmental change. Although continued striving to meet goals is normative throughout the lifespan, most individuals also increase the use of compensatory strategies in old age or when faced with a decline in functioning. We propose that individuals who do not adapt to developmental changes by altering their strategies for exerting control will be at risk for suicidal behavior in late life. This paper reviews evidence that supports the importance of control with respect to suicidal outcomes in older adults, as well as findings regarding specific types of control strategies that may be related to suicide risk in older adults with health-related limitations. Although suicidal behavior is not a normal part of aging, the application of lifespan developmental theory may be useful in understanding and potentially preventing suicide among older adults.

  19. The Phenomenology and Clinical Correlates of Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Storch, Eric A.; Sulkowski, Michael L.; Nadeau, Josh; Lewin, Adam B.; Arnold, Elysse B.; Mutch, P. Jane; Jones, Anna M.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the phenomenology and clinical correlates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in youth with ASD (N=102; range=7–16 years). The presence of suicidal thoughts and behavior was assessed through the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule-Child and Parent Versions. Children and parents completed measures of anxiety severity, functional impairment, and behavioral and emotional problems. Approximately 11% of youth displayed suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Children with autism were more likely to have suicidal thoughts and behaviors whereas children with Asperger’s disorder were less likely. Suicidal thoughts and behaviors were associated with the presence of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Overall, results suggest that suicidal thoughts and behaviors are common in youth with ASD, and may be related to depression and trauma. PMID:23446993

  20. ADHD and Aggression as Correlates of Suicidal Behavior in Assaultive Prepubertal Psychiatric Inpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Geoff; Gerstadt, Cherie; Pfeffer, Cynthia R.; Stroh, Martha; Valdez, Adina

    2008-01-01

    Forty-three psychiatrically hospitalized prepubertal children were assessed regarding their assaultive and suicidal behaviors. These children were subsequently classified into two groups, assaultive/suicidal (AS) and assaultive-only (AO). AS children had higher aggression and suicidal-scale scores, but not higher depression scores, and were more…

  1. The Relationship between Body Dysmorphic Disorder Behaviors and the Acquired Capability for Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witte, Tracy K.; Didie, Elizabeth R.; Menard, William; Phillips, Katharine A.

    2012-01-01

    In a sample of 200 individuals diagnosed with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), we utilized the interpersonal-psychological theory for suicide as a framework to examine BDD behaviors that might be associated with suicide risk, insofar as they might increase the acquired capability for suicide. We predicted that physically painful BDD behaviors…

  2. The Relationship between Body Dysmorphic Disorder Behaviors and the Acquired Capability for Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witte, Tracy K.; Didie, Elizabeth R.; Menard, William; Phillips, Katharine A.

    2012-01-01

    In a sample of 200 individuals diagnosed with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), we utilized the interpersonal-psychological theory for suicide as a framework to examine BDD behaviors that might be associated with suicide risk, insofar as they might increase the acquired capability for suicide. We predicted that physically painful BDD behaviors…

  3. Restrictive Emotionality, Depressive Symptoms, and Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors among High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Colleen M.; Marrocco, Frank; Kleinman, Marjorie; Gould, Madelyn S.

    2011-01-01

    Depression and suicidal thoughts and behaviors are prevalent among youth today. The current study sought to further our understanding of the correlates of depression and suicidality by assessing the relationship between restrictive emotionality (difficulty understanding and expressing emotions) and depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation and…

  4. Does Availability of Mental Health Resources Prevent Recurrent Suicidal Behavior? An Ecological Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Sara L.; Lezotte, Dennis; Jacobellis, Jillian; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn

    2006-01-01

    This study examines whether availability of mental health resources in the county of residence is associated with subsequent suicidal behavior after a previous suicide attempt. Among 10,922 individuals who attempted suicide in Colorado between 1998 and 2002, residence in a county that offered a minimum safety-net of mental health services…

  5. The Economic Cost of Suicide and Non-Fatal Suicide Behavior in the Australian Workforce and the Potential Impact of a Workplace Suicide Prevention Strategy.

    PubMed

    Kinchin, Irina; Doran, Christopher M

    2017-03-27

    Suicide and non-fatal suicide behavior (NFSB) are significant problems faced by most countries. The objective of this research is to quantify the economic cost of suicide and NFSB in the Australian workforce and to examine the potential impact of introducing a workplace suicide prevention intervention to reduce this burden. The analysis used the best available suicide data, a well-established costing methodology, and a proven workplace intervention. In 2014, 903 workers died by suicide, 2303 workers harmed themselves resulting in full incapacity, and 11,242 workers harmed themselves resulting in a short absence from work. The present value of the economic cost of suicide and NFSB is estimated at $6.73 billion. Our analysis suggests the economic benefit of implementing a universal workplace strategy would considerably outweigh the cost of the strategy. For every one dollar invested, the benefits would be in excess of $1.50 ($1.11-$3.07), representing a positive economic investment. All variations of the key parameter hold the positive benefit-cost ratio. Rates of suicide and NFSB are far too high in Australia and elsewhere. More needs to be done to reduce this burden. Although workplace strategies are appropriate for those employed, these interventions must be used within a multifaceted approach that reflects the complex nature of self-harming behavior.

  6. Surveillance of Suicidal Behavior January through December 2013

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    Diagnoses: In the year before the event, 25% of 2013 cases were diagnosed with a sleep disorder, a significant increase over 2011 (20%, χ 2 =6.3, p=.012...5.5 Sleep Problems ........................................................................................... 10 5.6 Polypharmacy...than the proportions in the Army overall (40% and 71%, respectively).  Over half the 2013 suicidal behavior cases had been diagnosed with a

  7. Suicidal behavior-related hospitalizations among pregnant women in the USA, 2006-2012.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Gelaye, Bizu; Miller, Matthew; Fricchione, Gregory L; Cai, Tianxi; Johnson, Paula A; Henderson, David C; Williams, Michelle A

    2016-06-01

    Suicide is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality in many countries, but little is known about the epidemiology of suicide and suicidal behavior among pregnant women in the USA. We sought to examine trends and provide nationally representative estimates for suicidal behavior (including suicidal ideation and suicide and self-inflicted injury) among pregnant women from 2006 to 2012 in the USA. Pregnant women aged 12-55 years were identified through pregnancy- and delivery-related hospitalization records from the National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample. Suicidal behavior was identified by the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. Annual, nationwide estimates and trends were determined using discharge and hospital weights. The prevalence of suicidal ideation more than doubled from 2006 to 2012 (47.5 to 115.0 per 100,000 pregnancy- and delivery-related hospitalizations), whereas the prevalence of suicide and self-inflicted injury remained stable. Nearly 10 % of suicidal behavior occurred in the 12-18-year group, showing the highest prevalence per 100,000 pregnancy- and delivery-related hospitalizations (158.8 in 2006 and 308.7 in 2012) over the study period. For suicidal ideation, blacks had higher prevalence than whites; women in the lowest income quartile had the highest prevalence. Although the prevalence of suicidal behavior was higher among hospitalizations with depression diagnoses, more than 30 % of hospitalizations were for suicidal behavior without depression diagnoses. Our findings highlight the increasing burden and racial differences in suicidal ideation among US pregnant women. Targeted suicide prevention efforts are needed for high-risk pregnant women including teens, blacks, and low-income women.

  8. Exposure to Prescription Drugs Labeled for Risk of Adverse Effects of Suicidal Behavior or Ideation among 100 Air Force Personnel Who Died by Suicide, 2006-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavigne, Jill E.; McCarthy, Michael; Chapman, Richard; Petrilla, Allison; Knox, Kerry L.

    2012-01-01

    Prescription drugs for many indications are labeled with warnings for potential risk of suicidal ideation or behavior. Exposures to prescription drugs labeled for adverse effects of suicidal behavior or ideation among 100 Air Force personnel who died by suicide between 2006 and 2009 are described. Air Force registry data were linked to…

  9. Exposure to Prescription Drugs Labeled for Risk of Adverse Effects of Suicidal Behavior or Ideation among 100 Air Force Personnel Who Died by Suicide, 2006-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavigne, Jill E.; McCarthy, Michael; Chapman, Richard; Petrilla, Allison; Knox, Kerry L.

    2012-01-01

    Prescription drugs for many indications are labeled with warnings for potential risk of suicidal ideation or behavior. Exposures to prescription drugs labeled for adverse effects of suicidal behavior or ideation among 100 Air Force personnel who died by suicide between 2006 and 2009 are described. Air Force registry data were linked to…

  10. Positive and Negative Expectations of Hopelessness as Longitudinal Predictors of Depression, Suicidal Ideation, and Suicidal Behavior in High-Risk Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, Adam G; Berona, Johnny; Czyz, Ewa K; Yeguez, Carlos E; King, Cheryl A

    2017-04-01

    The relationship between hopelessness and depression in predicting suicide-related outcomes varies based on the anticipation of positive versus negative events. In this prospective study of adolescents at elevated risk for suicide, we used two Beck Hopelessness Scale subscales to assess the impact of positive and negative expectations in predicting depression, suicidal ideation, and suicidal behavior over a 2- to 4-year period. In multivariate regressions controlling for depression, suicidal ideation, and negative-expectation hopelessness, positive-expectation hopelessness was the only significant predictor of depressive symptoms and suicidal behavior. Clinical interventions may benefit from bolstering positive expectations and building optimism. © 2016 The American Association of Suicidology.

  11. Hopelessness, defeat, and entrapment in posttraumatic stress disorder: their association with suicidal behavior and severity of depression.

    PubMed

    Panagioti, Maria; Gooding, Patricia A; Tarrier, Nicholas

    2012-08-01

    Research has shown an increased frequency of suicidal behaviors in those with PTSD, but few studies have investigated the factors that underlie the emergence of suicidal behavior in PTSD. Two theories of suicide, the Cry of Pain and the Schematic Appraisal Model of Suicide, propose that feelings of hopelessness, defeat, and entrapment are core components of suicidality. This study aimed to examine the association between suicidal behavior and hopelessness, defeat, and entrapment in trauma victims with and without a PTSD diagnosis. The results demonstrated that hopelessness, defeat, and entrapment were significantly positively associated with suicidal behavior in those with PTSD. Hopelessness and defeat were also significantly positively associated with suicidal behavior in trauma victims without PTSD. In those with PTSD, the relationship between suicidal behavior and hopelessness and entrapment remained significant after controlling for comorbid depression. The findings provide support for the contemporary theories of suicidality and have important clinical implications.

  12. [Suicidal behaviors among young adults: risk factors during development from early childhood to adolescence].

    PubMed

    Buchmann, Arlette F; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Laucht, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    Suicidal behaviors are prevalent among young people. Numerous risk factors have been implicated in their development. In the framework of the longitudinal Mannheim Study of Children at Risk, 311 young adults (143 males, 168 females) aged 19-23 years were investigated in order 1) to determine the significance of different risk factors during development in predicting suicidal behaviors in young adulthood, 2) to identify potential risk factors discriminating between suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, and 3) to examine whether the effect of early risk factors was mediated by later occurring predictors. Young adults with suicidal behaviors displayed a number of abnormalities during development, including high load of early family adversity, suicidal ideation and psychiatric problems in childhood and adolescence, as well as low self esteem, poor school functioning, higher levels of novelty seeking, and enhanced affiliations with deviant peers in adolescence. Independent contributions to predicting suicidal behaviors in young adults were provided by early family adversity, suicidal ideation during childhood and adolescence, and low self esteem (with regard to suicidal ideation) and novelty seeking (with regard to suicide attempt), respectively. The impact of early adversity was mediated by child and adolescent externalizing disorders and low self esteem in adolescence. Possible implications of these findings for the prevention and treatment of suicidal behaviors are discussed.

  13. Understanding the Relationship Between Suicidality and Psychopathy: An Examination of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior.

    PubMed

    Anestis, Joye C; Anestis, Michael D; Rufino, Katrina A; Cramer, Robert J; Miller, Holly; Khazem, Lauren R; Joiner, Thomas E

    2016-07-02

    A number of studies have reported a bifurcated relationship between psychopathy and suicidality, such that suicidality is positively related to Factor 2 (impulsive-antisocial lifestyle) of psychopathy but negatively related or unrelated to Factor 1 (affective-interpersonal deficits). The present study aims to expand these findings by investigating this relationship through the lens of the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior across both undergraduate and forensic samples. We hypothesized that, although both Factors 1 and 2 would be associated with the acquired capability for suicide, Factor 2 would exhibit a unique relationship with suicidal desire (perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness). Results were largely supportive of these hypotheses, although differences were noted across samples and measures. Findings highlight the importance of precision in the assessment of antisociality and suggest potential differences in the construct of psychopathy between non-criminal and criminal samples.

  14. Platelet serotonin concentration and suicidal behavior in combat related posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Kovacic, Zrnka; Henigsberg, Neven; Pivac, Nela; Nedic, Gordana; Borovecki, Andrea

    2008-02-15

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a serious and global problem, a psychiatric disorder that frequently occurs with different comorbidities, and is associated with a high suicide rate. Pathophysiologically, both PTSD and suicidal behavior are related to disturbances in the central serotonergic system. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) controls emotional behavior, anxiety, impulsivity and aggression, and nearly all known antidepressants and antianxiety drugs affect 5-HT transmission. Platelet 5-HT can be used as a limited peripheral marker of the central serotonergic synaptosomes, since it is related to particular basic psychopathological characteristics of several psychiatric disorders. Platelet 5-HT concentration has been reported to be similar in PTSD subjects and healthy controls, but suicidal patients across different psychiatric diagnoses have reduced platelet 5-HT concentration. This study examined platelet 5-HT concentration by the spectrofluorimetric method in male subjects: 73 suicidal and 47 non-suicidal veterans with current and chronic combat related PTSD, 45 suicidal and 30 non-suicidal comparative non-PTSD subjects and 147 healthy men. The presence of suicidal behavior (score=0, non-suicidal; scores > or =1, suicidal) was assessed with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 (HDRS). Platelet 5-HT concentration was significantly lower in suicidal PTSD and non-PTSD patients compared to non-suicidal patients or healthy controls. Since the majority of patients scored very low on item 3 of HDRS, no significant correlation between suicidal scores and platelet 5-HT concentration was found. These results show that reduced platelet 5-HT concentration is related to suicidal behavior in PTSD, and suggest that platelet 5-HT concentration might be used as a peripheral marker to predict suicidal behavior across psychiatric diagnoses.

  15. The effectiveness of family-based cognitive-behavior grief therapy to prevent complicated grief in relatives of suicide victims: the mediating role of suicide ideation.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Marieke; Neeleman, Jan; van der Meer, Klaas; Burger, Huibert

    2010-10-01

    Grief interventions are more effective for high risk individuals. The presence of suicide ideation following suicide bereavement was examined to determine whether it indicates a high risk status. Using data from a randomized controlled trial (n = 122) on the effectiveness of cognitive-behavior therapy, the effect of suicide ideation on the effectiveness of grief therapy on the bereavement outcome at 13 months post loss was examined. Results show that suicide ideators more often have a history of mental disorder and suicidal behavior than non-ideators, and suicide ideation indicates a high risk for adverse bereavement outcome. Grief therapy likely reduces the risk of maladaptive grief reactions among suicide ideators. Therefore, suicide ideators may benefit from grief therapy following a loss through suicide.

  16. Integrating the interpersonal psychological theory of suicide into the depression/suicidal ideation relationship: a short-term prospective study.

    PubMed

    Kleiman, Evan M; Liu, Richard T; Riskind, John H

    2014-03-01

    We examined the hypothesis that depressive symptoms are associated with increased beliefs about perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness identified in the interpersonal psychological theory of suicide and that these beliefs are associated with changes in suicidal ideation. Participants with clinical levels of depressive symptoms (n=299) were selected from a larger group (n=508) and completed measures of depressive symptoms, perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness, and suicidal ideation twice over a period of 2 months. Results of a structural equation model found that depressive symptoms were associated with increases in burdensomeness and lack of belonging, which were associated with suicidal ideation. Moreover, this hypothesized integrated model demonstrated a significantly better fit than an alternative model that assumed burdensomeness and lack of belonging were associated with changes in depressive symptoms, which were associated with suicidal ideation. Our findings suggest that the well-established relationship between depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation is associated with changes in beliefs that one is a burden on others and lacks belonging. More generally, these results suggest that it may be fruitful to integrate theories of suicide risk to form a comprehensive model that can inform future research and clinical interventions.

  17. Trends in explicit portrayal of suicidal behavior in popular U.S. movies, 1950-2006.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Patrick Edwin; Romer, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Trends in suicidal behavior portrayal in movies may reflect greater societal acceptance of suicide with potential adverse effects on adolescents. To assess the potential for such adverse effects, explicit portrayals of suicidal behavior and the ratings of films were coded in top-grossing U.S. movies from 1950-2006 (N = 855). Suicidal behavior portrayal in films increased linearly from 1950 to 2006. From 1968-1984, movies rated R by the Motion Picture Association of America had 5 times more highly explicit suicide behavior portrayals than did G/PG films. After the adoption of the PG-13 category in 1985, PG-13 and R films were indistinguishable on this measure. The results indicate the need for further study of the effects of suicidal behavior portrayals on adolescent movie audiences.

  18. Suicidal Ideation and Behavior in Youth in the Juvenile Justice System: A Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Marquita L; McCoy, Kathleen P; Abram, Karen M; Byck, Gayle R; Teplin, Linda A

    2015-07-01

    Suicide is prevalent among youth, especially those involved in the juvenile justice system. Although many studies have examined suicidal ideation and behavior in delinquent youth, prevalence rates vary widely. This article reviews studies of suicidal ideation and behavior in youth in the juvenile justice system, focusing on the point of contact: incarceration status and stage of judicial processing. Suicidal ideation and behavior are prevalent and increase with greater involvement in the juvenile justice system. Depression, sexual abuse, and trauma were the most commonly identified predictors of suicidal ideation and behavior. Prevalence rates of suicidal ideation and behavior vary by gender and race/ethnicity, indicating the need for gender-specific and culturally relevant interventions.

  19. Forgiveness, depression, and suicidal behavior among a diverse sample of college students.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Jameson K; Webb, Jon R; Jeglic, Elizabeth L

    2011-09-01

    Depression and suicide are significant public health concerns for college-age young adults. Meaning-based characteristics, such as forgiveness, a voluntary coping process involving offering, feeling, or seeking a change from negative to positive cognitions, behaviors, and affect toward a transgressor, may buffer such poor mental health outcomes. Utilizing mediation analyses, we examined cross-sectional associations between forgiveness, depression, and suicidal behavior in a diverse student sample reporting mild to severe depressive symptoms. The effect of self-forgiveness on suicidal behavior was fully mediated by depression; self-forgiveness was associated with depression and, in turn, with suicidal behavior. Forgiveness of others was directly associated with suicidal behavior. Prospective research is needed, yet self and other-forgiveness may be appropriate targets for promotion in suicide prevention efforts. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The study of suicidal behavior in the schools.

    PubMed

    Garrison, C Z

    1989-01-01

    The studies reviewed indicate that suicidal behavior is infrequent among school children (12%), but increases progressively among junior high (35%), high school (65%), and college students (50-65%). Though considerable, these values are lower than those of similar-age psychiatric populations. Estimates of the rate of actual attempts were 3% for elementary students, 11% for high school students, and 15-18% for college students. Most were low-lethality attempts for which medical or other attention was not sought. Accordingly, the vast majority of suicide attempts will not be uncovered by investigations dealing solely with clinical or medically identified populations. The most commonly identified correlates of suicidal behaviors included depressive symptoms, social problems, family disorganization and problems, life stress, and poor problem-solving skills. Academic problems were not as important. These findings must be interpreted in light of methodological constraints. Response rates have been low, samples have been small, minorities have been underrepresented, nonstudents have been ignored, and volunteers of unreported characteristics have predominated. The representativeness of such groups is questionable. The definition and categorization of behaviors have varied considerably, making between-study comparisons difficult. The differences among thoughts, threats, and attempts (the most frequently used categories) have often not been taken into account. Rather, in analyses, these behaviors have been treated as if they were homogeneous entities and grouped together. Where attempters have been separated from ideators, they too have been treated as a single entity. Many deliberately survived attempts are manipulative and oriented toward the benefits the individual survivors expect. Such attempts probably differ substantially in nature from those attempts where survival is not intended. Understanding of this phenomenon could be enhanced by a comparison of the

  1. An Examination of the Interpersonal Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior in Physicians.

    PubMed

    Fink-Miller, Erin L

    2015-08-01

    Physicians are commonly reported to die by suicide more frequently than individuals in the general population. Thus far, few reasons for this elevated suicide risk have been empirically investigated. Although the interpersonal psychological theory of suicidal behavior (IPTS) has been suggested as a fruitful means of explaining physician suicidality, it has yet to be examined quantitatively. Four hundred nineteen Pennsylvania physicians were assessed on a number of demographics, as well as all components of the IPTS. Findings indicated that physician scores on IPTS components are comparable to other groups displaying increased suicidality (e.g., military populations, prior attempters). Perceived burdensomeness was a significant predictor of suicidal ideation, while thwarted belongingness predicted prior suicide attempts. Acquired capability did not distinguish between prior attempters and nonattempters. Preliminary findings indicate the IPTS may be a useful framework for understanding and predicting physician suicidality.

  2. Religious Conflict, Sexual Identity, and Suicidal Behaviors among LGBT Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Jeremy J; Goldbach, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    This is the first known study to explore how religious identity conflict impacts suicidal behaviors among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) young adults and to test internalized homophobia as a mediator. A secondary analysis of 2,949 youth was conducted using a national dataset collected by OutProud in 2000. Three indicators of identity conflict and an internalized-homophobia scale (mediator), were included in logistic regressions with three different suicide variable outcomes. Internalized homophobia fully mediates one conflict indicator and partially mediates the other two indicators' relationship with suicidal thoughts. Internalized homophobia also fully mediates the relationship between one conflict indicator and chronic suicidal thoughts. Two indicators were associated with twice the odds of a suicide attempt. LGBT young adults who mature in religious contexts have higher odds of suicidal thoughts, and more specifically chronic suicidal thoughts, as well as suicide attempt compared to other LGBT young adults. Internalized homophobia only accounts for portions of this conflict.

  3. Academic Deans and Suicidal Individuals: Comparison and Contrast of Selected Behavioral Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiNapoli, Joan B.

    The research question for this dissertation study was: Do behavioral outcomes identified in people who commit suicide exist in people who publicly exhibit productive behavioral outcomes and have not attempted suicide? More specifically, do selective affective and physiological behavioral outcomes identified in people who kill themselves exist is…

  4. The association of non-suicidal self-injury and suicidal behavior according to DSM-5 in adolescent psychiatric inpatients.

    PubMed

    Groschwitz, Rebecca C; Kaess, Michael; Fischer, Gloria; Ameis, Nina; Schulze, Ulrike M E; Brunner, Romuald; Koelch, Michael; Plener, Paul L

    2015-08-30

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal behaviors frequently occur among adolescent psychiatric patients. Although those behaviors are distinct with regards to intent, NSSI has been shown to be an important risk-factor for suicide attempts. However, the association of NSSI and Suicidal Behavior Disorder (SBD) according to DSM-5 criteria has not yet been investigated. For investigating distinctive features and mutual risk-factors of NSSI-disorder and SBD, adolescent psychiatric inpatients (N=111, aged 12-19 years; 65.8% females) were interviewed using the Self-Injurious-Thoughts-And-Behaviors-Interview-German (SITBI-G). NSSI started significantly earlier in life (M=12.5 years, SD=2.2) than first suicide attempts (M=14.1 years, SD=2.0). Patients meeting NSSI-disorder and/or SBD were significantly more likely to be female and to be diagnosed with an affective disorder. NSSI-disorder and SBD seem to have several distinctive features (i.e. age of onset or frequency), but also seem to share certain mutual risk-factors (i.e. affective disorders, female gender). While both NSSI and SBD seem to be maintained by mainly automatic negative reinforcement, positive automatic and social functions were rated significantly higher for NSSI. Most importantly, NSSI seems to be a strong risk factor for the occurrence of SBD (even when controlling for suicidal ideation) and should therefore always be assessed when dealing with psychiatric adolescent patients.

  5. The SAFETY Program: a treatment-development trial of a cognitive-behavioral family treatment for adolescent suicide attempters.

    PubMed

    Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Berk, Michele; Hughes, Jennifer L; Anderson, Nicholas L

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe feasibility, safety, and outcome results from a treatment development trial of the SAFETY Program, a brief intervention designed for integration with emergency services for suicide-attempting youths. Suicide-attempting youths, ages 11 to 18, were enrolled in a 12-week trial of the SAFETY Program, a cognitive-behavioral family intervention designed to increase safety and reduce suicide attempt (SA) risk (N = 35). Rooted in a social-ecological cognitive-behavioral model, treatment sessions included individual youth and parent session-components, with different therapists assigned to youths and parents, and family session-components to practice skills identified as critical in the pathway for preventing repeat SAs in individual youths. Outcomes were evaluated at baseline, 3-month, and 6-month follow-ups. At the 3-month posttreatment assessment, there were statistically significant improvements on measures of suicidal behavior, hopelessness, youth and parent depression, and youth social adjustment. There was one reported SA by 3 months and another by 6 months, yielding cumulative attempt rates of 3% and 6% at 3 and 6 months, respectively. Treatment satisfaction was high. Suicide-attempting youths are at high risk for repeat attempts and continuing mental health problems. Results support the value of a randomized controlled trial to further evaluate the SAFETY intervention. Extension of treatment effects to parent depression and youth social adjustment are consistent with our strong family focus and social-ecological model of behavior change.

  6. Acutely Suicidal Adolescents Who Engage in Bullying Behavior: 1-Year Trajectories

    PubMed Central

    King, Cheryl A.; Horwitz, Adam; Berona, Johnny; Jiang, Qingmei

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Prospective longitudinal research is needed to examine associations between bullying behaviors and trajectories of suicidal ideation and behavior and overall functional impairment. The specific aims of the present study are to: (1) characterize differences in baseline functioning between acutely suicidal adolescents who are classified into bullying perpetrator and non-bully groups and (2) examine the 1-year trajectories of these two groups of adolescents. Method Participants were 433 psychiatrically hospitalized suicidal adolescents (72% female), ages 13 to 17 years. Participants reported suicidal ideation, depression, anxiety, substance use, adaptive functioning, and bullying behavior. Six items from the Youth Self-Report were used to classify adolescents into bullying perpetrator (n = 54) and non-bully (n = 379) groups. Follow-up assessments were conducted at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months. Results At hospitalization, adolescents in the bully group reported significantly higher levels of suicidal ideation, substance use, and functional impairment. Suicidal ideation differences remitted at six weeks. The elevated functional impairment of the bullying perpetrator group persisted across the 12-month period. Conclusion Adolescents who met bullying perpetrator group criteria were characterized by more severe suicidal ideation and higher levels of proximal risk factors for suicide. Bullying behavior was not stable over time but was associated with elevated suicide risk when present. These findings highlight the importance of specifically assessing for and targeting bullying behavior at multiple time points when treating suicidal adolescents. PMID:23790201

  7. Animal models to improve our understanding and treatment of suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Gould, T D; Georgiou, P; Brenner, L A; Brundin, L; Can, A; Courtet, P; Donaldson, Z R; Dwivedi, Y; Guillaume, S; Gottesman, I I; Kanekar, S; Lowry, C A; Renshaw, P F; Rujescu, D; Smith, E G; Turecki, G; Zanos, P; Zarate, C A; Zunszain, P A; Postolache, T T

    2017-04-11

    Worldwide, suicide is a leading cause of death. Although a sizable proportion of deaths by suicide may be preventable, it is well documented that despite major governmental and international investments in research, education and clinical practice suicide rates have not diminished and are even increasing among several at-risk populations. Although nonhuman animals do not engage in suicidal behavior amenable to translational studies, we argue that animal model systems are necessary to investigate candidate endophenotypes of suicidal behavior and the neurobiology underlying these endophenotypes. Animal models are similarly a critical resource to help delineate treatment targets and pharmacological means to improve our ability to manage the risk of suicide. In particular, certain pathophysiological pathways to suicidal behavior, including stress and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction, neurotransmitter system abnormalities, endocrine and neuroimmune changes, aggression, impulsivity and decision-making deficits, as well as the role of critical interactions between genetic and epigenetic factors, development and environmental risk factors can be modeled in laboratory animals. We broadly describe human biological findings, as well as protective effects of medications such as lithium, clozapine, and ketamine associated with modifying risk of engaging in suicidal behavior that are readily translatable to animal models. Endophenotypes of suicidal behavior, studied in animal models, are further useful for moving observed associations with harmful environmental factors (for example, childhood adversity, mechanical trauma aeroallergens, pathogens, inflammation triggers) from association to causation, and developing preventative strategies. Further study in animals will contribute to a more informed, comprehensive, accelerated and ultimately impactful suicide research portfolio.

  8. Acutely suicidal adolescents who engage in bullying behavior: 1-year trajectories.

    PubMed

    King, Cheryl A; Horwitz, Adam; Berona, Johnny; Jiang, Qingmei

    2013-07-01

    Prospective longitudinal research is needed to examine associations between bullying behaviors and trajectories of suicidal ideation and behavior and overall functional impairment. The specific aims of the present study are to: (1) characterize differences in baseline functioning between acutely suicidal adolescents who are classified into bullying perpetrator and non-bully groups and (2) examine the 1-year trajectories of these two groups of adolescents. Participants were 433 psychiatrically hospitalized suicidal adolescents (72% female), ages 13 to 17 years. Participants reported suicidal ideation, depression, anxiety, substance use, adaptive functioning, and bullying behavior. Six items from the Youth Self-Report were used to classify adolescents into bullying perpetrator (n = 54) and non-bully (n = 379) groups. Follow-up assessments were conducted at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months. At hospitalization, adolescents in the bully group reported significantly higher levels of suicidal ideation, substance use, and functional impairment. Suicidal ideation differences remitted at six weeks. The elevated functional impairment of the bullying perpetrator group persisted across the 12-month period. Adolescents who met bullying perpetrator group criteria were characterized by more severe suicidal ideation and higher levels of proximal risk factors for suicide. Bullying behavior was not stable over time but was associated with elevated suicide risk when present. These findings highlight the importance of specifically assessing for and targeting bullying behavior at multiple time points when treating suicidal adolescents. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Relationship Between Religious Coping and Suicidal Behaviors Among African American Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Molock, Sherry Davis; Puri, Rupa; Matlin, Samantha; Barksdale, Crystal

    2006-08-01

    This study investigated whether hopelessness and depression were risk factors for suicidal thoughts and behaviors in African American adolescents and looked at whether religious participation and religious coping protected these students from suicidality. Participants were 212 African American high school students (133 females, 79 males). The results of multiple and logistic regression analyses found that hopelessness and depression were risk factors for suicidal ideation and attempts. Religious coping style was significantly related to suicidal behaviors: Self-directed coping was related to increased hopelessness, depression, and suicide attempts, and collaborative coping was related to increased reasons for living. Gender differences were found in symptoms of depression, religious coping style and religious participation. Results provide additional support for suicide interventions to target hopelessness and depressive symptoms and highlight the importance of examining the role of culturally salient variables, such as religious participation and religious coping style, when developing intervention programs for suicide.

  10. Relationship Between Religious Coping and Suicidal Behaviors Among African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Molock, Sherry Davis; Puri, Rupa; Matlin, Samantha; Barksdale, Crystal

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated whether hopelessness and depression were risk factors for suicidal thoughts and behaviors in African American adolescents and looked at whether religious participation and religious coping protected these students from suicidality. Participants were 212 African American high school students (133 females, 79 males). The results of multiple and logistic regression analyses found that hopelessness and depression were risk factors for suicidal ideation and attempts. Religious coping style was significantly related to suicidal behaviors: Self-directed coping was related to increased hopelessness, depression, and suicide attempts, and collaborative coping was related to increased reasons for living. Gender differences were found in symptoms of depression, religious coping style and religious participation. Results provide additional support for suicide interventions to target hopelessness and depressive symptoms and highlight the importance of examining the role of culturally salient variables, such as religious participation and religious coping style, when developing intervention programs for suicide. PMID:17080183

  11. The Risk of Repetition of Attempted Suicide Among Iranian Women with Psychiatric Disorders as Quantified by the Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Shakeri, Jalal; Farnia, Vahid; Abdoli, Nasrin; Akrami, Mohammad R; Arman, Farid; Shakeri, Hania

    2015-05-01

    The factors associated with repetition of attempted suicide are poorly categorized in the Iranian population. In this study, the prevalence of different psychiatric disorders among women who attempted suicide and the risk of repetition were assessed.   Participants were women admitted to the Poisoning Emergency Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences following failed suicide attempts. Psychiatric disorders were diagnosed based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) symptom checklist. Risk of repetition was evaluated using the Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R).   About 72% of individuals had a SBQ-R score >8 and were considered to be at high risk for repeated attempted suicide. Adjustment disorders were the most common psychiatric disorders (40.8%). However, the type of psychiatric disorder was not associated with the risk of repetition (p=0.320). Marital status, educational level, employment, substance use, history of suicide among family members, and motivation were not determinant factors for repetition of suicide attempt (p=0.220, 0.880, 0.220, 0.290, 0.350 and 0.270, respectively). Younger women were associated with violent methods of attempted suicide, such as self-cutting, whereas older individuals preferred consumption of poison (p<0.001). Drug overdose was more common among single and married women whereas widows or divorcees preferred self-burning (p=0.004).   About 72% of patients with failed suicide attempts were at high risk for repeated attempts. Age, marital status, and type of psychiatric disorder were the only determinants of suicide method. Adjustment disorders were the most common psychiatric disorders among Iranian women. However, this did not predict the risk of further attempts.

  12. Factors relating to adolescent suicidal behavior: a cross-sectional Malaysian school survey.

    PubMed

    Chen, Paul C Y; Lee, Lai Kah; Wong, Kam Cheong; Kaur, Jagmohni

    2005-10-01

    This study was undertaken to examine factors relating to adolescent suicide behavior. This was a cross-sectional school survey of 4,500 adolescent students based on a structured questionnaire. Data were collected using the supervised self-administered questionnaire (modified version of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance in the Malaysian National Language, Bahasa Malaysia). Seven percent (312 of 4,454) of the adolescent students had seriously considered attempting suicide. Among the adolescents, 4.6% had attempted suicide at least once during the 12 months preceding the survey. Female adolescents were more likely to put their suicidal thoughts into suicidal action than were male adolescents. Malay and Indian people are more likely than the Chinese to respond, "Felt sad and hopeless." However, Malay adolescents had the lowest rate of attempted suicide. Based on multiple logistic regression, factors significantly related to urban adolescents' suicide behavior are "Felt sad or hopeless," "Number of days felt unsafe to go to school," "Riding with a driver who had been drinking alcohol," "Physical fight," and "Number of days absent from school." In comparison, factors relating to rural adolescents' suicide behavior are "Felt sad or hopeless," "Physical fight," "Physical fight resulting in injury," and "Drive a vehicle after drinking alcohol." Adolescent suicide behavior should be viewed as a serious problem. Measures can be taken to prevent suicide by looking at the factors significantly linked to suicidal behavior among adolescents. Steps can then be taken to identify adolescents who have serious suicidal ideation so that intervention can be taken to reduce the suicidal rate.

  13. [CHALLENGES IN THE INTERVENTION OF PUERTO RICAN ADOLESCENTS THAT SHOW SUICIDAL BEHAVIOR].

    PubMed

    Vélez, Yovanska Duarté; Dávila, Paloma Torres; Hernández, Samariz Laboy

    2015-01-01

    This article is a case study of a Puerto Rican adolescent with suicidal behavior. The adolescent began a Socio-Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Suicidal Behavior (SCBT), an ambulatory treatment, after being hospitalized for a suicide attempt. The SCBT incorporates an ecological and developmental perspective to CBT. She initially presented low self-esteem, and significant depressive and anxiety symptoms. At the end of treatment, the adolescent revealed a significant change in symptoms, and a better use of her coping skills. No suicidal ideation was presented during previous months, neither during follow up. Case analysis allowed treatment protocol modifications, particularly family sessions and communication skills, thus contributing to its further feasibility.

  14. Latent class analysis of substance use and aggressive behavior in reservation-based American Indian youth who attempted suicide.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Elizabeth D; Musci, Rashelle J; Tingey, Lauren; Goklish, Novalene; Larzelere-Hinton, Francene; Barlow, Allison; Cwik, Mary

    2015-01-01

    American Indian (AI) adolescents who attempt suicide are heterogeneous. A latent class analysis was used to identify subgroups of reservation-based AI adolescents with recent suicide attempts. Indicators of class membership were substance abuse and aggressive behaviors; clinical correlates of subgroup membership included risky sexual behavior and recent exposure to suicidal behavior. Three subgroups were identified, representing low, medium, and high substance use and aggressive behavior. Suicide exposure was associated with membership in the lowest risk behavior subgroup; risky sexual behavior was associated with membership the highest risk behaviors subgroup. Findings suggest a continuum of risk behaviors in reservation-based AI youth who attempt suicide.

  15. Nonfatal Suicidal Behaviors in U.S. Army Administrative Records, 2004–2009: Results from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS)

    PubMed Central

    Ursano, Robert J.; Kessler, Ronald C.; Heeringa, Steven G.; Cox, Kenneth L.; Naifeh, James A.; Fullerton, Carol S.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kao, Tzu-Cheg; Aliaga, Pablo A.; Vegella, Patti; Mash, Holly Herberman; Buckley, Christina; Colpe, Lisa J.; Schoenbaum, Michael; Stein, Murray B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Although the U.S. Army suicide rate is known to have risen sharply over the past decade, information about medically documented, nonfatal suicidal behaviors is far more limited. Here we examine trends and sociodemographic correlates of suicide attempts, suspicious injuries, and suicide ideation among regular Army soldiers. Methods Data come from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS) Historical Administrative Data Study (HADS), which integrates administrative records for all soldiers on active duty during the years 2004 through 2009 (n = 1.66 million). Results We identified 21,740 unique regular Army soldiers with a nonfatal suicidal event documented at some point during the HADS study period. There were substantial increases in the annual incidence rates of suicide attempts (179–400/100,000 person-years) and suicide ideation (557–830/100,000 person-years), but not suspicious injuries. Using hierarchical classification rules to identify the first instance of each soldier's most severe behavior, we found increased risk of all outcomes among those who were female, non-Hispanic White, never married, lower-ranking enlisted, less educated, and of younger age when entering Army service. These sociodemographic associations significantly differed across outcomes, despite some patterns that appear similar. Conclusion Results provide a broad overview of nonfatal suicidal trends in the U.S. Army during 2004 through 2009 and demonstrate that integration of multiple administrative data systems enriches analysis of the predictors of such events. PMID:26168022

  16. [Relationships between various forms of childhood abuse and suicidal behaviors among middle school students].

    PubMed

    Wan, Yuhui; Liu, Wan; Sun, Ying; Hao, Jiahu; Tao, Fangbiao

    2016-04-01

    To study the relationship between various forms of childhood abuse and suicidal behaviors among middle school students. A total of 14 221 cases were retained from an epidemiological study, involving students from junior and senior middle schools in Guangzhou, Xinxiang, Shenyang and Chongqing. Information related to the demographic characteristics, types, number, timing and perpetrators of exposure to childhood abuse and suicidal behaviors was obtained. Logistic regression was used to analyze the relationships of each form of childhood abuse and suicidal behaviors. Number of cases (rates) of childhood abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, suicidal ideation, suicidal planning and suicidal attempts among middle school students appeared as 7 246 (51.0%), 5 824 (41.0%), 5 409 (38.0%), 1 039 (7.3%), 2 042 (14.4%), 1 174 (8.3%) and 548 (3.9%), respectively. Boys reported more physical abuse than girls, while girls reported more emotional abuse and suicide ideation than boys (P<0.01). However, no gender differences were found in cases as sexual abuse, suicide planning or attempted suicide (P>0.01). After controlling for confounding variables, experiences on childhood abuse were significantly associated with suicidal ideation (OR=2.03, 95% CI: 1.72-2.40) and suicidal planning (OR=1.93, 95%CI: 1.57-2.37) among boys but significantly associated with suicidal ideation (OR= 2.45, 95% CI: 2.12-2.82), suicidal planning (OR=2.46, 95% CI: 2.02-3.00) and attempted suicide (OR=2.12, 95% CI: 1.61-2.78) among girls. RESULTS from multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that each type of childhood abuse, occurring at any time within the first 16 years of life, especially with continuous exposure, was significantly associated with suicidal behaviors. A significant graded-relationship was found between number of abusive childhood experiences and suicidal behaviors. Students that had been maltreated by parents or others were at high risk of engaging in suicidal

  17. Explaining Changing Suicide Rates in Norway 1948-2004: The Role of Social Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barstad, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Using Norway 1948-2004 as a case, I test whether changes in variables related to social integration can explain changes in suicide rates. The method is the Box-Jenkins approach to time-series analysis. Different aspects of family integration contribute significantly to the explanation of Norwegian suicide rates in this period. The estimated effect…

  18. Explaining Changing Suicide Rates in Norway 1948-2004: The Role of Social Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barstad, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Using Norway 1948-2004 as a case, I test whether changes in variables related to social integration can explain changes in suicide rates. The method is the Box-Jenkins approach to time-series analysis. Different aspects of family integration contribute significantly to the explanation of Norwegian suicide rates in this period. The estimated effect…

  19. Immigration and Suicidal Behavior Among Mexicans and Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    Breslau, Joshua; Su, Maxwell; Miller, Matthew; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We examined migration to the United States as a risk factor for suicidal behavior among people of Mexican origin. Methods. We pooled data from 2 nationally representative surveys in the United States (2001–2003; n = 1284) and Mexico (2001–2002; n = 5782). We used discrete time survival models to account for time-varying and time-invariant characteristics, including psychiatric disorders. Results. Risk for suicidal ideation was higher among Mexicans with a family member in the United States (odds ratio [OR] = 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.06, 2.11), Mexican-born immigrants who arrived in the United States at 12 years or younger (OR = 1.84; 95% CI = 1.09, 3.09), and US-born Mexican Americans (OR = 1.56; 95% CI = 1.03, 2.38) than among Mexicans with neither a history of migration to the United States nor a family member currently living there. Risk for suicide attempts was also higher among Mexicans with a family member in the United States (OR = 1.68; 95% CI = 1.13, 2.52) and US-born Mexican Americans (OR = 1.97; 95% CI = 1.06, 3.65). Selection bias caused by differential migration or differential return migration of persons at higher risk of suicidal ideation or attempt did not account for these findings. Conclusions. Public health efforts should focus on the impact of Mexico–US migration on family members of migrants and on US-born Mexican Americans. PMID:19150909

  20. Building Models for the Relationship between Attitudes toward Suicide and Suicidal Behavior: Based on Data from General Population Surveys in Sweden, Norway, and Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renberg, Ellinor Salander; Hjelmeland, Heidi; Koposov, Roman

    2008-01-01

    Our aim was to build a model delineating the relationship between attitudes toward suicide and suicidal behavior and to assess equivalence by applying the model on data from different countries. Representative samples from the general population were approached in Sweden, Norway, and Russia with the Attitudes Toward Suicide (ATTS) questionnaire.…

  1. The Effectiveness of Family-Based Cognitive-Behavior Grief Therapy to Prevent Complicated Grief in Relatives of Suicide Victims: The Mediating Role of Suicide Ideation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Groot, Marieke; Neeleman, Jan; van der Meer, Klaas; Burger, Huibert

    2010-01-01

    Grief interventions are more effective for high risk individuals. The presence of suicide ideation following suicide bereavement was examined to determine whether it indicates a high risk status. Using data from a randomized controlled trial (n = 122) on the effectiveness of cognitive-behavior therapy, the effect of suicide ideation on the…

  2. Preliminary Effectiveness of Surviving the Teens[R] Suicide Prevention and Depression Awareness Program on Adolescents' Suicidality and Self-Efficacy in Performing Help-Seeking Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Keith A.; Strunk, Catherine M.; Sorter, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Suicide ranks as the third leading cause of death among youth aged 15-24 years. Schools provide ideal opportunities for suicide prevention efforts. However, research is needed to identify programs that effectively impact youth suicidal ideation and behavior. This study examined the immediate and 3-month effect of Surviving the Teens[R]…

  3. Preliminary Effectiveness of Surviving the Teens[R] Suicide Prevention and Depression Awareness Program on Adolescents' Suicidality and Self-Efficacy in Performing Help-Seeking Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Keith A.; Strunk, Catherine M.; Sorter, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Suicide ranks as the third leading cause of death among youth aged 15-24 years. Schools provide ideal opportunities for suicide prevention efforts. However, research is needed to identify programs that effectively impact youth suicidal ideation and behavior. This study examined the immediate and 3-month effect of Surviving the Teens[R]…

  4. The Effectiveness of Family-Based Cognitive-Behavior Grief Therapy to Prevent Complicated Grief in Relatives of Suicide Victims: The Mediating Role of Suicide Ideation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Groot, Marieke; Neeleman, Jan; van der Meer, Klaas; Burger, Huibert

    2010-01-01

    Grief interventions are more effective for high risk individuals. The presence of suicide ideation following suicide bereavement was examined to determine whether it indicates a high risk status. Using data from a randomized controlled trial (n = 122) on the effectiveness of cognitive-behavior therapy, the effect of suicide ideation on the…

  5. Comparative Validation of the S-STS, the ISST-Plus, and the C-SSRS for Assessing the Suicidal Thinking and Behavior FDA 2012 Suicidality Categories.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, David V; Alphs, Larry D; Mao, Lian; Li, Qin; May, Roberta S; Bruer, Emily H; Mccullumsmith, Cheryl B; Gray, Christopher R; Li, Xiaohua; Williamson, David J

    2014-09-01

    This exploratory study examines the concurrent validity for mapping symptoms of suicidal ideation, self-harm, and suicidal behavior as recorded on the InterSePT Scale for Suicidal Thinking-Plus, the Sheehan-Suicidality Tracking Scale (clinician- and patient-rated and reconciled patient/clinician versions), and the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale to the 11 United States Food and Drug Administration-Classification Algorithm of Suicide Assessment (September 2012) categories. Forty subjects with varying degrees of suicidal ideation and behavior severity (from not present to extremely severe) were recruited from inpatient, outpatient, and emergency room settings. Each patient was interviewed using all three scales (InterSePT Scale for Suicidal Thinking-Plus, the Sheehan-Suicidality Tracking Scale, and the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale) on the same day. The scales were administered in a random sequence by three independent raters who were blind to the ratings on the other scales. The Sheehan-Suicidality Tracking Scale and the InterSePT Scale for Suicidal Thinking-Plus show acceptable agreement with the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale in detecting the presence or absence of the 2012 Food and Drug Administration-Classification Algorithm of Suicide Assessment categories 1, 5, 6, 10, and 11 (passive ideation; active ideation with method, intent, and plan; completed suicide; preparatory actions; and self-injurious behavior) but not of categories 2, 3, and 4 (3 other active suicidal ideation combination categories) or to 8 and 9 (aborted and interrupted attempt). Despite the significant disagreement between the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale on the one side and the InterSePT Scale for Suicidal Thinking-Plus and the Sheehan-Suicidality Tracking Scale on the other in the ability to accurately map to the 2012 Food and Drug Administration-Classification Algorithm of Suicide Assessment categories on some items, there was close agreement between the

  6. Suicidal Behavior in Children and Adolescents with Developmental Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardan, Antonio; Sahl, Robert

    1999-01-01

    A study examined suicidality in 223 children with developmental disorders (ages 4 to 18) and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Twenty percent experienced either suicidal ideation, threats of, or attempts at suicide, with hanging being most frequently considered. Suicidality was most often encountered in individuals with oppositional defiant…

  7. Structural Brain Abnormalities and Suicidal Behavior in Borderline Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Soloff, Paul H.; Pruitt, Patrick; Sharma, Mohit; Radwan, Jacqueline; White, Richard; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Structural brain abnormalities have been demonstrated in subjects with BPD in prefrontal and fronto-limbic regions involved in the regulation of emotion and impulsive behavior, executive cognitive function and episodic memory. Impairment in these cognitive functions is associated with increased vulnerability to suicidal behavior. We compared BPD suicide attempters and non-attempters, high and low lethality attempters to healthy controls to identify neural circuits associated with suicidal behavior in BPD. Methods Structural MRI scans were obtained on 68 BPD subjects (16 male, 52 female), defined by IPDE and DIB/R criteria, and 52 healthy controls (HC: 28 male, 24 female). Groups were compared by diagnosis, attempt status, and attempt lethality. ROIs were defined for areas reported to have structural or metabolic abnormalities in BPD, and included: mid-inf. orbitofrontal cortex, mid-sup temporal cortex, anterior cingulate, insula, hippocampus, amygdala, fusiform, lingual and parahippocampal gyri. Data were analyzed using optimized voxel-based morphometry implemented with DARTEL in SPM5, co-varied for age and gender, corrected for cluster extent (p<.001). Results Compared to HC, BPD attempters had significantly diminished gray matter concentrations in 8 of 9 ROIs, non-attempters in 5 of 9 ROIs. Within the BPD sample, attempters had diminished gray matter in Lt. insula compared to non-attempters. High lethality attempters had significant decreases in Rt. mid-sup. temporal gyrus, Rt. mid-inf. orbitofrontal gyrus, Rt. insular cortex, Lt. fusiform gyrus, Lt. lingual gyrus and Rt. parahippocampal gyrus compared to low lethality attempters. Conclusions Specific structural abnormalities discriminate BPD attempters from non-attempters and high from low lethality attempters. PMID:22336640

  8. Motivation factors for suicidal behavior and their clinical relevance in admitted psychiatric patients

    PubMed Central

    Igarashi, Miyabi; Yoshizawa, Yuka; Asamura, Kaori; Ishikawa, Yoichi; Tokunaga, Taro; Ishimoto, Kayo; Tatebayashi, Yoshitaka; Harima, Hirohiko; Kumagai, Naoki; Okazaki, Yuji

    2017-01-01

    Background Suicidal behavior (SB) is a major, worldwide health concern. To date there is limited understanding of the associated motivational aspects which accompany this self-initiated conduct. Aims To develop a method for identifying motivational features associated with SB by studying admitted psychiatric patients, and to examine their clinical relevance. Methods By performing a factor analytic study using data obtained from a patient sample exhibiting high suicidality and a variety of SB methods, Motivations for SB Scale (MSBS) was constructed to measure the features. Data included assessments of DSM-IV psychiatric and personality disorders, suicide intent, depressive symptomatology, overt aggression, recent life events (RLEs) and methods of SB, collated from structured interviews. Association of identified features with clinical variables was examined by correlation analyses and MANCOVA. Results Factor analyses elicited a 4-factor solution composed of Interpersonal-testing (IT), Interpersonal-change (IC), Self-renunciation (SR) and Self-sustenance (SS). These factors were classified according to two distinctions, namely interpersonal vs. intra-personal directedness, and the level of assumed influence by SB or the relationship to prevailing emotions. Analyses revealed meaningful links between patient features and clinical variables. Interpersonal-motivations (IT and IC) were associated with overt aggression, low suicidality and RLE discord or conflict, while SR was associated with depression, high suicidality and RLE separation or death. Borderline personality disorder showed association with IC and SS. When self-strangulation was set as a reference SB method, self-cutting and overdose-taking were linked to IT and SS, respectively. Conclusions The factors extracted in this study largely corresponded to factors from previous studies, implying that they may be useful in a wider clinical context. The association of these features with SB-related factors suggests

  9. Effects of suicidal behavior on a psychiatric unit nursing team.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Beverley; Wallbridge, Hal

    2003-03-01

    1. Suicide of a psychiatric inpatient can have significant, although diverse, effects on the emotions and behavior of both individual nurses and team functioning. 2. The majority of participants in this study felt there was a need for formal debriefing or counseling for themselves and their colleagues after a critical incident, although there was less consensus about the timing and structure of such an intervention. 3. This research highlights the need for advanced training of critical incident stress management team members and for flexibility in the application of critical incident stress management techniques.

  10. Ecstasy Use and Suicidal Behavior among Adolescents: Findings from a National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jueun; Fan, Bin; Liu, Xinhua; Kerner, Nancy; Wu, Ping

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between ecstasy use and suicidal behavior among adolescents in the United States was examined. Data from the adolescent subsample (ages 12-17, N = 19,301) of the 2000 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse were used in the analyses. Information on adolescent substance use, suicidal behaviors, and related sociodemographic, family,…

  11. Emphasis on Autonomy and Propensity for Suicidal Behavior in Younger and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Riley, Alisa A.; Fiske, Amy

    2012-01-01

    A cognitive style marked by emphasis on autonomy has been linked to negative outcomes throughout the life span. Two preliminary studies are presented that examined factors on a measure of autonomy (Personal Style Inventory-Revised) in relation to propensity for suicidal behavior (Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-14; SBQ-14). Perfectionism, B =…

  12. Suicidal Behavior in Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorder: Examining the Role of Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harkavy-Friedman, Jill M.; Nelson, Elizabeth A.; Venarde, David F.; Mann, J. John

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between depression and suicidal behavior among individuals with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder can aid assessment and treatment. In this study, 86 individuals with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder were assessed for past and current suicidal behavior, depression, hopelessness, and reasons for…

  13. Ecstasy Use and Suicidal Behavior among Adolescents: Findings from a National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jueun; Fan, Bin; Liu, Xinhua; Kerner, Nancy; Wu, Ping

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between ecstasy use and suicidal behavior among adolescents in the United States was examined. Data from the adolescent subsample (ages 12-17, N = 19,301) of the 2000 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse were used in the analyses. Information on adolescent substance use, suicidal behaviors, and related sociodemographic, family,…

  14. The Mediating Roles of Anxiety Depression, and Hopelessness on Adolescent Suicidal Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Elaine Adams; Mazza, James J.; Herting, Jerald R.; Randell, Brooke P.; Eggert, Leona L.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the roles of anxiety, depression, and hopelessness as mediators between known risk factors and suicidal behaviors among 1,287 potential high school dropouts. As a step toward theory development, a model was tested that posited the relationships among these variables and their effects on suicidal behaviors.…

  15. Child/Adolescent Abuse and Suicidal Behavior: Are They Sex Related?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gal, Gilad; Levav, Itzhak; Gross, Raz

    2012-01-01

    The association between childhood and adolescent abuse and suicidal behavior, and the possible contribution of abuse to sex differences in non lethal suicidal behavior, was investigated. Data were extracted from the Israel-based component of the WHO World Mental Health Survey (Kessler & Utsun, 2008a). Increased risk for ideation, plan, and…

  16. Attempted Suicide and Associated Health Risk Behaviors among Native American High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Lana; Doshi, Sonal R.; Jones, Sherry Everett

    2004-01-01

    Suicide represents the second-leading cause of death among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth aged 15-24 years. Data from the 2001 Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) Youth Risk Behavior Survey were used to examine the association between attempted suicide among high school students and unintentional injury and violence behaviors, sexual risk…

  17. [Suicidal burrowing behavior--a special kind of the "hide-and-die-syndrome"].

    PubMed

    Hartwig, Sven; Tsokos, Michael

    2007-01-01

    When the situation at a death scene is unusual, this may suggest the involvement of another person. On the other hand, one also has to consider the possibility of a conscious or unconscious behavior in connection with extreme stress situations or suicidal acts. The forensic findings and criminalistic reconstruction of two cases of suicidal burrowing behavior are presented and discussed.

  18. Nonfatal Suicidal Behavior among Chinese Women Who Have Been Physically Abused by Their Male Intimate Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Susan P. Y.; Phillips, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    Three hundred fifty-three women (median age = 32 years) admitted to the emergency rooms of nine general hospitals serving rural areas in China were interviewed for nonfatal suicidal behavior. Spousal conflict was the most commonly reported cause for their suicidal behavior and one third of respondents reported being victims of physical abuse by…

  19. The Phenomenology and Clinical Correlates of Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Sulkowski, Michael L.; Nadeau, Josh; Lewin, Adam B.; Arnold, Elysse B.; Mutch, P. Jane; Jones, Anna M.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the phenomenology and clinical correlates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in youth with ASD (N = 102; range 7-16 years). The presence of suicidal thoughts and behavior was assessed through the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule-Child and Parent Versions. Children and parents completed measures of anxiety severity,…

  20. Child/Adolescent Abuse and Suicidal Behavior: Are They Sex Related?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gal, Gilad; Levav, Itzhak; Gross, Raz

    2012-01-01

    The association between childhood and adolescent abuse and suicidal behavior, and the possible contribution of abuse to sex differences in non lethal suicidal behavior, was investigated. Data were extracted from the Israel-based component of the WHO World Mental Health Survey (Kessler & Utsun, 2008a). Increased risk for ideation, plan, and…

  1. Suicidal Behavior in Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorder: Examining the Role of Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harkavy-Friedman, Jill M.; Nelson, Elizabeth A.; Venarde, David F.; Mann, J. John

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between depression and suicidal behavior among individuals with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder can aid assessment and treatment. In this study, 86 individuals with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder were assessed for past and current suicidal behavior, depression, hopelessness, and reasons for…

  2. Suicidal Behaviors among Clients at an Outpatient Psychology Clinic versus the General Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linehan, Marsha M.; Laffaw, Julie A.

    1982-01-01

    Compared suicidal behaviors among two populations in the same geographical area: clients at a psychology clinic versus individuals from the general population. In both samples, 10 percent of the individuals reported prior parasuicidal behavior; the two populations were also quite similar on reports of prior suicidal ideation. (JAC)

  3. The Phenomenology and Clinical Correlates of Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Sulkowski, Michael L.; Nadeau, Josh; Lewin, Adam B.; Arnold, Elysse B.; Mutch, P. Jane; Jones, Anna M.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the phenomenology and clinical correlates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in youth with ASD (N = 102; range 7-16 years). The presence of suicidal thoughts and behavior was assessed through the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule-Child and Parent Versions. Children and parents completed measures of anxiety severity,…

  4. Adaptive Characteristics and Suicidal Behavior: A Gender Comparison of Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Jon B.; Lamis, Dorian A.

    2007-01-01

    Differences in suicidal behavior and adaptive characteristics were examined in college students with a particular emphasis on gender differences. Participants consisted of 344 undergraduate students who were administered a revised version of the Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire (SBQ), the Expanded Reasons for Living Inventory (RFL), and a…

  5. Suicidal Behaviors among Clients at an Outpatient Psychology Clinic versus the General Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linehan, Marsha M.; Laffaw, Julie A.

    1982-01-01

    Compared suicidal behaviors among two populations in the same geographical area: clients at a psychology clinic versus individuals from the general population. In both samples, 10 percent of the individuals reported prior parasuicidal behavior; the two populations were also quite similar on reports of prior suicidal ideation. (JAC)

  6. The validity of proxy-based data in suicide research: a study of patients 50 years of age and older who attempted suicide. II. Life events, social support and suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Conner, K R; Conwell, Y; Duberstein, P R

    2001-12-01

    To investigate the validity of proxy respondent reports of stressful life events, social support and suicidal behavior among individuals who attempted suicide. Subjects were 80 psychiatric in-patients admitted following a suicide attempt. Data based on structured interviews with proxy respondents were compared with data based on interviews with subjects (gold standard). Specificity was higher than sensitivity across life event categories, and agreement was substantial for public and observable events (e.g. parent's death) but lower for more ambiguous events. Proxies were good judges of subject reports of frequency of social interaction but not perceived emotional support. Proxies were good judges of past history of suicide attempts and level of suicidal intent. Results support proxy-based data on suicidal behavior and certain aspects of social support and stressful life events in research of suicidal behavior in this age group, with potential implications for interpreting postmortem research of completed suicide.

  7. Toward an integrative model of suicide attempt: a cognitive psychological approach.

    PubMed

    Dieserud, G; Røysamb, E; Ekeberg, O; Kraft, P

    2001-01-01

    Applying a cognitive approach, the purpose of the present study was to expand previous research on stress-vulnerability models of depression and problem-solving deficits, as it relates to suicide attempt. Structural equation modelling, involving latent variables, was used to evaluate (a) whether low self-esteem, a low sense of self-efficacy, loneliness, and divorce constituted vulnerability factors for the development of depression; (b) whether hopelessness and suicidal ideation mediated the relationship between depression and suicide attempt; and (c) whether problem-solving deficits mediated the relationship between the vulnerability factors and suicide attempt, separate from depression/hopelessness. A total of 123 individuals, aged 18-75 years, participated in the study (72 suicide attempters and 51 psychiatric outpatients with no history of suicidal behavior). The results indicated a two path model of suicide attempt. The first path began with low self-esteem, loneliness, and separation or divorce, which advanced to depression, and was further mediated by hopelessness and suicidal ideation which led to suicide attempt. The second path developed from low self-esteem and a low sense of self-efficacy and advanced to suicide attempt, mediated by a negative appraisal of one's own problem-solving capacity, and poor interpersonal problem-solving skills. The importance of addressing both depression/hopelessness, and problem-solving deficits when working with suicide attempters is noted.

  8. Factors associated with suicidal behaviors in mainland China: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Suicide is a major public health issue in China. Studies of suicide risk factors have reported both inconsistent and inconclusive results. This review aimed to determine suicide risk factors in China. Methods Medline/PubMed, EMBASE, CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure) and VIP (Chinese Journal of Science and Technology of VIP) were searched for relevant reports. Two investigators independently assessed the eligibility of identified studies and extracted data. Pooled odds ratios (and 95% confidence intervals) were calculated for each factor with Revman 5.0. Results Forty-four studies with 192,362 subjects were included. The pooled results indicated that mood disorders and stressful life events (physical illness, suicide of relatives) increased the risk of suicide ideation among the entire population. Socio-family environment (single or remarried parent, study pressure and academic achievement) and unhealthy behaviors (smoking, alcohol drinking, and drug use) were risk factors for suicide ideation among youth. Unhealthy behaviors (smoking and alcohol drinking), mood disorders, and stressful life events (suicide of relatives) were the main risk factors for attempted suicide. Persons living in rural areas, and those with lower education, mood disorders, and/or a history of negative life events had a higher risk of completed suicide. In China, before 2000, females had a significantly higher rate of completed suicide than males, while after 2000, no significant gender difference was found. Conclusions Socio-family environment, lifestyle, life events and psychiatric/psychological factors are associated with suicidal behaviors in China. Further case–control or cohort studies are needed to better understand suicide behaviors in China. Meanwhile, there is an urgent need for comprehensive studies of suicide interventions among high-risk populations. PMID:22800121

  9. Subjective quality of life and suicidal behavior among Taiwanese schizophrenia patients.

    PubMed

    Kao, Yu-Chen; Liu, Yia-Ping; Cheng, Tsung-Hsing; Chou, Ming-Kuen

    2012-04-01

    Research of suicidal behavior in individuals with schizophrenia has often suggested that clinical characteristics and symptoms likely influence a patient's suicidal risk. However, there is a lack of research describing the link between patients' subjective quality of life (SQOL) and suicidal behavior in non-Western countries. Therefore, the current study attempts to explore how schizophrenia patients' SQOL and their suicidal behavior are related in a Taiwanese sample. In this study, 102 schizophrenia outpatients were investigated using the Taiwanese World Health Organization Quality of Life Schedule-Brief Version (WHO-QOL-BREF-TW), several Beck-Related symptom rating scales, and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for psychopathology. These patients were also evaluated for suicidal risk using the critical items of the Scale for Suicide Ideation (SSI) and lifetime suicide attempts. Statistical analyses, including independent sample t tests, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and logistic stepwise regression models were completed. Compared with the non-suicidal group, suicidal patients had significantly lower scores in SQOL domains. The differences in social domain remained significant after adjusting for depressive symptoms. In multiple logistic regression analyses, level of depressive and psychotic symptoms increased and poor social and psychological SQOL were significant contributors to suicidal behavior. Having removed depressive symptoms from the model, only dissatisfaction with social SQOL was associated with heightened suicidal risk. Schizophrenia is associated with a high suicidal risk, of which depressive and psychotic symptoms are the major correlates. Again, the present study confirms and extends previous research showing that dissatisfied SQOL, particularly dissatisfaction with social relationships, should be considered in the assessment of suicidal risk in outpatients with schizophrenia, even when accounting other possible confounding factor

  10. The relationship between self-injurious behavior and suicide in a young adult population.

    PubMed

    Whitlock, Janis; Knox, Kerry L

    2007-07-01

    To test the hypothesis that self-injurious behavior (SIB) signals an attempt to cope with psychological distress that may co-occur or lead to suicidal behaviors in individuals experiencing more duress than they can effectively mitigate. Analysis of a cross-sectional data set of college-age students. Two universities in the northeastern United States in the spring of 2005. A random sample of 8300 students was invited to participate in a Web-based survey; 3069 (37.0%) responded. Cases in which a majority of the responses were missing or in which SIB or suicide status was indeterminable were omitted, resulting in 2875 usable cases. Exposure Self-injurious behavior. Main outcome was suicidality; adjusted odds ratios (AORs) for suicidality by SIB status when demographic characteristics, history of trauma, distress, informal help-seeking, and attraction to life are considered. One quarter of the sample reported SIB, suicidality, or both; 40.3% of those reporting SIB also report suicidality. Self-injurious behavior status was predictive of suicidality when controlling for demographic variables (AOR, 6.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.9-7.8). Addition of trauma and distress variables attenuated this relationship (AOR, 3.7; 95% CI, 2.7-4.9). Compared with respondents reporting only suicidality, those also reporting SIB were more likely to report suicide ideation (AOR, 2.8; 95% CI, 2.0-3.8), plan (AOR, 5.6; 95% CI, 3.9-7.9), gesture (AOR, 7.3; 95% CI, 3.4-15.8), and attempt (AOR, 9.6; 95% CI, 5.4-17.1). Lifetime SIB frequency exhibits a curvilinear relationship to suicidality. Since it is well established that SIB is not a suicidal gesture, many clinicians assume that suicide assessment is unnecessary. Our findings suggest that the presence of SIB should trigger suicide assessment.

  11. Treatment of Suicide Attempters With Bipolar Disorder: A Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Lithium and Valproate in the Prevention of Suicidal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Oquendo, Maria A.; Galfalvy, Hanga C.; Currier, Dianne; Grunebaum, Michael F.; Sher, Leo; Sullivan, Gregory M.; Burke, Ainsley K.; Harkavy-Friedman, Jill; Sublette, M. Elizabeth; Parsey, Ramin V.; Mann, J. John

    2013-01-01

    Objective Bipolar disorder is associated with high risk for suicidal acts. Observational studies suggest a protective effect of lithium against suicidal behavior. However, testing this effect in randomized clinical trials is logistically and ethically challenging. The authors tested the hypothesis that lithium offers bipolar patients with a history of suicide attempt greater protection against suicidal behavior compared to valproate. Method Patients with bipolar disorder and past suicide attempts (N=98) were randomly assigned to treatment with lithium or valproate, plus adjunctive medications as indicated, in a double-blind 2.5-year trial. An intent-to-treat analysis was performed using the log-rank test for survival data. Two models were fitted: time to suicide attempt and time to suicide event (attempt or hospitalization or change in medication in response to suicide plans). Results There were 45 suicide events in 35 participants, including 18 suicide attempts made by 14 participants, six from the lithium group and eight from the valproate group. There were no suicides. Intent-to-treat analysis using the log-rank test showed no differences between treatment groups in time to suicide attempt or to suicide event. Post hoc power calculations revealed that the modest sample size, reflective of challenges in recruitment, only permits detection of a relative risk of 5 or greater. Conclusions Despite the high frequency of suicide events during the study, this randomized controlled trial detected no difference between lithium and valproate in time to suicide attempt or suicide event in a sample of suicide attempters with bipolar disorder. However, smaller clinically significant differences between the two drugs were not ruled out. PMID:21768611

  12. Treatment of suicide attempters with bipolar disorder: a randomized clinical trial comparing lithium and valproate in the prevention of suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Oquendo, Maria A; Galfalvy, Hanga C; Currier, Dianne; Grunebaum, Michael F; Sher, Leo; Sullivan, Gregory M; Burke, Ainsley K; Harkavy-Friedman, Jill; Sublette, M Elizabeth; Parsey, Ramin V; Mann, J John

    2011-10-01

    Bipolar disorder is associated with high risk for suicidal acts. Observational studies suggest a protective effect of lithium against suicidal behavior. However, testing this effect in randomized clinical trials is logistically and ethically challenging. The authors tested the hypothesis that lithium offers bipolar patients with a history of suicide attempt greater protection against suicidal behavior compared to valproate. Patients with bipolar disorder and past suicide attempts (N=98) were randomly assigned to treatment with lithium or valproate, plus adjunctive medications as indicated, in a double-blind 2.5-year trial. An intent-to-treat analysis was performed using the log-rank test for survival data. Two models were fitted: time to suicide attempt and time to suicide event (attempt or hospitalization or change in medication in response to suicide plans). There were 45 suicide events in 35 participants, including 18 suicide attempts made by 14 participants, six from the lithium group and eight from the valproate group. There were no suicides. Intent-to-treat analysis using the log-rank test showed no differences between treatment groups in time to suicide attempt or to suicide event. Post hoc power calculations revealed that the modest sample size, reflective of challenges in recruitment, only permits detection of a relative risk of 5 or greater. Despite the high frequency of suicide events during the study, this randomized controlled trial detected no difference between lithium and valproate in time to suicide attempt or suicide event in a sample of suicide attempters with bipolar disorder. However, smaller clinically significant differences between the two drugs were not ruled out.

  13. Suicide attempts and self-harm behaviors in psychiatric sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Stinson, Jill D; Gonsalves, Valerie

    2014-06-01

    Suicidality and self-harm behaviors among sex offenders remain underreported in the clinical literature and are often misunderstood in this complex population. The present study aims to identify rates of suicide attempts and self-injurious behaviors in a sample of 1,184 psychiatric inpatients, 462 of whom are sexual offenders. Between-group comparisons revealed significant differences in history of suicide attempts and self-harm behaviors, with sexual offenders evidencing greater rates of both. Significant psychiatric correlates of suicide attempts and self-harm behaviors among sex offenders varied by group and included a variety of psychiatric symptom presentations. These are compared with the general literature on suicide risk and the sex offender population. Implications for treatment of these behaviors in a sex offender population are discussed.

  14. Child/adolescent abuse and suicidal behavior: are they sex related?

    PubMed

    Gal, Gilad; Levav, Itzhak; Gross, Raz

    2012-10-01

    The association between childhood and adolescent abuse and suicidal behavior, and the possible contribution of abuse to sex differences in non lethal suicidal behavior, was investigated. Data were extracted from the Israel-based component of the WHO World Mental Health Survey (Kessler & Utsun, 2008a). Increased risk for ideation, plan, and suicidal attempt were associated with childhood abuse, and increased risk for attempt was associated also with abuse at adolescence. No associations with sex or sex by abuse interactions were observed. The higher frequency of childhood abuse among women could account in part for their higher rates of suicidal attempts as compared to men. © 2012 The American Association of Suicidology.

  15. The moderating effects of parenting styles on African-American and Caucasian children's suicidal behaviors.

    PubMed

    Greening, Leilani; Stoppelbein, Laura; Luebbe, Aaron

    2010-04-01

    Given that parenting practices have been linked to suicidal behavior in adolescence, examining the moderating effect of parenting styles on suicidal behavior early in development could offer potential insight into possible buffers as well as directions for suicide prevention and intervention later in adolescence. Hence, the moderating effects of parenting styles, including authoritarian, permissive, and features of authoritative parenting, on depressed and aggressive children's suicidal behavior, including ideation and attempts, were evaluated with young children (N = 172; 72% male, 28% female) ranging from 6 to 12 years of age. African American (69%) and Caucasian (31%) children admitted for acute psychiatric inpatient care completed standardized measures of suicidal behavior, depressive symptoms, and proactive and reaction aggression. Their parents also completed standardized measures of parental distress and parenting style. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that, while statistically controlling for age and gender, children who endorsed more depressive symptoms or reactive aggression reported more current and past suicidal behavior than children who endorsed fewer depressive or aggressive symptoms. The significant positive relationship observed between depressive symptoms and childhood suicidal behavior, however, was attenuated by parental use of authoritarian parenting practices for African-American and older children but not for younger and Caucasian children. The ethnic/racial difference observed for the buffering effect of authoritarian parenting practices offers potential theoretical and clinical implications for conceptualizing the moderating effects of parenting styles on African-American and Caucasian children's suicidal behavior.

  16. The culture of suicide through societal integration and religion: 1996-1998 gender-specific suicide rates in 50 American states.

    PubMed

    Cutright, Philips; Fernquist, Robert M

    2004-01-01

    A multivariate model of 1996-1998 male and female suicide rates in the 50 states using Durkheim's societal integration concepts, spatial integration, and the culture of suicide was the focus of our research. Using multiple regression analysis, state divorce rates, church membership, approval of suicide, sex ratios, population density, and lagged 1981-82 suicide rates appeared to be statistically significant, which explained 90 percent of male and 79 percent of female suicide rate variation. Previous reports based on the hypothesis that western states have high suicide rates due to the high suicide rates of Native Americans residing in the West was rejected, as was the second hypothesis that the high western rates are due to higher western than non-western use of firearms in suicide. The usefulness of macro-level predictors of suicide rates was discussed and we concluded that macro-level analysis was needed to explain trends in suicide, to understand differences in suicide levels among states and nations, as well as differences in the age structures of suicide among populations.

  17. Problem solving moderates the effects of life event stress and chronic stress on suicidal behaviors in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Grover, Kelly E; Green, Kelly L; Pettit, Jeremy W; Monteith, Lindsey L; Garza, Monica J; Venta, Amanda

    2009-12-01

    The present study examined the unique and interactive effects of stress and problem-solving skills on suicidal behaviors among 102 inpatient adolescents. As expected, life event stress and chronic stress each significantly predicted suicidal ideation and suicide attempt. Problem solving significantly predicted suicidal ideation, but not suicide attempt. Problem solving moderated the associations between life event stress and suicidal behaviors, as well as between chronic stress and suicidal ideation, but not chronic stress and suicide attempt. At high levels of stress, adolescents with poor problem-solving skills experienced elevated suicidal ideation and were at greater risk of making a nonfatal suicide attempt. The interactive effects decreased to non-significance after controlling for depressive symptoms and hopelessness. Clinical implications are discussed.

  18. Risk of Suicidal Ideation in Adolescents with Both Self-Asphyxial Risk-Taking Behavior and Non-Suicidal Self-Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brausch, Amy M.; Decker, Kristina M.; Hadley, Andrea G.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined adolescent participation in self-asphyxial risk-taking behaviors (SAB), sometimes known as the "choking game," and its relationship with other adolescent risk behaviors, including non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). Researchers proposed that participation in SAB and NSSI would be associated with suicidal behavior, disordered…

  19. Social Aspects of Suicidal Behavior and Prevention in Early Life: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Amitai, Maya; Apter, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The present review summarizes the updated literature on the social aspects of suicidal behavior and prevention in adolescents. Recent findings: The predictive role of psychiatric disorders and past history are well recognized in adolescent suicide, but the role of social and cultural factors is less clear. Studies have focused on the importance of ethnicity, gender, family characteristics, and socioeconomic status. More recently, attention has been addressed to broader social risk factors, such as bullying in adolescents, suicide contagion, sexual orientation, and the popular media. Further empirical evidence is needed to advance our understanding of suicidal youth, develop better assessment tools, and formulate effective prevention and treatment programs. Summary: Suicidal behavior remains an important clinical problem and major cause of death in youth. Social factors may be at least as important as genetics. Advancing our understanding of underlying cultural and sociological issues in youth suicide will help clinicians achieve more efficient prediction, prevention and treatment. PMID:22690178

  20. Social aspects of suicidal behavior and prevention in early life: a review.

    PubMed

    Amitai, Maya; Apter, Alan

    2012-03-01

    The present review summarizes the updated literature on the social aspects of suicidal behavior and prevention in adolescents. The predictive role of psychiatric disorders and past history are well recognized in adolescent suicide, but the role of social and cultural factors is less clear. Studies have focused on the importance of ethnicity, gender, family characteristics, and socioeconomic status. More recently, attention has been addressed to broader social risk factors, such as bullying in adolescents, suicide contagion, sexual orientation, and the popular media. Further empirical evidence is needed to advance our understanding of suicidal youth, develop better assessment tools, and formulate effective prevention and treatment programs. Suicidal behavior remains an important clinical problem and major cause of death in youth. Social factors may be at least as important as genetics. Advancing our understanding of underlying cultural and sociological issues in youth suicide will help clinicians achieve more efficient prediction, prevention and treatment.

  1. Suicide to harass others: clues from mythology to understanding suicide bombing attacks.

    PubMed

    Preti, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    Suicide by revenge, the Samsonic suicide, and the suicide by devotio, all described in classical mythology and also reported in the ethnographic literature, belong to the same class of suicidal behaviors as kamikaze suicide and the suicide bombing attack: suicide to harass and burden others or suicide with a hostile intent. The lack of a social dimension to share in a positive manner may lead an individual to integrate him/herself in another social structure, e.g., a military organization, which allows the individual to express his/her desires and personal identity only by destroying others and themselves. The dynamics of these forms of suicide are also likely to work in other displays of life-threatening behavior, such as family annihilation, mass murder, and spree killing. A more thorough investigation of the dynamics operating in suicide bombing attacks could, therefore, contribute to preventative strategies against violence at large.

  2. [The risk of suicide].

    PubMed

    Cremniter, D; Despierre, P G; Batista, G

    1998-12-19

    A certain number of historical elements including the progressive loss of religious values and the fact that suicide is considered to be an integral part of medical knowledge must be taken into consideration when assessing the risk of suicide. The sociological and psychoanalytical approaches attempt to help draw the suicidal subject out of the his/her personal implication by affecting the social and subconscious aspects of the problem respectively. Other elements such as psychiatric, sociocultural, biological and psychopathological factors are also involved in evaluating the risk of suicide. Durkheim's analysis of the social, familial and occupational factors observed in suicide remains pertinent for assessing risk. Psychiatric disorders are also highly significant risk factors since some type of disorder is found in approximately 90% of all suicide victims. Affective disorders including rapidly alternating bipolar behavior, psychoses, particularly schizophrenia, and borderline personality are the most frequently observed, especially when associated with certain types of behavior such as drug or alcohol abuse. The risk related to other factors such as suicidal behavior (attempts or ideation) is independent of the psychiatric illness. For example, the risk of successful suicide is 30 greater the year after an attempted suicide than in the normal population. There are no known clinical means, notably psychometric, which can successfully predict the imminence of suicide. Recent studies on brain monoamine levels have shown that a lower 5-HIAA level does play some role in suicidal behavior, particularly violent suicide, although there is no predictive power for normality. It is important to recall that certain advances in the field of psychopathic illnesses offer new insight into concepts such as the death instinct and the suicidal act itself.

  3. The relationship between posttraumatic stress symptomatology and suicidal behavior in school-based adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mazza, J J

    2000-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology and suicidal behavior, specifically suicidal ideation and suicide attempt history, while controlling for depression and gender in 106 adolescents in an urban high school. Participants completed self-report measures of the Adolescent Psychopathology Scales-Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Subscale (APS-PTS), the APS-Suicide Attempt History (APS-SAH), the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire-Junior (SIQ-JR), and the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale (RADS). Analyses were conducted using a hierarchical multiple regression design to account for the relationship between PTSD symptomatology and depression. Regression results showed that after controlling for depression and gender, PTSD symptomatology was significantly related to suicidal ideation and showed a trend toward suicide attempt history. In addition, adolescents with high levels of PTSD symptomatology were more likely than peers with "average" levels of PTSD symptomatology to be currently thinking about suicide and to have made a past suicide attempt. These findings show that PTSD symptomatology has a unique relationship to adolescent suicidal behavior that cannot be explained by depression or gender. The importance of these results and their implications for future research are discussed.

  4. Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    ... suicidal often feels alone, trapped, or hopeless. Their reasoning and judgment can become colored by their depression ... or self-esteem  Access to a variety of clinical interventions and support for help seeking  Resiliency  Being ...

  5. Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    ... death in the United States. People may consider suicide when they are hopeless and can't see any other solution to their problems. Often it's related to serious depression, alcohol or substance abuse, or a major stressful ...

  6. Dialectical behavior therapy for adolescent binge eating, purging, suicidal behavior, and non-suicidal self-injury: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Sarah; Peterson, Claire

    2015-03-01

    There are few published randomized controlled trials examining treatment for symptoms of bulimia nervosa (BN) in adolescents. Additionally, many adolescents presenting for treatment for BN symptoms endorse co-occurring mood disturbances, suicidality, and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), and may not meet full Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV-Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnostic criteria for BN. In addition to the limited number of randomized controlled trials, published treatment studies of BN symptoms in adolescence do not specifically address the multiple comorbid symptoms that these adolescents often report. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of an outpatient dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) program for adolescents with symptoms of BN, suicide attempts, and NSSI. Ten eligible participants enrolled in the study; 3 dropped within 4 weeks of initiating treatment. In addition to binge eating and suicidal behavior, participants also endorsed a number of other comorbid mood disorders and substance abuse. Seven participants completed 6 months of treatment and 6-month follow-up assessments. Treatment included access to a crisis management system, individual therapy, skills training, and a therapist consultation team. At posttreatment, participants had significantly reduced self-harm; (Cohen's d = 1.35), frequency of objective binge episodes (Cohen's d = .46), frequency of purging (Cohen's d = .66), and Global Eating Disorder Examination scores (Cohen's d = .64). At follow-up, 6 participants were abstinent of NSSI; 3 participants were abstinent from binge eating. At follow-up, treatment gains were maintained and enhanced. Results indicate that it is feasible to address multiple forms of psychopathology during the treatment of BN symptoms in this age-group.

  7. Suicidal behavior in adolescents: stress and protection in different family contexts.

    PubMed

    Rubenstein, J L; Halton, A; Kasten, L; Rubin, C; Stechler, G

    1998-04-01

    Recent suicidal behavior was reported on a questionnaire by 14% of 272 high school students. Two-thirds of the suicidal teenagers neither received help nor disclosed their self-harm to anyone. Depression and stress--especially family suicidality, feelings of violation, and sexuality--increased the risk, as did parental separation, divorce, and most dramatically, remarriage. Family cohesiveness helped alleviate the risk in the nonintact families.

  8. Suicide Behavior among Latino and Latina Adolescents: Conceptual and Methodological Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte-Velez, Yovanska; Bernal, Guillermo

    2007-01-01

    Suicide is the cause of 11.7% of all deaths among youth and young adults aged 10 to 24 years in the United States (J. A. Grunbaum et al., 2004). Suicide is third leading cause of death for young Latinos/as aged 10 to 24 years (National Institute of Mental Health, 2001). Latino/a youth are at a greater risk of suicide behavior than other ethnic…

  9. Suicide Behavior among Latino and Latina Adolescents: Conceptual and Methodological Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte-Velez, Yovanska; Bernal, Guillermo

    2007-01-01

    Suicide is the cause of 11.7% of all deaths among youth and young adults aged 10 to 24 years in the United States (J. A. Grunbaum et al., 2004). Suicide is third leading cause of death for young Latinos/as aged 10 to 24 years (National Institute of Mental Health, 2001). Latino/a youth are at a greater risk of suicide behavior than other ethnic…

  10. Intention to Enact and Enactment of Gatekeeper Behaviors for Suicide Prevention: an Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    PubMed

    Kuhlman, Shane T W; Walch, Susan E; Bauer, Kristina N; Glenn, April D

    2017-08-01

    Gatekeeper training for suicide prevention was evaluated on a college campus to examine the impact of training on gatekeeper enactment of behaviors in support of suicide prevention and identify predictors of enactment of gatekeeper behaviors. Trained gatekeepers (N = 216) displayed greater perceived knowledge and self-efficacy for suicide prevention and reported higher rates of self-reported actual gatekeeper behaviors, including inquiring about suicidal ideation and referring for mental health treatment when they encountered someone in distress, compared to their untrained counterparts (N = 169). Consistent with the Theory of Planned Behavior, SEM results indicated that attitudes, self-efficacy, and perceived knowledge explained intentions to engage in gatekeeper behaviors, accounting for 59% of the variance in intentions to inquire about suicidal ideation and supporting the role of attitudes and perceived behavioral control in intentions to act. These intentions explained self-reported actual gatekeeper behaviors among participants who encountered someone in distress, with each one-point increase in intention associated with nearly twice the likelihood of both inquiring about suicidal ideation and referring someone for mental health care. On the other hand, self-reported situational barriers were associated with a decreased likelihood of referral behavior, indicating the role of actual behavioral control over volitional actions. Findings support the value of gatekeeper training for promoting factors that influence the likelihood of action on behalf of suicide prevention.

  11. Cortisol reactivity and suicidal behavior: Investigating the role of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responses to stress in suicide attempters and ideators.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Daryl B; Green, Jessica A; Ferguson, Eamonn; O'Carroll, Ronan E; O'Connor, Rory C

    2017-01-01

    Every 40s a person dies by suicide somewhere in the world. The causes of suicidal behavior are not fully understood. Dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, as measured by cortisol levels, is one potential risk factor. The current study aimed to investigate whether cortisol reactivity to a laboratory stress task differentiated individuals who had previously made a suicide attempt from those who had thought about suicide (suicide ideators) and control participants. One hundred and sixty participants were recruited to a previous attempt, a suicidal ideation or a control group. Participants completed background questionnaires before completing the Maastricht Acute Stress Test (MAST). Cortisol levels were assessed throughout the stress task. Measures of suicide behavior were measured at baseline, 1 month and 6 month follow-up. Participants who had made a previous suicide attempt exhibited significantly lower aggregate cortisol levels during the MAST compared to participants in the control group; suicide ideators were intermediate to both groups. This effect, however, was driven by participants who made an attempt within the past year, and to some degree by those with a family history of attempt. Participants who made a suicide attempt and had a family history of suicide exhibited the lowest levels of cortisol in response to stress. Finally, lower levels of cortisol in response to the MAST were associated with higher levels of suicidal ideation at 1-month follow-up in the suicide attempter group. These results are consistent with other findings indicating that blunted HPA axis activity is associated with some forms of suicidal behavior. The challenge for researchers is to elucidate the precise causal mechanisms linking stress, cortisol and suicide risk.

  12. Social work research on African Americans and suicidal behavior: a systematic 25-year review.

    PubMed

    Joe, Sean; Niedermeier, Danielle M

    2008-11-01

    Suicide among African Americans is a neglected topic. Social workers practice in both clinical and nonclinical settings, and as the largest occupational group of mental health professionals, they have a unique opportunity to reach this underserved group. However, little is known about social work's empirical knowledge base for recognition and treatment of suicidal behavior among African Americans. The authors performed a systematic critical review of published articles by social workers on African American suicide and suicidal behavior, to ascertain the state of social worker's contribution to and knowledge of suicide risk factors and effective treatments. They conducted Web-based (for example, Social Work Abstracts, PsycINFO, PubMed, JSTOR) and manual searches of suicide research conducted by social work investigators and published in peer-reviewed journals from 1980 to 2005. References cited in the articles were used to identify candidate articles. According to the search results, social workers contributed only 11 empirical research articles focusing on African American suicide or nonfatal suicidal behavior. Risk factors for suicide are reviewed, and the implications for clinical social work practice and research are addressed.

  13. Social Work Research on African Americans and Suicidal Behavior: A Systematic 25-year Review

    PubMed Central

    Joe, Sean; Niedermeier, Danielle M.

    2009-01-01

    Suicide among African Americans is a neglected topic. Social workers practice in both clinical and nonclinical settings, and as the largest occupational group of mental health professionals, they have a unique opportunity to reach this underserved group. However, little is known about social work’s empirical knowledge base for recognition and treatment of suicidal behavior among African Americans. The authors performed a systematic critical review of published articles by social workers on African American suicide and suicidal behavior, to ascertain the state of social worker’s contribution to and knowledge of suicide risk factors and effective treatments. They conducted Web-based (for example, Social Work Abstracts, PsycINFO, PubMed, JSTOR) and manual searches of suicide research conducted by social work investigators and published in peer-reviewed journals from 1980 to 2005. References cited in the articles were used to identify candidate articles. According to the search results, social workers contributed only 11 empirical research articles focusing on African American suicide or nonfatal suicidal behavior. Risk factors for suicide are reviewed, and the implications for clinical social work practice and research are addressed. PMID:19070272

  14. Poor response to antidepressants predicts new suicidal ideas and behavior in depressed outpatients.

    PubMed

    Courtet, Philippe; Jaussent, Isabelle; Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; Gorwood, Philip

    2014-10-01

    Only a few studies have investigated the factors associated with suicidal behavior after antidepressant treatment onset in adults. We examined the specific predictors of de novo suicidal ideas or attempts among depressed patients in the community, including subjects potentially at risk of suicidal behaviors, who initiated a new antidepressant treatment. A large set of GPs and psychiatrists throughout France followed-up, for 6 weeks, 4357 outpatients for whom an antidepressant drug was prescribed. Dimensions related with antidepressant-induced suicidal events, such as depression, anxiety or hopelessness, were assessed longitudinally using univariate and multivariate approaches among subjects with treatment-emergent suicide ideation or attempts. New suicidal ideas were observed in 9% of patients with no suicidal ideation at baseline (n=81), while suicidal attempts were reported for 1.7% of the sample during the 6-week observation period (n=75). The onset of suicidal ideas and attempts was associated with the initial features of the patients (baseline level of anxiety, past history of suicide attempts and alcohol misuse) and the non-improvement of depression. Worsening of depressive symptoms during the follow-up increased the onset of new suicidal ideas (OR=5.67, p<0.001) and attempts (OR=2.60, p=0.002), corresponding to 67.5% and 56.5% of attributable risk respectively. When the analyses are restricted to the occurrence of suicidal ideas or attempts, the link between antidepressants and suicide risk might be more adequately explained by a poor response to antidepressant treatment rather than by a direct trigger-effect. This naturalistic study is limited by the use of non-structured diagnoses and self-report outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  15. Suicidal Behavior Differs Among Early and Late Adolescents Treated With Antidepressant Agents

    PubMed Central

    Hysinger, Erik B.; Callahan, S. Todd; Caples, T. Lynne; Fuchs, D. Catherine; Shelton, Richard

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify circumstances and characteristics of suicidal behavior among early (aged 10–14 years) and late (aged 15–18 years) adolescents from a cohort of youth who were prescribed antidepressant medication. METHODS: In-depth reviews of all available medical records were performed for 250 randomly chosen confirmed episodes of suicidal behavior identified as part of a large retrospective cohort study of antidepressant users and suicidal behavior. Study data were obtained from Tennessee Medicaid records and death certificates from January 1, 1995, to December 31, 2006. Medical records and autopsy reports for cases identified from electronic data were adjudicated by 2 investigators blinded to exposure status and classified by using a validated scale. RESULTS: Of the 250 cases reviewed, 65.6% were female and 26.4% were aged 10 to 14 years. Medication ingestion was the most frequent method of suicidal behavior for both early and late adolescents; however, early adolescents were significantly more likely to use hanging as a method of suicide. Nearly one-half of the adolescents had previously attempted suicide. Early adolescents were significantly more likely to have a history of sexual abuse and significantly less likely to have a history of substance abuse. Early adolescents were also significantly more likely than older adolescents to have a history of a psychotic disorder and to report hallucinations before the suicide attempt. CONCLUSION: Suicidal behavior among early and late adolescents prescribed antidepressant medication differed in terms of methods used, previous psychiatric history, and proximal symptoms. PMID:21824883

  16. Subway Surveillance Video Provides Clues to Suicidal Behavior

    MedlinePlus

    ... surveillance could help identify people at risk of suicide attempts in subway stations, Canadian researchers report. They reviewed closed circuit TV footage of 66 previous suicide attempts at a subway station in Montreal. They ...

  17. Single-Item Measurement of Suicidal Behaviors: Validity and Consequences of Misclassification

    PubMed Central

    Millner, Alexander J.; Lee, Michael D.; Nock, Matthew K.

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of death worldwide. Although research has made strides in better defining suicidal behaviors, there has been less focus on accurate measurement. Currently, the widespread use of self-report, single-item questions to assess suicide ideation, plans and attempts may contribute to measurement problems and misclassification. We examined the validity of single-item measurement and the potential for statistical errors. Over 1,500 participants completed an online survey containing single-item questions regarding a history of suicidal behaviors, followed by questions with more precise language, multiple response options and narrative responses to examine the validity of single-item questions. We also conducted simulations to test whether common statistical tests are robust against the degree of misclassification produced by the use of single-items. We found that 11.3% of participants that endorsed a single-item suicide attempt measure engaged in behavior that would not meet the standard definition of a suicide attempt. Similarly, 8.8% of those who endorsed a single-item measure of suicide ideation endorsed thoughts that would not meet standard definitions of suicide ideation. Statistical simulations revealed that this level of misclassification substantially decreases statistical power and increases the likelihood of false conclusions from statistical tests. Providing a wider range of response options for each item reduced the misclassification rate by approximately half. Overall, the use of single-item, self-report questions to assess the presence of suicidal behaviors leads to misclassification, increasing the likelihood of statistical decision errors. Improving the measurement of suicidal behaviors is critical to increase understanding and prevention of suicide. PMID:26496707

  18. High Risk Suicidal Behavior in Veterans - Assessment of Predictors and Efficacy of Dialectical Behavioral Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    parasuicidal events, treatment compliance, depressed mood, substance abuse and hopelessness. This aim involves recruiting 120 veterans off the...Ideation scale) Secondary Outcome Measures by Treatment Group- Figure 3- Depression (measured by the Beck Depression Scale) Figure 4- Hopelessness...Behavioral Therapy (DBT) vs. treatment as usual (TAU) on suicidal behavior as a primary outcome measure. A second aim of the project is to examine group

  19. Integrative Behavioral Couple Therapy.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Andrew; Doss, Brian D

    2017-02-01

    Integrative Behavioral Couple Therapy (IBCT) is based in part on traditional behavioral couple therapy but expands both the conceptualization of couple distress and of intervention. The efficacy of IBCT has been supported in three clinical trials, including one with five year follow-up. Additionally, the effectiveness of IBCT in the real world has been supported through a system-wide dissemination effort in the United States Department of Veteran's Affairs. The reach of IBCT has also been extended through an online program, www.OurRelationship.com, based on IBCT. A nationwide clinical trial with a representative sample of the US population demonstrated the effectiveness of this program on both relationship and individual variables.

  20. Parenting behavior and the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide: a mediated moderation analysis with adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cero, Ian; Sifers, Sarah K

    2013-09-25

    Multiple features of parenting have been associated with development of suicide-related behaviors in adolescents. However, findings are inconsistent on which aspects of parenting are protective or harmful and why. This investigation sought to reconcile these discrepancies through the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS), which argues that suicide ideation and the capability to attempt suicide are etiologically distinct. Responses of 200 Midwestern public school students to the Profiles of Student Life: Attitudes and Behavior survey were analyzed using mediated moderation analysis. Participant sex significantly moderated the relationships between parenting variables and suicide attempts and these relationships were accounted for by IPTS variables. Specifically, the effect of parental support on suicide attempts was twice as strong for girls. Self-esteem mediated this interaction (b=-.011, SE(boot)=.008, p<.05, κ(2)=.07). Conversely, the effect of parental boundaries on suicide attempts was significant for boys, but not for girls, and was mediated by exposure to violence (b=.029, SE(boot)=.021, p<.05, κ(2)=.07). This study involved retrospective report with proxy-measures of IPTS constructs. Future research should consider multiple informants and additional measures. Findings highlight potential mechanisms by which parenting behaviors could influence sex differences in adolescent suicide-relate behaviors, and that some parenting behavior is associated with reduced adolescent suicide attempts. Findings also suggest the IPTS is able to account for previously identified inconsistencies in the effects of parenting behaviors on adolescent suicide-related behaviors. Implications for theory and intervention are discussed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Suicidal Behavior in Preadolescent Children: A Growing Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safran, Stephen P.; Lehman, Cynthia J.

    1987-01-01

    Preadolescent suicide appears to be increasing, although less than 1% of the attempts are successful. Several high risk factors of preadolescent suicide including depression, family pathology, and a child's cognitive concept of death have been identified. Educators should refer children who threaten or attempt suicide to mental health services.…

  2. Help-Seeking Behavior Prior to Nearly Lethal Suicide Attempts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Lauren Seymour; Ikeda, Robin M.; Kresnow, Marcie-jo

    2002-01-01

    The association between help-seeking and nearly lethal suicide attempts was evaluated using data from a population-based, case-control study. Measures of help-seeking included type of consultant contacted, and whether suicide was discussed. Findings suggest efforts to better understand the role of help-seeking in suicide prevention deserves…

  3. Suicide Behaviors in Adult Inpatients with Mental Disorders in Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Qi; Fan, Hua; Di, Fei; Xia, Xue; Long, Haiying; Zhu, Huiping

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study examined the tendency and suicidal behavior rates of Chinese adult inpatients with different types of mental disorders from 2010 to 2015. The aim was to provide some interesting clues for further studies. Methods: Adult patients with mental disorders who were hospitalized in Beijing Anding hospital from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2015 were included. Chi-square tests were used to compare the difference among inpatients with mental disorders by gender and year. Frequency, trend and suicidal behavior rates of inpatients with mental disorders were graphed. Results: A total of 17,244 psychiatric adult inpatients were included in our study. About 53.2% of the inpatients had mood disorders, followed by schizophrenia, which accounted for 34.6%. The proportion of female inpatients with mental disorders was larger than that of males (52.6% to 47.4%). Of the total, 3296 psychiatric inpatients were recognized as having suicidal behaviors. The rate of suicidal behavior among all inpatients was 19.1%, and it varied over the years. The suicidal behavior rate of female inpatients with mood disorders was much higher than that of the corresponding male inpatients. Conclusions: The presence of suicidal behavior varied among people with different types of mental disorders. For each type of mental illness, identifying the risk of specific suicide behavior would help tailor-make preventive efforts accordingly. PMID:28273823

  4. Are LGBT populations at a higher risk for suicidal behaviors in Australia? Research findings and implications.

    PubMed

    Skerrett, Delaney M; Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to review the Australian literature about suicidality in minority sexual identity and/or behavior groups in order to determine the evidence base for their reported higher vulnerability to suicidal behaviors than heterosexual and non-transgendered individuals in the Australian context, as well as to identify the factors that are predictive of suicidal behaviors in these groups in Australia. A literature search for all available years (until the end of 2012) was conducted using the databases Scopus, Medline, and Proquest for articles published in English in peer-reviewed academic journals. All peer-reviewed publications that provided empirical evidence for prevalence and predictive factors of suicidal behaviors among LGBT individuals (or a subset thereof) in Australia were included. Reference lists were also scrutinized to identify "gray" literature for inclusion. The results revealed that there is only limited research from Australia. Nevertheless, although no population-based studies have been published, research indicates that sexual minorities are indeed at a higher risk for suicidal behaviors. In order to further the understanding of suicidal behaviors and potential prevention among LGBT groups in the Australia, further research is needed, particularly on fatal suicidal behaviors.

  5. Suicidal Behavior Outcomes of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Longitudinal Study of Adjudicated Girls.

    PubMed

    Rabinovitch, Sara M; Kerr, David C R; Leve, Leslie D; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2015-08-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) histories are prevalent among adolescent girls in the juvenile justice system (JJS) and may contribute to their high rates of suicidal behavior. Among 166 JJS girls who participated in an intervention trial, baseline CSA and covariates were examined as predictors of suicide attempt and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) reported at long-term follow-up (7-12 years later). Early forced CSA was related to lifetime suicide attempt and NSSI history and (marginally) to postbaseline attempt; effects were not mediated by anxiety or depressive symptoms. Findings suggest that earlier victimization and younger entry into JJS are linked with suicide attempt and NSSI.

  6. The Role of Optimism in the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Kathy A.; Wingate, LaRicka R.

    2011-01-01

    A possible relationship between Joiner's (2005) interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior and optimism was investigated by examining the ability of optimism to act as a moderator of perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and acquired capability to engage in self-injury in the prediction of suicidal ideation. Results…

  7. The Role of Optimism in the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Kathy A.; Wingate, LaRicka R.

    2011-01-01

    A possible relationship between Joiner's (2005) interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior and optimism was investigated by examining the ability of optimism to act as a moderator of perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and acquired capability to engage in self-injury in the prediction of suicidal ideation. Results…

  8. Involvement in Bullying and Suicide-Related Behavior at 11 Years: A Prospective Birth Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winsper, Catherine; Lereya, Tanya; Zanarini, Mary; Wolke, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the prospective link between involvement in bullying (bully, victim, bully/victim), and subsequent suicide ideation and suicidal/self-injurious behavior, in preadolescent children in the United Kingdom. Method: A total of 6,043 children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort were assessed to…

  9. Preoccupations with Death in "Normal" Children: The Relationship to Suicidal Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeffer, Cynthia R.

    1990-01-01

    Interviewed 101 children (ages 6-12 years) and parents concerning child's behavior, emotions, development, ego functioning, concepts of death, and family history. Approximately 12 percent of children expressed suicidal ideas or acts. Suicidal children had significantly more intense preoccupations with death than did nonsuicidal children. (Includes…

  10. Reaching Graduate Students at Risk for Suicidal Behavior through the Interactive Screening Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffitt, Lauren B.; Garcia-Williams, Amanda; Berg, John P.; Calderon, Michelle E.; Haas, Ann P.; Kaslow, Nadine J.

    2014-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is a significant concern among graduate students. Because many suicidal graduate students do not access mental health services, programs to connect them to resources are essential. This article describes the Interactive Screening Program (ISP), an anonymous, Web-based tool for screening and engaging at-risk graduate school…

  11. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Reduces Suicidal Ideation in Schizophrenia: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bateman, Katy; Hansen, Lars; Turkington, Douglas; Kingdon, David

    2007-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia are at high risk of suicide. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has been shown to reduce symptoms in schizophrenia. This study examines whether CBT also changes the level of suicidal ideation in patients with schizophrenia compared to a control group. Ninety ambulatory patients with symptoms of schizophrenia resistant to…

  12. Relationship between Religious Coping and Suicidal Behaviors among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molock, Sherry Davis; Puri, Rupa; Matlin, Samantha; Barksdale, Crystal

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated whether hopelessness and depression were risk factors for suicidal thoughts and behaviors in African American adolescents and looked at whether religious participation and religious coping protected these students from suicidality. Participants were 212 African American high school students (133 females, 79 males). The…

  13. Teenagers' Attitudes about Coping Strategies and Help-Seeking Behavior for Suicidality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Madelyn S.; Velting, Drew; Kleinman, Marjorie; Lucas, Christopher; Thomas, John Graham; Chung, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To identify youths' attitudes about coping and help-seeking strategies for suicidal ideation/behavior and examine their demographic and clinical correlates. Method: A self-report survey was completed by high school students (N = 2,419) in six New York State schools from 1998 through 2001. The relationship between suicide attitudes and…

  14. Relationship between Religious Coping and Suicidal Behaviors among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molock, Sherry Davis; Puri, Rupa; Matlin, Samantha; Barksdale, Crystal

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated whether hopelessness and depression were risk factors for suicidal thoughts and behaviors in African American adolescents and looked at whether religious participation and religious coping protected these students from suicidality. Participants were 212 African American high school students (133 females, 79 males). The…

  15. Involvement in Bullying and Suicide-Related Behavior at 11 Years: A Prospective Birth Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winsper, Catherine; Lereya, Tanya; Zanarini, Mary; Wolke, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the prospective link between involvement in bullying (bully, victim, bully/victim), and subsequent suicide ideation and suicidal/self-injurious behavior, in preadolescent children in the United Kingdom. Method: A total of 6,043 children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort were assessed to…

  16. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Reduces Suicidal Ideation in Schizophrenia: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bateman, Katy; Hansen, Lars; Turkington, Douglas; Kingdon, David

    2007-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia are at high risk of suicide. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has been shown to reduce symptoms in schizophrenia. This study examines whether CBT also changes the level of suicidal ideation in patients with schizophrenia compared to a control group. Ninety ambulatory patients with symptoms of schizophrenia resistant to…

  17. Preoccupations with Death in "Normal" Children: The Relationship to Suicidal Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeffer, Cynthia R.

    1990-01-01

    Interviewed 101 children (ages 6-12 years) and parents concerning child's behavior, emotions, development, ego functioning, concepts of death, and family history. Approximately 12 percent of children expressed suicidal ideas or acts. Suicidal children had significantly more intense preoccupations with death than did nonsuicidal children. (Includes…

  18. An exploratory study of nonsuicidal self-injury and suicidal behaviors in adolescent Latinas.

    PubMed

    Gulbas, Lauren E; Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; De Luca, Susan M; Tyler, Tee R; Zayas, Luis H

    2015-07-01

    To date, there is little research to validate empirically differences between nonsuicidal self-injurious behavior (NSSI) and attempted suicide among Latina adolescents. Understanding the characteristics and contextual features of self-harmful behaviors among Latina teens is a critical public health and social justice matter given the disproportionate rates of attempted suicide and anticipated population growth of this vulnerable group. In this article, we draw on an ecodevelopmental model to focus attention on factors in the sociocultural environment that shape suicidal behaviors and NSSIs. Through analysis of qualitative interviews conducted with girls who used NSSI (n = 18), attempted suicide (n = 29), used NSSI and attempted suicide (n = 8,) and had no reported lifetime history of self-harm (n = 28), we describe the sociocultural factors that shaped psychosocial vulnerabilities and gave rise to decisions to use NSSI or attempt suicide. Our analysis revealed that adolescents who engaged in NSSI perceived their negative feelings as something that could be controlled through self-injurious acts, whereas powerlessness was a theme underlying the emotional states of girls who attempted suicide. When NSSI ceased to function as a mechanism for control, girls came to sudden decisions to attempt suicide. Most teens identified specific, and often multiple, situations that induced intense affective states and shaped decisions to inflict self-harm. Two situational experiences emerged as particularly salient and promising for subsequent studies on self-harmful behaviors among Latina adolescents: transnational stress and bullying. We describe each of these and offer suggestions for future research and practice.

  19. Specific Coping Behaviors in Relation to Adolescent Depression and Suicidal Ideation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwitz, Adam G.; Hill, Ryan M.; King, Cheryl A.

    2011-01-01

    The coping strategies used by adolescents to deal with stress may have implications for the development of depression and suicidal ideation. This study examined coping categories and specific coping behaviors used by adolescents to assess the relation of coping to depression and suicidal ideation. In hierarchical regression models, the specific…

  20. The Role of Attachment Styles and Interpersonal Problems in Suicide-Related Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stepp, Stephanie D.; Morse, Jennifer Q.; Yaggi, Kirsten E.; Reynolds, Sarah K.; Reed, L. Ian; Pilkonis, Paul A.

    2008-01-01

    The relationships among adult attachment styles, interpersonal problems, and categories of suicide-related behaviors (i.e., self-harm, suicide attempts, and their co-occurrence) were examined in a predominantly psychiatric sample (N = 406). Both anxious and avoidant attachment styles were associated with interpersonal problems. In turn, specific…

  1. Adolescent Suicidal Behavior: Associations with Preadolescent Physical Abuse and Selected Risk and Protective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salzinger, Suzanne; Rosario, Margaret; Feldman, Richard S.; Ng-Mak, Daisy S.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether preadolescent physical abuse raises the risk of adolescent suicidal behavior, to examine potential mediators and moderators of the relationship between preadolescent abuse and adolescent suicidality, and to examine whether distal (preadolescent) risk factors add to proximal (adolescent) factors in predicting…

  2. Reaching Graduate Students at Risk for Suicidal Behavior through the Interactive Screening Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffitt, Lauren B.; Garcia-Williams, Amanda; Berg, John P.; Calderon, Michelle E.; Haas, Ann P.; Kaslow, Nadine J.

    2014-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is a significant concern among graduate students. Because many suicidal graduate students do not access mental health services, programs to connect them to resources are essential. This article describes the Interactive Screening Program (ISP), an anonymous, Web-based tool for screening and engaging at-risk graduate school…

  3. Crisis Counselors' Perceptions and Assessment of Suicidal Behavior Among Hurricane Survivors Receiving Crisis Counseling Services.

    PubMed

    Brown, Lisa M; Framingham, Julie L; Frahm, Kathryn A; Wolf, Laurie D

    2015-06-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the awareness of risk for suicidal behaviors and perspectives of Project Recovery counselors who provided crisis counseling services to hurricane survivors. The Short Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Rating Interview-Extended, a quantitative disaster mental health measure, was used to assess distress and dysfunction to the recent hurricanes. Project Recovery counselor data were collected through a 22-item qualitative interview. Seven out of 207 clients (3.4%) endorsed the quantitative item measuring suicidal ideation. Clients who reported suicidal ideation had significantly higher scores on items indicating a loss of enjoyment, feelings of depression, feeling less able to handle stress, and other mental health items. Counselor responses fell into 5 major themes: Assessment and Action, Client Characteristics, Services, Counselor Training and Preparedness, and Future Directions. Suicidal behavior is a serious mental health emergency, yet it remains a challenging issue as suicidal behaviors are complex and disaster survivors with suicidal ideation may experience intense psychological reactions to the event. In order to provide competent care to survivors experiencing suicidal thoughts or behaviors, the need for counselors to receive adequate training in suicide assessment and management is essential.

  4. Examining the interplay among family, culture, and latina teen suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Gulbas, Lauren E; Zayas, Luis H

    2015-05-01

    In this article, we explore the relationships among culture, family, and attempted suicide by U.S. Latinas. We analyzed qualitative interviews conducted with Latina teen suicide attempters (n = 10) and their parents. We also incorporated data collected from adolescents with no reported history of self-harm (n = 10) and their parents to examine why some individuals turned to suicide under similar experiences of cultural conflict. Our results reveal that Latina teens who attempted suicide lacked the resources to forge meaningful social ties. Without the tools to bridge experiences of cultural contradiction, the girls in our study described feeling isolated and alone. Under such conditions, adolescents turned to behaviors aimed at self-destruction. Unlike their peers who attempted suicide, adolescent Latinas with no lifetime history of attempted suicide were able to mobilize resources in ways that balanced experiences of acculturative tension by creating supportive relationships with other individuals.

  5. Associations among depression, suicidal behavior, and quality of life in patients with human immunodeficiency virus

    PubMed Central

    Serafini, Gianluca; Montebovi, Franco; Lamis, Dorian A; Erbuto, Denise; Girardi, Paolo; Amore, Mario; Pompili, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the potential associations among major depression, quality of life, and suicidal behavior in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients. METHODS: A detailed MEDLINE search was carried out to identify all articles and book chapters in English published from January 1995 to January 2015. RESULTS: Based on the main findings, the prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) ranged from 14.0% to 27.2%. Furthermore, the prevalence of suicidal ideation varied from 13.6% to 31.0% whereas, attempted suicides were reported to range from 3.9% to 32.7%. Interestingly, various associated risk factors for both depression and suicide were identified in HIV patients. Finally, consistent associations were reported among MDD, suicidal ideation, and poor quality of life in individuals living with HIV. CONCLUSION: Although additional studies are needed to elucidate this complex association, our results suggest the importance of early detection of both MDD and suicidality in patients living with HIV. PMID:26279991

  6. Examining the Interplay Among Family, Culture, and Latina Teen Suicidal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Gulbas, Lauren E.; Zayas, Luis H.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we explored the relationships among culture, family, and attempted suicide by U.S. Latinas. We analyzed qualitative interviews conducted with Latina teen suicide attempters (n = 10) and their parents. We also incorporated data collected from adolescents with no reported history of self-harm (n = 10) and their parents to examine why some individuals turned to suicide under similar experiences of cultural conflict. Our results revealed that Latina teens who attempted suicide lacked the resources to forge meaningful social ties. Without the tools to bridge experiences of cultural contradiction, girls in our sample described feeling isolated and alone. Under such conditions, adolescents turned to behaviors aimed at self-destruction. Unlike their peers who attempted suicide, adolescent Latinas with no lifetime history of attempted suicide were able to mobilize resources in ways that balanced experiences of acculturative tension by creating supportive relationships with other individuals. PMID:25288407

  7. Low validity of Google Trends for behavioral forecasting of national suicide rates.

    PubMed

    Tran, Ulrich S; Andel, Rita; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas; Till, Benedikt; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Voracek, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Recent research suggests that search volumes of the most popular search engine worldwide, Google, provided via Google Trends, could be associated with national suicide rates in the USA, UK, and some Asian countries. However, search volumes have mostly been studied in an ad hoc fashion, without controls for spurious associations. This study evaluated the validity and utility of Google Trends search volumes for behavioral forecasting of suicide rates in the USA, Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. Suicide-related search terms were systematically collected and respective Google Trends search volumes evaluated for availability. Time spans covered 2004 to 2010 (USA, Switzerland) and 2004 to 2012 (Germany, Austria). Temporal associations of search volumes and suicide rates were investigated with time-series analyses that rigorously controlled for spurious associations. The number and reliability of analyzable search volume data increased with country size. Search volumes showed various temporal associations with suicide rates. However, associations differed both across and within countries and mostly followed no discernable patterns. The total number of significant associations roughly matched the number of expected Type I errors. These results suggest that the validity of Google Trends search volumes for behavioral forecasting of national suicide rates is low. The utility and validity of search volumes for the forecasting of suicide rates depend on two key assumptions ("the population that conducts searches consists mostly of individuals with suicidal ideation", "suicide-related search behavior is strongly linked with suicidal behavior"). We discuss strands of evidence that these two assumptions are likely not met. Implications for future research with Google Trends in the context of suicide research are also discussed.

  8. Correlation Between Insight Level and Suicidal Behavior/Ideation in Bipolar Depression.

    PubMed

    de Assis da Silva, Rafael; Mograbi, Daniel C; Bifano, Jaqueline; Santana, Cristina M T; Cheniaux, Elie

    2017-03-01

    Suicide is a relatively common outcome along the course of bipolar disorder. Studies have shown a positive correlation between ideation or attempts of suicide and higher insight in schizophrenic patients. Nevertheless there are still few studies that evaluate the relationship between suicide and insight in mood disorders. Evaluate the relationship between insight and suicidal ideation or behavior in bipolar depression. A group of 165 bipolar patients were followed up along 1 year. Each patient's mood was assessed in every consultation according to DSM-IV-TR criteria. Suicidal ideation and behavior were prospectively assessed through item 3 of HAM-D whenever a major depressive episode was diagnosed. Insight was evaluated through the Insight Scale for Affective Disorders. A history of suicidal attempts was associated with worse insight in 60 patients with one episode of bipolar depression. The difference remained even when the supposed effect of depression over insight was controlled. No correlation between current suicidal ideation and insight level was found though. Our results suggest that a history of suicide attempts may correlate with higher impairment of insight in bipolar depression. No relationship was found between current suicidal ideation and insight.

  9. The development of effective message content for suicide intervention: theory of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Shemanski Aldrich, Rosalie; Cerel, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Each year there are over 31,000 suicides in the United States, constituting a significant problem in every respect. It is important for research efforts to focus on the communication elements involved in suicide prevention because the messages produced by individuals close to those who have suicidal thoughts have the potential to save a life. The current manuscript presents the theory of planned behavior (TPB) as a foundation to increase understanding of what message content would be most effective to convince an individual to intervene when someone is suicidal. Suicide and suicidal behaviors are briefly reviewed, as is the TPB. Then it is argued how and why TPB can help construct persuasive messages. The authors suggest that TPB guide the content of persuasive messages. Messages created in combination of persuasive theories with TPB are likely to encourage an individual to intervene when someone is suicidal. A key element to suicide prevention is intervention by close others. Use of TPB provides an increased understanding of how to persuade close individuals to intervene when an individual is suicidal.

  10. Socio-neuro risk factors for suicidal behavior in criminal offenders with psychotic disorders.

    PubMed

    Harenski, Carla L; Brook, Michael; Kosson, David S; Bustillo, Juan R; Harenski, Keith A; Caldwell, Michael F; Van Rybroek, Gregory J; Koenigs, Michael; Decety, Jean; Thornton, David M; Calhoun, Vince D; Kiehl, Kent A

    2017-01-01

    Relative to the general population, individuals with psychotic disorders have a higher risk of suicide. Suicide risk is also elevated in criminal offenders. Thus, psychotic-disordered individuals with antisocial tendencies may form an especially high-risk group. We built upon prior risk analyses by examining whether neurobehavioral correlates of social cognition were associated with suicidal behavior in criminal offenders with psychotic disorders. We assessed empathic accuracy and brain structure in four groups: (i) incarcerated offenders with psychotic disorders and past suicide attempts, (ii) incarcerated offenders with psychotic disorders and no suicide attempts, (iii) incarcerated offenders without psychotic disorders and (iv) community non-offenders without psychotic disorders. Established suicide risk variables were examined along with empathic accuracy and gray matter in brain regions implicated in social cognition. Relative to the other groups, offenders with psychotic disorders and suicide attempts had lower empathic accuracy and smaller temporal pole volumes. Empathic accuracy and temporal pole volumes were significantly associated with suicide attempts independent of other risk variables. The results indicate that brain and behavioral correlates of social cognition may add incremental value to models of suicide risk. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Prevalence of childhood trauma among U.S. Army soldiers with suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Perales, Rossybelle; Gallaway, M Shayne; Forys-Donahue, Kelly L; Spiess, Anita; Millikan, Amy M

    2012-09-01

    In 2009, suicide was reported to be the third leading cause of death among U.S. Army personnel. The increase of suicides in the Army indicates the need for additional research to better understand the problem. Research in civilian populations found that experiencing childhood trauma increases the risk for various negative health outcomes, including suicide and suicide attempts, during adulthood. To date, there has been very little focus on pre-existing mental health before joining the service because of a lack of existing data. Participants were active duty Army Soldiers who attempted or completed suicide as identified by the Department of Defense Suicide Event Report. Among Soldiers exhibiting suicidal behavior, analyses were completed to identify significant associations with specific types of childhood trauma experienced before joining the Army. The prevalence of childhood trauma in this population was 43.3% among the suicide cases and 64.7% among the attempt cases. The most common types of childhood trauma among Soldiers were family problems and abuse. The need for further research among military populations is clear given the high prevalence of childhood trauma found among these Soldiers with suicidal behavior and the lack of complete data for this population.

  12. Suicide by Insulin?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165701.html Suicide by Insulin? Self-harm and suicidal behavior may ... higher rates of depression, the researchers explained. And suicide or suicide attempts using insulin or other diabetes ...

  13. The underexamined association between posttraumatic stress disorder, medical illness and suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Dobry, Yuriy; Sher, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is concerning not only because of the severity and chronicity of its symptoms - including distressing nightmares, flashbacks, anxiety attacks and maladaptive patterns of avoidant and nearly paranoid behavior - but also because of the wide spectrum of clinical and social impairments it is tightly associated with. The most striking example of clinical morbidity associated with PTSD is the well-known increase in the risk of suicidal behavior. Given that PTSD and medical illnesses increase the likelihood of suicide separately and independently, it is reasonable to suggest that the risk of suicidal behavior differs between patients suffering from PTSD comorbid with medical illnesses and patients having either condition alone. The available data point toward a novel clinical notion, an altered risk of suicidal behavior in patients suffering from comorbid PTSD and medical illnesses. This area of overlap between medicine and psychiatry is still in its infancy, with many unanswered questions about the rate, patterns and psychobiological mechanisms of suicidal behavior in this patient population. The positive association between PTSD, medical illness and suicidal behavior that appears to exist in the adult population, most likely affects the pediatric population as well. Closer investigation into the significance of the association between chronic medical illnesses, PTSD and suicidality in children, adolescents and adults is necessary.

  14. The Role of Attachment Styles and Interpersonal Problems in Suicide-Related Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Stepp, Stephanie D.; Morse, Jennifer Q.; Yaggi, Kirsten E.; Reynolds, Sarah K.; Reed, L. Ian; Pilkonis, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    The relationships among adult attachment styles, interpersonal problems, and categories of suicide-related behaviors (i.e., self-harm, suicide attempts, and their co-occurrence) were examined in a predominantly psychiatric sample (N= 406). Both anxious and avoidant attachment styles were associated with interpersonal problems. In turn, specific interpersonal problems differentially mediated the relations between attachment style and type of suicide-related behaviors. These findings suggest the importance of distinguishing between these groups of behaviors in terms of etiological pathways, maintenance processes, and treatment interventions. PMID:19014310

  15. Suicidal behavior in the context of disrupted rhythmicity in bipolar disorder--data from an association study of suicide attempts with clock genes.

    PubMed

    Pawlak, Joanna; Dmitrzak-Weglarz, Monika; Maciukiewicz, Malgorzata; Wilkosc, Monika; Leszczynska-Rodziewicz, Anna; Zaremba, Dorota; Kapelski, Pawel; Hauser, Joanna

    2015-04-30

    Suicidal behavior exhibits both circadian and annual rhythms. We were seeking an association between selected candidate clock genes and suicidal behavior in bipolar patients. The study included 441 bipolar patients and 422 controls and we genotyped 41 SNPs of the CLOCK, ARNTL, TIMELESS, PER3 genes. The main positive findings built up associations between selected polymorphisms and.

  16. Irrational fear of AIDS associated with suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Kausch, Otto

    2004-07-01

    This article concerns patients who have an irrational conviction that they have AIDS, despite medical evidence to the contrary, and who, despite medical reassurance, go on to complete suicide or make serious suicide attempts. Patients with such irrational convictions often develop this symptom complex in the setting of extramarital affairs and subsequent feelings of guilt and shame. Two case reports are presented, one of completed suicide and one of serious attempted suicide. Both patients were on inpatient chemical dependency wards at the time of their suicidal acts. A comparison is made to syphilophobia. The literature on the irrational fear of AIDS and syphilophobia is reviewed. Although such cases are not common and suicidality among such patients is not common, it is helpful for clinicians to be aware of the potential risk for serious suicidal acts in patients who develop this irrational belief system.

  17. The Relationship Between Suicide Ideation, Behavioral Health, and College Academic Performance.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Susan M; Franklin, Cynthia; Yueqi, Yan; Johnson, Shannon; Brownson, Chris

    2016-07-01

    The impact of suicidal ideation on college students' academic performance has yet to be examined, yet mental health is often linked with academic performance. Underclassmen and upperclassmen were compared on behavioral health outcomes related to academic success (N = 26,457). Ideation (b = -0.05, p < .05), increased mental health (b = -0.03, p < .01) or substance use severity (b = -0.02, p < .01) was associated with lower GPAs. Underclassmen's behavioral health severity was related to lower GPA. Students reported higher GPAs when participating in extracurricular activities during the past year. Ideation, beyond mental health, is an important when assessing academic performance. Increasing students' connections benefits students experiencing behavioral concerns but also aids in suicide prevention initiatives and improves academic outcomes. Creating integrated health care systems on campus where physical, mental health and academic support services is crucial to offer solutions for students with severe or co-morbid mental health histories.

  18. The role of the serotonergic system in suicidal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Sadkowski, Marta; Dennis, Brittany; Clayden, Robert C; ElSheikh, Wala; Rangarajan, Sumathy; DeJesus, Jane; Samaan, Zainab

    2013-01-01

    Serotonin is a widely investigated neurotransmitter in several psychopathologies, including suicidal behavior (SB); however, its role extends to several physiological functions involving the nervous system, as well as the gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems. This review summarizes recent research into ten serotonergic genes related to SB. These genes – TPH1, TPH2, SLC6A4, SLC18A2, HTR1A, HTR1B, HTR2A, DDC, MAOA, and MAOB – encode proteins that are vital to serotonergic function: tryptophan hydroxylase; the serotonin transporter 5-HTT; the vesicular transporter VMAT2; the HTR1A, HTR1B, and HTR2A receptors; the L-amino acid decarboxylase; and the monoamine oxidases. This review employed a systematic search strategy and a narrative research methodology to disseminate the current literature investigating the link between SB and serotonin. PMID:24235834

  19. Suicidal behavior and mortality in first-episode psychosis.

    PubMed

    Nordentoft, Merete; Madsen, Trine; Fedyszyn, Izabela

    2015-05-01

    Suicide is a serious public health problem, with more than 800,000 deaths taking place worldwide each year. Mental disorders are associated with increased risk of suicide. In schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, the lifetime risk of suicide death is estimated to be 5.6%. The risk is particularly high during the first year of the initial contact with mental health services, being almost twice as high as in the later course of the illness. The most consistently reported risk factor for suicide among people with psychotic disorders is a history of attempted suicide and depression. Suicide risk in psychosis in Denmark decreased over time, most likely because of improved quality of inpatient and outpatient services. There is a high proportion of young people with first-episode psychosis who attempted suicide before their first contact with mental health services. This finding suggests that the mortality rates associated with psychotic disorders may be underreported because of suicide deaths taking place before first treatment contact. However, currently, no data exist to confirm or refute this hypothesis. Attempted suicide can be an early warning sign of later psychotic disorder. Data from different studies indicate that the risk of suicide attempt during the first year of treatment is as high as 10%. The most important risk factors for attempted suicide after the first contact are young age, female sex, suicidal plans, and a history of suicide attempt. Early intervention services are helpful in first-episode psychosis, and staff members should, in collaboration with the patients, monitor the risk of suicide and develop and revise crisis plans.

  20. Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors in Children and Adolescents with Chronic Tic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Storch, Eric A.; Hanks, Camille E.; Mink, Jonathan W.; McGuire, Joseph F.; Adams, Heather R.; Augustine, Erika F.; Vierhile, Amy; Thatcher, Alyssa; Bitsko, Rebecca; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Despite evidence of elevated risk factors for suicidal thoughts and behavior in youth with Tourette syndrome and chronic tic disorders (CTD), few studies have actually examined that relationship. This study documented the frequency and clinical correlates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in a sample of children and adolescents with CTD (N=196; range 6-18 years old). Method Youth and parents completed a battery of measures that assessed co-occurring psychiatric diagnoses, child emotional and behavioral symptoms, and impairment due to tics or co-occurring conditions. Results A structured diagnostic interview identified that 19 youths with CTD (9.7%) experienced suicidal thoughts and/or behaviors, which was elevated compared to three youths (3%) who experienced these thoughts in a community control sample (N=100; range 6-18 years old; p = 0.03). For youth with CTD, suicidal thoughts and behaviors were frequently endorsed in the context of anger and frustration. The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) anxious/depressed, withdrawn, social problems, thought problems, and aggressive behavior subscales, as well as the total internalizing problems scale were associated with the presence of suicidal thoughts and/or behaviors. Suicidal thoughts and/or behaviors were significantly associated with tic symptom severity, tic-related impairment, and obsessive-compulsive, depressive, anxiety, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptom severity. CBCL anxiety/depression scores mediated the relationship between tic severity and suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Conclusions Findings suggest that about 1 in 10 youth with CTD experience suicidal thoughts and/or behaviors, which are associated with a more complex clinical presentation and often occur in the presence of anger and frustration. PMID:25711415

  1. SUICIDAL THOUGHTS AND BEHAVIORS IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS WITH CHRONIC TIC DISORDERS.

    PubMed

    Storch, Eric A; Hanks, Camille E; Mink, Jonathan W; McGuire, Joseph F; Adams, Heather R; Augustine, Erika F; Vierhile, Amy; Thatcher, Alyssa; Bitsko, Rebecca; Lewin, Adam B; Murphy, Tanya K

    2015-10-01

    Despite evidence of elevated risk factors for suicidal thoughts and behavior in youth with Tourette syndrome and chronic tic disorders (CTD), few studies have actually examined that relationship. This study documented the frequency and clinical correlates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in a sample of children and adolescents with CTD (N = 196, range 6-18 years old). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the Centers for Disease Control. Youth and parents completed a battery of measures that assessed co-occurring psychiatric diagnoses, child emotional and behavioral symptoms, and impairment due to tics or co-occurring conditions. A structured diagnostic interview identified that 19 youths with CTD (9.7%) experienced suicidal thoughts and/or behaviors, which was elevated compared to 3 youths (3%) who experienced these thoughts in a community control sample (N = 100, range 6-18 years old, P = .03). For youth with CTD, suicidal thoughts and behaviors were frequently endorsed in the context of anger and frustration. The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) anxious/depressed, withdrawn, social problems, thought problems, and aggressive behavior subscales, as well as the total internalizing problems scale, were associated with the presence of suicidal thoughts and/or behaviors. Suicidal thoughts and/or behaviors were significantly associated with tic symptom severity; tic-related impairment; and obsessive-compulsive, depressive, anxiety, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders' symptom severity. CBCL anxiety/depression scores mediated the relationship between tic severity and suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Findings suggest that about 1 in 10 youth with CTD experience suicidal thoughts and/or behaviors, which are associated with a more complex clinical presentation and often occur in the presence of anger and frustration. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Animal models to improve our understanding and treatment of suicidal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Gould, T D; Georgiou, P; Brenner, L A; Brundin, L; Can, A; Courtet, P; Donaldson, Z R; Dwivedi, Y; Guillaume, S; Gottesman, I I; Kanekar, S; Lowry, C A; Renshaw, P F; Rujescu, D; Smith, E G; Turecki, G; Zanos, P; Zarate, C A; Zunszain, P A; Postolache, T T

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide, suicide is a leading cause of death. Although a sizable proportion of deaths by suicide may be preventable, it is well documented that despite major governmental and international investments in research, education and clinical practice suicide rates have not diminished and are even increasing among several at-risk populations. Although nonhuman animals do not engage in suicidal behavior amenable to translational studies, we argue that animal model systems are necessary to investigate candidate endophenotypes of suicidal behavior and the neurobiology underlying these endophenotypes. Animal models are similarly a critical resource to help delineate treatment targets and pharmacological means to improve our ability to manage the risk of suicide. In particular, certain pathophysiological pathways to suicidal behavior, including stress and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis dysfunction, neurotransmitter system abnormalities, endocrine and neuroimmune changes, aggression, impulsivity and decision-making deficits, as well as the role of critical interactions between genetic and epigenetic factors, development and environmental risk factors can be modeled in laboratory animals. We broadly describe human biological findings, as well as protective effects of medications such as lithium, clozapine, and ketamine associated with modifying risk of engaging in suicidal behavior that are readily translatable to animal models. Endophenotypes of suicidal behavior, studied in animal models, are further useful for moving observed associations with harmful environmental factors (for example, childhood adversity, mechanical trauma aeroallergens, pathogens, inflammation triggers) from association to causation, and developing preventative strategies. Further study in animals will contribute to a more informed, comprehensive, accelerated and ultimately impactful suicide research portfolio. PMID:28398339

  3. Relationship of Suicidal Ideation and Behavior to Attachment Style in Patients with Major Depression

    PubMed Central

    ÖZER, Ürün; YILDIRIM, Ejder Akgün; ERKOÇ, Şahap Nurettin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The attachment theory aims to understand close relationships in adulthood based on the relationship of a child with the caregiver. Attachment styles are classified as secure, preoccupied, fearful and dismissing, which are the subtypes of insecure attachment style. Insecure attachment is suggested to be related to depression and suicide. In this study, the relationship of suicidal ideation and behavior to attachment style is investigated in patients diagnosed with major depression. Methods Sixty-two patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder according to the DSM-IV-TR criteria were taken and divided into two groups, 31 patients with and 31 patients without a past suicide attempt. Sixty healthy volunteers matched with the patients for age, gender and education and comprised the control group. Sociodemographic and clinical data form, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (ECR), Scale of Suicidal Ideation and Suicidal Behavior Scale were applied to the groups. Results In the patients with depression, ECR anxiety and avoidance scores were found to be higher compared with those in the control group. There were no differences in the anxiety and avoidance scores between the patients with and without suicide attempt. The rate of participants who showed secure attachment style in the control group was higher than that of those with depression. In the patients with fearful attachment style, the suicide attempt rate was found to be higher than the other groups. A positively significant relationship was detected between ECR anxiety score and scores of HDRS suicide item, Scale of Suicidal Ideation and Suicidal Behavior Scale. Conclusion Patients with depression were more anxious and more avoidant and showed more insecure attachment. In patients with depression with fearful attachment style, suicide attempts were more common.

  4. Low validity of Google Trends for behavioral forecasting of national suicide rates

    PubMed Central

    Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas; Till, Benedikt; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Voracek, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Recent research suggests that search volumes of the most popular search engine worldwide, Google, provided via Google Trends, could be associated with national suicide rates in the USA, UK, and some Asian countries. However, search volumes have mostly been studied in an ad hoc fashion, without controls for spurious associations. This study evaluated the validity and utility of Google Trends search volumes for behavioral forecasting of suicide rates in the USA, Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. Suicide-related search terms were systematically collected and respective Google Trends search volumes evaluated for availability. Time spans covered 2004 to 2010 (USA, Switzerland) and 2004 to 2012 (Germany, Austria). Temporal associations of search volumes and suicide rates were investigated with time-series analyses that rigorously controlled for spurious associations. The number and reliability of analyzable search volume data increased with country size. Search volumes showed various temporal associations with suicide rates. However, associations differed both across and within countries and mostly followed no discernable patterns. The total number of significant associations roughly matched the number of expected Type I errors. These results suggest that the validity of Google Trends search volumes for behavioral forecasting of national suicide rates is low. The utility and validity of search volumes for the forecasting of suicide rates depend on two key assumptions (“the population that conducts searches consists mostly of individuals with suicidal ideation”, “suicide-related search behavior is strongly linked with suicidal behavior”). We discuss strands of evidence that these two assumptions are likely not met. Implications for future research with Google Trends in the context of suicide research are also discussed. PMID:28813490

  5. DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms associated with suicide behaviors in veterans.

    PubMed

    Legarreta, Margaret; Graham, Jessica; North, Lindsey; Bueler, C Elliott; McGlade, Erin; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah

    2015-05-01

    A connection between suicidality and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been consistently demonstrated; however, the underlying relationship between suicidality and PTSD remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine patterns of DSM-5 PTSD symptom endorsement that differentiated veteran participants with and without a history of suicide behaviors. We enrolled 95 veterans, 32 of whom reported no suicide ideation (SI) or suicide attempts (SA). The 63 remaining participants reported a history of SI, with 28 of the 63 also reporting a historical SA. Participants completed a standardized diagnostic interview (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR; First, Spitzer, Gibbon, & Williams, 2002), structured interview of suicidal behaviors (Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale; Posner et al., 2011), and selected clinical measures. Veterans who reported SI and/or SA were more likely to meet criteria for PTSD on DSM-5 than were veterans who reported neither SI nor SA. Participants who reported SA were more likely to meet criteria for clusters C and D. Finally, at the symptom level, those who reported SI were more likely to report experiencing feelings of alienation. Those who reported a SA were more likely to report avoidance of thoughts and feelings, inability to recall an important aspect of their trauma, persistent negative beliefs, diminished interest, and feelings of alienation. These findings suggest that targeting specific symptoms of PTSD may aid in treatment of suicidal thoughts and behaviors associated with PTSD.

  6. Association between suicidal ideation and behavior, and depression, anxiety, and perceived social support in cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Şengül, Melike Ceyhan Balcı; Kaya, Vildan; Şen, Cenk Ahmet; Kaya, Kemal

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between suicidal behavior and associated factors such as depression, anxiety, and perceived social support level in cancer patients. Material/Methods The study group included 102 patients who were under treatment in the oncology department and the control group included 100 individuals with similar sociodemographic features. A sociodemographic information form, Beck depression inventory, Beck anxiety inventory, suicidal behavior inventory, suicidal ideation inventory, and multidimensional inventory of perceived social support were used. Results The mean Beck depression inventory and Beck anxiety inventory scores in the study group were significantly higher compared to the control group. Thirteen patients in the study group attempted suicide, whereas 3 individuals attempted suicide in the control group. Similarly, the mean suicide behavior and ideation scores in the study group were significantly higher compared to the control group. The mean total multidimensional inventories of perceived social support score, as well as the mean family and friend sub-inventory scores in the control group were significantly higher compared to the study group. Conclusions This study revealed that depression and anxiety occur frequently in cancer patients. Suicide attempts and ideation are higher in cancer patients compared to the control group. Social support perceived from family and friends is lower in cancer patients. Suicide attempts are correlated with depression, anxiety, low level of perceived social support, and advanced disease stage. PMID:24584172

  7. Are Body Dissatisfaction, Eating Disturbance and Body Mass Index Predictors of Suicidal Behavior in Adolescents? A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Crow, Scott; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2008-01-01

    Disordered eating, body dissatisfaction, and obesity have been associated cross-sectionally with suicidal behavior in adolescents. This study examined these relationships in a longitudinal design, in order to determine the extent to which these variables predicted suicidal ideation and attempts. The study population included 2,516 older adolescents and young adults who completed surveys for Project EAT- II (Time 2), a five year follow-up study of adolescents who took part in Project EAT (Time 1). Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios for suicidal behaviors at Time 2. Predictor variables included Time 1 extreme and unhealthy weight control behaviors (EWCB and UWCB), body dissatisfaction, and BMI percentile. Suicidal ideation was reported by 15.2% of males and 21.6% of females and suicide attempts were reported by 3.5% males and 8.7% females. For females, suicidal ideation at Time 2 was predicted by Time 1 EWCB. The odds ratio (OR) for suicide attempts was similarly elevated in females reporting EWCB at Time 1. These OR for both suicidal ideation and suicide attempts remained elevated even after controlling for Time 2 depressive symptoms. In males, EWCB was not associated with suicidal ideation or suicide attempts five years later. BMI and body dissatisfaction did not predict suicidal ideation or suicide attempts in males or females. These results emphasize the importance of extreme weight control behaviors. PMID:18837605

  8. Low testosterone in a young combat veteran with dual diagnosis and suicidal behavior: a case study.

    PubMed

    Kiraly, Drew D; Sher, Leo

    2015-05-01

    Suicide and suicidal behaviors amongst combat veterans is an important public health issue. Exposure to military combat predisposes patients to increased levels of major depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), substance abuse, and chronic pain - all of which are important risk factors for suicide. Here, we present a case study of a young combat veteran who presented with an impulsive suicide attempt that had a high potential for lethality in the context of depression, PTSD, and substance use. On routine admission laboratory work, his serum level of testosterone was seen to be low. Given the important role that testosterone plays in the regulation of mood and behavior, we posit that it is a potentially important marker for suicide risk in an already at-risk population.

  9. Alcohol Use and Suicidal Behaviors among Adults: A Synthesis and Theoretical Model

    PubMed Central

    Lamis, Dorian A.; Malone, Patrick S.

    2012-01-01

    Suicidal behavior and alcohol use are major public health concerns in the United States; however the association between these behaviors has received relatively little empirical attention. The relative lack of research in this area may be due in part to the absence of theory explaining the alcohol use-suicidality link in the general adult population. The present article expands upon Conner, McCloskey, and Duberstein’s (2008) model of suicide in individuals with alcoholism and proposes a theoretical framework that can be used to explain why a range of adult alcohol users may engage in suicidal behaviors. Guided by this model, we review and evaluate the evidence on the associations among several constructs that may contribute to suicidal behaviors in adult alcohol consumers. The current framework should inform future research and facilitate further empirical analyses on the interactive effects among risk factors that may contribute to suicidal behaviors. Once the nature of these associations is better understood among alcohol using adults, more effective suicide prevention programs may be designed and implemented. PMID:23243500

  10. Societal integration and age-standardized suicide rates in 21 developed countries, 1955-1989.

    PubMed

    Fernquist, R M; Cutright, P

    1998-01-01

    Gender-specific age-standardized suicide rates for 21 developed countries over seven 5-year periods (1955-59...1985-89) form the two dependent variables. Durkheim's theory of societal integration is the framework used to generate the independent variables, although several recent theories are also examined. The results from a MGLS multiple regression analysis of both male and female rates provide overwhelming support for a multidimensional theory of societal integration and suicide, as first suggested by Durkheim.

  11. Resilience Protected against Suicidal Behavior for Men But Not Women in a Community Sample of Older Adults in Korea.

    PubMed

    You, Sungeun; Park, Moran

    2017-01-01

    Suicide prevention efforts in reducing risk factors have been found to be more beneficial to older women than men, suggesting potential gender differences in effective prevention. The study aimed to examine gender difference in resilience for suicidal behavior in a community sample of older adults in Korea. A community-based survey was conducted to investigate resilience and risk factors of suicidal behavior using the Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), as well as questions regarding physical illness and depression history. After accounting for well-known risk factors, resilience was inversely associated with suicidal behavior, but this protective role of resilience was applicable to men only. The findings of this study indicated gender difference in resilience against suicidal behavior in the elderly population. Gender-specific preventive intervention strategies need to be developed for community-based suicide prevention for older adults.

  12. Resilience Protected against Suicidal Behavior for Men But Not Women in a Community Sample of Older Adults in Korea

    PubMed Central

    You, Sungeun; Park, Moran

    2017-01-01

    Suicide prevention efforts in reducing risk factors have been found to be more beneficial to older women than men, suggesting potential gender differences in effective prevention. The study aimed to examine gender difference in resilience for suicidal behavior in a community sample of older adults in Korea. A community-based survey was conducted to investigate resilience and risk factors of suicidal behavior using the Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), as well as questions regarding physical illness and depression history. After accounting for well-known risk factors, resilience was inversely associated with suicidal behavior, but this protective role of resilience was applicable to men only. The findings of this study indicated gender difference in resilience against suicidal behavior in the elderly population. Gender-specific preventive intervention strategies need to be developed for community-based suicide prevention for older adults. PMID:28360879

  13. Insomnia symptoms, behavioral/emotional problems, and suicidality among adolescents of insomniac and non-insomniac parents.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianchen; Zhao, Zhongtang; Jia, Cunxian

    2015-08-30

    The aim of this study was to examine insomnia symptoms, behavioral problems, and suicidality among adolescents of insomniac parents (IP) and non-insomniac parents (NIP). A family survey of sleep and health was conducted among 1090 adolescents and their parents in Jinan, China. Adolescents completed a sleep and health questionnaire to report their sleep and mental health problems. Parents reported their insomnia symptoms and history of mental disorders. Insomnia, behavioral problems, and suicidal behavior were compared between IP adolescents and NIP adolescents. IP adolescents were more likely than NIP adolescents to report insomnia symptoms, use of sleep medication, suicidal ideation, suicide plan, and suicide attempt. IP adolescents scored significantly higher than NIP adolescents on withdrawn and externalizing behavioral problems. After adjustment for demographics and behavioral problems, parental insomnia remained to be significantly associated with adolescent suicidal ideation and suicide plan. Our findings support the need for early screening and formal assessment of sleep and mental health in adolescents of insomniac parents.

  14. Associations of childhood bullying victimization with lifetime suicidal behaviors among new U.S. Army soldiers.

    PubMed

    Campbell-Sills, Laura; Kessler, Ronald C; Ursano, Robert J; Rosellini, Anthony J; Afifi, Tracie O; Colpe, Lisa J; Heeringa, Steven G; Nock, Matthew K; Sampson, Nancy A; Sareen, Jitender; Schoenbaum, Michael; Sun, Xiaoying; Jain, Sonia; Stein, Murray B

    2017-08-01

    Prior studies have documented associations of childhood bullying victimization with suicidal behaviors. However, many failed to adjust for concomitant risk factors and none investigated this relationship in military personnel. This study aimed to estimate independent associations of childhood bullying victimization with suicidal behaviors among U.S. Army soldiers. Soldiers reporting for basic training completed a cross-sectional survey assessing mental disorders, suicidal behaviors, and childhood adversities including two types of bullying victimization: (1) Physical Assault/Theft and (2) Bullying Comments/Behaviors. Associations of childhood bullying experiences with suicidal behaviors were estimated using discrete-time survival analysis of person-year data from 30,436 soldiers. Models adjusted for sociodemographic factors, childhood maltreatment by adults, and mental disorders. After comprehensive adjustment for other risk factors, more frequent Physical Assault/Theft by peers during childhood was associated with increased odds of lifetime suicidal ideation (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.11-1.26, P < .001) and attempt (AOR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.13-1.50, P < .001). More frequent Bullying Comments/Behaviors were associated with increased risk of ideation (AOR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.26-1.35, P < .001), plan (AOR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.35-1.54, P < .001), attempt (AOR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.15-1.33, P < .001), and onset of plan among ideators (AOR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.03-1.15, P = .002). Relative to no bullying victimization, exposure to the most persistent bullying was associated with two- to fourfold increase in risk for suicidal behaviors. Childhood bullying victimization is associated with lifetime suicidal behaviors among new soldiers. Exposure to Bullying Comments/Behaviors during childhood is associated with progression from suicidal ideation to plan. Improved recognition of these relationships may inform risk mitigation interventions for soldiers. © 2017 Wiley

  15. Teen sleep and suicidality: results from the youth risk behavior surveys of 2007 and 2009.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Caris T; Messias, Erick; Buysse, Daniel J

    2011-08-15

    Suicide in the adolescent population is a tragic and preventable cause of death. Previous studies have confirmed both long and short total sleep times (TSTs) are associated with suicidal ideation in the adult population. We hypothesized that both long and short TSTs are risk factors for serious suicide attempt in the adolescent population as well. We tested this hypothesis using the Youth Risk Behavior Surveys from 2007 and 2009, which consist of school-based, nationally representative samples (N = 12,154 for 2007, N = 14,782 for 2009). Logistic regression models were used to assess the relationship between suicidality and sleep after adjusting for confounders including age, sex, race/ethnicity, feelings of sadness, and substance abuse. Of the total sample, roughly 15% reported suicidal ideation, 10% planned suicide, 5% attempted and 2% reported an attempt requiring treatment. Teens who reported sleeping ≤ 5 or ≥ 10 h had a significantly higher risk for suicidality compared to those with a TST of 8 h. The largest odds ratios were found among the most severe forms of suicidality (attempt requiring treatment) with an odds ratio of 5.9 for a TST ≤ 4 h and 4.7 for a TST ≥ 10 h. Both short and long TSTs are risk factors for suicidality among teens and extremes in TST may indicate more serious suicidality. Self-reported sleep duration may be a useful screening question for suicide risk. Future studies should examine whether sleep duration is a causal and/or modifiable risk factor for suicidality in teens.

  16. Patterns of Suicidal Ideation and Behavior in Northern Ireland and Associations with Conflict Related Trauma

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Siobhan; Ferry, Finola; Murphy, Sam; Corry, Colette; Bolton, David; Devine, Barney; Ennis, Edel; Bunting, Brendan

    2014-01-01

    In this study, data from the World Mental Health Survey's Northern Ireland (NI) Study of Health and Stress (NISHS) was used to assess the associations between conflict- and non-conflict–related traumatic events and suicidal behaviour, controlling for age and gender and the effects of mental disorders in NI. DSM mental disorders and suicidal ideation, plans and attempts were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) in a multi-stage, clustered area probability household sample (N = 4,340, response rate 68.4%). The traumatic event categories were based on event types listed in the PTSD section of the CIDI. Suicidal ideation and attempts were more common in women than men, however, rates of suicide plans were similar for both genders. People with mood, anxiety and substance disorders were significantly more likely than those without to endorse suicidal ideation, plan or attempt. The highest odds ratios for all suicidal behaviors were for people with any mental disorder. However, the odds of seriously considering suicide were significantly higher for people with conflict and non-conflict–related traumatic events compared with people who had not experienced a traumatic event. The odds of having a suicide plan remain significantly higher for people with conflict-related traumatic events compared to those with only non-conflict–related events and no traumatic events. Finally, the odds of suicide attempt were significantly higher for people who have only non-conflict–related traumatic events compared with the other two categories. The results suggest that traumatic events associated with the NI conflict may be associated with suicidal ideation and plans, and this effect appears to be in addition to that explained by the presence of mental disorders. The reduced rates of suicide attempts among people who have had a conflict-related traumatic event may reflect a higher rate of single, fatal suicide attempts in this population. PMID

  17. Patterns of suicidal ideation and behavior in Northern Ireland and associations with conflict related trauma.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Siobhan; Ferry, Finola; Murphy, Sam; Corry, Colette; Bolton, David; Devine, Barney; Ennis, Edel; Bunting, Brendan

    2014-01-01

    In this study, data from the World Mental Health Survey's Northern Ireland (NI) Study of Health and Stress (NISHS) was used to assess the associations between conflict- and non-conflict-related traumatic events and suicidal behaviour, controlling for age and gender and the effects of mental disorders in NI. DSM mental disorders and suicidal ideation, plans and attempts were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) in a multi-stage, clustered area probability household sample (N = 4,340, response rate 68.4%). The traumatic event categories were based on event types listed in the PTSD section of the CIDI. Suicidal ideation and attempts were more common in women than men, however, rates of suicide plans were similar for both genders. People with mood, anxiety and substance disorders were significantly more likely than those without to endorse suicidal ideation, plan or attempt. The highest odds ratios for all suicidal behaviors were for people with any mental disorder. However, the odds of seriously considering suicide were significantly higher for people with conflict and non-conflict-related traumatic events compared with people who had not experienced a traumatic event. The odds of having a suicide plan remain significantly higher for people with conflict-related traumatic events compared to those with only non-conflict-related events and no traumatic events. Finally, the odds of suicide attempt were significantly higher for people who have only non-conflict-related traumatic events compared with the other two categories. The results suggest that traumatic events associated with the NI conflict may be associated with suicidal ideation and plans, and this effect appears to be in addition to that explained by the presence of mental disorders. The reduced rates of suicide attempts among people who have had a conflict-related traumatic event may reflect a higher rate of single, fatal suicide attempts in this population.

  18. The mediating role of non-suicidal self-injury in the relationship between impulsivity and suicidal behavior among inpatients receiving treatment for substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Anestis, Michael D; Tull, Matthew T; Lavender, Jason M; Gratz, Kim L

    2014-08-15

    Several theories posit a direct role of impulsivity in suicidal behavior. The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior (IPTS) argues that the relationship between impulsivity and suicidal behavior is explained by the painful and/or provocative experiences (PPEs) often encountered by impulsive individuals. It thus seems plausible that nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), itself associated with impulsivity, might account for the relationship between impulsivity and suicidal behavior. We examined data from 93 adult inpatients (54.8% male) seeking treatment for substance use disorders. Patients completed a structured interview assessing prior suicidal behavior and a series of self-report questionnaires examining impulsivity, NSSI, and psychopathology. Four impulsivity dimensions (negative urgency, positive urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance) were associated with lifetime number of suicide attempts and/or suicide potential. Furthermore, results supported our hypotheses, as all but one relation was better accounted for by NSSI and, in the one exception, the direct effect was non-significant. Findings are consistent with the IPTS and suggest that suicidal behavior may not be a direct manifestation of impulsivity, but facilitated through exposure to PPEs capable of altering an individual׳s relationship to pain and fear of death.

  19. Suicidal Behavior and Psychological Distress in University Students: A 12-nation Study.

    PubMed

    Eskin, Mehmet; Sun, Jian-Min; Abuidhail, Jamila; Yoshimasu, Kouichi; Kujan, Omar; Janghorbani, Mohsen; Flood, Chris; Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Tran, Ulrich S; Mechri, Anwar; Hamdan, Motasem; Poyrazli, Senel; Aidoudi, Khouala; Bakhshi, Seifollah; Harlak, Hacer; Moro, Maria Francesca; Nawafleh, Hani; Phillips, Louise; Shaheen, Amira; Taifour, Shahama; Tsuno, Kanami; Voracek, Martin

    2016-07-02

    This study investigated the prevalence of suicidal behavior and psychological distress in university students across 12 nations. A total of 5,572 university students from 12 countries were surveyed about suicide ideation, suicide attempts, and psychological distress by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Almost 29% of the samples reported having contemplated suicide and 7% reported attempting suicide. Of the total sample, 51.1% scored above the General Health Questionnaire-12 ≥ 3 cut-off points, 41.6% above the GHQ-12 ≥ 4 cut-off points, and 33.8% scored above the GHQ-12 ≥ 5 cut-off points. While odds of suicide ideation were elevated in Austria and the UK, reduced ORs were detected for China, Italy, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia, and Turkey. Similarly, while odds of suicide attempt were high in Jordan, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, and to some extent in Turkey, reduced ORs were observed for Austria, China, Italy, Japan and the United States. Elevated ORs for psychological distress were seen in Japan, Jordan, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia, and Turkey but reduced ORs were noted in Austria, China, Iran, Italy, and the United States. Psychological distress was strongly associated with reports of suicide ideation and attempts. Suicide ideation, suicide attempt, and psychological distress are common in university students but their rates vary depending on the sociocultural context. Due attention should be devoted to the mental health needs of young adults enrolled in higher educational institutions and more cross-cultural research is warranted to better understand the etiology of the observed intersocietal variations in suicidal behavior and psychological distress.

  20. Familism, parent-adolescent conflict, self-esteem, internalizing behaviors and suicide attempts among adolescent Latinas.

    PubMed

    Kuhlberg, Jill A; Peña, Juan B; Zayas, Luis H

    2010-08-01

    Adolescent Latinas continue to report higher levels of suicide attempts than their African-American and White peers. The phenomenon is still not understood and is theorized to be the result of the confluence of many cultural, familial, and individual level factors. In Latino cultures, belief in the importance of the family, the value known as familism, appears to protect youth's emotional and behavioral health, but parent-adolescent conflict has been found to be a risk factor for suicide attempts. The role of familism in relation to parent-adolescent conflict, self-esteem, internalizing behaviors, and suicide attempts has not been studied extensively. To address this question, we interviewed 226 adolescent Latinas, 50% of whom had histories of suicide attempts. Using path analysis, familism as a cultural asset was associated with lower levels of parent-adolescent conflict, but higher levels of internalizing behaviors, while self-esteem and internalizing behaviors mediated the relationship between parent-adolescent conflict and suicide attempts. Our findings point to the importance of family involvement in culturally competent suicide prevention and intervention programs. Reducing parent-daughter conflict and fostering closer family ties has the added effect of improving self-esteem and shrinking the likelihood of suicide attempts.

  1. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for suicide prevention (CBT-SP): treatment model, feasibility, and acceptability.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Barbara; Brown, Gregory; Brent, David A; Wells, Karen; Poling, Kim; Curry, John; Kennard, Betsy D; Wagner, Ann; Cwik, Mary F; Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Goldstein, Tina; Vitiello, Benedetto; Barnett, Shannon; Daniel, Stephanie; Hughes, Jennifer

    2009-10-01

    To describe the elements of a manual-based cognitive-behavioral therapy for suicide prevention (CBT-SP) and to report its feasibility in preventing the recurrence of suicidal behavior in adolescents who have recently attempted suicide. The CBT-SP was developed using a risk reduction and relapse prevention approach and theoretically grounded in principles of cognitive-behavioral therapy, dialectical behavioral therapy, and targeted therapies for suicidal youths with depression. The CBT-SP consists of acute and continuation phases, each lasting about 12 sessions, and includes a chain analysis of the suicidal event, safety plan development, skill building, psychoeducation, family intervention, and relapse prevention. The CBT-SP was administered to 110 recent suicide attempters with depression aged 13 to 19 years (mean 15.8 years, SD 1.6) across five academic sites. Twelve or more sessions were completed by 72.4% of the sample. A specific intervention for adolescents at high risk for repeated suicide attempts has been developed and manual based, and further testing of its efficacy seems feasible.

  2. Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Suicide Prevention (CBT-SP): Treatment Model, Feasibility and Acceptability

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Barbara; Brown, Gregory; Brent, David; Wells, Karen; Poling, Kim; Curry, John; Kennard, Betsy D.; Wagner, Ann; Cwik, Mary; Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Goldstein, Tina; Vitiello, Benedetto; Barnett, Shannon; Daniel, Stephanie; Hughes, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Objective To describe the elements of a manualized cognitive behavior psychotherapy for suicide prevention (CBT-SP) and to report its feasibility in preventing the recurrence of suicidal behavior in adolescents who have recently attempted suicide. Method CBT-SP was developed using a risk reduction, relapse prevention approach and theoretically grounded in principles of cognitive behavior therapy, dialectical behavioral therapy and targeted therapies for suicidal, depressed youth. CBT-SP consists of acute and continuation phases, each lasting about 12 sessions, and includes a chain analysis of the suicidal event, safety plan development, skill building, psychoeducation, family intervention, and relapse prevention. Results CBT-SP was administered to 110 depressed, recent suicide attempters aged 13–19 years (mean 15.8±1.6) across five academic sites. Twelve or more sessions were completed by 72.4% of the sample. Conclusions A specific intervention for adolescents at high risk for repeated suicide attempts has been developed and manualized, and further testing of its efficacy appears feasible. PMID:19730273

  3. Suicidal behavior and spiritual functioning in a sample of Veterans diagnosed with PTSD

    PubMed Central

    Kopacz, Marek S.; Currier, Joseph M.; Drescher, Kent D.; Pigeon, Wilfred R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Spiritual well-being has been lauded to exert a protective effect against suicidal behavior. This study examines the characteristics of spiritual functioning and their association with a self-reported history of suicidal thoughts and behavior in a sample of Veterans being treated for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Methods: The sample includes 472 Veterans admitted to a PTSD Residential Rehabilitation Program. Measures included the Brief Multidimensional Measure of Religiousness and Spirituality, PTSD Checklist – Military Version, Combat Experiences Scale, and individual items pertaining to history of suicidal thoughts and attempts, spiritual practices, and select demographics. Results: Problems with forgiveness and negative religious coping were uniquely associated with suicide risk, above and beyond age, gender, or ethnicity, combat exposure, and severity of PTSD symptomatology. Organizational religiousness was associated with decreased risk for thinking about suicide in the presence of these covariates. Daily spiritual experiences were inversely associated with suicidal thoughts. Differences in spirituality factors did not distinguish Veterans with both suicidal ideation and prior attempts from those who had ideations absent any prior attempts. Conclusions: The findings suggest that enhanced or diminished spiritual functioning is associated with suicidal thoughts and attempts among Veterans dealing with PTSD. PMID:26353986

  4. Social behavior, interaction appraisals, and suicidal ideation in schizophrenia: The dangers of being alone.

    PubMed

    Depp, Colin A; Moore, Raeanne C; Perivoliotis, Dimitri; Holden, Jason L; Swendsen, Joel; Granholm, Eric L

    2016-04-01

    Despite the increasing attention to social appraisals in suicide risk, the interpersonal correlates of suicidal thoughts and behavior in schizophrenia are not well understood. Ecological momentary assessment could reveal whether dysfunctional social appraisals and behavior are evident in people with schizophrenia with suicidal ideation. A total of 93 outpatients with diagnoses of schizophrenia with (n=18, 19%) and without (N=75; 81%) suicidal ideation participated in one week of intensive daily monitoring via mobile devices, generating real-time reports on the quantity of social interactions and appraisals about them, as well as information concerning concurrent affect and symptoms. The presence of suicidal ideation was not associated with the quantity of social interactions or time spent alone, but it was associated with the anticipation of being alone as well as greater negative and lower positive affect when alone. Despite this aversive experience of being alone, people with suicidal ideation reported negative appraisals about the value of recent and potential social interactions. These findings suggest that suicidal ideation in schizophrenia may not be associated with the quantity of social interactions, but with negative expectations about the quality of social interactions coupled with an aversive experience of being alone. Cognitive therapy interventions that address negative expectations and pleasure about social interactions, especially when alone, may reduce suicidal ideation.

  5. Depressive symptoms and interpersonal needs as mediators of forgiveness and suicidal behavior among rural primary care patients.

    PubMed

    Nsamenang, Sheri A; Webb, Jon R; Cukrowicz, Kelly C; Hirsch, Jameson K

    2013-07-01

    Suicide is the 10th leading cause of death in the US, and rates of suicide are higher in rural than urban areas. As proposed by the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide, thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness are risk factors for suicidal behavior, although protective individual-level characteristics such as forgiveness, may indirectly affect suicidal behavior by decreasing the deleterious effect of thwarted interpersonal needs. A sample of uninsured adults recruited from a rural primary clinic (N=101) completed the Brief Multidimensional Measure of Religiousness and Spirituality; Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised; Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire; and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Parallel and serial multivariable mediation analyses were conducted to test for direct and indirect effects of forgiveness on suicidal behavior. In parallel mediation, covarying depressive symptoms, forgiveness of self had an indirect effect on suicidal behavior, through perceived burdensomeness. Inclusion of depressive symptoms as a mediator revealed an indirect effect of forgiveness of self and others on suicidal behavior via depression, thwarted belongingness, and perceived burdensomeness in a serial mediation model. A longitudinal study, with an equal representation of males and diverse populations is needed to replicate our findings. Our findings have implications for the role health providers can play in addressing suicide with rural patients. Promoting forgiveness, may, in turn affect interpersonal functioning and decrease risk for suicidal behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Factors that affect substance users’ suicidal behavior: a view from the Addiction Severity Index in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In South Korea, it has not been easy to negotiate studies that target drug users who are being punished by law, and accordingly, no study on suicidal ideation among substance users has been accomplished yet. In this study, the factors that affect substance users’ suicidal ideation were confirmed. Methods It was based on the data collected from 'The 2009 Study on Substance-Dependent Individuals in Korea’ , which was conducted by The Catholic University of Korea in 2010 as a project sponsored by the Ministry of Health and Welfare of Korea. This study targeted 523 former hospital inpatients, prison inmates, and persons under protective supervision who had used substances such as psychotropic drugs, marijuana, and narcotic agents, and were in the recovery stage at various treatment/rehabilitation centers. Student’s t and chi-square tests were used, and multivariate analysis was performed to examine the strength of the relationships between suicide ideation and various factors. Results According to this study, 41% of these substance users planned suicide with suicidal ideation. Suicidal ideation was confirmed as associated with an unsatisfactory domestic environment, insufficient and unsatisfactory spare time experiences with others, emotional abuse, severe depression, and trouble with controlling violent behavior. Of the substance users who had planned to commit suicide, 56% attempted suicide. Their suicide attempts were shown to have been associated with insufficient protective supervision and the experiences of physical abuse, trouble with controlling violent behavior, and doctors’ prescriptions due to psychological or emotional problems. Conclusion Based on this analysis of the factors that affect suicidal behavior, preventive measures and strategies for substance user were suggested in this study. PMID:24220264

  7. Suicide in Older Adults: The Role of Emotions and Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Szanto, Katalin; Alexopoulos, George S.

    2014-01-01

    Suicide in older adults is a significant clinical concern. In this review of recent findings, we concentrate on the role of emotions and cognition in suicide risk and behavior in older adults. We discuss the epidemiology of suicide in older adults, integrate recent findings on non-psychotic major depression, schizophrenia and suicidal ideation, explore the relationship of emotion regulation with suicide, present recent advances on suicide in demented patients, and describe the latest developments on cognition and decision processes in suicide. PMID:25226883

  8. Addressing the Social Determinants of Suicidal Behaviors and Poor Mental Health in LGBTI Populations in Australia.

    PubMed

    Skerrett, Delaney Michael; Mars, Michelle

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe and assess-as well as identify and rectify gaps in-intervention and prevention initiatives that specifically address poor mental health outcomes and suicidal behaviors in lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex (LGBTI) populations in Australia. It begins with an overview of the evidence base for heightened vulnerability to suicidal behaviors among LGBTI people in Australia. It then provides a discussion on the public health implications for LGBTI-targeted mental health initiatives and the prevention of and timely intervention in LGBTI suicidal behaviors. We conclude that the literature supports an increased risk for poorer mental health outcomes and suicidal behaviors in LGBTI populations in the Australian context. Psychological distress and suicidal behaviors in LGBTI people in Australia have social determinants that can and have been addressed through the provision of interventions with a strong evidence base in reducing these outcomes, implemented at a nationwide level, including training of health professionals and gatekeepers to mental health services and the general public. We conclude that the current Australian focus appears to address many of the social determinants of suicidal behaviors and poor mental health in LGBTI people but requires sustained and uniform government support if it is to continue and to produce measurable results.

  9. The impact of contact with suicide-related behavior in prison on young offenders.

    PubMed

    Hales, Heidi; Edmondson, Amanda; Davison, Sophie; Maughan, Barbara; Taylor, Pamela J

    2015-01-01

    Prison suicide rates are high, and suicide-related behaviors (SRBs) higher, but effects of contact with such behaviors in prison have not previously been examined. To compare the mental state of young men witnessing a peer's suicide-related behavior in prison with that of men without such experience, and to test for factors associated with morbidity. Forty-six male prisoners (age 16-21 years) reporting contact with another's suicide-related behavior in prison were interviewed 6 months after the incident, with validated questionnaires, as were 44 without such contact at least 6 months into their imprisonment. Significantly higher levels of psychiatric morbidity and own suicide-related behaviors were found in the witness group, even after controlling for their higher levels of family mental illness and pre-exposure experience of in-prison bullying. Some personal factors were associated with higher morbidity; incident and institutional factors were not. Findings of heightened vulnerabilities among young men exposed to suicide-related behaviors in prison suggest a need for longitudinal study to clarify temporal relationships and inform strategies to prevent or limit development of morbidity and further harm.

  10. Relationship Between Physical Activity and Suicidal Behaviors Among 65,182 Middle School Students.

    PubMed

    Southerland, Jodi L; Zheng, Shimin; Dula, Mark; Cao, Yan; Slawson, Deborah Leachman

    2016-08-01

    The psychosocial benefits of participating in physical activity (PA) are well known; less is known about the relationship between suicidal behaviors and PA among adolescents, especially among middle school-aged youth. This study seeks to fill that gap by assessing the cross-sectional relationship between these variables. A secondary analysis of the 2010 Tennessee Middle School Youth Risk Behavior Survey data was conducted among 65,182 middle school students. Items examined were PA, sports team engagement, physical education (PE) class, screen time, suicidal behaviors, drug/substance use, extreme weight control behaviors, weight status and weight misperceptions, and selected personal characteristics. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the association between PA, sports team engagement, and PE class attendance on suicidal behaviors. Sports team engagement was significantly associated with suicidal thoughts, plans, and attempts even after controlling for other important variables. There was no relationship, however, between total PA or PE class attendance in univariate or multivariate models, respectively. Findings suggest that sports team engagement is associated with reduced risk for suicidal thoughts, plans, and attempts, whereas, no relationships were found for PA or PE class attendance. Asking adolescents questions about sports team engagement may help clinicians screen for risk of suicidal behaviors.

  11. Reactive Aggression and Suicide-Related Behaviors in Children and Adolescents: A Review and Preliminary Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Chelsey M; Pettit, Jeremy W; Castellanos, Daniel

    2017-01-03

    The empirical literature on the association between reactive aggression and suicide-related behaviors in children and adolescents was reviewed. A narrative review of seven studies that met inclusion/exclusion criteria is followed by a preliminary meta-analysis to provide insight into the strength of the association between reactive aggression and suicide-related behaviors. Each of the seven studies reported a statistically significant association between reactive aggression and suicide-related behaviors, including suicide, nonfatal suicide attempt, and suicide ideation. Results from the meta-analysis indicated a consistent, medium-sized association (k = 7; N = 4,693; rbar = .25). The narrative review and results of the preliminary meta-analysis support the promise of pursuing future research on reactive aggression and suicide-related behaviors in children and adolescents. A theoretical model is proposed to guide the development of future research.

  12. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict College Students' Intention to Intervene With a Suicidal Individual.

    PubMed

    Aldrich, Rosalie S

    2015-01-01

    Suicide among college students is an issue of serious concern. College peers may effectively intervene with at-risk persons due to their regular contact and close personal relationships with others in this population of significantly enhanced risk. The current study was designed to investigate whether the theory of planned behavior constructs predicted intention to intervene when a college peer is suicidal. Undergraduate students (n = 367) completed an on-line questionnaire; they answered questions about their attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control regarding suicide and suicide intervention, as well as their intention to intervene when someone is suicidal. The data were analyzed using multiple regression. The statistical significance of this cross-sectional study indicates that the theory of planned behavior constructs predicts self-reported intention to intervene with a suicidal individual. Theory of planned behavior is an effective framework for understanding peers' intention to intervene with a suicidal individual.

  13. Relationship between Quantity and Frequency of Alcohol Use and Indices of Suicidal Behavior in an Elderly Australian Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfaff, Jon J.; Almeida, Osvaldo P.; Witte, Tracy K.; Waesche, Matthew C.; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Relatively little research has been conducted on the relationship between alcohol misuse and suicidal behavior among the elderly. The current study's aim was to examine whether quantity and frequency of alcohol use and the interaction between these variables are related to current suicidal ideation, previous suicidal ideation/intent, and past…

  14. The Relationship between Early Suicide Behaviors and Mental Health: Results from a Nine-Year Panel Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Ryan; Taylor, John; Clarke, Diana

    2009-01-01

    This paper employs community-level data to examine the relationship between suicide behaviors, measured at age eleven, and two mental health outcomes assessed nine-years later. Specifically, we assess the role and significance of suicide ideation and suicide attempts in substance dependence and depressive symptomatology. We evaluate these linkages…

  15. The Relationship between Early Suicide Behaviors and Mental Health: Results from a Nine-Year Panel Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Ryan; Taylor, John; Clarke, Diana

    2009-01-01

    This paper employs community-level data to examine the relationship between suicide behaviors, measured at age eleven, and two mental health outcomes assessed nine-years later. Specifically, we assess the role and significance of suicide ideation and suicide attempts in substance dependence and depressive symptomatology. We evaluate these linkages…

  16. [Relationship between cyberbullying and the suicide related psychological behavior among middle and high school students in Anhui Province].

    PubMed

    Wang, Gengfu; Fang, Yu; Jiang, Liu; Zhou, Guiyang; Yuan, Shanshan; Wang, Xiuxiu; Su, Puyu

    2015-11-01

    To examine the prevalence rate of cyberbullying in middle and high school students in Anhui Province and explore the relationship between cyberbullying and suicide related psychological behavior. A total of 5726 middle and high school students from the 7th to the 12th grades in three regular middle schools and three regular high schools recruited from three cities in the Anhui Province (Tongling, Chuzhou, and Fuyang). Tongling, Chuzhou, and Fuyang are in the south, middle and north of Anhui, respectively. Each city was selected one regular middle school and one regular high school, and 8 classes were selected form each grade from each school. A stratified cluster random sampling method was used to randomly select 5726 participants among the six schools. Self-reports on cyberbullying and suicide related psychological behavior were collected. Among these 5726 adolescents, 46.8% of them involved in cyberbullying. Among them, 3.2% were bullies, 23.8% were victims, and 19.8% were both. Prevalence rates of suicide idea, suicide plan, suicide preparation, suicide implementation were 19.3%, 6.9%, 4.7% and 1.8%, respectively. Cyberbullying involvement, as victims, bullies or bully-victims, increased the risk of four kinds of suicide related psychological behavior (suicide idea, suicide plan, suicide preparation, suicide implementation) (P < 0.05). Cyberbullying has become a common occurrence in middle and high school students. Additionally, cyberbullying is closely related to suicide related psychological behavior among middle and high school students.

  17. A Study of Suicide-Related Behaviors among Colombian Youth: Reflections on Prevention and Implications for Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinzon-Perez, Helda; Perez, Miguel A.

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed 10th graders from 32 Colombian public schools to examine risk behaviors related to depression and suicide. About 21 percent of respondents expressed suicidal feelings. This transcended to actual plans in 19 percent of respondents, while 16 percent reported at least one attempt in the previous 30 days. Suicidal thoughts and attempts…

  18. Relationship between Quantity and Frequency of Alcohol Use and Indices of Suicidal Behavior in an Elderly Australian Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfaff, Jon J.; Almeida, Osvaldo P.; Witte, Tracy K.; Waesche, Matthew C.; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Relatively little research has been conducted on the relationship between alcohol misuse and suicidal behavior among the elderly. The current study's aim was to examine whether quantity and frequency of alcohol use and the interaction between these variables are related to current suicidal ideation, previous suicidal ideation/intent, and past…

  19. A Systematic Review of Social Factors and Suicidal Behavior in Older Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Fässberg, Madeleine Mellqvist; van Orden, Kimberly A.; Duberstein, Paul; Erlangsen, Annette; Lapierre, Sylvie; Bodner, Ehud; Canetto, Silvia Sara; Leo, Diego De; Szanto, Katalin; Waern, Margda

    2012-01-01

    Suicide in later life is a global public health problem. The aim of this review was to conduct a systematic analysis of studies with comparison groups that examined the associations between social factors and suicidal behavior (including ideation, non-fatal suicidal behavior, or deaths) among individuals aged 65 and older. Our search identified only 16 articles (across 14 independent samples) that met inclusion criteria. The limited number of studies points to the need for further research. Included studies were conducted in Canada (n = 2), Germany (n = 1), Hong Kong (n = 1), Japan (n = 1), Singapore (n = 1), Sweden (n = 2), Taiwan (n = 1), the U.K. (n = 2), and the U.S. (n = 3). The majority of the social factors examined in this review can be conceptualized as indices of positive social connectedness—the degree of positive involvement with family, friends, and social groups. Findings indicated that at least in industrialized countries, limited social connectedness is associated with suicidal ideation, non-fatal suicidal behavior, and suicide in later life. Primary prevention programs designed to enhance social connections as well as a sense of community could potentially decrease suicide risk, especially among men. PMID:22690159

  20. Gene-gene interaction between MAOA and COMT in suicidal behavior: analysis in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Vincenzo; Tharmalingam, Subi; Müller, Daniel J; Wong, Greg; de Bartolomeis, Andrea; Kennedy, James L

    2006-06-30

    A large body of evidence suggests that suicidal behavior is associated with altered noradrenergic neurotransmission. Norepinephrine is degraded by monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) and catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT). Our hypothesis is that the genes encoding MAOA and COMT might contain genetic variants conferring increased risk for suicidal behavior in schizophrenia and that both genes may interact each other. In order to test this hypothesis, we genotyped the promoter VNTR polymorphism in the MAOA gene and three COMT polymorphisms: -287A>G, Val/Met and 3'UTR C Ins/Del in a cohort of 270 schizophrenics in which 92 attempted suicide. No association between suicide attempt and the MAOA VNTR (P = 0.382), Val108/158Met (P = 0.788) or -287A>G (P = 0.420) polymorphisms was found, however, a slight significant finding was found for 3'UTR polymorphism (P = 0.050). Haplotype analysis for COMT gene revealed no association between suicide attempts and haplotype distribution (P = 0.451). As we tested for epistasis between MAOA VNTR and COMT Val/Met, we found no significant interaction in conferring risk for suicide attempts (P = 0.545). These results suggest that epistasis between MAOA and COMT genes may not influence suicidal behavior in patients with schizophrenia.

  1. Suicidal Behavior Outcomes of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Longitudinal Study of Adjudicated Girls

    PubMed Central

    Rabinovitch, Sara M.; Kerr, David C. R.; Leve, Leslie D.; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) histories are prevalent among adolescent girls in the juvenile justice system (JJS) and may contribute to their high rates of suicidal behavior. Among 166 JJS girls who participated in an intervention trial, baseline CSA and covariates were examined as predictors of suicide attempt and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) reported at long-term follow-up (7–12 years later). Early forced CSA was related to lifetime suicide attempt and NSSI history, and (marginally) to post-baseline attempt; effects were not mediated by anxiety or depressive symptoms. Findings suggest that earlier victimization and younger entry into JJS are linked with girls’ suicide attempt and NSSI. PMID:25370436

  2. Conflict-related anterior cingulate functional connectivity is associated with past suicidal ideation and behavior in recent-onset schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Minzenberg, Michael J; Lesh, Tyler; Niendam, Tara; Yoon, Jong H; Cheng, Yaoan; Rhoades, Remy; Carter, Cameron S

    2015-06-01

    Suicide is highly prevalent in schizophrenia (SZ), yet it remains unclear how suicide risk factors such as past suicidal ideation or behavior relate to brain function. Circuits modulated by the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are altered in SZ, including in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) during conflict-monitoring (an important component of cognitive control), and dACC changes are observed in post-mortem studies of heterogeneous suicide victims. We tested whether conflict-related dACC functional connectivity is associated with past suicidal ideation and behavior in SZ. 32 patients with recent-onset of DSM-IV-TR-defined SZ were evaluated with the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale and functional MRI during cognitive control (AX-CPT) task performance. Group-level regression models relating past history of suicidal ideation or behavior to dACC-seeded functional connectivity during conflict-monitoring controlled for severity of depression, psychosis and impulsivity. Past suicidal ideation was associated with relatively higher functional connectivity of the dACC with the precuneus during conflict-monitoring. Intensity of worst-point past suicidal ideation was associated with relatively higher dACC functional connectivity in medial parietal lobe and striato-thalamic nuclei. In contrast, among those with past suicidal ideation (n = 17), past suicidal behavior was associated with lower conflict-related dACC connectivity with multiple lateral and medial PFC regions, parietal and temporal cortical regions. This study provides unique evidence that recent-onset schizophrenia patients with past suicidal ideation or behavior show altered dACC-based circuit function during conflict-monitoring. Suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior have divergent patterns of associated dACC functional connectivity, suggesting a differing pattern of conflict-related brain dysfunction with these two distinct features of suicide phenomenology.

  3. More than words: The association of childhood emotional abuse and suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, R M F; Lara, D R

    2016-09-01

    All types of abuse and neglect have been associated with suicide attempts. However, the association between the level of each type of childhood trauma and suicidal behavior severity (including the progression from ideation to attempts), adjusting for their co-occurrence, is not yet clear. We used a cross-sectional web-based survey collected from the Brazilian Internet Study on Temperament and Psychopathology (BRAINSTEP) to investigate the isolated effects of each type of childhood trauma on suicidal behavior severity. The sample consisted of 71,429 self-selected volunteers assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and the following key question: "Have you ever thought about or attempted to kill yourself?" (Suicidal Behavior Questionnaire, SBQ-17). After adjusting for demographic variables, and childhood trauma subtypes, severe emotional abuse (EA) was associated with suicidal ideation and attempts, mainly for serious suicide attempts (OR, 22.71; 95% CI, 2.32-222.05). We found associations of smaller magnitude for severe emotional neglect (EN) with serious suicide attempts, and for severe physical neglect (PN) and sexual abuse (SA) with attempts without really meaning to die. No meaningful trend for physical abuse (PA) was found. Using as reference group ideators, EA was associated with serious suicide attempts, with a peak at the 95th percentile (OR, 4.39; 95% CI, 2.04-9.41). We found associations of smaller magnitude for PN and SA, and no meaningful trend for EN and PA. Suicidal behavior was strongly associated with emotional abuse in childhood, even when compared with ideators, suggesting that it is a relevant factor for the progression from ideation to attempts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Exposure to prescription drugs labeled for risk of adverse effects of suicidal behavior or ideation among 100 Air Force personnel who died by suicide, 2006-2009.

    PubMed

    Lavigne, Jill E; McCarthy, Michael; Chapman, Richard; Petrilla, Allison; Knox, Kerry L

    2012-10-01

    Prescription drugs for many indications are labeled with warnings for potential risk of suicidal ideation or behavior. Exposures to prescription drugs labeled for adverse effects of suicidal behavior or ideation among 100 Air Force personnel who died by suicide between 2006 and 2009 are described. Air Force registry data were linked to administrative prescription data. Descriptive statistics illustrate utilization: 89 personnel had a prescription history, 35 filled at least one prescription labeled with a warning, 26 had antidepressants on hand at death, and 2 died by drug overdose. Most airmen were not exposed to any prescriptions labeled for risk of suicidal ideation or behavior prior to death by suicide. © 2012 The American Association of Suicidology.

  5. Suicide note and the psychological autopsy: Associated behavioral aspects.

    PubMed

    Acinas, Maria Patricia; Robles, José I; Peláez-Fernández, M Ángeles

    2015-01-01

    When a death occurs under traumatic, ambiguous, unknown, or uncertain circumstances, a death of suicidal origin can be considered. On many occasions, a suicide note is found next to body that helps to clarify certain aspects needed for the investigation to elucidate whether the death is really due to suicide or other causes. There are several types of suicide note (farewell, instructions, accusation of others, request for forgiveness, justification of one’s own suicide) that can contribute to the study of the victim’s psychological state and the circumstances that led to death. There is no unanimously approved way to conduct the psychological autopsy, but there are protocols for obtaining relevant information and preparing the report.

  6. The Influence of Parental Psychopathology on Offspring Suicidal Behavior across the Lifespan.

    PubMed

    Santana, Geilson Lima; Coelho, Bruno Mendonca; Borges, Guilherme; Viana, Maria Carmen; Wang, Yuan Pang; Andrade, Laura Helena

    2015-01-01

    Suicide tends to occur in families, and parental psychopathology has been linked to offspring suicidal behaviors. This study explores the influence of parental mental disorders across the lifespan. Data are from the Sao Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey, a cross-sectional household study with a representative sample of the adult population living in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area, Brazil (N=2,942). Survival models examined bivariate and multivariate associations between a range of parental disorders and offspring suicidality. After controlling for comorbidity, number of mental disorders and offspring psychopathology, we found that parental psychopathology influences suicidal behaviors throughout most part of the life cycle, from childhood until young adult years. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and antisocial personality were associated with offspring suicidal ideation (OR 1.8 and 1.9, respectively), panic and GAD predicted suicidal attempts (OR 2.3 and 2.7, respectively), and panic was related to the transition from ideation to attempts (OR 2.7). Although noticed in many different stages of the lifespan, this influence is most evident during adolescence. In this period, depression and antisocial personality increased the odds of suicidal ideation (OR 5.1 and 3.2, respectively), and depression, panic disorder, GAD and substance abuse predicted suicidal attempts (OR varying from 1.7 to 3.8). In short, parental disorders characterized by impulsive-aggression and anxiety-agitation were the main predictors of offspring suicidality across the lifespan. This clinically relevant intergenerational transmission of suicide risk was independent of offspring mental disorders, and this underscores the need for a family approach to psychopathology.

  7. [Suicidal Behavior and Attention Decifit Hyperactivity Disorder in Adolescents of Medellin (Colombia), 2011-2012].

    PubMed

    Restrepo-Bernal, Diana; Bonfante-Olivares, Laura; Torres de Galvis, Yolanda; Berbesi-Fernández, Dedsy; Sierra-Hincapié, Gloria

    2014-01-01

    Suicide is a public health problem. In Colombia, teenagers are considered a group at high risk for suicidal behavior. To explore the possible association between suicidal behavior and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adolescents of Medellin. Observational, cross-sectional, analytical study. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was applied to a total of 447 adolescents and the sociodemographic, clinical, familiar, and life event variables of interest were analyzed. The descriptive analysis of qualitative variables are presented as absolute values and frequencies, and the age was described with median [interquartile range]. A logistic regression model was constructed with explanatory variables that showed statistical association. Data were analyzed with SPSS® software version 21.0. Of the total, 59.1% were female, and the median age was 16 [14-18] years. Suicidal behavior was presented in 31% of females and 23% of males. Attention deficit was present in 6.3% of adolescents. The logistic regression analysis showed that the variables that best explained the suicidal behavior of adolescents were: female sex, post-traumatic stress disorder, panic disorder, and cocaine use. The diagnosis and early intervention of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children may be a useful strategy in the prevention of suicidal behavior in adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of Baseline Characteristics between Community-based and Hospital-based Suicidal Ideators and Its Implications for Tailoring Strategies for Suicide Prevention: Korean Cohort for the Model Predicting a Suicide and Suicide-related Behavior

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to identify distinguishing factors between populations with suicidal ideation recruited from hospitals and communities to make an efficient allocation of limited anti-suicidal resources according to group differences. We analyzed the baseline data from 120 individuals in a community-based cohort (CC) and 137 individuals in a hospital-based cohort (HC) with suicidal ideation obtained from the Korean Cohort for the Model Predicting a Suicide and Suicide-related Behavior (K-COMPASS) study. First, their sociodemographic factors, histories of medical and psychiatric illnesses, and suicidal behaviors were compared. Second, diagnosis by the Korean version of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, scores of psychometric scales were used to assess differences in clinical severity between the groups. The results revealed that the HC had more severe clinical features: more psychiatric diagnosis including current and recurrent major depressive episodes (odds ratio [OR], 4.054; P < 0.001 and OR, 11.432; P < 0.001, respectively), current suicide risk (OR, 4.817; P < 0.001), past manic episodes (OR, 9.500; P < 0.001), past hypomanic episodes (OR, 4.108; P = 0.008), current alcohol abuse (OR, 3.566; P = 0.020), and current mood disorder with psychotic features (OR, 20.342; P < 0.001) besides significantly higher scores in depression, anxiety, alcohol problems, impulsivity, and stress. By comparison, old age, single households, and low socioeconomic status were significantly associated with the CC. These findings indicate the necessity of more clinically oriented support for hospital visitors and more socioeconomic aid for community-dwellers with suicidality. PMID:28776350

  9. ADad 9: Suicidal behavior in Anxiety Disorders among adolescents in a rural community population in India.

    PubMed

    Russell, Paul Swamidhas Sudhakar; Nair, M K C; Chandra, Abhiram; Subramaniam, Vinod Shanmukham; Bincymol, K; George, Babu; Samuel, Beulah

    2013-11-01

    The risk of suicidal behavior associated with Anxiety Disorders (AD) among adolescents is known. However, concurrent mood disorders complicate these findings, and no data is available from India as well as from the community. This study aimed to address the suicidal risk associated with AD from different perspectives. The authors prospectively collected data for 500 adolescents in a community with independent, trained raters. Risk for suicidal behavior was measured with SADPERSONS scale, socio-economic status with Modified Kuppuswamy Scale, depression and anxiety disorders with Beck Depression Inventory and Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders respectively. The relationship between predictors and need for preventive action was analyzed with univariate and multivariate regression analyses and a predictive model was built. Suicidal behavior was increased by the presence of AD (adjusted OR = 6.28), the number of co-morbid AD (adjusted OR = 2.04), severity of the AD (adjusted OR = 4.98). Being a boy increased the risk of suicidal behavior associated with AD (adjusted OR = 9.37), Generalized Anxiety Disorder (adjusted OR = 5.65), Separation Anxiety Disorder (unadjusted OR = 3.28), Social Anxiety Disorder (unadjusted OR = 5.91) while controlling for the confounding effect of Depressive Disorder. Gender did not have an influence on Panic Disorder. Presence of AD and co-morbid Depressive Disorder significantly contributed to a risk model for suicidal behavior. Anxiety Disorder is associated with the risk for potential suicidal behavior. Adolescent boys with AD and Depressive Disorder need to be identified as the high risk group for suicide prevention in the community.

  10. Associations between suicidal behavior and childhood abuse and neglect: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianbo; Fang, Yumin; Gong, Jingbo; Cui, Xilong; Meng, Tiantian; Xiao, Bo; He, Yuqiong; Shen, Yanmei; Luo, Xuerong

    2017-10-01

    Relationships of some types of childhood maltreatment and suicidal behavior remain controversial and inconclusive. Medline, Embase, PsycINFO and Cochrane library were searched for eligible studies, and the results were synthesized in meta-analyses. childhood maltreatment was associated positively with suicidal behavior in the total population and maltreatment subgroups. Emotional abuse had the strongest effect (OR =2.33, SMD =0.660, P<0.001). Subgroup analyses showed that the effects of childhood abuse (OR =1.55, SMD =0.523) and neglect (OR =1.25, SMD =0.31) were significant. According to the analysis of dichotomous outcomes, childhood maltreatment was associated positively with suicidal behavior in men and women (women: OR =4.84, P<0.001; men: OR =1.03, P<0.001). Among populations, childhood maltreatment had the strongest effect on suicidal behavior in the general population (OR =3.78, P<0.001). However, the analysis of continuous outcomes showed that the effect was strongest in patients with chronic schizophrenia (SMD =0.89, P<0.001). In addition, childhood maltreatment was associated positively with suicide attempt (OR =1.11, SMD =0.48, P<0.001), but not with suicidal ideation. Some subgroup samples were not sufficiently large. Childhood maltreatment increases the risk of suicidal behavior. Emotional abuse had the strongest effect among the five types of maltreatment. The risk of suicidal behavior is higher in the general population, women, and individuals with chronic schizophrenia who have histories of childhood maltreatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Citation classics in suicide and life threatening behavior: a research note.

    PubMed

    Stack, Steven

    2012-12-01

    The number of citations a scholarly work receives is a common measure of its impact on the scientific literature; "citation classics" are the most highly cited works. The content of Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior (SLTB) citation classics is described here. The impact of SLTB citation classics is compared to their counterparts in journals having published the most suicide papers. All data are from the ISI electronic venue on the Web of Science and refer to the number of citations the top 1% of works received in each of ten journals from 1975 through August 10, 2011. Among all ten journals, SLTB ranked first in the number of works on suicide. The principle theme of half of SLTB suicide classics was literature review. The median number of citations for SLTB citation classics (top 1%) was 121.5, with a range between 96 and 279 citations, but classics from generalized psychiatric journals received more citations as anticipated. Journal impact factors explained 73% of the variance in classic's citation counts across journals. On average, suicide classics received 30% more citations than all classics. Among a second group of five specialized suicide journals, however, SLTB ranked first in average 5-year impact. Although SLTB produced the highest number of suicide articles of any journal, SLTB's citation classics received fewer citations than suicide classics in high-impact/prestige, general journals. Future work is needed to assess what predicts which SLTB articles ultimately become citation classics. © 2012 The American Association of Suicidology.

  12. The Extrinsic Coagulation Pathway: a Biomarker for Suicidal Behavior in Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yongtao; Chen, Jin; Liu, Chengyu; Fang, Liang; Liu, Zhao; Guo, Jing; Cheng, Ke; Zhou, Chanjuan; Zhan, Yuan; Melgiri, Narayan D.; Zhang, Liang; Zhong, Jiaju; Chen, Jianjun; Rao, Chenglong; Xie, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Although an association between major depressive disorder (MDD) and suicide exists, most depressed patients never attempt suicide. An improved understanding of the factors contributing to suicidal risk in MDD can provide direction for suicide predictor development. In MDD suicide attempters (MDD-SA), MDD non-attempters (MDD-NA), and healthy controls (HC) (n = 12 each group), complementary plasma proteomics identified 45 differential proteins mapped to coagulation and inflammation, 25 of which underwent Western blotting. In another cohort including antidepressant-treated patients (n = 49 each group), seven additional extrinsic pathway proteins were selected for ELISA. Two inflammatory proteins and eight coagulatory proteins demonstrated alterations in MDD-SA relative to MDD-NA and HC. Applying a relative mass-action ratio, MDD-SA subjects displayed a higher relative prothrombinase activity than MDD-NA subjects, while healthy controls displayed higher relative prothrombinase activity than both MDD-SA and MDD-NA subjects. Consistent with our human findings, we found that heparin treatment significantly increased forced swimming test (FST) immobility time in rodents. MDD, independent of suicidality, is associated with a proinflammatory state accompanied by a hypothrombotic state. Suicidal behavior in MDD is associated with a more pronounced proinflammatory and prothrombotic phenotype accompanied by extrinsic pathway activation, revealing an extrinsic pathway biomarker that can be applied in predicting and monitoring suicidal risk. PMID:27605454

  13. Gender differences in adolescent coping behaviors and suicidal ideation: findings from a sample of 73,238 adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Mi; Han, Doug Hyun; Trksak, George H; Lee, Young Sik

    2014-01-01

    Suicide among adolescents is an emerging global public health problem as well as a socioeconomic problem. Stress-coping strategies have been shown to be associated with suicidal ideation. We examined coping behaviors related to suicidal ideation and gender differences in adolescents using the data from the 2010 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey (ages 12-19 years; N = 73,238). Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate associations between suicidal ideation and specific coping behaviors while controlling for potentially confounding variables. In both male and female groups, the coping behavior "drinking alcoholic beverages" and "smoking cigarettes" were positively associated with suicidal ideation. "Watching TV," "playing online/mobile games," and "sleeping" were negatively associated with suicidal ideation in both groups. In males, "engaging in sports" was negatively related to suicidal ideation. In females, "venting by talking to others" and "eating" were negatively related to suicidal ideation. The results indicate that there are gender differences in the effects of coping behaviors on adolescent suicidal ideation, and that developing adaptive coping strategies may function to reduce suicidality. Future studies are needed to examine whether improving coping skills can reduce suicidal ideation in a gender-specific manner.

  14. Post Admission Cognitive Therapy (PACT) for the Inpatient Treatment of Military Personnel with Suicidal Behaviors: A Multi-Site Randomized Controlled Trial

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    proposal addresses this important gap and aims to evaluate an innovative suicide intervention , Post Admission Cognitive Therapy (PACT). Left...cognitive behavioral intervention program, titled, Post Admission Cognitive Therapy (PACT), for military service members and beneficiaries admitted...listening to digital recordings of therapy sessions and/or reviewing of typed transcribed sessions for the purposes of treatment refinement and integrity

  15. Attachment style and suicide behaviors in high risk psychiatric inpatients following hospital discharge: The mediating role of entrapment.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuang; Galynker, Igor I; Briggs, Jessica; Duffy, Molly; Frechette-Hagan, Anna; Kim, Hae-Joon; Cohen, Lisa J; Yaseen, Zimri S

    2017-08-02

    Insecure attachment is associated with suicidal behavior. This relationship and its possible mediators have not been examined in high-risk psychiatric inpatients with respect to the critical high-risk period following hospital discharge. Attachment styles and perception of entrapment were assessed in 200 high-risk adult psychiatric inpatients hospitalized following suicidal ideation or suicide attempt. Suicidal behaviors were evaluated with the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale at 1-2 months post-discharge. Associations between different attachment styles and suicidal behaviors were assessed and mediation of attachment effects by entrapment was modeled. Fearful attachment was associated with post-discharge suicidal behavior and there was a trend-level negative association for secure attachment. In addition, entrapment mediated the relationship between fearful attachment and suicidal behavior. The current study highlights the mediating role of perceptions of entrapment in the contribution of fearful attachment to suicidal behavior in high-risk patients, suggesting entrapment as potential therapeutic target to prevent suicidal behavior in these individuals. Further research is warranted to establish the mechanisms by which entrapment experiences emerge in patients with insecure attachment styles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Skills Practice in Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Suicidal Women Meeting Criteria for Borderline Personality Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindenboim, Noam; Comtois, Katherine Anne; Linehan, Marsha M.

    2007-01-01

    Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) is an evidence-based practice for borderline personality disorder (BPD) and suicidal behavior that has been replicated with a variety of populations. Patients' practice of behavioral skills taught in the group skills training component of DBT may be partly responsible for the positive treatment outcomes according…

  17. Skills Practice in Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Suicidal Women Meeting Criteria for Borderline Personality Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindenboim, Noam; Comtois, Katherine Anne; Linehan, Marsha M.

    2007-01-01

    Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) is an evidence-based practice for borderline personality disorder (BPD) and suicidal behavior that has been replicated with a variety of populations. Patients' practice of behavioral skills taught in the group skills training component of DBT may be partly responsible for the positive treatment outcomes according…

  18. The Structure of Co-Occurring Bullying Experiences and Associations with Suicidal Behaviors in Korean Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Roh, Beop-Rae; Yoon, Yoewon; Kwon, Ahye; Oh, Seunga; Lee, Soyoung Irene; Ha, Kyunghee; Shin, Yun Mi; Song, Jungeun; Park, Eun Jin; Yoo, Heejung; Hong, Hyun Ju

    2015-01-01

    This study had two main goals: to examine the structure of co-occurring peer bullying experiences among adolescents in South Korea from the perspective of victims and to determine the effects of bullying on suicidal behavior, including suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, among adolescents. This study used data gathered from 4,410 treatment-seeking adolescents at their initial visits to 31 local mental health centers in Gyeonggi Province, South Korea. The structure of peer bullying was examined using latent class analysis (LCA) to classify participants' relevant experiences. Then, a binomial logistic regression adjusted by propensity scores was conducted to identify relationships between experiences of being bullied and suicidal behaviors. The LCA of experiences with bullying revealed two distinct classes of bullying: physical and non-physical. Adolescents who experienced physical bullying were 3.05 times more likely to attempt suicide than those who were not bullied. Victims of (non-physical) cyber bullying were 2.94 times more likely to attempt suicide than were those who were not bullied. Both physical and non-physical bullying were associated with suicide attempts, with similar effect sizes. Schools and mental health professionals should be more attentive than they currently are to non-physical bullying.

  19. Religiosity as a protective factor in suicidal behavior: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Caribé, André C; Nunez, Rafael; Montal, Diogo; Ribeiro, Larissa; Sarmento, Stella; Quarantini, Lucas C; Miranda-Scippa, Angela

    2012-10-01

    The impact of religiosity in suicidal behavior was evaluated in Brazil through a case-control study in which 110 subjects who had attempted suicide through the use of toxic substances were compared with 114 control subjects with no history of suicide attempts. Religiosity was measured in three aspects: organizational religious activities (ORAs), nonorganizational religious activities (NORAs), and intrinsic religiosity (IR). Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the impact of religiosity on suicide attempts, controlling for sociodemographic variables, impulsivity, and mental illness. Religiosity, in its three dimensions, was shown to be an important protective factor against suicide attempts, even after controlling for relevant risk factors associated with suicidal behavior: ORA: odds ratio (OR), 0.63 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.45-0.89); NORA: OR, 0.56 (95% CI, 0.42-0.75); and IR: OR, 0.59 (95% CI, 0.49-0.70). These data have important implications for understanding religiosity factors that might protect against suicide.

  20. The Structure of Co-Occurring Bullying Experiences and Associations with Suicidal Behaviors in Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Beop-Rae; Yoon, Yoewon; Kwon, Ahye; Oh, Seunga; Lee, Soyoung Irene; Ha, Kyunghee; Shin, Yun Mi; Song, Jungeun; Park, Eun Jin; Yoo, Heejung; Hong, Hyun Ju

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study had two main goals: to examine the structure of co-occurring peer bullying experiences among adolescents in South Korea from the perspective of victims and to determine the effects of bullying on suicidal behavior, including suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, among adolescents. Method This study used data gathered from 4,410 treatment-seeking adolescents at their initial visits to 31 local mental health centers in Gyeonggi Province, South Korea. The structure of peer bullying was examined using latent class analysis (LCA) to classify participants’ relevant experiences. Then, a binomial logistic regression adjusted by propensity scores was conducted to identify relationships between experiences of being bullied and suicidal behaviors. Results The LCA of experiences with bullying revealed two distinct classes of bullying: physical and non-physical. Adolescents who experienced physical bullying were 3.05 times more likely to attempt suicide than those who were not bullied. Victims of (non-physical) cyber bullying were 2.94 times more likely to attempt suicide than were those who were not bullied. Conclusions Both physical and non-physical bullying were associated with suicide attempts, with similar effect sizes. Schools and mental health professionals should be more attentive than they currently are to non-physical bullying. PMID:26619356

  1. Associations of substance use, abuse, and dependence with subsequent suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Borges, G; Walters, E E; Kessler, R C

    2000-04-15

    General population survey data are used to disaggregate the associations of substance use disorders with suicide attempts in order to evaluate a number of hypotheses about the processes leading to these associations. Data are from the US National Comorbidity Survey (1990-1992). Discrete-time survival analysis is used to study the effects of retrospectively reported temporally prior substance use, abuse, and dependence in predicting first onset of suicidal behavior. Alcohol and drug use predict subsequent suicide attempts after controlling for sociodemographics and comorbid mental disorders. Previous use is not a significant predictor among current nonusers. Abuse and dependence are significant predictors among users for three of the 10 substances considered (alcohol, inhalants, and heroin). The number of substances used is more important than the types of substances used in predicting suicidal behavior. Disaggregation shows that the effects of use are largely on suicidal ideation and nonplanned attempts among ideators. In comparison, the effects of use on suicide plans and planned attempts among ideators are not significant. Clinicians need to be aware that current substance use, even in the absence of abuse or dependence, is a significant risk factor for unplanned suicide attempts among ideators.

  2. Lack of association between serotonin 5-HT1B receptor gene polymorphism and suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Rujescu, Dan; Giegling, Ina; Sato, Tetsuya; Möller, Hans-Jürgen

    2003-01-01

    A genetic susceptibility to suicide attempts has been repeatedly suggested by family-, twin-, and adoption-studies. Because elevated impulsive aggression is one of the most prominent characteristics of suicide attempters and aggressive behavior has been reported in 5-HT1B receptor gene knockout mice, the serotonin receptor 1B gene (5-HT1B) is an attractive candidate. The distribution of a polymorphism (G861C) in the 5-HT1B gene was examined in 148 consecutively hospitalized German suicide attempters, and 327 German healthy volunteers randomly recruited from the general population. The controls and their first degree relatives had no history of mental disorders or suicidal behavior. We found no significant difference in allele or genotype frequency between patients and controls. The results did not differ when the patients were divided into several subgroups (gender, suicide attempters with a violent method or suicide attempters with unipolar-, bipolar-, borderline personality-, and schizophrenia spectrum disorders). These findings suggest that the 5-HT1B polymorphism is unlikely to play a major role in the genetic susceptibility to suicide attempts. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. PTSD symptoms and suicidal thoughts and behaviors among firefighters.

    PubMed

    Boffa, Joseph W; Stanley, Ian H; Hom, Melanie A; Norr, Aaron M; Joiner, Thomas E; Schmidt, Norman B

    2017-01-01

    Research into the causes and prevention of suicide has been deemed a national priority, with a recent focus on sectors of the workforce, such as firefighters, who experience occupational hazards that may confer risk for suicide. Elevated levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), which show robust relationships with both suicidal ideation (SI) and suicide attempts, are common among firefighters. However, no study to date has investigated the relationship between PTSS and suicidality among firefighters. The current study therefore aimed to identify the degree to which PTSS were related were related to a history of SI and prior attempts in a national sample of firefighters (N = 893). Results revealed that greater PTSS were associated with greater risk of reporting lifetime SI and prior attempts, after controlling for other known risk factors for suicidality. Exploratory models investigating the unique contributions of individual PTSS clusters to suicidality found that numbing and re-experiencing PTSS were significantly related to SI, but only re-experiencing was related to prior attempts. The theoretical and clinical implications of these relationships, particularly among firefighters, are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Religion and suicide.

    PubMed

    Gearing, Robin E; Lizardi, Dana

    2009-09-01

    Religion impacts suicidality. One's degree of religiosity can potentially serve as a protective factor against suicidal behavior. To accurately assess risk of suicide, it is imperative to understand the role of religion in suicidality. PsycINFO and MEDLINE databases were searched for published articles on religion and suicide between 1980 and 2008. Epidemiological data on suicidality across four religions, and the influence of religion on suicidality are presented. Practice guidelines are presented for incorporating religiosity into suicide risk assessment. Suicide rates and risk and protective factors for suicide vary across religions. It is essential to assess for degree of religious commitment and involvement to accurately identify suicide risk.

  5. Increased severity of suicidal behavior in impulsive aggressive patients exposed to familial adversities.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Castroman, J; Jaussent, I; Beziat, S; Guillaume, S; Baca-Garcia, E; Genty, C; Olié, E; Courtet, P

    2014-10-01

    The mechanisms by which childhood abuse and family history of suicidal behavior (FHS) lead to an increased risk of suicidal behavior are still unknown. Impulsive aggression may play an intermediate role. We investigated whether greater scores for aggression and impulsivity might be associated with the effects of FHS and/or childhood abuse on the severity of suicidal behavior. We examined the scores of three scales measuring impulsive aggression in a sample of 696 suicide attempters. We compared the highest and lowest scores with regard to reports of childhood abuse and FHS using adjusted multinomial regression models. Genetic polymorphisms of the serotonergic system known to be associated with impulsive aggression were also analyzed. Patients with high impulsive aggressive scores showed significant differences in sociodemographic, clinical and suicidal features compared with patients with low impulsive aggressive scores. Adjusted results showed that combinations of some types of childhood abuse and FHS, particularly emotional abuse and emotional neglect, are associated with high impulsivity and hostility scores. The SS genotype of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) was associated with high levels of impulsivity when the subjects reported emotional abuse [odds ratio (OR) 5.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.75-17.5] or physical abuse (OR 5.03, 95% CI 1.50-16.9) in their childhood. Our results support the role of impulsive aggression as one of the links that may connect childhood abuse and FHS with severity of suicidal behavior.

  6. The role of microRNAs in synaptic plasticity, major affective disorders and suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Serafini, Gianluca; Pompili, Maurizio; Innamorati, Marco; Giordano, Gloria; Montebovi, Franco; Sher, Leo; Dwivedi, Yogesh; Girardi, Paolo

    2012-07-01

    Major affective disorders are common widespread conditions associated with multiple psychosocial impairments and suicidal risk in the general population. At least 3-4% of all depressive individuals die by suicide. At a molecular level, affective disorders and suicidal behavior are recently associated with disturbances in structural and synaptic plasticity. A recent hypothesis suggested that small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), in particular microRNAs (miRNAs), play a critical role in the translational regulation at the synapse. We performed a selective overview of the current literature on miRNAs putative subcellular localization and sites of action in mature neurons analyzing their role in neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity, pathological stress changes, major affective disorders and suicidal behavior. miRNAs have played a fundamental role in the evolution of brain functions. The perturbation of some intracellular mechanisms as well as impaired assembly, localization, and translational regulation of specific RNA binding proteins may affect learning and memory, presumably contributing to the pathogenesis of major affective disorders and perhaps suicidal behavior. Also, miRNA dys-regulation has also been linked to several neuropsychiatric diseases. However, further evidence are needed in order to directly clarify the role of miRNAs in major affective disorders and suicidal behavior.

  7. Sadness, suicide, and bullying in Arkansas: results from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey -- 2011.

    PubMed

    Kindrick, Kristi; Castro, Juan; Messias, Erick

    2013-10-01

    Bullying is a common exposure in high school and more recently cyberbullying has become prevalent among teens. We used the 2011 Arkansas Youth Risk Behavior Survey to estimate the prevalence of school bullying and cyberbullying and to measure its association with teen suicidality. In Arkansas, 11.6% of students reported only school bullying, 6.2% only cyberbullying, and 10.2% both forms of bullying. We determined "feeling unsafe at school" was a significant risk factor for depression and all suicide questions. We also found that being a victim of school bullying, cyberbullying, or both, increased the risk for depression, suicidal ideation, and plan.

  8. Involvement in bullying and suicide-related behavior at 11 years: a prospective birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Winsper, Catherine; Lereya, Tanya; Zanarini, Mary; Wolke, Dieter

    2012-03-01

    To study the prospective link between involvement in bullying (bully, victim, bully/victim), and subsequent suicide ideation and suicidal/self-injurious behavior, in preadolescent children in the United Kingdom. A total of 6,043 children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort were assessed to ascertain involvement in bullying between 4 and 10 years and suicide related behavior at 11.7 years. Peer victimization (victim, bully/victim) was significantly associated with suicide ideation and suicidal/self-injurious behavior after adjusting for confounders. Bully/victims were at heightened risk for suicide ideation (odds ratio [OR]; 95% confidence interval [CI]): child report at 8 years (OR = 2.84; CI = 1.81-4.45); child report at 10 years (OR = 3.20; CI = 2.07-4.95); mother report (OR = 2.71; CI = 1.81-4.05); teacher report (OR = 2.79; CI = 1.62-4.81), as were chronic victims: child report (OR = 3.26; CI = 2.24-4.75); mother report (OR = 2.49; CI = 1.64-3.79); teacher report (OR = 5.99; CI = 2.79-12.88). Similarly, bully/victims were at heightened risk for suicidal/self-injurious behavior: child report at 8 years (OR = 2.67; CI = 1.66-4.29); child report at 10 years (OR = 3.34; CI = 2.17-5.15); mother report (OR = 2.09; CI = CI = 1.36-3.20); teacher report (OR = 2.44, CI = 1.39-4.30); as were chronic victims: child report (OR = 4.10; CI = 2.76-6.08); mother report (OR = 1.91; 1.22-2.99); teacher report (OR = 3.26; CI = 1.38-7.68). Pure bullies had increased risk of suicide ideation according to child report at age 8 years (OR = 3.60; CI = 1.46-8.84), suicidal/self-injurious behavior according to child report at age 8 years (OR = 3.02; CI = 1.14-8.02), and teacher report (OR = 1.84; CI = 1.09-3.10). Children involved in bullying, in any role, and especially bully/victims and chronic victims, are at increased risk for suicide ideation and suicidal/self-injurious behavior in preadolescence. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Child and

  9. Ecstasy Use and Suicidal Behavior Among Adolescents: Findings from a National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jueun; Fan, Bin; Liu, Xinhua; Kerner, Nancy; Wu, Ping

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between ecstasy use and suicidal behaviors among adolescents in the United States. Data from the adolescent subsample (ages 12–17, N=19,301) of the 2000 NHSDA were used in the analyses. Information on adolescent substance use, suicidal behaviors and related socio-demographic, family and individual factors was obtained in the survey. The rate of past year suicide attempt among adolescents with lifetime ecstasy use was almost double that of adolescents who had used other drugs only, and nine times that of adolescents with no history of illicit drug use. In multinomial logistic regression analyses, controlling for related factors, the effect of ecstasy use remained significant. Adolescent ecstasy users may require enhanced suicide prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:21631573

  10. Parental psychopathology and the risk of suicidal behavior in their offspring: results from the World Mental Health surveys.

    PubMed

    Gureje, O; Oladeji, B; Hwang, I; Chiu, W T; Kessler, R C; Sampson, N A; Alonso, J; Andrade, L H; Beautrais, A; Borges, G; Bromet, E; Bruffaerts, R; de Girolamo, G; de Graaf, R; Gal, G; He, Y; Hu, C; Iwata, N; Karam, E G; Kovess-Masféty, V; Matschinger, H; Moldovan, M V; Posada-Villa, J; Sagar, R; Scocco, P; Seedat, S; Tomov, T; Nock, M K

    2011-12-01

    Previous research suggests that parental psychopathology predicts suicidal behavior among offspring; however, the more fine-grained associations between specific parental disorders and distinct stages of the pathway to suicide are not well understood. We set out to test the hypothesis that parental disorders associated with negative mood would predict offspring suicide ideation, whereas disorders characterized by impulsive aggression (for example, antisocial personality) and anxiety/agitation (for example, panic disorder) would predict which offspring act on their suicide ideation and make a suicide attempt. Data were collected during face-to-face interviews conducted on nationally representative samples (N=55 299; age 18+) from 21 countries around the world. We tested the associations between a range of parental disorders and the onset and persistence over time (that is, time since most recent episode controlling for age of onset and time since onset) of subsequent suicidal behavior (suicide ideation, plans and attempts) among offspring. Analyses tested bivariate and multivariate associations between each parental disorder and distinct forms of suicidal behavior. Results revealed that each parental disorder examined increased the risk of suicide ideation among offspring, parental generalized anxiety and depression emerged as the only predictors of the onset and persistence (respectively) of suicide plans among offspring with ideation, whereas parental antisocial personality and anxiety disorders emerged as the only predictors of the onset and persistence of suicide attempts among ideators. A dose-response relation between parental disorders and respondent risk of suicide ideation and attempt was also found. Parental death by suicide was a particularly strong predictor of persistence of suicide attempts among offspring. These associations remained significant after controlling for comorbidity of parental disorders and for the presence of mental disorders among

  11. Parental Psychopathology and the Risk of Suicidal Behavior in their Offspring: Results from the World Mental Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Gureje, Oye; Oladeji, Bibilola; Hwang, Irving; Chiu, Wai Tat; Kessler, Ronald C.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Alonso, Jordi; Andrade, Laura Helena; Beautrais, Annette; Borges, Guilherme; Bromet, Evelyn; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Gal, Gilad; He, Yanling; Hu, Chiyi; Iwata, Noboru; Karam, Elie G.; Kovess-Masféty, Viviane; Matschinger, Herbert; Moldovan, Mona Victoria; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sagar, Rajesh; Scocco, Paolo; Seedat, Soraya; Tomov, Toma; Nock, Matthew K.

    2010-01-01

    Prior research suggests that parental psychopathology predicts suicidal behavior among offspring; however, the more fine-grained associations between specific parental disorders and distinct stages of the pathway to suicide are not well-understood. We set out to test the hypothesis that parental disorders associated with negative mood would predict offspring suicide ideation, whereas disorders characterized by impulsive-aggression (e,g., antisocial personality) and anxiety/agitation (e.g., panic disorder) would predict which offspring act on their suicide ideation and make a suicide attempt. Data were collected during face-to-face interviews conducted on nationally representative samples (N=55,299; age 18+) from 21 countries around the world. We tested the associations between a range of parental disorders and the onset and persistence over time (i.e., time-since-most-recent-episode controlling for age-of-onset and time-since-onset) of subsequent suicidal behavior (suicide ideation, plans, and attempts) among offspring. Analyses tested bivariate and multivariate associations between each parental disorder and distinct forms of suicidal behavior. Results revealed that each parental disorder examined increased the risk of suicide ideation among offspring, parental generalized anxiety and depression emerged as the only predictors of the onset and persistence (respectively) of suicide plans among offspring with ideation, whereas parental anti-social personality and anxiety disorders emerged as the only predictors of the onset and persistence of suicide attempts among ideators. A dose-response relation between parental disorders and respondent risk of suicide ideation and attempt also was found. Parental death by suicide was a particularly strong predictor of persistence of suicide attempts among offspring. These associations remained significant after controlling for comorbidity of parental disorders and for the presence of mental disorders among offspring. These

  12. Suicide attempts and behavioral correlates among a nationally representative sample of school-attending adolescents in the Republic of Malawi.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Masood A; Lloyd, Jennifer; Acquah, Emmanuel; Celedonia, Karen L; L Wilson, Michael

    2016-08-19

    Suicide is among the top causes of adolescent mortality worldwide. While correlates of suicidal behavior are better understood and delineated in upper-income countries, epidemiologic knowledge of suicidal behavior in low-income countries remains scant, particularly in the African continent. The present study sought to add to the epidemiologic literature on suicidal behavior in Africa by examining the behavioral correlates of suicide attempts among Malawi adolescents. A cross-sectional study using a nationally-representative sample extracted from publically-available data was conducted. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to discern associations between suicide attempts and a host of behavioral variables. 2225 records were included in the study. At the multivariate level, suicide attempters had significantly higher odds of being anxious, being physically bullied, having sustained a serious injury and having a greater number of lifetime sexual partners. Alcohol use (at an early age and within the past 30 days) was also associated with suicide attempts. These findings have the potential to guide public health interventions geared toward suicide prevention in Africa and other, similar regions, as well as provide the impetus for future epidemiologic studies on suicidal behavior in low-income countries.

  13. Health Behavior Theories and Research: Implications for Suicidal Individuals' Treatment Linkage and Adherence

    PubMed Central

    Gipson, Polly; King, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    Treatment linkage and adherence to psychotherapeutic interventions can be challenging with suicidal individuals. Health behavior theories, specifically the Health Belief Model, Stages of Change, and Theory of Planned Behavior, focus on individuals′ beliefs, their readiness to change, their perceptions of illness severity and “threat,” their perceptions of significant others′ attitudes toward illness and treatment, and their behavioral intentions to change. These constructs have relevance both for understanding suicidal individuals′ behaviors related to treatment utilization and for understanding cultural variations in these behaviors. Furthermore, these theories have implications for clinical practices aimed at facilitating improved treatment follow-through and adherence. After describing the theories and their constructs, clinical examples are provided to illustrate applications to practice with suicidal individuals. PMID:24098070

  14. Participation in sports teams and suicidal behavior: an analysis of the 1995 national college health risk behavior survey.

    PubMed

    Lester, David

    2014-08-01

    A 1995 data set from a survey of college students carried out by the Centers for Disease Control was examined to explore whether participation in sports was associated with recent suicidal behavior. Overall, participation in college sports was associated with a reduced incidence of suicidal ideation in the past year, but had no association with attempted suicide in the past year. However, this protective effect was found for European American students, Hispanic Americans, and Asian Americans, but not for African Americans, and was stronger for male students than for female students.

  15. Neuroendocrinology of a Male-Specific Pattern for Depression Linked to Alcohol Use Disorder and Suicidal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Walther, Andreas; Rice, Timothy; Kufert, Yael; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological studies show low rates of diagnosed depression in men compared to women. At the same time, high rates of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and completed suicide are found among men. These data suggest that a male-specific pattern for depression may exist that is linked to AUDs and suicidal behavior. To date, no underlying neuroendocrine model for this specific pattern of male depression has been suggested. In this paper, we integrate findings related to this specific pattern of depression with underlying steroid secretion patterns, polymorphisms, and methylation profiles of key genes in order to detail an original neuroendocrine model of male-specific depression. Low circulating levels of sex steroids seem to increase the vulnerability for male depression, while concomitant high levels of glucocorticoids further intensify this vulnerability. Interactions of hypothalamus–pituitary–gonadal (HPG) and hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis-related hormones seem to be highly relevant for a male-specific pattern of depression linked to AUDs and suicidal behavior. Moreover, genetic variants and the epigenetic profiles of the androgen receptor gene, well-known depression related genes, and HPA axis-related genes were shown to further interact with men’s steroid secretion and thus may further contribute to the proposed male-specific pattern for depression. This mini-review points out the multilevel interactions between the HPG and HPA axis for a male-specific pattern of depression linked to AUDs and suicidal behavior. An integration of multilevel interactions within the three-hit concept of vulnerability and resilience concludes the review. PMID:28096796

  16. [Changes in the conceptualization of suicidal behavior throughout history: from antiquity to the DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Daray, Federico Manuel; Grendas, Leandro; Rebok, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is a universal and specific behavior of human beings which has been present throughout the history of mankind. However, throughout the ages social considerations about it have changed: the acceptance or punishment (and even how to carry out this punishment). These changes have relied upon the influence of different cultural factors. In this article, we review how the prevailing paradigms induced changes in the conceptualization of suicide.

  17. A model of suicidal behavior in war veterans with posttraumatic mood disorder.

    PubMed

    Sher, Leo

    2009-08-01

    Many wars have been fought during the history of civilization. About 30 armed conflicts are occurring now around the globe involving more than 25 countries. Many war veterans have symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) including suicidal ideation and behavior. PTSD is frequently comorbid with MDD. I have previously proposed that some or all individuals diagnosed with comorbid PTSD and MDD have a separate psychobiological condition that can be termed "posttraumatic mood disorder" (PTMD). This idea was based on the fact that a significant number of studies suggested that patients suffering from comorbid PTSD and MDD differed clinically and biologically from individuals with PTSD alone or MDD alone. Individuals with comorbid PTSD and MDD are characterized by greater severity of symptoms, increased suicidality and the higher level of impairment in social and occupational functioning compared to individuals with PTSD alone or MDD alone. Neurobiological evidence supporting the concept of PTMD includes the findings from neuroendocrine challenge, cerebrospinal fluid, neuroimaging, sleep and other studies. In this paper, I propose a model of suicidal behavior in war veterans with PTMD. The model consists of the following components: (1) genetic factors; (2) prenatal development; (3) biological and psychosocial influences from birth to mobilization/deployment; (4) mobilization/pre-deployment stress; (5) combat stress, traumatic brain injury, and physical injury; (6) post-deployment stress; (7) biological and psychosocial influences after the deployment; (8) trigger (precipitant) of a suicidal act; and (9) suicidal act. The first four components determine vulnerability to combat stress. The first seven components determine predisposition to suicidal behavior, a key element that differentiates PTMD patients who are at high risk from those at lower risk. Suicidal behavior in PTMD can be attributed to the coincidence of a trigger

  18. Preliminary effectiveness of surviving the teens(®) suicide prevention and depression awareness program on adolescents' suicidality and self-efficacy in performing help-seeking behaviors.

    PubMed

    King, Keith A; Strunk, Catherine M; Sorter, Michael T

    2011-09-01

    Suicide ranks as the third leading cause of death among youth aged 15-24 years. Schools provide ideal opportunities for suicide prevention efforts. However, research is needed to identify programs that effectively impact youth suicidal ideation and behavior. This study examined the immediate and 3-month effect of Surviving the Teens® Suicide Prevention and Depression Awareness Program on students' suicidality and perceived self-efficacy in performing help-seeking behaviors. High school students in Greater Cincinnati schools were administered a 3-page survey at pretest, immediate posttest, and 3-month follow-up. A total of 1030 students participated in the program, with 919 completing matched pretests and posttests (89.2%) and 416 completing matched pretests and 3-month follow-ups (40.4%). Students were significantly less likely at 3-month follow-up than at pretest to be currently considering suicide, to have made a suicidal plan or attempted suicide during the past 3 months, and to have stopped performing usual activities due to feeling sad and hopeless. Students' self-efficacy and behavioral intentions toward help-seeking behaviors increased from pretest to posttest and were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Students were also more likely at 3-month follow-up than at pretest to know an adult in school with whom they felt comfortable discussing their problems. Nine in 10 (87.3%) felt the program should be offered to all high school students. The findings of this study lend support for suicide prevention education in schools. The results may be useful to school professionals interested in implementing effective suicide prevention programming to their students. © 2011, American School Health Association.

  19. Suicidal ideation and social exchanges among at-risk veterans referred for a behavioral health assessment.

    PubMed

    Mavandadi, Shahrzad; Rook, Karen S; Newsom, Jason T; Oslin, David W

    2013-02-01

    The current study examined the independent association between positive (e.g., emotional and instrumental support) and negative (e.g., insensitive behavior, unwanted advice from others) social exchanges and suicidal ideation among veterans referred for a behavioral health assessment. The sample included 606 veterans [mean age = 54.96 (SD = 14.96)] referred by primary care for a clinical mental health/substance abuse (MH/SA) assessment following a positive MH/SA screen. Data on sociodemographics, MH/SA conditions (e.g., depression, PTSD, anxiety, and alcohol abuse), the self-reported frequency of positive and negative social exchanges, and suicidal ideation were extracted from clinical interviews and evaluated. Veterans were primarily male, non-married, and had adequate financial resources, and approximately half were White. 74.4 and 20.3% met criteria for a MH/SA condition and suicidal ideation, respectively. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that, adjusting for sociodemographics, physical functioning, and comorbid MH/SA conditions, veterans reporting more frequent negative exchanges with network members were significantly more likely to report suicidal ideation. Positive exchanges, in contrast, were not significantly related to the outcome. Inadequate finances and MH/SA conditions also were significantly related to suicidal ideation. Findings highlight the value of exploring the quality of social exchanges among veterans in primary care who screen positive for behavioral health issues, as such information has the potential to inform screening and intervention efforts aimed at reducing suicidal ideation.

  20. Suicidal Behavior and Psychosocial Outcome in Borderline Personality Disorder at 8-Year Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Soloff, Paul H; Chiappetta, Laurel

    2017-03-06

    We sought predictors of both suicidal behavior and psychosocial outcome in subjects with BPD followed for 8 years and asked if there was a relationship between these outcomes. One hundred twenty-three BPD subjects, recruited from inpatient (35.8%), outpatient (30.9%) and community (33.3%) sources, were assessed annually for known risk factors for suicidal behavior. Interval attempts were reported by 25 subjects (20.2%). Increased risk of suicide attempt was associated with negative affectivity, aggression, inpatient recruitment, hospitalizations, minority race, and frequent changes in employment. Decreased risk was associated with increased education. Poor psychosocial outcome was predicted by impulsivity, negative affectivity, and antisocial traits at baseline, and by comorbid MDD at 8-year follow-up. There was no significant relationship between poor psychosocial outcome at 8-year follow-up and risk of suicidal behavior. Predictors of suicidality include modifiable risk factors. Rehabilitation models are needed to address educational and vocational deficits associated with suicidality, especially among minorities.