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Sample records for suicidal behavior integrating

  1. Suicide and Suicidal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Nock, Matthew K.; Borges, Guilherme; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Cha, Christine B.; Kessler, Ronald C.; Lee, Sing

    2008-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is a leading cause of injury and death worldwide. Information about the epidemiology of such behavior is important for policy-making and prevention. The authors reviewed government data on suicide and suicidal behavior and conducted a systematic review of studies on the epidemiology of suicide published from 1997 to 2007. The authors' aims were to examine the prevalence of, trends in, and risk and protective factors for suicidal behavior in the United States and cross-nationally. The data revealed significant cross-national variability in the prevalence of suicidal behavior but consistency in age of onset, transition probabilities, and key risk factors. Suicide is more prevalent among men, whereas nonfatal suicidal behaviors are more prevalent among women and persons who are young, are unmarried, or have a psychiatric disorder. Despite an increase in the treatment of suicidal persons over the past decade, incidence rates of suicidal behavior have remained largely unchanged. Most epidemiologic research on suicidal behavior has focused on patterns and correlates of prevalence. The next generation of studies must examine synergistic effects among modifiable risk and protective factors. New studies must incorporate recent advances in survey methods and clinical assessment. Results should be used in ongoing efforts to decrease the significant loss of life caused by suicidal behavior. PMID:18653727

  2. Adolescent Suicide and Suicidal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Goldstein, Tina R.; Brent, David A.

    2006-01-01

    This review examines the descriptive epidemiology, and risk and protective factors for youth suicide and suicidal behavior. A model of youth suicidal behavior is articulated, whereby suicidal behavior ensues as a result of an interaction of socio-cultural, developmental, psychiatric, psychological, and family-environmental factors. On the basis of…

  3. Suicide and suicidal behavior

    MedlinePlus

    ... or alcohol use Post-traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ) Schizophrenia Stressful life issues, such as serious financial or ... personality disorder Drug or alcohol dependence Major depression Schizophrenia Always take suicide attempts and threats seriously. If ...

  4. Prevention of suicidal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hegerl, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    More than 800 000 people die every year from suicide, and about 20 times more attempt suicide. In most countries, suicide risk is highest in older males, and risk of attempted suicide is highest in younger females. The higher lethal level of suicidal acts in males is explained by the preference for more lethal methods, as well as other factors. In the vast majority of cases, suicidal behavior occurs in the context of psychiatric disorders, depression being the most important one. Improving the treatment of depression, restricting access to lethal means, and avoiding the Werther effect (imitation suicide) are central aspects of suicide prevention programs. In several European regions, the four-level intervention concept of the European Alliance Against Depression (www.EAAD.net), simultaneously targeting depression and suicidal behavior, has been found to have preventive effects on suicidal behavior. It has already been implemented in more than 100 regions in Europe. PMID:27489458

  5. Prevention of suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Hegerl, Ulrich

    2016-06-01

    More than 800 000 people die every year from suicide, and about 20 times more attempt suicide. In most countries, suicide risk is highest in older males, and risk of attempted suicide is highest in younger females. The higher lethal level of suicidal acts in males is explained by the preference for more lethal methods, as well as other factors. In the vast majority of cases, suicidal behavior occurs in the context of psychiatric disorders, depression being the most important one. Improving the treatment of depression, restricting access to lethal means, and avoiding the Werther effect (imitation suicide) are central aspects of suicide prevention programs. In several European regions, the four-level intervention concept of the European Alliance Against Depression (www.EAAD.net), simultaneously targeting depression and suicidal behavior, has been found to have preventive effects on suicidal behavior. It has already been implemented in more than 100 regions in Europe.

  6. Family-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Treatments for Suicidal Adolescents and their Integration with Individual Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Karen C.; Heilbron, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    A considerable research base underscores the importance of family functioning in the risk for and treatment of adolescent suicidal thoughts and behaviors. This paper reviews the extant empirical literature documenting associations between features of the family context and adolescent suicidal thoughts and behaviors. A case example is provided to…

  7. Suicidal behavior: measurement and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Oquendo, Maria A

    2015-12-01

    This issue of Focus on Suicide brings us new data about risk assessment, with 2 articles examining the utility of rating scales for assessment of suicidal behavior. Youngstrom et al conduct a careful comparison of 3 suicide rating scales: the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS), the Suicide Tracking Scale (STS), and the Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale (S-STS). While the scales did comparably in 2 broad categories, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, the study suggests that some subtypes of suicidal behavior/ideation are not captured as well by the S-STS. PMID:26717527

  8. Suicidal Behavior among Latino Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canino, Glorisa; Roberts, Robert E.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the scientific literature related to suicidal behavior among Latino youth. Discusses the conceptualizations of culture, and how culture may influence behavior and psychopathology, in particular, suicidal behavior. Reviews the literature that discusses rates of suicidal behavior, risk, and protective factors associated with this behavior…

  9. Integrating Motivational Interviewing and Self-Determination Theory with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to Prevent Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, Peter C.; Patrick, Heather; Wenzel, Amy; Williams, Geoffrey C.

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been found to be effective in preventing suicide-related behavior. However, it is often difficult to engage patients who are at-risk in treatment. Motivational Interviewing (MI) has been shown to increase treatment engagement and improve treatment outcomes when it is used to complement other treatments. As a…

  10. Integrating Motivational Interviewing and Self Determination Theory with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to Prevent Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Britton, Peter C.; Patrick, Heather; Wenzel, Amy; Williams, Geoffrey C.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) has been found to be effective in preventing suicide-related behavior. However, it is often difficult to engage patients who are at-risk in treatment. Motivational Interviewing (MI) has been shown to increase treatment engagement and improve treatment outcomes when it is used to complement other treatments. As a general theory of human motivation that is consistent with MI, Self-Determination Theory (SDT) provides a framework for understanding how MI may be added to CBT to increase treatment engagement and effectiveness. In this paper, we use SDT to explain how MI may complement CBT to reduce suicide-related behavior, provide a case example of using MI with a suicidal patient before CBT-based treatment, and explore future directions for research.

  11. Suicidal Behavior among Early Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gover, F. Jill

    There is a great deal of concern about teenage suicide. This study obtained a prevalence rate of suicidal behaviors among non-psychiatric early adolescents (ages 11-16) and investigated personal and family variables that may characterize the young teenagers who report varying degrees of suicidal behavior. A self-report questionnaire was…

  12. Prioritizing research to reduce youth suicide and suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Bridge, Jeffrey A; Horowitz, Lisa M; Fontanella, Cynthia A; Grupp-Phelan, Jackie; Campo, John V

    2014-09-01

    The goal of the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention is to reduce suicide and suicide attempts in the U.S. by 40% in the next decade. In this paper, a public health approach is applied to suicide prevention to illustrate how reductions in youth suicide and suicidal behavior might be achieved by prioritizing research in two areas: (1) increasing access to primary care-based behavioral health interventions for depressed youth and (2) improving continuity of care for youth who present to emergency departments after a suicide attempt. Finally, some scientific, clinical, and methodologic breakthroughs needed to achieve rapid, substantial, and sustained reductions in youth suicide and suicidal behavior are discussed.

  13. Suicidal Behavior and Marital Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Alan L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents two cases chosen to draw attention to marital and developmental dynamics of suicidal behavior. Both case vignettes are based on individual interviews with suicidal persons and their spouses during the suicidal person's psychiatric hospitalization, and both include observations of the marital interaction. Case vignettes are followed by…

  14. Suicidal Behavior in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasko, Sharla Nichols

    This paper reviews studies of childhood suicide and reports findings which suggest that the incidence of suicide under the age of 14 is greatly underreported. It notes that the incidence of non-fatal suicide attempts in children is even harder to determine than is the incidence of suicide. Studies are cited which suggest that, while preadolescent…

  15. Suicidal Behavior and Alcohol Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Pompili, Maurizio; Serafini, Gianluca; Innamorati, Marco; Dominici, Giovanni; Ferracuti, Stefano; Kotzalidis, Giorgio D.; Serra, Giulia; Girardi, Paolo; Janiri, Luigi; Tatarelli, Roberto; Sher, Leo; Lester, David

    2010-01-01

    Suicide is an escalating public health problem, and alcohol use has consistently been implicated in the precipitation of suicidal behavior. Alcohol abuse may lead to suicidality through disinhibition, impulsiveness and impaired judgment, but it may also be used as a means to ease the distress associated with committing an act of suicide. We reviewed evidence of the relationship between alcohol use and suicide through a search of MedLine and PsychInfo electronic databases. Multiple genetically-related intermediate phenotypes might influence the relationship between alcohol and suicide. Psychiatric disorders, including psychosis, mood disorders and anxiety disorders, as well as susceptibility to stress, might increase the risk of suicidal behavior, but may also have reciprocal influences with alcohol drinking patterns. Increased suicide risk may be heralded by social withdrawal, breakdown of social bonds, and social marginalization, which are common outcomes of untreated alcohol abuse and dependence. People with alcohol dependence or depression should be screened for other psychiatric symptoms and for suicidality. Programs for suicide prevention must take into account drinking habits and should reinforce healthy behavioral patterns. PMID:20617037

  16. Youth Suicidal Behavior

    MedlinePlus

    ... Exposure to friends’/family members’ suicide xii Low self-esteem xiii Protective Factors Family and school connectedness iii ... Reduced access to firearms vii Academic achievement ix Self-esteem xi Talking to teens about suicide does not ...

  17. Seasonality of Suicidal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Jong-Min; Okusaga, Olaoluwa; Postolache, Teodor T.

    2012-01-01

    A seasonal suicide peak in spring is highly replicated, but its specific cause is unknown. We reviewed the literature on suicide risk factors which can be associated with seasonal variation of suicide rates, assessing published articles from 1979 to 2011. Such risk factors include environmental determinants, including physical, chemical, and biological factors. We also summarized the influence of potential demographic and clinical characteristics such as age, gender, month of birth, socioeconomic status, methods of prior suicide attempt, and comorbid psychiatric and medical diseases. Comprehensive evaluation of risk factors which could be linked to the seasonal variation in suicide is important, not only to identify the major driving force for the seasonality of suicide, but also could lead to better suicide prevention in general. PMID:22470308

  18. Dissociable Patterns of Neural Activity during Response Inhibition in Depressed Adolescents with and without Suicidal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Lisa A.; Batezati-Alves, Silvia C.; Almeida, Jorge R. C.; Segreti, AnnaMaria; Akkal, Dalila; Hassel, Stefanie; Lakdawala, Sara; Brent, David A.; Phillips, Mary L.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Impaired attentional control and behavioral control are implicated in adult suicidal behavior. Little is known about the functional integrity of neural circuitry supporting these processes in suicidal behavior in adolescence. Method: Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used in 15 adolescent suicide attempters with a history of…

  19. An Integrative Suicide Prevention Program for Visitor Charcoal Burning Suicide and Suicide Pact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Paul W. C.; Liu, Patricia M. Y.; Chan, Wincy S. C.; Law, Y. W.; Law, Steven C. K.; Fu, King-Wa; Li, Hana S. H.; Tso, M. K.; Beautrais, Annette L.; Yip, Paul S. F.

    2009-01-01

    An integrative suicide prevention program was implemented to tackle an outbreak of visitor charcoal burning suicides in Cheung Chau, an island in Hong Kong, in 2002. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the program. The numbers of visitor suicides reduced from 37 deaths in the 51 months prior to program implementation to 6 deaths in the 42…

  20. Biological risk factors for suicidal behaviors: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chang, B P; Franklin, J C; Ribeiro, J D; Fox, K R; Bentley, K H; Kleiman, E M; Nock, M K

    2016-01-01

    Prior studies have proposed a wide range of potential biological risk factors for future suicidal behaviors. Although strong evidence exists for biological correlates of suicidal behaviors, it remains unclear if these correlates are also risk factors for suicidal behaviors. We performed a meta-analysis to integrate the existing literature on biological risk factors for suicidal behaviors and to determine their statistical significance. We conducted a systematic search of PubMed, PsycInfo and Google Scholar for studies that used a biological factor to predict either suicide attempt or death by suicide. Inclusion criteria included studies with at least one longitudinal analysis using a biological factor to predict either of these outcomes in any population through 2015. From an initial screen of 2541 studies we identified 94 cases. Random effects models were used for both meta-analyses and meta-regression. The combined effect of biological factors produced statistically significant but relatively weak prediction of suicide attempts (weighted mean odds ratio (wOR)=1.41; CI: 1.09-1.81) and suicide death (wOR=1.28; CI: 1.13-1.45). After accounting for publication bias, prediction was nonsignificant for both suicide attempts and suicide death. Only two factors remained significant after accounting for publication bias-cytokines (wOR=2.87; CI: 1.40-5.93) and low levels of fish oil nutrients (wOR=1.09; CI: 1.01-1.19). Our meta-analysis revealed that currently known biological factors are weak predictors of future suicidal behaviors. This conclusion should be interpreted within the context of the limitations of the existing literature, including long follow-up intervals and a lack of tests of interactions with other risk factors. Future studies addressing these limitations may more effectively test for potential biological risk factors. PMID:27622931

  1. Biological risk factors for suicidal behaviors: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chang, B P; Franklin, J C; Ribeiro, J D; Fox, K R; Bentley, K H; Kleiman, E M; Nock, M K

    2016-01-01

    Prior studies have proposed a wide range of potential biological risk factors for future suicidal behaviors. Although strong evidence exists for biological correlates of suicidal behaviors, it remains unclear if these correlates are also risk factors for suicidal behaviors. We performed a meta-analysis to integrate the existing literature on biological risk factors for suicidal behaviors and to determine their statistical significance. We conducted a systematic search of PubMed, PsycInfo and Google Scholar for studies that used a biological factor to predict either suicide attempt or death by suicide. Inclusion criteria included studies with at least one longitudinal analysis using a biological factor to predict either of these outcomes in any population through 2015. From an initial screen of 2541 studies we identified 94 cases. Random effects models were used for both meta-analyses and meta-regression. The combined effect of biological factors produced statistically significant but relatively weak prediction of suicide attempts (weighted mean odds ratio (wOR)=1.41; CI: 1.09-1.81) and suicide death (wOR=1.28; CI: 1.13-1.45). After accounting for publication bias, prediction was nonsignificant for both suicide attempts and suicide death. Only two factors remained significant after accounting for publication bias-cytokines (wOR=2.87; CI: 1.40-5.93) and low levels of fish oil nutrients (wOR=1.09; CI: 1.01-1.19). Our meta-analysis revealed that currently known biological factors are weak predictors of future suicidal behaviors. This conclusion should be interpreted within the context of the limitations of the existing literature, including long follow-up intervals and a lack of tests of interactions with other risk factors. Future studies addressing these limitations may more effectively test for potential biological risk factors.

  2. Biological risk factors for suicidal behaviors: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, B P; Franklin, J C; Ribeiro, J D; Fox, K R; Bentley, K H; Kleiman, E M; Nock, M K

    2016-01-01

    Prior studies have proposed a wide range of potential biological risk factors for future suicidal behaviors. Although strong evidence exists for biological correlates of suicidal behaviors, it remains unclear if these correlates are also risk factors for suicidal behaviors. We performed a meta-analysis to integrate the existing literature on biological risk factors for suicidal behaviors and to determine their statistical significance. We conducted a systematic search of PubMed, PsycInfo and Google Scholar for studies that used a biological factor to predict either suicide attempt or death by suicide. Inclusion criteria included studies with at least one longitudinal analysis using a biological factor to predict either of these outcomes in any population through 2015. From an initial screen of 2541 studies we identified 94 cases. Random effects models were used for both meta-analyses and meta-regression. The combined effect of biological factors produced statistically significant but relatively weak prediction of suicide attempts (weighted mean odds ratio (wOR)=1.41; CI: 1.09–1.81) and suicide death (wOR=1.28; CI: 1.13–1.45). After accounting for publication bias, prediction was nonsignificant for both suicide attempts and suicide death. Only two factors remained significant after accounting for publication bias—cytokines (wOR=2.87; CI: 1.40–5.93) and low levels of fish oil nutrients (wOR=1.09; CI: 1.01–1.19). Our meta-analysis revealed that currently known biological factors are weak predictors of future suicidal behaviors. This conclusion should be interpreted within the context of the limitations of the existing literature, including long follow-up intervals and a lack of tests of interactions with other risk factors. Future studies addressing these limitations may more effectively test for potential biological risk factors. PMID:27622931

  3. Cognitive behavioral therapy for suicidal behaviors: improving patient outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Mewton, Louise; Andrews, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review provides an overview of the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in reducing suicidal cognitions and behavior in the adult population. We identified 15 randomized controlled trials of CBT for adults (aged 18 years and older) that included suicide-related cognitions or behaviors as an outcome measure. The studies were identified from PsycINFO searches, reference lists, and a publicly available database of psychosocial interventions for suicidal behaviors. This review identified some evidence of the use of CBT in the reduction of both suicidal cognitions and behaviors. There was not enough evidence from clinical trials to suggest that CBT focusing on mental illness reduces suicidal cognitions and behaviors. On the other hand, CBT focusing on suicidal cognitions and behaviors was found to be effective. Given the current evidence, clinicians should be trained in CBT techniques focusing on suicidal cognitions and behaviors that are independent of the treatment of mental illness. PMID:27042148

  4. Youth Suicidal Behavior: An Introduction and Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, David N.; Eckert, Tanya L.

    2009-01-01

    Youth suicidal behavior continues to be a significant national problem in need of urgent attention by school personnel. The purpose of this introductory article to the special series is to provide an overview of youth suicidal behavior, including research-based information on demographic data; risk factors and warning signs; and where, when, and…

  5. Suicidal Behaviors in the African American Community

    PubMed Central

    Crosby, Alex; Molock, Sherry Davis

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the risk and protective factors associated with suicidal thoughts and behaviors in the African American community. The authors provide a brief review of the history of suicide research in African American communities and critique some of the paradigms and underlying assumptions that have made it difficult to address the problem of suicidal behaviors in the African American community. The article also summarizes the articles that are presented in this special edition of the Journal of Black Psychology on suicidality in the African American community. PMID:17047727

  6. Domains of Chronic Stress and Suicidal Behaviors among Inpatient Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettit, Jeremy W.; Green, Kelly L.; Grover, Kelly E.; Schatte, Dawnelle J.; Morgan, Sharon T.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the role of chronic stress in youth suicidal behaviors. This study examined the relations between specific domains of chronic stress and suicidal behaviors among 131 inpatient youth (M age = 15.02 years) who completed measures of stress, suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, and suicide intent. After controlling for…

  7. Body Modification and Suicidal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicinbothem, Julie; Gonsalves, Sonia; Lester, David

    2006-01-01

    In a large sample of individuals who belong to a website for body modification, having body modifications (e.g., piercings, tattoos, scarification and surgical procedures) was associated with a higher incidence of prior suicidality (i.e., suicidal ideation and attempted suicide). However, controls for self-reported depression weakened the strength…

  8. Self-Concealment and Suicidal Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedlander, Adam; Nazem, Sarra; Fiske, Amy; Nadorff, Michael R.; Smith, Merideth D.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding self-concealment, the tendency to actively conceal distressing personal information from others, may be important in developing effective ways to help individuals with suicidal ideation. No published study has yet assessed the relation between self-concealment and suicidal behaviors. Additionally, most self-concealment research has…

  9. Suicidal behavior in relatives or associates moderates the strength of common risk factors for suicide

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Yongsheng; Phillips, Michael R.; Duberstein, Paul; Zhan, Weihai

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence and odds ratios of different suicide risk factors were compared in three pairs of decedents: 80 suicides and 25 injury decedents with blood-relatives with suicidal behavior history (biologically-exposed); 259 suicides and 126 injury decedents with unrelated acquaintances with suicidal behavior history (socially-exposed); and 471 suicides and 523 injury decedents with neither relatives nor acquaintances with suicidal behavior history (unexposed). Negative life events and high psychological stress were more common in socially-exposed suicides than in other suicides. The adjusted odds ratios of most established suicide risk factors were higher in unexposed decedents than in biologically- or socially-exposed decedents, suggesting that the predictive value of established risk factors wanes in individuals who have been exposed to suicidal behavior in family or friends. PMID:25443455

  10. Theories of suicidal behavior applied to Sylvia Plath.

    PubMed

    Lester, D

    1998-01-01

    The suicide of Sylvia Plath is examined from the perspective of 15 theories of suicidal behavior and is found to fit best with psychoanalytic and cognitive theories of suicide, in particular those of Aaron Beck, Henry Murray, and Edwin Shneidman.

  11. Suicide and Suicidal-Related Behaviors among Indigenous Pacific Islanders in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Else, Iwalani; Andrade, Naleen; Nahulu, Linda

    2007-01-01

    The authors present a comprehensive review on U.S. Pacific Islander suicide and suicide-related behaviors to extend the knowledge and understanding of suicide and suicide-related behaviors among the indigenous peoples of the state of Hawai'i, the territories of American Samoa, Guam, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and the Pacific…

  12. Suicide and the continuum of self-destructive behavior.

    PubMed

    Firestone, R W; Seiden, R H

    1990-03-01

    Suicide and self-destructive behavior are strongly influenced by a negative thought process, referred to here as the "voice." The voice process represents a well-integrated pattern of thoughts, attitudes, and beliefs, antithetical to self and hostile toward others, that is at the core of a patient's self-limitations and self-defeating actions. The voice varies along a continuum of intensity ranging from mild self-criticism to angry self-attacks and even suicidal thoughts. Self-destructive behavior similarly exists on a continuum ranging from self-denial to accident proneness, drug abuse, alcoholism, and other self-defeating behaviors, culminating in actual bodily harm. The two processes, cognitive and behavioral, parallel each other, and suicide represents the acting out of the extreme end of the continuum. The authors provide a chart depicting the levels of increasing suicidal intent along the continuum. The chart identifies specific negative thoughts and injunctions typically reported by persons who attempt suicide, neurotic patients, and "normal" subjects. Understanding where an individual can be placed on the continuum of self-destructive thoughts and actions can assist clinicians in their diagnoses and help pinpoint those students who are more at risk for suicide.

  13. Biorhythms and the Prediction of Suicide Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dezelsky, Thomas L.; Toohey, Jack V.

    1978-01-01

    Statistical analysis of the data in this research project indicates that neither the physical, emotional, nor intellectual cycles can be used to predict suicide behavior and also that biorhythms are influenced by environmental variations. (DS)

  14. [Gender differences in suicidal behavior].

    PubMed

    Vörös, Viktor; Osváth, Péter; Fekete, Sándor

    2004-06-01

    Gender-specific differences in suicidal behaviour have been analysed in a number of recent studies. According to these, several socioeconomic, demographic, psychiatric, familial, help-seeking differences can be identified in protective and risk factors between males and females. Gender is one of the most replicated predictors for suicide. In the framework of the WHO/EURO Multicentre Study on Suicidal Behaviour, more than fifty thousand suicide attempts have been registered so far. Until now data on more than 1200 monitored suicidal events have been collected in Pecs centre. In most countries male suicid rates are higher. In contrast to suicides, rates of suicide attempts are usually higher in females. Concerning the differences in methods, it is a recognised fact that males use violent methods of both suicide and attempted suicide more often than females. The summarised clinical impression suggests that compliance of male patients is poorer than that of females. According to our data, a typical male attempter is characterised as follows: unemployed, never married, lives alone. He tends to use violent methods; if he takes drugs, it is mostly meprobamate or carbamazepine. A lot of male attempters have alcohol problems or dependence. As for the females, we found high odds ratios in the following cases: divorced or widowed, economically inactive, depressive state in the anamnesis. Female attempters are mainly repeaters using the method of self-poisoning, mostly with benzodiazepines. As suicide is a multicausal phenomenon, its therapy and prevention should also be complex and gender differences should be taken into account in building up our helping strategies.

  15. Social Connections and Suicidal Thoughts and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    You, Sungeun; Van Orden, Kimberly A.; Conner, Kenneth R.

    2010-01-01

    Disrupted social connectedness is associated with suicidal thoughts and behaviors among individuals with substance use disorders (SUDs). The current study sought to further characterize this relationship by examining several indices of social connectedness—1) living alone, 2) perceived social support, 3) interpersonal conflict, 4) belongingness. Participants (n = 814) were recruited from four residential substance-use treatment programs and completed self-report measures of social connectedness as well as whether they had ever thought about or attempted suicide. Multivariate results indicated that interpersonal conflict and belongingness were significant predictors of a history of suicidal ideation, and belongingness, perceived social support, and living alone were significant predictors of suicide attempt. These results indicate the most consistent support for the relationship between suicidality and thwarted belongingness, and also support the clinical utility of assessing whether individuals live alone. PMID:21142333

  16. Current Suicide Proneness and Past Suicidal Behavior in Adjudicated Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Lamis, Dorian A.

    2008-01-01

    Youth recently assigned to probation (n = 233) were assessed for current suicide proneness, depression, and hopelessness, as well as for recent suicide ideation, previous suicide ideation, or suicide attempt(s). The Life Attitudes Schedule-Short Form (LAS-SF) was used to assess suicide proneness. As per the LAS-SF, suicide proneness was defined…

  17. [Suicidal behavior and meterological conditions].

    PubMed

    Larcan, A; Martin, J; Lambert, H; Laprevote-Heully, M C; Leonard, C

    1976-01-01

    Six hundred and seventy five cases of attempted suicide observed in a resuscitation department were confronted with a certain number of biometeorological factors recorded daily: atmospheric pressure, air temperature, degree of insolation, precipitation, relative humidity, water vapour pressure, wind (speed and direction), hydrometeores, index of solar eruption, density of F2 layer. The confrontation is made for the two days before the intoxication and for the day when suicide is attempted. Parameters are then studied by statistical calculation (calculation of X2 and of the number of degrees of freedom). There does not seem to be any significant relationship, in spite of disconcerting series, between most meteorological factors and the number of attempted suicides observed. However, it is noted that no suicides were recorded during periods of solar eruption, and that there seems to be a marked correlation between suicide and winds, particularly according to their direction. Thus, winds charged with ionised particles seem to coincide with a high rate of self-destruction.

  18. Dialectical Behavior Therapy with Suicidal Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Alec L.; Rathus, Jill H.; Linehan, Marsha M.

    2006-01-01

    Filling a tremendous need, this highly practical book adapts the proven techniques of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) to treatment of multiproblem adolescents at highest risk for suicidal behavior and self-injury. The authors are master clinicians who take the reader step by step through understanding and assessing severe emotional…

  19. Suicide Prevention in Schools as Viewed through the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    The author has proposed a new theory of suicidal behavior--the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior (Joiner, 2005)--which attempts to answer the question "Why do people die by suicide?" In this commentary, he briefly describes the theory, and then argues that the theory's constructs may allow a new level of focus and specificity…

  20. Moral or Religious Objections to Suicide May Protect Against Suicidal Behavior in Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Dervic, Kanita; Carballo, Juan J.; Baca-Garcia, Enrique; Galfalvy, Hanga C.; Mann, J. John; Brent, David A.; Oquendo, Maria A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Patients with bipolar disorder are prone to suicidal behavior, yet possible protective mechanisms are rarely studied. We investigated a possible protective role for moral or religious objections to suicide against suicidal ideation and attempts in depressed bipolar patients. Method A retrospective case control study of 149 depressed bipolar patients (DSM-III-R criteria) in a tertiary care university research clinic was conducted. Patients who reported religious affiliation were compared with 51 patients without religious affiliation in terms of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and history of suicidal behavior. The primary outcome measure was the moral or religious objections to suicide subscale of the Reasons for Living Inventory (RFLI). Results Religiously affiliated patients had more children and more family-oriented social networks than nonaffiliated patients. As for clinical variables, religiously affiliated patients had fewer past suicide attempts, had fewer suicides in first-degree relatives, and were older at the time of first suicide attempt than unaffiliated patients. Furthermore, patients with religious affiliation had comparatively higher scores on the moral or religious objections to suicide subscale of the RFLI, lower lifetime aggression, and less comorbid alcohol and substance abuse and childhood abuse experience. After controlling for confounders, higher aggression scores (P = .001) and lower score on the moral or religious objections to suicide subscale of the RFLI (P < .001) were significantly associated with suicidal behavior in depressed bipolar patients. Moral or religious objections to suicide mediated the effects of religious affiliation on suicidal behavior in this sample. Conclusions Higher score on the moral or religious objections to suicide subscale of the RFLI is associated with fewer suicidal acts in depressed bipolar patients. The strength of this association was comparable to that of aggression scores and

  1. A Prospective Study of Adolescent Suicidal Behavior Following Hospitalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Cheryl A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Identifies specific predictors of suicidal behavior in 100 adolescents during a 6-month follow-up period after psychiatric hospitalization. Eighteen percent reported suicidal behavior during the follow-up period, and this behavior was associated with suicidal thoughts, family dysfunction, and dysthymia. It was not associated with initial…

  2. Suicidal Desire and the Capability for Suicide: Tests of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior among Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Orden, Kimberly A.; Witte, Tracy K.; Gordon, Kathryn H.; Bender, Theodore W.; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior (T. E. Joiner, 2005) proposes that an individual will not die by suicide unless he or she has both the desire to die by suicide and the ability to do so. Three studies test the theory's hypotheses. In Study 1, the interaction of thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness…

  3. Acute behavioral interventions and outpatient treatment strategies with suicidal adolescents

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Kimberly H. McManama; Singer, Jonathan B.; LeCloux, Mary; Duarté-Vélez, Yovanska; Spirito, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of suicidal thoughts and behaviors among adolescents, there is limited knowledge of effective interventions to use with this population. This paper reviews the findings of studies on behavioral interventions for adolescents who are at acute suicide risk, as well as outpatient treatment and risk management strategies with suicidal adolescents. The importance of addressing comorbid behaviors and enhancing protective factors are discussed. Cultural considerations in working with suicidal adolescents and strategies for conducting culturally competent treatment are explored. PMID:26279646

  4. Firearms and suicide in the United States: is risk independent of underlying suicidal behavior?

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthew; Barber, Catherine; White, Richard A; Azrael, Deborah

    2013-09-15

    On an average day in the United States, more than 100 Americans die by suicide; half of these suicides involve the use of firearms. In this ecological study, we used linear regression techniques and recently available state-level measures of suicide attempt rates to assess whether, and if so, to what extent, the well-established relationship between household firearm ownership rates and suicide mortality persists after accounting for rates of underlying suicidal behavior. After controlling for state-level suicide attempt rates (2008-2009), higher rates of firearm ownership (assessed in 2004) were strongly associated with higher rates of overall suicide and firearm suicide, but not with nonfirearm suicide (2008-2009). Furthermore, suicide attempt rates were not significantly related to gun ownership levels. These findings suggest that firearm ownership rates, independent of underlying rates of suicidal behavior, largely determine variations in suicide mortality across the 50 states. Our results support the hypothesis that firearms in the home impose suicide risk above and beyond the baseline risk and help explain why, year after year, several thousand more Americans die by suicide in states with higher than average household firearm ownership compared with states with lower than average firearm ownership.

  5. Suicidal Behavior among Latina College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesin, Megan S.; Jeglic, Elizabeth L.

    2012-01-01

    Latina college students are one of the fastest-growing segments of the college student population. Although there is evidence suggesting Latina high school students are at increased risk of engaging in suicidal behavior, it is unclear Bwhether this risk continues in college. Over the course of 3 years, 554 Latina college students, the majority of…

  6. The Role of Affect in Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamokoski, Cynthia A.; Scheel, Karen R.; Rogers, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Risk factors, theoretical explanations, and treatment suggestions for suicidal behaviors have historically focused largely on cognitions, but a more comprehensive picture may be provided by examining the role of affect in suicidal thoughts and behaviors. In the current study the link between affect and suicide within the theoretical framework of…

  7. An aeronautic suicide attempt (3). Suicide and self-destructive behavior in aviation.

    PubMed

    Mäulen, B

    1993-01-01

    Approximately 2-3% of all fatal air accidents may be attributed to suicide, and in many other accidents in aviation there are grounds for inferring that self-destructive or suicidal behavior was involved. Narcissistic personality traits are of paramount importance for the choice of this suicide method. Precursors include undetected depressions, alcoholism, and family problems of pilots.

  8. Exposure to Suicide: Incidence and Association with Suicidal Ideation and Behavior: United States, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Alex E.; Sacks, Jeffrey J.

    2002-01-01

    From a national random telephone survey of U.S. adults, estimates the 12-month incidence of exposure to suicide and its association with suicidal ideation, planning, and behavior. Of 5,238 respondents, 342 reported knowing a suicide decedent from the previous year. Univariate analysis showed persons reporting such exposure were significantly more…

  9. Stories worth telling: moral experiences of suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Scott J

    2014-01-01

    Moral constructions of suicide are deliberately avoided in contemporary suicidology, yet morality persists, little or imperfectly acknowledged, in its practices and in the policies, discourses, and instruments that it underpins. This study used narrative methodologies to examine the normative force of suicidology and its implications for persons who had engaged in an act of nonfatal suicidal behavior. I interviewed a convenience sample of twelve persons from two inner-urban community mental health centers who were receiving crisis and case management services after a recent act of nonfatal suicidal behavior. Interviews focused on events leading up to and after participants' suicidal behavior; the responses their suicidal behavior generated in others, including family, friends, and the health professionals caring for them; and cultural views of suicide more broadly. Analysis of these interviews revealed that, although participants' narratives were broadly consistent with a number of recognizable, canonical story formats common to our cultural repertoire of stories of suicide, they also revealed important tensions, divisions, conflicts, and challenges to contemporary suicidological discourse and practice. Despite evidence to suggest that biomedical understandings of suicide provided some therapeutic benefit to participants, they did not address important social and moral dimensions of human life or explore their connection to suicidal behavior-aspects of the suicidal event that were critical to its causation and to its retelling and "resolution." The results of this study provide important insights into the moral features of suicidal behavior, the moral and ethical implications of suicide research, and the limitations of moral and ethical discourse in suicidology.

  10. Associations between traumatic events and suicidal behavior in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Sorsdahl, Katherine; Stein, Dan J; Williams, David R; Nock, Matthew K

    2011-12-01

    Research conducted predominantly in the developed world suggests that there is an association between trauma exposure and suicidal behavior. However, there are limited data available investigating whether specific traumas are uniquely predictive of suicidal behavior or the extent to which traumatic events predict the progression from suicide ideation to plans and attempts. A national survey was conducted with 4351 adult South Africans between 2002 and 2004 as part of the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys. Data on trauma exposure and subsequent suicidal behavior were collected. Bivariate and multivariate survival models tested the relationship between the type and number of traumatic events and lifetime suicidal behavior. A range of traumatic events are associated with lifetime suicide ideation and attempt; however, after controlling for all traumatic events in a multivariate model, only sexual violence (odds ratio = 4.7; confidence interval, 2.3 to 9.4) and having witnessed violence (odds ratio = 1.8; confidence interval, 1.1 to 2.9) remained significant predictors of lifetime suicide attempts. The disaggregation of the associations between traumatic events and suicide attempts indicates that they are largely caused by traumatic events predicting suicide ideation rather than by the progression from suicide ideation to attempt. This article highlights the importance of traumatic life events in the occurrence of suicidal thoughts and behaviors and provides important information about the nature of this association. Future research is needed to better understand how and why such experiences increase the risk of suicidal outcomes.

  11. Effect of Exposure to Suicidal Behavior on Suicide Attempt in a High-Risk Sample of Offspring of Depressed Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Ainsley K.; Galfalvy, Hanga; Everett, Benjamin; Currier, Dianne; Zelazny, Jamie; Oquendo, Maria A.; Melhem, Nadine M.; Kolko, David; Harkavy-Friedman, Jill M.; Birmaher, Boris; Stanley, Barbara; Mann, J. John; Brent, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Exposure to suicidal behavior in peers and relatives is thought to increase risk for suicidal behavior in vulnerable individuals, possibly as a result of imitation or modeling. This study examines exposure to suicidal behavior and likelihood of suicide attempt in a high-risk cohort of offspring of a depressed parent. Method: A total of…

  12. Suicidal behavior in war veterans.

    PubMed

    Rice, Timothy R; Sher, Leo

    2012-05-01

    Military veterans represent a unique, heterogeneous population with suicide prevalence rates, risk factors and preventative management needs that differ from those of the rest of community. Veterans worldwide receive high proportions of their healthcare from community providers, and sensitivity to these distinct needs is required for optimized care. An overview of the recent prevalence-study literature, with a focus upon statistical design, is presented in order to provide a critical orientation within this field with high levels of popular media attention. Attention to psychiatric comorbidity, subthreshold symptomology, select signature disorders of contemporary conflicts (namely, post-traumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injury), and veteran life narratives before, within and beyond military service will guide our review of risk factor assessment and management strategies. This critical review of the literature provides an overview of this active field of neuropsychiatric research with a select focus upon these topics of special interest.

  13. Suicidal Behavior: A Survey of Oregon High School Students, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, David

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death in the 10- to 19-year-old population in Oregon. The suicide rate has increased more than five-fold in the last three and one-half decades. This trend can be reversed by developing an understanding of the characteristics, behaviors, and events associated with suicide in at-risk youth. The Youth Risk…

  14. Religious commitment, attitudes toward suicide, and suicidal behaviors among college students of different ethnic and religious groups in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Foo, Xiang Yi; Alwi, Muhd Najib Mohd; Ismail, Siti Irma Fadhillah; Ibrahim, Normala; Osman, Zubaidah Jamil

    2014-06-01

    The variation in suicide patterns across ethnic groups with different religious background is a puzzling social phenomenon. This study sought to examine the impact of religious commitment and attitudes toward suicide on suicidal behaviors of college students across major ethnic and religious groups in a multicultural society of Malaysia. A total of 139 college students completed Religious Commitment Inventory-10, Attitudes Toward Suicide Scale, and Suicidal Behavior Questionnaire-Revised. Findings showed significant discrepancies in attitudes toward suicide, but not suicidal behaviors across ethnic and religious groups. Suicide acceptance significantly affected suicidal behaviors as well. Although religious commitment is not associated with suicidal behaviors, its deviation is reflected in students' acceptance of suicide. Additionally, college students' suicide risk, lifetime, and recent suicide ideation, as well as their likelihood of future suicide attempt can be associated with their acceptance of suicide. The influence of attitudes toward suicide and religion, therefore, should be taken into consideration while implementing suicide prevention programs as it helps shape the norms about suicide among youths. PMID:23196328

  15. Improving the Prediction of Suicidal Behavior in Youth

    PubMed Central

    Glenn, Catherine R.; Nock, Matthew K.

    2015-01-01

    Suicidal behaviors increase dramatically during adolescence. In order to effectively intervene and ultimately prevent suicide in youth, the field needs to be able to identify and predict which adolescents are at greatest suicide risk. However, present knowledge of risk factors for suicide and techniques for identifying at-risk youth are insufficient. The purpose of the current manuscript is to highlight some of the key, yet unanswered, questions about the prediction of suicidal behavior in youth, and to suggest the types of research advances needed to move the field forward. PMID:23850053

  16. Gender and cultural patterns of suicidal behavior: young Hindustani immigrant women in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van Bergen, Diana D; Smit, Johannes H; Kerkhof, Ad J F M; Saharso, Sawitri

    2006-01-01

    Patterns of suicidal behavior vary among cultures and along gender. Young Hindustani immigrant women attempt suicide four times more often than young Dutch women. This article explores multi-disciplinary explanations for suicidal behavior in this group. The interconnection of Durkheimian concepts of social integration and regulation with ecological insights into family relations and psychological and psychiatric theories on individual distress are relevant. It is suggested that young Hindustani women who display suicidal behavior possess certain personality and cognitive constellations that are interlocked with specific parenting styles in stressful family environments. These families are embedded in a context of moral transformations resulting from migration to a Western culture and may be facing difficulties accompanying the transitional processes encountered in the West, particularly those regarding gender roles. Durkheimian fatalistic and anomic suicides elucidate this. The Hindustani women who appear most at risk are those facing contradictory norms and overregulation, which prevent them from developing autonomy.

  17. Borderline Personality Disorder Diagnostic Criteria as Risk Factors for Suicidal Behavior Through the Lens of the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Megan L; Joiner, Thomas E

    2016-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder diagnostic criteria, particularly affective dysregulation and behavioral dysregulation, are avenues through which suicide risk is conferred, though pathways are not well understood. The interpersonal theory of suicide may help elucidate these associations. The current study examined indirect relationships between affective and behavioral dysregulation and suicidal ideation through perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and the acquired capability for suicide. 169 outpatients completed measures prior to their intake assessment. Perceived burdensomeness accounted for the relationship between affective dysregulation and suicidal ideation. The acquired capability did not explain the association between behavioral dysregulation and suicide attempt history. Affective and behavioral dysregulation may be key targets in treatment for reducing suicide risk.

  18. Suicidal Behavior in a National Sample of Older Homeless Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Schinka, Katherine C.; Casey, Roger J.; Kasprow, Wes; Bossarte, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined self-reported suicidal behavior of older homeless veterans to establish frequencies and predictors of recent suicidal behaviors, and their impact on transitional housing interventions. Methods. We analyzed the records of a national sample of 10 111 veterans who participated in a transition housing program over a 6-year period, ending in 2008. Results. Approximately 12% of homeless veterans reported suicidal ideation before program admission; 3% reported a suicide attempt in the 30 days before program admission. Older homeless veterans exhibiting suicidal behavior had histories of high rates of psychiatric disorders and substance abuse. Regression analyses showed that self-report of depression was the primary correlate of suicidal behavior. Suicidal behavior before program entry did not predict intervention outcomes, such as program completion, housing outcome, and employment. Conclusions. Suicidal behavior was prevalent in older homeless veterans and was associated with a history of psychiatric disorder and substance abuse. Self-reported depression was associated with these behaviors at the time of housing intervention. Despite the association with poor mental health history, suicidal behavior in older homeless veterans did not impact outcomes of transitional housing interventions. PMID:22390590

  19. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for adolescent depression and suicidality

    PubMed Central

    Spirito, Anthony; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Wolff, Jennifer; Uhl, Kristen

    2011-01-01

    Synopsis CBT has emerged as a well-established treatment for depression in children and adolescents but treatment trials for adolescents with suicidality are few in number, and their efficacy to date is rather limited. Although a definitive treatment for adolescent suicide attempters has yet to be established, the limited literature suggests that suicidal thoughts and behavior should be directly addressed for optimal treatment outcome. This chapter reviews the rationale underlying the use of CBT for the treatment of depression and suicidality in adolescents, the literature supporting the efficacy of CBT for depressed adolescents, and whether CBT for depression reduces suicidal thoughts and behavior. A description of some of the core cognitive, affective, and behavioral techniques used in CBT treatments of suicidal ideation and behavior in depressed adolescents is included. PMID:21440850

  20. Are Suicidal Behaviors Contagious in Adolescence?: Using Longitudinal Data to Examine Suicide Suggestion*

    PubMed Central

    Abrutyn, Seth; Mueller, Anna S.

    2015-01-01

    Though Durkheim argued that strong social relationships protect individuals from suicide, we posit that these relationships have the potential to increase individuals’ vulnerability when they expose them to suicidality. Using three waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we evaluate whether new suicidal thoughts and attempts are in part responses to exposure to the suicide attempts of role models, specifically friends and family. We find that the suicide attempts of role models do in fact trigger new suicidal thoughts and in some cases attempts, even after significant controls are introduced. Moreover, we find that these effects fade with time, that girls are more vulnerable to them than boys, and that the relationship to the role model—for teenagers at least—matters. Friends appear to be more salient role models for both boys and girls. Our findings suggest that exposure to suicidal behaviors in significant others may teach individuals new ways to deal with emotional distress, namely by becoming suicidal. This reinforces the idea that the structure – and content – of social networks conditions their role in preventing suicidality. Specifically, social ties can be conduits of not just social support, but also anti-social behaviors, like suicidality. PMID:26069341

  1. Blunted HPA Axis Activity in Suicide Attempters Compared to those at High Risk for Suicidal Behavior.

    PubMed

    Melhem, Nadine M; Keilp, John G; Porta, Giovanna; Oquendo, Maria A; Burke, Ainsley; Stanley, Barbara; Cooper, Thomas B; Mann, J John; Brent, David A

    2016-05-01

    Studies looking at the relationship of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to suicidal behavior and its risk factors, such as depression, childhood abuse, and impulsive aggression, report inconsistent results. These studies also do not always differentiate between subjects who go on to attempt suicide, suicidal subjects who never attempted suicide, and non-suicidal subjects with psychiatric disorders. In this study, we examined cortisol responses to an experimental stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), in 208 offspring of parents with mood disorder. Offspring suicide attempters showed lower total cortisol output (β=-0.47, 95% CI (-0.83, -0.11), p=0.01) compared with offspring with suicide-related behavior (SRB) but never attempted, non-suicidal offspring, and a healthy control group. The result remained significant even after controlling for sex, age, race, ethnicity, site, socio-economic status, and hour of the day when the TSST was conducted. Suicide attempters also showed lower baseline cortisol before the TSST (β=-0.45, 95% CI (-0.74, -0.17), p=0.002). However, there were no significant differences between the groups on cortisol reactivity to stress (β=4.5, 95% CI (-12.9, 22), p=0.61). Although subjects with suicide attempt and SRB have similar clinical and psychosocial characteristics, this is the first study to differentiate them biologically on HPA axis indices. Blunted HPA axis activity may increase risk for suicide attempt among individuals with psychopathology by reducing their ability to respond adaptively to ongoing stressors. These results may help better identify subjects at high risk for suicidal behavior for targeted prevention and intervention efforts.

  2. Community Structural Instability, Anomie, Imitation and Adolescent Suicidal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorlindsson, Thorolfur; Bernburg, Jon Gunnar

    2009-01-01

    The current study examines the contextual effects of community structural characteristics, as well as the mediating role of key social mechanisms, on youth suicidal behavior in Iceland. We argue that the contextual influence of community structural instability on youth suicidal behavior should be mediated by weak attachment to social norms and…

  3. Suicidal Behavior and Help Seeking among Diverse College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownson, Chris; Becker, Martin Swanbrow; Shadick, Richard; Jaggars, Shanna S.; Nitkin-Kaner, Yael

    2014-01-01

    Suicidal and help-seeking behaviors of students of color remain a significant problem on college campuses. Self-reported suicidal experiences and help-seeking behavior of diverse students are examined on the basis of results from a national survey of college student mental health. The results suggest significant differences in the expression of…

  4. Overcoming the Fear of Lethal Injury: Evaluating Suicidal Behavior in the Military through the Lens of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Selby, Edward A.; Anestis, Michael D.; Bender, Theodore W.; Ribeiro, Jessica D.; Nock, Matthew K.; Rudd, M. David; Bryan, Craig J.; Lim, Ingrid C.; Baker, Monty T.; Gutierrez, Peter M.; Joiner, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    Suicide rates have been increasing in military personnel since the start of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom, and it is vital that efforts be made to advance suicide risk assessment techniques and treatment for members of the military who may be experiencing suicidal symptoms. One potential way to advance the understanding of suicide in the military is through the use of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide. This theory proposes that three necessary factors are needed to complete suicide: feelings that one does not belong with other people, feelings that one is a burden on others or society, and an acquired capability to overcome the fear and pain associated with suicide. This review analyzes the various ways that military service may influence suicidal behavior and integrates these findings into an overall framework with relevant practical implications. Findings suggest that although there are many important factors in military suicide, the acquired capability may be the most impacted by military experience because combat exposure and training may cause habituation to fear of painful experiences, including suicide. Future research directions, ways to enhance risk assessment, and treatment implications are also discussed. PMID:20051309

  5. Community structural instability, anomie, imitation and adolescent suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Thorlindsson, Thorolfur; Bernburg, Jón Gunnar

    2009-04-01

    The current study examines the contextual effects of community structural characteristics, as well as the mediating role of key social mechanisms, on youth suicidal behavior in Iceland. We argue that the contextual influence of community structural instability on youth suicidal behavior should be mediated by weak attachment to social norms and values (anomie), and contact with suicidal others (suggestion-imitation). The data comes from a national survey of 14-16 years old adolescents. Valid questionnaires were obtained from 7018 students (response rate about 87%). The findings show that the community level of residential mobility has a positive, contextual effect on adolescent suicidal behavior. The findings also indicate that the contextual effect of residential mobility is mediated by both anomie and suggestion-imitation. The findings offer the possibility to identify communities that carry a substantial risk for adolescent suicide as well as the mechanisms that mediate the influence of community structural characteristics on adolescent risk behavior.

  6. An Exploratory Study of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury and Suicidal Behaviors in Adolescent Latinas

    PubMed Central

    Gulbas, Lauren E.; Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; De Luca, Susan M.; Tyler, Tee R.; Zayas, Luis H.

    2015-01-01

    To date, there is little research to validate empirically differences between non-suicidal self-injurious behavior (NSSI) and attempted suicide among Latina adolescents. Understanding the characteristics and contextual features of self-harmful behaviors among Latina teens is a critical public health and social justice matter given the disproportionate rates of attempted suicide and anticipated population growth of this vulnerable group. In this article, we draw on an ecodevelopmental model to focus attention on factors in the sociocultural environment that shape suicidal and non-suicidal self-injurious behaviors. Through analysis of qualitative interviews conducted with girls who used NSSI (n = 18), attempted suicide (n = 29), used NSSI and attempted suicide (n = 8,) and had no reported lifetime history of self-harm (n = 28), we describe the sociocultural factors that shaped psychosocial vulnerabilities and gave rise to decisions to use NSSI or attempt suicide. Our analysis revealed that adolescents who engaged in NSSI perceived their negative feelings as something that could be controlled through self-injurious acts, whereas powerlessness was a theme underlying the emotional states of girls who attempted suicide. When NSSI ceased to function as a mechanism for control, girls came to sudden decisions to attempt suicide. Most teens identified specific, and often multiple, situations that induced these intense affective states and shaped decisions to inflict self-harm. Two situational experiences emerged as particularly salient and promising for subsequent studies on self-harmful behaviors among Latina adolescents: transnational stress and bullying. We describe each of these and offer suggestions for future research and practice. PMID:26052816

  7. Bullying and Suicidal Ideation and Behaviors: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Melissa K.; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M.; Polanin, Joshua R.; Holland, Kristin M.; DeGue, Sarah; Matjasko, Jennifer L.; Wolfe, Misty; Reid, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Over the last decade there has been increased attention to the association between bullying involvement (as a victim, perpetrator, or bully-victim) and suicidal ideation/behaviors. We conducted a meta-analysis to estimate the association between bullying involvement and suicidal ideation and behaviors. METHODS We searched multiple online databases and reviewed reference sections of articles derived from searches to identify cross-sectional studies published through July 2013. Using search terms associated with bullying, suicide, and youth, 47 studies (38.3% from the United States, 61.7% in non-US samples) met inclusion criteria. Seven observers independently coded studies and met in pairs to reach consensus. RESULTS Six different meta-analyses were conducted by using 3 predictors (bullying victimization, bullying perpetration, and bully/victim status) and 2 outcomes (suicidal ideation and suicidal behaviors). A total of 280 effect sizes were extracted and multilevel, random effects meta-analyses were performed. Results indicated that each of the predictors were associated with risk for suicidal ideation and behavior (range, 2.12 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.67–2.69] to 4.02 [95% CI, 2.39–6.76]). Significant heterogeneity remained across each analysis. The bullying perpetration and suicidal behavior effect sizes were moderated by the study’s country of origin; the bully/victim status and suicidal ideation results were moderated by bullying assessment method. CONCLUSIONS Findings demonstrated that involvement in bullying in any capacity is associated with suicidal ideation and behavior. Future research should address mental health implications of bullying involvement to prevent suicidal ideation/behavior. PMID:25560447

  8. The Role of Neuropeptides in Suicidal Behavior: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Pompili, Maurizio; Dwivedi, Yogesh; Girardi, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing evidence that neuropeptides may be involved in the pathophysiology of suicidal behavior. A critical review of the literature was conducted to investigate the association between neuropeptides and suicidal behavior. Only articles from peer-reviewed journals were selected for the inclusion in the present review. Twenty-six articles were assessed for eligibility but only 22 studies were included. Most studies have documented an association between suicidality and some neuropeptides such as corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), VGF, cholecystokinin, substance P, and neuropeptide Y (NPY), which have been demonstrated to act as key neuromodulators of emotional processing. Significant differences in neuropeptides levels have been found in those who have attempted or completed suicide compared with healthy controls or those dying from other causes. Despite cross-sectional associations between neuropeptides levels and suicidal behavior, causality may not be inferred. The implications of the mentioned studies were discussed in this review paper. PMID:23986909

  9. The role of neuropeptides in suicidal behavior: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Serafini, Gianluca; Pompili, Maurizio; Lindqvist, Daniel; Dwivedi, Yogesh; Girardi, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing evidence that neuropeptides may be involved in the pathophysiology of suicidal behavior. A critical review of the literature was conducted to investigate the association between neuropeptides and suicidal behavior. Only articles from peer-reviewed journals were selected for the inclusion in the present review. Twenty-six articles were assessed for eligibility but only 22 studies were included. Most studies have documented an association between suicidality and some neuropeptides such as corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), VGF, cholecystokinin, substance P, and neuropeptide Y (NPY), which have been demonstrated to act as key neuromodulators of emotional processing. Significant differences in neuropeptides levels have been found in those who have attempted or completed suicide compared with healthy controls or those dying from other causes. Despite cross-sectional associations between neuropeptides levels and suicidal behavior, causality may not be inferred. The implications of the mentioned studies were discussed in this review paper.

  10. Stress, Genes and the Biology of Suicidal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Currier, Dianne; Mann, J. John

    2009-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is in part heritable. Studies seeking the responsible candidate genes have examined genes involved in neurotransmitter systems demonstrated to have altered function in suicide and attempted suicide. These neurotransmitter systems include the serotonergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic systems and the HPA axis. With some exceptions, most notably the serotonin transporter promotor HTTLPR polymorphism, replication of candidate gene association studies findings has proven difficult. This chapter reviews what is known of specific gene effects and gene-environment interactions that influence risk for suicidal behavior. Effects of childhood stress on development and how that influences adult responses to current stress will be shown to be relevant for mood disorders, aggressive/impulsive traits and suicidal behavior. PMID:18439448

  11. Feasibility of Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Suicidal Adolescent Inpatients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Laurence Y.; Cox, Brian J.; Gunasekara, Shiny; Miller, Alec L.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) implementation in a general child and adolescent psychiatric inpatient unit and to provide preliminary effectiveness data on DBT versus treatment as usual (TAU). Method: Sixty-two adolescents with suicide attempts or suicidal ideation were admitted to one of two…

  12. Suicidal Behavior in the Western Pacific Region: Characteristics and Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Leo, Diego; Milner, Allison; Xiangdong, Wang

    2009-01-01

    Current knowledge of suicidal behavior in the Western Pacific region is relatively limited when compared to other areas of the world. This area is characterized by a wide diversity of social, economic, and cultural aspects that do not permit any homogenous reading of suicide phenomena. Data from countries of the region included in this article…

  13. Emotional Intelligence Is a Protective Factor for Suicidal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cha, Christine B.; Nock, Matthew K.

    2009-01-01

    Emotional intelligence is found to be a protective factor for suicidal behavior after examining the relations between childhood sexual abuse and suicidal ideation and attempts to emotional intelligence. Childhood sexual abuse is found to be a strong predictive of the results.

  14. Micro- and Macrosystem Predictors of High School Male Suicidal Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck-Cross, Cathy; Cooper, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is the third leading cause of death among young people ages 15 to 19 years, with male adolescents four times more likely to die than their female peers. This study used Bronfenbrenner's bioecological model to examine micro- and macrosystems as predictors of suicidal behaviors through responses by male adolescents (N = 9,910) to a statewide…

  15. Connectedness and Perceived Burdensomeness among Adolescents at Elevated Suicide Risk: An Examination of the Interpersonal Theory of Suicidal Behavior.

    PubMed

    Opperman, Kiel; Czyz, Ewa K; Gipson, Polly Y; King, Cheryl A

    2015-01-01

    The interpersonal theory of suicidal behavior emphasizes the constructs of perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and acquired capacity, which warrant investigation in adolescents at risk for suicide due to interpersonal stressors. This study examined one component of the interpersonal theory of suicidal behavior, "suicidal desire" (suicidal ideation), in 129 adolescents (12-15 years) recruited from a general medical emergency department who screened positive for bully victimization, bully perpetration, or low interpersonal connectedness. Greater perceived burdensomeness combined with low family connectedness was a significant predictor of suicidal ideation. This suggests the importance of addressing connectedness and perceptions of burdensomeness in prevention and early intervention efforts with at-risk adolescents. PMID:25751375

  16. [Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI) and Suicidal Behavior Disorder in the DSM-5].

    PubMed

    Plener, Paul L; Kapusta, Nestor D; Brunner, Romuald; Kaess, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI) and Suicidal Behavior Disorder (SBD) were included as diagnostic categories in Section 3 of the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5) of the American Psychiatric Association (APA). Thus, these diagnostic entities were not recognized as formal clinical diagnoses, but rather for the first time clearly defined in a classificatory system to standardize further research in this field. This paper introduces both concepts and addresses the discussion about NSSI and suicidal behavior disorder based on a selective review of the literature. First studies using the new definitions are introduced. In Germany the prevalence of NSSI is estimated to lie at about 4 %, of SBD at about 9 %. It can be expected that in the future the new definitions will lead to a better comparability of study outcomes with regards to NSSI and suicidal behavior disorder.

  17. [Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI) and Suicidal Behavior Disorder in the DSM-5].

    PubMed

    Plener, Paul L; Kapusta, Nestor D; Brunner, Romuald; Kaess, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI) and Suicidal Behavior Disorder (SBD) were included as diagnostic categories in Section 3 of the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5) of the American Psychiatric Association (APA). Thus, these diagnostic entities were not recognized as formal clinical diagnoses, but rather for the first time clearly defined in a classificatory system to standardize further research in this field. This paper introduces both concepts and addresses the discussion about NSSI and suicidal behavior disorder based on a selective review of the literature. First studies using the new definitions are introduced. In Germany the prevalence of NSSI is estimated to lie at about 4 %, of SBD at about 9 %. It can be expected that in the future the new definitions will lead to a better comparability of study outcomes with regards to NSSI and suicidal behavior disorder. PMID:25335519

  18. Frequency and functions of non-suicidal self-injury: associations with suicidal thoughts and behaviors.

    PubMed

    Paul, Elise; Tsypes, Aliona; Eidlitz, Laura; Ernhout, Carrie; Whitlock, Janis

    2015-02-28

    Previous research has found associations between non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STBs), yet the nature of this relationship remains equivocal. The goal of the present study was to examine how lifetime NSSI frequency and individual NSSI functions relate to a history of suicidal ideation, plan, and attempt. Data were collected via a large (N=13,396) web-based survey of university students between the ages of 18 and 29. After demographics and psychiatric conditions were controlled for, we found a positive curvilinear relationship between NSSI frequency and each of the suicide outcomes. When examined among those with STBs, bipolar disorder and problematic substance use remained positively associated with risk for suicide attempt, but not NSSI. Analyses of individual NSSI functions showed differential associations with STBs of varying severity. Specifically, nearly every NSSI function was significantly related to suicide attempt, with functions related to avoiding committing suicide, coping with self-hatred, and feeling generation (anti-dissociation) showing the strongest risks for suicide attempt. From both clinical and research perspectives, these findings suggest the importance of assessing multiple reasons for engaging in self-injury.

  19. Revisiting the Association of Aggression and Suicidal Behavior in Schizophrenic Inpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuner, Tanja; Hubner-Liebermann, Bettina; Hausner, Helmut; Hajak, Goran; Wolfersdorf, Manfred; Spiessl, Hermann

    2011-01-01

    Our study investigated the association of aggression and suicidal behavior in schizophrenic inpatients. Eight thousand nine hundred one admissions for schizophrenia (1998-2007) to a psychiatric university hospital were included. Schizophrenic suicides (n = 7)/suicide attempters (n = 40) were compared to suicides (n = 30)/suicide attempters (n =…

  20. Bullying, psychiatric pathology and suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Dobry, Yuriy; Braquehais, María Dolores; Sher, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Bullying is a highly prevalent behavior which carries a significant social, medical and financial cost for its victims and perpetrators, with powerful and long-lasting psychological and social impact. Bullying has been defined as a specific form of intentional, repeated aggression, that involves a disparity of power between the victim(s) and perpetrator(s). The aggression can take physical, verbal or gestural forms. The behavior of bullying crosses sociodemographic categories of age, gender, ethnicity, level of academic achievement and professional environment. It has been abundantly observed by teachers and parents in elementary schools, but has also shown its negative presence in corporate boardrooms. The direct outcome of bullying, for both victims and perpetrators, is an increased risk of psychiatric disorders including depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety disorders, substance abuse and suicidal behavior. Cruelty (and bullying, as one of its manifestations) breaks the basis of morality. Mental health professionals usually treat the victims of those actions unfortunately long after they have been exposed to the harm. The evidence does not support the idea that the majority of cruel actions are intrinsically "pathological", in the sense of being motivated by "mental disorders". Therefore, only moral rules and legal actions - but not psychiatric or psychological interventions - may dissuade humans from this form of cruelty. PMID:24006324

  1. Suicidal behavior in Latinos: focus on the youth.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, Alvaro; Koons, Ann; Postolache, Teodor T

    2009-01-01

    The multicultural nature of American society presents clinicians and mental health providers with the unique challenge of working with mentally ill patients from many different cultural backgrounds. Although research investigating suicidal behavior among Latinos is limited, the literature suggests the presence of two distinct phenomena: (a) the prevalence of completed suicide among Latinos as a group is lower than the national rate and (b) the prevalence of suicidal behavior among Latino youth between the ages of 10-24 years is greater than in other ethnic groups, especially among females. Acculturation, family conflicts, physical abuse and sexual abuse, among other factors, have been suggested to increase the risk of depression and suicide among young Latinos. To ameliorate suicidal behavior among Latino youth, more research is needed about specific risk factors, diagnosis, treatment, and ultimately, suicide prevention. Research focused on identifying risk and mediating factors for suicidal behavior in young Latinos is particularly relevant, given the size and rapid growth of the Latino population in the United States of America. PMID:20306758

  2. Cortisol levels and suicidal behavior: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Daryl B; Ferguson, Eamonn; Green, Jessica A; O'Carroll, Ronan E; O'Connor, Rory C

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is a major cause of death worldwide, responsible for 1.5% of all mortality. The causes of suicidal behavior are not fully understood. Dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, as measured by cortisol levels, is one potential risk factor. This meta-analytic review aimed (i) to estimate the strength and variability of the association between naturally fluctuating cortisol levels and suicidal behavior and (ii) to identify moderators of this relationship. A systematic literature search identified 27 studies (N=2226; 779 suicide attempters and 1447 non-attempters) that met the study eligibility criteria from a total of 417 unique records initially examined. Estimates of effect sizes (r) obtained from these studies were analysed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis. In these analyses, we compared participants identified as having a past history of suicide attempt(s) to those with no such history. Study quality, mean age of sample and percentage of male participants were examined as potential moderators. Overall, there was no significant effect of suicide group on cortisol. However, significant associations between cortisol and suicide attempts were observed as a function of age. In studies where the mean age of the sample was below 40 years the association was positive (i.e., higher cortisol was associated with suicide attempts; r=.234, p<.001), and where the mean age was 40 or above the association was negative (i.e., lower cortisol was associated with suicide attempts; r=-.129, p<.001). These findings confirm that HPA axis activity, as indicated by age-dependent variations in cortisol levels, is associated with suicidal behavior. The challenge for theory and clinical practice is to explain the complete reversal of the association with age and to identify its clinical implications.

  3. Asperger syndrome related suicidal behavior: two case studies.

    PubMed

    Kocourkova, Jana; Dudova, Iva; Koutek, Jiri

    2013-01-01

    Asperger syndrome hinders adaptation to developmental challenges during childhood and adolescence, particularly with regard to interpersonal relationships. Individuals with Asperger syndrome display lack of empathy and limited ability to understand social and emotional exchanges with other people. Individuals with Asperger syndrome are significantly exposed to the risk of suicidal behavior, especially during adolescence. The authors describe cases of suicidal behavior in two adolescent boys with Asperger syndrome.

  4. Asperger syndrome related suicidal behavior: two case studies.

    PubMed

    Kocourkova, Jana; Dudova, Iva; Koutek, Jiri

    2013-01-01

    Asperger syndrome hinders adaptation to developmental challenges during childhood and adolescence, particularly with regard to interpersonal relationships. Individuals with Asperger syndrome display lack of empathy and limited ability to understand social and emotional exchanges with other people. Individuals with Asperger syndrome are significantly exposed to the risk of suicidal behavior, especially during adolescence. The authors describe cases of suicidal behavior in two adolescent boys with Asperger syndrome. PMID:24294002

  5. Utility of an integrated electronic suicide alert system in a psychiatric hospital.

    PubMed

    Madan, Alok; Mahoney, Jane; Allen, Jon G; Ellis, Thomas; Hardesty, Susan; Oldham, John M; Fowler, J Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Management of suicide-related behaviors in a hospital is challenging. This article (1) describes integration of an electronic suicide risk notification system to improve assessment of psychiatric inpatients, (2) details the manner in which these alerts complement standard of care, and (3) provides support of using aggregate data to inform administrative decision-making. Complementing routine clinical care and under the supervision of an assessment coordinator, adult inpatients at a specialty psychiatric hospital complete a computerized battery of outcome assessments throughout the course of their hospitalization. A critical-item response notification system for suicide-related behaviors was implemented within the larger, assessment architecture, sending an alert e-mail to unit staff if patients endorsed suicidal ideation on any 1 of 6 critical items. Analysis of aggregate data over a 19-month period reveal a linear trend of increasing rate of suicide alerts from October 2012 to April 2013 (Phase A) with a stabilization at the heightened level from July 2013 to April 2014 (Phase B), R = 0.697, P = .007. Findings suggest that more nuanced training in the management of suicide-related behavior may be necessary and that traditional approaches to staffing may need to accommodate patient acuity. The communication innovation of this system is in line with the Joint Commission's emphasis on designing and implementing patient-centered systems that enhance quality of care, including improved safety. PMID:25830616

  6. Suicidal Behavior in Chemically Dependent Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavaiola, Alan A.; Lavender, Neil

    1999-01-01

    Study explores distinctions between chemically dependent suicide attempters, chemically dependent nonsuicidal adolescents, and high school students with no history of chemical dependency (N=250). Results reveal that there were significant differences between the chemically dependent groups. It was also found that the majority of suicidal gestures…

  7. Adolescent Suicidal Behavior Across the Excess Weight Status Spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Zeller, Meg H.; Reiter-Purtill, Jennifer; Jenkins, Todd M.; Ratcliff, Megan B.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined relative suicidal behavioral risks (ideation, attempts) for overweight, obese, and extremely obese adolescents (vs. healthy weight) and who did/did not accurately perceive themselves as overweight utilizing cross-sectional data from the publicly available Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). A new variable (weight status/accuracy) was computed that combined actual weight status (based on BMI) with weight perception accuracy. To evaluate the effect of weight status/accuracy on each suicidal risk behavior, logistic regression was performed to calculate odds-ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Potential model covariates included gender, age, race, survey year, and whether they had felt sad/hopeless. Weight perception accuracy increased as the degree of excess weight increased. Relative to healthy weight, being obese or extremely obese (but not overweight) was associated with significantly greater risk for adolescent engagement in suicidal ideation, but was unrelated to suicide attempts. Adolescents in all excess weight categories who were accurate in their weight perception were at significantly greater odds of suicidal ideation, whereas those who were inaccurate of no greater odds of suicidal ideation than healthy weight youth who accurately perceived their weight. Findings regarding suicide attempts varied based on actual weight/weight perception accuracy and race/ethnicity. The present findings are both important and clinically relevant. While widely accepted that there are multiple pathways to suicide, our understanding of adolescent suicidal behavior risks and accordingly, prevention efforts, will be informed by comprehensive prospective studies that should also, from here forward, consider categorization of the entire weight spectrum (e.g., extreme obesity). PMID:23784908

  8. The role of the pediatrician in preventing suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Borowsky, I W

    2002-02-01

    Suicidality is a serious cause of morbidity and mortality among young people. Important risk factors for suicidal behavior are mental illness, alcohol and other substance use disorders, previous suicide attempt, impulsive and/or aggressive behavior, history of abuse, and access to lethal means. Emotional well-being and connectedness to family and school act to buffer or protect young people from involvement in self-directed violence. Pediatricians can play a major role in suicide prevention by identifying emotional and behavioral problems and intervening appropriately, promoting positive parenting skills and family cohesion, and providing injury prevention education to reduce access to lethal means. As part of a comprehensive strategy to prevent youth suicidal behavior, child health professionals are uniquely positioned to promote resiliency among youth and families as well as identify and provide appropriate treatment and service coordination for risk factors before injuries occur. Adequate training is critical to ensure that pediatricians are prepared to provide effective assessment, prevention and intervention for suicidal behavior. PMID:11862165

  9. Genome-wide association studies of suicidal behaviors: a review.

    PubMed

    Sokolowski, Marcus; Wasserman, Jerzy; Wasserman, Danuta

    2014-10-01

    Suicidal behaviors represent a fatal dimension of mental ill-health, involving both environmental and heritable (genetic) influences. The putative genetic components of suicidal behaviors have until recent years been mainly investigated by hypothesis-driven research (of "candidate genes"). But technological progress in genotyping has opened the possibilities towards (hypothesis-generating) genomic screens and novel opportunities to explore polygenetic perspectives, now spanning a wide array of possible analyses falling under the term Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS). Here we introduce and discuss broadly some apparent limitations but also certain developing opportunities of GWAS. We summarize the results from all the eight GWAS conducted up to date focused on suicidality outcomes; treatment emergent suicidal ideation (3 studies), suicide attempts (4 studies) and completed suicides (1 study). Clearly, there are few (if any) genome-wide significant and reproducible findings yet to be demonstrated. We then discuss and pinpoint certain future considerations in relation to sample sizes, the units of genetic associations used, study designs and outcome definitions, psychiatric diagnoses or biological measures, as well as the use of genomic sequencing. We conclude that GWAS should have a lot more potential to show in the case of suicidal outcomes, than what has yet been realized. PMID:25219938

  10. Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions to Reduce Suicide Behavior: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarrier, Nicholas; Taylor, Katherine; Gooding, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Suicide behavior is a serious clinical problem worldwide, and understanding ways of reducing it is a priority. A systematic review and meta-analysis were carried out to investigate whether Cognitive-behavioral therapies (CBTs) would reduce suicide behavior. From 123 potential articles, 28 studies met the entry criteria. Overall, there was a highly…

  11. Suicidal Behavior in Mood Disorders: Response to Pharmacological Treatment.

    PubMed

    Tondo, Leonardo; Baldessarini, Ross J

    2016-09-01

    Suicidal behavior is strongly associated with depression, especially if accompanied by behavioral activation, dysphoria, or agitation. It may respond to some treatments, but the design of scientifically sound, ethical trials to test for therapeutic effects on suicidal behavior is highly challenging. In bipolar disorder, and possibly also unipolar major depression, an underprescribed medical intervention with substantial evidence of preventive effects on suicidal behavior is long-term treatment with lithium. It is unclear whether this effect is specifically antisuicidal or reflects beneficial effects of lithium on depression, mood instability, and perhaps aggression and impulsivity. Antisuicidal effects of anticonvulsant mood stabilizers (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, valproate) appear to be less than with lithium. Further evaluation is needed for potential antisuicidal effects of atypical antipsychotics with growing evidence of efficacy in depression, particularly acute bipolar depression, while generally lacking risk of inducing agitation, mania, or mood instability. Short-term and long-term value and safety of antidepressants are relatively secure for unipolar depression but uncertain and poorly tested for bipolar depression; their effects on suicidal risk in unipolar depression may be age-dependent. Sedative anxiolytics are virtually unstudied as regards suicidal risks. Adequate management of suicidal risks in mood disorder patients requires comprehensive, clinically skillful monitoring and timely interventions. PMID:27542851

  12. Symbiosis, Empathy, Suicidal Behavior, and the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richman, Joseph

    1978-01-01

    This paper discusses the theoretical concept of symbiosis, as described by Mahler and her co-workers, and its clinical applications in suicidal situations. Also, the practical implications of the concept of symbiosis for assessment and treatment are discussed (Author)

  13. Sociodemographic Antecedent Validators of Suicidal Behavior: A Review of Recent Literature.

    PubMed

    Conejero, Ismael; Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; Giner, Lucas; Baca-Garcia, Enrique

    2016-10-01

    Suicidal behavior and its prevention constitute a major public health issue. Etiology of suicidal behavior is multifactorial. Whereas current research is mostly focused on clinical and biological risk factors, the sociodemographic risk factors for suicidal behavior, first highlighted by Durkheim, have received less attention. Besides the well-known impact of age and gender, sociodemographic variables such as marital and parental status, education, occupation, income, employment status, religion, migration or minority status, and sexual orientation are repeatedly reported to play an important role in suicidal behavior. This narrative review aimed to summarize recent research on sociodemographic risk factors for suicidal behavior and to elicit possible implications for suicide prevention. PMID:27595860

  14. Research on serotonin and suicidal behavior: neuroendocrine and molecular approaches

    PubMed Central

    Corrêa, Humberto; Romano-Silva, Marco Aurélio; Duval, Fabrice; Campi-Azevedo, Ana Carolina; Lima, Vivtor; Macher, Jean-Paul

    2002-01-01

    We carried out two studies to test the hypothesis that altered central serotonergic function, as assessed by lower prolactin (PRL) response to fenfluramine (D-FEN), is more closely associated with suicidal behavior than a particular psychiatric diagnosis. A D-FEN test was performed in 85 major depressed inpatients, 33 schizophrenic inpatients, and 18 healthy controls. We showed that PRL response to D-FEN is a marker of suicidality, regardless of psychiatric disorder. We then examined the association en the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) receptor 5-HT2A gene polymorphism (T102C) and suicide in a sample of Brazilian psychiatric inpatients (95 with schizophrenia, 78 with major depression) and 52 healthy controls. No differences were found in genotypic frequencies across patients and controls. Overall, no differences were found between patients with (n=66) and without (n=107) a history of suicide attempt. We also compared patients with a history of severe suicide attempts (lethality>3; n=32) and patients without such a history (n=107), but they did not exhibit different genotypic frequencies either. These results show thai the 5-HT2A gene polymorphism (T102C) may not be involved in the genetic susceptibility to suicidal behavior. PMID:22034390

  15. Suicidal behaviors in homosexual and bisexual males.

    PubMed

    Bagley, C; Tremblay, P

    1997-01-01

    A stratified random sample of 750 males in Calgary, Canada, aged 18-27 years, were given questions on sexual activity and orientation. Mental health questions included a measure of suicidality and of acts of deliberate self-harm. A computerized response format, which has been established as a good method for eliciting sensitive personal data, ensured anonymity. Almost 13% of the males were classified as homosexual or bisexual on the basis of being currently homosexually active or by self-identification. Significantly higher rates of previous suicidal ideas and actions were reported by homosexually oriented males than by heterosexual males. Homosexually oriented males accounted for 62.5% of suicide attempters. These findings, which indicate that homosexual and bisexual males are 13.9 times more at risk for a serious suicide attempt, are consonant with previous findings. The predominant reason for the suicidality of these young males may be linked to the process of "coming out," especially for those who currently have high levels of depression. These results underscore the need for qualified services rarely available to homosexually oriented youth. PMID:9141776

  16. Available Supports and Coping Behaviors of Mental Health Social Workers Following Fatal and Nonfatal Client Suicidal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ting, Laura; Jacobson, Jodi M.; Sanders, Sara

    2008-01-01

    Research indicates that mental health social workers risk being confronted with fatal and nonfatal client suicidal behaviors during professional practice. Although reactions to client suicidal behavior have been documented, there is little empirical evidence about coping behaviors and available supports following client suicidal behavior. This…

  17. Peer Victimization and Suicidal Behaviors among High School Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crepeau-Hobson, Franci; Leech, Nancy L.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between various types of peer-directed violence and suicidal thoughts and behaviors among adolescents. A nationally representative sample of 15,425 high school students completed the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. All types of peer victimization (bullying, physical violence, and dating violence) were found to…

  18. Self-Injurious Behavior and Suicide Attempts among Indonesian College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tresno, Fiona; Ito, Yoshimi; Mearns, Jack

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the prevalence of self-injurious behavior and suicide attempts among college students in Indonesia and examines risk factors distinguishing between 3 groups: self-injury with suicide attempt, non-suicidal self-injury, and non-self-injury. Self-report questionnaires measuring self-injury and suicide attempts, negative mood…

  19. Asthma and Suicidal Ideation and Behavior among Puerto Rican Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bandiera, Frank C.; Ramirez, Rafael; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Canino, Glorisa; Goodwin, Renee D.

    2013-01-01

    There is growing evidence of a positive association between asthma and suicidal ideation and behavior in the general community, although information on this potential association is scarce among adolescents and Puerto Ricans, groups at-risk for both conditions. Data came from wave three of the Boricua Youth Study, a longitudinal study of youth in the Bronx and San Juan conducted from 2000–2004. Logistic regressions for correlated data (GEE) were conducted with asthma predicting suicidal ideation and behavior among participants aged 11 years or older. After adjustment for survey design, age, gender, poverty, DSM-IV mental disorders, cigarette smoking, and stressful life events, asthma was positively associated with suicidal ideation and behavior among Puerto Rican adolescents. Public health interventions targeting Puerto Rican adolescents with asthma and future studies investigating potential biological and psychological mechanisms of association are warranted. PMID:23817156

  20. The role of parental bonding and early maladaptive schemas in the risk of suicidal behavior repetition.

    PubMed

    Dale, Rosanna; Power, Kevin; Kane, Scott; Stewart, Alex Mitchell; Murray, Lindsey

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the role of perceived parental bonding and early maladaptive schemas in suicidal behavior. Participants completed measures of perceived parental bonding; schemas; risk of repeating suicidal behavior; anxiety; and depression following their presentation at Accident and Emergency with suicidal behavior. A suicidal behavior group (n = 60) differed from a comparison clinical (n = 46) and non-clinical (n = 48) group on measures of early maladaptive schemas, anxiety, and depression. No significant difference was noted between the suicidal behavior group and the comparison clinical group on a measure of parental bonding. Within the suicidal behavior group, significant associations were indicated between perceived parental bonding and risk of repetition of suicidal behavior; and early maladaptive schemas and risk of repetition of suicidal behavior. Early maladaptive schemas were found to mediate the relationship between perceived parental bonding and risk of repetition of suicidal behavior, with schemas of Social Alienation and Defectiveness/Shame offering mediator roles. The findings of the current study emphasize the complexities of suicidal behavior and factors that are associated with suicidal behavior. Although causality cannot be assumed, the findings highlight the importance and inter-relationships of not only perceived early experiences, but of underlying schemas in relation to suicidal behavior.

  1. Understanding Bhutanese refugee suicide through the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Ellis, B Heidi; Lankau, Emily W; Ao, Trong; Benson, Molly A; Miller, Alisa B; Shetty, Sharmila; Lopes Cardozo, Barbara; Geltman, Paul L; Cochran, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Attention has been drawn to high rates of suicide among refugees after resettlement and in particular among the Bhutanese refugees. This study sought to understand the apparent high rates of suicide among resettled Bhutanese refugees in the context of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior (IPTS). Expanding on a larger investigation of suicide in a randomly selected sample of Bhutanese men and women resettled in Arizona, Georgia, New York, and Texas (Ao et al., 2012), the current study focused on 2 factors, thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, examined individual and postmigration variables associated with these factors, and explored how they differed by gender. Overall, factors such as poor health were associated with perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness. For men, stressors related to employment and providing for their families were related to feeling burdensome and/or alienated from family and friends, whereas for women, stressors such as illiteracy, family conflict, and being separated from family members were more associated. IPTS holds promise in understanding suicide in the resettled Bhutanese community. PMID:25642653

  2. Understanding Bhutanese Refugee Suicide Through the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, B. Heidi; Lankau, Emily W.; Ao, Trong; Benson, Molly A.; Miller, Alisa B.; Shetty, Sharmila; Cardozo, Barbara Lopes; Geltman, Paul L.; Cochran, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Attention has been drawn to high rates of suicide among refugees after resettlement and in particular among the Bhutanese refugees. This study sought to understand the apparent high rates of suicide among resettled Bhutanese refugees in the context of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior (IPTS). Expanding on a larger investigation of suicide in a randomly selected sample of Bhutanese men and women resettled in Arizona, Georgia, New York, and Texas (Ao et al., 2012), the current study focused on 2 factors, thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, examined individual and postmigration variables associated with these factors, and explored how they differed by gender. Overall, factors such as poor health were associated with perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness. For men, stressors related to employment and providing for their families were related to feeling burdensome and/or alienated from family and friends, whereas for women, stressors such as illiteracy, family conflict, and being separated from family members were more associated. IPTS holds promise in understanding suicide in the resettled Bhutanese community. PMID:25642653

  3. The role of autonomy needs in suicidal ideation: integrating the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide and self-determination theory.

    PubMed

    Hill, Ryan M; Pettit, Jeremy W

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the role of autonomy satisfaction in the development of suicidal ideation by integrating two theoretical models of suicide-related behaviors. The first hypothesized a direct effect of autonomy on suicidal ideation. The second hypothesized an indirect effect of autonomy on suicidal ideation via perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness. This was a cross-sectional study of 449 college students, who were predominantly female (73.1%) and Hispanic (70.6%), with a mean age of 20.40 years (SD = 4.38, range 18-50 years). Participants were recruited from a psychology participant pool and completed self-report survey measures for course credit. The model of indirect effects provided the best fit to the data; relatedness, autonomy, and competence were significantly associated with higher thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, which, in turn, were significantly associated with higher suicidal ideation. Future studies should test this model longitudinally and consider autonomy as a possible avenue for the prevention of suicide-related behaviors.

  4. The role of autonomy needs in suicidal ideation: integrating the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide and self-determination theory.

    PubMed

    Hill, Ryan M; Pettit, Jeremy W

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the role of autonomy satisfaction in the development of suicidal ideation by integrating two theoretical models of suicide-related behaviors. The first hypothesized a direct effect of autonomy on suicidal ideation. The second hypothesized an indirect effect of autonomy on suicidal ideation via perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness. This was a cross-sectional study of 449 college students, who were predominantly female (73.1%) and Hispanic (70.6%), with a mean age of 20.40 years (SD = 4.38, range 18-50 years). Participants were recruited from a psychology participant pool and completed self-report survey measures for course credit. The model of indirect effects provided the best fit to the data; relatedness, autonomy, and competence were significantly associated with higher thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, which, in turn, were significantly associated with higher suicidal ideation. Future studies should test this model longitudinally and consider autonomy as a possible avenue for the prevention of suicide-related behaviors. PMID:23889577

  5. Impulsive Aggression, Delay Discounting, and Adolescent Suicide Attempts: Effects of Current Psychotropic Medication Use and Family History of Suicidal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Brady; McBee-Strayer, Sandra M.; Sheftall, Arielle H.; Ackerman, John; Stevens, Jack; Mendoza, Kristen; Campo, John V.; Brent, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Impulsive-aggressive behaviors have been consistently implicated in the phenomenology, neurobiology, and familial aggregation of suicidal behavior. The purpose of this study was to extend previous work by examining laboratory behavioral measures of delayed reward impulsivity and impulsive aggression in adolescent suicide attempters and never-suicidal comparison subjects. Methods: Using the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP) and the Delay Discounting Task (DDQ), the authors examined delay discounting and impulsive aggression in 40 adolescent suicide attempters, ages 13–18, and 40 never-suicidal, demographically matched psychiatric comparison subjects. Results: Overall, suicide attempters and comparison subjects performed similarly on the PSAP and DDQ. There was a significant group by current psychotropic medication use interaction (p=0.013) for mean aggressive responses on the PSAP. Group comparisons revealed that attempters emitted more aggressive responses per provocation than comparison subjects, only in those not on psychotropic medication (p=0.049), whereas for those currently treated with psychotropic medication, there were no group differences (p>0.05). This interaction effect was specific to current antidepressant use. Among all subjects, family history of suicidal behavior (suicide or suicide attempt) in first degree relatives was significantly correlated with both delay discounting (r=−0.22, p=0.049), and aggressive responding (r=0.27, p=0.015). Family history of suicidal behavior was associated with delay discounting, but not with aggressive responding on the PSAP, after controlling for relevant covariates. Conclusions: In this study, impulsive-aggressive responding was associated with suicide attempt only in those not being treated with antidepressants. Future work to replicate and extend these findings could have important therapeutic implications for the treatment of depressed suicide attempters, many of whom are

  6. Aggressiveness across development and suicidal behavior in depressed patients.

    PubMed

    Carballo, Juan J; García-Nieto, Rebeca; Harkavy-Friedman, Jill; de Leon-Martinez, Victoria; Baca-García, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine differences in the pathway of aggressiveness across development between depressive subjects and normal controls, and to examine males and females separately with regard to level of aggression and suicidal behavior among depressed subjects. Participants were classified into 5 groups: depressed suicide attempters (DSA; n = 339), depressed non-suicide attempters (DNSA; n = 92), psychiatric controls who had attempted suicide (PSA; n = 188), psychiatric controls who had not attempted suicide (PNSA; n = 222), and normal controls (NC; n = 532). The level of aggressiveness across development in the different groups was examined using a 5 (DSA vs. DNSA vs. PSA vs. PNSA vs. NC)×3 (Childhood, Adolescence, and Adulthood) MANCOVA. Adjusted and separate models for males and females were conducted. Depressed subjects differed in severity of aggressiveness. The level of aggressiveness in individuals in the NC group remained stable across development, while subjects in the DSA and DNSA groups showed significantly higher levels of aggressiveness. This finding was also observed in subjects of the PSA and PNSA groups. The level of aggressiveness in males with depression significantly increased over time. In women, increasing levels of aggressiveness across development were only observed in depressed suicide attempters. Limitations of this study included use of semi-structured interview for the assessment of risk factors. We found significant differences in severity and in the pathway of aggressiveness across development between depressive subjects and normal controls. In addition, sex differences regarding level of aggression and suicidal behavior among depressed subjects were found.

  7. Multiple risk behaviors and suicidal ideation and behavior among Israeli and Palestinian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Harel-Fisch, Yossi; Abdeen, Ziad; Walsh, Sophie D; Radwan, Qasrowi; Fogel-Grinvald, Haya

    2012-07-01

    Based conceptually on Problem Behavior Theory, Normalization Theory and theories of adolescent ethnic identity formation this study explores relationships between individual and cumulative multiple risk behaviors and suicidal ideation and behavior among mid-adolescents in three different populations in the Middle East. Data from the 2004 Health Behavior in School-Aged Children in the Middle-East (HBSC-ME) study included 8345 10th-grade pupils in three populations: Jewish Israelis (1770), Arab Israelis (2185), and Palestinians in Gaza and the West Bank (4390). We considered risk behaviors and factors including tobacco use, bullying, medically-attended injuries, excessive time with friends, parental disconnectedness, negative school experience, truancy and poor academic performance. Substantial population differences for suicidal tendency and risk behaviors were observed, with notably high levels of suicidal ideation and behavior among Arab-Israeli youth and higher levels of risk behaviors among the Jewish and Arab-Israeli youth. For all populations suicidal tendency was at least 4 times higher among adolescents reporting 4+ risk behaviors, suggesting that similar psychosocial determinants affect patterns of risk behaviors and suicidal tendency. Results highlight the importance of understanding cultural contexts of risk behaviors and suicidal ideation and behavior. PMID:22497848

  8. Personality traits as intermediary phenotypes in suicidal behavior: genetic issues.

    PubMed

    Baud, Patrick

    2005-02-15

    A genetic contribution to the risk of suicidal behavior is now supported by many studies. It probably involves specific factors acting on their own, independently of the genetic transmission of associated psychiatric disorders. A history of childhood maltreatment, adverse events, psychosocial stress, psychological traits and major psychiatric disorders all appear to contribute to the global risk of suicide attempt or completion. The interplay between previously identified risk factors, different as they are in nature and degree of complexity, still remains to be clarified. A stress-diathesis model has been proposed, where trait-like genetic and developmental risk factors (the diathesis) interact through still unknown mechanisms with actual (stress-related) factors to create the conditions for a suicidal gesture. Disentangling the effects of these risk factors, and specifically the effects of the genetic factors influencing these different pathological conditions, appears to be a difficult task. Indeed the results of candidate gene association studies suggest that genetic vulnerability factors for various related psychiatric phenotypes (major psychiatric disorders and personality traits) partly overlap with more specific factors predisposing to suicidal behavior. Personality traits are partly under genetic control and may be closer to the genetic effects than psychiatric syndromes. We review here the available data on the genetics of personality traits presumably involved in suicidal behavior, focusing on the association studies carried out with serotonin-related genes. We suggest that future studies on the genetic vulnerability to suicidal behavior should include the investigation of endophenotypes, with the aim of deciphering the mechanisms underlying the genetic susceptibility to these closely associated phenotypes.

  9. The Relation Between Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Suicidal Behavior: A Systematic Review and Critical Examination of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Weismoore, Julie T.; Renshaw, Keith D.

    2013-01-01

    A large body of research suggests that child maltreatment (CM) is associated with adolescent suicidal ideation and attempts. These studies, however, have not been critically examined and summarized in a manner that allows us to draw firm conclusions and make recommendations for future research and clinical work in this area. In this review, we evaluated all of the research literature to date examining the relationship between CM and adolescent suicidal ideation and attempts. Results generally suggest that childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect are associated with adolescent suicidal ideation and attempts across community, clinical, and high-risk samples, using cross-sectional and longitudinal research designs. In most studies, these associations remain significant when controlling for covariates such as youth demographics, mental health, family, and peer-related variables. When different forms of CM are examined in the same multivariate analysis, most research suggests that each form of CM maintains an independent association with adolescent suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. However, a subset of studies yielded evidence to suggest that sexual abuse and emotional abuse may be relatively more important in explaining suicidal behavior than physical abuse or neglect. Research also suggests an additive effect—each form of CM contributes unique variance to adolescent suicide attempts. We discuss the current limitations of this literature and offer recommendations for future research. We conclude with an overview of the clinical implications of this research, including careful, detailed screening of CM history, past suicidal behavior, and current suicidal ideation, as well as the need for integrated treatment approaches that effectively address both CM and adolescent suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. PMID:23568617

  10. The relation between child maltreatment and adolescent suicidal behavior: a systematic review and critical examination of the literature.

    PubMed

    Miller, Adam B; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Weismoore, Julie T; Renshaw, Keith D

    2013-06-01

    A large body of research suggests that child maltreatment (CM) is associated with adolescent suicidal ideation and attempts. These studies, however, have not been critically examined and summarized in a manner that allows us to draw firm conclusions and make recommendations for future research and clinical work in this area. In this review, we evaluated all of the research literature to date examining the relationship between CM and adolescent suicidal ideation and attempts. Results generally suggest that childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect are associated with adolescent suicidal ideation and attempts across community, clinical, and high-risk samples, using cross-sectional and longitudinal research designs. In most studies, these associations remain significant when controlling for covariates such as youth demographics, mental health, family, and peer-related variables. When different forms of CM are examined in the same multivariate analysis, most research suggests that each form of CM maintains an independent association with adolescent suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. However, a subset of studies yielded evidence to suggest that sexual abuse and emotional abuse may be relatively more important in explaining suicidal behavior than physical abuse or neglect. Research also suggests an additive effect-each form of CM contributes unique variance to adolescent suicide attempts. We discuss the current limitations of this literature and offer recommendations for future research. We conclude with an overview of the clinical implications of this research, including careful, detailed screening of CM history, past suicidal behavior, and current suicidal ideation, as well as the need for integrated treatment approaches that effectively address both CM and adolescent suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. PMID:23568617

  11. Self-Harm and Suicidal Behaviors in Hong Kong Adolescents: Prevalence and Psychosocial Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Yu, Lu

    2012-01-01

    The present paper examined the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of adolescent deliberate self-harm (DSH) and suicidal behavior in a representative sample of 3,328 secondary school students in Hong Kong. With reference to the previous year, 32.7% of the students reported at least one form of DSH, 13.7% of the respondents had suicide thoughts, 4.9% devised specific suicidal plans, and 4.7% had actually attempted suicide. Adolescent girls had significantly higher rates of DSH and suicidal behavior than did adolescent boys. Having remarried parents was related to an increased likelihood of DSH and suicide. While high levels of family functioning, overall positive youth development, and academic and school performance predicted low rates of DSH and suicidal behavior, cognitive and behavioral competencies were unexpectedly found to be positively associated with DSH and suicidal behavior. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:22566783

  12. Suicidal Behavior in Adolescent and Young Adult Gay Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Stephen G.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Explored relationship of homosexuality to suicidal behavior by questionnaire responses from 52 men in gay and lesbian college organizations and 56 men in homosexual rap groups. Family background of alcoholism and physical abuse, social supports perceived as rejecting homosexuality, and no religious affiliation were associated with history of…

  13. Are Mexican American Adolescents at Greater Risk of Suicidal Behaviors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Robert E.; Roberts, Catherine Ramsay; Xing, Yun

    2007-01-01

    A reexamination of ethnicity as a risk factor for adolescent suicidal behavior, focusing on whether Mexican American youths are at increased risk, was undertaken. Data from a sample of 4,175 African, European, and Mexican Americans, aged 11-17, are presented. We examined lifetime attempts and past year attempts, thoughts, and plans. Odds ratios,…

  14. Hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis and prolactin abnormalities in suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Pompili, Maurizio; Serafini, Gianluca; Palermo, Mario; Seretti, Maria Elena; Stefani, Henry; Angeletti, Gloria; Lester, David; Amore, Mario; Girardi, Paolo

    2013-11-01

    Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity measured with the dexamethasone suppression test and the dexamethesone/CRH test may have some predictive power for suicidal behavior in patients with mood disorders. Increased prolactin (PRL) levels may be related both to physiological and pathological conditions. HPA-axis abnormalities and increased levels of PRL may coexist, and common neuroendocrine changes may activate both HPA axis and PRL release. HPA-axis hyperactivity is presumably present in a large subpopulation of depressed subjects. Suicidal behavior is considered to be a form of inward-directed aggression, and aggressive behavior has been connected to high androgen levels. However, lower plasma total testosterone levels have also been reported in subjects with depression and higher suicidality. Lipid/immune dysregulations, the increased ratio of blood fatty acids, and increased PRL levels may each be associated with the increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which have been reported in patients with major depression and patients engaging in suicidal behavior. Although no studies have been done to determine whether ante-mortem physical stress may be detected by raised post-mortem PRL, this would be of great interest for physicians.

  15. Relations between Nonsuicidal Self-Injury and Suicidal Behavior in Adolescence: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Grandclerc, Salome; De Labrouhe, Diane; Spodenkiewicz, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal behaviors, both important issues in adolescent health care, are frequently associated and possibly clinically related. Our objective was to explore the views of relations between nonsuicidal self-injury and suicidal behaviors during adolescence and young adulthood (11–25 years) expressed in the scientific (medical and psychological) literature. We adopted a textual approach to the process of synthesis to tell the story of the findings from the included studies. Our narrative systematic review of 64 articles found that they share the same risk factors. Integrated models envision nonsuicidal self-injury as a gateway enabling teens to acquire the capability for suicide. Because suicidal behavior short-circuits thought, it is difficult to conceive an intention to die during adolescents' acts of self-injury. Intention is constructed by the narrative of the act, influenced by numerous elements from the psychopathologic, cultural, religious, and philosophic context. Techniques of mentalizing-based treatments and work on the meaning that adolescents attribute to their behaviors might improve care. PMID:27089157

  16. Relations between Nonsuicidal Self-Injury and Suicidal Behavior in Adolescence: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Grandclerc, Salome; De Labrouhe, Diane; Spodenkiewicz, Michel; Lachal, Jonathan; Moro, Marie-Rose

    2016-01-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal behaviors, both important issues in adolescent health care, are frequently associated and possibly clinically related. Our objective was to explore the views of relations between nonsuicidal self-injury and suicidal behaviors during adolescence and young adulthood (11-25 years) expressed in the scientific (medical and psychological) literature. We adopted a textual approach to the process of synthesis to tell the story of the findings from the included studies. Our narrative systematic review of 64 articles found that they share the same risk factors. Integrated models envision nonsuicidal self-injury as a gateway enabling teens to acquire the capability for suicide. Because suicidal behavior short-circuits thought, it is difficult to conceive an intention to die during adolescents' acts of self-injury. Intention is constructed by the narrative of the act, influenced by numerous elements from the psychopathologic, cultural, religious, and philosophic context. Techniques of mentalizing-based treatments and work on the meaning that adolescents attribute to their behaviors might improve care.

  17. Relations between Nonsuicidal Self-Injury and Suicidal Behavior in Adolescence: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Grandclerc, Salome; De Labrouhe, Diane; Spodenkiewicz, Michel; Lachal, Jonathan; Moro, Marie-Rose

    2016-01-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal behaviors, both important issues in adolescent health care, are frequently associated and possibly clinically related. Our objective was to explore the views of relations between nonsuicidal self-injury and suicidal behaviors during adolescence and young adulthood (11-25 years) expressed in the scientific (medical and psychological) literature. We adopted a textual approach to the process of synthesis to tell the story of the findings from the included studies. Our narrative systematic review of 64 articles found that they share the same risk factors. Integrated models envision nonsuicidal self-injury as a gateway enabling teens to acquire the capability for suicide. Because suicidal behavior short-circuits thought, it is difficult to conceive an intention to die during adolescents' acts of self-injury. Intention is constructed by the narrative of the act, influenced by numerous elements from the psychopathologic, cultural, religious, and philosophic context. Techniques of mentalizing-based treatments and work on the meaning that adolescents attribute to their behaviors might improve care. PMID:27089157

  18. Thyroid axis activity and suicidal behavior in depressed patients.

    PubMed

    Duval, Fabrice; Mokrani, Marie-Claude; Lopera, Felix Gonzalez; Diep, Thanh Son; Rabia, Hassen; Fattah, Saïd

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between suicidal behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary thyroid (HPT) axis activity in depressed patients. The serum levels of thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), and free triiodothyronine (FT3) were evaluated before and after 0800 and 2300 h thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) challenges, on the same day, in 95 medication-free DSM-IV euthyroid major depressed inpatients and 44 healthy hospitalized controls. Compared to controls: (1) patients with a positive suicide history (PSH; n=53) showed lower basal FT4 (at 0800 h: p<0.005; at 2300 h: p<0.03), but normal FT3 levels, while patients with a negative suicide history (NSH; n=42) showed normal FT4 and FT3 levels; (2) TSH responses to TRH (DeltaTSH) were blunted in NSHs (at 0800 h: p<0.03; at 2300 h: p<0.00001), but not in PSHs; (3) both NSHs and PSHs showed lower DeltaDeltaTSH values (differences between 2300 h-DeltaTSH and 0800 h-DeltaTSH) (p<0.000001 and p<0.003, respectively). Compared to NSHs, basal FT4 levels were reduced in PSHs (at 0800 h: p<0.002; at 2300h: p<0.006). HPT parameters were not significantly different between recent suicide attempters (n=32) and past suicide attempters (n=21). However, compared to controls, recent suicide attempters showed lower 2300 h-DeltaTSH (p<0.04) and DeltaDeltaTSH (p<0.002) values, and lower basal FT4 values (at 0800 h: p<0.006; at 2300 h: p<0.02). Our results, obtained in a large sample of depressed inpatients, indicate that various degrees of HPT axis dysregulation are associated with the history of suicide. PMID:20129737

  19. Sadness, suicide, and sexual behavior in Arkansas: results from the youth risk behavior survey 2011.

    PubMed

    Kindrick, Clint; Gathright, Molly; Cisler, Josh M; Messias, Erick

    2013-12-01

    We used the 2011 Arkansas Youth Risk Behavior Survey to estimate the prevalence of risky sexual behavior and sexual assault and to measure its association with teen suicidality. In Arkansas, 50.3% of students reported ever having sexual intercourse, 26% onset at 14 or younger, 36 % having had more than one partner, and 10.2% having been physically forced to have sex. "Being forced to have sex" was a risk factor for depression and all components of the suicide continuum. Additionally, early onset of sexual activity and having more than one partner increased the risk for depression, suicidal ideation, plan, and attempt. Suicide is a grievous and preventable tragedy, sadly standing among the leading causes of death for teens.' In this series, we examine risk factors for suicidality among Arkansas high school students; in this installment, we examine sexual behavior. A previous study utilizing the Rhode Island Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) found an association between having forced sexual intercourse and suicide. Furthermore, an association between psychiatric disorders and risky sexual behaviors, including both early onset and number of partners was found in a birth cohort study revealed. We hypothesize that Arkansas' teens reporting risky sexual behavior and sexual assault are at higher risk of depression and suicidality as well.

  20. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Suicide Prevention (CBT-SP): Treatment Model, Feasibility, and Acceptability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Barbara; Brown, Gregory; Brent, David A.; Wells, Karen; Poling, Kim; Curry, John; Kennard, Betsy D.; Wagner, Ann; Cwik, Mary F.; Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Goldstein, Tina; Vitiello, Benedetto; Barnett, Shannon; Daniel, Stephanie; Hughes, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To describe the elements of a manual-based cognitive-behavioral therapy for suicide prevention (CBT-SP) and to report its feasibility in preventing the recurrence of suicidal behavior in adolescents who have recently attempted suicide. Method: The CBT-SP was developed using a risk reduction and relapse prevention approach and…

  1. Correlates of Alaska Native Fatal and Nonfatal Suicidal Behaviors 1990-2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wexler, Lisa; Hill, Ryan; Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth; Fenaughty, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Factors correlated with suicidal behavior in a predominately Alaska Native region of Alaska are described, and the correlates relating to fatal and nonfatal suicide behaviors in this indigenous population are distinguished. Suicide data from the region (1990-2001) were aggregated and compared to 2000 U.S. Census Data using chi-squared tests.…

  2. The Moderating Effects of Parenting Styles on African-American and Caucasian Children's Suicidal Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greening, Leilani; Stoppelbein, Laura; Luebbe, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Given that parenting practices have been linked to suicidal behavior in adolescence, examining the moderating effect of parenting styles on suicidal behavior early in development could offer potential insight into possible buffers as well as directions for suicide prevention and intervention later in adolescence. Hence, the moderating effects of…

  3. Suicide Behaviors in Bipolar Disorder: A Review and Update for the Clinician.

    PubMed

    Beyer, John L; Weisler, Richard H

    2016-03-01

    Suicide behaviors (ideation, attempts, and completions) are unfortunately common in patients with bipolar disorder. It is estimated that 25 to 50% attempt suicide at least once during their lifetime, and 6% to 19% complete suicide. Risk factors include a family history of suicide, previous suicide attempts, younger age of onset, comorbid psychiatric illnesses, and psychological constructs like hopelessness. Pharmacologic treatment may impact suicidal behaviors, either increasing vulnerability or resilience. Clinicians need to be particularly sensitive to their patient's thoughts and beliefs about death, particularly during stressful times of life or when in a depressive/mixed episode of bipolar disorder.

  4. Prevalence and Correlates of Suicidal Behavior Among Soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Nock, Matthew K.; Stein, Murray B.; Heeringa, Steven G.; Ursano, Robert J.; Colpe, Lisa J.; Fullerton, Carol S.; Hwang, Irving; Naifeh, James A.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Schoenbaum, Michael; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The suicide rate among US Army soldiers has increased substantially in recent years. OBJECTIVES To estimate the lifetime prevalence and sociodemographic, Army career, and psychiatric predictors of suicidal behaviors among nondeployed US Army soldiers. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A representative cross-sectional survey of 5428 nondeployed soldiers participating in a group self-administered survey. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Lifetime suicidal ideation, suicide plans, and suicide attempts. RESULTS The lifetime prevalence estimates of suicidal ideation, suicide plans, and suicide attempts are 13.9%, 5.3%, and 2.4%. Most reported cases (47.0%–58.2%) had pre-enlistment onsets. Pre-enlistment onset rates were lower than in a prior national civilian survey (with imputed/simulated age at enlistment), whereas post-enlistment onsets of ideation and plans were higher, and post-enlistment first attempts were equivalent to civilian rates. Most reported onsets of plans and attempts among ideators (58.3%–63.3%) occur within the year of onset of ideation. Post-enlistment attempts are positively related to being a woman (with an odds ratio [OR] of 3.3 [95% CI, 1.5–7.5]), lower rank (OR = 5.8 [95% CI, 1.8–18.1]), and previously deployed (OR = 2.4–3.7) and are negatively related to being unmarried (OR = 0.1–0.8) and assigned to Special Operations Command (OR = 0.0 [95% CI, 0.0–0.0]). Five mental disorders predict post-enlistment first suicide attempts in multivariate analysis: pre-enlistment panic disorder (OR = 0.1 [95% CI, 0.0–0.8]), pre-enlistment posttraumatic stress disorder (OR = 0.1 [95% CI, 0.0–0.7]), post-enlistment depression (OR = 3.8 [95% CI, 1.2–11.6]), and both pre- and post-enlistment intermittent explosive disorder (OR = 3.7–3.8). Four of these 5 ORs (posttraumatic stress disorder is the exception) predict ideation, whereas only post-enlistment intermittent explosive disorder predicts attempts among ideators. The population

  5. Nonsuicidal self-injury and suicidal behavior: a latent class analysis among young adults.

    PubMed

    Hamza, Chloe A; Willoughby, Teena

    2013-01-01

    Although there is a general consensus among researchers that engagement in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is associated with increased risk for suicidal behavior, little attention has been given to whether suicidal risk varies among individuals engaging in NSSI. To identify individuals with a history of NSSI who are most at risk for suicidal behavior, we examined individual variability in both NSSI and suicidal behavior among a sample of young adults with a history of NSSI (N = 439, Mage = 19.1). Participants completed self-report measures assessing NSSI, suicidal behavior, and psychosocial adjustment (e.g., depressive symptoms, daily hassles). We conducted a latent class analysis using several characteristics of NSSI and suicidal behaviors as class indicators. Three subgroups of individuals were identified: 1) an infrequent NSSI/not high risk for suicidal behavior group, 2) a frequent NSSI/not high risk for suicidal behavior group, and 3) a frequent NSSI/high risk for suicidal behavior group. Follow-up analyses indicated that individuals in the 'frequent NSSI/high risk for suicidal behavior' group met the clinical-cut off score for high suicidal risk and reported significantly greater levels of suicidal ideation, attempts, and risk for future suicidal behavior as compared to the other two classes. Thus, this study is the first to identity variability in suicidal risk among individuals engaging in frequent and multiple methods of NSSI. Class 3 was also differentiated by higher levels of psychosocial impairment relative to the other two classes, as well as a comparison group of non-injuring young adults. Results underscore the importance of assessing individual differences in NSSI characteristics, as well as psychosocial impairment, when assessing risk for suicidal behavior.

  6. Nonsuicidal self-injury and suicidal behavior: a latent class analysis among young adults.

    PubMed

    Hamza, Chloe A; Willoughby, Teena

    2013-01-01

    Although there is a general consensus among researchers that engagement in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is associated with increased risk for suicidal behavior, little attention has been given to whether suicidal risk varies among individuals engaging in NSSI. To identify individuals with a history of NSSI who are most at risk for suicidal behavior, we examined individual variability in both NSSI and suicidal behavior among a sample of young adults with a history of NSSI (N = 439, Mage = 19.1). Participants completed self-report measures assessing NSSI, suicidal behavior, and psychosocial adjustment (e.g., depressive symptoms, daily hassles). We conducted a latent class analysis using several characteristics of NSSI and suicidal behaviors as class indicators. Three subgroups of individuals were identified: 1) an infrequent NSSI/not high risk for suicidal behavior group, 2) a frequent NSSI/not high risk for suicidal behavior group, and 3) a frequent NSSI/high risk for suicidal behavior group. Follow-up analyses indicated that individuals in the 'frequent NSSI/high risk for suicidal behavior' group met the clinical-cut off score for high suicidal risk and reported significantly greater levels of suicidal ideation, attempts, and risk for future suicidal behavior as compared to the other two classes. Thus, this study is the first to identity variability in suicidal risk among individuals engaging in frequent and multiple methods of NSSI. Class 3 was also differentiated by higher levels of psychosocial impairment relative to the other two classes, as well as a comparison group of non-injuring young adults. Results underscore the importance of assessing individual differences in NSSI characteristics, as well as psychosocial impairment, when assessing risk for suicidal behavior. PMID:23544113

  7. Nonsuicidal Self-Injury and Suicidal Behavior: A Latent Class Analysis among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hamza, Chloe A.; Willoughby, Teena

    2013-01-01

    Although there is a general consensus among researchers that engagement in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is associated with increased risk for suicidal behavior, little attention has been given to whether suicidal risk varies among individuals engaging in NSSI. To identify individuals with a history of NSSI who are most at risk for suicidal behavior, we examined individual variability in both NSSI and suicidal behavior among a sample of young adults with a history of NSSI (N = 439, Mage = 19.1). Participants completed self-report measures assessing NSSI, suicidal behavior, and psychosocial adjustment (e.g., depressive symptoms, daily hassles). We conducted a latent class analysis using several characteristics of NSSI and suicidal behaviors as class indicators. Three subgroups of individuals were identified: 1) an infrequent NSSI/not high risk for suicidal behavior group, 2) a frequent NSSI/not high risk for suicidal behavior group, and 3) a frequent NSSI/high risk for suicidal behavior group. Follow-up analyses indicated that individuals in the ‘frequent NSSI/high risk for suicidal behavior’ group met the clinical-cut off score for high suicidal risk and reported significantly greater levels of suicidal ideation, attempts, and risk for future suicidal behavior as compared to the other two classes. Thus, this study is the first to identity variability in suicidal risk among individuals engaging in frequent and multiple methods of NSSI. Class 3 was also differentiated by higher levels of psychosocial impairment relative to the other two classes, as well as a comparison group of non-injuring young adults. Results underscore the importance of assessing individual differences in NSSI characteristics, as well as psychosocial impairment, when assessing risk for suicidal behavior. PMID:23544113

  8. Associations between risk behaviors and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts: do racial/ethnic variations in associations account for increased risk of suicidal behaviors among Hispanic/Latina 9th- to 12th-grade female students?

    PubMed

    Eaton, Danice K; Foti, Kathryn; Brener, Nancy D; Crosby, Alex E; Flores, Glenn; Kann, Laura

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify factors that may account for the disproportionately high prevalence of suicidal behaviors among Hispanic/Latina youth by examining whether associations of health risk behaviors with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts vary by race/ethnicity among female students. Data from the school-based 2007 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey were analyzed. Analyses were conducted among female students in grades 9 through 12 and included 21 risk behaviors related to unintentional injuries and violence; tobacco use; alcohol and other drug use; sexual behaviors that contribute to unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, including human immunodeficiency virus; physical activity; obesity and weight control; and perceived health status. With the exception of physical activity behaviors and obesity, all risk behaviors examined were associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Associations of risk behaviors with suicidal ideation varied by race/ethnicity for 5 of 21 behaviors, and for 0 of 21 behaviors for suicide attempts. Stratified analyses provided little insight into factors that may account for the higher prevalence of suicidal behaviors among Hispanic/Latina female students. These results suggest that the increased risk of suicidal behaviors among Hispanic/Latina female students cannot be accounted for by differential associations with these selected risk behaviors. Other factors, such as family characteristics, acculturation, and the socio-cultural environment, should be examined in future research. PMID:21541858

  9. Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    Suicide is the tenth most common cause of death in the United States. People may consider suicide when they are hopeless and can't see ... event. People who have the highest risk of suicide are white men. But women and teens report ...

  10. Cyber bullying and physical bullying in adolescent suicide: the role of violent behavior and substance use.

    PubMed

    Litwiller, Brett J; Brausch, Amy M

    2013-05-01

    The impact of bullying in all forms on the mental health and safety of adolescents is of particular interest, especially in the wake of new methods of bullying that victimize youths through technology. The current study examined the relationship between victimization from both physical and cyber bullying and adolescent suicidal behavior. Violent behavior, substance use, and unsafe sexual behavior were tested as mediators between two forms of bullying, cyber and physical, and suicidal behavior. Data were taken from a large risk-behavior screening study with a sample of 4,693 public high school students (mean age = 16.11, 47 % female). The study's findings showed that both physical bullying and cyber bullying associated with substance use, violent behavior, unsafe sexual behavior, and suicidal behavior. Substance use, violent behavior, and unsafe sexual behavior also all associated with suicidal behavior. Substance use and violent behavior partially mediated the relationship between both forms of bullying and suicidal behavior. The comparable amount of variance in suicidal behavior accounted for by both cyber bullying and physical bullying underscores the important of further cyber bullying research. The direct association of each risk behavior with suicidal behavior also underscores the importance of reducing risk behaviors. Moreover, the role of violence and substance use as mediating behaviors offers an explanation of how risk behaviors can increase an adolescent's likelihood of suicidal behavior through habituation to physical pain and psychological anxiety.

  11. Cyber bullying and physical bullying in adolescent suicide: the role of violent behavior and substance use.

    PubMed

    Litwiller, Brett J; Brausch, Amy M

    2013-05-01

    The impact of bullying in all forms on the mental health and safety of adolescents is of particular interest, especially in the wake of new methods of bullying that victimize youths through technology. The current study examined the relationship between victimization from both physical and cyber bullying and adolescent suicidal behavior. Violent behavior, substance use, and unsafe sexual behavior were tested as mediators between two forms of bullying, cyber and physical, and suicidal behavior. Data were taken from a large risk-behavior screening study with a sample of 4,693 public high school students (mean age = 16.11, 47 % female). The study's findings showed that both physical bullying and cyber bullying associated with substance use, violent behavior, unsafe sexual behavior, and suicidal behavior. Substance use, violent behavior, and unsafe sexual behavior also all associated with suicidal behavior. Substance use and violent behavior partially mediated the relationship between both forms of bullying and suicidal behavior. The comparable amount of variance in suicidal behavior accounted for by both cyber bullying and physical bullying underscores the important of further cyber bullying research. The direct association of each risk behavior with suicidal behavior also underscores the importance of reducing risk behaviors. Moreover, the role of violence and substance use as mediating behaviors offers an explanation of how risk behaviors can increase an adolescent's likelihood of suicidal behavior through habituation to physical pain and psychological anxiety. PMID:23381779

  12. Suicidal behavior in patients diagnosed with cancer of the cervix.

    PubMed

    Noor-Mahomed, S B; Schlebusch, L; Bosch, B A

    2003-01-01

    There is a paucity of literature on suicide and cancer, especially cancer of the cervix. This study reports on suicidal behavior in these patients. The sample consisted of adult, black, Zulu-speaking women from palliative and radical oncology treatment groups who volunteered for the study. There were more patients in the palliative group who were younger, and had a more significant delay between cancer symptom presentation and seeking oncology treatment. Patients experienced: significant depression, anxiety, stress, hopelessness/helplessness, anxious preoccupation about their disease, poor current or delayed social support, feelings of being a burden to their significant others, beliefs that they would be better off dead, perceptions that they were stigmatized by society or that their communities suspected them of being HIV-AIDS positive, and suppressed anger. More patients in the palliative, compared to the radical treatment, group were inclined toward suicidal ideation with serious intent. Overall, most patients coped inadequately with their disease and its management. These patients are a high risk group for suicidal behavior and should be identified in time for appropriate psychological intervention. PMID:15509142

  13. Constructing the Suicide Risk Index (SRI): does it work in predicting suicidal behavior in young adults mediated by proximal factors?

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Maebh; Dooley, Barbara; Fitzgerald, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is a key concern among young adults. The aim of the study was to (1) construct a suicide risk index (SRI) based on demographic, situational, and behavioral factors known to be linked to suicidal behavior and (2) investigate whether the association between the SRI and suicidal behavior was mediated by proximal processes (personal factors, coping strategies, and emotional states). Participants consisted of 7,558 individuals aged 17-25 years (M = 20.35, SD = 1.91). Nearly 22% (n = 1,542) reported self-harm and 7% (n = 499) had attempted suicide. Mediation analysis revealed both a direct effect (ß = .299, 95% CI = [.281, .317], p < .001), and a mediated effect (ß = .204, 95% CI = [.186, .222], p < .001), between the risk index and suicidal behavior. The strongest mediators were levels of self-esteem, depression, and avoidant coping. Interventions to increase self-esteem, reduce depression, and encourage adaptive coping strategies may prevent suicidal behavior in young people. PMID:25058873

  14. Constructing the Suicide Risk Index (SRI): does it work in predicting suicidal behavior in young adults mediated by proximal factors?

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Maebh; Dooley, Barbara; Fitzgerald, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is a key concern among young adults. The aim of the study was to (1) construct a suicide risk index (SRI) based on demographic, situational, and behavioral factors known to be linked to suicidal behavior and (2) investigate whether the association between the SRI and suicidal behavior was mediated by proximal processes (personal factors, coping strategies, and emotional states). Participants consisted of 7,558 individuals aged 17-25 years (M = 20.35, SD = 1.91). Nearly 22% (n = 1,542) reported self-harm and 7% (n = 499) had attempted suicide. Mediation analysis revealed both a direct effect (ß = .299, 95% CI = [.281, .317], p < .001), and a mediated effect (ß = .204, 95% CI = [.186, .222], p < .001), between the risk index and suicidal behavior. The strongest mediators were levels of self-esteem, depression, and avoidant coping. Interventions to increase self-esteem, reduce depression, and encourage adaptive coping strategies may prevent suicidal behavior in young people.

  15. Better dead than dishonored: masculinity and male suicidal behavior in contemporary Ghana.

    PubMed

    Adinkrah, Mensah

    2012-02-01

    In Ghana reliable official data on suicidal behavior are not available. There is also limited empirical research on suicidal behavior in the country. At the same time, police-recorded suicide data, media reports, and communication from professionals in the field indicate that suicidal behavior is a growing problem. To identify current patterns and meanings of male suicidal behavior in Ghana, the study examined official police data spanning 2006-2008. This investigation revealed that reported cases of fatal and nonfatal suicidal behavior overwhelmingly involved males. Furthermore, the majority of males who engaged in suicidal acts did so to deal with feelings of shame and dishonor of variable sources. Findings suggest changing the rigid dichotomization associated with male-female gender roles and socialization that emphasize masculinity ideals in Ghana and the need for increased research and the promotion of counseling for males facing emotional stress.

  16. Effects of Statewide Job Losses on Adolescent Suicide-Related Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Ananat, Elizabeth Oltmans; Gibson-Davis, Christina M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the impact of statewide job loss on adolescent suicide-related behaviors. Methods. We used 1997 to 2009 data from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey and the Bureau of Labor Statistics to estimate the effects of statewide job loss on adolescents’ suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and suicide plans. Probit regression models controlled for demographic characteristics, state of residence, and year; samples were divided according to gender and race/ethnicity. Results. Statewide job losses during the year preceding the survey increased girls’ probability of suicidal ideation and suicide plans and non-Hispanic Black adolescents’ probability of suicidal ideation, suicide plans, and suicide attempts. Job losses among 1% of a state’s working-age population increased the probability of girls and Blacks reporting suicide-related behaviors by 2 to 3 percentage points. Job losses did not affect the suicide-related behaviors of boys, non-Hispanic Whites, or Hispanics. The results were robust to the inclusion of other state economic characteristics. Conclusions. As are adults, adolescents are affected by economic downturns. Our findings show that statewide job loss increases adolescent girls’ and non-Hispanic Blacks’ suicide-related behaviors. PMID:25122027

  17. The Relationship between Body Dysmorphic Disorder Behaviors and the Acquired Capability for Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witte, Tracy K.; Didie, Elizabeth R.; Menard, William; Phillips, Katharine A.

    2012-01-01

    In a sample of 200 individuals diagnosed with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), we utilized the interpersonal-psychological theory for suicide as a framework to examine BDD behaviors that might be associated with suicide risk, insofar as they might increase the acquired capability for suicide. We predicted that physically painful BDD behaviors…

  18. Restrictive Emotionality, Depressive Symptoms, and Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors among High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Colleen M.; Marrocco, Frank; Kleinman, Marjorie; Gould, Madelyn S.

    2011-01-01

    Depression and suicidal thoughts and behaviors are prevalent among youth today. The current study sought to further our understanding of the correlates of depression and suicidality by assessing the relationship between restrictive emotionality (difficulty understanding and expressing emotions) and depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation and…

  19. Developmental Aspects of Suicidal Behavior in Children and Developmentally Delayed Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Gabrielle A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined the relationship between depression rates, IQ, knowledge of the finality of death, exposure to suicidal behavior and knowledge of suicide methods. Found that the effect of these factors differed between suicidal and nonsuicidal psychiatrically hospitalized children and developmentally delayed adolescents. Also found that the factors had…

  20. Does Availability of Mental Health Resources Prevent Recurrent Suicidal Behavior? An Ecological Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Sara L.; Lezotte, Dennis; Jacobellis, Jillian; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn

    2006-01-01

    This study examines whether availability of mental health resources in the county of residence is associated with subsequent suicidal behavior after a previous suicide attempt. Among 10,922 individuals who attempted suicide in Colorado between 1998 and 2002, residence in a county that offered a minimum safety-net of mental health services…

  1. Teens in Crisis: Preventing Suicide and Other Self-Destructive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Thomas C.

    Designed as a guide for the prevention of suicide and other self-destructive behavior, this booklet is divided into two main sections. Outlining the problem of suicide in the nation, the first section contains an introduction to the topic of suicide with statistical information, then eight segments deal with such subjects as facing the reality of…

  2. Gender differences in nonfatal suicidal behavior in Pakistan: significance of sociocultural factors.

    PubMed

    Khan, M M; Reza, H

    1998-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is an understudied subject in Pakistan. A variety of social, legal, and religious factors make reporting and data collection on suicide and nonfatal suicidal behavior difficult. To study the problem, a retrospective case-note analysis was carried out in which the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of 262 female and 185 male suicidal individuals admitted to a university hospital in Karachi, Pakistan, are compared. Three quarters of the suicidal persons were under the age of 30 years. Compared to men, women were younger and more often married. Both women and men tended to use self-poisoning with benzodiazepines, but more women used organophosphate insecticides. In Pakistani society, legal, social, and economic discrimination predisposes women to psychological distress and subsequent suicidal behavior. The study highlights the need for culture-specific research on suicidal behavior in Pakistan. PMID:9560167

  3. The Phenomenology and Clinical Correlates of Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Storch, Eric A.; Sulkowski, Michael L.; Nadeau, Josh; Lewin, Adam B.; Arnold, Elysse B.; Mutch, P. Jane; Jones, Anna M.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the phenomenology and clinical correlates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in youth with ASD (N=102; range=7–16 years). The presence of suicidal thoughts and behavior was assessed through the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule-Child and Parent Versions. Children and parents completed measures of anxiety severity, functional impairment, and behavioral and emotional problems. Approximately 11% of youth displayed suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Children with autism were more likely to have suicidal thoughts and behaviors whereas children with Asperger’s disorder were less likely. Suicidal thoughts and behaviors were associated with the presence of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Overall, results suggest that suicidal thoughts and behaviors are common in youth with ASD, and may be related to depression and trauma. PMID:23446993

  4. Exposure to Prescription Drugs Labeled for Risk of Adverse Effects of Suicidal Behavior or Ideation among 100 Air Force Personnel Who Died by Suicide, 2006-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavigne, Jill E.; McCarthy, Michael; Chapman, Richard; Petrilla, Allison; Knox, Kerry L.

    2012-01-01

    Prescription drugs for many indications are labeled with warnings for potential risk of suicidal ideation or behavior. Exposures to prescription drugs labeled for adverse effects of suicidal behavior or ideation among 100 Air Force personnel who died by suicide between 2006 and 2009 are described. Air Force registry data were linked to…

  5. Suicidal behavior-related hospitalizations among pregnant women in the USA, 2006-2012.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Gelaye, Bizu; Miller, Matthew; Fricchione, Gregory L; Cai, Tianxi; Johnson, Paula A; Henderson, David C; Williams, Michelle A

    2016-06-01

    Suicide is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality in many countries, but little is known about the epidemiology of suicide and suicidal behavior among pregnant women in the USA. We sought to examine trends and provide nationally representative estimates for suicidal behavior (including suicidal ideation and suicide and self-inflicted injury) among pregnant women from 2006 to 2012 in the USA. Pregnant women aged 12-55 years were identified through pregnancy- and delivery-related hospitalization records from the National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample. Suicidal behavior was identified by the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. Annual, nationwide estimates and trends were determined using discharge and hospital weights. The prevalence of suicidal ideation more than doubled from 2006 to 2012 (47.5 to 115.0 per 100,000 pregnancy- and delivery-related hospitalizations), whereas the prevalence of suicide and self-inflicted injury remained stable. Nearly 10 % of suicidal behavior occurred in the 12-18-year group, showing the highest prevalence per 100,000 pregnancy- and delivery-related hospitalizations (158.8 in 2006 and 308.7 in 2012) over the study period. For suicidal ideation, blacks had higher prevalence than whites; women in the lowest income quartile had the highest prevalence. Although the prevalence of suicidal behavior was higher among hospitalizations with depression diagnoses, more than 30 % of hospitalizations were for suicidal behavior without depression diagnoses. Our findings highlight the increasing burden and racial differences in suicidal ideation among US pregnant women. Targeted suicide prevention efforts are needed for high-risk pregnant women including teens, blacks, and low-income women. PMID:26680447

  6. Understanding the Relationship Between Suicidality and Psychopathy: An Examination of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior.

    PubMed

    Anestis, Joye C; Anestis, Michael D; Rufino, Katrina A; Cramer, Robert J; Miller, Holly; Khazem, Lauren R; Joiner, Thomas E

    2016-07-01

    A number of studies have reported a bifurcated relationship between psychopathy and suicidality, such that suicidality is positively related to Factor 2 (impulsive-antisocial lifestyle) of psychopathy but negatively related or unrelated to Factor 1 (affective-interpersonal deficits). The present study aims to expand these findings by investigating this relationship through the lens of the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior across both undergraduate and forensic samples. We hypothesized that, although both Factors 1 and 2 would be associated with the acquired capability for suicide, Factor 2 would exhibit a unique relationship with suicidal desire (perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness). Results were largely supportive of these hypotheses, although differences were noted across samples and measures. Findings highlight the importance of precision in the assessment of antisociality and suggest potential differences in the construct of psychopathy between non-criminal and criminal samples.

  7. Early Childhood Environment and Genetic Interactions: the Diathesis for Suicidal Behavior.

    PubMed

    Brodsky, Beth S

    2016-09-01

    Adverse childhood experiences are associated with higher risk for suicide and suicidal behavior later in life. There are known associations between childhood trauma, particularly sexual abuse, and higher rates of suicide, non-lethal suicide attempts, and non-suicidal self-injurious behaviors in adolescence and adulthood. Emotional abuse/neglect, disrupted parental attachment, and cumulative effect of multiple forms of maltreatment, also increase risk. Yet, the causal relationship remains unclear. The diathesis-stress model provides a framework for understanding how early life adverse experiences contribute to suicide vulnerability. Current findings from the fields of biology, neurology, and genetics shed new light on mediating variables and possible causal links between early childhood trauma and suicide. In this paper, we review recent advances, particularly regarding the interaction of early life environmental adverse events with genetics factors, that increase the diathesis for psychological traits are associated with subsequent deliberate self-harm behaviors. PMID:27484207

  8. Suicide and social integration. A pilot study of the integration levels in Norway and Denmark.

    PubMed

    Bille-Brahe, U

    1987-01-01

    A model for comparison of levels of social integration in each of the Nordic countries was developed from Durkheim's theories and then tested on Norwegian and Danish data to determine whether the difference in the frequency of suicide between Norway and Denmark could be "explained" by a corresponding difference in degree of social integration. The results confirmed Durkheim's theory in that the general level of social integration was found to be considerably lower in Denmark than in Norway. Danish middleaged women, whose rate of suicide is more than three times that of their Norwegian counterparts, were especially poorly integrated by comparison. Furthermore, the level of integration among young Norwegian men was found to be in marked decline and their suicide rate on the increase. The necessity of testing and refining the method is stressed. PMID:3481191

  9. Integrating the interpersonal psychological theory of suicide into the depression/suicidal ideation relationship: a short-term prospective study.

    PubMed

    Kleiman, Evan M; Liu, Richard T; Riskind, John H

    2014-03-01

    We examined the hypothesis that depressive symptoms are associated with increased beliefs about perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness identified in the interpersonal psychological theory of suicide and that these beliefs are associated with changes in suicidal ideation. Participants with clinical levels of depressive symptoms (n=299) were selected from a larger group (n=508) and completed measures of depressive symptoms, perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness, and suicidal ideation twice over a period of 2 months. Results of a structural equation model found that depressive symptoms were associated with increases in burdensomeness and lack of belonging, which were associated with suicidal ideation. Moreover, this hypothesized integrated model demonstrated a significantly better fit than an alternative model that assumed burdensomeness and lack of belonging were associated with changes in depressive symptoms, which were associated with suicidal ideation. Our findings suggest that the well-established relationship between depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation is associated with changes in beliefs that one is a burden on others and lacks belonging. More generally, these results suggest that it may be fruitful to integrate theories of suicide risk to form a comprehensive model that can inform future research and clinical interventions. PMID:24491196

  10. Religious Conflict, Sexual Identity, and Suicidal Behaviors among LGBT Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Jeremy J; Goldbach, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    This is the first known study to explore how religious identity conflict impacts suicidal behaviors among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) young adults and to test internalized homophobia as a mediator. A secondary analysis of 2,949 youth was conducted using a national dataset collected by OutProud in 2000. Three indicators of identity conflict and an internalized-homophobia scale (mediator), were included in logistic regressions with three different suicide variable outcomes. Internalized homophobia fully mediates one conflict indicator and partially mediates the other two indicators' relationship with suicidal thoughts. Internalized homophobia also fully mediates the relationship between one conflict indicator and chronic suicidal thoughts. Two indicators were associated with twice the odds of a suicide attempt. LGBT young adults who mature in religious contexts have higher odds of suicidal thoughts, and more specifically chronic suicidal thoughts, as well as suicide attempt compared to other LGBT young adults. Internalized homophobia only accounts for portions of this conflict.

  11. An Examination of the Interpersonal Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior in Physicians.

    PubMed

    Fink-Miller, Erin L

    2015-08-01

    Physicians are commonly reported to die by suicide more frequently than individuals in the general population. Thus far, few reasons for this elevated suicide risk have been empirically investigated. Although the interpersonal psychological theory of suicidal behavior (IPTS) has been suggested as a fruitful means of explaining physician suicidality, it has yet to be examined quantitatively. Four hundred nineteen Pennsylvania physicians were assessed on a number of demographics, as well as all components of the IPTS. Findings indicated that physician scores on IPTS components are comparable to other groups displaying increased suicidality (e.g., military populations, prior attempters). Perceived burdensomeness was a significant predictor of suicidal ideation, while thwarted belongingness predicted prior suicide attempts. Acquired capability did not distinguish between prior attempters and nonattempters. Preliminary findings indicate the IPTS may be a useful framework for understanding and predicting physician suicidality. PMID:25530088

  12. Religious Conflict, Sexual Identity, and Suicidal Behaviors among LGBT Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Jeremy J; Goldbach, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    This is the first known study to explore how religious identity conflict impacts suicidal behaviors among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) young adults and to test internalized homophobia as a mediator. A secondary analysis of 2,949 youth was conducted using a national dataset collected by OutProud in 2000. Three indicators of identity conflict and an internalized-homophobia scale (mediator), were included in logistic regressions with three different suicide variable outcomes. Internalized homophobia fully mediates one conflict indicator and partially mediates the other two indicators' relationship with suicidal thoughts. Internalized homophobia also fully mediates the relationship between one conflict indicator and chronic suicidal thoughts. Two indicators were associated with twice the odds of a suicide attempt. LGBT young adults who mature in religious contexts have higher odds of suicidal thoughts, and more specifically chronic suicidal thoughts, as well as suicide attempt compared to other LGBT young adults. Internalized homophobia only accounts for portions of this conflict. PMID:25763926

  13. The relationship between suicidal behaviors and atopic dermatitis in Korean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Noh, Hye-Mi; Cho, Jung Jin; Park, Yong Soon; Kim, Jeong-Hyeon

    2016-10-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common skin disease in adolescents, which may have a negative effect on the mental and emotional health. We investigated the relationship between atopic dermatitis and suicidal behaviors in Korean adolescents. Participants included 74,186 adolescents (38,221 boys and 35,965 girls) in middle and high school who completed the Eighth Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey. There were significant associations between atopic dermatitis and suicidal behaviors for girls. The overestimation of weight perception might have an additive impact on suicidal risk among girls. However, there were no significant associations between atopic dermatitis and suicidal behaviors in boys.

  14. Factors associated with hospitalization after suicide spectrum behaviors: results from a multicenter study in Spain.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Treviño, Luis; Saiz, Pilar Alejandra; Corcoran, Paul; Burón, Patricia; García-Portilla, Ma Paz; Chinea, Eugenio Ramón; Navio, Mercedes; Fernández, Vanessa; Jimenez-Arriero, Miguel Angel; Gracia, Ramón; Bobes, Julio

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify factors associated with hospital admission after suicide spectrum behaviors. Patients' characteristics, the nature of the suicidal behavior, admission rates between centers, and factors associated with admission have been examined in suicide spectrum presentations to emergency departments in 3 Spanish cities. The intent of the suicidal behavior had the greatest impact on hospitalization. Older age, living alone, self-harm method not involving drug overdose, previous history of suicide spectrum behaviors, and psychiatric diagnosis of schizophrenia, mood, or personality disorder were independently associated with being admitted. There was a 3-fold between-center difference in the rate of hospitalization. Widespread differences in the rate of hospitalization were primarily accounted for by characteristics of the individual patients and their suicidal behavior.

  15. Life adversities and suicidal behavior in young individuals: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Serafini, Gianluca; Muzio, Caterina; Piccinini, Giulia; Flouri, Eirini; Ferrigno, Gabriella; Pompili, Maurizio; Girardi, Paolo; Amore, Mario

    2015-12-01

    Suicidal behavior in young people is a significant public health problem. However, it is not yet clear whether adversities (adverse life events) may be related to suicidality in adolescence and early adulthood. This paper aimed to investigate systematically the association between the type/number of adverse life events and experiences and suicidal behavior in young people. We developed a detailed strategy to search relevant articles in Pubmed, Scopus, PsycInfo, and Science Direct (January 1980-January 2015) about adverse life events and suicidal behavior. Adverse life events and experiences included maltreatment and violence, loss events, intra-familial problems, school and interpersonal problems. Studies were restricted to suicidal behavior in young people aged 10-25 years. The search yielded 245 articles, of which 28 met our inclusion criteria. Most studies reported a strong association between adversities and suicidality (both suicidal ideation and attempts). Based on the main results, the number of adversities or negative life events experienced seemed to have a positive dose-response relationship with youth suicidal behavior. However, the type of event experienced also appeared to matter: one of the most consistent findings was the association between suicidal behavior and experience of sexual abuse. More prospective studies are needed to elucidate the relative importance of risk accumulation and risk specificity for youth suicide. PMID:26303813

  16. The association of non-suicidal self-injury and suicidal behavior according to DSM-5 in adolescent psychiatric inpatients.

    PubMed

    Groschwitz, Rebecca C; Kaess, Michael; Fischer, Gloria; Ameis, Nina; Schulze, Ulrike M E; Brunner, Romuald; Koelch, Michael; Plener, Paul L

    2015-08-30

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal behaviors frequently occur among adolescent psychiatric patients. Although those behaviors are distinct with regards to intent, NSSI has been shown to be an important risk-factor for suicide attempts. However, the association of NSSI and Suicidal Behavior Disorder (SBD) according to DSM-5 criteria has not yet been investigated. For investigating distinctive features and mutual risk-factors of NSSI-disorder and SBD, adolescent psychiatric inpatients (N=111, aged 12-19 years; 65.8% females) were interviewed using the Self-Injurious-Thoughts-And-Behaviors-Interview-German (SITBI-G). NSSI started significantly earlier in life (M=12.5 years, SD=2.2) than first suicide attempts (M=14.1 years, SD=2.0). Patients meeting NSSI-disorder and/or SBD were significantly more likely to be female and to be diagnosed with an affective disorder. NSSI-disorder and SBD seem to have several distinctive features (i.e. age of onset or frequency), but also seem to share certain mutual risk-factors (i.e. affective disorders, female gender). While both NSSI and SBD seem to be maintained by mainly automatic negative reinforcement, positive automatic and social functions were rated significantly higher for NSSI. Most importantly, NSSI seems to be a strong risk factor for the occurrence of SBD (even when controlling for suicidal ideation) and should therefore always be assessed when dealing with psychiatric adolescent patients.

  17. The Risk of Repetition of Attempted Suicide Among Iranian Women with Psychiatric Disorders as Quantified by the Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Shakeri, Jalal; Farnia, Vahid; Abdoli, Nasrin; Akrami, Mohammad R.; Arman, Farid; Shakeri, Hania

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The factors associated with repetition of attempted suicide are poorly categorized in the Iranian population. In this study, the prevalence of different psychiatric disorders among women who attempted suicide and the risk of repetition were assessed.  Methods: Participants were women admitted to the Poisoning Emergency Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences following failed suicide attempts. Psychiatric disorders were diagnosed based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) symptom checklist. Risk of repetition was evaluated using the Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R).  Results: About 72% of individuals had a SBQ-R score >8 and were considered to be at high risk for repeated attempted suicide. Adjustment disorders were the most common psychiatric disorders (40.8%). However, the type of psychiatric disorder was not associated with the risk of repetition (p=0.320). Marital status, educational level, employment, substance use, history of suicide among family members, and motivation were not determinant factors for repetition of suicide attempt (p=0.220, 0.880, 0.220, 0.290, 0.350 and 0.270, respectively). Younger women were associated with violent methods of attempted suicide, such as self-cutting, whereas older individuals preferred consumption of poison (p<0.001). Drug overdose was more common among single and married women whereas widows or divorcees preferred self-burning (p=0.004).  Conclusion: About 72% of patients with failed suicide attempts were at high risk for repeated attempts. Age, marital status, and type of psychiatric disorder were the only determinants of suicide method. Adjustment disorders were the most common psychiatric disorders among Iranian women. However, this did not predict the risk of further attempts. PMID:26171123

  18. Relationship Between Religious Coping and Suicidal Behaviors Among African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Molock, Sherry Davis; Puri, Rupa; Matlin, Samantha; Barksdale, Crystal

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated whether hopelessness and depression were risk factors for suicidal thoughts and behaviors in African American adolescents and looked at whether religious participation and religious coping protected these students from suicidality. Participants were 212 African American high school students (133 females, 79 males). The results of multiple and logistic regression analyses found that hopelessness and depression were risk factors for suicidal ideation and attempts. Religious coping style was significantly related to suicidal behaviors: Self-directed coping was related to increased hopelessness, depression, and suicide attempts, and collaborative coping was related to increased reasons for living. Gender differences were found in symptoms of depression, religious coping style and religious participation. Results provide additional support for suicide interventions to target hopelessness and depressive symptoms and highlight the importance of examining the role of culturally salient variables, such as religious participation and religious coping style, when developing intervention programs for suicide. PMID:17080183

  19. Acutely Suicidal Adolescents Who Engage in Bullying Behavior: 1-Year Trajectories

    PubMed Central

    King, Cheryl A.; Horwitz, Adam; Berona, Johnny; Jiang, Qingmei

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Prospective longitudinal research is needed to examine associations between bullying behaviors and trajectories of suicidal ideation and behavior and overall functional impairment. The specific aims of the present study are to: (1) characterize differences in baseline functioning between acutely suicidal adolescents who are classified into bullying perpetrator and non-bully groups and (2) examine the 1-year trajectories of these two groups of adolescents. Method Participants were 433 psychiatrically hospitalized suicidal adolescents (72% female), ages 13 to 17 years. Participants reported suicidal ideation, depression, anxiety, substance use, adaptive functioning, and bullying behavior. Six items from the Youth Self-Report were used to classify adolescents into bullying perpetrator (n = 54) and non-bully (n = 379) groups. Follow-up assessments were conducted at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months. Results At hospitalization, adolescents in the bully group reported significantly higher levels of suicidal ideation, substance use, and functional impairment. Suicidal ideation differences remitted at six weeks. The elevated functional impairment of the bullying perpetrator group persisted across the 12-month period. Conclusion Adolescents who met bullying perpetrator group criteria were characterized by more severe suicidal ideation and higher levels of proximal risk factors for suicide. Bullying behavior was not stable over time but was associated with elevated suicide risk when present. These findings highlight the importance of specifically assessing for and targeting bullying behavior at multiple time points when treating suicidal adolescents. PMID:23790201

  20. The SAFETY Program: a treatment-development trial of a cognitive-behavioral family treatment for adolescent suicide attempters.

    PubMed

    Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Berk, Michele; Hughes, Jennifer L; Anderson, Nicholas L

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe feasibility, safety, and outcome results from a treatment development trial of the SAFETY Program, a brief intervention designed for integration with emergency services for suicide-attempting youths. Suicide-attempting youths, ages 11 to 18, were enrolled in a 12-week trial of the SAFETY Program, a cognitive-behavioral family intervention designed to increase safety and reduce suicide attempt (SA) risk (N = 35). Rooted in a social-ecological cognitive-behavioral model, treatment sessions included individual youth and parent session-components, with different therapists assigned to youths and parents, and family session-components to practice skills identified as critical in the pathway for preventing repeat SAs in individual youths. Outcomes were evaluated at baseline, 3-month, and 6-month follow-ups. At the 3-month posttreatment assessment, there were statistically significant improvements on measures of suicidal behavior, hopelessness, youth and parent depression, and youth social adjustment. There was one reported SA by 3 months and another by 6 months, yielding cumulative attempt rates of 3% and 6% at 3 and 6 months, respectively. Treatment satisfaction was high. Suicide-attempting youths are at high risk for repeat attempts and continuing mental health problems. Results support the value of a randomized controlled trial to further evaluate the SAFETY intervention. Extension of treatment effects to parent depression and youth social adjustment are consistent with our strong family focus and social-ecological model of behavior change.

  1. Genetic association studies between SNPs and suicidal behavior: a meta-analytical field synopsis.

    PubMed

    Schild, Anne H E; Pietschnig, Jakob; Tran, Ulrich S; Voracek, Martin

    2013-10-01

    The large number of published meta-analyses on the associations between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and suicidal behavior mirrors the enormous research interest in this topic. Although meta-analytic evidence is abundant and certain patterns are apparent, those have not been integrated into a general framework as of yet. In a systematic review, genetic association studies between SNPs and suicidal behavior were identified. Previously published meta-analyses for eight SNPs were updated and the results of the different meta-analyses were compared. Meta-analyses for 15 SNPs, which had not been subjected to meta-analysis before, were conducted. The present meta-analytical field synopsis showed five major similarities between new and published analyses: 1) Summary effect sizes were small and rarely statistically significant, 2) heterogeneity between studies was often substantial, 3) there were no time trends, 4) effects were easily swayed and were largely dependent on individual studies, and 5) publication bias does not play a role in this field of research. Meta-analytic data show once more that major contributions of single genes are unlikely. However, association studies and corresponding meta-analyses have been an important and necessary stepping stone in the development of modern and more complex approaches in the genetics of suicidal behavior.

  2. Suicidal behavior and self-harm in girls with eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Koutek, Jiri; Kocourkova, Jana; Dudova, Iva

    2016-01-01

    Comorbid psychopathology, including self-harm and suicidal behavior, is often found in patients with eating disorders. To better understand the reasons for high comorbid psychopathology among eating disorders, self-harm, and suicidal behavior, we examined this comorbidity in female patients hospitalized with eating disorders. In a sample of 47 girls admitted for anorexia nervosa, atypical anorexia nervosa, and bulimia nervosa, 72% had depressive symptoms, 11% had obsessive-compulsive symptoms, 9% had anxiety disorder, 23% had substance abuse, and 57% had disharmonious personality development. Suicidal behavior was present in 60% of patients and self-harm in 49%. Association was found between self-harm and suicidality. In all, 68% of girls with eating disorders had a positive score in the Children’s Depression Inventory questionnaire and 62% of them in the Child Adolescent Suicidal Potential Index questionnaire. Clinical examination of girls with eating disorders should focus on identifying the risk of suicidal behavior and self-harm. PMID:27114709

  3. Suicidal behavior and self-harm in girls with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Koutek, Jiri; Kocourkova, Jana; Dudova, Iva

    2016-01-01

    Comorbid psychopathology, including self-harm and suicidal behavior, is often found in patients with eating disorders. To better understand the reasons for high comorbid psychopathology among eating disorders, self-harm, and suicidal behavior, we examined this comorbidity in female patients hospitalized with eating disorders. In a sample of 47 girls admitted for anorexia nervosa, atypical anorexia nervosa, and bulimia nervosa, 72% had depressive symptoms, 11% had obsessive-compulsive symptoms, 9% had anxiety disorder, 23% had substance abuse, and 57% had disharmonious personality development. Suicidal behavior was present in 60% of patients and self-harm in 49%. Association was found between self-harm and suicidality. In all, 68% of girls with eating disorders had a positive score in the Children's Depression Inventory questionnaire and 62% of them in the Child Adolescent Suicidal Potential Index questionnaire. Clinical examination of girls with eating disorders should focus on identifying the risk of suicidal behavior and self-harm. PMID:27114709

  4. Risk factors for suicidal behaviors among Filipino Americans: a data mining approach.

    PubMed

    Kuroki, Yusuke

    2015-01-01

    Filipino Americans have lower suicide rates than other Asian ethnic groups. The present study examined risk factors for suicide ideation and attempt among Filipino Americans with random forest. The data were from the Filipino American Community Epidemiological Study (Takeuchi, 2011). The results showed that the important predictors for suicide ideation were depressive disorder, substance use disorder, and years in the United States. The important predictors for suicide attempt were the number of family relatives and family conflict. Clinicians are advised to investigate familial and cultural factors among Filipino Americans. How family and cultural factors may affect suicidal behaviors were further discussed.

  5. Sleep problems, suicidal ideation, and self-harm behaviors in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Maria M.; Brower, Kirk J.; Zucker, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Previous research has found an association between sleep problems and suicidal behavior. However, it is still unclear whether the association can be largely explained by depression. In this study, we prospectively examined relationships between sleep problems when participants were 12–14 years old and subsequent suicidal thoughts and self-harm behaviors —including suicide attempts— at ages 15–17 while controlling for depressive symptoms at baseline. Methods Study participants were 280 boys and 112 girls from a community sample of high-risk alcoholic families and controls in an ongoing longitudinal study. Results Controlling for gender, parental alcoholism and parental suicidal thoughts, and prior suicidal thoughts or self-harm behaviors when participants were 12–14 years old, having trouble sleeping at 12–14 significantly predicted suicidal thoughts and self-harm behaviors at ages 15–17. Depressive symptoms, nightmares, aggressive behavior, and substance-related problems at ages 12–14 were not significant predictors when other variables were in the model. Conclusions Having trouble sleeping was a strong predictor of subsequent suicidal thoughts and self-harm behaviors in adolescence. Sleep problems may be an early and important marker for suicidal behavior in adolescence. Parents and primary care physicians are encouraged to be vigilant and screen for, sleep problems in young adolescents. Future research should determine if early intervention with sleep disturbances reduces the risk for suicidality in adolescents. PMID:20889165

  6. The Effectiveness of Family-Based Cognitive-Behavior Grief Therapy to Prevent Complicated Grief in Relatives of Suicide Victims: The Mediating Role of Suicide Ideation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Groot, Marieke; Neeleman, Jan; van der Meer, Klaas; Burger, Huibert

    2010-01-01

    Grief interventions are more effective for high risk individuals. The presence of suicide ideation following suicide bereavement was examined to determine whether it indicates a high risk status. Using data from a randomized controlled trial (n = 122) on the effectiveness of cognitive-behavior therapy, the effect of suicide ideation on the…

  7. Preliminary Effectiveness of Surviving the Teens[R] Suicide Prevention and Depression Awareness Program on Adolescents' Suicidality and Self-Efficacy in Performing Help-Seeking Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Keith A.; Strunk, Catherine M.; Sorter, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Suicide ranks as the third leading cause of death among youth aged 15-24 years. Schools provide ideal opportunities for suicide prevention efforts. However, research is needed to identify programs that effectively impact youth suicidal ideation and behavior. This study examined the immediate and 3-month effect of Surviving the Teens[R]…

  8. Nonfatal Suicidal Behaviors in U.S. Army Administrative Records, 2004–2009: Results from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS)

    PubMed Central

    Ursano, Robert J.; Kessler, Ronald C.; Heeringa, Steven G.; Cox, Kenneth L.; Naifeh, James A.; Fullerton, Carol S.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kao, Tzu-Cheg; Aliaga, Pablo A.; Vegella, Patti; Mash, Holly Herberman; Buckley, Christina; Colpe, Lisa J.; Schoenbaum, Michael; Stein, Murray B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Although the U.S. Army suicide rate is known to have risen sharply over the past decade, information about medically documented, nonfatal suicidal behaviors is far more limited. Here we examine trends and sociodemographic correlates of suicide attempts, suspicious injuries, and suicide ideation among regular Army soldiers. Methods Data come from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS) Historical Administrative Data Study (HADS), which integrates administrative records for all soldiers on active duty during the years 2004 through 2009 (n = 1.66 million). Results We identified 21,740 unique regular Army soldiers with a nonfatal suicidal event documented at some point during the HADS study period. There were substantial increases in the annual incidence rates of suicide attempts (179–400/100,000 person-years) and suicide ideation (557–830/100,000 person-years), but not suspicious injuries. Using hierarchical classification rules to identify the first instance of each soldier's most severe behavior, we found increased risk of all outcomes among those who were female, non-Hispanic White, never married, lower-ranking enlisted, less educated, and of younger age when entering Army service. These sociodemographic associations significantly differed across outcomes, despite some patterns that appear similar. Conclusion Results provide a broad overview of nonfatal suicidal trends in the U.S. Army during 2004 through 2009 and demonstrate that integration of multiple administrative data systems enriches analysis of the predictors of such events. PMID:26168022

  9. Suicidal behavior among inner-city Hispanic adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Razin, A M; O'Dowd, M A; Nathan, A; Rodriguez, I; Goldfield, A; Martin, C; Goulet, L; Scheftel, S; Mezan, P; Mosca, J

    1991-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is disproportionately frequent among inner-city Hispanic adolescent girls. In an attempt to generate a multifactorial set of hypotheses to explain this behavior, 33 such subjects consecutively admitted for suicidal behavior and 15 demographically identical nonsuicidal subjects were assessed by means of a structured interview. Mothers of all subjects were also assessed. Attempts were nearly always impulsive and nonlethal, though often with a stated wish to die. Nearly all were overdoses, and were precipitated by conflicts with mother or boyfriend. Mothers could usually identify the precipitants. Attempters' parents were less often born in the U.S., their mothers seemed medically less healthy, and their extended families were more often supported by public assistance, and had a higher incidence of criminal and psychiatric problems. School performance was poorer among attempters, who had suffered more and earlier losses, especially of biologic fathers, with whom fewer had ongoing relationships. They more often had boyfriends, had begun sexual activity, had recently lost friends, and expressed a mistrustful stance toward friendships. Similarly, their mothers had fewer friends and more often expressed a mistrustful stance. Relationships with mothers seemed more intense, desperate, and even violent, and attempters were much more often parentified, i.e., mothering their mothers. Although both groups often assumed caretaking roles in their families, attempters were more negatively described by themselves and by their mothers. While knowledge of suicidal models was common in both groups, attempters' mothers knew of even more models than did their daughters or the nonsuicidal subjects or their mothers. Notably, more attempters' mothers had themselves made attempts. Families of most attempters were usually mobilized by the attempt. These findings permit the construction of a putative profile of risk factors that can be tested more rigorously. PMID:1993520

  10. Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    ... mania, causes of depression, depression in elderly men, depression in boys and adolescent males, suicide, diagnosis, treatment, and how to find help and support. Men and Depression (Copyright © Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance) - This publication ...

  11. Are Mexican American adolescents at greater risk of suicidal behaviors?

    PubMed

    Roberts, Robert E; Roberts, Catherine Ramsay; Xing, Yun

    2007-02-01

    A reexamination of ethnicity as a risk factor for adolescent suicidal behavior, focusing on whether Mexican American youths are at increased risk, was undertaken. Data from a sample of 4,175 African, European, and Mexican Americans, aged 11-17, are presented. We examined lifetime attempts and past year attempts, thoughts, and plans. Odds ratios, adjusting for covariates, indicate no differences between European and Mexican Americans on past year thoughts, plans, or attempts or lifetime attempts. Although some studies have reported Mexican American youths are at increased risk, we did not find any differences. Possible explanations for disparate results across studies are discussed, in particular methods effects. PMID:17397276

  12. Factors associated with suicidal behaviors in mainland China: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Suicide is a major public health issue in China. Studies of suicide risk factors have reported both inconsistent and inconclusive results. This review aimed to determine suicide risk factors in China. Methods Medline/PubMed, EMBASE, CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure) and VIP (Chinese Journal of Science and Technology of VIP) were searched for relevant reports. Two investigators independently assessed the eligibility of identified studies and extracted data. Pooled odds ratios (and 95% confidence intervals) were calculated for each factor with Revman 5.0. Results Forty-four studies with 192,362 subjects were included. The pooled results indicated that mood disorders and stressful life events (physical illness, suicide of relatives) increased the risk of suicide ideation among the entire population. Socio-family environment (single or remarried parent, study pressure and academic achievement) and unhealthy behaviors (smoking, alcohol drinking, and drug use) were risk factors for suicide ideation among youth. Unhealthy behaviors (smoking and alcohol drinking), mood disorders, and stressful life events (suicide of relatives) were the main risk factors for attempted suicide. Persons living in rural areas, and those with lower education, mood disorders, and/or a history of negative life events had a higher risk of completed suicide. In China, before 2000, females had a significantly higher rate of completed suicide than males, while after 2000, no significant gender difference was found. Conclusions Socio-family environment, lifestyle, life events and psychiatric/psychological factors are associated with suicidal behaviors in China. Further case–control or cohort studies are needed to better understand suicide behaviors in China. Meanwhile, there is an urgent need for comprehensive studies of suicide interventions among high-risk populations. PMID:22800121

  13. The Phenomenology and Clinical Correlates of Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Sulkowski, Michael L.; Nadeau, Josh; Lewin, Adam B.; Arnold, Elysse B.; Mutch, P. Jane; Jones, Anna M.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the phenomenology and clinical correlates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in youth with ASD (N = 102; range 7-16 years). The presence of suicidal thoughts and behavior was assessed through the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule-Child and Parent Versions. Children and parents completed measures of anxiety severity,…

  14. Nonfatal Suicidal Behavior among Chinese Women Who Have Been Physically Abused by Their Male Intimate Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Susan P. Y.; Phillips, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    Three hundred fifty-three women (median age = 32 years) admitted to the emergency rooms of nine general hospitals serving rural areas in China were interviewed for nonfatal suicidal behavior. Spousal conflict was the most commonly reported cause for their suicidal behavior and one third of respondents reported being victims of physical abuse by…

  15. Suicidal Behavior in Urban American Indian Adolescents: A Comparison with Reservation Youth in a Southwestern State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedenthal, Stacey; Stiffman, Arlene Rubin

    2004-01-01

    The majority of American Indians live off of reservations, yet research on suicidal behavior in this population overwhelmingly focuses on reservation Indians. This exploratory study interviewed a stratified random sample of 144 urban and 170 reservation American Indian adolescents to compare rates and correlates of suicidal behavior. One fifth of…

  16. Child/Adolescent Abuse and Suicidal Behavior: Are They Sex Related?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gal, Gilad; Levav, Itzhak; Gross, Raz

    2012-01-01

    The association between childhood and adolescent abuse and suicidal behavior, and the possible contribution of abuse to sex differences in non lethal suicidal behavior, was investigated. Data were extracted from the Israel-based component of the WHO World Mental Health Survey (Kessler & Utsun, 2008a). Increased risk for ideation, plan, and…

  17. Toward a Predictive Model of Suicidal Ideation and Behavior: Some Preliminary Data in College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonner, Ronald L.; Rich, Alexander R.

    1987-01-01

    Examined the relationship of various interpersonal, emotional, and cognitive variables to suicidal ideation and behavior in college students. Used self-report measures of life stress, faulty cognitions, loneliness, depression, hopelessnesss, family cohesiveness, adaptive reasons for living, and suicidal ideation and behavior. Developed a…

  18. Ecstasy Use and Suicidal Behavior among Adolescents: Findings from a National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jueun; Fan, Bin; Liu, Xinhua; Kerner, Nancy; Wu, Ping

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between ecstasy use and suicidal behavior among adolescents in the United States was examined. Data from the adolescent subsample (ages 12-17, N = 19,301) of the 2000 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse were used in the analyses. Information on adolescent substance use, suicidal behaviors, and related sociodemographic, family,…

  19. Validity of Suicidality Items from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey in a High School Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Alexis; Klonsky, E. David

    2011-01-01

    The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is used by the United States Centers for Disease Control to estimate rates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in adolescents. This study investigated the validity of the YRBS suicidality items by examining their relationship to criterion variables including loneliness, anxiety, depression, substance use, and…

  20. Suicidal Behavior in Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorder: Examining the Role of Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harkavy-Friedman, Jill M.; Nelson, Elizabeth A.; Venarde, David F.; Mann, J. John

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between depression and suicidal behavior among individuals with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder can aid assessment and treatment. In this study, 86 individuals with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder were assessed for past and current suicidal behavior, depression, hopelessness, and reasons for…

  1. Adaptive Characteristics and Suicidal Behavior: A Gender Comparison of Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Jon B.; Lamis, Dorian A.

    2007-01-01

    Differences in suicidal behavior and adaptive characteristics were examined in college students with a particular emphasis on gender differences. Participants consisted of 344 undergraduate students who were administered a revised version of the Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire (SBQ), the Expanded Reasons for Living Inventory (RFL), and a…

  2. Explaining Changing Suicide Rates in Norway 1948-2004: The Role of Social Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barstad, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Using Norway 1948-2004 as a case, I test whether changes in variables related to social integration can explain changes in suicide rates. The method is the Box-Jenkins approach to time-series analysis. Different aspects of family integration contribute significantly to the explanation of Norwegian suicide rates in this period. The estimated effect…

  3. Frequency of suicidal thought and self-destructive behavior among females.

    PubMed

    Cantor, P

    1976-01-01

    The focus of the present investigation was to examine the importance of a control group in suicide research and to develop an instrument to distinguish between levels of suicidal thought among subjects who had a history of attempted suicide and among a comparison group of nonsuicidal individuals. The sample was comprised of female university students ranging in age from 18 to 25 years. A 31-item questionnaire designed by the investigator was given to 199 students, 20 of whom were found to have histories of one or more previous suicide attempts. The remaining 179 nonsuicidal subjects were divided into two categories based on the frequency of expressed suicidal thought. Fifty individuals were randomly selected from each of these two groups. The three groups (individuals who had attempted suicide, individuals who had not attempted suicide but who thought about suicide on a frequent basis, and individuals who had not attempted suicide and who thought about suicide on an infrequent basis) were compared on the variables of motivation for suicidal thoughts, history of self-destructive behaviors, probability of a future suicide attempt, and age of first suicidal considerations. A chi-square analysis was performed on each of these items in order to assess the extent to which the items discriminated among the three comparison groups. The differences among the three groups on each of the items were found to be statistically significant at less than the .01 level. The results of the study have provided support for the necessity of a distinction between groups within a nonsuicidal comparison population and for the suggestion that there may be a quantitative relationship between the frequency of suicidal thought and the likelihood of attempted suicide.

  4. Pronounced prefronto-temporal cortical thinning in schizophrenia: Neuroanatomical correlate of suicidal behavior?

    PubMed

    Besteher, Bianca; Wagner, Gerd; Koch, Kathrin; Schachtzabel, Claudia; Reichenbach, Jürgen R; Schlösser, Ralf; Sauer, Heinrich; Schultz, C Christoph

    2016-10-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by increased mortality for which suicidality is the decisive factor. An analysis of cortical thickness and folding to further elucidate neuroanatomical correlates of suicidality in schizophrenia has not yet been performed. We searched for relevant brain regions with such differences between patients with suicide-attempts, patients without any suicidal thoughts and healthy controls. 37 schizophrenia patients (14 suicide-attempters and 23 non-suicidal) and 50 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were included. Suicidality was documented through clinical interview and chart review. All participants underwent T1-weighted MRI scans. Whole brain node-by-node cortical thickness and folding were estimated (FreeSurfer Software) and compared. Additionally a three group comparison for prefrontal regions-of-interest was performed in SPSS using a multifactorial GLM. Compared with the healthy controls patients showed a typical pattern of cortical thinning in prefronto-temporal regions and altered cortical folding in the right medial temporal cortex. Patients with suicidal behavior compared with non-suicidal patients demonstrated pronounced (p<0.05) cortical thinning in the right DLPFC and the superior temporal cortex. Comparing cortical thickness in suicidal patients with non-suicidal patients significant (p<0.05) cortical thinning was additionally found in the right superior and middle temporal, temporopolar and insular cortex. Our findings extend the evidence for neuroanatomical underpinnings of suicidal behaviour in schizophrenia. We identified cortical thinning in a network strongly involved in regulation of impulsivity, emotions and planning of behaviour in suicide attempters, which might lead to neuronal dysregulation in this network and consequently to a higher risk of suicidal behavior. PMID:27567290

  5. Suicidal behavior in urban American Indian adolescents: a comparison with reservation youth in a southwestern state.

    PubMed

    Freedenthal, Stacey; Stiffman, Arlene Rubin

    2004-01-01

    The majority of American Indians live off of reservations, yet research on suicidal behavior in this population overwhelmingly focuses on reservation Indians. This exploratory study interviewed a stratified random sample of 144 urban and 170 reservation American Indian adolescents to compare rates and correlates of suicidal behavior. One fifth of urban youth and one third of reservation youth reported lifetime suicidal ideation, although similar numbers (14%-18%) reported an attempt. Urban youth had fewer psychosocial problems, and in separate multivariate analyses, the groups shared no common correlate of attempted suicide. Different approaches to prevention and treatment may be warranted for urban Indian youth.

  6. Adolescent suicidal and self-destructive behavior. Results of an intervention study.

    PubMed

    Deykin, E Y; Hsieh, C C; Joshi, N; McNamarra, J J

    1986-03-01

    This study evaluates an intervention program designed to reduce suicidal, self-destructive behavior among high-risk adolescents aged 13- to 17 years. The intervention combined a program of community education and direct service to youth who had required emergency care for self-inflicted injuries. The intervention program was effective in increasing subjects' compliance with medical regimen. To a lesser degree, the intervention also facilitated early help seeking among adolescents with suicidal thoughts and appeared to diminish slightly the overall occurrence of emergency room admissions for suicidal behaviors. However, the intervention program had no demonstrable effect on the occurrence of repeat suicidal episodes.

  7. The moderating effects of parenting styles on African-American and Caucasian children's suicidal behaviors.

    PubMed

    Greening, Leilani; Stoppelbein, Laura; Luebbe, Aaron

    2010-04-01

    Given that parenting practices have been linked to suicidal behavior in adolescence, examining the moderating effect of parenting styles on suicidal behavior early in development could offer potential insight into possible buffers as well as directions for suicide prevention and intervention later in adolescence. Hence, the moderating effects of parenting styles, including authoritarian, permissive, and features of authoritative parenting, on depressed and aggressive children's suicidal behavior, including ideation and attempts, were evaluated with young children (N = 172; 72% male, 28% female) ranging from 6 to 12 years of age. African American (69%) and Caucasian (31%) children admitted for acute psychiatric inpatient care completed standardized measures of suicidal behavior, depressive symptoms, and proactive and reaction aggression. Their parents also completed standardized measures of parental distress and parenting style. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that, while statistically controlling for age and gender, children who endorsed more depressive symptoms or reactive aggression reported more current and past suicidal behavior than children who endorsed fewer depressive or aggressive symptoms. The significant positive relationship observed between depressive symptoms and childhood suicidal behavior, however, was attenuated by parental use of authoritarian parenting practices for African-American and older children but not for younger and Caucasian children. The ethnic/racial difference observed for the buffering effect of authoritarian parenting practices offers potential theoretical and clinical implications for conceptualizing the moderating effects of parenting styles on African-American and Caucasian children's suicidal behavior.

  8. Risk of Suicidal Ideation in Adolescents with Both Self-Asphyxial Risk-Taking Behavior and Non-Suicidal Self-Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brausch, Amy M.; Decker, Kristina M.; Hadley, Andrea G.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined adolescent participation in self-asphyxial risk-taking behaviors (SAB), sometimes known as the "choking game," and its relationship with other adolescent risk behaviors, including non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). Researchers proposed that participation in SAB and NSSI would be associated with suicidal behavior, disordered…

  9. Social Aspects of Suicidal Behavior and Prevention in Early Life: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Amitai, Maya; Apter, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The present review summarizes the updated literature on the social aspects of suicidal behavior and prevention in adolescents. Recent findings: The predictive role of psychiatric disorders and past history are well recognized in adolescent suicide, but the role of social and cultural factors is less clear. Studies have focused on the importance of ethnicity, gender, family characteristics, and socioeconomic status. More recently, attention has been addressed to broader social risk factors, such as bullying in adolescents, suicide contagion, sexual orientation, and the popular media. Further empirical evidence is needed to advance our understanding of suicidal youth, develop better assessment tools, and formulate effective prevention and treatment programs. Summary: Suicidal behavior remains an important clinical problem and major cause of death in youth. Social factors may be at least as important as genetics. Advancing our understanding of underlying cultural and sociological issues in youth suicide will help clinicians achieve more efficient prediction, prevention and treatment. PMID:22690178

  10. The Association between Inappropriate Weight Control Behaviors and Suicide Ideation and Attempt among Korean Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Ah; Jang, Suk Yong; Shin, Jaeyong; Ju, Yeong Jun; Nam, Jin Young; Park, Eun Cheol

    2016-10-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of death among adolescents globally, and body weight is also a recognized reason for adolescent suicide. Therefore, we investigated the association between weight control behaviors (WCB) and suicide ideation and attempt, focusing on inappropriate weight control measures. We used data from the 2014 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey, representing a total of 35,224 boys and 34,361 girls aged 12 to 18 years. Adolescents were classified into groups based on WCB: appropriate WCB, inappropriate WCB, and no WCB. We performed logistic regression models to examine associations between WCB and suicide ideation and attempt, controlling for covariates. Both boys and girls with inappropriate WCB were more likely to report suicide ideation and attempt. Underweight and normal weight boys with inappropriate WCB were more likely to think or attempt suicide, and underweight girls with inappropriate WCB were also more likely to attempt suicide. Among five common WCB combinations, the combination of "regular exercise, fasting, eating less" was highly associated with suicide ideation and attempt. We confirmed that inappropriate WCB is associated with suicide ideation and attempt among Korean adolescents. Given the high incidence rate of suicide among adolescents and the adverse effect of inappropriate WCB, encouraging adolescents to control their weight in healthy ways is imperative. PMID:27550479

  11. The Association between Inappropriate Weight Control Behaviors and Suicide Ideation and Attempt among Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of death among adolescents globally, and body weight is also a recognized reason for adolescent suicide. Therefore, we investigated the association between weight control behaviors (WCB) and suicide ideation and attempt, focusing on inappropriate weight control measures. We used data from the 2014 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey, representing a total of 35,224 boys and 34,361 girls aged 12 to 18 years. Adolescents were classified into groups based on WCB: appropriate WCB, inappropriate WCB, and no WCB. We performed logistic regression models to examine associations between WCB and suicide ideation and attempt, controlling for covariates. Both boys and girls with inappropriate WCB were more likely to report suicide ideation and attempt. Underweight and normal weight boys with inappropriate WCB were more likely to think or attempt suicide, and underweight girls with inappropriate WCB were also more likely to attempt suicide. Among five common WCB combinations, the combination of "regular exercise, fasting, eating less" was highly associated with suicide ideation and attempt. We confirmed that inappropriate WCB is associated with suicide ideation and attempt among Korean adolescents. Given the high incidence rate of suicide among adolescents and the adverse effect of inappropriate WCB, encouraging adolescents to control their weight in healthy ways is imperative. PMID:27550479

  12. The Association between Inappropriate Weight Control Behaviors and Suicide Ideation and Attempt among Korean Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Ah; Jang, Suk Yong; Shin, Jaeyong; Ju, Yeong Jun; Nam, Jin Young; Park, Eun Cheol

    2016-10-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of death among adolescents globally, and body weight is also a recognized reason for adolescent suicide. Therefore, we investigated the association between weight control behaviors (WCB) and suicide ideation and attempt, focusing on inappropriate weight control measures. We used data from the 2014 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey, representing a total of 35,224 boys and 34,361 girls aged 12 to 18 years. Adolescents were classified into groups based on WCB: appropriate WCB, inappropriate WCB, and no WCB. We performed logistic regression models to examine associations between WCB and suicide ideation and attempt, controlling for covariates. Both boys and girls with inappropriate WCB were more likely to report suicide ideation and attempt. Underweight and normal weight boys with inappropriate WCB were more likely to think or attempt suicide, and underweight girls with inappropriate WCB were also more likely to attempt suicide. Among five common WCB combinations, the combination of "regular exercise, fasting, eating less" was highly associated with suicide ideation and attempt. We confirmed that inappropriate WCB is associated with suicide ideation and attempt among Korean adolescents. Given the high incidence rate of suicide among adolescents and the adverse effect of inappropriate WCB, encouraging adolescents to control their weight in healthy ways is imperative.

  13. Suicide Behavior among Latino and Latina Adolescents: Conceptual and Methodological Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte-Velez, Yovanska; Bernal, Guillermo

    2007-01-01

    Suicide is the cause of 11.7% of all deaths among youth and young adults aged 10 to 24 years in the United States (J. A. Grunbaum et al., 2004). Suicide is third leading cause of death for young Latinos/as aged 10 to 24 years (National Institute of Mental Health, 2001). Latino/a youth are at a greater risk of suicide behavior than other ethnic…

  14. Suicidal Behavior In The Emergency Room Part 1: Assessment of Risk

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Edgardo; Minoletti, Alberto; Blouin, Jane

    1985-01-01

    Emergency physicians have a significant responsibility in the recognition, management and prevention of suicide behavior. A comprehensive clinical assessment should include a systematic review of high risk factors. Five important aspects associated with high risk factors are reviewed in this paper: the patient's suicidal intention; the lethality of the attempt; psychiatric diagnosis; demographic and clinical characteristics, and attitudes toward the suicidal attempt, significant others and health care providers. PMID:21274176

  15. Dialectical behavior therapy for adolescent binge eating, purging, suicidal behavior, and non-suicidal self-injury: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Sarah; Peterson, Claire

    2015-03-01

    There are few published randomized controlled trials examining treatment for symptoms of bulimia nervosa (BN) in adolescents. Additionally, many adolescents presenting for treatment for BN symptoms endorse co-occurring mood disturbances, suicidality, and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), and may not meet full Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV-Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnostic criteria for BN. In addition to the limited number of randomized controlled trials, published treatment studies of BN symptoms in adolescence do not specifically address the multiple comorbid symptoms that these adolescents often report. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of an outpatient dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) program for adolescents with symptoms of BN, suicide attempts, and NSSI. Ten eligible participants enrolled in the study; 3 dropped within 4 weeks of initiating treatment. In addition to binge eating and suicidal behavior, participants also endorsed a number of other comorbid mood disorders and substance abuse. Seven participants completed 6 months of treatment and 6-month follow-up assessments. Treatment included access to a crisis management system, individual therapy, skills training, and a therapist consultation team. At posttreatment, participants had significantly reduced self-harm; (Cohen's d = 1.35), frequency of objective binge episodes (Cohen's d = .46), frequency of purging (Cohen's d = .66), and Global Eating Disorder Examination scores (Cohen's d = .64). At follow-up, 6 participants were abstinent of NSSI; 3 participants were abstinent from binge eating. At follow-up, treatment gains were maintained and enhanced. Results indicate that it is feasible to address multiple forms of psychopathology during the treatment of BN symptoms in this age-group. PMID:24773094

  16. Dialectical behavior therapy for adolescent binge eating, purging, suicidal behavior, and non-suicidal self-injury: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Sarah; Peterson, Claire

    2015-03-01

    There are few published randomized controlled trials examining treatment for symptoms of bulimia nervosa (BN) in adolescents. Additionally, many adolescents presenting for treatment for BN symptoms endorse co-occurring mood disturbances, suicidality, and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), and may not meet full Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV-Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnostic criteria for BN. In addition to the limited number of randomized controlled trials, published treatment studies of BN symptoms in adolescence do not specifically address the multiple comorbid symptoms that these adolescents often report. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of an outpatient dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) program for adolescents with symptoms of BN, suicide attempts, and NSSI. Ten eligible participants enrolled in the study; 3 dropped within 4 weeks of initiating treatment. In addition to binge eating and suicidal behavior, participants also endorsed a number of other comorbid mood disorders and substance abuse. Seven participants completed 6 months of treatment and 6-month follow-up assessments. Treatment included access to a crisis management system, individual therapy, skills training, and a therapist consultation team. At posttreatment, participants had significantly reduced self-harm; (Cohen's d = 1.35), frequency of objective binge episodes (Cohen's d = .46), frequency of purging (Cohen's d = .66), and Global Eating Disorder Examination scores (Cohen's d = .64). At follow-up, 6 participants were abstinent of NSSI; 3 participants were abstinent from binge eating. At follow-up, treatment gains were maintained and enhanced. Results indicate that it is feasible to address multiple forms of psychopathology during the treatment of BN symptoms in this age-group.

  17. The communicative aspect of nonfatal suicidal behavior--are there gender differences?

    PubMed

    Hjelmeland, Heidi; Knizek, Birthe Loa; Nordvik, Hilmar

    2002-01-01

    Data from the Norwegian part of the WHO/EURO Multicenter Study on Suicidal Behavior were used to investigate gender differences in the communicative aspect of nonfatal suicidal behavior by means of analyzing precipitating factors, intentions involved in and effects of the suicidal act within the frame of Qvortrup's interpretation of speech-act theory. Eighty-nine patients (48 women and 41 men) were included in the analyses, virtually no gender differences were found. Thus, in general, the results did not support the view that persons engaging in nonfatal suicidal behavior should receive different treatment or follow-up as a group based on their gender. The results gave some support to Qvortrup's speech-act theory and his four categories of suicidal behavior, emotional toward others, regulative toward others, emotional toward oneself and regulative toward oneself. PMID:12617478

  18. Animal models of self-destructive behavior and suicide.

    PubMed

    Crawley, J N; Sutton, M E; Pickar, D

    1985-06-01

    In this article we have addressed selected aspects of animal models that may have ramifications in our understanding of suicide and human self-destructive behavior. It should be kept in mind that these human behaviors have many determinants. In considering animal models, we do not propose that similar behaviors necessarily have the same causation nor that a particular experimental manipulation that produces a behavioral syndrome in one species will produce that response in another species. Even if environmental conditions or the resulting behaviors vary for different species, the biochemical intermediaries may be similar. The simplification inherent in the laboratory modeling of an aspect of human behavior should not mean that the complexity of the human syndrome be forgotten. However, if a simple explanation can account for the production of a particular behavioral syndrome in animals, it can help to structure our thoughts regarding the etiology of the behavior in humans. The ethologic observations discussed in this article may help to place human self-destructive behavior in a continuum with that of animals in the wild. Although care should be given to drawing direct parallels, the clear conclusion is that humans are not alone in exhibiting self-initiated behaviors that ultimately produce self-harm or death. Whereas laboratory models have been extensively used for modeling psychiatric illnesses or for producing specific pharmacologic manipulations of the CNS, surprisingly little attention has been given to the modeling of self-destructive behaviors themselves. Emphasis on self-destructive behaviors, as well as on their biologic and genetic underpinnings, represent an important future direction for work on animal models in psychiatry.

  19. Are major repeater patients addicted to suicidal behavior?

    PubMed

    Blasco-Fontecilla, Hilario; Artieda-Urrutia, Paula; Berenguer-Elias, Nuria; Garcia-Vega, Juan Manuel; Fernandez-Rodriguez, Monica; Rodriguez-Lomas, Cesar; Gonzalez-Villalobos, Isabel; Iruela-Cuadrado, Luis; de Leon, José

    2014-01-01

    The literature provides support for the hypothesis that some major repeaters (individuals with >=5 lifetime suicide attempts) are addicted to suicidal behavior (SB). This study explores whether major repeaters are addicted to SB or not using 7 criteria: tolerance (Criterion 1), withdrawal (Criterion 2), loss of control (Criterion 3), problems in quitting/cutting down (Criterion 4), much time spent using (Criterion 5), substantial reduction in activities (Criterion 6), and adverse physiological/physical consequences (Criterion 7). Total dependence on SB was indicated by the presence of 3 or more of the 7 criteria in the last 12 months. This cross-sectional study at Puerta de Hierro University Hospital (Madrid, Spain) recruited 118 suicide attempters including 8 major repeaters (7%, 8/118), who were all females. The association between each SB addiction criterion, physiological dependence and total dependence with major repeater status was tested for significance and for effect size with odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals. As hypothesized, major repeaters met significantly higher frequency of criteria for total dependence on SB, OR=62.9 (6.4-615). A backward stepwise logistic regression model was used to provide an OR between major repeater status and total dependence status corrected by confounding variables. Age, panic disorder without agoraphobia, borderline personality disorder, history of psychiatric inpatient admission, and total dependence on SB were introduced as independent variables with major repeater status as the dependent variable. The model selected total dependence and age as the remaining significant variables in the last step. Accordingly, major repeaters appear to be addicted to SB. PMID:25580865

  20. Are major repeater patients addicted to suicidal behavior?

    PubMed

    Blasco-Fontecilla, Hilario; Artieda-Urrutia, Paula; Berenguer-Elias, Nuria; Garcia-Vega, Juan Manuel; Fernandez-Rodriguez, Monica; Rodriguez-Lomas, Cesar; Gonzalez-Villalobos, Isabel; Iruela-Cuadrado, Luis; de Leon, José

    2014-01-01

    The literature provides support for the hypothesis that some major repeaters (individuals with >=5 lifetime suicide attempts) are addicted to suicidal behavior (SB). This study explores whether major repeaters are addicted to SB or not using 7 criteria: tolerance (Criterion 1), withdrawal (Criterion 2), loss of control (Criterion 3), problems in quitting/cutting down (Criterion 4), much time spent using (Criterion 5), substantial reduction in activities (Criterion 6), and adverse physiological/physical consequences (Criterion 7). Total dependence on SB was indicated by the presence of 3 or more of the 7 criteria in the last 12 months. This cross-sectional study at Puerta de Hierro University Hospital (Madrid, Spain) recruited 118 suicide attempters including 8 major repeaters (7%, 8/118), who were all females. The association between each SB addiction criterion, physiological dependence and total dependence with major repeater status was tested for significance and for effect size with odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals. As hypothesized, major repeaters met significantly higher frequency of criteria for total dependence on SB, OR=62.9 (6.4-615). A backward stepwise logistic regression model was used to provide an OR between major repeater status and total dependence status corrected by confounding variables. Age, panic disorder without agoraphobia, borderline personality disorder, history of psychiatric inpatient admission, and total dependence on SB were introduced as independent variables with major repeater status as the dependent variable. The model selected total dependence and age as the remaining significant variables in the last step. Accordingly, major repeaters appear to be addicted to SB.

  1. Social Work Research on African Americans and Suicidal Behavior: A Systematic 25-year Review

    PubMed Central

    Joe, Sean; Niedermeier, Danielle M.

    2009-01-01

    Suicide among African Americans is a neglected topic. Social workers practice in both clinical and nonclinical settings, and as the largest occupational group of mental health professionals, they have a unique opportunity to reach this underserved group. However, little is known about social work’s empirical knowledge base for recognition and treatment of suicidal behavior among African Americans. The authors performed a systematic critical review of published articles by social workers on African American suicide and suicidal behavior, to ascertain the state of social worker’s contribution to and knowledge of suicide risk factors and effective treatments. They conducted Web-based (for example, Social Work Abstracts, PsycINFO, PubMed, JSTOR) and manual searches of suicide research conducted by social work investigators and published in peer-reviewed journals from 1980 to 2005. References cited in the articles were used to identify candidate articles. According to the search results, social workers contributed only 11 empirical research articles focusing on African American suicide or nonfatal suicidal behavior. Risk factors for suicide are reviewed, and the implications for clinical social work practice and research are addressed. PMID:19070272

  2. Social work research on African Americans and suicidal behavior: a systematic 25-year review.

    PubMed

    Joe, Sean; Niedermeier, Danielle M

    2008-11-01

    Suicide among African Americans is a neglected topic. Social workers practice in both clinical and nonclinical settings, and as the largest occupational group of mental health professionals, they have a unique opportunity to reach this underserved group. However, little is known about social work's empirical knowledge base for recognition and treatment of suicidal behavior among African Americans. The authors performed a systematic critical review of published articles by social workers on African American suicide and suicidal behavior, to ascertain the state of social worker's contribution to and knowledge of suicide risk factors and effective treatments. They conducted Web-based (for example, Social Work Abstracts, PsycINFO, PubMed, JSTOR) and manual searches of suicide research conducted by social work investigators and published in peer-reviewed journals from 1980 to 2005. References cited in the articles were used to identify candidate articles. According to the search results, social workers contributed only 11 empirical research articles focusing on African American suicide or nonfatal suicidal behavior. Risk factors for suicide are reviewed, and the implications for clinical social work practice and research are addressed. PMID:19070272

  3. Social work research on African Americans and suicidal behavior: a systematic 25-year review.

    PubMed

    Joe, Sean; Niedermeier, Danielle M

    2008-11-01

    Suicide among African Americans is a neglected topic. Social workers practice in both clinical and nonclinical settings, and as the largest occupational group of mental health professionals, they have a unique opportunity to reach this underserved group. However, little is known about social work's empirical knowledge base for recognition and treatment of suicidal behavior among African Americans. The authors performed a systematic critical review of published articles by social workers on African American suicide and suicidal behavior, to ascertain the state of social worker's contribution to and knowledge of suicide risk factors and effective treatments. They conducted Web-based (for example, Social Work Abstracts, PsycINFO, PubMed, JSTOR) and manual searches of suicide research conducted by social work investigators and published in peer-reviewed journals from 1980 to 2005. References cited in the articles were used to identify candidate articles. According to the search results, social workers contributed only 11 empirical research articles focusing on African American suicide or nonfatal suicidal behavior. Risk factors for suicide are reviewed, and the implications for clinical social work practice and research are addressed.

  4. Suicidal behavior inLatinas: explanatory cultural factors and implications for intervention.

    PubMed

    Zayas, Luis H; Pilat, Allyson M

    2008-06-01

    We posit that the high rates of suicidal behavior by teenage Hispanic females reported in large-scale surveys can be understood as a cultural phenomenon, a product of specific elements of the history, tradition, ideology, or social norms of a particular society, and that treatment interventions must take family and cultural factors into consideration. For over a decade, surveys have reported that among ethnic and racial minority youth in the United States, Latinas have the highest rates of suicidal behavior compared to African American and non-Hispanic White adolescent females. However, other research shows that the psychological profiles of suicidal Latina adolescent girls and the risk factors for Latina suicidal behavior may not be that different from non-Hispanic suicidal adolescent females. The unique situation of adolescent Latinas involves the convergence of cultural and familial factors (i.e., familism, acculturation, relatedness, autonomy, etc.) with the developmental, social, and individual factors frequently associated with suicidal behaviors. Based on this background, family-oriented interventions appear to be the most appropriate approach to the prevention and treatment of Hispanic suicidal girls. Factors implicated in Latina suicidal behavior and community-based interventions that include the adolescent and her family are suggested. PMID:18611132

  5. Single-Item Measurement of Suicidal Behaviors: Validity and Consequences of Misclassification

    PubMed Central

    Millner, Alexander J.; Lee, Michael D.; Nock, Matthew K.

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of death worldwide. Although research has made strides in better defining suicidal behaviors, there has been less focus on accurate measurement. Currently, the widespread use of self-report, single-item questions to assess suicide ideation, plans and attempts may contribute to measurement problems and misclassification. We examined the validity of single-item measurement and the potential for statistical errors. Over 1,500 participants completed an online survey containing single-item questions regarding a history of suicidal behaviors, followed by questions with more precise language, multiple response options and narrative responses to examine the validity of single-item questions. We also conducted simulations to test whether common statistical tests are robust against the degree of misclassification produced by the use of single-items. We found that 11.3% of participants that endorsed a single-item suicide attempt measure engaged in behavior that would not meet the standard definition of a suicide attempt. Similarly, 8.8% of those who endorsed a single-item measure of suicide ideation endorsed thoughts that would not meet standard definitions of suicide ideation. Statistical simulations revealed that this level of misclassification substantially decreases statistical power and increases the likelihood of false conclusions from statistical tests. Providing a wider range of response options for each item reduced the misclassification rate by approximately half. Overall, the use of single-item, self-report questions to assess the presence of suicidal behaviors leads to misclassification, increasing the likelihood of statistical decision errors. Improving the measurement of suicidal behaviors is critical to increase understanding and prevention of suicide. PMID:26496707

  6. Copycat suicidal attempt by a 7 year old boy after watching homicidal behavior in media: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Suicidal behavior in media may promote others towards suicide. No published study was found about suicidal attempt in children less than 10 years old after watching a homicidal behavior. Case presentation This is a report of a 7 year old boy referred because he hanged himself after watching homicidal behavior of hanging in a fictional movie. Discussion To the author's knowledge, there was no published report of copycat suicidal attempt in a 7 year old child after watching a homicidal behavior in media. This report warns about an imitative effect of movie watching of homicidal behavior on suicidal attempt. PMID:19138418

  7. Suicidal Behavior Outcomes of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Longitudinal Study of Adjudicated Girls.

    PubMed

    Rabinovitch, Sara M; Kerr, David C R; Leve, Leslie D; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2015-08-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) histories are prevalent among adolescent girls in the juvenile justice system (JJS) and may contribute to their high rates of suicidal behavior. Among 166 JJS girls who participated in an intervention trial, baseline CSA and covariates were examined as predictors of suicide attempt and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) reported at long-term follow-up (7-12 years later). Early forced CSA was related to lifetime suicide attempt and NSSI history and (marginally) to postbaseline attempt; effects were not mediated by anxiety or depressive symptoms. Findings suggest that earlier victimization and younger entry into JJS are linked with suicide attempt and NSSI. PMID:25370436

  8. Are LGBT populations at a higher risk for suicidal behaviors in Australia? Research findings and implications.

    PubMed

    Skerrett, Delaney M; Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to review the Australian literature about suicidality in minority sexual identity and/or behavior groups in order to determine the evidence base for their reported higher vulnerability to suicidal behaviors than heterosexual and non-transgendered individuals in the Australian context, as well as to identify the factors that are predictive of suicidal behaviors in these groups in Australia. A literature search for all available years (until the end of 2012) was conducted using the databases Scopus, Medline, and Proquest for articles published in English in peer-reviewed academic journals. All peer-reviewed publications that provided empirical evidence for prevalence and predictive factors of suicidal behaviors among LGBT individuals (or a subset thereof) in Australia were included. Reference lists were also scrutinized to identify "gray" literature for inclusion. The results revealed that there is only limited research from Australia. Nevertheless, although no population-based studies have been published, research indicates that sexual minorities are indeed at a higher risk for suicidal behaviors. In order to further the understanding of suicidal behaviors and potential prevention among LGBT groups in the Australia, further research is needed, particularly on fatal suicidal behaviors.

  9. Attempted suicide and associated health risk behaviors among Native American high school students.

    PubMed

    Shaughnessy, Lana; Doshi, Sonal R; Jones, Sherry Everett

    2004-05-01

    Suicide represents the second-leading cause of death among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth aged 15-24 years. Data from the 2001 Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) Youth Risk Behavior Survey were used to examine the association between attempted suicide among high school students and unintentional injury and violence behaviors, sexual risk behaviors, tobacco use, and alcohol and other drug use. The study included students in BIA-funded high schools with 10 or more students enrolled in grades 9-12. Overall, 16% of BIA high school students attempted suicide one or more times in the 12 months preceding the survey. Females and males who attempted suicide were more likely than females and males who did not attempt suicide to engage in every risk behavior analyzed: unintentional injury and violence behaviors, sexual risk behaviors, tobacco use, and alcohol and other drug use. These data enable educators, school health professionals, and others who work with this population to better identify American Indian youth at risk for attempting suicide by recognizing the number and variety of health risk behaviors associated with attempted suicide.

  10. Are LGBT populations at a higher risk for suicidal behaviors in Australia? Research findings and implications.

    PubMed

    Skerrett, Delaney M; Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to review the Australian literature about suicidality in minority sexual identity and/or behavior groups in order to determine the evidence base for their reported higher vulnerability to suicidal behaviors than heterosexual and non-transgendered individuals in the Australian context, as well as to identify the factors that are predictive of suicidal behaviors in these groups in Australia. A literature search for all available years (until the end of 2012) was conducted using the databases Scopus, Medline, and Proquest for articles published in English in peer-reviewed academic journals. All peer-reviewed publications that provided empirical evidence for prevalence and predictive factors of suicidal behaviors among LGBT individuals (or a subset thereof) in Australia were included. Reference lists were also scrutinized to identify "gray" literature for inclusion. The results revealed that there is only limited research from Australia. Nevertheless, although no population-based studies have been published, research indicates that sexual minorities are indeed at a higher risk for suicidal behaviors. In order to further the understanding of suicidal behaviors and potential prevention among LGBT groups in the Australia, further research is needed, particularly on fatal suicidal behaviors. PMID:25569508

  11. Examining the Interplay Among Family, Culture, and Latina Teen Suicidal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Gulbas, Lauren E.; Zayas, Luis H.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we explored the relationships among culture, family, and attempted suicide by U.S. Latinas. We analyzed qualitative interviews conducted with Latina teen suicide attempters (n = 10) and their parents. We also incorporated data collected from adolescents with no reported history of self-harm (n = 10) and their parents to examine why some individuals turned to suicide under similar experiences of cultural conflict. Our results revealed that Latina teens who attempted suicide lacked the resources to forge meaningful social ties. Without the tools to bridge experiences of cultural contradiction, girls in our sample described feeling isolated and alone. Under such conditions, adolescents turned to behaviors aimed at self-destruction. Unlike their peers who attempted suicide, adolescent Latinas with no lifetime history of attempted suicide were able to mobilize resources in ways that balanced experiences of acculturative tension by creating supportive relationships with other individuals. PMID:25288407

  12. Associations among depression, suicidal behavior, and quality of life in patients with human immunodeficiency virus

    PubMed Central

    Serafini, Gianluca; Montebovi, Franco; Lamis, Dorian A; Erbuto, Denise; Girardi, Paolo; Amore, Mario; Pompili, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the potential associations among major depression, quality of life, and suicidal behavior in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients. METHODS: A detailed MEDLINE search was carried out to identify all articles and book chapters in English published from January 1995 to January 2015. RESULTS: Based on the main findings, the prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) ranged from 14.0% to 27.2%. Furthermore, the prevalence of suicidal ideation varied from 13.6% to 31.0% whereas, attempted suicides were reported to range from 3.9% to 32.7%. Interestingly, various associated risk factors for both depression and suicide were identified in HIV patients. Finally, consistent associations were reported among MDD, suicidal ideation, and poor quality of life in individuals living with HIV. CONCLUSION: Although additional studies are needed to elucidate this complex association, our results suggest the importance of early detection of both MDD and suicidality in patients living with HIV. PMID:26279991

  13. Reaching Graduate Students at Risk for Suicidal Behavior through the Interactive Screening Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffitt, Lauren B.; Garcia-Williams, Amanda; Berg, John P.; Calderon, Michelle E.; Haas, Ann P.; Kaslow, Nadine J.

    2014-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is a significant concern among graduate students. Because many suicidal graduate students do not access mental health services, programs to connect them to resources are essential. This article describes the Interactive Screening Program (ISP), an anonymous, Web-based tool for screening and engaging at-risk graduate school…

  14. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Reduces Suicidal Ideation in Schizophrenia: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bateman, Katy; Hansen, Lars; Turkington, Douglas; Kingdon, David

    2007-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia are at high risk of suicide. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has been shown to reduce symptoms in schizophrenia. This study examines whether CBT also changes the level of suicidal ideation in patients with schizophrenia compared to a control group. Ninety ambulatory patients with symptoms of schizophrenia resistant to…

  15. The Role of Optimism in the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Kathy A.; Wingate, LaRicka R.

    2011-01-01

    A possible relationship between Joiner's (2005) interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior and optimism was investigated by examining the ability of optimism to act as a moderator of perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and acquired capability to engage in self-injury in the prediction of suicidal ideation. Results…

  16. An exploratory study of nonsuicidal self-injury and suicidal behaviors in adolescent Latinas.

    PubMed

    Gulbas, Lauren E; Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; De Luca, Susan M; Tyler, Tee R; Zayas, Luis H

    2015-07-01

    To date, there is little research to validate empirically differences between nonsuicidal self-injurious behavior (NSSI) and attempted suicide among Latina adolescents. Understanding the characteristics and contextual features of self-harmful behaviors among Latina teens is a critical public health and social justice matter given the disproportionate rates of attempted suicide and anticipated population growth of this vulnerable group. In this article, we draw on an ecodevelopmental model to focus attention on factors in the sociocultural environment that shape suicidal behaviors and NSSIs. Through analysis of qualitative interviews conducted with girls who used NSSI (n = 18), attempted suicide (n = 29), used NSSI and attempted suicide (n = 8,) and had no reported lifetime history of self-harm (n = 28), we describe the sociocultural factors that shaped psychosocial vulnerabilities and gave rise to decisions to use NSSI or attempt suicide. Our analysis revealed that adolescents who engaged in NSSI perceived their negative feelings as something that could be controlled through self-injurious acts, whereas powerlessness was a theme underlying the emotional states of girls who attempted suicide. When NSSI ceased to function as a mechanism for control, girls came to sudden decisions to attempt suicide. Most teens identified specific, and often multiple, situations that induced intense affective states and shaped decisions to inflict self-harm. Two situational experiences emerged as particularly salient and promising for subsequent studies on self-harmful behaviors among Latina adolescents: transnational stress and bullying. We describe each of these and offer suggestions for future research and practice.

  17. Social Problem Solving in Adolescents with Suicidal Behavior: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speckens, Anne E. M.; Hawton, Keith

    2005-01-01

    There is an increasing focus on deficiencies in problem solving as a vulnerability factor for suicidal behavior in general and hence a target for treatment in suicide attempters. In view of the uncertainty of evidence for this in adolescents we conducted a systematic review of the international research literature examining the possible…

  18. Specific Coping Behaviors in Relation to Adolescent Depression and Suicidal Ideation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwitz, Adam G.; Hill, Ryan M.; King, Cheryl A.

    2011-01-01

    The coping strategies used by adolescents to deal with stress may have implications for the development of depression and suicidal ideation. This study examined coping categories and specific coping behaviors used by adolescents to assess the relation of coping to depression and suicidal ideation. In hierarchical regression models, the specific…

  19. Involvement in Bullying and Suicide-Related Behavior at 11 Years: A Prospective Birth Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winsper, Catherine; Lereya, Tanya; Zanarini, Mary; Wolke, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the prospective link between involvement in bullying (bully, victim, bully/victim), and subsequent suicide ideation and suicidal/self-injurious behavior, in preadolescent children in the United Kingdom. Method: A total of 6,043 children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort were assessed to…

  20. Relationship between Religious Coping and Suicidal Behaviors among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molock, Sherry Davis; Puri, Rupa; Matlin, Samantha; Barksdale, Crystal

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated whether hopelessness and depression were risk factors for suicidal thoughts and behaviors in African American adolescents and looked at whether religious participation and religious coping protected these students from suicidality. Participants were 212 African American high school students (133 females, 79 males). The…

  1. The Role of Attachment Styles and Interpersonal Problems in Suicide-Related Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stepp, Stephanie D.; Morse, Jennifer Q.; Yaggi, Kirsten E.; Reynolds, Sarah K.; Reed, L. Ian; Pilkonis, Paul A.

    2008-01-01

    The relationships among adult attachment styles, interpersonal problems, and categories of suicide-related behaviors (i.e., self-harm, suicide attempts, and their co-occurrence) were examined in a predominantly psychiatric sample (N = 406). Both anxious and avoidant attachment styles were associated with interpersonal problems. In turn, specific…

  2. Prevalence of childhood trauma among U.S. Army soldiers with suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Perales, Rossybelle; Gallaway, M Shayne; Forys-Donahue, Kelly L; Spiess, Anita; Millikan, Amy M

    2012-09-01

    In 2009, suicide was reported to be the third leading cause of death among U.S. Army personnel. The increase of suicides in the Army indicates the need for additional research to better understand the problem. Research in civilian populations found that experiencing childhood trauma increases the risk for various negative health outcomes, including suicide and suicide attempts, during adulthood. To date, there has been very little focus on pre-existing mental health before joining the service because of a lack of existing data. Participants were active duty Army Soldiers who attempted or completed suicide as identified by the Department of Defense Suicide Event Report. Among Soldiers exhibiting suicidal behavior, analyses were completed to identify significant associations with specific types of childhood trauma experienced before joining the Army. The prevalence of childhood trauma in this population was 43.3% among the suicide cases and 64.7% among the attempt cases. The most common types of childhood trauma among Soldiers were family problems and abuse. The need for further research among military populations is clear given the high prevalence of childhood trauma found among these Soldiers with suicidal behavior and the lack of complete data for this population.

  3. Multimarker analysis suggests the involvement of BDNF signaling and microRNA biosynthesis in suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Pulay, Attila J; Réthelyi, János M

    2016-09-01

    Despite moderate heritability estimates the genetics of suicidal behavior remains unclear, genome-wide association and candidate gene studies focusing on single nucleotide associations reported inconsistent findings. Our study explored biologically informed, multimarker candidate gene associations with suicidal behavior in mood disorders. We analyzed the GAIN Whole Genome Association Study of Bipolar Disorder version 3 (n = 999, suicidal n = 358) and the GAIN Major Depression: Stage 1 Genomewide Association in Population-Based Samples (n = 1,753, suicidal n = 245) datasets. Suicidal behavior was defined as severe suicidal ideation or attempt. Candidate genes were selected based on literature search (Geneset1, n = 35), gene expression data of microRNA genes, (Geneset2, n = 68) and their target genes (Geneset3, n = 11,259). Quality control, dosage analyses were carried out with PLINK. Gene-based associations of Geneset1 were analyzed with KGG. Polygenic profile scores of suicidal behavior were computed in the major depression dataset both with PRSice and LDpred and validated in the bipolar disorder data. Several nominally significant gene-based associations were detected, but only DICER1 associated with suicidal behavior in both samples, while only the associations of NTRK2 in the depression sample reached family wise and experiment wise significance. Polygenic profile scores negatively predicted suicidal behavior in the bipolar sample for only Geneset2, with the strongest prediction by PRSice at Pt  < 0.03 (Nagelkerke R(2)  = 0.01, P < 0.007). Gene-based association results confirmed the potential involvement of the BDNF-NTRK2-CREB pathway in the pathogenesis of suicide and the cross-disorder association of DICER1. Polygenic risk prediction of the selected miRNA genes indicates that the miRNA system may play a mediating role, but with considerable pleiotropy. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The Decline of Youth Suicidal Behavior in an Urban, Multicultural Public School System following the Introduction of a Suicide Prevention and Intervention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zenere, Frank J., III; Lazarus, Philip J.

    1997-01-01

    Reports a five-year longitudinal study of suicidal behavior of students in southern Florida. Describes a district-wide suicide prevention program and offers statistical data organized into annual, monthly, grade-level, and school-level classification of the degree and direction of self-destructive behavior among youth. Program effectiveness is…

  5. Suicidal behavior and mortality in first-episode psychosis.

    PubMed

    Nordentoft, Merete; Madsen, Trine; Fedyszyn, Izabela

    2015-05-01

    Suicide is a serious public health problem, with more than 800,000 deaths taking place worldwide each year. Mental disorders are associated with increased risk of suicide. In schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, the lifetime risk of suicide death is estimated to be 5.6%. The risk is particularly high during the first year of the initial contact with mental health services, being almost twice as high as in the later course of the illness. The most consistently reported risk factor for suicide among people with psychotic disorders is a history of attempted suicide and depression. Suicide risk in psychosis in Denmark decreased over time, most likely because of improved quality of inpatient and outpatient services. There is a high proportion of young people with first-episode psychosis who attempted suicide before their first contact with mental health services. This finding suggests that the mortality rates associated with psychotic disorders may be underreported because of suicide deaths taking place before first treatment contact. However, currently, no data exist to confirm or refute this hypothesis. Attempted suicide can be an early warning sign of later psychotic disorder. Data from different studies indicate that the risk of suicide attempt during the first year of treatment is as high as 10%. The most important risk factors for attempted suicide after the first contact are young age, female sex, suicidal plans, and a history of suicide attempt. Early intervention services are helpful in first-episode psychosis, and staff members should, in collaboration with the patients, monitor the risk of suicide and develop and revise crisis plans. PMID:25919385

  6. Suicidal behaviors among adolescents in puerto rico: rates and correlates in clinical and community samples.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jennifer; Ramirez, Rafael Roberto; Davies, Mark; Canino, Glorisa; Goodwin, Renee D

    2008-04-01

    This study examined rates and correlates of suicidal behavior among youth on the island of Puerto Rico. Data were drawn from two probability samples, one clinical (n = 736) and one community-based sample (n = 1,896), of youth ages 12 to 17. Consistent with previous studies in U.S. mainland adolescent populations, our results demonstrate that most psychiatric disorders are associated with significantly increased likelihood of suicidal behaviors. These findings provide critical new information by demonstrating specificity in the link between psychiatric disorders and suicidal behaviors. These data also suggest consistency in the links in both clinical and community samples, and by gender. PMID:18470780

  7. The role of the serotonergic system in suicidal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Sadkowski, Marta; Dennis, Brittany; Clayden, Robert C; ElSheikh, Wala; Rangarajan, Sumathy; DeJesus, Jane; Samaan, Zainab

    2013-01-01

    Serotonin is a widely investigated neurotransmitter in several psychopathologies, including suicidal behavior (SB); however, its role extends to several physiological functions involving the nervous system, as well as the gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems. This review summarizes recent research into ten serotonergic genes related to SB. These genes – TPH1, TPH2, SLC6A4, SLC18A2, HTR1A, HTR1B, HTR2A, DDC, MAOA, and MAOB – encode proteins that are vital to serotonergic function: tryptophan hydroxylase; the serotonin transporter 5-HTT; the vesicular transporter VMAT2; the HTR1A, HTR1B, and HTR2A receptors; the L-amino acid decarboxylase; and the monoamine oxidases. This review employed a systematic search strategy and a narrative research methodology to disseminate the current literature investigating the link between SB and serotonin. PMID:24235834

  8. Religion and spirituality along the suicidal path.

    PubMed

    Colucci, Erminia; Martin, Graham

    2008-04-01

    The inner experience of spiritual and religious feelings is an integral part of the everyday lives of many individuals. For over 100 years the role of religion as a deterrent to suicidal behavior has been studied in various disciplines. We attempt to systematize the existing literature investigating the relationship between religion/spirituality and suicide in this paper. After an overview of the attitudes of the dominant religions (e.g., Catholicism, Islam, and Buddhism) toward suicide, the three main theories that have speculated regarding the link between religion and suicide are presented: "integration theory" (Durkheim, 1897/1997), "religious commitment theory" (Stack, 1983a; Stark, 1983), and "network theory" (Pescosolido & Georgianna, 1989). Subsequent to this theoretical introduction, we report on studies on religion/spirituality keeping the suicidal path as a reference: from suicidal ideation to nonlethal suicidal behavior to lethal suicidal behavior. Studies presenting indications of religious beliefs as a possible risk factor for suicidal behavior are also presented. The last section reviews possible intervention strategies for suicidal patients and suicide survivors. Indications for future research, such as more studies on nonreligious forms of spirituality and the use of qualitative methodology to achieve a better and deeper understanding of the spiritual dimension of suicidal behavior and treatment, are offered.

  9. Who seeks treatment where? Suicidal behaviors and health care: evidence from a community survey.

    PubMed

    Milner, Allison; De Leo, Diego

    2010-06-01

    The reason why some persons seek help following a suicide attempt while others do not is still insufficiently clarified. Using data from the World Health Organization/SUicide PREvention-Multisite Intervention Study on Suicidal Behavior community survey, this study tried to shed more light on this problem by investigating the type and number of treatments sought by suicide attempters in 2 major cities of Queensland, Australia. Compared with those who did not attend services (n = 142), help-seekers (n = 257) had significantly greater odds of overdosing with medications and communicating suicidal thoughts. They also had greater odds of reporting a history of psychological problems, previous attempts, and help-seeking behavior. Those who sought multiple services were more likely to be female and suffer also from physical illness. Non help-seekers were more frequently males, with no history of having previously sought help or communicated intent. They also appeared at greater risk of using more lethal methods (hanging) and less likely to express mental health concerns at the time of the attempt. These findings underline the need to further understand the relationship between lethality, suicide intent, and help-seeking behavior. Improving motivation to seek treatment after a suicide attempt could substantially impact on suicide prevention success efforts.

  10. The Relationship Between Suicide Ideation, Behavioral Health, and College Academic Performance.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Susan M; Franklin, Cynthia; Yueqi, Yan; Johnson, Shannon; Brownson, Chris

    2016-07-01

    The impact of suicidal ideation on college students' academic performance has yet to be examined, yet mental health is often linked with academic performance. Underclassmen and upperclassmen were compared on behavioral health outcomes related to academic success (N = 26,457). Ideation (b = -0.05, p < .05), increased mental health (b = -0.03, p < .01) or substance use severity (b = -0.02, p < .01) was associated with lower GPAs. Underclassmen's behavioral health severity was related to lower GPA. Students reported higher GPAs when participating in extracurricular activities during the past year. Ideation, beyond mental health, is an important when assessing academic performance. Increasing students' connections benefits students experiencing behavioral concerns but also aids in suicide prevention initiatives and improves academic outcomes. Creating integrated health care systems on campus where physical, mental health and academic support services is crucial to offer solutions for students with severe or co-morbid mental health histories.

  11. Low testosterone in a young combat veteran with dual diagnosis and suicidal behavior: a case study.

    PubMed

    Kiraly, Drew D; Sher, Leo

    2015-05-01

    Suicide and suicidal behaviors amongst combat veterans is an important public health issue. Exposure to military combat predisposes patients to increased levels of major depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), substance abuse, and chronic pain - all of which are important risk factors for suicide. Here, we present a case study of a young combat veteran who presented with an impulsive suicide attempt that had a high potential for lethality in the context of depression, PTSD, and substance use. On routine admission laboratory work, his serum level of testosterone was seen to be low. Given the important role that testosterone plays in the regulation of mood and behavior, we posit that it is a potentially important marker for suicide risk in an already at-risk population. PMID:25528760

  12. Alcohol Use and Suicidal Behaviors among Adults: A Synthesis and Theoretical Model

    PubMed Central

    Lamis, Dorian A.; Malone, Patrick S.

    2012-01-01

    Suicidal behavior and alcohol use are major public health concerns in the United States; however the association between these behaviors has received relatively little empirical attention. The relative lack of research in this area may be due in part to the absence of theory explaining the alcohol use-suicidality link in the general adult population. The present article expands upon Conner, McCloskey, and Duberstein’s (2008) model of suicide in individuals with alcoholism and proposes a theoretical framework that can be used to explain why a range of adult alcohol users may engage in suicidal behaviors. Guided by this model, we review and evaluate the evidence on the associations among several constructs that may contribute to suicidal behaviors in adult alcohol consumers. The current framework should inform future research and facilitate further empirical analyses on the interactive effects among risk factors that may contribute to suicidal behaviors. Once the nature of these associations is better understood among alcohol using adults, more effective suicide prevention programs may be designed and implemented. PMID:23243500

  13. The mediating role of non-suicidal self-injury in the relationship between impulsivity and suicidal behavior among inpatients receiving treatment for substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Anestis, Michael D; Tull, Matthew T; Lavender, Jason M; Gratz, Kim L

    2014-08-15

    Several theories posit a direct role of impulsivity in suicidal behavior. The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior (IPTS) argues that the relationship between impulsivity and suicidal behavior is explained by the painful and/or provocative experiences (PPEs) often encountered by impulsive individuals. It thus seems plausible that nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), itself associated with impulsivity, might account for the relationship between impulsivity and suicidal behavior. We examined data from 93 adult inpatients (54.8% male) seeking treatment for substance use disorders. Patients completed a structured interview assessing prior suicidal behavior and a series of self-report questionnaires examining impulsivity, NSSI, and psychopathology. Four impulsivity dimensions (negative urgency, positive urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance) were associated with lifetime number of suicide attempts and/or suicide potential. Furthermore, results supported our hypotheses, as all but one relation was better accounted for by NSSI and, in the one exception, the direct effect was non-significant. Findings are consistent with the IPTS and suggest that suicidal behavior may not be a direct manifestation of impulsivity, but facilitated through exposure to PPEs capable of altering an individual׳s relationship to pain and fear of death.

  14. Insomnia symptoms, behavioral/emotional problems, and suicidality among adolescents of insomniac and non-insomniac parents.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianchen; Zhao, Zhongtang; Jia, Cunxian

    2015-08-30

    The aim of this study was to examine insomnia symptoms, behavioral problems, and suicidality among adolescents of insomniac parents (IP) and non-insomniac parents (NIP). A family survey of sleep and health was conducted among 1090 adolescents and their parents in Jinan, China. Adolescents completed a sleep and health questionnaire to report their sleep and mental health problems. Parents reported their insomnia symptoms and history of mental disorders. Insomnia, behavioral problems, and suicidal behavior were compared between IP adolescents and NIP adolescents. IP adolescents were more likely than NIP adolescents to report insomnia symptoms, use of sleep medication, suicidal ideation, suicide plan, and suicide attempt. IP adolescents scored significantly higher than NIP adolescents on withdrawn and externalizing behavioral problems. After adjustment for demographics and behavioral problems, parental insomnia remained to be significantly associated with adolescent suicidal ideation and suicide plan. Our findings support the need for early screening and formal assessment of sleep and mental health in adolescents of insomniac parents.

  15. Social behavior, interaction appraisals, and suicidal ideation in schizophrenia: The dangers of being alone

    PubMed Central

    Depp, Colin A.; Moore, Raeanne C.; Perivoliotis, Dimitri; Holden, Jason L.; Swendsen, Joel; Granholm, Eric L.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the increasing attention to social appraisals in suicide risk, the interpersonal correlates of suicidal thoughts and behavior in schizophrenia are not well understood. Ecological momentary assessment could reveal whether dysfunctional social appraisals and behavior are evident in people with schizophrenia with suicidal ideation. A total of 93 outpatients with diagnoses of schizophrenia with (n = 18, 19%) and without (N = 75; 81%) suicidal ideation participated in one week of intensive daily monitoring via mobile devices, generating real-time reports on the quantity of social interactions and appraisals about them, as well as information concerning concurrent affect and symptoms. The presence of suicidal ideation was not associated with the quantity of social interactions or time spent alone, but it was associated with the anticipation of being alone as well as greater negative and lower positive affect when alone. Despite this aversive experience of being alone, people with suicidal ideation reported negative appraisals about the value of recent and potential social interactions. These findings suggest that suicidal ideation in schizophrenia may not be associated with the quantity of social interactions, but with negative expectations about the quality of social interactions coupled with an aversive experience of being alone. Cognitive therapy interventions that address negative expectations and pleasure about social interactions, especially when alone, may reduce suicidal ideation. PMID:26948502

  16. Perceived abuse and neglect as risk factors for suicidal behavior in adolescent inpatients.

    PubMed

    Lipschitz, D S; Winegar, R K; Nicolaou, A L; Hartnick, E; Wolfson, M; Southwick, S M

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess relative risk of histories of different types of abuse (sexual, physical, and emotional) and neglect (physical and emotional) for suicidal behavior (attempts, ideation, and self-mutilation) in psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents. Seventy-one adolescent inpatients (34 boys, 37 girls) completed self-report measures of abuse and neglect, current suicidal ideation, and lifetime suicide and self-mutilation attempts. The prevalence of sexual and physical abuse was 37.5% and 43.7%, respectively, with 31.3% and 61% of youngsters reporting emotional and physical neglect. Fifty-one percent of youngsters had made suicide attempts, and 39% had self-mutilated. Suicide attempters were significantly more likely to be female, Latino, to report sexual, physical, and emotional abuse, and to endorse emotional neglect. In multivariate analyses, female gender, sexual abuse, and emotional neglect remained significant predictors of self-mutilation and suicidal ideation. Female gender and sexual abuse remained significant predictors of suicide attempts. These findings suggest that emotional neglect is an important and deleterious component of maltreatment experiences and may be a more powerful predictor of suicidal behavior in hospitalized adolescents than physical abuse, emotional abuse, and physical neglect. PMID:9952251

  17. Social behavior, interaction appraisals, and suicidal ideation in schizophrenia: The dangers of being alone.

    PubMed

    Depp, Colin A; Moore, Raeanne C; Perivoliotis, Dimitri; Holden, Jason L; Swendsen, Joel; Granholm, Eric L

    2016-04-01

    Despite the increasing attention to social appraisals in suicide risk, the interpersonal correlates of suicidal thoughts and behavior in schizophrenia are not well understood. Ecological momentary assessment could reveal whether dysfunctional social appraisals and behavior are evident in people with schizophrenia with suicidal ideation. A total of 93 outpatients with diagnoses of schizophrenia with (n=18, 19%) and without (N=75; 81%) suicidal ideation participated in one week of intensive daily monitoring via mobile devices, generating real-time reports on the quantity of social interactions and appraisals about them, as well as information concerning concurrent affect and symptoms. The presence of suicidal ideation was not associated with the quantity of social interactions or time spent alone, but it was associated with the anticipation of being alone as well as greater negative and lower positive affect when alone. Despite this aversive experience of being alone, people with suicidal ideation reported negative appraisals about the value of recent and potential social interactions. These findings suggest that suicidal ideation in schizophrenia may not be associated with the quantity of social interactions, but with negative expectations about the quality of social interactions coupled with an aversive experience of being alone. Cognitive therapy interventions that address negative expectations and pleasure about social interactions, especially when alone, may reduce suicidal ideation.

  18. Suicidal behavior and spiritual functioning in a sample of Veterans diagnosed with PTSD

    PubMed Central

    Kopacz, Marek S.; Currier, Joseph M.; Drescher, Kent D.; Pigeon, Wilfred R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Spiritual well-being has been lauded to exert a protective effect against suicidal behavior. This study examines the characteristics of spiritual functioning and their association with a self-reported history of suicidal thoughts and behavior in a sample of Veterans being treated for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Methods: The sample includes 472 Veterans admitted to a PTSD Residential Rehabilitation Program. Measures included the Brief Multidimensional Measure of Religiousness and Spirituality, PTSD Checklist – Military Version, Combat Experiences Scale, and individual items pertaining to history of suicidal thoughts and attempts, spiritual practices, and select demographics. Results: Problems with forgiveness and negative religious coping were uniquely associated with suicide risk, above and beyond age, gender, or ethnicity, combat exposure, and severity of PTSD symptomatology. Organizational religiousness was associated with decreased risk for thinking about suicide in the presence of these covariates. Daily spiritual experiences were inversely associated with suicidal thoughts. Differences in spirituality factors did not distinguish Veterans with both suicidal ideation and prior attempts from those who had ideations absent any prior attempts. Conclusions: The findings suggest that enhanced or diminished spiritual functioning is associated with suicidal thoughts and attempts among Veterans dealing with PTSD. PMID:26353986

  19. Code 100: a study on suicidal behavior in public places.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; Mendez-Bustos, Pablo; Perez-Fominaya, Margarita; Villoria, Lucía Borrego; Zamorano, María J Ibarra; Molina, Cristian Antonio; Lorie, Alex Vega; Pacheco-Tabuenca, Teresa; Casado-Florez, Isabel; Baca-Garcia, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Every day, the emergency departments in our country receive a large number of patients that have thought about or attempted suicide. Unfortunately, these patients are very often reluctant to maintain a regular follow-up in mental health services. In this study we describe an original program to encourage assessment and treatment of suicidal patients, particularly when they receive medical treatment in public places. We summarize the application of the program and compare the results of a specific follow-up between two groups of patients: suicidal patients assessed by emergency services in public places and all other suicidal patients assessed in the emergency department of a tertiary hospital.

  20. Suicide in Older Adults: The Role of Emotions and Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Szanto, Katalin; Alexopoulos, George S.

    2014-01-01

    Suicide in older adults is a significant clinical concern. In this review of recent findings, we concentrate on the role of emotions and cognition in suicide risk and behavior in older adults. We discuss the epidemiology of suicide in older adults, integrate recent findings on non-psychotic major depression, schizophrenia and suicidal ideation, explore the relationship of emotion regulation with suicide, present recent advances on suicide in demented patients, and describe the latest developments on cognition and decision processes in suicide. PMID:25226883

  1. To what extent does the reporting behavior of the media regarding a celebrity suicide influence subsequent suicides in South Korea?

    PubMed

    Lee, JeSuk; Lee, Weon-Young; Hwang, Jang-Sun; Stack, Steven John

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the nature of media coverage of a national entertainer's suicide and its impact on subsequent suicides. After the celebrity suicide, the number of suicide-related articles reported surged around 80 times in the week after the suicide compared with the week prior. Many articles (37.1%) violated several critical items on the World Health Organization suicide reporting guidelines, like containing a detailed suicide method. Most gender and age subgroups were at significantly higher risk of suicide during the 4 weeks after the celebrity suicide. Results imply that massive and noncompliant media coverage of a celebrity suicide can cause a large-scale copycat effect. PMID:25041623

  2. Relationship between Quantity and Frequency of Alcohol Use and Indices of Suicidal Behavior in an Elderly Australian Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfaff, Jon J.; Almeida, Osvaldo P.; Witte, Tracy K.; Waesche, Matthew C.; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Relatively little research has been conducted on the relationship between alcohol misuse and suicidal behavior among the elderly. The current study's aim was to examine whether quantity and frequency of alcohol use and the interaction between these variables are related to current suicidal ideation, previous suicidal ideation/intent, and past…

  3. The Relationship between Early Suicide Behaviors and Mental Health: Results from a Nine-Year Panel Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Ryan; Taylor, John; Clarke, Diana

    2009-01-01

    This paper employs community-level data to examine the relationship between suicide behaviors, measured at age eleven, and two mental health outcomes assessed nine-years later. Specifically, we assess the role and significance of suicide ideation and suicide attempts in substance dependence and depressive symptomatology. We evaluate these linkages…

  4. Suicidal Behavior Outcomes of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Longitudinal Study of Adjudicated Girls

    PubMed Central

    Rabinovitch, Sara M.; Kerr, David C. R.; Leve, Leslie D.; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) histories are prevalent among adolescent girls in the juvenile justice system (JJS) and may contribute to their high rates of suicidal behavior. Among 166 JJS girls who participated in an intervention trial, baseline CSA and covariates were examined as predictors of suicide attempt and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) reported at long-term follow-up (7–12 years later). Early forced CSA was related to lifetime suicide attempt and NSSI history, and (marginally) to post-baseline attempt; effects were not mediated by anxiety or depressive symptoms. Findings suggest that earlier victimization and younger entry into JJS are linked with girls’ suicide attempt and NSSI. PMID:25370436

  5. A Systematic Review of Social Factors and Suicidal Behavior in Older Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Fässberg, Madeleine Mellqvist; van Orden, Kimberly A.; Duberstein, Paul; Erlangsen, Annette; Lapierre, Sylvie; Bodner, Ehud; Canetto, Silvia Sara; Leo, Diego De; Szanto, Katalin; Waern, Margda

    2012-01-01

    Suicide in later life is a global public health problem. The aim of this review was to conduct a systematic analysis of studies with comparison groups that examined the associations between social factors and suicidal behavior (including ideation, non-fatal suicidal behavior, or deaths) among individuals aged 65 and older. Our search identified only 16 articles (across 14 independent samples) that met inclusion criteria. The limited number of studies points to the need for further research. Included studies were conducted in Canada (n = 2), Germany (n = 1), Hong Kong (n = 1), Japan (n = 1), Singapore (n = 1), Sweden (n = 2), Taiwan (n = 1), the U.K. (n = 2), and the U.S. (n = 3). The majority of the social factors examined in this review can be conceptualized as indices of positive social connectedness—the degree of positive involvement with family, friends, and social groups. Findings indicated that at least in industrialized countries, limited social connectedness is associated with suicidal ideation, non-fatal suicidal behavior, and suicide in later life. Primary prevention programs designed to enhance social connections as well as a sense of community could potentially decrease suicide risk, especially among men. PMID:22690159

  6. Curbing Adolescent Suicide: Conditions, Symptomatic Behaviors, and Intervention Tactics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldridge, Mary Nan

    Increasing numbers of adolescents are experiencing deep depression and instances of adolescent suicide are increasing at a rate 10 times faster than for adults. Predisposition to suicide can be classified into three categories: biophysical, situational, and syndromatic. Adolescents suffering biophysical disorders are most easily identified by…

  7. Suicidal Ideation and Behaviors among Youths in Juvenile Detention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abram, Karen M.; Choe, Jeanne Y.; Washburn, Jason J.; Teplin, Linda A.; King, Devon C.; Dulcan, Mina K.

    2008-01-01

    An epidemiological study used data from the Northwestern Juvenile Project to examine the association between psychiatric diagnosis and suicide risk among newly detained youths in the US juvenile system. Results concluded that psychiatric disorders were associated with suicide attempts, and females were found at a higher risk than males.

  8. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for prevention of recurrence of suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Williams, J Mark G; Duggan, Danielle S; Crane, Catherine; Fennell, Melanie J V

    2006-02-01

    Once suicidal thoughts have emerged as a feature of depression they are likely to be reactivated as part of a suicidal mode of mind whenever sad mood reappears. This article reviews the methods and the usefulness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) as a treatment for the prevention of the reactivation of the suicidal mode. MBCT integrates mindfulness meditation practices and cognitive therapy techniques. It teaches participants to develop moment-by-moment awareness, approaching ongoing experience with an attitude of nonjudgment and acceptance. Participants are increasingly able to see their thoughts as mental events rather than facts (metacognitive awareness). A case example illustrates how mindfulness skills develop with MBCT and how they relate to the cognitive processes that fuel suicidal crises. An ongoing controlled trial will provide further evidence, but pilot work suggests that MBCT is a promising intervention for those who have experienced suicidal ideation in the past.

  9. Emerging issues in the relationship between adolescent substance use and suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Shlosberg, Dan; Zalsman, Gil; Shoval, Gal

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent suicidal behavior poses a major global public health concern as it is highly prevalent and associated with mortality and morbidity worldwide. Substanceuse disorders are also an issue of increasing concern among adolescents and have been shown to increase the risk for suicidal behaviors. In this review we address emerging issues in the relationship between adolescent substance use disorders and suicidal behaviors. We focus on common hazardous patterns of substance abuse such as binge drinking and poly-substance abuse and point out developing patterns of substance preferences as evidenced by the contemporary widespread use of synthetic cannabinoids. We address these issues in the context of vulnerable populations such as sexual-minority adolescents and youth with co-occurring mental-disorder diagnoses. Finally, we relate to the present and future challenges presented by these issues to implement effective anti-suicidal treatment and prevention strategies in adolescents with substance use disorders.

  10. Suicide note and the psychological autopsy: Associated behavioral aspects.

    PubMed

    Acinas, Maria Patricia; Robles, José I; Peláez-Fernández, M Ángeles

    2015-01-01

    When a death occurs under traumatic, ambiguous, unknown, or uncertain circumstances, a death of suicidal origin can be considered. On many occasions, a suicide note is found next to body that helps to clarify certain aspects needed for the investigation to elucidate whether the death is really due to suicide or other causes. There are several types of suicide note (farewell, instructions, accusation of others, request for forgiveness, justification of one’s own suicide) that can contribute to the study of the victim’s psychological state and the circumstances that led to death. There is no unanimously approved way to conduct the psychological autopsy, but there are protocols for obtaining relevant information and preparing the report.

  11. Suicide note and the psychological autopsy: Associated behavioral aspects.

    PubMed

    Acinas, Maria Patricia; Robles, José I; Peláez-Fernández, M Ángeles

    2015-01-01

    When a death occurs under traumatic, ambiguous, unknown, or uncertain circumstances, a death of suicidal origin can be considered. On many occasions, a suicide note is found next to body that helps to clarify certain aspects needed for the investigation to elucidate whether the death is really due to suicide or other causes. There are several types of suicide note (farewell, instructions, accusation of others, request for forgiveness, justification of one’s own suicide) that can contribute to the study of the victim’s psychological state and the circumstances that led to death. There is no unanimously approved way to conduct the psychological autopsy, but there are protocols for obtaining relevant information and preparing the report. PMID:25999154

  12. The Influence of Parental Psychopathology on Offspring Suicidal Behavior across the Lifespan.

    PubMed

    Santana, Geilson Lima; Coelho, Bruno Mendonca; Borges, Guilherme; Viana, Maria Carmen; Wang, Yuan Pang; Andrade, Laura Helena

    2015-01-01

    Suicide tends to occur in families, and parental psychopathology has been linked to offspring suicidal behaviors. This study explores the influence of parental mental disorders across the lifespan. Data are from the Sao Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey, a cross-sectional household study with a representative sample of the adult population living in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area, Brazil (N=2,942). Survival models examined bivariate and multivariate associations between a range of parental disorders and offspring suicidality. After controlling for comorbidity, number of mental disorders and offspring psychopathology, we found that parental psychopathology influences suicidal behaviors throughout most part of the life cycle, from childhood until young adult years. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and antisocial personality were associated with offspring suicidal ideation (OR 1.8 and 1.9, respectively), panic and GAD predicted suicidal attempts (OR 2.3 and 2.7, respectively), and panic was related to the transition from ideation to attempts (OR 2.7). Although noticed in many different stages of the lifespan, this influence is most evident during adolescence. In this period, depression and antisocial personality increased the odds of suicidal ideation (OR 5.1 and 3.2, respectively), and depression, panic disorder, GAD and substance abuse predicted suicidal attempts (OR varying from 1.7 to 3.8). In short, parental disorders characterized by impulsive-aggression and anxiety-agitation were the main predictors of offspring suicidality across the lifespan. This clinically relevant intergenerational transmission of suicide risk was independent of offspring mental disorders, and this underscores the need for a family approach to psychopathology. PMID:26230321

  13. The Extrinsic Coagulation Pathway: a Biomarker for Suicidal Behavior in Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yongtao; Chen, Jin; Liu, Chengyu; Fang, Liang; Liu, Zhao; Guo, Jing; Cheng, Ke; Zhou, Chanjuan; Zhan, Yuan; Melgiri, Narayan D.; Zhang, Liang; Zhong, Jiaju; Chen, Jianjun; Rao, Chenglong; Xie, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Although an association between major depressive disorder (MDD) and suicide exists, most depressed patients never attempt suicide. An improved understanding of the factors contributing to suicidal risk in MDD can provide direction for suicide predictor development. In MDD suicide attempters (MDD-SA), MDD non-attempters (MDD-NA), and healthy controls (HC) (n = 12 each group), complementary plasma proteomics identified 45 differential proteins mapped to coagulation and inflammation, 25 of which underwent Western blotting. In another cohort including antidepressant-treated patients (n = 49 each group), seven additional extrinsic pathway proteins were selected for ELISA. Two inflammatory proteins and eight coagulatory proteins demonstrated alterations in MDD-SA relative to MDD-NA and HC. Applying a relative mass-action ratio, MDD-SA subjects displayed a higher relative prothrombinase activity than MDD-NA subjects, while healthy controls displayed higher relative prothrombinase activity than both MDD-SA and MDD-NA subjects. Consistent with our human findings, we found that heparin treatment significantly increased forced swimming test (FST) immobility time in rodents. MDD, independent of suicidality, is associated with a proinflammatory state accompanied by a hypothrombotic state. Suicidal behavior in MDD is associated with a more pronounced proinflammatory and prothrombotic phenotype accompanied by extrinsic pathway activation, revealing an extrinsic pathway biomarker that can be applied in predicting and monitoring suicidal risk. PMID:27605454

  14. The Extrinsic Coagulation Pathway: a Biomarker for Suicidal Behavior in Major Depressive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongtao; Chen, Jin; Liu, Chengyu; Fang, Liang; Liu, Zhao; Guo, Jing; Cheng, Ke; Zhou, Chanjuan; Zhan, Yuan; Melgiri, Narayan D; Zhang, Liang; Zhong, Jiaju; Chen, Jianjun; Rao, Chenglong; Xie, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Although an association between major depressive disorder (MDD) and suicide exists, most depressed patients never attempt suicide. An improved understanding of the factors contributing to suicidal risk in MDD can provide direction for suicide predictor development. In MDD suicide attempters (MDD-SA), MDD non-attempters (MDD-NA), and healthy controls (HC) (n = 12 each group), complementary plasma proteomics identified 45 differential proteins mapped to coagulation and inflammation, 25 of which underwent Western blotting. In another cohort including antidepressant-treated patients (n = 49 each group), seven additional extrinsic pathway proteins were selected for ELISA. Two inflammatory proteins and eight coagulatory proteins demonstrated alterations in MDD-SA relative to MDD-NA and HC. Applying a relative mass-action ratio, MDD-SA subjects displayed a higher relative prothrombinase activity than MDD-NA subjects, while healthy controls displayed higher relative prothrombinase activity than both MDD-SA and MDD-NA subjects. Consistent with our human findings, we found that heparin treatment significantly increased forced swimming test (FST) immobility time in rodents. MDD, independent of suicidality, is associated with a proinflammatory state accompanied by a hypothrombotic state. Suicidal behavior in MDD is associated with a more pronounced proinflammatory and prothrombotic phenotype accompanied by extrinsic pathway activation, revealing an extrinsic pathway biomarker that can be applied in predicting and monitoring suicidal risk. PMID:27605454

  15. Gender differences in adolescent coping behaviors and suicidal ideation: findings from a sample of 73,238 adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Mi; Han, Doug Hyun; Trksak, George H; Lee, Young Sik

    2014-01-01

    Suicide among adolescents is an emerging global public health problem as well as a socioeconomic problem. Stress-coping strategies have been shown to be associated with suicidal ideation. We examined coping behaviors related to suicidal ideation and gender differences in adolescents using the data from the 2010 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey (ages 12-19 years; N = 73,238). Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate associations between suicidal ideation and specific coping behaviors while controlling for potentially confounding variables. In both male and female groups, the coping behavior "drinking alcoholic beverages" and "smoking cigarettes" were positively associated with suicidal ideation. "Watching TV," "playing online/mobile games," and "sleeping" were negatively associated with suicidal ideation in both groups. In males, "engaging in sports" was negatively related to suicidal ideation. In females, "venting by talking to others" and "eating" were negatively related to suicidal ideation. The results indicate that there are gender differences in the effects of coping behaviors on adolescent suicidal ideation, and that developing adaptive coping strategies may function to reduce suicidality. Future studies are needed to examine whether improving coping skills can reduce suicidal ideation in a gender-specific manner.

  16. The Structure of Co-Occurring Bullying Experiences and Associations with Suicidal Behaviors in Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Beop-Rae; Yoon, Yoewon; Kwon, Ahye; Oh, Seunga; Lee, Soyoung Irene; Ha, Kyunghee; Shin, Yun Mi; Song, Jungeun; Park, Eun Jin; Yoo, Heejung; Hong, Hyun Ju

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study had two main goals: to examine the structure of co-occurring peer bullying experiences among adolescents in South Korea from the perspective of victims and to determine the effects of bullying on suicidal behavior, including suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, among adolescents. Method This study used data gathered from 4,410 treatment-seeking adolescents at their initial visits to 31 local mental health centers in Gyeonggi Province, South Korea. The structure of peer bullying was examined using latent class analysis (LCA) to classify participants’ relevant experiences. Then, a binomial logistic regression adjusted by propensity scores was conducted to identify relationships between experiences of being bullied and suicidal behaviors. Results The LCA of experiences with bullying revealed two distinct classes of bullying: physical and non-physical. Adolescents who experienced physical bullying were 3.05 times more likely to attempt suicide than those who were not bullied. Victims of (non-physical) cyber bullying were 2.94 times more likely to attempt suicide than were those who were not bullied. Conclusions Both physical and non-physical bullying were associated with suicide attempts, with similar effect sizes. Schools and mental health professionals should be more attentive than they currently are to non-physical bullying. PMID:26619356

  17. Ethnocultural differences in prevalence of adolescent suicidal behaviors.

    PubMed

    Roberts, R E; Chen, Y R; Roberts, C R

    1997-01-01

    Data from an ethnically diverse sample of middle school students (grades 6-8; n = 5,423) are analyzed for ethnic differences in suicidal ideation, thoughts about suicide in the past 2 weeks, suicide plans, and suicide attempts. Ideation was examined using a four-item scale and a single item on suicidal thoughts. Ideation was higher among females, older youths, and lower status youths. The same general pattern held for recent suicidal plans and attempts, with the exception of gender, where the trend was for males to report more attempts. Lifetime plans and attempts were higher for females, older youths, and lower status youths. Data were sufficient to compare nine ethnic groups. Multivariate logistic regression analyses, adjusting for the effects of age, gender, and socioeconomic status, yielded significant odds ratios using the Anglo groups as the reference, for suicidal ideation for the Mexican (OR = 1.76, p < .001), Pakistani (OR = 2.0, p < .01), and Vietnamese (OR = 1.48, p < .05) American groups. For thoughts about suicide in the past 2 weeks, only Pakistani and Mixed Ancestry youths had elevated risk. For suicidal plans in the past 2 weeks, Mixed Ancestry youths (OR = 2.02, p < .05) and Pakistani youths (OR = 3.20, p < .01) had elevated risk. For recent attempts, only the Pakistani American youths had elevated risk (OR = 3.19, p < .01). Future research needs to address whether these results hold in other ethnically diverse communities and, if so, what factors contribute to increased risk among some minority youth and not others. PMID:9260303

  18. Sadness, suicide, and bullying in Arkansas: results from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey -- 2011.

    PubMed

    Kindrick, Kristi; Castro, Juan; Messias, Erick

    2013-10-01

    Bullying is a common exposure in high school and more recently cyberbullying has become prevalent among teens. We used the 2011 Arkansas Youth Risk Behavior Survey to estimate the prevalence of school bullying and cyberbullying and to measure its association with teen suicidality. In Arkansas, 11.6% of students reported only school bullying, 6.2% only cyberbullying, and 10.2% both forms of bullying. We determined "feeling unsafe at school" was a significant risk factor for depression and all suicide questions. We also found that being a victim of school bullying, cyberbullying, or both, increased the risk for depression, suicidal ideation, and plan. PMID:24383197

  19. Sadness, suicide, and drug misuse in Arkansas: results from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey 2011.

    PubMed

    Kaley, Sean; Mancino, Michael J; Messias, Erick

    2014-02-01

    Exposure to drugs is unfortunately common among high school students and its use has been linked to depression and suicide risk. We used the 2011 Arkansas Youth Risk Behavior Survey to estimate the prevalence of drug abuse and to measure its association with teen suicidality. Three types of substance misuse were reported by more than 10% of Arkansas high school students: cannabis (33.3% ever use). inhalants (18.7% ever use). and prescription drugs without a prescription (13.2% ever use). We found in all suicide outcomes a stronger association with prescription drug abuse, followed by inhalant abuse, then cannabis abuse.

  20. Sadness, suicide, and bullying in Arkansas: results from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey -- 2011.

    PubMed

    Kindrick, Kristi; Castro, Juan; Messias, Erick

    2013-10-01

    Bullying is a common exposure in high school and more recently cyberbullying has become prevalent among teens. We used the 2011 Arkansas Youth Risk Behavior Survey to estimate the prevalence of school bullying and cyberbullying and to measure its association with teen suicidality. In Arkansas, 11.6% of students reported only school bullying, 6.2% only cyberbullying, and 10.2% both forms of bullying. We determined "feeling unsafe at school" was a significant risk factor for depression and all suicide questions. We also found that being a victim of school bullying, cyberbullying, or both, increased the risk for depression, suicidal ideation, and plan.

  1. Skills Practice in Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Suicidal Women Meeting Criteria for Borderline Personality Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindenboim, Noam; Comtois, Katherine Anne; Linehan, Marsha M.

    2007-01-01

    Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) is an evidence-based practice for borderline personality disorder (BPD) and suicidal behavior that has been replicated with a variety of populations. Patients' practice of behavioral skills taught in the group skills training component of DBT may be partly responsible for the positive treatment outcomes according…

  2. Pilot randomized clinical trial of an SSRI vs bupropion: effects on suicidal behavior, ideation, and mood in major depression.

    PubMed

    Grunebaum, Michael F; Ellis, Steven P; Duan, Naihua; Burke, Ainsley K; Oquendo, Maria A; John Mann, J

    2012-02-01

    Randomized controlled trials in depressed patients selected for elevated suicidal risk are rare. The resultant lack of data leaves uncertainty about treatment in this population. This study compared a serotonin reuptake inhibitor with a noradrenergic/dopaminergic antidepressant in major depression with elevated suicidal risk factors. We conducted a double-blind, randomized, clinical pilot trial of paroxetine (N=36) or bupropion (N=38) in DSM IV major depression with a suicide attempt history or current suicidal ideation. The effects during acute (8 weeks) and continuation treatment (up to 16 weeks) were measured. Main outcomes were suicidal behavior and ideation. The secondary outcome was modified 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score subtracting the suicide item (mHDRS-17). Treatment was not associated with time to a suicidal event and no treatment main effect or treatment × time interaction on suicidal ideation or mHDRS-17 was found. Exploratory model selection showed modest advantages for paroxetine on: (1) mHDRS-17 (p=0.02); and (2) in a separate model adjusted for baseline depression, for suicidal ideation measured with the Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation (p=0.03), with benefit increasing with baseline severity. Depressed patients with greater baseline suicidal ideation treated with paroxetine compared with bupropion appeared to experience greater acute improvement in suicidal ideation, after adjusting for global depression. Given the lack of evidence-based pharmacotherapy guidelines for suicidal, depressed patients-an important public health population-this preliminary finding merits further study.

  3. "I felt so hurt and lonely": suicidal behavior in South Asian-Surinamese, Turkish, and Moroccan women in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van Bergen, Diana D; van Balkom, Anton J L M; Smit, Johannes H; Saharso, Sawitri

    2012-02-01

    Young immigrant women in the Netherlands demonstrate disproportionate rates of suicidal behavior. This study investigated the origins of suicidal behavior in South Asian-Surinamese, Turkish, and Moroccan immigrant young women in order to identify ethnic- and gender-specific patterns of suicidal behavior. Based on life story interviews of women who had been enrolled in mental health care, we constructed five typical patterns in which social, cultural, and personal factors were interconnected. Suicidal behavior was influenced by the ability and right to act autonomously with regard to strategic life choices, as well as by the questioning of cultural values of self-sacrifice and protection of honor.

  4. An exploratory study of nonsuicidal self-injury and suicidal behaviors in adolescent Latinas.

    PubMed

    Gulbas, Lauren E; Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; De Luca, Susan M; Tyler, Tee R; Zayas, Luis H

    2015-07-01

    To date, there is little research to validate empirically differences between nonsuicidal self-injurious behavior (NSSI) and attempted suicide among Latina adolescents. Understanding the characteristics and contextual features of self-harmful behaviors among Latina teens is a critical public health and social justice matter given the disproportionate rates of attempted suicide and anticipated population growth of this vulnerable group. In this article, we draw on an ecodevelopmental model to focus attention on factors in the sociocultural environment that shape suicidal behaviors and NSSIs. Through analysis of qualitative interviews conducted with girls who used NSSI (n = 18), attempted suicide (n = 29), used NSSI and attempted suicide (n = 8,) and had no reported lifetime history of self-harm (n = 28), we describe the sociocultural factors that shaped psychosocial vulnerabilities and gave rise to decisions to use NSSI or attempt suicide. Our analysis revealed that adolescents who engaged in NSSI perceived their negative feelings as something that could be controlled through self-injurious acts, whereas powerlessness was a theme underlying the emotional states of girls who attempted suicide. When NSSI ceased to function as a mechanism for control, girls came to sudden decisions to attempt suicide. Most teens identified specific, and often multiple, situations that induced intense affective states and shaped decisions to inflict self-harm. Two situational experiences emerged as particularly salient and promising for subsequent studies on self-harmful behaviors among Latina adolescents: transnational stress and bullying. We describe each of these and offer suggestions for future research and practice. PMID:26052816

  5. Participation in sports teams and suicidal behavior: an analysis of the 1995 national college health risk behavior survey.

    PubMed

    Lester, David

    2014-08-01

    A 1995 data set from a survey of college students carried out by the Centers for Disease Control was examined to explore whether participation in sports was associated with recent suicidal behavior. Overall, participation in college sports was associated with a reduced incidence of suicidal ideation in the past year, but had no association with attempted suicide in the past year. However, this protective effect was found for European American students, Hispanic Americans, and Asian Americans, but not for African Americans, and was stronger for male students than for female students. PMID:25153736

  6. Re-Examination of Classic Risk Factors for Suicidal Behavior in the Psychiatric Population

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Background: For decades we have understood the risk factors for suicide in the general population but have fallen short in understanding what distinguishes the risk for suicide among patients with serious psychiatric conditions. Aims: This prompted us to investigate risk factors for suicidal behavior among psychiatric inpatients. Method: We reviewed all psychiatric hospital admissions (2008–2011) to a centralized psychiatric hospital in Ontario, Canada. Using multivariable logistic regression we evaluated the association between potential risk factors and lifetime history of suicidal behavior, and constructed a model and clinical risk score to predict a history of this behavior. Results: The final risk prediction model for suicidal behavior among psychiatric patients (n = 2,597) included age (in three categories: 60–69 [OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.73–0.76], 70–79 [OR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.44–0.46], 80+ [OR = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.30–.31]), substance use disorder (OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.27–1.32), mood disorder (OR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.47–1.52), personality disorder (OR = 2.30, 95% CI = 2.25–2.36), psychiatric disorders due to general medical condition (OR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.50–0.55), and schizophrenia (OR = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.41–0.43). The risk score constructed from the risk prediction model ranges from −9 (lowest risk, 0% predicted probability of suicidal behavior) to +5 (highest risk, 97% predicted probability). Conclusion: Risk estimation may help guide intensive screening and treatment efforts of psychiatric patients with high risk of suicidal behavior. PMID:26440619

  7. Risk of suicidal ideation in adolescents with both self-asphyxial risk-taking behavior and non-suicidal self-injury.

    PubMed

    Brausch, Amy M; Decker, Kristina M; Hadley, Andrea G

    2011-08-01

    This study examined adolescent participation in self-asphyxial risk-taking behaviors (SAB), sometimes known as the "choking game," and its relationship with other adolescent risk behaviors, including non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). Researchers proposed that participation in SAB and NSSI would be associated with suicidal behavior, disordered eating, and substance use. Using a large community-based sample, results revealed preliminary associations between SAB and other risk-taking behaviors. Adolescents who had engaged in both SAB and NSSI reported more concurrent risk behaviors than adolescents who participated in only one of the behaviors or neither behavior. Results indicate that greater awareness of SAB is important, and continued research can evaluate the possible link between the behavior and risk for suicide.

  8. Accessing Suicide-Related Information on the Internet: A Retrospective Observational Study of Search Behavior

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Internet’s potential impact on suicide is of major public health interest as easy online access to pro-suicide information or specific suicide methods may increase suicide risk among vulnerable Internet users. Little is known, however, about users’ actual searching and browsing behaviors of online suicide-related information. Objective To investigate what webpages people actually clicked on after searching with suicide-related queries on a search engine and to examine what queries people used to get access to pro-suicide websites. Methods A retrospective observational study was done. We used a web search dataset released by America Online (AOL). The dataset was randomly sampled from all AOL subscribers’ web queries between March and May 2006 and generated by 657,000 service subscribers. Results We found 5526 search queries (0.026%, 5526/21,000,000) that included the keyword "suicide". The 5526 search queries included 1586 different search terms and were generated by 1625 unique subscribers (0.25%, 1625/657,000). Of these queries, 61.38% (3392/5526) were followed by users clicking on a search result. Of these 3392 queries, 1344 (39.62%) webpages were clicked on by 930 unique users but only 1314 of those webpages were accessible during the study period. Each clicked-through webpage was classified into 11 categories. The categories of the most visited webpages were: entertainment (30.13%; 396/1314), scientific information (18.31%; 240/1314), and community resources (14.53%; 191/1314). Among the 1314 accessed webpages, we could identify only two pro-suicide websites. We found that the search terms used to access these sites included “commiting suicide with a gas oven”, “hairless goat”, “pictures of murder by strangulation”, and “photo of a severe burn”. A limitation of our study is that the database may be dated and confined to mainly English webpages. Conclusions Searching or browsing suicide-related or pro-suicide webpages was

  9. The newsworthiness of suicide.

    PubMed

    Pirkis, Jane; Burgess, Philip; Blood, R Warwick; Francis, Catherine

    2007-06-01

    There is a paucity of studies examining which suicides are considered news-worthy. By combining data on media reports of individuals' suicides with routinely collected suicide data, it was found that 1% of Australian suicides were reported over a 1-year period. There was evidence of over-reporting of suicides by older people and females, and those involving dramatic methods. Reported suicides fell into three groups: suicides reported in a broader context; suicides by celebrities; and suicides involving unusual circumstances/methods. The data suggest a need for media professionals and suicide experts to work together to balance newsworthiness against the risk of copycat behavior. PMID:17579540

  10. National Strategy for Suicide Prevention: Goals and Objectives for Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Morton M., Ed.

    This guide is designed to be a catalyst for social change, and to transform attitudes, policies, and services concerned with suicide prevention to reflect current knowledge. It involves a comprehensive and integrated approach to reducing the loss and suffering from suicide and suicidal behaviors in the United States. Representing the combined work…

  11. Types of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in patients admitted for suicide-related behavior.

    PubMed

    Rebok, Federico; Teti, Germán L; Fantini, Adrián P; Cárdenas-Delgado, Christian; Rojas, Sasha M; Derito, María N C; Daray, Federico M

    2015-03-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is determined by the presence of any five of nine diagnostic criteria, leading patients with heterogeneous clinical features to be diagnosed under the same label without an individualized clinical and therapeutic approach. In response to this problem, Oldham proposed five types of BPD: affective, impulsive, aggressive, dependent and empty. The present study categorized a sample of BPD patients hospitalized due to suicide-related behavior according to Oldham's BPD proposed subtypes, and evaluated their clinical and demographic characteristics. Data were obtained from a sample of 93 female patients admitted to the « Dr. Braulio A. Moyano » Neuropsychiatric Hospital following suicide-related behavior. A total of 87 patients were classified as affective (26%), impulsive (37%), aggressive (4%), dependent (29%), and empty (5%). Patients classified as dependent were significantly older at the time of first suicide-related behavior (p = 0.0008) and reported significantly less events of previous suicide-related behaviors (p = 0.03), while patients classified as impulsive reported significantly higher rates of drug use (p = 0.02). Dependent, impulsive and affective BPD types were observed most frequently in our sample. Findings are discussed specific to demographic and clinical implications of BPD patients reporting concurrent suicidal behavior.

  12. Epigenetic and genetic variation at SKA2 predict suicidal behavior and post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Kaminsky, Z; Wilcox, H C; Eaton, W W; Van Eck, K; Kilaru, V; Jovanovic, T; Klengel, T; Bradley, B; Binder, E B; Ressler, K J; Smith, A K

    2015-08-25

    Traumatic stress results in hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis abnormalities and an increased risk to both suicidal behaviors and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Previous work out of our laboratory identified SKA2 DNA methylation associations with suicidal behavior in the blood and brain of multiple cohorts. Interaction of SKA2 with stress predicted suicidal behavior with ~80% accuracy. SKA2 is hypothesized to reduce the ability to suppress cortisol following stress, which is of potentially high relevance in traumatized populations. Our objective was to investigate the interaction of SKA2 and trauma exposure on HPA axis function, suicide attempt and PTSD. SKA2 DNA methylation at Illumina HM450 probe cg13989295 was assessed for association with suicidal behavior and PTSD metrics in the context of Child Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) scores in 421 blood and 61 saliva samples from the Grady Trauma Project (GTP) cohort. Dexamethasone suppression test (DST) data were evaluated for a subset of 209 GTP subjects. SKA2 methylation interacted with CTQ scores to predict lifetime suicide attempt in saliva and blood with areas under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUCs) of 0.76 and 0.73 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.6-0.92, P = 0.003, and CI: 0.65-0.78, P < 0.0001) and to mediate the suppression of cortisol following DST (β = 0.5 ± 0.19, F = 1.51, degrees of freedom (df) = 12/167, P = 0.0096). Cumulatively, the data suggest that epigenetic variation at SKA2 mediates vulnerability to suicidal behaviors and PTSD through dysregulation of the HPA axis in response to stress.

  13. A systematic review of suicidal thoughts and behaviors among police officers, firefighters, EMTs, and paramedics.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Ian H; Hom, Melanie A; Joiner, Thomas E

    2016-03-01

    First responders-police officers, firefighters, emergency medical technicians (EMTs), and paramedics-experience significant job-related stressors and exposures that may confer increased risk for mental health morbidities (e.g., posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD], suicidal thoughts and behaviors) and hastened mortality (e.g., death by suicide). Inherent in these occupations, however, are also factors (e.g., camaraderie, pre-enlistment screening) that may inoculate against the development or maintenance of psychiatric conditions. Several reviews of the literature have documented the prevalence and potency of PTSD among first responders; the value of these extant reviews is considerable. Nonetheless, the literature has not been systematically described with regard to suicidality. In this systematic review, we present 63 quantitative studies examining suicidal thoughts, behaviors, and/or fatalities among first responders; identify population-specific risk and protective factors; and pinpoint strengths and weaknesses of the existing literature. Findings reveal elevated risk for suicide among first responders; however, studies utilizing more rigorous methodologies (e.g., longitudinal designs, probability sampling strategies) are sorely needed. First responders have an armamentarium of resources to take care of others; it is the duty of researchers, clinicians, and the public to aid in taking care of their health as well, in part by reducing suicide risk. PMID:26719976

  14. Psychiatric disorders and suicidal behavior in neurotypical young adults with childhood-onset epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Baldin, Elisa; Hesdorffer, Dale C; Caplan, Rochelle; Berg, Anne T.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES We examined the association between lifetime, current history of psychiatric disorders, suicidal thoughts and behaviors with childhood-onset epilepsies in a community-based cohort of young adults. METHODS Cases were neurotypical (normal neurological, cognitive, and imaging exams and no evidence of a brain insult responsible for the epilepsy) young adults with childhood-onset epilepsy followed since the onset of their epilepsy approximately 15 years earlier and recruited as part of a community-based study. They were compared to two different control groups, siblings and external controls from the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication (NCS-R). The Diagnostic Interview Survey assessed lifetime and current DSM-IV-TR diagnoses of mood disorders and anxiety disorders. Suicidal thoughts and suicide attempt were assessed using the Diagnostic Interview Survey for Children-IV and the Diagnostic Interview Survey. RESULTS Two hundred fifty-seven cases and 134 sibling controls participated in the DIS portion of the young adult assessment. Comparing cases both to their sibling controls and to the controls drawn from the NCS-R, we did not find any evidence to suggest a higher prevalence of lifetime and current mood or anxiety disorders, suicidal thoughts and suicide attempt in young adults with childhood-onset epilepsies. SIGNIFICANCE Our findings, from a community-based sample of neurotypical young adults, do not suggest a substantial or lasting association between childhood epilepsy and psychiatric disorders and suicidal behavior. PMID:26387857

  15. A Prospective Examination of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior Among Psychiatric Adolescent Inpatients

    PubMed Central

    Czyz, Ewa K.; Berona, Johnny; King, Cheryl A.

    2016-01-01

    The challenge of identifying suicide risk in adolescents, and particularly among high-risk subgroups such as adolescent inpatients, calls for further study of models of suicidal behavior that could meaningfully aid in the prediction of risk. This study examined how well the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior (IPTS)—with its constructs of thwarted belongingness (TB), perceived burdensomeness (PB), and an acquired capability (AC) for lethal self-injury—predicts suicide attempts among adolescents (N = 376) 3 and 12 months after hospitalization. The three-way interaction between PB, TB, and AC, defined as a history of multiple suicide attempts, was not significant. However, there were significant 2-way interaction effects, which varied by sex: girls with low AC and increasing TB, and boys with high AC and increasing PB, were more likely to attempt suicide at 3 months. Only high AC predicted 12-month attempts. Results suggest gender-specific associations between theory components and attempts. The time-limited effects of these associations point to TB and PB being dynamic and modifiable in high-risk populations, whereas the effects of AC are more lasting. The study also fills an important gap in existing research by examining IPTS prospectively. PMID:25263410

  16. Integrating a Suicide Prevention Program into the Primary Health Care Network: A Field Trial Study in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Malakouti, Seyed Kazem; Nojomi, Marzieh; Poshtmashadi, Marjan; Hakim Shooshtari, Mitra; Mansouri Moghadam, Fariba; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin; Afghah, Susan; Bolhari, Jafar; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To describe and evaluate the feasibility of integrating a suicide prevention program with Primary Health Care services and evaluate if such system can improve screening and identification of depressive disorder, reduce number of suicide attempters, and lower rate of suicide completion. Methodology. This was a quasi-experimental trial in which one community was exposed to the intervention versus the control community with no such exposure. The study sites were two counties in Western Iran. The intervention protocol called for primary care and suicide prevention collaboration at different levels of care. The outcome variables were the number of suicides committed, the number of documented suicide attempts, and the number of identified depressed cases. Results. We identified a higher prevalence of depressive disorders in the intervention site versus the control site (χ2 = 14.8, P < 0.001). We also found a reduction in the rate of suicide completion in the intervention region compared to the control, but a higher prevalence of suicide attempts in both the intervention and the control sites. Conclusion. Integrating a suicide prevention program with the Primary Health Care network enhanced depression and suicide surveillance capacity and subsequently reduced the number of suicides, especially in rural areas. PMID:25648221

  17. Health Behavior Theories and Research: Implications for Suicidal Individuals' Treatment Linkage and Adherence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gipson, Polly; King, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Treatment linkage and adherence to psychotherapeutic interventions can be challenging with suicidal individuals. Health behavior theories, specifically the Health Belief Model, Stages of Change, and Theory of Planned Behavior, focus on individuals' beliefs, their readiness to change, their perceptions of illness severity and "threat," their…

  18. 77 FR 48989 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Suicidal Ideation and Behavior: Prospective Assessment of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ... Behavior: Prospective Assessment of Occurrence in Clinical Trials; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug... of Occurrence in Clinical Trials.'' The purpose of this guidance is to assist sponsors in prospectively assessing the occurrence of treatment-emergent suicidal ideation and behavior in clinical...

  19. School and Community Violence and Victimization as Predictors of Adolescent Suicidal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickerson, Amanda B.; Slater, Evan D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which violent behavior and peer victimization were associated with suicidal ideation, plans, and attempts in a nationally representative sample of 11,113 adolescents who completed the 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Boys were more likely to be involved in physical fighting and weapon carrying, whereas girls were…

  20. Internal migration, mental health, and suicidal behaviors in young rural Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Jing; Zhong, Bao-Liang; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Chiu, Helen F. K.; Chan, Sandra S. M.; Yu, Xin; Caine, Eric D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose There is a dearth of data on the association of internal migration with mental health in young rural Chinese. This study aims to explore the associations between migrant status, mental health, and suicidal behaviors in young rural Chinese. Methods We recruited 1,646 rural subjects aged 16–34 years, of whom 756 were migrant workers and 890 non-migrants, from ten representative villages in rural Sichuan Province, the southwestern part of China. To assess subject's depressive symptoms and general psychological quality of life (psycho-QOL), the study protocol included the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, and psycho-QOL subscale of the World Health Organization's QOL Questionnaire-Brief Version, in addition to structured questions regarding one-year suicidal thoughts and behaviors (serious ideation, plan, and attempt), socio-demographic, social support, and physical health information. Results After adjustment for confounders, migrant workers had relative to non-migrant rural residents a decreased risk for depression (OR = 0.69, P = 0.026), but comparable risk for poor psycho-QOL (OR = 0.91, P = 0.557) and one-year suicidal behaviors (OR = 0.59–1.10, P = 0.19–0.90). Migrant status only accounted for 0.5, 2.8, 4.7, 9.8, and 12.6 % of the total explainable variance for suicide attempt, poor psycho-QOL, suicide plan, depression and serious suicide ideation, respectively. Conclusion Our findings suggested that among young rural Chinese there were no significant associations involving migrant status and poor psycho-QOL or one-year suicidal behaviors, while migrant status significantly correlated with a decreased risk of depression. The unique contribution of migrant status to mental health among young rural Chinese participants in this study was very small. PMID:25403568

  1. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Suicide Attempts: The Mediating Influence of Personality Development and Problem Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Perez, Nicholas M; Jennings, Wesley G; Piquero, Alex R; Baglivio, Michael T

    2016-08-01

    Adverse childhood experiences, comprised of forms of maltreatment and certain dysfunctional household environments, can affect the development of a child in a variety of different ways. This multitude of developmental changes may subsequently produce compounding harmful effects on the child's life and increase acutely maladaptive outcomes, including adolescent suicidal behavior. This study uses data collected from 2007 to 2012 for 64,329 Florida Department of Juvenile Justice youth (21.67 % female, 42.88 % African American, and 15.37 % Hispanic) to examine the direct and indirect effects of adverse childhood experiences on suicide attempts. Using a generalized structural equation model, the effects of adverse childhood experience scores are estimated on suicidal behavior through pathways of certain aspects of a child's personality development (aggression and impulsivity), as well as adolescent problem behaviors (school difficulties and substance abuse). The results show that a large proportion of the relationship between childhood adversity and suicide is mediated by the aforementioned individual characteristics, specifically through the youth's maladaptive personality development. These results suggest that, if identified early enough, the developmental issues for these youth could potentially be addressed in order to thwart potential suicidal behavior. PMID:27289554

  2. Effects of Victimization and Violence on Suicidal Ideation and Behaviors Among Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Everett, Bethany G.; Heath, Ryan D.; Elsaesser, Caitlin E.; Neilands, Torsten B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Sexual minority youth (SMY) are at higher risk for victimization and suicide than are heterosexual youth (HY). Relatively little research has examined which types of victimization are most closely linked to suicide, which is necessary to develop targeted prevention interventions. The present study was conducted to address this deficit. Methods: The data come from the 2011 Chicago Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n = 1,907). Structural equation modeling (SEM) in Mplus evaluated the direct, indirect, and total effects of sexual orientation on a latent indicator of suicidal ideation and behaviors via seven types of victimization. Four indicators of victimization were school-specific (e.g., harassment due to sexual orientation or gender identity (SO/GID), bullying, threatened or injured with a weapon, and skipping school due to safety concerns), and three indicators assessed other types of victimization (e.g., electronic bullying, intimate partner violence, and sexual abuse). Results: Thirteen percent of youth were classified as SMY. Significantly more SMY than HY reported suicidal ideation (27.95% vs. 13.64%), a suicide plan (22.78% vs. 12.36%), and at least one suicide attempt (29.92% vs. 12.43%) in the past year (all P < .001). A greater percentage of SMY reported SO/GID-related harassment, skipping school, electronic bullying, and sexual abuse. Sexual orientation was not directly related to suicidal ideation and behaviors in SEM. Rather, SMY's elevated risk of suicidality functioned indirectly through two forms of school-based victimization: being threatened or injured with a weapon (B = .19, SE = .09, P ≤ .05) and experiencing SO/GID-specific harassment (B = .40, SE = .15, P ≤ .01). There also was a trend for SMY to skip school as a strategy to reduce suicide risk. Conclusion: Although SMY experience higher rates of victimization than do HY, school-based victimization that involves weapons or is due to one's SO

  3. Using path analysis to examine adolescent suicide attempts, life satisfaction, and health risk behavior.

    PubMed

    Thatcher, W Gregory; Reininger, Belinda M; Drane, J Wanzer

    2002-02-01

    This study determined if differences existed between four race/gender groups in regard to attempted suicide among a randomly selected, cross-sectional population of 4,565 public high school students in South Carolina. A modified Youth Risk Behavior Survey was designed to gather information on quality of life, life satisfaction, and six risk-behavior categories. Data first were analyzed using logistic regression analysis and subsequently analyzed using path analysis. Results suggest several independent variables (feelings of intimidation, alcohol and cocaine use, self-perceptions of mental health, self-perceptions of body weight, dieting practices, bulimic episodes, and physical and sexual abuse) were associated significantly (p < .01) with adolescent attempted suicide either directly or indirectly through mediating variables. Significant associations among risk behaviors, mediating variables, and self-reported attempted suicide varied across the four race/gender groups, indicating a need to further study differences noticed in each race/gender scheme.

  4. Management of suicidal and self-harming behaviors in prisons: systematic literature review of evidence-based activities.

    PubMed

    Barker, Emma; Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to systematically analyze existing literature testing the effectiveness of programs involving the management of suicidal and self-harming behaviors in prisons. For the study, 545 English-language articles published in peer reviewed journals were retrieved using the terms "suicid*," "prevent*," "prison," or "correctional facility" in SCOPUS, MEDLINE, PROQUEST, and Web of Knowledge. In total, 12 articles were relevant, with 6 involving multi-factored suicide prevention programs, and 2 involving peer focused programs. Others included changes to the referral and care of suicidal inmates, staff training, legislation changes, and a suicide prevention program for inmates with Borderline Personality Disorder. Multi-factored suicide prevention programs appear most effective in the prison environment. Using trained inmates to provide social support to suicidal inmates is promising. Staff attitudes toward training programs were generally positive.

  5. Social and Emotional Development of Gifted Students: The Role of Contagion in Suicidal Behavior among Students With Gifts and Talents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Tracy L.

    2016-01-01

    This column offers a perspective on suicidal behavior among gifted students that moves away from a wholly psychological perspective to more of a community-based perspective. This model does not undervalue the role of the field of psychology in explaining suicidal behavior, but speaks instead to the importance of the salient influences of culture,…

  6. Race and Ethnic Differences in Hope and Hopelessness as Moderators of the Association between Depressive Symptoms and Suicidal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Jameson K.; Visser, Preston L.; Chang, Edward C.; Jeglic, Elizabeth L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined trait hope and hopelessness as potential moderators of the association between depressive symptoms and suicidal behavior. Participants: A diverse sample of 372 college students. Methods: Depressive symptoms, hopelessness (Beck Hopelessness Scale), trait hope (Trait Hope Scale), and suicidal behaviors were assessed.…

  7. Comparison of clinical and demographic characteristics among borderline personality disorder patients with and without suicidal attempts and non-suicidal self-injury behaviors.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Sandra; Marco, José H; García-Alandete, Joaquín

    2014-12-30

    Research has shown that both suicidal and Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI) behaviors are co-morbid phenomena that are present in BPD patients, considered phenomenologically distinct, and associated with different methods, motives, frequency, and severity of psychopathology. This study is aimed at extending previous research by examining differences in demographical, clinical and psychological characteristics of BPD patients with or without a history of Suicide Attempts (SAs) and/or NSSI behaviors. Our sample included 89 outpatients with a BPD diagnosis assessed through clinical, structured interviews, and self-reports. The major findings showed that patients with a history of suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-injury were characterized by major number of lifetime suicide attempts and more severe feelings of hopelessness than patients with NSSI. Additionally, more violent thoughts towards others were observed in patients with NSSI. These results support a relatively more severe profile inherent in patients with SA and NSSI and allow us to differentiate NSSI from suicide attempts, highlighting the importance of evaluating and treating hopelessness and exploring the tendency to have violent thoughts towards others in this clinical population.

  8. Suicidal behavior by burns among women in two bordering provinces in Iran.

    PubMed

    Alaghehbandan, R; Dinn, N A; Rastegar Lari, E; Rastegar Lari, A

    2015-06-30

    The objective of the study was to describe epidemiologic features of suicidal behavior by burns among women in two bordering provinces in Iran. A prospective hospital-based study of all suicidal behaviors by burns among women was carried out in the Iranian provinces of Khorasan (which borders Afghanistan) and Ilam (which borders Iraq) in 2006. These two provinces suffered from war and economic instability with high rates of poverty and unemployment. Data were obtained from patients, family members, and/or significant others through interviews during the course of hospitalization. Of 181 hospitalized patients, 130 (71.8%) were female, representing a hospital separation rate of 5.4 per 100,000 person-year (P-Y). The rate of suicidal behavior involving burns among the rural population was higher than that in the urban population (6.3 vs. 4.7 per 100,000 P-Y, P = 0.09). The median age of the patients was 23 years old, with a mean (±SD) of 27.9 (±14.3) years old. Approximately 68.5% of women were married. Quarrels with "a family member, spouse, a relative, or a friend" (marital plus other conflicts) was identified as the most common precipitating factor (88.5%) in attempting suicide. More than one third of women were abused (physically and/or verbally) by family members (i.e. spouse, father-in-law). Case fatality rate in this study was 52.3% (68/130). Suicide by burns is still a socio-epidemiological problem in Iran, particularly among young, married women in rural areas. Social and economic conditions, as well as violence against women, play a major role in the high rate of suicide by burns. The findings of this study highlight the need for the implementation of a well-organized approach to reduce the rate of suicide by burns among the most vulnerable populations in Iran. PMID:27252614

  9. Psychoanalytic notes on suicide.

    PubMed

    Meissner, W W

    1977-01-01

    The typology of and theories on suicidal behavior are reviewed to integrate various points of view in terms of the paranoid process. Freud's theory of internalized aggression, the relation of suicide impulses to depression, the operation of narcissistic components in the complex motivation of suicide are related to the concept of the victim-introject as central to the pathology of suicide. Suicidal patterns play out the dynamics inherent in the victim-introject and its correlative component the aggressor-introject. The victim-introject serves as the core internalization around which a false-self system is organized; the suicide represents the attempt to destroy the false-self as a means of realizing the dynamic purposes of the victim-introject. The concept of the victim-introject integrates previous psychoanalytic formulations of suicide and provides a template for the development of a therapeutic rationale. Implications for therapeutic response are considered, particularly in terms of the need to undermine the patient's attempts to maintain and reinforce his victimization. PMID:914450

  10. Suicide in women

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakumar, Lakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is a global public health problem. Asia accounts for 60% of the world's suicides, so at least 60 million people are affected by suicide or attempted suicide in Asia each year. The burden of female suicidal behavior, in terms of total burden of morbidity and mortality combined, is more in women than in men. Women's greater vulnerability to suicidal behavior is likely to be due to gender related vulnerability to psychopathology and to psychosocial stressors. Suicide prevention programmes should incorporate woman specific strategies. More research on suicidal behavior in women particularly in developing countries is needed. PMID:26330640

  11. Suicidal Behavior Among Female Sex Workers in Goa, India: The Silent Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Wayal, Sonali; Cowan, Frances; Mabey, David; Copas, Andrew; Patel, Vikram

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to study suicidal behavior prevalence and its association with social and gender disadvantage, sex work, and health factors among female sex workers in Goa, India. Methods. Using respondent-driven sampling, we recruited 326 sex workers in Goa for an interviewer-administered questionnaire regarding self-harming behaviors, sociodemographics, sex work, gender disadvantage, and health. Participants were tested for sexually transmitted infections. We used multivariate analysis to define suicide attempt determinants. Results. Nineteen percent of sex workers in the sample reported attempted suicide in the past 3 months. Attempts were independently associated with intimate partner violence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.70; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.38, 5.28), violence from others (AOR = 2.26; 95% CI = 1.15, 4.45), entrapment (AOR = 2.76; 95% CI = 1.11, 6.83), regular customers (AOR = 3.20; 95% CI = 1.61, 6.35), and worsening mental health (AOR = 1.05; 95% CI = 1.01, 1.11). Lower suicide attempt likelihood was associated with Kannad ethnicity, HIV prevention services, and having a child. Conclusions. Suicidal behaviors among sex workers were common and associated with gender disadvantage and poor mental health. India's widespread HIV-prevention programs for sex workers provide an opportunity for community-based interventions against gender-based violence and for mental health services delivery. PMID:19443819

  12. Korean Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey: Association Between Part-time Employment and Suicide Attempts.

    PubMed

    Jo, Sun-Jin; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Lee, Myung-Soo; Jeong, Hyunsuk; Lee, Won-Chul

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the association between in-school students' part-time work and 1-year suicide attempts in Korea. The authors analyzed Korean Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance data (2008), which included 75 238 samples that represent Korean middle and high school students. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the association between part-time work and suicide attempt during the past 1 year, controlled by sociodemographic, school-related, lifestyle, and psychological factors. Among high school students, there was no association between part-time work and suicide attempts. However, part-time work was associated with suicide attempts significantly among middle school students (odds ratio = 1.59; 95% confidence interval = 1.37-1.83). Despite the limitation that details of the part-time work were not included in this study, it was found that middle school students' part-time work may increase suicide attempts, and the circumstances of Korean adolescents' employment, especially that of younger adolescents, would need to be reconsidered to prevent their suicide attempts.

  13. The Use of Partial Order Structures for Investigating Suicidal Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dancer, L. Suzanne

    This study had two purposes: to test the usefulness of partial order scalogram analysis with multivariate response data; and to illustrate the multidimensional nature of suicide risk. A detailed introduction describes partial order scalograms, which locate respondents' profiles in a two-dimensional space (rather than on a unidimensional Guttman…

  14. A test of the reactive aggression-suicidal behavior hypothesis: is there a case for proactive aggression?

    PubMed

    Conner, Kenneth R; Swogger, Marc T; Houston, Rebecca J

    2009-02-01

    A large body of literature suggests that aggressive behavior can be classified into two subtypes--reactive aggression (RA) and proactive aggression (PA)--which differ on dimensions of emotional arousal, control, and impulsivity. A longstanding hypothesis posits that RA underlies the association between aggression and suicidal behavior, with the implicit assumption that PA is unrelated to suicidal behavior. However, no empirical study to date has specifically investigated this question. The authors examined associations of RA and PA with suicide attempts and suicidal ideation among 878 male and female patients in substance-dependence treatment programs. They also examined the moderating effects of sex. Contrary to hypotheses, PA was associated with both suicide attempts and suicidal ideation. RA was also associated with both outcomes in unadjusted analyses but became nonsignificant for suicide attempts in multivariate analyses. Moreover, sex served as a moderator, with PA showing an association with suicide attempt among men but not women. Results indicate the need for additional studies of PA and suicidal behavior. PMID:19222330

  15. Behavioral and emotional responses to interpersonal stress: A comparison of adolescents engaged in non-suicidal self-injury to adolescent suicide attempters.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kerri L; Cushman, Grace K; Weissman, Alexandra B; Puzia, Megan E; Wegbreit, Ezra; Tone, Erin B; Spirito, Anthony; Dickstein, Daniel P

    2015-08-30

    Prominent theoretical models and existing data implicate interpersonal factors in the development and maintenance of suicidal behavior and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). However, no known study has yet used computerized behavioral tasks to objectively assess responses to interpersonal conflict/collaboration among teens engaged in NSSI or having made a suicide attempt. The current study, therefore, compared interpersonal functioning indexed by the Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) task among three mutually exclusive groups, adolescents (ages 13-17): engaged in NSSI only without history of a suicide attempt (n=26); who made a suicide attempt without history of NSSI (n=26); and typically developing controls (n=26). Participants also completed the Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure to assess their general sensitivity to/awareness of others' behaviors and feelings. No significant between-group differences were found in PD task performance; however, compared to typically developing control participants and those who had made a suicide attempt, the NSSI group reported significantly more stress during the task. Additionally, NSSI participants rated themselves as more interpersonally sensitive compared to both attempters and typically developing controls. Given the lack of knowledge about whether these groups either differentially activate the same circuitry during stressful interpersonal interactions or instead rely on alternative, compensatory circuits, future work using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging is warranted.

  16. Behavioral and emotional responses to interpersonal stress: A comparison of adolescents engaged in non-suicidal self-injury to adolescent suicide attempters.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kerri L; Cushman, Grace K; Weissman, Alexandra B; Puzia, Megan E; Wegbreit, Ezra; Tone, Erin B; Spirito, Anthony; Dickstein, Daniel P

    2015-08-30

    Prominent theoretical models and existing data implicate interpersonal factors in the development and maintenance of suicidal behavior and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). However, no known study has yet used computerized behavioral tasks to objectively assess responses to interpersonal conflict/collaboration among teens engaged in NSSI or having made a suicide attempt. The current study, therefore, compared interpersonal functioning indexed by the Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) task among three mutually exclusive groups, adolescents (ages 13-17): engaged in NSSI only without history of a suicide attempt (n=26); who made a suicide attempt without history of NSSI (n=26); and typically developing controls (n=26). Participants also completed the Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure to assess their general sensitivity to/awareness of others' behaviors and feelings. No significant between-group differences were found in PD task performance; however, compared to typically developing control participants and those who had made a suicide attempt, the NSSI group reported significantly more stress during the task. Additionally, NSSI participants rated themselves as more interpersonally sensitive compared to both attempters and typically developing controls. Given the lack of knowledge about whether these groups either differentially activate the same circuitry during stressful interpersonal interactions or instead rely on alternative, compensatory circuits, future work using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging is warranted. PMID:26003509

  17. Sexual abuse, alcohol and other drug use, and suicidal behaviors in homeless adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rew, L; Taylor-Seehafer, M; Fitzgerald, M L

    2001-01-01

    Previous research has shown that homeless youth have high rates of suicidal ideation, sexual abuse, and abuse of alcohol and other drugs. However, little is known about how these rates differ by gender and ethnicity. Our objective was to describe patterns of sexual abuse, alcohol and other drug use, and indicators of suicidal behaviors in homeless adolescents and to determine gender and ethnic differences in these factors. We used secondary data analysis of data from surveys completed by 96 homeless youth whose average age was 17.9 years. Over 60% of the sample reported a history of sexual abuse; the majority were under the age of 12 years when they first tried alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine; 56.3% had injected drugs, and 46.9% had tried inhalants. During the past 12 months, 35.1% had seriously considered suicide and 12.3% had actually attempted suicide at least once. Significantly more Hispanics than Whites had considered suicide (chi 2 = 4.31, p = .038). A disproportionate number of Hispanics (95% of the sample) reported a history of sexual abuse. Participants with a history of sexual abuse were significantly more likely than those who did not have a history of sexual abuse to have used alcohol and/or marijuana (chi 2 = 9.93, p < .01) and to have considered suicide in the past 12 months (F = 14.93, p < .001). We found that sexual abuse history is greater in this sample than in the general population and is particularly prevalent among Hispanic/Latino subjects. As in other studies, sexual abuse was more common among females than among males. High prevalence of sexual abuse, alcohol and other drug use, and suicidal behaviors in this sample of homeless youth underscores the need to develop and test community-based interventions to improve their health status. PMID:11769208

  18. [Suicidal behavior and suicide attempts in adolescents and young adults--epidemiology, risk factors, prevention and treatment].

    PubMed

    Polewka, Andrzej; Kroch, Stanisław; Chrostek Maj, Jan

    2004-01-01

    According to WHO, every year, suicide is committed by at least 1 mln people in the world. In Europe, suicide is committed by about 43 thousand people a year, most frequently by middle-aged and elderly males, and attempted by 700 thousand people. In Poland, in 2002, 5100 people committed suicide. The number of suicide attempts is probably ten times higher. The aim of the study is to investigate the current state of knowledge concerning suicidal behaviour and attempted suicide in adolescents and young adults. The literature on the subject is analysed, and special attention is paid to the issue of suicide epidemiology, risk factors, prevention and treatment. Definitions of suicidal behaviour and presuicidal syndrome are debated. In the chapter concerning treatment, Bohme's model of crisis intervention in the case of suicidal patients is discussed, and detailed indications for treatment are presented. Suicide attempts are undertaken most frequently by young people, especially by teenage girls and young women. The ratio of suicide in this age group increased significantly in the last few years. Phenomena which are of special importance for the prevention of suicide among adolescents include suicidal thoughts, attempted suicide, and completed suicide. Multicentre study into suicidal behaviour conducted by WHO indicate that the highest average yearly European coefficients of suicide attempts have been detected in young females ranging in age from 15 to 24 years. Polish and foreign literature on the subject is dominated by publications regarding completed suicide. The issue of attempted suicide is treated rather marginally, which may be due to the scantiness of reliable data concerning large populations. The past few years, however, brought a significant advancement of the research into the epidemiology, etiology, and treatment of suicidal behaviour in adolescents. It is difficult to establish linear correspondence between risk factors and suicidal behaviour. The cause is

  19. Hope and the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior: replication and extension of prior findings.

    PubMed

    Anestis, Michael D; Moberg, Fallon B; Arnau, Randolph C

    2014-04-01

    The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior (IPTS; Joiner, 2005) posits that suicidal behavior occurs when an individual has a desire for death (due to the combination of perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness) in addition to an acquired capacity for suicide, which is present when the individual has a low fear of death and high pain tolerance. Previous research has demonstrated an expected negative relation between trait hope and perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness, as well as a more perplexing finding that hope is positively associated with the acquired capability. In a sample of 230 college students, measures of the three components of the IPTS were administered, along with measures of hope, depression, and painful and/or provocative events. Hierarchical regression analyses replicated the previously found associations between hope and burdensomeness and belongingness while controlling for depression and demographic variables. The positive association between hope and acquired capacity was also replicated, but a mediation analysis demonstrated that the effect was statistically accounted for by distress tolerance. The results further support the incremental validity of hope as a consideration in suicide risk assessments and suggest that hope may serve as a protective factor with respect to suicidal desire. PMID:24237390

  20. An enzyme in the kynurenine pathway that governs vulnerability to suicidal behavior by regulating excitotoxicity and neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Brundin, L; Sellgren, C M; Lim, C K; Grit, J; Pålsson, E; Landén, M; Samuelsson, M; Lundgren, K; Brundin, P; Fuchs, D; Postolache, T T; Traskman-Bendz, L; Guillemin, G J; Erhardt, S

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that inflammation has a key role in depression and suicidal behavior. The kynurenine pathway is involved in neuroinflammation and regulates glutamate neurotransmission. In the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of suicidal patients, levels of inflammatory cytokines and the kynurenine metabolite quinolinic acid (QUIN), an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor agonist, are increased. The enzyme amino-β-carboxymuconate-semialdehyde-decarboxylase (ACMSD) limits QUIN formation by competitive production of the neuroprotective metabolite picolinic acid (PIC). Therefore, decreased ACMSD activity can lead to excess QUIN. We tested the hypothesis that deficient ACMSD activity underlies suicidal behavior. We measured PIC and QUIN in CSF and plasma samples from 137 patients exhibiting suicidal behavior and 71 healthy controls. We used DSM-IV and the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale and Suicide Assessment Scale to assess behavioral changes. Finally, we genotyped ACMSD tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 77 of the patients and 150 population-based controls. Suicide attempters had reduced PIC and a decreased PIC/QUIN ratio in both CSF (P<0.001) and blood (P=0.001 and P<0.01, respectively). The reductions of PIC in CSF were sustained over 2 years after the suicide attempt based on repeated measures. The minor C allele of the ACMSD SNP rs2121337 was more prevalent in suicide attempters and associated with increased CSF QUIN. Taken together, our data suggest that increased QUIN levels may result from reduced activity of ACMSD in suicidal subjects. We conclude that measures of kynurenine metabolites can be explored as biomarkers of suicide risk, and that ACMSD is a potential therapeutic target in suicidal behavior. PMID:27483383

  1. Understanding PTSD comorbidity and suicidal behavior: associations among histories of alcohol dependence, major depressive disorder, and suicidal ideation and attempts.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Sasha M; Bujarski, Sarah; Babson, Kimberly A; Dutton, Courtney E; Feldner, Matthew T

    2014-04-01

    Individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are at an elevated risk for experiencing suicidal thoughts and actions. However, a relative dearth of research has examined factors that may impact this relation, such as common co-occurring disorders. Utilizing the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication data, the current study examined comparisons between comorbid PTSD and major depressive disorder (MDD) and comorbid PTSD and alcohol dependence (AD) in relation to suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. It was hypothesized that comorbid MDD would be associated with an elevated likelihood of suicidal ideation, while comorbid AD would be associated with an elevated likelihood of suicide attempt history. Results indicated that only PTSD-AD was significantly associated with an elevated likelihood of endorsing histories of both suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. These findings suggest that AD may be a critical risk factor for acquiring the capability for suicide attempts.

  2. Risk for Suicidal Thoughts and Behavior after Childhood Sexual Abuse in Women and Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedi, Saaniya; Nelson, Elliot C.; Lynskey, Michael T.; McCutcheon, Vivia V.; Heath, Andrew C.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Martin, Nicholas G.

    2011-01-01

    Earlier studies have found an elevated risk for psychopathology and suicidal behavior associated with childhood sexual abuse (CSA); however, the degree to which risk is mediated by depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in women and men remains unclear. We examined these issues in data from a family study of childhood maltreatment (N…

  3. Citation Classics in "Suicide and Life Threatening Behavior": A Research Note

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Steven

    2012-01-01

    The number of citations a scholarly work receives is a common measure of its impact on the scientific literature; "citation classics" are the most highly cited works. The content of "Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior" ("SLTB") citation classics is described here. The impact of "SLTB" citation classics is compared to their counterparts in…

  4. Body Weight Perception, Unhealthy Weight Control Behaviors, and Suicidal Ideation among Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dong-Sik; Cho, Youngtae; Cho, Sung-Il; Lim, In-Sook

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study examined the mediating function of body weight perception (BWP) in the relation between body mass index (BMI) and unhealthy weight control behaviors (UWCBs; eg, fasting, using diet pills, or laxatives), and between BMI and suicidal ideation. It also explored the correlation between exposure to multiple UWCBs and suicidal…

  5. Sex Differences in Childhood Sexual Abuse and Suicide-Related Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Anne E.; Boyle, Michael H.; Tonmyr, Lil; Wekerle, Christine; Goodman, Deborah; Leslie, Bruce; Mironova, Polina; Bethell, Jennifer; Manion, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Child sexual abuse and suicide-related behaviors are associated, but it remains unclear if the strength of this association differs in boys and girls. In a systematic review of this association in children and youth, we identified 16 relevant studies, all cross-sectional surveys of students. The association is stronger in boys specific to suicide…

  6. Child Maltreatment and Repeat Presentations to the Emergency Department for Suicide-Related Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Anne E.; Boyle, Michael H.; Bethell, Jennifer; Wekerle, Christine; Tonmyr, Lil; Goodman, Deborah; Leslie, Bruce; Lam, Kelvin; Manion, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To identify factors associated with repeat emergency department (ED) presentations for suicide-related behaviors (SRB)--hereafter referred to as repetition--among children/youth to aid secondary prevention initiatives. To compare rates of repetition in children/youth with substantiated maltreatment requiring removal from their parental…

  7. Definitions of suicidal behavior: lessons learned from the WHo/EURO multicentre Study.

    PubMed

    De Leo, D; Burgis, S; Bertolote, J M; Kerkhof, A J F M; Bille-Brahe, U

    2006-01-01

    Based on the experience matured during the 15 years of the WHO/EURO Multicentre Study on Suicidal Behavior, this paper provides an excursus on main elements that characterize components for definitional needs. It describes the rationale for choosing the initial set of definitions within the study and the subsequent problems and developments. As a result, unifying terminologies are proposed. PMID:16642910

  8. Child Maltreatment and Onset of Emergency Department Presentations for Suicide-Related Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Anne E.; Boyle, Michael H.; Bethell, Jennifer; Wekerle, Christine; Goodman, Deborah; Tonmyr, Lil; Leslie, Bruce; Lam, Kelvin; Manion, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether the rates of a first presentation to the emergency department (ED) for suicide-related behavior (SRB) are higher among children/youth permanently removed from their parental home because of substantiated maltreatment than their peers. To describe the health care settings accessed by these children/youth before a…

  9. Cyber Bullying and Physical Bullying in Adolescent Suicide: The Role of Violent Behavior and Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litwiller, Brett J.; Brausch, Amy M.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of bullying in all forms on the mental health and safety of adolescents is of particular interest, especially in the wake of new methods of bullying that victimize youths through technology. The current study examined the relationship between victimization from both physical and cyber bullying and adolescent suicidal behavior. Violent…

  10. Familial Transmission of Mood Disorders: Convergence and Divergence with Transmission of Suicidal Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brent, David A.; Oquendo, Maria; Birmaher, Boris; Greenhill, Laurence; Kolko, David; Stanley, Barbara; Zelazny, Jamie; Brodsky, Beth; Melhem, Nadine; Ellis, Steven P.; Mann, J. John

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Both mood disorder and suicidal behavior are familial. In this study, the authors examine the factors associated with the familial transmission of these two related conditions to learn which are shared or unique risk factors for familial transmission. Method: The 285 offspring of 141 probands with mood disorder were studied. Proband and…

  11. Suicidal Behaviors among Adolescents in Puerto Rico: Rates and Correlates in Clinical and Community Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jennifer; Ramirez, Rafael Roberto; Davies, Mark; Canino, Glorisa; Goodwin, Renee D.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined rates and correlates of suicidal behavior among youth on the island of Puerto Rico. Data were drawn from two probability samples, one clinical (n = 736) and one community-based sample (n = 1,896), of youth ages 12 to 17. Consistent with previous studies in U.S. mainland adolescent populations, our results demonstrate that most…

  12. Suicidal and self-injurious behavior among patients with alcohol and drug abuse

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sharqi, Abdullah Mohammed; Sherra, Khaled Saad; Al-Habeeb, Abdulhameed Abdullah; Qureshi, Naseem Akhtar

    2012-01-01

    Background Self-injurious behavior, a major public health problem globally, is linked with alcohol and drug abuse. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the prevalence and correlates of self-harming behavior in patients with alcohol or drug abuse problems. Methods This was a one-year study that recruited a convenience sample of 736 outpatients and inpatients identified with alcohol or drug abuse, and was conducted at Al-Amal mental health hospitals in three major cities. All consecutively selected patients were interviewed on five working days for data collection on a semistructured sociodemographic form using the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale Risk Assessment version. Results In addition to the socioclinical profile revealed, 50.7% of respondents reported any suicidal ideation, while 6.9% reported self-injurious behavior without intent to die. Any suicidal and self-injurious behavior was reported by 13.1% of participants. A total of 71.3% of respondents reported any recent negative activating events. In addition to any treatment history, observed correlates were hopelessness (60.7%), perceived burden on family (29.5%), refusing a safety plan (26.1%), and sexual abuse (11%). Conversely, reasons for living (64.9%), fear of death or dying due to pain and suffering (64.3%), and spirituality (92%) were largely endorsed as protective factors. There were multiple significant odds ratios (P ≤ 0.01) revealed when independent socioclinical variables were compared with dependent variables in terms of suspected risk and protective factors. In an adjusted logistic regression model, none of the independent variables contributed significantly to any suicidal and self-injurious behavior, any suicidal ideation, or protection from them (P > 0.05). Conclusion Our preliminary results suggest that there are some socioclinical correlates of any suicide ideation, suicidal and self-injurious behavior, and protection from risky behavior, but which of them contributes

  13. Overview of Early Detection and Treatment Strategies for Suicidal Behavior in Young People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenthal, Susan J.; Kupfer, David J.

    1988-01-01

    A new approach to early detection and intervention for the prevention of youth suicide is presented. The approach integrates a proposed model of risk factors with a multithreshold level of early detection. Psychiatric diagnosis, personality traits, psychosocial factors, life events and chronic medical illness, biological factors, and family…

  14. Cannabis use and the risk behavior syndrome in Italian university students: are they related to suicide risk?

    PubMed

    Innamorati, Marco; Pompili, Maurizio; Ferrari, Vincenzo; Girardi, Paolo; Tatarelli, Roberto; Tamburello, Antonino; Lester, David

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association of cannabis use with risky behaviors and suicide risk in university students. A convenience sample of 246 students was recruited from four universities in Rome during the 2004 academic year. Participants completed the Zung scales for anxiety and depression, the Suicide Score Scale, and an ad hoc questionnaire assessing risky behaviors. The findings indicated a widespread use of cannabis among students and its association with risky behaviors, anxiety and depression, and suicide risk. A regression tree analysis resulted in 3 splits indicating that the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale is a good predictor of suicide risk, discriminating individuals at lower risk from those at higher risk. Individuals at higher risk for suicide could also be discriminated by self-reported lifetime drug use. Limitations of the study are related to the small sample size and use of a convenience sample. PMID:18567227

  15. Suicidal Behaviors in Surviving Monozygotic and Dizygotic Co-Twins: Is the Nature of the Co-Twin's Cause of Death a Factor?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Nancy L.

    2009-01-01

    Genetically informative samples can address hereditary and experiential influences on suicide-related behaviors. The frequency of suicide-related behaviors was compared in twins from two survivor groups: (1) those whose co-twins' deaths were suicides (monozygotic [MZ]: n = 47; dizygotic [DZ]: n = 31), and (2) those whose co-twins' deaths were…

  16. The Validity of a Brief Risk Assessment Tool for Predicting Suicidal Behavior in Veterans Utilizing VHA Mental Health Care.

    PubMed

    Doran, Neal; De Peralta, Sharon; Depp, Colin; Dishman, Ben; Gold, Lindsay; Marshall, Robert; Miller, Dawn; Vitale, Shannon; Tiamson-Kassab, Maria

    2016-08-01

    Suicide risk among military veterans is an important and ongoing concern. The Veterans Administration (VA) mandates suicide risk screening of all veterans seen for mental health issues, but little is known about the effectiveness of this screening. A retrospective chart review to examine all suicide risk screens at VA San Diego between October and December 2012 (n = 3,365) was conducted to assess whether results were associated with suicidal behavior over the subsequent 12 months. Patients judged to be at increased risk for suicide were 3 to 16 times more likely to attempt suicide and 7 to 25 times more likely to engage in self-directed violence over the next 12 months compared with others. The screening tool may be a useful addition to clinical practice. PMID:26822821

  17. Factors from Durkheim's Family Integration Related to Suicidal Ideation among Men with Histories of Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easton, Scott D.; Renner, Lynette M.

    2013-01-01

    Men who were sexually abused during childhood represent a highly stigmatized, marginalized population at risk for a variety of long-term mental health problems. Using the family integration dimension of Durkheim's theory of suicide, factors associated with suicidal ideation among a purposive sample of 487 men with histories of child sexual…

  18. Are Body Dissatisfaction, Eating Disturbance, and Body Mass Index Predictors of Suicidal Behavior in Adolescents? A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crow, Scott; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2008-01-01

    Disordered eating, body dissatisfaction, and obesity have been associated cross sectionally with suicidal behavior in adolescents. To determine the extent to which these variables predicted suicidal ideation and attempts, the authors examined these relationships in a longitudinal design. The study population included 2,516 older adolescents and…

  19. Trajectories of Depressive Symptoms and Externalizing Behaviors across Adolescence: Associations with Histories of Suicide Attempt and Ideation in Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, David C. R.; Reinke, Wendy M.; Eddy, J. Mark

    2013-01-01

    We examined associations between adolescent problem trajectories and suicide risk outcomes in 361 community participants. Depressive symptoms (self-report) and externalizing behaviors (parent report) were assessed six times from grades 5 to 10. Parallel process linear growth curves indicated that lifetime suicide attempt history assessed to age 25…

  20. Training Mental Health Professionals to Assess and Manage Suicidal Behavior: Can Provider Confidence and Practice Behaviors Be Altered?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oordt, Mark S.; Jobes, David A.; Fonseca, Vincent P.; Schmidt, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    Remarkably little systematic research has studied the effects of clinical suicidology training on changing practitioner attitudes and behaviors. In the current study we investigated whether training in an empirically-based assessment and treatment approach to suicidal patients administered through a continuing education workshop could meaningfully…

  1. Risk of Suicidal Behavior With Antidepressants in Bipolar and Unipolar Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Leon, Andrew C; Fiedorowicz, Jess G.; Solomonon, David A.; Li, Chunshan; Coryell, William H.; Endicott, Jean; Fawcett, Jan; Keller, Martin B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the risk ofsuicidal behavior (suicide attempts and deaths) associated with antidepressants in participants with bipolar I, bipolar n, and unipolar major depressive disorders. Design A 27-year longitudinal (1981-2008) observational study ofmood disorders (Research Diagnostic Criteria diagnoses based on Schedule Dr Afi:ctive Disorders and Schizophrenia and review ofmedical records) was used to evaluate antidepressants and risk Dr suicidal behavior. Mixed-efi:cts logistic regression models examined propensity Dr antidepressant exposure. Mixed-efi:cts swvival models that were matched on the propensity score examined exposure status as a risk factor for time until suicidal behavior. Setting Five US academic medical centers. Results Analyses of206 participants with bipolar I disorder revealed 2,010 exposure intervals (980 exposed to antidepressants; 1,030 unexposed); 139 participants with bipolar II disorder had 1 ,407 exposure intervals (694 exposed; 713 unexposed); and 361 participants with unipolar depressive disorder had 2, 745 exposure intervals (1,328 exposed; 1,417 unexposed). Propensity score analyses confinned that more severely ill participants were more likely to initiate antidepressant treatment. In mixed-elects swvival analyses, those with bipolar I disorder had a significant reduction in risk of suicidal behavior by 54% (HR = 0.46; 95% CI, 0.31-0.69; t = -3.74; P < .001) during periods of antidepressant exposure compared to propensity-matched unexposed intervals. Similarly, the risk was reduced by 35% (HR = 0.65; 95% CI, 0.43-0.99; t = −2.01; P = .045) in bipolar II disorder. By contrast, there was no evidence of an increased or decreased risk with antidepressant exposure in unipolar disorder. Condusions Based on obsetVational data adjusted Dr propensity to receive antidepressants, antidepressants may protect patients with bipolar disorders but not unipolar depressive disorder from suicidal behavior. PMID:25093469

  2. Enlarged Thalamic Volumes and Increased Fractional Anisotropy in the Thalamic Radiations in Veterans with Suicide Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Larson, Melissa; King, Jace B.; McGlade, Erin; Bueler, Elliott; Stoeckel, Amanda; Epstein, Daniel J.; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Post-mortem studies have suggested a link between the thalamus, psychiatric disorders, and suicide. We evaluated the thalamus and anterior thalamic radiations (ATR) in a group of Veterans with and without a history of suicidal behavior (SB) to determine if thalamic abnormalities were associated with an increased risk of SB. Forty Veterans with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) and no SB (TBI-SB), 19 Veterans with mild TBI and a history of SB (TB + SB), and 15 healthy controls (HC) underwent magnetic resonance imaging scanning including a structural and diffusion tensor imaging scan. SBs were evaluated utilizing the Columbia Suicide Rating Scale and impulsivity was measured using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS). Differences in thalamic volumes and ATR fractional anisotropy (FA) were examined between (1) TBI + SB versus HC and (2) TBI + SB versus combined HC and TBI-SB and (3) between TBI + SB and TBI-SB. Left and right thalamic volumes were significantly increased in those with TBI + SB compared to the HC, TBI-SB, and the combined group. Veterans with TBI + SB had increased FA bilaterally compared to the HC, HC and TBI-SB group, and the TBI-SB only group. Significant positive associations were found for bilateral ATR and BIS in the TBI + SB group. Our findings of thalamic enlargement and increased FA in individuals with TBI + SB suggest that this region may be a biomarker for suicide risk. Our findings are consistent with previous evidence indicating that suicide may be associated with behavioral disinhibition and frontal-thalamic-limbic dysfunction and suggest a neurobiologic mechanism that may increase vulnerability to suicide. PMID:23964245

  3. Are structural brain abnormalities associated with suicidal behavior in patients with psychotic disorders?

    PubMed

    Giakoumatos, Christoforos I; Tandon, Neeraj; Shah, Jai; Mathew, Ian T; Brady, Roscoe O; Clementz, Brett A; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Thaker, Gunvant K; Tamminga, Carol A; Sweeney, John A; Keshavan, Matcheri S

    2013-10-01

    Suicide represents a major health problem world-wide. Nevertheless, the understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of suicidal behavior remains far from complete. We compared suicide attempters to non-attempters, and high vs. low lethality attempters, to identify brain regions associated with suicidal behavior in patients with psychotic disorders. 489 individuals with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or psychotic bipolar disorder I and 262 healthy controls enrolled in the B-SNIP study were studied. Groups were compared by attempt history and the highest medical lethality of previous suicide attempts. 97 patients had a history of a high lethality attempt, 51 of a low lethality attempt and 341 had no attempt history. Gray matter volumes were obtained from 3T structural MRI scans using FreeSurfer. ANCOVAs were used to examine differences between groups, followed by Hochberg multiple comparison correction. Compared to non-attempters, attempters had significantly less gray matter volume in bilateral inferior temporal and superior temporal cortices, left superior parietal, thalamus and supramarginal regions, right insula, superior frontal and rostral middle frontal regions. Among attempters, a history of high lethality attempts was associated with significantly smaller volumes in the left lingual gyrus and right cuneus. Compared to non-attempters, low lethality attempters had significant decreases in the left supramarginal gyrus, thalamus and the right insula. Structural brain abnormalities may distinguish suicide attempters from non-attempters and high from low lethality attempters among individuals with psychotic disorders. Regions in which differences were observed are part of neural circuitries that mediate inhibition, impulsivity and emotion, visceral, visual and auditory perception.

  4. Insomnia symptoms, behavioral/emotional problems, and suicidality among adolescents of insomniac and non-insomniac parents.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianchen; Zhao, Zhongtang; Jia, Cunxian

    2015-08-30

    The aim of this study was to examine insomnia symptoms, behavioral problems, and suicidality among adolescents of insomniac parents (IP) and non-insomniac parents (NIP). A family survey of sleep and health was conducted among 1090 adolescents and their parents in Jinan, China. Adolescents completed a sleep and health questionnaire to report their sleep and mental health problems. Parents reported their insomnia symptoms and history of mental disorders. Insomnia, behavioral problems, and suicidal behavior were compared between IP adolescents and NIP adolescents. IP adolescents were more likely than NIP adolescents to report insomnia symptoms, use of sleep medication, suicidal ideation, suicide plan, and suicide attempt. IP adolescents scored significantly higher than NIP adolescents on withdrawn and externalizing behavioral problems. After adjustment for demographics and behavioral problems, parental insomnia remained to be significantly associated with adolescent suicidal ideation and suicide plan. Our findings support the need for early screening and formal assessment of sleep and mental health in adolescents of insomniac parents. PMID:26096660

  5. 'Plue plun' male, 'kath klei' female: gender differences in suicidal behavior as expressed by young people in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Jegannathan, Bhoomikumar; Dahlblom, Kjerstin; Kullgren, Gunnar

    2014-09-01

    Few studies from low- and middle-income countries use qualitative methodology to explore suicidal behavior among young people. In Cambodia, young people face the challenge of rapidly changing times and are vulnerable for suicidal behavior as revealed by research in transitional economies. This study seeks to gain a deeper understanding of the suicidal phenomena from a gender, psychosocial and cultural perspective. Six focus-group discussions were conducted among boys and girls, aged 15-19 years, in two secondary schools in a suburban area close to Phnom Penh, the capital city. The data was analyzed using thematic analysis approach. The participants highlighted the gender difference in suicidal behavior by describing the suicide-prone, acting-out male as 'plue plun', while suicide-prone females were described as caught in constricted, tunneled-thinking behavior, expressed as 'kath klei'. Parental attitude and family environment were also pointed out as the chief causes of discontent and there was a strong wish on the part of young people to find space for modern values within the traditional family. The young people's awareness of their challenges in everyday life suggests that school-based programs to prevent suicidal behavior ought to be gender-sensitive and peer-focused.

  6. Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Suicidal Latina Adolescents: Supplemental Dialectical Corollaries and Treatment Targets.

    PubMed

    Germán, Miguelina; Smith, Heather L; Rivera-Morales, Camila; González, Garnetta; Haliczer, Lauren A; Haaz, Chloe; Miller, Alec L

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of this paper is to describe extreme behavioral patterns that the authors have observed in treating Latina adolescents who are suicidal and their parents within the framework of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT). These extreme patterns, called dialectical corollaries, serve to supplement the adolescent/family dialectical dilemmas described by Rathus and Miller (2002) as part of dialectical behavior therapy for suicidal adolescents with borderline personality features. The dialectical corollaries proposed are "old school versus new school" and "overprotecting" versus "underprotecting," and they are described in-depth. We also identify specific treatment targets for each corollary and discuss therapeutic techniques aimed at achieving a synthesis between the polarities that characterize each corollary. Lastly, we suggest clinical strategies to use when therapists reach a therapeutic impasse with the parent-adolescent dyad (i.e., dialectical failures). PMID:26160622

  7. Analysis of association of clinical correlates and 5-HTTLPR polymorphism with suicidal behavior among Chinese methamphetamine abusers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Ken; Lin, Shih-Ku; Huang, Ming-Chyi; Su, Lien-Wen; Hsiao, Cheng-Cheng; Chiang, Yuan-Lin; Ree, Shao-Chun; Chiang, Shu-Chuan; Liu, Hsing-Cheng

    2007-10-01

    Substance use disorders are familial, and genetic factors explain a substantial degree of their familial aggregation. Methamphetamine (MAP) abusers are commonly noted as having psychosis, depression and suicidal behavior. The goals of the present study were (i) to investigate relations of clinical correlates, such as gender, drug use behavior, psychiatric comorbidity and psychiatry family history, with suicidal behavior among Chinese MAP abusers; and (ii) to investigate whether there is an association between a polymorphism in the promotor region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) and suicidal behavior among Chinese MAP abusers. A total of 439 MAP abusers from a hospital and detention center in Taipei were interviewed with the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Study and the Family Interview for Genetic Study. The 5-HTTLPR polymorphism was compared between 94 MAP abusers with suicide attempts and 294 MAP abusers without suicide attempts, for whom DNA data were available. The results of the present study indicate that among MAP abusers in Taiwan, suicide attempts were significantly related to female gender, history of MAP-induced psychotic disorder, history of MAP-induced depressive disorder, and family history of psychotic disorders. Among suicide attempters, the attempters with moderate to severe lethality used higher MAP doses than those with minimal to mild lethality. In the present sample the triallelic 5-HTTLPR polymorphism (S, L(G), L(A)) was not associated with MAP-induced depressive disorder, MAP-induced psychotic disorder or suicidal behavior, but studies with larger sample sizes are warranted before excluding the role of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms in suicidal behavior among MAP abusers.

  8. Social Integration and Suicide Mortality Among Men: 24-Year Cohort Study of U.S. Health Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Alexander C.; Lucas, Michel; Sania, Ayesha; Kim, Daniel; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Background Suicide is a major public health problem. Current thinking about suicide emphasizes the study of psychiatric, psychological, or biological determinants. Previous work in this area has largely relied on surrogate outcomes or samples enriched for psychiatric morbidity. Objective To evaluate the relationship between social integration and suicide mortality. Design Prospective cohort study initiated in 1988. Setting United States. Participants 34 901 men aged 40 to 75 years. Measurements Social integration was measured with a 7-item index that included marital status, social network size, frequency of contact, religious participation, and participation in other social groups. Vital status of study participants was ascertained through 1 February 2012. The primary outcome of interest was suicide mortality, defined as deaths classified with codes E950 to E959 from the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision. Results Over 708 945 person-years of follow-up, there were 147 suicides. The incidence of suicide decreased with increasing social integration. In a multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model, the relative hazard of suicide was lowest among participants in the highest (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR], 0.41 [95% CI, 0.24 to 0.69]) and second-highest (AHR, 0.52 [CI, 0.30 to 0.91]) categories of social integration. Three components (marital status, social network size, and religious service attendance) showed the strongest protective associations. Social integration was also inversely associated with all-cause and cardiovascular-related mortality, but accounting for competing causes of death did not substantively alter the findings. Limitations The study lacked information on participants’ mental well-being. Some suicides could have been misclassified as accidental deaths. Conclusion Men who were socially well-integrated had a more than 2-fold reduced risk for suicide over 24 years of follow-up. Primary Funding Source National

  9. Behavioral activation and problem-solving therapy for depressed breast cancer patients: preliminary support for decreased suicidal ideation.

    PubMed

    Hopko, D R; Funderburk, J S; Shorey, R C; McIndoo, C C; Ryba, M M; File, A A; Benson, K; Vitulano, M

    2013-11-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the most common psychiatric disorder in breast cancer patients. The prevalence of suicidal ideation in breast cancer patients is considerable, and relative to the general population, the prevalence of completed suicide is elevated, particularly in cancer patients with MDD. A major component of suicide prevention is effective treatment of MDD. Although some research has explored the utility of psychotherapy with breast cancer patients, only three trials have explored the benefits of behavior therapy in patients with well-diagnosed MDD and there has been no systematic investigation of the potential benefits of psychotherapy toward reducing suicidal ideation in breast cancer patients. As a follow-up to a recently completed randomized trial, this study examined the efficacy of 8 weeks of behavioral activation treatment for depression (BATD) and problem-solving therapy (PST) in reducing depression and suicidal ideation, as well as increasing hopefulness in breast cancer patients with MDD (n = 80). Across both treatments, GEE analyses revealed decreased depression and suicidal ideation and increased hopefulness at posttreatment, results that were maintained at 12-month follow-up. Moreover, follow-up patient contact at approximately 2 years posttreatment yielded no indication of completed suicide. Although these data are preliminary, BATD and PST may represent practical approaches to decrease suicidal ideation in depressed breast cancer patients.

  10. Suicidal behavior by burns among women in two bordering provinces in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Alaghehbandan, R.; Dinn, N.A.; Rastegar Lari, E.; Rastegar Lari, A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The objective of the study was to describe epidemiologic features of suicidal behavior by burns among women in two bordering provinces in Iran. A prospective hospital-based study of all suicidal behaviors by burns among women was carried out in the Iranian provinces of Khorasan (which borders Afghanistan) and Ilam (which borders Iraq) in 2006. These two provinces suffered from war and economic instability with high rates of poverty and unemployment. Data were obtained from patients, family members, and/or significant others through interviews during the course of hospitalization. Of 181 hospitalized patients, 130 (71.8%) were female, representing a hospital separation rate of 5.4 per 100,000 person-year (P-Y). The rate of suicidal behavior involving burns among the rural population was higher than that in the urban population (6.3 vs. 4.7 per 100,000 P-Y, P = 0.09). The median age of the patients was 23 years old, with a mean (±SD) of 27.9 (±14.3) years old. Approximately 68.5% of women were married. Quarrels with “a family member, spouse, a relative, or a friend” (marital plus other conflicts) was identified as the most common precipitating factor (88.5%) in attempting suicide. More than one third of women were abused (physically and/or verbally) by family members (i.e. spouse, father-in-law). Case fatality rate in this study was 52.3% (68/130). Suicide by burns is still a socio-epidemiological problem in Iran, particularly among young, married women in rural areas. Social and economic conditions, as well as violence against women, play a major role in the high rate of suicide by burns. The findings of this study highlight the need for the implementation of a well-organized approach to reduce the rate of suicide by burns among the most vulnerable populations in Iran. PMID:27252614

  11. Association study of T102C 5-HT2A polymorphism in schizophrenic patients: diagnosis, psychopathology, and suicidal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Humberto; De Marco, Luiz; Boson, Wolfanga; Nicolato, Rodrigo; Teixeira, Antó L.; Campo, Valdir R.; Romano-Silva, Marco A.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association between the serotonin (5-HT)2A gene polymorphism (102T/C) and suicidal behavior in schizophrenic inpatients. We studied 129 subjects who met the diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia according to a structured clinicai interview (MINI-PLUS), Patients underwent a semistructured interview to assess suicide attempt history and its characteristics, in addition, at least one close relative of the patient was interviewed to assess prohand and family suicidal behavior. Healthy controls were students and hospital staff members free of psychiatric and medical illness. Genotypes were determined after polymerase chain reaction amplification of the region of 5-HT2A/T102C containing the polymorphic site and digestion with the restriction enzyme Hpall, We found no association between suicidal attempt history and suicide attempt characteristics and genotypic or aileie frequencies. Suicidal behavior was also not associated with demographic or psychopathological characteristics. These results suggest that the S-HT2A gene polymorphism (102T/C) is not involved in genetic susceptibility to suicidal behavior, but further studies in a larger sample are needed. PMID:17506229

  12. A comparison of studies from the United States and western Europe on psychiatric hospitalization referrals for youths exhibiting suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Safer, D J

    1996-09-01

    A comprehensive literature review that rates of adolescent suicide-behavior based referrals from emergency rooms (ER) to psychiatric impatient facilities in the United States (U.S.) and in Western Europe (WE). Also compared on both sides of the Atlantic were the characteristics of suicidal youths seen at the ER and those admitted to psychiatric hospital units. The major findings were as follows. (1) Youths at both geographical locations who were seen at the ERs for suicidal behavior were very similar with respect to age and gender. (2) A median of 39% of youths seen in U.S. ERs for suicidal behavior were referred for inpatient psychiatric treatment; in WE, the median was 12%. (3) In the U.S., suicidal youths referred from the ER to psychiatric inpatient care were predominantly female (2.5:1) and mainly midadolescent in age (median age = 15). (4) In WE, the majority of those suicidal youths referred for psychiatric hospitalization were male (1:1.2) and in their late adolescent years (median age = 17). Thus, far fewer but more at risk youths presenting with suicidal behavior were admitted to psychiatric hospitals in WE than in the U.S. Presumably this is due largely to cross-Atlantic differences in malpractice patterns, academic perspectives, and medical care financing. PMID:8899134

  13. Suicidal-related behaviors and quality of life according to gender in adolescent Mexican high school students.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo-Rasmussen, Carlos; Martín, Alfredo Hidalgo-San

    2015-11-01

    The study of pre-suicidal behaviors is important not only because of their association with suicide but also because of their impact on quality of life (QOL). Given the scarcity of information regarding this relationship in adolescence, the objective of this study was to analyze the association between suicidal-related behavior and QOL according to gender in adolescent Mexican high school students. This cross-sectional study was conducted with participants between 14 and 18 years of age. A translated version of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey and the Spanish version of the Youth Quality of Life Research - Instrument version were used. Non-parametric tests were applied. Informed consent was obtained from parents and students, and ethical committee approval was sought. The developmental-transactional model of suicidal behavior in adolescents by Bridge et al. was used. Separate analyses were conducted for males and females to show the suicidal-related behaviors associated with QOL. The behavior of having felt sad or hopeless generally presented the greatest effect sizes. The regression models showed that some suicidal-related behaviors increase the probability of a lower QOL even after adjusting for covariates.

  14. Suicidal-related behaviors and quality of life according to gender in adolescent Mexican high school students.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo-Rasmussen, Carlos; Martín, Alfredo Hidalgo-San

    2015-11-01

    The study of pre-suicidal behaviors is important not only because of their association with suicide but also because of their impact on quality of life (QOL). Given the scarcity of information regarding this relationship in adolescence, the objective of this study was to analyze the association between suicidal-related behavior and QOL according to gender in adolescent Mexican high school students. This cross-sectional study was conducted with participants between 14 and 18 years of age. A translated version of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey and the Spanish version of the Youth Quality of Life Research - Instrument version were used. Non-parametric tests were applied. Informed consent was obtained from parents and students, and ethical committee approval was sought. The developmental-transactional model of suicidal behavior in adolescents by Bridge et al. was used. Separate analyses were conducted for males and females to show the suicidal-related behaviors associated with QOL. The behavior of having felt sad or hopeless generally presented the greatest effect sizes. The regression models showed that some suicidal-related behaviors increase the probability of a lower QOL even after adjusting for covariates. PMID:26602721

  15. Adolescent suicide prevention. Current research and social policy implications.

    PubMed

    Garland, A F; Zigler, E

    1993-02-01

    The rate of adolescent suicide has increased dramatically in the past few decades, prompting several interventions to curb the increase. Unfortunately, many of the intervention efforts have not benefited from current research findings because the communication between researchers and those who develop the interventions is inadequate. Of specific concern are the increasingly popular curriculum-based suicide prevention programs, which have not demonstrated effectiveness and may contain potentially deleterious components. This article reviews the current epidemiological research in adolescent suicide and suggests how this knowledge could be used more effectively to reduce the rate of adolescent suicide. Recommendations include support for integrated primary prevention efforts; suicide prevention education for professionals; education and policies on firearm management; education for the media about adolescent suicide; more efficient identification and treatment of at-risk youth, including those exposed to suicidal behavior; crisis intervention; and treatment for suicide attempters. PMID:8442571

  16. Witnessed Suicides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, Charles P.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Presents epidemiologic and forensic description of 50 witnessed suicides drawn from 15-year series of over 1,000 cases. Develops taxonomy based on role played by witnesses and relates to previous work on self-destructive behavior and its motivation. Uses vignettes to illustrate interpersonal dynamics associated with witnessed suicides. (Author/NB)

  17. Rethinking Impulsivity in Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klonsky, E. David; May, Alexis

    2010-01-01

    Elevated impulsivity is thought to facilitate the transition from suicidal thoughts to suicidal behavior. Therefore, impulsivity should distinguish those who have attempted suicide (attempters) from those who have only considered suicide (ideators-only). This hypothesis was examined in three large nonclinical samples: (1) 2,011 military recruits,…

  18. The Mediating Roles of Stress and Maladaptive Behaviors on Self-Harm and Suicide Attempts among Runaway and Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moskowitz, Amanda; Stein, Judith A.; Lightfoot, Marguerita

    2013-01-01

    Runaway and homeless youth often have a constellation of background behavioral, emotional, and familial problems that contribute to stress and maladaptive behaviors, which, in turn, can lead to self-harming and suicidal behaviors. The current study examined the roles of stress and maladaptive behaviors as mediators between demographic and…

  19. Non-Suicidal Self-Injury and Interpersonal Violence in Suicide Attempters.

    PubMed

    Sahlin, Hanna; Moberg, Tomas; Hirvikoski, Tatja; Jokinen, Jussi

    2015-01-01

    The current study compared characteristics of suicidal behavior and interpersonal violence in suicide attempters with and without a history of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). A total of 100 suicide attempters were assessed with Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scale (KIVS) and Karolinska Suicide History Interview concerning interpersonal violence and NSSI. There was a high degree of comorbid NSSI in suicide attempters (44%). Suicide attempters with NSSI-history reported more interpersonal violence as adults and more severe suicidal behavior compared to suicide attempters without NSSI. Comorbid NSSI was related to severity of suicidal behavior in a gender specific manner. Comorbid NSSI in suicide attempters may increase suicide and violence risk.

  20. Suicide risk assessment and suicide risk formulation: essential components of the therapeutic risk management model.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Morton M

    2014-09-01

    Suicide and other suicidal behaviors are often associated with psychiatric disorders and dysfunctions. Therefore, psychiatrists have significant opportunities to identify at-risk individuals and offer treatment to reduce that risk. Although a suicide risk assessment is a core competency requirement, many clinical psychiatrists lack the requisite training and skills to appropriately assess for suicide risk. Moreover, the standard of care requires psychiatrists to foresee the possibility that a patient might engage in suicidal behavior, hence to conduct a suicide risk formulation sufficient to guide triage and treatment planning. Based on data collected via a suicide risk assessment, a suicide risk formulation is a process whereby the psychiatrist forms a judgment about a patient's foreseeable risk of suicidal behavior in order to inform triage decisions, safety and treatment planning, and interventions to reduce risk. This paper addresses the components of this process in the context of the model for therapeutic risk management of the suicidal patient developed at the Veterans Integrated Service Network (VISN) 19 Mental Illness Research, Education and Clinical Center by Wortzel et al.

  1. Asthma, Depression, and Suicidality: Results from the 2007, 2009, and 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Leah; Aldea, Ivanjo; Messias, Erick

    2015-09-01

    We assessed the association between asthma and suicidality in a nationally representative sample of US high school students. Data came from the 2007, 2009, and 2011 Youth Risk Behavioral Surveys. Weighted prevalence estimates and adjusted odds ratios were calculated. Subjects with asthma are more likely to report 2-week sadness (35.2%) compared to those without asthma (26.7%). Teens with asthma are also more likely to report suicide ideation (20.1% vs. 15%), planning (15.7% vs. 12.1%), attempt (10.1% vs. 6.9%), and treatment for attempt (3.5% vs. 2%). Although the unadjusted association between lifetime asthma and suicide attempts is statistically significant (crude odds ratio 1.5 (95% CI 1.3-1.8)), after controlling for confounders, that association is no longer statistically significant (AOR 1.2 (1-1.6)). Thus, this increase in suicidality seems to be due to the increased prevalence of sadness among teens with asthma. Similar patterns were seen in the 2007 and 2009 surveys. PMID:26252825

  2. Asthma, Depression, and Suicidality: Results from the 2007, 2009, and 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Leah; Aldea, Ivanjo; Messias, Erick

    2015-09-01

    We assessed the association between asthma and suicidality in a nationally representative sample of US high school students. Data came from the 2007, 2009, and 2011 Youth Risk Behavioral Surveys. Weighted prevalence estimates and adjusted odds ratios were calculated. Subjects with asthma are more likely to report 2-week sadness (35.2%) compared to those without asthma (26.7%). Teens with asthma are also more likely to report suicide ideation (20.1% vs. 15%), planning (15.7% vs. 12.1%), attempt (10.1% vs. 6.9%), and treatment for attempt (3.5% vs. 2%). Although the unadjusted association between lifetime asthma and suicide attempts is statistically significant (crude odds ratio 1.5 (95% CI 1.3-1.8)), after controlling for confounders, that association is no longer statistically significant (AOR 1.2 (1-1.6)). Thus, this increase in suicidality seems to be due to the increased prevalence of sadness among teens with asthma. Similar patterns were seen in the 2007 and 2009 surveys.

  3. Study on genes of the serotonergic system and suicidal behavior: protocol for a case–control study in Mexican population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Suicidal behavior is a leading cause of injury and death worldwide. Several studies have provided a possible relationship between genetic factors and suicidal behavior. Also, these studies have shown evidence for altered serotonergic neural transmission in the pathogenesis of suicidal behavior. In addition, genes pertaining to the serotonergic system have been proposed as candidates to establish biological correlates between suicidal behavior and the serotonergic system. The most studied genes are SCL6A4, HTR2A, HTR2C, HTR1A, HTR1B, TPH-1, and TPH-2. To get a comprehensive understanding of the association with suicidal behavior we will conduct genotype assays studies in a Mexican population. Methods/Design We will conduct a case–control study. The population sample will comprise adolescent and adult patients admitted for attempted of suicide and diagnosed by a psychiatrist. A peripheral blood sample will be taken from all the subjects (cases and controls). Genomic DNA from the leukocytes blood sample will be extracted. The genotypes of interest are distributed in the following genes: SCL6A4, HTR2A, HTR1A, HTR1B, HTR2C, TPH-2 and TPH-1. All the samples will be analyzed using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) end-point method. We will evaluate the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium. The chi-squared test or Fisher’s exact test will be used to compare genotype and allele frequencies between control and case groups. The Quanto 1.2 software will measure the sample size of the association. For all the association analyses the level of significance will be set at p = 0.05 and the confidence interval at 95%. Discussion Suicidal behavior has been increase in Mexico, principally in young population. Our study will demonstrate the association between serotoninergic genes and suicide behavior in Mexican population. PMID:24495559

  4. Response to commentary on "The modal suicide decedent did not consume alcohol just prior to the time of death: An analysis with implications for understanding suicidal behavior".

    PubMed

    Anestis, Michael D; Joiner, Thomas; Hanson, Jetta E; Gutierrez, Peter M

    2015-05-01

    A commentary on our article, "The Modal Suicide Decedent Did Not Consume Alcohol Just Prior to the Time of Death: An Analysis with Implications for Understanding Suicidal Behavior," published in this issue, was reviewed. We agree with the authors of that commentary regarding a coding error that has now been corrected. While we disagree with several of the points raised by the authors, the majority of our disagreements lie in how the results of our original study are being interpreted. We provide a point-by-point response to that commentary and thank the authors for advancing scientific debate on what we view as a very important issue in understanding the role of alcohol as a risk factor for suicide. PMID:25961817

  5. Childhood Bullying Behaviors as a Risk for Suicide Attempts and Completed Suicides: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Sourander, Andre; Niemela, Solja; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Piha, Jorma; Tamminen, Tuula; Almqvist, Fredrik; Gould, Madelyn S.

    2009-01-01

    The examination of the data from a sample of 5,302 Finnish children who were born in 1981 finds that bullying at age eight years and later is associated with later suicide attempts and completed suicide for boys but not after controlling for conduct and depression symptoms. For girls, the association is still seen even after controlling for…

  6. Risky Assessments: Participant Suicidality and Distress Associated with Research Assessments in a Treatment Study of Suicidal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Sarah K.; Lindenboim, Noam; Comtois, Katherine Anne; Murray, Angela; Linehan, Marsha M.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of self-reported suicidality and distress during research assessments in a sample of 63 women meeting criteria for borderline personality disorder and current and chronic suicidality. The risk management protocol we used during the two-year study period (University of Washington Risk Assessment…

  7. Loneliness and negative life events as predictors of hopelessness and suicidal behaviors in Hispanics: evidence for a diathesis-stress model.

    PubMed

    Chang, Edward C; Sanna, Lawrence J; Hirsch, Jameson K; Jeglic, Elizabeth L

    2010-12-01

    In the present study, we examined loneliness and negative life events as predictors of suicide risk (viz., hopelessness and suicidal behaviors) in a sample of 160 Hispanic adults. Consistent with expectations, we found loneliness and negative life events to be positively associated with both hopelessness and suicidal behaviors. In addition, results of conducting hierarchical regression analyses indicated that loneliness accounted for significant amounts of variance in both measures of suicide risk, ranging from 24% to 29% of the variance. The inclusion of negative life events as a predictor was found to account for additional unique variance in hopelessness (3%), but not in suicidal behaviors, beyond what was predicted by loneliness. Finally, consistent with a diathesis-stress model, the Loneliness × Negative Life Events interaction was found to account for an additional 3% of the variance in both suicide risk measures. Implications of the present findings for future research on suicide risk in Hispanics are discussed. PMID:20734320

  8. Main Predictions of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior: Empirical Tests in Two Samples of Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Joiner, Thomas E.; Van Orden, Kimberly A.; Witte, Tracy K.; Selby, Edward A.; Ribeiro, Jessica D.; Lewis, Robyn; Rudd, M. David

    2010-01-01

    The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior (Joiner, 2005) makes two overarching predictions: 1) that perceptions of burdening others and of social alienation combine to instill the desire for death; and 2) that individuals will not act on the desire for death unless they have developed the capability to do so – a capability that develops through exposure and thus habituation to painful and/or fearsome experiences, and which is posited by the theory to be necessary to overcome powerful self-preservation pressures. Two studies test these predictions. In Study 1, the interaction of (low) family social support (cf. social alienation or low belonging) and feeling like one does not matter (cf. perceived burdensomeness) predicted current suicidal ideation, beyond depression indices. In Study 2, the three-way interaction between a measure of low belonging, a measure of perceived burdensomeness, and lifetime number of suicide attempts (viewed as a strong predictor of the level of acquired capability for suicide) predicted current suicide attempt (vs. ideation) among a clinical sample of suicidal young adults, again beyond depression indices and other key covariates. Implications for the understanding, treatment, and prevention of suicidal behavior are discussed. PMID:19685959

  9. Influential Factors for and Outcomes of Hospitalized Patients with Suicide-Related Behaviors: A National Record Study in Taiwan from 1997–2010

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yu-Wen; Huang, Hui-Chuan; Lin, Mei-Feng; Shyu, Meei-Ling; Tsai, Po-Li; Chang, Hsiu-Ju

    2016-01-01

    Background Investigating the factors related to suicide is crucial for suicide prevention. Psychiatric disorders, gender, socioeconomic status, and catastrophic illnesses are associated with increased risk of suicide. Most studies have typically focused on the separate influences of physiological or psychological factors on suicide-related behaviors, and have rarely used national data records to examine and compare the effects of major physical illnesses, psychiatric disorders, and socioeconomic status on the risk of suicide-related behaviors. Objectives To identify the characteristics of people who exhibited suicide-related behaviors and the multiple factors associated with repeated suicide-related behaviors and deaths by suicide by examining national data records. Design This is a cohort study of Taiwan’s national data records of hospitalized patients with suicide-related behaviors from January 1, 1997, to December 31, 2010. Participants The study population included all people in Taiwan who were hospitalized with a code indicating suicide or self-inflicted injury (E950–E959) according to the International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification. Results Self-poisoning was the most common method of self-inflicted injury among hospitalized patients with suicide-related behaviors who used a single method. Those who were female, had been hospitalized for suicide-related behaviors at a younger age, had a low income, had a psychiatric disorder (i.e., personality disorder, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, alcohol-related disorder, or adjustment disorder), had a catastrophic illness, or had been hospitalized for suicide-related behaviors that involved two methods of self-inflicted injury had a higher risk of hospitalization for repeated suicide-related behaviors. Those who were male, had been hospitalized for suicide-related behaviors at an older age, had low income, had schizophrenia, showed repeated suicide

  10. Non-suicidal self-injurious behavior in forensic child and adolescent populations

    PubMed Central

    Kara, Koray; Ozsoy, Sait; Teke, Hacer; Congologlu, M. Ayhan; Turker, Turker; Renklidag, Tulay; Karapirli, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate risk factors for non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), and present the relationship between NSSI and depression in children and adolescents who appeared for forensic examination. Methods: This study consisted of 295 children and adolescents who were brought for judicial examination in the TR Ministry of Justice Forensic Science Department, Council of Forensic Medicine, Ankara, Turkey between May and October 2013. Sociodemographic factors, alcohol and substance abuse, and history of sexual abuse and suicide attempts were assessed using a semi-structured questionnaire. During forensic medical examinations, NSSI was evaluated. Depression was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory. Results: The frequency of NSSI was 20.2% among boys, and 30.6% among girls. Statistical differences were found between subjects with and without NSSI in terms of number of children in their families, whether or not their parents were divorced, whether they held part-time jobs, or had a history of sexual abuse, substance abuse, or suicide attempts, and the number of criminal involvements. Those with NSSI had higher depressive scores than others (p<0.001). Conclusion: Children and adolescents with NSSI have wide-ranging problems in their lives. In a forensic adolescent population, depressive symptoms are more common in individuals with NSSI behaviors, and the specific characteristics of these behaviors need further investigation. PMID:25630778

  11. Metaphors of a shifting sense of self in men recovering from substance abuse and suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Biong, Stian; Karlsson, Bengt; Svensson, Tommy

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to explore and interpret men's experience of sense of self within the context of recovery from substance abuse and suicidal behavior. A secondary analysis of data from a previous study of four young Norwegian men revealed how a shifting sense of self was constructed through the use of metaphors. The analysis identified three themes related to the participants' sense of self: The Meaning of Being Isolated, The Meaning of Being Close to the Point of No Return, and The Meaning of Still Being on the Edge. By acknowledging metaphorical expressions as a source of important knowledge, this study reflects on how mental health professionals can use metaphors in the recovery process. As part of the' treatment alliance and therapeutic communication, we suggest that metaphors may aid the assessment of suicidal ideation, promote a sense of a more active self, and signal acceptance and recognition of subjectivity.

  12. Definitions of suicide and self-harm behavior in an Australian aboriginal community.

    PubMed

    Farrelly, Terri; Francis, Karen

    2009-04-01

    In this small qualitative grounded theory study (21 interviews and focus groups with a total of 26 participants) investigating the understandings of and attitudes toward suicide and self-harm of Aboriginal peoples in a coastal region of New South Wales, Australia, we found that cultural factors particular to these communities influence the way such behavior is defined in an Aboriginal context. A continuation of certain "traditional" cultural forms of self-harm behavior was evident in participant definitions, notably the practice of female hair cutting, also described as a mourning ritual, which appears to serve as a marker both to the individual and others. PMID:19527158

  13. Children at Risk for Suicide Attempt and Attempt-related Injuries: Findings from the 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    PubMed Central

    West, Bethany A.; Swahn, Monica H.; McCarty, Frances

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The current study examines the associations between a range of risk factors and reports of suicide attempts and attempts requiring medical care in a nationally representative study of high school students. The goal is to examine sex differences in the risk factors associated with suicide attempts and attempt-related injuries requiring treatment by a health-care provider. Methods: We used data from the 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey for students in grades 9–12 to assess the prevalence and risk factors for suicidal behavior, as well as differences in these for boys and girls. Cross-sectional multivariate logistic regression analyses were computed to determine the most important risk factors for suicide attempts and for suicide attempts requiring medical care for the sample overall and also stratified for boys and for girls. Results: Overall, 6.9% of adolescents attempted suicide (9.3% of girls versus 4.6% of boys). Girls were more likely than boys to report a suicide attempt in the past year (Adj.OR=2.89). Among girls, sadness (Adj.OR=5.74), weapon carrying (Adj.OR=1.48), dating violence (Adj.OR=1.60), forced sex (Adj.OR=1.72), and huffing glue (Adj.OR=2.04) were significantly associated with suicide attempts. Among boys, sadness (Adj.OR=10.96), weapon carrying (Adj.OR=1.66), forced sex (Adj.OR=2.60), huffing glue (OR=1.63), hard drug use (Adj.OR=2.18), and sports involvement (Adj.OR=1.52) were significantly associated with suicide attempts. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate similarities and differences in the modifiable risk factors that increase risk for suicide attempts among boys and girls. In terms of the differences between boys and girls, hard drug use and sports involvement may be important factors for suicide-prevention strategies directed specifically towards boys, while dating violence victimization may be an important risk factor to address for girls. Overall, these findings can help guide prevention, clinical practice, and intervention

  14. Adolescent angst or true intent? Suicidal behavior, risk, and neurobiological mechanisms in depressed children and teenagers taking antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Julia; Schwartz, Thomas L

    2014-01-01

    Suicide is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality amongst children and adolescents. In 2004 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a "black-box" warning for antidepressants in children and adolescents, stating that these drugs may increase suicidality, a term encompassing both suicidal thoughts and behavior, especially in the first few weeks of treatment. The warning was extended in 2007 to antidepressants prescribed to adults aged 25 and under. The evidence behind this decision stemmed from meta-analyses of antidepressant clinical trials that demonstrated a slight increase in suicidality in those receiving antidepressants versus those treated with a placebo. Due to methods of this pooled data compilation, the relationship between antidepressants and suicidality remains controversial. This report investigates a case where a 14 year old with major depressive disorder (MDD) developed suicidal ideation shortly after being prescribed a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). Investigating the role antidepressants may play in suicidality suggests the need to explore the neurobiological mechanisms within the serotonin system. This case and its theoretical explanations attempt to bridge the gap between neurobiology and pharmacology in order to better delineate the etiology of this adverse effect. PMID:25345238

  15. Suicide in Northwest Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travis, Robert

    1983-01-01

    Between 1975 and 1979 the Alaskan Native suicide rate (90.9 per 100,000) in Northwest Alaska was more than seven times the national average. Alienation, loss of family, low income, alcohol abuse, high unemployment, and more education were factors related to suicidal behavior. Average age for suicidal behavior was 22.5. (Author/MH)

  16. Topic Categorisation of Statements in Suicide Notes with Integrated Rules and Machine Learning

    PubMed Central

    Kovačević, Aleksandar; Dehghan, Azad; Keane, John A.; Nenadic, Goran

    2012-01-01

    We describe and evaluate an automated approach used as part of the i2b2 2011 challenge to identify and categorise statements in suicide notes into one of 15 topics, including Love, Guilt, Thankfulness, Hopelessness and Instructions. The approach combines a set of lexico-syntactic rules with a set of models derived by machine learning from a training dataset. The machine learning models rely on named entities, lexical, lexico-semantic and presentation features, as well as the rules that are applicable to a given statement. On a testing set of 300 suicide notes, the approach showed the overall best micro F-measure of up to 53.36%. The best precision achieved was 67.17% when only rules are used, whereas best recall of 50.57% was with integrated rules and machine learning. While some topics (eg, Sorrow, Anger, Blame) prove challenging, the performance for relatively frequent (eg, Love) and well-scoped categories (eg, Thankfulness) was comparatively higher (precision between 68% and 79%), suggesting that automated text mining approaches can be effective in topic categorisation of suicide notes. PMID:22879767

  17. Preserved Error-Monitoring in Borderline Personality Disorder Patients with and without Non-Suicidal Self-Injury Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Vega, Daniel; Vilà-Balló, Adrià; Soto, Àngel; Amengual, Julià; Ribas, Joan; Torrubia, Rafael; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Marco-Pallarés, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Background The presence of non-suicidal self-injury acts in Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is very prevalent. These behaviors are a public health concern and have become a poorly understood phenomenon in the community. It has been proposed that the commission of non-suicidal self-injury might be related to a failure in the brain network regulating executive functions. Previous studies have shown that BPD patients present an impairment in their capacity to monitor actions and conflicts associated with the performance of certain actions, which suppose an important aspect of cognitive control. Method We used Event Related Potentials to examine the behavioral and electrophysiological indexes associated with the error monitoring in two BPD outpatients groups (17 patients each) differentiated according to the presence or absence of non-suicidal self-injury behaviors. We also examined 17 age- and intelligence- matched healthy control participants. Results The three groups did not show significant differences in event-related potentials associated with errors (Error-Related Negativity and Pe) nor in theta power increase following errors. Conclusions This is the first study investigating the behavioral and electrophysiological error monitoring indexes in BPD patients characterized by their history of non-suicidal self-injury behaviors. Our results show that error monitoring is preserved in BPD patients and suggest that non-suicidal self-injury acts are not related to a dysfunction in the cognitive control mechanisms. PMID:26636971

  18. Suicidal behavior and loss of the future self in semantic dementia.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Julia J; Kaiser, Natalie; Fong, Sylvia S; Mendez, Mario F

    2013-06-01

    Semantic dementia impairs semantic autobiographical memory, but tends to spare its episodic components that are critical for the sense of self. Investigators have recently discovered disturbances in the "future self" in semantic dementia. We report a 63-year-old man with semantic dementia who was hospitalized after suicide attempts that he attributed to his loss of a sense of future self. He complained of a decreased sense of being human, because he could not imagine doing things in the future that he had done in the past. Suicidal thinking and inability to place himself in future tasks persisted despite resolution of depression. Clinical assessment revealed a crossmodal loss of semantic knowledge, and neuroimaging showed bilateral anterior temporal atrophy and hypometabolism. On specific tests of autobiographical memory, identity, attribute knowledge, and future projection, the patient could return to the past and visualize himself in familiar scenarios, but he could not visualize himself even passively in these scenarios in the future. His future self was impaired not from seeing himself disabled; it was from an absence of semantic details of potential experiences, associated with impaired semantic autobiographical memory. His self-representations were concrete and specific rather than abstract and generalizable. This patient and recent publications indicate that semantic dementia impairs the ability to imagine oneself as capable in the future, leading some patients to suicidal behavior. We discuss possible mechanisms for these findings, including the potential role of abstract construals for future thinking.

  19. The definition and epidemiology of clusters of suicidal behavior: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Niedzwiedz, Claire; Haw, Camilla; Hawton, Keith; Platt, Stephen

    2014-10-01

    Suicide clusters are a rare and underresearched phenomenon which attract wide media attention and result in heightened concern in the communities where they occur. We conducted a systematic literature review covering the definition and epidemiology of the time-space clustering of suicidal behavior. Of the 890 articles identified by electronic searching, 82 were selected for inclusion and the extracted data were analyzed by narrative synthesis. Less than a third of studies included a definition of a suicide cluster, and definitions varied considerably. Clusters occurred in various settings, including psychiatric hospitals, schools, prisons, indigenous communities, and among the general population. Most clusters involved young people. The proportion of all episodes that occurred in clusters varied considerably between studies and partly depended on study methodology (e.g., a larger proportion was found in studies of specific clusters compared with general population studies). Future studies should aim to combine the statistical analysis of time-space clustering with a case study of events, which examines potential links between individuals and the wider environmental context. PMID:24702173

  20. The definition and epidemiology of clusters of suicidal behavior: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Niedzwiedz, Claire; Haw, Camilla; Hawton, Keith; Platt, Stephen

    2014-10-01

    Suicide clusters are a rare and underresearched phenomenon which attract wide media attention and result in heightened concern in the communities where they occur. We conducted a systematic literature review covering the definition and epidemiology of the time-space clustering of suicidal behavior. Of the 890 articles identified by electronic searching, 82 were selected for inclusion and the extracted data were analyzed by narrative synthesis. Less than a third of studies included a definition of a suicide cluster, and definitions varied considerably. Clusters occurred in various settings, including psychiatric hospitals, schools, prisons, indigenous communities, and among the general population. Most clusters involved young people. The proportion of all episodes that occurred in clusters varied considerably between studies and partly depended on study methodology (e.g., a larger proportion was found in studies of specific clusters compared with general population studies). Future studies should aim to combine the statistical analysis of time-space clustering with a case study of events, which examines potential links between individuals and the wider environmental context.

  1. Suicidal Behavior and Loss of the Future Self in Semantic Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Julia J.; Kaiser, Natalie; Fong, Sylvia; Mendez, Mario F.

    2013-01-01

    Semantic dementia impairs semantic autobiographical memory, but tends to spare its episodic components that are critical for the sense of self. Investigators have recently discovered disturbances in the “future self” in semantic dementia. We report a 63-year-old man with semantic dementia who was hospitalized after suicide attempts that he attributed to his loss of a sense of future self. He complained of a decreased sense of being human, because he could not imagine doing things in the future that he had done in the past. Suicidal thinking and inability to place himself in future tasks persisted despite resolution of depression. Clinical assessment revealed a crossmodal loss of semantic knowledge, and neuroimaging showed bilateral anterior temporal atrophy and hypometabolism. On specific tests of autobiographical memory, identity, attribute knowledge, and future projection, the patient could return to the past and visualize himself in familiar scenarios, but he could not visualize himself even passively in these scenarios in the future. His future self was impaired not from seeing himself disabled; it was from an absence of semantic details of potential experiences, associated with impaired semantic autobiographical memory. His self-representations were concrete and specific rather than abstract and generalizable. This patient and recent publications indicate that semantic dementia impairs the ability to imagine oneself as capable in the future, leading some patients to suicidal behavior. We discuss possible mechanisms for these findings, including the potential role of abstract construals for future thinking. PMID:23812172

  2. Chaplains' Engagement with Suicidality among Their Service Users: Findings from the VA/DoD Integrated Mental Health Strategy.

    PubMed

    Kopacz, Marek S; Nieuwsma, Jason A; Jackson, George L; Rhodes, Jeffrey E; Cantrell, William C; Bates, Mark J; Meador, Keith G

    2016-04-01

    Chaplains play an important role in supporting the mental health of current and former military personnel; in this study, the engagement of Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), Army, Navy, and Air Force chaplains with suicidality among their service users were examined. An online survey was used to collect data from 440 VA and 1,723 Department of Defense (DoD) chaplains as part of the VA/DoD Integrated Mental Health Strategy. Differences were noted for demographics, work setting characteristics, encountering suicidality, and self-perceived preparation for dealing with suicidality. Compared to DoD chaplains, VA chaplains encounter more at-risk service users, yet feel less prepared for dealing with suicidality. PMID:26255592

  3. Anxiety and its disorders as risk factors for suicidal thoughts and behaviors: A meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Kate H; Franklin, Joseph C; Ribeiro, Jessica D; Kleiman, Evan M; Fox, Kathryn R; Nock, Matthew K

    2016-02-01

    Suicidal thoughts and behaviors are highly prevalent public health problems with devastating consequences. There is an urgent need to improve our understanding of risk factors for suicide to identify effective intervention targets. The aim of this meta-analysis was to examine the magnitude and clinical utility of anxiety and its disorders as risk factors for suicide ideation, attempts, and deaths. We conducted a literature search through December 2014; of the 65 articles meeting our inclusion criteria, we extracted 180 cases in which an anxiety-specific variable was used to longitudinally predict a suicide-related outcome. Results indicated that anxiety is a statistically significant, yet weak, predictor of suicide ideation (OR=1.49, 95% CI: 1.18, 1.88) and attempts (OR=1.64, 95% CI: 1.47, 1.83), but not deaths (OR=1.01, 95% CI: 0.87, 1.18). The strongest associations were observed for PTSD. Estimates were reduced after accounting for publication bias, and diagnostic accuracy analyses indicated acceptable specificity but poor sensitivity. Overall, the extant literature suggests that anxiety and its disorders, at least when these constructs are measured in isolation and as trait-like constructs, are relatively weak predictors of suicidal thoughts and behaviors over long follow-up periods. Implications for future research priorities are discussed.

  4. Anxiety and its disorders as risk factors for suicidal thoughts and behaviors: A meta-analytic review

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, Kate H.; Franklin, Joseph C.; Ribeiro, Jessica D.; Kleiman, Evan M.; Fox, Kathryn R.; Nock, Matthew K.

    2016-01-01

    Suicidal thoughts and behaviors are highly prevalent public health problems with devastating consequences. There is an urgent need to improve our understanding of risk factors for suicide to identify effective intervention targets. The aim of this meta-analysis was to examine the magnitude and clinical utility of anxiety and its disorders as risk factors for suicide ideation, attempts, and deaths. We conducted a literature search through December 2014; of the 65 articles meeting our inclusion criteria, we extracted 180 cases in which an anxiety-specific variable was used to longitudinally predict a suicide-related outcome. Results indicated that anxiety is a statistically significant, yet weak, predictor of suicide ideation (OR=1.49, 95% CI: 1.18, 1.88) and attempts (OR=1.64, 95% CI: 1.47, 1.83), but not deaths (OR=1.01, 95% CI: 0.87, 1.18). The strongest associations were observed for PTSD. Estimates were reduced after accounting for publication bias, and diagnostic accuracy analyses indicated acceptable specificity but poor sensitivity. Overall, the extant literature suggests that anxiety and its disorders, at least when these constructs are measured in isolation and as trait-like constructs, are relatively weak predictors of suicidal thoughts and behaviors over long follow-up periods. Implications for future research priorities are discussed. PMID:26688478

  5. Anxiety and its disorders as risk factors for suicidal thoughts and behaviors: A meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Kate H; Franklin, Joseph C; Ribeiro, Jessica D; Kleiman, Evan M; Fox, Kathryn R; Nock, Matthew K

    2016-02-01

    Suicidal thoughts and behaviors are highly prevalent public health problems with devastating consequences. There is an urgent need to improve our understanding of risk factors for suicide to identify effective intervention targets. The aim of this meta-analysis was to examine the magnitude and clinical utility of anxiety and its disorders as risk factors for suicide ideation, attempts, and deaths. We conducted a literature search through December 2014; of the 65 articles meeting our inclusion criteria, we extracted 180 cases in which an anxiety-specific variable was used to longitudinally predict a suicide-related outcome. Results indicated that anxiety is a statistically significant, yet weak, predictor of suicide ideation (OR=1.49, 95% CI: 1.18, 1.88) and attempts (OR=1.64, 95% CI: 1.47, 1.83), but not deaths (OR=1.01, 95% CI: 0.87, 1.18). The strongest associations were observed for PTSD. Estimates were reduced after accounting for publication bias, and diagnostic accuracy analyses indicated acceptable specificity but poor sensitivity. Overall, the extant literature suggests that anxiety and its disorders, at least when these constructs are measured in isolation and as trait-like constructs, are relatively weak predictors of suicidal thoughts and behaviors over long follow-up periods. Implications for future research priorities are discussed. PMID:26688478

  6. How Illegal Drug Use, Alcohol Use, Tobacco Use, and Depressive Symptoms Affect Adolescent Suicidal Ideation: A Secondary Analysis of the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey.

    PubMed

    Gart, Rachel; Kelly, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the major risk factors among adolescents who have either contemplated or attempted suicide. Along with successful suicides, suicide attempts and contemplation are coexisting factors that are prominent in the adolescent population and therefore warrant major concern. A secondary data analysis of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) was completed to explore the factors that may influence adolescents' thoughts or actions about suicidal behavior. The YRBS represents high-school students throughout 50 states. Nine questions from the YRBS were used to elicit information about the relationships among the risk factors: (1) Suicidal thoughts and attempts; (2) illegal drug use; (3) alcohol use; (4) tobacco use; and (5) depressive symptoms. Statistically significant relationships among the risk factors were found for adolescents. Adolescents considered suicide (15.8%); attempted suicide at least once (7.8%); were injured while attempting suicide (n = 2.7%). Our findings support the idea that illegal substance use can lead to suicidal thoughts and actions. Depression had a positive relationship with suicidal ideations, supporting similar studies suggesting that depression leads to suicidal action. PMID:26379135

  7. A clinical-psychological approach to suicidal behavior in depression from Moscow.

    PubMed

    Ponizovsky, A M

    1998-01-01

    This contribution strives to familiarize Western readers with the theoretical concept of suicidal behavior which was developed at the Department of Suicidology of Moscow Psychiatric Research Institute and has been in use there for the last two decades. In describing this approach the paper concentrates on what differentiates it from traditional Western management without making value judgments about either approach. Such an account of the concept and its development will hopefully afford the reader an opportunity to arrive at his or her own conclusions regarding its clinical value.

  8. A clinical-psychological approach to suicidal behavior in depression from Moscow.

    PubMed

    Ponizovsky, A M

    1998-01-01

    This contribution strives to familiarize Western readers with the theoretical concept of suicidal behavior which was developed at the Department of Suicidology of Moscow Psychiatric Research Institute and has been in use there for the last two decades. In describing this approach the paper concentrates on what differentiates it from traditional Western management without making value judgments about either approach. Such an account of the concept and its development will hopefully afford the reader an opportunity to arrive at his or her own conclusions regarding its clinical value. PMID:9639969

  9. The Influence of Training, Reluctance, Efficacy, and Stigma on Suicide Intervention Behavior Among NCOs in the Army and Marine Corps.

    PubMed

    Ayer, Lynsay; Ramchand, Rajeev; Geyer, Lily; Burgette, Lane; Kofner, Aaron

    2016-06-01

    The Army and Marine Corps have consistently experienced the highest rates of suicide relative to the other services. In both the Army and Marine Corps, the service members responsible for identifying and referring individuals at risk for suicide are called "gatekeepers" and are typically noncommissioned officers (NCOs). We used structural equation modeling on survey responses from 1184 Army soldiers and 796 marines to estimate the relationships between training, intervention efficacy, reluctance, and mental health stigma on NCO intervention behaviors. Efficacy and reluctance were independently associated with intervention behaviors, and stigma was only associated with intervention behaviors among Army NCOs. Study results suggest that while quantity of training may help NCOs feel more confident about their ability to intervene, other efforts such as changing training content and delivery mode (e.g., interactive vs. didactic training) may be necessary in order to reduce reluctance and stigma to intervene with service members at risk for suicide.

  10. The Influence of Training, Reluctance, Efficacy, and Stigma on Suicide Intervention Behavior Among NCOs in the Army and Marine Corps.

    PubMed

    Ayer, Lynsay; Ramchand, Rajeev; Geyer, Lily; Burgette, Lane; Kofner, Aaron

    2016-06-01

    The Army and Marine Corps have consistently experienced the highest rates of suicide relative to the other services. In both the Army and Marine Corps, the service members responsible for identifying and referring individuals at risk for suicide are called "gatekeepers" and are typically noncommissioned officers (NCOs). We used structural equation modeling on survey responses from 1184 Army soldiers and 796 marines to estimate the relationships between training, intervention efficacy, reluctance, and mental health stigma on NCO intervention behaviors. Efficacy and reluctance were independently associated with intervention behaviors, and stigma was only associated with intervention behaviors among Army NCOs. Study results suggest that while quantity of training may help NCOs feel more confident about their ability to intervene, other efforts such as changing training content and delivery mode (e.g., interactive vs. didactic training) may be necessary in order to reduce reluctance and stigma to intervene with service members at risk for suicide. PMID:26897531

  11. The effects of individualistic-collectivistic value orientations on non-fatal suicidal behavior and attitudes in Turkish adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Eskin, Mehmet

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effects of individualistic-collectivistic value orientations on non-fatal suicidal behavior and attitudes in Turkish adolescents and young adults. A questionnaire containing measures of individualism, collectivism (INDCOL), non-fatal suicidal behaviors and suicidal attitudes was used to collect the data. The results showed that both suicidal ideation and attempts were significantly more frequent in participants classified as individualist than those who were classified as collectivist on the basis of INDCOL scale scores. Participants with individualistic tendencies displayed more permissive attitudes toward suicide than those with collectivistic tendencies but collectivists believed to a greater extent than the individualists that people should communicate suicidal problems to others. Participants with collectivistic tendencies showed more accepting and helping reactions to an imagined suicidal friend than those with individualistic tendencies. Suicidal ideation and attempts were more common among adolescents than young adults. The findings suggest that individualistic and collectivistic value orientations and developmental status specific stressors play a role in the distribution of nonfatal suicidal behavior and the nature of suicidal attitudes. PMID:24111627

  12. The effects of individualistic-collectivistic value orientations on non-fatal suicidal behavior and attitudes in Turkish adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Eskin, Mehmet

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effects of individualistic-collectivistic value orientations on non-fatal suicidal behavior and attitudes in Turkish adolescents and young adults. A questionnaire containing measures of individualism, collectivism (INDCOL), non-fatal suicidal behaviors and suicidal attitudes was used to collect the data. The results showed that both suicidal ideation and attempts were significantly more frequent in participants classified as individualist than those who were classified as collectivist on the basis of INDCOL scale scores. Participants with individualistic tendencies displayed more permissive attitudes toward suicide than those with collectivistic tendencies but collectivists believed to a greater extent than the individualists that people should communicate suicidal problems to others. Participants with collectivistic tendencies showed more accepting and helping reactions to an imagined suicidal friend than those with individualistic tendencies. Suicidal ideation and attempts were more common among adolescents than young adults. The findings suggest that individualistic and collectivistic value orientations and developmental status specific stressors play a role in the distribution of nonfatal suicidal behavior and the nature of suicidal attitudes.

  13. Emotionally Troubled Teens' Help-Seeking Behaviors: An Evaluation of Surviving the Teens® Suicide Prevention and Depression Awareness Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strunk, Catherine M.; Sorter, Michael T.; Ossege, Julianne; King, Keith A.

    2014-01-01

    Many school-based suicide prevention programs do not show a positive impact on help-seeking behaviors among emotionally troubled teens despite their being at high risk for suicide. This study is a secondary analysis of the Surviving the Teens® program evaluation to determine its effect on help-seeking behaviors among troubled youth. Results showed…

  14. The mediating roles of stress and maladaptive behaviors on self-harm and suicide attempts among runaway and homeless youth.

    PubMed

    Moskowitz, Amanda; Stein, Judith A; Lightfoot, Marguerita

    2013-07-01

    Runaway and homeless youth often have a constellation of background behavioral, emotional, and familial problems that contribute to stress and maladaptive behaviors, which, in turn, can lead to self-harming and suicidal behaviors. The current study examined the roles of stress and maladaptive behaviors as mediators between demographic and psychosocial background characteristics and self-injurious outcomes through the lens of the stress process paradigm. The model was tested in a sample of runaway and homeless youth from Los Angeles County (N = 474, age 12-24, 41 % female, 17 % White, 32.5 % African American, 21.5 % Hispanic/Latino). Background variables (gender, age, sexual minority status, parental drug use history, and emotional distress) predicted hypothesized mediators of maladaptive behaviors and recent stress. In turn, it was hypothesized that the mediators would predict self-harming behaviors and suicide attempts in the last 3 months. Females and LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender) youth were more likely to have self-harmed and attempted suicide; younger participants reported more self-harming. The mediating constructs were associated more highly with self-harming than suicide attempts bivariately, although differences were modest. Maladaptive behaviors and recent stress were significant predictors of self-harm, whereas only recent stress was a significant predictor of suicide attempts. All background factors were significant predictors of recent stress. Older age, a history of parental drug use, and greater emotional distress predicted problem drug use. Males, younger participants, and participants with emotional distress reported more delinquent behaviors. Significant indirect effects on self-harming behaviors were mediated through stress and maladaptive behaviors. The hypothesized paradigm was useful in explaining the associations among background factors and self-injurious outcomes and the influence of mediating factors on these

  15. The mediating roles of stress and maladaptive behaviors on self-harm and suicide attempts among runaway and homeless youth.

    PubMed

    Moskowitz, Amanda; Stein, Judith A; Lightfoot, Marguerita

    2013-07-01

    Runaway and homeless youth often have a constellation of background behavioral, emotional, and familial problems that contribute to stress and maladaptive behaviors, which, in turn, can lead to self-harming and suicidal behaviors. The current study examined the roles of stress and maladaptive behaviors as mediators between demographic and psychosocial background characteristics and self-injurious outcomes through the lens of the stress process paradigm. The model was tested in a sample of runaway and homeless youth from Los Angeles County (N = 474, age 12-24, 41 % female, 17 % White, 32.5 % African American, 21.5 % Hispanic/Latino). Background variables (gender, age, sexual minority status, parental drug use history, and emotional distress) predicted hypothesized mediators of maladaptive behaviors and recent stress. In turn, it was hypothesized that the mediators would predict self-harming behaviors and suicide attempts in the last 3 months. Females and LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender) youth were more likely to have self-harmed and attempted suicide; younger participants reported more self-harming. The mediating constructs were associated more highly with self-harming than suicide attempts bivariately, although differences were modest. Maladaptive behaviors and recent stress were significant predictors of self-harm, whereas only recent stress was a significant predictor of suicide attempts. All background factors were significant predictors of recent stress. Older age, a history of parental drug use, and greater emotional distress predicted problem drug use. Males, younger participants, and participants with emotional distress reported more delinquent behaviors. Significant indirect effects on self-harming behaviors were mediated through stress and maladaptive behaviors. The hypothesized paradigm was useful in explaining the associations among background factors and self-injurious outcomes and the influence of mediating factors on these

  16. Suicidality as a function of impulsivity, callous-unemotional traits, and depressive symptoms in youth.

    PubMed

    Javdani, Shabnam; Sadeh, Naomi; Verona, Edelyn

    2011-05-01

    Suicidality represents one of the most important areas of risk for adolescents, with both internalizing (e.g., depression, anxiety) and externalizing-antisocial (e.g., substance use, conduct) disorders conferring risk for suicidal ideation and attempts (e.g., Bridge, Goldstein, & Brent, 2006). However, no study has attended to gender differences in relationships between suicidality and different facets of psychopathic tendencies in youth. Further, very little research has focused on disentangling the multiple manifestations of suicide risk in the same study, including behaviors (suicide attempts with intent to die, self-injurious behavior) and general suicide risk marked by suicidal ideation and plans. To better understand these relationships, we recruited 184 adolescents from the community and in treatment. As predicted, psychopathic traits and depressive symptoms in youth showed differential associations with components of suicidality. Specifically, impulsive traits uniquely contributed to suicide attempts and self-injurious behaviors, above the influence of depression. Indeed, once psychopathic tendencies were entered in the model, depressive symptoms only explained general suicide risk marked by ideation or plans but not behaviors. Further, callous-unemotional traits conferred protection from suicide attempts selectively in girls. These findings have important implications for developing integrative models that incorporate differential relationships between (a) depressed mood and (b) personality risk factors (i.e., impulsivity and callous-unemotional traits) for suicidality in youth.

  17. A 12-Month prospective study of the effects of PTSD-depression comorbidity on suicidal behavior in Iraq/Afghanistan-era veterans.

    PubMed

    Kimbrel, Nathan A; Meyer, Eric C; DeBeer, Bryann B; Gulliver, Suzy B; Morissette, Sandra B

    2016-09-30

    The present study used validated clinical interviews to assess the effect of comorbid PTSD-depression on suicidal behavior over the course of 12 months in 309 Iraq/Afghanistan-era veterans. Logistic regression models demonstrated that comorbid PTSD-depression was a statistically significant predictor of suicide attempts at the 12-month follow-up in both the total sample and in the subset of veterans with PTSD/depression (n=98). In contrast, gender, age, race, sexual orientation, and baseline history of suicide attempts did not have significant effects. These findings suggest that comorbid PTSD-depression may be a significant risk factor for future suicidal behavior in veterans.

  18. Adolescents exposed to suicidal behavior of others: prevalence of self-harm and associated psychological, lifestyle, and life event factors.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Elaine M; Corcoran, Paul; Keeley, Helen; Perry, Ivan J; Arensman, Ella

    2013-12-01

    Exposure to suicidal behavior of others was examined among 3,881 Irish adolescents in the Child and Adolescent Self-harm in Europe (CASE) study. One third of the sample had been exposed to suicidal behavior, and exposed adolescents were eight times more likely to also report own self-harm. Exposed adolescents shared many risk factors with those reporting own self-harm. Those reporting both exposure and own self-harm presented the most maladaptive profile on psychological, life event, and lifestyle domains, but neither anxiety nor depression distinguished this group. Exposed adolescents are burdened by a wide range of risk factors and in need of support.

  19. [Suicide and suicide tendencies in adolescent detainees].

    PubMed

    Radeloff, Daniel; Lempp, Thomas; Rauf, Amna; Bennefeld-Kersten, Katharina; Kettner, Mattias; Freitag, Christine M

    2016-01-01

    Following accidents, suicide is the second leading cause of death in adolescence. This stage of life has the most suicide attempts of all age groups. In addition to mentally ill juveniles, adolescent delinquents represent a high-risk group for suicidal behavior and completed suicide. In particular, the population of detainees, an extreme form of juvenile delinquency, have a 16- to 18-fold higher risk of suicidal behavior and suicide compared to the general population. Because the composition of juvenile detainees differs greatly from that of detained adults, age-specific scientific approaches and prevention programs are needed. This task cannot be addressed by juvenile detention staff alone, but rather demands close cooperation between adolescent psychiatrists, psychologists, prison medical staff, legal experts and prison officers to use the opportunity for suicide prevention in juvenile detention facilities.

  20. [Suicide and suicide tendencies in adolescent detainees].

    PubMed

    Radeloff, Daniel; Lempp, Thomas; Rauf, Amna; Bennefeld-Kersten, Katharina; Kettner, Mattias; Freitag, Christine M

    2016-01-01

    Following accidents, suicide is the second leading cause of death in adolescence. This stage of life has the most suicide attempts of all age groups. In addition to mentally ill juveniles, adolescent delinquents represent a high-risk group for suicidal behavior and completed suicide. In particular, the population of detainees, an extreme form of juvenile delinquency, have a 16- to 18-fold higher risk of suicidal behavior and suicide compared to the general population. Because the composition of juvenile detainees differs greatly from that of detained adults, age-specific scientific approaches and prevention programs are needed. This task cannot be addressed by juvenile detention staff alone, but rather demands close cooperation between adolescent psychiatrists, psychologists, prison medical staff, legal experts and prison officers to use the opportunity for suicide prevention in juvenile detention facilities. PMID:26864223

  1. Preventing Adolescent Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capuzzi, David

    The adolescent at risk for suicidal preoccupation and behavior has become an increasing concern for schools and communities. This paper presents some of the causes of teen suicide, things adults should know about adolescent suicide prevention, and what can be done to help such youth. The transition to adolescence is a complex time when many values…

  2. Explaining the Relation between Religiousness and Reduced Suicidal Behavior: Social Support Rather than Specific Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robins, Alee; Fiske, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Religiousness has been associated with decreased risk of suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and completed suicide, but the mechanisms underlying these associations are not well characterized. The present study examined the roles of religious beliefs and social support in that relation. A survey measuring religiousness, social support, suicidal…

  3. A Model of Sexual Abuse's Effects on Suicidal Behavior and Delinquency: The Role of Emotions as Mediating Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Asgeirsdottir, Bryndis Bjork; Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik

    2008-01-01

    Drawing on Agnew's general strain theory, we examined whether depressed mood and anger mediated the effects of sexual abuse on suicidal behavior and delinquency. Participants included 9,113 students attending high schools in Iceland. Structural equation modeling showed that, while controlling for family structure and parental education, being…

  4. Associations between Bullying and Engaging in Aggressive and Suicidal Behaviors among Sexual Minority Youth: The Moderating Role of Connectedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duong, Jeffrey; Bradshaw, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Background: Research on the extent to which cyberbullying affects sexual minority youth is limited. This study examined associations between experiencing cyber and school bullying and engaging in aggressive and suicidal behaviors among sexual minority youth. We also explored whether feeling connected to an adult at school moderated these…

  5. An Open Pilot Feasibility Study of a Brief Dialectical Behavior Therapy Skills-Based Intervention for Suicidal Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward-Ciesielski, Erin F.

    2013-01-01

    This open trial sought to develop and evaluate the preliminary feasibility and effectiveness of a brief, one-time, dialectical behavior therapy skills-based intervention with specific focus on ensuring acceptability to nontreatment-seekers. Treatment-seeking and nontreatment-seeking suicidal individuals were recruited successfully from the…

  6. Suicidal Behavior among Low-Income, African American Female Victims of Intimate Terrorism and Situational Couple Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leone, Janel M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined risk of suicidal behavior among low-income, African American women (N = 369) in three types of male intimate relationships--intimate terrorism (IT) (i.e., physical violence used within a general pattern of coercive control), situational couple violence (SCV; i.e., episodic physical violence that is not part of a general pattern…

  7. Web-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Intervention for the Prevention of Suicidal Ideation in Medical Interns: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Guille, Constance; Zhao, Zhuo; Krystal, John; Nichols, Breck; Brady, Kathleen; Sen, Srijan

    2016-01-01

    Importance In the United States, approximately one physician dies by suicide every day. Training physicians are at particularly high risk, with suicidal ideation increasing over four-fold during the first three months of internship year. Despite this dramatic increase, very few efforts have been made to prevent the escalation of suicidal thoughts among training physicians. Objective To assess the effectiveness of a Web-based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (wCBT) program delivered prior to the start of internship year in the prevention of suicidal ideation in medical interns. Design, Setting and Participants A randomized controlled trial conducted at two university hospitals with 199 interns from multiple specialties during academic years 2009-10 or 2011-12. Interventions Interns were randomly assigned to study groups (wCBT, n=100; attention-control group (ACG), n=99), and completed study activities lasting 30-minutes each week for four weeks prior to starting internship year. Subjects assigned to wCBT completed online-CBT modules and subjects assigned to ACG received emails with general information about depression, suicidal thinking and local mental health providers. Main Outcome Measure The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was employed to assess suicidal ideation (i.e., “thoughts that you would be better off dead, or hurting yourself in some way”) prior to the start of intern year and at 3-month intervals throughout the year. Results 62.2% (199/320) of individuals agreed to take part in the study. During at least one time point over the course of internship year 12% (12/100) of interns assigned to wCBT endorsed suicidal ideation, compared to 21%(21/99) of interns assigned to ACG. After adjusting for covariates identified a priori that have previously shown to increase the risk for suicidal ideation, interns assigned to wCBT were 60% less likely to endorse suicidal ideation during internship year (RR: 0.40, 95% CI 0.17-0.91; p=0.03), compared to those

  8. Emotion Dysregulation and Affective Intensity Mediate the Relationship Between Childhood Abuse and Suicide-Related Behaviors Among Women with Bulimia Nervosa.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Kathryn H; Simonich, Heather; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Dhankikar, Swati; Crosby, Ross D; Cao, Li; Kwan, Mun Yee; Mitchell, James E; Engel, Scott G

    2016-02-01

    Self-harm and suicide attempts occur at elevated rates among individuals with bulimia nervosa, particularly among those who have experienced childhood abuse. This study investigated the potential mediating roles of emotion dysregulation and affective intensity in the relationship between these variables in 125 women with bulimia nervosa. Analyses revealed that emotion dysregulation mediated the relationship between sexual and emotional abuse with both self-harm and suicide attempts. Negative affective intensity mediated the relationship between abuse and suicide attempts. The findings may advance the understanding of mechanisms underlying suicide-related behaviors in women with bulimia nervosa who experienced abuse and suggest potential clinical targets.

  9. The moderating role of distress tolerance in the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder symptom clusters and suicidal behavior among trauma-exposed substance users in residential treatment

    PubMed Central

    Anestis, Michael D.; Tull, Matthew T.; Bagge, Courtney L.; Gratz, Kim L.

    2012-01-01

    The co-occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUDs) is associated with greater risk for suicidal behavior than either disorder alone. Research highlights the relevance of PTSD symptoms in particular to suicide risk within this population. Research has also provided support for an association between distress tolerance (DT) and both PTSD symptoms and suicidal behavior. This study examined the role of DT in the relationship between PTSD symptom severity and suicidal behavior in a sample of 164 SUD inpatients with a history of Criterion A traumatic exposure. Results indicated that DT moderated the relationship between PTSD symptoms (overall, re-experiencing, and hyperarousal) and medically-attended suicide attempts, with the magnitude of the relationship increasing at higher levels of DT. PMID:22852782

  10. Suicidality in Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Katharine A.

    2008-01-01

    Suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and completed suicide appear common in individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). Available evidence indicates that approximately 80% of individuals with BDD experience lifetime suicidal ideation and 24% to 28% have attempted suicide. Although data on completed suicide are limited and preliminary, the suicide rate appears markedly high. These findings underscore the importance of recognizing and effectively treating BDD. However, BDD is underrecognized in clinical settings even though it is relatively common and often presents to psychiatrists and other mental health practitioners, dermatologists, surgeons, and other physicians. This article reviews available evidence on suicidality in BDD and discusses how to recognize and diagnose this often secret disorder. Efficacious treatments for BDD, ie, serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) and cognitive-behavioral therapy, are also discussed. Although data are limited, it appears that SRIs often diminish suicidality in these patients. Additional research is greatly needed on suicidality rates, characteristics, correlates, risk factors, treatment, and prevention of suicidality in BDD. PMID:18449358

  11. The Interpersonal Theory of Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Orden, Kimberly A.; Witte, Tracy K.; Cukrowicz, Kelly C.; Braithwaite, Scott R.; Selby, Edward A.; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is a major problem worldwide and, at the same time, has received relatively little empirical attention. This relative lack of empirical attention may be due in part to a relative absence of theory development regarding suicidal behavior. The current article presents the interpersonal theory of suicidal behavior. We propose that…

  12. "The modal suicide decedent did not consume alcohol just prior to the time of death: An analysis with implications for understanding suicidal behavior": Correction to Anestis et al. (2014).

    PubMed

    2015-05-01

    Reports an error in "The modal suicide decedent did not consume alcohol just prior to the time of death: An analysis with implications for understanding suicidal behavior" by Michael D. Anestis, Thomas Joiner, Jetta E. Hanson and Peter M. Gutierrez (Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 2014[Nov], Vol 123[4], 835-840). The institutional affiliation in the byline for Jetta E. Hanson was incorrectly listed as Military Suicide Research Consortium, Tallahassee, Florida. Jetta E. Hanson's correct institutional affiliation is provided in the erratum. PMID:25730517

  13. An exploration of integrated data on the social dynamics of suicide among women.

    PubMed

    Mallon, Sharon; Galway, Karen; Hughes, Lynette; Rondón-Sulbarán, Janeet; Leavey, Gerard

    2016-05-01

    The gender-based nature of suicide-related behaviour is largely accepted. However, studies that report exclusively on female suicides are rare. Here we demonstrate how female suicide has effectively been 'othered' and appears incidental in studies which compare female and male behaviour. We highlight how recent studies of suicide have tended to be dominated by male-only approaches, which increasingly link issues of masculinity with male death by suicide. Drawing on data collected from the general practitioner and coroner's office, we then apply the sociological autopsy approach to a cohort of 78 deaths recorded as suicides in the UK between 2007 and 2009. By focusing on females in isolation from males, we demonstrate that, as in male-only suicide studies, it is similarly possible to draw out issues associated with the feminine identity, which can be linked to death by suicide. We find that bereavement, sexual violence and motherhood could all be linked to the lives and help-seeking of the females who died. In closing, we suggest that a reorientation towards sociological analytic approaches of female suicide may help to produce further reductions in the rate of female death by suicide. A Virtual Abstract of this paper can be found at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a0w9KKMFdIQ. PMID:26852902

  14. An exploration of integrated data on the social dynamics of suicide among women.

    PubMed

    Mallon, Sharon; Galway, Karen; Hughes, Lynette; Rondón-Sulbarán, Janeet; Leavey, Gerard

    2016-05-01

    The gender-based nature of suicide-related behaviour is largely accepted. However, studies that report exclusively on female suicides are rare. Here we demonstrate how female suicide has effectively been 'othered' and appears incidental in studies which compare female and male behaviour. We highlight how recent studies of suicide have tended to be dominated by male-only approaches, which increasingly link issues of masculinity with male death by suicide. Drawing on data collected from the general practitioner and coroner's office, we then apply the sociological autopsy approach to a cohort of 78 deaths recorded as suicides in the UK between 2007 and 2009. By focusing on females in isolation from males, we demonstrate that, as in male-only suicide studies, it is similarly possible to draw out issues associated with the feminine identity, which can be linked to death by suicide. We find that bereavement, sexual violence and motherhood could all be linked to the lives and help-seeking of the females who died. In closing, we suggest that a reorientation towards sociological analytic approaches of female suicide may help to produce further reductions in the rate of female death by suicide. A Virtual Abstract of this paper can be found at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a0w9KKMFdIQ.

  15. Sleep Disturbances and Suicide Risk.

    PubMed

    Bernert, Rebecca A; Nadorff, Michael R

    2015-03-01

    Suicide occurs in the presence of psychiatric illness, and is associated with biological, psychological, and social risk factors. Insomnia symptoms and nightmares appear to present elevated risk for suicidal ideation, attempts, and death by suicide. Failure to account for the presence of psychopathology and frequent use of single item assessments of sleep and suicidal ideation are common methodological problems in this literature. Preliminary research, addressing these issues, suggests that subjective sleep complaints may confer independent risk for suicidal behaviors. PMID:26055671

  16. The theory and practice of consultation-liaison (CL) psychiatry in Trinidad and Tobago with reference to suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Maharajh, Hari D; Abdool, Petal; Mohammed-Emamdee, Rehanna

    2008-01-01

    Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry (CL Psychiatry) is not a well-established discipline in developing countries. It is a multifaceted area that incorporates clinical, teaching, and research activities both within the hospital and extramurally in community health services. Our purpose was first to define the role of CL Psychiatry, to review essential steps in the process, and to advise on how to set up services. Second, a 1-year retrospective analysis was conducted on all patients referred. A total of 708 persons were referred for psychiatric consultation, of which 41% (291) were referred because of suicidal behavior. Sixty-six percent were female and there was an over-representation of Indo-Trinidadians (67%). Twenty-six percent of all cases of suicidal behavior were diagnosed with clinical depression, 3% were suffering from a psychotic illness (schizophrenia), and 8% (24/291) were under the influence of alcohol. The most vulnerable group was the 25- to 35-year-old age group, accounting for 27% (78/291) of attempters, with the largest number of female attempters. The 36- to 55-year-old males were most likely to attempt suicide (35/99). Ingestion of a toxic substance was the most popular method among all races, genders, and age groups. Of all referrals, 95% originated from medical wards. The most common reason cited for attempts was depressed mood, secondary to a domestic dispute with a family member or significant other. Among Caribbean countries, Trinidad and Tobago has high rates of suicide and suicidal behavior, depression, and alcoholism. CL psychiatrists have a major role to play in the delivery of services to these groups, facilitating the transition of care from admission in the emergency room to discharge and follow-up in the community. PMID:18836659

  17. Suicide and suicidal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Turecki, Gustavo; Brent, David A

    2016-03-19

    Suicide is a complex public health problem of global importance. Suicidal behaviour differs between sexes, age groups, geographic regions, and sociopolitical settings, and variably associates with different risk factors, suggesting aetiological heterogeneity. Although there is no effective algorithm to predict suicide in clinical practice, improved recognition and understanding of clinical, psychological, sociological, and biological factors might help the detection of high-risk individuals and assist in treatment selection. Psychotherapeutic, pharmacological, or neuromodulatory treatments of mental disorders can often prevent suicidal behaviour; additionally, regular follow-up of people who attempt suicide by mental health services is key to prevent future suicidal behaviour.

  18. Differences in nonfatal suicide behaviors among Mexican and European American middle school children.

    PubMed

    Tortolero, S R; Roberts, R E

    2001-01-01

    This report describes ethnic and gender differences in suicide ideation among two large samples of middle school students in New Mexico (n = 2,140) and Texas (n = 1,302). Students completed a self-administered questionnaire on suicide ideation and psychosocial risk factors. Mexican Americans in both samples reported significantly higher prevalence of suicide ideation than did their European American counterparts. Mexican Americans were 1.8 times more likely to have high suicide ideation than European Americans. The suicide ideation risk for Mexican Americans remained unchanged in both samples after adjusting for gender, age, family structure, depression, low social support, and self-esteem. This study indicates that ethnicity plays an important role in suicidal ideation, but the mechanism remains unclear. PMID:11459254

  19. Does Practice Make Perfect? A Randomized Control Trial of Behavioral Rehearsal on Suicide Prevention Gatekeeper Skills

    PubMed Central

    Seaburn, David; Gibbs, Danette; Schmeelk-Cone, Karen; White, Ann Marie; Caine, Eric D.

    2011-01-01

    Suicide is the third leading cause of death among 10–24-year-olds and the target of school-based prevention efforts. Gatekeeper training, a broadly disseminated prevention strategy, has been found to enhance participant knowledge and attitudes about intervening with distressed youth. Although the goal of training is the development of gatekeeper skills to intervene with at-risk youth, the impact on skills and use of training is less known. Brief gatekeeper training programs are largely educational and do not employ active learning strategies such as behavioral rehearsal through role play practice to assist skill development. In this study, we compare gatekeeper training as usual with training plus brief behavioral rehearsal (i.e., role play practice) on a variety of learning outcomes after training and at follow-up for 91 school staff and 56 parents in a school community. We found few differences between school staff and parent participants. Both training conditions resulted in enhanced knowledge and attitudes, and almost all participants spread gatekeeper training information to others in their network. Rigorous standardized patient and observational methods showed behavioral rehearsal with role play practice resulted in higher total gatekeeper skill scores immediately after training and at follow-up. Both conditions, however, showed decrements at follow-up. Strategies to strengthen and maintain gatekeeper skills over time are discussed. PMID:21814869

  20. The association between sleep disturbances and suicidal behaviors in patients with psychiatric diagnoses: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Identifying patients with increased risk of suicidal behaviors is a constant challenge and concern for clinicians caring for patients with psychiatric conditions. We conducted a systematic review to assess the association between suicidal behaviors and sleep disturbances in psychiatric patients. Methods A systematic literature search of Ovid Medline In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, Ovid PsycInfo, Ovid Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Ovid Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Scopus was conducted using earliest inclusive dates to 28 June 2013. Eligible studies were comparative observational studies that reported sleep disturbances in psychiatric patients and the outcome of interest (any type of suicidal behaviors). Pairs of reviewers extracted descriptive data, study quality, and outcomes. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were pooled across studies using the random-effects model. Newcastle-Ottawa scale was used to critically appraise study quality. Results Nineteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Compared to those without sleep disturbances, patients with psychiatric diagnoses and co-morbid sleep disturbances were significantly more likely to report suicidal behaviors (OR = 1.99, 95% CI 1.72, 2.30, P <0.001). The association was also demonstrated across several psychiatric conditions including depression (OR = 3.05, 95% CI 2.07, 4.48, P <0.001), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (OR = 2.56, 95% CI 1.91, 3.43, P <0.001), panic disorder (OR = 3.22, 95% CI 1.09, 9.45, P = 0.03), and schizophrenia (OR = 12.66, 95% CI 1.40, 114.44, P = 0.02). In subgroup analysis based on the type of sleep disorder, we also found suicidal behavior to be significantly associated with the presence of insomnia, parasomnias, and sleep-related breathing disorders, but not hypersomnias. Conclusions This systematic review and meta-analysis suggests that in patients with

  1. Venlafaxine augmentation with agomelatine in a patient with obsessive-compulsive disorder and suicidal behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Concerto, Carmen; Battaglia, Eliana; Costanzo, Maria C; Battaglia, Fortunato; Aguglia, Eugenio

    2014-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a chronic and disabling condition that often proves to be treatment resistant. Of the patients suffering from obsessive-compulsive disorder, 10%–27% may attempt suicide at least once in their life. We report the case of a patient who presented severe obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms and attempted suicide ingesting 25 tablets of fluoxetine (20 mg). The patient was treated with venlafaxine and agomelatine and showed improvement of obsessive symptoms and suicidal ideation. Future studies are needed to investigate this treatment regime in large cohorts of obsessive-compulsive disorder patients with suicidal ideation. PMID:27489668

  2. Venlafaxine augmentation with agomelatine in a patient with obsessive-compulsive disorder and suicidal behaviors.

    PubMed

    Signorelli, Maria S; Concerto, Carmen; Battaglia, Eliana; Costanzo, Maria C; Battaglia, Fortunato; Aguglia, Eugenio

    2014-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a chronic and disabling condition that often proves to be treatment resistant. Of the patients suffering from obsessive-compulsive disorder, 10%-27% may attempt suicide at least once in their life. We report the case of a patient who presented severe obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms and attempted suicide ingesting 25 tablets of fluoxetine (20 mg). The patient was treated with venlafaxine and agomelatine and showed improvement of obsessive symptoms and suicidal ideation. Future studies are needed to investigate this treatment regime in large cohorts of obsessive-compulsive disorder patients with suicidal ideation.

  3. The relationship between deliberate self-harm behavior, body dissatisfaction, and suicide in adolescents: current concepts

    PubMed Central

    Greydanus, Donald E; Apple, Roger W

    2011-01-01

    Deliberate self-harm (DSH) is a common though often hidden condition in children and adolescents that may result in suicide. This discussion covers several aspects of DSH including its prevalence, etiology, and management. The relationships of DSH to body dissatisfaction and suicide are specifically considered. Even though most cases of DSH do not end in overt suicide, DSH reflects that potential underlying psychological pathophysiology, and likelihood of eventual death from self-murder, cannot always be predicted or prevented. It is important to take all acts of DSH as serious, and to offer comprehensive management to prevent future acts of DSH and potential suicide. PMID:21811385

  4. Gender, culture, and suicidal behavior: a feminist critique of theories and research.

    PubMed

    Range, L M; Leach, M M

    1998-01-01

    Suicide research has developed historically from philosophical roots in logical positivism and structural determinism. Thus, much suicide research has been based on assumptions of cause-and-effect relationships, reductionistic analysis, and the individual as the primary unit of analysis. In counterpoint, six guiding themes define feminist research (Worell & Etaugh, 1994). The present manuscript traces these six themes, illustrating them with suicide research projects. By challenging scientific tradition, focusing on women, considering power, recognizing gender constructs, maintaining awareness of the power of language, and promoting active, practical applications, researchers can combine traditional and alternative methodologies to make suicide research more robust. PMID:9560164

  5. Impact of "+Contigo" training on the knowledge and attitudes of health care professionals about suicide

    PubMed Central

    Santos, José Carlos; Simões, Rosa Maria Pereira; Erse, Maria Pedro Queiroz de Azevedo; Façanha, Jorge Daniel Neto; Marques, Lúcia Amélia Fernandes Alves

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the results of "+Contigo" training, developed by nurses and directed at 66 health professionals of integrated school health teams in Primary Health Care. METHOD: quantitative with data collection through the Suicide Behavior Attitude Questionnaire, administered before and after the training. RESULTS: significant increases were observed in suicide prevention knowledge and in changing attitudes of health professionals towards individuals with suicidal behavior. CONCLUSION: these results allow us to affirm that nurses hold scientific and pedagogical knowledge that grant them a privileged position in the health teams, to develop training aimed at health professionals involved in suicide prevention. PMID:25296153

  6. Improving Maladaptive Behaviors Using Sensory Integration Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuman, Theresa

    A study examined the use of sensory integration techniques to reduce the maladaptive behaviors that interfered with the learning of nine high school students with mental impairments attending a special school. Maladaptive behaviors identified included rocking, toe walking, echolalia, resistance to change, compulsive behaviors, aggression,…

  7. Socio-Demographic, Clinical and Behavioral Characteristics Associated with a History of Suicide Attempts among Psychiatric Outpatients: A Case Control Study in a Northern Mexican City

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Arnaud-Gil, Carlos Alberto; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Molina-Espinoza, Luis Fernando; Rábago-Sánchez, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the epidemiology of suicide attempts among psychiatric outpatients in Mexico. This study was aimed to determine the socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics associated with suicide attempts in psychiatric outpatients in two public hospitals in Durango, Mexico. Methods: Two hundred seventy six psychiatric outpatients (154 suicide attempters and 122 patients without suicide attempt history) attended the two public hospitals in Durango City, Mexico were included in this study. Socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics were obtained retrospectively from all outpatients and compared in relation to the presence or absence of suicide attempt history. Results: Increased prevalence of suicide attempts was associated with mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use (F10-19) (P=0.01), schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders (F20-29) (P=0.02), mood (affective) disorders (F30-39) (P<0.001), and disorders of adult personality and behavior (F60-69) (P<0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that suicide attempts were associated with young age (OR=1.21, 95% CI: 1.06-1.39; P=0.003), female gender (OR=2.98, 95% CI: 1.55-5.73; P=0.001), urban residence (OR=2.31, 95% CI: 1.17-4.57; P=0.01), memory impairment (OR=1.91, 95% CI: 1.07-3.40; P=0.02), alcohol consumption (OR=2.39, 95% CI: 1.21-4.70; P=0.01), and sexual promiscuity (OR=3.90, 95% CI: 1.74-8.77; P<0.001). Conclusions: We report the association of suicide attempts with socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics in psychiatric outpatients in Mexico. Results may be useful for an optimal planning of preventive measures against suicide attempts in psychiatric outpatients. PMID:24711751

  8. Treating PTSD in Suicidal and Self-injuring Women with Borderline Personality Disorder: Development and Preliminary Evaluation of a Dialectical Behavior Therapy Prolonged Exposure Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Harned, Melanie S.; Korslund, Kathryn E.; Foa, Edna B.; Linehan, Marsha M.

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on the development and pilot testing of a protocol based on Prolonged Exposure (PE) that can be added to Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) to treat PTSD in suicidal and self-injuring individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Women with BPD, PTSD, and recent and/or imminent serious intentional self-injury (n=13) received one year of DBT with the DBT PE Protocol, plus three months of follow up assessment. The treatment was associated with significant reductions in PTSD, with the majority of patients no longer meeting criteria for PTSD at post-treatment (71.4% of DBT PE Protocol completers, 60.0% of the intent-to-treat sample). A minority of patients (27.3%) engaged in intentional self-injury during the study. Improvements were also found for suicidal ideation, dissociation, trauma-related guilt cognitions, shame, anxiety, depression, and social adjustment. There was no evidence that the DBT PE Protocol led to exacerbations of intentional self-injury urges or behaviors, PTSD, treatment dropout, or crisis service use. Overall, the results indicate that this integrated BPD and PTSD treatment is feasible to implement within one year of treatment, highly acceptable to patients and therapists, safe to administer, and shows promise as an effective intervention for PTSD in this complex and high-risk patient population. PMID:22503959

  9. Cross-National Analysis of the Associations among Mental Disorders and Suicidal Behavior: Findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Nock, Matthew K.; Hwang, Irving; Sampson, Nancy; Kessler, Ronald C.; Angermeyer, Matthias; Beautrais, Annette; Borges, Guilherme; Bromet, Evelyn; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Hu, Chiyi; Huang, Yueqin; Karam, Elie G.; Kawakami, Norito; Kovess, Viviane; Levinson, Daphna; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sagar, Rajesh; Tomov, Toma; Viana, Maria Carmen; Williams, David R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Suicide is a leading cause of death worldwide. Mental disorders are among the strongest predictors of suicide; however, little is known about which disorders are uniquely predictive of suicidal behavior, the extent to which disorders predict suicide attempts beyond their association with suicidal thoughts, and whether these associations are similar across developed and developing countries. This study was designed to test each of these questions with a focus on nonfatal suicide attempts. Methods and Findings Data on the lifetime presence and age-of-onset of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV) mental disorders and nonfatal suicidal behaviors were collected via structured face-to-face interviews with 108,664 respondents from 21 countries participating in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. The results show that each lifetime disorder examined significantly predicts the subsequent first onset of suicide attempt (odds ratios [ORs] = 2.9–8.9). After controlling for comorbidity, these associations decreased substantially (ORs = 1.5–5.6) but remained significant in most cases. Overall, mental disorders were equally predictive in developed and developing countries, with a key difference being that the strongest predictors of suicide attempts in developed countries were mood disorders, whereas in developing countries impulse-control, substance use, and post-traumatic stress disorders were most predictive. Disaggregation of the associations between mental disorders and nonfatal suicide attempts showed that these associations are largely due to disorders predicting the onset of suicidal thoughts rather than predicting progression from thoughts to attempts. In the few instances where mental disorders predicted the transition from suicidal thoughts to attempts, the significant disorders are characterized by anxiety and poor impulse-control. The limitations of this study include the use of retrospective self

  10. Social modeling in the transmission of suicidality.

    PubMed

    de Leo, Diego; Heller, Travis

    2008-01-01

    Evidence from twin, adoption, and family studies suggests that there is strong aggregation of suicidal behaviors in some families. By comparison, the role of social modeling through peers has yet to be convincingly established. This paper uses data from four large studies (the WHO/EURO Multicentre Study on Suicidal Behaviour, the WHO/SUPRE-MISS, the CASE study, and the Queensland Suicide Register) to compare the effects of exposure to fatal and nonfatal suicidal behavior in family members and nonfamilial associates on the subsequent suicidal behavior of male and female respondents of different ages. Across all studies, we found that prior suicidal behaviors among respondents' social groups were more important predictors of suicidal behavior in the respondents themselves than previous research had indicated. Community-based suicide attempters in the WHO SUPRE-MISS had higher rates of exposure to prior suicide in nonfamilial associates than in family members. In an adolescent population, exposure to prior fatal suicidal behavior did not predict deliberate self-harm when exposure to nonfatal suicidal behavior (both familial and social) were controlled for, but exposure to nonfatal suicidal behaviors in family and friends was predictive of deliberate self-harm and suicide ideation, even after controlling for exposure to fatal suicidal behavior. The potential impact of "containment" of information regarding suicidal behaviors as a prevention initiative is discussed, in light of information behavior principles of social marketing. PMID:18389641

  11. Social modeling in the transmission of suicidality.

    PubMed

    de Leo, Diego; Heller, Travis

    2008-01-01

    Evidence from twin, adoption, and family studies suggests that there is strong aggregation of suicidal behaviors in some families. By comparison, the role of social modeling through peers has yet to be convincingly established. This paper uses data from four large studies (the WHO/EURO Multicentre Study on Suicidal Behaviour, the WHO/SUPRE-MISS, the CASE study, and the Queensland Suicide Register) to compare the effects of exposure to fatal and nonfatal suicidal behavior in family members and nonfamilial associates on the subsequent suicidal behavior of male and female respondents of different ages. Across all studies, we found that prior suicidal behaviors among respondents' social groups were more important predictors of suicidal behavior in the respondents themselves than previous research had indicated. Community-based suicide attempters in the WHO SUPRE-MISS had higher rates of exposure to prior suicide in nonfamilial associates than in family members. In an adolescent population, exposure to prior fatal suicidal behavior did not predict deliberate self-harm when exposure to nonfatal suicidal behavior (both familial and social) were controlled for, but exposure to nonfatal suicidal behaviors in family and friends was predictive of deliberate self-harm and suicide ideation, even after controlling for exposure to fatal suicidal behavior. The potential impact of "containment" of information regarding suicidal behaviors as a prevention initiative is discussed, in light of information behavior principles of social marketing.

  12. Collective efficacy, family attachment, and urban adolescent suicide attempts.

    PubMed

    Maimon, David; Browning, Christopher R; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2010-09-01

    The suicide rate among American adolescents between the ages of 14-25 has dramatically increased during the last 50 years, and this fact has been the focus of extensive social-scientific investigation. To date, however, research focusing on the joint effects of mental health, family, and contextual-level predictors on adolescents' suicidal behaviors is scarce. Drawing on Durkheim's classic macro-level approach to suicide and collective efficacy theory, we use data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) to examine the effect of informal social controls on adolescents' suicide attempts. Analyzing reports from 990 youth, we examine the hypothesis that neighborhood-level collective efficacy and family-level integration and social control independently affect suicide attempts. We also examine the extent to which they interact in their effects on suicidal behavior. Overall, results from multilevel logit models support the Durkheimian expectation that family attachment reduces the probability that adolescents will attempt suicide. The effect of collective efficacy is interactive in nature. Specifically, we find that collective efficacy significantly enhances the protective effect of family attachment and support on adolescent suicidal behaviors. We discuss findings within the context of social control theory.

  13. Collective Efficacy, Family Attachment, and Urban Adolescent Suicide Attempts

    PubMed Central

    Maimon, David; Browning, Christopher R.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    The suicide rate among American adolescents between the ages of 14–25 has dramatically increased during the last 50 years, and this fact has been the focus of extensive social-scientific investigation. To date, however, research focusing on the joint effects of mental health, family, and contextual-level predictors on adolescents’ suicidal behaviors is scarce. Drawing on Durkheim’s classic macro-level approach to suicide and collective efficacy theory, we use data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) to examine the effect of informal social controls on adolescents’ suicide attempts. Analyzing reports from 990 youth, we examine the hypothesis that neighborhood-level collective efficacy and family-level integration and social control independently affect suicide attempts. We also examine the extent to which they interact in their effects on suicidal behavior. Overall, results from multilevel logit models support the Durkheimian expectation that family attachment reduces the probability that adolescents will attempt suicide. The effect of collective efficacy is interactive in nature. Specifically, we find that collective efficacy significantly enhances the protective effect of family attachment and support on adolescent suicidal behaviors. We discuss findings within the context of social control theory. PMID:20943592

  14. Human Aggression and Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gerald L.; Goodwin, Frederick K

    1986-01-01

    The central nervous system transmitter serontonin may be altered in aggressive/impulsive and suicidal behaviors in humans. These reports are largely consistent with animal data, and constitute one of the most highly replicated set of findings in biological psychiatry. Suggests that some suicidal behavior may be a special kind of aggressive…

  15. Sexual Assault History and Suicidal Behavior in a National Sample of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Sarah E.; Brecklin, Leanne R.

    2002-01-01

    A national sample of women (N=627) with histories of sexual assault in both childhood and adulthood reported significantly greater odds of lifetime suicide attempts. As predicted, younger age, stressful events, depression, and alcohol dependency were all associated with suicide ideation. Discusses role of sexual trauma and other psychological…

  16. Extreme Weight-Control Behaviors and Suicide Risk among High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Emily R.; Weiler, Robert M.; Barnett, Tracey E.; Pealer, Lisa N.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Suicide is the third leading cause of death for people ages 15-19. Research has established an association across numerous risk factors and suicide, including depression, substance abuse, bullying victimization, and feelings of alienation. However, the connection between disordered eating as manifested in extreme weight-control…

  17. Meta-Analysis of Suicide-Related Behavior Events in Patients Treated with Atomoxetine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bangs, Mark E.; Tauscher-Wisniewski, Sitra; Polzer, John; Zhang, Shuyu; Acharya, Nayan; Desaiah, Durisala; Trzepacz, Paula T.; Allen, Albert J.

    2008-01-01

    A study to examine suicide-related events in acute, double-blind, and placebo controlled trials with atomoxetine is conducted. Results conclude that the incidences of suicide were more frequent in children suffering from ADHD treated with atomoxetine as compared to those treated with placebo.

  18. Suicidal Behavior and Firearm Access: Results from the Second Injury Control and Risk Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betz, Marian E.; Barber, Catherine; Miller, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    The association between home firearms and the likelihood and nature of suicidal thoughts and plans was examined using the Second Injury Control and Risk Survey, a 2001-2003 representative telephone survey of U.S. households. Of 9,483 respondents, 7.4% reported past-year suicidal thoughts, 21.3% with a plan. Similar proportions of those with and…

  19. The Sustained Reduction of Youth Suicidal Behavior in an Urban, Multicultural School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zenere, Frank J.; Lazarus, Philip J.

    2009-01-01

    An 18-year longitudinal case study of the suicide rates of students attending a large, urban, multicultural school district between 1989 and 2006 is described. The high rate of suicide (5.5 per 100,000 students ages 5-19) in the district during the period 1980-1988 led to the development and implementation of a district-wide Youth Suicide…

  20. Positive Social Support, Negative Social Exchanges, and Suicidal Behavior in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Jameson K.; Barton, Alison L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Risk for suicide is often higher among college students, compared to same-age noncollegiate peers, and may be exacerbated by quality of social support and interactions. The authors examined the independent contributions of positive social support and negative social exchanges to suicide ideation and attempts in college students.…

  1. Heterogeneity of Relational Backgrounds is Associated With Variation in Non-Suicidal Self-Injurious Behavior.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jodi; Bureau, Jean-François; Yurkowski, Kim; Lafontaine, Marie-France; Cloutier, Paula

    2016-04-01

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a self-destructive behavior of common prevalence in adolescence and young adulthood. Engagement in NSSI has been consistently linked in the literature with perceptions of one's parent-child relationships as negative or invalidating. However, the potential for multiple combinations of such relational characteristics to be associated with varying cognitive and behavioral manifestations of NSSI remains uninvestigated. In the current study, a person-centered approach to studying perceived parent-child relationship quality and NSSI was adopted; functions and behavioral severity of NSSI were then compared across the different relational profiles created. A latent profile analysis in a sample of 264 self-injuring university students (205 females; m(age) = 19.37 years, sd = 1.50) revealed four distinct profiles, two characterized by negative parent-child perceptions and two by positive parent-child perceptions. The perceived relational dimensions of these profiles were unique compared to a parallel group of 264 non-self-injurers (207 females; m(age) = 19.27 years, sd = 1.33). Participants reporting negative parent-child relationships endorsed more severe NSSI, and engaged in NSSI to regulate aggressive emotions. In contrast, individuals reporting positive parent-child relationships engaged in less extreme manifestations of NSSI overall, suggesting lower psychological deficits. Findings suggest that, although not all self-injurers perceive their relationships with parents negatively, variation in the perception of relational quality is implicated in behavioral and cognitive variation in NSSI engagement.

  2. Effects of serotonin-2A receptor binding and gender on personality traits and suicidal behavior in borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Soloff, Paul H; Chiappetta, Laurel; Mason, Neale Scott; Becker, Carl; Price, Julie C

    2014-06-30

    Impulsivity and aggressiveness are personality traits associated with a vulnerability to suicidal behavior. Behavioral expression of these traits differs by gender and has been related to central serotonergic function. We assessed the relationships between serotonin-2A receptor function, gender, and personality traits in borderline personality disorder (BPD), a disorder characterized by impulsive-aggression and recurrent suicidal behavior. Participants, who included 33 BPD patients and 27 healthy controls (HC), were assessed for Axis I and II disorders with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and the International Personality Disorders Examination, and with the Diagnostic Interview for Borderline Patients-Revised for BPD. Depressed mood, impulsivity, aggression, and temperament were assessed with standardized measures. Positron emission tomography with [(18)F]altanserin as ligand and arterial blood sampling was used to determine the binding potentials (BPND) of serotonin-2A receptors in 11 regions of interest. Data were analyzed using Logan graphical analysis, controlling for age and non-specific binding. Among BPD subjects, aggression, Cluster B co-morbidity, antisocial PD, and childhood abuse were each related to altanserin binding. BPND values predicted impulsivity and aggression in BPD females (but not BPD males), and in HC males (but not HC females.) Altanserin binding was greater in BPD females than males in every contrast, but it did not discriminate suicide attempters from non-attempters. Region-specific differences in serotonin-2A receptor binding related to diagnosis and gender predicted clinical expression of aggression and impulsivity. Vulnerability to suicidal behavior in BPD may be related to serotonin-2A binding through expression of personality risk factors.

  3. Emotional Triggers and Psychopathology Associated with Suicidal Ideation in Urban Children with Elevated Aggressive-Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyman, Peter A.; Gaudieri, Patricia A.; Schmeelk-Cone, Karen; Cross, Wendi; Brown, C. Hendricks; Sworts, Luke; West, Jennifer; Burke, Katharine C.; Nathan, Janaki

    2009-01-01

    8.6% suicidal ideation (SI) was found among 349 urban 6-9 year olds in the top tercile of aggressive-disruptive behavior. SI was associated with more self-reported depression, ODD, conduct problems, and ADHD symptoms (ES 0.70-0.97) and 3.5-5 times more clinically significant symptoms. Parents rated more symptoms in older children associated with…

  4. Impaired Decision Making in Adolescent Suicide Attempters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridge, Jeffrey A.; McBee-Strayer, Sandra M.; Cannon, Elizabeth A.; Sheftall, Arielle H.; Reynolds, Brady; Campo, John V.; Pajer, Kathleen A.; Barbe, Remy P.; Brent, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Decision-making deficits have been linked to suicidal behavior in adults. However, it remains unclear whether impaired decision making plays a role in the etiopathogenesis of youth suicidal behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine decision-making processes in adolescent suicide attempters and never-suicidal comparison…

  5. Two models of suicide.

    PubMed

    Pridmore, Saxby; Jamil, Mohammed Yaacob

    2009-12-01

    Objective: The aim of this paper is to present two models of separate but related aspects of suicide, developed with a view to improving understanding and management of this behaviour. Conclusions: First, the predicament model of suicide posits that all suicide represents an escape from a predicament and associated distress. Predicaments are composed of either external (environmental) or internal (mental disorders) factors, or both. Suicide occurs when a threshold is exceeded on a suicide risk ladder, and the degree of movement toward the threshold in response to a particular stressor depends on a range of factors. Second, the suicide pathways model integrates medical and sociological concepts, with distress as the central component, and three run-offs: mental disorder, medicalized and a non-mental disorder (egoistic/anomic; reaction) suicide.

  6. A newly identified group of adolescents at "invisible" risk for psychopathology and suicidal behavior: findings from the SEYLE study.

    PubMed

    Carli, Vladimir; Hoven, Christina W; Wasserman, Camilla; Chiesa, Flaminia; Guffanti, Guia; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Iosue, Miriam; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean Pierre; Keeley, Helen; Postuvan, Vita; Saiz, Pilar; Varnik, Airi; Wasserman, Danuta

    2014-02-01

    This study explored the prevalence of risk behaviors (excessive alcohol use, illegal drug use, heavy smoking, reduced sleep, overweight, underweight, sedentary behavior, high use of Internet/TV/videogames for reasons not related to school or work, and truancy), and their association with psychopathology and self-destructive behaviors, in a sample of 12,395 adolescents recruited in randomly selected schools across 11 European countries. Latent class analysis identified three groups of adolescents: a low-risk group (57.8%) including pupils with low or very low frequency of risk behaviors; a high-risk group (13.2%) including pupils who scored high on all risk behaviors, and a third group ("invisible" risk, 29%) including pupils who were positive for high use of Internet/TV/videogames for reasons not related to school or work, sedentary behavior and reduced sleep. Pupils in the "invisible" risk group, compared with the high-risk group, had a similar prevalence of suicidal thoughts (42.2% vs. 44%), anxiety (8% vs. 9.2%), subthreshold depression (33.2% vs. 34%) and depression (13.4% vs. 14.7%). The prevalence of suicide attempts was 5.9% in the "invisible" group, 10.1% in the high-risk group and 1.7% in the low-risk group. The prevalence of all risk behaviors increased with age and most of them were significantly more frequent among boys. Girls were significantly more likely to experience internalizing (emotional) psychiatric symptoms. The "invisible" group may represent an important new intervention target group for potentially reducing psychopathology and other untoward outcomes in adolescence, including suicidal behavior. PMID:24497256

  7. Trauma experience of youngsters and Teens: A key issue in suicidal behavior among victims of bullying?

    PubMed Central

    Shireen, Farhat; Janapana, Himani; Rehmatullah, Sanila; Temuri, Hoor; Azim, Fatima

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the association between suicide and bullying among teenagers and adolescents in school besides exploring strategies to prevent acts of bullying. “Bullying” is a risk factor that is linked to suicidal ideation and attempts among school-age children and teenagers. Since youth suicide is an urgent and serious problem, we conducted a systematic review of 28 previous studies conducted in children and adolescents which examined the connection between bullying experiences and suicide. Data Collection: A literature search was carried out using 4 databases, without date description including: PubMed, PsychInfo, Medline and Google Scholar. The search terms contained: bullying, suicide and bullying, suicide in teens, school bullying, and peer victimization. An initial search generated about 97 articles; however, only 28 articles were appropriate for inclusion in the current review. Inclusion criteria was (1) Cross-sectional studies published from 1997-2013. (2) Study based on school bullying and suicidal risk in adolescents and teens 18 years or less (3) Studies had enough information to calculate effect sizes that did include a control group. (4) Studies based on gender discrimination. Papers that focused on specific populations, that did not include quantitative data, that did not use a control group of non-bullied subjects and studies based on cyber bullying, studies with longitudinal design were excluded. The risk of suicide attempts was higher in girls, who were involved in bullying, either as the victim or perpetrator, than in boys. Depression, feelings of hopelessness and loneliness can develop in the child after being bullied for long periods of time; these feelings are indirectly related to suicidal ideation and attempts. Involvement in bullying increases the likelihood of suicidal ideation and attempts in children and teenagers. PMID:24639862

  8. Fatal and non-fatal suicidal behavior in Israeli adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Apter, Alan; King, Robert A; Bleich, Avi; Fluck, Avi; Kotler, Moshe; Kron, Shmuel

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is examine the similarities and differences between adolescent suicide completers, adolescents with non-fatal suicidal symptoms, and non-suicidal psychiatric controls in an epidemiologic sample. Using the central Israeli military medical registry, 214 18-21 year old males from the same national service cohort were identified, consisting of 43 consecutive completed suicides and 171 consecutive central psychiatric clinic outpatients presenting with near-fatal suicide attempts, serious suicide attempts, para-suicidal gestures, threats, ideation, or other non-suicidal complaints. Systematic pre-induction and service data were available for all subjects, with detailed postmortem inquest data for suicides. Systematic clinical data, including the Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS), Hamilton Depression Scale, and Eysenck Personality Inventory were obtained on all clinic subjects. Major depression was present in half of completers, near-lethal attempters, and ideators, but absent in the other clinic groups, whose commonest diagnosis was adjustment disorder. Depression scores increased across groups with increasing intent; ideators also had high scores. Completers and near-lethal attempters had higher I.Q. and medical fitness ratings and were in more demanding assignments than other groups. Prior attempts were commonest in completers, near-lethal attempters, and gesturers. Disciplinary history, ethnicity, family intactness, immigrant status, and Eysenck Personality Inventory scores did not differentiate the groups. The findings may not be generalizable to female adolescents or to other countries or time periods. The findings thus point to contrasts, as well as similarities, between groups of adolescents with different types of suicidal symptoms.

  9. MMPI-2 personality profiles and suicidal ideation and behavior in victims of bullying at work: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Luciano; Balducci, Cristian; Quintarelli, Emanuele; Riolfi, Andrea; Pelizza, Luisa; Serpelloni, Andrea; Tisato, Silvia; Perbellini, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate longitudinally the personality profile and suicidal ideation and behavior in victims of bullying at work in relation to the evolution of the victimization. Forty-eight victims were evaluated by means of medical and psychological assessment including the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2). A follow up session was carried out after an average of 22 months. At first evaluation, the average MMPI-2 personality profile of victims showed abnormal elevations on scales Hs (Hypochondria), D (Depression), Hy (Hysteria), and Pa (Paranoia), which were strikingly similar to that found in previous studies. Furthermore, suicidal ideation and behavior were common among victims. At follow-up, 26 victims reported that the degree of bullying had remained the same or had even worsened, whereas 22 said that the situation had improved or had been resolved. Although there was a trend toward normalization in the MMPI-2 profile for all victims, the profile of the "static" group was still abnormal at follow up. On the contrary, the profile of the "improved" group was entirely within normal range. Suicidal ideation and behavior decreased in all victims, but only to a significant degree in the improved group. Results are discussed in the light of the bullying process.

  10. MMPI-2 personality profiles and suicidal ideation and behavior in victims of bullying at work: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Luciano; Balducci, Cristian; Quintarelli, Emanuele; Riolfi, Andrea; Pelizza, Luisa; Serpelloni, Andrea; Tisato, Silvia; Perbellini, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate longitudinally the personality profile and suicidal ideation and behavior in victims of bullying at work in relation to the evolution of the victimization. Forty-eight victims were evaluated by means of medical and psychological assessment including the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2). A follow up session was carried out after an average of 22 months. At first evaluation, the average MMPI-2 personality profile of victims showed abnormal elevations on scales Hs (Hypochondria), D (Depression), Hy (Hysteria), and Pa (Paranoia), which were strikingly similar to that found in previous studies. Furthermore, suicidal ideation and behavior were common among victims. At follow-up, 26 victims reported that the degree of bullying had remained the same or had even worsened, whereas 22 said that the situation had improved or had been resolved. Although there was a trend toward normalization in the MMPI-2 profile for all victims, the profile of the "static" group was still abnormal at follow up. On the contrary, the profile of the "improved" group was entirely within normal range. Suicidal ideation and behavior decreased in all victims, but only to a significant degree in the improved group. Results are discussed in the light of the bullying process. PMID:24547677

  11. Psychological models of suicide.

    PubMed

    Barzilay, Shira; Apter, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is highly complex and multifaceted. Consequent to the pioneering work of Durkheim and Freud, theoreticians have attempted to explain the biological, social, and psychological nature of suicide. The present work presents an overview and critical discussion of the most influential theoretical models of the psychological mechanisms underlying the development of suicidal behavior. All have been tested to varying degrees and have important implications for the development of therapeutic and preventive interventions. Broader and more in-depth approaches are still needed to further our understanding of suicidal phenomena.

  12. Drivers of Disparity: Differences in Socially-Based Risk Factors of Self-injurious and Suicidal Behaviors Among Sexual Minority College Students

    PubMed Central

    Blosnich, John; Bossarte, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (i.e., sexual minority) populations have increased prevalence of both self-injurious and suicidal behaviors, but reasons for these disparities are poorly understood. Objective To test the association between socially-based stressors (e.g., victimization, discrimination) and self-injurious behavior, suicide ideation, and suicide attempt. Participants A national sample of college-attending 18- to 24-year-olds. Methods Random or census samples from post-secondary educational institutions that administered the National College Health Assessment during the Fall 2008 and Spring 2009 semesters. Results Sexual minorities reported more socially-based stressors than heterosexuals. Bisexuals exhibited greatest prevalence of self-injurious and suicidal behaviors. In adjusted models, intimate partner violence was most consistently associated with self-injurious behaviros. Conclusions Sexual minorities' elevated risks of self-injurious and suicidal behaviors may stem from higher exposure to socially-based stressors. Within-group differences among sexual minorities offer insight to specific risk factors that may contribute to elevated self-injurious and suicidal behaviors in sexual minority populations. PMID:22316411

  13. Social Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maris, Ronald W.

    1997-01-01

    Argues that social forces and social pathologies figure prominently in the dynamics of suicide. Gives several examples of "social suicide," including mass suicide, organizational self-destruction, social analogues to individual suicide, and military suicide. Claims that suicide prevention requires social, economic, and cultural transformations at…

  14. Sociological autopsy: an integrated approach to the study of suicide in men.

    PubMed

    Scourfield, Jonathan; Fincham, Ben; Langer, Susanne; Shiner, Michael

    2012-02-01

    This paper's main aim is to argue the methodological case for a particular approach to researching the sociology of suicide. By way of illustrating the use of this approach it also offers some brief examples of substantive findings about the gendered character of men's suicides. The first half of the article explains and justifies the research approach. This is a qualitatively-driven mixed method and dual paradigm study of individual suicides. It is a sociological study which draws on the tradition of psychological autopsies of suicide; hence the term 'sociological autopsy'. The second half of the article offers brief illustrative findings from a specific research project which employed the sociological autopsy approach. This was a study of 100 suicide case files from a coroner's office in the UK. There is discussion of common sense assumptions about suicide in men; the construction of evidence in case files; a typology of gendered suicides where relationship breakdown seems to be the principal trigger; and the value of case-based analysis, with a single case discussed in some detail.

  15. School bullying, cyberbullying, or both: correlates of teen suicidality in the 2011 CDC Youth Risk Behavior Survey.

    PubMed

    Messias, Erick; Kindrick, Kristi; Castro, Juan

    2014-07-01

    While school bullying has been shown to be associated with depression and suicidality among teens, the relationship between these outcomes and cyberbullying has not been studied in nationally representative samples. Data came from the 2011 CDC Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), a nationally representative sample of high-school students (N=15,425). We calculated weighted estimates representative of all students in grades 9-12 attending school in the US. Logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios. Overall, girls are more likely to be report being bullied (31.3% vs. 22.9%), in particularly to be cyberbullied (22.0% vs. 10.8%), while boys are only more likely to report exclusive school bullying (12.2% vs. 9.2%). Reports of 2-week sadness and all suicidality items were highest among teens reporting both forms of bullying, followed by those reporting cyberbullying only, followed by those reporting school bullying only. For example, among those reporting not being bullied 4.6% reported having made a suicide attempt, compared to 9.5% of those reporting school bullying only (adjusted odd ratio (AOR) 2.3, 95% C.I. 1.8-2.9), 14.7% of those reporting cyberbullying only (AOR 3.5 (2.6-4.7)), and 21.1% of those reporting victimization of both types of bullying (AOR 5.6 (4.4-7)). Bullying victimization, in school, cyber, or both, is associated with higher risk of sadness and suicidality among teens. Interventions to prevent school bullying as well as cyberbullying are needed. When caring for teens reporting being bullied, either at school or in cyberbullying, it's important to screen for depression and suicidality. PMID:24768228

  16. School bullying, cyberbullying, or both: correlates of teen suicidality in the 2011 CDC Youth Risk Behavior Survey.

    PubMed

    Messias, Erick; Kindrick, Kristi; Castro, Juan

    2014-07-01

    While school bullying has been shown to be associated with depression and suicidality among teens, the relationship between these outcomes and cyberbullying has not been studied in nationally representative samples. Data came from the 2011 CDC Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), a nationally representative sample of high-school students (N=15,425). We calculated weighted estimates representative of all students in grades 9-12 attending school in the US. Logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios. Overall, girls are more likely to be report being bullied (31.3% vs. 22.9%), in particularly to be cyberbullied (22.0% vs. 10.8%), while boys are only more likely to report exclusive school bullying (12.2% vs. 9.2%). Reports of 2-week sadness and all suicidality items were highest among teens reporting both forms of bullying, followed by those reporting cyberbullying only, followed by those reporting school bullying only. For example, among those reporting not being bullied 4.6% reported having made a suicide attempt, compared to 9.5% of those reporting school bullying only (adjusted odd ratio (AOR) 2.3, 95% C.I. 1.8-2.9), 14.7% of those reporting cyberbullying only (AOR 3.5 (2.6-4.7)), and 21.1% of those reporting victimization of both types of bullying (AOR 5.6 (4.4-7)). Bullying victimization, in school, cyber, or both, is associated with higher risk of sadness and suicidality among teens. Interventions to prevent school bullying as well as cyberbullying are needed. When caring for teens reporting being bullied, either at school or in cyberbullying, it's important to screen for depression and suicidality.

  17. School Bullying, Cyberbullying, or both: Correlates of Teen Suicidality in the 2011 CDC Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    PubMed Central

    Messias, Erick; Kindrick, Kristi; Castro, Juan

    2014-01-01

    While school bullying has been shown to be associated with depression and suicidality among teens, the relationship between these outcomes and cyberbullying has not been studied in nationally representative samples. Data came from the 2011 CDC Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), a nationally representative sample of high-school students (N=15,425). We calculated weighted estimates representative of all students in grades 9-12 attending school in the US. Logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios. Overall, girls are more likely to be report being bullied (31.3% vs. 22.9%), in particularly to be cyberbullied (22.0% vs. 10.8%), while boys are only more likely to report exclusive school bullying (12.2% vs. 9.2%). Reports of 2-week sadness and all suicidality items were highest among teens reporting both forms of bullying, followed by those reporting cyberbullying only, followed by those reporting school bullying only. For example, among those reporting not being bullied 4.6% reported having made a suicide attempt, compared to 9.5% of those reporting school bullying only (adjusted odd ratio (AOR) 2.3, 95% C.I. 1.8- 2.9), 14.7% of those reporting cyberbullying only (AOR 3.5 (2.6-4.7)), and 21.1% of those reporting victimization of both types of bullying (AOR 5.6 (4.4-7)). Bullying victimization, in school, cyber, or both, is associated with higher risk of sadness and suicidality among teens. Interventions to prevent school bullying as well as cyberbullying are needed. When caring for teens reporting being bullied, either at school or in cyberbullying, it's important to screen for depression and suicidality. PMID:24768228

  18. Religion and Spirituality Along the Suicidal Path

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colucci, Erminia; Martin, Graham

    2008-01-01

    The inner experience of spiritual and religious feelings is an integral part of the everyday lives of many individuals. For over 100 years the role of religion as a deterrent to suicidal behavior has been studied in various disciplines. We attempt to systematize the existing literature investigating the relationship between religion/spirituality…

  19. Religious Involvement and Suicidal Behavior among African Americans and Black Caribbeans

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chatters, Linda M.; Joe, Sean

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between religious denomination, four dimensions of religious involvement, and suicidality (lifetime prevalence of suicide ideation and attempts) within a nationally representative sample of African American and Black Caribbean adults. The relationship between religious involvement and suicide for African Americans and Black Caribbeans indicated both similarities and differences. For both groups, religious involvement was largely protective of suicidal ideation and attempts, although, in some instances, specific measures were associated with higher suicidality. Looking to God for strength, comfort and guidance was protective against suicidal attempts and ideation, whereas stating that prayer is important in stressful situations was associated with higher levels of ideation for both groups and higher attempts among Black Caribbeans. For African Americans, reading religious materials was positively associated with suicidal ideation. Among Black Caribbeans, subjective religiosity was negatively associated with ideation and being Catholic was inversely associated with attempts while being Pentecostal was inversely associated with ideation. These findings are discussed in relation to previous research and current conceptual frameworks that specify multiple (e.g., prevention, resource mobilization) and often divergent pathways of religious effects on physical and mental health outcomes. PMID:21716062

  20. [Biological review of completed suicide].

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Ikuo; Sora, Ichiro; Hishimoto, Akitoyo

    2016-06-01

    Family, twin and adoption studies have revealed genetic factors involved in suicide, while the accumulation of stress and mental illnesses are major contributing factors of suicide. Since higher lethality of suicidal behavior is considered to increase familial liability to suicidal behavior, we believe biological research of completed suicide is most important for a better understanding of the pathophysiology in suicide. Dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis has gained a special interest in the neurobiology of suicide, mostly because of the findings using a dexamethasone suppression test (DST), in which DST non-suppressors show a nearly 10-fold higher risk of completed suicide than DST suppressors in a depressed cohort. Other data mainly from postmortem brain studies indicate abnormalities of the noradrenergic-locus coeruleus system, serotonergic system, endogenous opioid system, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, inflammatory cytokines and omega-3 fatty acid in completed suicide. However, genetic research of complete suicide is behind other mental problems because it is extremely difficult to obtain tissue samples of completed suicide. Under the difficult situation, we now retain over 800 blood samples of suicide completers thanks to bereaved families' cooperation. We are actively working on the research of suicide, for instance, by performing a GWAS using 500 samples of suicide completers.

  1. [Biological review of completed suicide].

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Ikuo; Sora, Ichiro; Hishimoto, Akitoyo

    2016-06-01

    Family, twin and adoption studies have revealed genetic factors involved in suicide, while the accumulation of stress and mental illnesses are major contributing factors of suicide. Since higher lethality of suicidal behavior is considered to increase familial liability to suicidal behavior, we believe biological research of completed suicide is most important for a better understanding of the pathophysiology in suicide. Dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis has gained a special interest in the neurobiology of suicide, mostly because of the findings using a dexamethasone suppression test (DST), in which DST non-suppressors show a nearly 10-fold higher risk of completed suicide than DST suppressors in a depressed cohort. Other data mainly from postmortem brain studies indicate abnormalities of the noradrenergic-locus coeruleus system, serotonergic system, endogenous opioid system, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, inflammatory cytokines and omega-3 fatty acid in completed suicide. However, genetic research of complete suicide is behind other mental problems because it is extremely difficult to obtain tissue samples of completed suicide. Under the difficult situation, we now retain over 800 blood samples of suicide completers thanks to bereaved families' cooperation. We are actively working on the research of suicide, for instance, by performing a GWAS using 500 samples of suicide completers. PMID:27506081

  2. Suicide Terrorists: Are They Suicidal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    Are suicide terrorists suicidal? A review of the worldwide literature on suicide terrorism uncovered five published empirical studies describing data collected from potential suicide terrorists or the surviving friends and families of deceased terrorists. The many discrepancies uncovered between suicide terrorists and other suicides on key factors…

  3. Suicidal Ideation and Behaviors among Adolescents Receiving Bariatric Surgery: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    McPhee, Jeanne; Freidl, Eve Khlyavich; Eicher, Julia; Zitsman, Jeffrey L.; Devlin, Michael J.; Hildebrandt, Tom; Sysko, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study examined the prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation and behavior (SI/B) among adolescents receiving bariatric surgery. Method Charts of 206 adolescents receiving bariatric surgery were reviewed. Cases with SI/B (current/lifetime reported at baseline or event occurring in the program n= 31, 15%) were case-matched on gender, age, and surgery type to 31 adolescents reporting current or past psychiatric treatment, and 31 adolescents denying lifetime SI/B or psychiatric treatment. Results Before surgery, adolescents with SI/B reported significantly lower total levels of health-related quality of life (p=0.01) and greater depressive symptoms (p=0.004) in comparison to candidates who never received psychiatric treatment. No significant differences were found between groups for the change in depressive symptoms or body mass index following surgery. Conclusions As in studies of adults, a notable subset of adolescents receiving bariatric surgery indicated pre- or post-operative SI/B. It is critical that clinicians evaluate and monitor adolescent patients undergoing bariatric surgery for risk of SI/B. PMID:26377705

  4. Gene environment interaction studies in depression and suicidal behavior: An update.

    PubMed

    Mandelli, Laura; Serretti, Alessandro

    2013-12-01

    Increasing evidence supports the involvement of both heritable and environmental risk factors in major depression (MD) and suicidal behavior (SB). Studies investigating gene-environment interaction (G × E) may be useful for elucidating the role of biological mechanisms in the risk for mental disorders. In the present paper, we review the literature regarding the interaction between genes modulating brain functions and stressful life events in the etiology of MD and SB and discuss their potential added benefit compared to genetic studies only. Within the context of G × E investigation, thus far, only a few reliable results have been obtained, although some genes have consistently shown interactive effects with environmental risk in MD and, to a lesser extent, in SB. Further investigation is required to disentangle the direct and mediated effects that are common or specific to MD and SB. Since traditional G × E studies overall suffer from important methodological limitations, further effort is required to develop novel methodological strategies with an interdisciplinary approach. PMID:23886513

  5. Predictors of Suicide Attempts in Clinically Depressed Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Ahye; Song, Jungeun; Yook, Ki-Hwan; Jon, Duk-In; Jung, Myung Hun; Hong, Narei; Hong, Hyun Ju

    2016-01-01

    We examined predictors of suicide attempts in clinically depressed adolescents in Korea and gender differences in suicidal behavior. In total, 106 adolescents diagnosed with depressive disorder were recruited in South Korea. We assessed various variables that might affect suicide attempts, and used a structured interview for the diagnosis of depression and comorbidities and to evaluate suicidality. Demographic and clinical characteristics of the subjects were compared between suicide attempt and non-suicide attempt groups and we examined significant predictors of suicide attempts. Gender differences in suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior were also analyzed. Among 106 depressed participants, 50 (47.2%) adolescents were classified in the suicide attempt group. Generally, the suicide attempt and non-suicide attempt group shared similar clinical characteristics. The suicide attempt group had more females, more major depressive disorder diagnoses, more depressive episodes, and higher suicidal ideation than the non-suicide attempt group. Suicidal ideation was the only significant predictor of suicidal attempt, regardless of gender. Higher suicidal ideation frequency scores and more non-suicidal self-injurious behaviors were shown in the female suicide attempt group than the male suicide attempt group. It is recommended that suicidal ideation be assessed regularly and managed rigorously to decrease suicide risks in depressive adolescents. PMID:27776392

  6. Testing Brief Intervention and Phone Contact among Subjects with Suicidal Behavior: A Randomized Controlled Trial in French Polynesia in the Frames of the World Health Organization/Suicide Trends in At-Risk Territories Study.

    PubMed

    Amadéo, Stéphane; Rereao, Moerani; Malogne, Aurelia; Favro, Patrick; Nguyen, Ngoc Lam; Jehel, Louis; Milner, Allison; Kolves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego

    2015-09-30

    The World Health Organization Suicide trends in at-risk territories study is a multi-site regional research program operating first in French Polynesia and countries of the Western Pacific, then extended to the world. The aims of the study were to establish a monitoring system for suicidal behaviors and to conduct a randomised control trial intervention for non-fatal suicidal behaviors. The latter part is the purpose of the present article. Over the period 2008-2010, 515 patients were admitted at the Emergency Department of the Centre Hospitalier de Polynésie Française for suicidal behavior. Those then hospitalized in the Psychiatry Emergency Unit were asked to be involved in the study and randomly allocated to either Treatment As Usual (TAU) or TAU plus Brief Intervention and Contact (BIC), which provides a psycho-education session and a follow-up of 9 phone contacts over an 18-months period. One hundred persons were assigned to TAU, while 100 participants were allocated to the BIC group. At the end of the follow-up there were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of number of presentations to the hospital for repeated suicidal behaviors. Although the study could not demonstrate the superiority of a treatment over the other, nevertheless - given its importance - the investigation captured public attention and was able to contribute to the awareness of the need of suicide prevention in French Polynesia. The BIC model of intervention seemed to particularly suit the geographical and health care context of the country. PMID:26605034

  7. Testing Brief Intervention and Phone Contact among Subjects with Suicidal Behavior: A Randomized Controlled Trial in French Polynesia in the Frames of the World Health Organization/Suicide Trends in At-Risk Territories Study

    PubMed Central

    Amadéo, Stéphane; Rereao, Moerani; Malogne, Aurelia; Favro, Patrick; Nguyen, Ngoc Lam; Jehel, Louis; Milner, Allison; Kolves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization Suicide trends in at-risk territories study is a multi-site regional research program operating first in French Polynesia and countries of the Western Pacific, then extended to the world. The aims of the study were to establish a monitoring system for suicidal behaviors and to conduct a randomised control trial intervention for non-fatal suicidal behaviors. The latter part is the purpose of the present article. Over the period 2008-2010, 515 patients were admitted at the Emergency Department of the Centre Hospitalier de Polynésie Française for suicidal behavior. Those then hospitalized in the Psychiatry Emergency Unit were asked to be involved in the study and randomly allocated to either Treatment As Usual (TAU) or TAU plus Brief Intervention and Contact (BIC), which provides a psycho-education session and a follow-up of 9 phone contacts over an 18-months period. One hundred persons were assigned to TAU, while 100 participants were allocated to the BIC group. At the end of the follow-up there were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of number of presentations to the hospital for repeated suicidal behaviors. Although the study could not demonstrate the superiority of a treatment over the other, nevertheless – given its importance – the investigation captured public attention and was able to contribute to the awareness of the need of suicide prevention in French Polynesia. The BIC model of intervention seemed to particularly suit the geographical and health care context of the country. PMID:26605034

  8. The Role of the High School Professional in Identifying and Managing Adolescent Suicidal Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grob, Mollie C.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The experience of 80 high school professionals with adolescent suicidality was surveyed to document attitudes and information and to describe the perceived needs of the staff in dealing more effectively with this problem. (Author/PN)

  9. On the role of impulsivity and decision-making in suicidal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Gvion, Yari; Levi-Belz, Yossi; Hadlaczky, Gergö; Apter, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Suicide risk constitutes a complex set of interacting demographic, clinical, psychobiological and environmental variables. Impulsivity is a long-known risk factor for suicide attempts. However, research based on clearer conceptual refinement in this area is imperative. One emerging field of study is that of decision-making. Impulsivity involves a failure of higher-order control, including decision-making. Using standardized operational definitions that take into consideration relevant aspects of impulsivity, including state- and trait-components and a deeper understanding of the process of decision-making in the suicidal mind, we may come a step closer to understanding suicidality and winning the fight in this scourge of human suffering. PMID:26425440

  10. Suicide Prevention for LGBT Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, R. Bradley; Oxendine, Symphony; Taub, Deborah J.; Robertson, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Extensive media coverage of the suicide deaths of several gay and lesbian youth has highlighted lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth as a population at-risk for suicide. In addition, it has caused colleges and universities to address mental health and suicide behavior among this very diverse college population. One issue that…

  11. Recent Biologic Studies on Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Alex

    1994-01-01

    Reviews studies on suicidal behavior in depressed patients, including study showing that depressed patients who had attempted suicide had significantly reduced CSF concentrations of dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA) and significantly lower urinary outputs of HVA than patients who had not attempted suicide. Considers role of diminished…

  12. Suicide and Occupation: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedeian, Arthur G.

    1982-01-01

    Examined the literature dealing with the relation of occupation to suicide for three occupational categories: health care providers, managerial and professional persons, and military and paramilitary personnel. Presents evidence relating to group differences in suicidal behavior. Considers theories explaining variations in incidence of suicide.…

  13. Untangling a Complex Web: How Non-Suicidal Self-Injury and Suicide Attempts Differ

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muehlenkamp, Jennifer J.; Kerr, Patrick L.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal behavior is complex and often difficult to untangle. While most self-injurers never exhibit suicidality, there is evidence of a correlation between suicidality and NSSI, and a clear overlap of risk between the two behaviors. Therefore, it is important to both prevention and…

  14. Suicide of Japanese Youth.

    PubMed

    Iga, M

    1981-01-01

    The uniquely intense stress due to the Examination Hell (shiken jigoku) not only generates a basic drive for Japan's economic success but also contributes to a high rate of young people's suicide. This paper discusses the major factors in the intensity of Japanese stress on both institutional and psychological levels. The social structural factors which convert stress to suicide are analyzed in terms of weak ego; restraint on aggression; a lack of social resources; and views of life, death and suicide. Japanese views of life, death and suicide are treated in terms of Absolute phenomenalism, the original form of Shintoism, to which Buddhism and Confucianism have been adjusted in Japan. Japanese phenomenalism affects suicide through its three aspects: animism, present-time oriented small groupism, and the absolute acceptance of the established social order. Confusion and conflict since World War II have increased anomic suicides; however, elements of fatalistic suicide (due to excessive formal or informal social regulations) and altruistic suicide (due to excessive formal or informal social regulations) and altruistic suicide (due to strong social integration) are evident. Suicide is still a highly institutionalized adjustment mechanism in Japan.

  15. Pharmacogenomics of suicidal events

    PubMed Central

    Brent, David; Melhem, Nadine; Turecki, Gustavo

    2010-01-01

    Pharmacogenomic studies of antidepressant treatment-emergent suicidal events in depressed patients report associations with polymorphisms in genes involved in transcription (CREB1), neuroprotection (BDNF and NTRK2), glutamatergic and noradrenergic neurotransmission (GRIA3, GRIK2 and ADRA2A), the stress and inflammatory responses (FKBP5 and IL28RA), and the synthesis of glycoproteins (PAPLN). Nearly all of the reported events in these studies were modest one-time increases in suicidal ideation. In 3231 unique subjects across six studies, 424 (13.1%) patients showed increases in suicidal ideation, eight (0.25%) attempted suicide and four (0.12%) completed suicide. Systems related to most of these genes have also been implicated in studies of suicidal behavior irrespective of treatment. Future pharmacogenomic studies should target events that are clinically significant, related clinical phenotypes of response and medication side effects, and biological pathways that are involved in these outcomes in order to improve treatment approaches. PMID:20504254

  16. Cultural Considerations in Adolescent Suicide Prevention and Psychosocial Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldston, David B.; Molock, Sherry Davis; Whitbeck, Leslie B.; Murakami, Jessica L.; Zayas, Luis H.; Hall, Gordon C. Nagayama

    2008-01-01

    Ethnic groups differ in rates of suicidal behaviors among youths, the context within which suicidal behavior occurs (e.g., different precipitants, vulnerability and protective factors, and reactions to suicidal behaviors), and patterns of help-seeking. In this article, the authors discuss the cultural context of suicidal behavior among African…

  17. SSRIs, suicide and violent behavior: is there a need for a better definition of the depressive state?

    PubMed

    Henry, Chantal; Demotes-Mainard, Jacques

    2006-01-01

    To what extent do SSRIs increase the risk of suicide or violent behavior? Recent data indicate that some SSRIs lack a favorable 'risk-benefit' profile for treating childhood and adolescent depression. In addition, certain recent documents have cast doubt on previous conclusions dissociating antidepressant from violence. Beyond the debate on the need for improved transparency in clinical studies, this controversy raises other critical issues of SSRI use that merit our consideration. Firstly, is there an overuse of antidepressants, and does the risk of suicide increase with the prescription of antidepressants in the whole population? Secondly, is the response to antidepressants modified during adolescence? If so, by what mechanisms? We know that SSRI treatment can trigger mood changes in undiagnosed young bipolar patients resulting in agitation and disinhibition, and such effects may lead to suicide and violence. Thirdly, recent extensive literature has shown that some cases of depression are worsened by antidepressants and new data has suggested that bipolar depression can be improved by atypical antipsychotics. Finally, current criteria defining the depressive state are very similar to those employed during the 19th century, a pre-therapeutic period. Currently, while it is recognised that depressive mood is a very broad construct, there is still only one definition in international classifications to describe a major depressive episode. There is a clear need to develop an evidence-based approach to psychiatry aiming at delineating diagnostic categories predictive of the response to treatments.

  18. Suicidal behavior in a medical professional with comorbid depression and substance use disorder: an educational case report.

    PubMed

    Kiraly, Drew D; Sher, Leo

    2015-05-01

    Here, we publish a report of a previously practicing nurse practitioner who presented to a community hospital with severely depressed mood and neurovegetative symptoms in the context of recent relapse to alcohol and cocaine abuse. This patient had a long history of depression and polysubstance abuse. Additionally, the patient had a history of multiple previous suicide attempts with a high possibility for lethality. All of his attempts occurred in the setting of depression, escalating substance use, and interpersonal difficulties. Due to his chronic struggles with mental health and substance abuse issues, the patient lost his marriage, many close friends, and, eventually, his license to practice medicine. In this report, we highlight the increased risk of suicidal behavior or completed suicide in patients with co-occurring depressive and substance abuse disorders. We also look to highlight the often unmet need of mental health and substance abuse treatment for healthcare professionals. Studies suggest that healthcare providers experience increasing rates of burnout, mood and anxiety disorders, and substance use disorders, but available treatment resources remain scarce. This is a serious public health issue that will require increased vigilance by the community at large to ensure the safety and wellbeing of both patients and their providers. PMID:25411994

  19. A Cross-Sectional Study of Major Repeaters: A Distinct Phenotype of Suicidal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Jaussent, Isabelle; Olié, Emilie; Béziat, Severine; Guillaume, Sebastien; Artieda-Urrutia, Paula; Baca-Garcia, Enrique; de Leon, Jose; Courtet, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The characterization of major repeaters (individuals with ≥ 5 lifetime suicide attempts) is a neglected area of research. Our aim was to establish whether or not major repeaters are a distinctive suicidal phenotype, taking into account a wide range of potential competing risks including sociodemographic characteristics, personal and familial history, psychiatric diagnoses, and personality traits. Method: This cross-sectional study included 372 suicide attempters admitted to a specialized unit for suicide attempters in Montpellier University Hospital, Montpellier, France, between October 12, 2000, and June 10, 2010. Logistic regression models controlling for potential confounders were used. Results: When compared with subjects who attempted suicide < 5 times, major repeaters were more likely to be female (odds ratio [OR] = 5.54; 95% CI, 1.41–21.81), to have a lower educational level (OR = 5.1; 95% CI, 1.55–17.2), to have lifetime diagnoses of anorexia nervosa (OR = 3.45; 95% CI, 1.10–10.84) and substance dependence (OR = 5.00; 95% CI, 1.37–18.27), and to have lower levels of anger expressed outward (OR = 0.17; 95% CI, 0.06–0.47) and higher levels of trait anger (OR = 2.82; 95% CI, 1.18–6.75). Major repeaters had significantly higher suicide risk (lethality) scores (OR = 2.14; 95% CI, 1.08–4.23). Conclusion: Major repeaters are a distinctive suicidal phenotype characterized by a distinctive sociodemographic (ie, female gender, low education) and clinical profile (ie, trait anger, substance dependence, anorexia nervosa). If our results are replicated, specific preventive plans should be tailored to major repeaters. PMID:25664212

  20. Suicide notes.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, I; Farmer, R; Catalan, J

    1993-07-01

    Detailed case reports of incidents of suicide and attempted suicide on the London Underground railway system between 1985 and 1989 were examined for the presence of suicide notes. The incidence of note-leaving was 15%. Notes provided little insight into the causes of suicide as subjectively perceived, or strategies for suicide prevention. PMID:8353698

  1. Suicide and Its Prevention on College Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Lee

    2012-01-01

    Suicide is a significant issue facing higher education institutions. Many campuses are involved in a variety of procedures, programs, and initiatives that seek to reduce or prevent suicide and the impact of suicide-related behavior. This article offers examples of campus prevention efforts, important resources on suicide prevention for college…

  2. Suicide and the Military Justice System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lande, Raymond G.

    1992-01-01

    Notes that U.S. military policies emphasize humanitarian approach to issue of suicide, yet military law may view suicidal behavior as deviant and may prosecute suicide attempters. Cites convictions of soldiers for attempted and assisted suicides. Reviews recent court decisions and suggests revisions in military law. (Author/NB)

  3. Parental bonding in severely suicidal adolescent inpatients.

    PubMed

    Freudenstein, O; Zohar, A; Apter, A; Shoval, G; Weizman, A; Zalsman, G

    2011-11-01

    Family environment has a clear role in suicidal behavior of adolescents. We assessed the relationship between parental bonding and suicidal behavior in suicidal (n=53) and non-suicidal (n=47) adolescent inpatients. Two dimensions of parental bonding: care and overprotection, were assessed with the Parental Bonding Instrument. Results showed that adolescents with severe suicidal behavior tended to perceive their mothers as less caring and more overprotective compared to those with mild or no suicidal behavior. A discriminant analysis distinguished significantly between adolescents with high suicidality and those with low suicidality [χ2 (5) = 15.54; p=0.01] in 71% of the cases. The perception of the quality of maternal bonding may be an important correlate of suicidal behavior in adolescence and may guide therapeutic strategies and prevention. PMID:21398097

  4. An overview of the neurobiology of suicidal behaviors as one meta-system.

    PubMed

    Sokolowski, M; Wasserman, J; Wasserman, D

    2015-02-01

    Suicidal behaviors (SB) may be regarded as the outmost consequence of mental illnesses, or as a distinct entity per se. Regardless, the consequences of SB are very large to both society and affected individuals. The path leading to SB is clearly a complex one involving interactions between the subject's biology and environmental influences throughout life. With the aim to generate a representative and diversified overview of the different neurobiological components hypothesized or shown implicated across the entire SB field up to date by any approach, we selected and compiled a list of 212 gene symbols from the literature. An increasing number of novel gene (products) have been introduced as candidates, with half being implicated in SB in only the last 4 years. These candidates represent different neuro systems and functions and might therefore be regarded as competing or redundant explanations. We then adopted a unifying approach by treating them all as parts of the same meta-system, using bioinformatic tools. We present a network of all components connected by physical protein-protein interactions (the SB interactome). We proceeded by exploring the differences between the highly connected core (~30% of the candidate genes) and its peripheral parts, observing more functional homogeneity at the core, with multiple signal transduction pathways and actin-interacting proteins connecting a subset of receptors in nerve cell compartments as well as development/morphology phenotypes and the stress-sensitive synaptic plasticity processes of long term potentiation/depression. We suggest that SB neurobiology might also be viewed as one meta-system and perhaps be explained as intrinsic unbalances acting within the core or as imbalances arising between core and specific peripheral components. PMID:25178164

  5. Genetic Association Studies of Suicidal Behavior: A Review of the Past 10 Years, Progress, Limitations, and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Mirkovic, Bojan; Laurent, Claudine; Podlipski, Marc-Antoine; Frebourg, Thierry; Cohen, David; Gerardin, Priscille

    2016-01-01

    Suicidal behaviors (SBs), which range from suicidal ideation to suicide attempts and completed suicide, represent a fatal dimension of mental ill-health. The involvement of genetic risk factors in SB is supported by family, twin, and adoption studies. The aim of this paper is to review recent genetic association studies in SBs including (i) case–control studies, (ii) family-based association studies, and (iii) genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Various studies on genetic associations have tended to suggest that a number of genes [e.g., tryptophan hydroxylase, serotonin receptors and transporters, or brain-derived neurotrophic factors (BDNFs)] are linked to SBs, but these findings are not consistently supported by the results obtained. Although the candidate–gene approach is useful, it is hampered by the present state of knowledge concerning the pathophysiology of diseases. Interpretations of GWAS results are mostly hindered by a lack of annotation describing the functions of most variation throughout the genome. Association studies have addressed a wide range of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in numerous genes. We have included 104 such studies, of which 10 are family-based association studies and 11 are GWAS. Numerous meta-analyses of case–control studies have shown significant associations of SB with variants in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT or SLC6A4) and the tryptophan hydroxylase 1 gene (TPH1), but others report contradictory results. The gene encoding BDNF and its receptor (NTRK2) are also promising candidates. Only two of the GWAS showed any significant associations. Several pathways are mentioned in an attempt to understand the lack of reproducibility and the disappointing results. Consequently, we review and discuss here the following aspects: (i) sample characteristics and confounding factors; (ii) statistical limits; (iii) gene–gene interactions; (iv) gene, environment, and by time interactions; and (v) technological and theoretical

  6. Spiritual well-being, intrinsic religiosity, and suicidal behavior in predominantly Catholic Croatian war veterans with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder: a case control study.

    PubMed

    Nad, Sanea; Marcinko, Darko; Vuksan-Aeusa, Bjanka; Jakovljević, Miro; Jakovljevic, Gordana

    2008-01-01

    We investigated relationships between spiritual well-being (SWB), intrinsic religiosity (IR), and suicidal behavior in 45 Croatian war veterans with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder and 32 healthy volunteers. Compared with the volunteers, the veterans had significantly lower SWB scores (p = 0.000) and existential well-being (EWB) scores (p = 0.000). Scores on the religious well-being (RWB) subscale (p = 0.108) and the IR scale did not differ significantly between the groups (p = 0.803). Veterans' suicidality inversely correlated with SWB (p = 0.000), EWB (p = 0.000), RWB (p = 0.026), and IR (p = 0.041), with the association being stronger for the EWB subscale than for the RWB subscale. Veterans who had attempted suicide at least once in their lifetime had significantly higher Suicidal Assessment Scale scores and lower EWB scores than veterans who never attempted suicide. Low EWB scores may imply an increased risk of suicidality. Some religious activities were more frequent among the veterans than among the healthy volunteers, possibly reflecting the veterans' increased help-seeking behavior due to poor EWB.

  7. Working with the Suicidal Client Who Also Abuses Substances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Walsh, Adam; Spirito, Anthony; Rizzo, Christie; Goldston, David B.; Kaminer, Yifrah

    2012-01-01

    Substance use disorders and suicidal thoughts and behaviors commonly co-occur in adolescent and adult psychiatric populations and are often functionally interrelated. Although the evidence base for treatment of this population is sparse, integrated cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) protocols, or those that rely heavily on CBT techniques, hold…

  8. Suicidal Ideation and Attempt among Adolescents Reporting "Unsure" Sexual Identity or Heterosexual Identity Plus Same-Sex Attraction or Behavior: Forgotten Groups?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Yue; Montoro, Richard; Igartua, Karine; Thombs, Brett D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare risk of suicide ideation and attempts in adolescents with 1) gay, lesbian, or bisexual (GLB) identity, 2) "unsure" identity, or 3) heterosexual identity with same-sex attraction/fantasy or behavior, to heterosexual identity without same-sex attraction/fantasy or behavior. Method: A total of 1,856 students 14 years of age and…

  9. Incidence rates of suicidal behaviors and treated depression in patients with and without psoriatic arthritis using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink

    PubMed Central

    Hagberg, Katrina Wilcox; Li, Lin; Peng, Michael; Shah, Kamal; Paris, Maria; Jick, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To estimate rates of suicidal behaviors and treated depression in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) in comparison to non-PsA patients. Methods: Using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, we conducted a cohort study of patients with PsA compared to non-PsA patients. Patients with codes for suicidal behaviors (ideation, attempts, and suicide) and treated depression (diagnosis plus anti-depressant prescription) recorded during follow-up were identified as cases. We estimated incidence rates (IRs) and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each outcome and stratified results in the PsA cohort by receipt of systemic PsA drugs. Results: The rates of suicide ideation, attempt, and suicide were similar for PsA and non-PsA patients [IRR = 0.99 (95%CI: 0.67–1.47), IRR = 1.07 (95%CI: 0.86–1.34), and 0.34 (95%CI: 0.05–2.48), respectively] and rates of suicidal behaviors were slightly higher among PsA patients who received PsA drugs compared to those who did not. PsA patients had slightly higher rate of treated depression compared to non-PsA patients [IRR = 1.38 (95%CI: 1.27–1.49)] and were significantly higher in PsA patients who received drugs [IRR = 1.59 (95%CI: 1.35–1.86)]. Conclusions: Rate of depression was higher in patients with PsA compared to non-PsA patients. The rate of suicidal behaviors was similar between the two cohorts. PMID:26882216

  10. Suicidal Behavior and Haplotypes of the Dopamine Receptor Gene (DRD2) and ANKK1 Gene Polymorphisms in Patients with Alcohol Dependence – Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Jasiewicz, Andrzej; Samochowiec, Agnieszka; Samochowiec, Jerzy; Małecka, Iwona; Suchanecka, Aleksandra; Grzywacz, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Suicide is a significant public health issue and a major cause of death throughout the world. According to WHO it accounts for almost 2% of deaths worldwide. The etiology of suicidal behavior is complex but the results of many studies suggest that genetic determinants are of significant importance. In our study,- we have analyzed selected SNPs polymorphisms in the DRD2 and ANKK1 genes in patients with alcohol dependence syndrome (169 Caucasian subjects) including a subgroup of individuals (n = 61) who have experienced at least one suicide attempt. The aim of the study was to verify if various haplotypes of selected genes, comprising Taq1A, Taq1B, and Taq1D single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), play any role in the development of alcohol dependence and suicidal behavior. The control group comprised 157 unrelated individuals matched for ethnicity, gender,- and age and included no individuals with mental disorders. All subjects were recruited in the North West region of Poland. The study showed that alcohol dependent subjects with a history of at least one suicidal attempt were characterized by a significantly higher frequency of the T-G-A2 haplotype when compared to individuals in whom alcohol dependence was not associated with suicidal behavior (p = 0.006). It appears that studies based on identifying correlation between SNPs is the future for research on genetic risk factors that contribute to the development of alcohol addiction and other associated disorders. To sum up, there is a necessity to perform further research to explain dependencies between the dopaminergic system, alcohol use disorders and suicidal behavior. PMID:25415204

  11. [The association of bullying with suicide ideation, plan, and attempt among adolescents with GLB or unsure sexual identity, heterosexual identity with same-sex attraction or behavior, or heterosexual identity without same-sex attraction or behavior].

    PubMed

    Montoro, Richard; Thombs, Brett; Igartua, Karine J

    2015-01-01

    Context Bullying is a known risk factor for suicidality, and suicide is the second leading cause of death for adolescents. Both are increased in sexual minority youth (SMY). As SMY are comprised of youth who self-identify as gay, lesbian, bisexual (GLB) or who have same-sex attractions or behaviors, our previous finding that different subgroups have different risks for suicidality is understandable. Given that the difference was along sexual identity lines (GLB vs heterosexual SMY), the analysis of bullying data in the same subgroups was felt to be important.Objective To compare the association of bullying and suicide among heterosexual students without same-sex attractions or behaviors, heterosexual students with same-sex attractions and behaviors, and students with gay, lesbian or bisexual (GLB) or unsure sexual identities.Design The 2004 Quebec Youth Risk Behavior Survey (QYRBS) questionnaire was based on the 2001 Center for Disease Control Youth Risk Behavior Survey, and included items assessing the three dimensions of sexual orientation (identity, attraction and behavior), health risk behaviors, experiences of harassment, and suicidal ideation, plans and attempts.Methods A total of 1852 students 14-18 years of age from 14 public and private high schools in Montréal Québec were surveyed anonymously during the 2004-2005 academic year.Main outcome measure Self reports of suicidal ideation, suicidal plan and suicide attempts in the last 12 months.Results In all, 117 students (6.3%) had a non-heterosexual identity (GLB or unsure) and 115 students (6.3%) had a heterosexual identity with same-sex attraction or behavior. Bullying occurred in 24% of heterosexual students without same-sex attraction or behavior, 32% of heterosexual students with same-sex attraction or behavior, and 48% of non-heterosexually identified students. In multivariable analysis, the common risk factors of age, gender, depressed mood, drug use, fighting, physical and sexual abuse, and

  12. Possible impact of microglial cells and the monocyte-macrophage system on suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Johann; Gos, Tomasz; Bogerts, Bernhard; Bielau, Hendrik; Drexhage, Hemmo A; Bernstein, Hans-Gert

    2013-11-01

    Immune dysfunction, including monocytosis, increased blood levels of interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL- 6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), as well as an increased microglial density in certain brain areas, have been described in schizophrenia and depression. Interestingly, similar immune alterations have been observed in suicide patients regardless of their underlying psychiatric diagnosis. This review summarizes relevant data from previous studies that have examined peripheral blood, cerebrospinal fluid and human brains (using postmortem histology and in vivo positron emission tomography) to investigate immune mechanisms in suicidal patients. We discuss whether the observed findings indicate that microgliosis and monocyte-macrophage system activation may be a useful marker of disease acuity/severity or whether they instead indicate a distinct neurobiology of suicide. Notably, pathophysiological mechanisms could change during the long-term course of psychiatric diseases. Therefore, different patterns of immune activation may be observed when comparing newly diseased patients with those who are chronically ill.

  13. Treating Co-Occurring Axis I Disorders in Recurrently Suicidal Women with Borderline Personality Disorder: A 2-Year Randomized Trial of Dialectical Behavior Therapy versus Community Treatment by Experts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harned, Melanie S.; Chapman, Alexander, L.; Dexter-Mazza, Elizabeth T.; Murray, Angela; Comtois, Katherine A.; Linehan, Marsha M.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated whether dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) was more efficacious than treatment by nonbehavioral psychotherapy experts in reducing co-occurring Axis I disorders among suicidal individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Women with BPD and recent and repeated suicidal and/or self-injurious behavior (n = 101) were…

  14. Classroom Discussion of Suicide: An Intervention Tool for the Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wanda Y.

    1985-01-01

    Teachers can play a significant role in adolescent suicide prevention by encouraging classroom discussion on depression and self-destructive behavior. Effectiveness of suicide prevention programs are discussed. Myths and signs of impending suicide are listed. (DF)

  15. X chromosome and suicide.

    PubMed

    Fiori, L M; Zouk, H; Himmelman, C; Turecki, G

    2011-02-01

    Suicide completion rates are significantly higher in males than females in most societies. Although gender differences in suicide rates have been partially explained by environmental and behavioral factors, it is possible that genetic factors, through differential expression between genders, may also help explain gender moderation of suicide risk. This study investigated X-linked genes in suicide completers using a two-step strategy. We first took advantage of the genetic structure of the French-Canadian population and genotyped 722 unrelated French-Canadian male subjects, of whom 333 were suicide completers and 389 were non-suicide controls, using a panel of 37 microsatellite markers spanning the entire X chromosome. Nine haplotype windows and several individual markers were associated with suicide. Significant results aggregated primarily in two regions, one in the long arm and another in the short arm of chromosome X, limited by markers DXS8051 and DXS8102, and DXS1001 and DXS8106, respectively. The second stage of the study investigated differential brain expression of genes mapping to associated regions in Brodmann areas 8/9, 11, 44 and 46, in an independent sample of suicide completers and controls. Six genes within these regions, Rho GTPase-activating protein 6, adaptor-related protein complex 1 sigma 2 subunit, glycoprotein M6B, ribosomal protein S6 kinase 90  kDa polypeptide 3, spermidine/spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase 1 and THO complex 2, were found to be differentially expressed in suicide completers. PMID:20010893

  16. Assessing Suicidal Ideation and Behaviors Among Survivors of Childhood Brain Tumors and Their Mothers During Sociobehavioral Research

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Matthew S.; Brawner, Bridgette M.; Hardie, Thomas L.; Beacham, Barbara; Paidipati, Cynthia; Diaz, Magdaline; Lauer, Amy; Hobbie, Wendy L.; Deatrick, Janet A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To describe the development and feasibility of a protocol for nonpsychiatric subspecialty research staff members to screen research participants who endorse suicidal ideations or behaviors during data collection. Design Descriptive protocol development. Setting The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia and the University of Pennsylvania. Sample 186 mother caregivers and 134 adolescent or young adult survivors of childhood brain tumors, with the protocol implemented for 5 caregivers and 11 survivors. Methods During telephone- and home-based interviews, the interviewer assessed the participant using the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS). Main Research Variables Expressed suicidal ideation or behavior. Findings Implementation of the C-SSRS by nonpsychiatric subspecialty staff members was feasible and valid. Interviewers’ conclusions based on this instrument matched those of the mental health professional who followed up with participants. Process notes contained themes about the participants, including anger and sadness in survivors and the physical and emotional demands of the survivor in caregivers. Progress notes for the interviewer included a reiteration of events, whether the assessment was successful, and whether the recommendation of the interviewer was in agreement with that of the mental health professional. Conclusions The protocol based on the C-SSRS was useful and feasible for nonpsychiatric subspecialty staff members to use in the collection of data from survivors of childhood brain tumors and their caregivers. Implications for Nursing Survivors of childhood brain tumors and their caregivers may experience psychosocial distress. Nurses, as research assistants or in other roles, can use tools such as the C-SSRS to assist in front-line assessments. PMID:26302289

  17. Self-Rated Depression Severity Relative to Clinician-Rated Depression Severity: Trait Stability and Potential Role in Familial Transmission of Suicidal Behavior.

    PubMed

    John Mann, J; Ellis, Steven P; Currier, Dianne; Zelazny, Jamie; Birmaher, Boris; Oquendo, Maria A; Kolko, David J; Stanley, Barbara; Melhem, Nadine; Burke, Ainsley K; Brent, David A

    2016-07-01

    Self-rated depression and hopelessness severity are predictors of suicide attempt in major depression. This study evaluated whether: (1) greater self-rated distress relative to severity of clinician-rated depression is a trait; (2) that trait is familial; and (3) that trait is linked to familial transmission of suicidal behavior. A total of 285 mood disorder probands and 457 offspring were assessed twice, at least 1 year apart. Family and subject intra-class correlations for self-report depression and hopelessness, controlling for clinician-rated depression severity, were computed. Mixed general linear models determined offspring-proband correlations. Within-individual intra-class correlation (ICC) for depression-hopelessness was 37.8% (bootstrap 95% CI: 31.0-46.3%). Parent-offspring ICC was 10.7% (bootstrap 95% CI: 3.5-17.8%). Suicide attempt concordant parent-offspring correlation for subjective depression was positive, but negative for attempter parent and nonattempter offspring (p = .0213 for slope interaction). Pessimism was greater in proband or offspring attempters than proband or offspring nonattempters (p < .05). Self-reported hopelessness is partly trait-dependent, and there is modest familial transmission of self-reported depression linked to suicidal behavior that may partly explain familial transmission of suicidal behavior. PMID:27046009

  18. Intersecting Identities and the Association Between Bullying and Suicide Attempt Among New York City Youths: Results From the 2009 New York City Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    PubMed Central

    LeVasseur, Michael T.; Grosskopf, Nicholas A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the intersections of sexual minority, gender, and Hispanic ethnic identities and their interaction with experiences of bullying in predicting suicide attempt among New York City youths. Methods. We performed secondary data analysis of the 2009 New York City Youth Risk Behavior Survey, using logistic regression to examine the association of sexual identity, gender, ethnicity, and bullying with suicide attempt. We stratified results on these measures and reported adjusted odds ratios. Results. Compared with non–sexual minority youths, sexual minority youths had 4.39 and 1.96 times higher odds, respectively, of attempting suicide and reporting bullying. Identity variables did not interact with bullying in predicting suicide attempt individually; however, a four-way interaction term was significant. The effect of bullying on suicide attempt was strongest among non-Hispanic sexual minority male youths (odds ratio = 21.39 vs 1.65–3.38 for other groups). Conclusions. Sexual minority, gender, and ethnic identities interact with bullying in predicting suicide attempt among New York City youths. Interventions to limit both the prevalence and the effect of bullying among minority youths should consider an intersectional approach that considers ethnic, gender, and sexual identities. PMID:23597376

  19. The Red Blood Cell Acetylcholinesterase Levels of Depressive Patients with Suicidal Behavior in an Agricultural Area.

    PubMed

    Altinyazar, Vesile; Sirin, Fevziye Burcu; Sutcu, Recep; Eren, Ibrahim; Omurlu, Imran Kurt

    2016-10-01

    Long-term exposure to organophosphate pesticides (OPs) without acute poisoning can lead to various OPs. Environmental exposure to organophosphate pesticides may be associated with depression and suicide attempts in a population living in a rural agricultural area. Patients (n = 149) suffering from major depressive disorder (with and without attempted suicide) and a control group of healthy individuals (n = 64) who had been living in the same rural district for at least 1 year were selected. Red blood cell acetylcholine esterase (RBC-AChE) activity was examined as the basis of evaluating the degree of chronic environmental exposure to OPs residues. There were negative association between RBC-AChE activity levels and suicide attempts, the number of past suicide attempts and hopelessness levels in the depressive patients. The results of the study may support the idea that environmental exposure to OPs may be associated with mental health in individuals living in agricultural districts who are not farmers or working in occupations with access to OPs. PMID:27605747

  20. Does Practice Make Perfect? A Randomized Control Trial of Behavioral Rehearsal on Suicide Prevention Gatekeeper Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Wendi F.; Seaburn, David; Gibbs, Danette; Schmeelk-Cone, Karen; White, Ann Marie; Caine, Eric D.

    2011-01-01

    Suicide is the third leading cause of death among 10-24-year-olds and the target of school-based prevention efforts. Gatekeeper training, a broadly disseminated prevention strategy, has been found to enhance participant knowledge and attitudes about intervening with distressed youth. Although the goal of training is the development of gatekeeper…

  1. School Social Workers' Experiences with Youth Suicidal Behavior: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Jonathan B.; Slovak, Karen

    2011-01-01

    No published studies have explored school social workers (SSWs) experiences with, or beliefs and attitudes about, working with suicidal youths at the elementary, middle, and high school levels. The authors surveyed SSWs (N = 399) who were members of the 11-state Midwest Council on School Social Workers. Results indicated significant SSW…

  2. Adolescent Non-Suicidal Self-Injury: Analysis of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emelianchik-Key, Kelly; Byrd, Rebekah J.; La Guardia, Amanda C.

    2016-01-01

    Issues regarding the diagnosis and treatment of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) continue to be of increasing concern to practitioners in educational and mental health settings. Given this rising concern, it is important to note that the majority of research regarding self-injury has focused on the symptomology and treatment of Caucasian females;…

  3. Social Work Research on African Americans and Suicidal Behavior: A Systematic 25-Year Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joe, Sean; Niedermeier, Danielle M.

    2008-01-01

    Suicide among African Americans is a neglected topic. Social workers practice in both clinical and nonclinical settings, and as the largest occupational group of mental health professionals, they have a unique opportunity to reach this underserved group. However, little is known about social work's empirical knowledge base for recognition and…

  4. Familism, Parent-Adolescent Conflict, Self-Esteem, Internalizing Behaviors and Suicide Attempts among Adolescent Latinas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhlberg, Jill A.; Pena, Juan B.; Zayas, Luis H.

    2010-01-01

    Adolescent Latinas continue to report higher levels of suicide attempts than their African-American and White peers. The phenomenon is still not understood and is theorized to be the result of the confluence of many cultural, familial, and individual level factors. In Latino cultures, belief in the importance of the family, the value known as…

  5. Definitions of Suicide and Self-Harm Behavior in an Australian Aboriginal Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrelly, Terri; Francis, Karen

    2009-01-01

    In this small qualitative grounded theory study (21 interviews and focus groups with a total of 26 participants) investigating the understandings of and attitudes toward suicide and self-harm of Aboriginal peoples in a coastal region of New South Wales, Australia, we found that cultural factors particular to these communities influence the way…

  6. Integrated Theory of Health Behavior Change

    PubMed Central

    RYAN, POLLY

    2009-01-01

    An essential characteristic of advanced practice nurses is the use of theory in practice. Clinical nurse specialists apply theory in providing or directing patient care, in their work as consultants to staff nurses, and as leaders influencing and facilitating system change. Knowledge of technology and pharmacology has far outpaced knowledge of how to facilitate health behavior change, and new theories are needed to better understand how practitioners can facilitate health behavior change. In this article, the Integrated Theory of Health Behavior Change is described, and an example of its use as foundation to intervention development is presented. The Integrated Theory of Health Behavior Change suggests that health behavior change can be enhanced by fostering knowledge and beliefs, increasing self-regulation skills and abilities, and enhancing social facilitation. Engagement in self-management behaviors is seen as the proximal outcome influencing the long-term distal outcome of improved health status. Person-centered interventions are directed to increasing knowledge and beliefs, self-regulation skills and abilities, and social facilitation. Using a theoretical framework improves clinical nurse specialist practice by focusing assessments, directing the use of best-practice interventions, and improving patient outcomes. Using theory fosters improved communication with other disciplines and enhances the management of complex clinical conditions by providing holistic, comprehensive care. PMID:19395894

  7. Non-suicidal self-injury and other self-directed violent behaviors in India: A review of definitions and research.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Amarendra; Luyckx, Koen; Maitra, Shubhada; Claes, Laurence

    2016-08-01

    The interpersonal theory of suicide suggests that most forms of self-directed violent behaviors lie on a continuum, with each behavior successively increasing the capability of committing suicide. There is increasing evidence to suggest that the continuum may begin with Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI). This theory can be important in developing interventions for suicide prevention. However, in India, consistent usage of definitions of various forms of self-directed violent behaviors is lacking. In the present study, we reviewed definitions of various forms of self-directed violent behaviors that have been investigated in India. Further, we compared the usage of these definitions with the usage by WHO. Additionally, we reviewed NSSI research in India. Thirty-eight publications were identified by a comprehensive electronic search undertaken in Indian psychiatry, psychology, and mental health-related databases. Inconsistent definitions of eight self-directed violent behaviors were observed in Indian literature. Agreement on consistent definitions of various forms of self-directed behaviors is essential. Based on the findings of the current review, it can be suggested that culturally relevant large-scale research on NSSI in India is required to confirm the limited evidence that suggests high prevalence of NSSI in India.

  8. Emotionally troubled teens' help-seeking behaviors: an evaluation of surviving the Teens® suicide prevention and depression awareness program.

    PubMed

    Strunk, Catherine M; Sorter, Michael T; Ossege, Julianne; King, Keith A

    2014-10-01

    Many school-based suicide prevention programs do not show a positive impact on help-seeking behaviors among emotionally troubled teens despite their being at high risk for suicide. This study is a secondary analysis of the Surviving the Teens(®) program evaluation to determine its effect on help-seeking behaviors among troubled youth. Results showed significant increases in mean scores of the Behavioral Intent to Communicate with Important Others Regarding Emotional Health Issues subscale (p < .0005) from pretest to 3-month follow-up. There was a significant increase (p = .006) in mean scores of the Behavioral Intent Regarding Help-Seeking Behaviors when Suicidal subscale from pretest to posttest, but not at 3-month follow-up. Also, there was a significant increase (p = .016) in mean scores in the item "I would tell an adult if I was suicidal" from pretest to 3-month follow-up. These findings suggest that the Surviving the Teens program has a positive effect on help-seeking behaviors in troubled youth.

  9. Rethinking impulsivity in suicide.

    PubMed

    Klonsky, E David; May, Alexis

    2010-12-01

    Elevated impulsivity is thought to facilitate the transition from suicidal thoughts to suicidal behavior. Therefore, impulsivity should distinguish those who have attempted suicide (attempters) from those who have only considered suicide (ideators-only). This hypothesis was examined in three large nonclinical samples: (1) 2,011 military recruits, (2) 1,296 college students, and (3) 399 high school students. In sample 1, contrary to traditional models of suicide risk, a unidimensional measure of impulsivity failed to distinguish attempters from ideators-only. In samples 2 and 3, which were administered a multidimensional measure of impulsivity (i.e., the UPPS impulsive behavior scale; Whiteside & Lynam, 2001), different impulsivity-related traits characterized attempters and ideators-only. Whereas both attempters and ideators-only exhibited high urgency (the tendency to act impulsive in the face of negative emotions), only attempters exhibited poor premeditation (a diminished ability to think through the consequences of one's actions). Neither attempters nor ideators-only exhibited high sensation seeking or lack of perseverance. Future research should continue to distinguish impulsivity-related traits that predict suicide ideation from those that predict suicide attempts, and models of suicide risk should be revised accordingly. PMID:21198330

  10. Suicides and Suicide Attempts in the U.S. Military, 2008-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Nigel E.; Reger, Mark A.; Luxton, David D.; Skopp, Nancy A.; Kinn, Julie; Smolenski, Derek; Gahm, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    The Department of Defense Suicide Event Report Program collects extensive information on suicides and suicide attempts from the U.S. Air Force, Army, Marine Corps, and Navy. Data are compiled on demographics, suicide event details, behavioral health treatment history, military history, and information about other potential risk factors such as…

  11. Relationship of Coping Styles with Suicidal Behavior in Hospitalized Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients: Substance Abusers versus Non- Substance Abusers

    PubMed Central

    Safa, Mitra; Talischi, Firouzeh; Masjedi, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background Treatment of patients with chronic conditions requiring hospitalization requires patient acceptance and cooperation and adoption of coping strategies. Inappropriate coping strategies such as substance abuse are concerning in the course of treatment. This study sought to explore the association of coping strategies with suicidal behavior in substance abusers and non substance abuser patients with chronic pulmonary diseases namely asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Materials and Methods This comparative study was performed on 100 patients with asthma and COPD selected via convenience sampling. Subjects with and without substance abuse were separated into two groups of 50 patients each. Ways of Coping Questionnaire of Lazarus (WOCQ) and Suicide Behavior Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R) were completed by them. Five Persian speaking patients rated this questionnaire to be easily understandable in the pre-test stage. Cronbach's alpha was calculated to measure the internal consistency. Results The mean (±standard deviation) age of participants was 40 (±14) years; 58% of individuals were men; 62% had chosen problem-focused coping. The most abused substances were cigarettes (78%) and opium (42%); 6% of substance abusers had thought about suicide five times or more in the past year; 5% of substance abusers had seriously attempted suicide. Tendency to commit suicide was greater in men, substance abusers and participants who had chosen emotion-focused coping strategies, based on a regression model. Average score of suicide tendency was significantly higher in substance abusers (B=2.196, P =0.007). Conclusion Chronic disease is a crisis and patients need to acquire appropriate coping strategies to deal with it, especially in substance abusers and suicidal patients. Precise recognition of coping strategies in chronic pulmonary patients with substance abuse is necessary via a team cooperation among psychiatrics, psychologists and an internal

  12. Dialectical Behavioral Therapy for Adolescents (DBT-A): a clinical Trial for Patients with suicidal and self-injurious Behavior and Borderline Symptoms with a one-year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To date, there are no empirically validated treatments of good quality for adolescents showing suicidality and non-suicidal self-injurious behavior. Risk factors for suicide are impulsive and non-suicidal self-injurious behavior, depression, conduct disorders and child abuse. Behind this background, we tested the main hypothesis of our study; that Dialectical Behavioral Therapy for Adolescents is an effective treatment for these patients. Methods Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT) has been developed by Marsha Linehan - especially for the outpatient treatment of chronically non-suicidal patients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder. The modified version of DBT for Adolescents (DBT-A) from Rathus & Miller has been adapted for a 16-24 week outpatient treatment in the German-speaking area by our group. The efficacy of treatment was measured by a pre-/post- comparison and a one-year follow-up with the aid of standardized instruments (SCL-90-R, CBCL, YSR, ILC, CGI). Results In the pilot study, 12 adolescents were treated. At the beginning of therapy, 83% of patients fulfilled five or more DSM-IV criteria for borderline personality disorder. From the beginning of therapy to one year after its end, the mean value of these diagnostic criteria decreased significantly from 5.8 to 2.75. 75% of patients were kept in therapy. For the behavioral domains according to the SCL-90-R and YSR, we have found effect sizes between 0.54 and 2.14. During treatment, non-suicidal self-injurious behavior reduced significantly. Before the start of therapy, 8 of 12 patients had attempted suicide at least once. There were neither suicidal attempts during treatment with DBT-A nor at the one-year follow-up. Conclusions The promising results suggest that the interventions were well accepted by the patients and their families, and were associated with improvement in multiple domains including suicidality, non-suicidal self-injurious behavior, emotion dysregulation and

  13. Mental Disorders, Comorbidity and Pre-Enlistment Suicidal Behavior among New Soldiers in the US Army: Results from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Service members (Army STARRS)

    PubMed Central

    Nock, Matthew K.; Ursano, Robert J.; Heeringa, Steven G.; Stein, Murray B.; Jain, Sonia; Raman, Rema; Sun, Xiaoying; Chiu, Wai Tat; Colpe, Lisa J.; Fullerton, Carol S.; Gilman, Stephen E.; Hwang, Irving; Naifeh, James A.; Rosellini, Anthony J.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Schoenbaum, Michael; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the associations between mental disorders and suicidal behavior (ideation, plans, and attempts) among new soldiers using data from the New Soldier Study (NSS) component of the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS; n=38,507). Most new soldiers with a pre-enlistment history of suicide attempt reported a prior mental disorder (59.0%). Each disorder examined was associated with increased odds of suicidal behavior (ORs=2.6–8.6). Only PTSD and disorders characterized by irritability and impulsive/aggressive behavior (i.e., bipolar disorder, conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder) predicted unplanned attempts among ideators. Mental disorders are important predictors of pre-enlistment suicidal behavior among new soldiers and should figure prominently in suicide screening and prevention efforts. PMID:25622860

  14. Self-injurious thoughts and behaviors as risk factors for future suicide ideation, attempts, and death: a meta-analysis of longitudinal studies

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, J. D.; Franklin, J. C.; Fox, K. R.; Bentley, K. H.; Kleiman, E. M.; Chang, B. P.; Nock, M. K.

    2016-01-01

    Background A history of self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (SITBs) is consistently cited as one of the strongest predictors of future suicidal behavior. However, stark discrepancies in the literature raise questions about the true magnitude of these associations. The objective of this study is to examine the magnitude and clinical utility of the associations between SITBs and subsequent suicide ideation, attempts, and death. Method We searched PubMed, PsycInfo, and Google Scholar for papers published through December 2014. Inclusion required that studies include at least one longitudinal analysis predicting suicide ideation, attempts, or death using any SITB variable. We identified 2179 longitudinal studies; 172 met inclusion criteria. Results The most common outcome was suicide attempt (47.80%), followed by death (40.50%) and ideation (11.60%). Median follow-up was 52 months (mean = 82.52, s.d. = 102.29). Overall prediction was weak, with weighted mean odds ratios (ORs) of 2.07 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.76–2.43] for ideation, 2.14 (95% CI 2.00–2.30) for attempts, and 1.54 (95% CI 1.39–1.71) for death. Adjusting for publication bias further reduced estimates. Diagnostic accuracy analyses indicated acceptable specificity (86–87%) and poor sensitivity (10–26%), with areas under the curve marginally above chance (0.60–0.62). Most risk factors generated OR estimates of <2.0 and no risk factor exceeded 4.5. Effects were consistent regardless of sample severity, sample age groups, or follow-up length. Conclusions Prior SITBs confer risk for later suicidal thoughts and behaviors. However, they only provide a marginal improvement in diagnostic accuracy above chance. Addressing gaps in study design, assessment, and underlying mechanisms may prove useful in improving prediction and prevention of suicidal thoughts and behaviors. PMID:26370729

  15. Rational Suicide?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, David J.

    1998-01-01

    The rational suicide paradigm is contrasted with the traditional view of the mental health professions. Historical background on suicide in western civilization is supplied and the concept of rationality elucidated. Parallels between the questions of refusing life-prolonging therapy and rational suicide are discussed, as are reasons for suicide.…

  16. Prevalence of depression and suicidal behaviors among male migrant workers in United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Al-Maskari, F; Shah, S M; Al-Sharhan, R; Al-Haj, E; Al-Kaabi, K; Khonji, D; Schneider, J D; Nagelkerke, N J; Bernsen, R M

    2011-12-01

    Migrant workers comprise 80% of the population of the United Arab Emirates, but there is little research on their mental health. To determine the prevalence and correlates of depression among workers living in labor camps, we conducted a cross-sectional survey in labor camps in Al Ain city. The Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-42) was used to assess depression and suicidal ideation among the study participants. Off the 319 contacted workers agreed to participate, however 239 fully completed the DASS-42. The prevalence of a score >=10 ("depression") was 25.1% (60/239). Depression was correlated with physical illness (97/301), (adjusted odds ratio-AOR = 2.9; 95% CI 2.26-5.18), working in construction industry (prevalence 124/304), AOR = 2.2; 95%CI 1.56-3.83), earning less than 1,000 UAE Dirham per month (prevalence 203/314), (AOR = 1.8; 95%CI 1.33-3.16), and working more than 8 h a day (prevalence 213/315), (AOR = 2.7; 95%CI 1.19-6.27). 20/261 (6.3%) of the study participants reported thoughts of suicide and 8/265 (2.5%) had attempted suicide. People with suicidal ideation were more likely to have a physical illness (AOR = 8.1, 95%CI 2.49-26.67), earn less than 1,000 UAE Dirham per month (AOR = 5.98, 95%CI 1.26-28.45), and work for more than 8 h a day (AOR = 8.35, 95%CI 1.03-67.23). The study identified self reported indicators of a substantial burden of depression, and thoughts of self-harm among laborers surveyed. Policy level intervention and implementation, is needed to improve working conditions, including minimum wages and regulation of working hours is recommended.

  17. Proneness to Suicide: Does It Exist?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ovuga, Emilio B. L.; Mugisha, Xavier R.

    Although no specific personality disorder seems responsible for suicide behavior, it has been suggested that hysterical personality could predispose to suicide behavior. Schizoid, anti-social and obsessoid rigid personalities have been linked to high risk suicide attempts. This study elicited response patterns and attitudes of South African…

  18. Psychedelics not linked to mental health problems or suicidal behavior: a population study.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Pål-Ørjan; Krebs, Teri Suzanne

    2015-03-01

    A recent large population study of 130,000 adults in the United States failed to find evidence for a link between psychedelic use (lysergic acid diethylamide, psilocybin or mescaline) and mental health problems. Using a new data set consisting of 135,095 randomly selected United States adults, including 19,299 psychedelic users, we examine the associations between psychedelic use and mental health. After adjusting for sociodemographics, other drug use and childhood depression, we found no significant associations between lifetime use of psychedelics and increased likelihood of past year serious psychological distress, mental health treatment, suicidal thoughts, suicidal plans and suicide attempt, depression and anxiety. We failed to find evidence that psychedelic use is an independent risk factor for mental health problems. Psychedelics are not known to harm the brain or other body organs or to cause addiction or compulsive use; serious adverse events involving psychedelics are extremely rare. Overall, it is difficult to see how prohibition of psychedelics can be justified as a public health measure. PMID:25744618

  19. The Relationship of Level of Positive Mental Health with Current Mental Disorders in Predicting Suicidal Behavior and Academic Impairment in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Corey L. M.; Eisenberg, Daniel; Perry, Geraldine S.; Dube, Shanta R.; Kroenke, Kurt; Dhingra, Satvinder S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether level of positive mental health complements mental illness in predicting students at risk for suicidal behavior and impaired academic performance. Participants: A sample of 5,689 college students participated in the 2007 Healthy Minds Study and completed an Internet survey that included the Mental Health…

  20. Sadness, Suicide, and Their Association with Video Game and Internet Overuse among Teens: Results from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey 2007 and 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messias, Erick; Castro, Juan; Saini, Anil; Usman, Manzoor; Peeples, Dale

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the association between excessive video game/Internet use and teen suicidality. Data were obtained from the 2007 and 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), a high school-based, nationally representative survey (N = 14,041 and N = 16,410, respectively). Teens who reported 5 hours or more of video games/Internet daily use, in the…