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Sample records for sujet du vaccine

  1. Restauration fonctionnelle du rachis : effet du niveau initial de douleur sur les performances des sujets lombalgiques chroniques

    PubMed Central

    Caby, Isabelle; Olivier, N; Mendelek, F; Kheir, R Bou; Vanvelcenaher, J; Pelayo, P

    2014-01-01

    HISTORIQUE : La lombalgie chronique est une douleur lombaire persistante d’origine multifactorielle. Le niveau de douleur initial reste faiblement utilisé pour analyser et comparer les réponses des patients lombalgiques au programme de reconditionnement. OBJECTIFS : Apprécier et évaluer les réponses des sujets lombalgiques chroniques très douloureux à une prise en charge dynamique et intensive. MÉTHODOLOGIE : 144 sujets atteints de lombalgie chronique ont été inclus dans un programme de restauration fonctionnelle du rachis de 5 semaines. Les sujets ont été classés en deux groupes de niveau de douleur: un groupe atteint de douleur sévère (n = 28) et un groupe atteint de douleur légère à modérée (n = 106). L’ensemble des sujets ont bénéficié d’une prise en charge identique comprenant principalement de la kinésithérapie, de l’ergothérapie, du reconditionnement musculaire et cardio-vasculaire ainsi qu’un suivi psychologique. Les paramètres physiques (flexibilité, force musculaire) et psychologiques (qualité de vie) ont été mesurés avant (T0) et après le programme (T5sem). RÉSULTATS : L’ensemble des performances physiques et fonctionnelles des sujets très douloureux sont moins bonnes et le retentissement de la lombalgie sur la qualité de vie, pour ces mêmes sujets, est majoré à T0. Toutes les différences significatives constatées à T0 entre les deux groupes s’effacent à T5sem. CONCLUSIONS : Les sujets lombalgiques chroniques très douloureux répondent favorablement au programme dynamique et intensif. L’intensité douloureuse de la lombalgie n’aurait pas d’effet sur les réponses au programme. La restauration fonctionnelle du rachis apporterait aux sujets la possibilité de mieux gérer leur douleur quel que soit son niveau. PMID:25299476

  2. Dermatomyosite du sujet âgé: étude de 4 observations dans le sud tunisien

    PubMed Central

    Frikha, Faten; Snoussi, Mouna; Salah, Raida Ben; Saidi, Noura; Kaddour, Neila; Bahloul, Zouhir

    2012-01-01

    La dermatomyosite (DM) touche essentiellement l’adolescent et l’adulte jeune, elle est très rare chez le sujet âgé, le plus souvent associée à des complications iatrogènes et à une pathologie cancéreuse. Nous avons étudié les caractéristiques de la DM du sujet âgé à travers une étude rétrospective dans laquelle nous avons comparé 4 patients âgés de plus de 65 ans au début de la myosite avec 40 sujets jeunes. PMID:23308331

  3. Syndrome de Gougerot-Sjögren primitif du sujet âgé: caractéristiques cliniques et immunologiques

    PubMed Central

    Chebbi, Wafa; Ben Salem, Wafa; Klii, Rim; Kessomtini, Wassia; Jerbi, Saida; Sfar, Mohamed Habib

    2015-01-01

    Les objectifs de notre étude est d’étudier les caractéristiques cliniques et immunologiques du syndrome de Gougerot Sjogren primitif (SGSp) du sujet âgé et les comparer à une population témoin plus jeune. Nous avons analysé rétrospectivement les dossiers de 60 patients atteints de SGSp consécutifs, suivis au service de Médecine interne du CHU Taher Sfar de Mahdia, en Tunisie, durant une période de 7 ans (janvier 2007 à décembre 2013). Les patients avec SGSp étaient classés en deux groupes selon l’âge de début de la maladie: groupe de sujets âgés (≥ 65 ans) et groupe de sujets jeunes (<65 ans). Chez 18 patients (30%), le SGSp a débuté après 65 ans. Il s'agissait de 17 femmes (94,5%) et un homme (5,5%). L’âge moyen du début du SGSp était de 70,5 ans ±3,1. Le délai moyen du diagnostic était de 38,6 mois ±26,8. Les manifestations glandulaires étaient constantes. La comparaison entre le groupe du SGSp du sujet âgé et celui du sujet jeune montrait que le délai moyen du diagnostic du SGSp était significativement plus long chez les sujets âgés. Les manifestations pulmonaires étaient significativement plus fréquentes chez les sujets âgés. En revanche, les fréquences des anticorps antinucléaires, anti-SSA et anti-SSB étaient significativement plus élevées chez les sujets jeunes. Bien que le SGSp soit une maladie typique d'adultes d’âge moyen, les cliniciens ne devraient pas ignorer que cette maladie peut être diagnostiquée aussi chez les patients âgés. Notre étude montre que l’âge du début avancé influence le profil clinique et immunologique du SGSp. PMID:25995805

  4. Syndrome coronaire aigu du sujet jeune caucasien: à propos de 62 cas

    PubMed Central

    Hamadou, Bâ; Thuaire, Christophe; Range, Grégoire; Demicheli, Thibaud; Kane, Abdoul; Albert, Franck

    2013-01-01

    Chez les sujets jeunes, la survenue d'un syndrome coronaire aigu (SCA) est souvent la première manifestation de la maladie coronaire. Les objectifs de notre travail étaient de caractériser les données coronarographiques, d'étudier la survie moyenne, et la qualité de vie chez les sujets jeunes caucasiens. C'est une étude rétrospective (2000-2007) descriptive et analytique qui incluaient 62 patients d'âge inférieur ou égal à 40 ans et hospitalisés pour SCA dans le service de cardiologie de l'hôpital Louis Pasteur. Nous avons étudié les paramètres épidémiologiques, coronarographiques et le suivi évolutif moyen de 3 ans. Le sex-ratio des patients étudiés était de 7,8. La moyenne d'âge était de 34,14 ± 2,96 ans chez les femmes et de 35,02 ± 4,41ans chez les hommes. Dans 60% des cas il s'agissait d'un SCA ST-, et dans 40% des cas d'un SCA ST+. Chez 64% de nos patients, on retrouve à la coronarographie des lésions coronaires supérieures à 50% avec une prédominance des lésions coronaires monotronculaires (34%). 97% des patients ayant été traités par angioplastie ont bénéficié d'une implantation d'endoprothèses. Pendant la période de suivi 7% des patients traités médicalement, ont présenté un angor résiduel et 34% de ceux traités par angioplastie. La plupart des sujets jeunes caucasiens atteints de syndrome coronaire aigu sont de sexe masculin avec des lésions monotronculaires (type B1). Tous étaient survivants et asymptomatiques dans 2/3 des cas lors de la période de suivi. PMID:23717729

  5. Pathologie cutanée du sujet âgé en dermatologie à Lomé, Togo: étude de 325 cas

    PubMed Central

    Kombaté, Koussake; Saka, Bayaki; Mouhari-Toure, Abas; Barruet, Raymond Kossi; Gnassingbé, Waguena; Akakpo, Séfako; Maboudou, Akouavi; Landoh, Dadja Essoya; Tchangaï-Walla, Kissem; Pitché, Palokinam

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Les pathologies cutanées du sujet âgé ont des manifestations cliniques qui diffèrent de celles du sujet jeune. Le but de cette étude était de déterminer les pathologies cutanées motivant une consultation du sujet âgé en dermatologie à Lomé (Togo). Méthodes Il s'agissait d'une étude transversale descriptive portant sur les nouveaux diagnostics d'affections cutanées colligés entre le 1er janvier 2010 et le 31 décembre 2011 chez les sujets âgés de 65 ans et plus en dermatologie à Lomé. Résultats Durant la période d’étude, 325 patients âgés de 65 ans et plus (2,4%) ont été examinés sur l'ensemble des 13440 patients ayant consulté en dermatologie. Ces 325 patients ont consulté pour 375 nouveaux diagnostics. L’âge moyen des patients était de 72,8 et le sex-ratio (H/F) de 0,8. Les mycoses représentaient le principal motif de consultation (18,7%), suivies par l'eczéma (17,9%), le prurit (13,1%), les tumeurs (9,0%) dont 76,5% de tumeurs bénignes et les troubles de la kératinisation (5,1%). Les ulcères de jambe étaient observés chez 2,1% des patients. Les mycoses étaient essentiellement représentées par les intertrigos (52,9%) et les dermatophyties de la peau glabre (25,7%). La maladie de Kaposi et les chéloïdes représentaient respectivement les tumeurs malignes et bénignes les plus fréquentes. Conclusion Cette étude montre une fréquence élevée des mycoses, de l'eczéma et du prurit chez les sujets âgés à Lomé. La fréquence élevée des mycoses pourrait s'expliquer par les conditions climatiques (chaleur, humidité) et celle du prurit par le vieillissement de la peau. PMID:25419289

  6. Le POSSUM: un bon score pour prédire la mortalité du sujet âgé opéré en urgence?

    PubMed Central

    Mzoughi, Zeineb; Bayar, Rached; Djebbi, Achref; Talbi, Ghofrane; Romdhane, Hayfa; Aloui, Wafa; Lassaad, Gharbi; Khalfallah, Mohamed Taher

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Le POSSUM (Physiologic and Operative Severity Score for the enUmeration of Mortality and morbidity) est un score prédictif de mortalité qui est largement utilisé en chirurgie aortique élective et abdominale. Le but de notre étude est une validation du POSSUM chez le sujet âgé (>70 ans) opéré pour une urgence digestive. Nous nous proposons d'étudier les meilleurs seuils du POSSUM, composé d'un score physiologique et d'un score opératoire, pour prédire la mortalité dans cette population. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective analytique de type cas témoin à partir d'une série de 291 patients d'âge ≥ 70 ans opérés pour une urgence digestive. Ces patients étaient répartis en deux groupes comportant 50 patients chacun. Le groupe "DC": patients décédés en post opératoire immédiat et le Groupe témoin "SURV" choisis par tirage au sort. Nous avons analysé la fiabilité du POSSUM pour prédire la mortalité et la morbidité. Par la suite, nous avons établi des courbes de ROC pour définir les seuils qui donnent le meilleur couple sensibilité/spécificité. Résultats Le score physiologique, le score opératoire et les taux de morbidité et mortalité prédits par POSSUM et la mortalité prédit par P-POSSUM représentaient des facteurs prédictifs de mortalité (P <0,0001). Les valeurs seuils du score physiologique et du score opératoire qui donnent le meilleur couple sensibilité/spécificité, étaient respectivement de 23 et 15. Conclusion Prédire la mortalité permet de cibler la prise en charge et d'informer le patient et sa famille des risques encourus. PMID:27795763

  7. Luxation postérieure de l’épaule chez un sujet sportif traitée par transfert pédiculé du sub-scapulaire

    PubMed Central

    El Alaoui, Adil; Rabhi, Ilyas; Bah, Aliou; Sbiyaa, Mouhcine; Mezzani, Amine; Alami, Badr; Marzouki, Amine; Boutayeb, Fawzi

    2015-01-01

    La luxation postérieure de l’épaule constitue une lésion rare et un piège diagnostique et mettant en jeu le pronostic fonctionnel de l'articulation de l’épaule. Les signes cliniques et radiologiques des luxations postérieures de l’épaule ont été bien définis dans la littérature par Bernageau et Patte, mais elles passent le plus souvent inaperçues. Nous rapportons un cas de luxation postérieure de l’épaule chez un sujet sportif de 22 ans pratiquant le Hand-Ball, traité par la technique de transfert pédiculé du sub-scapulaire. PMID:26985271

  8. Mise à jour sur le nouveau vaccin 9-valent pour la prévention du virus du papillome humain

    PubMed Central

    Yang, David Yi; Bracken, Keyna

    2016-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Informer les médecins de famille quant à l’efficacité, à l’innocuité, aux effets sur la santé publique et à la rentabilité du vaccin 9-valent contre le virus du papillome humain (VPH). Qualité des données Des articles pertinents publiés dans PubMed jusqu’en mai 2015 ont été examinés et analysés. La plupart des données citées sont de niveau I (essais randomisés et contrôlés et méta-analyses) ou de niveau II (études transversales, cas-témoins et épidémiologiques). Des rapports et recommandations du gouvernement sont aussi cités en référence. Message principal Le vaccin 9-valent contre le VPH, qui offre une protection contre les types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52 et 58 du VPH, est sûr et efficace et réduira encore plus l’incidence des infections à VPH, de même que les cas de cancer lié au VPH. Il peut également protéger indirectement les personnes non immunisées par l’entremise du phénomène d’immunité collective. Un programme d’immunisation efficace peut prévenir la plupart des cancers du col de l’utérus. Les analyses montrent que la rentabilité du vaccin 9-valent chez les femmes est comparable à celle du vaccin quadrivalent original contre le VPH (qui protège contre les types 6, 11, 16 et 18 du VPH) en usage à l’heure actuelle. Toutefois, il faut investiguer plus en profondeur l’utilité d’immuniser les garçons avec le vaccin 9-valent contre le VPH. Conclusion en plus d’être sûr, le vaccin 9-valent protège mieux contre le VPH que le vaccin quadrivalent. Une analyse coûtefficacité en favorise l’emploi, du moins chez les adolescentes. Ainsi, les médecins devraient recommander le vaccin 9-valent à leurs patients plutôt que le vaccin quadrivalent contre le VPH.

  9. Infarctus du myocarde révélateur d'une thrombocytémie essentielle chez un sujet jeune noir africain: à propos d'une observation

    PubMed Central

    Yaméogo, Nobila Valentin; Kagambèga, Larissa Justine; Yaméogo, Aimé Arsène; Kologo, Koudougou Jonas; Millogo, Georges Rosario Christian; Toguyéni, Boubacar Jean Yves; Samadoulougou, André Koudnoaga; Zabsonré, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    La thrombocytémie essentielle est un syndrome myéloprolifératif qui se complique rarement d'infarctus du myocarde. Nous rapportons l'observation d'un patient de 23 ans, sans facteurs de risque cardio-vasculaire connus, aux antécédents de thrombose veineuse cérébrale à l’âge de 20 ans, admis dans le service de cardiologie pour un syndrome douloureux thoracique. L'examen physique était pauvre. L'ECG, la troponinémie et la coronarographie ont conclu à un infarctus du myocarde par obstruction distale de l'IVA. La numération formule sanguine objectivait une importante thrombocytose isolée à 1.197.000/mm3. La recherche de la mutation V617F de JAK2 était positive. Il n'y avait pas de thrombophilie. L’évolution était favorable sous héparine de bas poids moléculaire, antiagrégant plaquettaire, hydroxyurée et hydratation alcaline abondante. PMID:25574323

  10. The impact of ethnicity on awareness and knowledge of and attitudes towards the human papillomavirus and vaccine among adult women.

    PubMed

    Sadry, Sharon A; De Souza, Leanne R; Yudin, Mark H

    2013-11-01

    Objectif : Déterminer si l’ethnicité affecte la sensibilisation au virus du papillome humain (VPH) et au vaccin anti-VPH, ainsi que les connaissances et les attitudes à leur égard. Méthodes : La participation de femmes d’expression anglaise (n = 172) de 18 ans ou plus a été sollicitée au sein d’une clinique externe de gynécologie; nous leur avons demandé de remplir un questionnaire transversal autoadministré visant la collecte de données au sujet (1) de la sensibilisation au virus et des connaissances à cet égard; (2) de la sensibilisation au vaccin et des connaissances à cet égard; (3) des attitudes envers le vaccin; et (4) des caractéristiques démographiques des participantes. Celles-ci se sont vu attribuer un score sur les connaissances au sujet du virus (de 0 à 6), un score sur les connaissances au sujet du vaccin (de 0 à 10) et un score sur les attitudes (de 8 à 40), l’obtention d’un score accru indiquant des attitudes plus positives à l’égard du vaccin. Résultats : La sensibilisation au virus et au vaccin était considérablement plus élevée chez les répondantes de race blanche que chez les répondantes d’autres origines ethniques : 93 % vs 69 % (P < 0,001) et 94 % vs 64 %, (P < 0,001), respectivement. Dans le cadre d’un modèle de régression logistique multivariée, le groupe ethnique de race blanche, un niveau de scolarité supérieur et un nombre supérieur d’années passées au Canada ont tous constitué des facteurs prédictifs indépendants de la sensibilisation au vaccin. Les scores sur les connaissances au sujet du virus et du vaccin ont tous deux été considérablement plus élevés chez les répondantes de race blanche que chez les répondantes d’autres origines ethniques : 4,6 vs 3,89 (P = 0,001) et 7,2 vs 6,4, (P = 0,042), respectivement. Les répondantes de race blanche ont obtenu des scores sur les attitudes considérablement plus élevés (attitudes plus positives) en ce qui concerne le

  11. Vaccinations

    MedlinePlus

    ... vaccinated? For many years, a set of annual vaccinations was considered normal and necessary for dogs and ... to protect for a full year. Consequently, one vaccination schedule will not work well for all pets. ...

  12. L'accident ischémique cérébral chez le sujet jeune: à propos de 6 cas

    PubMed Central

    Khammassi, Naziha; Sassi, Yosra Ben; Aloui, Asma; Kort, Youssef; Abdelhedi, Haykel; Cherif, Ouahida

    2015-01-01

    Les accidents ischémiques cérébraux (AIC) du sujet jeune se caractérisent par une panoplie d’étiologies différentes de celles des accidents vasculaires cérébraux (AVC) du sujet âgé d'où l'intérêt de bien creuser devant une telle atteinte à la recherche surtout d'une thrombophilie ou d'une cardiopathie emboligène. Cependant, il ne faut pas négliger une exposition de plus en plus accrue du sujet jeune à des facteurs de risque cardio-vasculaires tel le tabagisme qui accélère le processus d'athérosclérose, étiologie principale d'AVC tout âge confondu. Nous avons rétrospectivement collecté les données de six patients âgés de moins de 45 ans qui ont été hospitalisés dans notre service pour un AIC. La moyenne d’âge était de 35,3 et les hommes représentaient 16% de notre série. L'enquête étiologique a conclu à un syndrome des anticorps anti-phospholipides secondaire à un syndrome de Gougerot Sjögren chez l'un des patients, un déficit en protéine S chez deux patients et un syndrome de Sneddon chez un autre. Les causes d'AIC n'ont pas été identifiées dans les deux autres cas. Un traitement à base d'anti-vitamines K ou d'antiagrégants plaquettaires a été instauré en cas d’étiologie révélée. PMID:26889323

  13. Dépression et niveau de fardeau chez les aidants familiaux des sujets déments en Tunisie

    PubMed Central

    Ben Thabet, Jihène; Jaoua, Feriel; Charfi, Nada; Zouari, Lobna; Zouari, Nasreddine; Maalej, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Introduction La démence peut retentir lourdement sur les aidants familiaux du patient. Les objectifs de notre étude étaient de déterminer le niveau de fardeau et de la dépression chez les aidants familiaux de sujets déments, et d'identifier les facteurs associés à un niveau de fardeau élevé. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'une enquête auprès de 65 aidants tunisiens. Les niveaux de fardeau et de la dépression ont été évalués par, respectivement, l'inventaire de Zarit et l’échelle de Beck. Résultats Le taux des aidants qui avaient un niveau de fardeau élevé était de 52,3 %. Une dépression modérée ou sévère a été relevée chez 46,2 %. Un niveau de fardeau élevé était corrélé, du côté de l'aidant, avec le niveau socio-économique moyen à élevé, la cohabitation avec le patient, le fait d’être son conjoint, la réduction des activités quotidiennes et la sévérité de la dépression, et, du côté du dément, avec l'agressivité. Conclusion Les facteurs corrélés à un niveau de fardeau élevé orientent vers les cibles d'intervention et sont susceptibles d’être améliorés par la prise en charge, ce qui contribuerait à alléger la détresse des aidants. PMID:22384291

  14. Vaccines

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Vaccinations are injections of antigens into the body. Once the antigens enter the blood, they circulate along ... suppressor T cells stop the attack. After a vaccination, the body will have a memory of an ...

  15. Séroprévalence de l’AgHBs chez la femme enceinte dans le centre du Maroc

    PubMed Central

    Sbiti, Mohammed; Khalki, Hanane; Benbella, Imane; louzi, Lhoussaine

    2016-01-01

    La transmission materno-fœtale du virus de l'hépatite B (VHB) est un problème qui préoccupe toujours les autorités sanitaires à travers le monde et suscite la mise en place de mesures préventives renforcées. Le statut réplicatif du virus chez la mère séropositive, évalué par la positivité de l'AgHbe et le taux de la charge virale, conditionne le risque de contamination qui est plus important en période péri-natale. Les mères porteuses chroniques du VHB constituent un véritable réservoir de la transmission verticale de cette infection. Nous avons étudié, à travers cette enquête sur 1120 femmes enceintes Marocaines, la séroprévalence de l'AgHBs qui était de 2,35%, dans le but d'alimenter les données nationales sur ce sujet. Parmi ces femmes séropositives pour l'AgHBs, 79,1% avaient un AgHBe négatif et ont bénéficié d'une recherche moléculaire qui s'est révélée positive dans 89,4% des cas. La vaccination de la femme en âge de procréer est l'un des piliers majeurs de la prévention de la transmission verticale du VHB, seulement 2,4% de nos patientes étaient vaccinées. Ceci relève l'intérêt du dépistage au cours de la grossesse, qui doit se focaliser sur la sensibilisation à la vaccination de femmes séronégatives, et le suivi par biologie moléculaire des mères séropositives dans le but d'instaurer un traitement prophylactique adéquat. PMID:27795784

  16. Profil évolutif et pronostic des tumeurs urothéliales de la vessie chez le sujet jeune

    PubMed Central

    Bouzouita, Abderrazak; Saadi, Ahmed; Kerkeni, Walid; Chakroun, Marouene; Cherif, Mohamed; Ayed, Haroun; Selmi, Selim; Derouiche, Amine; Benslama, Riadh Mohamed; Chebil, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Résumé But: Les tumeurs urothéliales de la vessie sont rares chez le jeune adulte. Leur profil évolutif et leur pronostic restent matière à contro-verse. Nous rapportons notre expérience à propos de 54 patients. Méthodologie: Entre 1990 et 2010, 54 patients de moins de 40 ans au moment du diagnostic ont été traités pour carcinome à cellules transitionnelles de la vessie. Nous avons étudié le profil évolutif de ces tumeurs en séparant les patients en deux groupes (moins de 30 ans, et 30 à 40 ans). Résultats: La tumeur n’infiltrait pas le muscle vésical dans 37 cas et l’infiltrait dans 17 cas. Pour les tumeurs n’infiltrant pas le muscle vésical, elles étaient de stade Ta dans 20 cas et de grade I–II dans 36 cas. Le pronostic de ces tumeurs était meilleur avant l’âge de 30 ans avec un taux de récidive de 15,3 % sans progression. Pour les patients de 30 à 40 ans, le taux de récidive était de 33,3 %, et 25 % des tumeurs qui ont récidivé ont présenté une progression du stade. Pour les tumeurs infiltrant le muscle vésical, le pronostic était sombre (localement avancées dans neuf cas et métastatiques d’emblée dans cinq cas). Conclusion: Le profil évolutif des tumeurs n’infiltrant pas le muscle vésical a semblé meilleur avant l’âge de 30 ans. Entre 30 et 40 ans, le profil évolutif s’est approché de celui des sujets âgés. Les tumeurs infiltrantes étaient souvent évoluées et agressives, évoquant un potentiel évolutif particulier. PMID:27330577

  17. La Peur de L'évaluation: Évaluation de L'enseignement ou du Sujet?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosmidou-Hardy, Chryssoula; Marmarinos, Jean

    2001-03-01

    This article addresses first of all the question why nowadays evaluation is so intensively promoted. It then goes on to analyse the reasons why there is currently a resistance to evaluation among teachers. It refers especially to the situation in Greece, where evaluation has been absent since 1981, whereas before that date it was applied in an oppressive manner, more resembling discipline and punishment than the personal development of the teachers. The authors refer particularly to the work of Michel Foucault but also to that of J. F. Lyotard. They point out that it is the teachers' fear of evaluation of their personal identity rather than their professional competence that lies behind the resistance to evaluation. Emphasis is placed on the necessity to support teachers in their personal and professional development. The use of action research, termed "critical active research" in Greek, is advocated as a basic strategy for the development of the teacher as well as of the curriculum and of society in general.

  18. Prévalence des complications de la corticothérapie chez les sujets ouest-africains consultant en rhumatologie

    PubMed Central

    Zomalheto, Zavier; Dossou-yovo, Hilaire; Zossoungbo, Fidèle; Avimadjè, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Les corticoïdes sont pourvoyeurs d'effets secondaires multiples responsables de leur mauvaise réputation. L'objectif de ce travail a été d’établir la prévalence des complications de la thérapie cortisonique chez les sujets ouest-africains souffrant d'affection rhumatologique au CNHU-HKM de Cotonou. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'une étude rétrospective sur 5 ans portant sur des dossiers de patients de diverses nationalités reçus dans l'unité de rhumatologie du CNHU-HKM de Cotonou. Nous avons répertorié les complications liées à la prise des corticoïdes donnés dans le cadre des pathologies rhumatologiques. Les données ont été analysées grâce au logiciel EXCELL version 2013. Résultats 745 (17,1%) avaient reçu l'indication d'une corticothérapie. Ils étaient de nationalités diverses de l'Afrique de l'ouest dont 87,4% de béninois. L’âge moyen des patients était de 51,15±21,58 (10-73) ans. La sex ratio était 0,61. Il s'agissait d'une corticothérapie par voie générale dans 65,1%. Les complications étaient présentes chez 31,1% des patients toute voie confondue. Celles engendrées par les infiltrations étaient dominées par la décoloration cutanée en regard du site d'injection (40%) alors que la corticothérapie générale était responsable de la prise de poids dans plus d'un cas sur 2. Conclusion Les complications de la thérapie cortisonique sont diverses et variées. La manipulation des dérivés cortisoniques doit se faire avec prudence en tenant compte du terrain et surtout de l’évaluation à chaque moment du rapport bénéfice-risque. PMID:26587152

  19. Le sujet âgé en hémodialyse chronique: expérience d'un centre hospitalier marocain

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Ilham; Benabdellah, Nawal; Bentata, Yassamine; Haddiya, Intissar

    2013-01-01

    De plus en plus de patients âgés sont pris en charge en hémodialyse chronique. L'augmentation de l'incidence de la maladie rénale chronique, du diabète et l'amélioration de la survie cardio-vasculaire expliquent en grande partie ce constat. Les conséquences de la prise en charge de ces patients âgés en en hémodialyse chronique sont multiples. Elles sont dominées par les comorbidités et les troubles d'autonomie. Le but de notre étude est de décrire le profil épidémiologique et clinique des patients âgés traités par HDC dans notre centre. Nous avons réalisé une étude transversale, en Novembre 2011, incluant tous les patients hémodialysés chroniques de l'Hôpital Al Farabi d'Oujda, dans la région de l'Oriental Marocain. Nous avons analysé chez les patients âgés de 65 ans et plus les paramètres démographiques, clinico-biologiques et dialytiques. L'analyse statistique est réalisée par le logiciel SPSS 17,0. Parmi 94 patients hémodialysés chroniques actuellement pris en charge dans notre centre, 31patients sont âgés de 65 ans et plus (32,9%). La néphropathie causale était diabétique dans 6,4% des cas, vasculaire dans 19,35% des cas, et glomérulaire dans 20% des cas. Les comorbidités sont observées chez 65% de ces patients. 29% de patients avaient une comorbidité cardiovasculaire, 55% étaient hypertendus, alors que 6,4% avaient des troubles cognitifs. Les sujets âgés en hémodialyse chronique représentent une population de patients fragiles. Ils nécessitent une surveillance particulière et régulière afin de prévenir certaines complications propres au sujet âgé et améliorer ainsi leur qualité de vie. PMID:24009801

  20. Un cas de fracture luxation négligée du coude avec conservation de la fonction du coude

    PubMed Central

    Lahrach, Kamal; Ammoumri, Oussama; Mezzani, Amine; Benabid, Mounir; Marzouki, Amine; Boutayeb, Fawzi

    2015-01-01

    Les fractures luxations du coude sont rares et souvent mal tolérées chez les sujets jeunes actifs. Nous rapportons un cas de fracture-luxation du coude remontant à 20 ans. C'est un jeune de 35 ans, victime il y a 20 ans d'un traumatisme fermé, suite à une chute lors d'un match du football, de son coude gauche occasionnant une fracture-luxation du coude. Le patient a refusé une intervention chirurgicale avec une auto-rééducation. L'examen a mis en évidence une conservation de la fonction du coude. Un bilan radiologique a montré une fracture luxation du coude avec remaniement de la palette humérale. Une abstention thérapeutique a été décidée devant l'ancienneté de la fracture-luxation et la gêne fonctionnelle minime engendrée. Contrairement aux autres séries, la fracture-luxation dans notre cas était bien tolérée malgré le jeune âge du patient. PMID:26113930

  1. L’offre des services de vaccination en milieu urbain, au Cameroun: étude de cas du District de Santé de Djoungolo

    PubMed Central

    Ngomba, Armelle Viviane; Kollo, Basile; Bita, André Fouda; Djouma, Fabrice Nembot; Edengue, Jean Marie; Elongue, Marie Josée; Adiogo, Dieudonné

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Les métropoles camerounaises concentrent un nombre croissant d'enfants cibles, non atteints par les services de vaccination de routine. Méthodes Une étude transversale descriptive, basée sur échantillonnage exhaustif des formations sanitaires légales offrant en routine des services de vaccination a été réalisée dans le district de santé de Djoungolo, (ville de Yaoundé). L'évaluation de l'offre des services de vaccination a été calquée sur l'approche « Atteindre Chaque District ». Résultats Des 70 formations sanitaires ayant participé à l'étude, 3 (4,3%) disposaient d'un micro plan actualisé pour la vaccination de routine. Des 63 (89,4%) formations sanitaires possédant un réfrigérateur fonctionnel, 12 (19,0%) vaccinaient au quotidien en stratégie fixe. Cinquante-sept (81,0%) formations sanitaires ne conduisaient pas des sessions de vaccination en stratégies avancées. La participation des membres de la communauté aux activités de vaccination de routine étaient effective dans 1 aire de santé sur les 12 que compte le district. Une courbe de suivi des couvertures vaccinales correctement renseignée étaient disponible dans 6 (8,5%) formations sanitaires. Conclusion L'approche « Atteindre Chaque District » telle que mise en œuvre dans le district de santé de Djoungolo limite l'atteinte d'un maximum d'enfants cibles. L'effectivité d'une micro planification réaliste, la régularité des sessions de vaccination en stratégie fixes et avancées, le suivi des données orienté vers l'action, la redynamisation communautaire en faveur de la vaccination sont des voies d'amélioration des prestations des services de vaccination, dans ce district. PMID:28292168

  2. Caractéristiques de l'association diabète type 2 et hypertension artérielle chez le sujet âgé de 65 ans et plus

    PubMed Central

    Diyane, Khadija; El Ansari, Nawal; El Mghari, Ghizlane; Anzid, Karim; Cherkaoui, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Introduction L'HTA du diabétique âgé est particulière par sa fréquence et sa gravité. Cette association HTA-diabète type 2 (DT2) est particulièrement fréquente chez la personne âgée, et responsable d'une majoration du risque cardiovasculaire et d'une accélération de l'atteinte dégénérative du diabète. Méthodes Etude descriptive, concernant 100 patients diabétiques de type 2 hypertendus âgés de 65 ans ou plus, suivis au service d'endocrinologie-diabétologie du CHU de Marrakech, du mois de Novembre 2010 au mois de Juillet 2011. Le logiciel SPSS version 18 a été utilisé pour l'analyse statistique. Résultats Le sex-ratio des patients étudiés était de 0,26, l’âge moyen était de 69,2 ±; 4,3 ans, l'ancienneté du diabète était de 9,3 ±; 6,7 ans. Le diagnostic du diabète précédait celui de l'HTA dans 67,7% des cas. Seulement 4,2% avaient une HbA1c ≤ 6,5%. 60% des patients avaient une HTA de grade I. L'IMC moyen était de 28,1 ±; 4,6 kg/m2. La dyslipidémie était présente chez 59,6% de nos patients avec essentiellement une hypoHDLémie (75,9%). La macroangiopathie était observée chez 40% des patients avec essentiellement une cardiopathie ischémique (29%). Elle était significativement plus fréquente chez les patients ayant une HbA1c supérieure à 9%, LDL-c ≥ 1 g/l et une hypoHDLémie. La microangiopathie présente dans 82% des cas était significativement en relation avec l'HbA1c, le DFG et le taux des triglycérides. Conclusion Une prise en charge complète du risque cardio-vasculaire chez les sujets âgés se heurte à des problèmes objectifs en pratique courante, en particulier, la polymédication, source d'une mauvaise compliance et donc de mauvais résultats. Mots clés: Complications dégénératives, Diabète type 2, Dyslipidémie, Hypertension artérielle, Sujet âgé. PMID:23717715

  3. Intérêt du traitement chirurgical des fractures du massif trochantérien par clou gamma, à propos de 84 cas

    PubMed Central

    Boukhris, Jalal; Boussouga, Mostapha; Jaafar, Abdelouahab; Chagar, Belkacem

    2014-01-01

    La fracture trochantérienne est une urgence différée qui se voit essentiellement chez le sujet âgé, dont les processus physiologique sont en déclin progressif. Chez le sujet jeune, elle est rare et souvent consécutive à un traumatisme violent. Ces fractures ont bénéficié de l’évolution constante des moyens et des techniques thérapeutiques, visant à améliorer l'ostéosynthèse, assurant ainsi un lever et un appui précoces. Nous rapportons une série de 84 cas de fractures du massif trochantérien traités chirurgicalement par clou gamma. Les résultats fonctionnels sont très encourageants en les comparants à ceux rapportés dans la littérature. PMID:25574335

  4. HPV vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    Vaccine - HPV; Immunization - HPV; Gardasil; HPV2; HPV4; Vaccine to prevent cervical cancer; Genital warts - HPV vaccine; Cervical dysplasia - HPV vaccine; Cervical cancer - HPV vaccine; Cancer of the cervix - HPV vaccine; Abnormal ...

  5. HPV awareness in higher-risk young women: the need for a targeted HPV catch-up vaccination program.

    PubMed

    Ahken, Stephanie; Fleming, Nathalie; Dumont, Tania; Black, Amanda

    2015-02-01

    Objectif : Déterminer le niveau de sensibilisation au VPH et l’état des connaissances à ce sujet chez des jeunes femmes exposées à des risques accrus, ainsi que les attitudes de ces dernières envers la vaccination anti-VPH et les programmes de rattrapage. Méthodes : Un questionnaire Web d’autoévaluation anonyme et transversal a été rempli par des femmes (âges : 13-25 ans) fréquentant deux cliniques destinées à des groupes mal desservis. La sensibilisation à l’infection au VPH / à la vaccination anti-VPH, les taux de vaccination et l’acceptabilité des programmes de rattrapage constituaient les critères d’évaluation principaux. Le test de chi carré, le test exact de Fisher et des analyses de régression logistique ont été menés. Résultats : Parmi les 105 répondantes (âge moyen : 19,32), 66,7 % recevaient de l’aide sociale et 54,3% avaient recours aux services de cliniques sans rendez-vous. Le taux global de sensibilisation au VPH était de 81,0 % et le taux de sensibilisation à la vaccination était de 76,2 %. La sensibilisation au VPH était considérablement accrue chez les femmes de moins de 20 ans (P = 0,032) et chez celles qui présentaient des antécédents d’infection transmissible sexuellement (ITS) (P = 0,039); toutefois, elle n’était pas affectée par le niveau de scolarité. La sensibilisation à la vaccination variait considérablement en fonction des antécédents d’ITS (P = 0,031), mais non pas en fonction de l’âge ou du niveau de scolarité. La sensibilisation à l’association entre le VPH et les verrues génitales et le cancer du col utérin était faible (30,0 %, 41,9 %) et ne variait ni en fonction du niveau de scolarité ni en fonction des antécédents d’ITS. Trente pour cent des répondantes avaient été vaccinées (chez celles-ci, 42 % avaient reçu trois doses), principalement dans le cadre de programmes scolaires (71 %). La probabilité d’une vaccination était consid

  6. HPV Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness HPV Vaccine KidsHealth > For Teens > HPV Vaccine Print A A ... starting at age 9. continue How Does the Vaccine Work? The HPV vaccine is approved for people ...

  7. HPV Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness HPV Vaccine KidsHealth > For Teens > HPV Vaccine A A A ... starting at age 9. continue How Does the Vaccine Work? The HPV vaccine is approved for people ...

  8. Granulomatose avec polyangéite du sujet âgé: à propos de deux cas et revue de la literature

    PubMed Central

    Berriche, Olfa; Hammami, Sonia; ammari, Fatma Larbi; Alaya, Wafa; kessomtini, Wassia; Chebbi, Wafa

    2015-01-01

    La granulomatose avec polyangéite (GPA) est une vascularite nécrosante des vaisseaux de petit calibre. L’âge moyen d'entrée dans la GPA est entre 35 et 55 ans, les formes gériatriques sont cependant rares, Nous rapportons deux cas de GPA révélés après 60 ans, le mode de révélation était inhabituel, ophtalmologique dans le premier cas et cutané dans le deuxième cas. PMID:26175831

  9. Analyse du langage spontane de sujets atteints d'aphasie sensorielle (An Analysis of Spontaneous Language in Subjects Afflicted with Aphasia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kremin, Helgard

    1977-01-01

    A report on a study of a large number of subjects afflicted with sensory aphasia. Topics covered are: the distributional pattern of grammatical categories; paraphasia; a statistical analysis of associated syndromes; possible relationship to the location of the lesion. Some examples of spontaneous language are included. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  10. Impact socio professionnel de la libération chirurgicale du syndrome du canal carpien

    PubMed Central

    Kraiem, Aouatef Mahfoudh; Hnia, Hajer; Bouzgarrou, Lamia; Henchi, Mohamed Adnène; Khalfallah, Taoufik

    2016-01-01

    L’objectif de notre travail était d’étudier les conséquences socioprofessionnelles d’une libération chirurgicale du SCC. Il s’agit d’une étude transversale portant sur les sujets opérés pour un SCC d’origine professionnelle ; recensés dans le Service de Médecine de Travail et de Pathologies Professionnelles au CHU Tahar Sfar de Mahdia en Tunisie sur une période de 8 ans allant du 1 Janvier 2006 au mois Décembre 2013. Le recueil des données s’est basé sur une fiche d’enquête, portant sur la description des caractéristiques socioprofessionnelles, médicales, et sur le devenir professionnel des participants. Pour étudier les contraintes psychosociales au travail, nous avons adopté le questionnaire de Karasek. La durée d’arrêt de travail après libération chirurgicale du SCC était significativement liée à l’existence d’autres troubles musculo-squelettiques autre que le SCC, la déclaration du SCC en maladie professionnelle et à l’ancienneté professionnelle des salariés. Quant au devenir professionnel des salariés opérés, 50,7% ont gardé le même poste, 15,3% ont bénéficié d’un aménagement de poste et 33,8% ont bénéficié d’un changement de poste dans la même entreprise. Le devenir professionnel de ces salariés était corrélé à leurs qualifications professionnelles et au type de l’atteinte sensitive et/ou motrice du nerf médian à l’EMG. Un certain nombre de facteurs non lésionnels déterminaient la durée de l’arrêt de travail, alors que le devenir professionnel des opérés pour SCC dépendait essentiellement de leurs qualifications professionnelles et des données de l’électromyogramme. Il est certain que des travaux beaucoup plus larges permettraient d’affiner encore ces résultats. PMID:27800089

  11. Sur la reponse en frequence du tissu nerveux dans le cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedard, Claude

    Dans cette These de Physique, nous avons etudie la dependance en frequence du champ electrique du tissu nerveux dans le cortex. Ce champ est aussi designe par "Local field Potential" LFP dans la litterature scientifique. Cette etude est fondee sur la theorie du champ electromagnetisme de Maxwell et sur de l'information tiree de la donne experimentale. Le resultat essentiel de cette These est que la grandeur enorme du temps de relaxation de Maxwell des membranes cellulaires semble etre la cause principale de la dependance en frequence des LFPs. Cette dependance en frequence causee par chaque membrane cellulaire est l'analogue d'un circuit RC ou la resistance R est la resistivite parallele d'une membrane cellulaire, et ou la capacite C est la permittivite electrique de la membrane. L'effet resultant d'un tres grand nombre de cellules donne un spectre de Fourier dont l'enveloppe est tres pres d'un signal en 1/f. Le modele physique propose dans cette These permet de lier les mesures prises a l'interieur d'une dendrite des variations de potentiel electrique a celles prises dans le liquide extracellulaire. De plus, cette These semble ouvrir la possibilite de mesurer le temps de relaxation de Maxwell des membranes cellulaires a l'aide de la mesure de la reponse en frequence du potentiel electrique extracellulaire (LFP). Enfin, cette These permet de lever le voile sur un sujet peu etudie, principalement en raison de la difficulte que represente l'etude des phenomenes electriques dans des milieux complexes comme les tissus vivants. En particulier, le probleme du filtrage frequentiel du potentiel electrique extracellulaire est une propriete fondamentale du tissu nerveux et son origine n'est pas connue.

  12. Vaccine hesitancy

    PubMed Central

    Dubé, Eve; Laberge, Caroline; Guay, Maryse; Bramadat, Paul; Roy, Réal; Bettinger, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite being recognized as one of the most successful public health measures, vaccination is perceived as unsafe and unnecessary by a growing number of individuals. Lack of confidence in vaccines is now considered a threat to the success of vaccination programs. Vaccine hesitancy is believed to be responsible for decreasing vaccine coverage and an increasing risk of vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks and epidemics. This review provides an overview of the phenomenon of vaccine hesitancy. First, we will characterize vaccine hesitancy and suggest the possible causes of the apparent increase in vaccine hesitancy in the developed world. Then we will look at determinants of individual decision-making about vaccination. PMID:23584253

  13. Accident vasculaire cérébral ischémique large chez un sujet jeune révélateur d’une endocardite infectieuse: à propos d’un cas

    PubMed Central

    Ravelosaona, Fanomezantsoa Noella; Razafimahefa, Julien; Randrianasolo, Rahamefy Odilon; Rakotoarimanana, Solofonirina; Tehindrazanarivelo, Djacoba Alain

    2016-01-01

    L’Accident vasculaire cérébral ischémique large est le plus souvent du à un embole d’origine cardiaque ou à partir d’une plaque d’athérome. Chez le sujet jeune, l’une des principales causes d’AVC ischémique surtout large est la cardiopathie emboligène dont l’endocardite infectieuse. Or, l’endocardite infectieuse est une contre indication de l’anticoagulation efficace indiquée lors d’une cardiopathie emboligène compliquée d’un AVC ischémique. L’une des complications cérébrales de l’endocardite infectieuse est l’AVC ischémique mais souvent de localisation multiple. Nous rapportons l’observation d’un homme de 44 ans qui a présenté une hémiplégie gauche massive d’apparition brutale dans un contexte apyrétique, associé à un souffle mitral systolique et qui est devenu fébrile à J5 d’hospitalisation sans autre foyer infectieux évident. Le scanner cérébral a montré un accident vasculaire ischémique large du territoire de l’artère sylvienne totale droite et l’échocardiographie doppler à distance de l’accident a montré une endocardite infectieuse de la petite valve mitrale. Il a été traité par une biantibiothérapie pendant 4 semaines sans anticoagulation et l’évolution était marquée par la disparition des végétations sur la valve mitrale et par les séquelles motrices de l’hémicorps gauche. Notre problème en pratique était la survenue de la fièvre non concomitante ni précédant le déficit entrainant une errance dans le diagnostic vers un AVC ischémique d’origine cardio-embolique. Ce tableau souligne l’intérêt de faire une échocardiographie doppler dans tout AVC ischémique large surtout superficiel avant tout traitement anticoagulant. PMID:28154723

  14. [Travelers' vaccines].

    PubMed

    Ouchi, Kazunobu

    2011-09-01

    The number of Japanese oversea travelers has gradually increased year by year, however they usually pay less attention to the poor physical condition at the voyage place. Many oversea travelers caught vaccine preventable diseases in developing countries. The Vaccine Guideline for Oversea Travelers 2010 published by Japanese Society of Travel Health will be helpful for spreading the knowledge of travelers' vaccine and vaccine preventable diseases in developing countries. Many travelers' vaccines have not licensed in Japan. I hope these travelers' vaccines, such as typhoid vaccine, meningococcal vaccine, cholera vaccine and so on will be licensed in the near future.

  15. Leptospirosis vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhijun; Jin, Li; Węgrzyn, Alicja

    2007-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a serious infection disease caused by pathogenic strains of the Leptospira spirochetes, which affects not only humans but also animals. It has long been expected to find an effective vaccine to prevent leptospirosis through immunization of high risk humans or animals. Although some leptospirosis vaccines have been obtained, the vaccination is relatively unsuccessful in clinical application despite decades of research and millions of dollars spent. In this review, the recent advancements of recombinant outer membrane protein (OMP) vaccines, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) vaccines, inactivated vaccines, attenuated vaccines and DNA vaccines against leptospirosis are reviewed. A comparison of these vaccines may lead to development of new potential methods to combat leptospirosis and facilitate the leptospirosis vaccine research. Moreover, a vaccine ontology database was built for the scientists working on the leptospirosis vaccines as a starting tool. PMID:18072968

  16. Vaccine Hesitancy.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Robert M; St Sauver, Jennifer L; Finney Rutten, Lila J

    2015-11-01

    Vaccine refusal received a lot of press with the 2015 Disneyland measles outbreak, but vaccine refusal is only a fraction of a much larger problem of vaccine delay and hesitancy. Opposition to vaccination dates back to the 1800 s, Edward Jenner, and the first vaccine ever. It has never gone away despite the public's growing scientific sophistication. A variety of factors contribute to modern vaccine hesitancy, including the layperson's heuristic thinking when it comes to balancing risks and benefits as well as a number of other features of vaccination, including falling victim to its own success. Vaccine hesitancy is pervasive, affecting a quarter to a third of US parents. Clinicians report that they routinely receive requests to delay vaccines and that they routinely acquiesce. Vaccine rates vary by state and locale and by specific vaccine, and vaccine hesitancy results in personal risk and in the failure to achieve or sustain herd immunity to protect others who have contraindications to the vaccine or fail to generate immunity to the vaccine. Clinicians should adopt a variety of practices to combat vaccine hesitancy, including a variety of population health management approaches that go beyond the usual call to educate patients, clinicians, and the public. Strategies include using every visit to vaccinate, the creation of standing orders or nursing protocols to provide vaccination without clinical encounters, and adopting the practice of stating clear recommendations. Up-to-date, trusted resources exist to support clinicians' efforts in adopting these approaches to reduce vaccine hesitancy and its impact.

  17. Les effets du travail en equipe dans l'apprentissage par projets sur la motivation des etudiantes et des etudiants en formation des ingenieurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Nicolas

    Les representants des secteurs industriels et les, milieux professionnels en Amerique du Nord reprochaient aux universites de former des ingenieurs avec peu d'experience pratique en resolution de problemes et en conception. Quelques programmes de genie ont alors mis en place le travail en equipe dans l'apprentissage par projets. Beaucoup d'ecrits font valoir les benefices de l'apprentissage par projets sur la motivation des etudiants. Or, ces benefices commencent a peine a faire l'objet de recherches visant a produire des donnees probantes a ce sujet. Les travaux sur la motivation en contexte d'apprentissage et les modeles theoriques developpes sont issus d'environnements d'apprentissage marques par l'enseignement magistral. Le modele de la valeur attendue de la tache (Eccles et Wigfield, 1995; Neuville, 2004) et le modele du systeme-groupe (St-Arnaud, 2008) ont ete retenus pour mesurer les effets du travail en equipe dans l'apprentissage par projets sur la motivation. La recherche visait aussi a approfondir et a nuancer la comprehension de la motivation des etudiants universitaires apprenant en contexte innovant. Les sujets constituent des etudiants (n=100) travaillant sur des projets d'integration au cours des trois sessions initiales du programme de genie mecanique d'une universite canadienne. L'analyse de regression multiple revele que les construits de la motivation expliquent un tiers de la variance de l'engagement academique dans la realisation du projet d'integration. Les perceptions de l' "expectancy", de la valeur intrinseque et utilitaire sont les determinants principaux de l'engagement des etudiants. L'analyse de variance multivariee a mesures repetees indique que la motivation des etudiants pour le travail sur les projets d'integration a augmente au cours des trois sessions initiales du parcours de formation. Finalement, malgre l'absence d'interaction significative entre les variables de motivation et de l'equipe, les reponses des sujets indiquent une

  18. "Cirque du Freak."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivett, Miriam

    2002-01-01

    Considers the marketing strategies that underpin the success of the "Cirque du Freak" series. Describes how "Cirque du Freak" is an account of events in the life of schoolboy Darren Shan. Notes that it is another reworking of the vampire narrative, a sub-genre of horror writing that has proved highly popular with both adult and…

  19. Rapport sur l'état du patrimoine astronomique dans les observatoires français de la fin du XIXè siècle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damm, E.; Pécontal, E.

    2012-12-01

    Suite au colloque sur la sauvegarde du patrimoine astronomique organisé par le MAEE et la SAF, sous l'égide de l'UNESCO, qui a conduit à l'adoption de la Déclaration de Paris, les directeurs d'observatoires institutionnels qui étaient absents du colloque ont ressenti le besoin de discuter de ces conclusions prises en leur nom. L'initiative d'organiser une réunion des directeurs des Observatoires des Sciences de l'Univers (OSU) à ce sujet le 30 janvier 2012 a été prise par François Vernotte, directeur de l'Observatoire de Besançon. Le présent compte-rendu de visite résulte d'une initiative spontanée d'Emmanuel Pécontal, astronome responsable du Patrimoine à l'observatoire de Lyon, et d'Evelyne Damm, membre de la Commission Nationale de classement des Monuments Historiques (CNMH) et élue à la communauté d'agglomération des Portes de l'Essonne oû est sis l'observatoire de Camille Flammarion.

  20. Polymorphisme de l'apolipoprotéine E dans la population du nord du Maroc: fréquence et influence sur les paramètres lipidiques

    PubMed Central

    Benyahya, Fatiha; Barakat, Amina; Ghailani, Naima; Bennani, Mohcine

    2013-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif de ce travail est de déterminer les fréquences alléliques et génotypiques des sites polymorphes situés dans le gène de l'apolipoprotéine E (apo E) ainsi que leur impact sur les paramètres cliniques et lipidiques dans un échantillon de la population du nord du Maroc cliniquement diagnostiqué ADH. Méthodes Le génotype de l'apo E a été analysé par séquençage direct chez 46 patients cliniquement diagnostiqués ADH selon les critères standards. Résultats Les fréquences des allèles epsilon 3, epsilon 2 et epsilon 4 ont été respectivement 78.3%, 2.2% et 19.6%. La fréquence de l'allèle epsilon 4 est très élevée chez la population du nord du Maroc en comparaison avec les populations des autres régions marocaines. Elle est similaire à celle rapportée dans les pays de l'Europe du nord. Les taux du cholestérol total, du cholestérol LDL ainsi que la présence des xanthomes et les maladies cardiovasculaires ne différent pas entre les génotypes de l'apoE. En revanche, les résultats ont montré une influence de l'allèle epsilon4 sur le taux des triglycérides chez les sujets obèses. Conclusion Le génotype de l'apoE ne peut expliquer le phénotype clinique et biochimique présenté par des patients du Nord du Maroc cliniquement diagnostiqués ADH. PMID:24396563

  1. Edible vaccines.

    PubMed

    Meloen, R H; Hamilton, W D; Casal, J I; Dalsgaard, K; Langeveld, J P

    1998-01-01

    The ultimate vaccine is an oral vaccine which given once protects against a multitude of diseases. Furthermore this ultimate vaccine needs to be very stable and inexpensive to produce. Probably this latter condition can be met only if the vaccines are produced in plants. Such vaccines are called 'edible vaccines'. Edible vaccines can be produced in plants in many ways. Using recombinant plantvirus, CPMV, it was shown that plants can produce massive amounts of chimaeric virus particles which protect after a single injection the target animal against disease. The final step, oral administration, is being addressed at present. Preliminary experiments by others suggest that this step may be solved sooner than expected.

  2. Edible vaccines.

    PubMed

    Artnzen, C J

    1997-01-01

    Vaccines were the result of trial and error research until molecular biology and genetic engineering made possible the creation of of many new and improved vaccines. New vaccines need to be inexpensive, easily administered, and capable of being stored and transported without refrigeration; without these characteristics, developing countries find it difficult to adopt vaccination as the central strategy for preventing their most devastating diseases. The authors describe a promising approach to inexpensive and effective vaccines: producing them in plants we commonly consume.

  3. La nutrition du nourrisson né à terme et en santé

    PubMed Central

    1998-01-01

    La nutrition du nourrisson né à terme et en santé constitue le nouvel énoncé national sur la nutrition du nourrisson, de la naissance à l’âge de 24 mois. Il s’agit d’un projet conjoint de la Société canadienne de pédiatrie, des Diététistes du Canada et de Santé Canada. Cet ouvrage est une synthèse de la documentation scientifique actuelle en matière de nutrition du nourrisson ; il contient des principes et recommandations afin d’aider les professionnels de la santé à promouvoir la prestation des meilleurs soins alimentaires possibles pour les nourrissons du Canada, compte tenu de l’état actuel de la recherche. La collaboration entre les trois principaux organismes qui s’intéressent à cette question a permis d’uniformisé le message que les professionnels transmettront au public. Le document aborde quatre grands sujets relatifs à la première année d’existence : l’allaitement, les laits de remplacement, les autres liquides dans le régime du nourrisson et la transition aux aliments solides. On y examine ensuite la question de la sécurité dans l’alimentation, puis celle de la nutrition durant la deuxième année. La dernière section couvre les autres questions liées à la nutrition du nourrisson ; on y traite de sujets tels que les allergies alimentaires, les coliques, la constipation, les matières grasses dans le régime alimentaire, la carie dentaire, la gastroentérite, le diabète, l’anémie ferriprive et les régimes végétariens. Le document contient également un répertoire complet de plus de 200 citations. Le sommaire des principes et recommandations paraîtra dans les revues officielles de la Société canadienne de pédiatrie (Paediatrics and Child Health, 1998) et des Diététistes du Canada (Revue canadienne de pratique et de recherche en diététique, juin 1998). On peut télécharger le document intégral à partir des sites Web respectifs des trois organismes associés ; on peut aussi obtenir la

  4. Vaccine safety.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Robert M

    2003-11-01

    Rates of reported adverse events are remarkably low. VAERS identifies an adverse event rate approximating 11.4 reports per 100,000 vaccine doses. Approximately 15% of these reports represent SAEs, but less than 2% involve death; in most cases, reviews have shown no causal relation between the events and the vaccine. Across the spectrum of vaccines in use (including those directed against influenza and hepatitis B virus), many claims of adverse events regarding vaccines represent typical reactions to vaccinations. These reactions can be thought of as foreign-body reactions and predominate among the inactivated vaccines. In controlled studies, the adverse event rates that occur with vaccination resemble those that occur with placebo injections. Typical reactions associated with live viral and bacterial vaccines, such as MMR and varicella vaccines, may resemble attenuated forms of the disease for which the vaccine is directed. Other claims against vaccines represent chance-coincidence or misunderstood data; further studies of claims have vindicated the overall safety of the vaccines in most cases. Two documented safety concerns with vaccines, however, have demonstrated that vaccines (like other biologics and pharmacologic) can result in harm (eg, rotavirus and OPV vaccines). The denouement with these vaccines indicates the broad postmarketing data collection and evaluation that extends efforts made with prelicensure study to balance the benefits from vaccination with the risk for harm. Overall, measures including prelicensure study and postlicensure surveillance, such as VAERS, the Vaccine Safety Datalink Project, and the Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment Centers, have resulted in an exceptional safety profile for the vaccines in use.

  5. Rotavirus vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Catherine; Tate, Jacqueline E; Hyde, Terri B; Cortese, Margaret M; Lopman, Benjamin A; Jiang, Baoming; Glass, Roger I; Parashar, Umesh D

    2016-01-01

    Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea among children <5 years worldwide. Currently licensed rotavirus vaccines have been efficacious and effective, with many countries reporting substantial declines in diarrheal and rotavirus-specific morbidity and mortality. However, the full public health impact of these vaccines has not been realized. Most countries, including those with the highest disease burden, have not yet introduced rotavirus vaccines into their national immunization programs. Research activities that may help inform vaccine introduction decisions include (1) establishing effectiveness, impact, and safety for rotavirus vaccines in low-income settings; (2) identifying potential strategies to improve performance of oral rotavirus vaccines in developing countries, such as zinc supplementation; and (3) pursuing alternate approaches to oral vaccines, such as parenteral immunization. Policy- and program-level barriers, such as financial implications of new vaccine introductions, should be addressed to ensure that countries are able to make informed decisions regarding rotavirus vaccine introduction. PMID:24755452

  6. La myosite ossifiante circonscrite du coude: à propos d’un cas

    PubMed Central

    Nhamoucha, Yassine; Alaoui, Othmane; Alaoui, Charifa; Abdellaoui, Hicham; Tazi, Mohammed; Oukhoya, Mohammed; Chater, Lamyae; Atarraf, Karima; Arroud, Mounir; Afifi, Abderahman

    2016-01-01

    La myosite ossifiante circonscrite (MOC) est une ossification hétérotopique des muscles striés. Sa localisation au niveau du coude est rare. Elle survient chez le sujet jeune, souvent suite à un traumatisme comme elle peut se développer également en dehors de tout traumatisme. Sa localisation prédominante est au niveau des muscles les plus volumineux de la racine des membres (fessiers, deltoïde) ou les plus exposés aux chocs direct (plus de 40 % des cas post-traumatiques sur le quadriceps). Nous proposons d’illustrer à partir d’une observation, les aspects que réalise la myosite ossifiante circonscrite en radiologie conventionnelle, en tomodensitométrie afin d’éviter la confusion diagnostique potentielle avec une tumeur osseuse maligne. PMID:28154675

  7. Le mouvement du pôle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizouard, Christian

    2012-03-01

    Les variations de la rotation terrestre. En conditionnant à la fois notre vie quotidienne, notre perception du ciel, et bon nombre de phénomènes géophysiques comme la formation des cyclones, la rotation de la Terre se trouve au croisement de plusieurs disciplines. Si le phenomena se faisait uniformément, le sujet serait vite discuté, mais c'est parce que la rotation terrestre varie, même imperceptiblement pour nos sens, dans sa vitesse angulaire comme dans la direction de son axe, qu'elle suscite un grand intérêt. D'abord pour des raisons pratiques : non seulement les aléas de la rotation terrestre modi_ent à la longue les pointés astrométriques à un instant donné de la journée mais in_uencent aussi les mesures opérées par les techniques spatiales ; en consequence l'exploitation de ces mesures, par exemple pour déterminer les orbites des satellites impliqués ou pratiquer le positionnement au sol, nécessite une connaissance précise de ces variations. Plus fondamentalement, elles traduisent les propriétés globales de la Terre comme les processus physiques qui s'y déroulent, si bien qu'en analysant les causes des fluctuations observées, on dispose d'un moyen de mieux connaître notre globe. La découverte progressive des fluctuations de la rotation de la Terre a une longue histoire. Sous l'angle des techniques d'observation, trois époques se pro-celle du pointé astrométrique à l'oeil nu, à l'aide d'instruments en bois ou métalliques (quart de cercle muraux par exemple). À partir du XVIIe siècle débute l'astrométrie télescopique dont les pointés sont complétés par des datations de plus en plus précises grâce à l'invention d'horloges régulées par balancier. Cette deuxième époque se termine vers 1960, avec l'avènement des techniques spatiales : les pointés astrométriques sont délaissés au profit de la mesure ultra-précise de durées ou de fréquences de signaux électromagnétiques, grâce à l'invention des horloges

  8. DENGUE VACCINES.

    PubMed

    Thisyakorn, Usa; Thisyakorn, Chule

    2015-01-01

    The uniqueness of the dengue viruses (DENVs) and the spectrum of disease resulting from infection have made dengue vaccine development difficult. Several vaccine candidates are currently being evaluated in clinical studies. The candidate currently at the most advanced clinical development stage, a live-attenuated tetravalent vaccine based on the chimeric yellow fever-dengue virus (CYD-TDV), has progressed to Phase 3 efficacy studies. Several other live-attenuated vaccines, as well as subunit, DNA, and purified inactivated vaccine candidates are at earlier stages of clinical development. Additional technological approaches, such as virus-vectored and Virus-Like Particles (VLP)-based vaccines are under evaluation in preclinical studies.

  9. La naissance du parsec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenou, F.

    2010-01-01

    Les définitions du parsec et de la magnitude absolue sont le fruit de compromis pour régler trois problèmes entremêlés au début du XXème siècle: quelle unité de distance stellaire adopter? Quel nom lui donner? Comment comparer les luminosités intrinsèques des différentes étoiles?

  10. Vaccines (immunizations) - overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... diphtheria, mumps, measles, pertussis (whooping cough), meningitis, and polio. Many of these infections can cause serious or ... MMR - vaccine Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine Pneumococcal polysaccharide ... (vaccine) Rotavirus vaccine Tdap vaccine Tetanus - vaccine

  11. Vaccine Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... FAQs about Vaccine Safety Research Publications HDM Reports ISO Scientific Agenda Ensuring Safety History Understanding Side Effects ... Datalink Publications Emergency Preparedness Vaccine Safety Partners About ISO File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  12. Les abcès froids pariétaux thoraciques chez les sujets immunocompétents

    PubMed Central

    Benjelloun, Hanane; Morad, Sanaa; Zaghba, Nahid; Bakhatar, Abdelaziz; Yassine, Najiba; Bahlaoui, Abdelkrim

    2015-01-01

    Les abcès froids de la paroi thoracique représentent une forme rare et inhabituelle de tuberculose extrapulmonaire. Sa fréquence est estimée à moins de 5% des tuberculoses ostéoarticulaires, évaluées elles-mêmes à 15% des tuberculoses extrapulmonaires. L'objectif de ce travail est de rapporter la prise en charge diagnostique et thérapeutique de cette localisation dans notre structure. Etude rétrospective portant sur 18 cas colligés au service des maladies respiratoires du centre hospitalier universitaire Ibn Rochd de Casablanca, sur une période de 13 ans. La moyenne d’âge était de 34 ans (21-57). Un antécédent de tuberculose traitée était relevé dans un cas. Le tableau clinique était révélé par l'apparition insidieuse d'une masse pariétale de taille, de consistance et de siège variables. A l'imagerie thoracique, l'abcès pariétal était associé à une lyse osseuse dans sept cas, une atteinte parenchymateuse et pleurale dans quatre cas chacune et des adénopathies médiastinales dans deux cas. La confirmation diagnostique était bactériologique et/ou histologique dans tous les cas. La sérologie du virus de l'immunodéficience humaineétait négative chez tous nos malades. L’évolution sous traitement antibacillaire couplé ou non à une résection chirurgicale était favorable chez tous nos malades. Malgré la fréquence de la tuberculose dans notre contexte, la localisation pariétale thoracique reste rare, survenant chez une population non immunodéprimée et non toxicomane, contrairement à ce qui est souvent rapporté dans la littérature. Les abcès froids tuberculeux représentent une forme rare de tuberculose extrapulmonaire dont l’évolution reste favorable sous traitement précoce et bien conduit. PMID:26113904

  13. Lambeau Expanse du Cuir Chevelu dans la Couverture des Alopecies Cicatricielles sur Sequelles de Brulures. A Propos d'une Observation

    PubMed Central

    El Mazouz, S.; Hafidi, J.; Fejjal, N.; Mejjati, H.; Cherkab, L.; Gharib, N.; Abbassi, A.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Les séquelles esthétiques des alopécies cicatricielles sur séquelles de brûlures sont responsables de préjudices empêchant parfois la réinsertion sociale du patient, surtout chez les sujets de sexe féminin. Le cuir chevelu permet la réalisation de lambeaux permettant de couvrir ces alopécies. Les Auteurs décrivent le cas d'une jeune patiente victime d'une alopécie cicatricielle sur séquelles de brûlures chez qui ils ont réalisé un lambeau expansé du cuir chevelu et mettent le point sur la prise en charge de ces lésions à travers ce cas clinique et une revue de littérature. PMID:21991195

  14. Edible vaccines.

    PubMed Central

    Artnzen, C J

    1997-01-01

    Vaccines were the result of trial and error research until molecular biology and genetic engineering made possible the creation of of many new and improved vaccines. New vaccines need to be inexpensive, easily administered, and capable of being stored and transported without refrigeration; without these characteristics, developing countries find it difficult to adopt vaccination as the central strategy for preventing their most devastating diseases. The authors describe a promising approach to inexpensive and effective vaccines: producing them in plants we commonly consume. Images p190-a p191-a p193-a p196-a PMID:9182305

  15. DNA vaccines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregersen, Jens-Peter

    2001-12-01

    Immunization by genes encoding immunogens, rather than with the immunogen itself, has opened up new possibilities for vaccine research and development and offers chances for new applications and indications for future vaccines. The underlying mechanisms of antigen processing, immune presentation and regulation of immune responses raise high expectations for new and more effective prophylactic or therapeutic vaccines, particularly for vaccines against chronic or persistent infectious diseases and tumors. Our current knowledge and experience of DNA vaccination is summarized and critically reviewed with particular attention to basic immunological mechanisms, the construction of plasmids, screening for protective immunogens to be encoded by these plasmids, modes of application, pharmacokinetics, safety and immunotoxicological aspects. DNA vaccines have the potential to accelerate the research phase of new vaccines and to improve the chances of success, since finding new immunogens with the desired properties is at least technically less demanding than for conventional vaccines. However, on the way to innovative vaccine products, several hurdles have to be overcome. The efficacy of DNA vaccines in humans appears to be much less than indicated by early studies in mice. Open questions remain concerning the persistence and distribution of inoculated plasmid DNA in vivo, its potential to express antigens inappropriately, or the potentially deleterious ability to insert genes into the host cell's genome. Furthermore, the possibility of inducing immunotolerance or autoimmune diseases also needs to be investigated more thoroughly, in order to arrive at a well-founded consensus, which justifies the widespread application of DNA vaccines in a healthy population.

  16. [Antiviral vaccines].

    PubMed

    Girard, M

    1999-01-01

    Vaccination has been successful in controlling numerous diseases in man and animals. Smallpox has been eradicated and poliomyelitis is on the verge of being eradicated. The traditional immunization arsenal includes vaccines using live, attenuated, and inactivated organisms. DNA recombinant technology has added two new types of vaccines, i.e. subunit vaccines based on purified antigens produced by genetic engineering in bacterial, yeast, or animal-cell cultures and live recombinant vaccines based on attenuated bacterial or viral vectors. Currently the best known examples of these new vaccines are those using poxvirus vectors (vaccinia virus, canarypox virus, or fowlpox virus) but new vectors are under development. Another application for genetic engineering in the field of vaccinology is the development of DNA vaccines using naked plasmid DNA. This technique has achieved remarkable results in small rodents but its efficacy, safety, and feasibility in man has yet to be demonstrated. Numerous studies are now under way to improve the process. In the field of synthetic vaccines, lipopeptides have shown promise for induction of cell immune response. Development of vaccines for administration by the oral or nasal route may one day revolutionize vaccination techniques. However, effective vaccines against hepatitis C and HIV have stalled in the face of the complexity and pathophysiology of these diseases. These are the greatest challenges confronting scientists at the dawn of the new millennium.

  17. Hepatitis Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B.

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver. PMID:26978406

  18. Report of the 2014 Cent Gardes HIV Vaccine Conference-Part 2: Cell-mediated immunity, mucosal protection, and clinical trials: Fondation Mérieux Conference Center, Veyrier du Lac, France, 5-7 October, 2014.

    PubMed

    Girard, Marc P; Picot, Valentina; Longuet, Christophe; Nabel, Gary J

    2015-08-07

    The 2014 Cent Gardes Conference took place on October 5-7, 2014, at the Fondation Mérieux Conference Center, on the shores of the Annecy Lake and aimed to review the progress and promise of HIV vaccines. The elicitation of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs), their use in passive immunization, as well as their genetic delivery (vector immunoprophylaxis) by a recombinant Adenovirus-associated virus (AAV) vector were reviewed in a preceding article [1]. Approaches to the elicitation of long-lasting T cell or mucosal immunity were also discussed and are now reviewed here. The possibility of eliciting mucosal IgAs was discussed, since it was demonstrated that transcytosis-blocking IgAs can protect monkeys against repeated vaginal challenge with a pathogenic chimeric simian and human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV). The possibility of purging the HIV reservoirs from HIV-infected persons and developing a cure of the disease was also discussed.

  19. Information non précise sur la taille du pénis en République Démocratique du Congo: à propos de 21 sources

    PubMed Central

    Mulenga, Philippe Cilundika; Kazadi, Alex Bukasa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction La taille du pénis constitue une préoccupation de beaucoup des gens actuellement et certains ne sont pas satisfaits de la dimension de leur pénis comme le montre l’étude de Tiggemann en 2008. Il existe relativement peu d'études sur le pénis en érection. Cela peut refléter les tabous culturels des chercheurs ou des médecins en interaction avec les hommes qui sont dans un état d’excitation sexuelle. Toutes fois, il est important pour les personnes qui annoncent des détails sur la taille du pénis d’annoncer d’abord les repères de la mesure du pénis puis ensuite donner les chiffres que proposent les chercheurs. Méthodes Notre enquête de type descriptif transversale s’est effectuée dans les deux grandes villes de la République Démocratique du Congo à savoir la ville de Kinshasa et la ville de Lubumbashi, pendant une période de deux ans soit de Mai 2014 à Mai 2016. Au total, 21 sources d’information ont constitué notre échantillon dont 8 à Kinshasa et 13 à Lubumbashi et nous avons trouvé cela suffisant car les sujets à caractère sexuel sont souvent rares chez nous. Les paramètres étudiés étaient: la nature de la source, la précision de la technique de la mesure, la présence de référence bibliographique, la longueur annoncée du pénis. Résultats La majorité des sources d’information sont faites des émissions de radio et de télévision (23,8%), ceci pourra s’expliquer par le fait que dans notre milieu il y a de plus en plus des chaines de radio et télévision et surtout dans les grandes villes. Concernant la précision de la technique de la mesure du pénis lors du partage du message sur la taille du pénis, l’étude nous montre que la majorité des sources d’information ne signale pas cela lorsqu’elles annoncent la taille du pénis au public soit 85,7%. Plusieurs sources ne déclarent pas les références bibliographiques (57,1%). Lorsqu’on regarde même les chiffres de la taille du p

  20. Antibody responses of Macaca fascicularis against a new inactivated polio vaccine derived from Sabin strains (sIPV) in DTaP-sIPV vaccine.

    PubMed

    Sato, Y; Shiosaki, K; Goto, Y; Sonoda, K; Kino, Y

    2013-05-01

    Antibody responses of Macaca fascicularis against a new tetravalent vaccine composed of diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, acellular pertussis antigens, and inactivated poliovirus derived from Sabin strains (sIPV) was investigated to predict an optimal dose of sIPV in a new tetravalent vaccine (DTaP-sIPV) prior to conducting a dose-defined clinical study. Monkeys were inoculated with DTaP-sIPVs containing three different antigen units of sIPVs: Vaccine A (types 1:2:3 = 3:100:100 DU), Vaccine B (types 1:2:3 = 1.5:50:50 DU), and Vaccine C (types 1:2:3 = 0.75:25:25 DU). There was no difference in the average titers of neutralizing antibody against the attenuated or virulent polioviruses between Vaccines A and B. The average neutralizing antibody titers of Vaccine C tended to be lower than those of Vaccines A and B. The sIPV antigens did not affect the anti-diphtheria or anti-tetanus antibody titers of DTaP-sIPV. Furthermore, the average neutralizing antibody titers of Vaccine A against the attenuated and virulent polioviruses were comparable between M. fascicularis and humans. These results suggest that M. fascicularis may be a useful animal model for predicting the antibody responses to sIPVs in humans, and that it may be likely to reduce the amount of sIPVs contained in DTaP-sIPVs, even for humans.

  1. Vaccine Adverse Events

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Home Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Safety & Availability ( ... Center for Biologics Evaluation & Research Vaccine Adverse Events Vaccine Adverse Events Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  2. Vaccines.gov

    MedlinePlus

    ... Statements Vaccine Approvals Features: News & Video Free Resources Vaccines are safe, effective, and save lives. Find answers ... by science, on vaccine safety. Are your child’s vaccines up to date? Getting all recommended vaccines on ...

  3. Cri du chat syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... the infant's cry, which is high-pitched and sounds like a cat. Causes Cri du chat syndrome is rare. It is caused by a missing piece of chromosome 5. Most cases are believed to occur during the development of ... Cry that is high-pitched and may sound like a cat Downward slant to the eyes ...

  4. [HPV vaccination].

    PubMed

    Stronski Huwiler, Susanne; Spaar, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Human Papilloma Viruses are associated with genital carcinoma (of the cervix, anus, vulva, vagina and the penis) as well as with non-genital carcinoma (oropharyngeal carcinoma) and genital warts. In Switzerland two highly efficient and safe vaccines are available. The safety of these vaccines has been repeatedly subject of controversial discussions, however so far post marketing surveillance has always been able to confirm the safety. In Switzerland girls and young women have been offered the HPV vaccination within cantonal programmes since 2008. 2015 the recommendation for the HPV-vaccination for boys and young men was issued, and starting July 1, 2016 they as well will be offered vaccination free of charge within the cantonal programmes. This article discusses the burden of disease, efficacy and safety of the vaccines and presents facts which are important for vaccinating these young people. Specifically, aspects of the decisional capacity of adolescents to consent to the vaccination are presented. Finally, the future perspective with a focus on a new vaccine with an enlarged spectrum of HPV-types is discussed.

  5. Compte rendu de la table ronde du 36ème Congrès de la SFB à Cassis (1-3 Juin 2016), première partie: brûlures chimiques, brûlures électriques

    PubMed Central

    Le Floch, R.; Laguerre, J.; Perrot, P.

    2016-01-01

    Summary La table ronde du congrès 2016 de la SFB a duré toute la journée du 2 juin et portait sur les brûlures non thermiques. A la différence du résumé concernant les brûlures radiques, qui est en cours de réalisation par les auteurs des communications, celui-ci a été commis par les auteurs de cet article, à partir des notes prises en séance et de la vidéo réalisée pendant la communication. Le lecteur voulant approfondir le sujet pourra se rapprocher de l’auteur de la communication, systématiquement cité. PMID:28289367

  6. Elaboration du Ge mesoporeux et etude de ses proprietes physico-chimiques en vue d'applications photovoltaiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tutashkonko, Sergii

    Le sujet de cette these porte sur l'elaboration du nouveau nanomateriau par la gravure electrochimique bipolaire (BEE) --- le Ge mesoporeux et sur l'analyse de ses proprietes physico-chimiques en vue de son utilisation dans des applications photovoltaiques. La formation du Ge mesoporeux par gravure electrochimique a ete precedemment rapportee dans la litterature. Cependant, le verrou technologique important des procedes de fabrication existants consistait a obtenir des couches epaisses (superieure a 500 nm) du Ge mesoporeux a la morphologie parfaitement controlee. En effet, la caracterisation physico-chimique des couches minces est beaucoup plus compliquee et le nombre de leurs applications possibles est fortement limite. Nous avons developpe un modele electrochimique qui decrit les mecanismes principaux de formation des pores ce qui nous a permis de realiser des structures epaisses du Ge mesoporeux (jusqu'au 10 mum) ayant la porosite ajustable dans une large gamme de 15% a 60%. En plus, la formation des nanostructures poreuses aux morphologies variables et bien controlees est desormais devenue possible. Enfin, la maitrise de tous ces parametres a ouvert la voie extremement prometteuse vers la realisation des structures poreuses a multi-couches a base de Ge pour des nombreuses applications innovantes et multidisciplinaires grace a la flexibilite technologique actuelle atteinte. En particulier, dans le cadre de cette these, les couches du Ge mesoporeux ont ete optimisees dans le but de realiser le procede de transfert de couches minces d'une cellule solaire a triple jonctions via une couche sacrificielle en Ge poreux. Mots-cles : Germanium meso-poreux, Gravure electrochimique bipolaire, Electrochimie des semi-conducteurs, Report des couches minces, Cellule photovoltaique

  7. Producing, controlling, and stabilizing Pasteur's anthrax vaccine: creating a new industry and a health market.

    PubMed

    Cassier, Maurice

    2008-06-01

    When Pasteur and Chamberland hastily set up their small biological industry to meet the agricultural demand for the anthrax vaccine, their methods for preparation and production had not yet been stabilized. The process of learning how to standardize biological products was accelerated in 1882 when vaccination accidents required the revision of production norms as the first hypotheses on fixity, inalterability, and transportability of vaccines were invalidated and replaced by procedures for continuous monitoring of the calibration of vaccines and the renewal of vaccine strains. Initially, the incompleteness and ongoing development of production standards justified Pasteur's monopoly on the production of the anthrax vaccine under his immediate supervision. Later on, the Pasteur Institute maintained control of these standards in the framework of a commercial monopoly that it established on the veterinary vaccines first sent and then cultivated abroad by the Société de Vulgarisation du Vaccin Charbonneux Pasteur, founded in 1886.

  8. Typhoid Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... serious disease. It is caused by bacteria called Salmonella Typhi. Typhoid causes a high fever, fatigue, weakness, stomach ... a typhoid carrier. Laboratory workers who work with Salmonella Typhi bacteria. Inactivated typhoid vaccine (shot)One dose provides ...

  9. Typhoid Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... serious disease. It is caused by bacteria called Salmonella Typhi. Typhoid causes a high fever, fatigue, weakness, ... a typhoid carrier. • Laboratory workers who work with Salmonella Typhi bacteria. Inactivated typhoid vaccine (shot) • One dose ...

  10. Ear Infection and Vaccines

    MedlinePlus

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Infection and Vaccines Ear Infection and Vaccines Patient Health Information News ... or may need reinsertion over time. What about vaccines? A vaccine is a preparation administered to stimulate ...

  11. Adults Need Vaccines, Too!

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Adult Vaccinations Adults Need Vaccines, Too! Past Issues / Summer 2015 Table of Contents ... of the millions of adults not receiving the vaccines you need? What vaccines do you need? All ...

  12. Smallpox Vaccine Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facebook Tweet Share Compartir SMALLPOX FACT SHEET The Smallpox Vaccine The smallpox vaccine helps the body develop ... disease or may modify the severity of disease. Smallpox Vaccine Safety The smallpox vaccine is the best ...

  13. Influenza Vaccine, Live Intranasal

    MedlinePlus

    ... the recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV). The nasal spray flu vaccine (live attenuated influenza vaccine or LAIV) should NOT ... to your doctor or pharmacist about the best flu vaccine option for you or your family.

  14. Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics: news.

    PubMed

    Riedmann, Eva M

    2013-10-01

    Infant rotavirus vaccination provides for herd immunity Nonreplicating sporozoite vaccine protects humans against malaria Personalized brain cancer vaccine enters phase 2 trial Novel implantable therapeutic cancer vaccine to be tested in humans Clostridium difficile vaccine candidate successful in phase 1 CDC reports strong uptake of HPV vaccine in boys Whooping cough outbreak in Texas.

  15. HIV Infection and Adult Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... conjugate vaccine series which protects against meningococcal disease Hepatitis B vaccine series to protect against hepatitis B HPV vaccine ... conjugate vaccine series which protects against meningococcal disease Hepatitis B vaccine series to protect against hepatitis B HPV vaccine ...

  16. IFN-γ increases efficiency of DNA vaccine in protecting ducks against infection

    PubMed Central

    Long, Jian-Er; Huang, Li-Na; Qin, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Wen-Yi; Qu, Di

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To detect the effects of DNA vaccines in combination with duck IFN-γ gene on the protection of ducks against duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) infection. METHODS: DuIFN-γ cDNA was cloned and expressed in COS-7 cells, and the antiviral activity of DuIFN-γ was detected and neutralized by specific antibodies. Ducks were vaccinated with DHBpreS/S DNA alone or co-immunized with plasmid expressing DuIFN-γ. DuIFN-γ mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from immunized ducks was detected by semi-quantitative competitive RT-PCR. Anti-DHBpreS was titrated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). DHBV DNA in sera and liver was detected by Southern blot hybridization, after ducks were challenged with high doses of DHBV. RESULTS: DuIFN-γ expressed by COS-7 was able to protect duck fibroblasts against vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infection in a dose-dependent fashion, and anti-DuIFN-γ antibodies neutralized the antiviral effects. DuIFN-γ in the supernatant also inhibited the release of DHBV DNA from LMH-D2 cells. When ducks were co-immunized with DNA vaccine expressing DHBpreS/S and DuIFN-γ gene as an adjuvant, the level of DuIFN-γ mRNA in PBMCs was higher than that in ducks vaccinated with DHBpreS/S DNA alone. However, the titer of anti-DHBpreS elicited by DHBpreS/S DNA alone was higher than that co-immunized with DuIFN-γ gene and DHBpreS/S DNA. After being challenged with DHBV at high doses, the load of DHBV in sera dropped faster, and the amount of total DNA and cccDNA in the liver decreased more significantly in the group of ducks co-immunized with DuIFN-γ gene and DHBpreS/S DNA than in other groups. CONCLUSION: DHBV preS/S DNA vaccine can protect ducks against DHBV infection, DuIFN-γ gene as an immune adjuvant enhances its efficacy. PMID:16124047

  17. Cancer vaccines.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Lisa H

    2015-04-22

    Cancer vaccines are designed to promote tumor specific immune responses, particularly cytotoxic CD8 positive T cells that are specific to tumor antigens. The earliest vaccines, which were developed in 1994-95, tested non-mutated, shared tumor associated antigens that had been shown to be immunogenic and capable of inducing clinical responses in a minority of people with late stage cancer. Technological developments in the past few years have enabled the investigation of vaccines that target mutated antigens that are patient specific. Several platforms for cancer vaccination are being tested, including peptides, proteins, antigen presenting cells, tumor cells, and viral vectors. Standard of care treatments, such as surgery and ablation, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, can also induce antitumor immunity, thereby having cancer vaccine effects. The monitoring of patients' immune responses at baseline and after standard of care treatment is shedding light on immune biomarkers. Combination therapies are being tested in clinical trials and are likely to be the best approach to improving patient outcomes.

  18. Nanoparticle vaccines.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liang; Seth, Arjun; Wibowo, Nani; Zhao, Chun-Xia; Mitter, Neena; Yu, Chengzhong; Middelberg, Anton P J

    2014-01-09

    Nanotechnology increasingly plays a significant role in vaccine development. As vaccine development orientates toward less immunogenic "minimalist" compositions, formulations that boost antigen effectiveness are increasingly needed. The use of nanoparticles in vaccine formulations allows not only improved antigen stability and immunogenicity, but also targeted delivery and slow release. A number of nanoparticle vaccines varying in composition, size, shape, and surface properties have been approved for human use and the number of candidates is increasing. However, challenges remain due to a lack of fundamental understanding regarding the in vivo behavior of nanoparticles, which can operate as either a delivery system to enhance antigen processing and/or as an immunostimulant adjuvant to activate or enhance immunity. This review provides a broad overview of recent advances in prophylactic nanovaccinology. Types of nanoparticles used are outlined and their interaction with immune cells and the biosystem are discussed. Increased knowledge and fundamental understanding of nanoparticle mechanism of action in both immunostimulatory and delivery modes, and better understanding of in vivo biodistribution and fate, are urgently required, and will accelerate the rational design of nanoparticle-containing vaccines.

  19. Mucosal vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Nizard, Mevyn; Diniz, Mariana O; Roussel, Helene; Tran, Thi; Ferreira, Luis CS; Badoual, Cecile; Tartour, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The mucosal immune system displays several adaptations reflecting the exposure to the external environment. The efficient induction of mucosal immune responses also requires specific approaches, such as the use of appropriate administration routes and specific adjuvants and/or delivery systems. In contrast to vaccines delivered via parenteral routes, experimental, and clinical evidences demonstrated that mucosal vaccines can efficiently induce local immune responses to pathogens or tumors located at mucosal sites as well as systemic response. At least in part, such features can be explained by the compartmentalization of mucosal B and T cell populations that play important roles in the modulation of local immune responses. In the present review, we discuss molecular and cellular features of the mucosal immune system as well as novel immunization approaches that may lead to the development of innovative and efficient vaccines targeting pathogens and tumors at different mucosal sites. PMID:25424921

  20. Immune Interference After Sequential Alphavirus Vaccine Vaccinations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    REPORT DATE 11 MAR 2009 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Immune interference after sequential alphavirus ...of administration of investigational alphavirus vaccines on neutralizing antibody response. Volunteers who received the inactivated eastern and...vaccine strategy among those receiving multiple alphavirus vaccines and those developing next generation vaccines for these threats. 15. SUBJECT TERMS

  1. Le médicament générique au Maroc: le point de vue du consommateur

    PubMed Central

    Zaoui, Sanaa; Hakkou, Farid; Filali, Houda; Khabal, Youssef; Tazi, Illias; Mahmal, Lahoucine

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Le médicament générique est souvent une origine de préjugés négatifs et de méfiance chez les professionnels de santé et les patients. Ceci pourrait être dû à plusieurs facteurs entre autre le manque des connaissances du patient sur ces médicaments. Le but de notre étude était d’évaluer l'information du consommateur sur les médicaments génériques et apprécier leur utilisation de ces médicaments. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude transversale réalisée de Janvier à Mars 2010 auprès de 251 sujets. Un questionnaire comprenant dix questions fermées a été utilisé. Les questions concernaient l’évaluation des connaissances sur les médicaments génériques, les sources d'information, le degré de confiance et d'information des patients sur ces médicaments. Une analyse descriptive simple des différentes variables a été réalisée. Résultats Dans notre étude, 126 sujets (50,2%) ont répondu connaître les médicaments génériques. Parmi eux, 52,3% les utilisaient et 67,4% estimaient qu'ils étaient insuffisamment informés sur ces médicaments. Les cadres supérieurs et les étudiants ont représenté la catégorie qui utilisait le plus les médicaments génériques (respectivement dans 40,9% et 25,7%) et qui était la mieux informée (respectivement dans 61,9% et 23,81%). Le faible coût a été la principale motivation d'utilisation du médicament générique (93,9%). Les médias ont représenté la première source d'information (59,5%). Après sensibilisation, 88,8% des sujets qui ne connaissaient pas le médicament générique ont été favorable à son utilisation. Conclusion Une promotion efficace par une politique d'information soutenue auprès des consommateurs et par des mesures incitatrices à la prescription et à la délivrance du générique par les médecins et les pharmaciens, pourront améliorer l'utilisation de ces médicaments dans notre pays. PMID:24009794

  2. Replicating vaccines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early work on fish immunology and disease resistance demonstrated fish (like animals and humans) that survived infection were typically resistant to re-infection with the same pathogen. The concepts of resistance upon reinfection lead to the research and development of replicating (live) vaccines in...

  3. AIDS Vaccines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Thomas J.; Bolognesi, Dani P.

    1988-01-01

    Reveals that success of discovering vaccines is far from being assured although several candidates are being tested. States that the devious nature of the virus, the lack of a good animal model for the disease, and the difficulties of clinical trials inhibit the efforts of researchers. (RT)

  4. Polio Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... workers who might handle polio virus, and healthcare workers treating patients who could have polio. These higher-risk adults may need 1 to 3 doses of IPV, depending on how many doses they have had in the past.There are no known risks to getting IPV at the same time as other vaccines.

  5. Rotavirus Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... including a severe allergy to latex. Babies with "severe combined immunodeficiency" (SCID) should not get rotavirus vaccine. Babies who have had a type of bowel blockage called "intussusception" should not get ... with moderate or severe diarrhea or vomiting. Check with your doctor if ...

  6. Malaria vaccine.

    PubMed

    1994-05-01

    Some have argued that the vaccine against malaria developed by Manuel Pattaroyo, a Colombian scientist, is being tested prematurely in humans and that it is unlikely to be successful. While the Pattaroyo vaccine has been shown to confer protection against the relatively mild malaria found in Colombia, doubts exist over whether it will be effective in Africa. Encouraging first results, however, are emerging from field tests in Tanzania. The vaccine triggered a strong new immune response, even in individuals previously exposed to malaria. Additional steps must be taken to establish its impact upon mortality and morbidity. Five major trials are underway around the world. The creator estimates that the first ever effective malaria vaccine could be available for widespread use within five years and he has no intention of securing a patent for the discovery. In another development, malaria specialists from 35 African countries convened at an international workshop in Zimbabwe to compare notes. Participants disparaged financial outlays for the fight against malaria equivalent to 2% of total AIDS funding as insufficient; noted intercountry differences in prevention, diagnosis, and treatment; and found information exchange between anglophone and francophone doctors to be generally poor.

  7. Valuing vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E.; Cafiero-Fonseca, Elizabeth T.; O’Brien, Jennifer Carroll

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination has led to remarkable health gains over the last century. However, large coverage gaps remain, which will require significant financial resources and political will to address. In recent years, a compelling line of inquiry has established the economic benefits of health, at both the individual and aggregate levels. Most existing economic evaluations of particular health interventions fail to account for this new research, leading to potentially sizable undervaluation of those interventions. In line with this new research, we set forth a framework for conceptualizing the full benefits of vaccination, including avoided medical care costs, outcome-related productivity gains, behavior-related productivity gains, community health externalities, community economic externalities, and the value of risk reduction and pure health gains. We also review literature highlighting the magnitude of these sources of benefit for different vaccinations. Finally, we outline the steps that need to be taken to implement a broad-approach economic evaluation and discuss the implications of this work for research, policy, and resource allocation for vaccine development and delivery. PMID:25136129

  8. Nanotoxoid Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Che-Ming J.; Zhang, Liangfang

    2014-01-01

    To improve innate defense against diseases, vaccine formulations are routinely administered to mount immune responses against disease-causing organisms or their associated toxins. These formulations are typically prepared with weakened forms of microbes, their surface proteins, or their virulence factors, which can train the immune system to recognize and neutralize similar infectious threats in later exposures. Owing to many unique properties of nanoparticles in enhancing vaccine potency, nanoscale carriers are drawing increasing interest as a platform for developing safer and more effective vaccine formulations. Notably, a nanoparticle-based strategy was recently demonstrated to safely deliver intact, non-denatured protein toxins to mount a potent anti-toxin immune response. A biomimetic nanoparticle cloaked in biological membranes was used to sequester membrane-active toxins. Upon interaction with the nanoparticles, the toxins become retrained and lose their toxicity as they are precluded from interacting with cellular targets. The resulting particle/toxin complex adopts a nanoparticulate morphology that facilitates the toxins’ intracellular delivery. This sequestration approach has immense immunological implications owing to its ability in enabling structurally preserved toxins for immune processing. This technique offers opportunities in novel toxoid vaccine designs that promise more effective anti-toxin immune responses and contrasts the existing paradigm in toxoid preparation, in which toxins are antigenically altered to ensure virulence removal. The potent nanotoxoid formulations provide a viable anti-virulence measure in combating microbial infections that involve membrane-damaging toxins, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Group A streptococcal infections. PMID:25285152

  9. Vexing Vaccines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Darcia Harris

    2004-01-01

    Schools play a key role in ensuring that children are being immunized against diseases, but conflicting research is making enforcement difficult. This article discusses a growing trend of vaccine avoidance and the endless supply of conflicting information and research about immunization safety. Despite the controversy, many people appear to accept…

  10. Coinfection pulmonaire par pneumocystis jirovecii et pseudomonas aeruginosa au cours du SIDA: à propos de deux cas

    PubMed Central

    Mamoudou, Savadogo; Bellaud, Guillaume; Ana, Canestri; Gilles, Pialoux

    2015-01-01

    Rapporter deux cas cliniques de coinfections pulmonaires par Pneumocystis jirovecii et par Pseudomonas aeruginosa chez des patients vivant avec le VIH. Les deux patients étaient âgés respectivement de 32 ans et 46 ans. Un patient a été pris en charge à l'hôpital Yalgado Ouédraogo de Ouagadougou au Burkina Faso et l'autre a été pris en charge à l'hôpital Ténon de Paris, en France. Les deux souffraient de pneumopathie confirmée à la radiographie et à la tomodensitométrie. L'un des patients était sévèrement immuno déprimé, contrairement à l'autre. L'examen bactériologique dans les crachats avait permis d'isoler Pseudomonas aeruginosa et Pneumocystis jirovecii chez les deux patients. Sous traitement, l’évolution a été favorable. Les coinfections morbides sont relativement fréquentes chez les patients vivant avec le VIH. Devant une symptomatologie respiratoire du sujet vivant avec le VIH, il faut savoir rechercher en plus du Bacille de Koch, Pneumocystis jirovecii et Pseudomonas aeruginosa par un lavage broncho alvéolaire. PMID:26516396

  11. Vaccine chronicle in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Tetsuo

    2013-10-01

    The concept of immunization was started in Japan in 1849 when Jenner's cowpox vaccine seed was introduced, and the current immunization law was stipulated in 1948. There have been two turning points for amendments to the immunization law: the compensation remedy for vaccine-associated adverse events in 1976, and the concept of private vaccination in 1994. In 1992, the regional Court of Tokyo, not the Supreme Court, decided the governmental responsibility on vaccine-associated adverse events, which caused the stagnation of vaccine development. In 2010, many universal vaccines became available as the recommended vaccines, but several vaccines, including mumps, zoster, hepatitis B, and rota vaccines, are still voluntary vaccines, not universal routine applications. In this report, immunization strategies and vaccine development are reviewed for each vaccine item and future vaccine concerns are discussed.

  12. Varicella (Chickenpox) Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ProQuad® (as a combination product containing Measles Vaccine, Mumps Vaccine, Rubella Vaccine, Varicella Vaccine) ... up to about 1 person in 5) and measles-like rash (about 1 person in 20) than MMR and varicella vaccines given separately. Moderate Problems:Seizure (jerking or staring) ...

  13. Immune interference after sequential alphavirus vaccine vaccinations.

    PubMed

    Pittman, Phillip R; Liu, Ching-Tong; Cannon, Timothy L; Mangiafico, Joseph A; Gibbs, Paul H

    2009-08-06

    We compared the effect of order of administration of investigational alphavirus vaccines on neutralizing antibody response. Volunteers who received the inactivated eastern and western equine encephalitis (EEE and WEE) vaccines before live attenuated Venezuelan (VEE) vaccine had significantly lower rates of antibody response than those receiving VEE vaccine before EEE and WEE vaccines (66.7% vs. 80.6%; p=0.026). The odds of having a VEE antibody non-response among those initially receiving EEE and WEE vaccines, adjusted for gender, were significant (odds ratio [OR]=2.20; 95% CI=1.2-4.1 [p=0.0145]) as were the odds of non-response among females adjusted for group (OR=1.81; 95% CI=1.2-2.7 [p=0.0037]). Antibody interference and gender effect have major implications for vaccine strategy among those receiving multiple alphavirus vaccines and those developing next generation vaccines for these threats.

  14. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines On This Page What are human papillomaviruses? Which ... infections? Can HPV infections be prevented? What HPV vaccines are available? Who should get the HPV vaccines? ...

  15. Meningococcal Vaccine (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Immunizations: Meningococcal Vaccines KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Immunizations: Meningococcal Vaccines ... or her parents, and the doctor. Why the Vaccines Are Recommended Meningococcal disease is caused by a ...

  16. Your Baby's First Vaccines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Link Vaccines & Immunizations Immunization Schedules Your Child's First Vaccines Format: Select one PDF [335 KB] RTF [260 ... child will get one or more of these vaccines today: DTaP Hib Hepatitis B Polio PCV13 Why ...

  17. Vaccines Stop Illness

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Vaccines Stop Illness Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of ... meningitis won't infect, cripple, or kill children. Vaccine Safety In light of recent questions about vaccine ...

  18. Vaccines and Thimerosal

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Thimerosal in Vaccines Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Thimerosal is ... harm. Thimerosal prevents the growth of bacteria in vaccines. Thimerosal is added to vials of vaccine that ...

  19. Childhood Vaccine Schedule

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Childhood Vaccine Schedule Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents ... please turn Javascript on. When to Vaccinate What Vaccine Why Birth (or any age if not previously ...

  20. Meningococcal Vaccine (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Immunizations: Meningococcal Vaccines KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Immunizations: ... who are at increased risk for meningococcal disease. Immunization Schedule Vaccination with meningococcal conjugate vaccine is recommended: ...

  1. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    Why get vaccinated?HPV vaccine prevents infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) types that are associated with cause ... at http://www.cdc.gov/hpv. HPV Vaccine (Human Papillomavirus) Information Statement. U.S. Department of Health and ...

  2. Vaccinations during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... get is safe. Make sure your vaccinations are up to date before you get pregnant. What is a vaccination? ... are recommended before pregnancy? It’s best to be up to date on all your routine adult vaccinations before you ...

  3. Une version québécoise du Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 2 (SCAT2)—Outil d'évaluation des commotions cérébrales dans le sport 2 : Québec (SCAT2-Qc)

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Jami; Boyer-Rémillard, Marie-Eve; Pilon-Piquette, Michael; McKinley, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Objectif : traduire le Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 2 (SCAT2) dans la langue française parlée au Québec et en vérifier l'acceptabilité pour la population québécoise francophone. Méthodologie : le processus de traduction de la version originale du SCAT2 a fait appel à une variante de la méthode de traduction et d'adaptation d'outils proposée par l'Organisation mondiale de la santé. Une traduction parallèle a d'abord été réalisée. Ensuite, un comité a révisé cette traduction parallèle dans le but de produire une version préliminaire du SCAT2-Qc. Puis, on a procédé à une rétrotraduction parallèle, que l'on a comparée à la version originale. La version préliminaire a été modifiée. Pour parvenir à la version finale, on a intégré les suggestions et les commentaires formulés par deux sujets sains lors de l'essai de l'outil, et lors de la comparaison du SCAT2-Qc à la version française existante par trois réviseurs du domaine de la santé. On a ensuite testé la version finale du SCAT2-Qc auprès de douze sujets sains pour en vérifier l'acceptabilité. Résultats : les douze sujets sains n'ont eu aucun problème de compréhension en utilisant le SCAT2-Qc. Conclusion : les différentes étapes de traduction ont permis de créer le SCAT2-Qc. Son contenu ayant été validé, il peut à présent être utilisé dans le milieu sportif et scientifique québécois. PMID:24396168

  4. Vaccine-Preventable Disease Photos

    MedlinePlus

    Home | About | A-Z | Contact | Follow Vaccine Information You Need VACCINE BASICS Evaluating Online Health Information FAQs How Vaccines Work Importance of Vaccines Paying for Vaccines State Immunization Programs ...

  5. Subviral Particle as Vaccine and Vaccine Platform

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Ming; Jiang, Xi

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant subvirual particles retain similar antigenic features of their authentic viral capsids and thus have been applied as nonreplicating subunit vaccines against viral infection and illness. Additionally, the self-assembled, polyvalent subviral particles are excellent platforms to display foreign antigens for immune enhancement for vaccine development. These subviral particle-based vaccines are noninfectious and thus safer than the conventional live attenuated and inactivated vaccines. While several VLP vaccines are available in the markets, numerous others, including dual vaccines against more than one pathogen, are under clinical or preclinical development. This article provides an update of these efforts. PMID:24662314

  6. [Vaccination against mouse pox].

    PubMed

    Mahnel, H

    1985-01-01

    Attenuated MVA-strain of vaccinia virus has been efficient in the control of enzootic mousepox and in prophylactic vaccination. The virus has been used as a live vaccine for prophylactic and emergency vaccinations as well as for sanitation of populations. More than 100 000 vaccinations were carried out safely. Even after suspension of the obligatory vaccination of humans against smallpox the MVA-vaccine can be employed without risk and danger.

  7. Engineered human vaccines

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhu, J.S. . Div. of Immunology and Neurobiology)

    1994-01-01

    The limitations of human vaccines in use at present and the design requirements for a new generation of human vaccines are discussed. The progress in engineering of human vaccines for bacteria, viruses, parasites, and cancer is reviewed, and the data from human studies with the engineered vaccines are discussed, especially for cancer and AIDS vaccines. The final section of the review deals with the possible future developments in the field of engineered human vaccines and the requirement for effective new human adjuvants.

  8. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Riedmann, Eva M

    2014-01-01

    Measles vaccination: Targeted and non-targeted benefits CDC reports: 2-dose regimen of chickenpox vaccine is a success Positive preliminary results from the CAPiTA study Seasonal flu vaccine associate with reduced stroke risk HPV vaccine shown to halve cervical abnormalities Global prize for mobile mast vaccine storage project Developmental pathway of potent HIV-neutralizing antibodies Burkholderia vaccine: US Dep of Defense collaborates with Bavarian Nordic

  9. Hepatitis B Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... a combination product containing Haemophilus influenzae type b, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis, Hepatitis B, Polio Vaccine)

  10. Etude descriptive et analytique du cancer de l’œsophage au Togo

    PubMed Central

    Oumboma, Bouglouga; Mawuli, Lawson-Ananissoh Laté; Aklesso, Bagny; Laconi, Kaaga; Datouda, Redah

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Décrire les aspects épidémiologiques, cliniques, endoscopiques et histologiques du cancer de l’œsophage (CO) au Togo. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective descriptive et analytique menée sur 8 ans (Janvier 2005-Décembre 2012) dans le service d'hépato-gastroentérologie (HGE) du CHU Campus de Lomé. Etaient inclus les dossiers des patients hospitalisés pour CO confirmé histologiquement. Résultats Sur 8 ans, 24 patients remplissant nos critères d'inclusion ont été retenus soit 3cas de CO par an et 0,55% des hospitalisations. L’âge moyen des patients était de 57,08 ans (extrêmes: 32 et 82 ans). La dysphagie et l’épigastralgie étaient les motifs d'hospitalisation les plus rencontrés. L'alcool (n=15), le tabac (n=13) étaient les facteurs de risque les plus présents. A la fibroscopie, les lésions étaient ulcéro-bourgeonnantes et hémorragiques (n=12), ulcéro-bourgeonnantes (n=5); ces lésions siégeaient au niveau du 1/3 inférieur (n= 11), à l'union 1/3 supérieur 1/3moyen de l’œsophage (n= 13) et aucun au niveau du 1/3 supérieur. Seize lésions étaient des carcinomes épidermoïdes et 3 des adénocarcinomes. L’évolution dans le service a été fatale dans 2cas; 16 patients avaient été transférés en chirurgie pour des soins palliatifs et 5 patients (20,8%) étaient perdus de vue. Conclusion Le CO semble en augmentation au Togo. L'alcool et le tabac sont les facteurs de risque et le pronostic sévère dans notre série est lié au retard diagnostic. Son dépistage précoce passe par une consultation rapide devant toute dysphagie chez un sujet de 50 ans et plus. PMID:25883742

  11. Cri du Chat syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cerruti Mainardi, Paola

    2006-09-05

    The Cri du Chat syndrome (CdCS) is a genetic disease resulting from a deletion of variable size occurring on the short arm of chromosome 5 (5p-). The incidence ranges from 1:15,000 to 1:50,000 live-born infants. The main clinical features are a high-pitched monochromatic cry, microcephaly, broad nasal bridge, epicanthal folds, micrognathia, abnormal dermatoglyphics, and severe psychomotor and mental retardation. Malformations, although not very frequent, may be present: cardiac, neurological and renal abnormalities, preauricular tags, syndactyly, hypospadias, and cryptorchidism. Molecular cytogenetic analysis has allowed a cytogenetic and phenotypic map of 5p to be defined, even if results from the studies reported up to now are not completely in agreement. Genotype-phenotype correlation studies showed a clinical and cytogenetic variability. The identification of phenotypic subsets associated with a specific size and type of deletion is of diagnostic and prognostic relevance. Specific growth and psychomotor development charts have been established. Two genes, Semaphorin F (SEMAF) and delta-catenin (CTNND2), which have been mapped to the "critical regions", are potentially involved in cerebral development and their deletion may be associated with mental retardation in CdCS patients. Deletion of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene, localised to 5p15.33, could contribute to the phenotypic changes in CdCS. The critical regions were recently refined by using array comparative genomic hybridisation. The cat-like cry critical region was further narrowed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and three candidate genes were characterised in this region. The diagnosis is based on typical clinical manifestations. Karyotype analysis and, in doubtful cases, FISH analysis will confirm the diagnosis. There is no specific therapy for CdCS but early rehabilitative and educational interventions improve the prognosis and considerable progress has been made

  12. Cri du Chat syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cerruti Mainardi, Paola

    2006-01-01

    The Cri du Chat syndrome (CdCS) is a genetic disease resulting from a deletion of variable size occurring on the short arm of chromosome 5 (5p-). The incidence ranges from 1:15,000 to 1:50,000 live-born infants. The main clinical features are a high-pitched monochromatic cry, microcephaly, broad nasal bridge, epicanthal folds, micrognathia, abnormal dermatoglyphics, and severe psychomotor and mental retardation. Malformations, although not very frequent, may be present: cardiac, neurological and renal abnormalities, preauricular tags, syndactyly, hypospadias, and cryptorchidism. Molecular cytogenetic analysis has allowed a cytogenetic and phenotypic map of 5p to be defined, even if results from the studies reported up to now are not completely in agreement. Genotype-phenotype correlation studies showed a clinical and cytogenetic variability. The identification of phenotypic subsets associated with a specific size and type of deletion is of diagnostic and prognostic relevance. Specific growth and psychomotor development charts have been established. Two genes, Semaphorin F (SEMAF) and δ-catenin (CTNND2), which have been mapped to the "critical regions", are potentially involved in cerebral development and their deletion may be associated with mental retardation in CdCS patients. Deletion of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene, localised to 5p15.33, could contribute to the phenotypic changes in CdCS. The critical regions were recently refined by using array comparative genomic hybridisation. The cat-like cry critical region was further narrowed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and three candidate genes were characterised in this region. The diagnosis is based on typical clinical manifestations. Karyotype analysis and, in doubtful cases, FISH analysis will confirm the diagnosis. There is no specific therapy for CdCS but early rehabilitative and educational interventions improve the prognosis and considerable progress has been made in

  13. Applications attract DuPont

    SciTech Connect

    Rotman, D.

    1996-08-07

    Scientists at DuPont say they have demonstrated the first chemical processing application for high-temperature superconducting (HTS) magnets. DuPont says the work, which uses a HTS magnet to separate mineral contaminants from kaolin, points to the feasibility of a range of HTS applications in industrial processing, including those involving polymerization. DuPont`s success comes after 10 years of work to commercialize high-temperature superconductors. And while superconductors have lost much of their luster since the late 1980s, the company says it is still bullish on their prospects. {open_quotes}At the moment, there`s no real market for superconductors,{close_quotes} says Alan Lauder, general manager/superconductivity. But, he says, several potentially lucrative applications could be commercialized within the next several years.

  14. Vaccines and vaccinations. The strategic issues.

    PubMed

    Ford, R B

    2001-05-01

    The rapid proliferation of companion animal vaccines, advances in diagnostic and vaccine technology, and concerns over vaccine safety are clearly among the most important issues practicing veterinarians face as we enter the 21st century. Although many would argue that these are already issues, the future promises to be especially challenging as the vaccines we currently use and the protocols we recommend undergo unprecedented review.

  15. Avian influenza vaccines and vaccination for poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccines against avian influenza (AI) have had more limited use in poultry than vaccines against other poultry diseases such as Newcastle disease (ND) and infectious bronchitis, and have been used more commonly in the developing world. Over the past 40 years, AI vaccines have been primarily based o...

  16. L'Aventure du LHC

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-11

    Cette présentation s’adressera principalement aux personnes qui ont construit le LHC. La construction du LHC fut longue et difficile. De nombreux problèmes sont apparus en cours de route. Tous ont été résolus grâce au dévouement et à l’engagement du personnel et des collaborateurs. Je reviendrai sur les coups durs et les réussites qui ont marqués ces 15 dernières années et je vous montrerai combien cette machine, le fruit de vos efforts, est extraordinaire.

  17. History of vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Plotkin, Stanley

    2014-01-01

    Vaccines have a history that started late in the 18th century. From the late 19th century, vaccines could be developed in the laboratory. However, in the 20th century, it became possible to develop vaccines based on immunologic markers. In the 21st century, molecular biology permits vaccine development that was not possible before. PMID:25136134

  18. History of vaccination.

    PubMed

    Plotkin, Stanley

    2014-08-26

    Vaccines have a history that started late in the 18th century. From the late 19th century, vaccines could be developed in the laboratory. However, in the 20th century, it became possible to develop vaccines based on immunologic markers. In the 21st century, molecular biology permits vaccine development that was not possible before.

  19. Poumon du puisatier

    PubMed Central

    Elidrissi, Amal Moustarhfir; Zaghba, Nahid; Benjelloun, Hanane; Yassine, Najiba

    2016-01-01

    Le puisatier a pour profession le creusement et l'entretien des puits pour fournir de l'eau. Il est au contact de divers minerais, particulièrement la silice, particule qui présente un risque certain de développement des maladies pulmonaires connues sous le nom de silicose. Le but de notre travail est de préciser le profil épidémiologique, clinique, radiologique et évolutif des patients puisatiers silicotiques. C'est une étude rétrospective concernant 54 cas de puisatiers ayant une silicose, colligés au service des maladies respiratoires du CHU Ibn Rochd de Casablanca, de Mars 1997 à Janvier 2016. Tous les malades étaient des puisatiers, de sexe masculin, avec une moyenne d'âge de 50 ans. Le tabagisme était retrouvé dans 36 cas et un antécédent de tuberculose était noté dans huit cas. La radiographie thoracique retrouvait des grandes opacités dans 39 cas, des petites opacités dans 15 cas, et un épaississement des septats dans 11 cas. Ce tableau de silicose s'était compliqué d'une surinfection bactérienne dans 37% des cas, d' un pneumothorax dans 4% des cas et d'une tuberculose dans 20% des cas. La prise en charge thérapeutique était celle des complications. La déclaration de la maladie professionnelle et de l'indemnisation était faite. L'évolution était bonne dans 12 cas, stationnaire dans 17 cas et mauvaise dans 16 cas. La silicose est une pneumoconiose fréquente chez les puisatiers. Elle retentit sur la fonction respiratoire. Nous soulignons l'association fréquente de tuberculose et nous insistons sur la prévention qui reste le meilleur traitement. PMID:28292119

  20. Aspects épidémiologiques du suicide à Dakar

    PubMed Central

    Soumah, Mohamed Maniboliot; Eboué, Brice Angwé; Ndiaye, Mor; Sow, Mamadou Lamine

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Le suicidé est le sujet mort par suicide et le suicidant est la personne ayant fait des tentatives de suicide. L'objectif de cette étude porte sur l'analyse épidémiologique des suicides dans la région de Dakar. Méthodes Par une étude rétrospective portant sur les registres du service d'anatomie pathologique de l'Hôpital Aristide Le Dantec, nous rapportons 143 suicides sur 10 ans. Le traitement et l'analyse des données ont été faits sur Epidata version 2.1 b pour la saisie et Epiinfo version 6.04 fr pour l'analyse. Résultats A Dakar, les morts par suicide restent peu fréquentes au regard de la mortalité générale. Les hommes se suicident deux fois plus que les femmes et le suicide reste l'apanage de l'adulte jeune dont l'âge se situe entre 21 et 30 ans. Les suicidés résident le plus souvent en zone périurbaine et ils commettent cet acte dans la majorité des cas en période de froid (pendant les mois de janvier, février et mars), plus avant midi et en soirée qu'en après-midi. Aussi 97.2% des suicidés ont utilisé un seul moyen pour se suicider et le suicide complexe (utilisation de plusieurs moyens) a concerné seulement un cas dans notre étude. La pendaison reste le mode le plus utilisé. Conclusion Les hommes préfèrent donc des moyens de suicides violents (pendaison, arme à feu et arme blanche) alors que les femmes et les adolescents (tout sexe confondu) utilisent les intoxications. Le recueil des facteurs concourant au suicide permettrait une prévention de ce dernier. PMID:23847707

  1. Vaccines today, vaccines tomorrow: a perspective

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Vaccines are considered as one of the major contributions of the 20th century and one of the most cost effective public health interventions. The International Vaccine Institute has as a mission to discover, develop and deliver new and improved vaccines against infectious diseases that affects developing nations. If Louis Pasteur is known across the globe, vaccinologists like Maurice Hilleman, Jonas Salk and Charles Mérieux are known among experts only despite their contribution to global health. Thanks to a vaccine, smallpox has been eradicated, polio has nearly disappeared, Haemophilus influenzae B, measles and more recently meningitis A are controlled in many countries. While a malaria vaccine is undergoing phase 3, International Vaccine Institute, in collaboration with an Indian manufacturer has brought an oral inactivated cholera vaccine to pre-qualification. The field of vaccinology has undergone major changes thanks to philanthropists such as Bill and Melinda Gates, initiatives like the Decade of Vaccines and public private partnerships. Current researches on vaccines have more challenging targets like the dengue viruses, malaria, human immunodeficiency virus, the respiratory syncytial virus and nosocomial diseases. Exciting research is taking place on new adjuvants, nanoparticles, virus like particles and new route of administration. An overcrowded infant immunization program, anti-vaccine groups, immunizing a growing number of elderlies and delivering vaccines to difficult places are among challenges faced by vaccinologists and global health experts. PMID:23596584

  2. Vaccine Policy Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-19

    evidence “favors rejection” of the idea that either the measles- mumps-rubella vaccine or thimerosal-containing vaccines cause autism (IOM...Immunization Safety Review: Vaccines and Autism , Washington, D.C., National Academies Press, 2004). 46ACIP’s rotavirus vaccine fact sheet is at [http...that the vaccines or preservatives or packaging might cause autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders. One focus has been on thimerosal, a mercury

  3. Mise à jour sur la vaccination contre l’herpès zoster

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Marla; Kvern, Brent; Watson, Peter; Guenther, Lyn; McElhaney, Janet; McGeer, Allison

    2011-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Répondre aux questions fréquentes concernant l’utilisation du nouveau vaccin contre l’herpès zoster (HZ). Sources de l’information Les résultats publiés d’études cliniques et d’autres études, les recommandations du Comité consultatif national de l’immunisation du Canada et de l’Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices des États-Unis; des données ont aussi été obtenues dans la monographie du produit approuvée par Santé Canada sur le vaccin. Principal message L’herpès zoster est causé par la réactivation du virus varicelle-zoster; l’algie post-zostérienne (APZ) est sa complication la plus fréquente et la plus grave. L’incidence de l’APZ après un zona est directement reliée à l’âge, notamment 50 % des personnes affectées de plus de 60 ans qui ont des douleurs persistantes non soulagées. Le vaccin à base de virus vivant contre le HZ réduit l’incidence du zona d’environ 50 % et de 2 tiers l’apparition des APZ. De plus, les symptômes sont atténués et de plus courte durée chez les personnes vaccinées. Le vaccin est contre-indiqué chez de nombreux patients immunodéprimés et pourrait ne pas être efficace chez les patients qui prennent des médicaments antiviraux qui agissent contre le virus HZ. Les médecins devraient être au courant des différentes recommandations touchant ces groupes. Conclusion Le vaccin contre le HZ est une mesure de prévention sécuritaire et efficace pour réduire le fardeau global et la gravité du zona chez les adultes plus âgés. Le vaccin semble rentable lorsqu’il est administré à des adultes de 60 ans et plus.

  4. Rupture sous-cutanée du tendon long extenseur du pouce: à propos de 5 cas

    PubMed Central

    Abdelillah, Rachid; Abbassi, Najib; Erraji, Moncef; Abdeljawad, Najib; Yacoubi, Hicham; Daoudi, Abdelkrim

    2014-01-01

    La rupture spontanée du muscle long extenseur du pouce (EPL) du tendon au niveau du poignet est rare et principalement rapportés après fracture du radius distal à tubercule de Lister, dans la synovite, ténosynovite ou la polyarthrite rhumatoïde. Nous rapportons 5 cas de rupture spontanée du tendon long extenseur du pouce, traités par une greffe ou un transfert tendineux. PMID:25317233

  5. Typhoid fever vaccination strategies.

    PubMed

    Date, Kashmira A; Bentsi-Enchill, Adwoa; Marks, Florian; Fox, Kimberley

    2015-06-19

    Typhoid vaccination is an important component of typhoid fever prevention and control, and is recommended for public health programmatic use in both endemic and outbreak settings. We reviewed experiences with various vaccination strategies using the currently available typhoid vaccines (injectable Vi polysaccharide vaccine [ViPS], oral Ty21a vaccine, and injectable typhoid conjugate vaccine [TCV]). We assessed the rationale, acceptability, effectiveness, impact and implementation lessons of these strategies to inform effective typhoid vaccination strategies for the future. Vaccination strategies were categorized by vaccine disease control strategy (preemptive use for endemic disease or to prevent an outbreak, and reactive use for outbreak control) and vaccine delivery strategy (community-based routine, community-based campaign and school-based). Almost all public health typhoid vaccination programs used ViPS vaccine and have been in countries of Asia, with one example in the Pacific and one experience using the Ty21a vaccine in South America. All vaccination strategies were found to be acceptable, feasible and effective in the settings evaluated; evidence of impact, where available, was strongest in endemic settings and in the short- to medium-term. Vaccination was cost-effective in high-incidence but not low-incidence settings. Experience in disaster and outbreak settings remains limited. TCVs have recently become available and none are WHO-prequalified yet; no program experience with TCVs was found in published literature. Despite the demonstrated success of several typhoid vaccination strategies, typhoid vaccines remain underused. Implementation lessons should be applied to design optimal vaccination strategies using TCVs which have several anticipated advantages, such as potential for use in infant immunization programs and longer duration of protection, over the ViPS and Ty21a vaccines for typhoid prevention and control.

  6. Obesity vaccines.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Mariana P

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is one of the largest and fastest growing public health problems in the world. Last century social changes have set an obesogenic milieu that calls for micro and macro environment interventions for disease prevention, while treatment is mandatory for individuals already obese. The cornerstone of overweight and obesity treatment is diet and physical exercise. However, many patients find lifestyle modifications difficult to comply and prone to failure in the long-term; therefore many patients consider anti-obesity drugs an important adjuvant if not a better alternative to behavioral approach or obesity surgery. Since the pharmacological options for obesity treatment remain quite limited, this is an exciting research area, with new treatment targets and strategies on the horizon. This review discusses the development of innovative therapeutic agents, focusing in energy homeostasis regulation and the use of molecular vaccines, targeting hormones such as somatostatin, GIP and ghrelin, to reduce body weight.

  7. DNA Vaccination in Chickens.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shishir Kumar; Dey, Sohini; Chellappa, Madhan Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Robust and sustainable development of poultry industry requires prevention of deadly infectious diseases. Vigorous vaccination of the birds is a routine practice; however, the live and inactivated vaccines that are used have inherent disadvantages. New-generation vaccines such as DNA vaccines offer several advantages over conventional vaccines. DNA vaccines, which encode an antigen of interest or multiple antigens in the target host, are stable, easy to produce and administer, do not require cold chain maintenance, and are not affected by the maternal antibodies. In addition, DNA vaccines can also be administered in ovo, and thus, mass vaccination and early induction of immune response can effectively be achieved. In this chapter, we focus on the development of DNA vaccines against important infectious viral as well as parasitic diseases of poultry.

  8. Neurologic complications of vaccinations.

    PubMed

    Miravalle, Augusto A; Schreiner, Teri

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews the most common neurologic disorders associated with common vaccines, evaluates the data linking the disorder with the vaccine, and discusses the potential mechanism of disease. A literature search was conducted in PubMed using a combination of the following terms: vaccines, vaccination, immunization, and neurologic complications. Data were also gathered from publications of the American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Infectious Diseases, the World Health Organization, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System. Neurologic complications of vaccination are rare. Many associations have been asserted without objective data to support a causal relationship. Rarely, patients with a neurologic complication will have a poor outcome. However, most patients recover fully from the neurologic complication. Vaccinations have altered the landscape of infectious disease. However, perception of risk associated with vaccinations has limited the success of disease eradication measures. Neurologic complications can be severe, and can provoke fear in potential vaccines. Evaluating whether there is causal link between neurologic disorders and vaccinations, not just temporal association, is critical to addressing public misperception of risk of vaccination. Among the vaccines available today, the cost-benefit analysis of vaccinations and complications strongly argues in favor of vaccination.

  9. Vaccinations for Adults with Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    Vaccinations for Adults with Diabetes The table below shows which vaccinations you should have to protect your health if ... sure you and your healthcare provider keep your vaccinations up to date. Vaccine Do you need it? ...

  10. Diabetes and Hepatitis B Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... monitoring in close succession. CDC now recommends the hepatitis B vaccine for adults with diabetes. What is the recommendation ... As with other vaccines, the effectiveness of the hepatitis B vaccine decreases with age. Decisions to vaccinate should include ...

  11. Nasal spray flu vaccine (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The flu vaccine can also be administered as a nasal spray instead of the usual injection method. It can be ... the recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV). The nasal spray flu vaccine (live attenuated influenza vaccine or LAIV) should not ...

  12. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a...

  13. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a...

  14. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a...

  15. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a...

  16. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a...

  17. Vaccines against poverty

    PubMed Central

    MacLennan, Calman A.; Saul, Allan

    2014-01-01

    With the 2010s declared the Decade of Vaccines, and Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 focused on reducing diseases that are potentially vaccine preventable, now is an exciting time for vaccines against poverty, that is, vaccines against diseases that disproportionately affect low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 has helped better understand which vaccines are most needed. In 2012, US$1.3 billion was spent on research and development for new vaccines for neglected infectious diseases. However, the majority of this went to three diseases: HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis, and not neglected diseases. Much of it went to basic research rather than development, with an ongoing decline in funding for product development partnerships. Further investment in vaccines against diarrheal diseases, hepatitis C, and group A Streptococcus could lead to a major health impact in LMICs, along with vaccines to prevent sepsis, particularly among mothers and neonates. The Advanced Market Commitment strategy of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI) Alliance is helping to implement vaccines against rotavirus and pneumococcus in LMICs, and the roll out of the MenAfriVac meningococcal A vaccine in the African Meningitis Belt represents a paradigm shift in vaccines against poverty: the development of a vaccine primarily targeted at LMICs. Global health vaccine institutes and increasing capacity of vaccine manufacturers in emerging economies are helping drive forward new vaccines for LMICs. Above all, partnership is needed between those developing and manufacturing LMIC vaccines and the scientists, health care professionals, and policy makers in LMICs where such vaccines will be implemented. PMID:25136089

  18. Vaccines against poverty.

    PubMed

    MacLennan, Calman A; Saul, Allan

    2014-08-26

    With the 2010s declared the Decade of Vaccines, and Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 focused on reducing diseases that are potentially vaccine preventable, now is an exciting time for vaccines against poverty, that is, vaccines against diseases that disproportionately affect low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 has helped better understand which vaccines are most needed. In 2012, US$1.3 billion was spent on research and development for new vaccines for neglected infectious diseases. However, the majority of this went to three diseases: HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis, and not neglected diseases. Much of it went to basic research rather than development, with an ongoing decline in funding for product development partnerships. Further investment in vaccines against diarrheal diseases, hepatitis C, and group A Streptococcus could lead to a major health impact in LMICs, along with vaccines to prevent sepsis, particularly among mothers and neonates. The Advanced Market Commitment strategy of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI) Alliance is helping to implement vaccines against rotavirus and pneumococcus in LMICs, and the roll out of the MenAfriVac meningococcal A vaccine in the African Meningitis Belt represents a paradigm shift in vaccines against poverty: the development of a vaccine primarily targeted at LMICs. Global health vaccine institutes and increasing capacity of vaccine manufacturers in emerging economies are helping drive forward new vaccines for LMICs. Above all, partnership is needed between those developing and manufacturing LMIC vaccines and the scientists, health care professionals, and policy makers in LMICs where such vaccines will be implemented.

  19. Vaccines and Immunization Practice.

    PubMed

    Hogue, Michael D; Meador, Anna E

    2016-03-01

    Vaccines are among most cost-effective public health strategies. Despite effective vaccines for many bacterial and viral illnesses, tens of thousands of adults and hundreds of children die each year in the United States from vaccine-preventable diseases. Underutilization of vaccines requires rethinking the approach to incorporating vaccines into practice. Arguably, immunizations could be a part all health care encounters. Shared responsibility is paramount if deaths are to be reduced. This article reviews the available vaccines in the US market, as well as practice recommendations of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices.

  20. L'Aventure du LHC

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Cette présentation s’adressera principalement aux personnes qui ont construit le LHC. La construction du LHC fut longue et difficile. De nombreux problèmes sont apparus en cours de route. Tous ont été résolus grâce au dévouement et à l’engagement du personnel et des collaborateurs. Je reviendrai sur les coups durs et les réussites qui ont marqués ces 15 dernières années et je vous montrerai combien cette machine, le fruit de vos efforts, est extraordinaire.

  1. Universal fungal vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Hamad, Mawieh

    2012-01-01

    The complex nature of fungal pathogens, the intricate host-pathogen relationship and the health status of subjects in need of antifungal vaccination continue to hamper efforts to develop fungal vaccines for clinical use. That said, the rise of the universal vaccine concept is hoped to revive fungal vaccine research by expanding the pool of vaccine candidates worthy of clinical evaluation. It can do so through antigenic commonality-based screening for vaccine candidates from a wide range of pathogens and by reassessing the sizable collection of already available experimental and approved vaccines. Development of experimental vaccines protective against multiple fungal pathogens is evidence of the utility of this concept in fungal vaccine research. However, universal fungal vaccines are not without difficulties; for instance, development of vaccines with differential effectiveness is an issue that should be addressed. Additionally, rationalizing the development of universal fungal vaccines on health or economic basis could be contentious. Herein, universal fungal vaccines are discussed in terms of their potential usefulness and possible drawbacks. PMID:22922769

  2. Prise en charge des traumatismes graves du rein

    PubMed Central

    Lakmichi, Mohamed Amine; Jarir, Redouane; Sadiki, Bader; Zehraoui; Bentani; Wakrim, Bader; Dahami, Zakaria; Moudouni; Sarf, Ismail

    2015-01-01

    émodynamique. Une surveillance active clinique, biologique, et radiologique a été préconisée dans 23 cas (92%). Le scanner de contrôle fait à J7, a objectivé une stabilisation des lésions dans 17 cas et la constitution d'un urinome dans 2 cas drainé par sonde double J. Une néphrectomie d'hémostase était nécessaire dans 4 cas de grade IV (3 cas) et de grade V (1 cas). Un patient est décédé à J2 d'un traumatisme ouvert grade IV suite à une hémorragie foudroyante. La durée moyenne d'hospitalisation était de 17 jours (6-75 jours). A travers notre étude, on conforte l'attitude conservatrice recommandée actuellement dans la prise en charge de la plupart des traumatismes graves du rein en l'absence d'une instabilité hémodynamique, grâce aux mesures de réanimation correcte, une surveillance rapprochée du patient et le recours aux moyens endoscopiques de drainage des voies excrétrices. Grace à cette attitude la plupart de nos patients (76%) on conservé leur unités rénales, extrêmement précieuses en particulier pour les patients sujets à la dégradation ultérieure de leur fonction rénale, leur permettant ainsi d’éviter de tomber dans l'hémodialyse ou de rentrer dans des programmes de greffe rénale. PMID:26090064

  3. Vaccine Safety Datalink

    Cancer.gov

    The Vaccine Safety Datalink is part of the National Immunization Program within the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and was started in recognition of gaps in the scientific knowledge of rare vaccine side effects.

  4. Pneumococcal Vaccines (PCV, PPSV)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Immunizations: Pneumococcal Vaccines (PCV, PPSV) KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Immunizations: ... or HIV infection); or cochlear implants. Why the Vaccines Are Recommended Children younger than 2 years old, ...

  5. Vaccines and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... best live chat Live Help Fact Sheets Share Vaccines and Pregnancy Thursday, 01 September 2016 In every ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to vaccines may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  6. National Vaccine Program Office

    MedlinePlus

    ... Track Your Community Vaccine Safety Scientific Agenda Newsletter Sign Up Subscribe to newsletter updates for the latest information ... National Vaccine Program Office. Email Connect With NVPO Sign Up for NVPO Updates To sign up for updates ...

  7. China's emerging vaccine industry.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, Jan; Liang, Yan; Zeng, Bing

    2010-07-01

    The Chinese vaccine industry is developing rapidly due to an emerging and large market for current and new vaccines, a large potential for local vaccine manufacturing both in the public and private domain, and a governmental orientation towards national vaccine self-sufficiency. There are currently over 40 companies and institutions manufacturing a large variety of traditional (EPI) and some new vaccines. The innovative development capacity of state vaccine institutions is stimulated by significant government investments. Various Chinese influenza manufacturers were in 2009 among the first worldwide to obtain national license for their pandemic H1N1 flu vaccines. It is of interest to note that private but also governmental entities are committed to raise manufacturing quality standards to reach WHO prequalification. It is expected that WHO prequalification for at least one product from a Chinese manufacturer will have been obtained by 2011. This will open the door to the global market for Chinese vaccines.

  8. Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button The Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... the vaccinia virus. Who should NOT get the smallpox vaccine? People most likely to have side effects ...

  9. Screening Tests and Vaccines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contact Us Text size | Print | Screening Tests and Vaccines This information in Spanish ( en español ) Getting important screening tests and vaccines can save your life. Check this section of ...

  10. The HPV Vaccination Crisis

    Cancer.gov

    Following the release of a consensus statement from the NCI-Designated Cancer Centers urging HPV vaccination in the United States, Dr. Noel Brewer discusses the country’s low vaccination rates and how clinicians can help to improve them.

  11. Clinical vaccine development

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination is regarded as one of the biggest triumphs in the history of medicine. We are living in the most successful period of vaccine development. The accumulation of multidisciplinary knowledge and the investment of massive funding have enabled the development of vaccines against many infectious diseases as well as other diseases including malignant tumors. The paradigm of clinical vaccine evaluation and licensure has also been modernized based on scientific improvements and historical experience. However, there remain a number of hurdles to overcome. Continuous efforts are focused on increasing the efficacy and reducing the risks related to vaccine use. Cutting-edge knowledge about immunology and microbiology is being rapidly translated to vaccine development. Thus, physicians and others involved in the clinical development of vaccines should have sufficient understanding of the recent developmental trends in vaccination and the diseases of interest. PMID:25648742

  12. Vaccines in Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Eric M L; Chahin, Salim; Berger, Joseph R

    2016-04-01

    Vaccinations help prevent communicable disease. To be valuable, a vaccine's ability to prevent disease must exceed the risk of adverse effects from administration. Many vaccines present no risk of infection as they are comprised of killed or non-infectious components while other vaccines consist of live attenuated microorganisms which carry a potential risk of infection-particularly, in patients with compromised immunity. There are several unique considerations with respect to vaccination in the multiple sclerosis (MS) population. First, there has been concern that vaccination may trigger or aggravate the disease. Second, disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) employed in the treatment of MS may increase the risk of infectious complications from vaccines or alter their efficacy. Lastly, in some cases, vaccination strategies may be part of the treatment paradigm in attempts to avoid complications of therapy.

  13. Vaccines against malaria.

    PubMed

    Ouattara, Amed; Laurens, Matthew B

    2015-03-15

    Despite global efforts to control malaria, the illness remains a significant public health threat. Currently, there is no licensed vaccine against malaria, but an efficacious vaccine would represent an important public health tool for successful malaria elimination. Malaria vaccine development continues to be hindered by a poor understanding of antimalarial immunity, a lack of an immune correlate of protection, and the genetic diversity of malaria parasites. Current vaccine development efforts largely target Plasmodium falciparum parasites in the pre-erythrocytic and erythrocytic stages, with some research on transmission-blocking vaccines against asexual stages and vaccines against pregnancy-associated malaria. The leading pre-erythrocytic vaccine candidate is RTS,S, and early results of ongoing Phase 3 testing show overall efficacy of 46% against clinical malaria. The next steps for malaria vaccine development will focus on the design of a product that is efficacious against the highly diverse strains of malaria and the identification of a correlate of protection against disease.

  14. Mathematical models of vaccination.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Almut; McLean, Angela

    2002-01-01

    Mathematical models of epidemics have a long history of contributing to the understanding of the impact of vaccination programmes. Simple, one-line models can predict target vaccination coverage that will eradicate an infectious agent, whilst other questions require complex simulations of stochastic processes in space and time. This review introduces some simple ordinary differential equation models of mass vaccination that can be used to address important questions about the predicted impact of vaccination programmes. We show how to calculate the threshold vaccination coverage rate that will eradicate an infection, explore the impact of vaccine-induced immunity that wanes through time, and study the competitive interactions between vaccine susceptible and vaccine resistant strains of infectious agent.

  15. Ongoing pharmacovigilance on vaccines.

    PubMed

    Santuccio, Carmela; Trotta, Francesco; Felicetti, Patrizia

    2015-02-01

    Vaccines have peculiar characteristics as well as their surveillance. Specific requirements, needs and challenges for the vaccine vigilance are discussed in the perspective to improve the whole system in order to guarantee a safer vaccine use and the keeping of the public confidence in vaccinations. Key elements for the routine safety monitoring, new regulations and some available tools are taken into account. Finally, the Italian experience is shortly described.

  16. Vaccine against herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Pasternak, Jacyr

    2013-01-01

    The herpes zoster vaccine is made using high doses of live attenuated varicella/zoster virus. The vaccine is well tolerated and has few adverse effects: the most common one is pain at the injection site. Complications can occur mainly in persons who had prior zoster keratitis or uveitis. The vaccine can prevent this disease with low mortality but high morbidity.

  17. [Improving vaccination measures].

    PubMed

    Iannazzo, S

    2014-01-01

    Despite the benefits of routine vaccination of newborns are known and widely documented, in recent years we are observing a gradual increase in the number of parents who express doubts and concerns about the safety of vaccines and the real need to submit their children to vaccinations included in the national recommendations. This attitude is reinforced by the current epidemiological profile, in Western countries, of many vaccine preventable diseases, accompanied by a low risk perception among parents. Institutions and all the actors involved in vaccination programs have a duty to investigate the reasons for the loss of confidence in vaccination among the population in order to identify and implement appropriate and effective interventions. The improvement of vaccination should, theoretically, goes on a double track, placing side by side the provision of effective vaccines, safe and necessary, and interventions designed to increase demand for vaccination among the population, improve access to vaccination services, improve the system as a whole. But to actually improve the vaccinations' offer it is necessary also to provide interventions aimed at regaining the confidence of the population in relation to vaccination and the institutions that promote them. Particular attention should be given to the aspects of communication and risk communication.

  18. Yellow Fever Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    What is yellow fever?Yellow fever is a serious disease caused by the yellow fever virus. It is found in certain parts of Africa ... How can I prevent yellow fever?Yellow fever vaccine can prevent yellow fever. ... only at designated vaccination centers. After getting the vaccine, you ...

  19. A Dengue Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Durbin, Anna P

    2016-06-30

    Denvaxia is the first licensed vaccine for the prevention of dengue. It is a live vaccine developed using recombinant DNA technology. The vaccine is given as three doses over the course of a year and has the potential to prevent hundreds of thousands of hospitalizations each year.

  20. Polysaccharide-Based Vaccines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana, Violeta Fernández; Balbin, Yury Valdés; Calderón, Janoi Chang; Icart, Luis Peña; Verez-Bencomo, Vicente

    Capsular polysaccharides (CPS) and lipopolysaccharides from bacteria are employed for the production of vaccines against human diseases. Initial development of CPS as a vaccine was followed by the development and introduction of conjugate polysaccharide-protein vaccines. The principles leading to both developments are reviewed.

  1. Dengue vaccines for travelers.

    PubMed

    Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Deen, Jacqueline L

    2008-07-01

    Dengue is an arthropod-borne infection caused by a flavivirus and spread by the Aedes mosquitoes. Many of the countries where dengue is endemic are popular tourist destinations and the disease is an increasingly important problem encountered by international travelers. Personal protection against the day-feeding dengue vectors is problematic, indicating the urgent need for a dengue vaccine. This review discusses the challenges of vaccine development, current vaccine strategies and the prospects for the availability of a vaccine for travelers in the future. Cost-effectiveness studies will need to take into account many factors, including the attack rate of dengue in travelers, the proportion of travelers who will need hospitalization, the cost of altered travel itineraries, the cost of the vaccine, duration of travel, destination and season. To be licensed as a travelers' vaccine, vaccine trials must address safety, immunogenicity, duration of protection, schedules and boosters in adults (in particular in immunologically naive adults), trials that may differ from those conducted in endemic countries. Vaccine schedules with long intervals would be a major obstacle to the uptake of the vaccine by travelers. Enhanced reactogenicity or interference with immunization must be effectively excluded for travelers with prior or concurrent vaccination against other flaviviruses, such as yellow fever or Japanese encephalitis. Licensing dengue as a travelers' vaccine poses unique challenges beyond the development of a vaccine for the endemic population.

  2. Improving newcastle disease vaccination with homologous vaccines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    All Newcastle disease viruses (NDVs) belong to a single serotype; however, current vaccine strains display important amino acid differences at the F and HN protein compared with virulent outbreak strains (vNDV). Previous studies have shown decreased viral shedding after challenge when vaccines were...

  3. Importance of vaccination habit and vaccine choice on influenza vaccination among healthy working adults.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chyongchiou J; Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Toback, Seth L; Rousculp, Matthew D; Raymund, Mahlon; Ambrose, Christopher S; Zimmerman, Richard K

    2010-11-10

    This randomized cluster trial was designed to improve workplace influenza vaccination rates using enhanced advertising, choice of vaccine type (intranasal or injectable) and an incentive. Workers aged 18-49 years were surveyed immediately following vaccination to determine factors associated with vaccination behavior and choice. The questionnaire assessed attitudes, beliefs and social support for influenza vaccine, demographics, and historical, current, and intentional vaccination behavior. Of the 2389 vaccinees, 83.3% received injectable vaccine and 16.7% received intranasal vaccine. Factors associated with previous influenza vaccination were older age, female sex, higher education and greater support for injectable vaccine (all P<.02). Current influenza vaccination with intranasal vaccine vs. injectable vaccine was associated with higher education, the study interventions, greater support for the intranasal vaccine and nasal sprays, less support of injectable vaccine, more negative attitudes about influenza vaccine, and a greater likelihood of reporting that the individual would not have been vaccinated had only injectable vaccine been offered (all P<.01). Intentional vaccine choice was most highly associated with previous vaccination behavior (P<.001). A key to long term improvements in workplace vaccination is to encourage first time influenza vaccination through interventions that include incentives, publicity and vaccine choice.

  4. Brucellosis vaccines for livestock.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Zakia I; Pascual, David W

    2016-11-15

    Brucellosis is a livestock disease responsible for fetal loss due to abortions. Worldwide, this disease has profound economic and social impact by reducing the ability of livestock producers to provide an adequate supply of disease-free meat and dairy products. In addition to its presence in domesticated animals, brucellosis is harbored in a number of wildlife species creating new disease reservoirs, which adds to the difficulty of eradicating this disease. Broad and consistent use of the available vaccines would contribute in reducing the incidence of brucellosis. Unfortunately, this practice is not common. In addition, the current brucellosis vaccines cannot provide sterilizing immunity, and in certain circumstances, vaccinated livestock are not protected against co-mingling Brucella-infected wildlife. Given that these vaccines are inadequate for conferring complete protection for some vaccinated livestock, alternatives are being sought, and these include genetic modifications of current vaccines or their reformulations. Alternatively, many groups have sought to develop new vaccines. Subunit vaccines, delivered as a combination of soluble vaccine plus adjuvant or the heterologous expression of Brucella epitopes by different vaccine vectors are currently being tested. New live attenuated Brucella vaccines are also being developed and tested in their natural hosts. Yet, what is rarely considered is the route of vaccination which could improve vaccine efficacy. Since Brucella infections are mostly transmitted mucosally, mucosal delivery of a vaccine has the potential of eliciting a more robust protective immune response for improved efficacy. Hence, this review will examine these questions and provide the status of new vaccines for livestock brucellosis.

  5. Une étude rétrospective sur l'incidence de l'insuffisance rénale chronique dans le service de Médecine Interne et Néphrologie du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire d'Antananarivo

    PubMed Central

    Ramilitiana, Benja; Ranivoharisoa, Eliane Mikkelsen; Dodo, Mihary; Razafimandimby, Evanirina; Randriamarotia, Willy Franck

    2016-01-01

    L'insuffisance rénale chronique est un problème de santé publique au niveau mondial. Dans les pays développés, cette affection survient essentiellement chez les sujets âgés, mais en Afrique, elle s'installe plutôt chez les sujets jeunes actifs. C'est une affection de lourde prise en charge dans un pays à faible revenu à cause de ses coûts. Notre but est de décrire les aspects épidémiologiques des nouveaux cas d'insuffisance rénale chronique à Madagascar. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective descriptive de 3 ans partant du 1er janvier 2007 au 31 décembre 2009 dans le service de Médecine Interne et Néphrologie du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire d'Antananarivo portant sur 239 patients diagnostiqués comme une insuffisance rénale chronique. L'incidence était de 8,51% parmi les patients hospitalisés dans le service. L’âge moyen des patients était de 45,4 ans avec des extrêmes de 16 et 82 ans et un sex-ratio de 1,46. Le principal antécédent était l'hypertension artérielle (59,8%). L'insuffisance rénale chronique était terminale dans 75,31% des cas (n=180). Les causes de l'insuffisance rénale chronique étaient dominées par la glomérulonéphrite chronique (40,1%), la néphroangiosclérose (35,5%). L'hémodialyse était réalisée chez 3 patients (1,26%), aucun patient n’était pas programmé pour une greffe rénale. Le taux de mortalité dans le service était de 28,87%. L'insuffisance rénale chronique est une maladie de pronostic redoutable et handicapante qui affecte les sujets jeunes à Madagascar. Son traitement reste inaccessible dans la majorité des patients. L'accent doit donc être mis principalement sur la prévention notamment une bonne prise en charge précoce des infections, de l'hypertension artérielle et du diabète pour réduire ses impacts négatifs sur la santé communautaire et publique. Le projet de la transplantation rénale - donneur vivant, traitement efficace et moins coûteux par rapport à l

  6. Métastases gastro-intestinales du cancer du sein: à propos de 2 cas

    PubMed Central

    Loubna, Mezouar; Mohamed, El Hfid; Tijani, El Harroudi; Fouzia, Ghadouani; Hanane, Haj Kacem; Zouhour, Bourhaleb; Asmae, Ouabdelmoumen

    2013-01-01

    Le cancer du sein est le cancer le plus fréquent chez la femme, notamment au Maroc, avec un taux de mortalité élevé. Les métastases gastro-intestinales d'un carcinome canalaire du sein sont rares. Leur diagnostic est difficile du fait de la nature non spécifique des symptômes. Nous rapportons deux observations originales de métastases gastroduodénales d'un cancer canalaire infiltrant du sein. Les métastases gastro-intestinales du cancer du sein sont très rares; la présence de symptômes gastro-intestinaux chez une malade ayant un antécédent de cancer du sein doit faire suspecter une atteinte métastatique gastro-intestinale. PMID:24198876

  7. Diagnostic and vaccine chapter.

    PubMed

    Wolfram, J H; Kokanov, S K; Verkhovsky, O A

    2010-10-01

    The first report in this chapter describes the development of a killed composite vaccine. This killed vaccine is non-infectious to humans, other animals, and the environment. The vaccine has low reactivity, is non-abortive, and does not induce pathomorphological alterations to the organs of vaccinated animals. The second report of this chapter describes the diagnostic value of a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting Brucella-specific antibodies and its ability to discriminate vaccinated cattle from infected cattle. The results indicated that the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is more sensitive than traditional tests for detecting antibodies to Brucella abortus in naturally and experimentally infected cattle.

  8. Patenting malarial vaccine.

    PubMed

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2008-01-01

    Malaria is an important tropical infection affecting millions of world population each year. Malarial vaccine development is the hope for successful control of malaria. Knowledge on malaria vaccine has been considered patentable subject for decades. Due to the present advance biotechnology, the number of patent applications related to malarial vaccine is growing exponentially. Several malarial vaccine candidates have been recently identified and the genetic manipulation of these candidates is becoming more efficient with the advancement of new biotechnologies. This review summarizes some of the recent published patents on malarial vaccines covering antigens, candidate epitopes and recombinant processing.

  9. Vaccination for Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oehen, Stephan; Hengartner, Hans; Zinkernagel, Rolf M.

    1991-01-01

    Recombinant virus vaccines that express a limited number of epitopes are currently being developed to prevent disease by changing the relative balance between viral spread and the immune response. Some circumstances, however, were found in infections with a noncytopathic virus in which vaccination caused disease; sensitive parameters included the genetic background of the host, the time or dose of infection, and the constituents of the vaccine. Thus, immunopathologic damage by T cells may be an unwanted consequence of vaccination with the new types of peptide or recombinant vaccines that are being investigated for the human immunodeficiency viruses and other pathogens.

  10. Emerging Vaccine Informatics

    PubMed Central

    He, Yongqun; Rappuoli, Rino; De Groot, Anne S.; Chen, Robert T.

    2010-01-01

    Vaccine informatics is an emerging research area that focuses on development and applications of bioinformatics methods that can be used to facilitate every aspect of the preclinical, clinical, and postlicensure vaccine enterprises. Many immunoinformatics algorithms and resources have been developed to predict T- and B-cell immune epitopes for epitope vaccine development and protective immunity analysis. Vaccine protein candidates are predictable in silico from genome sequences using reverse vaccinology. Systematic transcriptomics and proteomics gene expression analyses facilitate rational vaccine design and identification of gene responses that are correlates of protection in vivo. Mathematical simulations have been used to model host-pathogen interactions and improve vaccine production and vaccination protocols. Computational methods have also been used for development of immunization registries or immunization information systems, assessment of vaccine safety and efficacy, and immunization modeling. Computational literature mining and databases effectively process, mine, and store large amounts of vaccine literature and data. Vaccine Ontology (VO) has been initiated to integrate various vaccine data and support automated reasoning. PMID:21772787

  11. Vaccinations for pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Swamy, Geeta K; Heine, R Phillips

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, eradication and reduction of vaccine-preventable diseases through immunization has directly increased life expectancy by reducing mortality. Although immunization is a public priority, vaccine coverage among adult Americans is inadequate. The Institute of Medicine, the Community Preventive Services Task Force, and other public health entities have called for the development of innovative programs to incorporate adult vaccination into routine clinical practice. Obstetrician-gynecologists are well suited to serve as vaccinators of women in general and more specifically pregnant women. Pregnant women are at risk for vaccine-preventable disease-related morbidity and mortality and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including congenital anomalies, spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, and low birth weight. In addition to providing direct maternal benefit, vaccination during pregnancy likely provides direct fetal and neonatal benefit through passive immunity (transplacental transfer of maternal vaccine-induced antibodies). This article reviews: 1) types of vaccines; 2) vaccines specifically recommended during pregnancy and postpartum; 3) vaccines recommended during pregnancy and postpartum based on risk factors and special circumstances; 4) vaccines currently under research and development for licensure for maternal-fetal immunization; and 5) barriers to maternal immunization and available patient and health care provider resources.

  12. Vaccination against Klebsiella aerogenes.

    PubMed Central

    Roe, E. A.; Jones, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    Klebsiella vaccine was prepared from strains of Klebsiella aerogenes with capsular types K1, K36, K44 and K Cross (a type which cross-reacts in vitro with sera from many klebsiella capsular types). The vaccine was extracted by dialysis and ultrafiltration from capsular material released during growth of the bacteria in a five-day batch culture. Mice given one dose of vaccine from K1a (1.0 microgram/mouse) survived lethal intraperitoneal challenge of 11/11 homologous klebsiella strains four days after vaccination; 14 days after vaccination protection against the same challenge strains had declined to 5/11 strains. Vaccines from K1a, b, c, K36, K44 and K Cross induced homologous protection and protected mice against different ranges of heterologous klebsiella capsular types. The protective response of the mice was greatly enhanced by administering three doses of the vaccines. Vaccines from K1, K36, K44 and K Cross protected mice against 14/20, 11/20, 10/20 and 9/20 homologous and heterologous klebsiella challenge strains respectively. None of the klebsiella vaccines was toxic for mice at the immunizing dose (1.0 microgram/mouse). Vaccine from K36 was the most lethal, killing mice at 10(3) immunizing doses. The least toxic vaccine was from K44, which killed mice at 10(4) immunizing doses. PMID:6389699

  13. [Vaccinations for international travelers].

    PubMed

    Berens-Riha, N; Alberer, M; Löscher, T

    2014-03-01

    Vaccinations are a prominent part of health preparations before international travel. They can avoid or significantly reduce the risk of numerous infectious diseases. Until recently, vaccination against yellow fever was the only obligatory vaccination. However, according to updated international health regulations, other vaccinations and prophylactic measures may be required at entry from certain countries. For all routine vaccinations as recommended in Germany, necessary revaccination and catch-up of missed vaccinations should be administered before travel. At most destinations the risk of infection is higher than in Germany. Hepatitis A vaccine is generally recommended for travelers to areas of increased risk, polio vaccine for all destinations where eradication is not yet confirmed (Asia and Africa). The indications for other travel vaccines must take into consideration travel destination and itinerary, type and duration of travel, individual risk of exposure as well as the epidemiology of the disease to be prevented. Several vaccines of potential interest for travel medicine, e.g., new vaccines against malaria and dengue fever, are under development.

  14. Endotoxins in commercial vaccines.

    PubMed Central

    Geier, M R; Stanbro, H; Merril, C R

    1978-01-01

    Twenty samples of commercial vaccines intended for administration to humans were assayed for the presence of bacterial endotoxins by using the Limulus amebocyte lysate test. Sixteen of the vaccines contained more than 0.1 ng of endotoxin per ml (which corresponds to 103 bacterial cell wall equivalents per ml in the undiluted vaccines). These results suggest that at some stage of preparation, the vaccines have contained varying amounts of gram-negative bacteria and may indicate the presence of other bacterial products as well. It might be useful to list the level of endotoxins, phage, and other contaminants on each vaccine lot to facilitate studies on any side effects of these contaminants. Selection of vaccine lots with the least endotoxin might reduce some of the adverse effects of vaccinations. PMID:727776

  15. Vaccines for allergy

    PubMed Central

    Linhart, Birgit; Valenta, Rudolf

    2012-01-01

    Vaccines aim to establish or strengthen immune responses but are also effective for the treatment of allergy. The latter is surprising because allergy represents a hyper-immune response based on immunoglobulin E production against harmless environmental antigens, i.e., allergens. Nevertheless, vaccination with allergens, termed allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only disease-modifying therapy of allergy with long-lasting effects. New forms of allergy diagnosis and allergy vaccines based on recombinant allergen-derivatives, peptides and allergen genes have emerged through molecular allergen characterization. The molecular allergy vaccines allow sophisticated targeting of the immune system and may eliminate side effects which so far have limited the use of traditional allergen extract-based vaccines. Successful clinical trials performed with the new vaccines indicate that broad allergy vaccination is on the horizon and may help to control the allergy pandemic. PMID:22521141

  16. Vaccine epidemiology: A review

    PubMed Central

    Lahariya, Chandrakant

    2016-01-01

    This review article outlines the key concepts in vaccine epidemiology, such as basic reproductive numbers, force of infection, vaccine efficacy and effectiveness, vaccine failure, herd immunity, herd effect, epidemiological shift, disease modeling, and describes the application of this knowledge both at program levels and in the practice by family physicians, epidemiologists, and pediatricians. A case has been made for increased knowledge and understanding of vaccine epidemiology among key stakeholders including policy makers, immunization program managers, public health experts, pediatricians, family physicians, and other experts/individuals involved in immunization service delivery. It has been argued that knowledge of vaccine epidemiology which is likely to benefit the society through contributions to the informed decision-making and improving vaccination coverage in the low and middle income countries (LMICs). The article ends with suggestions for the provision of systematic training and learning platforms in vaccine epidemiology to save millions of preventable deaths and improve health outcomes through life-course. PMID:27453836

  17. Nouvelles approches en theorie du champ moyen dynamique: le cas du pouvoir thermoelectrique et celui de l'effet orbital d'un champ magnetique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsenault, Louis-Francois

    , cette approche donne une bonne representation de S lorsque le systeme devient coherent. Les calculs montrent aussi que la formule Kelvin est precise lorsque la fonction spectrale des electrons devient incoherente, soit a plus haute temperature. Dans la limite Kelvin, S est essentiellement l'entropie par particule, tel que propose il y a longtemps. Nos resultats demontrent ainsi que la vision purement entropique de S est la bonne dans le regime incoherent, alors que dans le regime coherent, l'approche a frequence infinie est meilleure. Nous avons utilise une methode a la fine pointe, soit le Monte-Carlo quantique en temps continu pour resoudre la DMFT. Pour permettre une exploration rapide du diagramme de phase, nous avons du developper une nouvelle version de la methode des perturbations iterees pour qu'elle soit applicable aussi a forte interaction au-dela de la valeur critique de la transition de Mott. Un autre sujet a aussi ete aborde. L'effet orbital du champ magnetique dans les systemes electroniques fortement correles est une question tres importante et peu developpee. Cela est d'autant plus essentiel depuis la decouverte des oscillations quantiques dans les supraconducteurs a haute temperature (haut- Tc). Par desir de developper une methode la moins biaisee possible, nous avons derive la DMFT lorsqu'un champ se couplant a l'operateur energie cinetique par la substitution de Peierls est present. Ce type d'approche est necessaire pour comprendre entre autres l'effet de la physique de Mott sur des phenomenes tels que les oscillations quantiques. Nous avons obtenu un resultat tres important en demontrant rigoureusement que la relation d'auto-coherence de la DMFT et le systeme intermediaire d'impurete quantique restent les memes. L'effet du champ peut etre contenu dans la fonction de Green locale, ce qui constitue la grande difference avec le cas habituel. Ceci permet de continuer a utiliser les solutionneurs d'impuretes standards, qui sont de plus en plus puissants

  18. Principles of Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Zepp, Fred

    2016-01-01

    While many of the currently available vaccines have been developed empirically, with limited understanding on how they activate the immune system and elicit protective immunity, the recent progress in basic sciences like immunology, microbiology, genetics, and molecular biology has fostered our understanding on the interaction of microorganisms with the human immune system. In consequence, modern vaccine development strongly builds on the precise knowledge of the biology of microbial pathogens, their interaction with the human immune system, as well as their capacity to counteract and evade innate and adaptive immune mechanisms. Strategies engaged by pathogens strongly determine how a vaccine should be formulated to evoke potent and efficient protective immune responses. The improved knowledge of immune response mechanisms has facilitated the development of new vaccines with the capacity to defend against challenging pathogens and can help to protect individuals particular at risk like immunocompromised and elderly populations. Modern vaccine development technologies include the production of highly purified antigens that provide a lower reactogenicity and higher safety profile than the traditional empirically developed vaccines. Attempts to improve vaccine antigen purity, however, may result in impaired vaccine immunogenicity. Some of such disadvantages related to highly purified and/or genetically engineered vaccines yet can be overcome by innovative technologies, such as live vector vaccines, and DNA or RNA vaccines. Moreover, recent years have witnessed the development of novel adjuvant formulations that specifically focus on the augmentation and/or control of the interplay between innate and adaptive immune systems as well as the function of antigen-presenting cells. Finally, vaccine design has become more tailored, and in turn has opened up the potential of extending its application to hitherto not accessible complex microbial pathogens plus providing new

  19. Influenza vaccines and vaccination strategies in birds.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Thierry; Lambrecht, Bénédicte; Marché, Sylvie; Steensels, Mieke; Van Borm, Steven; Bublot, Michel

    2008-03-01

    Although it is well accepted that the present Asian H5N1 panzootic is predominantly an animal health problem, the human health implications and the risk of human pandemic have highlighted the need for more information and collaboration in the field of veterinary and human health. H5 and H7 avian influenza (AI) viruses have the unique property of becoming highly pathogenic (HPAI) during circulation in poultry. Therefore, the final objective of poultry vaccination against AI must be eradication of the virus and the disease. Actually, important differences exist in the control of avian and human influenza viruses. Firstly, unlike human vaccines that must be adapted to the circulating strain to provide adequate protection, avian influenza vaccination provides broader protection against HPAI viruses. Secondly, although clinical protection is the primary goal of human vaccines, poultry vaccination must also stop transmission to achieve efficient control of the disease. This paper addresses these differences by reviewing the current and future influenza vaccines and vaccination strategies in birds.

  20. Acceptabilité du test VIH proposé aux nourrissons dans les services pédiatriques, en Côte d'Ivoire, Significations pour la couverture du diagnostic pédiatrique

    PubMed Central

    Oga, Maxime; Brou, Hermann; Dago-Akribi, Hortense; Coffie, Patrick; Amani-Bossé, Clarisse; Ékouévi, Didier; Yapo, Vincent; Menan, Hervé; Ndondoki, Camille; Timité-Konan, M.; Leroy, Valériane

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Problème: Le dépistage VIH chez les enfants a rarement été au centre des préoccupations des chercheurs. Quand le dépistage pédiatrique a retenu l'attention, cela a été pour éclairer seulement sur les performances diagnostiques en ignorant même que le test pédiatrique comme bien d'autres peut s'accepter ou se refuser. Cet article met au cœur de son analyse les raisons qui peuvent expliquer qu'on accepte ou qu'on refuse de faire dépister son enfant. Objectif: Etudier chez les parents, les mères, les facteurs explicatifs de l'acceptabilité du test VIH des nourrissons de moins de six mois. Méthodes: Entretien semi-directif à passages répétés avec les parents de nourrissons de moins de six mois dans les formations sanitaires pour la pesée/vaccination et les consultations pédiatriques avec proposition systématique d'un test VIH pour leur nourrisson. Résultats: Nous retenons que la réalisation effective du test pédiatrique du VIH chez le nourrisson repose sur trois éléments. Primo, le personnel de santé par son discours (qui dénote de ses connaissances et perceptions même sur l'infection) orienté vers les mères influence leur acceptation ou non du test. Secundo, la mère qui par ses connaissances et perceptions même sur le VIH, dont le statut particulier, l'impression de bien-être chez elle et son enfant influence toute réalisation du test pédiatrique VIH. Tertio, l'environnement conjugal de la mère, particulièrement caractérisé par les rapports au sein du couple, sur la facilité de parler du test VIH et sa réalisation chez les deux parents ou chez la mère seulement sont autant de facteurs qui influencent la réalisation effective du dépistage du VIH chez l'enfant. Le principe préventif du VIH, et le désir de faire tester l'enfant ne suffisent pas à eux seuls pour aboutir à sa réalisation effective, selon certaines mères confrontées au refus du conjoint. A l'opposé, les autres mères refusant la r

  1. Influenza Vaccines: Challenges and Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Houser, Katherine; Subbarao, Kanta

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination is the best method for the prevention and control of influenza. Vaccination can reduce illness and lessen severity of infection. This review focuses on how currently licensed influenza vaccines are generated in the U.S., why the biology of influenza poses vaccine challenges, and vaccine approaches on the horizon that address these challenges. PMID:25766291

  2. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine (Cervarix)

    MedlinePlus

    ... a previous dose of HPV vaccine, should not get the vaccine. Tell your doctor if the person getting vaccinated has any severe allergies, including an allergy to latex. HPV vaccine is not recommended for pregnant women. However, receiving HPV vaccine when pregnant is ...

  3. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine (Gardasil)

    MedlinePlus

    ... a previous dose of HPV vaccine, should not get the vaccine. Tell your doctor if the person getting vaccinated has any severe allergies, including an allergy to yeast. HPV vaccine is not recommended for pregnant women. However, receiving HPV vaccine when pregnant is ...

  4. [Mercury in vaccines].

    PubMed

    Hessel, Luc

    2003-01-01

    Thiomersal, also called thimerosal, is an ethyl mercury derivative used as a preservative to prevent bacterial contamination of multidose vaccine vials after they have been opened. Exposure to low doses of thiomersal has essentially been associated with hypersensitivity reactions. Nevertheless there is no evidence that allergy to thiomersal could be induced by thiomersal-containing vaccines. Allergy to thiomersal is usually of delayed-hypersensitivity type, but its detection through cutaneous tests is not very reliable. Hypersensitivity to thiomersal is not considered as a contraindication to the use of thiomersal-containing vaccines. In 1999 in the USA, thiomersal was present in approximately 30 different childhood vaccines, whereas there were only 2 in France. Although there were no evidence of neurological toxicity in infants related to the use of thiomersal-containing vaccines, the FDA considered that the cumulative dose of mercury received by young infants following vaccination was high enough (although lower than the FDA threshold for methyl mercury) to request vaccine manufacturers to remove thiomersal from vaccine formulations. Since 2002, all childhood vaccines used in Europe and the USA are thiomersal-free or contain only minute amounts of thiomersal. Recently published studies have shown that the mercury levels in the blood, faeces and urine of children who had received thiomersal-containing vaccines were much lower than those accepted by the American Environmental Protection Agency. It has also been demonstrated that the elimination of mercury in children was much faster than what was expected on the basis of studies conducted with methyl mercury originating from food. Recently, the hypothesis that mercury contained in vaccines could be the cause of autism and other neurological developmental disorders created a new debate in the medical community and the general public. To date, none of the epidemiological studies conducted in Europe and elsewhere

  5. Vaccine strategies: Optimising outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hardt, Karin; Bonanni, Paolo; King, Susan; Santos, Jose Ignacio; El-Hodhod, Mostafa; Zimet, Gregory D; Preiss, Scott

    2016-12-20

    Successful immunisation programmes generally result from high vaccine effectiveness and adequate uptake of vaccines. In the development of new vaccination strategies, the structure and strength of the local healthcare system is a key consideration. In high income countries, existing infrastructures are usually used, while in less developed countries, the capacity for introducing new vaccines may need to be strengthened, particularly for vaccines administered beyond early childhood, such as the measles or human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. Reliable immunisation service funding is another important factor and low income countries often need external supplementary sources of finance. Many regions also obtain support in generating an evidence base for vaccination via initiatives created by organisations including World Health Organization (WHO), the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), the Agence de Médecine Préventive and the Sabin Vaccine Institute. Strong monitoring and surveillance mechanisms are also required. An example is the efficient and low-cost approaches for measuring the impact of the hepatitis B control initiative and evaluating achievement of goals that have been established in the WHO Western Pacific region. A review of implementation strategies reveals differing degrees of success. For example, in the Americas, PAHO advanced a measles-mumps-rubella vaccine strategy, targeting different population groups in mass, catch-up and follow-up vaccination campaigns. This has had much success but coverage data from some parts of the region suggest that children are still not receiving all appropriate vaccines, highlighting problems with local service infrastructures. Stark differences in coverage levels are also observed among high income countries, as is the case with HPV vaccine implementation in the USA versus the UK and Australia, reflecting differences in delivery settings. Experience and research have shown which vaccine strategies work well and the

  6. Seasonal influenza vaccines.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Anthony E; Bridges, Carolyn B; Cox, Nancy J

    2009-01-01

    Influenza vaccines are the mainstay of efforts to reduce the substantial health burden from seasonal influenza. Inactivated influenza vaccines have been available since the 1940s and are administered via intramuscular injection. Inactivated vaccines can be given to anyone six months of age or older. Live attenuated, cold-adapted influenza vaccines (LAIV) were developed in the 1960s but were not licensed in the United States until 2003, and are administered via nasal spray. Both vaccines are trivalent preparations grown in eggs and do not contain adjuvants. LAIV is licensed for use in the United States for healthy nonpregnant persons 2-49 years of age.Influenza vaccination induces antibodies primarily against the major surface glycoproteins hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA); antibodies directed against the HA are most important for protection against illness. The immune response peaks at 2-4 weeks after one dose in primed individuals. In previously unvaccinated children <9 years of age, two doses of influenza vaccine are recommended, as some children in this age group have limited or no prior infections from circulating types and subtypes of seasonal influenza. These children require both an initial priming dose and a subsequent booster dose of vaccine to mount a protective antibody response.The most common adverse events associated with inactivated vaccines are sore arm and redness at the injection site; systemic symptoms such as fever or malaise are less commonly reported. Guillian-Barré Syndrome (GBS) was identified among approximately 1 per 100,000 recipients of the 1976 swine influenza vaccine. The risk of influenza vaccine-associated GBS from seasonal influenza vaccine is thought to be at most approximately 1-2 cases per 1 million vaccinees, based on a few studies that have found an association; other studies have found no association.The most common adverse events associated with LAIV are nasal congestion, headache, myalgias or fever. Studies of the

  7. L'etude de l'InP et du GaP suite a l'implantation ionique de Mn et a un recuit thermique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucsa, Ioan Gigel

    Cette these est dediee a l'etude des materiaux InMnP et GaMnP fabriques par implantation ionique et recuit thermique. Plus precisement nous avons investigue la possibilite de former par implantation ionique des materiaux homogenes (alliages) de InMnP et GaMnP contenant de 1 a 5 % atomiques de Mn qui seraient en etat ferromagnetique, pour des possibles applications dans la spintronique. Dans un premier chapitre introductif nous donnons les motivations de cette recherche et faisons une revue de la litterature sur ce sujet. Le deuxieme chapitre decrit les principes de l'implantation ionique, qui est la technique utilisee pour la fabrication des echantillons. Les effets de l'energie, fluence et direction du faisceau ionique sur le profil d'implantation et la formation des dommages seront mis en evidence. Aussi dans ce chapitre nous allons trouver des informations sur les substrats utilises pour l'implantation. Les techniques experimentales utilisees pour la caracterisation structurale, chimique et magnetique des echantillons, ainsi que leurs limitations sont presentees dans le troisieme chapitre. Quelques principes theoriques du magnetisme necessaires pour la comprehension des mesures magnetiques se retrouvent dans le chapitre 4. Le cinquieme chapitre est dedie a l'etude de la morphologie et des proprietes magnetiques des substrats utilises pour implantation et le sixieme chapitre, a l'etude des echantillons implantes au Mn sans avoir subi un recuit thermique. Notamment nous allons voir dans ce chapitre que l'implantation de Mn a plus que 1016 ions/cm 2 amorphise la partie implantee du materiau et le Mn implante se dispose en profondeur sur un profil gaussien. De point de vue magnetique les atomes implantes se trouvent dans un etat paramagnetique entre 5 et 300 K ayant le spin 5/2. Dans le chapitre 7 nous presentons les proprietes des echantillons recuits a basses temperatures. Nous allons voir que dans ces echantillons la couche implantee est polycristalline et les

  8. Vaccine process technology.

    PubMed

    Josefsberg, Jessica O; Buckland, Barry

    2012-06-01

    The evolution of vaccines (e.g., live attenuated, recombinant) and vaccine production methods (e.g., in ovo, cell culture) are intimately tied to each other. As vaccine technology has advanced, the methods to produce the vaccine have advanced and new vaccine opportunities have been created. These technologies will continue to evolve as we strive for safer and more immunogenic vaccines and as our understanding of biology improves. The evolution of vaccine process technology has occurred in parallel to the remarkable growth in the development of therapeutic proteins as products; therefore, recent vaccine innovations can leverage the progress made in the broader biotechnology industry. Numerous important legacy vaccines are still in use today despite their traditional manufacturing processes, with further development focusing on improving stability (e.g., novel excipients) and updating formulation (e.g., combination vaccines) and delivery methods (e.g., skin patches). Modern vaccine development is currently exploiting a wide array of novel technologies to create safer and more efficacious vaccines including: viral vectors produced in animal cells, virus-like particles produced in yeast or insect cells, polysaccharide conjugation to carrier proteins, DNA plasmids produced in E. coli, and therapeutic cancer vaccines created by in vitro activation of patient leukocytes. Purification advances (e.g., membrane adsorption, precipitation) are increasing efficiency, while innovative analytical methods (e.g., microsphere-based multiplex assays, RNA microarrays) are improving process understanding. Novel adjuvants such as monophosphoryl lipid A, which acts on antigen presenting cell toll-like receptors, are expanding the previously conservative list of widely accepted vaccine adjuvants. As in other areas of biotechnology, process characterization by sophisticated analysis is critical not only to improve yields, but also to determine the final product quality. From a regulatory

  9. Approche de prise en charge du trouble du spectre de l’autisme

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Patrick F.; Thomas, Roger E.; Lee, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Se pencher sur les critères diagnostiques du trouble du spectre de l’autisme (TSA) comme les définit le Manuel diagnostique et statistique des troubles mentaux, cinquième édition (DSM-V), et concevoir une approche de prise en charge du TSA à l’aide du cadre CanMEDS–Médecine familiale (CanMEDS-MF). Sources d’information Le DSM-V, publié par l’American Psychiatric Association en mai 2013, énonce de nouveaux critères diagnostiques du TSA. Le cadre CanMEDS-MF du Collège des médecins de famille du Canada fournit un plan d’orientation pour la prise en charge complexe du TSA. Nous avons utilisé des données recueillies par le Centers for Disease Control and Prevention afin de déterminer la prévalence du TSA, ainsi que la revue systématique et méta-analyse détaillée effectuée par le National Institute for Health and Care Excellence du R.-U. pour ses lignes directrices sur le TSA dans le but d’évaluer les données probantes issues de plus de 100 interventions. Message principal Selon les données du Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, la prévalence du TSA se chiffrait à 1 sur 88 en 2008 aux États-Unis. La classification du TSA dans la quatrième édition du DSM incluait l’autisme, le syndrome d’Asperger, le trouble envahissant du développement et le trouble désintégratif de l’enfance. La dernière révision du DSM-V réunit tous ces troubles sous la mention TSA, avec différents niveaux de sévérité. La prise en charge du TSA est complexe; elle exige les efforts d’une équipe multidisciplinaire ainsi que des soins continus. Les rôles CanMEDS-MF fournissent un cadre de prise en charge. Conclusion Les médecins de famille sont au cœur de l’équipe de soins multidisciplinaire pour le TSA, et le cadre CanMEDS-MF tient lieu de plan détaillé pour guider la prise en charge d’un enfant atteint de TSA et aider la famille de cet enfant.

  10. L’évaluation du risque cardiaque avant l’utilisation de stimulants chez les enfants et les adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bélanger, SA; Warren, AE; Hamilton, RM; Gray, C; Gow, RM; Sanatani, S; Côté, J-M; Lougheed, J; LeBlanc, J; Martin, S; Miles, B; Mitchell, C; Gorman, DA; Weiss, M; Schachar, R

    2009-01-01

    Les décisions en matière de réglementation et les documents scientifiques au sujet de la prise en charge du trouble de déficit de l’attention avec hyperactivité (TDAH) soulèvent des questions quant à l’innocuité des médicaments et à l’évaluation convenable à effectuer avant le traitement afin de déterminer la pertinence d’une pharmacothérapie. Ce constat est particulièrement vrai en présence de cardiopathies structurelles ou fonctionnelles. Le présent article contient l’analyse des données disponibles, y compris les publications révisées par des pairs, des données tirées du site Web de la Food and Drug Administration des États-Unis au sujet des réactions indésirables déclarées chez des enfants qui prennent des stimulants, ainsi que des données de Santé Canada sur le même problème. Des lignes directrices consensuelles sur l’évaluation pertinente sont proposées d’après l’apport des membres de la Société canadienne de pédiatrie, de la Société canadienne de cardiologie et de l’Académie canadienne de psychiatrie de l’enfant et de l’adolescent, qui possèdent notamment des compétences et des connaissances précises tant dans le secteur du TDAH que de la cardiologie pédiatrique. Le présent document de principes prône une anamnèse et un examen physique détaillés avant la prescription de stimulants et s’attarde sur le dépistage des facteurs de risque de mort subite, mais il ne contient pas de recommandations systématiques de dépistage électrocardiographique ou de consultations avec un spécialiste en cardiologie, à moins que les antécédents ou que l’examen physique ne le justifient. Le document contient un questionnaire pour repérer les enfants potentiellement vulnérables à une mort subite (quel que soit le type de TDAH ou les médicaments utilisés pour le traiter). Même si les recommandations dépendent des meilleures données probantes disponibles, le comité s’entend pour affirmer que

  11. Systems immunogenetics of vaccines.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Michael; McWeeney, Shannon; Sékaly, Rafick-Pierre

    2013-04-01

    Vaccines are the most cost effective public health measure for preventing viral infection and limiting epidemic spread within susceptible populations. However, the efficacy of current protective vaccines is highly variable, particularly in aging populations. In addition, there have been a number of challenges in the development of new vaccines due to a lack of detailed understanding of the immune correlates of protection. To identify the mechanisms underlying the variability of the immune response to vaccines, system-level tools need to be developed that will further our understanding of virus-host interactions and correlates of vaccine efficacy. This will provide critical information for rational vaccine design and allow the development of an analog to the "precision medicine" framework (already acknowledged as a powerful approach in medicine and therapeutics) to be applied to vaccinology.

  12. Herpes zoster virus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Woolery, William Alan

    2008-10-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is the etiologic agent of varicella and herpes zoster (HZ) in humans. Herpes zoster is the result of reactivation of VZV within certain sensory ganglia. The burden of illness from HZ and post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) is high. Herpes-zoster vaccine contains live attenuated varicella-zoster virus in an amount approximately 14 times greater than that found in the varicella virus vaccine. Herpes zoster vaccine is approved for the prevention of shingles in appropriate persons aged 60 and older. The vaccine is administered in a single subcutaneous dose. Reported side effects are mild and generally limited to localized injection site findings. Herpes-zoster vaccine reportedly decreases the occurrence of herpes zoster by approximately 50 percent and prevents the development of PHN by two thirds. The vaccine appears to be minimally effective in those individuals over the age of 80 and is not recommended in this age group.

  13. [Vaccination for international travelers].

    PubMed

    Arrazola, M Pilar; Serrano, Almudena; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2016-05-01

    Traveler's vaccination is one of the key strategies for the prevention of infectious diseases during international travel. The risk of acquiring an infectious disease is determined in each case by the characteristics of the traveler and the travel, so the pre-departure medical advice of the traveler must be individualized. The World Health Organization classifies travelerś vaccines into three groups. - Vaccines for routine use in national immunization programs: Haemophilus influenzae type b, hepatitis B, polio, measles-mumps-rubella, tetanus-diphtheria-whooping a cough, and chickenpox. - Vaccinations required by law in certain countries before to enter them: yellow fever, meningococcal disease and poliomyelitis. - Vaccines recommended depending on the circumstances: cholera, japanese encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, meningococcal disease, typhoid fever, influenza, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, rabies and BCG. This review is intended to introduce the reader to the field of international vaccination.

  14. Ricin vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Smallshaw, Joan E; Vitetta, Ellen S

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss vaccines to protect against the highly toxic plant-derived toxin, ricin. Due to its prevalence, ease of use, and stability it has been used in sporadic incidents of espionage. There is also concern that it will be used as an agent of bioterrorism. As a result there has been a great deal of interest in developing a safe vaccine or antidote to protect humans, and in particular soldiers and first responders. Although multiple types of vaccines have been tested, at this time two recombinant vaccines are the leading candidates for the national vaccine stockpile. In terms of passive post-exposure protection, monoclonal neutralizing antibodies that passively protect animals are also under development. These vaccines and antibodies are discussed in the context of the toxicity and structure of ricin.

  15. Vaccines and Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Susanna; Bianchini, Sonia; Dellepiane, Rosa Maria; Principi, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    The distinctive immune system characteristics of children with Kawasaki disease (KD) could suggest that they respond in a particular way to all antigenic stimulations, including those due to vaccines. Moreover, treatment of KD is mainly based on immunomodulatory therapy. These factors suggest that vaccines and KD may interact in several ways. These interactions could be of clinical relevance because KD is a disease of younger children who receive most of the vaccines recommended for infectious disease prevention. This paper shows that available evidence does not support an association between KD development and vaccine administration. Moreover, it highlights that administration of routine vaccines is mandatory even in children with KD and all efforts must be made to ensure the highest degree of protection against vaccine-preventable diseases for these patients. However, studies are needed to clarify currently unsolved issues, especially issues related to immunologic interference induced by intravenous immunoglobulin and biological drugs.

  16. Immunizations: vaccinations in general.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Catherine C

    2015-06-01

    The childhood immunization schedule is complex and nuanced. Although serious adverse reactions to immunizations are uncommon, clinicians must be well-versed in these reactions as well as the contraindications and precautions to each vaccine. • Conjugate vaccine technology links polysaccharide antigens to carrier proteins, triggering T-cell-dependent immunity to polysaccharides, thereby strengthening immune memory. • On the basis of some research evidence and consensus, live vaccines are generally contraindicated in immunocompromised patients and in pregnancy. Most live vaccines can be administered to household contacts of immunocompromised patients. • On the basis of some research and consensus, modified administration of meningococcal, pneumococcal, and less commonly, other vaccines may be indicated to protect immunocompromised patients. • On the basis of disease epidemiology and consensus, international travelers should be up-to-date with all routine immunizations; depending on destination, additional vaccines or immune globulin may be required.

  17. Chikungunya vaccines in development

    PubMed Central

    Schwameis, Michael; Buchtele, Nina; Wadowski, Patricia Pia; Schoergenhofer, Christian; Jilma, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chikungunya virus has become a global health threat, spreading to the industrial world of Europe and the Americas; no treatment or prophylactic vaccine is available. Since the late 1960s much effort has been put into the development of a vaccine, and several heterogeneous strategies have already been explored. Only two candidates have recently qualified to enter clinical phase II trials, a chikungunya virus-like particle-based vaccine and a recombinant live attenuated measles virus-vectored vaccine. This review focuses on the current status of vaccine development against chikungunya virus in humans and discusses the diversity of immunization strategies, results of recent human trials and promising vaccine candidates. PMID:26554522

  18. Vaccine herd effect.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Hyong; Johnstone, Jennie; Loeb, Mark

    2011-09-01

    Vaccination ideally protects susceptible populations at high risk for complications of the infection. However, vaccines for these subgroups do not always provide sufficient effectiveness. The herd effect or herd immunity is an attractive way to extend vaccine benefits beyond the directly targeted population. It refers to the indirect protection of unvaccinated persons, whereby an increase in the prevalence of immunity by the vaccine prevents circulation of infectious agents in susceptible populations. The herd effect has had a major impact in the eradication of smallpox, has reduced transmission of pertussis, and protects against influenza and pneumococcal disease. A high uptake of vaccines is generally needed for success. In this paper we aim to provide an update review on the herd effect, focusing on the clinical benefit, by reviewing data for specific vaccines.

  19. Therapeutic cancer vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Melief, Cornelis J.M.; van Hall, Thorbald; Arens, Ramon; Ossendorp, Ferry; van der Burg, Sjoerd H.

    2015-01-01

    The clinical benefit of therapeutic cancer vaccines has been established. Whereas regression of lesions was shown for premalignant lesions caused by HPV, clinical benefit in cancer patients was mostly noted as prolonged survival. Suboptimal vaccine design and an immunosuppressive cancer microenvironment are the root causes of the lack of cancer eradication. Effective cancer vaccines deliver concentrated antigen to both HLA class I and II molecules of DCs, promoting both CD4 and CD8 T cell responses. Optimal vaccine platforms include DNA and RNA vaccines and synthetic long peptides. Antigens of choice include mutant sequences, selected cancer testis antigens, and viral antigens. Drugs or physical treatments can mitigate the immunosuppressive cancer microenvironment and include chemotherapeutics, radiation, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) inhibitors, inhibitors of T cell checkpoints, agonists of selected TNF receptor family members, and inhibitors of undesirable cytokines. The specificity of therapeutic vaccination combined with such immunomodulation offers an attractive avenue for the development of future cancer therapies. PMID:26214521

  20. Vaccine Treatment for Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Back After Treatment Prostate Cancer Treating Prostate Cancer Vaccine Treatment for Prostate Cancer Sipuleucel-T (Provenge) is ... less advanced prostate cancer. Possible side effects of vaccine treatment Side effects from the vaccine tend to ...

  1. What Vaccines Do You Need?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Adolescent and Adult Vaccine Quiz Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Españ ... adolescentes y adultos Did you know that certain vaccines are recommended for adults and adolescents?* Take this ...

  2. Renal Disease and Adult Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources for Healthcare Professionals Renal Disease and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... have immunity to this disease Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

  3. Liver Disease and Adult Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccination Recommendations Adult Vaccination Resources for Healthcare Professionals Liver Disease and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... critical for people with health conditions such as liver disease. If you have chronic liver disease, talk ...

  4. Influenza Vaccine, Inactivated or Recombinant

    MedlinePlus

    ... die from flu, and many more are hospitalized.Flu vaccine can:keep you from getting flu, make flu ... inactivated or recombinant influenza vaccine?A dose of flu vaccine is recommended every flu season. Children 6 months ...

  5. Les plaies du tendon patellaire

    PubMed Central

    Mechchat, Atif; Elidrissi, Mohammed; Mardy, Abdelhak; Elayoubi, Abdelghni; Shimi, Mohammed; Elibrahimi, Abdelhalim; Elmrini, Abdelmajid

    2014-01-01

    Les plaies du tendon patellaire sont peu fréquentes et sont peu rapportés dans la littérature, contrairement aux ruptures sous cutanées. Les sections du tendon patellaire nécessitent une réparation immédiate afin de rétablir l'appareil extenseur et de permettre une récupération fonctionnelle précoce. A travers ce travail rétrospectif sur 13 cas, nous analysons les aspects épidémiologiques, thérapeutiques et pronostiques de ce type de pathologie en comparant différents scores. L’âge moyen est de 25 ans avec une prédominance masculine. Les étiologies sont dominées par les accidents de la voie publique (68%) et les agressions par agent tranchant (26%) et contendant (6 %). Tous nos patients ont bénéficié d'un parage chirurgical avec suture tendineuse direct protégée par un laçage au fils d'aciers en légère flexion. La rééducation est débutée après sédation des phénomènes inflammatoires. Au dernier recul les résultats sont excellents et bon à 92%. Nous n'avons pas noté de différence de force musculaire et d'amplitude articulaire entre le genou sain et le genou lésé. Les lésions ouvertes du tendon patellaire est relativement rare. La prise en charge chirurgicale rapide donne des résultats assez satisfaisants. La réparation est généralement renforcée par un semi-tendineux, synthétique ou métallique en forme de cadre de renfort pour faciliter la réadaptation et réduire le risque de récidive après la fin de l'immobilisation. PMID:25170379

  6. Existing antibacterial vaccines.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Natalia; Ravanfar, Parisa; Satyaprakash, Anita; Satyaprakah, Anita; Pillai, Sivaprabha; Creed, Rosella

    2009-01-01

    There are countless bacterial pathogens that cause disease in humans. Many of these bacterial infections not only cause significant morbidity and mortality in the human population but also cause a significant economic impact on society. Vaccines allow for reduction and potential eradication of such diseases. This article will review the currently approved antibacterial vaccines, which are vaccines for pertussis, tetanus, diphtheria, meningococcus, pneumococcus, Haemophilus influenza, cholera, typhoid, and anthrax.

  7. Emerging Vaccine Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Loomis, Rebecca J.; Johnson, Philip R.

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination has proven to be an invaluable means of preventing infectious diseases by reducing both incidence of disease and mortality. However, vaccines have not been effectively developed for many diseases including HIV-1, hepatitis C virus (HCV), tuberculosis and malaria, among others. The emergence of new technologies with a growing understanding of host-pathogen interactions and immunity may lead to efficacious vaccines against pathogens, previously thought impossible. PMID:26343196

  8. Myopericarditis following Smallpox Vaccination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-04-20

    smallpox vaccinations with this strain of vaccinia virus . Fifty-eight males and one female aged 21–43 years with confirmed or probable acute...or unrecognized event after smallpox vaccinations with the New York City Board of Health strain of vaccinia virus (Dryvax; Wyeth Laboratories, Marietta...respectively). military personnel; myocarditis; pericarditis; smallpox; vaccination; vaccinia virus Abbreviations: CDC, Centers for Disease Control and

  9. [Does vaccination cause disease?].

    PubMed

    Zingg, W

    2005-10-01

    Not many inventions in medical history have influenced our society as much as vaccination. The concept is old and simple. When Edward Jenner published his work on cowpox, "variolation" was quite common. In this procedure, pus of patients with mild smallpox was transferred to healthy individuals. Meanwhile smallpox has been eradicated worldwide. Diseases such as poliomyelitis, diphtheria or tetanus almost disappeared in industrialized countries. The same happened with epiglottitis and meningitis due to Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) after vaccination against Hib was introduced in Switzerland in 1990. This success was possible because of routine vaccination. Immunization is a save procedure and adverse events are much lower than complications in the natural course of the prevented diseases. However vaccinations were accused to cause diseases themselves such as asthma, multiple sclerosis, diabetes mellitus, chronic arthritis or autism. Hitherto no large cohort study or case-control-study was able to proof responsibility of vaccines in any of these diseases. Public media are eager to publish early data from surveillance reports or case reports which are descriptive and never a principle of cause and effect. In large controlled trials there was no proof that vaccination causes asthma, hepatitis-B-vaccination causes multiple sclerosis or macrophagic myofasciitis, Hib-vaccination causes diabetes mellitus, rubella-vaccination causes chronic arthritis, measles-mumps-rubella-vaccination causes gait disturbance or thiomersal causes autism. These results are rarely published in newspapers or television. Thus, many caring parents are left with negative ideas about immunization. Looking for the best for their children they withhold vaccination and give way to resurgence of preventable diseases in our communities. This must be prevented. There is more evidence than expected that vaccination is safe and this can and must be told to parents.

  10. Rift Valley fever vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Ikegami, Tetsuro; Makino, Shinji

    2009-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), which belongs to the genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae, is a negative-stranded RNA virus carrying a tripartite RNA genome. RVFV is transmitted by mosquitoes and causes large outbreaks among ruminants and humans in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Human patients develop an acute febrile illness, followed by a fatal hemorrhagic fever, encephalitis or ocular diseases, whereas ruminants experience abortions during outbreak. Effective vaccination of both humans and ruminants is the best approach to control Rift Valley fever. This article summarizes the development of inactivated RVFV vaccine, live attenuated vaccine, and other new generation vaccines. PMID:19837291

  11. Vaccines, our shared responsibility.

    PubMed

    Pagliusi, Sonia; Jain, Rishabh; Suri, Rajinder Kumar

    2015-05-05

    The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN) held its fifteenth annual meeting from October 27-29, 2014, New Delhi, India. The DCVMN, together with the co-organizing institution Panacea Biotec, welcomed over 240 delegates representing high-profile governmental and nongovernmental global health organizations from 36 countries. Over the three-day meeting, attendees exchanged information about their efforts to achieve their shared goal of preventing death and disability from known and emerging infectious diseases. Special praise was extended to all stakeholders involved in the success of polio eradication in South East Asia and highlighted challenges in vaccine supply for measles-rubella immunization over the coming decades. Innovative vaccines and vaccine delivery technologies indicated creative solutions for achieving global immunization goals. Discussions were focused on three major themes including regulatory challenges for developing countries that may be overcome with better communication; global collaborations and partnerships for leveraging investments and enable uninterrupted supply of affordable and suitable vaccines; and leading innovation in vaccines difficult to develop, such as dengue, Chikungunya, typhoid-conjugated and EV71, and needle-free technologies that may speed up vaccine delivery. Moving further into the Decade of Vaccines, participants renewed their commitment to shared responsibility toward a world free of vaccine-preventable diseases.

  12. Polyvalent AIDS Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Shan; Grimes Serrano, Jill M.; Wang, Shixia

    2013-01-01

    A major hurdle in the development of a global HIV-1 vaccine is viral diversity. For close to three decades, HIV vaccine development has focused on either the induction of T cell immune responses or antibody responses, and only rarely on both components. After the failure of the STEP trial, the scientific community concluded that a T cell-based vaccine would likely not be protective if the T cell immune responses were elicited against only a few dominant epitopes. Similarly, for vaccines focusing on antibody responses, one of the main criticisms after VaxGen’s failed Phase III trials was on the limited antigen breadth included in the two formulations used. The successes of polyvalent vaccine approaches against other antigenically variable pathogens encourage implementation of the same approach for the design of HIV-1 vaccines. A review of the existing HIV-1 vaccination approaches based on the polyvalent principle is included here to provide a historical perspective for the current effort of developing a polyvalent HIV-1 vaccine. Results summarized in this review provide a clear indication that the polyvalent approach is a viable one for the future development of an effective HIV vaccine. PMID:21054250

  13. Vaccines: Shaping global health.

    PubMed

    Pagliusi, Sonia; Ting, Ching-Chia; Lobos, Fernando

    2017-03-14

    The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN) gathered leaders in immunization programs, vaccine manufacturing, representatives of the Argentinean Health Authorities and Pan American Health Organization, among other global health stakeholders, for its 17th Annual General Meeting in Buenos Aires, to reflect on how vaccines are shaping global health. Polio eradication and elimination of measles and rubella from the Americas is a result of successful collaboration, made possible by timely supply of affordable vaccines. After decades of intense competition for high-value markets, collaboration with developing countries has become critical, and involvement of multiple manufacturers as well as public- and private-sector investments are essential, for developing new vaccines against emerging infectious diseases. The recent Zika virus outbreak and the accelerated Ebola vaccine development exemplify the need for international partnerships to combat infectious diseases. A new player, Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) has made its entrance in the global health community, aiming to stimulate research preparedness against emerging infections. Face-to-face panel discussions facilitated the dialogue around challenges, such as risks of viability to vaccine development and regulatory convergence, to improve access to sustainable vaccine supply. It was discussed that joint efforts to optimizing regulatory pathways in developing countries, reducing registration time by up to 50%, are required. Outbreaks of emerging infections and the global Polio eradication and containment challenges are reminders of the importance of vaccines' access, and of the importance of new public-private partnerships.

  14. Dengue virus vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Yauch, Lauren E; Shresta, Sujan

    2014-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in tropical and subtropical regions, causing hundreds of millions of infections each year. Infections range from asymptomatic to a self-limited febrile illness, dengue fever (DF), to the life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS). The expanding of the habitat of DENV-transmitting mosquitoes has resulted in dramatic increases in the number of cases over the past 50 years, and recent outbreaks have occurred in the United States. Developing a dengue vaccine is a global health priority. DENV vaccine development is challenging due to the existence of four serotypes of the virus (DENV1-4), which a vaccine must protect against. Additionally, the adaptive immune response to DENV may be both protective and pathogenic upon subsequent infection, and the precise features of protective versus pathogenic immune responses to DENV are unknown, complicating vaccine development. Numerous vaccine candidates, including live attenuated, inactivated, recombinant subunit, DNA, and viral vectored vaccines, are in various stages of clinical development, from preclinical to phase 3. This review will discuss the adaptive immune response to DENV, dengue vaccine challenges, animal models used to test dengue vaccine candidates, and historical and current dengue vaccine approaches.

  15. Vaccination against Brucella.

    PubMed

    Nicoletti, P

    1990-01-01

    Vaccination has played an enormous role in reducing brucellosis in many countries. It is certain to continue to be the preeminent factor in control of the disease in others. The search for an ideal vaccine continues. Live vaccines have proved to be superior to inactivated products. They are effective, inexpensive, and immunity is more persistent. The disadvantages of postvaccinal antibodies can be minimized by reduction of previously recommended doses and through use of supplemental diagnostic tests. These procedures now make entire population vaccination of great practical significance with many advantages over limited use of the strains 19 and Rev. 1. Adult animal vaccination should be much more extensive in many countries. A live B. suis strain 2 vaccine developed in China deserves much additional evaluation, including use in swine, for which no satisfactory vaccine exists. It is generally agreed that cell-mediated responses are the dominant aspect of immunogenesis. However, the correlates that have frequently been used--dermal hypersensitivity and lymphocyte stimulation in vitro--appear to be poor indices of cell-mediated immunity in brucellosis. Many studies have shown that postvaccinal antibodies do not predict subsequent immunity. There is a great need for simple in vivo or in vitro methods to measure CMI. While vaccination of humans may be useful in control of brucellosis in some high-risk occupations, the ultimate success is dependent upon reduction of this very important zoonosis in natural hosts. This is most effectively accomplished by widespread use of vaccination.

  16. Production du baryon Sigma+ dans les collisions e+e- au LEP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joly, Andre

    Les mécanismes de production des baryons dans les interactions e+e- font l'objet de nombreuses études. De plus, les modes de production des baryons étranges semblent faire appel A des processus spécifiques, qui sont encore mal compris. Notre étude de la production des baryons Σ+ dans les interactions e+e- nous permet de formuler certaines remarques sur l'état des connaîssances acquises sur le sujet. Une methode de reconstruction originale et des critères de sélection spécifiques ont été développés afin d'identifier des baryons Σ+ de haute Energie ( ES+ > 5 GeV), partir de leur canal de désintégration en un proton et un π0 (S+-->p+p0 ). Trois mesures principales sont réalisées à partir de notre échantillon de baryons reconstruits. Le nombre mesuré de baryons Σ+ produits par événement e +e- à 91 GeV est de: =0.102+/-0.006(stat.) +/-0.008(syst.) +/-0.003(extrap.) où les erreurs sont dues à la statistique, aux systématiques et à la procédure d'extrapolation. Ce résultat est en accord avec ceux obtenus précédemment, mais avec des erreurs réduites. La section efficace différentielle en fonction de l'energie est mesurée et comparée aux prédictions des principaux générateurs Monte-Carlo (JETSET7.4(MOPS), JETSET7.4 et HERWIG5.9). A haute énergie, HERWIG ne semble pas reproduire les mesures, aussi bien que les deux versions de JETSET. Enfin, la position du maximum de la section efficace différentielle de production des baryons Σ+ en fonction de l'impulsion est mesurée. On trouve: overlinexoverlineS+=2.32+/- 0.47 Une étude spécifique du générateur JETSET7.4(MOPS) est réalisee, afin de mieux comprendre les mécanismes de production de l'étrangeté et du spin dans la production des baryons. Aucun générateur ne semble capable de décrire de manière simultanée la production du spin et de l'étrangeté.

  17. La campagne s'urbanise: résultats d'un dépistage du diabète et des dysglycémies dans une zone rurale de la région de Marrakech

    PubMed Central

    Ennazk, Laila; El M'ghari, Ghizlane; El Ansari, Nawal

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Le diabète constitue un problème de santé publique au Maroc. L'augmentation de sa prévalence se fait en parallèle avec l'augmentation des chiffres de l'obésité et de l'hypertension artérielle (HTA). Les facteurs environnementaux dont l'urbanisation influencent avec force cet état des lieux. En milieu rural, la tendance tend à s'inverser du fait du changement des habitudes de vie. Notre travail avait comme but de dépister la dysglycémie dans une commune rurale de la région de Marrakech. Méthodes Ce travail de dépistage fait sur une journée a concerné une population tout-venant de 200 personnes. La glycémie capillaire à jeun, la tension artérielle, le poids, la taille, l'indice de masse corporelle et le tour de taille ont été mesurés pour toutes les personnes qui se sont présentées. Résultats Deux cent sujets ont été examinés. 31% des sujets examinés étaient diabétiques. Chez les non diabétiques, 57,9% avaient une glycémie capillaire à jeun au-delà de 1,1g/l, 51,2% entre 1,1 g/l et 1,26 g/l et 48,7% au-delà de 1,26 g/l. Sur le plan tensionnel, 95% des patients examinés n'étaient pas connus hypertendus. L'obésité androïde touche 63,7% des patients examinés. Conclusion Les chiffres retrouvés lors de cette caravane médicale sont supérieurs à nos attentes. L'urbanisation du milieu rural a un impact sur le profil métabolique et tensionnel de cette population; ce qui devrait impliquer une démarche préventive de santé publique. PMID:25667693

  18. Vaccination in elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Gärtner, Barbara C; Meyer, Tim

    2014-10-01

    Public health vaccination guidelines cannot be easily transferred to elite athletes. An enhanced benefit from preventing even mild diseases is obvious but stronger interference from otherwise minor side effects has to be considered as well. Thus, special vaccination guidelines for adult elite athletes are required. In most of them, protection should be strived for against tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis, influenza, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, measles, mumps and varicella. When living or traveling to endemic areas, the athletes should be immune against tick-borne encephalitis, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, poliomyelitis, typhoid fever, and meningococcal disease. Vaccination against pneumococci and Haemophilus influenzae type b is only relevant in athletes with certain underlying disorders. Rubella and papillomavirus vaccination might be considered after an individual risk-benefit analysis. Other vaccinations such as cholera, rabies, herpes zoster, and Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) cannot be universally recommended for athletes at present. Only for a very few diseases, a determination of antibody titers is reasonable to avoid unnecessary vaccinations or to control efficacy of an individual's vaccination (especially for measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, hepatitis B and, partly, hepatitis A). Vaccinations should be scheduled in a way that possible side effects are least likely to occur in periods of competition. Typically, vaccinations are well tolerated by elite athletes, and resulting antibody titers are not different from the general population. Side effects might be reduced by an optimal selection of vaccines and an appropriate technique of administration. Very few discipline-specific considerations apply to an athlete's vaccination schedule mainly from the competition and training pattern as well as from the typical geographical distribution of competitive sites.

  19. History of polio vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Baicus, Anda

    2012-01-01

    Poliomyelitis is an acute paralytic disease caused by three poliovirus (PV) serotypes. Less than 1% of PV infections result in acute flaccid paralysis. The disease was controlled using the formalin-inactivated Salk polio vaccine (IPV) and the Sabin oral polio vaccine (OPV). Global poliomyelitis eradication was proposed in 1988 by the World Health Organization to its member states. The strategic plan established the activities required for polio eradication, certification for regions, OPV cessation phase and post-OPV phase. OPV is the vaccine of choice for the poliomyelitis eradication program because it induces both a systemic and mucosal immune response. The major risks of OPV vaccination are the appearance of Vaccine-Associated Paralytic Poliomyelitis cases (VAPP) and the emergence of Vaccine Derived Polioviruses strains. The supplementary immunization with monovalent strains of OPV type 1 or type 3 or with a new bivalent oral polio vaccine bOPV (containing type 1 and type 3 PV) has been introduced in those regions where the virus has been difficult to control. Most countries have switched the schedule of vaccination by using IPV instead of OPV because it poses no risk of vaccine-related disease. Until 2008, poliomyelitis was controlled in Romania, an Eastern European country, predominantly using OPV. The alternative vaccination schedule (IPV/OPV) was implemented starting in September 2008, while beginning in 2009, the vaccination was IPV only. The risk of VAPP will disappear worldwide with the cessation of use of OPV. The immunization for polio must be maintained for at least 5 to 10 years using IPV. PMID:24175215

  20. Human Papillomavirus Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Savas, Lara S.; Fernández, Maria E.; Jobe, David; Carmack, Chakema C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Research is needed to understand parental factors influencing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, particularly in groups with a higher burden of cervical cancer. Purpose To determine correlates of HPV vaccination among a sample of low-income parents of age-eligible daughters (aged 9–17 years) who called the 2-1-1 Helpline. Secondary analyses describe potential differences in HPV vaccination correlates by Hispanic and black parent groups, specifically. Methods This 2009 cross-sectional feasibility survey of cancer prevention needs was conducted in Houston at the 2-1-1 Texas/United Way Helpline. In 2012, to examine the association between parental psychosocial, cognitive, and decisional factors and HPV vaccination uptake (one or two doses), bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted for minority parents and for Hispanic and black parent groups, separately. Results Lower rates of HPV vaccination uptake were reported among minority daughters of 2-1-1 callers (29% overall) compared with national and Texas rates. In final adjusted analysis, factors positively associated with HPV vaccination uptake included being offered the vaccination by a doctor or nurse, belief that the vaccine would prevent cervical cancer, and Hispanic ethnicity. Secondary analyses detected differences in factors associated with vaccination in Hispanic and black groups. Conclusions Findings indicate low levels of vaccination among 2-1-1 callers. Increased understanding of determinants of HPV vaccination in low-income minority groups can guide interventions to increase coverage. Because 2-1-1 informational and referral services networks reach populations considered medically underserved, 2-1-1 can serve as a community hub for informing development of and implementing approaches aimed at hard-to-reach groups. PMID:23157770

  1. Adverse reactions to vaccines.

    PubMed

    Martin, Bryan L; Nelson, Michael R; Hershey, Joyce N; Engler, Renata J M

    2003-06-01

    (The opinions or assertions contained herein are the private views of the authors and are not to be construed as official or as reflecting the views of the Department of the Army or the Department of Defense.) Immunization healthcare is becoming increasingly complex as the number and types of vaccines have continued to expand. Like all prescription drugs, vaccines may be associated with adverse events. The majority of these reactions are self-limited and not associated with prolonged disability. The media, Internet and public advocacy groups have focused on potentially serious vaccine-associated adverse events with questions raised about causal linkages to increasing frequencies of diseases such as autism and asthma. Despite a lack of evidence of a causal relationship to a variety of vaccine safety concerns, including extensive reviews by the Institute of Medicine, questions regarding vaccine safety continue to threaten the success of immunization programs. Risk communication arid individual risk assessment is further challenged by the public health success of vaccine programs creating the perception that certain vaccines are no longer necessary or justified because of the rare reaction risk. There is a need for improved understanding of true vaccine contraindications and precautions as well as host factors and disease threat in order to develop a patient specific balanced risk communication intervention. When they occur, vaccine related adverse events must be treated, documented and reported through the VAERS system. The increasing complexity of vaccination health care has led the Center of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to identify Vaccine Safety Assessment and Evaluation as a potential new specialty.

  2. Learning about Cri du Chat Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... chat syndrome - also known as 5p- syndrome and cat cry syndrome - is a rare genetic condition that ... du chat syndrome usually include a high-pitched cat-like cry, mental retardation, delayed development, distinctive facial ...

  3. Clinical development of Ebola vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Sridhar, Saranya

    2015-01-01

    The ongoing outbreak of Ebola virus disease in West Africa highlighted the lack of a licensed drug or vaccine to combat the disease and has renewed the urgency to develop a pipeline of Ebola vaccines. A number of different vaccine platforms are being developed by assessing preclinical efficacy in animal models and expediting clinical development. Over 15 different vaccines are in preclinical development and 8 vaccines are now in different stages of clinical evaluation. These vaccines include DNA vaccines, virus-like particles and viral vectors such as live replicating vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV), human and chimpanzee adenovirus, and vaccinia virus. Recently, in preliminary results reported from the first phase III trial of an Ebola vaccine, the rVSV-vectored vaccine showed promising efficacy. This review charts this rapidly advancing area of research focusing on vaccines in clinical development and discusses the future opportunities and challenges faced in the licensure and deployment of Ebola vaccines. PMID:26668751

  4. Pricing of new vaccines.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bruce Y; McGlone, Sarah M

    2010-08-01

    New vaccine pricing is a complicated process that could have substantial long-standing scientific, medical, and public health ramifications. Pricing can have a considerable impact on new vaccine adoption and, thereby, either culminate or thwart years of research and development and public health efforts. Typically, pricing strategy consists of the following ten components: 1. Conduct a target population analysis; 2. Map potential competitors and alternatives; 3. Construct a vaccine target product profile (TPP) and compare it to projected or actual TPPs of competing vaccines; 4. Quantify the incremental value of the new vaccine's characteristics; 5. Determine vaccine positioning in the marketplace; 6. Estimate the vaccine price-demand curve; 7. Calculate vaccine costs (including those of manufacturing, distribution, and research and development); 8. Account for various legal, regulatory, third party payer, and competitor factors; 9. Consider the overall product portfolio; 10. Set pricing objectives; 11. Select pricing and pricing structure. While the biomedical literature contains some studies that have addressed these components, there is still considerable room for more extensive evaluation of this important area.

  5. Argentine hemorrhagic fever vaccines.

    PubMed

    Ambrosio, Ana; Saavedra, Maria; Mariani, Mauricio; Gamboa, Graciela; Maiza, Andrea

    2011-06-01

    Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF), an acute disease caused by Junin virus (JUNV, Arenaviridae), has been an important issue to public health in Argentina since the early 1950s. The field rodent Calomys musculinus is JUNV natural reservoir and human disease is a consequence of contact with infected rodents. A steady extention of AHF endemic area is being observed since the first reports of the disease. Important achievements have been made in: (a) improvement of methods for the etiological diagnosis; (b) implementation and validation of therapeutical measures; (c) development of vaccines to protect against AHF. Reference is made to different research strategies used to obtain anti-AHF vaccines in the past and anti-arenaviral diseases in the present. Information is updated on features and field performance of Candid #1 vaccine, a live attenuted vaccine currently used to prevent AHF. This vaccine was developed through a joint international effort that envisioned it as an orphan drug. With transferred technology, Argentine government was committed to be Candid #1 manufacturer and to register this vaccine as a novel medical product under the Argentine regulatory authority. Candid #1 vaccine is the first one used to control an arenaviral hemorrhagic fever, the first live viral vaccine to be manufactured and registered in Argentina, reaching its target population through governmental effort.

  6. The Human Hookworm Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Hotez, Peter J; Diemert, David; Bacon, Kristina M; Beaumier, Coreen; Bethony, Jeffrey M; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Brooker, Simon; Couto, Artur Roberto; Freire, Marcos da Silva; Homma, Akira; Lee, Bruce Y; Loukas, Alex; Loblack, Marva; Morel, Carlos Medicis; Oliveira, Rodrigo Correa; Russell, Philip K

    2013-04-18

    Hookworm infection is one of the world's most common neglected tropical diseases and a leading cause of iron deficiency anemia in low- and middle-income countries. A Human Hookworm Vaccine is currently being developed by the Sabin Vaccine Institute and is in phase 1 clinical testing. The candidate vaccine is comprised of two recombinant antigens known as Na-GST-1 and Na-APR-1, each of which is an important parasite enzyme required for hookworms to successfully utilize host blood as a source of energy. The recombinant proteins are formulated on Alhydrogel(®) and are being tested in combination with a synthetic Toll-like receptor 4 agonist. The aim of the vaccine is to induce anti-enzyme antibodies that will reduce both host blood loss and the number of hookworms attached to the gut. Transfer of the manufacturing technology to the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ)/Bio-Manguinhos (a Brazilian public sector developing country vaccine manufacturer) is planned, with a clinical development plan that could lead to registration of the vaccine in Brazil. The vaccine would also need to be introduced in the poorest regions of Africa and Asia, where hookworm infection is highly endemic. Ultimately, the vaccine could become an essential tool for achieving hookworm control and elimination, a key target in the 2012 London Declaration on Neglected Tropical Diseases.

  7. Herpes zoster vaccine (Zostavax).

    PubMed

    2006-09-11

    A live attenuated varicella-zoster vaccine (Zostavax--Merck) has been approved by the FDA for prevention of herpes zoster (HZ; zoster; shingles) in persons > or = 60 years old. Each dose of Zostavax contains about 14 times as much varicella-zoster virus (VZV) as Varivax, which has been used in the US since 1995 to vaccinate against varicella (chicken pox).

  8. Vaccines Against Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Ouattara, Amed; Laurens, Matthew B.

    2015-01-01

    Despite global efforts to control malaria, the illness remains a significant public health threat. Currently, there is no licensed vaccine against malaria, but an efficacious vaccine would represent an important public health tool for successful malaria elimination. Malaria vaccine development continues to be hindered by a poor understanding of antimalarial immunity, a lack of an immune correlate of protection, and the genetic diversity of malaria parasites. Current vaccine development efforts largely target Plasmodium falciparum parasites in the pre-erythrocytic and erythrocytic stages, with some research on transmission-blocking vaccines against asexual stages and vaccines against pregnancy-associated malaria. The leading pre-erythrocytic vaccine candidate is RTS,S, and early results of ongoing Phase 3 testing show overall efficacy of 46% against clinical malaria. The next steps for malaria vaccine development will focus on the design of a product that is efficacious against the highly diverse strains of malaria and the identification of a correlate of protection against disease. PMID:25452593

  9. Pricing of new vaccines

    PubMed Central

    McGlone, Sarah M

    2010-01-01

    New vaccine pricing is a complicated process that could have substantial long-standing scientific, medical and public health ramifications. Pricing can have a considerable impact on new vaccine adoption and, thereby, either culminate or thwart years of research and development and public health efforts. Typically, pricing strategy consists of the following eleven components: (1) Conduct a target population analysis; (2) Map potential competitors and alternatives; (3) Construct a vaccine target product profile (TPP) and compare it to projected or actual TPPs of competing vaccines; (4) Quantify the incremental value of the new vaccine's characteristics; (5) Determine vaccine positioning in the marketplace; (6) Estimate the vaccine price-demand curve; (7) Calculate vaccine costs (including those of manufacturing, distribution, and research and development); (8) Account for various legal, regulatory, third party payer and competitor factors; (9) Consider the overall product portfolio; (10) Set pricing objectives; (11) Select pricing and pricing structure. While the biomedical literature contains some studies that have addressed these components, there is still considerable room for more extensive evaluation of this important area. PMID:20861678

  10. Emerging human papillomavirus vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Barbara; Maraj, Bharat; Tran, Nam Phuong; Knoff, Jayne; Chen, Alexander; Alvarez, Ronald D; Hung, Chien-Fu; Wu, T.-C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Identification of human papillomavirus (HPV) as the etiologic factor of cervical, anogenital, and a subset of head and neck cancers has stimulated the development of preventive and therapeutic HPV vaccines to control HPV-associated malignancies. Excitement has been generated by the commercialization of two preventive L1-based vaccines, which use HPV virus-like particles (VLPs) to generate capsid-specific neutralizing antibodies. However, factors such as high cost and requirement for cold chain have prevented widespread implementation where they are needed most. Areas covered Next generation preventive HPV vaccine candidates have focused on cost-effective stable alternatives and generating broader protection via targeting multivalent L1 VLPs, L2 capsid protein, and chimeric L1/L2 VLPs. Therapeutic HPV vaccine candidates have focused on enhancing T cell-mediated killing of HPV-transformed tumor cells, which constitutively express HPV-encoded proteins, E6 and E7. Several therapeutic HPV vaccines are in clinical trials. Expert opinion Although progress is being made, cost remains an issue inhibiting the use of preventive HPV vaccines in countries that carry the majority of the cervical cancer burden. In addition, progression of therapeutic HPV vaccines through clinical trials may require combination strategies employing different therapeutic modalities. As research in the development of HPV vaccines continues, we may generate effective strategies to control HPV-associated malignancies. PMID:23163511

  11. Conscientious Objection to Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Steve; Giubilini, Alberto; Walker, Mary Jean

    2017-03-01

    Vaccine refusal occurs for a variety of reasons. In this article we examine vaccine refusals that are made on conscientious grounds; that is, for religious, moral, or philosophical reasons. We focus on two questions: first, whether people should be entitled to conscientiously object to vaccination against contagious diseases (either for themselves or for their children); second, if so, to what constraints or requirements should conscientious objection (CO) to vaccination be subject. To address these questions, we consider an analogy between CO to vaccination and CO to military service. We argue that conscientious objectors to vaccination should make an appropriate contribution to society in lieu of being vaccinated. The contribution to be made will depend on the severity of the relevant disease(s), its morbidity, and also the likelihood that vaccine refusal will lead to harm. In particular, the contribution required will depend on whether the rate of CO in a given population threatens herd immunity to the disease in question: for severe or highly contagious diseases, if the population rate of CO becomes high enough to threaten herd immunity, the requirements for CO could become so onerous that CO, though in principle permissible, would be de facto impermissible.

  12. Conscientious Objection to Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Steve; Giubilini, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vaccine refusal occurs for a variety of reasons. In this article we examine vaccine refusals that are made on conscientious grounds; that is, for religious, moral, or philosophical reasons. We focus on two questions: first, whether people should be entitled to conscientiously object to vaccination against contagious diseases (either for themselves or for their children); second, if so, to what constraints or requirements should conscientious objection (CO) to vaccination be subject. To address these questions, we consider an analogy between CO to vaccination and CO to military service. We argue that conscientious objectors to vaccination should make an appropriate contribution to society in lieu of being vaccinated. The contribution to be made will depend on the severity of the relevant disease(s), its morbidity, and also the likelihood that vaccine refusal will lead to harm. In particular, the contribution required will depend on whether the rate of CO in a given population threatens herd immunity to the disease in question: for severe or highly contagious diseases, if the population rate of CO becomes high enough to threaten herd immunity, the requirements for CO could become so onerous that CO, though in principle permissible, would be de facto impermissible. PMID:28008636

  13. HPV Vaccine and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... vaccines are given as an injection in a series of three doses at three different times. They are licensed for males and females between ... pregnancy to complete any remaining shots in the series. Can I receive ... baby received the HPV vaccine around the time that I got pregnant. Is there a risk ...

  14. Vaccines and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    De Martino, M; Chiappini, E; Galli, L

    2013-01-01

    Vaccines have eradicated or controlled many infectious diseases, saving each year millions of lives and quality of life of many other millions of people. In spite of the success of vaccines over the last two centuries, parents (and also some health care workers) gloss over the devastating consequences of diseases, which are now avoided thanks to vaccines, and direct their attention to possible negative effects of immunization. Three immunological objections are raised: vaccines cause antigenic overload, natural immunity is safer and better than vaccine-induced immunity, and vaccines induce autoimmunity. The last point is examined in this review. Theoretically, vaccines could trigger autoimmunity by means of cytokine production, anti-idiotypic network, expression of human histocompatibility leukocyte antigens, modification of surface antigens and induction of novel antigens, molecular mimicry, bystander activation, epitope spreading, and polyclonal activation of B cells. There is strong evidence that none of these mechanisms is really effective in causing autoimmune diseases. Vaccines are not a source of autoimmune diseases. By contrast, absolute evidence exists that infectious agents can trigger autoimmune mechanisms and that they do cause autoimmune diseases.

  15. Chimeric Pestivirus Experimental Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Reimann, Ilona; Blome, Sandra; Beer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Chimeric pestiviruses have shown great potential as marker vaccine candidates against pestiviral infections. Exemplarily, we describe here the construction and testing of the most promising classical swine fever vaccine candidate "CP7_E2alf" in detail. The description is focused on classical cloning technologies in combination with reverse genetics.

  16. Tularemia vaccines - an overview.

    PubMed

    McMurry, Julie A; Moise, Leonard; Gregory, Stephen H; De Groot, Anne S

    2007-10-01

    F tularensis is among of the most virulent pathogens known, yet it remains poorly understood. Correlates of protection involve robust CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses, and the production of IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and IL-12. Novel approaches may be required to develop a safe vaccine that achieves these correlates. In contrast to other types of vaccines, epitope-based vaccines combine targeted biologic activity with the practical advantages of platform independence, scalable synthesis and manufacturing. These advantages, coupled with the proof of principle achieved with an epitope-based tularemia vaccine, suggest that this approach might be applied more widely to develop vaccines against other pathogens, intracellular bacteria most notably.

  17. Attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium delivery of a novel DNA vaccine induces immune responses and provides protection against duck enteritis virus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xueyan; Liu, Qing; Xiao, Kangpeng; Li, Pei; Liu, Qiong; Zhao, Xinxin; Kong, Qingke

    2016-04-15

    DNA vaccines are widely used to prevent and treat infectious diseases, cancer and autoimmune diseases; however, their relatively low immunogenicity is an obstacle to their use. In this study, we constructed a novel and universal DNA vaccine vector (pSS898) that can be used to build DNA vaccines against duck enteritis virus (DEV) and other viruses that require DNA vaccines to provide protection. This vaccine vector has many advantages, including innate immunogenicity, efficient nuclear trafficking and resistance to attack from nucleases. UL24 and tgB from DEV were chosen as the antigens, and the heat labile enterotoxin B subunit (LTB) from Escherichia coli and the IL-2 gene (DuIL-2) from duck were used as adjuvants for the construction of DNA vaccine plasmids. Ducklings that were orally immunized with S739 (Salmonella Typhimurium Δasd-66 Δcrp-24 Δcya-25) and harboring these DEV DNA vaccines produced strong mucosal and systemic immune responses, and they resisted an otherwise lethal DEV challenge. More importantly, S739 (UL24-LTB) provided 90% protection after a priming-boost immunization. This study shows that our novel and universal DNA vaccine vector can be used efficiently in practical applications and may provide a promising method of orally inoculating ducks with a DEV DNA vaccine delivered by attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium for prevention of DVE.

  18. Vaccines for Canine Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B.

    2012-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global warming, coinfection with immunosuppressive diseases, and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL) in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China, and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases, and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost–effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine VL. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans and dogs against VL. PMID:22566950

  19. Lassa fever vaccine.

    PubMed

    Fisher-Hoch, Susan P; McCormick, Joseph B

    2004-04-01

    Lassa fever remains a serious challenge to public health in West Africa threatening both local residents in rural areas and those who serve them, particularly medical care providers. Given the ecology of the rodent host and conditions in the endemic area, a vaccine is mandatory for control. The challenge is to overcome the scientific, political and economic obstacles to producing a human use vaccine candidate. There are some scientific issues to resolve. It is known that the G-protein confers protection but we do not know its duration. If the N-protein is also included there may be a better duration of protection but it is unclear whether the N-protein as a vaccine may possibly enhance the infection. The original vaccinia vector must be replaced by new vectors, chimeras or by delivering DNA in some format. A live vaccine is attractive because it can confer protection in a single shot. A killed vaccine is more stable, particularly for distribution in the tropics but usually requires repeated shots. For practical reasons a live vaccine format should probably be pursued, which could then be combined with a yellow fever vaccine, using the same cold chains, since this disease occupies the same endemic areas in West Africa. Lassa vaccine initiatives have suffered from a lack of funding in the past but bioterrorism has brought new resources to Lassa virus science. Adequate funding and applications of new vaccine technologies give hope that we may soon see a vaccine in clinical trials. However, the difficulty of conducting trials in endemic areas and lack of political stability remain serious problems.

  20. Biokinetics and dosimetry of depleted uranium (DU) in rats implanted with DU fragments.

    SciTech Connect

    Guilmette, Ray A.; Hahn, Fletcher F.; Durbin, P. W.

    2004-01-01

    A number of U. S. veterans of the Persian Gulf War were wounded with depleted uranium (DU) metal fragments as a result of 'friendly fire' incidents, in which Abrams tanks and Bradley fighting vehicles were struck by DU anti-armor munitions. Some of the crew members who survived were left with multiple small fragments of DU in their muscles and soft tissues. The number, size and location of the fragments made them inoperable in general, and therefore subject to long-term retention. Because there was inadequate data to predict the potential carcinogenicity of DU fragments in soft tissues, Hahn et al. (2003) conducted a lifespan cancer study in rats. As part of that study, a number of rats were maintained to study the biokinetics and dosimetry of DU implanted intramuscularly in male Wistar rats. Typically, four metal fragments, either as cylindrical pellets or square wafers were implanted into the biceps femoris muscles of the rats. Urine samples were collected periodically during their lifespans, and DU was analyzed in kidneys and eviscerated carcass (minus the implant sites) at death. The daily DU urinary excretion rate increased steeply during the first 30 d after implantation peaking at about 90 d at 3-10 x 10{sup -3}%/d. During the first 150 d, the average excretion rate was 2.4 x 10{sup -3}%/d, decreasing thereafter to about 1 x 10{sup -3}%/d. Serial radiographs were made of the wound sites to monitor gross morphologic changes in the DU implant and the surrounding tissue. As early as 1 w after implantation, radiographs showed the presence of surface corrosion and small, dense bodies near the original implant, presumably DU. This corrosion from the surface of the implant continued with time, but did not result in an increasing amount of DU reaching the blood and urine after the first 3 mo. During this 3-mo period, connective tissue capsules formed around the implants, and are hypothesized to have reduced the access of DU to tissue fluids by limiting the diffusion

  1. DNA vaccines: a review.

    PubMed

    Lewis, P J; Babiuk, L A

    1999-01-01

    Therapeutic and prophylactic DNA vaccine clinical trials for a variety of pathogens and cancers are underway (Chattergoon et al., 1997; Taubes, 1997). The speed with which initiation of these trials occurred is no less than astounding; clinical trials for a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) gp160 DNA-based vaccine were underway within 36 months of the first description of "genetic immunization" (Tang et al., 1992) and within 24 months of publication of the first article describing intramuscular delivery of a DNA vaccine (Ulmer et al., 1993). Despite the relative fervor with which clinical trials have progressed, it can be safely stated that DNA-based vaccines will not be an immunological "silver bullet." In this regard, it was satisfying to see a publication entitled "DNA Vaccines--A Modern Gimmick or a Boon to Vaccinology?" (Manickan et al., 1997b). There is no doubt that this technology is well beyond the phenomenology phase of study. Research niches and models have been established and will allow the truly difficult questions of mechanism and application to target species to be studied. These two aspects of future studies are intricately interwoven and will ultimately determine the necessity for mechanistic understanding and the evolution of target species studies. The basic science of DNA vaccines has yet to be clearly defined and will ultimately determine the success or failure of this technology to find a place in the immunological arsenal against disease. In a commentary on a published study describing DNA vaccine-mediated protection against heterologous challenge with HIV-1 in chimpanzees, Ronald Kennedy (1997) states, "As someone who has been in the trenches of AIDS vaccine research for over a decade and who, together with collaborators, has attempted a number of different vaccine approaches that have not panned out, I have a relatively pessimistic view of new AIDS vaccine approaches." Kennedy then goes on to summarize a DNA-based multigene vaccine

  2. Nanoparticles for transcutaneous vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Steffi; Lehr, Claus‐Michael

    2012-01-01

    Summary The living epidermis and dermis are rich in antigen presenting cells (APCs). Their activation can elicit a strong humoral and cellular immune response as well as mucosal immunity. Therefore, the skin is a very attractive site for vaccination, and an intradermal application of antigen may be much more effective than a subcutaneous or intramuscular injection. However, the stratum corneum (SC) is a most effective barrier against the invasion of topically applied vaccines. Products which have reached the stage of clinical testing, avoid this problem by injecting the nano‐vaccine intradermally or by employing a barrier disrupting method and applying the vaccine to a relatively large skin area. Needle‐free vaccination is desirable from a number of aspects: ease of application, improved patient acceptance and less risk of infection among them. Nanocarriers can be designed in a way that they can overcome the SC. Also incorporation into nanocarriers protects instable antigen from degradation, improves uptake and processing by APCs, and facilitates endosomal escape and nuclear delivery of DNA vaccines. In addition, sustained release systems may build a depot in the tissue gradually releasing antigen which may avoid booster doses. Therefore, nanoformulations of vaccines for transcutaneous immunization are currently a very dynamic field of research. Among the huge variety of nanocarrier systems that are investigated hopes lie on ultra‐flexible liposomes, superfine rigid nanoparticles and nanocarriers, which are taken up by hair follicles. The potential and pitfalls associated with these three classes of carriers will be discussed. PMID:21854553

  3. Vaccines, viruses, and voodoo.

    PubMed

    Borchers, Andrea T; Keen, Carl L; Shoenfeld, Yehuda; Silva, Joseph; Gershwin, M Eric

    2002-01-01

    Vaccinations are invaluable in protection from a wide variety of diseases that can cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Although a rare complication of vaccination, autoimmune disorders represent one of these morbidities. Recently, widespread public concern has arisen from case reports suggesting that--similar to what has been observed after natural viral infections--there might be an association between specific immunizations and autoimmune diseases. Herein we address the biological plausibility of such a connection, focusing particularly on the examples of hepatitis B, rubella, and measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccinations, and the autoimmune diseases they are potentially associated with. Our review of the available data suggests that, for the general population, the risk: benefit ratio is overwhelmingly in favor of vaccinations. However, the possibility cannot be ruled out that, in genetically susceptible individuals, vaccination can result in the unmasking of an autoimmune disease triggered by the immunization. We also critically examine the existing data suggesting a link between immunization against MMR and autism, and briefly discuss the controversial evidence pointing to a possible relationship between mercury exposure from vaccines and autistic disorders. There is a continued urgent need for rigorously designed and executed studies addressing these potential associations, although the use of vaccinations remains a critical public health tool for protection against infectious disease.

  4. Zika Vaccine Development: Flavivirus Foils

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    Martins, Bavari, Zika Vaccine Development 1 Zika Vaccine Development: Flavivirus Foils Martins KAO, Bavari S. The current Zika virus...contrast, work had been underway for decades on the development of an Ebola virus vaccine , laying the groundwork for a rapid response in 2014. The...broader community’s extensive experience with Dengue virus vaccine development and with the pros and cons of different vaccine platforms has led to

  5. [Pharmacovigilance of vaccines].

    PubMed

    Autret-Leca, E; Bensouda-Grimaldi, L; Jonville-Béra, A P; Beau-Salinas, F

    2006-02-01

    Safety of vaccines must be excellent to make vaccine's strategy acceptable, since it usually has a deferred individual benefit but immediate adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Pharmacovigilance of vaccines after their marketing is crucial because, prior to its availability on the market, the size of clinical trials is insufficient to identify rare or deferred adverse effects. The Pharmacovigilance is based on "spontaneous reporting" of ADRs to the Pharmacovigilance Regional Centre (PVRC) which establishes a relationship between each drug taken by the patient and the ADRs occurrence (imputability). This method is crucial to generate alerts, but under-estimates the real frequency of ADRs (1 to 10% of severe ADRs are reported). Thus pharmacoepidemiology studies are necessary to confirm the alerts identified by spontaneous reporting. ADRs can be specific, related to the antigen of an attenuated alive virus vaccine (lymphocyte meningitis after anti-mumps vaccine) or non-specific, related to a component different from the antigen (aluminium hydroxide involved in the "macrophagic myofasciitis", allergic reactions to neomycin, latex, egg or gelatine). Importance of Pharmacovigilance of vaccines is illustrated. Data, especially case-control studies, about the relationship between multiple sclerosis and hepatitis B vaccine are summarised. Data about the relationship between Crohn's disease or autism and MMR vaccine are analysed. As vaccines are used in healthy people, their safety must be excellent to be accepted. To monitor them after their marketing is the unique way to detect rare ADRs. This surveillance is made through reporting of ADRs to the PVRC. However, an active and intensive surveillance of ADRs as the one set up from the marketing of Prevenar should be systematic.

  6. Drug and vaccine allergy.

    PubMed

    Kelso, John M

    2015-02-01

    Most children with a history of penicillin allergy are labeled allergic and denied treatment with penicillin and sometimes other beta-lactam antibiotics. Most of these children never were or are no longer allergic to penicillin. Penicillin skin testing and oral challenge can identify patients who are not currently allergic, allowing them to be treated with penicillin. Children with egg allergy are often denied influenza vaccination, because the vaccine contains a small amount of egg protein. However, recent studies have demonstrated that children with even severe egg allergy can safely receive the vaccine, reducing their risk of the morbidity and mortality associated with influenza.

  7. Research toward Malaria Vaccines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Louis H.; Howard, Russell J.; Carter, Richard; Good, Michael F.; Nussenzweig, Victor; Nussenzweig, Ruth S.

    1986-12-01

    Malaria exacts a toll of disease to people in the Tropics that seems incomprehensible to those only familiar with medicine and human health in the developed world. The methods of molecular biology, immunology, and cell biology are now being used to develop an antimalarial vaccine. The Plasmodium parasites that cause malaria have many stages in their life cycle. Each stage is antigenically distinct and potentially could be interrupted by different vaccines. However, achieving complete protection by vaccination may require a better understanding of the complexities of B- and T-cell priming in natural infections and the development of an appropriate adjuvant for use in humans.

  8. Alphavirus-Based Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Lundstrom, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Alphavirus vectors based on Semliki Forest virus, Sindbis virus, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus have been widely applied for vaccine development. Naked RNA replicons, recombinant viral particles, and layered DNA vectors have been subjected to immunization in preclinical animal models with antigens for viral targets and tumor antigens. Moreover, a limited number of clinical trials have been conducted in humans. Vaccination with alphavirus vectors has demonstrated efficient immune responses and has showed protection against challenges with lethal doses of virus and tumor cells, respectively. Moreover, vaccines have been developed against alphaviruses causing epidemics such as Chikungunya virus.

  9. Vaccines against drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Shen, X Y; Orson, F M; Kosten, T R

    2012-01-01

    The currently available medications for the treatment of drug abuse have had only limited success. Anti-addiction vaccines, aimed at eliciting antibodies that block the pharmacological effects of drugs, have great potential for treating drug abuse. We review the status of two vaccines that are undergoing clinical trials (for cocaine and nicotine addiction) and two that are still in preclinical development (for methamphetamine and heroin addiction). We also outline the challenges and ethical concerns associated with the development of anti-addiction vaccines and their use as future therapeutics.

  10. The HPV vaccine mandate controversy.

    PubMed

    Haber, Gillian; Malow, Robert M; Zimet, Gregory D

    2007-12-01

    In this editorial we address the controversies surrounding human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine school-entry mandate legislation, but differentiate between the mandate debate and issues specific to the vaccine itself. Our goal is not to take a stand in favor of or opposed to mandates, but rather to critically examine the issues. We discuss the following arguments against HPV vaccine school-entry requirements: 1. The public health benefit of mandated HPV vaccination is not sufficient to warrant the intrusion on parental autonomy; 2. A vaccine that prevents a non-casually transmitted infection should not be mandated; 3. Opt-out provisions are inherently unfair to parents who oppose HPV vaccination; 4. Limited health care dollars should not be directed toward cervical cancer prevention; and 5. The vaccine is expensive and potential problems with supply suggest that mandates should not be implemented until insurance coverage and supply issues are resolved. Next, we critically evaluate the following critiques of HPV vaccination itself: 1. Giving girls HPV vaccine implies tacit consent to engage in sexual activity; 2. Giving girls this vaccine will confer a false sense of protection from sexually transmitted infections and will lead to sexual disinhibition; 3. Children already have too many vaccinations on the immunization schedule; 4. Long-term side effects of HPV vaccine are unknown; 5. The vaccine's enduring effectiveness is unknown and booster shots may be required; and 6. It is wrong to only target girls with HPV vaccine; boys should be vaccinated as well.

  11. Cirque du Monde as a health intervention

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, Cynthia; Drouin, Mélodie-Anne; Marcoux, Jérémie; Garel, Patricia; Bochud, Emmanuel; Théberge, Julie; Aubertin, Patrice; Favreau, Gil; Fleet, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To present Cirque du Soleil’s social circus program, Cirque du Monde, to explore its potential as a primary health care tool for family physicians. Data sources A review of the literature in PubMed, the Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, LaPresse, Eureka, Google Scholar, and Érudit using the key words circus, social circus, Cirque du Monde, and Cirque du Soleil; a Montreal-based initiative, Espace Transition, modeled on Cirque du Monde; and personal communication with Cirque du Soleil’s Social Circus Training Advisor. Study selection The first 50 articles or websites identified for each key word in each of the databases were examined on the basis of their titles and abstracts in the case of articles, and on the basis of their titles and page content in the case of websites. Articles and websites that explored an aspect of social circuses or that described an intervention that involved circuses were then retained for analysis. Because all literature on social circuses was searched, no criterion for year of publication was used. Synthesis No articles on the social circus as a health intervention were found. One study on the use of the circus as an intervention in schools was identified. It demonstrated an increase in self-esteem in the children who took part. One study on the use of the circus in a First Nations community was found; it contained nonspecific, qualitative findings. The other articles identified were merely descriptions of social circuses. One website was identified on the use of the social circus to help youth who had been treated in a hospital setting for major psychiatric disorders to re-enter the community. The team in the pediatric psychiatry department at Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sainte-Justine, the children’s hospital in Montreal, Que, was contacted; they were leading this project, called Espace Transition. The unpublished preliminary findings of its pilot project demonstrate substantial improvements in overall patient

  12. Les reseaux de politique publique comme facteur d'influence du choix des instruments de politique energetique canadienne a des fins environnementales de 1993 a nos jours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathy El Dessouky, Naglaa

    Au cours de la derniere decennie, les modes de la gouvernance ont pris place dans un contexte totalement different de celui qu'ils avaient auparavant. Les gouvernements modernes se rendent compte qu'ils perdent de plus en plus leur capacite a elaborer et a gerer les changements d'une maniere autonome. Ainsi, les fonctions et les activites traditionnellement accomplies exclusivement par le gouvernement engagent de nos jours une gamme d'acteurs etatiques et non etatiques. A l'encontre du concept traditionnel de l'Etat controleur, la gouvernance contemporaine est ainsi devenue moins une question d'offre de service et davantage une gestion indirecte des reseaux de politique publique. Dans cette entreprise, les gouvernements contemporains, cherchant plus d'information, de soutien et de legitimite en matiere de formulation des decisions, ont besoin d'etablir des relations avec les divers groupes d'interet qui, a leur tour, voulaient plus de promotion et de protection en faveur de leurs interets a travers leur implication au processus de l'elaboration et de la mise en oeuvre des politiques publiques. Ainsi, l'approche des reseaux de politique publique represente aujourd'hui un courant considerable au sein du champ d'analyse des politiques publiques. Toutefois, les preoccupations des chercheurs pour cette approche, dans le domaine des politiques energetiques a des fins environnementales, semblent recentes, et les etudes realisees sont encore trop peu nombreuses. Au Canada, au debut des annees 1990, le gouvernement ainsi que plusieurs groupes d'interets, des differents secteurs energetique, industriel et environnemental, ont commence a intensifier leurs efforts pour s'attaquer au probleme du changement climatique d'origine energetique, genere surtout par le secteur de l'industrie. Au cours de la derniere decennie, la question touchant plutot le sujet du developpement energetique durable represente le plus important domaine des politiques publiques ayant surgi recemment dans

  13. Vaccine safety controversies and the future of vaccination programs.

    PubMed

    François, Guido; Duclos, Philippe; Margolis, Harold; Lavanchy, Daniel; Siegrist, Claire-Anne; Meheus, André; Lambert, Paul-Henri; Emiroğlu, Nedret; Badur, Selim; Van Damme, Pierre

    2005-11-01

    In the years following the hepatitis B vaccination/multiple sclerosis controversy, a number of new issues regarding vaccine safety have been raised, in some cases leading to more debate and confusion. Against this background, an international group of experts was convened to review the current points of view concerning the use of thimerosal as a preservative and its potential risks; the suggested link between thimerosal-containing vaccines and acute lymphoblastic leukemia; the alleged association between aluminum-containing vaccines/macrophagic myofasciitis and general systemic complaints; a possible link between vaccination and autoimmune pathology; and a hypothetical link between measles-mumps-rubella vaccination and autism. At present, there are no data to conclude that childhood vaccines, and in particular hepatitis B vaccine, pose a serious health risk or justify a change in current immunization practice. However, vaccine "scares" continue to have an international impact on immunization coverage. Creating a positive environment for immunization can be achieved by repositioning the value of vaccines and vaccination, supported by evidence-based information. The role of international organizations, the media, and the industry in the implementation of communication strategies was discussed and the impact of litigation issues on vaccination was evaluated. The Viral Hepatitis Prevention Board confirms its commitment to current recommendations for universal and risk group hepatitis B vaccination and further encourages the conduct of vaccine safety studies and the dissemination of their results.

  14. Utilisation de l'essai comete et du biomarqueur gamma-H2AX pour detecter les dommages induits a l'ADN cellulaire par le 5-bromodeoxyuridine post-irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Madeleine, Carole

    Ce memoire est presente a la Faculte de medecine et des sciences de la sante de l'Universite de Sherbrooke en vue de l'obtention du grade de maitre es sciences (M.Sc.) en radiobiologie (2009). Un jury a revise les informations contenues dans ce memoire. Il etait compose de professeurs de la Faculte de medecine et des sciences de la sante soit : Darel Hunting PhD, directeur de recherche (departement de medecine nucleaire et radiobiologie), Leon Sanche PhD, directeur de recherche (departement de medecine nucleaire et radiobiologie), Richard Wagner PhD, membre du programme (departement de medecine nucleaire et radiobiologie) et Guylain Boissonneault PhD, membre exterieur au programme (departement de biochimie). Le 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), un analogue halogene de la thymidine reconnu depuis les annees 60 comme etant un excellent radiosensibilisateur. L'hypothese la plus repandue au sujet de l'effet radio sensibilisant du BrdU est qu'il augmente le nombre de cassures simple et double brin lorsqu'il est incorpore dans l'ADN de la cellule et expose aux radiations ionisantes. Toutefois, de nouvelles recherches semblent remettre en question les observations precedentes. Ces dernieres etudes ont confirme que le BrdU est un bon radiosensibilisateur, car il augmente les dommages radio-induits dans l'ADN. Mais, c'est en etant incorpore dans une region simple brin que le BrdU radiosensibilise l'ADN. Ces recherches ont egalement revele pour la premiere fois un nouveau type de dommages produits lors de l'irradiation de l'ADN contenant du BrdU : les dimeres interbrins. Le but de ces travaux de recherche est de determiner si la presence de bromodeoxyuridine dans l'ADN augmente l'induction de bris simple et / ou double brin chez les cellules irradiees en utilisant de nouvelles techniques plus sensibles et specifiques que celles utilisees auparavant. Pour ce faire, les essais cometes et la detection des foci H2AX phosphorylee pourraient permettre d'etablir les effets engendres par

  15. Parental knowledge of paediatric vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Borràs, Eva; Domínguez, Àngela; Fuentes, Miriam; Batalla, Joan; Cardeñosa, Neus; Plasencia, Antoni

    2009-01-01

    Background Although routine vaccination is a major tool in the primary prevention of some infectious diseases, there is some reluctance in a proportion of the population. Negative parental perceptions of vaccination are an important barrier to paediatric vaccination. The aim of this study was to investigate parental knowledge of paediatric vaccines and vaccination in Catalonia. Methods A retrospective, cross-sectional study was carried out in children aged < 3 years recruited by random sampling from municipal districts of all health regions of Catalonia. The total sample was 630 children. Parents completed a standard questionnaire for each child, which included vaccination coverage and knowledge about vaccination. The level of knowledge of vaccination was scored according to parental answers. Results An association was observed between greater vaccination coverage of the 4:4:4:3:1 schedule (defined as: 4 DTPa/w doses, 4 Hib doses, 4 OPV doses, 3 MenC doses and 1 MMR dose) and maternal age >30 years (OR: 2.30; 95% CI: 1.20–4.43) and with a knowledge of vaccination score greater than the mean (OR: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.28–0.72). The score increased with maternal educational level and in parents of vaccinated children. A total of 20.47% of parents stated that vaccines could have undesirable consequences for their children. Of these, 23.26% had no specific information and 17.83% stated that vaccines can cause adverse reactions and the same percentage stated that vaccines cause allergies and asthma. Conclusion Higher vaccination coverage is associated with older maternal age and greater knowledge of vaccination. Vaccination coverage could be raised by improving information on vaccines and vaccination. PMID:19473498

  16. Vaccines against typhoid fever.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Carlos A; Borsutzky, Stefan; Griot-Wenk, Monika; Metcalfe, Ian C; Pearman, Jon; Collioud, Andre; Favre, Didier; Dietrich, Guido

    2006-05-01

    Because of high infectivity and significant disease burden, typhoid fever constitutes a major global health problem. Implementation of adequate food handling practices and establishment of safe water supplies are the cornerstone for the development of an effective prevention program. However, vaccination against typhoid fever remains an essential tool for the effective management of this disease. Currently, there are two well tolerated and effective licensed vaccines. One is based on defined subunit virulence (Vi) polysaccharide antigen and can be administered either intramuscularly or subcutaneously and the other is based on the use of live attenuated bacteria for oral administration. The advantages and disadvantages of the various approaches taken in the development of a vaccine against typhoid fever are discussed, along with the potential for future vaccine candidates.

  17. Antibacterials: A sweet vaccine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bundle, David

    2016-03-01

    Vaccination with a synthetic glycoconjugate, in combination with the administration of an inhibitor that blocks capsular polysaccharide synthesis in bacteria, could offer an alternative route to combat bacterial infections.

  18. Smallpox vaccine revisited.

    PubMed

    Capriotti, Teri

    2002-12-01

    Smallpox is a serious contagious disease which is back in the public eye. Yet, most health care providers are unprepared for its return. Nurses will be key health care professionals in a smallpox outbreak or vaccination program.

  19. Your child's first vaccines

    MedlinePlus

    ... of these vaccines today: [ ] DTaP [ ] Hib [ ] Hepatitis B [ ] Polio [ ] PCV13 (Provider: Check appropriate boxes) 1. Why get ... out of 4 who are chronically infected. 6. Polio Signs and symptoms can include flu-like illness, ...

  20. Future of Polio Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Summary Over the past half-century, global use of highly effective vaccines against poliomyelitis brought this disease to the brink of elimination. Mounting evidence argues that a high level of population immunity must be maintained to preserve a polio-free status of the entire world after wild poliovirus circulation is stopped. Shifting factors in the risk-benefit-cost equation favor the creation of new poliovirus vaccines to be used in the foreseeable future. Genetically stable attenuated virus strains could be developed for an improved oral poliovirus vaccine, but proving their safety and efficacy would be impractical because of the enormous size of the clinical trials required. New versions of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) that could be used globally should be developed. An improved IPV must be efficacious, inexpensive, safe to manufacture, and easy to administer. Combination products containing IPV along with other protective antigens should become part of routine childhood immunizations around the world. PMID:19545205

  1. Pneumococcal Vaccines (PCV, PPSV)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Immunizations: Pneumococcal Vaccines (PCV, PPSV) KidsHealth > For Parents > Your ... but also help stop the infections from spreading. Immunization Schedule PCV13 immunizations are given to all infants ...

  2. Promoting HPV Vaccination Online.

    PubMed

    Lee, Moon J; Cho, Jieun

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effects of message framing and online media channel on young adults' perceived severity of human papillomavirus (HPV), perceived barriers and benefits of getting HPV vaccination, and behavioral intention to get vaccinated. An experiment was conducted with 142 college students. We found an interaction effect: The loss-framed message posted on Facebook was more effective in increasing the number of people who expressed their willingness to get HPV vaccination than the gain-framed message presented on Facebook. However, this framing effect was not found when the identical message was presented on an online newspaper. People's perceptions of severity of HPV and barriers of getting HPV vaccination were also influenced, depending on which media channel the information was circulated.

  3. Ingredients of Vaccines

    MedlinePlus

    ... quantities of mercury, aluminum, formaldehyde, human serum albumin, antibiotics, and yeast proteins in vaccines have not been found to be harmful in humans or experimental animals... Top of Page Related Pages Common Questions about ...

  4. Polymer hydrogels: Chaperoning vaccines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staats, Herman F.; Leong, Kam W.

    2010-07-01

    A cationic nanosized hydrogel (nanogel) shows controlled antigen delivery in vivo following intranasal administration and hence holds promise for a clinically effective adjuvant-free and needle-free vaccine system.

  5. Pneumococcal vaccine (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Pneumococcal vaccine is an immunization against Streptococcus pneumoniae , a bacterium that frequently causes meningitis and pneumonia in the elderly, and people with chronic illnesses. Pneumococcal pneumonia accounts for 10 to ...

  6. Vaccine delivery management.

    PubMed

    Cheyne, J

    1989-01-01

    During the typical 12- to 18-month voyage of a vaccine from manufacturer to immunization site, many situations arise in which the cold chain may be interrupted. Extensive efforts have been made in the 1980s to ensure an uninterrupted cold chain through the use of improved equipment and better training of personnel. One important advance is the vaccine cold-chain monitor, which identifies weak spots in the cold chain and prevents the use of heat-damaged vaccine. Further improvements will require efforts by the recipient countries (e.g., better use of the private sector for transport and equipment management), by donor agencies (e.g., greater consideration of the operational and maintenance costs of the equipment selected and resolution of fuel shortages), and by industry (e.g., more appropriate packaging and pricing of vaccine, extension of the expiration period, and increased heat stability.

  7. Veterinary vaccines against toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Hiszczyńska-Sawicka, Elżbieta; Gatkowska, Justyna M; Grzybowski, Marcin M; Długońska, Henryka

    2014-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a cosmopolitan protozoan parasite that infects a wide range of mammal and bird species. Common infection leads to high economic (e.g., abortions in sheep) and human (e.g., congenital toxoplasmosis or neurotoxoplasmosis in humans) losses. With one exception (Toxovax for sheep), there are no vaccines to prevent human or animal toxoplasmosis. The paper presents the current state and challenges in the development of a vaccine against toxoplasmosis, designed for farm animals either bred for consumption or commonly kept on farms and involved in parasite transmission. So far, the trials have mostly revolved around conventional vaccines and, compared with the research using laboratory animals (mainly mice), they have not been very numerous. However, the results obtained are promising and could be a good starting point for developing an effective vaccine to prevent toxoplasmosis.

  8. [Development of new vaccines].

    PubMed

    González-Romo, Fernando; Picazo, Juan J

    2015-10-01

    Recent and important advances in the fields of immunology, genomics, functional genomics, immunogenetics, immunogenomics, bioinformatics, microbiology, genetic engineering, systems biology, synthetic biochemistry, proteomics, metabolomics and nanotechnology, among others, have led to new approaches in the development of vaccines. The better identification of ideal epitopes, the strengthening of the immune response due to new adjuvants, and the search of new routes of vaccine administration, are good examples of advances that are already a reality and that will favour the development of more vaccines, their use in indicated population groups, or its production at a lower cost. There are currently more than 130 vaccines are under development against the more wished (malaria or HIV), difficult to get (CMV or RSV), severe re-emerging (Dengue or Ebola), increasing importance (Chagas disease or Leishmania), and nosocomial emerging (Clostridium difficile or Staphylococcus aureus) infectious diseases.

  9. Governments, off-patent vaccines, smallpox and universal childhood vaccination.

    PubMed

    Music, Stanley

    2010-01-22

    WHO is now celebrating more than 30 years of freedom from smallpox. What was originally seen as a victory over an ancient scourge can now be viewed as an epidemiologically driven programme to overcome governmental inertia and under-achievement in delivering an off-patent vaccine. Though efforts are accelerating global vaccine use, a plea is made to push the world's governments to commit to universal childhood vaccination via a proposed new programme. The latter should begin by exploiting a long list of ever more affordable off-patent vaccines, vaccines that can virtually eliminate the bulk of the world's current vaccine-preventable disease burden.

  10. Variable Virulence and Efficacy of BCG Vaccine Strains in Mice and Correlation With Genome Polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lu; Ru, Huan-wei; Chen, Fu-zeng; Jin, Chun-yan; Sun, Rui-feng; Fan, Xiao-yong; Guo, Ming; Mai, Jun-tao; Xu, Wen-xi; Lin, Qing-xia; Liu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG), an attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis, is the only vaccine available for tuberculosis (TB) control. However, BCG is not an ideal vaccine and has two major limitations: BCG exhibits highly variable effectiveness against the development of TB both in pediatric and adult populations and can cause disseminated BCG disease in immunocompromised individuals. BCG comprises a number of substrains that are genetically distinct. Whether and how these genetic differences affect BCG efficacy remains largely unknown. In this study, we performed comparative analyses of the virulence and efficacy of 13 BCG strains, representing different genetic lineages, in SCID and BALB/c mice. Our results show that BCG strains of the DU2 group IV (BCG-Phipps, BCG-Frappier, BCG-Pasteur, and BCG-Tice) exhibit the highest levels of virulence, and BCG strains of the DU2 group II (BCG-Sweden, BCG-Birkhaug) are among the least virulent group. These distinct levels of virulence may be explained by strain-specific duplications and deletions of genomic DNA. There appears to be a general trend that more virulent BCG strains are also more effective in protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis challenge. Our findings have important implications for current BCG vaccine programs and for future TB vaccine development. PMID:26643797

  11. Les campagnes communautaires de promotion du depistage VIH en Afrique de l’Ouest : perceptions des usagers au Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Desclaux, Alice; Ky-Zerbo, Odette; Somé, Jean-François; Makhlouf-Obermeyer, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Résumé La politique actuelle de lutte contre le sida qui repose sur l’extension de l’accès aux traitements et à la prévention exige qu’une proportion élevée de la population connaisse son statut en matière de VIH. Pour cela, l’OMS a proposé le développement de stratégies communautaires délivrant le dépistage et le conseil au-delà des services de soins, comme le test à domicile ou les campagnes de sensibilisation et dépistage de grande envergure, appliqués en Afrique australe et de l’Est. Pour définir les stratégies pertinentes dans des régions de basse prévalence comme l’Afrique de l’Ouest, les expériences communautaires de promotion du dépistage doivent y être évaluées. Cet article présente une évaluation des campagnes au Burkina Faso du point de vue des usagers. Dans le cadre d’un projet sur les pratiques et l’éthique du dépistage dans quatre pays africains (MATCH), une enquête qualitative spécifique a été menée pendant la campagne de 2008, auprès de personnes ayant fait le test pendant la campagne, ayant fait le test hors campagne ou n’ayant pas fait le test. Les appréciations sont globalement très favorables aux campagnes, notamment à cause de l’information dispensée, l’accessibilité des sites, la gratuité du test, la qualité des services et l’effet d’entrainement. Les limites ou critiques sont essentiellement liées à l’affluence ou à la crainte de ne pas être soutenu en cas de résultat positif. La démarche de recours au test ne fait plus l’objet de suspicion, au moins pendant la campagne. Cette « normalisation » du recours au test et la mobilisation collective facilitent des pratiques en groupe, ce qui peut rendre difficile de garder son statut VIH secret. L’évaluation des campagnes par les usagers les présente comme une opportunité pour accéder facilement au test et pour communiquer à ce sujet dans divers espaces sociaux à partir des informations délivrées sur le VIH

  12. Tuberculosis vaccine development: recent progress.

    PubMed

    Orme, I M; McMurray, D N; Belisle, J T

    2001-03-01

    Recent years have seen a renewed effort to develop new vaccines against tuberculosis. As a result, several promising avenues of research have developed, including the production of recombinant vaccines, auxotrophic vaccines, DNA vaccines and subunit vaccines. In this article we briefly review this work, as well as consider the pros and cons of the animal models needed to test these new vaccines. Screening to date has been carried out in mouse and guinea pig models, which have been used to obtain basic information such as the effect of the vaccine on bacterial load, and whether the vaccine can prevent or reduce lung pathology. The results to date lead us to be optimistic that new candidate vaccines could soon be considered for evaluation in clinical trials.

  13. DNA vaccines: roles against diseases

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Kishwar Hayat

    2013-01-01

    Vaccination is the most successful application of immunological principles to human health. Vaccine efficacy needs to be reviewed from time to time and its safety is an overriding consideration. DNA vaccines offer simple yet effective means of inducing broad-based immunity. These vaccines work by allowing the expression of the microbial antigen inside host cells that take up the plasmid. These vaccines function by generating the desired antigen inside the cells, with the advantage that this may facilitate presentation through the major histocompatibility complex. This review article is based on a literature survey and it describes the working and designing strategies of DNA vaccines. Advantages and disadvantages for this type of vaccines have also been explained, together with applications of DNA vaccines. DNA vaccines against cancer, tuberculosis, Edwardsiella tarda, HIV, anthrax, influenza, malaria, dengue, typhoid and other diseases were explored. PMID:24432284

  14. HPV vaccines: a controversial issue?

    PubMed Central

    Nicol, A.F.; Andrade, C.V.; Russomano, F.B.; Rodrigues, L.L.S.; Oliveira, N.S.; Provance, D.W.

    2016-01-01

    Controversy still exists over whether the benefits of the available HPV vaccines outweigh the risks and this has suppressed uptake of the HPV vaccines in comparison to other vaccines. Concerns about HPV vaccine safety have led some physicians, healthcare officials and parents to withhold the recommended vaccination from the target population. The most common reason for not administering the prophylactic HPV vaccines are concerns over adverse effects. The aim of this review is the assessment of peer-reviewed scientific data related to measurable outcomes from the use of HPV vaccines throughout the world with focused attention on the potential adverse effects. We found that the majority of studies continue to suggest a positive risk-benefit from vaccination against HPV, with minimal documented adverse effects, which is consistent with other vaccines. However, much of the published scientific data regarding the safety of HPV vaccines appears to originate from within the financially competitive HPV vaccine market. We advocate a more independent monitoring system for vaccine immunogenicity and adverse effects to address potential conflicts of interest with regular systematic literature reviews by qualified individuals to vigilantly assess and communicate adverse effects associated with HPV vaccination. Finally, our evaluation suggests that an expanded use of HPV vaccine into more diverse populations, particularly those living in low-resource settings, would provide numerous health and social benefits. PMID:27074168

  15. Epilepsy and vaccinations: Italian guidelines.

    PubMed

    Pruna, Dario; Balestri, Paolo; Zamponi, Nelia; Grosso, Salvatore; Gobbi, Giuseppe; Romeo, Antonino; Franzoni, Emilio; Osti, Maria; Capovilla, Giuseppe; Longhi, Riccardo; Verrotti, Alberto

    2013-10-01

    Reports of childhood epilepsies in temporal association with vaccination have had a great impact on the acceptance of vaccination programs by health care providers, but little is known about this possible temporal association and about the types of seizures following vaccinations. For these reasons the Italian League Against Epilepsy (LICE), in collaboration with other Italian scientific societies, has decided to generate Guidelines on Vaccinations and Epilepsy. The aim of Guidelines on Vaccinations and Epilepsy is to present recent unequivocal evidence from published reports on the possible relationship between vaccines and epilepsy in order to provide information about contraindications and risks of vaccinations in patients with epilepsy. The following main issues have been addressed: (1) whether contraindications to vaccinations exist in patients with febrile convulsions, epilepsy, and/or epileptic encephalopathies; and (2) whether any vaccinations can cause febrile seizures, epilepsy, and/or epileptic encephalopathies. Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccination and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination (MMR) increase significantly the risk of febrile seizures. Recent observations and data about the relationships between vaccination and epileptic encephalopathy show that some cases of apparent vaccine-induced encephalopathy could in fact be caused by an inherent genetic defect with no causal relationship with vaccination.

  16. Vaccination strategies against influenza.

    PubMed

    Hanon, E

    2009-01-01

    Every year, Influenza virus infection is at the origin of substantial excess in morbidity and mortality in developed as well as developing countries. Influenza viruses undergo antigenic drift which cause annual replacement of strain included in classical trivalent vaccines. Less frequently, this virus can also undergo antigenic shift, which corresponds to a major antigenic change and can lead to an extra medical burden. Several vaccines have been made available to immunize individuals against seasonal as well as pandemic influenza viruses. For seasonal Influenza vaccines, live attenuated and classical inactivated trivalent vaccines have been licensed and are widely used. Additionally, several strategies are under investigations to improve further the efficacy of existing seasonal vaccines in children and elderly. These include the use of adjuvant, increase in antigen content, or alternative route of delivery. Similarly, several approaches have been licensed to address additional challenge posed by pandemic viruses. The different vaccination strategies used to maximise protection against seasonal as well as pandemic influenza will be reviewed and discussed in the perspective the current threat posed by the H1N1v pandemic Influenza.

  17. Rationalizing vaccine injury compensation.

    PubMed

    Mello, Michelle M

    2008-01-01

    Legislation recently adopted by the United States Congress provides producers of pandemic vaccines with near-total immunity from civil lawsuits without making individuals injured by those vaccines eligible for compensation through the Vaccine Injury Compensation Program. The unusual decision not to provide an alternative mechanism for compensation is indicative of a broader problem of inconsistency in the American approach to vaccine-injury compensation policy. Compensation policies have tended to reflect political pressures and economic considerations more than any cognizable set of principles. This article identifies a set of ethical principles bearing on the circumstances in which vaccine injuries should be compensated, both inside and outside public health emergencies. A series of possible bases for compensation rules, some grounded in utilitarianism and some nonconsequentialist, are discussed and evaluated. Principles of fairness and reasonableness are found to constitute the strongest bases. An ethically defensible compensation policy grounded in these principles would make a compensation fund available to all individuals with severe injuries and to individuals with less-severe injuries whenever the vaccination was required by law or professional duty.

  18. Recombinant baculovirus displayed vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Prabakaran, Mookkan; Kwang, Jimmy

    2014-01-01

    The rapid evolution of new sublineages of H5N1 influenza in Asia poses the greatest challenge in vaccine development for pre-pandemic preparedness. To overcome the antigenic diversity of H5N1 strains, multiple vaccine strains can be designed based on the distribution of neutralizing epitopes in the globular head of H5 hemagglutinin (HA). Recently, we selected two different HAs of H5N1 strains based on the neutralizing epitopes and reactivity with different neutralizing antibodies. The HAs of selected vaccine strains were individually expressed on the baculovirus envelope (bivalent-BacHA) with its native antigenic configuration. Further, oral delivery of live bivalent-BacHA elicited broadly reactive humoral, mucosal and cell-mediated immune responses and showed complete protection against antigenically distinct H5N1 strains in mice. The strategy for the vaccine strain selection, vaccine design and route of administration will provide an idea for development of a widely protective vaccine against highly pathogenic H5N1 for pre-pandemic preparedness. PMID:23941989

  19. What is a Therapeutic HIV Vaccine?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Services HIV Overview What is a Therapeutic HIV Vaccine? (Last updated 10/17/2016; last reviewed 10/ ... from the body. What is a therapeutic HIV vaccine? A therapeutic HIV vaccine is a vaccine that’s ...

  20. What is a Preventive HIV Vaccine?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Services HIV Overview What is a Preventive HIV Vaccine? (Last updated 2/20/2017; last reviewed 2/ ... preventive HIV vaccine. What is a preventive HIV vaccine? A preventive HIV vaccine is given to people ...

  1. Vaccinations for Adults with Hepatitis C Infection

    MedlinePlus

    Vaccinations for Adults with Hepatitis C Infection This table shows which vaccinations you should have to protect your health if ... sure you and your healthcare provider keep your vaccinations up to date. Vaccine Do you need it? ...

  2. Vaccinations for Adults with HIV Infection

    MedlinePlus

    Vaccinations for Adults with HIV Infection The table below shows which vaccinations you should have to protect your health if ... sure you and your healthcare provider keep your vaccinations up to date. Vaccine Do you need it? ...

  3. Cri du Chat: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Sparks, S; Hutchinson, B

    1980-01-01

    Since Lejeune et al. (1963) first described the syndrome of Cri du Chat (Cry of the Cat), cases have been described in the literature in terms of genetic abnormalities. All cases were severely retarded and the mental impairment has been believed to be progressive, although no longitudinal studies have been reported. Descriptions of speech and language behavior have been scarce. This paper presents a case of a 7-yr, 6 mo-old girl with Cri du Chat who has received speech and language therapy for five years. Her speech, language, and mental development are noted and are not consistent with cases reported previously.

  4. Vaccine discovery and translation of new vaccine technology.

    PubMed

    Rappuoli, Rino; Black, Steven; Lambert, Paul Henri

    2011-07-23

    An unprecedented increase in new vaccine development has occurred over the past three decades. This activity has resulted in vaccines that protect against an increased range of vaccine-preventable diseases, vaccines that reduce the number of required injections, and vaccines with improved safety and purity. New methods of discovery, such as reverse vaccinology, structural biology, and systems biology, promise new vaccines for different diseases and efficient development pathways for these vaccines. We expect development of vaccines not only for infectious diseases in children but also for healthy adults, pregnant women, and elderly people, and for new indications such as autoimmune disease and cancer. We have witnessed a concomitant development of new technology for assessment of vaccine safety to rapidly identify potential safety issues. Success of these new approaches will depend on effective implementation of vaccination programmes, creative thinking on the part of manufacturers and regulators as to how best to ensure that safe and effective vaccines are available in a timely manner, and improvement of public awareness about the benefits and risks of new vaccines in a way that encourages confidence in vaccines.

  5. Measuring government commitment to vaccination.

    PubMed

    Glassman, Amanda; Zoloa, Juan Ignacio; Duran, Denizhan

    2013-04-18

    Vaccination is among the most cost-effective health interventions and has attracted ever greater levels of funding from public and private donors. However, some countries, mainly populous lower-middle income countries, are lagging behind on vaccination financing and performance. In this paper, we discuss the rationale for investing in vaccination and construct a metric to measure government commitment to vaccination that could promote accountability and better tracking of performance. While noting the limitations of available data, we find that populous middle-income countries, which stand to gain tremendously from increased vaccination uptake, perform poorly in terms of their vaccination outcomes.

  6. Identifying and Addressing Vaccine Hesitancy

    PubMed Central

    Kestenbaum, Lori A.; Feemster, Kristen A.

    2015-01-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as vaccine hesitant. This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance. PMID:25875982

  7. Identifying and addressing vaccine hesitancy.

    PubMed

    Kestenbaum, Lori A; Feemster, Kristen A

    2015-04-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as "vaccine hesitant." This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political, and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance.

  8. Glycoconjugate Vaccines: The Regulatory Framework.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Most vaccines, including the currently available glycoconjugate vaccines, are administered to healthy infants, to prevent future disease. The safety of a prospective vaccine is a key prerequisite for approval. Undesired side effects would not only have the potential to damage the individual infant but also lead to a loss of confidence in the respective vaccine-or vaccines in general-on a population level. Thus, regulatory requirements, particularly with regard to safety, are extremely rigorous. This chapter highlights regulatory aspects on carbohydrate-based vaccines with an emphasis on analytical approaches to ensure the consistent quality of successive manufacturing lots.

  9. Un nouveau vaccin conjugué contre le méningocoque: Que devraient faire et savoir les médecins?

    PubMed Central

    Bortolussi, R; Salvadori, M

    2009-01-01

    Un vaccin conjugué quadrivalent contre le méningocoque de séro-groupes A, C, Y et W135 (MCV4 [Menactra, sanofi pasteur, Canada]) a été lancé au Canada en 2007 pour les personnes de deux ans ou plus. Le MCV4 ajoute trois sérogroupes aux vaccins conjugués contre le méningocoque de sérogroupe C, utilisé depuis plusieurs années. Les taux de méningococcies invasives du sérogroupe C ont fléchi depuis dix ans grâce au vaccin conjugué contre le méningocoque de séro-groupe C. Cependant, l’incidence d’infection causée par les séro-groupes A, B, Y et W135 n’a pas tellement changé. Le vaccin MCV4 induit la production d’anticorps protecteurs contre les sérogroupes A, C, Y et W135 chez les adultes et les enfants de plus de deux ans. Les effets indésirables graves du vaccin MCV4 sont peu fréquents. Étant donné l’efficacité des vaccins conjugués contre le méningocoque de sérogroupe C administrés aux jeunes nourrissons et le nombre élevé de méningococcies du sérogroupe C au Canada par le passé, les médecins devraient favoriser et promouvoir les programmes de vaccination sub-ventionnés par le gouvernement entrepris dès l’âge de deux mois. Le vaccin MCV4 devrait également être administré aux enfants de deux ans plus vulnérables à une méningococcie. On peut également envisager de l’administrer aux enfants positifs au VIH de deux ans ou plus. Il faut offrir une dose de rappel du vaccin MCV4 ou d’un vaccin conjugué contre le méningocoque de sérogroupe C à tous les adolescents vers l’âge de 12 ans. D’ordinaire, ces vaccins sont sécuritaires et bien tolérés.

  10. [Pneumococcal vaccines. New conjugate vaccines for adults].

    PubMed

    Campins Martí, Magda

    2015-11-01

    Pneumococcal infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, and are one of the 10 leading causes of death worldwide. Children under 2 years have a higher incidence rate, followed by adults over 64 years. The main risk group are individuals with immunodeficiency, and those with anatomical or functional asplenia, but can also affect immunocompetent persons with certain chronic diseases. Significant progress has been made in the last 10 years in the prevention of these infections. Until a few years ago, only the 23-valent non-conjugate pneumococcal vaccine was available. Its results were controversial in terms of efficacy and effectiveness, and with serious limitations on the type of immune response induced. The current possibility of using the 13-valent conjugate vaccine in adults has led to greater expectations in improving the prevention of pneumococcal disease in these age groups.

  11. Facteurs prédictifs de l’échec du Traitement Préventif Intermittent du paludisme à la sulfadoxine – pyriméthamine (TPIp-SP) dans une population de femmes enceintes à Yaoundé

    PubMed Central

    Essiben, Félix; Foumane, Pascal; de Nguefack, Marcelle Aurelie Tsafack; Eko, Filbert Eko; Njotang, Philip Nana; Enow, Robinson Mbu; Mboudou, Emile Telesphore

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Le traitement préventif intermittent à la sulfadoxine-pyriméthamine (TPIp-SP) est recommandé pour prévenir le paludisme pendant la grossesse. Nous avons recherché les facteurs associés à l’échec de cette stratégie. Méthodes Nous avons mené une étude cas - témoins dans deux formations sanitaires de Yaoundé, du 1er Mai 2014 au 30 Avril 2015. Les femmes enceintes sous TPIp-SP hospitalisées pour paludisme ayant un Test de Diagnostic Rapide (TDR) positif (cas) étaient comparées aux femmes enceintes sous TPIp-SP ayant un TDR négatif (témoins). Les logiciels Epi info 7 et SPSS 18.0 ont été utilisés avec P < 0,05 comme seuil de significativité. Résultats Nous avons recruté 234 sujets, 109 cas (46,6%) et 125 témoins (53,4%). Les facteurs associés retrouvés étaient: la primiparité (P=0,03; OR=1,15; IC= 0,32 - 4,10), la non utilisation de la MILDA (P=0,006; OR= 2,31; IC= 1,26 - 4,25), un antécédent d'hospitalisation pour paludisme (P=0,007; OR= 2,19; IC= 1,23 - 3,89), le début de la TPIp-SP après la 28ème semaine de grossesse (P=0,001, OR= 3,55; IC= 1,7 - 7,61). Après régression logistique, la primiparité (P=0,024; OR=2,01; IC=1,1-3,7) et un antécédent d'hospitalisation pour paludisme (P=0,001; OR=2,83; IC=1,50-5,4) restaient associés à l’échec du TPIp-SP. Conclusion Un antécédent d'hospitalisation pour accès palustre et la primiparité sont des facteurs prédictifs indépendants de l’échec de la TPIp-SP. PMID:27303570

  12. [Pertussis vaccine. Reemergence of the disease and new vaccination strategies].

    PubMed

    Moraga-Llop, Fernando A; Campins-Martí, Magda

    2015-03-01

    Pertussis continues to be a public health problem despite the significant decrease in its incidence due to routine vaccination. Resurgence of the disease in countries that have maintained high vaccination coverage has been observed in recent years. Although vaccination is the most effective preventive control measure, both natural and artificial immunity wane over time, and thus the protection offered by current vaccines is not long-lasting. Furthermore, acellular vaccines are less effective. The implementation of new vaccine strategies is required. Vaccination of pregnant women is the most effective strategy for preventing pertussis in young infants, who are the most vulnerable, and should be recommended together with cocooning, ie vaccination of future household and extra-domiciliary contacts who are the main transmitters of the disease.

  13. Rhodococcus equi (Prescottella equi) vaccines; the future of vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Giles, C; Vanniasinkam, T; Ndi, S; Barton, M D

    2015-09-01

    For decades researchers have been targeting prevention of Rhodococcus equi (Rhodococcus hoagui/Prescottella equi) by vaccination and the horse breeding industry has supported the ongoing efforts by researchers to develop a safe and cost effective vaccine to prevent disease in foals. Traditional vaccines including live, killed and attenuated (physical and chemical) vaccines have proved to be ineffective and more modern molecular-based vaccines including the DNA plasmid, genetically attenuated and subunit vaccines have provided inadequate protection of foals. Newer, bacterial vector vaccines have recently shown promise for R. equi in the mouse model. This article describes the findings of key research in R. equi vaccine development and looks at alternative methods that may potentially be utilised.

  14. 9 CFR 113.318 - Pseudorabies Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pseudorabies Vaccine. 113.318 Section... Virus Vaccines § 113.318 Pseudorabies Vaccine. Pseudorabies Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing... be used for preparing seeds for vaccine production. All serials of vaccine shall be prepared from...

  15. 9 CFR 113.303 - Bluetongue Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bluetongue Vaccine. 113.303 Section... Virus Vaccines § 113.303 Bluetongue Vaccine. Bluetongue Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing... be used for preparing the seeds for vaccine production. All serials of vaccine shall be prepared...

  16. 9 CFR 113.318 - Pseudorabies Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pseudorabies Vaccine. 113.318 Section... Virus Vaccines § 113.318 Pseudorabies Vaccine. Pseudorabies Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing... be used for preparing seeds for vaccine production. All serials of vaccine shall be prepared from...

  17. 9 CFR 113.318 - Pseudorabies Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pseudorabies Vaccine. 113.318 Section... Virus Vaccines § 113.318 Pseudorabies Vaccine. Pseudorabies Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing... be used for preparing seeds for vaccine production. All serials of vaccine shall be prepared from...

  18. 9 CFR 113.313 - Measles Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Measles Vaccine. 113.313 Section 113... Vaccines § 113.313 Measles Vaccine. Measles Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture... for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production. All serials of vaccine shall...

  19. 9 CFR 113.318 - Pseudorabies Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pseudorabies Vaccine. 113.318 Section... Virus Vaccines § 113.318 Pseudorabies Vaccine. Pseudorabies Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing... be used for preparing seeds for vaccine production. All serials of vaccine shall be prepared from...

  20. 9 CFR 113.303 - Bluetongue Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bluetongue Vaccine. 113.303 Section... Virus Vaccines § 113.303 Bluetongue Vaccine. Bluetongue Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing... be used for preparing the seeds for vaccine production. All serials of vaccine shall be prepared...

  1. 9 CFR 113.313 - Measles Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Measles Vaccine. 113.313 Section 113... Vaccines § 113.313 Measles Vaccine. Measles Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture... for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production. All serials of vaccine shall...

  2. 9 CFR 113.303 - Bluetongue Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bluetongue Vaccine. 113.303 Section... Virus Vaccines § 113.303 Bluetongue Vaccine. Bluetongue Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing... be used for preparing the seeds for vaccine production. All serials of vaccine shall be prepared...

  3. 9 CFR 113.313 - Measles Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Measles Vaccine. 113.313 Section 113... Vaccines § 113.313 Measles Vaccine. Measles Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture... for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production. All serials of vaccine shall...

  4. 9 CFR 113.303 - Bluetongue Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bluetongue Vaccine. 113.303 Section... Virus Vaccines § 113.303 Bluetongue Vaccine. Bluetongue Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing... be used for preparing the seeds for vaccine production. All serials of vaccine shall be prepared...

  5. 9 CFR 113.313 - Measles Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Measles Vaccine. 113.313 Section 113... Vaccines § 113.313 Measles Vaccine. Measles Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture... for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production. All serials of vaccine shall...

  6. 9 CFR 113.318 - Pseudorabies Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pseudorabies Vaccine. 113.318 Section... Virus Vaccines § 113.318 Pseudorabies Vaccine. Pseudorabies Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing... be used for preparing seeds for vaccine production. All serials of vaccine shall be prepared from...

  7. 9 CFR 113.303 - Bluetongue Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bluetongue Vaccine. 113.303 Section... Virus Vaccines § 113.303 Bluetongue Vaccine. Bluetongue Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing... be used for preparing the seeds for vaccine production. All serials of vaccine shall be prepared...

  8. 9 CFR 113.313 - Measles Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Measles Vaccine. 113.313 Section 113... Vaccines § 113.313 Measles Vaccine. Measles Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture... for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production. All serials of vaccine shall...

  9. Variete Technique du Lambeau Sural dans les Brulures Profondes du Pied

    PubMed Central

    Ezzoubi, M.; Ettalbi, S.; Elmounjid, S.; Fassi, J.; Benchamckha, F.J.; Sakhi, M.; Boukind, E.

    2005-01-01

    Summary Les couvertures des pertes de substance de la jambe, du talon et du pied font souvent appel au lambeau sural, qui reste, de part ses dimensions, une indication limitée. Les Auteurs présentent, à travers deux cas cliniques, une variété technique pour la levée du lambeau sural, permettant d'obtenir des palettes cutanées de grande surface avec une bonne sécurité vasculaire. C'est un lambeau fasciocutané remontant jusqu'à un centimètre du creux poplité et incluant, lors de la levée, l'aponévrose, le nerf sural, la petite veine saphène et le nerf sural latéral. PMID:21990988

  10. Cancer Vaccines: A Brief Overview.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Sunil; Prendergast, George C

    2016-01-01

    Vaccine approaches for cancer differ from traditional vaccine approaches for infectious disease in tending to focus on clearing active disease rather than preventing disease. In this review, we provide a brief overview of different types of vaccines and adjuvants that have been investigated for the purpose of controlling cancer burdens in patients, some of which are approved for clinical use or in late-stage clinical trials, such as the personalized dendritic cell vaccine sipuleucel-T (Provenge) and the recombinant viral prostate cancer vaccine PSA-TRICOM (Prostvac-VF). Vaccines against human viruses implicated in the development and progression of certain cancers, such as human papillomavirus in cervical cancer, are not considered here. Cancers express "altered self" antigens that tend to induce weaker responses than the "foreign" antigens expressed by infectious agents. Thus, immune stimulants and adjuvant approaches have been explored widely. Vaccine types considered include autologous patient-derived immune cell vaccines, tumor antigen-expressing recombinant virus vaccines, peptide vaccines, DNA vaccines, and heterologous whole-cell vaccines derived from established human tumor cell lines. Opportunities to develop effective cancer vaccines may benefit from seminal recent advances in understanding how immunosuppressive barricades are erected by tumors to mediate immune escape. In particular, targeted ablation of these barricades with novel agents, such as the immune checkpoint drug ipilimumab (anti-CTLA-4) approved recently for clinical use, may offer significant leverage to vaccinologists seeking to control and prevent malignancy.

  11. Vaccines, adjuvants and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Luísa Eça; Baker, Britain; Perricone, Carlo; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2015-10-01

    Vaccines and autoimmunity are linked fields. Vaccine efficacy is based on whether host immune response against an antigen can elicit a memory T-cell response over time. Although the described side effects thus far have been mostly transient and acute, vaccines are able to elicit the immune system towards an autoimmune reaction. The diagnosis of a definite autoimmune disease and the occurrence of fatal outcome post-vaccination have been less frequently reported. Since vaccines are given to previously healthy hosts, who may have never developed the disease had they not been immunized, adverse events should be carefully accessed and evaluated even if they represent a limited number of occurrences. In this review of the literature, there is evidence of vaccine-induced autoimmunity and adjuvant-induced autoimmunity in both experimental models as well as human patients. Adjuvants and infectious agents may exert their immune-enhancing effects through various functional activities, encompassed by the adjuvant effect. These mechanisms are shared by different conditions triggered by adjuvants leading to the autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA syndrome). In conclusion, there are several case reports of autoimmune diseases following vaccines, however, due to the limited number of cases, the different classifications of symptoms and the long latency period of the diseases, every attempt for an epidemiological study has so far failed to deliver a connection. Despite this, efforts to unveil the connection between the triggering of the immune system by adjuvants and the development of autoimmune conditions should be undertaken. Vaccinomics is a field that may bring to light novel customized, personalized treatment approaches in the future.

  12. Vaccine hesitancy: Definition, scope and determinants.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Noni E

    2015-08-14

    The SAGE Working Group on Vaccine Hesitancy concluded that vaccine hesitancy refers to delay in acceptance or refusal of vaccination despite availability of vaccination services. Vaccine hesitancy is complex and context specific, varying across time, place and vaccines. It is influenced by factors such as complacency, convenience and confidence. The Working Group retained the term 'vaccine' rather than 'vaccination' hesitancy, although the latter more correctly implies the broader range of immunization concerns, as vaccine hesitancy is the more commonly used term. While high levels of hesitancy lead to low vaccine demand, low levels of hesitancy do not necessarily mean high vaccine demand. The Vaccine Hesitancy Determinants Matrix displays the factors influencing the behavioral decision to accept, delay or reject some or all vaccines under three categories: contextual, individual and group, and vaccine/vaccination-specific influences.

  13. 75 FR 48712 - Proposed Vaccine Information Materials for Influenza Vaccine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Proposed Vaccine Information Materials for Influenza Vaccine AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Notice with Comment Period. SUMMARY: Under the National Childhood Vaccine...

  14. 75 FR 48706 - Proposed Vaccine Information Materials for Rotavirus Vaccine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Proposed Vaccine Information Materials for Rotavirus Vaccine AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Notice with comment period. SUMMARY: Under the National Childhood Vaccine...

  15. Evaluation of vaccine competition using HVT vector vaccines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Turkey herpesvirus (HVT) has been widely used as a vaccine for Marek’s disease (MD) since the 1970s. Because HVT is a safe vaccine that is poorly sensitive to interference from maternally derived antibodies, it has seen rising use as a vector for vaccines developed for protection against other comm...

  16. Sign Communication in Cri du Chat Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erlenkamp, Sonja; Kristoffersen, Kristian Emil

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a study on the use of sign supported Norwegian (SSN) in two individuals with Cri du chat syndrome (CCS). The study gives a first account of some selected aspects of production and intelligibility of SSN in CCS. Possible deviance in manual parameters, in particular inter- and/or intra-subject variation in the use…

  17. Prejudice: From Allport to DuBois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaines, Stanley O., Jr.; Reed, Edward S.

    1995-01-01

    Examines the differences between Gordon Allport's and W. E. B. DuBois's theories on the origins of prejudice and the impact of discrimination on the personality and social development of blacks. The article argues that prejudice is a historically developed process, not a universal feature of human psychology. Implications for U.S. race relations…

  18. Growth study of cri du chat syndrome.

    PubMed

    Collins, M S; Eaton-Evans, J

    2001-10-01

    We compared the growth of children with cri du chat (5p-) syndrome with the 1990 UK growth curves. Most subjects had impaired growth, particularly of head circumference. The more emaciated the child the more pronounced the microcephaly, showing the need for growth and nutrition monitoring.

  19. Rick and Becky DuFour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLester, Susan

    2012-01-01

    In 1969, a concern with the deep inequity of students' experiences and opportunities in traditional school systems first drove social studies teacher Rick DuFour to begin advocating for the kind of reforms that would jell into his transformative model, Professional Learning Communities (PLC) at Work, some 16 years later. The core belief of the PLC…

  20. DuSable High School Program Flourishes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graff, Pat

    1995-01-01

    Describes the fall and rise of the Panther Press, the scholastic newspaper of the DuSable High School in Chicago. States that despite being located in the midst of public housing projects, the school's newspaper is thriving where others in similar circumstances have failed. Describes how the school's principal and an advisor revitalized and…

  1. The Flu Vaccine and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG The Flu Vaccine and Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs The ... Spanish FAQ189, October 2015 PDF Format The Flu Vaccine and Pregnancy Pregnancy What is influenza (the flu)? ...

  2. New Vaccines Help Protect You

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues New Vaccines Help Protect You Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table ... this page please turn Javascript on. Important new vaccines have recently been approved for use and are ...

  3. Tetanus, Diphtheria, and Pertussis Vaccines

    MedlinePlus

    ... nose and throat. Whooping cough causes uncontrollable coughing. Vaccines can protect you from these diseases. In the U.S., there are four combination vaccines: DTaP prevents all three diseases. It is for ...

  4. The business of making vaccines.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Cormac

    2005-11-01

    With a growing need for better and more plentiful vaccines, traditional vaccine companies are responding by increasing manufacturing capacity, the biotech industry, with innovative products. Both are surely needed.

  5. DNA vaccines in veterinary use

    PubMed Central

    Redding, Laurel; Werner, David B

    2015-01-01

    DNA vaccines represent a new frontier in vaccine technology. One important application of this technology is in the veterinary arena. DNA vaccines have already gained a foothold in certain fields of veterinary medicine. However, several important questions must be addressed when developing DNA vaccines for animals, including whether or not the vaccine is efficacious and cost effective compared with currently available options. Another important question to consider is how to apply this developing technology in a wide range of different situations, from the domestic pet to individual fish in fisheries with several thousand animals, to wildlife programs for disease control. In some cases, DNA vaccines represent an interesting option for vaccination, while in others, currently available options are sufficient. This review will examine a number of diseases of veterinary importance and the progress being made in DNA vaccine technology relevant to these diseases, and we compare these with the conventional treatment options available. PMID:19722897

  6. DNA vaccines in veterinary use.

    PubMed

    Redding, Laurel; Weiner, David B

    2009-09-01

    DNA vaccines represent a new frontier in vaccine technology. One important application of this technology is in the veterinary arena. DNA vaccines have already gained a foothold in certain fields of veterinary medicine. However, several important questions must be addressed when developing DNA vaccines for animals, including whether or not the vaccine is efficacious and cost effective compared with currently available options. Another important question to consider is how to apply this developing technology in a wide range of different situations, from the domestic pet to individual fish in fisheries with several thousand animals, to wildlife programs for disease control. In some cases, DNA vaccines represent an interesting option for vaccination, while in others, currently available options are sufficient. This review will examine a number of diseases of veterinary importance and the progress being made in DNA vaccine technology relevant to these diseases, and we compare these with the conventional treatment options available.

  7. Vaccination: An Act of Love

    MedlinePlus

    ... dreams. Remember too: Vaccination is an Act of Love. Dr. Mirta Roses Periago Director, Pan American Health ... MICROSCOPE ? KNOW WHY VACCINATION IS AN ACT OF LOVE? IT PROTECTS AGAINST MANY TYPES OF DISEASE! AND ...

  8. 10 Reasons to Get Vaccinated

    MedlinePlus

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features 10 Reasons To Get Vaccinated Language: English Español (Spanish) ... many reasons to get vaccinated; here are just 10. You may be at risk for serious diseases ...

  9. Current approaches to vaccine preparation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiang-Jian; Cepica, Arnost

    1990-01-01

    Numerous conventional vaccines for animal use are currently available, and many of these vaccines have been instrumental in the control of infectious diseases of major economic importance. A vaccine has even been instrumental in global eradication of smallpox, an important human disease. However, many of the current vaccines are deficient in efficiency, potency, or safety. It has been recognized that the conventional methodologies are a limitation to further vaccine development. Introduction of monoclonal antibodies, recombinant DNA, and protein engineering techniques has facilitated a rather rapid increase in the knowledge of pathogenetic mechanisms, as well as of protective antigens at the molecular level. This knowledge provides the basis for development of a new generation of vaccines. As a rule, these vaccines contain purified immunogens, or even isolated epitopes, identified and prepared by molecular biological techniques. The efforts to find better delivery systems and better adjuvants accompany the research on vaccines. PMID:17423533

  10. HIV/AIDS and Vaccines

    MedlinePlus

    ... NIAID). /* // ** // */ Prevention Research Vaccines Microbicides Related Topics on AIDS.gov Clinical Trials Immune System 101 HIV Vaccine ... Be the Generation Last revised: 12/09/2016 AIDS.gov HIV/AIDS Basics • Federal Resources • Using New ...

  11. Economics of vaccines revisited.

    PubMed

    Postma, Maarten J; Standaert, Baudouin A

    2013-05-01

    Performing a total health economic analysis of a vaccine newly introduced into the market today is a challenge when using the conventional cost-effectiveness analysis we normally apply on pharmaceutical products. There are many reasons for that, such as: the uncertainty in the total benefit (direct and indirect) to be measured in a population when using a cohort model; (1) appropriate rules about discounting the long-term impact of vaccines are absent jeopardizing therefore their value at the initial investment; (2) the presence of opposite contexts when introducing the vaccine in developed vs. the developing world with high benefits, low initial health care investment for the latter vs. marginal benefit and high cost for the former; with a corresponding paradox for the vaccine becoming very cost-effective in low income countries but rather medium in middle low to high middle income countries; (3) and the type of trial assessment for the newer vaccines is now often performed with immunogenicity reaction instead of clinical endpoints which still leaves questions on their real impact and their head-to-head comparison. (4.)

  12. Financing of vaccines.

    PubMed

    Barton, J H

    2000-04-08

    This article discusses the need to increase the financial assistance for vaccine development. A health situation was cited to present the intolerable impact of the shortfall in funding for vaccines. This situation, on the other hand, has awakened the world community to respond by forming organizations and projects that will help eliminate this kind of problem in the future. However, this renewed interest in vaccine development would be impossible if there is no adequate funding and political commitment. Furthermore, the research and development to conduct and achieve highly effective vaccines will require a hundred to a hundred million US dollars in annual combined public and private research expenditures. To help solve this problem, one suggested solution is the development of a global fund to support production and distribution of new vaccines. Aside from that, other alternatives being looked into are the mechanisms used in other sectors that generated successful funding. This leads to the idea of creating a new treaty, which will provide the flexibility to gain support from new constituencies, to strengthen institutions, and to create adequately strong budgetary commitments.

  13. Vaccination against ectoparasites.

    PubMed

    Willadsen, P

    2006-01-01

    Ectoparasites of livestock are of great economic and social importance but their effective control remains difficult. The feasibility of vaccination as a novel control measure was established over a decade ago with the commercial release of a recombinant vaccine against the cattle tick Boophilus microplus. Since then, research has continued on ticks and other ectoparasites. While some ectoparasite species will undoubtedly be refractory to immunological control, for others there has been a steady accumulation of knowledge of partially protective antigens, now accelerating through the application of genomic technologies. Nevertheless, progress towards usable, commercially available vaccines has been limited by a number of factors. The number of highly effective antigens is still very small. Although some classes of antigen have been investigated in more detail than others, we have no systematic knowledge of what distinguishes an effective antigen. Much hope has been placed on the potential of multi-antigen mixtures to deliver the efficacy required of a successful vaccine but with little experimental evidence. The application of current knowledge across parasite and host species needs to be explored but little has been done. In most cases, the path to commercial delivery is uncertain. Although many constraints and challenges remain, the need for vaccines and our capacity to develop them can only increase.

  14. Vaccines for the elderly.

    PubMed

    Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Weinberger, Birgit; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix

    2015-01-01

    The aging of the human population is posing serious challenges to research and to public health authorities in order to prevent diseases that more frequently affect the elderly, a portion of the population that will increase more and more in the coming years. While some vaccines exist and are used in the elderly to effectively fight against some infections (e.g. influenza, pneumococci, varicella-zoster virus, diphtheria, and tetanus), still a lot of work remains to be done to better adapt these vaccines and to develop new ones for this age group. The prevention of infectious diseases affecting the elderly can be successful only through a holistic approach. This approach will aim at the following: (1) a deeper understanding of the mechanisms leading to the senescence of the immune system, (2) a better and broader use of vaccines recommended for the elderly, (3) the use of vaccines currently considered only for other age groups and (4) actively priming the population when they are immunological competent, before the physiological waning of immune responsiveness may affect the beneficial effects of vaccination.

  15. Cancer therapy and vaccination.

    PubMed

    Aly, Hamdy A A

    2012-08-31

    Cancer remains one of the leading causes of death worldwide, both in developed and in developing nations. It may affect people at all ages, even fetuses, but the risk for most varieties increases with age. Current therapeutic approaches which include surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are associated with adverse side effects arising from lack of specificity for tumors. The goal of any therapeutic strategy is to impact on the target tumor cells with limited detrimental effect to normal cell function. Immunotherapy is cancer specific and can target the disease with minimal impact on normal tissues. Cancer vaccines are capable of generating an active tumor-specific immune response and serve as an ideal treatment due to their specificity for tumor cells and long lasting immunological memory that may safeguard against recurrences. Cancer vaccines are designed to either prevent (prophylactic) or treat established cancer (therapeutic). Identification of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) and tumor-specific antigens (TSAs) has led to increased efforts to develop vaccination strategies. Vaccines may be composed of whole cells or cell extracts, genetically modified tumor cells to express costimulatory molecules, dendritic cells (DCs) loaded with TAAs, immunization with soluble proteins or synthetic peptides, recombinant viruses or bacteria encoding tumor-associated antigens, and plasmid DNA encoding TSAs or TAAs in conjunction with appropriate immunomodulators. All of these antitumor vaccination approaches aim to induce specific immunological responses and localized to TAAs, destroying tumor cells alone and leaving the vast majority of other healthy cells of the body untouched.

  16. Vaccination against bovine babesiosis.

    PubMed

    De Vos, A J; Bock, R E

    2000-01-01

    Bovine babesiosis is an important disease caused by Babesia bovis, B. bigemina, and B. divergens. Solid immunity develops after infection and this feature has been exploited with the use of live attenuated organisms as immunogens. Attributes of live vaccines include a durable immunity to heterologous challenge after one vaccination. To overcome disadvantages relating to poor quality control (risk of contamination and adverse reactions), production procedures have been modified to meet the requirements of codes of good manufacturing practice. This includes development of methods to allow production of cryopreserved vaccine and limit antigenic drift. Killed vaccines have also been used on a limited basis and consist of antigens extracted from cultured material or blood of infected calves, and given with adjuvant. The degree and duration of immunity against heterologous challenge is not well documented. Attempts are being made to develop subunit vaccines but the progress has been slow. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the expression of protective immunity against Babesia spp will aid in the identification of protective antigens.

  17. Vaccine hesitancy and healthcare providers.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Pauline; Meurice, François; Stanberry, Lawrence R; Glismann, Steffen; Rosenthal, Susan L; Larson, Heidi J

    2016-12-20

    While most people vaccinate according to the recommended schedule, this success is challenged by individuals and groups who delay or refuse vaccines. The aim of this article is to review studies on vaccine hesitancy among healthcare providers (HCPs), and the influences of their own vaccine confidence and vaccination behaviour on their vaccination recommendations to others. The search strategy was developed in Medline and then adapted across several multidisciplinary mainstream databases including Embase Classic & Embase, and PschInfo. All foreign language articles were included if the abstract was available in English. A total of 185 articles were included in the literature review. 66% studied the vaccine hesitancy among HCPs, 17% analysed concerns, attitudes and/or behaviour of HCPs towards vaccinating others, and 9% were about evaluating intervention(s). Overall, knowledge about particular vaccines, their efficacy and safety, helped to build HCPs own confidence in vaccines and their willingness to recommend vaccines to others. The importance of societal endorsement and support from colleagues was also reported. In the face of emerging vaccine hesitancy, HCPs still remain the most trusted advisor and influencer of vaccination decisions. The capacity and confidence of HCPs, though, are stretched as they are faced with time constraints, increased workload and limited resources, and often have inadequate information or training support to address parents' questions. Overall, HCPs need more support to manage the quickly evolving vaccine environment as well as changing public, especially those who are reluctant or refuse vaccination. Some recommended strategies included strengthening trust between HCPs, health authorities and policymakers, through more shared involvement in the establishment of vaccine recommendations.

  18. Listeria Vaccines for Pancreatic Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0411 TITLE: Listeria vaccines for pancreatic cancer...29September2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Listeria vaccines for pancreatic cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0411 5c...explored the capacity of Listeria vaccines to induce anti-tumor T cell immunity in the KPC model. We have found that Listeria vaccines produce

  19. Safety of hepatitis B vaccines.

    PubMed

    Zuckerman, Arie J

    2004-05-01

    Although concerns about vaccine safety have increased, true adverse reactions associated with hepatitis B vaccines are few, apart from minor symptoms at the site of injection and occasionally systemic reactions. There is no evidence of an association with hepatitis B vaccination and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, Multiple Sclerosis and the Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Hepatitis B vaccines are safe and essential for the prevention of this important and common infection.

  20. La place du clou Telegraph court dans le traitement des fractures de l'extrémité supérieure de l'humérus: à propos de 19 cas

    PubMed Central

    karabila, Mohamed Amine; Hmouri, Ismail; Mhamdi, Younes; Azouz, Mohamed; Madani, Tarik; Kharmaz, Mohamed; Ouadaghiri, Mohamed; Lamrani, Moulay Omar; Bardouni, Ahmed; Lahlou, Abdou; Mahfoud, Mustapha; Berrada, Mohamed Saleh; Montbarbon, Éric; Beaudouin, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    La fracture de l'extrémité supérieure de l'humérus est la troisième fracture en fréquence chez les sujets âgés et leur répartition est bimodale touchant préférentiellement le sujet âgé ostéoporotique après un traumatisme à faible énergie ou plus rarement le sujet jeune par mécanisme à forte cinétique. Le traitement des fractures complexes de l'humérus proximal est le sujet de nombreuses controverses Le clou Telegraph constitue une approche thérapeutique très efficace pour les fractures déplacées de l'extrémité supérieure de l'humérus, de technique chirurgicale facile mais avec une courbe d'apprentissage et permettant un protocole de rééducation dans l'immédiat de l'intervention. C'est un matériel d'enclouage antérograde de 15 cm de long, plein verrouillé en proximal et en distal, le verrouillage proximal est assuré par 4 vis spongieuses, de filetage long, stables dans le clou et cela confère une solidité tout-à-fait remarquable à ce montage alors que le verrouillage distal est assuré au niveau du V deltoïdien en zone avasculaire et là où il n'y a pas de passage nerveux. L’étude présentée concerne 19 patients traités par un clou Telegraph court dans le traitement des fractures de l'extrémité supérieure de l'humérus entre 2013 et 2015 et elle a pour but d'analyser les résultats radio-cliniques et d’évaluer la répercussion de cette technique sur la fonction de l’épaule. Le clou Telegraph proposé depuis plus de 12 ans à peu près, a rencontré et continue de rencontrer un réel succès. Il permet de traiter très efficacement les fractures simples type 2 et 3, mais aussi les fractures impactées en valgus à 4 fragments. L'ostéosynthèse par clou Telegraph est une solution efficace, rapide et reproductible dans le traitement chirurgical des fractures de l'extrémité supérieur de l'humérus même en cas des fractures complexes et permet une reprise rapide de la mobilité de l’épaule. PMID:27583100

  1. A brief history of vaccines & vaccination in India

    PubMed Central

    Lahariya, Chandrakant

    2014-01-01

    The challenges faced in delivering lifesaving vaccines to the targeted beneficiaries need to be addressed from the existing knowledge and learning from the past. This review documents the history of vaccines and vaccination in India with an objective to derive lessons for policy direction to expand the benefits of vaccination in the country. A brief historical perspective on smallpox disease and preventive efforts since antiquity is followed by an overview of 19th century efforts to replace variolation by vaccination, setting up of a few vaccine institutes, cholera vaccine trial and the discovery of plague vaccine. The early twentieth century witnessed the challenges in expansion of smallpox vaccination, typhoid vaccine trial in Indian army personnel, and setting up of vaccine institutes in almost each of the then Indian States. In the post-independence period, the BCG vaccine laboratory and other national institutes were established; a number of private vaccine manufacturers came up, besides the continuation of smallpox eradication effort till the country became smallpox free in 1977. The Expanded Programme of Immunization (EPI) (1978) and then Universal Immunization Programme (UIP) (1985) were launched in India. The intervening events since UIP till India being declared non-endemic for poliomyelitis in 2012 have been described. Though the preventive efforts from diseases were practiced in India, the reluctance, opposition and a slow acceptance of vaccination have been the characteristic of vaccination history in the country. The operational challenges keep the coverage inequitable in the country. The lessons from the past events have been analysed and interpreted to guide immunization efforts. PMID:24927336

  2. A brief history of vaccines & vaccination in India.

    PubMed

    Lahariya, Chandrakant

    2014-04-01

    The challenges faced in delivering lifesaving vaccines to the targeted beneficiaries need to be addressed from the existing knowledge and learning from the past. This review documents the history of vaccines and vaccination in India with an objective to derive lessons for policy direction to expand the benefits of vaccination in the country. A brief historical perspective on smallpox disease and preventive efforts since antiquity is followed by an overview of 19 th century efforts to replace variolation by vaccination, setting up of a few vaccine institutes, cholera vaccine trial and the discovery of plague vaccine. The early twentieth century witnessed the challenges in expansion of smallpox vaccination, typhoid vaccine trial in Indian army personnel, and setting up of vaccine institutes in almost each of the then Indian States. In the post-independence period, the BCG vaccine laboratory and other national institutes were established; a number of private vaccine manufacturers came up, besides the continuation of smallpox eradication effort till the country became smallpox free in 1977. The Expanded Programme of Immunization (EPI) (1978) and then Universal Immunization Programme (UIP) (1985) were launched in India. The intervening events since UIP till India being declared non-endemic for poliomyelitis in 2012 have been described. Though the preventive efforts from diseases were practiced in India, the reluctance, opposition and a slow acceptance of vaccination have been the characteristic of vaccination history in the country. The operational challenges keep the coverage inequitable in the country. The lessons from the past events have been analysed and interpreted to guide immunization efforts.

  3. Séroprévalence des marqueurs viraux sur les dons du sang au Centre de Transfusion Sanguine, Hôpital Militaire d’Instruction Mohammed V de Rabat

    PubMed Central

    Uwingabiye, Jean; Zahid, Hafidi; Unyendje, Loubet; Hadef, Rachid

    2016-01-01

    Le but de ce travail était de déterminer la prévalence du virus de l’immunodéficience humaine (VIH), du virus de l’hépatite B (VHB) et C (VHC) sur les dons du sang collectés au Centre de transfusion sanguine(CTS) de l’hôpital militaire d’instruction Mohammed V entre 2010 et 2012. Etude rétrospective menée auprès des donneurs de sang militaires âgés de 18 à 50 ans avec prédominance masculine (95%). L’entretien médical pré-don constitue la première barrière de sélection des sujets à risque. Le dépistage biologique était réalisé par technique immuno-enzymatique en milieu liquide utilisant des anticorps et/ou des antigènes. L’ELISA (enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assay) combiné de quatrième génération pour VHC et VIH a été utilisé. La confirmation a été faite en réalisant la même technique en double au CTS et au laboratoire de virologie. Dans notre série de 25661 échantillons testés, la prévalence du VHB était 3,97‰ (n=102), celle de VHC était 2,45 ‰ (n=63), celle de VIH était 0,15 ‰ (n=4). Un seul cas de coïnfection (0,039 ‰) par le VHB et VHC a été noté, aucune association entre VIH-VHB, VIH-VHC ou VHB, VHC et VIH n’a été enregistrée. Les taux faibles de séroprévalence des marqueurs viraux de notre étude montrent l’amélioration des mesures préventives en ce qui concerne la sélection des donneurs et des tests de dépistage. Cette prévalence constatée incite à maintenir l’utilisation du réactif combiné qui est la seule alternative à la biologie moléculaire pour les pays en voie de développement. PMID:28292147

  4. Une étude cas-témoins pour déterminer les facteurs de non-observance du suivi médical chez les patients diabétiques à Kinshasa, en 2010

    PubMed Central

    Mense, Kennedy; Mapatano, Mala Ali; Mutombo, Paulin Beya; Muyer, Marie Claire

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Le diabète est un problème majeur de santé publique et un fardeau économique mondial qui n’épargne pas la RD-Congo. Bien que sa prise en charge soit codifiée, la plupart des diabétiques n'arrivent pas à respecter les rendez-vous de suivi. Cette étude vise principalement à identifier les déterminants de la non-observance du suivi médical chez les diabétiques à Kinshasa. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude cas-témoins où les cas sont les patients diabétiques non observant le suivi médical et les témoins, ceux répondant régulièrement au suivi médical. Couvrant la période du 1erjanvier au 31 décembre 2010, l’étude a porté sur un échantillon aléatoire de 154 sujets répartis entre 77 cas et 77 témoins. Résultats Les données indiquent une association entre la non-observance du suivi médical et le revenu (niveau de vie) des ménages. Les cas provenant des ménages à faible revenu courent six fois plus le risque d’être non-observants. Par contre, entre le niveau de connaissance et la non-observance l'association notée n’était pas statistiquement significative. Le respect des rendez-vous pourrait être amélioré de 77% si le revenu des ménages des diabétiques était augmenté. Le coût total mensuel du suivi médical est estimé à 27,2 USD, alors que le revenu permanant des ménages se situe à 306,6 USD. Conclusion Le bas niveau de vie mais pas celui de l'ignorance est un déterminant de la non-observance des visites de suivi du malade diabétique. PMID:25309658

  5. Clinical Impact of Vaccine Development.

    PubMed

    Nambiar, Puja H; Daza, Alejandro Delgado; Livornese, Lawrence L

    2016-01-01

    The discovery and development of immunization has been a singular improvement in the health of mankind. This chapter reviews currently available vaccines, their historical development, and impact on public health. Specific mention is made in regard to the challenges and pursuit of a vaccine for the human immunodeficiency virus as well as the unfounded link between autism and measles vaccination.

  6. Global Routine Vaccination Coverage, 2015.

    PubMed

    Casey, Rebecca M; Dumolard, Laure; Danovaro-Holliday, M Carolina; Gacic-Dobo, Marta; Diallo, Mamadou S; Hampton, Lee M; Wallace, Aaron S

    2016-11-18

    In 1974, the World Health Organization (WHO) established the Expanded Program on Immunization* to provide protection against six vaccine-preventable diseases through routine infant immunization (1). Based on 2015 WHO and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) estimates, global coverage with the third dose of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP3), the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) and the third dose of polio vaccine (Pol3) has remained stable (84%-86%) since 2010. From 2014 to 2015, estimated global coverage with the second MCV dose (MCV2) increased from 39% to 43% by the end of the second year of life and from 58% to 61% when older age groups were included. Global coverage was higher in 2015 than 2010 for newer or underused vaccines, including rotavirus vaccine, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), rubella vaccine, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine, and 3 doses of hepatitis B (HepB3) vaccine. Coverage estimates varied widely by WHO Region, country, and district; in addition, for the vaccines evaluated (MCV, DTP3, Pol3, HepB3, Hib3), wide disparities were found in coverage by country income classification. Improvements in equity of access are necessary to reach and sustain higher coverage and increase protection from vaccine-preventable diseases for all persons.

  7. Molecular signatures of vaccine adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Olafsdottir, Thorunn; Lindqvist, Madelene; Harandi, Ali M

    2015-09-29

    Mass vaccination has saved millions of human lives and improved the quality of life in both developing and developed countries. The emergence of new pathogens and inadequate protection conferred by some of the existing vaccines such as vaccines for tuberculosis, influenza and pertussis especially in certain age groups have resulted in a move from empirically developed vaccines toward more pathogen tailored and rationally engineered vaccines. A deeper understanding of the interaction of innate and adaptive immunity at molecular level enables the development of vaccines that selectively target certain type of immune responses without excessive reactogenicity. Adjuvants constitute an imperative element of modern vaccines. Although a variety of candidate adjuvants have been evaluated in the past few decades, only a limited number of vaccine adjuvants are currently available for human use. A better understanding of the mode of action of adjuvants is pivotal to harness the potential of existing and new adjuvants in shaping a desired immune response. Recent advancement in systems biology powered by the emerging cutting edge omics technology has led to the identification of molecular signatures rapidly induced after vaccination in the blood that correlate and predict a later protective immune response or vaccine safety. This can pave ways to prospectively determine the potency and safety of vaccines and adjuvants. This review is intended to highlight the importance of big data analysis in advancing our understanding of the mechanisms of actions of adjuvants to inform rational development of future human vaccines.

  8. Protein carriers of conjugate vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Pichichero, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    The immunogenicity of polysaccharides as human vaccines was enhanced by coupling to protein carriers. Conjugation transformed the T cell-independent polysaccharide vaccines of the past to T cell-dependent antigenic vaccines that were much more immunogenic and launched a renaissance in vaccinology. This review discusses the conjugate vaccines for prevention of infections caused by Hemophilus influenzae type b, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Neisseria meningitidis. Specifically, the characteristics of the proteins used in the construction of the vaccines including CRM, tetanus toxoid, diphtheria toxoid, Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane complex, and Hemophilus influenzae protein D are discussed. The studies that established differences among and key features of conjugate vaccines including immunologic memory induction, reduction of nasopharyngeal colonization and herd immunity, and antibody avidity and avidity maturation are presented. Studies of dose, schedule, response to boosters, of single protein carriers with single and multiple polysaccharides, of multiple protein carriers with multiple polysaccharides and conjugate vaccines administered concurrently with other vaccines are discussed along with undesirable consequences of conjugate vaccines. The clear benefits of conjugate vaccines in improving the protective responses of the immature immune systems of young infants and the senescent immune systems of the elderly have been made clear and opened the way to development of additional vaccines using this technology for future vaccine products. PMID:23955057

  9. Vaccines and biologics.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Isabel; Isenberg, David

    2014-08-01

    Patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases are more susceptible to infectious complications during the course of their disease. The introduction of biologics has been a major achievement in treating these diseases, but an increased risk of infection associated with these therapies has become evident. Some infections can be prevented by vaccination and it is clearly worthwhile considering which immunisations would be sensible and practicable for these patients. To date no formal specific recommendations for patients on biologics have been published. A search was made of Medline (via PubMed) from 1970 to January 2014 to provide results. This review aims to provide a systematic analysis of the data about vaccines and biologics and considers recommendations for vaccination in adult patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases treated with biologics.

  10. Optimizing influenza vaccine distribution.

    PubMed

    Medlock, Jan; Galvani, Alison P

    2009-09-25

    The criteria to assess public health policies are fundamental to policy optimization. Using a model parametrized with survey-based contact data and mortality data from influenza pandemics, we determined optimal vaccine allocation for five outcome measures: deaths, infections, years of life lost, contingent valuation, and economic costs. We find that optimal vaccination is achieved by prioritization of schoolchildren and adults aged 30 to 39 years. Schoolchildren are most responsible for transmission, and their parents serve as bridges to the rest of the population. Our results indicate that consideration of age-specific transmission dynamics is paramount to the optimal allocation of influenza vaccines. We also found that previous and new recommendations from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention both for the novel swine-origin influenza and, particularly, for seasonal influenza, are suboptimal for all outcome measures.

  11. History of BCG Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    LUCA, Simona; MIHAESCU, Traian

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tuberculosis (TB) is still responsible for 2 million deaths every year despite being a treatable airborne infectious disease. "Consumption" and "Phthisis" were terms historically used to describe TB, which was responsible for one in four deaths in the 19th century. Due to its infectious nature, chronic progression and long treatment, TB is a great burden for society. Moreover the emergence of multi-drug resistant TB and the current TB-HIV epidemic has raised even greater concern. Treating and preventing TB has become a permanent challange since the ancient times. Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the only vaccine available today and has been used for more than 90 years with astonishing safety records. However, its efficacy remains controversial. No universal BCG vaccination policy exists, with some countries merely recommending its use and others that have implemented immunization programs. In this article we review several important milestones of BCG vaccine development from the discovery till today. PMID:24023600

  12. DNA Vaccination Techniques.

    PubMed

    Fissolo, Nicolás; Montalban, Xavier; Comabella, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common inflammatory, demyelinating, and neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) in humans. Although the etiology of MS remains unknown, several lines of evidence support the notion that autoimmunity against components of the myelin sheath plays a major role in susceptibility to and development of the disease. At present, there are no approved MS therapies aimed specifically toward downregulating antigen-specific autoreactive immune cells. One antigen-specific approach that appears promising for the treatment of MS is DNA vaccination. This technique has demonstrated efficacy in clinical trials while maintaining safety.Here, we describe the generation of DNA vaccines containing immunologically relevant antigens of MS. Moreover, we present a detailed protocol for the prophylactic and therapeutic administration of DNA vaccines via intramuscular injection targeting on the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model resembling MS.

  13. Vaccines against Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Leuzzi, Rosanna; Adamo, Roberto; Scarselli, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is recognized as a major cause of nosocomial diseases ranging from antibiotic related diarrhea to fulminant colitis. Emergence during the last 2 decades of C. difficile strains associated with high incidence, severity and lethal outcomes has increased the challenges for CDI treatment. A limited number of drugs have proven to be effective against CDI and concerns about antibiotic resistance as well as recurring disease solicited the search for novel therapeutic strategies. Active vaccination provides the attractive opportunity to prevent CDI, and intense research in recent years led to development of experimental vaccines, 3 of which are currently under clinical evaluation. This review summarizes recent achievements and remaining challenges in the field of C. difficile vaccines, and discusses future perspectives in view of newly-identified candidate antigens.

  14. The National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program.

    PubMed

    Cook, Katherine M; Evans, Geoffrey

    2011-05-01

    The National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act of 1986 established the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program to compensate people thought to be injured by certain vaccines. The act's goals are to ensure an adequate supply of vaccines, to stabilize vaccine costs, and to establish and maintain an accessible and efficient setting for providing compensation to people found to have been injured by certain childhood vaccines. In addition, the legislation called for the reporting of adverse events after vaccination, the creation of vaccine-information materials that detail vaccine benefits and risks, and Institute of Medicine studies of possible vaccine-related injuries and encouraged research and development of new and safer vaccines. Over its 22-year history, the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program has been a key component in stabilizing the US vaccine market through liability protection to both vaccine companies and health care providers and by providing a forum for people, no matter what age, to seek compensation.

  15. Dengue 4 Vaccine Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    CopU~1C FftE 0~AD( ) DENGUE 4 VACCINE DEVELOPMENT Lf 0, to ANNUAL AND FINAL REPORT0 by 0Nyven J. Marchette, Ph.D. September 1, 1987 (For the period 1... Dengue 4 Vaccine Development 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Nyven Marchette. Ph.D. 13a. TYPE OF REPORT T COVERED 114. DATE OF REPORT (Year, Month, Day) 15. PAGE...necessary and identi’fy by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Key words: Virus, arbovirus, dengue , dengue -4, vaccinej attenuation, immunity, RAI

  16. Fungal Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Evelyn; Levitz, Stuart M.

    2014-01-01

    Concomitant with the increased prevalence of immunocompromised persons, invasive fungal infections have become considerably more frequent in the last 50 years. High mortality rates caused by invasive mycoses and high morbidity because of intractable mucosal infections have created an unmet need for innovative prophylactic and therapeutic strategies against fungal pathogens. Several immunotherapeutics and vaccines are in development to address this need, although one has yet to reach the clinic. This review focuses on past and current immunotherapeutic and vaccine strategies being tested to either prevent or treat fungal infections, as well as the challenges associated with their development. PMID:25368016

  17. Vaccines to prevent leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rajiv; Engwerda, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease that encompasses a range of clinical manifestations affecting people in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Epidemiological and experimental data indicate that protection from disease can be achieved in most people. In addition, we know how the host immune system must respond to infection in order to control parasite growth. However, there is still no vaccine for use in humans. Here, we review our understanding of host immunity following Leishmania infection and also discuss recent advances in the development of vaccines to prevent leishmaniasis, highlighting a new promising approach that targets the parasite hemoglobin receptor. PMID:25505961

  18. Communicating vaccine safety during the development and introduction of vaccines.

    PubMed

    Kochhar, Sonali

    2015-01-01

    Vaccines are the best defense available against infectious diseases. Vaccine safety is of major focus for regulatory bodies, vaccine manufacturers, public health authorities, health care providers and the public as vaccines are often given to healthy children and adults as well as to pregnant woman. Safety assessment is critical at all stages of vaccine development. Effective, clear and consistent communication of the risks and benefits of vaccines and advocacy during all stages of clinical research (including the preparation, approvals, conduct of clinical trials through the post marketing phase) is critically important. This needs to be done for all major stakeholders (e.g. community members, Study Team, Health Care Providers, Ministry of Health, Regulators, Ethics Committee members, Public Health Authorities and Policy Makers). Improved stakeholder alignment would help to address some of the concerns that may affect the clinical research, licensing of vaccines and their wide-spread use in immunization programs around the world.

  19. Chinese vaccine products go global: vaccine development and quality control.

    PubMed

    Xu, Miao; Liang, Zhenglun; Xu, Yinghua; Wang, Junzhi

    2015-05-01

    Through the continuous efforts of several generations, China has become one of the few countries in the world that is capable of independently addressing all the requirements by the Expanded Program on Immunization. Regulatory science is applied to continuously improve the vaccine regulatory system. Passing the prequalification by WHO has allowed Chinese vaccine products to go global. Chinese vaccine products not only secure disease prevention and control domestically but also serve the needs for international public health. This article describes the history of Chinese vaccine development, the current situation of Chinese vaccine industry and its contribution to the prevention and control of infectious diseases. We also share our experience of national quality control and vaccine regulation during the past decades. China's experience in vaccine development and quality control can benefit other countries and regions worldwide, including the developing countries.

  20. Japanese encephalitis vaccines: current vaccines and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Monath, T P

    2002-01-01

    Vaccination against JE ideally should be practiced in all areas of Asia where the virus is responsible for human disease. The WHO has placed a high priority on the development of a new vaccine for prevention of JE. Some countries in Asia (Japan, South Korea, North Korea, Taiwan, Vietnam, Thailand, and the PRC) manufacture JE vaccines and practice childhood immunization, while other countries suffering endemic or epidemic disease (India, Nepal, Laos, Cambodia, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines) have no JE vaccine manufacturing or policy for use. With the exception of the PRC, all countries practicing JE vaccination use formalin inactivated mouse brain vaccines, which are relatively expensive and are associated with rare but clinically significant allergic and neurological adverse events. New inactivated JE vaccines manufactured in Vero cells are in advanced preclinical or early clinical development in Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and the PRC. An empirically derived, live attenuated vaccine (SA14-14-2) is widely used in the PRC. Trials in the PRC have shown SA14-14-2 to be safe and effective when administered in a two-dose regimen, but regulatory concerns over manufacturing and control have restricted international distribution. The genetic basis of attenuation of SA14-14-2 has been partially defined. A new live attenuated vaccine (ChimeriVax-JE) that uses a reliable flavivirus vaccine--yellow fever 17D--as a live vector for the envelope genes of SA14-14-2 virus is in early clinical trials and appears to be well tolerated and immunogenic after a single dose. Vaccinia and avipox vectored vaccines have also been tested clinically, but are no longer being pursued due to restricted effectiveness mediated by anti-vector immunity. Other approaches to JE vaccines--including naked DNA, oral vaccination, and recombinant subunit vaccines--have been reviewed.

  1. Valuing vaccines: deficiencies and remedies.

    PubMed

    Bloom, David E

    2015-06-08

    Current evaluation models for the value of vaccines typically account for a small subset of the full social and economic benefits of vaccination. Health investments yield positive economic benefits via several channels at the household, community, and national levels. Underestimating, or worse, not considering these benefits can lead to ill-founded recommendations regarding the introduction of vaccines into immunization programs. The clear and strong links between health and wealth suggest the need to redesign valuation frameworks for vaccination so that the full costs may be properly weighed against the full benefits of vaccines.

  2. Parents' vaccination comprehension and decisions.

    PubMed

    Downs, Julie S; de Bruin, Wändi Bruine; Fischhoff, Baruch

    2008-03-17

    We report on 30 in-depth mental models interviews with parents discussing vaccination for their children, both in general terms and in response to communications drawn from sources supporting and opposing vaccines. We found that even parents favourable to vaccination can be confused by the ongoing debate, leading them to question their choices. Many parents lack basic knowledge of how vaccines work, and do not find the standard information provided to them to be particularly helpful in explaining it. Those with the greatest need to know about vaccination seem most vulnerable to confusing information. Opportunities for education may be missed if paediatricians do not appreciate parents' specific information needs.

  3. 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, 23F) is the standard vaccine for the prevention of invasive pneumococcal infections in infants and children under 5 years of age. A 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (with the addition of valences 1, 3, 5, 6A, 7F and 19A) has now been authorised to replace the 7-valent vaccine within the European Union. This new vaccine, adapted to recent epidemiological data on invasive pneumococcal infections, is supposed to cover at least 80% of pneumococcal infections in Europe. The protective potency of the 13-valent vaccine has not yet been tested in clinical trials. Clinical evaluation is based on two immunogenicity studies, in which the immunogenic potency of the 13-valent vaccine was similar to that of the 7-valent vaccine for their shared serotypes, but lower for serotypes 3, 6B and 9V. For these last two serotypes and for the new serotypes, the usual target antibody titre was reached after a booster injection. This was not the case for valence 3. * The vaccine used in immunogenicity studies did not contain polysorbate 80 (an excipient), and a non-inferiority study of the marketed vaccine containing polysorbate 80 was therefore conducted in 500 children. Non-inferiority was established for all 13 valences after the booster injection, but not for valences 6B and 23F after primary vaccination. According to the results of 10 studies, simultaneous administration of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine does not affect the immunogenicity of other vaccines generally administered before the age of 5 years. Other immunogenicity studies support the use of a variety of vaccine schedules for infants and children under 5 years of age who have not yet been vaccinated or who have started vaccination with the 7-valent vaccine. Increasing the number of valences in the vaccine from 7 to 13 led to no marked increase in local adverse effects (hypersensitivity, indurations, erythema) or systemic reactions

  4. Vaccination-related shoulder dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Bodor, Marko; Montalvo, Enoch

    2007-01-08

    We present two cases of shoulder pain and weakness following influenza and pneumococcal vaccine injections provided high into the deltoid muscle. Based on ultrasound measurements, we hypothesize that vaccine injected into the subdeltoid bursa caused a periarticular inflammatory response, subacromial bursitis, bicipital tendonitis and adhesive capsulitis. Resolution of symptoms followed corticosteroid injections to the subacromial space, bicipital tendon sheath and glenohumeral joint, followed by physical therapy. We conclude that the upper third of the deltoid muscle should not be used for vaccine injections, and the diagnosis of vaccination-related shoulder dysfunction should be considered in patients presenting with shoulder pain following a vaccination.

  5. DNA/genetic vaccination (minireview).

    PubMed

    Kucerova, L

    1998-01-01

    An important new approach to vaccination is plasmid DNA injection in vivo that can elicit an immune response against protein(s) encoded. Antigen that is expressed from the in vivo transfected cells induces both humoral and cellular immune response. DNA immunization is generally applicable for a wide range of proteins. It can provide an organism with immunity against viruses, bacteria, parasites, and tumors. DNA vaccines can overcome the disadvantages of vaccines presently used as well as provide various new vaccines that are currently not available. This minireview provides an overview of evaluated DNA vaccine candidates against infectious agents and certain cancers.

  6. Why are pharmaceutical companies gradually abandoning vaccines?

    PubMed

    Offit, Paul A

    2005-01-01

    During the past fifty years, the number of pharmaceutical companies making vaccines has decreased dramatically, and those that still make vaccines have reduced resources to make new ones. Pharmaceutical companies are gradually abandoning vaccines because the research, development, testing, and manufacture of vaccines are expensive and because the market to sell vaccines is much smaller than the market for other drug products. Congressional action could assure both a steady supply of existing vaccines and the promise of vaccines for the future.

  7. Prévalence des dyslipidémies au laboratoire de biochimie du CHU Aristide le Dantec de Dakar, Sénégal

    PubMed Central

    Cissé, Fatou; Agne, Fatou Diallo; Diatta, Alassane; Mbengue, Abdou Salam; Ndiaye, Arame; Samba, Abdourahmane; Thiam, Souleymane; Doupa, Dominique; Sarr, Gaston Ndéné; Sall, Niama Diop; Touré, Méissa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif de cette étude était d'évaluer la prévalence des dyslipidémies chez les patients reçus au laboratoire de Biochimie de l'Hôpital Aristide Le Dantec pour le dosage d'un paramètre lipidique au cours de l'année 2013. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective portant sur 1356 patients âgés de 10 à 94 ans reçus au laboratoire de Biochimie du CHU Le Dantec de janvier à décembre 2013. Etaient inclus dans l'étude, tous les patients ayant au moins un paramètre du bilan lipidique dont les résultats étaient enregistrés dans le registre du laboratoire. Le cholestérol total, le cholestérol HDL, le cholestérol LDL ainsi que les triglycérides ont été dosés grâce à des méthodes enzymatiques sur un automate de Biochimie de type Cobas Integra 400 (Roche Diagnostics). Résultats La prévalence des dyslipidémies dans notre population d'étude est de 39,30%. Les prévalences de l'hypercholestérolémie, l'hypoHDLémie, l'hyperLDLémie, l'hypertriglycéridémie et l'hyperlipidémie mixte étaient respectivement : 30,89% ; 7,30% ; 31,19% ; 0,51% ; 7,22%. Les sujets de 40 à 59 ans semblaient être plus exposés et on note une prédominance féminine en ce qui concerne l'hypercholestérolémie (54,17% vs 45,82%), l'hypoHDLémie (54,54% vs45, 45%), et l'hyperlipidémie mixte (51,08% vs 48,97%). Enfin les dyslipidémies étaient fortement corrélées à l'HTA et l'obésité. Conclusion La forte prévalence des dyslipidémies retrouvée dans notre étude démontre l'intérêt d'étudier la prévalence des facteurs de risque cardio-vasculaires en particulier les dyslipidémies dans la population sénégalaise. PMID:28292030

  8. Les déterminants du statut “perdu de vue” chez les patients pris en charge pour cancer au Maroc: situation avant le Plan Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Najdi, Adil; Berraho, Mohamed; Bendahhou, Karima; Obtel, Majdouline; Zidouh, Ahmed; Errihani, Hassan; Nejjari, Chakib

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Le cancer au Maroc représente un problème majeur de santé publique, sa prise en charge doit être globale, active et complète pour tous les patients. L'objectif de ce travail était d'estimer la fréquence des perdus de vue « PDV » en oncologie au Maroc durant la première année de suivi et de déterminer les facteurs associés à ce problème. Méthodes Par une étude rétrospective portant sur 2854 dossiers de malades hospitalisés dans les trois principaux centres d'oncologie au Maroc depuis janvier 2003 jusqu’à juin 2007 et concernant les cinq principales localisations de cancer au Maroc, nous avons cherché la date des dernières nouvelles des patients ayant un recul de 18 mois minimum afin de déterminer le statut de ces malades après un an de suivi. Résultats La moyenne d’âge était de 52±14 ans, une proportion féminine de 63%, les sujets actifs constituaient 28%, les mariés 71%, les analphabètes 51%, 70% des patients habitaient en milieu urbain et seulement 11% des malades disposaient d'une couverture sociale. La localisation cancéreuse la plus fréquente était le poumon (23,8%) suivie du colon-rectum (23,5%) puis le col (21,9%), le sein (20,4%) et les lymphomes (10,4%). Le taux des «PDV» à un an de suivi était de 48%, ce statut était significativement lié au sexe, à l’âge, au NSE et au statut matrimonial. Sur le plan médical, le statut «PDV» était lié à la localisation du cancer, au stade de diagnostic et au type de traitement reçu. Conclusion Notre étude a mis en évidence la grande ampleur du problème des PDV en cancérologie au Maroc ainsi que ces déterminants. Ces résultats incitent tous les acteurs dans le domaine de la cancérologie à collaborer ensemble pour prendre les mesures qui s'imposent pour y pallier PMID:25400850

  9. Influenza vaccine and healthcare workers.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Díaz, Fatima Del Carmen; Jiménez-Corona, Maria Eugenia; Ponce-de-León-Rosales, Samuel

    2011-11-01

    We undertook this study to review attitudes, beliefs and practices of healthcare workers (HCW) toward pandemic influenza A vaccine (H1N1) 2009 reported in the literature. Relevant papers published from 2009-2011 reporting attitudes, beliefs and practices of HCW towards pandemic influenza vaccine were identified. Variables such as age, gender, profession, work place area, and previous vaccination uptake were analyzed. In this study, 30 articles regarding attitudes and beliefs toward pandemic influenza vaccination, vaccine uptake and intention to accept vaccine were analyzed. Most studies were cross-sectional in design. Vaccination intention and uptake varies among different countries, 13.5-89.0% and 7.5-63.0%, respectively. Most common reasons for rejection were fear of adverse events, doubt regarding efficacy, not feeling as belonging to a high-risk group and believing that influenza is not a serious illness. Physicians show more favorable attitudes compared to nurses. The main predictor of vaccine uptake was having received previous influenza vaccination. Pandemic influenza uptake was low in most countries. The main reason among HCW for rejection was concern regarding side effects. It is necessary to establish educational programs to provided reliable information and raise awareness of HCW about vaccine use so that they can act as vaccine promoters among the general population.

  10. A defense of compulsory vaccination.

    PubMed

    Flanigan, Jessica

    2014-03-01

    Vaccine refusal harms and risks harming innocent bystanders. People are not entitled to harm innocents or to impose deadly risks on others, so in these cases there is nothing to be said for the right to refuse vaccination. Compulsory vaccination is therefore justified because non-vaccination can rightly be prohibited, just as other kinds of harmful and risky conduct are rightly prohibited. I develop an analogy to random gunfire to illustrate this point. Vaccine refusal, I argue, is morally similar to firing a weapon into the air and endangering innocent bystanders. By re-framing vaccine refusal as harmful and reckless conduct my aim is to shift the focus of the vaccine debate from non-vaccinators' religious and refusal rights to everyone else's rights against being infected with contagious illnesses. Religious freedom and rights of informed consent do not entitle non-vaccinators to harm innocent bystanders, and so coercive vaccination requirements are permissible for the sake of the potential victims of the anti-vaccine movement.

  11. [Preventive vaccinations for medical personnel].

    PubMed

    Kerwat, Klaus; Goedecke, Marcel; Wulf, Hinnerk

    2014-05-01

    Vaccinations are among the most efficient and important preventive medical procedures. Modern vaccines are well tolerated. In Germany there are no longer laws for mandatory vaccinations, either for the general public or for medical personnel. Vaccinations are now merely "officially recommended" by the top health authorities on the basis of recommendations from the Standing Committee on Vaccinations (STIKO) of the Robert Koch Institute (RKI) according to § 20 para 3 of the Protection against Infection law (IfSG). The management of vaccine damage due to officially recommended vaccinations is guaranteed by the Federal States. Whereas vaccinations in childhood are generally considered to be a matter of course, the willingness to accept them decreases markedly with increasing age. In the medical sector vaccinations against, for example, hepatitis B are well accepted while other vaccinations against, for example, whooping cough or influenza are not considered to be so important. The fact that vaccinations, besides offering protection for the medical personnel, may also serve to protect the patients entrusted to medical care from nosocomial infections is often ignored.

  12. Military vaccines in today's environment.

    PubMed

    Schmaljohn, Connie S; Smith, Leonard A; Friedlander, Arthur M

    2012-08-01

    The US military has a long and highly distinguished record of developing effective vaccines against pathogens that threaten the armed forces. Many of these vaccines have also been of significant benefit to civilian populations around the world. The current requirements for force protection include vaccines against endemic disease threats as well as against biological warfare or bioterrorism agents, to include novel or genetically engineered threats. The cost of vaccine development and the modern regulatory requirements for licensing vaccines have strained the ability of the program to maintain this broad mission. Without innovative vaccine technologies, streamlined regulatory strategies, and coordinating efforts for use in civilian populations where appropriate, the military vaccine development program is in jeopardy.

  13. Development of dengue DNA vaccines.

    PubMed

    Danko, Janine R; Beckett, Charmagne G; Porter, Kevin R

    2011-09-23

    Vaccination with plasmid DNA against infectious pathogens including dengue is an active area of investigation. By design, DNA vaccines are able to elicit both antibody responses and cellular immune responses capable of mediating long-term protection. Great technical improvements have been made in dengue DNA vaccine constructs and trials are underway to study these in the clinic. The scope of this review is to highlight the rich history of this vaccine platform and the work in dengue DNA vaccines accomplished by scientists at the Naval Medical Research Center. This work resulted in the only dengue DNA vaccine tested in a clinical trial to date. Additional advancements paving the road ahead in dengue DNA vaccine development are also discussed.

  14. Tolerogenic vaccines for Multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Mannie, Mark D; Curtis, Alan D

    2013-05-01

    Tolerogenic vaccines represent a new class of vaccine designed to re-establish immunological tolerance, restore immune homeostasis, and thereby reverse autoimmune disease. Tolerogenic vaccines induce long-term, antigen-specific, inhibitory memory that blocks pathogenic T cell responses via loss of effector T cells and gain of regulatory T cell function. Substantial advances have been realized in the generation of tolerogenic vaccines that inhibit experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in a preclinical setting, and these vaccines may be a prequel of the tolerogenic vaccines that may have therapeutic benefit in Multiple Sclerosis. The purpose here is to provide a snapshot of the current concepts and future prospects of tolerogenic vaccination for Multiple Sclerosis, along with the central challenges to clinical application.

  15. Prospects for new plague vaccines.

    PubMed

    Feodorova, Valentina A; Corbel, Michael J

    2009-12-01

    The potential application of Yersinia pestis for bioterrorism emphasizes the urgent need to develop more effective vaccines against airborne infection. The current status of plague vaccines has been reviewed. The present emphasis is on subunit vaccines based on the F1 and LcrV antigens. These provide good protection in animal models but may not protect against F1 strains with modifications to the type III secretion system. The duration of protection against pneumonic infection is also uncertain. Other strategies under investigation include defined live-attenuated vaccines, DNA vaccines, mucosal delivery systems and heterologous immunization. The live-attenuated strain Y. pestis EV NIIEG protects against aerosol challenge in animal models and, with further modification to reduce residual virulence and to optimize respiratory protection, it could provide a shortcut to improved vaccines. The regulatory problems inherent in licensing vaccines for which efficacy data are unavailable and their possible solutions are discussed herein.

  16. Veterinary and human vaccine evaluation methods.

    PubMed

    Knight-Jones, T J D; Edmond, K; Gubbins, S; Paton, D J

    2014-06-07

    Despite the universal importance of vaccines, approaches to human and veterinary vaccine evaluation differ markedly. For human vaccines, vaccine efficacy is the proportion of vaccinated individuals protected by the vaccine against a defined outcome under ideal conditions, whereas for veterinary vaccines the term is used for a range of measures of vaccine protection. The evaluation of vaccine effectiveness, vaccine protection assessed under routine programme conditions, is largely limited to human vaccines. Challenge studies under controlled conditions and sero-conversion studies are widely used when evaluating veterinary vaccines, whereas human vaccines are generally evaluated in terms of protection against natural challenge assessed in trials or post-marketing observational studies. Although challenge studies provide a standardized platform on which to compare different vaccines, they do not capture the variation that occurs under field conditions. Field studies of vaccine effectiveness are needed to assess the performance of a vaccination programme. However, if vaccination is performed without central co-ordination, as is often the case for veterinary vaccines, evaluation will be limited. This paper reviews approaches to veterinary vaccine evaluation in comparison to evaluation methods used for human vaccines. Foot-and-mouth disease has been used to illustrate the veterinary approach. Recommendations are made for standardization of terminology and for rigorous evaluation of veterinary vaccines.

  17. Veterinary and human vaccine evaluation methods

    PubMed Central

    Knight-Jones, T. J. D.; Edmond, K.; Gubbins, S.; Paton, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the universal importance of vaccines, approaches to human and veterinary vaccine evaluation differ markedly. For human vaccines, vaccine efficacy is the proportion of vaccinated individuals protected by the vaccine against a defined outcome under ideal conditions, whereas for veterinary vaccines the term is used for a range of measures of vaccine protection. The evaluation of vaccine effectiveness, vaccine protection assessed under routine programme conditions, is largely limited to human vaccines. Challenge studies under controlled conditions and sero-conversion studies are widely used when evaluating veterinary vaccines, whereas human vaccines are generally evaluated in terms of protection against natural challenge assessed in trials or post-marketing observational studies. Although challenge studies provide a standardized platform on which to compare different vaccines, they do not capture the variation that occurs under field conditions. Field studies of vaccine effectiveness are needed to assess the performance of a vaccination programme. However, if vaccination is performed without central co-ordination, as is often the case for veterinary vaccines, evaluation will be limited. This paper reviews approaches to veterinary vaccine evaluation in comparison to evaluation methods used for human vaccines. Foot-and-mouth disease has been used to illustrate the veterinary approach. Recommendations are made for standardization of terminology and for rigorous evaluation of veterinary vaccines. PMID:24741009

  18. European Pharmacopoeia biological reference preparation for poliomyelitis vaccine (inactivated): collaborative study for the establishment of batch No. 3.

    PubMed

    Martin, J; Daas, A; Milne, C

    2016-01-01

    Inactivated poliomyelitis vaccines are an important part of the World Health Organization (WHO) control strategy to eradicate poliomyelitis. Requirements for the quality control of poliomyelitis vaccines (inactivated) include the use of an in vitro D antigen quantification assay for potency determination on the final lot as outlined in the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) monograph 0214. Performance of this assay requires a reference preparation calibrated in International Units (IU). A Ph. Eur. biological reference preparation (BRP) for poliomyelitis vaccine (inactivated) calibrated in IU has been established for this purpose. Due to the dwindling stocks of batch 2 of the BRP a collaborative study was run as part of the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM) Biological Standardisation Programme to establish BRP batch 3 (BRP3). Twelve laboratories including Official Medicines Control Laboratories (OMCLs) and manufacturers participated. The candidate BRP3 (cBRP3) was from the same source and had the same characteristics as BRP batch 2 (BRP2). During the study the candidate was calibrated against the 3(rd) International Standard for inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine using in-house D antigen ELISA assays in line with the Ph. Eur. monograph 0214. The candidate was also compared to BRP2 to evaluate the continuity. Based on the results of the study, values of 320 DU/mL, 78 DU/mL and 288 DU/mL (D antigen units/mL) (IU) for poliovirus type 1, 2 and 3 respectively were assigned to the candidate. In June 2016, the Ph. Eur. Commission adopted the material as Ph. Eur. BRP for poliomyelitis vaccine (inactivated) batch 3.

  19. The National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act. The National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Susan G.

    1995-01-01

    Reviews the National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act and the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program to specifically address the injuries sustained through vaccination. The compensation program allows special education for children permanently injured by vaccines. Analyzes selected cases. (57 footnotes) (MLF)

  20. Le contrôle des infections au cabinet du pédiatre

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ La transmission des infections au cabinet du pédiatre est de plus en plus préoccupante. Le présent document expose les voies de transmission des infections et les principes sous-jacents aux mesures actuelles pour contrôler les infections. Pour prévenir les infections, il faut bien concevoir le cabinet et adopter des politiques administratives et de triage convenables, de même que des pratiques de base pour les soins de tous les patients (p. ex., hygiène des mains, port de gants, de masques, de lunettes de protection et d’une blouse d’hôpital pour des interventions précises; nettoyage, désinfection et stérilisation convenables des surfaces et du matériel, y compris les jouets, et techniques d’asepsie en cas d’interventions effractives) et des précautions additionnelles en cas d’infections précises. Le personnel doit avoir reçu les vaccins pertinents, et les personnes infectées doivent respecter les politiques de restriction au travail.

  1. Immunology of BVDV vaccines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of vaccination to control bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections presents exceptional challenges due to the nature of the virus, the unique interaction of the virus with the immune system, and its ability to establish persistent infections. The lack of proof reading function during th...

  2. Alphavirus-Based Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Lundstrom, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Alphavirus vectors have demonstrated high levels of transient heterologous gene expression both in vitro and in vivo and, therefore, possess attractive features for vaccine development. The most commonly used delivery vectors are based on three single-stranded encapsulated alphaviruses, namely Semliki Forest virus, Sindbis virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Alphavirus vectors have been applied as replication-deficient recombinant viral particles and, more recently, as replication-proficient particles. Moreover, in vitro transcribed RNA, as well as layered DNA vectors have been applied for immunization. A large number of highly immunogenic viral structural proteins expressed from alphavirus vectors have elicited strong neutralizing antibody responses in multispecies animal models. Furthermore, immunization studies have demonstrated robust protection against challenges with lethal doses of virus in rodents and primates. Similarly, vaccination with alphavirus vectors expressing tumor antigens resulted in prophylactic protection against challenges with tumor-inducing cancerous cells. As certain alphaviruses, such as Chikungunya virus, have been associated with epidemics in animals and humans, attention has also been paid to the development of vaccines against alphaviruses themselves. Recent progress in alphavirus vector development and vaccine technology has allowed conducting clinical trials in humans. PMID:24937089

  3. [SYNTHETIC PEPTIDE VACCINES].

    PubMed

    Sergeyev, O V; Barinsky, I F

    2016-01-01

    An update on the development and trials of synthetic peptide vaccines is reviewed. The review considers the successful examples of specific protection as a result of immunization with synthetic peptides using various protocols. The importance of conformation for the immunogenicity of the peptide is pointed out. An alternative strategy of the protection of the organism against the infection using synthetic peptides is suggested.

  4. [Human papillomavirus prophylactic vaccine].

    PubMed

    Kawana, Kei

    2012-06-01

    Human papillomavirus causes viral-dependent cancers, including cervical, anal, vulvar, penile, vaginal, and oropharyngeal, and condyloma acuminata. In the last decade, HPV prophylactic vaccine has been developed and spread worldwide after many large-scale clinical studies. These studies demonstrate significant clinical efficacy for prevention of HPV16/18/6/11-related diseases. In particular, prevention of cervical cancer should be the most important role in the world. In Japan, incidence of cervical cancer does not increase, but the peak of age of the patients at 2005 is 25-45 years old and became 20 years younger than that at 1985. The current two HPV vaccines can prevent the infection of HPV16/18 among high-risk HPVs and will provide a significant impact especially on young-age onset cervical cancer. Furthermore, quadrivalent HPV vaccine, Gardasil, has shown population impact that is decrease of patients with condyloma acuminate in several countries. The clinical efficacy seems to be convincing. Here HPV vaccine will be reviewed based on the literatures.

  5. Sex and Vaccination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zavrel, Erik; Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2008-01-01

    This case study is centered upon the recent debate concerning the decision by Texas Governor Rick Perry to mandate the compulsory vaccination of girls in the Texas public school system against the human papillomavirus (HPV) prior to entering the sixth grade. The interrupted case method is particularly appropriate for this subject with the case…

  6. Alphavirus-based vaccines.

    PubMed

    Lundstrom, Kenneth

    2014-06-16

    Alphavirus vectors have demonstrated high levels of transient heterologous gene expression both in vitro and in vivo and, therefore, possess attractive features for vaccine development. The most commonly used delivery vectors are based on three single-stranded encapsulated alphaviruses, namely Semliki Forest virus, Sindbis virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Alphavirus vectors have been applied as replication-deficient recombinant viral particles and, more recently, as replication-proficient particles. Moreover, in vitro transcribed RNA, as well as layered DNA vectors have been applied for immunization. A large number of highly immunogenic viral structural proteins expressed from alphavirus vectors have elicited strong neutralizing antibody responses in multispecies animal models. Furthermore, immunization studies have demonstrated robust protection against challenges with lethal doses of virus in rodents and primates. Similarly, vaccination with alphavirus vectors expressing tumor antigens resulted in prophylactic protection against challenges with tumor-inducing cancerous cells. As certain alphaviruses, such as Chikungunya virus, have been associated with epidemics in animals and humans, attention has also been paid to the development of vaccines against alphaviruses themselves. Recent progress in alphavirus vector development and vaccine technology has allowed conducting clinical trials in humans.

  7. Vaccination against human papillomavirus

    PubMed Central

    Mello, Claudia Figueiredo

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human papillomavirus infection is common and causes different manifestations. This infection is a public health concern because it has been associated with genital tract malignant diseases among men and women. Currently two vaccines are available to prevent the human papillomavirus infection and its associated diseases. PMID:24488402

  8. Tetanus, Diphtheria (Td) Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    Decavac® (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids) ... Tenivac® (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids) ... Why get vaccinated?Tetanus and diphtheria are very serious diseases. They are rare in the United States today, but people who do become ...

  9. Developments in rabies vaccines.

    PubMed

    Hicks, D J; Fooks, A R; Johnson, N

    2012-09-01

    The development of vaccines that prevent rabies has a long and distinguished history, with the earliest preceding modern understanding of viruses and the mechanisms of immune protection against disease. The correct application of inactivated tissue culture-derived vaccines is highly effective at preventing the development of rabies, and very few failures are recorded. Furthermore, oral and parenteral vaccination is possible for wildlife, companion animals and livestock, again using inactivated tissue culture-derived virus. However, rabies remains endemic in many regions of the world and causes thousands of human deaths annually. There also remain no means of prophylaxis for rabies once the virus enters the central nervous system (CNS). One reason for this is the poor immune response within the CNS to infection with rabies virus (RABV). New approaches to vaccination using modified rabies viruses that express components of the innate immune system are being applied to this problem. Preliminary reports suggest that direct inoculation of such viruses could trigger an effective anti-viral response and prevent a fatal outcome from RABV infection.

  10. Microneedle-based vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Prausnitz, Mark R.; Mikszta, John A.; Cormier, Michel; Andrianov, Alexander K.

    2010-01-01

    The threat of pandemic influenza and other public health needs motivates development of better vaccine delivery systems. To address this need, microneedles have been developed as micron-scale needles fabricated using low-cost manufacturing methods that administer vaccine into the skin using a simple device that may be suitable for self-administration. Delivery using solid or hollow microneedles can be accomplished by (i) piercing the skin and then applying a vaccine formulation or patch onto the permeabilized skin, (ii) coating or encapsulating vaccine onto or within microneedles for rapid, or delayed, dissolution and release in the skin and (iii) injection into the skin using a modified syringe or pump. Extensive clinical experience with smallpox, TB and other vaccines has shown that vaccine delivery into the skin using conventional intradermal injection is generally safe and effective and often elicits the same immune responses at lower doses compared to intramuscular injection. Animal experiments using microneedles have shown similar benefits. Microneedles have been used to deliver whole, inactivated virus; trivalent split antigen vaccines; and DNA plasmid encoding the influenza hemagglutinin to rodents and found strong antibody responses. In addition, ChimeriVax™-JE against yellow fever was administered to non-human primates and generated protective levels of neutralizing antibodies more than seven times greater than subcutaneous delivery; DNA plasmid encoding hepatitis B surface antigen was administered to mice and generated antibody and T cell responses at least as strong as hypodermic injections; recombinant Protective Antigen of Baccilus anthracis was administered to rabbits and provided complete protection from lethal aerosol anthrax spore challenge at a lower dose than intramuscular injection; and DNA plasmid encoding four vaccinia virus genes administered to mice in combination with electroporation generated neutralizing antibodies that apparently

  11. Couverture vaccinale et facteurs associés à la non complétude vaccinale des enfants de 12 à 23 mois du district de santé de Djoungolo-Cameroun en 2012

    PubMed Central

    Ba Pouth, Simon Franky Baonga; Kazambu, Ditu; Delissaint, Dieula; Kobela, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Introduction En 2011 le district de santé de Djoungolo a connu deux épidémies de rougeole avec un taux de complétude vaccinale de 69% selon les données du district. L'objectif de cette étude était de déterminer la couverture vaccinale et les facteurs associés à la non complétude vaccinale des enfants de 12 à 23 mois du district de Djoungolo en 2012. Méthodes Une étude transversale à base communautaire a été menée en 2012. Au total 210 mères / nourrices d'enfants de 12 à 23 mois du district de Djoungolo, sélectionnées selon la méthode OMS de sondage en grappe 30 X 7, ont été interrogées sur les vaccins reçus par l'enfant avant l’âge d'un an et les raisons de non vaccination à l'aide d'un questionnaire structuré. Une analyse de régression logistique multivariée de type backward a été faite pour les variables ayant obtenu une valeur p < 0,2 à l'analyse univariée en utilisant le logiciel EPI Info version 3.5.3. Une association était significative lorsque p < 0,05. Résultats La complétude vaccinale était de 64,3%, variant de 85,7% pour le BCG à 66,2% pour le Vaccin anti rougeoleux. La régression logistique multivariée a montré que les mères qui avaient peur des effets secondaires (P=0,0454), qui ne connaissaient pas l'importance de la vaccination (P=0,0139), qui avaient connu des occasions manquées de vaccination (P=0,0055), qui mettaient plus d'une heure pour vacciner leur enfant (P=0,0005) et qui ne maitrisaient pas le calendrier de vaccination (P=0,00001) étaient significativement associées à la non complétude vaccinale des enfants. Conclusion La couverture vaccinale du district est en deçà des objectifs. Pour l'améliorer nous recommandons le renforcement de l’éducation des parents et une réorganisation des services de vaccination. PMID:25452836

  12. [Influenza vaccination. Effectiveness of current vaccines and future challenges].

    PubMed

    Ortiz de Lejarazu, Raúl; Tamames, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal influenza is an annual challenge for health-care systems, due to factors such as co-circulation of 2 influenza A subtypes jointly with 2 influenza B lineages; the antigenic drift of these virus, which eludes natural immunity, as well as immunity conferred by vaccination; together with influenza impact in terms of morbidity and mortality. Influenza vaccines have been available for more than 70 years and they have progressed in formulation, production and delivery route. Recommendations on vaccination are focused on those with a higher probability of severe disease, and have a progressively wider coverage, and classically based on inactivated vaccines, but with an increasing importance of attenuated live vaccines. More inactivated vaccines are becoming available, from adyuvanted and virosomal vaccines to intradermal delivery, cell-culture or quadrivalent. Overall vaccine effectiveness is about 65%, but varies depending on characteristics of vaccines, virus, population and the outcomes to be prevented, and ranges from less than 10% to almost 90%. Future challenges are formulations that confer more extensive and lasting protection, as well as increased vaccination coverage, especially in groups such as pregnant women and health-care professionals, as well as being extended to paediatrics.

  13. DU-AGG pilot plant design study

    SciTech Connect

    Lessing, P.A.; Gillman, H.

    1996-07-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is developing new methods to produce high-density aggregate (artificial rock) primarily consisting of depleted uranium oxide. The objective is to develop a low-cost method whereby uranium oxide powder (UO[sub 2], U[sub 3]O[sub ]8, or UO[sub 3]) can be processed to produce high-density aggregate pieces (DU-AGG) having physical properties suitable for disposal in low-level radioactive disposal facilities or for use as a component of high-density concrete used as shielding for radioactive materials. A commercial company, G-M Systems, conducted a design study for a manufacturing pilot plant to process DU-AGG. The results of that study are included and summarized in this report. Also explained are design considerations, equipment capacities, the equipment list, system operation, layout of equipment in the plant, cost estimates, and the proposed plan and schedule.

  14. Does intention to recommend HPV vaccines impact HPV vaccination rates?

    PubMed

    Feemster, Kristen A; Middleton, Maria; Fiks, Alexander G; Winters, Sarah; Kinsman, Sara B; Kahn, Jessica A

    2014-01-01

    Despite recommendations for routine vaccination, HPV vaccination rates among adolescent females have remained low. The objective of this prospective cohort study was to determine whether clinician intention to recommend HPV vaccines predicts HPV vaccine series initiation among previously unvaccinated 11 to 18 year-old girls (N=18,083) who were seen by a pediatric clinician (N=105) from a large primary care network within 3 years of vaccine introduction. We used multivariable logistic regression with generalized estimating equations, Cox Regression and standardized survival curves to measure the association between clinician intention and time to and rate of first HPV vaccine receipt among eligible females. All models adjusted for patient age, race/ethnicity, payor category, visit type, and practice location. Eighty-5 percent of eligible 11 to 12 year-old and 95% of 13 to 18 year-old girls were seen by a provider reporting high intention to recommend HPV vaccines. However, only 30% of the cohort initiated the HPV vaccine series and the mean number of days from first eligible visit to series initiation was 190 (95% C.I. 184.2, 195.4). After adjusting for covariates, high clinician intention was modestly associated with girls' likelihood of HPV vaccine series initiation (OR 1.36; 95 % C.I. 1.07, 1.71) and time to first HPV vaccination (HR 1.22; 95% 1.06, 1.40). Despite high intention to vaccinate among this cohort of pediatric clinicians, overall vaccination rates for adolescent girls remained low. These findings support ongoing efforts to develop effective strategies to translate clinician intention into timely HPV vaccine receipt.

  15. Cri du Chat syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Torres, Carolina Paes; Borsatto, Maria Cristina; de Queiroz, Alexandra Mussolino; Lessa, Fernanda Campos Rosetti; Orsi, Iara Agusta

    2005-01-01

    Cri du Chat Syndrome occurs as a result of a partial deletion in the short arm of chromosome 5. Among the consequent abnormalities are low birth weight, a striking catlike cry in infancy, mental retardation, epicanthal folds, hypertelorism and dental malocclusions. This paper presents a case report on the dental treatment of a 23-year-old patient who received multidisciplinary treatment, including special education and precocious stimulation for carriers of this syndrome.

  16. Pourfour Du Petit syndrome after interscalene block

    PubMed Central

    Santhosh, Mysore Chandramouli Basappji; Pai, Rohini B.; Rao, Raghavendra P.

    2013-01-01

    Interscalene block is commonly associated with reversible ipsilateral phrenic nerve block, recurrent laryngeal nerve block, and cervical sympathetic plexus block, presenting as Horner's syndrome. We report a very rare Pourfour Du Petit syndrome which has a clinical presentation opposite to that of Horner's syndrome in a 24-year-old male who was given interscalene block for open reduction and internal fixation of fracture upper third shaft of left humerus. PMID:23956726

  17. Pourfour Du Petit syndrome after interscalene block.

    PubMed

    Santhosh, Mysore Chandramouli Basappji; Pai, Rohini B; Rao, Raghavendra P

    2013-04-01

    Interscalene block is commonly associated with reversible ipsilateral phrenic nerve block, recurrent laryngeal nerve block, and cervical sympathetic plexus block, presenting as Horner's syndrome. We report a very rare Pourfour Du Petit syndrome which has a clinical presentation opposite to that of Horner's syndrome in a 24-year-old male who was given interscalene block for open reduction and internal fixation of fracture upper third shaft of left humerus.

  18. A public-professional web-bridge for vaccines and vaccination: user concerns about vaccine safety.

    PubMed

    García-Basteiro, Alberto L; Alvarez-Pasquín, María-José; Mena, Guillermo; Llupià, Anna; Aldea, Marta; Sequera, Victor-Guillermo; Sanz, Sergi; Tuells, Jose; Navarro-Alonso, José-Antonio; de Arísteguí, Javier; Bayas, José-María

    2012-05-28

    Vacunas.org (http://www.vacunas.org), a website founded by the Spanish Association of Vaccinology offers a personalized service called Ask the Expert, which answers any questions posed by the public or health professionals about vaccines and vaccination. The aim of this study was to analyze the factors associated with questions on vaccination safety and determine the characteristics of questioners and the type of question asked during the period 2008-2010. A total of 1341 questions were finally included in the analysis. Of those, 30% were related to vaccine safety. Questions about pregnant women had 5.01 higher odds of asking about safety (95% CI 2.82-8.93) than people not belonging to any risk group. Older questioners (>50 years) were less likely to ask about vaccine safety compared to younger questioners (OR: 0.44, 95% CI 0.25-0.76). Questions made after vaccination or related to influenza (including H1N1) or travel vaccines were also associated with a higher likelihood of asking about vaccine safety. These results identify risk groups (pregnant women), population groups (older people) and some vaccines (travel and influenza vaccines, including H1N1) where greater efforts to provide improved, more-tailored vaccine information in general and on the Internet are required.

  19. HIV vaccine update. DNA vaccination: a promising candidate for a vaccine against HIV-1?

    PubMed

    Van Der Ryst, E

    1996-01-01

    According to animal studies, DNA vaccines employ the genes encoding proteins of pathogens or tumors, in contrast to the more conventional vaccine approaches. In addition, DNA vaccinations do not involve infectious agents, proteins are expressed in their natural form resulting to better recognition of viral proteins by the antibodies, and both strong and durable cellular immune responses as well as neutralizing antibodies are induced. Altogether, this makes DNA vaccinations one of the most promising future candidates in the field of HIV vaccines. However, safety of DNA vaccines should be examined before these vaccines can be considered for large-scale clinical trials in humans. The question of a possible induction of anti-DNA antibodies, with the consequent development of autoimmune manifestations is emphasized. Another is the possible integration of DNA with insertional mutagenesis, which could lead to tumor formation and development of immunologic tolerance of antigen production persists.

  20. Proprietes de Transport Electronique du Rutile Stoechiometrique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keroack, Danielle

    Le rutile est un oxyde metallique qui presente beaucoup de similitudes avec certains perovskites notamment le titanate de barium ou de strontium. Il est comme ces derniers, compose d'un agencement d'octaedres d'oxygene centres sur l'atome de titane. Ces octaedres sont responsables de la forte polarisabilite de ces cristaux et de leur grande constante dielectrique. Leurs proprietes optiques, seuil d'absorption et spectre de phonons, sont par exemple forts semblables. La presente etude vise a determiner la nature du transport electronique dans le rutile stoechiometrique pur et d'en comparer les resultats avec les proprietes de certains perovskites. Nous determinerons par differentes mesures optoelectroniques les parametres caracteristiques des pieges et leur influence sur le transport des electrons et des trous. Les resultats de conductivite et de capacitance de meme que les spectres de photoconductivite dans nos echantillons ont mis en evidence la presence d'au moins cinq niveaux energetiques dans la bande interdite du rutile agissant comme pieges pour les electrons ou pour les trous et qui jouent un role de premiere importance dans le comportement electrique du rutile. Par la technique de charge transitoire, nous determinerons pour la premiere fois dans le rutile stoechiometrique la grandeur de la mobilite de derive des trous a la temperature ambiante soit 3,4 cm^2/V cdots et nous etablierons une borne superieure a la mobilite des electrons soit 0,1 cm^2 /Vcdots.

  1. 9 CFR 113.327 - Bronchitis Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bronchitis Vaccine. 113.327 Section... Virus Vaccines § 113.327 Bronchitis Vaccine. Bronchitis Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing... section shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production. All serials shall...

  2. 9 CFR 113.327 - Bronchitis Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bronchitis Vaccine. 113.327 Section... Virus Vaccines § 113.327 Bronchitis Vaccine. Bronchitis Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing... section shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production. All serials shall...

  3. 9 CFR 113.332 - Tenosynovitis Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tenosynovitis Vaccine. 113.332 Section... Virus Vaccines § 113.332 Tenosynovitis Vaccine. Tenosynovitis Vaccine shall be prepared from virus... pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for preparing seeds for vaccine production. All serials...

  4. 9 CFR 113.327 - Bronchitis Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bronchitis Vaccine. 113.327 Section... Virus Vaccines § 113.327 Bronchitis Vaccine. Bronchitis Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing... section shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production. All serials shall...

  5. 9 CFR 113.327 - Bronchitis Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bronchitis Vaccine. 113.327 Section... Virus Vaccines § 113.327 Bronchitis Vaccine. Bronchitis Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing... section shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production. All serials shall...

  6. 9 CFR 113.327 - Bronchitis Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bronchitis Vaccine. 113.327 Section... Virus Vaccines § 113.327 Bronchitis Vaccine. Bronchitis Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing... section shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production. All serials shall...

  7. 9 CFR 113.332 - Tenosynovitis Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tenosynovitis Vaccine. 113.332 Section... Virus Vaccines § 113.332 Tenosynovitis Vaccine. Tenosynovitis Vaccine shall be prepared from virus... pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for preparing seeds for vaccine production. All serials...

  8. 9 CFR 113.332 - Tenosynovitis Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tenosynovitis Vaccine. 113.332 Section... Virus Vaccines § 113.332 Tenosynovitis Vaccine. Tenosynovitis Vaccine shall be prepared from virus... pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for preparing seeds for vaccine production. All serials...

  9. 9 CFR 113.332 - Tenosynovitis Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tenosynovitis Vaccine. 113.332 Section... Virus Vaccines § 113.332 Tenosynovitis Vaccine. Tenosynovitis Vaccine shall be prepared from virus... pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for preparing seeds for vaccine production. All serials...

  10. 9 CFR 113.332 - Tenosynovitis Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tenosynovitis Vaccine. 113.332 Section... Virus Vaccines § 113.332 Tenosynovitis Vaccine. Tenosynovitis Vaccine shall be prepared from virus... pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for preparing seeds for vaccine production. All serials...

  11. 42 CFR 70.9 - Vaccination clinics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vaccination clinics. 70.9 Section 70.9 Public... INTERSTATE QUARANTINE § 70.9 Vaccination clinics. (a) The Director may establish vaccination clinics, through contract or otherwise, authorized to administer vaccines and/or other prophylaxis. (b) A vaccination...

  12. 42 CFR 70.9 - Vaccination clinics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vaccination clinics. 70.9 Section 70.9 Public... INTERSTATE QUARANTINE § 70.9 Vaccination clinics. (a) The Director may establish vaccination clinics, through contract or otherwise, authorized to administer vaccines and/or other prophylaxis. (b) A vaccination...

  13. 42 CFR 70.9 - Vaccination clinics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vaccination clinics. 70.9 Section 70.9 Public... INTERSTATE QUARANTINE § 70.9 Vaccination clinics. (a) The Director may establish vaccination clinics, through contract or otherwise, authorized to administer vaccines and/or other prophylaxis. (b) A vaccination...

  14. 42 CFR 70.9 - Vaccination clinics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vaccination clinics. 70.9 Section 70.9 Public... INTERSTATE QUARANTINE § 70.9 Vaccination clinics. (a) The Director may establish vaccination clinics, through contract or otherwise, authorized to administer vaccines and/or other prophylaxis. (b) A vaccination...

  15. 42 CFR 70.9 - Vaccination clinics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Vaccination clinics. 70.9 Section 70.9 Public... INTERSTATE QUARANTINE § 70.9 Vaccination clinics. (a) The Director may establish vaccination clinics, through contract or otherwise, authorized to administer vaccines and/or other prophylaxis. (b) A vaccination...

  16. Vaccinating Your Preteen: Addressing Common Concerns

    MedlinePlus

    ... to be confident about your decision to vaccinate. HPV Vaccine FAQs Why is the HPV vaccine recommended at age 11 or 12 years?​ The ... all 3 shots. Why does my son need HPV vaccine if it protects against cervical cancer? ​HPV vaccine ...

  17. Utility of Respiratory Vaccination With Recombinant Subunit Vaccines for Protection Against Pneumonic Plague

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    Immunity at mucosal sites can prevent pathogen infection of the host. A) oral poliovirus vaccine B) inhaled influenza vaccine C) kennel cough & Newcastle...Utility of respiratory vaccination with recombinant subunit vaccines for protection against pneumonic plague. Douglas S. Reed & Jennifer Smoll...2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Utility of respiratory vaccination with recombinant subunit vaccines for

  18. Herpes zoster vaccine in Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won Suk

    2013-07-01

    Herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia deteriorate the quality of life because of severe pain and complications, and cause considerable social and economic burden of disease. In 2012, herpes zoster vaccine was released in Korea. The efficacy of herpes zoster vaccine is known to be 51.3-66.5% among the aged over 60 and 69.8-72.4% among adults between 50 and 59. It is also known that preventive efficacy is maintained for at least 5 years. Although there can be local reactions such as redness, pain and swelling at the site of injection and systemic reaction such as headache and eruption after herpes zoster vaccination, most of the adverse reactions are minor and disappear within days by themselves. As it is a live vaccine, persons with severe immune-suppression and pregnant women should not be vaccinated with the vaccine. Currently, Korean Society of Infectious Diseases recommended for the aged over 60 to be vaccinated with herpes zoster vaccine by subcutaneous route. In this article, clinical aspects and burden of disease of herpes zoster, efficacy and effects of herpes zoster vaccine, and herpes zoster vaccine recommendation by Korean Society of Infectious Diseases are discussed.

  19. Vaccines for fish in aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Sommerset, Ingunn; Krossøy, Bjørn; Biering, Eirik; Frost, Petter

    2005-02-01

    Vaccination plays an important role in large-scale commercial fish farming and has been a key reason for the success of salmon cultivation. In addition to salmon and trout, commercial vaccines are available for channel catfish, European seabass and seabream, Japanese amberjack and yellowtail, tilapia and Atlantic cod. In general, empirically developed vaccines based on inactivated bacterial pathogens have proven to be very efficacious in fish. Fewer commercially available viral vaccines and no parasite vaccines exist. Substantial efficacy data are available for new fish vaccines and advanced technology has been implemented. However, before such vaccines can be successfully commercialized, several hurdles have to be overcome regarding the production of cheap but effective antigens and adjuvants, while bearing in mind environmental and associated regulatory concerns (e.g., those that limit the use of live vaccines). Pharmaceutical companies have performed a considerable amount of research on fish vaccines, however, limited information is available in scientific publications. In addition, salmonids dominate both the literature and commercial focus, despite their relatively small contribution to the total volume of farmed fish in the world. This review provides an overview of the fish vaccines that are currently commercially available and some viewpoints on how the field is likely to evolve in the near future.

  20. Forty years of canine vaccination.

    PubMed

    Appel, M J

    1999-01-01

    During the last 40 years vaccines have been developed that have greatly reduced the incidence of infectious diseases of dogs. In general, modified live products have been superior to inactivated vaccines for dogs. It can be expected that recombinant and/or DNA vaccines may dominate the market in the future. Although most vaccines on the market are safe and efficacious, there have been exceptions where disease was induced by vaccination or dogs were not protected. The failure of protection may in part be due to variations in individual vaccine batches. Only potency tests but not efficacy tests are required, which may not be sufficient. For example, a virus titer in a vaccine may be meaningless if the minimum protective dose is not known. Overattenuated virus (e.g., CDV-Ond or parvovirus in cat cells) may have a high titer in tissue culture but is not immunogenic. The question of frequency of vaccination of dogs should be addressed. Annual revaccinations for CDV, CPV, and CAV are probably not needed. However, it would be desirable to collect more data to support less frequent vaccinations. Annual immunization for bacterial diseases such as kennel cough, Lyme disease, and leptospirosis should continue. It also would be desirable to develop more oro/nasal vaccines, perhaps combined with newly developed vectors that are less likely to induce undesirable side effects that may be seen after parenteral vaccination. Finally a word of warning against homeopathic "nosodes" to replace tested canine vaccines. They will appear highly effective as long as the majority of dogs remain vaccinated. As soon as a nonvaccinated dog population is large enough to allow virulent agents to spread, disease outbreaks will occur and we will be back where we began 40 years ago.

  1. Measles vaccination before the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, Jan; Blume, Stuart

    2013-08-01

    At the beginning of the 1960s, it was clear that a vaccine against measles would soon be available. Although measles was (and remains) a killer disease in the developing world, in the United States and Western Europe this was no longer so. Many parents and many medical practitioners considered measles an inevitable stage of a child's development. Debating the desirability of measles immunization, public health experts reasoned differently. In the United States, introduction of the vaccine fit well with Kennedy's and Johnson's administrations' political commitments. European policymakers proceeded cautiously, concerned about the acceptability of existing vaccination programs. In Sweden and the Netherlands, recent experience in controlling polio led researchers to prefer an inactivated virus vaccine. Although in the early 1970s attempts to develop a sufficiently potent inactivated vaccine were abandoned, we have argued that the debates and initiatives of the time during the vaccine's early history merit reflection in today's era of standardization and global markets.

  2. The Safety of Adjuvanted Vaccines Revisited: Vaccine-Induced Narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, S Sohail; Montomoli, Emanuele; Pasini, Franco Laghi; Steinman, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Despite the very high benefit-to-risk ratio of vaccines, the fear of negative side effects has discouraged many people from getting vaccinated, resulting in the reemergence of previously controlled diseases such as measles, pertussis and diphtheria. This fear has been amplified more recently by multiple epidemiologic studies that confirmed the link of an AS03-adjuvanted pandemic influenza vaccine (Pandemrix, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Germany) used in Europe during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic [A(H1N1) pdm09] with the development of narcolepsy, a chronic sleep disorder, in children and adolescents. However, public misperceptions of what adjuvants are and why they are used in vaccines has created in some individuals a closed "black box" attitude towards all vaccines. The focus of this review article is to revisit this "black box" using the example of narcolepsy associated with the European AS03-adjuvanted pandemic influenza vaccine.

  3. Influenza B vaccine lineage selection--an optimized trivalent vaccine.

    PubMed

    Mosterín Höpping, Ana; Fonville, Judith M; Russell, Colin A; James, Sarah; Smith, Derek J

    2016-03-18

    Epidemics of seasonal influenza viruses cause considerable morbidity and mortality each year. Various types and subtypes of influenza circulate in humans and evolve continuously such that individuals at risk of serious complications need to be vaccinated annually to keep protection up to date with circulating viruses. The influenza vaccine in most parts of the world is a trivalent vaccine, including an antigenically representative virus of recently circulating influenza A/H3N2, A/H1N1, and influenza B viruses. However, since the 1970s influenza B has split into two antigenically distinct lineages, only one of which is represented in the annual trivalent vaccine at any time. We describe a lineage selection strategy that optimizes protection against influenza B using the standard trivalent vaccine as a potentially cost effective alternative to quadrivalent vaccines.

  4. Influence du traitement thermique sur l'usinabilite du laiton monophase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cholley, Airy

    La connaissance des proprietes et du comportement d'un materiau en usinage est primordiale pour optimiser son utilisation et obtenir une usinabilite maximale. Dans ce but, l'etude de la modification de la ductilite par traitement thermiques sur plusieurs criteres d'usinabilite tels que les efforts de coupe, la rugosite, les bavures et la formation du copeau a ete menee sur le laiton monophase. A cette fin, l'influence du traitement thermique sur la microstructure du laiton a d'abord ete etudiee. La taille des grains et la durete ont permis de determiner les proprietes mecaniques des etats metallurgiques. Des essais de percage ont ensuite ete effectues sur les etats metallurgiques H01 (99HV), OS100 (88HV) et OS250 (47HV) pour regarder l'influence du traitement thermique sur l'usinabilite. Cette etude experimentale a permis de comprendre l'influence du taux de laminage et de la temperature de recuit sur les proprietes mecaniques. Les essais d'usinabilite ont ensuite permis de prouver que les efforts de coupe sont dependants des conditions de coupe mais pas de la ductilite dans les etats metallurgiques testes. La taille des bavures augmente avec la ductilite et la vitesse de coupe, et diminue avec l'avance. La rugosite de la surface des trous apres l'usinage a egalement ete etudiee. Il a aussi ete prouve par une etude sur les copeaux que la temperature croit avec la vitesse de coupe. L'analyse de la segmentation des copeaux n'a en revanche pas permis de trouver une correlation significative avec les traitements thermiques testes. Enfin, le revetement de l'outil a montre une grande importance sur l'usinabilite du materiau. Il a ete conclu que l'usinabilite du laiton C26000 (CuZn30) est meilleure lorsqu'on travaille dans un etat metallurgique dur. Ces conclusions sont valables pour le laiton monophase etudie, il serait interessant d'examiner aussi le cas des laitons biphases.

  5. Vaccination Against Tuberculosis With Whole-Cell Mycobacterial Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Scriba, Thomas J; Kaufmann, Stefan H E; Henri Lambert, Paul; Sanicas, Melvin; Martin, Carlos; Neyrolles, Olivier

    2016-09-01

    Live attenuated and killed whole-cell vaccines (WCVs) offer promising vaccination strategies against tuberculosis. A number of WCV candidates, based on recombinant bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis, or related mycobacterial species are in various stages of preclinical or clinical development. In this review, we discuss the vaccine candidates and key factors shaping the development pathway for live and killed WCVs and provide an update on progress.

  6. Vaccination in children with allergy to non active vaccine components.

    PubMed

    Franceschini, Fabrizio; Bottau, Paolo; Caimmi, Silvia; Crisafulli, Giuseppe; Lucia, Liotti; Peroni, Diego; Saretta, Francesca; Vernich, Mario; Povesi Dascola, Carlotta; Caffarelli, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Childhood immunisation is one of the greatest public health successes of the last century. Vaccines contain an active component (the antigen) which induces the immune response. They may also contain additional components such as preservatives, additives, adjuvants and traces of other substances. This review provides information about risks of hypersensitivity reactions to components of vaccines. Furthermore, recommendations to avoid or reduce reactions to vaccine components have been detailed.

  7. A game dynamic model for vaccine skeptics and vaccine believers: measles as an example.

    PubMed

    Shim, Eunha; Grefenstette, John J; Albert, Steven M; Cakouros, Brigid E; Burke, Donald S

    2012-02-21

    Widespread avoidance of Measles-Mumps-Rubella vaccination (MMR), with a consequent increase in the incidence of major measles outbreaks, demonstrates that the effectiveness of vaccination programs can be thwarted by the public misperceptions of vaccine risk. By coupling game theory and epidemic models, we examine vaccination choice among populations stratified into two behavioral groups: vaccine skeptics and vaccine believers. The two behavioral groups are assumed to be heterogeneous with respect to their perceptions of vaccine and infection risks. We demonstrate that the pursuit of self-interest among vaccine skeptics often leads to vaccination levels that are suboptimal for a population, even if complete coverage is achieved among vaccine believers. The demand for measles vaccine across populations driven by individual self-interest was found to be more sensitive to the proportion of vaccine skeptics than to the extent to which vaccine skeptics misperceive the risk of vaccine. Furthermore, as the number of vaccine skeptics increases, the probability of infection among vaccine skeptics increases initially, but it decreases once the vaccine skeptics begin receiving the vaccination, if both behavioral groups are vaccinated according to individual self-interest. Our results show that the discrepancy between the coverages of measles vaccine that are driven by self-interest and those driven by population interest becomes larger when the cost of vaccination increases. This research illustrates the importance of public education on vaccine safety and infection risk in order to maintain vaccination levels that are sufficient to maintain herd immunity.

  8. Progress towards a dengue vaccine.

    PubMed

    Webster, Daniel P; Farrar, Jeremy; Rowland-Jones, Sarah

    2009-11-01

    The spread of dengue virus throughout the tropics represents a major, rapidly growing public health problem with an estimated 2.5 billion people at risk of dengue fever and the life-threatening disease, severe dengue. A safe and effective vaccine for dengue is urgently needed. The pathogenesis of severe dengue results from a complex interaction between the virus, the host, and, at least in part, immune-mediated mechanisms. Vaccine development has been slowed by fears that immunisation might predispose individuals to the severe form of dengue infection. A pipeline of candidate vaccines now exists, including live attenuated, inactivated, chimeric, DNA, and viral-vector vaccines, some of which are at the stage of clinical testing. In this Review, we present what is understood about dengue pathogenesis and its implications for vaccine design, the progress that is being made in the development of a vaccine, and the future challenges.

  9. Plant production systems for vaccines.

    PubMed

    Streatfield, Stephen J; Howard, John A

    2003-12-01

    Plants offer an attractive alternative for the production and delivery of subunit vaccines. Various antigens have been expressed at sufficiently high levels in plants to render vaccine development practical. An increasing body of evidence demonstrates that these plant-produced antigens can induce immunogenic responses and confer protection when delivered orally. Plant-based vaccines are relatively inexpensive to produce and production can be rapidly scaled up. There is also the potential for oral delivery of these vaccines, which can dramatically reduce distribution and delivery costs. Here we describe the technology to develop plant-based vaccines, review their advantages and discuss potential roadblocks and concerns over their commercialization. We also speculate on likely future developments with these vaccines and on their potential impact in the realms of human and animal health.

  10. Outlook for a dengue vaccine.

    PubMed

    Norrby, R

    2014-05-01

    Dengue is an increasing medical problem in subtropical and tropical countries. The search for a safe and effective vaccine is complicated by the fact that there are four types of dengue virus and that, if a vaccine is live attenuated, it should be proven not to cause the life-threatening form of dengue, dengue haemorrhagic fever. So far one vaccine candidate, a four-valent chimeric vaccine constructed from a yellow fever vaccine strain, has reached large clinical trials and has been shown to offer protection against dengue types 1, 3 and 54 but not against dengue type 2. It is highly likely that an effective vaccine will be available in the next decade.

  11. Progress with new malaria vaccines.

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Daniel; Hill, Adrian V. S.

    2003-01-01

    Malaria is a parasitic disease of major global health significance that causes an estimated 2.7 million deaths each year. In this review we describe the burden of malaria and discuss the complicated life cycle of Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite responsible for most of the deaths from the disease, before reviewing the evidence that suggests that a malaria vaccine is an attainable goal. Significant advances have recently been made in vaccine science, and we review new vaccine technologies and the evaluation of candidate malaria vaccines in human and animal studies worldwide. Finally, we discuss the prospects for a malaria vaccine and the need for iterative vaccine development as well as potential hurdles to be overcome. PMID:14997243

  12. For Parents: Vaccines for Your Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC For Parents: Vaccines for Your Children Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Vaccines Prevent Review the 16 diseases prevented by vaccines recommended for children and teens. Records & Requirements Learn about immunization records ...

  13. Meningococcal Vaccine: A Guide for Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gynecology Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Meningococcal Vaccine Posted under Health Guides . Updated 22 September 2015. + ... of the meningococcal infections. What is the meningococcal vaccine? The meningococcal vaccine protects against the meningococcal bacteria ...

  14. Preventing Cervical Cancer with HPV Vaccines

    Cancer.gov

    Cervical cancer can be prevented with HPV vaccines. NCI-supported researchers helped establish HPV as a cause of cervical cancer. They also helped create the first HPV vaccines, were involved in the vaccine trials, and contribute to ongoing studies.

  15. Whooping Cough and the Pertussis Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fitness Emotional Health Whooping Cough and the Pertussis Vaccine Posted under Health Guides . Updated 11 May 2016. + ... immune system to fight infection. How does the vaccine work? The way the vaccine works is actually ...

  16. Meningococcal Vaccines: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Meningococcal ACWY Vaccines: What You Need to Know (VIS) Page Content ... to help protect against serogroup B . Meningococcal ACWY Vaccines There are two kinds of meningococcal vaccines licensed ...

  17. Pneumonia Can Be Prevented -- Vaccines Can Help

    MedlinePlus

    ... Past Emails CDC Features Pneumonia Can Be Prevented—Vaccines Can Help Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... like antibiotics and antivirals). Lower Your Risk with Vaccines In the United States, there are vaccines that ...

  18. Key Facts about Seasonal Flu Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Button Past Newsletters Key Facts About Seasonal Flu Vaccine Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... can spread through that community. How do flu vaccines work? Flu vaccines cause antibodies to develop in ...

  19. Children, the Flu, and the Flu Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Past Newsletters Children, the Flu, and the Flu Vaccine Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... an additional B virus. What kinds of flu vaccines are available for children? Influenza vaccine options for ...

  20. Shingles vaccine - what you need to know

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/shingles.html CDC review information ... and Prevention Web site. www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/shingles.html . Accessed April 15, ...

  1. Rotavirus vaccine - what you need to know

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/rotavirus.pdf . CDC review information ... known reason for it. www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/rotavirus.pdf Problems that could ...

  2. Universal influenza vaccine: the holy grail?

    PubMed

    Shaw, Alan R

    2012-08-01

    Influenza vaccines have been available since the 1950s and have seen increasingly wide use as public health authorities expanded recommendations. Recent events including shortages and avian influenza outbreaks have renewed interest in influenza vaccines, particularly improved vaccines.

  3. Tomorrow's vector vaccines for small ruminants.

    PubMed

    Kyriakis, C S

    2015-12-14

    Inactivated and attenuated vaccines have contributed to the control or even the eradication of significant animal pathogens. However, these traditional vaccine technologies have limitations and disadvantages. Inactivated vaccines lack efficacy against certain pathogens, while attenuated vaccines are not always as safe. New technology vaccines, namely DNA and recombinant viral vector vaccines, are being developed and tested against pathogens of small ruminants. These vaccines induce both humoral and cellular immune responses, are safe to manufacture and use and can be utilized in strategies for differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals. Although there are more strict regulatory requirements for the safety standards of these vaccines, once a vaccine platform is evaluated and established, effective vaccines can be rapidly produced and deployed in the field to prevent spread of emerging pathogens. The present article offers an introduction to these next generation technologies and examples of vaccines that have been tested against important diseases of sheep and goats.

  4. Weakened Immune System and Adult Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Healthcare Professionals Weakened Immune System and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... up to age 26 years Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

  5. Meningococcal Disease (Bacterial Meningitis) Vaccine and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... 335 women who received the older MPSV type vaccines during pregnancy found no related harmful effects. Most of these women were vaccinated after the first trimester. Voluntary reports to a vaccine database also found no unusual pattern of outcomes ...

  6. Systematic review of human papillomavirus vaccine coadministration.

    PubMed

    Noronha, Alinea S; Markowitz, Lauri E; Dunne, Eileen F

    2014-05-13

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is recommended in early adolescence, at an age when other vaccines are also recommended. Administration of multiple vaccines during one visit is an opportunity to improve uptake of adolescent vaccines. We conducted a systematic review of safety and immunogenicity of HPV vaccines coadministered with other vaccines. Our review included 9 studies, 4 of quadrivalent HPV vaccine and 5 of bivalent HPV vaccine; coadministered vaccines included: meningococcal conjugate, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, combined hepatitis A and B, tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis, and inactivated poliovirus vaccines. Studies varied in methods of data collection and measurement of immunogenicity and safety. Noninferiority of immune response and an acceptable safety profile were demonstrated when HPV vaccine was coadministered with other vaccines.

  7. Vaccines against cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Kathrin U

    2004-11-01

    Cervical cancer and precancerous lesions of the genital tract are a major threat to women's health worldwide. Although the introduction of screening tests to detect cervical cancer and its precursor lesions has reduced overall cervical cancer rates in the developed world, the approach was largely unsuccessful for developing countries, primarily due to a lack of appropriate infrastructures and high costs. Annually, 470,000 cervical cancer cases are diagnosed worldwide, of which 80% occur in developing countries. Despite advances in treatment of cervical cancer, approximately half of the women afflicted with the disease will die. Over 20 years of dedicated research has provided conclusive evidence that a subset of human papillomaviruses are the aetiological agents for cervical cancer. Finding a viral origin for this disease provided the basis to fight cervical cancer using prophylactic or therapeutic vaccination. Both vaccine approaches are reviewed here, with an emphasis on recent clinical data.

  8. Vaccination During Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Moniz, Michelle H; Beigi, Richard H

    2016-03-01

    Active immunization during pregnancy for maternal and neonatal benefit is a remarkably promising strategy to reduce infectious morbidity in both women and infants. The aim of this review is to present current clinical guidelines for vaccination during pregnancy and review evidence-based strategies for the implementation of maternal immunization recommendations. Observational studies, clinical trials, cost-effectiveness analyses, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses were evaluated to generate the evidence base for this review. In addition, recommendations from major national professional and public health organizations were examined. We present current clinical recommendations for vaccination during pregnancy and review medical and public health strategies to implement these guidelines. We also discuss a research agenda to advance the field of maternal immunization and achieve further improvements in maternal and child health.

  9. Overview of cancer vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Kudrin, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Cancer immunotherapy has seen a tremendous number of failures and only few recent regulatory successes. This is a review dedicated to determine major regulatory and developmental issues around cancer immunotherapeutics. A three pillar approach should be used in setting a development path: discovery platforms and sufficient pool of validated tumor antigens, product development strategy enabling to bring the product closer to the patient and clinical development strategy accounting for competitive landscape, treatment paradigm, technical and commercial risks. Regulatory framework existing around cancer vaccines in the EU, US, Japan and some developing countries is outlined. In addition, the review covers some specific issues on the design and conduct of clinical trials with cancer vaccines. PMID:22894970

  10. Rotavirus and the Vaccine (Drops) to Prevent It

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Related Links Vaccines & Immunizations Rotavirus and the Vaccine (Drops) to Prevent It Language: English Español (Spanish) ... vaccine. Why should my child get the rotavirus vaccine? The rotavirus vaccine: Protects your child from rotavirus, ...

  11. New vaccines: challenges of discovery.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Adel

    2016-09-01

    Vaccines have been a major component of preventing and controlling infectious diseases. The basis for discovery of what protects is reviewed as well as new attempts in utilizing Reverse Vaccinology, RNA-RNA methods and proteome analysis are adding significantly to our knowledge. The challenge of how to define protective and defined components of microbes is still hampering efforts to discover new vaccines. Recent excitement about immunotherapy of cancer opens the way to develop vaccines against multiple malignancies.

  12. Childhood vaccination: achievements and challenges.

    PubMed

    Ndumbe, P

    1996-09-01

    As the goal of eradicating smallpox was being met, the World Health Organization created its Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI) in 1974 and reached its initial goal of achieving full vaccination of 80% of the world's children by 1990. This effort was aided by the creation of "cold chain" delivery systems and resulted in the annual saving of 3.5 million children in less-developed countries. Current EPI vaccination goals include 1) eradication of poliomyelitis by the year 2000, 2) elimination of neonatal tetanus by the year 1995, 3) control of measles and hepatitis B, and 4) immunization of 90% of the world's children 1 year or younger by the year 2000. Goals of the Children's Vaccine Initiative (formed in 1991) include 1) provision of an adequate supply of affordable, safe, and effective vaccines; 2) production of improved and new vaccines; and 3) simplification of the logistics of vaccine delivery. Future challenges are to sustain high vaccination coverage, reach the unreached, achieve proper storage of vaccines and reduce waste, integrate new vaccines into national programs, and achieve vaccine self-sufficiency. The fact that these challenges will be difficult to achieve is illustrated by the situation in Africa where the high immunization levels achieved in 1990 have dropped dramatically. Those who must act to implement immunization programs are health personnel, families, governments, and development partners. In order to achieve equity in health, every child must be reached, governments must be made accountable for programs, health workers must convince families of the importance of vaccination, delivery systems must be in place to take advantage of the new vaccines being delivered, and a multisectoral approach must be taken to assure sustainability.

  13. [Allergic alveolitis after influenza vaccination].

    PubMed

    Heinrichs, D; Sennekamp, J; Kirsten, A; Kirsten, D

    2009-09-01

    Allergic alveolitis as a side effect of vaccination is very rare. We report a life-threatening complication in a female patient after influenza vaccination. The causative antigen was the influenza virus itself. Our Patient has suffered from exogen-allergic alveolitis for 12 years. Because of the guidelines of regular administration of influenza vaccination in patients with chronic pulmonary disease further research in patients with known exogen-allergic alveolitis is vitally important for the pharmaceutical drug safety.

  14. Evaluating Vaccine Candidates for Filariasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-16

    antibody deficient JH mice vaccinated with iL3 and control mice 4 and 7 weeks post infection. E) Parasite burdens in iL3 vaccinated and control...timeframes of worm clearance post challenge in iL3 vaccinated hosts also suggests the presence of multiple mechanisms of protection (22; 84...c mice (NCI) and antibody deficient JH Mice (BALB background Taconic mouse model 001147) were used to carry out research. All research was conducted

  15. Genetically engineered vaccines.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Wayne R; Hales, Belinda J; Smith, Wendy-Anne

    2005-05-01

    The application of recombinant DNA technology to allergen research has provided the sequence information and genetic material to produce new types of allergy vaccines. One general strategy has been to use the knowledge to produce synthetic peptides that represent selected T-cell or B-cell epitopes. The production of genetically engineered allergens provides an alternative strategy to construct hypoallergenic vaccines, which can provide a better and less selected representation of the epitopes. Many strategies have been used to produce such hypoallergens, and their ability to reduce allergenicity has been amply demonstrated by skin and nasal provocation tests. The retention of T cell-stimulating activity has also been demonstrated, and a consistent feature of the vaccines has been, despite the reduced immunoglobulin E (IgE)-binding reactivity, the ability to induce anti-allergen IgG antibody. The lead hypoallergens have been polypeptide fragments and trimeric constructs of the birch allergen Bet v 1. A clinical trial with these medicaments has shown the ability to modify IgE and IgG antibody production, skin test reactivity, and symptom scores. This is the first trial of a recombinant allergy vaccine, and it has set a benchmark for further studies. A new generation of hypoallergens is now being produced based on the detailed knowledge of the tertiary structures of the allergens and of the T-cell and B-cell epitopes. The modifications have been made to change the topography of the allergens while retaining a stable, folding structure. In the case of Bet v 1, tertiary structures of hypoallergens have been determined. Structurally modeled hypoallergens have been produced for pollen, venom, food, and latex allergens, with promising characteristics from preclinical studies.

  16. Effective Vaccination Policies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-31

    optimal allocation of vaccines to geographic regions of the country. Specifically, we used a (µ , λ ) Evolution Strategy (ES) with µ = 10 parents creating...λ = 30 children via mutation (described below). The µ = 10 best children then constitute the population at the next generation. The basic execution...of our ES is the following: 1) Randomly initialize the population of µ parents . 2) Evaluate the population using the fitness function. 3) Apply

  17. Veterinary autogenous vaccines.

    PubMed

    Hera, A; Bures, J

    2004-01-01

    Autogenous vaccines remain a regulatory issue. They are demanded by practising veterinarians and by animal owners and they are quite widely used, mainly in Central European Countries, the Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovak Republic having probably the longest tradition with these products in Central Europe. The scope given in Article 3, Para. 2 (and/or Article 4 for some countries) of Directive 2001/82/EC applies to these products in the Acceding Countries. As these products are exempt from the harmonised regulation at the EU level, they are regulated by individual countries, the regulation varying from practically no regulatory measures in certain countries to a quite complex and demanding regulation in the other countries. Both risks and benefits are related to these products and they shall be taken into account when regulatory measures are considered. The major risks related to veterinary autogenous vaccines relate to possibility of transmission of TSE agents or other viral, bacterial and/or fungal contaminants. As appropriate and well balanced regulation of these products is deemed necessary, considering the risks related to these products, and based on the fact that national regulatory measures could be considered as a trade barrier under certain circumstances, harmonisation of the key issues or legal admission of the nationally based regulatory measures, including movement of these products from the other Member States, shall be laid down in the EU legislation. The veterinary autogenous vaccines complying with basic quality and safety requirements are thus a very useful tool in the animal health and welfare management but their use should be restricted to situations where there is no authorised veterinary medicinal product available and veterinary autogenous vaccines must not be allowed to replace good farming or veterinary practices.

  18. Molecular Vaccines for Malaria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    is a p:micularly elegant example of molecular design applied to a recombi nant prote in , combining rational antigen choice (the vaccine uses a major...ing list of examples concordant with these principles. One is rhe ex istence of cryptic epitopes- normally immunologically silent epitopes rhar when...to divert· the immune response from cryptic epitopes formed by the potential binding site lying within the groove,l7 AMAI illustrates the barrier

  19. Ebola vaccine and treatment.

    PubMed

    Takada, Ayato

    2015-01-01

    Filoviruses (Ebola and Marburg viruses) cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates. No effective prophylaxis or treatment for filovirus diseases is yet commercially available. The recent outbreak of Ebola virus disease in West Africa has accelerated efforts to develop anti-Ebola virus prophylaxis and treatment, and unapproved drugs were indeed used for the treatment of patients during the outbreak. This article reviews previous researches and the latest topics on vaccine and therapy for Ebola virus disease.

  20. Vaccination in conservation medicine.

    PubMed

    Plumb, G; Babiuk, L; Mazet, J; Olsen, S; Rupprecht, C; Pastoret, P P; Slate, D

    2007-04-01

    Unprecedented human population growth and anthropogenic environmental changes have resulted in increased numbers of people living in closer contact with more animals (wild, domestic, and peridomestic) than at any other time in history. Intimate linkage of human and animal health is not a new phenomenon. However, the global scope of contemporary zoonoses has no historical precedent. Indeed, most human infectious diseases classed as emerging are zoonotic, and many of these have spilled over from natural wildlife reservoirs into humans either directly or via domestic or peridomestic animals. Conservation medicine has recently emerged as a meaningful discipline to address the intersection of animal, human, and ecosystem health. Interest in the development of novel vaccines for wildlife encounters important challenges that may prevent progress beyond the conceptual phase. Although notable examples of successful wildlife immunisation programmes exist, depending upon key considerations, vaccination may or may not prove to be effective in the field. When implemented, wildlife vaccination requires a combination of novel zoonosis pathogen management strategies and public education to balance conservation, economic, and public health issues.

  1. [About of vaccination].

    PubMed

    Di Pietro, Maria Luisa; Refolo, Pietro; González-Melado, Fermín J

    2012-01-01

    The debate over compulsory or merely recommended vaccination remains open, albeit latent, in those countries that have mandatory vaccine schedules. Despite the advantages of preventive immunization from the point of medical, economic and social features, it's clear, in the current status of medical ethics, that the exercise of patient autonomy calls for personal responsibility in the election of treatments and, in fact, the vaccines. Therefore, it is necessary to change the simple idea of prevention as , characteristic of a in order to pass to a preventative medicine concept that will be able to support the achievement of moral attitudes towards achieving the good for the individual and for the community. This is only possible from a wherever is possible to present an alternative between mandatory vs. recommendation from the concept of that, with the help of a series of measures, could combine the effective protection for the whole community with the responsible exercise of the personal autonomy.

  2. Vaccinating welders against pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Keith T; Cosgrove, Martin P

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2011 the Department of Health in England recommended that welders should each receive a single dose of the 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PPV23). This review assesses the evidence behind the advice and its practical implications. Method The review was informed by a systematic search in Medline, which related pneumonia to welding and/or exposure to metal fume, and was supplemented using the personal libraries of the authors. Findings There is consistent evidence that welders die more often of pneumonia, especially lobar pneumonia, are hospitalised more often with lobar and pneumococcal pneumonia, and more often develop invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). It is estimated that one case of IPD may be prevented over a 10-year period by vaccinating 588 welders against pneumococcal infection. Conclusions A good case exists that employers should offer PPV23 vaccination to welders and other employees exposed to metal fume. Additionally, reasonable measures must be taken to minimise exposure to welding fume and welders should be encouraged not to smoke. PMID:22764269

  3. Understanding Vaccines: A Public Imperative

    PubMed Central

    Federman, Ross S.

    2014-01-01

    Though once a discovery greatly celebrated by the nation, the vaccine has come under fire in recent decades from skeptics, critics, and a movement set into motion by fraudulent scientists and fueled by frustrated parents looking for answers to the autism conundrum. There is enough denialist resistance to vaccination to bring upon renewed fear of young children and infants becoming infected with diseases, the threats of which had been functionally eradicated from the United States. In more recent years, the surge in independent online journalism and blogging has invited many to rapidly share their opinions with millions of readers and, importantly, has appeared to open the door for opinion to be portrayed as fact. As a result, many parents are inundated with horror stories of vaccine dangers, all designed to eat away at them emotionally while the medical and scientific communities have mounted their characteristic response by sharing the facts, the data, and all of the reliable peer-reviewed and well-cited research to show that vaccines are safe and effective. It has become clear to me that facts are no match for emotion, but perhaps an understanding behind vaccine methodology will help parents overcome these fears of vaccinating. By helping those who doubt vaccines better understand what vaccines really are and how they work in such an incredibly engineered fashion, we may have a stronger weapon than we realize in battling the emotional arsenal that comes from the fear and skepticism of vaccinating. PMID:25506276

  4. Understanding vaccines: a public imperative.

    PubMed

    Federman, Ross S

    2014-12-01

    Though once a discovery greatly celebrated by the nation, the vaccine has come under fire in recent decades from skeptics, critics, and a movement set into motion by fraudulent scientists and fueled by frustrated parents looking for answers to the autism conundrum. There is enough denialist resistance to vaccination to bring upon renewed fear of young children and infants becoming infected with diseases, the threats of which had been functionally eradicated from the United States. In more recent years, the surge in independent online journalism and blogging has invited many to rapidly share their opinions with millions of readers and, importantly, has appeared to open the door for opinion to be portrayed as fact. As a result, many parents are inundated with horror stories of vaccine dangers, all designed to eat away at them emotionally while the medical and scientific communities have mounted their characteristic response by sharing the facts, the data, and all of the reliable peer-reviewed and well-cited research to show that vaccines are safe and effective. It has become clear to me that facts are no match for emotion, but perhaps an understanding behind vaccine methodology will help parents overcome these fears of vaccinating. By helping those who doubt vaccines better understand what vaccines really are and how they work in such an incredibly engineered fashion, we may have a stronger weapon than we realize in battling the emotional arsenal that comes from the fear and skepticism of vaccinating.

  5. Vaccine targets against Moraxella catarrhalis

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Dabin; Pichichero, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Moraxella catarrhalis is a prominent pathogen that causes acute otitis media in children and lower respiratory tract infections in adults, resulting in a significant socioeconomic burden on healthcare systems globally. No vaccine is currently available for M. catarrhalis. Promising M. catarrhalis target antigens have been characterized in animal models and should soon enter human clinical trials. Areas covered This review discusses the detailed features and research status of current candidate target antigens for an M. catarrhalis vaccine. The approaches for assessing M. catarrhalis vaccine efficacy are also discussed. Expert opinion Targeting the key molecules contributing to serum resistance may be a viable strategy to identify effective vaccine targets among M. catarrhalis antigens. Elucidating the role and mechanisms of the serum and mucosal immune responses to M. catarrhalis is significant for vaccine target selection, testing and evaluation. Developing animal models closely simulating M. catarrhalis-caused human respiratory diseases is of great benefit in better understanding pathogenesis and evaluating vaccine efficacy. Carrying out clinical trials will be a landmark in the progress of M. catarrhalis vaccine research. Combined multicomponent vaccines will be a focus of future M. catarrhalis vaccine studies. PMID:26565427

  6. Middle East respiratory syndrome vaccines.

    PubMed

    Perlman, Stanley; Vijay, Rahul

    2016-06-01

    The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has infected over 1600 individuals with nearly 600 deaths since it was first identified in human populations in 2012. No antiviral therapies or vaccines are available for its treatment or prophylaxis. Approaches to the development of MERS vaccines are discussed herein, including a summary of previous efforts to develop vaccines useful against human and non-human coronaviruses. A striking feature of MERS is the important role that camels have in transmission. Camel vaccination may be a novel approach to preventing human infection.

  7. The March Toward Malaria Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Stephen L.; Vekemans, Johan; Richie, Thomas L.; Duffy, Patrick E.

    2016-01-01

    In 2013 there were an estimated 584,000 deaths and 198 million clinical illnesses due to malaria, the majority in sub-Saharan Africa. Vaccines would be the ideal addition to the existing armamentarium of anti-malaria tools. However, malaria is caused by parasites, and parasites are much more complex in terms of their biology than the viruses and bacteria for which we have vaccines, passing through multiple stages of development in the human host, each stage expressing hundreds of unique antigens. This complexity makes it more difficult to develop a vaccine for parasites than for viruses and bacteria, since an immune response targeting one stage may not offer protection against a later stage, because different antigens are the targets of protective immunity at different stages. Furthermore, depending on the life cycle stage and whether the parasite is extra- or intra-cellular, antibody and/or cellular immune responses provide protection. It is thus not surprising that there is no vaccine on the market for prevention of malaria, or any human parasitic infection. In fact, no vaccine for any disease with this breadth of targets and immune responses exists. In this limited review, we focus on four approaches to malaria vaccines, (1) a recombinant protein with adjuvant vaccine aimed at Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) pre-erythrocytic stages of the parasite cycle (RTS,S/AS01), (2) whole sporozoite vaccines aimed at Pf pre-erythrocytic stages (PfSPZ Vaccine and PfSPZ-CVac), (3) prime boost vaccines that include recombinant DNA, viruses and bacteria, and protein with adjuvant aimed primarily at Pf pre-erythrocytic, but also asexual erythrocytic stages, and (4) recombinant protein with adjuvant vaccines aimed at Pf and Plasmodium vivax sexual erythrocytic and mosquito stages. We recognize that we are not covering all approaches to malaria vaccine development, or most of the critically important work on development of vaccines against P. vivax, the second most important cause of

  8. The March Toward Malaria Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Stephen L; Vekemans, Johan; Richie, Thomas L; Duffy, Patrick E

    2015-12-01

    In 2013 there were an estimated 584,000 deaths and 198 million clinical illnesses due to malaria, the majority in sub-Saharan Africa. Vaccines would be the ideal addition to the existing armamentarium of anti-malaria tools. However, malaria is caused by parasites, and parasites are much more complex in terms of their biology than the viruses and bacteria for which we have vaccines, passing through multiple stages of development in the human host, each stage expressing hundreds of unique antigens. This complexity makes it more difficult to develop a vaccine for parasites than for viruses and bacteria, since an immune response targeting one stage may not offer protection against a later stage, because different antigens are the targets of protective immunity at different stages. Furthermore, depending on the life cycle stage and whether the parasite is extra- or intra-cellular, antibody and/or cellular immune responses provide protection. It is thus not surprising that there is no vaccine on the market for prevention of malaria, or any human parasitic infection. In fact, no vaccine for any disease with this breadth of targets and immune responses exists. In this limited review, we focus on four approaches to malaria vaccines, (1) a recombinant protein with adjuvant vaccine aimed at Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) pre-erythrocytic stages of the parasite cycle (RTS,S/AS01), (2) whole sporozoite vaccines aimed at Pf pre-erythrocytic stages (PfSPZ Vaccine and PfSPZ-CVac), (3) prime boost vaccines that include recombinant DNA, viruses and bacteria, and protein with adjuvant aimed primarily at Pf pre-erythrocytic, but also asexual erythrocytic stages, and (4) recombinant protein with adjuvant vaccines aimed at Pf and Plasmodium vivax sexual erythrocytic and mosquito stages. We recognize that we are not covering all approaches to malaria vaccine development, or most of the critically important work on development of vaccines against P. vivax, the second most important cause of

  9. Hypersensitivity and vaccines: an update.

    PubMed

    Barbaud, Annick; Deschildre, Antoine; Waton, Julie; Raison-Peyron, Nadia; Tréchot, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    Allergic reactions to vaccines can be classified as sensitivity to one of the vaccine components, pseudo-allergic reactions, often after hyperimmunization, and exacerbation of atopic symptoms or vasculitis. Pseudo-allergic reactions, some possibly due to hyperimmunization, are probably more common than true allergies. Atopic reactions should not be confused with the "flash" phenomenon, defined as an exacerbation of an allergic reaction due to a reduction in the allergic reactivity threshold following the vaccine injection. BCGitis occurs frequently, and for this reason, guidelines for Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) have been modified. The vaccine is now reserved for people at risk of exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This review provides an update on the vaccination modalities for people allergic to eggs, on the assessment that should be performed when a reaction occurs due to tetanus vaccination, on the urticaria after hepatitis vaccination, on an aluminum granuloma, which is more and more frequent in young children, and vasculitis after flu vaccination and BCGitis. The side effects associated with new, recently released vaccines, such as anti-influenza A H1N1 or anti-human papilloma virus (HPV) will also be presented.

  10. The march toward malaria vaccines.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Stephen L; Vekemans, Johan; Richie, Thomas L; Duffy, Patrick E

    2015-11-27

    In 2013 there were an estimated 584,000 deaths and 198 million clinical illnesses due to malaria, the majority in sub-Saharan Africa. Vaccines would be the ideal addition to the existing armamentarium of anti-malaria tools. However, malaria is caused by parasites, and parasites are much more complex in terms of their biology than the viruses and bacteria for which we have vaccines, passing through multiple stages of development in the human host, each stage expressing hundreds of unique antigens. This complexity makes it more difficult to develop a vaccine for parasites than for viruses and bacteria, since an immune response targeting one stage may not offer protection against a later stage, because different antigens are the targets of protective immunity at different stages. Furthermore, depending on the life cycle stage and whether the parasite is extra- or intra-cellular, antibody and/or cellular immune responses provide protection. It is thus not surprising that there is no vaccine on the market for prevention of malaria, or any human parasitic infection. In fact, no vaccine for any disease with this breadth of targets and immune responses exists. In this limited review, we focus on four approaches to malaria vaccines, (1) a recombinant protein with adjuvant vaccine aimed at Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) pre-erythrocytic stages of the parasite cycle (RTS,S/AS01), (2) whole sporozoite vaccines aimed at Pf pre-erythrocytic stages (PfSPZ Vaccine and PfSPZ-CVac), (3) prime boost vaccines that include recombinant DNA, viruses and bacteria, and protein with adjuvant aimed primarily at Pf pre-erythrocytic, but also asexual erythrocytic stages, and (4) recombinant protein with adjuvant vaccines aimed at Pf and Plasmodium vivax sexual erythrocytic and mosquito stages. We recognize that we are not covering all approaches to malaria vaccine development, or most of the critically important work on development of vaccines against P. vivax, the second most important cause of

  11. La reconstruction du sourcil par greffon composite du cuir chevelu: une astuce pour faciliter la technique

    PubMed Central

    El Omari, Mounia; El Mazouz, Samir; Gharib, Noureddine; EL Abbassi, Abdallah

    2015-01-01

    Les sourcils jouent un rôle important dans l’équilibre esthétique du visage. Leur reconstruction ou ophriopoïése, après séquelle de brûlure fait partie intégrante du programme de réhabilitation de la face brûlée. Plusieurs techniques ont été décrites. Nous insistons ici sur l'intérêt d'une technique simple, à la portée de tous les chirurgiens, et dont la méthode et les résultats peuvent être améliorés par un dessin bien planifié des zones donneuse et receveuse: la greffe composite prélevée au niveau du cuir chevelu dessinée à l'aide d'un calque du sourcil controlatéral. PMID:26401195

  12. 78 FR 67369 - National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program: Addition to the Vaccine Injury Table to Include All...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program: Addition to the Vaccine Injury Table to Include All Vaccines Against Seasonal Influenza AGENCY: Health... vaccines against seasonal influenza are covered under the National Vaccine Injury Compensation...

  13. Suivi après le traitement du cancer du sein

    PubMed Central

    Sisler, Jeffrey; Chaput, Geneviève; Sussman, Jonathan; Ozokwelu, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Offrir aux médecins de famille un résumé des recommandations fondées sur les données probantes pour guider les soins aux survivantes traitées pour le cancer du sein. Qualité des données Une recherche documentaire a été effectuée dans MEDLINE entre 2000 et 2016 à l’aide des mots-clés anglais suivants : breast cancer, survivorship, follow-up care, aftercare, guidelines et survivorship care plans, en se concentrant sur la revue des lignes directrices publiées récemment par les organismes nationaux de cancérologie. Les données étaient de niveaux I à III. Message principal Les soins aux survivantes comportent 4 facettes : surveillance et dépistage, prise en charge des effets à long terme, promotion de la santé et coordination des soins. La surveillance des récidives ne se traduit que par une mammographie annuelle, et le dépistage d’autres cancers doit suivre les lignes directrices basées sur la population. La prise en charge des effets à long terme du cancer et de son traitement aborde des problèmes courants tels la douleur, la fatigue, le lymphœdème, la détresse et les effets indésirables des médicaments, de même que les préoccupations à long terme comme la santé du cœur et des os. La promotion de la santé met en relief les bienfaits de l’activité chez les survivantes du cancer, avec l’accent mis sur l’activité physique. Les soins aux survivantes sont de meilleure qualité lorsque divers services et professionnels de la santé participent aux soins, et le médecin de famille joue un rôle important dans la coordination des soins. Conclusion Les médecins de famille sont de plus en plus souvent les principaux fournisseurs de soins de suivi après le traitement du cancer du sein. Le cancer du sein doit être considéré comme une affection médicale chronique, même chez les femmes en rémission, et les patientes profitent de la même approche que celle utilisée pour les autres affections chroniques en

  14. Prenatal diagnosis of cri du chat syndrome with encephalocele.

    PubMed

    Bakkum, Jamie N; Watson, William J; Johansen, Keith L; Brost, Brian C

    2005-10-01

    A 19-year-old primigravida was found to have an encephalocele on screening ultrasound study. Amniocentesis indicated cri du chat syndrome, 5p-. Although cri du chat syndrome has been noted in association with central nervous system malformations, encephalocele is a rare finding in this syndrome.

  15. 33 CFR 117.443 - Du Large Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Du Large Bayou. 117.443 Section 117.443 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.443 Du Large Bayou. The draw of...

  16. 33 CFR 117.443 - Du Large Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Du Large Bayou. 117.443 Section 117.443 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.443 Du Large Bayou. The draw of...

  17. 33 CFR 117.443 - Du Large Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Du Large Bayou. 117.443 Section 117.443 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.443 Du Large Bayou. The draw of...

  18. 33 CFR 117.443 - Du Large Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Du Large Bayou. 117.443 Section 117.443 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.443 Du Large Bayou. The draw of...

  19. 33 CFR 117.443 - Du Large Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Du Large Bayou. 117.443 Section 117.443 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.443 Du Large Bayou. The draw of...

  20. Modelisation par elements finis du muscle strie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Mathieu

    Ce present projet de recherche a permis. de creer un modele par elements finis du muscle strie humain dans le but d'etudier les mecanismes engendrant les lesions musculaires traumatiques. Ce modele constitue une plate-forme numerique capable de discerner l'influence des proprietes mecaniques des fascias et de la cellule musculaire sur le comportement dynamique du muscle lors d'une contraction excentrique, notamment le module de Young et le module de cisaillement de la couche de tissu conjonctif, l'orientation des fibres de collagene de cette membrane et le coefficient de poisson du muscle. La caracterisation experimentale in vitro de ces parametres pour des vitesses de deformation elevees a partir de muscles stries humains actifs est essentielle pour l'etude de lesions musculaires traumatiques. Le modele numerique developpe est capable de modeliser la contraction musculaire comme une transition de phase de la cellule musculaire par un changement de raideur et de volume a l'aide des lois de comportement de materiau predefinies dans le logiciel LS-DYNA (v971, Livermore Software Technology Corporation, Livermore, CA, USA). Le present projet de recherche introduit donc un phenomene physiologique qui pourrait expliquer des blessures musculaires courantes (crampes, courbatures, claquages, etc.), mais aussi des maladies ou desordres touchant le tissu conjonctif comme les collagenoses et la dystrophie musculaire. La predominance de blessures musculaires lors de contractions excentriques est egalement exposee. Le modele developpe dans ce projet de recherche met ainsi a l'avant-scene le concept de transition de phase ouvrant la porte au developpement de nouvelles technologies pour l'activation musculaire chez les personnes atteintes de paraplegie ou de muscles artificiels compacts pour l'elaboration de protheses ou d'exosquelettes. Mots-cles Muscle strie, lesion musculaire, fascia, contraction excentrique, modele par elements finis, transition de phase

  1. Oncoplastie avec conservation mammaire dans le traitement du cancer du sein: à propos de 16 cas

    PubMed Central

    Bouzoubaa, Wail; Laadioui, Meryam; Jayi, Sofia; Alaoui, Fatime Zahra Fdili; Bouguern, Hakima; Chaara, Hikmat; Melhouf, Moulay Abdelilah

    2015-01-01

    Le cancer du sein est actuellement le cancer le plus fréquent chez la femme, et pose un véritable problème diagnostique et thérapeutique. Le dépistage des lésions à un stade de plus en plus précoce, a permis une extension des indications du traitement conservateur radiochirurgical, qui était initialement limitées aux tumeurs de moins de 3 cm, unifocales, non inflammatoires. Par ailleurs, l'utilisation de traitements préopératoires permet d’étendre les indications du traitement conservateur à des tumeurs plus volumineuses. Parallèlement à cette extension des indications de conservation mammaire, on a observé le développement de nouvelles approches thérapeutiques notamment la chirurgie oncoplastique, technique du ganglion sentinelle et chirurgie stéréotaxique, dont les résultats initiaux sont très encouragent. A travers cette étude réalisée dans le service de gynécologie et obstétrique II du CHU HASSAN II de FES au MAROC, après l'analyse rétrospective de 16 patientes traitées par traitement conservateur et oncoplastie, nous avons voulus montrer notre aptitude a réalisé ses techniques chirurgicales et a bien prendre en charge ces patientes, mais aussi évaluer ces techniques en termes de résultat carcinologique et de résultat esthétique, aussi en terme de survie globale, survie sans métastase et en termes de récidive locale entre les plasties mammaires et les traitements usuels: mastectomie et traitement conservateur classique. PMID:26430477

  2. Vaccines and vaccination for avian influenza in poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) vaccines have been developed and used to protect poultry and other birds in various countries of the world. Protection is principally mediated by an immune response to the subtype-specific hemagglutinin (HA) protein. AI vaccines prevent clinical signs of disease, death, egg pr...

  3. Influenza Vaccinations, Fall 2009: Model School-Located Vaccination Clinics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herl Jenlink, Carolyn; Kuehnert, Paul; Mazyck, Donna

    2010-01-01

    The 2009 H1N1 influenza virus presented a major challenge to health departments, schools, and other community partners to effectively vaccinate large numbers of Americans, primarily children. The use of school-located vaccination (SLV) programs to address this challenge led health departments and schools to become creative in developing models for…

  4. Gut microbiota in children vaccinated with rotavirus vaccine.

    PubMed

    García-López, Rodrigo; Pérez-Brocal, Vicente; Diez-Domingo, Javier; Moya, Andrés

    2012-12-01

    To assess the effect that the rotavirus vaccine RotaTeq may have on the gut microbiota, this study searched for differences in intestinal bacterial composition between vaccinated and unvaccinated children. Bacterial diversity in fecal samples was evaluated by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and taxonomic analyses using bioinformatics tools. No evidence of such differences was observed.

  5. Replication-defective viruses as vaccines and vaccine vectors.

    PubMed

    Dudek, Tim; Knipe, David M

    2006-01-05

    The classical viral vaccine approaches using inactivated virus or live-attenuated virus have not been successful for some viruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus or herpes simplex virus. Therefore, new types of vaccines are needed to combat these infections. Replication-defective mutant viruses are defective for one or more functions that are essential for viral genome replication or synthesis and assembly of viral particles. These viruses are propagated in complementing cell lines expressing the missing gene product; however, in normal cells, they express viral gene products but do not replicate to form progeny virions. As vaccines, these mutant viruses have advantages of both classical types of viral vaccines in being as safe as inactivated virus but expressing viral antigens inside infected cells so that MHC class I and class II presentation can occur efficiently. Replication-defective viruses have served both as vaccines for the virus itself and as a vector for the expression of heterologous antigens. The potential advantages and disadvantages of these vaccines are discussed as well as contrasting them with single-cycle mutant virus vaccines and replicon/amplicon versions of vaccines. Replication-defective viruses have also served as important probes of the host immune response in helping to define the importance of the first round of infected cells in the host immune response, the mechanisms of activation of innate immune response, and the role of the complement pathway in humoral immune responses to viruses.

  6. Continuous improvement journey at Du Pont photomasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Robert K.

    1994-02-01

    This paper describes the history and experiences of Du Pont Photomasks in their efforts to integrate the continuous improvement philosophy and practices embodied in the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award criteria into their way of doing business. A case study of key learnings in this almost four year long process is presented. Specific topics discussed include the process applied to achieve ISO 9000 certification, the quality systems deployed in this effort, and the use of a balanced set of business and quality metrics to assess and improve upon performance.

  7. La fin du jeûne?

    PubMed Central

    Naugler, Christopher; Sidhu, Davinder

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter une mise à jour sur l’utilité clinique de ne pas être à jeun par rapport à l’être pour l’analyse des lipides dans le but d’améliorer l’observance par les patients, leur sécurité et l’évaluation clinique dans les tests du cholestérol. Qualité des données Les recommandations sont classées comme étant fondées sur des données probantes fortes, acceptables ou faibles (conflictuelles ou insuffisantes), selon les classifications adoptées par le Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs. Message principal Le dépistage de la dyslipidémie comme facteur de risque de coronaropathie et la prescription de médicaments hypolipidémiants sont des activités importantes en soins primaires. De récentes données probantes remettent en question la nécessité d’être à jeun pour la mesure des lipides. Dans des études sur la population, le cholestérol total, le cholestérol à lipoprotéines de haute densité et le cholestérol à lipoprotéines autres qu’à haute densité variaient tous d’en moyenne 2 % à jeun. Pour un dépistage de routine, la mesure du cholestérol sans être à jeun est maintenant une option de rechange raisonnable à l’analyse à jeun. Pour les patients diabétiques, l’exigence d’être à jeun peut représenter un important problème de sécurité en raison des possibilités d’hypoglycémie. Pour la surveillance des triglycérides et du cholestérol à lipoprotéines de basse densité chez les patients qui prennent des médicaments hypolipidémiants, le jeûne devient important. Conclusion Être à jeun pour la détermination routinière des niveaux lipidiques est largement inutile et il est improbable que le jeûne influence la stratification du risque clinique chez le patient, tandis que la mesure sans être à jeun pourrait améliorer l’observance par le patient et sa sécurité.

  8. HPV vaccination series completion and co-vaccination: Pairing vaccines may matter for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Keim-Malpass, Jessica; McKim Mitchell, Emma; Camacho, Fabian

    2015-10-26

    Very little is known about the effect of concurrent co-vaccination on HPV series completion. This study utilized a retrospective review of a Clinical Data Repository to assess whether concurrent vaccination had an impact on HPV vaccination series completion, and whether there were differences based on age. 3371 patients who received the HPV vaccine at a single academic medical center between the years 2009-2013 were included in this analysis. The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for effect of concurrent vaccination on series completion for the age group 9-18 was 1.32 (95% CI 1.09, 1.60). Although not statistically significant, the aOR for effect of concurrent vaccination on completion changed direction for the 19-25 age group and was 0.44 (95% CI 0.17, 1.12). This study provides preliminary evidence that pairing the HPV vaccine with one or more co-vaccines may yield a higher HPV vaccination completion rate among adolescents age 9-18.

  9. Vaccines for leishmaniasis: from proteome to vaccine candidates.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Juliane; Aebischer, Toni

    2011-01-01

    Leishmania spp. cause a wide spectrum of tropical diseases which are threatening an estimated 350 million people around the globe. While in most cases non-fatal, the disease is associated with high morbidity, social stigmata and poverty. However, the most severe form visceral leishmaniasis can be fatal if left untreated. Chemotherapeutics are available but show high toxicity, costs and are prone to resistance development due to prolonged treatment periods. Healing is associated with a life-long resistance to re-infection and this argues for the feasibility of vaccination. However, despite much effort, no such vaccine has become available yet. Here, the status of vaccine development in this field is briefly summarized before the focus is set on the promise of reverse vaccinology for anti-Leishmania vaccine development in the post-genomic era. We report on our own experience with this approach using an instructive example of successful candidate vaccine antigen identification.

  10. Use of Prior Vaccinations for the Development of New Vaccines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etlinger, H. M.; Gillessen, D.; Lahm, H.-W.; Matile, H.; Schonfeld, H.-J.; Trzeciak, A.

    1990-07-01

    There is currently a need for vaccine development to improve the immunogenicity of protective epitopes, which themselves are often poorly immunogenic. Although the immunogenicity of these epitopes can be enhanced by linking them to highly immunogenic carriers, such carriers derived from current vaccines have not proven to be generally effective. One reason may be related to epitope-specific suppression, in which prior vaccination with a protein can inhibit the antibody response to new epitopes linked to the protein. To circumvent such inhibition, a peptide from tetanus toxoid was identified that, when linked to a B cell epitope and injected into tetanus toxoid-primed recipients, retained sequences for carrier but not suppressor function. The antibody response to the B cell epitope was enhanced. This may be a general method for taking advantage of previous vaccinations in the development of new vaccines.

  11. Biotechnology and DNA vaccines for aquatic animals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kurath, G.

    2008-01-01

    Biotechnology has been used extensively in the development of vaccines for aquaculture. Modern molecular methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cloning and microarray analysis have facilitated antigen discovery, construction of novel candidate vaccines, and assessments of vaccine efficacy, mode of action, and host response. This review focuses on DNA vaccines for finfish to illustrate biotechnology applications in this field. Although DNA vaccines for fish rhabdoviruses continue to show the highest efficacy, DNA vaccines for several other viral and bacterial fish pathogens have now been proven to provide significant protection against pathogen challenge. Studies of the fish rhabdovirus DNA vaccines have elucidated factors that affect DNA vaccine efficacy as well as the nature of the fish innate and adaptive immune responses to DNA vaccines. As tools for managing aquatic animal disease emergencies, DNA vaccines have advantages in speed, flexibility, and safety, and one fish DNA vaccine has been licensed.

  12. Biotechnology and DNA vaccines for aquatic animals.

    PubMed

    Kurath, G

    2008-04-01

    Biotechnology has been used extensively in the development of vaccines for aquaculture. Modern molecular methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cloning and microarray analysis have facilitated antigen discovery, construction of novel candidate vaccines, and assessments of vaccine efficacy, mode of action, and host response. This review focuses on DNA vaccines for finfish to illustrate biotechnology applications in this field. Although DNA vaccines for fish rhabdoviruses continue to show the highest efficacy, DNA vaccines for several other viral and bacterial fish pathogens have now been proven to provide significant protection against pathogen challenge. Studies of the fish rhabdovirus DNA vaccines have elucidated factors that affect DNA vaccine efficacy as well as the nature of the fish innate and adaptive immune responses to DNA vaccines. As tools for managing aquatic animal disease emergencies, DNA vaccines have advantages in speed, flexibility, and safety, and one fish DNA vaccine has been licensed.

  13. [Immune response to influenza vaccination].

    PubMed

    Alvarez, I; Corral, J; Arranz, A; Foruria, A; Landa, V; Lejarza, J R; Marijuán, L; Martínez, J M

    1989-01-01

    The present study investigated the level of immunity of the population against three strains of the influenza virus (A Chile/1/83 -A Philippines/2/82 and B URSS/100/83) before and three months after vaccination, and the immune response to whole virus vaccine as compared with fragmented virus vaccine. A high percentage of the population had titers greater than or equal to 1/10 before vaccination for the Chile (54%) and Philippines (65.7%) strains, while titers against the URSS strain were lower (25.4%). There was a definitive increase in antibody titer in the vaccinated population, although it was lower than expected. The overall response to both vaccines, with protecting titers greater than or equal to 1/40 after vaccination was 65.2% for the Chile strain, 74.6% for the Philippines strain, and 15% for the URSS strain. No differences in the overall immune response were found between the groups vaccinated with whole and fragmented virus.

  14. Adult Vaccination--A Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, vaccines have been associated with childhood. Historically, many of the most-feared communicable diseases attacked infants and toddlers, and those who survived were generally protected from those diseases as adults. During the past century tremendous advances in vaccination spared millions the morbidity and mortality associated with…

  15. HIV vaccines: a brief overview.

    PubMed

    Lema, D; Garcia, A; De Sanctis, J B

    2014-07-01

    The scope of the article is to review the different approaches that have been used for HIV vaccines. The review is based on articles retrieved by PubMed and clinical trials from 1990 up to date. The article discusses virus complexity, protective and non-protective immune responses against the virus, and the most important approaches for HIV vaccine development.

  16. Microneedle patches for vaccine delivery

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Hyemee; Shin, Juhyung

    2014-01-01

    In today's medical industry, the range of vaccines that exist for administration in humans represents an eclectic variety of forms and immunologic mechanisms. Namely, these are the live attenuated viruses, inactivated viruses, subunit proteins, and virus-like particles for treating virus-caused diseases, as well as the bacterial-based polysaccharide, protein, and conjugated vaccines. Currently, a new approach to vaccination is being investigated with the concept of DNA vaccines. As an alternative delivery route to enhance the vaccination efficacy, microneedles have been devised to target the rich network of immunologic antigen-presenting cells in the dermis and epidermis layers under the skin. Numerous studies have outlined the parameters of microneedle delivery of a wide range of vaccines, revealing comparable or higher immunogenicity to conventional intramuscular routes, overall level of stability, and dose-sparing advantages. Furthermore, recent mechanism studies have begun to successfully elucidate the biological mechanisms behind microneedle vaccination. This paper describes the current status of microneedle vaccine research. PMID:24427762

  17. Finding Your Adult Vaccination Record

    MedlinePlus

    ... state's health department . Some states have registries (Immunization Information Systems) that include adult vaccines. Unfortunately, there is no national organization that maintains vaccination records. The Centers for Disease ... (CDC) does not have this information. What To Do If You Can't Find ...

  18. Dengue vaccines: problems and prospects.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, U C; Shrivastava, Richa; Nagar, Rachna

    2005-05-01

    The extent of cumulative disease burden caused by dengue virus has attained an unprecedented level in recent times with sharp increase in the size of human population at risk. Dengue disease presents highly complex medical, economic and ecologic problems. The surge in publications on the development of dengue vaccines, taking advantage of new generation of biotechnology techniques indicates the profound interest and urgency in the scientific and medical communities in combating this disease. This review summarizes the importance of critical subjects like pathogenesis of dengue haemorrhagic fever and inadequacy of animal model that have adversely affected dengue vaccine development. Further, the remarkable progresses so far made in dengue vaccine research not only employing a diverse range of new strategies but also re-using old techniques to improve the existing vaccines, have been presented. The efficacy and safety of some of the new vaccine candidates have been evaluated and proven in human preclinical/clinical trials. Besides the technical advancement in vaccine development, vaccine safety and vaccine formulation have been examined.

  19. Sensorimotor polyneuropathy after hexavalent vaccination.

    PubMed

    Gorczyca, Daiva; Schwirten, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    New vaccines in infants are generally well tolerated and serious adverse events are rare. We present a patient who developed severe sensorimotor polyneuropathy 2 weeks after the first immunization with hexavalent routine vaccine (INFANRIX hexa). Through intense physiotherapy the infant made a complete recovery.

  20. Epstein–barr virus vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jeffrey I

    2015-01-01

    Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is the primary cause of infectious mononucleosis (IM) and is associated with epithelial cell malignancies such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma and gastric carcinoma, as well as lymphoid malignancies including Hodgkin lymphoma, Burkitt lymphoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. EBV vaccines to prevent primary infection or disease, or therapeutic vaccines to treat EBV malignancies have not been licensed. Most efforts to develop prophylactic vaccines have focused on EBV gp350, which is the major target of neutralizing antibody. A single phase 2 trial of an EBV gp350 vaccine has been reported; the vaccine reduced the rate of IM but not virus infection. The observation that infusion of EBV-specific T cells can reduce disease due to Hodgkin lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma provides a proof of principle that a therapeutic vaccine for these and other EBV-associated malignancies might be effective. Most therapeutic vaccines have targeted EBV LMP2 and EBV nuclear antigen-1. As EBV is associated with nearly 200 000 new malignancies each year worldwide, an EBV vaccine to prevent these diseases is needed. PMID:25671130