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Sample records for sulfate soils east

  1. Reactive trace element enrichment in a highly modified, tidally inundated acid sulfate soil wetland: East Trinity, Australia.

    PubMed

    Keene, Annabelle F; Johnston, Scott G; Bush, Richard T; Burton, Edward D; Sullivan, Leigh A

    2010-04-01

    This study examines the abundance of trace elements in surface sediments of a former acid sulfate soil (ASS) wetland subjected to marine tidal inundation. Sediment properties of this highly modified study site are compared with those of an adjacent unmodified, intertidal mangrove forest. Whilst some trace elements (Al, Cd, Mn, Ni and Zn) were clearly depleted due to mobilisation and leaching in the previous oxic-acidic phase, other trace elements (As and Cr) displayed significant enrichment in the tidally inundated ASS. Many trace elements were strongly associated with the reactive Fe and acid volatile sulfide (AVS) fractions, suggesting that trace elements may be adsorbed to abundant reactive Fe phases or sequestered as sulfide minerals. These findings provide an important understanding of the fate and mobility of reactive iron, AVS and trace elements during tidal remediation of a formerly acidified Great Barrier Reef (GBR) catchment.

  2. Sulfate adsorption in Michigan forest soils

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, N.W.

    1987-01-01

    The occurrence of acidic atmospheric deposition raised concerns over adverse cation leaching effects on Michigan forest soils with low cation exchange capacities. Leaching effects of acid deposition depend on mobility of sulfate in the soil. Little was known, however, concerning the ability of these soils to adsorb sulfate. The objectives of this study were to determine the ability of representative Michigan forest soils to adsorb sulfate, to relate sulfate adsorption to soil properties, and to develop equations to predict sulfate adsorption in similar forest soils. Frigid zone soil series studied were Grayling (Typic Udipsamments), Rubicon (Entic Haplorthods), Kalkaska (Typic Haplorthods), and Montcalm (Eutric Glossoboralfs). Mesic zone series studied were Spinks (Psammentic Hapludals) and Oshtemo (Typic Hapludalfs). Six randomly located pedons of each series were sampled. Sulfate adsorption was determined by shaking 10 gram soil samples for 24 hours in 50 mL 0.01 M CaCl/sub 2/ solution containing 10 mg SO/sub 4/-S L/sup -1/. Solution filtrates were turbidimetrically analyzed for SO/sub 4/-S and adsorption was calculated from reduction in SO/sub 4/-S concentration. Bw, Bs, and Bh horizons of frigid zone soils and E and Bt horizons of mesic zone soils had the highest sulfate adsorbing abilities. No significant differences were found between series in total sulfate adsorptive capacity.

  3. Ferric sulfate montmorillonites as Mars soil analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, J. L.; Pieters, C. M.; Burns, R. G.

    1993-01-01

    Spectroscopic analyses have shown that Fe(3+)-doped smectites prepared in the laboratory exhibit important similarities to the soils on Mars. Ferrihydrite in these smectites has features in the visible to near-infrared region that resemble the energies and band-strengths of features in reflectance spectra observed for several bright regions on Mars. Ferric - sulfate - montmorillonite samples have been prepared more recently because they are a good compositional match with the surface material on Mars as measured by Viking. Reflectance spectra of montmorillonite doped with ferric sulfate in the interlayer regions include a strong 3 micron band that persists under dry conditions. This is in contrast to spectra of similarly prepared ferric-doped montmorillonites, which exhibit a relatively weaker 3 micron band under comparable dry environmental conditions. Presented here are reflectance spectra of a suite of ferric-sulfate exchanged montmorillonites prepared with variable ferric sulfate concentrations and variable pH conditions.

  4. Sulfate reduction in freshwater wetland soils and the effects of sulfate and substrate loading

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, J.; Hsieh, Y.P.

    1998-07-01

    Elevated sulfate and organic C loadings in freshwater wetlands could stimulate dissimilatory sulfate reduction that oxidizes organic C, produces hydrogen sulfide and alkalinity, and sequesters trace metals. The authors determined the extent of sulfate reduction in two freshwater wetland soils, that is black gum (Nyssa biflona) swamp soils and titi (Cliftonia monophylla) swamp soils, in northern Florida. They also investigated the potential of sulfate reduction in the wetland soils by adding sulfate, organic substrate, and lime. Sulfate reduction was found to be an active process in both swamp soils without any amendment, where the pore water pH was as low as 3.6 and sulfate concentration was as low as 5 mg L{sup {minus}1}. Without amendment, 11 to 14% of organic C was oxidized through sulfate reduction in the swamp soils. Sulfate loading, liming, and substrate addition significantly increased sulfate reduction in the black gum swamp soil, but none of those treatments increase sulfate reduction in the titi swamp soil. The limiting factor for sulfate reduction in the titi swamp soil were likely texture and soil aggregate related properties. The results suggested that wastewater loading may increase sulfate reduction in some freshwater wetlands such as the black swamps while it has no stimulating effect on other wetlands such as the titi swamps.

  5. Sulfate mobility in an outwash soil in western Washington

    Treesearch

    D. W. Johnson; D. W. Cole

    1976-01-01

    The effect of acidic precipitation on cation leaching in a second-growth Douglas-fir ecosystem at the Thompson Research Center is reviewed. Sulfate mobility and soil pH buffering power were tested by applications of heavy doses of sulfuric acid to the study plot. Sulfate at high concentrations proved to be immobilized, presumably by adsorption to soil sesquioxide...

  6. Glufosinate and Ammonium Sulfate Inhibits Atrazine Degradation in Adapted Soils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The co-application of glufosinate with nitrogen fertilizers may alter atrazine co-metabolism, thereby extending the herbicide’s residual weed control in adapted soils. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of glufosinate, ammonium sulfate, and the combination of glufosinate and ammo...

  7. Source-receptor relationships between East Asian sulfur dioxide emissions and Northern Hemisphere sulfate concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Horowitz, L. W.

    2008-03-01

    We analyze the effect of varying East Asian (EA) sulfur emissions on sulfate concentrations in the Northern Hemisphere, using a global coupled oxidant-aerosol model (MOZART-2). We conduct a base and five sensitivity simulations, in which sulfur emissions from each continent are tagged, to establish the source-receptor (S-R) relationship between EA sulfur emissions and sulfate concentrations over source and downwind regions. We find that from west to east across the North Pacific, EA sulfate contributes approximately 80%-20% of sulfate at the surface, but at least 50% at 500 hPa. In addition, EA SO2 emissions account for approximately 30%-50% and 10%-20% of North American background sulfate over the western and eastern US, respectively. The contribution of EA sulfate to the western US at the surface is highest in MAM and JJA, but is lowest in DJF. Reducing EA SO2 emissions will significantly decrease the spatial extent of the EA sulfate influence over the North Pacific both at the surface and at 500 mb in all seasons, but the extent of influence is insensitive to emission increases, particularly in DJF and JJA. We find that EA sulfate concentrations over most downwind regions respond nearly linearly to changes in EA SO2 emissions, but sulfate concentrations over the EA source region increase more slowly than SO2 emissions, particularly at the surface and in winter, due to limited availability of oxidants (mostly H2O2). We find that similar estimates of the S-R relationship for trans-Pacific transport of EA sulfate would be obtained using either sensitivity or tagging techniques. Our findings suggest that future changes in EA sulfur emissions may cause little change in the sulfate induced health impact over downwind continents but SO2 emission reductions may significantly reduce the sulfate related climate cooling over the North Pacific and the United States.

  8. Source-receptor relationships between East Asian sulfur dioxide emissions and Northern Hemisphere sulfate concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Horowitz, L. W.

    2008-07-01

    We analyze the effect of varying East Asian (EA) sulfur emissions on sulfate concentrations in the Northern Hemisphere, using a global coupled oxidant-aerosol model (MOZART-2). We conduct a base and five sensitivity simulations, in which sulfur emissions from each continent are tagged, to establish the source-receptor (S-R) relationship between EA sulfur emissions and sulfate concentrations over source and downwind regions. We find that from west to east across the North Pacific, EA sulfate contributes approximately 80% 20% of sulfate at the surface, but at least 50% at 500 hPa. Surface sulfate concentrations are dominated by local anthropogenic sources. Of the sulfate produced from sources other than local anthropogenic emissions (defined here as "background" sulfate), EA sources account for approximately 30% 50% (over the Western US) and 10% 20% (over the Eastern US). The surface concentrations of sulfate from EA sources over the Western US are highest in MAM (up to 0.15 μg/m3), and lowest in DJF (less than 0.06 μg/m3). Reducing EA SO2 emissions will significantly decrease the spatial extent of the EA sulfate influence (represented by the areas where at least 0.1 μg m-3 of sulfate originates from EA) over the North Pacific both at the surface and at 500 hPa in all seasons, but the extent of influence is insensitive to emission increases, particularly in DJF and JJA. We find that EA sulfate concentrations over most downwind regions respond nearly linearly to changes in EA SO2 emissions, but sulfate concentrations over the EA source region increase more slowly than SO2 emissions, particularly at the surface and in winter, due to limited availability of oxidants (in particular of H2O2, which oxidizes SO2 to sulfate in the aqueous phase). We find that similar estimates of the S-R relationship for trans-Pacific transport of EA sulfate would be obtained using either sensitivity (i.e., varying emissions from a region to examine the effects on downwind concentrations

  9. The impact of dust on sulfate aerosol, CN and CCN during an East Asian dust storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manktelow, P. T.; Carslaw, K. S.; Mann, G. W.; Spracklen, D. V.

    2010-01-01

    A global model of aerosol microphysics is used to simulate a large East Asian dust storm during the ACE-Asia experiment. We use the model together with size resolved measurements of aerosol number concentration and composition to examine how dust modified the production of sulfate aerosol and the particle size distribution in East Asian outflow. Simulated size distributions and mass concentrations of dust, sub- and super-micron sulfate agree well with observations from the C-130 aircraft. Modeled mass concentrations of fine sulfate (Dp<1.3 μm) decrease by ~10% due to uptake of sulfur species onto super-micron dust. We estimate that dust enhanced the mass concentration of coarse sulfate (Dp>1.0 μm) by more than an order of magnitude, but total sulfate concentrations increase by less than 2% because decreases in fine sulfate have a compensating effect. Our analysis shows that the sulfate associated with dust can be explained largely by the uptake of H2SO4 rather than reaction of SO2 on the dust surface, which we assume is suppressed once the particles are coated in sulfate. We suggest that many previous model investigations significantly overestimated SO2 oxidation on East Asian dust, possibly due to the neglect of surface saturation effects. We extend previous model experiments by examining how dust modified existing particle concentrations in Asian outflow. Total particle concentrations (condensation nuclei, CN) modeled in the dust-pollution plume are reduced by up to 20%, but we predict that dust led to less than 10% depletion in particles large enough to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Our analysis suggests that E. Asian dust storms have only a minor impact on sulfate particles present at climate-relevant sizes.

  10. The impact of dust on sulfate aerosol, CN and CCN during an East Asian dust storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manktelow, P. T.; Carslaw, K. S.; Mann, G. W.; Spracklen, D. V.

    2009-07-01

    A global model of aerosol microphysics is used to simulate a large East Asian dust storm during the ACE-Asia experiment. We use the model together with size resolved measurements of aerosol number concentration and composition to examine how dust modified the production of sulfate aerosol and the particle size distribution in East Asian outflow. Simulated size distributions and mass concentrations of dust, sub- and super-micron sulfate agree well with observations from the C-130 aircraft. Modelled mass concentrations of fine sulfate (Dp<1.3 μm) decrease by ~10% due to uptake of sulfur species onto super-micron dust. We estimate that dust enhanced the mass concentration of coarse sulfate (Dp<1.0 μm) by more than an order of magnitude, but total sulfate concentrations increase by less than 2% because decreases in fine sulfate have a compensating effect. Our analysis shows that the sulfate associated with dust can be explained largely by the uptake of H2SO4 rather than reaction of SO2 on the dust surface, which we assume is suppressed once the particles are coated in sulfate. We suggest that many previous model investigations significantly overestimated SO2 oxidation on East Asian dust, possibly due to the neglect of surface saturation effects. We extend previous model experiments by examining how dust modified existing particle concentrations in Asian outflow. Total particle concentrations modelled in the dust-pollution plume are reduced by up to 20%, but we predict that dust led to less than 10% depletion in particles large enough to act as cloud condensation nuclei. Our analysis suggests that E. Asian dust storms have only a minor impact on sulfate particles present at climate-relevant sizes.

  11. Calcium sulfate crystallization along citrus root channels in a Florida soil exhibiting acid sulfate properties

    SciTech Connect

    Syslo, S.K.; Myhre, D.L.; Harris, W.G.

    1988-02-01

    The authors observed euhedral crystals in Manatee soil in a citrus grove in St. Lucie County, Florida. The material was identified as gypsum (CaSO/sub 4/ /times/ 2H/sub 2/O) using x-ray diffraction and infrared spectra. Photomicrography and scanning electron microscopy revealed that gypsum accumulated both in old root channels and within citrus root tissue of the Btg horizon. The subsurface horizons had elevated sulfate levels, a low initial pH, a drop (0.5 unit) in pH upon air-drying. Electrical conductivity paralleled the concentration of water-soluble sulfate. High levels of calcium and sulfate occurred for horizons above the water table. This accumulation is attributed to groundwater bearing these ions and subsequently discharging them to the overlying soil. Dead citrus roots appear to act as wicks to aid water transfer from lower to higher horizons. The roots and their empty channels provide spaces in which the gypsum can precipitate if the concentrations of calcium and sulfate in the evaporating groundwater exceed the solubility product of gypsum.

  12. Bioremediation of coal contaminated soil under sulfate-reducing condition.

    PubMed

    Kuwano, Y; Shimizu, Y

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the biodegradation of coal-derived hydrocarbons, especially high molecular weight (HMW) components, under anaerobic conditions. For this purpose biodegradation experiments were performed, using specifically designed soil column bioreactors. For the experiment, coal-contaminated soil was prepared, which contains high molecular weight hydrocarbons at high concentration (approx. 55.5 mgC g-drysoil(-1)). The experiment was carried out in two different conditions: sulfate reducing (SR) condition (SO4(2-) = 10 mmol l(-1) in the liquid medium) and control condition (SO4(2-)<0.5 mmol l(-1)). Although no degradation was observed under the control condition, the resin fraction decreased to half (from 6,541 to 3,386 mgC g-soil(-1)) under SR condition, with the concomitant increase of two PAHs (phenanthrene and fluoranthene, 9 and 2.5 times, respectively). From these results, we could conclude that high molecular hydrocarbons were biodegradable and transformed to low molecular weight PAHs under the sulfate-reducing condition. Since these PAHs are known to be biologically degraded under aerobic condition, a serial combination of anaerobic (sulfate reducing) and then aerobic bioremediations could be effective and useful for the soil pollution by petroleum and/or coal derived hydrocarbons.

  13. Sulfate reduction and iron sulfide mineral formation in the southern East China Sea continental slope sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Saulwood; Huang, Kuo-Ming; Chen, Shin-Kuan

    2002-10-01

    Sulfate reduction rate, organic carbon and sulfide burial rate; organic carbon, carbonate carbon, and reactive iron contents; grain size; and sedimentation rate were determined in sediments of the southern East China Sea continental slope. The results show high sulfate reduction and pyrite sulfur burial rates in slope areas with high organic carbon and sedimentation rates. Unusually high rates of organic carbon deposition enhance sulfate reduction and pyrite sulfide burial in the region. Both sulfate reduction rates and pyrite sulfur burial rates increased linearly with increasing organic carbon burial rate, indicating that deposition of organic carbon on the slope is the primary controlling factor for pyrite formation. Abundant reactive iron indicated that iron is not limiting pyrite formation. Pyrite is the predominant sulfide mineral; however, acid volatile sulfide constituted up to 50% of total sulfide at some stations. Up to 240 μmol/g of pyrite sulfur and 5 mmol/m 2/day of sulfate reduction rates were found in the slope sediment. Sulfate reduction rate and pyrite sulfur did not decrease with increasing overlying water depth. High organic carbon burial rates enhanced the sulfate reduction rate and subsequently the rate of pyrite sulfur burial in the slope region. As a result, the southern East China Sea continental slope environment is an efficient pyrite sulfur burial environment.

  14. 1. VIEW EAST, WEST FRONT OF SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE CLUSTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW EAST, WEST FRONT OF SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE CLUSTER (BUILDINGS 24, 25, 26) - U.S. Plant Introduction Station, Soil Conservation Service Cluster, 11601 Old Pond Road, Glenn Dale, Prince George's County, MD

  15. Effect of sulfate fertilization on soil biota in grassland columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikoyi, Israel; Donohue, John; Fowler, Andrew; Schmalenberger, Achim

    2017-04-01

    Sulfur (S) is an important macronutrient element in plant nutrition as a component of protein, enzymes, enzyme cofactors as well as being the major constituent of the amino acids cysteine and methionine. Organically bound S is the predominant form of S in the soil constituting up to 95% of S in agricultural soils. The most important form of S in terms of plant nutrition is inorganic sulfate which forms only about 5% of the total soil S content. Air pollution was the major source of S (as SO2) for plants, with up to 80% of the S obtained from this source. However, common effects of S limitation on crops such as chlorosis, yield reduction, and decrease in crop quality are becoming increasingly evident as atmospheric S supply has decreased in recent years. Recent research has shown that organically-bound S in soils is also plant-bioavailable, likely due to interconversion of organic S forms to inorganic sulfate by soil microbes. In this study, soil columns were setup in a greenhouse using moderate S (equivalent to Wisconsin S soil availability index of below 30) soils. The columns were planted with Lolium perenne and fertilized with 0 (control), 5 (low), 10 (medium) and 20 (high) kg/ha sulfate S alongside a full complement of other nutrients. Results after 14 weeks of management show a significant decrease (P<0.05) in aryl sulfatase activity, mycorrhizal hyphal and arbuscular colonization rates in the high and medium S treatments but no significant effect on bacterial abundance of heterotrophs and aromatic sulfonate-utilizing bacteria upon S fertilization. In addition, soil from the top 20 cm of the column had significantly higher sulfatase activity compared to the bottom 20 cm. The medium and high S treatments had significantly higher grass dry matter yield compared to the control and low S treatments. All S treatments significantly shifted the bacterial community structure compared to the control. Overall, our preliminary results suggest that applying 5 kg/ ha S had

  16. Influence of metal ions and pH on the hydraulic properties of potential acid sulfate soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, T. M. H.; Collins, R. N.; Waite, T. D.

    2008-07-01

    SummaryAcid sulfate soils (ASS) cover extensive areas of east Australian coastal floodplains. Upon oxidation, these hydromorphic pyritic sediments produce large quantities of sulfuric acid. In addition, due to their geographic location, these soils may also come in contact with high ionic strength estuarine tidal waters. As a result, there is typically a large variation in acidity (pH) and cation concentrations in soil porewaters and adjacent aquatic systems (e.g., agricultural field drains, rivers, estuaries, etc.). Acid sulfate soils, especially from the unoxidized gelatinous deeper layers, contain a relatively high proportion of montmorillonite, which is wellknown for its shrink-swell properties. Variations in cation concentrations, including H3O+, can influence montmorillonite platelet interactions and may, thus, also significantly affect the hydraulic conductivity of materials containing this clay. In this paper we report on the effect of four common cations, at reasonable environmental concentrations, on the hydraulic properties of potential (unoxidized) acid sulfate soil materials. The natural system was simplified by examining individually the effects of each cation (H+, Ca2+, Fe2+ and Na+) on a soil-water suspension in a filtration cell unit. Moisture ratio, hydraulic conductivity and the consolidation coefficient of the deposited filter cakes were calculated using material coordinates theory. The results indicate that the hydraulic conductivity of potential acid sulfate soils increases at low pH and with cation concentration. Although an increase in the charge of amphoteric edge groups on montmorillonite clays may result in some aggregation between individual clay platelets, we conclude that the extent of these changes are unlikely to cause significant increases in the transportation of acidity (and contaminants) through potential acid sulfate soils as the hydraulic conductivity of these materials remain low (<10-9 m/s) at pH and ionic conditions normally

  17. [Effects of colistin sulfate residue on soil microbial community structure].

    PubMed

    Ma, Yi; Peng, Jin-Ju; Chen, Jin-Jun; Fan, Ting-Li; Sun, Yong-Xue

    2014-06-01

    By using fumigation extraction and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) methods, the change of characteristics of soil microbial community structure caused by residue of colistin sulfate (CS) was studied. The results showed that the CS (w(cs) > or = 5 mg x kg(-1)) had a significant effect on the microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and it was dose-dependent where MBC decreased with the increase of CS concentration in soil. The MBC in soil decreased by 52. 1% when the CS concentration reached 50 mg x kg(-1). The total PLFA of soil in each CS treatment was significantly decreased during the sampling period compared with the control group and showed a dose-dependent relationship. The soil microbial community structure and diversity in the low CS group (w(cs) = 0.5 mg x kg(-1)) were not significantly different from the control group on 7th and 49th day. However, they were significantly different on 21st and 35th day especially in the high CS group (w(cs) = 50 mg x kg(-1)). It was concluded that CS could change the structure of soil microorganisms and varied with time which might be caused by the chemical conversion and degradation of CS in soil.

  18. Soil Remediation of an Arsenic-Contaminated Site With Ferrous Sulfate and Type V Portland Cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illera, V.; O'Day, P. A.; Rivera, N.; Root, R.; Rafferty, M. T.; Vlassopoulos, D.

    2005-12-01

    High levels of arsenic are present in a site adjacent to San Francisco Bay (in East Palo Alto, CA) as a consequence of the activity of a former pesticide manufacturing plant. Most of the readily accessible arsenic at the site has been removed by remedial excavation and surface capping. In-situ fixation of residual arsenic was performed close to the source about 10 years ago where arsenic values in capped soils ranged from 500 to 5000 mg kg-1. The fixation method consisted of the addition of ferrous sulfate (3% w/w), type V Portland cement (10% w/w) and water. Both products were mixed with the contaminated soil to a treatment depth between 1.5 and 9 meters. The treated soil was then capped to prevent weathering. This long-term amended soil offers an opportunity to compare the processes that prevent microbial arsenic reduction and control the immobilization of arsenic in the treated soils versus natural soils, and to study the aging effects of arsenic sorption. Solid phase characterization of soil samples from both the field and controlled laboratory experiments were carried out to study the speciation and bioavailability of arsenic and to ascertain the mechanisms of the arsenic immobilization in the treated soil. These methods included physical description by field observations, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy, total elemental concentrations, and solid phase fractionation by sequential extraction. Both synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and XRD measurements were used to determine oxidation state of arsenic and iron and host phases present in the soil. The remedial treatment was successful in immobilizing the arsenic in the contaminated soil, and decreasing its leachability. Measurements taken at short aging times (during the first month) showed that the treatment was effective in reducing leachable arsenic as evidenced by the TCLP wet test (< 5 mg l-1 leached). The field amendment influenced

  19. Recent Spirit Rover Results: Morphological and Textural Analysis of Sulfate-Rich Soils to the West of Home Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebach, K.; Arvidson, R. E.; Morris, R. V.; Gellert, R.; Wang, A.

    2009-12-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit is sitting on the upper eastern wall of an ~8 m wide, shallow circular depression located to the west of Home Plate. The rover has a 12 degree roll to the west, with the left wheels within the crater and the right wheels on a plateau to the east of the crater. The region is called “Troy”, and an extensive campaign of observations has been conducted of the disturbed soil (“Ulysses”) and two surfaces on the plateau (“Cyclops Eye” and “Polyphemus Eye”). The campaign included extensive measurements in Ulysses by the Panoramic Camera and Alpha Particle X-Ray and Mössbauer Spectrometers. In addition, the Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT) was used to excavate into the “Eye” Targets with subsequent measurements using the science payload. The data show that the Ulysses soils are dominated by sulfate-rich materials, mixed with varying amounts of basaltic sand and silt. The compositional and mineralogical observations were accompanied by images taken by the Microscopic Imager (MI), a fixed-focus camera with 31micrometer/pixel image scale. Particle size distributions derived from MI images show that the Ulysses soils are composed primarily of fine to medium sized sand grains, with some agglomerates and a component of silt grains below the resolution of the instrument (~0.1 mm). A comparison of the 2D perimeter and cross-sectional areas of the particles indicates that the soil is dominated by angular fragmented particles. The angularity indicates that this soil is local in origin. Surface soils on the plateau to the east of Ulysses are composed of well-sorted, round, fine basaltic sand, likely sorted by aeolian transport. The deepest soil uncovered by the RAT at Cyclops Eye (~10 cm to east of Ulysses) shows a mix of angular sulfate-dominated grains, and round basaltic particles. On the other hand, materials on the surface and those exposed in Polyphemus Eye (~30 cm to east of Cyclops Eye) indicate the presence of basaltic materials

  20. Potassium alum and aluminum sulfate micro-inclusions in polar ice from Dome Fuji, East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, Hiroshi; Iizuka, Yoshinori; Horikawa, Shinichiro; Sakurai, Toshimitsu; Hondoh, Takeo; Motoyama, Hideaki

    2014-03-01

    Water-soluble trace constituents affect the physicochemical properties of polar ice. Their structural distribution provides important insights into the formation history of ice and inclusions. We report the first finding of KAl(SO4)2·12H2O (potassium alum) and Al2(SO4)3·nH2O (aluminum sulfate) micro-inclusions in the Dome Fuji ice core, East Antartica, using a micro-Raman technique. Eutectic temperatures of these water-soluble species determined using thermal analysis were -0.4 °C for potassium alum and -8.0 °C for aluminum sulfate. Although the formation process of the aluminum-bearing sulfates remains unclear, the occurrence of these salts largely depends on ice depth.

  1. Processes and fluxes during the initial stage of acid sulfate soil formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gröger, J.; Hamer, K.; Schulz, H. D.

    2009-04-01

    Acid sulfate soils occur over a wide range of climatic zones, mainly in coastal landscapes. In these soils, the release of sulfuric acid by the oxidation of pyrite generates a very acidic environment (e.g., DENT and PONS, 1995, PONS, 1973). Two major types of acid sulfate soils can be distinguished: In actual acid sulfate soils, the initially contained pyrite was at least partly oxidized. This resulted in a severe acidification of the soil. Potential acid sulfate soils are generally unoxidized and contain large amounts of pyrite. Upon oxidation, these soils will turn into actual acid sulfate soils. By excavation or lowering of the groundwater table, potential acid sulfate soils can be exposed to atmospheric oxygen. During oxidation the pH drops sharply to values below pH 4. This acidification promotes the release of various metals, e.g., alumina, iron and heavy metals. Additionally, large quantities of sulfate are released. In order to assess the effects of disturbances of potential acid sulfate soils, for example by excavations during construction works, several large scale column experiments were conducted with various types of potential acid sulfate soils from Northern Germany. In these experiments, the oxidation and initial profile development of pyritic fen peats and thionic fluvisols were studied over a period of 14 months. The study focused on leaching and the translocation of various metals in the soil profile. To study mobilization processes, element fluxes and the progress of acidification, soil water and leachate were analyzed for total element concentrations. Furthermore, several redox-sensitive parameters, e.g., Fe2+ and sulfide, were measured and changes to the initial solid phase composition were analyzed. Chemical equilibria calculations of the soil water were used to gain insights into precipitation processes of secondary products of pyrite oxidation and leaching products. The results of this study will support the assessment of risks deriving from

  2. Sulfate Transport and Release in Technogenic Soil Substrates: Experiments and Numerical Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schonsky, H.; Peters, A.; Lang, F.; Mekiffer, B.; Wessolek, G.

    2012-04-01

    In Berlin and many other cities technogenic soil substrates from World War II and building and construction debris in general play an important role for soil formation and solute transport in the vadose zone. The largest debris landfill in Berlin is the Teufelsberg. Sulfate release from the landfill poses threats for groundwater quality. The scope of this study is to determine the processes controlling sulfate release from soils containing rubble. Column leaching experiments were conducted to analyze sulfate mobilization from Teufelsberg topsoil material. Flow interruptions of one and seven days were introduced. Sulfate release was modeled using a geochemical simulation tool (HP1). The model considered water flux, solute transport and precipitation/dissolution with first order kinetics. Sulfate release increased after flow interruptions, although bromide breakthrough indicated physical equilibrium of transport processes. The model was applicable for qualitative description of our experimental results. The estimated equilibrium concentrations of sulfate were one to two orders of magnitude smaller than expected according to the equilibrium constant of gypsum. It is assumed that the mobilization of sulfate from calcite/gypsum co-precipitates determines the sulfate concentrations in the soil solution of the studied soils. If Sulfate release and transport from soils containing debris is modeled with literature values, sulfate concentrations will be overestimated by one to two orders of magnitude.

  3. Source-Receptor Relationships for East Asian Sulfur Dioxide Emissions and Northern Hemisphere Sulfate Concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Horowitz, L. W.

    2007-12-01

    We analyze the effect of varying East Asian (EA) sulfur emissions on sulfate concentrations in the northern hemisphere based on a global coupled oxidant-aerosol model (MOZART-2) driven with NCEP reanalysis meteorology for 1991. We conduct a base and several sensitivity simulations, in which sulfur emissions from each continent are tagged, to establish the source-receptor (S-R) relationship between EA sulfur emissions and sulfate concentrations over the source and downwind regions. We find that reducing EA SO2 emissions will significantly decrease the spatial extent of the EA sulfate influence over the North Pacific, but raising EA SO2 emissions will not significantly increase the spatial extent of influence. We define a linearity index and find the S-R relationship between EA SO2 emissions and EA sulfate concentrations to be nearly linear over most downwind regions, but to be non-linear over the EA source region, particularly at the surface and in winter. In addition, we find that besides the direct transport of EA sulfate to North America (NA) and Europe (EU), the indirect response of locally-produced NA or EU sulfate to changes in EA SO2 emissions is negative (i.e., offsetting the direct effect) in winter, spring and fall, but becomes positive in summer. In summer the indirect response is as important as direct transport of EA sulfate over the southeastern U.S. and southern EU. This summertime positive indirect effect largely results from induced changes in H2O2 oxidant concentrations over these regions.

  4. Criteria for Remote Sensing Detection of Sulfate Cemented Soils on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Christopher D.; Mustard, John F.

    2000-01-01

    Spectral measurements of loose and cemented mixtures of palagonitic soil and sulfates were made to determine whether cemented soils could be identified on Mars. Cemented MgSO4 mixtures exhibit an enhanced 9 micron sulfate fundamental compared to gypsum mixtures due to more diffuse and pervasive cementing.

  5. Soil Profile Sulfate in Irrigated Southern High Plains Cotton Fields and Ogallala Groundwater

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil Profile Sulfate in Irrigated Southern High Plains Cotton Fields and Ogallala Groundwater Abstract: Sulfate (SO4) is one of the most important anions in soils and groundwater in semiarid regions, including West Texas. Crops’ sulfur (S) requirement is about 10 to 20 % of the nitrogen (N) require...

  6. Criteria for Remote Sensing Detection of Sulfate Cemented Soils on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Christopher D.; Mustard, John F.

    2000-01-01

    Spectral measurements of loose and cemented mixtures of palagonitic soil and sulfates were made to determine whether cemented soils could be identified on Mars. Cemented MgSO4 mixtures exhibit an enhanced 9 micron sulfate fundamental compared to gypsum mixtures due to more diffuse and pervasive cementing.

  7. Characterization of sulfate reducing bacteria isolated from urban soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Mingliang; Wang, Haixia

    2017-05-01

    Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) was isolated from urban soil and applied for the remediation of heavy metals pollution from acid mine drainage. The morphology and physiological characteristics (e.g. pH and heavy metals tolerance) of SRB was investigated. The SRB was gram-negative bacteria, long rod with slight curve, cell size 0.5× (1.5-2.0) μm. The pH of medium had significant effect on SRB growth and the efficiency of sulfate reduction, and it showed that the suitable pH range was 5-9 and SRB could not survive at pH less than 4. The maximum tolerance of Fe (II), Zn (II), Cd (II), and Cu (II) under acidic condition (pH 5.0) was about 600 mg/L, 150 mg/L, 25 mg/L and 25 mg/L, respectively. The result indicated that SRB isolated in this study could be used for the bioremediation of acid mine drainage (pH>4) within the heavy metals concentrations tolerance.

  8. Selenium inhibits sulfate-mediated methylmercury production in rice paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Jie; Dang, Fei; Zhao, Jia-Ting; Zhong, Huan

    2016-06-01

    There is increasing interest in understanding factors controlling methylmercury (MeHg) production in mercury-contaminated rice paddy soil. Sulfate has been reported to affect MeHg biogeochemistry under anoxic conditions, and recent studies revealed that selenium (Se) could evidently reduce MeHg production in paddy soil. However, the controls of sulfate and Se on net MeHg production in paddy soil under fluctuating redox conditions remain largely unknown. Microcosm experiments were conducted to explore the effects of sulfate and Se on net MeHg production in rice paddy soil. Soil was added with 0-960 mg/kg sulfate, in the presence or absence of 3.0 mg/kg selenium (selenite or selenate), and incubated under anoxic (40 days) or suboxic conditions (5 days), simulating fluctuating redox conditions in rice paddy field. Sulfate addition moderately affected soil MeHg concentrations under anoxic conditions, while reoxidation resulted in evidently higher (18-40%) MeHg levels in sulfate amended soils than the control. The observed changes in net MeHg production were related to dynamics of sulfate and iron. However, Se could inhibit sulfate-mediated MeHg production in the soils: Se addition largely reduced net MeHg production in the soils (23-86%, compared to the control), despite of sulfate addition. Similarly, results of the pot experiments (i.e., rice cultivation in amended soils) indicated that soil MeHg levels were rather comparable in Se-amended soils during rice growth period, irrespective of added sulfate doses. The more important role of Se than sulfate in controlling MeHg production was explained by the formation of HgSe nanoparticles irrespective of the presence of sulfate, confirmed by TEM-EDX and XANES analysis. Our findings regarding the effects of sulfate and Se on net MeHg production in rice paddy soil together with the mechanistic explanation of the processes advance our understanding of MeHg dynamics and risk in soil-rice systems.

  9. Effects of sulfate aerosol forcing on East Asian summer monsoon for 1985-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Minjoong J.; Yeh, Sang-Wook; Park, Rokjin J.

    2016-02-01

    We examine the effect of anthropogenic aerosol forcing on the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) using the Community Atmosphere Model version 5.1.1. One control and two sensitivity model experiments were conducted in order to diagnose the separate roles played by sea surface temperature (SST) variations and anthropogenic sulfate aerosol forcing changes in East Asia. We find that the SST variation has been a major driver for the observed weakening of the EASM, whereas the effect of the anthropogenic aerosol forcing has been opposite and has slightly intensified the EASM over the recent decades. The reinforcement of the EASM results from radiative cooling by the sulfate aerosol forcing, which decelerates the jet stream around the jet's exit region. Subsequently, the secondary circulation induced by such a change in the jet stream leads to the increase in precipitation around 18-23°N. This result indicates that the increase in anthropogenic emissions over East Asia may play a role in compensating for the weakening of the EASM caused by the SST forcing.

  10. Soil response to clearcutting and site preparation in East Texas

    Treesearch

    John J. Stransky; Lowell K. Halls; K.G. Watterston

    1982-01-01

    On an east Texas forest site, clearcutting and site preparation did not change the soil pH. Chopping and KG blading significantly reduced organic matter i n the surface soil, while burning slightly increased it. Organic matter showed a positive and significant relationship to potassium, calcium and magnesium. Allsite treatments increased phosphorus and potassium, with...

  11. Acid sulfate soils are an environmental hazard in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pihlaja, Jouni

    2016-04-01

    Acid sulfate soils (ASS) create significant threats to the environment on coastal regions of the Baltic Sea in Finland. The sediments were deposited during the ancient Litorina Sea phase of the Baltic Sea about 7500-4500 years ago. Finland has larger spatial extent of the ASS than any other European country. Mostly based on anthropogenic reasons (cultivation, trenching etc.) ASS deposits are currently being exposed to oxygen which leads to chemical reaction creating sulfuric acid. The acidic waters then dissolve metals form the soil. Acidic surface run off including the metals are then leached into the water bodies weakening the water quality and killing fish or vegetation. In constructed areas acidic waters may corrode building materials. Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) is mapping ASS deposits in Finland. The goal is to map a total of 5 million hectares of the potentially ASS affected region. It has been estimated that the problematic Litorina Sea deposits, which are situated 0-100 m above the recent Baltic Sea shoreline, cover 500 000 hectares area. There are several phases in mapping. The work begins at the office with gathering the existing data, interpreting airborne geophysical data and compiling a field working plan. In the field, quality of the soil is studied and in uncertain cases samples are taken to laboratory analyses. Also electrical conductivity and pH of soil and water are measured in the field. Laboratory methods include multielemental determinations with ICP-OES, analyses of grain size and humus content (LOI), and incubation. So far, approximately 60 % of the potential ASS affected regions in Finland are mapped. Over 15 000 sites have been studied in the field and 4000 laboratory analyses are done. The spatial database presented in the scale of 1: 250 000 can be viewed at the GTK's web pages (http://gtkdata.gtk.fi/hasu/index.html).

  12. Reclamation of acid sulfate soils using lime-stabilized biosolids.

    PubMed

    Orndorff, Zenah W; Daniels, W Lee; Fanning, Delvin S

    2008-01-01

    Excavation of sulfidic materials during construction has resulted in acid rock drainage (ARD) problems throughout Virginia. The most extensive documented uncontrolled disturbance at a single location is Stafford Regional Airport (SRAP) in Stafford, Virginia. Beginning in 1998, over 150 ha of sulfidic Coastal Plain sediments were disturbed, including steeply sloping cut surfaces and spoils placed into fills. Acid sulfate soils developed, and ARD generated on-site degraded metal and concrete structures and heavily damaged water quality with effects noted over 1 km downstream. The site was not recognized as sulfidic until 2001 when surface soil sampling revealed pH values ranging from 1.9 to 5.3 and peroxide potential acidity (PPA) values ranging from 1 to 42 Mg CaCO(3) per 1000 Mg material. In February 2002 a water quality program was established in and around the site to monitor baseline pH, EC, NO(3)-N, NH(4)-N, PO(4)-P, Fe, Al, Mn, and SO(4)-S, and initial pH values as low as 2.9 were noted in on-site receiving streams. In the spring and fall of 2002, the site was treated with variable rates of lime-stabilized biosolids, straw-mulch, and acid- and salt-tolerant legumes and grasses. By October 2002, the site was fully revegetated (> or = 90% living cover) with the exception of a few highly acidic outcrops and seepage areas. Surface soil sampling in 2003, 2004, and 2006 revealed pH values typically > 6.0. Water quality responded quickly to treatment, although short-term NH(4)(+) release occurred. Despite heavy loadings, no significant surface water P losses were observed.

  13. Novel diffusive gradients in thin films technique to assess labile sulfate in soil.

    PubMed

    Hanousek, Ondrej; Mason, Sean; Santner, Jakob; Chowdhury, Md Mobaroqul Ahsan; Berger, Torsten W; Prohaska, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    A novel diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique for sampling labile soil sulfate was developed, based on a strong basic anion exchange resin (Amberlite IRA-400) for sulfate immobilization on the binding gel. For reducing the sulfate background on the resin gels, photopolymerization was applied instead of ammonium persulfate-induced polymerization. Agarose cross-linked polyacrylamide (APA) hydrogels were used as diffusive layer. The sulfate diffusion coefficient in APA gel was determined as 9.83 × 10(-6) ± 0.35 × 10(-6) cm(2) s(-1) at 25 °C. The accumulated sulfate was eluted in 1 mol L(-1) HNO3 with a recovery of 90.9 ± 1.6 %. The developed method was tested against two standard extraction methods for soil sulfate measurement. The obtained low correlation coefficients indicate that DGT and conventional soil test methods assess differential soil sulfate pools, rendering DGT a potentially important tool for measuring labile soil sulfate.

  14. Assessment of the first indirect radiative effect of ammonium-sulfate-nitrate aerosols in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiao; Zhang, Meigen; Skorokhod, Andrei

    2016-09-01

    A physically based cloud nucleation parameterization was introduced into an optical properties/radiative transfer module incorporated with the off-line air quality modeling system Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS)-Models-3 Community Multi Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) to investigate the distribution features of the first indirect radiative effects of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium-sulfate-nitrate (ASN) over East Asia for the years of 2005, 2010, and 2013. The relationship between aerosol particles and cloud droplet number concentration could be properly described by this parameterization because the simulated cloud fraction and cloud liquid water path were generally reliable compared with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) retrieved data. Simulation results showed that the strong effect of indirect forcing was mainly concentrated in Southeast China, the East China Sea, the Yellow Sea, and the Sea of Japan. The highest indirect radiative forcing of ASN reached -3.47 W m-2 over Southeast China and was obviously larger than the global mean of the indirect forcing of all anthropogenic aerosols. In addition, sulfate provided about half of the contribution to the ASN indirect forcing effect. However, the effect caused by nitrate was weak because the mass burden of nitrate was very low during summer, whereas the cloud fraction was the highest. The analysis indicated that even though the interannual variation of indirect forcing magnitude generally followed the trend of aerosol mass burden from 2005 to 2013, the cloud fraction was an important factor that determined the distribution pattern of indirect forcing. The heaviest aerosol loading in North China did not cause a strong radiative effect because of the low cloud fraction over this region.

  15. Dissipation and transformation of 17B-estradiol-17-sulfate in soil-water systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Estrogen conjugates are known to be precursors of endocrine-disrupting free estrogens, e.g. 17B-estradiol (E2) and estrone (E1), in the environment. This study investigated the fate of a sulfate conjugated estrogen, 17B-estradiol-17-sulfate (E2-17S), in agricultural soils using laboratory batch stu...

  16. Properties of soils and tree wood tissue across a Lake States sulfate deposition gradient.

    Treesearch

    Lewis F. Ohmann; David F. Grigal

    1991-01-01

    Presents the soil and tree wood tissue properties (mostly chemical) of the plots that were remeasured and sampled for a study of the relation between forest condition and wet sulfate deposition along the Lake States acidic deposition gradient.

  17. Biodegradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates in sulfate-leached soil mesocosms.

    PubMed

    Elsgaard, Lars; Pojana, Giulio; Miraval, Tommaso; Eriksen, Jørgen; Marcomini, Antonio

    2003-02-01

    Aromatic sulfonates (R-SO(3)(-)) can be used as sulfur sources by sulfate-starved bacteria in laboratory cultures and the corresponding phenols are excreted from the cells. The present study was conducted to demonstrate whether such desulfonation reactions also occur in sulfate-leached agricultural soil, where desulfonation of organic sulfur compounds may have agronomic importance as a S source for plants. Xenobiotic linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) were added to nominal concentrations of 0, 10 and 100 mgkg(-1) dry weight in a sandy soil that was depleted in sulfate by leaching the soil with water (sulfate depletion, approximately 75%). The soil was incubated at 20 degrees C in duplicate 3-dm(3) mesocosms for 8 weeks. Primary degradation of LAS was rapid with half-lives of 1-4 days. Sulfophenylcarboxylates were identified and quantified as intermediates, whereas linear alkylphenols (the expected primary desulfonation products) were not detected by high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with both fluorescence and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. Thus, LAS was used by the bacteria as a source of energy and carbon, rather than as a source of sulfur. Measurements of soil pH, fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis and arylsulfatase activity showed that stable microbial conditions prevailed in the soil mesocosms. FDA hydrolysis (a measure of total microbial activity) was transiently inhibited at the highest LAS concentrations. Arylsulfatase activity (i.e., hydrolysis of aromatic sulfate esters) was not significantly affected by the soil incubation, although arylsulfatases may be upregulated in sulfate-starved bacteria. However, an increased production of arylsulfatase may be difficult to detect due to the background of extracellular arylsulfatases stabilised in the soil. Therefore, the present data does not exclude a regulatory response to sulfate depletion by the soil microorganisms. However, the importance of desulfonation reactions in natural

  18. Sulfates hydrating bulk soil in the Martian low and middle latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunatillake, S.; Wray, J. J.; Gasnault, O.; McLennan, S. M.; Rogers, A. D.; Squyres, S. W.; Boynton, W. V.; Skok, J. R.; Ojha, L.; Olsen, N.

    2014-11-01

    The evidence for sulfate-bearing strata, across Late-Noachian to Amazonian eons, suggests a central role for sulfates in acidity and salinity of Martian paleofluids and the planet's habitability. However, details remain unclear owing to shallow sampling and the limited ability of visible/near-infrared spectroscopy to distinguish among some sulfates. Using chemical data from the Mars Odyssey gamma ray spectrometer, including the sulfur map of Mars, we confirm the possibility of hydrous sulfates acting as key hydrates throughout the southern midlatitudinal soil at decimeter depths. An H2O:S molar ratio between 2.4 and 4.0 for 80% of the midlatitudes is also consistent with hydrous sulfate phases, including the many Fe sulfates hydrated in this range or mixtures of Ca and Mg sulfates. Nevertheless, hydrous Fe sulfates could explain our observations in a simpler manner relative to Ca/Mg mixtures. Furthermore, phyllosilicates, zeolites, amorphous phases, and H2O(s) do not seem to be strong candidates to explain the H-S variations. Consequently, we speculate that sulfates, as the primary contributor of H2O in bulk soil, may influence modern aqueous processes including warm-season slope lineae in the southern hemisphere.

  19. Effects of soil dust emissions on air quality over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Y.; Kim, S.; Cho, J.

    2012-12-01

    Dust emissions from the Gobi Desert, sand desert, Loess Plateau and barren mixed soil in Northern China and Mongolia have a major impact on the air quality in the East Asian region. These mineral aerosols increase PM10 concentration over 1000 μg/m3 during the dust storm event as well as PM10 background concentrations as the fugitive dust during the non-dust period in Korea. The mineral dusts also modifies the formation mechanism of inorganic aerosols via the chemical interactions with atmospheric gas species. The performance of available dust emission schemes to depict not only the high PM10 concentration and onset time for the dust storm period but also the level of background PM10 concentration for the non-dust event were evaluated against the surface measurements of EANET (Acid Deposition Monitoring NETwork in East Asia) and satellite measurements over East Asia. The US EPA Models-3/CMAQ v5.0 by modifying the fugitive dust modules was used to simulate the chemical transport including the mineral aerosols. The results show that the Asian Dust Aerosol Model 2 (ADAM2) and DEAD are relatively good dust emission schemes in this region and influence of mineral dusts on the sulfate and nitrate formations is significant when the dust mixes with anthropogenic emissions over China. Details of modifications of dust emission schemes and annual background PM10 concentrations by the soil fugitive dust in Korea will be discussed in the presentation.

  20. Reduction of orthophosphates loss in agricultural soil by nano calcium sulfate.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dong; Szostak, Paul; Wei, Zongsu; Xiao, Ruiyang

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient loss from soil, especially phosphorous (P) from farmlands to natural water bodies via surface runoff or infiltration, have caused significant eutrophication problems. This is because dissolved orthophosphates are usually the limiting nutrient for algal blooms. Currently, available techniques to control eutrophication are surprisingly scarce. Calcium sulfate or gypsum is a common soil amendment and has a strong complexation to orthophosphates. The results showed that calcium sulfate reduced the amount of water extractable P (WEP) through soil incubation tests, suggesting less P loss from farmlands. A greater decrease in WEP occurred with a greater dosage of calcium sulfate. Compared to conventional coarse calcium sulfate, nano calcium sulfate further reduced WEP by providing a much greater specific surface area, higher solubility, better contact with the fertilizer and the soil particles, and superior dispersibility. The enhancement of the nano calcium sulfate for WEP reduction is more apparent for a pellet- than a powdered- fertilizer. At the dosage of Ca/P weight ratio of 2.8, the WEP decreased by 31±5% with the nano calcium sulfate compared to 20±5% decrease with the coarse calcium sulfate when the pellet fertilizer was used. Computation of the chemical equilibrium speciation shows that calcium hydroxyapatite has the lowest solubility. However, other mineral phases such as hydroxydicalcium phosphate, dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, octacalcium phosphate, and tricalcium phosphate might form preceding to calcium hydroxyapatite. Since calcium sulfate is the major product of the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process, this study demonstrates a potential beneficial reuse and reduction of the solid FGD waste. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Distribution of iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria across a coastal acid sulfate soil (CASS) environment: implications for passive bioremediation by tidal inundation

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Yu-Chen; Bush, Richard; Grice, Kliti; Tulipani, Svenja; Berwick, Lyndon; Moreau, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Coastal acid sulfate soils (CASS) constitute a serious and global environmental problem. Oxidation of iron sulfide minerals exposed to air generates sulfuric acid with consequently negative impacts on coastal and estuarine ecosystems. Tidal inundation represents one current treatment strategy for CASS, with the aim of neutralizing acidity by triggering microbial iron- and sulfate-reduction and inducing the precipitation of iron-sulfides. Although well-known functional guilds of bacteria drive these processes, their distributions within CASS environments, as well as their relationships to tidal cycling and the availability of nutrients and electron acceptors, are poorly understood. These factors will determine the long-term efficacy of “passive” CASS remediation strategies. Here we studied microbial community structure and functional guild distribution in sediment cores obtained from 10 depths ranging from 0 to 20 cm in three sites located in the supra-, inter- and sub-tidal segments, respectively, of a CASS-affected salt marsh (East Trinity, Cairns, Australia). Whole community 16S rRNA gene diversity within each site was assessed by 454 pyrotag sequencing and bioinformatic analyses in the context of local hydrological, geochemical, and lithological factors. The results illustrate spatial overlap, or close association, of iron-, and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in an environment rich in organic matter and controlled by parameters such as acidity, redox potential, degree of water saturation, and mineralization. The observed spatial distribution implies the need for empirical understanding of the timing, relative to tidal cycling, of various terminal electron-accepting processes that control acid generation and biogeochemical iron and sulfur cycling. PMID:26191042

  2. Soils and geomorphology of the East Chestnut Ridge site

    SciTech Connect

    Lietzke, D.A.; Ketelle, R.H.; Lee, R.R. , Rutledge, TN; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN )

    1989-10-01

    Soil mapping of the East Chestnut Ridge site in conjunction with subsurface soil and rock coring provides an in-depth evaluation of the site and its suitability for disposal of wastes. Landforms and surface and subsurface hydrology, the natural, undisturbed, soil-saprolite-geohydrology system beneath the zone of engineering modifications provides for the ultimate containment of wastes and a means for the filtration and purification of any leachate before it reaches the aquifer. The surface location and extent of each geologic formation on the site were mapped. These locations correlated well with projections of subsurface contacts to the surface even through the criteria used by the pedologist and geologist to identify soil and rock from the same formation may be different. Soil thickness over bedrock of the Copper Ridge, Chepultepec, Longview, and Kingsport Formations is sufficient to provide considerable buffering between trench bottoms and groundwater or rock. Soil thickness over the Mascot Formation is comparatively thin, and pinnacles and ledges exposed on steeper sideslopes are common. Soil underlain by the Mascot Formation is not suited for a trench landfill. According to soil coring and active borrow pit observations, chert beds in the soil and saprolite are preferred zones of water flow. Construction of adequate clay liners beneath disposal units sited on the Longview dolomite may require placement and compaction of other native soils to achieve sufficiently low soil permeabilities. Karst geomorphic processes that initiated the formation of dolines evidently started several million years ago. Doline formation and enlargement is episodic, with short periods of activity followed by long periods of stability. Analysis of doline soil stratigraphy suggests that most of the large dolines on the site have been stable for most of the past 10,000 to 1000,000 years. 8 refs., 9 figs.

  3. Sulfate sorption in soils under acid deposition: Modeling field data from forest liming

    SciTech Connect

    Prenzel, J.; Meiwes, K.J.

    1994-11-01

    Sulfate sorption can modify the reaction of a soil to acid depositions. Different models of this process exist. In a preceeding paper the adsorption isotherm and the solubility product modeling approach have been compared and a solubility product model has been introduced. The latter model is tested using a forest liming experiment. Concentration data form canopy drip and seepage covering a 20-yr observation period are used as 3-yr moving averages. The model assumes a steady seepage flow and uses only one 1-m compartment. The model considers joint chemical equilibria for gibbsite, jurbanite, cation exchange, and complexation. The seepage pH and concentrations of Al and sulfate under the unlimed reference plot can be modeled if a reduced CEC and a free parameter function for alkalinity production are used. The sulfate desorption caused by liming can be explained by the model. It is concluded that sorbed sulfate contributes to the lime requirement of an acidified soil. 24 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Evaluating ESA CCI soil moisture in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNally, Amy; Shukla, Shraddhanand; Arsenault, Kristi R.; Wang, Shugong; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Verdin, James P.

    2016-06-01

    To assess growing season conditions where ground based observations are limited or unavailable, food security and agricultural drought monitoring analysts rely on publicly available remotely sensed rainfall and vegetation greenness. There are also remotely sensed soil moisture observations from missions like the European Space Agency (ESA), Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP); however, these time series are still too short to conduct studies that demonstrate the utility of these data for operational applications, or to provide historical context for extreme wet or dry events. To promote the use of remotely sensed soil moisture in agricultural drought and food security monitoring, we evaluate the quality of a 30+ year time series of merged active-passive microwave soil moisture from the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI-SM) over East Africa. Compared to the Normalized Difference Vegetation index (NDVI) and modeled soil moisture products, we find substantial spatial and temporal gaps in the early part of the CCI-SM record, with adequate data coverage beginning in 1992. From this point forward, growing season CCI-SM anomalies are well correlated (R > 0.5) with modeled soil moisture, and in some regions, NDVI. We use pixel-wise correlation analysis and qualitative comparisons of seasonal maps and time series to show that remotely sensed soil moisture can inform remote drought monitoring that has traditionally relied on rainfall and NDVI in moderately vegetated regions.

  5. Evaluating ESA CCI Soil Moisture in East Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNally, Amy; Shukla, Shraddhanand; Arsenault, Kristi R.; Wang, Shugong; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Verdin, James P.

    2016-01-01

    To assess growing season conditions where ground based observations are limited or unavailable, food security and agricultural drought monitoring analysts rely on publicly available remotely sensed rainfall and vegetation greenness. There are also remotely sensed soil moisture observations from missions like the European Space Agency (ESA) Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and NASAs Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP), however these time series are still too short to conduct studies that demonstrate the utility of these data for operational applications, or to provide historical context for extreme wet or dry events. To promote the use of remotely sensed soil moisture in agricultural drought and food security monitoring, we use East Africa as a case study to evaluate the quality of a 30+ year time series of merged active-passive microwave soil moisture from the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI-SM). Compared to the Normalized Difference Vegetation index (NDVI) and modeled soil moisture products, we found substantial spatial and temporal gaps in the early part of the CCI-SM record, with adequate data coverage beginning in 1992. From this point forward, growing season CCI-SM anomalies were well correlated (R greater than 0.5) with modeled, seasonal soil moisture, and in some regions, NDVI. We use correlation analysis and qualitative comparisons at seasonal time scales to show that remotely sensed soil moisture can add information to a convergence of evidence framework that traditionally relies on rainfall and NDVI in moderately vegetated regions.

  6. Soluble sulfate in the martian soil at the Phoenix landing site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kounaves, Samuel P.; Hecht, Michael H.; Kapit, Jason; Quinn, Richard C.; Catling, David C.; Clark, Benton C.; Ming, Douglas W.; Gospodinova, Kalina; Hredzak, Patricia; McElhoney, Kyle; Shusterman, Jennifer

    2010-05-01

    Sulfur has been detected by X-ray spectroscopy in martian soils at the Viking, Pathfinder, Opportunity and Spirit landing sites. Sulfates have been identified by OMEGA and CRISM in Valles Marineris and by the spectrometers on the MER rovers at Meridiani and Gusev. The ubiquitous presence of sulfur has been interpreted as a widely distributed sulfate mineralogy. One goal of the Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL) on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander was to determine soluble sulfate in the martian soil. We report here the first in-situ measurement of soluble sulfate equivalent to ˜1.3(±0.5) wt% as SO4 in the soil. The results and models reveal SO42- predominately as MgSO4 with some CaSO4. If the soil had been wet in the past, epsomite and gypsum would be formed from evaporation. The WCL-derived salt composition indicates that if the soil at the Phoenix site were to form an aqueous solution by natural means, the water activity for a dilution of greater than ˜0.015 g H2O/g soil would be in the habitable range of known terrestrial halophilic microbes.

  7. Acid sulfate soils and human health--a Millennium Ecosystem Assessment.

    PubMed

    Ljung, Karin; Maley, Fiona; Cook, Angus; Weinstein, Philip

    2009-11-01

    Acid sulfate soils have been described as the "nastiest soils on earth" because of their strong acidity, increased mobility of potentially toxic elements and limited bioavailability of nutrients. They only cover a small area of the world's total problem soils, but often have significant adverse effects on agriculture, aquaculture and the environment on a local scale. Their location often coincides with high population density areas along the coasts of many developing countries. As a result, their negative impacts on ecosystems can have serious implications to those least equipped for coping with the low crop yields and reduced water quality that can result from acid sulfate soil disturbance. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment called on by the United Nations in 2000 emphasised the importance of ecosystems for human health and well-being. These include the service they provide as sources of food and water, through the control of pollution and disease, as well as for the cultural services ecosystems provide. While the problems related to agriculture, aquaculture and the environment have been the focus of many acid sulfate soil management efforts, the connection to human health has largely been ignored. This paper presents the potential health issues of acid sulfate soils, in relation to the ecosystem services identified in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. It is recognised that significant implications on food security and livelihood can result, as well as on community cohesiveness and the spread of vector-borne disease. However, the connection between these outcomes and acid sulfate soils is often not obvious and it is therefore argued that the impact of such soils on human well-being needs to be recognised in order to raise awareness among the public and decision makers, to in turn facilitate proper management and avoid potential human ill-health.

  8. Potential for Sulfate Reduction in Mangrove Forest Soils: Comparison between Two Dominant Species of the Americas

    PubMed Central

    Balk, Melike; Keuskamp, Joost A.; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J.

    2016-01-01

    Avicennia and Rhizophora are globally occurring mangrove genera with different traits that place them in different parts of the intertidal zone. It is generally accepted that the oxidizing capacity of Avicennia roots is larger than that of Rhizophora roots, which initiates more reduced conditions in the soil below the latter genus. We hypothesize that the more reduced conditions beneath Rhizophora stands lead to more active sulfate-reducing microbial communities compared to Avicennia stands. To test this hypothesis, we measured sulfate reduction traits in soil samples collected from neighboring Avicennia germinans and Rhizophora mangle stands at three different locations in southern Florida. The traits measured were sulfate reduction rates (SRR) in flow-through reactors containing undisturbed soil layers in the absence and presence of easily degradable carbon compounds, copy numbers of the dsrB gene, which is specific for sulfate-reducing microorganisms, and numbers of sulfate-reducing cells that are able to grow in liquid medium on a mixture of acetate, propionate and lactate as electron donors. At the tidal locations Port of the Islands and South Hutchinson Islands, steady state SRR, dsrB gene copy numbers and numbers of culturable cells were higher at the A. germinans than at the R. mangle stands, although not significantly for the numbers at Port of the Islands. At the non-tidal location North Hutchinson Island, results are mixed with respect to these sulfate reduction traits. At all locations, the fraction of culturable cells were significantly higher at the R. mangle than at the A. germinans stands. The dynamics of the initial SRR implied a more in situ active sulfate-reducing community at the intertidal R. mangle stands. It was concluded that in agreement with our hypothesis R. mangle stands accommodate a more active sulfate-reducing community than A. germinans stands, but only at the tidal locations. The differences between R. mangle and A. germinans stands

  9. Towards an integrated soil moisture drought monitor for East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, W. B.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Hain, C. R.; Anderson, M. C.; Yilmaz, M. T.; Mecikalski, J.; Schultz, L.

    2012-08-01

    Drought in East Africa is a recurring phenomenon with significant humanitarian impacts. Given the steep climatic gradients, topographic contrasts, general data scarcity, and, in places, political instability that characterize the region, there is a need for spatially distributed, remotely derived monitoring systems to inform national and international drought response. At the same time, the very diversity and data scarcity that necessitate remote monitoring also make it difficult to evaluate the reliability of these systems. Here we apply a suite of remote monitoring techniques to characterize the temporal and spatial evolution of the 2010-2011 Horn of Africa drought. Diverse satellite observations allow for evaluation of meteorological, agricultural, and hydrological aspects of drought, each of which is of interest to different stakeholders. Focusing on soil moisture, we apply triple collocation analysis (TCA) to three independent methods for estimating soil moisture anomalies to characterize relative error between products and to provide a basis for objective data merging. The three soil moisture methods evaluated include microwave remote sensing using the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) sensor, thermal remote sensing using the Atmosphere-Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) surface energy balance algorithm, and physically based land surface modeling using the Noah land surface model. It was found that the three soil moisture monitoring methods yield similar drought anomaly estimates in areas characterized by extremely low or by moderate vegetation cover, particularly during the below-average 2011 long rainy season. Systematic discrepancies were found, however, in regions of moderately low vegetation cover and high vegetation cover, especially during the failed 2010 short rains. The merged, TCA-weighted soil moisture composite product takes advantage of the relative strengths of each method, as judged by the consistency of

  10. Towards an integrated soil moisture drought monitor for East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, W. B.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Hain, C. R.; Anderson, M. C.; Yilmaz, M. T.; Mecikalski, J.; Schultz, L.

    2012-04-01

    Drought in East Africa is a recurring phenomenon with significant humanitarian impacts. Given the steep climatic gradients, topographic contrasts, general data scarcity, and, in places, political instability that characterize the region, there is a need for spatially distributed, remotely derived monitoring systems to inform national and international drought response. At the same time, the very diversity and data scarcity that necessitate remote monitoring also make it difficult to evaluate the reliability of these systems. Here we apply a suite of remote monitoring techniques to characterize the temporal and spatial evolution of the 2010-2011 Horn of Africa drought. Diverse satellite observations allow for evaluation of meteorological, agricultural, and hydrological aspects of drought, each of which is of interest to different stakeholders. Focusing on soil moisture, we apply triple collocation analysis (TCA) to three independent methods for estimating soil moisture anomalies to characterize relative error between products and to provide a basis for objective data merging. The three soil moisture methods evaluated include microwave remote sensing using the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) sensor, thermal remote sensing using the Atmosphere-Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) surface energy balance algorithm, and physically-based land surface modeling using the Noah land surface model. It was found that the three soil moisture monitoring methods yield similar drought anomaly estimates in areas characterized by extremely low or by moderate vegetation cover, particularly during the below-average 2011 long rainy season. Systematic discrepancies were found, however, in regions of moderately low vegetation cover and high vegetation cover, especially during the failed 2010 short rains. The merged, TCA-weighted soil moisture composite product takes advantage of the relative strengths of each method, as judged by the consistency of

  11. Diffusive gradients in thin films measurement of sulfur stable isotope variations in labile soil sulfate.

    PubMed

    Hanousek, Ondrej; Santner, Jakob; Mason, Sean; Berger, Torsten W; Wenzel, Walter W; Prohaska, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    A diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) technique, based on a strongly basic anion exchange resin (Amberlite IRA-400), was successfully tested for (34)S/(32)S analysis in labile soil sulfate. Separation of matrix elements (Na, K, and Ca) that potentially cause non-spectral interferences in (34)S/(32)S analysis by MC ICP-MS (multi-collector inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry) during sampling of sulfate was demonstrated. No isotopic fractionation caused by diffusion or elution of sulfate was observed below a resin gel disc loading of ≤79 μg S. Above this threshold, fractionation towards (34)S was observed. The method was applied to 11 different topsoils and one mineral soil profile (0-100 cm depth) and compared with soil sulfate extraction by water. The S amount and isotopic ratio in DGT-S and water-extractable sulfate correlated significantly (r (2) = 0.89 and r (2) = 0.74 for the 11 topsoils, respectively). The systematically lower (34)S/(32)S isotope ratios of the DGT-S were ascribed to mineralization of organic S.

  12. Impact of mitigation strategies on acid sulfate soil chemistry and microbial community.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaofen; Sten, Pekka; Engblom, Sten; Nowak, Pawel; Österholm, Peter; Dopson, Mark

    2015-09-01

    Potential acid sulfate soils contain reduced iron sulfides that if oxidized, can cause significant environmental damage by releasing large amounts of acid and metals. This study examines metal and acid release as well as the microbial community capable of catalyzing metal sulfide oxidation after treating acid sulfate soil with calcium carbonate (CaCO3) or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2). Leaching tests of acid sulfate soil samples were carried out in the laboratory. The pH of the leachate during the initial flushing with water lay between 3.8 and 4.4 suggesting that the jarosite/schwertmannite equilibrium controls the solution chemistry. However, the pH increased to circa 6 after treatment with CaCO3 suspension and circa 12 after introducing Ca(OH)2 solution. 16S rRNA gene sequences amplified from community DNA extracted from the untreated and both CaCO3 and Ca(OH)2 treated acid sulfate soils were most similar to bacteria (69.1% to 85.7%) and archaea (95.4% to 100%) previously identified from acid and metal contaminated environments. These species included a Thiomonas cuprina-like and an Acidocella-like bacteria as well as a Ferroplasma acidiphilum-like archeon. Although the CaCO3 and Ca(OH)2 treatments did not decrease the proportion of microorganisms capable of accelerating acid and metal release, the chemical effects of the treatments suggested their reduced activity.

  13. Isolation and identification of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) from the sediment pond after a coal mine in Samarinda, East Kalimantan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusumawati, Eko; Sudrajat, Putri, Junita Susilaning

    2017-02-01

    Title isolation and identification of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) of sediment pond former coal mine in Samarinda, East Kalimantan. Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) is a group of microbes that can be used to improve the quality of sediment former coal mine. In the metabolic activities, the SRB can reduce sulfate to H2S which immediately binds to metals that are widely available on mined lands and precipitated in the form of metal sulfides reductive. Isolation and identification of sulfate reducing bacteria carried out in the Laboratory of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Mulawarman, Samarinda. Postgate B is a liquid medium used for isolation through serial dilution. Physiological and biochemical characterization was done by Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology. Six isolates of sulfate reducing bacteria were isolated from the sediment pond former coal mine in Samarinda. Several groups of bacteria can grow at 14 days of incubation, however, another group of bacteria which takes 21 days to grow. The identification results showed that two isolates belong to the genus Desulfotomaculum sp., and each of the other isolates belong to the genus Desulfococcus sp., Desulfobacter sp., Desulfobulbus sp. and Desulfobacterium sp.

  14. Sulfate sorption on rape (Brassica campestris L.) straw biochar, loess soil and a biochar-soil mixture.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Baowei; Nan, Xujun; Xu, Huan; Zhang, Tao; Ma, Fengfeng

    2017-10-01

    The effects of biochar amendment on sulfur behavior in soils are unknown. In this paper, sulfate (SO4(2-)) sorption on rape (Brassica campestris L.) straw biochar produced at 600 °C (BC), loess soil (soil) and a 1:9 (w/w) biochar-soil mixture (BC-soil) was investigated by batch experiments. The effects of contact time, initial SO4(2-) concentration, temperature and solution pH value on sorption were tested. Kinetics, isotherms and thermodynamics for sorption were investigated. Pre- and post-sorption characterizations of BC and soil were respectively studied using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy, respectively. It has been shown that SO4(2-) sorption on three sorbents was well described by pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The sorption isotherms could be fitted using Langmuir and Freundlich models. BC amendment did not increase the sorption capacity of soil for SO4(2-). The values of ΔG(0), ΔH(0) and ΔS(0) indicated that the nature of sorption was spontaneous, endothermic and feasible. Increasing solution pH value led to a slight reduction in the sorption amount of SO4(2-). Sulfate was mainly sorbed onto BC through electrostatic interaction, whereas onto the soil via electrostatic interaction and formation of poorly soluble CaSO4. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Alleviating aluminum toxicity in an acid sulfate soil from Peninsular Malaysia by calcium silicate application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elisa, A. A.; Ninomiya, S.; Shamshuddin, J.; Roslan, I.

    2016-03-01

    In response to human population increase, the utilization of acid sulfate soils for rice cultivation is one option for increasing production. The main problems associated with such soils are their low pH values and their associated high content of exchangeable Al, which could be detrimental to crop growth. The application of soil amendments is one approach for mitigating this problem, and calcium silicate is an alternative soil amendment that could be used. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to ameliorate soil acidity in rice-cropped soil. The secondary objective was to study the effects of calcium silicate amendment on soil acidity, exchangeable Al, exchangeable Ca, and Si content. The soil was treated with 0, 1, 2, and 3 Mg ha-1 of calcium silicate under submerged conditions and the soil treatments were sampled every 30 days throughout an incubation period of 120 days. Application of calcium silicate induced a positive effect on soil pH and exchangeable Al; soil pH increased from 2.9 (initial) to 3.5, while exchangeable Al was reduced from 4.26 (initial) to 0.82 cmolc kg-1. Furthermore, the exchangeable Ca and Si contents increased from 1.68 (initial) to 4.94 cmolc kg-1 and from 21.21 (initial) to 81.71 mg kg-1, respectively. Therefore, it was noted that calcium silicate was effective at alleviating Al toxicity in acid sulfate, rice-cropped soil, yielding values below the critical level of 2 cmolc kg-1. In addition, application of calcium silicate showed an ameliorative effect as it increased soil pH and supplied substantial amounts of Ca and Si.

  16. Effects of sulfate and selenite on mercury methylation in a mercury-contaminated rice paddy soil under anoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongjie; Dang, Fei; Zhong, Huan; Wei, Zhongbo; Li, Ping

    2016-03-01

    Biogeochemical cycling of sulfur and selenium (Se) could play an important role in methylmercury (MeHg) dynamics in soil, while their potential effects on MeHg production in rice paddy soil are less understood. The main objective of this study was to explore the effects of sulfate and selenite on net MeHg production in contaminated rice paddy soil, characterized with massive MeHg production and thus MeHg accumulation in rice. A series of microcosm incubation experiments were conducted using a contaminated paddy soil amended with sulfate and/or selenite, in which sulfate-reducing bacteria were mainly responsible for MeHg production. Our results demonstrated that sulfate addition reduced solid and dissolved MeHg levels in soils by ≤18 and ≤25 %, respectively. Compared to sulfate, selenite was more effective in inhibiting net MeHg production, and the inhibitory effect depended largely on amended selenite doses. Moreover, sulfate input played a dual role in affecting Hg-Se interactions in soil, which could be explained by the dynamics of sulfate under anoxic conditions. Therefore, the effects of sulfate and selenium input should be carefully considered when assessing risk of Hg in anoxic environments (e.g., rice paddy field and wetland).

  17. Weathering and genesis of Soils from Ellsworth Mountains, East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karoline Delpupo Souza, Katia; Schaefer, Carlos Ernesto; Michel, Roberto; Monari, Julia; Machado, Vania

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge on Antarctic soils from the Ellsworth Mountains (EM) are patchy comparatively with Dry Valleys soils from the Transantartic Mountains, and could help understand the genesis of cryogenic soils under extreme dry, cold desert conditions. The EM are a slightly arcuate 350-km-long north-northwest-trending mountain chain is bordered on the west by the polar plateau of West Antarctica and on the east by Ronne Ice Shelf. The range is as much as 90 km wide and constitutes one of the largest areas of exposed bedrock in West Antarctica. The stratigraphic succession in the EM includes strata from Cambriam to Permian in age. The objective of this study is to analyze the properties of soils from EM in order to identify the main factors and processes involved in soil formation under cold desert conditions in Antarctica. The sampling design aimed to represent the different geological substrates (marble-clast conglomerate, graywacke, argillite, conglomerate, black shale, marble and quartzite) as well as altitudinal levels and landforms within the same substrate. We characterized soils from EM regarding their morphological, physics and chemical properties. Soil samples were air dried and passed through 2 mm sieves. After removal of water soluble salts, the samples were submitted to chemical and physical analyses such as: pH in water, potential acidity (H + Al), exchangeable bases, total organic carbon, electric conductivity, soil texture and color. The soils classify, for the most part, in weathering stages 1 to 2. Only in the upper parts of ridges were there traces of soils at weathering stage 3. This indicates that much of the present icefree topography has been overridden by ice within the last few hundred thousand years. Cryoturbation is a widespread phenomenon in this area resulting in intense cryoclastic weathering and patterned ground, forming sorted circles, stripes and gelifluxion lobes. The soil show low horizontation, discrete patches of salt on the surface, and

  18. Residue inventories for alpha-, beta-Endosulfan and their metabolite endosulfan sulfate in Chinese surface soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Hongliang; Tian, Chongguo; Li, Yi-Fan

    2010-05-01

    Endosulfan is currently-used organochlorine pesticide in China, with annual usage of 2,300 t between 1994 and 2004. A gridded mass balance model, Gridded PTSs (persistent toxic substances) Emission and Residue Model (GPERM), has been applied to create gridded inventories of residues in soil for two endosulfan isomers, alpha- and beta-endosulfan, on a 1/4 degree longitude and 1/6 degree latitude resolution (approximate 24 km by 24 km) by using Chinese gridded annual usage inventories of endosulfan on the same resolution as input. In order to evaluate these inventories, soil samples were collected from 92 sites (70 for rural and 22 for urban) across China in 2005, and concentrations of alpha-, beta-endosulfan and their metabolite endosulfan sulfate were measured. Measured soil concentrations of both alpha- and beta-endosulfan match well with their modeled data, and the results show that, at the 0.05 level, no significant difference was found between monitored and modeled results. Significant correlations found between measured data for endosulfan sulfate and beta-endosulfan in Chinese soil and also between monitored and modeled datasets for beta-endosulfan, inventories of endosulfan sulfate in Chinese agricultural soil in 2005 with a 1/4 degree × 1/6 degree longitude and latitude resolution have been established, which correlate significantly with their related monitoring data in the same grid cells. To our knowledge, this is the first soil concentration inventories for endosulfan sulfate, which will pave the way for further study of this chemical.

  19. Persistent endosulfan sulfate is found with highest abundance among endosulfan I, II, and sulfate in German forest soils.

    PubMed

    Bussian, Bernd M; Pandelova, Marchela; Lehnik-Habrink, Petra; Aichner, Bernhard; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2015-11-01

    Endosulfan - an agricultural insecticide and banned by Stockholm Convention - is produced as a 2:1 to 7:3 mixture of isomers endosulfan I (ESI) and endosulfan II (ESII). Endosulfan is transformed under aerobic conditions into endosulfan sulfate (ESS). The study shows for 76 sampling locations in German forests that endosulfan is abundant in all samples with an opposite ratio between the ESI and ESII than the technical product, where the main metabolite ESS is found with even higher abundance. The ratio between ESI/ESII and ESS show clear dependence on the type of stands (coniferous vs. deciduous) and humus type and increases from deciduous via mixed to coniferous forest stands. The study argues for a systematic monitoring of ESI, ESII, and ESS and underlines the need for further research, specifically on the fate of endosulfan including biomagnifications and bioaccumulation in soil.

  20. Heterotrophic bacteria in soils of Larsemann Oasis of East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churilin, Nikita; Soina, Vera

    2015-04-01

    The study of diversity and functional state of microorganisms in subsurface rocks layers, their participation in the biochemical weathering and formation of organic horizons of soils is important for understanding ecology and microorganisms in Antarctic soils. The study of cultured forms of microorganisms and their potential viability is still relevant to characterize the physiological state, biological activity and resilience of microorganisms involved in the initial soil formation. Improvement of isolation techniques of viable bacteria from the extreme habitats has a particular importance for rising the efficiency of environmental monitoring. The aim of the study was to investigate the viable heterotrophic bacteria involved in the formation of soils from wet valleys Larsemann Oasis, which is one of the warmest ice-free space of East Antarctica. Soil samples were taken from the intermountain humid valleys, where silt-gravelly substrates formed moss, algae, lichen cover. We used nutrient solutions (trypticase soy, R2A and glucose-peptone) to isolate cultured bacteria and study their morphological types in the light microscope. The total number of microorganisms was determined by fluorescent microscopy with acridine orange. SEM was used for morphological studies of bacterial communities in situ. To activate the growth processes we added into nutrient solutions various regulatory metabolites that have dose-dependence and operate at the community level. Physiological and functional conditions were determined by the duration of the lag phase and specific growth rate of bacterial communities in nutrient solutions containing various organic substrates. Soils form under protection of «stone pavement» and organisms leave the surface, so the forming organo-mineral horizon occurs inside of rock, thus the microprofile can form on both sides of the organic horizons. UV radiation, lack of moisture and strong wind are main limiting factors for microorganisms' growth in

  1. Microbial links between sulfate reduction and metal retention in uranium- and heavy metal-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Sitte, Jana; Akob, Denise M; Kaufmann, Christian; Finster, Kai; Banerjee, Dipanjan; Burkhardt, Eva-Maria; Kostka, Joel E; Scheinost, Andreas C; Büchel, Georg; Küsel, Kirsten

    2010-05-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) can affect metal mobility either directly by reductive transformation of metal ions, e.g., uranium, into their insoluble forms or indirectly by formation of metal sulfides. This study evaluated in situ and biostimulated activity of SRB in groundwater-influenced soils from a creek bank contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclides within the former uranium mining district of Ronneburg, Germany. In situ activity of SRB, measured by the (35)SO(4)(2-) radiotracer method, was restricted to reduced soil horizons with rates of < or =142 +/- 20 nmol cm(-3) day(-1). Concentrations of heavy metals were enriched in the solid phase of the reduced horizons, whereas pore water concentrations were low. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) measurements demonstrated that approximately 80% of uranium was present as reduced uranium but appeared to occur as a sorbed complex. Soil-based dsrAB clone libraries were dominated by sequences affiliated with members of the Desulfobacterales but also the Desulfovibrionales, Syntrophobacteraceae, and Clostridiales. [(13)C]acetate- and [(13)C]lactate-biostimulated soil microcosms were dominated by sulfate and Fe(III) reduction. These processes were associated with enrichment of SRB and Geobacteraceae; enriched SRB were closely related to organisms detected in soils by using the dsrAB marker. Concentrations of soluble nickel, cobalt, and occasionally zinc declined < or =100% during anoxic soil incubations. In contrast to results in other studies, soluble uranium increased in carbon-amended treatments, reaching < or =1,407 nM in solution. Our results suggest that (i) ongoing sulfate reduction in contaminated soil resulted in in situ metal attenuation and (ii) the fate of uranium mobility is not predictable and may lead to downstream contamination of adjacent ecosystems.

  2. Bioavailability of mercury in East Fork Poplar Creek soils

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, M.O.; Turner, R.R.

    1995-05-01

    The initial risk assessment for the East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) floodplain in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, a superfund site heavily contaminated with mercury, was based upon a reference dose for mercuric chloride, a soluble mercury compound not expected to be present in the floodplain, which is frequently saturated with water. Previous investigations had suggested mercury in the EFPC floodplain was less soluble and therefore less bioavailable than mercuric chloride, possibly making the results of the risk assessment unduly conservative. A bioavailability study, designed to measure the amount of mercury available for absorption in a child`s digestive tract, the most critical risk endpoint and pathway, was performed on twenty soils from the EFPC floodplain. The average percentage of mercury released during the study for the twenty soils was 5.3%, compared to 100% of the compound mercuric chloride subjected to the same conditions. Alteration of the procedure to test additional conditions possible during soil digestion did not appreciably alter the results. Therefore, use of a reference dose for mercuric chloride in the EFPC risk assessment without inclusion of a corresponding bioavailability factor may be unduly conservative.

  3. Sulfate Aerosol Formation and Oxidation Pathways on Haze Event over East Asia Region Focusing on Korea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, D.; Koo, Y. S.

    2014-12-01

    The aerosol transports from China largely contribute to high PM (Particulate Matter) concentration in Korea. Especially, secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) such as nitrate, sulfate and ammonium are largely transported from China to Korea during haze event. The measured PM2.5 (Particle Matter with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5㎛) concentrations at the supersite monitoring stations in Korea are normally over 100 ug/m3 and SIAs are major chemical species with more than 70% of PM2.5 during the event. According to our air quality forecast model, sulfate concentrations are largely under-predicted in winter and slightly over-predicted in summer. Those discrepancies between model predicted and observed sulfate concentrations are mainly due to uncertainties of precursor emissions of NOx, SO2, and VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds) and chemical mechanism of the sulfate formation in the chemical forecast model of CMAQ (Community Multiscale Air Quality Model). Formation of sulfate is chemically linked to primary emissions of sulfur dioxide and to be abundancy of atmospheric oxidants such as hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide, ozone, methyl hydroperoxide, and peroxyacetic acid. All of these oxidant species are formed via photochemical reactions with NOx and VOCs. The aim of this work is to investigate the dependency of sulfate formation on oxidant levels in winter and summer during episode event using CMAQ and its sulfate tracking probing tool. The sensitivity of the precursor emissions of SO2, NOx, VOCs and NH3 was also tested to understand the pathways of the sulfate formation. The results show that long range transport from China is a major factor to determine sulfate level in Korea during haze events and dominant mechanisms in the sulfate formation are the gas-phase OH and aqueous phase H2O2 reactions. NOx-SO2-VOCs chemical regimes for the sulfate formation is the VOCs limited regimes in Korea. The further details of the sensitivity run of the precursor emissions and

  4. Toward understanding the influence of soil metals and sulfate content on plant thiols.

    PubMed

    Hunaiti, Abdelrahim A; Al-Oqlah, Ahmed; Shannag, Noor M; Abukhalaf, Imad K; Silvestrov, Natalia A; von Deutsch, Daniel A; Bayorh, Mohamed A

    2007-03-15

    Plants respond to increased concentrations of metals by a number of mechanisms, including chelation with phytochelatins (PCs). Soil specimens and plants (Veronica anagalis-aquatica, Typha domingensis, Cynodon dactylon, Chenopodium album, Rumex dentatus, Amaranthus gracilis, Chenopodium murale, Inula viscosa) leaves were collected from two sites in northern Jordan and subsequently metals (cadmium, copper, and lead), sulfate, and PC (from leaves) levels were determined. One of these sites was contaminated with metals and the other served as a control site. The contaminated site had elevated cadmium, copper, lead, and sulfate levels. This increase of metal and sulfate levels in the soil at the contaminated site correlated with a rise in plant total glutathione (GSH(T)) and cysteine (CYS(T)). These increases were not attributed to an elevation in total phytochelatin levels. However, a significant increase in the ratio of short-chain phytochelatins to the total phytochelatin stores was observed. The individual effects of metals and sulfate on glutathione, short-chain PCs and long-chain PCs levels were dissimilar.

  5. Solubility of adsorbed sulfate in coastal plain soils

    SciTech Connect

    Camberato, J.J.; Kamprath, E.J.

    1986-10-01

    Ultisols of the Atlantic Coastal Plain have sandy surface horizons low in Ca(H/sub 2/PO/sub 4/)/sub 2/-extractable SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ and clayey subsoil horizons high in extractable SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/. The capacity of the subsoils to supply adequate S is dependent upon the solubility of the extractable SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/. To assess the solubility of adsorbed SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ in Coastal Plain soils, the authors collected samples from the Ap and B horizons of 12 sites and determined Ca(H/sub 2/PO/sub 4/)/sub 2/-extractable and water-soluble SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/. The Ap horizon contained 2 to 7 mg kg/sup -1/ of Ca(H/sub 2/PO/sub 4/)/sub 2/-extractable SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/-S, which ranged from 33 to 100% water soluble, with an average of 79%. The B horizon Ca(H/sub 2/PO/sub 4/)/sub 2/-extractable SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/-S levels ranged from 26 to 142 mg kg/sup -1/ soil. The solubility of the adsorbed SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/-S in the B horizons ranged from 0.203 to 0.359 mM L/sup -1/ SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/-S, which is adequate to supply plant requirements for S if plant roots can gain access to the B horizon.

  6. The Composition of Soils at Gusev Crater, Mars as Measured by Mini-TES: Sulfates, Basaltic-Sand, and Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knudson, A. T.; Baldridge, A. M.; Christensen, P. R.

    2006-12-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover 'Spirit' at Gusev Crater, Mars, has investigated surface particulate materials, or 'soils' in areas disturbed by rover movement as well as on undisturbed surfaces. In the first 420 sols of operation, soils were measured with the Mini-TES instrument throughout the traverse from the landing site on the plains to the north slope of the Columbia Hills. Three spectral components were identified: (1) dust on undisturbed surfaces and mixed into underlying soils, (2) basaltic sand, and (3) a hydrated sulfate in localized areas of disturbed soil. The modeled mineralogy of the basaltic sand is 40-45% plagioclase feldspar, 20-35% pyroxene, 10-15% olivine, and <10% sulfates or sheet silicates. The composition of the basaltic sand is similar to plains rocks and is homogenous throughout the traverse, even in the Columbia Hills where local rock compositions are distinctly different from the soil. Localized sulfate enrichments were identified in excavated soil from a trench experiment from the plains, three disturbed soils at the base of the Columbia Hills, and on the north slope of Husband Hill. These soils relatively bright and are immediately adjacent to the regionally homogenous basaltic materials. There is no evidence for alteration products in the basaltic components in adjacent soils at the 5-10% level, implying that the sulfate components are not derived from local soils. Ratios of sulfate-rich spectra with adjacent basaltic soil spectra indicate an absorption with a spectral shape and position most consistent with a hydrated Ca-sulfate such as bassanite (2CaSO4*H2O). Deconvolution of bright soil spectra results in a modeled mineralogy including ~25% sulfate, dominated by bassanite. APXS and MB data indicate the presence of iron sulfates, however, no iron sulfate minerals in the Mini-TES mineral library have absorptions consistent with the Mini-TES spectra. Further analysis will include evaluation of additional bright soil observations up to the

  7. Vertically uniform formation pathways of tropospheric sulfate aerosols in East China detected from triple stable oxygen and radiogenic sulfur isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Mang; Biglari, Saman; Zhang, Zhisheng; Crocker, Daniel; Tao, Jun; Su, Binbin; Liu, Lanzhong; Thiemens, Mark H.

    2017-05-01

    Sulfate aerosols (SO42-) in the continental outflow from East China significantly alter the atmospheric sulfur budget across the Pacific Rim, but its formation pathways, especially in the free troposphere (FT), remain poorly understood. Here we analyze stable oxygen (δ17O and δ18O) and radiogenic sulfur (35S) isotopes in SO42- collected at a mountain site in East China to investigate SO42- formation pathways at varying altitudes. We find that Δ17O (=δ17O-0.52 × δ18O) in SO42- is not correlated with 35S (a direct measure of high-altitude air masses). This pattern notably differs from the currently known 35S-Δ17O relation. The result implies that the formation pathway of tropospheric SO42- in East China is vertically uniform, likely due to large emissions and active convection in this region. Our measurements provide unambiguous isotopic constraints for reducing uncertainties in modeling SO42- in the FT over East China, which greatly affects regional climate but current models fail to accurately estimate.

  8. Sulfate sorption in soils under acid deposition: Comparison of two modeling approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Prenzel, J.

    1994-01-01

    Soil acidification under the impact of acid deposition is often modeled by adsorption isotherms. The assumption of solubility equilibria for basic Al sulfates is an alternative modeling approach. Similarities and differences between both concepts are discussed. A simple solubitity equilibrium model is defined and used to demonstrate that the second model can explain results that are well described by typical adsorption isotherms. The same model can also explain a pH dependency of adsorption isotherms that has been widely reported. In the application to assumed soil acidification scenarios, predictions are presented that could not be described by an adsorption isotherm approach. 38 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Effect of sulfate and carbonate minerals on particle-size distributions in arid soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goossens, Dirk; Buck, Brenda J.; Teng, Yuazxin; Robins, Colin; Goldstein, Harland L.

    2014-01-01

    Arid soils pose unique problems during measurement and interpretation of particle-size distributions (PSDs) because they often contain high concentrations of water-soluble salts. This study investigates the effects of sulfate and carbonate minerals on grain-size analysis by comparing analyses in water, in which the minerals dissolve, and isopropanol (IPA), in which they do not. The presence of gypsum, in particular, substantially affects particle-size analysis once the concentration of gypsum in the sample exceeds the mineral’s solubility threshold. For smaller concentrations particle-size results are unaffected. This is because at concentrations above the solubility threshold fine particles cement together or bind to coarser particles or aggregates already present in the sample, or soluble mineral coatings enlarge grains. Formation of discrete crystallites exacerbates the problem. When soluble minerals are dissolved the original, insoluble grains will become partly or entirely liberated. Thus, removing soluble minerals will result in an increase in measured fine particles. Distortion of particle-size analysis is larger for sulfate minerals than for carbonate minerals because of the much higher solubility in water of the former. When possible, arid soils should be analyzed using a liquid in which the mineral grains do not dissolve, such as IPA, because the results will more accurately reflect the PSD under most arid soil field conditions. This is especially important when interpreting soil and environmental processes affected by particle size.

  10. Formation of diphenylthioarsinic acid from diphenylarsinic acid under anaerobic sulfate-reducing soil conditions.

    PubMed

    Hisatomi, Shihoko; Guan, Ling; Nakajima, Mami; Fujii, Kunihiko; Nonaka, Masanori; Harada, Naoki

    2013-11-15

    Diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA) is a toxic phenylarsenical compound often found around sites contaminated with phenylarsenic chemical warfare agents, diphenylcyanoarsine or diphenylchloroarsine, which were buried in soil after the World Wars. This research concerns the elucidation of the chemical structure of an arsenic metabolite transformed from DPAA under anaerobic sulfate-reducing soil conditions. In LC/ICP-MS analysis, the retention time of the metabolite was identical to that of a major phenylarsenical compound synthesized by chemical reaction of DPAA and hydrogen sulfide. Moreover the mass spectra for the two compounds measured using LC/TOF-MS were similar. Subsequent high resolution mass spectral analysis indicated that two major ions at m/z 261 and 279, observed on both mass spectra, were attributable to C12H10AsS and C12H12AsSO, respectively. These findings strongly suggest that the latter ion is the molecular-related ion ([M+H](+)) of diphenylthioarsinic acid (DPTA; (C6H5)2AsS(OH)) and the former ion is its dehydrated fragment. Thus, our results reveal that DPAA can be transformed to DPTA, as a major metabolite, under sulfate-reducing soil conditions. Moreover, formation of diphenyldithioarsinic acid and subsequent dimerization were predicted by the chemical reaction analysis of DPAA with hydrogen sulfide. This is the first report to elucidate the occurrence of DPAA-thionation in an anaerobic soil.

  11. The impact of the direct effects of sulfate and black carbon aerosols on the subseasonal march of the East Asian subtropical summer monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dongdong; Zhu, Bin; Jiang, Zhihong; Yang, Xiu-Qun; Zhu, Tong

    2016-03-01

    Aerosol emissions have rapidly increased in East Asia since the late 1970s. During the same period, the East Asian summer monsoon has shown a weakening trend. In this work, the direct effects (DE) of sulfate and black carbon (BC) aerosols on the subseasonal (pentad mean) march of the East Asian subtropical summer monsoon (EASSM) are investigated using an interactive global climate-chemistry model. The simulation results suggest that the DE of sulfate aerosols have a notable effect on the cooling of the low troposphere across the continent in spring and autumn, hence, changing the time of the seasonal transition of the zonal land-sea thermal contrast (ZTC). The DE of BC result in cooling of the low troposphere and heating of the middle troposphere, leading to a different impact than that caused by sulfates. The cooling of the surface and troposphere by sulfates leads to a delay in the warming of East Asian continent in spring and the EASSM onset time; it also accelerates the process of the continent turning colder and advances the retreat of the EASSM. The deeper heating in the middle-upper troposphere than the cooling in the low troposphere due to the DE of BC or the combination of both lead to an advance in the onset time of the monsoon caused by the continent turning warmer earlier in spring. In autumn, the same cooling effect by sulfates leads to the continent turning colder earlier, resulting in an advance in the retreat time.

  12. Linkage between community diversity of sulfate-reducing microorganisms and methylmercury concentration in paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Rong; Zheng, Yuan-Ming; Zhang, Li-Mei; He, Ji-Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRM) have been thought to play a key role in mercury (Hg) methylation in anoxic environments. The current study examined the linkage between SRM abundance and diversity and contents of methylmercury (MeHg) in paddy soils collected from a historical Hg mining area in China. Soil profile samples were collected from four sites over a distance gradient downstream the Hg mining operation. Results showed that MeHg content in the soil of each site significantly decreased with the extending distance away from Hg mine. Soil MeHg content was correlated positively with abundance of SRM and the contents of organic matter (OM), NH4(+), SO4(2-), and Hg. The abundances of SRM based on dissimilatory (bi) sulfite reductase (dsrAB) gene at 0-40 cm depths were higher than those at 40-80 cm depth at all sites. The SRM community composition varied in the soils of different sampling sites following terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and phylogenetic analyses, which appeared to be correlated with contents of MeHg, OM, NH4(+), and SO4(2-) through canonical correspondence analysis. The dominant groups of SRM in the soils examined belonged to Deltaproteobacteria and some unknown SRM clusters that could have potential for Hg methylation. These results advance our understanding of the relationship between SRM and methylmercury concentration in paddy soil.

  13. Soil-derived sulfate in atmospheric dust particles at Taklimakan desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Feng; Zhang, Daizhou; Cao, Junji; Xu, Hongmei; An, Zhisheng

    2012-12-01

    Dust-associated sulfate is believed to be a key species which can alter the physical and chemical properties of dust particles in the atmosphere. Its occurrence in the particles has usually been considered to be the consequence of particles' aging in the air although it is present in some crustal minerals. Our observation at the north and south edge of Taklimakan desert, one of the largest dust sources in the Northern Hemisphere, during a dust episode in April 2008 revealed that sulfate in atmospheric dust samples most likely originated directly from surface soil. Its TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 content was proportional to samples' mass and comprised steadily about 4% in the differently sized samples, the ratio of elemental sulfur to iron was approximately constant 0.3, and no demonstrable influence of pollutants from fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning was detected. These results suggest that sulfate could be substantially derived from surface soil at the desert area and the lack of awareness of this origin may impede accurate results in any investigation of atmospheric sulfur chemistry associated with Taklimakan dust and its subsequent local, regional and global effects on the atmosphere.

  14. Arsenic retention and release from ferrihydrite and tropical soils during iron and sulfate reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocar, B.; Ying, S.; Polizzotto, M.; Fendorf, S.

    2006-12-01

    Soils and surface sediments are enriched with arsenic bearing iron (hydr)oxides throughout sedimentary basins of southeast Asia; arsenic concentrations typically range from 10 to 40 mg/kg (DW). Seasonal monsoons result in drastically fluctuating water levels, which drive wide swings in redox processes within soils and near-surface sediments. Extensive flooding results in anaerobic soil/sediment conditions, with ensuing reduction of iron (hydr)oxides and sulfate. Aqueous concentrations of arsenic vary with redox conditions and processes and when elevated, result in migration through the soil profile to the deeper subsurface. Using ceramic-cup lysimeters and passive samplers (peepers), we measured a suite of reduced aqueous constituents, including arsenic, within soil profiles in the lower Mekong delta, Cambodia. Within a zone of seasonal wetting/drying, we observed increased aqueous concentrations of arsenic in surface soils during periods of flooding. Arsenic release is coincident with the production of Fe(II) and, to a lesser degree, S(-II) in the porewater. These results indicate that arsenic mobilization occurs in near-surface soil environments upon soil wetting, and that multiple chemical processes (arsenic, iron, and sulfate reduction) may contribute to arsenic release. These measurements were therefore complimented with a suite of model column experiments utilizing arsenic-loaded ferrihydrite-coated sand and bacteria capable of iron, sulfur, and/or arsenate reduction. Column studies indicate that biologically-induced iron reduction by S. putrefaciens (CN32) leads to arsenic sequestration within biotransformed solids, relative to abiotic control columns. At high surface loadings of arsenic, biotransformation of ferrihydrite during sulfidogenesis induced by D. vulgaris (Hildenborough) also leads to arsenic sequestration within column solids; however, low surface loadings of arsenic resulted in arsenic mobilization during rapid dissolution of ferrihydrite and

  15. Reflectance spectroscopy of ferric sulfate-bearing montmorillonites as Mars soil analog materials.

    PubMed

    Bishop, J L; Pieters, C M; Burns, R G; Edwards, J O; Mancinelli, R L; Fröschl, H

    1995-09-01

    Spectroscopic analyses have shown that smectites enhanced in the laboratory with additional ferric species exhibit important similarities to those of the soils on Mars. Ferrihydrite in these chemically treated smectites has features in the visible to near-infrared region that resemble the energies and band strengths of features in reflectance spectra observed for several bright regions on Mars. New samples have been prepared with sulfate as well, because S was found by Viking to be a major component in the surface material on Mars. A suite of ferrihydrite-bearing and ferric sulfate-bearing montmorillonites, prepared with variable Fe3+ and S concentrations and variable pH conditions, has been analyzed using reflectance spectroscopy in the visible and infrared regions, Mössbauer spectroscopy at room temperature and 4 K, differential thermal analysis, and X-ray diffraction. These analyses support the formation of ferrihydrite of variable crystallinity in the ferrihydrite-bearing montmorillonites and a combination of schwertmannite and ferrihydrite in the ferric sulfate-bearing montmorillonites. Small quantities of poorly crystalline or nanophase forms of other ferric materials may also be present in these samples. The chemical formation conditions of the ferrihydrite-bearing and ferric sulfate-bearing montmorillonites influence the character of the low temperature Mössbauer sextets and the visible reflectance spectra. An absorption minimum is observed at 0.88-0.89 micrometers in spectra of the ferric sulfate-bearing samples, and at 0.89-0.92 micrometers in spectra of the ferrihydrate-bearing montmorillonites. Mössbauer spectra of the ferric sulfate-bearing montmorillonites indicate variable concentrations of ferrihydrite and schwertmannite in the interlaminar spaces and along grain surfaces. Dehydration under reduced atmospheric pressure conditions induces a greater effect on the adsorbed and interlayer water in ferrihydrite-bearing montmorillonite than on the

  16. Reflectance spectroscopy of ferric sulfate-bearing montmorillonites as Mars soil analog materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, J. L.; Pieters, C. M.; Burns, R. G.; Edwards, J. O.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Froschl, H.

    1995-01-01

    Spectroscopic analyses have shown that smectites enhanced in the laboratory with additional ferric species exhibit important similarities to those of the soils on Mars. Ferrihydrite in these chemically treated smectites has features in the visible to near-infrared region that resemble the energies and band strengths of features in reflectance spectra observed for several bright regions on Mars. New samples have been prepared with sulfate as well, because S was found by Viking to be a major component in the surface material on Mars. A suite of ferrihydrite-bearing and ferric sulfate-bearing montmorillonites, prepared with variable Fe3+ and S concentrations and variable pH conditions, has been analyzed using reflectance spectroscopy in the visible and infrared regions, Mossbauer spectroscopy at room temperature and 4 K, differential thermal analysis, and X-ray diffraction. These analyses support the formation of ferrihydrite of variable crystallinity in the ferrihydrite-bearing montmorillonites and a combination of schwertmannite and ferrihydrite in the ferric sulfate-bearing montmorillonites. Small quantities of poorly crystalline or nanophase forms of other ferric materials may also be present in these samples. The chemical formation conditions of the ferrihydrite-bearing and ferric sulfate-bearing montmorillonites influence the character of the low temperature Mossbauer sextets and the visible reflectance spectra. An absorption minimum is observed at 0.88-0.89 micrometers in spectra of the ferric sulfate-bearing samples, and at 0.89-0.92 micrometers in spectra of the ferrihydrate-bearing montmorillonites. Mossbauer spectra of the ferric sulfate-bearing montmorillonites indicate variable concentrations of ferrihydrite and schwertmannite in the interlaminar spaces and along grain surfaces. Dehydration under reduced atmospheric pressure conditions induces a greater effect on the adsorbed and interlayer water in ferrihydrite-bearing montmorillonite than on the water

  17. Reflectance spectroscopy of ferric sulfate-bearing montmorillonites as Mars soil analog materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, J. L.; Pieters, C. M.; Burns, R. G.; Edwards, J. O.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Froschl, H.

    1995-01-01

    Spectroscopic analyses have shown that smectites enhanced in the laboratory with additional ferric species exhibit important similarities to those of the soils on Mars. Ferrihydrite in these chemically treated smectites has features in the visible to near-infrared region that resemble the energies and band strengths of features in reflectance spectra observed for several bright regions on Mars. New samples have been prepared with sulfate as well, because S was found by Viking to be a major component in the surface material on Mars. A suite of ferrihydrite-bearing and ferric sulfate-bearing montmorillonites, prepared with variable Fe3+ and S concentrations and variable pH conditions, has been analyzed using reflectance spectroscopy in the visible and infrared regions, Mossbauer spectroscopy at room temperature and 4 K, differential thermal analysis, and X-ray diffraction. These analyses support the formation of ferrihydrite of variable crystallinity in the ferrihydrite-bearing montmorillonites and a combination of schwertmannite and ferrihydrite in the ferric sulfate-bearing montmorillonites. Small quantities of poorly crystalline or nanophase forms of other ferric materials may also be present in these samples. The chemical formation conditions of the ferrihydrite-bearing and ferric sulfate-bearing montmorillonites influence the character of the low temperature Mossbauer sextets and the visible reflectance spectra. An absorption minimum is observed at 0.88-0.89 micrometers in spectra of the ferric sulfate-bearing samples, and at 0.89-0.92 micrometers in spectra of the ferrihydrate-bearing montmorillonites. Mossbauer spectra of the ferric sulfate-bearing montmorillonites indicate variable concentrations of ferrihydrite and schwertmannite in the interlaminar spaces and along grain surfaces. Dehydration under reduced atmospheric pressure conditions induces a greater effect on the adsorbed and interlayer water in ferrihydrite-bearing montmorillonite than on the water

  18. Quantitative in situ determination of hydration of bright high-sulfate Martian soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, J. L.; Gellert, R.; Lee, M.; Mallett, C. L.; Maxwell, J. A.; O'Meara, J. M.

    2008-04-01

    The total water content of soils and rocks encountered by the Spirit rover has been determined by a new analysis method applied to the existing data from the Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS). This approach employs Monte Carlo simulation of the intensities of the photon scatter peaks in the APXS spectra, together with extraction of these intensities from the spectra. For any individual sample, the water detection limits (~6 wt %) and error bars are high due to low counting statistics in the spectra, but combining the data from a well-defined group of similar samples improves the error bars and lowers the limit. Thus typical basaltic surface soils are found to be essentially dry (<1 wt % water) and basaltic rocks are very close to dry (<3.5 wt % water). For four bright subsurface soils in Gusev Crater the water content lies in the range 6-18 wt % these soils contain sulfur at unusually high levels (>12 wt %, 30 wt % SO3) relative to the soils common at other landing sites. Mass balance mixing calculations of available cations infer the presence of Fe-, Mg-, and Ca-sulfates in these bright soils. Together with constraints from mineralogy, our results imply that highly hydrated ferric sulfates are the most important carrier of the bound water found in these four spots. In conjunction with the complementary available chemical and mineralogical information they reveal additional information about present bound water reservoirs on Mars, their mineralogy and their spatial and lateral distribution along the Spirit rover's traverse.

  19. Spectral and Textural Changes Observed in Sulfate Soil Deposits at Gusev Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, M. S.; Bell, J. F.; Wang, A.; Johnson, J. R.; Arvidson, R. E.

    2009-12-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit has discovered deposits of bright yellowish and whitish soils that have been confirmed by Spirit’s Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS), Mössbauer spectrometer, and Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES) instruments to contain ferric sulfates and/or opaline silica. These deposits have important implications for the history of water at Gusev Crater, as they have been interpreted by Squyres et al. (2008, Science, 316, 738) to have formed in a hydrothermal environment. Repeated Pancam 11 color visible to short-wave near-IR observations have been made at the Tyrone, Kit Carson and Ulysess soil exposures, and changes in Vis-NIR spectra and/or soil texture and morphology have been observed at all three sites. We have identified at least three possible explanations for the observed changes: 1) dust deposition; 2) aeolian sorting; and/or 3) a mineralogic change after exposure to martian surface conditions. To better characterize how and why these soils are changing with time, we present a detailed multispectral analysis of the seven Pancam image sequences at Tyrone, the two at Kit Carson, and the nine at Ulysses that have been acquired as of sol 2000 (August 18, 2009). At the Tyrone “yellow” soil, the blue-to-red (432 to 753 nm) spectral slope decreased after roughly 175 sols of exposure to the martian surface, as described by Wang et al. (2008, JGR, 114, 461). This spectral change is contrary to the “reddening” that would be expected from dust deposition, but could be consistent with dehydration pathways of certain ferric sulfates, such as from copiapite to amorphous ferric sulfates or to rhomboclase (Wang et al., 2008, AGU). The Tyrone “yellow” soil also exhibits increased 535 nm and 803 nm band depths with time, which is further suggestive of a mineralogic change. Pancam spectra of Kit Carson appear to have changed similarly to those of Tyrone, with 535 nm and 864 nm absorptions developing after four

  20. Hydrochemistry of episodic drainage waters discharged from an acid sulfate soil affected catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, R.; Macdonald, B. C. T.; Melville, M. D.; Waite, T. D.

    2006-06-01

    The water quality of drainage discharged via pumping from an acid sulfate soil (ASS) affected catchment used for sugar cane farming is temporally very variable and is influenced by the various rain event magnitudes, their antecedents, and the particular phase of the discharge in any rain event. Rainfall episodes can cause substantial changes in acidity and dissolved metal concentrations in ASS drainage waters over very short time scales with minimum pH often reached within a few hours of initiation of the rainfall event. The initial increase in acidity and dissolved metals concentrations often observed can be attributed mainly to 'first flush' effects resulting from mobilization of salts present in the upper soil profile. During the middle of a large rainfall event dilution effects may result in a decrease in concentrations of dissolved species, but increases in acidity and dissolved metals (particularly aluminium) concentrations in the recession portion of the hydrograph often occur as small field drains discharge into main channels. These observations assist both in understanding of the hydrogeochemical processes leading to acid and metals release from acid sulfate soils affected catchments, and in developing appropriate strategies to treat contaminated discharge waters from such catchments.

  1. Developing High-resolution Soil Database for Regional Crop Modeling in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, E.; Ines, A. V. M.

    2014-12-01

    The most readily available soil data for regional crop modeling in Africa is the World Inventory of Soil Emission potentials (WISE) dataset, which has 1125 soil profiles for the world, but does not extensively cover countries Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania in East Africa. Another dataset available is the HC27 (Harvest Choice by IFPRI) in a gridded format (10km) but composed of generic soil profiles based on only three criteria (texture, rooting depth, and organic carbon content). In this paper, we present a development and application of a high-resolution (1km), gridded soil database for regional crop modeling in East Africa. Basic soil information is extracted from Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS), which provides essential soil properties (bulk density, soil organic carbon, soil PH and percentages of sand, silt and clay) for 6 different standardized soil layers (5, 15, 30, 60, 100 and 200 cm) in 1km resolution. Soil hydraulic properties (e.g., field capacity and wilting point) are derived from the AfSIS soil dataset using well-proven pedo-transfer functions and are customized for DSSAT-CSM soil data requirements. The crop model is used to evaluate crop yield forecasts using the new high resolution soil database and compared with WISE and HC27. In this paper we will present also the results of DSSAT loosely coupled with a hydrologic model (VIC) to assimilate root-zone soil moisture. Creating a grid-based soil database, which provides a consistent soil input for two different models (DSSAT and VIC) is a critical part of this work. The created soil database is expected to contribute to future applications of DSSAT crop simulation in East Africa where food security is highly vulnerable.

  2. Consortia of low-abundance bacteria drive sulfate reduction-dependent degradation of fermentation products in peat soil microcosms

    SciTech Connect

    Hausmann, Bela; Knorr, Klaus-Holger; Schreck, Katharina; Tringe, Susannah G.; Glavina del Rio, Tijana; Loy, Alexander; Pester, Michael

    2016-03-25

    A cryptic sulfur cycle and effectively competes with methanogenic degradation pathways sustains dissimilatory sulfate reduction in peatlands. In a series of peat soil microcosms incubated over 50 days, we identified bacterial consortia that responded to small, periodic additions of individual fermentation products (formate, acetate, propionate, lactate or butyrate) in the presence or absence of sulfate. Under sulfate supplementation, net sulfate turnover (ST) steadily increased to 16–174 nmol cm–3 per day and almost completely blocked methanogenesis. 16S rRNA gene and cDNA amplicon sequencing identified microorganisms whose increases in ribosome numbers strongly correlated to ST. Natively abundant (greater than or equal to0.1% estimated genome abundance) species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs) showed no significant response to sulfate. In contrast, low-abundance OTUs responded significantly to sulfate in incubations with propionate, lactate and butyrate. These OTUs included members of recognized sulfate-reducing taxa (Desulfosporosinus, Desulfopila, Desulfomonile, Desulfovibrio) and also members of taxa that are either yet unknown sulfate reducers or metabolic interaction partners thereof. The most responsive OTUs markedly increased their ribosome content but only weakly increased in abundance. Responsive Desulfosporosinus OTUs even maintained a constantly low population size throughout 50 days, which suggests a novel strategy of rare biosphere members to display activity. Interestingly, two OTUs of the non-sulfate-reducing genus Telmatospirillum (Alphaproteobacteria) showed strongly contrasting preferences towards sulfate in butyrate-amended microcosms, corroborating that closely related microorganisms are not necessarily ecologically coherent. We show that diverse consortia of low-abundance microorganisms can perform peat soil sulfate reduction, a process that exerts control on methane production in these climate-relevant ecosystems.

  3. Consortia of low-abundance bacteria drive sulfate reduction-dependent degradation of fermentation products in peat soil microcosms

    PubMed Central

    Hausmann, Bela; Knorr, Klaus-Holger; Schreck, Katharina; Tringe, Susannah G; Glavina del Rio, Tijana; Loy, Alexander; Pester, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Dissimilatory sulfate reduction in peatlands is sustained by a cryptic sulfur cycle and effectively competes with methanogenic degradation pathways. In a series of peat soil microcosms incubated over 50 days, we identified bacterial consortia that responded to small, periodic additions of individual fermentation products (formate, acetate, propionate, lactate or butyrate) in the presence or absence of sulfate. Under sulfate supplementation, net sulfate turnover (ST) steadily increased to 16–174 nmol cm–3 per day and almost completely blocked methanogenesis. 16S rRNA gene and cDNA amplicon sequencing identified microorganisms whose increases in ribosome numbers strongly correlated to ST. Natively abundant (⩾0.1% estimated genome abundance) species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs) showed no significant response to sulfate. In contrast, low-abundance OTUs responded significantly to sulfate in incubations with propionate, lactate and butyrate. These OTUs included members of recognized sulfate-reducing taxa (Desulfosporosinus, Desulfopila, Desulfomonile, Desulfovibrio) and also members of taxa that are either yet unknown sulfate reducers or metabolic interaction partners thereof. Most responsive OTUs markedly increased their ribosome content but only weakly increased in abundance. Responsive Desulfosporosinus OTUs even maintained a constantly low population size throughout 50 days, which suggests a novel strategy of rare biosphere members to display activity. Interestingly, two OTUs of the non-sulfate-reducing genus Telmatospirillum (Alphaproteobacteria) showed strongly contrasting preferences towards sulfate in butyrate-amended microcosms, corroborating that closely related microorganisms are not necessarily ecologically coherent. We show that diverse consortia of low-abundance microorganisms can perform peat soil sulfate reduction, a process that exerts control on methane production in these climate-relevant ecosystems. PMID:27015005

  4. Consortia of low-abundance bacteria drive sulfate reduction-dependent degradation of fermentation products in peat soil microcosms.

    PubMed

    Hausmann, Bela; Knorr, Klaus-Holger; Schreck, Katharina; Tringe, Susannah G; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Loy, Alexander; Pester, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Dissimilatory sulfate reduction in peatlands is sustained by a cryptic sulfur cycle and effectively competes with methanogenic degradation pathways. In a series of peat soil microcosms incubated over 50 days, we identified bacterial consortia that responded to small, periodic additions of individual fermentation products (formate, acetate, propionate, lactate or butyrate) in the presence or absence of sulfate. Under sulfate supplementation, net sulfate turnover (ST) steadily increased to 16-174 nmol cm(-3) per day and almost completely blocked methanogenesis. 16S rRNA gene and cDNA amplicon sequencing identified microorganisms whose increases in ribosome numbers strongly correlated to ST. Natively abundant (⩾0.1% estimated genome abundance) species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs) showed no significant response to sulfate. In contrast, low-abundance OTUs responded significantly to sulfate in incubations with propionate, lactate and butyrate. These OTUs included members of recognized sulfate-reducing taxa (Desulfosporosinus, Desulfopila, Desulfomonile, Desulfovibrio) and also members of taxa that are either yet unknown sulfate reducers or metabolic interaction partners thereof. Most responsive OTUs markedly increased their ribosome content but only weakly increased in abundance. Responsive Desulfosporosinus OTUs even maintained a constantly low population size throughout 50 days, which suggests a novel strategy of rare biosphere members to display activity. Interestingly, two OTUs of the non-sulfate-reducing genus Telmatospirillum (Alphaproteobacteria) showed strongly contrasting preferences towards sulfate in butyrate-amended microcosms, corroborating that closely related microorganisms are not necessarily ecologically coherent. We show that diverse consortia of low-abundance microorganisms can perform peat soil sulfate reduction, a process that exerts control on methane production in these climate-relevant ecosystems.

  5. Consortia of low-abundance bacteria drive sulfate reduction-dependent degradation of fermentation products in peat soil microcosms

    DOE PAGES

    Hausmann, Bela; Knorr, Klaus-Holger; Schreck, Katharina; ...

    2016-03-25

    A cryptic sulfur cycle and effectively competes with methanogenic degradation pathways sustains dissimilatory sulfate reduction in peatlands. In a series of peat soil microcosms incubated over 50 days, we identified bacterial consortia that responded to small, periodic additions of individual fermentation products (formate, acetate, propionate, lactate or butyrate) in the presence or absence of sulfate. Under sulfate supplementation, net sulfate turnover (ST) steadily increased to 16–174 nmol cm–3 per day and almost completely blocked methanogenesis. 16S rRNA gene and cDNA amplicon sequencing identified microorganisms whose increases in ribosome numbers strongly correlated to ST. Natively abundant (greater than or equal to0.1%more » estimated genome abundance) species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs) showed no significant response to sulfate. In contrast, low-abundance OTUs responded significantly to sulfate in incubations with propionate, lactate and butyrate. These OTUs included members of recognized sulfate-reducing taxa (Desulfosporosinus, Desulfopila, Desulfomonile, Desulfovibrio) and also members of taxa that are either yet unknown sulfate reducers or metabolic interaction partners thereof. The most responsive OTUs markedly increased their ribosome content but only weakly increased in abundance. Responsive Desulfosporosinus OTUs even maintained a constantly low population size throughout 50 days, which suggests a novel strategy of rare biosphere members to display activity. Interestingly, two OTUs of the non-sulfate-reducing genus Telmatospirillum (Alphaproteobacteria) showed strongly contrasting preferences towards sulfate in butyrate-amended microcosms, corroborating that closely related microorganisms are not necessarily ecologically coherent. We show that diverse consortia of low-abundance microorganisms can perform peat soil sulfate reduction, a process that exerts control on methane production in these climate-relevant ecosystems.« less

  6. The relation between soil sulfate concentration and proanthocyanidin content of Selliguea feei Bory from around Ratu crater, Mount Tangkuban Perahu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novianti, Vivi; Choesin, Devi N.

    2014-03-01

    Proanthocyanidin is a chemical compound with a basic flavan-3-ol structure formed from flavonoid secondary metabolism in plants, with potential for human use because of its anti-hypertension, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Considering the fact that S. feei contains proanthocynidin and grows abundantly around Ratu Crater, Mount Tangkuban Perahu, which actively emits S02 gas, this study aimed to see the relation between soil sulfate concentration and proanthocyanidin content in leaves and rhizomes of S. feei. Field sampling was conducted in 1 m2 plots at elevations of 1400, 1600 m above sea level (100 m distance from sulfur source), 1700, 1800 and 1900 m a.s.l. (75 m from sulfur source). Measurements included soil sulfate concentration, proanthocyanidin content of rhizomes and leaves, and environmental factors. An experiment was conducted by planting S. feei from the field into polybags which were then given treatments of sterile plant media with varying sulfate concentrations (0 ppm, 100 ppm, 250 ppm, 400 ppm, 600 ppm, and 800 ppm). Proanthocyanidin content of S. feei leaves and rhizomes were measured on the third, sixth and ninth week. Soil sulfate concentrations were found to be very high (428.22 - 992.91 ppm) with values increasing according to altitude. Proanthocyanidin content in rhizomes were higher than in leaves, in both field and experimental data. Soil sulfate concentrations correlated positively and significantly with proanthocyanidin content in rhizomes of S. feei. As in the field, experimental results indicated no correlation or relation between soil sulfate concentration and proanthocyanidin content in leaves. Besides soil sulfate concentration, environmental factors have a role in incresing peoanthocyanidin content of S.feei. Proanthocyanidin content of S.feei rhizomes could be classified as being very high, thus having potential to be developed as raw material in medicine and food industries.

  7. Modeling Sorption and Degradation of 17β-Estradiol-17-Sulfate in Agricultural Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, X.; Casey, F. X.; Hakk, H.; Shrestha, S. L.; DeSutter, T.; Khan, E.; Oduor, P. G.

    2011-12-01

    The natural steroid hormone, 17β-estradiol (E2), can be an endocrine disruptor at part-per trillion levels. Laboratory studies indicate a low potential for E2 persistence and mobility in the environment; however, field studies consistently indicate the presence of E2 and its primary metabolite, estrone, at levels sufficiently high to impact water quality. To facilitate urine excretion, animals may release E2 as a sulfated conjugate, which would have a higher aqueous solubility than the parent compound. We hypothesize that E2 conjugates contribute to the detection of free estrogens in the environment. The objective of this study was to determine the sorption, degradation, and mobility of a model conjugate, 17β-estradiol-17-sulfate (E2-17S), in agricultural soils. Radiolabeled E2-17S ([14C]E2-17S) was chemically synthesized in a three-step process, and then batch experiments were conducted in natural and sterile soils. Additionally, soil organic carbon (OC) was varied (1.29 and 0.26%) to investigate its effect on the fate of [14C]E2-17S. Liquid scintillation counting (LSC) was used in concert with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to detect and quantitate parent compound and metabolites of E2-17S in the aqueous and bound phases. Residual soil was combusted to determine non-extractable levels of 14C. The E2-17S was relatively stable in the aqueous phase for natural and sterile soils. Mono- and di- hydroxyl E2-17S were detected as metabolites of E2-17S in the aqueous phase above both sterile and natural soil. Deconjugation to form E2 was not observed in aqueous phase; however, E2 and estrone were extracted from both natural and sterile soils. A conceptual model was developed to simulate and identify the fate and transport processes of E2-17S. Organic carbon was found to be an important factor affecting the sorption and degradation of E2-17S in soils.

  8. Use of organic substrates as electron donors for biological sulfate reduction in gypsiferous mine soils from Nakhon Si Thammarat (Thailand).

    PubMed

    Kijjanapanich, Pimluck; Annachhatre, Ajit P; Esposito, Giovanni; Lens, Piet N L

    2014-04-01

    Soils in some mining areas contain a high gypsum content, which can give adverse effects to the environment and may cause many cultivation problems, such as a low water retention capacity and low fertility. The quality of such mine soils can be improved by reducing the soil's gypsum content. This study aims to develop an appropriate in situ bioremediation technology for abbreviating the gypsum content of mine soils by using sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). The technology was applied to a mine soil from a gypsum mine in the southern part of Thailand which contains a high sulfate content (150 g kg(-1)). Cheap organic substrates with low or no cost, such as rice husk, pig farm wastewater treatment sludge and coconut husk chips were mixed (60:20:20 by volume) and supplied to the soil as electron donors for the SRB. The highest sulfate removal efficiency of 59% was achieved in the soil mixed with 40% organic mixture, corresponding to a reduction of the soil gypsum content from 25% to 7.5%. For economic gains, this treated soil can be further used for agriculture and the produced sulfide can be recovered as the fertilizer elemental sulfur. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of liming on sulfate transformation and sulfur gas emissions in degraded vegetable soil treated by reductive soil disinfestation.

    PubMed

    Meng, Tianzhu; Zhu, Tongbin; Zhang, Jinbo; Cai, Zucong

    2015-10-01

    Reductive soil disinfestation (RSD), namely amending organic materials and mulching or flooding to create strong reductive status, has been widely applied to improve degraded soils. However, there is little information available about sulfate (SO4(2-)) transformation and sulfur (S) gas emissions during RSD treatment to degraded vegetable soils, in which S is generally accumulated. To investigate the effects of liming on SO4(2-) transformation and S gas emissions, two SO4(2-)-accumulated vegetable soils (denoted as S1 and S2) were treated by RSD, and RSD plus lime, denoted as RSD0 and RSD1, respectively. The results showed that RSD0 treatment reduced soil SO4(2-) by 51% and 61% in S1 and S2, respectively. The disappeared SO4(2-) was mainly transformed into the undissolved form. During RSD treatment, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), carbonyl sulfide (COS), and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) were detected, but the total S gas emission accounted for <0.006% of total S in both soils. Compared to RSD0, lime addition stimulated the conversion of SO4(2-) into undissolved form, reduced soil SO4(2-) by 81% in S1 and 84% in S2 and reduced total S gas emissions by 32% in S1 and 57% in S2, respectively. In addition to H2S, COS and DMS, the emissions of carbon disulfide, methyl mercaptan, and dimethyl disulfide were also detected in RSD1 treatment. The results indicated that RSD was an effective method to remove SO4(2-), liming stimulates the conversion of dissolved SO4(2-) into undissolved form, probably due to the precipitation with calcium. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Changes and relations of photosynthesis and iron cycling in anoxic paddy soil amended with high concentrations of sulfate.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qin; Jia, Rong; Qu, Dong; Li, Ming

    2017-04-01

    Sulfate contamination is an increasingly serious environmental problem related to microbial reduction processes in anoxic paddy soil. This study revealed the changes and interrelations of ferric iron [Fe(III)] reduction, ferrous iron [Fe(II)] oxidation, and oxygenic photosynthesis in an anoxic paddy soil (Fe-accumuli-Stagnic Anthrosols) amended with a range of high sulfate concentrations. Soil slurries mixed with 0 (control), 50, 100, 200, and 400 mmol kg(-1) Na2SO4 were incubated anaerobically under dark and light conditions. The changes in chlorophyll a (Chl a), Fe(II), pH levels, and the chlorophyll absorption spectrum were determined over a 42-day period. Fe(II) concentrations increased with the addition of sulfate under dark conditions, while Fe(III) reduction potential was enhanced by increasing sulfate addition. The effect of light on Fe(II) concentration was observed after 16 days of incubation, when Fe(II) started to decrease markedly in the control. The decrease in Fe(II) slowed with increasing sulfate addition. The concentrations of Chl a increased in all treatments after 16 days of incubation under light conditions. There was a reduction in Chl a accumulation with increasing sulfate at the same incubation time. The absorption peaks of chlorophyll remained shorter than the 700-nm wavelength throughout the incubation period. The pH of all treatments decreased in the first week and then increased thereafter. The pH increased with sulfate addition and light conditions. In conclusion, contamination with high concentrations of sulfate could accelerate Fe(III) reduction while inhibiting oxygenic photosynthesis, which correspondingly slows chemical Fe(II) oxidation in an anoxic paddy soil.

  11. The Soil Chemical Response to Decreases in Atmospheric Sulfate deposition Across the Northeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHale, M. R.; Siemion, J.; Lawrence, G. B.; Mast, A.

    2012-12-01

    Data from National Atmospheric Deposition (NADP) stations show that since implementation of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 there has been a steady decline in sulfate and nitrate concentrations in precipitation across the northeastern United States. Those decreases have become more pronounced during the last 10 years. There have also been decreasing trends in sulfate and less so nitrate stream-water concentrations during the same period at 3 U.S. Geological Survey Hydrologic Benchmark Network stream gaging stations. These stations are co-located with NADP stations in western Pennsylvania (Young Woman's Creek, YWC), the Catskill Mountains of New York (Neversink River, NR), and in northwestern Maine (Wild River, WR). Precipitation was most acidic at YWC (mean pH in 2010 of 4.68 at YWC, 4.88 at NR, and 4.97 at WR) while stream water was most acidic at WR (mean pH from 1999 to 2010 of 6.08 at WR, 6.19 at NR, and 6.72 at YWC). Soil samples were collected at each site in 2001 and again 10 years later in 2011 in the A and upper B-horizons at two to three locations in each watershed, at an upslope location, a mid-slope location, and in the case of NR also at a lower slope location. Replicate samples were collected from 5 pits at each site. At YWC the site with the lowest precipitation pH and the highest stream-water pH there were clear changes in soil acidity during the last 10 years. There was a decrease in soil pH of 0.7 pH units in the A-horizon of ridge top soils and 0.2 pH units in the mid slope soils while pH increased a mean of 0.2 pH units at both locations in the B-horizon. At NR, the site with intermediate precipitation and stream-water pH, there was a general decrease in soil pH in the A-horizon at the ridge top, mid slope, and lower slope locations although those changes were not as pronounced as those from YWC. Although B-horizon soil pH increased at the ridge top site in NR there were no clear changes in acidity of the mid or lower slope locations. At

  12. Sulfur-accumulating plants convert sulfate salts from soils into environmentally resilient biominerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robson, Thomas; Reid, Nathan; Stevens, Jason; Dixon, Kingsley

    2016-04-01

    Sulfur-accumulator plants (thiophores), which accumulate atypically high sulfur and calcium concentrations in their aerial biomass, may be suitable for revegetating and phytostabilising reactive sulfur-enriched substrates such as mine tailings, acid-sulfate soils and polluted soils. We present biogeochemical insights on thiophores from the Australian Great Sandy Desert, which accumulate up to 40 times as much sulfur (2-5 %S) versus comparator species. X-ray microanalyses revealed this accumulation relates to peculiar gypsum-like mineralisation throughout their foliage, illustrating a mechanism for sulfate removal from soils and sequestration as sparingly soluble biominerals. However, we did not know whether these species treat the excess Ca/S as a waste to be shed with senescent litter and, if so, how resilient these 'biominerals' are to photo-biodegradation once shed and so to what extent the accumulated elements are recycled back into the reactive/bioavailable sulfate reservoir. To address these questions, we sampled four foliage (phyllode) fractions from ten individuals of the thiophore, Acacia bivenosa: healthy mature phyllodes, senescent phyllodes on the branch, recently shed and older, more degraded ground litter. We selected two thiophores (A. bivenosa and A. robeorum) and a non-thiophore (A. ancistrocarpa) for detailed soil/regolith studies. Samples were collected from trenches bisected by each tree, taken from varying depth (20-500 mm) and distance from the stem (0.1-5 m). Dried foliage was cleaned, sectioned for SEM-EDXS examination and elemental compositions of foliage and soils were determined (microwave-assisted acid digestion + ICP-OES/MS). Each species generated a 'halo' of elevated S/Ca in the soil immediately beneath their crowns, although that of A. ancistrocarpa was of minor magnitude. These anomalies were confined to shallow soil (20-50 mm i.e. influenced by litter), suggesting limited S/Ca re-mobilisation from the litter. Foliar elemental

  13. Redox transformation, solid phase speciation and solution dynamics of copper during soil reduction and reoxidation as affected by sulfate availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulda, Beate; Voegelin, Andreas; Ehlert, Katrin; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2013-12-01

    In periodically flooded soils, interactions of Cu with biogenic sulfide formed during soil reduction lead to the precipitation of sparingly soluble Cu-sulfides. In contaminated soils, however, the amounts of Cu can exceed the amount of sulfate available for microbial reduction to sulfide. In laboratory batch experiments, we incubated a paddy soil spiked to ∼4.4 mmol kg-1 (280 mg kg-1) Cu(II) to monitor temporal changes in the concentrations of dissolved Cu and the speciation of solid-phase Cu during 40 days of soil reduction and 28 days of reoxidation as a function of initially available reducible sulfate (0.06, 2.09 or 5.92 mmol kg-1). Using Cu K-edge EXAFS spectroscopy, we found that a large fraction of Cu(II) became rapidly reduced to Cu(I) (23-39%) and Cu(0) (7-17%) before the onset of sulfate reduction. Combination with results from sequential Cu extraction and chromium reducible sulfur (CRS) data suggested that complexation of Cu(I) by reduced organic S groups (Sorg) may be an important process during this early stage. In sulfate-depleted soil, Cu(0) and Cu(I)-Sorg remained the dominant species over the entire reduction period, whereas in soils with sufficient sulfate, initially formed Cu(0) and (remaining) Cu(II) became transformed into Cu-sulfide during continuing sulfate reduction. The formation of Cu(0), Cu(I)-Sorg, and Cu-sulfide led to an effective decrease in dissolved Cu concentrations. Differences in Cu speciation at the end of soil reduction however affected the dynamics of Cu during reoxidation. Whereas Cu(0) was rapidly oxidized to Cu(II), more than half of the S-coordinated Cu fraction persisted over 14 days of aeration. Our results show that precipitation of Cu(0) and complexation of Cu(I) by reduced organic S groups are important processes in periodically flooded soils if sulfide formation is limited by the amount of available sulfate or the duration of soil flooding. The speciation changes of Cu described in this study may also affect the

  14. Groundwater or floodwater? Assessing the pathways of metal exports from a coastal acid sulfate soil catchment.

    PubMed

    Santos, Isaac R; de Weys, Jason; Eyre, Bradley D

    2011-11-15

    Daily observations of dissolved aluminum, iron, and manganese in an estuary downstream of a coastal acid sulfate soil (CASS) catchment provided insights into how floods and submarine groundwater discharge drive wetland metal exports. Extremely high Al, Fe, and Mn concentrations (up to 40, 374, and 8 mg L(-1), respectively) were found in shallow acidic groundwaters from the Tuckean Swamp, Australia. Significant correlations between radon (a natural groundwater tracer) and metals in surface waters revealed that metal loads were driven primarily by groundwater discharge. Dissolved Fe, Mn, and Al loads during a 16-day flood triggered by a 213 mm rain event were respectively 80, 35, and 14% of the total surface water exports during the four months of observations. Counter clockwise hysteresis was observed for Fe and Mn in surface waters during the flood due to delayed groundwater inputs. Groundwater-derived Fe fluxes into artificial drains were 1 order of magnitude higher than total surface water exports, which is consistent with the known accumulation of monosulfidic black ooze within the wetland drains. Upscaling the Tuckean catchment export estimates yielded dissolved Fe fluxes from global acid sulfate soil catchments on the same order of magnitude of global river inputs into estuaries.

  15. Sorption and degradation of 17β-estradiol-17-sulfate in sterilized soil-water systems.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xuelian; Casey, Francis X M; Hakk, Heldur; DeSutter, Thomas M; Oduor, Peter G; Khan, Eakalak

    2015-01-01

    To identify abiotic processes that govern the fate of a sulfate conjugated estrogen, 17β-estradiol-17-sulfate (E2-17S), soil batch experiments were conducted to investigate the dissipation, sorption, and degradation of radiolabeled E2-17S under sterilized conditions. The aqueous dissipation half-lives (DT50) for E2-17S ranged from 2.5 to 9.3h for the topsoil of high organic carbon (OC) content (1.29%), but E2-17S remained at ∼80% of applied dose in the low OC (0.26%) subsoil by 14 d. The non-linear sorption isotherms indicated limited sorption of E2-17S, and the concentration-dependent log KOC values were 2.20 and 2.45 for the topsoil and subsoil, respectively. Additionally, two types of hydroxyl E2-17S (OH-E2-17S and diOH-E2-17S) were found as major metabolites in the aqueous phase, which represented 9-25% and 6-7% of applied dose for the topsoil and subsoil at 14 d, respectively. Free estrogens, 17β-estradiol (E2) and estrone (E1), were detected from the sorbed phase of the soil-water systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Redox-controlled changes in cadmium solubility and solid-phase speciation in a paddy soil as affected by reducible sulfate and copper.

    PubMed

    Fulda, Beate; Voegelin, Andreas; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2013-11-19

    The solubility of Cd in contaminated paddy soils controls Cd uptake by rice, which is an important food safety issue. We investigated the solution and solid-phase dynamics of Cd in a paddy soil spiked with ∼20 mg kg(-1) Cd during 40 days of soil reduction followed by 28 days of soil reoxidation as a function of the amounts of sulfate available for microbial reduction and of Cu that competes with Cd for precipitation with biogenic sulfide. At an excess of sulfate over (Cd + Cu), dissolved Cd decreased during sulfate reduction and Cd was transformed into a poorly soluble phase identified as Cd-sulfide using Cd K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The extent of Cd-sulfide precipitation decreased with decreasing sulfate and increasing Cu contents, even if sulfate exceeded Cd. When both Cu and Cd exceeded sulfate, dissolved and mobilizable Cd remained elevated after 40 days of soil reduction. During soil reoxidation, Cd-sulfide was readily transformed back into more soluble species. Our data suggest that Cd-sulfide formation in flooded paddy soil may be limited when the amounts of Cd and other chalcophile metals significantly exceed reducible sulfate Therefore, in multimetal contaminated paddy soils with low sulfate contents, Cd may remain labile during soil flooding, which enhances the risk for Cd transfer into rice.

  17. Annual sulfate budgets for Dutch lowland peat polders: The soil is a major sulfate source through peat and pyrite oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermaat, Jan E.; Harmsen, Joop; Hellmann, Fritz A.; van der Geest, Harm G.; de Klein, Jeroen J. M.; Kosten, Sarian; Smolders, Alfons J. P.; Verhoeven, Jos T. A.; Mes, Ron G.; Ouboter, Maarten

    2016-02-01

    Annual sulfate mass balances have been constructed for four low-lying peat polders in the Netherlands, to resolve the origin of high sulfate concentrations in surface water, which is considered a water quality problem, as indicated amongst others by the absence of sensitive water plant species. Potential limitation of these plants to areas with low sulfate was analyzed with a spatial match-up of two large databases. The peat polders are generally used for dairy farming or nature conservation, and have considerable areas of shallow surface water (mean 16%, range 6-43%). As a consequence of continuous drainage, the peat in these polders mineralizes causing subsidence rates generally ranging between 2 and 10 mm y-1. Together with pyrite oxidation, this peat mineralization the most important internal source of sulfate, providing an estimated 96 kg SO4 ha-1 mm-1 subsidence y-1. External sources are precipitation and water supplied during summer to compensate for water shortage, but these were found to be minor compared to internal release. The most important output flux is discharge of excess surface water during autumn and winter. If only external fluxes in and out of a polder are evaluated, inputs average 37 ± 9 and exports 169 ± 17 kg S ha-1 y-1. During summer, when evapotranspiration exceeds rainfall, sulfate accumulates in the unsaturated zone, to be flushed away and drained off during the wet autumn and winter. In some polders, upward seepage from early Holocene, brackish sediments can be a source of sulfate. Peat polders export sulfate to the regional water system and the sea during winter drainage. The available sulfate probably only plays a minor role in the oxidation of peat: we estimate that this is less than 10% whereas aerobic mineralization is the most important. Most surface waters in these polders have high sulfate concentrations, which generally decline during the growing season when aquatic sediments are a sink. In the sediment, this sulfur is

  18. Possible Association of Ferrous Phosphates and Ferric Sulfates in S-rich Soil on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, J.; Schroeder, C.; Haderlein, S.

    2012-12-01

    NASA Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit explored Gusev Crater to look for signs of ancient aqueous activity, assess past environmental conditions and suitability for life. Spirit excavated light-toned, S-rich soils at several locations. These are likely of hydrothermal, possibly fumarolic origin. At a location dubbed Paso Robles the light-toned soil was also rich in P - a signature from surrounding rock. While S is mainly bound in ferric hydrated sulfates [1], the mineralogy of P is ill-constrained [2]. P is a key element for life and its mineralogy constrains its availability. Ferrous phases observed in Paso Robles Mössbauer spectra may represent olivine and pyroxene from surrounding basaltic soil [1] or ferrous phosphate minerals [3]. Phosphate is well-known to complex and stabilize Fe 2+ against oxidation to Fe 3+ . Schröder et al. [3] proposed a formation pathway of ferrous phosphate/ferric sulfate associations: sulfuric acid reacts with basalt containing apatite, forming CaSO4 and phosphoric acid. The phosphoric and/or excess sulfuric acid reacts with olivine, forming Fe2+-phosphate and sulfate. The phosphate is less soluble and precipitates. Ferrous sulfate remains in solution and is oxidized as pH increases. To verify this pathway, we dissolved Fe2+-chloride and Na-phosphate salts in sulfuric acid inside an anoxic glovebox. The solution was titrated to pH 6 by adding NaOH when a first precipitate formed, which was ferrous phosphate according to Mössbauer spectroscopy (MB). At that point the solution was removed from the glovebox and allowed to evaporate in the presence of atmospheric oxygen, leading to the oxidation of Fe2+. The evaporation rate was controlled by keeping the suspensions at different temperatures; pH was monitored during the evaporation process. The final precipitates were analyzed by MB and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), comparable to MER MB and Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer instrument datasets, and complementary techniques such as X

  19. Exchangeable and secondary mineral reactive pools of aluminium in coastal lowland acid sulfate soils.

    PubMed

    Yvanes-Giuliani, Yliane A M; Waite, T David; Collins, Richard N

    2014-07-01

    The use of coastal floodplain sulfidic sediments for agricultural activities has resulted in the environmental degradation of many areas worldwide. The generation of acidity and transport of aluminium (Al) and other metals to adjacent aquatic systems are the main causes of adverse effects. Here, a five-step sequential extraction procedure (SEP) was applied to 30 coastal lowland acid sulfate soils (CLASS) from north-eastern New South Wales, Australia. This enabled quantification of the proportion of aluminium present in 'water-soluble', 'exchangeable', 'organically-complexed', 'reducible iron(III) (oxyhydr)oxide/hydroxysulfate-incorporated' and 'amorphous Al mineral' fractions. The first three extractions represented an average of 5% of 'aqua regia' extractable Al and their cumulative concentrations were extremely high, reaching up to 4000 mg·kg(-1). Comparison of Al concentrations in the final two extractions indicated that 'amorphous Al minerals' are quantitatively a much more important sink for the removal of aqueous Al derived from the acidic weathering of these soils than reducible Fe(III) minerals. Correlations were observed between soil pH, dissolved and total organic carbon (DOC and TOC) and Al concentrations in organic carbon-rich CLASS soil horizons. These results suggest that complexation of Al by dissolved organic matter significantly increases soluble Al concentrations at pH values >5.0. As such, present land management practices would benefit with redefinition of an 'optimal' soil from pH ≥5.5 to ~4.8 for the preservation of aquatic environments adjacent to organic-rich CLASS where Al is the sole or principle inorganic contaminant of concern. Furthermore, it was observed that currently-accepted standard procedures (i.e. 1 M KCl extraction) to measure exchangeable Al concentrations in these types of soils severely underestimate exchangeable Al and a more accurate representation may be obtained through the use of 0.2 M CuCl2. Copyright © 2014

  20. Discovery Of An Extensive Hydrothermal Sulfide/Sulfate Mounds Field In East Diamante Caldera, Mariana Volcanic Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hein, J. R.; de Ronde, C. E.; Ditchburn, R.; Leybourne, M. I.; Tamura, Y.; Stern, R. J.; Conrad, T. A.; Nichols, A. R.; Shukuno, H.; Embley, R. W.; Bloomer, S. H.; Ishizuka, O.; Hirahara, Y.; Senda, R.; Nunokawa, A.; Jordan, E.; Wada, I.

    2010-12-01

    An elongate field of hydrothermal mounds was discovered along the NE flank of a cluster of resurgent dacite domes in East Diamante Caldera using the ROV Hyper-Dolphin aboard the R.V. Natsushima in June 2009 and July 2010. East Diamante seamount lies about 80 km north of Saipan and is the northernmost volcano of the Southern Seamount Province of the Mariana magmatic arc. East Diamante is an irregular caldera about 10 km x 4 km that is breached on the north and south sides. The caldera floor has a maximum water depth of about 700 m. After caldera collapse, dacitic domes intruded into the center of the caldera providing the heat source for production and circulation of hydrothermal fluids that generated the large mounds field and two nearby chimney fields, one active and one inactive, found in 2004 during a NOAA Ring-of-Fire cruise. The mounds field is more than 100 m long and about 25-30 m wide and occurs along a NE-SW rift valley at water depths of about 365-400 m b.s.l. Individual hydrothermal mounds and ridges along this trend vary in size and the bases of the mounds are buried beneath hydrothermal sediment so that only minimum dimensions can be determined. Mounds are typically 1-3 m tall and 0.5-2 m wide, with lengths of about 3 to more than 5 m. The sulfide/sulfate mounds are layered and an iron- and manganese-oxide subsidiary mound venting low-temperature fluids caps some of them. Some mounds also support inactive sulfide/sulfate chimneys and spires; chimneys rarely occur as independent structures within the mounds field. The mounds are composed primarily of barite layers and sphalerite (high cadmium, low iron) plus galena layers with up to 470 ppm silver and 3 ppm gold. The subsidiary mounds are composed of 7A manganate and goethite that occur around a delicate network of 2-10 mm diameter anastomosing channels. Similar oxides cover the seabed throughout the mounds field and precipitated from diffuse fluid flow throughout the region, but formed by both diffuse

  1. Heavy metals in urban soils of East St. Louis, IL, Part I: Total concentration of heavy metals in soils.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, M D; Landsberger, S

    2000-09-01

    The city of East St. Louis, IL, has a history of abundant industrial activities including smelters of ferrous and non-ferrous metals, a coal-fired power plant, companies that produce organic and inorganic chemicals, and petroleum refineries. A protocol for soil analysis was developed to produce sufficient information on the extent of heavy metal contamination in East St. Louis soils. Soil cores representing every borough of East St. Louis were analyzed for heavy metals--As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, and Zn. The topsoil contained heavy metal concentrations as high as 12.5 ppm Cd, 14,400 ppm Cu, ppm quantities of Hg, 1860 ppm Pb, 40 ppm Sb, 1130 ppm Sn, and 10,360 ppm Zn. Concentrations of Sb, Cu, and Cd were well correlated with Zn concentrations, suggesting a similar primary industrial source. In a sandy loam soil from a vacated rail depot near the bank of the Mississippi River, the metals were evenly distributed down to a 38-cm depth. The clay soils within a half-mile downwind of the Zn smelter and Cu products company contained elevated Cd (81 ppm), Cu (340 ppm), Pb (700 ppm), and Zn (6000 ppm) and displayed a systematic drop in concentration of these metals with depth. This study demonstrates the often high concentration of heavy metals heterogeneously distributed in the soil and provides baseline data for continuing studies of heavy metal soil leachability.

  2. Solid-Phase Speciation and Solubility of Phosphorus in an Acid Sulfate Paddy Soil during Soil Reduction and Reoxidation as Affected by Oil Palm Ash and Biochar.

    PubMed

    Wisawapipat, Worachart; Charoensri, Kamolchanok; Runglerttrakoolchai, Jirawat

    2017-02-01

    Understanding phosphorus (P) speciation and how redox conditions control P solubility in acid sulfate paddy soils with limited P availability is crucial for improving soil P availability. We examined P speciation and extractability in an acid sulfate paddy soil incorporated with oil palm ash (OPA) and biochar (OPB) during soil reduction and subsequent oxidation. Phosphorus K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra of the soil samples revealed that P in the soil mainly occurred as P adsorbed to ferrihydrite and P adsorbed to gibbsite. During soil reduction, gibbsite-bound P was transformed into variscite, which was back-transformed to gibbsite-bound P during soil reoxidation. Sequential extraction results confirmed the dominance of Fe/Al (hydr)oxides-bound P (average 72%) in the soils. The OPA incorporation increased the exchangeable P pool concurring with the decrease in gibbsite-bound P. The OPB incorporation enhanced the dissolved P from the residual pool presumably due to electron shuttling of biochar with Fe(III) minerals during soil reduction. Our results highlight P dynamics in paddy soils, which are of immense importance for effective P-management strategies in rice cultivation.

  3. Reactive transport controls on sandy acid sulfate soils and impacts on shallow groundwater quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmon, S. Ursula; Rate, Andrew W.; Rengel, Zed; Appleyard, Steven; Prommer, Henning; Hinz, Christoph

    2014-06-01

    Disturbance or drainage of potential acid sulfate soils (PASS) can result in the release of acidity and degradation of infrastructure, water resources, and the environment. Soil processes affecting shallow groundwater quality have been investigated using a numerical code that integrates (bio)geochemical processes with water, solute, and gas transport. The patterns of severe and persistent acidification (pH < 4) in the sandy, carbonate-depleted podzols of a coastal plain could be reproduced without calibration, based on oxidation of microcrystalline pyrite after groundwater level decrease and/or residual groundwater acidity, due to slow vertical solute transport rates. The rate of acidification was limited by gas phase diffusion of oxygen and hence was sensitive to soil water retention properties and in some cases also to oxygen consumption by organic matter mineralization. Despite diffusion limitation, the rate of oxidation in sandy soils was rapid once pyrite-bearing horizons were exposed, even to a depth of 7.5 m. Groundwater level movement was thus identified as an important control on acidification, as well as the initial pyrite content. Increase in the rate of Fe(II) oxidation lead to slightly lower pH and greater accumulation of Fe(III) phases, but had little effect on the overall amount of pyrite oxidized. Aluminosilicate (kaolinite) dissolution had a small pH-buffering effect but lead to the release of Al and associated acidity. Simulated dewatering scenarios highlighted the potential of the model for risk assessment of (bio)geochemical impacts on soil and groundwater over a range of temporal and spatial scales.

  4. Plant Uptake and Distribution of Endosulfan and Its Sulfate Metabolite Persisted in Soil.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jeong-In; Lee, Sung-Eun; Kim, Jang-Eok

    2015-01-01

    The distributions of endosulfan (ED) residues (α-, β-isomers, and sulfate-metabolite) in cucumbers grown in soils treated with ED at concentrations of 20 and 40 mg kg-1 were assessed using indoor and outdoor experiments. In all treatments, degradation rates of the α-isomer in soils were higher than that of the β-isomer. In the indoor tests, uptake amounts of total ED by cucumbers, after 15 d of growth, were 7.8 and 14.5 mg kg-1 in 20 and 40 mg kg-1-treated pots, respectively. For growth time from 15 to 30 d, uptake amounts in 20 and 40 mg kg-1-treated pots were 3.8 and 7.9 mg kg-1, respectively. Outdoor tests resulted in smaller ED residues in cucumbers than those in indoor tests. In both indoor and outdoor tests, ED residues absorbed were highest in roots, and the α-isomer was the more frequently absorbed isomer. These results will be useful for determining management criteria for soil persistent pesticides.

  5. Plant Uptake and Distribution of Endosulfan and Its Sulfate Metabolite Persisted in Soil

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jeong-In; Lee, Sung-Eun; Kim, Jang-Eok

    2015-01-01

    The distributions of endosulfan (ED) residues (α-, β-isomers, and sulfate-metabolite) in cucumbers grown in soils treated with ED at concentrations of 20 and 40 mg kg-1 were assessed using indoor and outdoor experiments. In all treatments, degradation rates of the α-isomer in soils were higher than that of the β-isomer. In the indoor tests, uptake amounts of total ED by cucumbers, after 15 d of growth, were 7.8 and 14.5 mg kg-1 in 20 and 40 mg kg-1-treated pots, respectively. For growth time from 15 to 30 d, uptake amounts in 20 and 40 mg kg-1-treated pots were 3.8 and 7.9 mg kg-1, respectively. Outdoor tests resulted in smaller ED residues in cucumbers than those in indoor tests. In both indoor and outdoor tests, ED residues absorbed were highest in roots, and the α-isomer was the more frequently absorbed isomer. These results will be useful for determining management criteria for soil persistent pesticides. PMID:26529511

  6. Identifying sources of acidity and spatial distribution of acid sulfate soils in the Anglesea River catchment, southern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Vanessa; Yau, Chin; Kennedy, David

    2015-04-01

    Globally, coastal and estuarine floodplains are frequently underlain by sulfidic sediments. When exposed to oxygen, sulfidic sediments oxidise to form acid sulfate soils, adversely impacting on floodplain health and adjacent aquatic ecoystems. In eastern Australia, our understanding of the formation of these coastal and estuarine floodplains, and hence, spatial distribution of acid sulfate soils, is relatively well established. These soils have largely formed as a result of sedimentation of coastal river valleys approximately 6000 years BP when sea levels were one to two metres higher. However, our understanding of the evolution of estuarine systems and acid sulfate soil formation, and hence, distribution, in southern Australia remains limited. The Anglesea River, in southern Australia, is subjected to frequent episodes of poor water quality and low pH resulting in closure of the river and, in extreme cases, large fish kill events. This region is heavily reliant on tourism and host to a number of iconic features, including the Great Ocean Road and Twelve Apostles. Poor water quality has been linked to acid leakage from mining activities and Tertiary-aged coal seams, peat swamps and acid sulfate soils in the region. However, our understanding of the sources of acidity and distribution of acid sulfate soils in this region remains poor. In this study, four sites on the Anglesea River floodplain were sampled, representative of the main vegetation communities. Peat swamps and intertidal marshes were both significant sources of acidity on the floodplain in the lower catchment. However, acid neutralising capacity provided by carbonate sands suggests that there are additional sources of acidity higher in the catchment. This pilot study has highlighted the complexity in the links between the floodplain, upper catchment and waterways with further research required to understand these links for targeted acid management strategies.

  7. Soil-environmental index for assessment of forest-steppe soils on the territory of East European Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukova, Iuliia; Bulgakov, Dmitriy; Kozlov, Daniil

    2017-04-01

    A comprehensive quantitative assessment of the lands based on their agricultural efficiency is required for successful cultivation of crops and effective land management. In order to assessment and ranking of soils, various indexes taking into account edaphic and climatic conditions are applied. One of these indicators is soil-environmental index (SEI) assessing agroecological potential of lands. Forest-steppe soils of the East European Plain are characterized by high fertility and are used for the cultivation of winter wheat, sunflower, sugar beet, etc. However, agricultural ranking of these areas has still not been carried out. The aim of this study was to determine soil-environmental index values for the East European Plain soils within the administrative subjects of Russian Federation, and to test its applicability in agriculture. The study was carried out for the forest-steppe area of East European Plain within the boundaries of Central Russian natural and agricultural province (18 administrative subjects of Russian Federation). SEI of lands was calculated using Karmanov's equation. This equation takes into account three constituent elements: climatic conditions (the sum of temperatures above 10 ⁰C, humidity and continentality coefficients), agrophysical (particle size distribution, soil density) and agrochemical (total organic carbon, mobile phosphorus and potassium content) properties of soils. Agrophysical, agrochemical and climate data from the long-term observations were used. Data visualization was performed by QGIS and SAGA software. SEI clearly reflected the changes in edaphic and climatic conditions. Moreover, SEI correlated with summer and winter wheat yields (R2 = 0.69). For the western part of province, SEI ranked by regions, ranged from 49.4 to 84.0. These significant differences can be explained by gradual increasing of averaged temperatures in southern regions compared with northern, as well as by considerable shifts in soil types distribution

  8. Metal enrichment in estuarine sediments proximal to acid sulfate soils as a novel palaeodrought proxy.

    PubMed

    Job, Thomas; Penny, Dan; Hua, Quan

    2017-08-26

    Persistent drought over eastern Australia at the turn of the last millennium reduced stream flow in Australia's largest and most economically important drainage basin. Low water levels in the basin's terminal lakes triggered widespread pyrite oxidation, which altered surface water chemistry and released metals into the environment. The frequency of these events, and the links between drought and acid sulfate soil activation, are not known because the historical and instrumental records are short. Here, we present a Holocene-aged record of trace metal enrichment from Lake Albert-part of the terminal Lower Lakes system of the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia-that demonstrates the potential of trace elements mobilised during acidification events for palaeodrought reconstructions. Symptomatic metals were measured from a core of clayey sediment to form a multi-element assemblage that reveals acidification events in the geological past. Correlation with regional climate proxies suggests that climate forcing is significant in driving metal flux to estuarine sinks in acid sulfate soil rich landscapes, although the intensity of a drought is not the only variable responsible for acidification intensity. The constructed record indicates that regional climate moved from a generally humid climate phase with intermittent droughts, to a more arid climate at ~5.2ka which prevailed until ~1.7ka. Following conditions were relatively wet with low climatic variability through till European Settlement. Enrichment is observed coincident with both the 1982-83 drought and Millennium Drought, the latter of which reaching an intensity unsurpassed in the last ~4.8ka, likely a product of anthropogenic changes to the Lower Murray-Darling Basin system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Extent of industrial heavy-metal contamination of soil in East St. Louis, Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Landsberger, S.; Kaminski, M.

    1997-12-01

    The city of East St. Louis, Illinois, has an abundant history of economic and industrial activity. The many industrial activities that have operated in and around the area of East St. Louis include ferrous and nonferrous smelters, a coal-fired power plant, organic and inorganic chemical companies, petroleum refineries, fertilizer companies, and rubber reclamation. As a result, heavy-metal accumulation in the residential soils has become a major concern. The extent of the contamination has been investigated in this study.

  10. Trampling resistance of tropical rainforest soils and vegetation in the wet tropics of north east Australia.

    PubMed

    Talbot, L M; Turton, S M; Graham, A W

    2003-09-01

    Controlled trampling was conducted to investigate the trampling resistance of contrasting high fertility basaltic and low fertility rhyolitic soils and their associated highland tropical rainforest vegetation in north east Australia's Wet Tropics. Although this approach has been taken in numerous studies of trampling in a variety of ecosystem types (temperate and subtropical forest, alpine shrubland, coral reef and seagrass beds), the experimental method does not appear to have been previously applied in a tropical rainforest context. Ground vegetation cover and soil penetration resistance demonstrated variable responses to trampling. Trampling, most noticeably after 200 and 500 passes reduced organic litter cover. Bulk density increased with trampling intensity, particularly on basalt soils as rhyolite soils appeared somewhat resistant to the impacts of trampling. The permeability of the basalt and rhyolite soils decreased markedly with increased trampling intensity, even after only 75 passes. These findings suggest physical and hydrological changes may occur rapidly in tropical rainforest soils following low levels of trampling, particularly on basalt soils.

  11. Study Of Functioning of Bacterial Complexes in East Antarctic Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakushev, A. V.; Churilin, N. A.

    2014-11-01

    Studies of bacterial communities in the samples of Antarctic soils by different methods showed that, both in liquid soil suspensions and in situ, microbial complexes are functioning presumably by forming biofilms - the phenomenon that is more expressed in such habitat than in soils of temperate zones. Functional (trophic) diversity and physiological state of hydrolytic bacteria was studied in the samples at the upper layer (0-2 cm) of gravel pavement with algae, in the underlying peat horizon (2-4 cm) with inclusions of dead biomass and its underlying mineral horizon (4-10 cm) with signs of fungal mycelium. The investigated samples of Antarctic soils revealed different trophic diversity and the maximum specific growth rate on mineral medium with different biopolymers as the sole carbon source (starch, chitin, pectin, xylan, dextran-500, tween-20, casein); this can testify to differences in the physiological state of hydrolytic bacteria in various soil horizons and their readiness for growth. The most remarkable characteristics of the studied Antarctic soil as compared to the soils of temperate zone, was the unusual ability of hydrolytic community to consume chitin in the mineral horizon; this can be explained by the presence of fungal mycelium. Also, an almost complete lack in consumption of tween-20 (a water-soluble analogue of fat) by bacterial community of Arctic soil horizons are not explained and needs further verification. The higher functional diversity was detected in the upper horizon of the gravel pavement, which "protects" microorganisms from exposure to extreme temperatures, UV radiation, and desiccation, but the maximum specific growth rate was higher in the lower mineral horizon; this can be explained by the specificity of bacterial colonizing processes and unique formation of Antarctic soil microprofiles in the Larsemann oasis. The obtained data indicate a specific environmental strategy in the samples of Antarctic soils: development in lower mineral

  12. Human exposure to metals in groundwater affected by acid sulfate soil disturbance.

    PubMed

    Hinwood, A; Horwitz, P; Rogan, R

    2008-10-01

    The disturbance and oxidation of sulfidic soils can cause an increase in acidity resulting in the mobilization of high concentrations of metals in groundwater or connected surface water. This is an increasing problem in urban areas of Australia and internationally. We hypothesized that the risks of exposure to contaminated water would be increased by this phenomenon. We undertook a preliminary investigation of human exposure to metals recruiting 27 residents in an acid sulfate soil-affected area, 21 residents using a bore (groundwater) for home-grown produce irrigation, and 6 residents who did not. Participants completed a questionnaire and provided a sample of urine (first morning void), toenails (from all 10 toes), hair, and borewater. Only hair metal concentrations were higher in those using bore water and ranged from below detection (

  13. Hydrological and chemical connectivity dynamics in a groundwater-dependent ecosystem impacted by acid sulfate soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, B.; Lillicrap, A. M.; Ellis, L. C.; Boland, D. D.; Oldham, C. E.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater-dependent ecosystems (GDEs) in arid and semiarid environments play significant ecological roles, and, yet in many parts of the world, these ecosystems have been drained for agricultural use. In wetlands containing acid sulfate soils, the altered hydrology may trigger acidification and subsequent trace metal release. Quantifying shifts in hydrological regime and connectivity dynamics across wetlands is critical for understanding the resilience of these GDEs to anthropogenic impacts. Seasonal water balances for a wetland severely impacted by drainage and acidification were combined with laboratory geochemical data and field observations to develop a conceptual model describing hydrological connectivity across the wetland. The data indicated that, with the onset of the dry season, the superficial aquifer was lowered, exposing sulfides that oxidized to form sulfuric acid and dissolving metal salts. The following dry season enhanced capillary action causing upwelling of oxidized products to the surface where evaporative precipitation created acidity scalds. Subsequent winter rainfall and infiltration caused groundwater levels to rise, intersect with the ground surface, and form disconnected acidic pools. As the wet season progressed, connectivity was established between the pools, resulting in metal-rich acid discharge from the wetland. The degree of acid fluxes and metal release was controlled by the physicochemical characteristics of the soils, its exposure to the seasonally variable wetland hydrology, antecedent hydrological conditions, hydrological connectivity (both vertical and horizontal), and the resulting biogeochemical conditions.

  14. Nitrous Oxide and Methane Fluxes Following Ammonium Sulfate and Vinasse Application on Sugar Cane Soil.

    PubMed

    Paredes, Debora da S; Alves, Bruno J R; dos Santos, Marco A; Bolonhezi, Denizart; Sant'Anna, Selenobaldo A C; Urquiaga, Segundo; Lima, Magda A; Boddey, Robert M

    2015-09-15

    This study aimed to quantify nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) emission/sink response from sugar cane soil treated with fertilizer nitrogen (N) and vinasse applied separately or in sequence, the latter being investigated with regard to the time interval between applications for a possible effect on emissions. The study was carried out in a traditional area of unburned sugar cane in São Paulo state, Brazil. Two levels of N fertilization (0 and 100 kg N ha(-1)) with no added vinasse and combined with vinasse additions at different times (100 m(-3) ha(-1) at 3 and 15 days after N fertilization) were evaluated. Methane and N2O fluxes were monitored for 211 days. On average, the soil was a sink for CH4, which was not affected by the treatments. Emissions of N2O were induced by N fertilizer and vinasse applications. For ammonium sulfate, 0.6% of the added N was emitted as N2O, while for vinasse, this ranged from 1.0 to 2.2%. Changes in N2O fluxes were detected the day after application of vinasse on the N fertilized areas, but although the emission factor (EF) was 34% greater, the EF was not significantly different from fertilizer N alone. Nevertheless, we recommend to not apply vinasse after N fertilization to avoid boosting N2O emissions.

  15. Towards an integrated soil moisture drought monitor for East Africa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Drought in East Africa is a recurring phenomenon with significant humanitarian impacts. Given the steep climatic gradients, topographic contrasts, general data scarcity, and, in places, political instability that characterize the region, there is a need for spatially distributed, remotely derived mo...

  16. Porewater geochemistry of inland Acid sulfate soils with sulfuric horizons following postdrought reflooding with freshwater.

    PubMed

    Creeper, Nathan L; Shand, Paul; Hicks, Warren; Fitzpatrick, Rob W

    2015-05-01

    Following the break of a severe drought in the Murray-Darling Basin, rising water levels restored subaqueous conditions to dried inland acid sulfate soils with sulfuric horizons (pH <3.5). Equilibrium dialysis membrane samplers were used to investigate in situ changes to soil acidity and abundance of metals and metalloids following the first 24 mo of restored subaqueous conditions. The rewetted sulfuric horizons remained severely acidified (pH ∼4) or had retained acidity with jarosite visibly present after 5 mo of continuous subaqueous conditions. A further 19 mo of subaqueous conditions resulted in only small additional increases in pH (∼0.5-1 pH units), with the largest increases occurring within the uppermost 10 cm of the soil profile. Substantial decreases in concentrations of some metal(loid)s were observed with time most likely owing to lower solubility and sorption as a consequence of the increase in pH. In deeper parts of the profiles, porewater remained strongly buffered at low pH values (pH <4.5) and experienced little progression toward anoxic circumneutral pH conditions over the 24 mo of subaqueous conditions. It is proposed that low pH conditions inhibited the activity of SO-reducing bacteria and, in turn, the in situ generation of alkalinity through pyrite production. The limited supply of alkalinity in freshwater systems and the initial highly buffered low pH conditions were also thought to be slowing recovery. The timescales involved for a sulfuric horizon rewetted by a freshwater body to recover from acidic conditions could therefore be in the order of several years.

  17. Dissipation and transformation of 17β-estradiol-17-sulfate in soil-water systems.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xuelian; Casey, Francis X M; Hakk, Heldur; DeSutter, Thomas M; Oduor, Peter G; Khan, Eakalak

    2013-09-15

    In the environment, estrogen conjugates can be precursors to the endocrine-disrupting free estrogens, 17β-estradiol (E2) and estrone (E1). Compared to other estrogen conjugates, 17β-estradiol-17-sulfate (E2-17S) is detected at relatively high concentrations and frequencies in animal manure and surface runoff from fields receiving manure. To elucidate the lifecycle of manure-borne estrogens and their conjugates in the environment, the fate of radiolabelled E2-17S in agricultural soils was investigated using laboratory batch studies with soils of different organic carbon (OC) content (1.29% for topsoil versus 0.26% for subsoil). E2-17S was found relatively persistent in the aqueous phase throughout the duration of the 14 d experiment. The aqueous E2-17S persisted longer in the subsoil (half-lives (DT₅₀)=64-173 h) than the topsoil (DT₅₀=4.9-26 h), and the aqueous persistence of E2-17S depended on its initial concentration. The major transformation pathway was hydroxylation, yielding mono- and di-hydroxy-E2-17S (OH-E2-17S and diOH-E2-17S). Free estrogens, E2 and E1, were only observed in the sorbed phase of the soil at low concentrations (∼1% of applied dose), which demonstrated that deconjugation and subsequent oxidation had occurred. Although deconjugation was not a major pathway, E2-17S could be a precursor of free estrogens in the environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A GCM study of effects of radiative forcing of sulfate aerosol on large scale circulation and rainfall in East Asia during boreal spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Maeng-Ki; Lau, William K. M.; Kim, Kyu-Myong; Lee, Woo-Seop

    2007-12-01

    The effect of sulfate aerosol radiative forcing on spring rainfall in East Asia are studied based on numerical simulations with the NASA finite-volume General Circulation Model (fvGCM) forced with monthly varying three-dimensional aerosol distribution from the Goddard Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport model (GOCART). Result shows that radiative forcing of sulfate aerosol leads to cooling of the land surface and reduction in rainfall over central East Asia. The maximum reduction in precipitation is shifted northward relative to the maximum aerosol loading region as a result of dynamical feedback. The anomalous thermal gradient by aerosol cooling near the land surface, reduces the baroclinicity of the atmosphere, leading to a deceleration of the upper level westerly flow. The westerly deceleration induces, through ageostrophic wind adjustment, anomalous meridional secondary circulation at the entrance region of the East Asian jetstream, with strong sinking motion and suppressed precipitation near 30°N, coupled to weak rising motion and moderately enhanced precipitation over southern China and the South China Sea. These results suggest that the radiative forcing of aerosol through induced dynamical feedback with the atmospheric water cycle, may be a causal factor in the observed spring precipitation trend over East Asia.

  19. Long-term trend and variability of soil moisture over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Shanjun; Guan, Xiaodan; Huang, Jianping; Ji, Fei; Guo, Ruixia

    2015-09-01

    The variability of soil moisture over East Asia was analyzed using a long-term data set from the Global Land Data Assimilation System. Overall, a clear decreasing trend occurred over a period of 63 years, with pronounced drying over northeast China, north China, part of Mongolia, and Russia near lake Baikal. Statistical analyses show that decreasing precipitation and global warming have different effects on the decrease in soil moisture. The qualitative analysis and quantitative contributions illustrated that soil drying is driven primarily by decreasing precipitation and is enhanced almost twofold by increasing temperatures. As soil moisture decreases, the positive feedback between soil moisture and temperature may result in future water shortages. Following the Representative Concentration Pathways 8.5 (RCP8.5) and 4.5 (RCP4.5) simulation scenarios of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5, the model-predicted soil moisture demonstrated a continuously decreasing trend during the 21st century.

  20. SOIL AND HYDROLOGY OF A WET-SANDY CATENA IN EAST-CENTRAL MINNESOTA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sail properties are strongly related to the retention and movement of water within the soil system. The purposes of this study were to document the near-surface hydrology of a wetland-upland hillslope on a sandy glacial outwash plain in east-central Minnesota and to describe the ...

  1. Characteristics of soils in selected maize growing sites along altitudinal gradients in East African highlands

    PubMed Central

    Njuguna, Elijah; Gathara, Mary; Nadir, Stanley; Mwalusepo, Sizah; Williamson, David; Mathé, Pierre-Etienne; Kimani, Jackson; Landmann, Tobias; Juma, Gerald; Ong’amo, George; Gatebe, Erastus; Ru, Bruno Le; Calatayud, Paul-andré

    2015-01-01

    Maize is the main staple crop in the East African Mountains. Understanding how the edaphic characteristics change along altitudinal gradients is important for maximizing maize production in East African Highlands, which are the key maize production areas in the region. This study evaluated and compared the levels of some macro and micro-elements (Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na and P) and other soil parameters (pH, organic carbon content, soil texture [i.e. % Sand, % Clay and % Silt], cation exchange capacity [CEC], electric conductivity [EC], and water holding capacity [HC]). Soil samples were taken from maize plots along three altitudinal gradients in East African highlands (namely Machakos Hills, Taita Hills and Mount Kilimanjaro) characterized by graded changes in climatic conditions. For all transects, pH, Ca, K and Mg decreased with the increase in altitude. In contrast, % Silt, organic carbon content, Al and water holding capacity (HC) increased with increasing altitude. The research provides information on the status of the physical–chemical characteristics of soils along three altitudinal ranges of East African Highlands and includes data available for further research. PMID:26509187

  2. SOIL AND HYDROLOGY OF A WET-SANDY CATENA IN EAST-CENTRAL MINNESOTA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sail properties are strongly related to the retention and movement of water within the soil system. The purposes of this study were to document the near-surface hydrology of a wetland-upland hillslope on a sandy glacial outwash plain in east-central Minnesota and to describe the ...

  3. Effects of Midrotation Intensive Silviculture on Forest Soils in East Texas: First-Year Results

    Treesearch

    S.A. Wilson; K.W. Farrish; B.P. Oswald; H.M. Williams; J.L. Yeiser

    2002-01-01

    Intensive forest management is becoming increasingly common in east Texas.Included in intensive management are such practices as mid-rotation fertilization, prescribed fire, and herbicide application. There is insufficient information about the effects of these treatments on soil physical, chemical, and biological properties when applied at mid-rotation. The objectives...

  4. Characteristics of soils in selected maize growing sites along altitudinal gradients in East African highlands.

    PubMed

    Njuguna, Elijah; Gathara, Mary; Nadir, Stanley; Mwalusepo, Sizah; Williamson, David; Mathé, Pierre-Etienne; Kimani, Jackson; Landmann, Tobias; Juma, Gerald; Ong'amo, George; Gatebe, Erastus; Ru, Bruno Le; Calatayud, Paul-André

    2015-12-01

    Maize is the main staple crop in the East African Mountains. Understanding how the edaphic characteristics change along altitudinal gradients is important for maximizing maize production in East African Highlands, which are the key maize production areas in the region. This study evaluated and compared the levels of some macro and micro-elements (Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na and P) and other soil parameters (pH, organic carbon content, soil texture [i.e. % Sand, % Clay and % Silt], cation exchange capacity [CEC], electric conductivity [EC], and water holding capacity [HC]). Soil samples were taken from maize plots along three altitudinal gradients in East African highlands (namely Machakos Hills, Taita Hills and Mount Kilimanjaro) characterized by graded changes in climatic conditions. For all transects, pH, Ca, K and Mg decreased with the increase in altitude. In contrast, % Silt, organic carbon content, Al and water holding capacity (HC) increased with increasing altitude. The research provides information on the status of the physical-chemical characteristics of soils along three altitudinal ranges of East African Highlands and includes data available for further research.

  5. Effect of cyclic redox oscillations on water quality in freshwater acid sulfate soil wetlands.

    PubMed

    Karimian, Niloofar; Johnston, Scott G; Burton, Edward D

    2017-03-01

    Restoration of acid sulfate soil (ASS) wetlands by freshwater re-flooding can lead to the reformation of various Fe(II) and reduced inorganic sulfur (RIS) species in surface soil layers. However, in many locations, wetland water levels undergo large seasonal fluctuations that drive extreme redox oscillations. Newly formed RIS species [e.g. greigite, mackinawite, nano-pyrite and S(0)] and Fe(II) are vulnerable to rapid oxidation during dry periods and may generate substantial acidity. Rainfall following a dry period may then mobilise acidity and metal cations in surface waters prior to eventual recovery in pH by re-establishment of reducing conditions. We explore this dry-wet transition by subjecting soil samples from two freshwater re-flooded ASS wetlands to oxidative incubation for up to 130days followed by re-flooding simulation for 84days. During very early stages of re-flooding (up to 7days) there was an initial pulse-release of acidity, and trace metals/metalloids (Al, Mn, Zn and As). This was followed by a rapid reversion to anoxia, and Fe(III) and SO4 reducing conditions which generated alkalinity, ameliorated acidity and sequestered Fe, S, Zn, Mn and As. Field-observations of surface water quality in an ASS wetland at a sub-catchment scale also confirms re-establishment of SO4 reducing conditions and recovery of pH within ~4-8weeks of re-flooding after dry periods. These observations suggest that retaining surface water in ASS wetlands for ~8weeks after a dry-wet transition will allow sufficient time for alkalinity producing reductive processes to ameliorate most surface water acidity. Although management of freshwater re-flooded ASS wetlands in a highly dynamic climate will remain challenging over the long term and the post-remediation effectiveness of the method depends on initial soil characteristics, knowledge of the timing of redox oscillations and the associated changes in water geochemistry can be helpful for mitigating the risks to downstream

  6. Bacterial Growth at the High Concentrations of Magnesium Sulfate Found in Martian Soils

    PubMed Central

    Crisler, J.D.; Newville, T.M.; Chen, F.; Clark, B.C.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The martian surface environment exhibits extremes of salinity, temperature, desiccation, and radiation that would make it difficult for terrestrial microbes to survive. Recent evidence suggests that martian soils contain high concentrations of MgSO4 minerals. Through warming of the soils, meltwater derived from subterranean ice-rich regolith may exist for an extended period of time and thus allow the propagation of terrestrial microbes and create significant bioburden at the near surface of Mars. The current report demonstrates that halotolerant bacteria from the Great Salt Plains (GSP) of Oklahoma are capable of growing at high concentrations of MgSO4 in the form of 2 M solutions of epsomite. The epsotolerance of isolates in the GSP bacterial collection was determined, with 35% growing at 2 M MgSO4. There was a complex physiological response to mixtures of MgSO4 and NaCl coupled with other environmental stressors. Growth also was measured at 1 M concentrations of other magnesium and sulfate salts. The complex responses may be partially explained by the pattern of chaotropicity observed for high-salt solutions as measured by agar gelation temperature. Select isolates could grow at the high salt concentrations and low temperatures found on Mars. Survival during repetitive freeze-thaw or drying-rewetting cycles was used as other measures of potential success on the martian surface. Our results indicate that terrestrial microbes might survive under the high-salt, low-temperature, anaerobic conditions on Mars and present significant potential for forward contamination. Stringent planetary protection requirements are needed for future life-detection missions to Mars. Key Words: Analogue—Mars—Planetary protection—Salts—Life in extreme environments. Astrobiology 12, 98–106. PMID:22248384

  7. Harmful algal bloom removal and eutrophic water remediation by commercial nontoxic polyamine-co-polymeric ferric sulfate-modified soils.

    PubMed

    Dai, Guofei; Zhong, Jiayou; Song, Lirong; Guo, Chunjing; Gan, Nanqin; Wu, Zhenbin

    2015-07-01

    Harmful algal bloom has posed great threat to drinking water safety worldwide. In this study, soils were combined with commercial nontoxic polyamine poly(epichlorohydrin-dimethylamine) (PN) and polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS) to obtain PN-PFS soils for Microcystis removal and eutrophic water remediation under static laboratory conditions. High pH and temperature in water could enhance the function of PN-PFS soil. Algal removal efficiency increased as soil particle size decreased or modified soil dose increased. Other pollutants or chemicals (such as C, P, and organic matter) in eutrophic water could participate and promote algal removal by PN-PFS soil; these pollutants were also flocculated. During PN-PFS soil application in blooming field samples, the removal efficiency of blooming Microcystis cells exceeded 99 %, the cyanotoxin microcystins reduced by 57 %. Water parameters (as TP, TN, SS, and SPC) decreased by about 90 %. CODMn, PO4-P, and NH4-N also sharply decreased by >45 %. DO and ORP in water improved. Netting and bridging effects through electrostatic attraction and complexation reaction could be the two key mechanisms of Microcystis flocculation and pollutant purification. Considering the low cost of PN-PFS soil and its nontoxic effect on the environment, we proposed that this soil combination could be applied to remove cyanobacterial bloom and remediate eutrophic water in fields.

  8. Eliminating aluminum toxicity in an acid sulfate soil for rice cultivation using plant growth promoting bacteria.

    PubMed

    Panhwar, Qurban Ali; Naher, Umme Aminun; Radziah, Othman; Shamshuddin, Jusop; Razi, Ismail Mohd

    2015-02-20

    Aluminum toxicity is widely considered as the most important limiting factor for plants growing in acid sulfate soils. A study was conducted in laboratory and in field to ameliorate Al toxicity using plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB), ground magnesium limestone (GML) and ground basalt. Five-day-old rice seedlings were inoculated by Bacillus sp., Stenotrophomonas maltophila, Burkholderia thailandensis and Burkholderia seminalis and grown for 21 days in Hoagland solution (pH 4.0) at various Al concentrations (0, 50 and 100 μM). Toxicity symptoms in root and leaf were studied using scanning electron microscope. In the field, biofertilizer (PGPB), GML and basalt were applied (4 t·ha-1 each). Results showed that Al severely affected the growth of rice. At high concentrations, the root surface was ruptured, leading to cell collapse; however, no damages were observed in the PGPB inoculated seedlings. After 21 days of inoculation, solution pH increased to >6.0, while the control treatment remained same. Field study showed that the highest rice growth and yield were obtained in the bio-fertilizer and GML treatments. This study showed that Al toxicity was reduced by PGPB via production of organic acids that were able to chelate the Al and the production of polysaccharides that increased solution pH. The release of phytohormones further enhanced rice growth that resulted in yield increase.

  9. Effectiveness of the bran media and bacteria inoculum treatments in increasing pH and reducing sulfur-total of acid sulfate soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taufieq, Nur Anny Suryaningsih; Rahim, Sahibin Abdul; Jamil, Habibah

    2013-11-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effectiveness ofsulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in using bran as a source of food and energy, and to see the effectiveness of the bran media and bacteria inoculums treatments for pH and sulfur-total of acid sulfate reduction insoils. This study used two factors in group random designs with four treatments for bacteria inoculum of B1 (1%), B2 (5%), B3 (10%), B4 (15%) and two treatments for organic media (bran) of D1 (1:1) and D2 (1:19). Based on three replications, the combination resulted in a total of 24 treatments. Soil pH was measured using the Duddridge and Wainright method and determination of sulfate content in soil was conducted by the spectrophotometry method. The data obtained was analyzed for significance by Analysis of Variance and the Least Significant Difference Test. The pH of the initial acid sulfate soils ranged from 3 to 4 and the soil sulfur-total ranged from 1.4% to 10%. After mixing sulfate reducing bacteria with the bran mediaand incubated for four days, the pH of the acid sulfate soils increased from 3.67 to 4.20, while the soil sulfur-total contents had been reduced by 2.85% to 0.35%. This experiment has proven that an acid sulfate soil with low pH is a good growth medium for the sulfate reducing bacteria. The bestincubation period to achieve an effective bioremediation resultthrough sulfate percentage reduction by sulfate reducing bacteria was 10 days, while the optimum bran media dose was 1:19, and the bacteria inoculums dose was 10%.

  10. [Diversity and viability of prokaryotes in primitive soils of the larsemann oasis (East Antarctica)].

    PubMed

    Kudinova, A G; Lysak, L V; Lapygina, E V; Soina, V S; Mergelov, N S

    2015-01-01

    The diversity and viability of prokaryotic communities in the primitive organomineral soils of East Antarctica have been studied; it has been shown that the total number of bacteria is smaller than and the viability of bacteria is similar to that in soils of the temperate zone. The prokaryotic communities are characterized by the occurrence of a major part of cells in filterable forms, which is higher than the analogous parameter for the temperate soils. The method of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that the distribution of the main taxons is similar to that in the temperate soils: the portion of the domain Archaea is smaller than that of the domain Bacteria; the total content of Gram-negative bacteria (the phyla Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Planctomycetes) is higher than that of Gram-positive bacteria (Actinobacteria). Within the phylum Proteobacteria, a significant variation of three proteobacterial classes has been noted along the profiles of the soils studied.

  11. The mineralogy and the isotopic composition of sulfur in hydrothermal sulfide/sulfate deposits on the East Pacific Rise, 21 deg N latitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Styrt, M. M.; Brackmann, A. J.; Holland, H. D.; Clark, B. C.; Pisutha-Arnond, V.; Eldridge, C. S.; Ohmoto, H.

    1981-01-01

    The mineralogy and isotopic composition of sulfur found in hydrothermal deposits associated with five groups of vents along the ridge axis of the East Pacific Rise near 21 deg N latitude are investigated. Solid samples of mixed sulfides and sulfates from mounds, chimneys and the surrounding sediment as well as fresh basaltic glass were examined with a portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer and by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, and electron microprobe analysis. For the three vents of exit temperature close to 350 C, the chimneys are found to be rich in copper sulfides, while for those of temperatures around 300 C, zinc sulfide is found to predominate. The major sulfides found in the chimneys include wurtzite, chalcopyrite, pyrite and cubanite, with anhydrite the dominant sulfate. Significant mineralogical differences are found between active and inactive vents. The isotopic composition of sulfur in anhydrites from active vents is observed to be close to that of sea water and consistent with a derivation from sea water sulfate. The isotopic composition of sulfur in the sulfide minerals is explained in terms of precipitation from solutions with reduced sulfur derived from basalts or basaltic magmas, and sea water sulfate. Finally, the deposits are interpreted as the results of the mixing of H2S-dominated hydrothermal fluids with cold sea water near the sea floor.

  12. The mineralogy and the isotopic composition of sulfur in hydrothermal sulfide/sulfate deposits on the East Pacific Rise, 21 deg N latitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Styrt, M. M.; Brackmann, A. J.; Holland, H. D.; Clark, B. C.; Pisutha-Arnond, V.; Eldridge, C. S.; Ohmoto, H.

    1981-01-01

    The mineralogy and isotopic composition of sulfur found in hydrothermal deposits associated with five groups of vents along the ridge axis of the East Pacific Rise near 21 deg N latitude are investigated. Solid samples of mixed sulfides and sulfates from mounds, chimneys and the surrounding sediment as well as fresh basaltic glass were examined with a portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer and by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, and electron microprobe analysis. For the three vents of exit temperature close to 350 C, the chimneys are found to be rich in copper sulfides, while for those of temperatures around 300 C, zinc sulfide is found to predominate. The major sulfides found in the chimneys include wurtzite, chalcopyrite, pyrite and cubanite, with anhydrite the dominant sulfate. Significant mineralogical differences are found between active and inactive vents. The isotopic composition of sulfur in anhydrites from active vents is observed to be close to that of sea water and consistent with a derivation from sea water sulfate. The isotopic composition of sulfur in the sulfide minerals is explained in terms of precipitation from solutions with reduced sulfur derived from basalts or basaltic magmas, and sea water sulfate. Finally, the deposits are interpreted as the results of the mixing of H2S-dominated hydrothermal fluids with cold sea water near the sea floor.

  13. Relations among sulfate, metals, sediment, and streamflow data for a stream draining a coal-mined watershed in East-Central Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, Charles A.

    2000-01-01

    Streamflow and water-quality data for the northern part of Swatara Creek, which drains a 112-km2 area in the Southern Anthracite Field of east-central Pennsylvania, indicate iron, copper, and lead, and to a lesser extent manganese and zinc, are transported with suspended particles during stormflow conditions. During stormflow conditions, concentrations of these constituents typically peak prior to peak stream stage as a result of scour and transport of streambed deposits. In contrast, sulfate is transported mostly as a dissolved ion. Concentrations of sulfate, specific conductance, and pH are inversely related to streamflow, indicating dilution and acidification during stormflow. This effect is attributed to the mixing of poorly buffered stream water having pH 6.0-6.5 with weakly acidic storm runoff having pH 4.0-4.5 and low dissolved solids.

  14. Solid-solution partitioning and thionation of diphenylarsinic acid in a flooded soil under the impact of sulfate and iron reduction.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Meng; Tu, Chen; Hu, Xuefeng; Zhang, Haibo; Zhang, Lijuan; Wei, Jing; Li, Yuan; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2016-11-01

    Diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA) is a major organic arsenic (As) compound derived from abandoned chemical weapons. The solid-solution partitioning and transformation of DPAA in flooded soils are poorly understood but are of great concern. The identification of the mechanisms responsible for the mobilization and transformation of DPAA may help to develop effective remediation strategies. Here, soil and Fe mineral incubation experiments were carried out to elucidate the partitioning and transformation of DPAA in anoxic (without addition of sulfate or sodium lactate) and sulfide (with the addition of sulfate and sodium lactate) soil and to examine the impact of sulfate and Fe(III) reduction on these processes. Results show that DPAA was more effectively mobilized and thionated in sulfide soil than in anoxic soil. At the initial incubation stages (0-4weeks), 6.7-74.5% of the total DPAA in sulfide soil was mobilized likely by sorption competition with sodium lactate. At later incubation stage (4-8weeks), DPAA was almost completely released into the solution likely due to the near-complete Fe(III) reduction. Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) results provide further direct evidence of elevated DPAA release coupled with Fe(III) reduction in sulfide environments. The total DPAA fraction decreased significantly to 24.5% after two weeks and reached 3.4% after eight weeks in sulfide soil, whereas no obvious elimination of DPAA occurred in anoxic soil at the initial two weeks and the total DPAA fraction decreased to 10.9% after eight weeks. This can be explained in part by the enhanced mobilization of DPAA and sulfate reduction in sulfide soil compared with anoxic soil. These results suggest that under flooded soil conditions, Fe(III) and sulfate reduction significantly promote DPAA mobilization and thionation, respectively, and we suggest that it is essential to consider both sulfate and Fe(III) reduction to further our understanding of the environmental fate of DPAA.

  15. Plutonium-239 + 240 and Americium-241 in soils east of Rocky Flats, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Litaor, M.I.; Barth, G.R.; Molzer, P.C.; Thompson, M.L.

    1994-11-01

    Soils east of the Rocky Flats (RF) near Golden, CO, were contaminated with Pu-239 + 240 and Am-241 as a result of past waste-storage practices. The physiocochemical parameters that govern the actinides distribution in the soil are poorly understood. Twenty-six soil pits at various distances and directions from a contaminated site at RF were excavated, sampled, and analyzed for actinide activities as well as selected physical, chemical, and mineralogical attributes. Plutonium-239+240 and Am-241 activities in the soils ranged form 164 280 Bq/kg to 0.0037 Bq/kg, decreasing with distance from the source. More than 90% of the Pu-239 + 240 and Am-241 activities were confined to the upper 12 cm of the soil, regardless of the soil characteristics, or distance and direction from the source. Evidence of preferential transport in macropores formed along decayed root channels was observed in four soil pits and had translocated Pu-239 + 240 to a depth of 90 cm. This transport mechanism increased by a factor of 30 the level of Pu-239 + 240 activity at this depth. Earthworm activity is probably important in the redistribution of actinides in the upper 40 cm of many of the soils investigated. Planning of future remedial activities at RF should consider the findings of this contaminant-transport study. 34 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Macroalgal biomonitors of trace metal contamination in acid sulfate soil aquaculture ponds.

    PubMed

    Gosavi, K; Sammut, J; Gifford, S; Jankowski, J

    2004-05-25

    Earthen shrimp aquaculture ponds are often impacted by acid sulfate soils (ASS), typically resulting in increased disease and mortality of cultured organisms. Production losses have been attributed to either low pH or to elevated concentrations of toxic metals, both direct products of pyrite oxidation in ASS. The standard farm management practice to minimise effects of pyrite oxidation is to maintain pH of pond waters above 5, based on the assumption that dissolved metal bioavailability is negligible at this pH. This study aimed to test the validity of this assumption, and therefore elucidate a possible role of toxic heavy metals in observed decreases in farm productivity. Metal bioaccumulation in four genera of macroalgae, Ulva sp., Enteromorpha sp., Cladophora sp. and Chaetomorpha sp., sampled from ASS-affected shrimp aquaculture ponds were measured using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) to assess the relative bioavailability of dissolved metals within the system. Results showed that all four genera of macroalgae accumulated appreciable quantities of Fe, Al, Zn, Cd, Cu, As and Pb. Iron and Al, the most common metals mobilised from ASS, were both accumulated in all algal genera to concentrations three orders of magnitude greater than all other metals analysed. These findings indicate that dissolved heavy metals are indeed bioavailable within the aquaculture pond system. A literature search of heavy metal bioaccumulation by these algal genera revealed concentrations recorded in this study are comparable to highly contaminated environments, such as those exposed to urban, industrial and mining pollution. The results of this study indicate that dissolved metal bioavailability in many earthen shrimp aquaculture ponds may be higher than previously thought.

  17. Modeling of soil erosion and sediment transport in the East River Basin in southern China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, Yping; Chen, Ji

    2012-01-01

    Soil erosion is a major global environmental problem that has caused many issues involving land degradation, sedimentation of waterways, ecological degradation, and nonpoint source pollution. Therefore, it is significant to understand the processes of soil erosion and sediment transport along rivers, and this can help identify the erosion prone areas and find potential measures to alleviate the environmental effects. In this study, we investigated soil erosion and identified the most seriously eroded areas in the East River Basin in southern China using a physically-based model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). We also introduced a classical sediment transport method (Zhang) into SWAT and compared it with the built-in Bagnold method in simulating sediment transport process along the river. The derived spatial soil erosion map and land use based erosion levels can explicitly illustrate the identification and prioritization of the critical soil erosion areas in this basin. Our results also indicate that erosion is quite sensitive to soil properties and slope. Comparison of Bagnold and Zhang methods shows that the latter can give an overall better performance especially in tracking the peak and low sediment concentrations along the river. We also found that the East River is mainly characterized by sediment deposition in most of the segments and at most times of a year. Overall, the results presented in this paper can provide decision support for watershed managers about where the best management practices (conservation measures) can be implemented effectively and at low cost. The methods we used in this study can also be of interest in sediment modeling for other basins worldwide.

  18. Modeling coupled sorption and transformation of 17β-estradiol-17-sulfate in soil-water systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Xuelian; Shrestha, Suman L.; Casey, Francis X. M.; Hakk, Heldur; Fan, Zhaosheng

    2014-11-01

    Animal manure is the primary source of exogenous free estrogens in the environment, which are known endocrine-disrupting chemicals to disorder the reproduction system of organisms. Conjugated estrogens can act as precursors to free estrogens, which may increase the total estrogenicity in the environment. In this study, a comprehensive model was used to simultaneously simulate the coupled sorption and transformation of a sulfate estrogen conjugate, 17β-estradiol-17-sulfate (E2-17S), in various soil-water systems (non-sterile/sterile; topsoil/subsoil). The simulated processes included multiple transformation pathways (i.e. hydroxylation, hydrolysis, and oxidation) and mass transfer between the aqueous, reversibly sorbed, and irreversibly sorbed phases of all soils for E2-17S and its metabolites. The conceptual model was conceived based on a series of linear sorption and first-order transformation expressions. The model was inversely solved using finite difference to estimate process parameters. A global optimization method was applied for the inverse analysis along with variable model restrictions to estimate 36 parameters. The model provided a satisfactory simultaneous fit (R2adj = 0.93 and d = 0.87) of all the experimental data and reliable parameter estimates. This modeling study improved the understanding on fate and transport of estrogen conjugates under various soil-water conditions.

  19. Modeling coupled sorption and transformation of 17β-estradiol-17-sulfate in soil-water systems.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xuelian; Shrestha, Suman L; Casey, Francis X M; Hakk, Heldur; Fan, Zhaosheng

    2014-11-01

    Animal manure is the primary source of exogenous free estrogens in the environment, which are known endocrine-disrupting chemicals to disorder the reproduction system of organisms. Conjugated estrogens can act as precursors to free estrogens, which may increase the total estrogenicity in the environment. In this study, a comprehensive model was used to simultaneously simulate the coupled sorption and transformation of a sulfate estrogen conjugate, 17β-estradiol-17-sulfate (E2-17S), in various soil-water systems (non-sterile/sterile; topsoil/subsoil). The simulated processes included multiple transformation pathways (i.e. hydroxylation, hydrolysis, and oxidation) and mass transfer between the aqueous, reversibly sorbed, and irreversibly sorbed phases of all soils for E2-17S and its metabolites. The conceptual model was conceived based on a series of linear sorption and first-order transformation expressions. The model was inversely solved using finite difference to estimate process parameters. A global optimization method was applied for the inverse analysis along with variable model restrictions to estimate 36 parameters. The model provided a satisfactory simultaneous fit (R(2)adj=0.93 and d=0.87) of all the experimental data and reliable parameter estimates. This modeling study improved the understanding on fate and transport of estrogen conjugates under various soil-water conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Heavy metals in urban soils of East St. Louis, IL. Part II: Leaching characteristics and modeling.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, M D; Landsberger, S

    2000-09-01

    The city of East St. Louis, IL, has a history of abundant industrial activities including smelters of ferrous and non-ferrous metals, a coal-fired power plant, companies that produced organic and inorganic chemicals, and petroleum refineries. Following a gross assessment of heavy metals in the community soils (see Part I of this two-part series), leaching tests were performed on specific soils to elucidate heavy metal-associated mineral fractions and general leachability. Leaching experiments, including the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TLCP) and column tests, and sequential extractions, illustrated the low leachability of metals in East St. Louis soils. The column leachate results were modeled using a formulation developed for fly ash leaching. The importance of instantaneous dissolution was evident from the model. By incorporating desorption/adsorption terms into the source term, the model was adapted very well to the time-dependent heavy metal leachate concentrations. The results demonstrate the utility of a simple model to describe heavy metal leaching from contaminated soils.

  1. Heavy Metals in Urban Soils of East St. Louis, IL Part II: Leaching Characteristics and Modeling.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, Michael D; Landsberger, Sheldon

    2000-09-01

    The city of East St. Louis, IL, has a history of abundant industrial activities including smelters of ferrous and non-ferrous metals, a coal-fired power plant, companies that produced organic and inorganic chemicals, and petroleum refineries. Following a gross assessment of heavy metals in the community soils (see Part I of this two-part series), leaching tests were performed on specific soils to elucidate heavy metal-associated mineral fractions and general leachability. Leaching experiments, including the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TLCP) and column tests, and sequential extractions, illustrated the low leachability of metals in East St. Louis soils. The column leachate results were modeled using a formulation developed for fly ash leaching. The importance of instantaneous dissolution was evident from the model. By incorporating desorption/adsorption terms into the source term, the model was adapted very well to the time-dependent heavy metal leachate concentrations. The results demonstrate the utility of a simple model to describe heavy metal leaching from contaminated soils.

  2. Assessment of lead bioaccessibility in soils around lead battery plants in East China.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zan-fang; Zhang, Zhuo-jun; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Cong-qiang; Li, Fei-li

    2015-01-01

    Soil ingestion is an important human exposure pathway for lead (Pb). A modified physiologically based extraction test was applied to 70 soil samples from five battery plants in East China. The mean values for soil pH, soil organic matter, Fe and Mn concentrations ranged from 5.9% to 8.1, 0.37% to 2.2%, 2.78% to 3.75%, and 507-577 mg kg(-1), respectively, while Pb concentrations ranged widely in 14.3-2000 mg kg(-1). The isotopic ratios of 14 soils from one of the five battery plants formed a straight line in the plot of (208)Pb/(206)Pb vs. (207)Pb/(206)Pb, indicating Pb emissions from the lead battery plant as the dominant anthropogenic source within 200 m. Lead bioaccessibility in the soils ranged from 4.1% to 66.9% in the gastric phase and from 0.28% to 9.29% in the gastrointestinal phase. Multiple step regressions identified modes as BAgastric=-106.8+0.627[Pb]+19.1[Fe]+11.3[SOM], and BAgastrointestinal=-2.852+0.078[Pb].

  3. Identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils in Taizhou, East China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guanjiu; Chen, Sulan; Shi, Wei; Zhang, Beibei; Zhang, Yong; Huang, Juan; Chen, Jun; Giesy, John P; Yu, Hongxia

    2015-06-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their hazards in surface soil (n = 92) were investigated in Taizhou, China, which is an area in East China famous for production and exporting of rice. Total concentrations of PAHs in soils ranged from 2.3 × 10(1) to 7.6 × 10(2) with a mean of 1.8 × 10(2) μg/kg (dry mass; dm). Concentrations of 16 PAHs reported here were less than those observed in most previous studies in China and other countries. Concentrations of individual PAH in fluvo-aquic soils were greater than those in paddy soils except naphthalene. Fluoranthene and pyrene were dominant PAHs, which accounted for 19.7 and 13.3 % of the total mass of PAHs, respectively. Based on ratios of low molecular weight PAHs to high molecular weight PAHs, diagnostic ratios and principal component analysis, the predominant source of PAHs was combustion and pyrolysis, especially coal, natural gas, gasoline and diesel emissions from traffic, as well as burning of straw. Carcinogenic potencies of 13 samples were 1.1- to 2.9-fold greater than the target values promulgated by the Netherlands, indicating increased carcinogenic risks of soils from these sites. However, risks of cancer via accidental ingestion, dermal absorption and inhalation to humans posed by PAHs in soil were relatively small.

  4. Managing soil nutrients with compost in organic farms of East Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghambashidze, Giorgi

    2013-04-01

    Soil Fertility management in organic farming relies on a long-term integrated approach rather than the more short-term very targeted solutions common in conventional agriculture. Increasing soil organic matter content through the addition of organic amendments has proven to be a valuable practice for maintaining or restoring soil quality. Organic agriculture relies greatly on building soil organic matter with compost typically replacing inorganic fertilizers and animal manure as the fertility source of choice. In Georgia, more and more attention is paid to the development of organic farming, occupying less than 1% of total agricultural land of the country. Due to increased interest towards organic production the question about soil amendments is arising with special focus on organic fertilizers as basic nutrient supply sources under organic management practice. In the frame of current research two different types of compost was prepared and their nutritional value was studied. The one was prepared from organic fraction municipal solid waste and another one using fruit processing residues. In addition to main nutritional properties both composts were tested on heavy metals content, as one of the main quality parameter. The results have shown that concentration of main nutrient is higher in municipal solid waste compost, but it contains also more heavy metals, which is not allowed in organic farming system. Fruit processing residue compost also has lower pH value and is lower in total salt content being is more acceptable for soil in lowlands of East Georgia, mainly characterised by alkaline reaction. .

  5. Metal(loid) bioaccessibility dictates microbial community composition in acid sulfate soil horizons and sulfidic drain sediments.

    PubMed

    Stroud, Jacqueline L; Low, Adrian; Collins, Richard N; Manefield, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Microbial community compositions were determined for three soil horizons and drain sediments within an anthropogenically disturbed coastal acid sulfate landscape using 16S rRNA gene tagged 454 pyrosequencing. Diversity analyses were problematic due to the high microbiological heterogeneity between each geochemical replicate. Taxonomic analyses combined with measurements of metal(loid) bioaccessibility identified significant correlations to genera (5% phylogenetic distance) abundances. A number of positive correlations between genera abundance and bioaccessible metals concentrations were observed, indicating that metal(loid) tolerance influences microbial community compositions in these types of landscapes. Of note, Mn was highly bioaccessible (≤ 24% total soil Mn); and Mn bioaccessibility positively correlated to Acidobacterium abundance, but negatively correlated to Holophaga abundance. Two unidentified archaeal genera belonging to Crenarchaeota were also correlated to bioaccessible Mn concentrations, suggesting these genera can exploit Mn redox chemistry.

  6. An interesting biochar effect that suppressed dechlorination of pentachlorophenol while promoted iron/sulfate reduction and methanogenesis in flooded soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yan; Zhu, Min

    2017-04-01

    Biochar has received increasing attention for its many environmental impacts in recent years, but there is still a lack of comprehensive understanding of its effects on the fate of reducible organic pollutants and soil biogeochemical processes under anaerobic environments. In this study, anaerobic batch experiments were conducted to explore the effect of biochar on reductive transformation of PCP and other soil redox processes in anaerobic incubation environment. Results showed that biochar had little impact on the system Eh and pH, both of which decreased gradually to a stable value during the incubation. Dissimilatory iron reduction and sulfate reduction were significantly enhanced following biochar addition, with the promoting effect more prominent in the treatment with 1% (w/w) than that with 5% biochar added. In addition, biochar accelerated the formation of carbon dioxide and methane, but there was no difference in the final content of these two greenhouse gases at the end of incubation between biochar amended and control treatments. Unexpectedly, compared to biochar-free controls, the reductively dechlorinated degradation of PCP was inhibited following biochar addition, with the inhibition extent increased with the increase of biochar amount. These revealed an interesting biochar effect that suppressed the dechlorination of PCP, but promoted the iron/sulfate reduction and accelerated the methanogenesis. It might be simultaneously mediated by the functional microbial groups that responded sensitively to the addition of biochar and/or PCP, including the potential dechlorinators, the potential iron/sulfate reducers, and the typical methanogenic archaea. Specific function of biochar as electron shuttle was also likely involved in underpinning this interesting effect, since biochar would be capable of splitting the limited electrons from the inferior electron acceptors (in our case, the PCP) to the dominant more competitive ones (in our case, Fe(III) and SO42

  7. Soil heterogeneity of an East and West facing ridge above timberline due to differences in snow and aeolian deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traver, E.

    2015-12-01

    Hans Jenny's soil forming factors—time, parent material, climate, topography, and organisms—represent the major components of his system to describe and quantify soil development. In almost all situations, it is difficult to hold even one of these factors constant while focusing on another factor; however, in our study site—the East and West side of a narrow North-South running ridge, above timberline in SE Wyoming—we can hold three factors nearly constant (time, parent material, and climate) and focus on how topography, in particular, has influenced the soil differences on the two sides. The East side is the leeside of prevailing and strong westerly winds and receives a large snow pack while the West is consistently snow-free during winter creating a very different moisture and soil temperature regime. The East receives aeolian dust deposition while the West loses surface material from wind scour. A standard chemical and physical analysis found that while the two sides are nearly identical textually, with a similar pH and low electrical conductivity, the East side is richer in minerals. During the short growing season, soil moisture results show that the West side is holding more water than the East side; however, the East side has a higher percentage of organic matter and is more shrub and forb rich. An isotope analysis shows that the C:N ratios are very similar on the two sides. Microbial biomass and functional groups will be analyzed in the soil samples as well as a seismic study conducted to quantity depth of soil to bedrock. Using all these results will help quantify the differences on the two sides of this narrow ridge and add to our understanding of fine-scale soil heterogeneity and its relationship to watershed hydrology.

  8. Bacterial succession in Antarctic soils of two glacier forefields on Larsemann Hills, East Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Bajerski, Felizitas; Wagner, Dirk

    2013-07-01

    Antarctic glacier forefields are extreme environments and pioneer sites for ecological succession. Increasing temperatures due to global warming lead to enhanced deglaciation processes in cold-affected habitats, and new terrain is becoming exposed to soil formation and microbial colonization. However, only little is known about the impact of environmental changes on microbial communities and how they develop in connection to shifting habitat characteristics. In this study, using a combination of molecular and geochemical analysis, we determine the structure and development of bacterial communities depending on soil parameters in two different glacier forefields on Larsemann Hills, East Antarctica. Our results demonstrate that deglaciation-dependent habitat formation, resulting in a gradient in soil moisture, pH and conductivity, leads to an orderly bacterial succession for some groups, for example Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Deltaproteobacteria in a transect representing 'classical' glacier forefields. A variable bacterial distribution and different composed communities were revealed according to soil heterogeneity in a slightly 'matured' glacier forefield transect, where Gemmatimonadetes, Flavobacteria, Gamma- and Deltaproteobacteria occur depending on water availability and soil depth. Actinobacteria are dominant in both sites with dominance connected to certain trace elements in the glacier forefields. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on mineralization and mobility of nonylphenol and sodium dodecyl sulfate in agricultural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillotte, Julia; Marschner, Bernd; Stumpe, Britta

    2014-05-01

    Nanotechnology is one of the major scientific research fields in this decade. One of the most wide-spread nanomaterials are carbon based nanoparticles (CNPs) which are increasingly be used in industry. Several studies shows that CNPs are interacting with other chemical compounds and organic pollutants in the environment. It is assumed that the interactions between CNPs and organic pollutants are affected by solution and aggregate behavior. Based on the knowledge of the behavior of CNPs and organic pollutants in aquatic systems the interactions of CNPs and organic pollutants in agricultural soils have to be studied. As organic pollutants two environmental substances, nonylphenol (NP) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were selected as model substances. They occur frequently in aqueous systems and also show different solubility behavior. As CNP representatives, two different multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) were selected. They differed either in length or outer diameter. Conclusions therefrom are to be closed the influence of length and diameter of the sorption capacity of different organic pollutants. In addition, two agricultural soils (sandy and silty soil) and one forest soil (sandy soil) were chosen. Mineralization and sorption experiments were conducted to provide information about the degradation of organic pollutants in presence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in soils. To analyze the CNPs mineralization potential, peroxidase activity was measured. Further extraction experiments were conducted to detect the extractable part of organic pollutants. The results show that the surface area of the MWNT has a significant impact on the sorption behav-ior of NP and SDS in soils. The sorption of NP and SDS is much higher than without MWNT. However, the properties of the organic pollutants (different water solubility and hydrophobicity) are equally important and should be noted. The degradation of both pollutants is influenced by MWNT. Due to the strong sorption of

  10. Response of the sulfate-reducing community to the re-establishment of estuarine conditions in two contrasting soils: a mesocosm approach.

    PubMed

    Miletto, Marzia; Loeb, Roos; Antheunisse, A Martjin; Bodelier, Paul L E; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J

    2010-01-01

    We studied the response of the sulfate-reducing prokaryote (SRP) communities to the experimental variation of salinity and tide in an outdoor mesocosm setup. Intact soil monoliths were collected at two areas of the Haringvliet lagoon (The Netherlands): one sampling location consisted of agricultural grassland, drained and fertilized for at least the last century; the other of a freshwater marshland with more recent sea influence. Two factors, i.e., "salinity" (freshwater/oligohaline) and "tide" (nontidal/tidal), were tested in a full-factorial design. Soil samples were collected after 5 months (June-October). Dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase beta subunit-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (dsrB-DGGE) analysis revealed that the SRP community composition in the agricultural grassland and in the freshwater marshland was represented mainly by microorganisms related to the Desulfobulbaceae and the Desulfobacteraceae, respectively. Desulfovibrio-related dsrB were detected only in the tidal treatments; Desulfomonile-related dsrB occurrence was related to the presence of oligohaline conditions. Treatments did have an effect on the overall SRP community composition of both soils, but not on the sulfate depletion rates in sulfate-amended anoxic slurry incubations. However, initiation of sulfate reduction upon sulfate addition was clearly different between the two soils.

  11. Heavy Metals Concentration Levels in Soils throughout the East San Francisco Bay Area, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagan, K.; Ramirez, N.; Diaz, J.; Cuff, K.; Adarkwah, N.

    2008-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that soils near structures made of pressure treated wood created before 2003 often contain high levels of arsenic, which was widely used in the processing of such wood. One such study, conducted by student scientists affiliated with the SF ROCKS program at San Francisco State University, found high levels of arsenic in soils collected from several children's play areas in San Francisco (Negrete, et al., 2006). Due to the known health risks associated with high concentrations of arsenic, and given a general lack of data related to soils of the East San Francisco Bay Area, the current study was initiated to determine whether or not dangerously high levels of arsenic exist in soils near public schools and playgrounds located in Richmond and Oakland, California. Soil samples were collected from approximately 100 locations in and around such areas, and analyzed for arsenic and a variety of other heavy metals concentration levels using an ICP spectrometer. Preliminary results demonstrate arsenic levels that exceed the EPA's 0.4 ppm action limit in 27 of the 100 sites from which samples were collected. Also, strong correlations between arsenic and various metals in the soil were found, such as arsenic with chromium (0.7022) and nickel (0.6588). Additionally, dangerously high levels of arsenic and lead were found in soils collected along the shores of a small lake fed by Leona Creek on the campus of Mills College in the Oakland foothills, approximately 2 kilometers downstream from a former iron sulphide mine. This occurrence constitutes evidence that the owner of the mine has not complied with recent orders from a local regulatory agency to make sure that mine effluents are safe.

  12. The fate of sulfate in acidified pig slurry during storage and following application to cropped soil.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Sørensen, Peter; Elsgaard, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Acidification of slurry with sulfuric acid is a recent agricultural practice that may serve a double purpose: reducing ammonia emission and ensuring crop sulfur sufficiency. We investigated S transformations in untreated and acidified pig slurry stored for up to 11 mo at 2, 10, or 20 degrees C. Furthermore, the fertilizer efficiency of sulfuric acid in acidified slurry was investigated in a pot experiment with spring barley. The sulfate content from acidification with sulfuric acid was relatively stable and even after 11 mo of storage the majority was in the plant-available sulfate form. Microbial sulfate reduction during storage of acidified pig slurry was limited, presumably due to initial pH effects and a limitation in the availability of easily degradable organic matter. Sulfide accumulation was observed during storage but the sulfide levels in acidified slurry did not exceed those of the untreated slurry for several months after addition. The S fertilizer value of the acidified slurry was considerable as a result of the stable sulfate pool during storage. The high content of inorganic S in the acidified slurry may potentially lead to development of odorous volatile sulfur-containing compounds and investigations are needed into the relationship between odor development and the C and S composition of the slurry.

  13. Community composition and distribution of sulfate- and sulfite-reducing prokaryotes in sediments from the Changjiang estuary and adjacent East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hui; Zhen, Yu; Mi, Tiezhu; Xu, Bochao; Wang, Guoshan; Zhang, Yu; Yu, Zhigang

    2015-11-01

    Sulfate- and sulfite-reducing prokaryotes (SSRP) communities play a vital role in both sulfur and carbon cycles. Community composition and abundance of SSRP were investigated using dissimilatory sulfite reductase β subunit (dsrB) gene sequencing in sediments from the Changjiang estuary and its adjacent area in the East China Sea (ECS). Clone libraries were constructed and real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was applied to understand the community information of SSRP. In addition to sequences affiliated to sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP), those affiliated with sulfite-reducing prokaryotes (SiRP) were also observed. Four phylotypes of SRP in this study showed genetic similarity to Desulfobulbaceae, Syntrophobacteraceae, Desulfobacteraceae and Peptococcaceae, and an unknown group that could not be clearly affiliated with known lineages was found. Salinity, temperature and contents of total organic carbon (TOC) were most closely correlated with the SSRP communities by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). 210Pb activities demonstrated the sedimentary environment at S33 was more stable than that at S31. Intense resuspension and reconstruction of sediments made the vertical abundance profile of SSRP fluctuate violently. For surface sediments, the dsrB gene copy numbers near the Changjiang estuary were higher than those in the mouth of Hangzhou Bay and the mud deposits along the Zhejiang coast, and contents of TOC were positively related to the copy numbers of dsrB gene. Our data provided valuable information to achieve a better understanding of the potential role of SSRP in sediments from the Changjiang estuary and adjacent East China Sea.

  14. Understanding barite and gypsum precipitation in upland acid-sulfate soils: An example from a Lufkin Series toposequence, south-central Texas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Debra S.; Driese, Steven G.

    2014-01-01

    Although low-temperature barite precipitation has been previously documented in soils and paleosols, pedogenic barite precipitation remains poorly understood. This study characterizes the micromorphology, elemental trends, and stable isotope geochemistry of sulfates in a barite-bearing soil (Lufkin Series) toposequence using optical microscopy, XRD, ICP-MS, and stable S and O isotope data. Synthesized data indicate that fluctuating redox processes and microbial activity resulting from epiaquatic and evaporative conditions lead to the precipitation of sulfates in the Lufkin soils. Stable sulfur and oxygen isotopes indicate that the primary source of sulfur is the partial dissolution of jarosite during microbial sulfate reduction. Barium-rich parent material provides adequate barium for barite precipitation. Barium is mobilized and concentrated in Btg horizons ~ 100-160 cm below the surface. The presence of humic acids in profiles lower on the landscape prevents barite precipitation and drives the precipitation of gypsum between saturated, anoxic conditions (November to May) and drier, more oxic conditions (May to November). Barite precipitation is a slow, punctuated process. Micromorphological data reveal that barite precipitates first along evacuated macropores and then in the adjacent matrix. In general, optimal conditions for pedogenic barite precipitation in upland wetland acid-sulfate soils are: 1) warm soil temperature that supports active sulfur-reducing and sulfur oxidizing microbes; 2) distinct wet/dry seasons that allow alternating redox conditions; 3) low-gradient landscape; 4) parent material that contains barium- and sulfur-rich constituents; and 5) a long-lived, stable landscape.

  15. Final report from VFL technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils: LEFPC appendices, volume 1, appendix I-IV

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    This document contains Appendix I-IV for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils. Included are calibration records; quality assurance; soils characterization; pilot scale trial runs.

  16. Sulfate reduction and methane oxidation in continental margin sediments influenced by irrigation (South-East Atlantic off Namibia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fossing, Henrik; Ferdelman, Timothy G.; Berg, Peter

    2000-03-01

    Sulfate reduction rates (SRR) and concentrations of SO 42-, H 2S, pyrite sulfur, total sulfur, CH 4, and organic carbon were measured with high depth resolution through the entire length of the SO 42--zone and well into the CH 4-zone at two continental slope stations in the eastern South Atlantic (Benguela upwelling area). The sediments were characterized by a high organic carbon content of approx. 7.5% at GeoB 3703 and 3.7% at GeoB 3714. At GeoB 3703 SO 42- concentrations decreased linearly with depth to about 40 μM at the sulfate-methane transition zone (SMT) at 3.5 m, while at GeoB 3714, SO 42- remained at sea water concentration in the top 2 m of the sediment and then decreased linearly to about 70 μM at the SMT at 6 m. Direct rate measurements of SRR ( 35SO 42-) showed that the highest SRR occurred within the surface 3-5 cm with peak rates of up to 20 and 7 nmol SO 42- cm -3 day -1 at GeoB 3703 and GeoB 3714, respectively. SRR decreased quasi-exponentially with depth at GeoB 3703 and the cumulative SRR over the length of the SO 42- zone resulted in an areal SRR (SRR area) of 1114-3493 μmol m -2 day -1 (median value: 2221 μmol m -2 day -1) at GeoB 3703 with more than 80% of the total sulfate reduction proceeding in the top 30 cm sediment. At GeoB 3714 SRR exhibited more scatter with a cumulative SRR area of 398-1983 μmol m -2 day -1 (median value: 1251 μmol m -2 day -1) and with >60% of the total sulfate reduction occurring below a depth of 30 cm due partially to a deeply buried zone of sulfate reduction located between 3 and 5 m depths. SRR peaks were also observed in SMT of both cores, ostensibly associated with methane oxidation, but with rates about 10 times lower than at the surface. Modeled SRR balanced both methane oxidation rates and measured SRR within the SMT, but severely underestimated by up to 89% the total SRR area that were obtained from direct measurements. Modeled and measured SRR were reconciled by including solute transport by

  17. Phthalic acid esters in soils from vegetable greenhouses in Shandong Peninsula, East China.

    PubMed

    Chai, Chao; Cheng, Hongzhen; Ge, Wei; Ma, Dong; Shi, Yanxi

    2014-01-01

    Soils at depths of 0 cm to 10 cm, 10 cm to 20 cm, and 20 cm to 40 cm from 37 vegetable greenhouses in Shandong Peninsula, East China, were collected, and 16 phthalic acid esters (PAEs) were detected using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). All 16 PAEs could be detected in soils from vegetable greenhouses. The total of 16 PAEs (Σ16PAEs) ranged from 1.939 mg/kg to 35.442 mg/kg, with an average of 6.748 mg/kg. Among four areas, including Qingdao, Weihai, Weifang, and Yantai, the average and maximum concentrations of Σ16PAEs in soils at depths of 0 cm to 10 cm appeared in Weifang, which has a long history of vegetable production and is famous for extensive greenhouse cultivation. Despite the different concentrations of Σ16PAEs, the PAE compositions were comparable. Among the 16 PAEs, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) were the most abundant. Compared with the results on agricultural soils in China, soils that are being used or were used for vegetable greenhouses had higher PAE concentrations. Among PAEs, dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP) and DnBP exceeded soil allowable concentrations (in US) in more than 90% of the samples, and DnOP in more than 20%. Shandong Peninsula has the highest PAE contents, which suggests that this area is severely contaminated by PAEs.

  18. Distribution of phthalate esters in agricultural soil with plastic film mulching in Shandong Peninsula, East China.

    PubMed

    Li, Kankan; Ma, Dong; Wu, Juan; Chai, Chao; Shi, Yanxi

    2016-12-01

    The content of phthalate esters (PAEs) was investigated in 36 vegetable fields with plastic film mulching in Shandong Peninsula, East China. Soils at depths of 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, and 20-40 cm were collected, and 16 PAEs were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. PAEs were detected in all the analyzed samples. The total contents of the 16 PAEs (Σ16PAEs) ranged from 1.374 to 18.810 mg/kg, with an average of 6.470 mg/kg. Among the four areas of Shandong Peninsula, including Qingdao, Weihai, Weifang, and Yantai, the highest Σ16PAE in the soil was observed in Weifang district (9.786 mg/kg), which is famous for large-scale vegetable production. Despite the significant differences among the Σ16PAEs, the PAE compositions in soils with plastic film mulching in Shandong Peninsula were comparable. Diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate, and di(4-methyl-2-pentyl) phthalate were present in all the samples, whereas di-n-hexyl phthalate was detected only in Qingdao (∼1%) and dicyclohexyl phthalate was observed only in Weifang (5.7-8.2%) in low proportions. The ratios of dimethyl phthalate, DEP, and di-n-butyl phthalate, which exceeded allowable concentrations, were 63.9-100% at different soil depths, indicating high PAE pollution. The concentration of butyl benzyl phthalate detected only in Weifang exceeded the recommended allowable soil concentration. Overall, the high PAE content in the soil with plastic film mulching in Shandong Peninsula is an issue of concern because of the large amounts of plastic film used. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of soil dust emissions on air quality over the East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Y.; Kim, S.; Cho, J.; choi, D.

    2013-12-01

    Asian mineral dust from Gobi Desert, sand desert, Loess Plateau and barren mixed soil in Northern China and Mongolia has a major impact on the air quality in the East Asia. These mineral aerosols increase PM10 concentration over 1000 μg/m3 during the dust storm event as well as PM10 background concentrations as the fugitive dust during the non-dust period in the SMA (Seoul Metropolitan Area). The PM10 prediction by a regional chemical transport model without the dust emission shows an intrinsic tendency of underestimation according to previous studies in this region, especially for the soil originated coarse PM. The Asian Dust Aerosol Model 2 (ADAM2) scheme for the dust emission with CAMx was tested for its applicability in assessing impact of the fugitive dust on air quality in the China region and SMA. The performance of ADMS2 dust emission was evaluated to depict not only onset times of the dust storm event but also to estimate the level of background PM10 concentration for the non-dust event against the surface measurements and satellite measurements over East Asia. The surface observations were from EANET (Acid Deposition Monitoring NETwork in East Asia), API (Air Pollution Index) monitoring sites in China and the intensive monitoring stations in the SMA. The results show that the CAMx predictions of PM10 with ADAM2 scheme were relatively in a good agreement with the observations. They, however, occasionally over-predicted the PM10 concentrations during non-dust event periods and under-predicted the PM10 concentrations during dust event periods. Details of model comparison for other chemical species and implication of dust emission schemes on the air quality will be discussed in the presentation. Acknowledgements This subject is supported by Korea Ministry of Environment as 'The Eco-technopia 21 project'.

  20. Glucosamine sulfate

    MedlinePlus

    ... Glucosamine Sulphate KCl, Glucosamine-6-Phosphate, GS, Mono-Sulfated Saccharide, Poly-(1->3)-N-Acetyl-2-Amino- ... Sulfate de Glucosamine, Sulfate de Glucosamine 2KCl, SG, Sulfated Monosaccharide, Sulfated Saccharide, Sulfato de Glucosamina. Glucosamine Hydrochloride ...

  1. Mapping soil textural fractions across a large watershed in north-east Florida.

    PubMed

    Lamsal, S; Mishra, U

    2010-08-01

    Assessment of regional scale soil spatial variation and mapping their distribution is constrained by sparse data which are collected using field surveys that are labor intensive and cost prohibitive. We explored geostatistical (ordinary kriging-OK), regression (Regression Tree-RT), and hybrid methods (RT plus residual Sequential Gaussian Simulation-SGS) to map soil textural fractions across the Santa Fe River Watershed (3585 km(2)) in north-east Florida. Soil samples collected from four depths (L1: 0-30 cm, L2: 30-60 cm, L3: 60-120 cm, and L4: 120-180 cm) at 141 locations were analyzed for soil textural fractions (sand, silt and clay contents), and combined with textural data (15 profiles) assembled under the Florida Soil Characterization program. Textural fractions in L1 and L2 were autocorrelated, and spatially mapped across the watershed. OK performance was poor, which may be attributed to the sparse sampling. RT model structure varied among textural fractions, and the model explained variations ranged from 25% for L1 silt to 61% for L2 clay content. Regression residuals were simulated using SGS, and the average of simulated residuals were used to approximate regression residual distribution map, which were added to regression trend maps. Independent validation of the prediction maps showed that regression models performed slightly better than OK, and regression combined with average of simulated regression residuals improved predictions beyond the regression model. Sand content >90% in both 0-30 and 30-60 cm covered 80.6% of the watershed area. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sulfate reduction and methane oxidation in continental margin sediments influenced by irrigation (south-east Atlantic off Namibia)

    SciTech Connect

    Fossing, H.; Ferdelman, T.G.; Berg, P.

    2000-03-01

    Sulfate reduction rates (SRR) and concentrations of SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}, H{sub 2}S, pyrite sulfur, total sulfur, CH{sub 4}, and organic carbon were measured with high depth resolution through the entire length of the SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}-zone and well into the CH{sub 4}-xone at two continental slope stations in the eastern South Atlantic (Benguela upwelling area). The sediments were characterized by a high organic carbon content of approx. 7.5% at GeoB 3703 and 3.7% at GeoB 3714. At GeoB 3703 SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} concentrations decreased linearly with depth to about 40 {micro}M at the sulfate-methane transition zone (SMT) at 3.5 m, while at GeoB 3714, SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} remained at sea water concentration in the top 2 m of the sediment and then decreased linearly to about 70 {micro}M at the SMT at 6 m. Direct rate measurements of SRR ({sup 35}SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}) showed that the highest SRR occurred within the surface 3--5 cm with peak rates of up to 20 and 7 nmol SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} cm{sup 3}/day at GeoB 3703 and GeoB 3714, respectively. SRR decreased quasi-exponentially with depth at GeoB 3703 and the cumulative SRR over the length of the SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} zone resulted in an areal SRR of 1114--3493 {micro}mol/m{sup 2} day at GeoB 3703 with more than 80% of the total sulfate reduction proceeding in the top 30 cm sediment. Modeled SRR balanced both methane oxidation rates and measured SRR within the SMT, but severely underestimated by up to 89% the total SRR{sub area} that were obtained from direct measurements. Modeled and measured SRR were reconciled by including solute transport by irrigation described by a non-local pore water exchange function ({alpha}) which had values of up to 0.3 year{sup {minus}1} in the top sediment, and decreased exponentially to zero (i.e., no irrigation) at 2--3 meters (i.e., above SMT). These results suggested that co-existing sulfate reduction processes and linear SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} gradients can be

  3. [Effects of land use change on soil readily oxidizable carbon in a coastal area of northern Jiangsu Province, East China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Bing; Zhao, Xiao-Long; Wang, Ming-Hui; Ruan, Hong-Hua; Xu, Chang-Bai; Xu, Ya-ming

    2013-04-01

    Soil readily oxidizable carbon (ROC) is a sensitive index to indicate the early changes of soil organic carbon (SOC), and has important value to research the stability and dynamics of SOC pool under the backgrounds of human disturbance and global climate change. To further understand the effects of land use change on soil ROC, an investigation was conducted on the soil ROC content and related factors in four different land use types (grassland, farmland, poplar-agriculture system and pure poplar plantation) in a coastal area of northern Jiangsu Province, East China. The soil ROC content was in the order of grassland < farmland soil layer. The ROC and ROC/SOC ratio decreased with increasing soil depth, and had significant differences between different soil layers in any one of the land use types. The soil ROC in the four different land use types had the same seasonal variation trend, with the maximum in summer, followed by in winter and autumn, and the minimum in spring. The soil ROC was significantly negatively correlated with soil pH and soil bulk density, positively correlated with SOC, soil water soluble organic carbon (WSOC), total nitrogen (TN), C/N ratio, and Mg, but less correlated with soil moisture and soil total phosphorus (TP). The results indicated that land use change had significant effects on the spatial distribution characteristics of soil ROC, and soil bulk density, pH value, TN, and SOC were the main factors inducing the differences of soil ROC content between different land use types.

  4. Germination and Seedling Growth of Perennial Ryegrass in Acid Sulfate Soil Treated by Pyrite Nano-Encapsulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Kim, J.; Yi, J.; Kim, T.

    2007-05-01

    The trial pot experiment was conducted to validate the effect of encapsulation in reduction of acid rock drainage. Six different treatments were performed: A = control, four times spraying of distilled water; B = four times of 0.01 M H2O2; C = once-encapsulated and three times spraying of distilled water; D = twice-encapsulated and twice spraying of distilled water; E = three times-encapsulated and once spraying of distilled water and F = four times-encapsulated for the acid sulfate soil with pyrite bearing andesite powder and sand. After the encapsulation treatment, the perennial ryegrass (Loium perenne) was sowed to evaluate germination rate and growth for three months. The leachate was examined for the chemical properties. The leachate from the A pot (control) is characterized as acidic (pH below 3) and high concentrations of SO4-2: 12,022 mg/L, Al: 85.8 mg/L and Mn: 34.1 mg/L which can be toxic effect to the plant growth. However, the leachate from encapsulated pots showed near neutral (pH 6 to 7) and low concentrations of SO4-2 (below 3,000 mg/L), Al (below 45mg/L) and Mn (24 gm/L). The frequency of encapsulation treatment is related to reduction of acidic drainage. It was hard to identify the significant difference of the seed germination rate of ryegrass between the treatments, although root and shoot growth showed three times difference between the control (1.90g/pot) and four times encapsulated treatment (6.33g/pot) after 2 month growth. It is suggested that encapsulation of pyrite in acid sulfate soil causes the reduction of acidic drainage resulting in the higher growth of herbaceous plants.

  5. Summer regional climate over East Asia affected by soil moisture modification at the Sichuan basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, S.; Takahashi, H. G.; Sekiyama, H.

    2016-12-01

    An artificial land-use change is a factor to modify the regional-scale climate. For example, double cropping over the eastern coastal area of China controls the East Asian monsoon circulation, not only the local-scale temperature over the cropland area (Jeong et al. 2014). The Sichuan Basin is also major cropland in China (Liu et al. 2005) and a key region to form convective systems with a zone of active cloud convection (Ueno et al. 2011; Sugimoto and Ueno 2012). Therefore, we investigated an effect of the soil moisture over the Sichuan Basin on the regional-scale climate modification over the surrounding regions. Two kinds of numerical simulation were conducted using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF; Skamarock et al. 2008) model between April 1 and September 30 for 8 years (during 2003-2010). One is an experiment that soil moisture is calculated in the land surface scheme (Control run; it assumes natural soil moisture variation affecting rainfall), and other is an experiment including a phase with soil moisture increase (between May 6 and June 10 for each year) which is estimated by AMSR-E dataset but cannot calculate in the Control run (Sensitivity run). At the Sichuan Basin in the Control run, monthly mean of atmospheric surface temperature at 2m is higher than the observation during the whole analysis period. A frequency distribution in daily mean temperature also shifts to warm. Meanwhile, the Sensitivity run simulates a decrease of daily atmospheric surface temperature at the Sichuan basin relative to that in the Control run especially during May, June, and July, and its frequency distribution was consistent with the observation. The increase of soil moisture over the Sichuan Basin (i.e., in the Sensitivity run) tended to enhance a cloud convective activity over the eastern-central China, which decreased a downward shortwave radiation and daily maximum of surface temperature. Meanwhile, the active cloud convection induced a northward moisture flow which

  6. Hydrogen and sulfate additions to the forest floor and their effects on soil and litter arthropods

    SciTech Connect

    Craft, C.B.; Webb, J.W.

    1983-04-01

    Acid rain is known to have a detrimental effect on many freshwater systems. Its effects on terrestrial systems are poorly known. The study was conducted to determine the effects of neutral and acidic SO/sub 4/ deposition on soil and litter arthropods and the consequent effects on available P. The specific objectives were to pinpoint functional groups that are affecte by increased acid deposition and to assess the impact on both direct (soil arthropods) and indirect (soil pH and Al) factors governing soil P. By analyzing the effects of H and SO/sub 4/ deposition on arthropod trophic structure, it becomes possible to apply the results obtained in this study to other ecosystems that are impacted by acid rain.

  7. East African Soil Erosion Recorded in a 300 Year old Coral Colony From Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, R. B.; Fleitmann, D.; McCulloch, M.; Mudelsee, M.; Vuille, M.; McClanahan, T.; Cole, J.; Eggins, S.

    2006-12-01

    Soil erosion threatens the food security of 2.6 billion people worldwide. The situation is particularly dire in East and Sub-Saharan Africa where per capita food production has declined over the past 45 years. Erosion and the resultant loss of fertile soil is a key socio-economic and ecological problem in Kenya, affecting all sectors of its economy and damaging marine and terrestrial ecosystems. The temporal pattern of soil erosion is almost unknown and currently only sparse and rather anecdotal information exists. To aid in filling this gap of knowledge, we present a 300-year long Barium record from two Kenyan coral colonies (Porites sp., 3°15'S, 40°9' E; Malindi Marine National Park) that documents a dynamic history of soil erosion in the Sabaki river drainage basin. To reconstruct Sabaki River sediment flux to the Malindi coral reef Ba/Ca ratios were measured in the skeleton of two Porites colonies (Mal 96-1 and Mal 95-3). Well-developed annual bands allow us to develop annually precise chronologies. Ba/Ca ratios were measured in core Mal 96-1 at continuous 40 μm intervals (~400 to 500 samples yr-1) using laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA- ICP-MS). To test for reproducibility and accuracy of the Mal 96-1 Ba/Ca profile, coral core Mal 95-3 was analyzed at lower resolution (1 to 12 samples yr-1) using discrete micro-drill sampling and isotope dilution ICP-MS. The close similarity between both coral Ba/Ca profiles, in absolute values as well as general pattern, underscores the accuracy of the LA-ICP-MS technique and adds confidence to our interpretation of the 300 year long Mal 96-1 Ba/Ca profile. The Ba/Ca coral proxy record shows that while the sediment flux from the Sabaki River is nearly constant between 1700 and 1900, a continuous rise in sediment flux is observed since 1900, reflecting steadily increasing demographic pressure on land use. The peak in suspended sediment load and hence soil erosion recorded at the Malindi reef

  8. Sulfate reduction in sulfuric material after re-flooding: Effectiveness of organic carbon addition and pH increase depends on soil properties.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chaolei; Fitzpatrick, Rob; Mosley, Luke M; Marschner, Petra

    2015-11-15

    Sulfuric material is formed upon oxidation of sulfidic material; it is extremely acidic, and therefore, an environmental hazard. One option for increasing pH of sulfuric material may be stimulation of bacterial sulfate reduction. We investigated the effects of organic carbon addition and pH increase on sulfate reduction after re-flooding in ten sulfuric materials with four treatments: control, pH increase to 5.5 (+pH), organic carbon addition with 2% w/w finely ground wheat straw (+C), and organic carbon addition and pH increase (+C+pH). After 36 weeks, in five of the ten soils, only treatment +C+pH significantly increased the concentration of reduced inorganic sulfur (RIS) compared to the control and increased the soil pore water pH compared to treatment+pH. In four other soils, pH increase or/and organic carbon addition had no significant effect on RIS concentration compared to the control. The RIS concentration in treatment +C+pH as percentage of the control was negatively correlated with soil clay content and initial nitrate concentration. The results suggest that organic carbon addition and pH increase can stimulate sulfate reduction after re-flooding, but the effectiveness of this treatment depends on soil properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Simulating soybean productivity under rainfed conditions for major soil types using APEX model in East Central Mississippi

    Treesearch

    Bangbang Zhang; Gary Feng; John J. Read; Xiangbin Kong; Ying Ouyang; Ardeshir Adeli; Johnie N. Jenkins

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of soybean yield constraints under rainfed conditions on major soil types in East CentralMississippi would assist growers in the region to effectively utilize the benefits of water/irrigation man-agement. The objectives of this study were to use the Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX)agro-ecosystem model to simulate rainfed soybean grain yield (...

  10. Chemistry of atmospheric precipitation in the north-central united states: Influence of sulfate, nitrate, ammonia and calcareous soil particulates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munger, James William

    The supply of alkaline soil dust and gaseous NH 3 available to neutralize anthropogenic acids in the atmosphere controls the acidity of precipitation in the north-central United States. Major ions and trace metals were determined in precipitation-event and snow-core samples from sites along a 600 km transect from the North Dakota prairie to the forests of northeastern Minnesota, collected during the period April 1978-June 1979. Acidity increased 4-fold from west to east as the effect of alkaline dust and NH 3 decreased with increasing distance from the cultivated prairie; calcium and Mg 2+ decreased 2 to 3-fold across the transect. However, minimum concentrations of NH 4+ and SO 42- were observed at Itasca, the central site. Natural emissions of these elements were important in the west, while anthropogenic emissions were responsible for the higher concentrations in the east. Wet deposition of H + decreased 8-fold and deposition of NO 3- and SO 42- decreased 1.5 to 2-fold from Hovland in the east to Tewaukon in the west. Wet deposition of the metal cations increased from Hovland to Tewaukon. Dry deposition followed a similar trend. Winter snow cover and freezing temperatures, which decreased airborne soil dust and the evolution of NH 3 from the prairie soils, led to an increase in precipitation acidity at all sites. The acid increase was accompanied by a decrease in alkaline metal cations, especially Ca 2+, and in NH 4+. At Hovland SO 42- and NO 3- also increased during the winter. The occurrence of snow events at Tewaukon that were appreciably more acid than the snowpack accumulated there indicates that snow was neutralized after it fell by alkaline dust entrained in resuspended snow, or deposited separately. Winter inputs of acid are especially important because they are released during a short period in the spring. Over half of the acid input at Hovland occurred during the winter. Precipitation inputs of P and N probably benefit nutrient-poor ecosystems in the

  11. Indications of sulfate minerals in the Martian soil from Earth-based spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaney, Diana L.; McCord, Thomas B.

    Telescopic measurements of Mars between 4.40 and 5.13 μm at a spectral resolution (λ/Δλ) of 300 were made on August 19, 1988, UT at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. This wavelength region contains radiation from both solar reflection and thermal emission. Additionally, the Martian atmosphere has numerous atmospheric gas absorption features, dominated by the 4.2-μm CO2 fundamental band. The mars spectrum rise out of the 4.2 to 4.4-μm CO2 band on the long-wavelength side cannot be matched solely by atmospheric gas constituents. An absorption must be added at roughly 4.5 μm in order to decrease the reflectance rise and produce the 4.5-μm inflection which is present in the data. The location of this feature at the position of the 2ν3 overtone of the SO2-4 anion indicates that the surface absorption is probably caused by sulfates on the Martian surface and/or in atmospheric dust. This is consistent with the known presence of sulfates on the Martian surface from the Viking results. An exact spectral match to a terrestrial sulfur mineral has not been made, but we suggest that the mineral on Mars has very weak band structure, probably due to an ion environment in the mineral with a high degree of electric field symmetry. Significant variation exists at 4.5 μm among the observed spectra for different locations on Mars. In order of strength, from strongest absorption to weakest, are Eastern Solis Planum, Argyre Basin, Eastern Tharsis, and Valles Marineris for the four regions measured at similar Mars atmospheric conditions.

  12. Variations in the depths of sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ) in UBGH2-6 drilling site in Ulleung Basin, East sea of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Chun, J. H.; Bahk, J. J.; Ryu, B. J.; Um, I. K.

    2016-12-01

    The second Ulleung Basin Gas hydrate Drilling Expedition (UBGH2) was conducted in the Ulleung Basin, East Sea of Korea in 2010. Gas hydrates were observed in depth interval from 140 mbsf (meter below seafloor) to 160 mbsf in core sediment taken from UBGH2-6 drilling site, located in the north-western part of the basin (2,164 m water depth). To characterize the geochemical process for UBGH2-6 core sediments, pore fluid samples and headspace gas samples were extracted from core sediments and analyzed SO42- and CH4 concentrations. Based on SO42- and CH4 concentrations, sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ), where SO42- is depleted to zero and CH4 starts to increase was defined at a depth of approximately 6.50 mbsf in 2010. And in order to identify the variations in the depths of SMTZ at UBGH2-6 drilling site since 2010 (UBGH2), whole-round piston cores were collected from UBGH2-6 drilling site from 2013 to 2015. We analyzed SO42- and CH4 concentrations and identified the SMTZ for the last 3 years. The depths of SMTZ for the cores obtained from 2013, 2014 and 2015 are approximately 3.50 mbsf, 5.00 mbsf, and 5.00 mbsf respectively. The analysis results indicate that the SMTZ in 2013, 2014, and 2015 are shallower than the SMTZ of 2010.

  13. Donnan membrane speciation of Al, Fe, trace metals and REEs in coastal lowland acid sulfate soil-impacted drainage waters.

    PubMed

    Jones, Adele M; Xue, Youjia; Kinsela, Andrew S; Wilcken, Klaus M; Collins, Richard N

    2016-03-15

    Donnan dialysis has been applied to forty filtered drainage waters collected from five coastal lowland acid sulfate soil (CLASS) catchments across north-eastern NSW, Australia. Despite having average pH values<3.9, 78 and 58% of Al and total Fe, respectively, were present as neutral or negatively-charged species. Complementary isotope dilution experiments with (55)Fe and (26)Al demonstrated that only soluble (i.e. no colloidal) species were present. Trivalent rare earth elements (REEs) were also mainly present (>70%) as negatively-charged complexes. In contrast, the speciation of the divalent trace metals Co, Mn, Ni and Zn was dominated by positively-charged complexes and was strongly correlated with the alkaline earth metals Ca and Mg. Thermodynamic equilibrium speciation calculations indicated that natural organic matter (NOM) complexes dominated Fe(III) speciation in agreement with that obtained by Donnan dialysis. In the case of Fe(II), however, the free cation was predicted to dominate under thermodynamic equilibrium, whilst our results indicated that Fe(II) was mainly present as neutral or negatively-charged complexes (most likely with sulfate). For all other divalent metals thermodynamic equilibrium speciation calculations agreed well with the Donnan dialysis results. The proportion of Al and REEs predicted to be negatively-charged was also grossly underestimated, relative to the experimental results, highlighting possible inaccuracies in the stability constants developed for these trivalent Me(SO4)2(-) and/or Me-NOM complexes and difficulties in modeling complex environmental samples. These results will help improve metal mobility and toxicity models developed for CLASS-affected environments, and also demonstrate that Australian CLASS environments can discharge REEs at concentrations an order of magnitude greater than previously reported.

  14. Acid sulfate alteration of fluorapatite, basaltic glass and olivine by hydrothermal vapors and fluids: Implications for fumarolic activity and secondary phosphate phases in sulfate-rich Paso Robles soil at Gusev Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausrath, E. M.; Golden, D. C.; Morris, R. V.; Agresti, D. G.; Ming, D. W.

    2013-01-01

    Phosphate-rich rocks and a nearby phosphate-rich soil, Paso Robles, were analyzed in Gusev Crater, Mars, by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit and interpreted to be highly altered, possibly by hydrothermal or fumarolic alteration of primary, phosphate-rich material. To test mineral phases resulting from such alteration, we performed hydrothermal acid-vapor and acid-fluid experiments on olivine (Ol), fluorapatite (Ap), and basaltic glass (Gl) as single phases and a mixture of phases. Minerals formed include Ca-, Al-, Fe- and Mg-sulfates with different hydration states (anhydrite, bassanite, gypsum; alunogen; hexahydrite, and pentahydrite). Phosphate-bearing minerals formed included monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCP) (acid-vapor and acid-fluid alteration of fluorapatite only) and ferrian giniite (acid-fluid alteration of the Ol + Gl + Ap mixture). MCP is likely present in Paso Robles if primary Ca-phosphate minerals reacted with sulfuric acid with little transport of phosphate. Under fluid:rock ratios allowing transport of phosphate, a ferric phosphate phase such as ferrian giniite might form instead. Mössbauer measurements of ferrian giniite-bearing alteration products and synthetic ferrian giniite are consistent with Spirit's Mössbauer measurements of the ferric-bearing phase in Paso Robes soil, but are also consistent with ferric sulfate phases in the low-P soil Arad_Samra. Therefore, Mössbauer data alone do not constrain the fluid:rock ratio. However, the excess iron (hematite) in Paso Robles soil, which implies aqueous transport, combined with our laboratory experiments, suggest acid-sulfate alteration in a hydrothermal (fumarolic) environment at fluid:rock ratios sufficient to allow dissolution, transport, and precipitation of secondary chemical components including a ferric phosphate such as ferrian giniite.

  15. Arsenic mobility during flooding of contaminated soil: the effect of microbial sulfate reduction.

    PubMed

    Burton, Edward D; Johnston, Scott G; Kocar, Benjamin D

    2014-12-02

    In floodplain soils, As may be released during flooding-induced soil anoxia, with the degree of mobilization being affected by microbial redox processes such as the reduction of As(V), Fe(III), and SO4(2-). Microbial SO4(2-) reduction may affect both Fe and As cycling, but the processes involved and their ultimate consequences on As mobility are not well understood. Here, we examine the effect of microbial SO4(2) reduction on solution dynamics and solid-phase speciation of As during flooding of an As-contaminated soil. In the absence of significant levels of microbial SO4(2-) reduction, flooding caused increased Fe(II) and As(III) concentrations over a 10 week period, which is consistent with microbial Fe(III)- and As(V)-reduction. Microbial SO4(2-) reduction leads to lower concentrations of porewater Fe(II) as a result of FeS formation. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that the newly formed FeS sequestered substantial amounts of As. Bulk and microfocused As K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy confirmed that As(V) was reduced to As(III) and showed that in the presence of FeS, solid-phase As was retained partly via the formation of an As2S3-like species. High resolution transmission electron microscopy suggested that this was due to As retention as an As2S3-like complex associated with mackinawite (tetragonal FeS) rather than as a discrete As2S3 phase. This study shows that mackinawite formation in contaminated floodplain soil can help mitigate the extent of arsenic mobilization during prolonged flooding.

  16. Assessment of the spatio-temporal distribution of soil properties in East Kolkata wetland ecosystem (A Ramsar site: 1208)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, S.; Manna, S.; Aich, A.; Chattopadhyay, B.; Mukhopadhyay, S. K.

    2014-06-01

    The present investigation was made to characterize spatial and temporal variations in soil properties and to evaluate possible differences that could be dependent on the tannery effluent discharges, municipal sewage discharges, vegetation cover, soil settlement rate, crop rotation, etc. Soil total organic matter (TOM), cations like, Sodium (Na), Ammonium (NH4), Potassium (K), Calcium (Ca) and Magnesium (Mg) contents in the bank soils and bottom sediments were recorded from seven different characteristic sites in East Kolkata wetland ecosystem, a Ramsar site (Ramsar site No. 1208). The profile maps were constructed by geostatistical methods to describe the spatial distribution as well as temporal variations of all the factors to identify the influences of composite wastewaters. The work was initiated to identify causes and consequences of the waste dumping in the concerned region for the past hundred years and thereby to suggest necessary precautionary measures to prevent further loss of soil quality.

  17. Mineralogical, chemical, organic and microbial properties of subsurface soil cores from Mars Desert Research Station (Utah, USA): Phyllosilicate and sulfate analogues to Mars mission landing sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoker, Carol R.; Clarke, Jonathan; Direito, Susana O. L.; Blake, David; Martin, Kevin R.; Zavaleta, Jhony; Foing, Bernard

    2011-07-01

    We collected and analysed soil cores from four geologic units surrounding Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) Utah, USA, including Mancos Shale, Dakota Sandstone, Morrison formation (Brushy Basin member) and Summerville formation. The area is an important geochemical and morphological analogue to terrains on Mars. Soils were analysed for mineralogy by a Terra X-ray diffractometer (XRD), a field version of the CheMin instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission (2012 landing). Soluble ion chemistry, total organic content and identity and distribution of microbial populations were also determined. The Terra data reveal that Mancos and Morrison soils are rich in phyllosilicates similar to those observed on Mars from orbital measurements (montmorillonite, nontronite and illite). Evaporite minerals observed include gypsum, thenardite, polyhalite and calcite. Soil chemical analysis shows sulfate the dominant anion in all soils and SO4>>CO3, as on Mars. The cation pattern Na>Ca>Mg is seen in all soils except for the Summerville where Ca>Na. In all soils, SO4 correlates with Na, suggesting sodium sulfates are the dominant phase. Oxidizable organics are low in all soils and range from a high of 0.7% in the Mancos samples to undetectable at a detection limit of 0.1% in the Morrison soils. Minerals rich in chromium and vanadium were identified in Morrison soils that result from diagenetic replacement of organic compounds. Depositional environment, geologic history and mineralogy all affect the ability to preserve and detect organic compounds. Subsurface biosphere populations were revealed to contain organisms from all three domains (Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya) with cell density between 3.0×106 and 1.8×107 cells ml-1 at the deepest depth. These measurements are analogous to data that could be obtained on future robotic or human Mars missions and results are relevant to the MSL mission that will investigate phyllosilicates on Mars.

  18. Downscaling soil moisture over East Asia through multi-sensor data fusion and optimization of regression trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Seonyoung; Im, Jungho; Park, Sumin; Rhee, Jinyoung

    2017-04-01

    Soil moisture is one of the most important keys for understanding regional and global climate systems. Soil moisture is directly related to agricultural processes as well as hydrological processes because soil moisture highly influences vegetation growth and determines water supply in the agroecosystem. Accurate monitoring of the spatiotemporal pattern of soil moisture is important. Soil moisture has been generally provided through in situ measurements at stations. Although field survey from in situ measurements provides accurate soil moisture with high temporal resolution, it requires high cost and does not provide the spatial distribution of soil moisture over large areas. Microwave satellite (e.g., advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer on the Earth Observing System (AMSR2), the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT), and Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP)) -based approaches and numerical models such as Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) and Modern- Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) provide spatial-temporalspatiotemporally continuous soil moisture products at global scale. However, since those global soil moisture products have coarse spatial resolution ( 25-40 km), their applications for agriculture and water resources at local and regional scales are very limited. Thus, soil moisture downscaling is needed to overcome the limitation of the spatial resolution of soil moisture products. In this study, GLDAS soil moisture data were downscaled up to 1 km spatial resolution through the integration of AMSR2 and ASCAT soil moisture data, Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) Digital Elevation Model (DEM), and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data—Land Surface Temperature, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, and Land cover—using modified regression trees over East Asia from 2013 to 2015. Modified regression trees were implemented using Cubist, a commercial software tool based on machine learning. An

  19. Trace metal biogeochemistry in mangrove ecosystems: a comparative assessment of acidified (by acid sulfate soils) and non-acidified sites.

    PubMed

    Nath, Bibhash; Birch, Gavin; Chaudhuri, Punarbasu

    2013-10-01

    The generation of acidity and subsequent mobilization of toxic metals induced by acid sulfate soils (ASSs) are known to cause severe environmental damage to many coastal wetlands and estuaries of Australia and worldwide. Mangrove ecosystems serve to protect coastal environments, but are increasingly threatened from such ASS-induced acidification due to variable hydrological conditions (i.e., inundation-desiccation cycles). However, the impact of such behaviors on trace metal distribution, bio-availability and accumulation in mangrove tissues, i.e., leaves and pneumatophores, are largely unknown. In this study, we examined how ASS-induced acidifications controlled trace metal distribution and bio-availability in gray mangrove (Avicennia marina) soils and in tissues in the Kooragang wetland, New South Wales, Australia. We collected mangrove soils, leaves and pneumatophores from a part of the wetland acidified from ASS (i.e., an affected site) for detailed biogeochemical studies. The results were compared with samples collected from a natural intertidal mangrove forest (i.e., a control site) located within the same wetland. Soil pH (mean: 5.90) indicated acidic conditions in the affected site, whereas pH was near-neutral (mean: 7.17) in the control site. The results did not show statistically significant differences in near-total and bio-available metal concentrations, except for Fe and Mn, between affected and control sites. Iron concentrations were significantly (p values≤0.001) greater in the affected site, whereas Mn concentrations were significantly (p values≤0.001) greater in the control site. However, large proportions of near-total metals were potentially bio-available in control sites. Concentrations of Fe and Ni were significantly (p values≤0.001) greater in leaves and pneumatophores of the affected sites, whereas Mn, Cu, Pb and Zn were greater in control sites. The degree of metal bio-accumulation in leaves and pneumatophores suggest contrasting

  20. Isolation of endosulfan sulfate-degrading Rhodococcus koreensis strain S1-1 from endosulfan contaminated soil and identification of a novel metabolite, endosulfan diol monosulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Koji; Kawashima, Fujimasa; Takagi, Kazuhiro; Kataoka, Ryota; Kotake, Masaaki; Kiyota, Hiromasa; Yamazaki, Kenichi; Sakakibara, Futa; Okada, Sanae

    2016-05-13

    An aerobic endosulfan sulfate-degrading bacterium, Rhodococcus koreensis strain S1-1, was isolated from soil to which endosulfan had been applied annually for more than 10 years until 2008. The strain isolated in this work reduced the concentration of endosulfan sulfate (2) from 12.25 μM to 2.11 μM during 14 d at 30 °C. Using ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectroscopy (UPLC-ESI-MS), a new highly water-soluble metabolite possessing six chlorine atoms was found to be endosulfan diol monosulfate (6), derived from 2 by hydrolysis of the cyclic sulfate ester ring. The structure of 6 was elucidated by chemical synthesis of the candidate derivatives and by HR-MS and UPLC-MS analyses. Therefore, it was suggested that the strain S1-1 has a new metabolic pathway of 2. In addition, 6 was expected to be less toxic among the metabolites of 1 because of its higher water-solubility. -- Highlights: •A novel endosulfan sulfate-degrading bacterium was isolated and named strain S1-1. •Strain S1-1 degraded endosulfan sulfate into a novel metabolite endosulfan diol monosulfate. •Endosulfan diol monosulfate showed higher polarity than other known metabolites of endosulfan. •We proposed the plausible metabolic pathway of endosulfan in terms of organic chemistry.

  1. Sulfur Mass Balances of Forested Catchments: Improving Predictions of Stream Sulfate Concentrations Through Better Representation of Soil Storage and Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanlon, T. M.; Rice, K. C.; Riscassi, A.; Cosby, B. J., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions in the eastern United States have declined by more than 80% since 1970, when the Clean Air Act first established limits on emissions from stationary and mobile sources. In many areas throughout the northeastern U.S., the resulting declines in sulfate (SO42-) deposition have been accompanied by declines in stream SO42- concentrations. In the southeastern U.S., however, declines in stream SO42- concentrations have not been observed on a widespread basis. In fact, SO42- concentrations continue to increase in many southeastern streams despite decades of declining deposition. This difference in behavior between northeastern and southeastern streams, owing to the distinct geological histories of their catchment soils, was anticipated by the Direct/Delayed Response Project initiated by the U.S. EPA during the early 1980s. At that time, understanding of how catchments store and release SO42- was mostly grounded in theory. Now, with the accumulation of long-term stream chemistry and hydrological datasets in forested catchments, we may develop an empirical basis for characterizing catchment storage and release of SO42-. In particular, are whole-catchment isotherms that described the partitioning between adsorbed and dissolved SO42- (1) linear or non-linear and (2) reversible or irreversible? How do these isotherms vary on a geographical basis? We apply mass balance combined with a simple theoretical framework to infer whole-catchment SO42- isotherms in Virginia and New England. Knowledge of this key soil geochemical property is needed to improve predictions of how catchments will store and export SO42- under changing levels of atmospheric deposition.

  2. Mapping of Acid Sulfate Soils in Finland: determining of areas of risks and compiling guidelines for environmental protection and safe land use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupila, Juho

    2013-04-01

    Acid sulfate soils (ASS), also referred to as the "nastiest soils in the world", are soils that contain or have contained metal sulfides that oxidize under aerobic conditions and, subsequently, typically produce very severe acidity and metal pollution. In Finland, for example, the discharge of several metals to water courses from ASS is greater than that from the entire Finnish industry, and due to the acidity these metals largely occur in a soluble toxic form. In Europe, the largest occurrences of acid sulfate soils are located in Finland. It has been estimated that coverage of these harmful soils is approximately 1000 - 1500 km2 along the coastal areas of Finland. Sulfide-bearing fine-grained sediments were deposited in the sea between Finland and Sweden after the melting of the latest continental ice sheet, about 10,000 years ago. In places, the formation of such sediments is still going on today. The rapid isostatic land uplift (more than 200 m after the latest glacial period, currently up to 8 mm/year) after the retreat of the continental ice sheet has lifted these sediments above sea level. In Finland, systematic mapping and classification of acid sulfate soils started in 2009 with Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) as the leading partner, together with Åbo Akademi University and University of Helsinki. The definition of a risk classification of Finnish acid sulfate soils has been developed during the project. The observations, measurements and analyses have been used to produce e.g. probability maps of integrated catchment areas (at the scale 1:250 000), reports of the areas and guides for the identification of ASS and their environments. The main users of the results have been authorities at governmental, regional and local levels, organizations and actors in agriculture and forestry, peat production and earthwork companies and consultants concerned with soil and construction. The mapping project carried out by GTK is still in process and should be

  3. Assessing the combination of iron sulfate and organic materials as amendment for an arsenic and copper contaminated soil. A chemical and ecotoxicological approach.

    PubMed

    Fresno, Teresa; Moreno-Jiménez, Eduardo; Peñalosa, Jesús M

    2016-12-01

    The efficiency of combining iron sulfate and organic amendments (paper mill sludge, olive mill waste compost and olive tree pruning biochar) for the remediation of an As- and Cu-contaminated soil was evaluated. Changes in As and Cu fractionation and solubility due to the application of the amendments was explored by leachate analysis, single and sequential extractions. Also, the effects on Arrhenatherum elatius growth, germination of Lactuca sativa and toxicity to the bacteria Vibrio fischeri were assessed. The combination of iron sulfate and the organic amendments efficiently reduced As solubility and availability through the formation of amorphous iron oxides, while organic matter did not seem to mobilize As. At the same time, copper fractionation was strongly affected by soil pH and organic matter addition. The soil pH significantly influenced both As and Cu mobility. Within all the amendments tested, FeSO4 in combination with compost showed to be the most suitable treatment for the overall remediation process, as it reduced As and Cu availability andenhanced soil nutrient concentrations and plant growth. In sipte of contradictory trends between chemical analyses and ecotoxicity tests, we can still conclude that the application of organic amendments in combination with reactive iron salts is a suitable approach for the remediation of soils contaminated by Cu and As.

  4. Variation of Soil Organic Carbon and Its Major Constraints in East Central Asia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Xinqing; Huang, Yimin; Huang, Daikuan; Hu, Lu; Feng, Zhaodong; Cheng, Jianzhong; Wang, Bing; Ni, Jian; Shurkhuu, Tserenpil

    2016-01-01

    Variation of soil organic carbon (SOC) and its major constraints in large spatial scale are critical for estimating global SOC inventory and projecting its future at environmental changes. By analyzing SOC and its environment at 210 sites in uncultivated land along a 3020km latitudinal transect in East Central Asia, we examined the effect of environmental factors on the dynamics of SOC. We found that SOC changes dramatically with the difference as high as 5 times in north China and 17 times in Mongolia. Regardless, C:N remains consistent about 12. Path analysis indicated that temperature is the dominant factor in the variation of SOC with a direct effect much higher than the indirect one, the former breaks SOC down the year round while the latter results in its growth mainly via precipitation in the winter half year. Precipitation helps accumulate SOC, a large part of the effect, however, is taken via temperature. NH4+-N and topography also affect SOC, their roles are played primarily via climatic factors. pH correlates significantly with SOC, the effect, however, is taken only in the winter months, contributing to the decay of SOC primarily via temperature. These factors explained as much as 79% of SOC variations, especially in the summer months, representing the major constraints on the SOC stock. Soil texture gets increasingly fine southward, it does not, however, constitute an apparent factor. Our results suggested that recent global warming should have been adversely affecting SOC stock in the mid-latitude as temperature dominates other factors as the constraint. PMID:26934707

  5. Variation of Soil Organic Carbon and Its Major Constraints in East Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Xinqing; Huang, Yimin; Huang, Daikuan; Hu, Lu; Feng, Zhaodong; Cheng, Jianzhong; Wang, Bing; Ni, Jian; Shurkhuu, Tserenpil

    2016-01-01

    Variation of soil organic carbon (SOC) and its major constraints in large spatial scale are critical for estimating global SOC inventory and projecting its future at environmental changes. By analyzing SOC and its environment at 210 sites in uncultivated land along a 3020km latitudinal transect in East Central Asia, we examined the effect of environmental factors on the dynamics of SOC. We found that SOC changes dramatically with the difference as high as 5 times in north China and 17 times in Mongolia. Regardless, C:N remains consistent about 12. Path analysis indicated that temperature is the dominant factor in the variation of SOC with a direct effect much higher than the indirect one, the former breaks SOC down the year round while the latter results in its growth mainly via precipitation in the winter half year. Precipitation helps accumulate SOC, a large part of the effect, however, is taken via temperature. NH4+-N and topography also affect SOC, their roles are played primarily via climatic factors. pH correlates significantly with SOC, the effect, however, is taken only in the winter months, contributing to the decay of SOC primarily via temperature. These factors explained as much as 79% of SOC variations, especially in the summer months, representing the major constraints on the SOC stock. Soil texture gets increasingly fine southward, it does not, however, constitute an apparent factor. Our results suggested that recent global warming should have been adversely affecting SOC stock in the mid-latitude as temperature dominates other factors as the constraint.

  6. A numerical study of the effect of frozen soil on dust emission during an East Asian dust event in December 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jung-Yoon; Tanaka, Taichu Y.; Mikami, Masao; Yoon, Soon-Chang

    2013-01-01

    There are few dust simulation studies for East Asian dust events that took place in the wintertime, when the surface conditions of the dust source region differ from those of the springtime. The soil water turns into ice when the temperature falls below freezing, and the ice might prohibit wind erosion by increasing the binding strength between soil particles. However, the contribution of frozen soil to reducing dust outbreaks remains unclear. This study investigates the effect of frozen soil on dust emission through a case study of a severe wintertime East Asian dust event that originated on 23 and 24 December 2009 in Southern Mongolia and Inner Mongolia and reached Korea on 25 and 26 December 2009 using WRF/Chem with a new dust emission scheme. Model simulations with and without the effect of frozen soil were conducted. A temperature below 0°C and relative soil saturation exceeding 40% were used for frozen soil criteria, and the frozen soil was prohibited from emitting dust. The dust concentrations derived from the simulation without the effect of frozen soil were about three times higher than the observed PM10 concentrations, while the results from the simulation with the frozen-soil effect were quite similar to those of the observation data. The simulation of the wintertime East Asian dust event with the frozen-soil effect improved the model representation. The sensitivity tests for frozen soil indicate that the criteria of frozen soil used in this study are appropriate for this case study.

  7. CO2 Production by Soils of Lazovskiy Reserve, South-East Primorye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semal, Viktoriia; Purtova, Lyudmila; Kostenkov, Nikolay; Nesterova, Olga; Tregubova, Valentina; Derbentseva, Alla; Tyurina, Elena; Kravchenko, Alla; Glotova, Elena; Sergeeva, Olesya; Korshenko, Ekaterina

    2016-04-01

    CO2 is practically the only volatile compound in automorphic soils, in the form of which carbon is lost. So the investigation of the carbon dioxide production rate dynamics makes it possible not only to judge the biological processes intensity but also to estimate the organic substance losses due to mineralization. Lazovskiy Reserve holds a unique geographic location: its territory occupies both biologically rich coastal marine area and continental part of Sikhote Alin south-east branches, including both typical mountainous areas and wide intermountain river valleys. Specific conditions of the organic substance formation and transformation, its seasonal dynamics are due not only to the features of the monsoon climate but also to the availability of unique primeval coniferous broadleaved liana forests in the central part of the Reserve and coastal post-fire successions of the secondary oak forests. CO2 emission was observed in the laboratory setting (ex. situ), at 100% maximum water holding capacity (MWHC) and at 60% MWHC. It was found that the CO2 production extensive indicators are typical for Cambisol containing high level of humus. CO2 mean values at 60% MWHC ranged into a following series: Mollic Cambisol - Cambic Fluvisol - Dystric Cambisol.

  8. Final report from VFL Technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils. LEFPC appendices, Volume 4, Appendix V-C

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    This is the the final verification run data package for pilot scale thermal treatment of lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils. Included are data on volatiles, semivolatiles, and TCLP volatiles.

  9. Biochemical and Molecular Characterization of Potential Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacteria in Acid Sulfate Soils and Their Beneficial Effects on Rice Growth

    PubMed Central

    Panhwar, Qurban Ali; Naher, Umme Aminun; Jusop, Shamshuddin; Othman, Radziah; Latif, Md Abdul; Ismail, Mohd Razi

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the total microbial population, the occurrence of growth promoting bacteria and their beneficial traits in acid sulfate soils. The mechanisms by which the bacteria enhance rice seedlings grown under high Al and low pH stress were investigated. Soils and rice root samples were randomly collected from four sites in the study area (Kelantan, Malaysia). The topsoil pH and exchangeable Al ranged from 3.3 to 4.7 and 1.24 to 4.25 cmolc kg−1, respectively, which are considered unsuitable for rice production. Total bacterial and actinomycetes population in the acidic soils were found to be higher than fungal populations. A total of 21 phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) including 19 N2-fixing strains were isolated from the acid sulfate soil. Using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, three potential PSB strains based on their beneficial characteristics were identified (Burkholderia thailandensis, Sphingomonas pituitosa and Burkholderia seminalis). The isolated strains were capable of producing indoleacetic acid (IAA) and organic acids that were able to reduce Al availability via a chelation process. These PSB isolates solubilized P (43.65%) existing in the growth media within 72 hours of incubation. Seedling of rice variety, MR 219, grown at pH 4, and with different concentrations of Al (0, 50 and 100 µM) was inoculated with these PSB strains. Results showed that the bacteria increased the pH with a concomitant reduction in Al concentration, which translated into better rice growth. The improved root volume and seedling dry weight of the inoculated plants indicated the potential of these isolates to be used in a bio-fertilizer formulation for rice cultivation on acid sulfate soils. PMID:25285745

  10. Biochemical and molecular characterization of potential phosphate-solubilizing bacteria in acid sulfate soils and their beneficial effects on rice growth.

    PubMed

    Panhwar, Qurban Ali; Naher, Umme Aminun; Shamshuddin, Jusop; Jusop, Shamshuddin; Othman, Radziah; Latif, Md Abdul; Ismail, Mohd Razi

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the total microbial population, the occurrence of growth promoting bacteria and their beneficial traits in acid sulfate soils. The mechanisms by which the bacteria enhance rice seedlings grown under high Al and low pH stress were investigated. Soils and rice root samples were randomly collected from four sites in the study area (Kelantan, Malaysia). The topsoil pH and exchangeable Al ranged from 3.3 to 4.7 and 1.24 to 4.25 cmol(c) kg(-1), respectively, which are considered unsuitable for rice production. Total bacterial and actinomycetes population in the acidic soils were found to be higher than fungal populations. A total of 21 phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) including 19 N2-fixing strains were isolated from the acid sulfate soil. Using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, three potential PSB strains based on their beneficial characteristics were identified (Burkholderia thailandensis, Sphingomonas pituitosa and Burkholderia seminalis). The isolated strains were capable of producing indoleacetic acid (IAA) and organic acids that were able to reduce Al availability via a chelation process. These PSB isolates solubilized P (43.65%) existing in the growth media within 72 hours of incubation. Seedling of rice variety, MR 219, grown at pH 4, and with different concentrations of Al (0, 50 and 100 µM) was inoculated with these PSB strains. Results showed that the bacteria increased the pH with a concomitant reduction in Al concentration, which translated into better rice growth. The improved root volume and seedling dry weight of the inoculated plants indicated the potential of these isolates to be used in a bio-fertilizer formulation for rice cultivation on acid sulfate soils.

  11. Bacterial communities in the soils of cryptogamic barrens of East Antarctica (the Larsemann Hills and Thala Hills oases)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudinova, A. G.; Lysak, L. V.; Soina, V. S.; Mergelov, N. S.; Dolgikh, A. V.; Shorkunov, I. G.

    2015-03-01

    Bacterial communities from the soils of cryptogamic barrens in the Thala Hills and Larsemann Hills oases of East Antarctica were examined. The total number of bacteria in the studied soils was no higher than 108 cells per gram of soil, which is an order of magnitude lower than the values typically found in the soils of temperate regions. The portion of viable cells reached 60% and more, which attests to the high tolerance of the bacteria to the impact of adverse environmental factors. The maximum values of the total number and viability of the bacteria were found in the fine earth material immediately under the stony pavement. For the first time, the high content of the filterable forms of bacteria (FFB) was found. In some of the samples, their portion reaches 70-80% of the total number of bacterial cells. Data on the high numbers and viability of the bacterial cells and on the phylogenetic and morphological diversity of FFB allow us to attribute the latter to the pool of bacterial cells ensuring their preservation under unfavorable environmental conditions. The concentrations and total pools of bacterial biomass in the studied soils are much lower than those in the zonal soils of temperate regions. Bacterial communities in the studied soils combine the high tolerance toward the adverse environmental factors (as seen from the high portion of viable cells, the formation of the nanoforms of bacteria, and the participation of bacteria in the subaerial biofilms) with the low total number and biomass of the bacterial cells

  12. The first data on the vertical REE distribution in taiga soils of the Russian Far East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryanin, S. V.; Sorokina, O. A.

    2015-10-01

    Coarse humic brown soils formed on different rocks under natural conditions of southern taiga of the Upper Priamur'e were studied. Concentration and distribution of REE in organic-mineral and metamorphic soil horizons were estimated. Soils inherit REE distribution in underlying rocks sitll at lower concentrations. The maximal REE concentrations are found in metamorphic soil horizon and the lowest ones in humic-accumulative. Soil formation processes have an effect on REE concentration in soils, but do not change their distribution.

  13. Assessment of chemical element migration in soil-plant complex of Urov endemic localities of East Transbaikalia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadim V., Ermakov; Valentina, Danilova; Sabsbakhor, Khushvakhtova; Aklexander, Degtyarev; Sergey, Tyutikov; Victor, Berezkin; Elena, Karpova

    2014-05-01

    The comparative evaluation of the levels of biologically active chemical elements and their migration in the soil-plant complex of two Urov endemic locations in East Transbaikalia (Zolinsky and Uryumkansky) and background areas (Western Baikal region and the western area of the Trans-Baikal region) was conducted. The predominant soil-forming rocks in East Transbaikalia are weathering products of Proterozoic carbonated granitoids PR2. The surface rocks consist from granite, granodiorite, diorite quartz diorite, gabbro, norite, gabbro-norite and other. Soils - mountain and cryogenic meadow forests, mountain permafrost taiga podzolised, meadow alluvial, peaty meadow [2]. The paludification of narrow valleys and thermokarst phenomena are typical in Urov endemic localities. It reflects on the spotted of soil and differentiation of chemical composition of soils and plants. Most of the chemical elements in soils were determined by means of X-ray fluorescence, and trace elements in soils and plants - by atomic absorption spectrometry. The selenium content was measured by spectrofluorimetric method [3]. The research processed by methods of variation statistics. It was found that the soils of two locations of the Urov subregion of the biosphere were more enriched with iron, barium, calcium, uranium, thorium, phosphorus, and to a lesser extent strontium compared to background soils. The ratio of Ca: P was significantly higher in the soil of background areas, and Ca: Sr, on the contrary, in endemic soils. In assessing the migration of trace elements in soil-plant complex by means of the total content of trace elements and biological absorption coefficient found a marked accumulation by plants manganese, chromium, arsenic and weak plants accumulation of cobalt and nickel. Soil landscape is not much different in content of selenium, but its migration in plants was reduced in places of spread of Urov disease [1]. The concentrators of cadmium (leaves of different species of willow

  14. Promoting effect of foliage sprayed zinc sulfate on accumulation of sugar and phenolics in berries of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot growing on zinc deficient soil.

    PubMed

    Song, Chang-Zheng; Liu, Mei-Ying; Meng, Jiang-Fei; Chi, Ming; Xi, Zhu-Mei; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2015-02-02

    The effect of foliage sprayed zinc sulfate on berry development of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot growing on arid zone Zn-deficient soils was investigated over two consecutive seasons, 2013 and 2014. Initial zinc concentration in soil and vines, photosynthesis at three berry developmental stages, berry weight, content of total soluble solids, titratable acidity, phenolics and expression of phenolics biosynthetic pathway genes throughout the stages were measured. Foliage sprayed zinc sulfate showed promoting effects on photosynthesis and berry development of vines and the promotion mainly occurred from veraison to maturation. Zn treatments enhanced the accumulation of total soluble solids, total phenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins and anthocyanins in berry skin, decreasing the concentration of titratable acidity. Furthermore, foliage sprayed zinc sulfate could significantly influence the expression of phenolics biosynthetic pathway genes throughout berry development, and the results of expression analysis supported the promotion of Zn treatments on phenolics accumulation. This research is the first comprehensive and detailed study about the effect of foliage sprayed Zn fertilizer on grape berry development, phenolics accumulation and gene expression in berry skin, providing a basis for improving the quality of grape and wine in Zn-deficient areas.

  15. Final report from VFL technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    The Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) extends fourteen (14) miles through Oak Ridge, TN. The Creek sediments and surrounding floodplain soils are contaminated with mercury compounds. This project involved a comprehensive pilot demonstration on thermal desorption of these soils to validate the feasibility of the remedial technology which had been identified in previous studies. Thermal desorption is a technology that utilizes heating or drying of soils to induce volatilization of contaminants. These contaminants are then vaporized and either incinerated or condensed in the second stage of desorption. Mercury (Hg), which was the principal contaminate of concern, was collected by condensers in a vapor collection system. This type of system insured that the toxic mercury vapors did not escape to the atmosphere.

  16. Evaluating soil contamination risk impact on land vulnerability and climate change in east Azerbaijan, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahbazi, Farzin; Anaya-Romero, Maria; de La Rosa, Diego

    2010-05-01

    Increased land degradation is one possible, and important, consequence of global climate change. As reported by IPCC, warming is likely to be well above the global mean in central Asia, the Tibetan Plateau and northern Asia, above the global mean in eastern Asia and South Asia, and similar to the global mean in Southeast and west Asia. Following these variation, agricultural face will abruptly be transformed in Iran which has been located in Middle East, west Asia. During 1951 to 2003 several stations in different climatological zones of Iran reported significant decrease in frost days due to rise in surface temperature. Also, some stations show a decreasing trend in precipitation (Anzali, Tabriz, Zahedan) while others (Mashad, Shiraz) have reported increasing trends. Based on land evaluation methodologies, a semi-empirical model named Pantanal within the new MicroLEIS DSS framework is used for assessing limitations for vulnerability of an area about 9000ha located in east Azerbaijan province of Iran is closed to Tabriz. The Pantanal approach is a land vulnerability evaluation model based on three kinds of information: I) monthly meteorological data; II) soil survey data; and III) agricultural management information. The major discussed agro contaminants were phosphorous, nitrogen, heavy metals and pesticides. Climate data such as mean average maximum and minimum temperatures for each month and total annual precipitation for last 20 consecutive years (1986-2006) were collected from Ahar meteorological station. The second scenario is based on projected changes in surface air temperature and precipitation for west Asia for the 2080s. In West Asia, climate change is likely to cause severe water stress in 21st century. In details, the mean temperature (°C) will increase 5.1, 5.6, 6.3 and 5.7 in winter, spring, summer and autumn respectively, in the future scenario at the study area. On the other hand, total precipitation will decrease 11 and 25 percent in winter and

  17. Carbon stocks, tree diversity and their relation to soil properties in a Neotropical rainforest of South-East Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarrete-Segueda, Armando; Siebe-Grabach, Christina; Ibarra-Manríquez, Guillermo; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Vázquez-Selem, Lorenzo

    2015-04-01

    Site heterogeneity at the local scale is an important factor for the generation of ecosystem services across the landscape. Several investigations at regional or local scale have identified the important role of soil properties and topography to determine tree diversity and productivity in tropical forests. We studied how the characteristics of soils affect the tree richness and carbon storage in the tropical rain forest of south-east Mexico. We compared carbon stocks on above-ground dry biomass of living trees, litter and soil organic carbon in 9 plots of 5000 m2 distributed in three contrasting soil-topographic units in neotropical forest (Floodplains/Low altitude hills/Steep slopes) all under the same climate. In each plot, landform features and soil properties to rooting depths were determined. We obtained richness and biomass values of trees with diameter at breast height (DBH) ≥ 10 cm. In each plot, litter and soil samples were taken for quantifying carbon in laboratory and allometric equations were applied to relate tree biomass (root and aerial) with carbon. We used cluster analysis as classification technique to compare richness between units. The relationship between soil properties and tree richness was obtained based on a canonical correspondence analysis. Both the classification and ordination techniques showed that plant diversity and richness respond to soil conditions. The variation was positively correlated with pH, total nitrogen, soil aeration, water retention capacity and exchange aluminum. The richness is smaller in floodplains, but this unit, with higher water and nutrient storage capacity, shows the largest carbon stocks. In contrast, limiting site for tree growth have less total carbon. Low altitude hills are much more heterogeneous in soil properties but also richer in tree species. The soil in this land unit has small rooting depth and available water holding capacity. Additionally, in this soil carbon stock is greater than the carbon

  18. Bacterial community initial development in proglacial soils of Larsemann hill, East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, H.; Yan, W.; Shi, G.; Sun, B.; Zhang, Y.; Xiao, X.

    2016-12-01

    Glacial forefields are considered ideal places to explore how microbial communities will response to climate-driven environmental changes. Our knowledge of how the bacterial community activities and structure was influenced by changing environment due to glacier retreat is still very limited, especially at the initial stage of glacier retreat. The short gradient soil samples including the ice free and ice covered sites were sampled in the forehead of East Antarctica ice sheet, in Larsemann Hills. By employing the Miseq sequencing methods, 1.8 x104 high-quality sequences were gotten for each sample and the bacterial diversity including abundant bacteria and rare bacteria were studied and compared between the gradient samples. Even though in such an extreme stress condition, the bacterial diversity was high. The coefficient of variance between the five sites of abundant group was 0.886 which was higher than that of the top 20 rare group (0.159) significantly (unpaired t test, p-value<0.0001) suggesting that the abundant bacterial communities were more sensitive to the ice sheet change in the initial stage than rare bacteria did. And the abundant bacteria contributed the community structure more than the rare bacteria did. The rare group acted more like seed bank to keep the community functionality in the forehead of sheet. And the ice thickness was the major factor to affect the abundant bacterial community. Given the fact that Antarctica environment was more sensitive to the global warming, the study about abundant and rare bacteria response to condition change will be helpful to precisely predict community response to climate change in polar region. This finding will improve the understanding about the relationship between community structure and environment condition in extreme stress condition.

  19. Sulfate metabolism. I. Sulfate uptake and redistribution of acid rain sulfate by edible plants

    SciTech Connect

    Dallam, R.D.

    1987-03-23

    Sulfur is the major component of polluted air in industrialized societies. Atmospheric sulfur is converted to sulfuric acid through a series of chemical reactions which can eventually reenter many ecosystems. When edible plants are grown in soils containing varying amounts of sulfate, the roots take up and transport inorganic sulfate to the stems and leaves. The sulfate taken up by the roots and the amount transported to the stem and leaves was found to be a function of the concentration of sulfate in the soil. Inorganic sulfate taken up by a corn plant seedling can be rapidly converted to organic sulfate by the root system. Nine days after one of a pair of pea plants was inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate (dilute H/sub 2//sup 35/SO/sub 4/) it was found that the sulfate was translocated not only in the inoculated plant, but also to the uninoculated pea plant in the same container. Also, when the leaves of a mature potato plant were inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate it was found that the sulfate was translocated into the edible potatoes. Fractionation of the potatoes showed that most of the sulfate was water soluble of which 30% was inorganic sulfate and 70% was in the form of organic sulfur. One third of the non-water soluble translocated acid rain sulfate was equally divided between lipid and non-lipid organic sulfur of the potato. 9 references, 2 figures, 5 tables.

  20. Distribution and Diversity of Soil Microfauna from East Antarctica: Assessing the Link between Biotic and Abiotic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Velasco-Castrillón, Alejandro; Schultz, Mark B.; Colombo, Federica; Gibson, John A. E.; Davies, Kerrie A.; Austin, Andrew D.; Stevens, Mark I.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial life in Antarctica has been described as some of the simplest on the planet, and mainly confined to soil microfaunal communities. Studies have suggested that the lack of diversity is due to extreme environmental conditions and thought to be driven by abiotic factors. In this study we investigated soil microfauna composition, abundance, and distribution in East Antarctica, and assessed correlations with soil geochemistry and environmental variables. We examined 109 soil samples from a wide range of ice-free habitats, spanning 2000 km from Framnes Mountains to Bailey Peninsula. Microfauna across all samples were patchily distributed, from complete absence of invertebrates to over 1600 specimens/gram of dry weight of soil (gdw), with highest microfauna abundance observed in samples with visible vegetation. Bdelloid rotifers were on average the most widespread found in 87% of sampled sites and the most abundant (44 specimens/gdw). Tardigrades occurred in 57% of the sampled sites with an abundance of 12 specimens/gdw. Nematodes occurred in 71% of samples with a total abundance of 3 specimens/gdw. Ciliates and mites were rarely found in soil samples, with an average abundance of 1.3 and 0.04 specimens/gdw, respectively. We found that microfaunal composition and abundance were mostly correlated with the soil geochemical parameters; phosphorus, NO3− and salinity, and likely to be the result of soil properties and historic landscape formation and alteration, rather than the geographic region they were sampled from. Studies focusing on Antarctic biodiversity must take into account soil geochemical and environmental factors that influence population and species heterogeneity. PMID:24498126

  1. Genomic and metagenomic analysis of microbes in a soil environment affected by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake tsunami.

    PubMed

    Hiraoka, Satoshi; Machiyama, Asako; Ijichi, Minoru; Inoue, Kentaro; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Yoshizawa, Susumu; Kogure, Kazuhiro; Iwasaki, Wataru

    2016-01-14

    The Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011 triggered large tsunami waves, which flooded broad areas of land along the Pacific coast of eastern Japan and changed the soil environment drastically. However, the microbial characteristics of tsunami-affected soil at the genomic level remain largely unknown. In this study, we isolated microbes from a soil sample using general low-nutrient and seawater-based media to investigate microbial characteristics in tsunami-affected soil. As expected, a greater proportion of strains isolated from the tsunami-affected soil than the unaffected soil grew in the seawater-based medium. Cultivable strains in both the general low-nutrient and seawater-based media were distributed in the genus Arthrobacter. Most importantly, whole-genome sequencing of four of the isolated Arthrobacter strains revealed independent losses of siderophore-synthesis genes from their genomes. Siderophores are low-molecular-weight, iron-chelating compounds that are secreted for iron uptake; thus, the loss of siderophore-synthesis genes indicates that these strains have adapted to environments with high-iron concentrations. Indeed, chemical analysis confirmed the investigated soil samples to be rich in iron, and culture experiments confirmed weak cultivability of some of these strains in iron-limited media. Furthermore, metagenomic analyses demonstrated over-representation of denitrification-related genes in the tsunami-affected soil sample, as well as the presence of pathogenic and marine-living genera and genes related to salt-tolerance. Collectively, the present results would provide an example of microbial characteristics of soil disturbed by the tsunami, which may give an insight into microbial adaptation to drastic environmental changes. Further analyses on microbial ecology after a tsunami are envisioned to develop a deeper understanding of the recovery processes of terrestrial microbial ecosystems.

  2. Distribution and diversity of soil microfauna from East Antarctica: assessing the link between biotic and abiotic factors.

    PubMed

    Velasco-Castrillón, Alejandro; Schultz, Mark B; Colombo, Federica; Gibson, John A E; Davies, Kerrie A; Austin, Andrew D; Stevens, Mark I

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial life in Antarctica has been described as some of the simplest on the planet, and mainly confined to soil microfaunal communities. Studies have suggested that the lack of diversity is due to extreme environmental conditions and thought to be driven by abiotic factors. In this study we investigated soil microfauna composition, abundance, and distribution in East Antarctica, and assessed correlations with soil geochemistry and environmental variables. We examined 109 soil samples from a wide range of ice-free habitats, spanning 2000 km from Framnes Mountains to Bailey Peninsula. Microfauna across all samples were patchily distributed, from complete absence of invertebrates to over 1600 specimens/gram of dry weight of soil (gdw), with highest microfauna abundance observed in samples with visible vegetation. Bdelloid rotifers were on average the most widespread found in 87% of sampled sites and the most abundant (44 specimens/gdw). Tardigrades occurred in 57% of the sampled sites with an abundance of 12 specimens/gdw. Nematodes occurred in 71% of samples with a total abundance of 3 specimens/gdw. Ciliates and mites were rarely found in soil samples, with an average abundance of 1.3 and 0.04 specimens/gdw, respectively. We found that microfaunal composition and abundance were mostly correlated with the soil geochemical parameters; phosphorus, NO3 (-) and salinity, and likely to be the result of soil properties and historic landscape formation and alteration, rather than the geographic region they were sampled from. Studies focusing on Antarctic biodiversity must take into account soil geochemical and environmental factors that influence population and species heterogeneity.

  3. Source, transport and fate of soil organic matter inferred from microbial biomarker lipids on the East Siberian Arctic Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischoff, Juliane; Sparkes, Robert B.; Doğrul Selver, Ayça; Spencer, Robert G. M.; Gustafsson, Örjan; Semiletov, Igor P.; Dudarev, Oleg V.; Wagner, Dirk; Rivkina, Elizaveta; van Dongen, Bart E.; Talbot, Helen M.

    2016-09-01

    The Siberian Arctic contains a globally significant pool of organic carbon (OC) vulnerable to enhanced warming and subsequent release by both fluvial and coastal erosion processes. However, the rate of release, its behaviour in the Arctic Ocean and vulnerability to remineralisation is poorly understood. Here we combine new measurements of microbial biohopanoids including adenosylhopane, a lipid associated with soil microbial communities, with published glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) and bulk δ13C measurements to improve knowledge of the fate of OC transported to the East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS). The microbial hopanoid-based soil OC proxy R'soil ranges from 0.0 to 0.8 across the ESAS, with highest values nearshore and decreases offshore. Across the shelf R'soil displays a negative linear correlation with bulk δ13C measurements (r2 = -0.73, p = < 0.001). When compared to the GDGT-based OC proxy, the branched and isoprenoid tetraether (BIT) index, a decoupled (non-linear) behaviour on the shelf was observed, particularly in the Buor-Khaya Bay, where the R'soil shows limited variation, whereas the BIT index shows a rapid decline moving away from the Lena River outflow channels. This reflects a balance between delivery and removal of OC from different sources. The good correlation between the hopanoid and bulk terrestrial signal suggests a broad range of hopanoid sources, both fluvial and via coastal erosion, whilst GDGTs appear to be primarily sourced via fluvial transport. Analysis of ice complex deposits (ICDs) revealed an average R'soil of 0.5 for the Lena Delta, equivalent to that of the Buor-Khaya Bay sediments, whilst ICDs from further east showed higher values (0.6-0.85). Although R'soil correlates more closely with bulk OC than the BIT, our understanding of the endmembers of this system is clearly still incomplete, with variations between the different East Siberian Arctic regions potentially reflecting differences in environmental

  4. Diversity and Distribution Characteristics of Viruses in Soils of a Marine-Terrestrial Ecotone in East China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dan-Ting; Han, Li-Li; Zhang, Li-Mei; He, Ji-Zheng

    2017-08-21

    A substantial gap remains in our understanding of the abundance, diversity, and ecology of viruses in soil although some advances have been achieved in recent years. In this study, four soil samples according to the salinity gradient from shore to inland in East China have been characterized. Results showed that spherical virus particles represented the largest viral component in all of the four samples. The viromes had remarkably different taxonomic compositions, and most of the sequences were derived from single-stranded DNA viruses, especially from families Microviridae and Circoviridae. Compared with viromes from other aquatic and sediment samples, the community compositions of our four soil viromes resembled each other, meanwhile coastal sample virome closely congregated with sediment and hypersaline viromes, and high salinity paddy soil sample virome was similar with surface sediment virome. Phylogenetic analysis of functional genes showed that four viromes have high diversity of the subfamily Gokushovirinae in family Microviridae and most of Circoviridae replicase protein sequences grouped within the CRESS-DNA viruses. This work provided an initial outline of the viral communities in marine-terrestrial ecotone and will improve our understanding of the ecological functions of soil viruses.

  5. Cosmogenic 35S as a Novel Detector of Stratospheric Air at the Earth's Surface: Key Findings from the Western United States and New Insights into the Seasonal Variations of Ozone and Sulfate in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, M.; Thiemens, M. H.; Shaheen, R.; Biglari, S.; Crocker, D.; Zhang, Z.; Tao, J.; Su, L.; Fung, J. C. H.; Su, B.; Liu, L.

    2016-12-01

    The extent to which stratospheric intrusions on synoptic scales influence the tropospheric ozone (O3) levels remains poorly understood because quantitative detection of stratosphere air at the Earth's surface has been challenging. Cosmogenic 35S is invaluable in such quantification, but this has not yet been unambiguously demonstrated. As a global hot spot for stratospheric intrusions, the western United States (US) is a natural laboratory for testing the validity of this approach. Here, we present measurements of 35S in sulfate aerosols during a well-defined deep stratospheric intrusion event in the western US, which led to a regional O3 pollution event across southern California. The surprisingly high 35S activity in this episode is greater than any other natural radiogenic sulfate aerosols reported in the literature, providing the first and direct field-based evidence that 35S is a sensitive tracer for air mass of stratospheric origin and transported downward. Using this novel tracer, we quantify the seasonal variation for the strength of downward transport of stratospheric air to the planetary boundary layer in East Asia (EA) and what it may mean for surface O3 and sulfate levels. Our 35S measurements in sulfate aerosols collected from a background site (Mount Wuyi; 27.72°N, 117.68°E) during 2014-2015 show peaks in spring and autumn and the temporal variations of 35S were in tandem with surface O3 levels. These results imply that stratospheric O3 in aged stratospheric air masses may contribute to surface O3 levels in the study region in these two seasons. Along with radiogenic 35S analysis, measuring all seven stable isotopes (16O, 17O, 18O, 32S, 33S, 34S and 36S) in the same sulfate samples provides significantly deeper understanding of the atmospheric sulfur cycle in this region. Triple oxygen isotopes are being measured and preliminary results show that the relative importance of different formation pathways of secondary sulfate in EA is likely altitude

  6. Occurrence and distribution of heavy metals and tetracyclines in agricultural soils after typical land use change in east China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Longhhua; Pan, Xia; Chen, Like; Huang, Yujuan; Teng, Ying; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Land use in east China tends to change from paddy rice to vegetables or other high-value cash crops, resulting in high input rates of organic manures and increased risk of contamination with both heavy metals (HMs) and antibiotics. This investigation was conducted to determine the accumulation, distribution and risks of HMs and tetracyclines (TCs) in surface soils and profiles receiving different amounts of farmyard manure. Soil samples collected from suburbs of Hangzhou city, Zhejiang province were introduced to represent three types of land use change from paddy rice to asparagus production, vineyards and field mustard cultivation, and divided into two portions, one of which was air-dried and sieved through 2-, 0.3- and 0.149-mm nylon mesh for determination of pH and heavy metals. The other portion was frozen at -20 °C, freeze-dried and sieved through a 0.3-mm nylon mesh for tetracyline determination. HM and TC concentrations in surface soils of 14-year-old mustard fields were the highest with total Cu, Zn, Cd and ∑TCs of 50.5, 196, 1.03 mg kg(-1) and 22.9 μg kg(-1), respectively, on average. The total Cu sequence was field mustard>vineyards>asparagus when duration of land use change was considered; oxytetracycline (OTC) and doxycycline were dominant in soils used for asparagus production; OTC was dominant in vineyards and chlortetracycline (CTC) was dominant in mustard soils. There were positive pollution relationships among Cu, Zn and ∑TCs, especially between Cu and Zn or Cu and ∑TCs. Repeated and excessive application of manures from intensive farming systems may produce combined contamination with HMs and TCs which were found in the top 20 cm of the arable soil profiles and also extended to 20-40 cm depth. Increasing manure application rate and cultivation time led to continuing increases in residue concentrations and movement down the soil profile.

  7. [Specific Features of Radioactive Pollution of Soils of Catchment Areas of Lake Shablish (Distant Zone of the East Ural Radioactive Trace)].

    PubMed

    Deryagin, V V; Levina, S G; Sutyagin, A A; Parfilova, N S

    2015-01-01

    Specific features of 90Sr and 137Cs distribution and accumulation in soil cuts of superaqueous and eluvial positions of catchment areas of Lake Shablish located in a distant zone of the East Ural radioactive trace are considered. Some physical and chemical characteristics of the soils were defined. It is established that the signs typical for the lake ecosystems of distant East-Ural radioactive trace zone which underwent impact of technogenic influence are common for soils of catchment areas of Lake Shablish. The distinctions in some characteristic features of the specific activity of long-living radionuclides for the soils of superaqueous and eluvial positions of catchment areas connected with the character of the water regime of soils are shown.

  8. Impact of tree cutting on water-soluble organic compounds in podzolic soils of the European North-East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapteva, Elena; Bondarenko, Natalia; Shamrikova, Elena; Kubik, Olesya; Punegov, Vasili

    2016-04-01

    Water-soluble organic compounds (WOCs) and their single components, i.e. low-molecular organic acids, alcohols, and carbohydrates, attain a great deal of attention among soil scientists. WOCs are an important component of soil organic matter (SOM) and form as a results of different biological and chemical processes in soils. These processes are mainly responsible for formation and development of soils in aboveground ecosystems. The purpose of the work was identifying qualitative and quantitative composition of low-molecular organic substances which form in podzolic loamy soils against natural reforestation after spruce forest cutting. The studies were conducted on the territory of the European North-East of Russia, in the middle taiga subzone (Komi Republic, Ust-Kulom region). The study materials were soil of undisturbed bilberry spruce forest (Sample Plot 1 (SP1)) and soils of different-aged tree stands where cutting activities took place in winter 2001/2002 (SP2) and 1969/1970 (SP3). Description of soils and vegetation cover on the plots is given in [1]. Low-molecular organic compounds in soil water extracts were identified by the method of gas chromatography mass-spectrometry [2, 3]. Finally, reforestationafterspruceforestcutting was found to be accompanied by different changes in soil chemical composition. In contrast with soils under undisturbed spruce forest, organic soil horizons under different-aged cuts decreased in organic carbon reserves and production of low-molecular organic compounds, changed in soil acidity. Within the soil series of SP1→SP2→SP3, the highest content of WOCs was identified for undisturbed spruce forest (738 mg kg-1 soil). In soils of coniferous-deciduous forests on SP1 and SP3, WOC content was 294 and 441 mg kg-1 soil, correspondingly. Soils at cuts decreased in concentration of any water-soluble low-molecular SOM components as low-molecular acids, alcohols, and carbohydrates. Structure of low-molecular WOCs in the study podzolic

  9. Alterations of lead speciation by sulfate from addition of flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) in two contaminated soils

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is the first study to evaluate the potential application of FGDG as an in situ Pb stabilizer in contaminated soils with two different compositions and to explain the underlying mechanisms. A smelter Pb contaminated soil (SM-soil), rich in ferrihydrite bound Pb (FH-Pb), ceru...

  10. Alterations of lead speciation by sulfate from addition of flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) in two contaminated soils

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is the first study to evaluate the potential application of FGDG as an in situ Pb stabilizer in contaminated soils with two different compositions and to explain the underlying mechanisms. A smelter Pb contaminated soil (SM-soil), rich in ferrihydrite bound Pb (FH-Pb), ceru...

  11. Estimating Sahelian and East African soil moisture using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNally, A.; Funk, C.; Husak, G. J.; Michaelsen, J.; Cappelaere, B.; Demarty, J.; Pellarin, T.; Young, T. P.; Caylor, K. K.; Riginos, C.; Veblen, K. E.

    2013-06-01

    Rainfall gauge networks in Sub-Saharan Africa are inadequate for assessing Sahelian agricultural drought, hence satellite-based estimates of precipitation and vegetation indices such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) provide the main source of information for early warning systems. While it is common practice to translate precipitation into estimates of soil moisture, it is difficult to quantitatively compare precipitation and soil moisture estimates with variations in NDVI. In the context of agricultural drought early warning, this study quantitatively compares rainfall, soil moisture and NDVI using a simple statistical model to translate NDVI values into estimates of soil moisture. The model was calibrated using in-situ soil moisture observations from southwest Niger, and then used to estimate root zone soil moisture across the African Sahel from 2001-2012. We then used these NDVI-soil moisture estimates (NSM) to quantify agricultural drought, and compared our results with a precipitation-based estimate of soil moisture (the Antecedent Precipitation Index, API), calibrated to the same in-situ soil moisture observations. We also used in-situ soil moisture observations in Mali and Kenya to assess performance in other water-limited locations in sub Saharan Africa. The separate estimates of soil moisture were highly correlated across the semi-arid, West and Central African Sahel, where annual rainfall exhibits a uni-modal regime. We also found that seasonal API and NDVI-soil moisture showed high rank correlation with a crop water balance model, capturing known agricultural drought years in Niger, indicating that this new estimate of soil moisture can contribute to operational drought monitoring. In-situ soil moisture observations from Kenya highlighted how the rainfall-driven API needs to be recalibrated in locations with multiple rainy seasons (e.g., Ethiopia, Kenya, and Somalia). Our soil moisture estimates from NDVI, on the other hand, performed

  12. Chondroitin sulfate

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kashin-Beck disease, and itchy and scaly skin (psoriasis). Chondroitin sulfate is also used in a complex ... or recurrent heart attack. Skin redness and irritation (psoriasis). Early research suggests that taking chondroitin sulfate for ...

  13. 2H/1H composition of soil n-alkanes along two altitudinal transects in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffinet, Sarah; Huguet, Arnaud; Pedentchouk, Nikolai; Omuombo, Christine; Williamson, David; Bergonzini, Laurent; Wagner, Thomas; Derenne, Sylvie

    2015-04-01

    Long chains n-alkanes are components of terrestrial plant leaf waxes that are ubiquitously found in geological archives. They have been extensively used to track environmental and ecological variations in the past, notably changes in vegetation communities. Recent analytical developments led to the possibility of measuring their deuterium to hydrogen isotopic ratio (δ2Hwax). This parameter is suggested to be linked to hydrogen isotope ratio of precipitations (δ2Hp). In 2008, Jia et al. proposed to use soil derived δ2 Hwax as a paleoelevation proxy since precipitations are known to get more depleted in deuterium with altitude. They found a linear correlation (R2 0.73) between δ2Hwax in surface soils and altitude along Mt. Gongga (China). Since then, the correlation between δ2Hwax and δ2Hp was shown for several other altitudinal transects. Contrary to these previous observations, however, no trend with altitude was observed in East Africa along an altitudinal gradient in Mt. Kilimanjaro (North eastern, Tanzania, Peterse et al., 2009 and Zech et al., 2014). What is the reason for this absence of trend? Is it because of a difference between African and Asian soils? Or is it specific to Mt. Kilimanjaro? To get an insight into this problem, we determined δ2Hwax in 41 surface soils sampled along two altitudinal transects: from 500 to 2800 m in Mt. Rungwe (South-western Tanzania) and from 1897 to 3268 m in Mt. Kenya (Central Kenya). The goal of the study was to further investigate the conditions of applicability of this proxy in East Africa. A correlation between soil derived δ2Hwax and altitude was observed along Mt. Kenya (δ2Hwax=20.2*ALT-88.0, R2=0.51) but not along Mt. Rungwe - similarly to Mt. Kilimanjaro (Peterse et al., 2009; Zech et al., 2014). This contrast between Mt. Kenya on one hand and Mts. Rungwe and Kilimanjaro on the other hand may be explained by differences in topography. These results highlight the complexity of the signal recorded by δ2H, and

  14. [Contamination Assessment and Sources Analysis of Soil Heavy Metals in Opencast Mine of East Junggar Basin in Xinjiang].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Yang, Jian-jun; Wang, Jun; Wang, Guo; Cao, Yue-e

    2016-05-15

    The opencast mine of East Junggar Basin in Xinjiang is the largest self-contained coalfield in China, and the ecological environment of the opencast is very fragile because of its arid climate and poor soil. In this study, 50 soil samples (from 0 to 30 cm depth soil at intervals of 10 cm) in opencast Mine of East Junggar Basin in Xinjiang were collected in order to explore the heavy metals contamination of the coal mining. The contents of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cr), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg) and arsenic (As) were measured and the degree of pollution was assessed by Nemerow index, geo-accumulation (Igeo) index and potential ecological risk index. In addition, the layered comparison, dust fall and the distance between coal mine and samples location were used to analyze the source of heavy metals contamination. The results showed that value of As surpassed the Chinese soil quality standard class I (GB 15618-1995) mostly severely, followed by Cr, a relatively lower surpass was obtained by Hg and Cu, while Zn and Pb did not surpass the standard. According to the standard, the soil heavy metals content of research region was in light pollution status and the pollution index for each heavy metal followed the order of As (2.07) > Cr (0.95) > Cu (0.55) > Zn (0.48) > Hg (0.45) > Pb (0.38), which demonstrated a heavy pollution of As and clean status of others. Additionally, an Igeo value of 1.14 for Hg reflected a moderated pollution. The major contribution factor was Hg with a risk index of 251.40. The source analysis showed that the content of Pb in the surface soil (10-20 cm) was different from that in the deep layer (20-30 cm), which may be caused by coal combustion and other human activities. The sources of Hg and As were similar and may come from coal combustion. The distance to the mining area was not the major factor affecting the diffusion of heavy metals, other candidate factors included terrain, aspect and wind direction, etc.

  15. Legal and organizational enhancement of the mechanisms of soil fertility preservation in the Russian Federation (Using the example of the Far East)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesterova, O. V.; Semal, V. A.; Tregubova, V. G.

    2016-06-01

    The terms land, land plot, and soil as applied in normative documents related to land relations and land management practices are considered. Major legal documents regulating the use of agricultural lands are analyzed. Some drawbacks in the system of the state land management and land legislation resulting in the inefficient control of soil fertility on privately owned lands in the Far East of Russia are revealed. An obligatory certification of soils is recommended as a procedure necessary to ensure efficient control over soil fertility and the quality of agricultural produce.

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Desulfitobacterium hafniense Strain DH, a Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Isolated from Paddy Soils

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xi; Li, Guo-Xiang; Chen, Song-Can; Jia, Xiao-Yu; Wu, Kun; Cao, Chang-Li

    2016-01-01

    Desulfitobacterium hafniense strain DH is a sulfate-reducing species. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of strain DH, with a size of 5,368,588 bp, average G+C content of 47.48%, and 5,296 predicted protein-coding sequences. PMID:26868389

  17. Neutralization of soil aerosol and its impact on the distribution of acid rain over east Asia: Observations and model results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zifa; Akimoto, Hajime; Uno, Itsushi

    2002-10-01

    A comprehensive Air Quality Prediction Modeling System is applied to simulate the pH values in precipitation and to investigate neutralization by soil aerosols and their influence on the distribution of acid rain over east Asia. A modified deflation module is designed to provide explicit information on the soil aerosol loading. Numerical simulation was performed for 1 year, from 15 December 1998 to 31 December 1999. Wet deposition monitoring data at 17 sites of the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in east Asia in addition to State Environmental Protection Agency data were used to evaluate the model, and a reasonable agreement was obtained. Observed evidence clearly shows that in northern China acid deposition is heavily influenced and buffered by natural soil dust from desert and semiarid areas. The observed mean rainwater pH value in northern China is the highest, between 6.0 and 7.2, while in southern China, where many areas severely impacted by acid precipitation are located, the pH value is much lower, between 3.5 and 5. In Japan the mean pH value is 4.7, significantly higher than that in southern China, while in South Korea the pH value is intermediate between those in northern China and Japan. The model is capable of reproducing this geographical distribution of rainwater pH over east Asia. The simulation results for 1999 demonstrated strong neutralization of precipitation by soil aerosols over northeast Asia, and the distribution pattern of acid rain was also altered. The annual mean pH values in northern China and Korea show a remarkable increase of 0.8-2.5, while the increase in mean pH values over southern China and Japan are less than 0.1. The neutralization effects vary by season, with the greatest influence in spring, when pH values increased by 0.1-0.4 in Japan, 0.5-1.5 in Korea, and more than 2 in northern China.

  18. [Characteristics of soil microbial community under different vegetation types in Wuyishan National Nature Reserve, East China].

    PubMed

    Wu, Ze-yan; Lin, Wen-xiong; Chen, Zhi-fang; Fang, Chang-xun; Zhang, Zhi-xing; Wu, Lin-kun; Zhou, Ming-ming; Shen, Li-hua

    2013-08-01

    By using Biolog Ecoplate system, this paper studied the structure and functional diversity of soil microbial community under different vegetation types in Wuyishan National Nature Reserve, aimed to probe into the effects of vegetation type on the diversity of soil microbial community. The results showed that the soil chemical properties, soil enzyme activities, and average well color development (AWCD) were higher in natural forest than in planted forest, and were the lowest in abandoned field. The AWCD reflecting soil microbial activity and functional diversity was increased with increasing incubation time, but there existed significant differences among different vegetation types. The carbon sources mostly used by soil microbes were carbohydrates and carboxylic acids, followed by amino acids, phenolic acids and polymers, and amines had the lowest utilization rate. The Simpson index, Shannon index, Richness index and McIntosh index in natural forest were holistically higher than those in planted forest. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified 2 principal component factors in relation to carbon sources, explaining 56.3% and 30.2% of the variation, respectively. The carbon sources used by soil microbial community differed with vegetation types. Amino acids and amides were the two main carbon sources separating the 2 principal component factors. The results of this study could provide basis for further approaching the relationships between vegetation diversity and soil microbial community diversity.

  19. Soil concentrations and soil-air exchange of organochlorine pesticides along the Aba profile, east of the Tibetan Plateau, western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongxia; Qi, Shihua; Yang, Dan; Hu, Ying; Li, Feng; Liu, Jia; Xing, Xinli

    2013-12-01

    Mianzhu—Aba profile, east of the Tibetan Plateau, was selected to study the occurrence of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) along an altitudinal gradient. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and Aldrin, Dieldrin and Endrin (Drins) in surface soils were detected in winter (March) and summer (July). Soil concentrations (ng·g-1, dw) in winter and summer ranged as follws: DDTs, 0.37-179.16 and 0.32-42.57; HCHs, 0.14-10.76 and 0.55-32.71; Drins, N.D-3.99 and 0.02-6.93, respectively. Main soil OCPs were p, p'-DDT, p, p'-DDE, β-HCH and Drins, among which Drins were rarely reported in current literature of the Tibetan Plateau. Higher OCP concentrations in the profile were attributed close to the agricultural fields of the Sichuan Basin, current lindane and nondicofol DDTs inputs, and also long-range atmospheric transport from abroad. Soil OCP concentrations underwent obvious seasonal variation, with higher DDTs in winter and higher HCHs and Drins in summer. It may be caused by climatic conditions, summer monsoon type, and physico-chemical properties of such contaminants. Though "rest" phenomenon occurred in some sampling sites, HCHs and Drins showed an increasing trend with increasing altitude, while DDTs showed an evident decrease with increasing altitude. The altitudinal distributions of OCPs were all consistent with previous findings in other mountainous regions. A primary fugacity analysis on OCPs soil-air exchange indicated that the profile may be secondary sources for HCHs and Endrin. As with Aldrin, Dieldrin, and DDTs, the profile may be both secondary sources and sinks.

  20. Soils and late-Quaternary landscape evolution in the Cottonwood River basin, east-central Kansas: Implications for archaeological research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeton, J.M.; Mandel, R.D.

    2011-01-01

    Temporal and spatial patterns of landscape evolution strongly influence the temporal and spatial patterns of the archaeological record in drainage systems. In this geoarchaeological investigation we took a basin-wide approach in assessing the soil stratigraphy, lithostratigraphy, and geochronology of alluvial deposits and associated buried soils in the Cottonwood River basin of east-central Kansas. Patterns of landscape evolution emerge when stratigraphic sequences and radiocarbon chronologies are compared by stream size and landform type. In the valleys of high-order streams (???4th order) the Younger Dryas Chronozone (ca. 11,000-10,000 14C yr B.P.) was characterized by slow aggradation accompanied by pedogenesis, resulting in the development of organic-rich cumulic soils. Between ca. 10,000 and 4900 14C yr B.P., aggradation punctuated by soil formation was the dominant process in those valleys. Alluvial fans formed on the margins of high-order stream valleys during the early and middle Holocene (ca. 9000-5000 14C yr B.P.) and continued to develop slowly until ca. 3000-2000 14C yr B.P. The late-Holocene record of high-order streams is characterized by episodes of entrenchment, rapid aggradation, and slow aggradation punctuated by soil development. By contrast, the early and middle Holocene (ca. 10,000-5000 14C yr B.P.) was a period of net erosion in the valleys of low-order streams. However, during the late Holocene small valleys became zones of net sediment storage. Consideration of the effects of these patterns of landscape evolution on the archaeological record is crucial for accurately interpreting that record and searching for buried archaeological deposits dating to specific cultural periods. ?? 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. ?? 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc..

  1. Alterations of lead speciation by sulfate from addition of flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) in two contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Koralegedara, Nadeesha H; Al-Abed, Souhail R; Rodrigo, Sanjeewa K; Karna, Ranju R; Scheckel, Kirk G; Dionysiou, Dionysios D

    2017-01-01

    This is the first study to evaluate the potential application of FGDG as an in situ Pb stabilizer in contaminated soils with two different compositions and to explain the underlying mechanisms. A smelter Pb contaminated soil (SM-soil), rich in ferrihydrite bound Pb (FH-Pb), cerussite and litharge with a total Pb content of 65,123mg/kg and an organic matter rich orchard soil (BO-soil), rich in FH-Pb and humic acid bound Pb with a total Pb content of 1532mg/kg were amended with 5% FGDG (w/w). We subjected the two soils to three leaching tests; toxicity characteristic leaching protocol (TCLP), synthetic precipitation leaching protocol (SPLP), kinetic batch leaching test (KBLT) and in-vitro bioaccessibility assay (IVBA) in order to evaluate the FGDG amendment on Pb stabilization. Solid residues of original and FGDG amended soil were analyzed using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to identify changes in Pb speciation after each leaching test. The leachate Pb concentrations of FGDG amended soil were lower compared to those of in non-amended soil. The linear combination fitting analysis of XAS confirmed the formation of anglesite and leadhillite in FGDG amended soil. FGDG reduced the Pb desorption from ferrihydrite (FH), by forming FH-Pb-SO4 ternary complexes. FGDG decreased the Pb adsorption onto humic acid (HA) possibly due to the release of divalent cations such as Ca and Mg, which can compete with Pb to get adsorbed onto HA. The FGDG can successfully be used to remediate Pb contaminated soil. The efficiency of the treatment highly depends on the soil composition. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. An Assessment of health risk associated with mercury in soil and sediment from East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Revis, N.; Holdsworth, G.; Bingham, G.; King, A.; Elmore, J.

    1989-04-01

    This report presents results from a study conducted to determine the toxicity of Mercury in soils sediments samples. Mice were fed via diet, soils and sediment, from various locations along the East Fork Poplar creek. Tissue distribution of pollutants was determined at various intervals. The tissue level relative to toxicity was used to determine the effect of a complex matrix on the gastrointestinal absorption and tissue distribution of the pollutants (other pollutants included cadmium and selenium).

  3. The association of endemic elephantiasis of the lower legs in East Africa with soil derived from volcanic rocks.

    PubMed

    Price, E W

    1976-01-01

    Endemic elephantiasis of the lower legs in Ethiopia, which reaches a maximum of 86-7 per 1,000 adults in affected areas, is related to the distribution of red clay soil derived from volcanic rocks, particularly basalt. Prevalence falls rapidly on leaving these areas. This observation has been tested in regions of non-filarial elephantiasis reported in Kanya and north-western Tanzania and further investigated in volcanic areas of Rwanda where the disease had not previously been reported. The same relationship is found to occur in these areas. The limitation to the lower legs of the barefooted section of the farming community suggests that the aetiological factor or factors enter by the feet. The occurrence at high altitude (over 1,200 metres) is noted and the predominance of basalt or basalt-like lava in each case is considered significant. The altitude governs rainfall and temperature and thus governs the type of soil produced. The soil produced from these rocks is rich in colloidal iron oxide, alumina and silica, to which a number of metallic ions are adsorbed. This soil is a reddish-brown clay which, when wet, is strongly adherent to the skin. The derived ions are known to be toxic to human tissue and absorption through intact human skin has been shown to occur experimentally. It is suggested that absorption of these irritants through the bare feet is responsible for the irreversible damage to the lymphatic channels. The present studies support the hypothesis that "high-altitude" elephantiasis of the lower legs in East Africa is a geochemical disease.

  4. Levels of flame retardants HBCD, TBBPA and TBC in surface soils from an industrialized region of East China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jianfeng; Feng, Jiayong; Li, Xinhu; Li, Gang

    2014-05-01

    Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) are of increasing concern because of their potential environmental persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity. Tris-(2,3-dibromopropyl)isocyanurate (TBC) is another brominated flame retardant (BFR) which has recently been found in the environment and begun to attract attention. The objective of this study is to determine the concentration of these three BFRs in surface soil samples collected from a heavily industrialized and urbanized region in East China. Levels of ∑HBCDs ranged from below detection limits (0.020 ng g(-1)) to 102.6 ng g(-1) on a dry weight basis (dw) with a median level of 15.8 ng g(-1) dw. For TBBPA, the concentration ranged from below detection limits (0.025 ng g(-1)) to 78.6 ng g(-1) dw with a median level of 9.17 ng g(-1) dw. TBC was found at relatively lower concentrations ranging from below detection limits (0.024 ng g(-1)) to 16.4 ng g(-1) dw with a median level of 0.95 ng g(-1) dw. The concentrations of these three BFRs are significantly positively correlated, indicating a common source. Variable BFRs levels were found in different types of soils, with significantly higher concentrations observed at waste dumping sites and industrial areas. The diastereoisomer profiles of HBCDs in most of the soil samples differed from those of the commercial products. The mass inventories of HBCDs, TBBPA and TBC in this region gave preliminarily estimates of 6.68, 2.67 and 0.85 kg, respectively. Therefore, the ubiquitous contamination of soils by these BFRs may well reflect their widespread usage in the study area.

  5. Final report from VFL technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils. LEFPC Appendices, Volume 2, Appendix V-A

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    This document contains information concerning validation of analytical data for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Floodplain soils located at the Y-12 Plant site. This volume is an appendix of compiled data from this validation process.

  6. Final report from VFL Technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils. LEFPC appendices. Volume 5. Appendix V-D

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    This final report from VFL Technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils dated September 1994 contains LEFPC Appendices, Volume 5, Appendix V - D. This appendix includes the final verification run data package (PAH, TCLP herbicides, TCLP pesticides).

  7. Akaganéite (β-FeOOH) precipitation in inland acid sulfate soils of south-western New South Wales (NSW), Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibi, Irshad; Singh, Balwant; Silvester, Ewen

    2011-11-01

    The prevalence of sulphidic sediments in inland wetlands has been only recently recognized in many parts of the world, including Australia. The exposure of sulphidic sediments in these wetlands due to natural and human induced drying events has resulted in the oxidation of iron sulfide minerals, the formation of secondary iron minerals characteristic of acid sulfate soils and the release of highly acidic solutions. The objective of this study was to determine the mineralogy and morphology of sediments collected from the oxidized surface horizon (0-5 cm) of an inland acid sulfate soil located in south-western New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Random powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (STEM-EDS) techniques were used to characterize the minerals present in these sediments. Akaganéite was identified as the major mineral phase in the sediments; K-jarosite was also determined in small amounts in some sediments. The XRD patterns of sequentially washed (E-pure® water-0.01 M HCl-0.01 M EDTA) sediment samples showed all akaganéite peaks; the Rietveld refinement of these patterns also revealed a predominance of akaganéite. The chemical analyses of the original and washed sediments using STEM-EDS clearly showed the presence of akaganéite as a pure mineral phase with an average Fe/Cl mole ratio of 6.7 and a structural formula of Fe 8O 8(OH) 6.8(Cl) 1.2. These findings show that the extreme saline-acidic solutions (pH ˜ 2, EC = 216 dS/m) at the Bottle Bend lagoon provide ideal conditions for the crystallization of this rarely forming mineral.

  8. Reflectance spectra of sulfate-and carbonate-bearing Fe(3+)-doped montmorillonites as Mars soil analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Janice L.; Pieters, Carle M.; Burns, Roger G.

    1993-01-01

    Ferric smectites and ferrihydrite may be common alteration products of igneous lithologies on Mars, and experiments involving montmorillonite enriched with Fe(3+) support the likelihood of ferric smectites on Mars. Mossbauer spectroscopy has been used to identify ferrihydrite (Fe4(O,OH,H2O)12) as the primary ferric material in Fe(3+)-doped montmorillonite. Ferrihydrite is especially interesting due to its role as a precursor in the formation of hematite and goethite. Reflectance spectroscopy in the visible and infrared regions are coupled with Mossbauer spectroscopy in this study to characterize the ferric material in montmorillonites containing Fe(3+), as well as carbonates or sulfates, in the interlayer region.

  9. Heterogeneity of carbon loss and its temperature sensitivity in East-European subarctic tundra soils.

    PubMed

    Diáková, Kateřina; Čapek, Petr; Kohoutová, Iva; Mpamah, Promise A; Bárta, Jiří; Biasi, Christina; Martikainen, Pertti J; Šantrůčková, Hana

    2016-09-01

    Arctic peatlands store large stocks of organic carbon which are vulnerable to the climate change but their fate is uncertain. There is increasing evidence that a part of it will be lost as a result of faster microbial mineralization. We studied the vulnerability of 3500-5900 years old bare peat uplifted from permafrost layers by cryogenic processes to the surface of an arctic peat plateau. We aimed to find biotic and abiotic drivers of CLOSS from old peat and compare them with those of adjacent, young vegetated soils of the peat plateau and mineral tundra. The soils were incubated in laboratory at three temperatures (4°C, 12°C and 20°C) and two oxygen levels (aerobic, anaerobic). CLOSS was monitored and soil parameters (organic carbon quality, nutrient availability, microbial activity, biomass and stoichiometry, and extracellular oxidative and hydrolytic enzyme pools) were determined. We found that CLOSS from the old peat was constrained by low microbial biomass representing only 0.22% of organic carbon. CLOSS was only slightly reduced by the absence of oxygen and exponentially increased with temperature, showing the same temperature sensitivity under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. We conclude that carbon in the old bare peat is stabilized by a combination of physical, chemical and biological controls including soil compaction, organic carbon quality, low microbial biomass and the absence of plants. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Final report for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    IT Corporation (IT) was contracted by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) to perform a pilot-scale demonstration of the effectiveness of thermal desorption as a remedial technology for removing mercury from the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) floodplain soil. Previous laboratory studies by Energy Systems suggested that this technology could reduce mercury to very low levels. This pilot-scale demonstration study was initiated to verify on an engineering scale the performance of thermal desorption. This report includes the details of the demonstration study, including descriptions of experimental equipment and procedures, test conditions, sampling and analysis, quality assurance (QA), detailed test results, and an engineering assessment of a conceptual full-scale treatment facility. The specific project tasks addressed in this report were performed between October 1993 and June 1994. These tasks include soil receipt, preparation, and characterization; prepilot (bench-scale) desorption tests; front-end materials handling tests; pilot tests; back-end materials handling tests; residuals treatment; and engineering scale-up assessment.

  11. Distribution of Glycerol Diakyl Glycerol Tetraethers in Surface Soil and Crater Lake Sediments from Mount Kenya, East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omuombo, C.; Huguet, A.; Olago, D.; Williamson, D.

    2013-12-01

    Glycerol diakyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs), a palaeoclimate proxy based on the relative abundance of lipids produced by archaea and bacteria, is gaining wide acceptance for the determination of past temperature and pH conditions. This study looks at the spatial distribution and abundance of GDGTs in soil and sediment samples along an altitudinal transect from 3 crater lakes of Mt. Kenya (Lake Nkunga, Sacred Lake and Lake Rutundu) ranging in elevation from 1700m - 3080m above sea level. GDGTs were extracted with solvents and then analysed using high performance liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC/APCI-MS). Mean annual air temperature and pH were estimated based on the relative abundance of the different branched GDGTs, i.e. on the MBT (Methylation index of Branched Tetraethers) and CBT (Cyclization ratio of Branched Tetraethers) indices. Substantial amount of GDGTs were detected in both soil and sediment samples. In addition, branched GDGT distribution was observed to vary with altitude. These results highlight the importance of quantifying the branched GDGTs to understand the environmental parameters controlling the distribution of these lipids. The MBT/CBT proxy is a promising tool to infer palaeotemperatures and characterize the climate events of the past millennia in equatorial east Africa.

  12. Solute flow in extremely stony forest soil: case study in Russian Far East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerke, K.; Gartsman, B.; Bugayets, A.; Korost, D.

    2012-04-01

    Large impermeable objects like stones can drastically affect numerous soil properties. This contribution is mainly focused on hydrological issues. The original idea of series of field experiments was to visualize and quantify preferential flow paths in extremely stony forest soils on natural hillslopes in Vladivostok region, Russian Federation. This region is known for its intensive rain seasons (monsoon climate). For the purpose mentioned above two large-scale staining tracer experiments were carried out. Up to 200 l of dye solution were uniformly sprinkled over the area of 1 square meter using industrial pressure-calibrated nozzles. Two different tracers were utilized: common staining dye Brilliant Blue FCF and fluorescent dye Uranine. These substances were chosen due to their different staining mechanisms. First common dye solution (100 l) was applied, followed by the same amount of fluorescent dye solution. After full infiltration sequential upslope soil profiles were cut and flow patterns examined using common light for Brilliant Blue FCF and UV light for Uranine. Flow patterns showed unexpected homogeneity, e.g., quite uniform staining profiles and absence of pronounced bundle-like preferential flow paths. Also, no biomat flow (upper layer) was observed. Excavation resulted in quite rough profiles due to large amount of stones; stone positions were reconstructed using shades obtained using digital photos obtained using angled lightening. All infiltration occurred via gaps between stones. Some funneled flow between huge boulders was observed in some cases. Minor differences were observed between two dyes patterns which suggest that infiltration paths were stable. Unfortunately, all observations were not possible for the deepest infiltrations parts because of excavation difficulties increasing with depth (maximum depth reached was around 1.2 m). Undisturbed soil samples were taken from these conducting zones, both stained and unstained portions of soil. However

  13. Influence of agricultural practice on trace metals in soils and vegetation in the water conservation area along the East River (Dongjiang River), South China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chunling; Yang, Renxiu; Wang, Yan; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Li, Xiangdong

    2012-08-01

    Dongjiang (East River) is the key resource of potable water for the Pearl River Delta region, South China. Although industrial activities are limited in the water conservation area along this river, agriculture is very intensive. The present study evaluated trace metals in four soils under different cultivation. The total concentrations of trace metals decreased in the order orchard soil>vegetable soil>paddy soil>natural soil, reflecting decreasing inputs of agrochemicals to soils. Relatively high concentrations of Cd were recorded in the 60-cm soil profiles. The (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio in the above-ground tissues of plant was significantly lower than their corresponding soils. In combination with the low transfer factor of Pb from soil to plant shoots, atmospheric deposition is probably a major pathway for Pb to enter plant leaves. Regular monitoring on the soil quality in this area is recommended for the safety of water resource and agricultural products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Adding sodium dodecyl sulfate and Pseudomonas aeruginosa UG2 biosurfactants inhibits polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation in a weathered creosote-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Deschênes, L; Lafrance, P; Villeneuve, J P; Samson, R

    1996-12-01

    The effect of two anionic surfactants was assessed during biodegradation of 13 of the 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in a wood-preserving soil contaminated with creosote and pentacholorophenol for a period of at least 20 years. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and biosurfactants from Pseudomonas aeruginosa UG2 were utilized at concentrations of 10, 100 and 500 micrograms/g soil. Because both surfactants are readily biodegradable, the microcosms received a fresh spike of surfactant every 2 weeks. Biodegradation of aged PAH residues was monitored by GC/MS for a period of 45 weeks. Results indicated that the biodegradation of the three-ring PAH was rapid and almost complete but was slowed by the addition of 100 micrograms/g and 500 micrograms/g chemical surfactant. Similarly, at the same concentrations, the two surfactants significantly decreased the biodegradation rate of the four-ring PAH. In this case, the inhibition was more pronounced with SDS. High-molecular-mass PAH (more than four rings) were not biodegraded under the test conditions. It was suggested that the preferential utilization of surfactants by PAH degraders was responsible for the inhibition observed in the biodegradation of the hydrocarbons. The high biodegradability and the inhibitory effect of these two surfactants would have a significant impact on the development of both above-ground and in situ site reclamation processes.

  15. Forest Clearcutting and Site Preparation on a Saline Soil in East Texas: Impacts on Water Quality

    Treesearch

    Matthew McBroom; Mingteh Chang; Alexander K. Sayok

    2002-01-01

    Three 0.02 hectare plot-watersheds were installed on a saline soil in the Davy Crockett National Forest near Apple Springs, Texas. Each plot was installed with an H-flume, FW-1 automatic water level recorder, Coshocton N-1 runoff sampler, and two storage tanks. One watershed was undisturbed forested and served a control, one was clearcut without any site-preparation,...

  16. Assessing the humus status and CO2 production in soils of anthropogenic and agrogenic landscapes in southern regions of the Russian Far East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purtova, L. N.; Kostenkov, N. M.; Shchapova, L. N.

    2017-01-01

    The humus status and CO2 production have been assessed in soils of natural and anthropogenic landscapes in southern regions of the Far East with different types of redox conditions. A higher production of CO2 is typical of burozems and soddy-eluvial-metamorphic soils with oxidative and contrast redox conditions. These are soils with medium or high humus content, high potential humification capacity, and medium enrichment with catalase. A decrease in the content of humus in the plow horizons of soils in agrogenic landscapes is revealed compared to their natural analogues. The studied soils mainly have humus of the fulvate-humate type. The fractions strongly bound to the mineral soil component prevail in humic acids. In waterlogged mucky-humus gley soils, the anaerobic conditions hamper the biological activity and transformation of organic matter, which favors its accumulation. A low production of CO2 is observed in soils with reducing conditions. To determine the differences between the CO2 emission parameters in soils of agrogenic and natural landscapes, monitoring studies should be extended.

  17. Towards quantifying the reaction network around the sulfate-methane-transition-zone in the Ulleung Basin, East Sea, with a kinetic modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Wei-Li; Torres, Marta E.; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Choi, Jiyoung; Bahk, Jang-Jun

    2014-09-01

    We present a kinetic model based upon pore water data collected from eight sites drilled during the second Ulleung Basin gas hydrate drilling expedition (UBGH2) in 2010. Three sites were drilled at locations where acoustic chimneys were identified in seismic data, and the rest were drilled on non-chimney (i.e., background) environments. Our model, coupled a comprehensive compositional and isotopic data set, is used to illustrate the different biogeochemical processes at play in those two environments, in terms of reactions around the sulfate-methane-transition-zone (SMTZ). Organic matter decomposition is an important process for production of methane, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and consumption of sulfate in the non-chimney sites, whereas anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) dominates both carbon and sulfur cycles in the chimney environment. Different sources of methane mediate AOM in the two settings. Internally produced methane through CO2 reduction (CR) and methanogenesis fuels AOM in the non-chimney sites, whereas AOM is sustained by methane from external sources in the chimney sites. We also simulate the system evolution from non-chimney to chimney conditions by increasing the bottom methane supply to a non-chimney setting. We show that the higher CH4 flux leads to a higher microbial activity of AOM, and more organic matter decomposition through methanogenesis. A higher methanogenesis rate and a smaller CR contribution relative to AOM in the chimney sites is responsible for the isotopically light DIC and heavy methane in this environment, relative to the non-chimney sites.

  18. Coordinating CRISM Observations of Sulfates near Valles Marineris with the Subsurface Bright Salty Soils Exposed in Gusev Crater via Lab Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, J. L.; Parente, M.; Lane, M.; Dyar, M. D.; Bish, D. L.; Sarrazin, P.; King, P.; McKeown, N.; Milliken, R.; Roach, L.; Swayze, G.; Weitz, C.; Murchie, S.; Mustard, J. F.

    2008-12-01

    CRISM has identified unique spectral signatures in inverted channels near Juventae Chasma and other chasmata in the greater Valles Marineris region [1] that are composed of light-toned layered sediments interpreted to be fluvial in origin [2]. These include a weak, broad feature near 1.45 μm, a strong, broad band centered near 1.94 μm, a sharp band at 2.23 μm, and a shoulder or band near 2.4 μm [3]. This signature is not characteristic of any single mineral; however, it is consistent with partially dehydrated ferricopiapite [original formula of Fe0.33Fe2(SO4)3(OH)·10H2O]. Our lab experiments show that incrementally heating this hydrated ferric sulfate to 300 °C at 1 atm changes the color, XRD pattern, and spectral properties of this mineral. The resulting spectral signature of our ferricopiapite heated to 300 °C matches well with the CRISM spectra of the material observed in inverted channels near Juventae Chasma. This result is of particular interest as ferricopiapite is the mineral thought to be present in the bright salty soils exposed by the Spirit rover at Paso Robles and other sites in combined analyses of the Pancam, Mössbauer, Mini-TES and APXS data [4, 5, 6]. Other sulfate minerals possibly present in lower abundance include butlerite, (para)coquimbite, fibroferrite, and metahohmanite [4]. Continued lab experiments are underway to characterize the spectral properties of partially dehydrated ferricopiapite and other OH and H2O-bearing sulfates. Opaline silica is also found in these inverted channels near Juventae Chasma [1] and both monohydrated (szomolnokite and kieserite) and polyhydrated (e.g. ferricopiapite) sulfates are observed in the bright mounds inside the chasma [7]. Identification of partially dehydrated ferricopiapite in these inverted channels provides a link between the aqueous processes occurring in the plains outside the chasma and those processes that formed the light-toned layered mounds inside the chasma. Sulfate deposits in the

  19. Results of mineral, chemical, and sulfate isotopic analyses of water, soil, rocks, and soil extracts from the Pariette Draw Watershed, Uinta Basin, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrison, Jean M.; Tuttle, Michele L.W.; Fahy, Juli W.

    2015-08-06

    The goal of this study was to establish a process-based understanding of salt, Se, and B behavior to address whether these contaminants can be better managed, or if uncontrollable natural processes will overwhelm any attempts to bring Pariette Draw into compliance with respect to recently established total maximum daily limits (TMDLs). We collected data to refine our knowledge about the role of rock weathering and soil formation in the transport and storage of salt in the watershed and to show how salt is cycled under irrigated and natural conditions. Our approach was to sample rock, soils, and sediment on irrigated and natural terrain for mineralogical analysis to determine the residence of salt and associated Se and B, classify minerals as primary (related to rock formation) or secondary weathering products, and characterize mineral dissolution kinetics. Mineral and chemical analyses and selective extractions of rocks and soils provide useful information in understanding solute movement and mineral dissolution/ formation. The resulting data are critical in determining residence of salt, Se, and B in weathered rock and soil and understanding the mobility during water-rock-soil interactions. This report summarizes our methods for sample and data collection and tabulates the mineral, chemical, and isotopic data collected.

  20. Evaluating the patterns of spatiotemporal trends of root zone soil moisture in major climate regions in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zohaib, Muhammad; Kim, Hyunglok; Choi, Minha

    2017-08-01

    Root zone soil moisture (RZSM) is a crucial variable in land-atmosphere interactions. Evaluating the spatiotemporal trends and variability patterns of RZSM are essential for discerning the anthropogenic and climate change effects on the regional and global hydrological cycles. In this study, the trends of RZSM, computed by the exponential filter from the European Space Agency's Climate Change Initiative soil moisture, were evaluated in major climate regions of East Asia from 1982 to 2014. Moreover, the trends of RZSM were compared to the trends of precipitation (P), skin temperature (Tskin), and actual evapotranspiration (AET) to investigate how they influence the RZSM trends in each climate region. Drying trends were predominant in arid and continental regions, whereas wetting trends were found in the tropical and temperate regions. The increasing trends of Tskin and AET cause drying in arid and continental regions, whereas in tropical regions, these cause wetting trends, which might be due to convective P. In temperate regions, despite decreasing P and increasing Tskin, the RZSM trend was increasing, attributed to the intensive irrigation activities in these regions. This is probably the first time to analyze the long-term trends of RZSM in different climate regions. Hence, the results of this study will improve our understanding of the regional and global hydrological cycles. Despite certain limitations, the results of this study may be useful for improving and developing climate models and predicting long-term vast scale natural disasters such as drought, dust outbreaks, floods, and heat waves.

  1. Analysis of the spatial differentiation of the soil cover in the south of the Far East of Russia by the example of the Komarovka River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugaets, A. N.; Pshenichnikova, N. F.; Tereshkina, A. A.; Krasnopeev, S. M.; Gartsman, B. I.

    2015-03-01

    A digital elevation model and a soil map of the basin of the Komarovka River (the Far East region of Russia) were developed using the methods of digital mapping on a scale of 1: 50000. The legend to the soil map was based on the regional soil classification system developed by G.I. Ivanov, in which the character of the water exchange of the soils serves as one of the major differentiating criteria. The analysis of the territory was consecutively performed for its mountain and plain parts and for floodplain landscapes. The morphometric parameters of the relief (height, slope steepness, and slope curvature) were analyzed with the help of overlay functions of geographic information systems for the areas of the main soils of the studied territory and compared with the major soil cover characteristics in order to find stable combinations of the factors explaining the spatial distribution of the soil areas. As a result, we determined the major elements of the relief controlling the spatial differentiation of the soil cover.

  2. Drivers of cyanobacterial diversity and community composition in mangrove soils in south-east Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rigonato, Janaina; Kent, Angela D; Alvarenga, Danillo O; Andreote, Fernando D; Beirigo, Raphael M; Vidal-Torrado, Pablo; Fiore, Marli F

    2013-04-01

    Cyanobacteria act as primary producers of carbon and nitrogen in nutrient-poor ecosystems such as mangroves. This important group of microorganisms plays a critical role in sustaining the productivity of mangrove ecosystems, but the structure and function of cyanobacteria assemblages can be perturbed by anthropogenic influences. The aim of this work was to assess the community structure and ecological drivers that influence the cyanobacterial community harboured in two Brazilian mangrove soils, and examine the long-term effects of oil contamination on these keystone species. Community fingerprinting results showed that, although cyanobacterial communities are distinct between the two mangroves, the structure and diversity of the assemblages exhibit similar responses to environmental gradients. In each ecosystem, cyanobacteria occupying near-shore areas were similar in composition, indicating importance of marine influences for structuring the community. Analysis of 16S rRNA sequences revealed the presence of diverse cyanobacterial communities in mangrove sediments, with clear differences among mangrove habitats along a transect from shore to forest. While near-shore sites in both mangroves were mainly occupied by Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus genera, sequences retrieved from other mangrove niches were mainly affiliated with uncultured cyanobacterial 16S rRNA. The most intriguing finding was the large number of potentially novel cyanobacteria 16S rRNA sequences obtained from a previously oil-contaminated site. The abundance of cyanobacterial 16S rRNA sequences observed in sites with a history of oil contamination was significantly lower than in the unimpacted areas. This study emphasized the role of environmental drivers in determining the structure of cyanobacterial communities in mangrove soils, and suggests that anthropogenic impacts may also act as ecological filters that select cyanobacterial taxa. These results are an important contribution to our

  3. Role of spring soil moisture in the formation of large-scale droughts in the East European Plain in 2002 and 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kislov, A. V.; Varentsov, M. I.; Tarasova, L. L.

    2015-07-01

    Using COSMO-CLM (a nonhydrostatic atmospheric model designed for climate experiments), we simulate the summer anomalies in the meteorological regime of 2010 and 2002 over the central part of the East European Plain. The module of soil moisture treatment is shown to demonstrate reliable results and the radiation module of the model needs to incorporate the optical properties of haze generated by the smoke of forest and peat fires. It is shown that the soil moisture content formed in the spring can (due to its inertial behavior and by changing the heat balance structure) participate in the formation of temperature and humidity anomalies over 3-4 months. The extremeness of the thermal regime in the summer of 2010 in the central part of the East European Plain is due to (all other conditions being equal) the specific values of soil moisture content w 0 = 0.6-0.65. The revealed fine dependence of the phenomenon on the spring state of soil moisture makes it important to improve the monitoring of soil moisture as a key factor in the dynamics of extreme weather anomalies.

  4. Prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths in remote villages in East Kwaio, Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Humpress; Bradbury, Richard; Taeka, James; Asugeni, James; Asugeni, Vunivesi; Igeni, Tony; Gwala, John; Newton, Lawrence; Fa, Chillion Evan; Kilivisi, Fawcett Laurence; Esau, Dorothy; Flores, Angelica; Ribeyro, Elmer; Liku, Daisy; Muse, Alwin; Asugeni, Lyndel; Talana, Jeptha; Shield, Jennifer; MacLaren, David J; Massey, Peter D; Muller, Reinhold; Speare, Rick

    2015-01-01

    Although soil-transmitted helminths (STH) are endemic in Solomon Islands, there are few recent reports on their prevalence. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of STH in residents of remote communities in Solomon Islands. A cross-sectional convenience-sampled survey of residents of four adjacent villages in Malaita, Solomon Islands was performed in Atoifi and Na'au in April 2011 and in Abitona and Sifilo in April 2012. All residents older than one year were invited to participate, which involved providing a single sample of faeces examined using a modified Kato-Katz technique and completing a questionnaire that asked demographic and STH-related behaviour questions. The overall participation rate was 52.8%, with 402 participants comprising 49.8% males. Hookworm was the predominant STH with only a single case of trichuriasis found in Atoifi. The total prevalence of hookworm was 22.6% (95% confidence interval: 18.6-27.1); the prevalence of hookworm in Abitona, Na'au and Sifilo was 20.0%, 29.9% and 27.4%, respectively, whereas in Atoifi it was 2.3% (P < 0.001). Intensity was low in all villages. Although health behaviours differed significantly between Atoifi and the other three villages, the type of toilet used was the only significant association with hookworm. Residents of Atoifi have a relative freedom from STH compared to the other three villages. Rather than a region-wide morbidity control approach, a "one village at a time" approach aiming to eliminate STH and dealing with each village as a separate autonomous unit empowered to manage its own challenges may be a preferred option.

  5. Prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths in remote villages in East Kwaio, Solomon Islands

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Humpress; Bradbury, Richard; Taeka, James; Asugeni, James; Asugeni, Vunivesi; Igeni, Tony; Gwala, John; Newton, Lawrence; Fa, Chillion Evan; Kilivisi, Fawcett Laurence; Esau, Dorothy; Flores, Angelica; Ribeyro, Elmer; Liku, Daisy; Muse, Alwin; Asugeni, Lyndel; Talana, Jeptha; Shield, Jennifer; MacLaren, David J; Massey, Peter D; Muller, Reinhold

    2015-01-01

    Objective Although soil-transmitted helminths (STH) are endemic in Solomon Islands, there are few recent reports on their prevalence. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of STH in residents of remote communities in Solomon Islands. Methods A cross-sectional convenience-sampled survey of residents of four adjacent villages in Malaita, Solomon Islands was performed in Atoifi and Na’au in April 2011 and in Abitona and Sifilo in April 2012. All residents older than one year were invited to participate, which involved providing a single sample of faeces examined using a modified Kato-Katz technique and completing a questionnaire that asked demographic and STH-related behaviour questions. Results The overall participation rate was 52.8%, with 402 participants comprising 49.8% males. Hookworm was the predominant STH with only a single case of trichuriasis found in Atoifi. The total prevalence of hookworm was 22.6% (95% confidence interval: 18.6–27.1); the prevalence of hookworm in Abitona, Na’au and Sifilo was 20.0%, 29.9% and 27.4%, respectively, whereas in Atoifi it was 2.3% (P < 0.001). Intensity was low in all villages. Although health behaviours differed significantly between Atoifi and the other three villages, the type of toilet used was the only significant association with hookworm. Discussion Residents of Atoifi have a relative freedom from STH compared to the other three villages. Rather than a region-wide morbidity control approach, a “one village at a time” approach aiming to eliminate STH and dealing with each village as a separate autonomous unit empowered to manage its own challenges may be a preferred option. PMID:26668767

  6. Pb-concentrations and Pb-isotope ratios in soils collected along an east-west transect across the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reimann, Clemens; Smith, David B.; Woodruff, Laurel G.; Flem, Belinda

    2011-01-01

    Analytical results for Pb-concentrations and isotopic ratios from ca. 150 samples of soil A horizon and ca. 145 samples of soil C horizon collected along a 4000-km east–west transect across the USA are presented. Lead concentrations along the transect show: (1) generally higher values in the soil A-horizon than the C-horizon (median 21 vs. 16.5 mg/kg), (2) an increase in the median value of the soil A-horizon for central to eastern USA (Missouri to Maryland) when compared to the western USA (California to Kansas) (median 26 vs. 20 mg/kg) and (3) a higher A/C ratio for the central to eastern USA (1.35 vs. 1.14). Lead isotopes show a distinct trend across the USA, with the highest 206Pb/207Pb ratios occurring in the centre (Missouri, median A-horizon: 1.245; C-horizon: 1.251) and the lowest at both coasts (e.g., California, median A-horizon: 1.195; C-horizon: 1.216). The soil C-horizon samples show generally higher 206Pb/207Pb ratios than the A-horizon (median C-horizon: 1.224; A-horizon: 1.219). The 206Pb/207Pb-isotope ratios in the soil A horizon show a correlation with the total feldspar content for the same 2500-km portion of the transect from east-central Colorado to the Atlantic coast that shows steadily increasing precipitation. No such correlation exists in the soil C horizon. The data demonstrate the importance of climate and weathering on both Pb-concentration and 206Pb/207Pb-isotope ratios in soil samples and natural shifts thereof in the soil profile during soil-forming processes.

  7. Mapping of Schistosomiasis and Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis in the Regions of Centre, East and West Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Tchuem Tchuenté, Louis-Albert; Kamwa Ngassam, Romuald Isaka; Sumo, Laurentine; Ngassam, Pierre; Dongmo Noumedem, Calvine; Nzu, Deguy D'or Luogbou; Dankoni, Esther; Kenfack, Christian Mérimé; Gipwe, Nestor Feussom; Akame, Julie; Tarini, Ann; Zhang, Yaobi; Angwafo, Fru Fobuzski

    2012-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) are widely distributed in Cameroon. Although mass drug administration (MDA) of mebendazole is implemented nationwide, treatment with praziquantel was so far limited to the three northern regions and few health districts in the southern part of Cameroon, based on previous mapping conducted 25 years ago. To update the disease distribution map and determine where treatment with praziquantel should be extended, mapping surveys were conducted in three of the seven southern regions of Cameroon, i.e. Centre, East and West. Methodology Parasitological surveys were conducted in April–May 2010 in selected schools in all 63 health districts of the three targeted regions, using appropriate research methodologies, i.e. Kato-Katz and urine filtration. Principal Findings The results showed significant variation of schistosomiasis and STH prevalence between schools, villages, districts and regions. Schistosoma mansoni was the most prevalent schistosome species, with an overall prevalence of 5.53%, followed by S. haematobium (1.72%) and S. guineensis (0.14%). The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis across the three regions was 7.31% (95% CI: 6.86–7.77%). The prevalence for Ascaris lumbricoides was 11.48 (95% CI: 10.93–12.04%), Trichuris trichiura 18.22% (95% CI: 17.56–18.90%) and hookworms 1.55% (95% CI: 1.35–1.78%), with an overall STH prevalence of 24.10% (95% CI: 23.36–24.85%) across the three regions. STH was more prevalent in the East region (46.57%; 95% CI: 44.41–48.75%) in comparison to the Centre (25.12; 95% CI: 24.10–26.17%) and West (10.49%; 95% CI: 9.57–11.51%) regions. Conclusions/Significance In comparison to previous data, the results showed an increase of schistosomiasis transmission in several health districts, whereas there was a significant decline of STH infections. Based on the prevalence data, the continuation of annual or bi-annual MDA for STH is recommended, as well as an

  8. Model analysis of soil dust impacts on the boundary layer meteorology and air quality over East Asia in April 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lei; Zhang, Meigen; Zhu, Jia; Skorokhod, Andrei

    2017-05-01

    An online coupled meteorology-chemistry-aerosol model (WRF-Chem) is used to quantify the impact of soil dust on radiative forcing, boundary layer meteorology and air quality over East Asia. The simulation is conducted from 14 to 17 April 2015, when an intense dust storm originated in the Gobi Desert and moved through North China. An integrated comparison analysis using surface observations, satellite, and lidar measurements demonstrates the excellent performance of the WRF-Chem model for meteorological parameters, pollutant concentrations, aerosol optical characteristics, and the spatiotemporal evolution of the dust storm. The maximum aerosol optical depth induced by dust aerosols is simulated to exceed 3.0 over the dust source areas and 1.5 over the downwind regions. Dust has a cooling effect (- 1.19 W m- 2) at the surface, a warming effect (+ 0.90 W m- 2) in the atmosphere and a relatively small forcing (- 0.29 W m- 2) at the top of the atmosphere averaged over East Asia from 14 to 17 April 2015. Due to the impact of dust aerosols, the near-surface air temperature is decreased by 0.01 °C and 0.06 °C in the daytime and increased by 0.13 °C and 0.14 °C at night averaged over the dust sources and the North China Plain (NCP), respectively. The changes in relative humidity are in the range of - 0.38% to + 0.04% for dust sources and - 0.40% to + 0.27% for NCP. The maximum decrease in wind speed of 0.1 m s- 1 is found over NCP. The planetary boundary layer height during the daytime exhibits maximum decreases of 16.34 m and 41.70 m over dust sources and NCP, respectively. The pollutant concentrations are significantly influenced by dust-related heterogeneous chemical reactions, with a maximum decrease of 1.66 ppbV for SO2, 7.15 ppbV for NOy, 35.04 μg m- 3 for NO3-, and a maximum increase of 9.47 μg m- 3 for SO42 - over the downwind areas.

  9. Mapping of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in the regions of centre, East and West Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Tchuem Tchuenté, Louis-Albert; Kamwa Ngassam, Romuald Isaka; Sumo, Laurentine; Ngassam, Pierre; Dongmo Noumedem, Calvine; Nzu, Deguy D'or Luogbou; Dankoni, Esther; Kenfack, Christian Mérimé; Gipwe, Nestor Feussom; Akame, Julie; Tarini, Ann; Zhang, Yaobi; Angwafo, Fru Fobuzski

    2012-01-01

    Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) are widely distributed in Cameroon. Although mass drug administration (MDA) of mebendazole is implemented nationwide, treatment with praziquantel was so far limited to the three northern regions and few health districts in the southern part of Cameroon, based on previous mapping conducted 25 years ago. To update the disease distribution map and determine where treatment with praziquantel should be extended, mapping surveys were conducted in three of the seven southern regions of Cameroon, i.e. Centre, East and West. Parasitological surveys were conducted in April-May 2010 in selected schools in all 63 health districts of the three targeted regions, using appropriate research methodologies, i.e. Kato-Katz and urine filtration. The results showed significant variation of schistosomiasis and STH prevalence between schools, villages, districts and regions. Schistosoma mansoni was the most prevalent schistosome species, with an overall prevalence of 5.53%, followed by S. haematobium (1.72%) and S. guineensis (0.14%). The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis across the three regions was 7.31% (95% CI: 6.86-7.77%). The prevalence for Ascaris lumbricoides was 11.48 (95% CI: 10.93-12.04%), Trichuris trichiura 18.22% (95% CI: 17.56-18.90%) and hookworms 1.55% (95% CI: 1.35-1.78%), with an overall STH prevalence of 24.10% (95% CI: 23.36-24.85%) across the three regions. STH was more prevalent in the East region (46.57%; 95% CI: 44.41-48.75%) in comparison to the Centre (25.12; 95% CI: 24.10-26.17%) and West (10.49%; 95% CI: 9.57-11.51%) regions. In comparison to previous data, the results showed an increase of schistosomiasis transmission in several health districts, whereas there was a significant decline of STH infections. Based on the prevalence data, the continuation of annual or bi-annual MDA for STH is recommended, as well as an extension of praziquantel in identified moderate and high risk communities for

  10. Spatial variation of biogenic sulfur in the south Yellow Sea and the East China Sea during summer and its contribution to atmospheric sulfate aerosol.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sheng-Hui; Yang, Gui-Peng; Zhang, Hong-Hai; Yang, Jian

    2014-08-01

    Spatial distributions of biogenic sulfur compounds including dimethylsulfide (DMS), dissolved and particulate dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSPd and DMSPp) were investigated in the South Yellow Sea (SYS) and the East China Sea (ECS) in July 2011. The concentrations of DMS and DMSPp were significantly correlated with the levels of chlorophyll a in the surface water. Simultaneously, relatively high ratio values of DMSP/chlorophyll a and DMS/chlorophyll a occurred in the areas where the phytoplankton community was dominated by dinoflagellates. The DMSPp and chlorophyll a size-fractionation showed that larger nanoplankton (5-20 μm) was the most important producer of DMSPp in the study area. The vertical profiles of DMS and DMSP were characterized by a maximum at the upper layer and the bottom concentrations were also relatively higher compared with the overlying layer of the bottom. In addition, a positive linear correlation was observed between dissolved dimethylsulfoxide (DMSOd) and DMS concentrations in the surface waters. The sea-to-air fluxes of DMS in the study area were estimated to be from 0.03 to 102.35 μmol m(-2) d(-1) with a mean of 16.73 μmol m(-2) d(-1) and the contribution of biogenic non-sea-salt SO4(2-) (nss-SO4(2-)) to the measured total nss-SO4(2-) in the atmospheric aerosol over the study area varied from 1.42% to 30.98%, with an average of 8.2%.

  11. Diethyl sulfate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Diethyl sulfate ; CASRN 64 - 67 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  12. Dimethyl sulfate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Dimethyl sulfate ; CASRN 77 - 78 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  13. Latitudinal distributions of activities in atmospheric aerosols, deposition fluxes, and soil inventories of ⁷Be in the East Asian monsoon zone.

    PubMed

    Gai, N; Pan, J; Yin, X C; Zhu, X H; Yu, H Q; Li, Y; Tan, K Y; Jiao, X C; Yang, Y L

    2015-10-01

    Activities of atmospheric aerosols, bulk deposition fluxes, and undisturbed soil inventories of (7)Be were investigated in China's East Asian monsoon zone at various latitudes ranging from 23.8°N to 43.5°N. The annual latitudinal distributions of (7)Be concentrations in aerosols follow a distribution pattern which looks similar to a normal distribution with the maxima occurring in the mid-latitude region. Simultaneous measurements of (7)Be at various latitudes suggest that atmospheric circulation may play an important role in the latitudinal distributions of (7)Be in surface air. Latitude and wet precipitation are the main factors controlling the bulk (7)Be depositional fluxes. Significant seasonal variations in (7)Be depositional fluxes in Beijing, a mid-latitude city, were observed with the highest flux in summer and the lowest in winter, whereas less seasonality were found in the high- and the low-latitude cities. The highest (7)Be inventory in undisturbed soils in summer also occurred at a mid-latitudinal area in the East Asian monsoon zone. Precipitation is the main factor controlling the (7)Be soil inventory in Qingdao with the highest values occurring in autumn followed by summer.

  14. Bench- and pilot-scale demonstration of thermal desorption for removal of mercury from the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, M.I.; Sams, R.J.; Gillis, G.; Helsel, R.W.; Alperin, E.S.; Geisler, T.J.; Groen, A.; Root, D.

    1995-04-01

    Thermal desorption is an innovative technology that has seen significant growth in applications to organically contaminated soils and sludges for the remediation of hazardous, radioactive and mixed waste sites. This paper will present the results of a bench and pilot-scale demonstration of this technology for the removal of mercury from the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soil. Results demonstrate that the mercury in this soil can be successfully removed to the target treatment levels of 10 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) and that all process residuals could be rendered RCRA-nonhazardous as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Sampling and analyses of the desorber off-gas before and after the air pollution control system demonstrated effective collection of mercury and organic constituents. Pilot-scale testing was also conducted to verify requirements for material handling of soil into and out of the process. This paper will also present a conceptual design and preliminary costs of a full-scale system, including feed preparation, thermal treatment, and residuals handling for the soil.

  15. Bacterial community composition in relation to bedrock type and macrobiota in soils from the Sør Rondane Mountains, East Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Tytgat, Bjorn; Verleyen, Elie; Sweetlove, Maxime; D'hondt, Sofie; Clercx, Pia; Van Ranst, Eric; Peeters, Karolien; Roberts, Stephen; Namsaraev, Zorigto; Wilmotte, Annick; Vyverman, Wim; Willems, Anne

    2016-09-01

    Antarctic soils are known to be oligotrophic and of having low buffering capacities. It is expected that this is particularly the case for inland high-altitude regions. We hypothesized that the bedrock type and the presence of macrobiota in these soils enforce a high selective pressure on their bacterial communities. To test this, we analyzed the bacterial community structure in 52 soil samples from the western Sør Rondane Mountains (Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica), using the Illumina MiSeq platform in combination with ARISA fingerprinting. The samples were taken along broad environmental gradients in an area covering nearly 1000 km(2) Ordination and variation partitioning analyses revealed that the total organic carbon content was the most significant variable in structuring the bacterial communities, followed by pH, electric conductivity, bedrock type and the moisture content, while spatial distance was of relatively minor importance. Acidobacteria (Chloracidobacteria) and Actinobacteria (Actinomycetales) dominated gneiss derived mineral soil samples, while Proteobacteria (Sphingomonadaceae), Cyanobacteria, Armatimonadetes and candidate division FBP-dominated soil samples with a high total organic carbon content that were mainly situated on granite derived bedrock.

  16. Aerosol Deposition to Hyperarid Soils of the Atacama Desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewing, S. A.; Stewart, B. W.; Kendall, C.; McKay, C. P.; Amundson, R. G.

    2003-12-01

    The influence of atmospheric deposition in most soils is difficult to establish due to leaching and biogeochemical transformations. In contrast, the soils of the Atacama Desert in northern Chile reflect a long-term history of atmospheric deposition that is arguably not preserved elsewhere on Earth. In order to determine the mass and origin of salts accumulated, we present isotopic and chemical data for soils and aerosols along a climate gradient from the extreme hyperarid core of the Atacama (< 5 mm y-1), to sites that receive slightly more rain (up to 15 mm y-1). In the driest region, accumulation of aerosol-derived salts has caused nearly 500% volumetric expansion of the soil. Here we focus on the origin of two of the most important salts: gypsum (calcium sulfate) and sodium nitrate. Water-soluble 87Sr/86Sr decreases with depth, indicating changing sources of sulfate-associated Ca. Sulfate δ 34S also decreases with depth, indicating either isotopic fractionation with downward transport or changing sources of sulfate with time. Water-soluble 87Sr/86Sr values are higher than those reported for local granitic rocks, as might be expected with very limited weathering, and lower than the value reported by Rech et al. (2003) for pedogenic gypsum at a nearby site. While near-surface sulfate δ 34S values imply a marine component, our observed 87Sr/86Sr values fall within the range observed for sulfate salts from salars to the east, suggesting that water-soluble soil Ca contains a significant continental component that may increase or vary in origin with depth in the profile (and thus distance of transport). Nitrate concentrations and nitrate δ 15N values increase with depth, as would be predicted by a advection/reaction model of downward nitrate transport. In soils with increasing precipitation, overall nitrate concentrations are dramatically reduced and overall sulfate concentrations decrease, occurring at greater soil depths. In aerosol samples, nitrate is present at

  17. Sulfates on Mars: Indicators of Aqueous Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Janice L.; Lane, Melissa D.; Dyar, M. Darby; Brown, Adrian J.

    2006-01-01

    Recent analyses by MER instruments at Meridiani Planum and Gusev crater and the OMEGA instrument on Mars Express have provided detailed information about the presence of sulfates on Mars [1,2,3]. We are evaluating these recent data in an integrated multi-disciplinary study of visible-near-infrared, mid-IR and Mossbauer spectra of several sulfate minerals and sulfate-rich analog sites. Our analyses suggest that hydrated iron sulfates may account for features observed in Mossbauer and mid-IR spectra of Martian soils [4]. The sulfate minerals kieserite, gypsum and other hydrated sulfates have been identified in OMEGA spectra in the layered terrains in Valles Marineris and Terra Meridiani [2]. These recent discoveries emphasize the importance of studying sulfate minerals as tracers of aqueous processes. The sulfate-rich rock outcrops observed in Meridiani Planum may have formed in an acidic environment similar to acid rock drainage environments on Earth [5]. Because microorganisms typically are involved in the oxidation of sulfides to sulfates in terrestrial sites, sulfate-rich rock outcrops on Mars may be a good location to search for evidence of past life on that planet. Whether or not life evolved on Mars, following the trail of sulfate minerals will lead to a better understanding of aqueous processes and chemical weathering.

  18. Sulfates on Mars: Indicators of Aqueous Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Janice L.; Lane, Melissa D.; Dyar, M. Darby; Brown, Adrian J.

    2006-01-01

    Recent analyses by MER instruments at Meridiani Planum and Gusev crater and the OMEGA instrument on Mars Express have provided detailed information about the presence of sulfates on Mars [1,2,3]. We are evaluating these recent data in an integrated multi-disciplinary study of visible-near-infrared, mid-IR and Mossbauer spectra of several sulfate minerals and sulfate-rich analog sites. Our analyses suggest that hydrated iron sulfates may account for features observed in Mossbauer and mid-IR spectra of Martian soils [4]. The sulfate minerals kieserite, gypsum and other hydrated sulfates have been identified in OMEGA spectra in the layered terrains in Valles Marineris and Terra Meridiani [2]. These recent discoveries emphasize the importance of studying sulfate minerals as tracers of aqueous processes. The sulfate-rich rock outcrops observed in Meridiani Planum may have formed in an acidic environment similar to acid rock drainage environments on Earth [5]. Because microorganisms typically are involved in the oxidation of sulfides to sulfates in terrestrial sites, sulfate-rich rock outcrops on Mars may be a good location to search for evidence of past life on that planet. Whether or not life evolved on Mars, following the trail of sulfate minerals will lead to a better understanding of aqueous processes and chemical weathering.

  19. [Effects of different organic manure sources and their combinations with chemical fertilization on soil nematode community structure in a paddy field of East China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ting; Ye, Cheng-Long; Chen, Xiao-Yun; Ran, Wei; Shen, Qi-Rong; Hu, Feng; Li, Hui-Xin

    2013-12-01

    A comparative study was conducted to investigate the effects of different fertilization modes on the soil nematode community structure in a paddy field with paddy rice and wheat rotation in Jintan County (31 degrees 39'41.8" N, 119 degrees 28'23.5" E) of Jiangsu Province, East China. Six treatments were installed, i. e., no fertilization (CK), 100% chemical NPK fertilization (F), pig manure compost plus 50% chemical fertilization (PF), straw returning plus 100% chemical fertilization (SF), pig manure compost and straw returning plus 50% chemical fertilization (PSF), and application of commercial pig manure-inorganic complex fertilizer (PMF). The soil samples were collected from the field after the paddy rice harvested in autumn. The two continuous years study showed that the soil nematode community structure varied with fertilization treatments and years. The combined application of chemical fertilizers and organic manures increased the total number of soil nematodes, decreased the abundance of soil bacterivorous nematodes, and made the abundance of predator- and omnivore nematodes increased significantly. No significant differences were observed in the abundance of soil fungivorous nematodes among all the treatments. Chemical fertilization alone and the application of commercial pig manure-inorganic complex fertilizer had no obvious suppression effect on the soil phytophagous nematodes. The abundance of soil bacteriavorous nematodes under the combined application of chemical fertilizers and organic manures was relatively increased in the second year, as compared with that in the first year, while the abundance of soil phytophagous nematodes (Hirschmanniella) was relatively decreased in the second year. From the aspect of nematode ecological indices, the Margalef diversity index (H) under the combined application of chemical fertilizers and organic manures in the second year had an increasing trend, while the NCR index had less change. The Wasilewka index had a

  20. A modified sulfate process to lunar oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Thomas A.

    1992-01-01

    A modified sulfate process which produces oxygen from iron oxide-bearing minerals in lunar soil is under development. Reaction rates of ilmenite in varying strength sulfuric acid have been determined. Quantitative conversion of ilmenite to ferrous sulfate was observed over a range of temperatures and concentrations. Data has also been developed on the calcination of by-product sulfates. System engineering for overall operability and simplicity has begun, suggesting that a process separating the digestion and sulfate dissolution steps may offer an optimum process.

  1. A modified sulfate process to lunar oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Thomas A.

    1992-01-01

    A modified sulfate process which produces oxygen from iron oxide-bearing minerals in lunar soil is under development. Reaction rates of ilmenite in varying strength sulfuric acid have been determined. Quantitative conversion of ilmenite to ferrous sulfate was observed over a range of temperatures and concentrations. Data has also been developed on the calcination of by-product sulfates. System engineering for overall operability and simplicity has begun, suggesting that a process separating the digestion and sulfate dissolution steps may offer an optimum process.

  2. Variations in Pb concentrations and Pb-isotope ratios in soils collected along an east-west transect across the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David; Woodruff, Laurel; Reimann, Clemens; Flem, Belinda

    2014-05-01

    Soil A-horizon and C-horizon samples were collected along a 4000 km long transect cutting the USA from the west to the east coast. For purposes of site selection, the transect was divided into approximately 40-km segments. For each segment, a 1-km2 target area was selected at random. Soil A- and C-horizon samples were collected at a site within each target area that was most representative of the surrounding landscape. The samples were air-dried at ambient temperature, disaggregated, and sieved through a 2-mm stainless steel screen. The <2-mm material was crushed to <150 µm in a ceramic mill prior to chemical analysis. Lead was analyzed in all the A- and C-horizon samples by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry following a 4-acid digestion. The complete dataset can be found in Smith et al., 2005. Pb-isotope ratio measurements were carried out on 159 soil A-horizon and 137 soil C-horizon samples on an inductively coupled sector field plasma mass spectrometer (SF-ICP-MS; ELEMENT 1, Finnigan MAT) in the laboratory of the Geological Survey of Norway (NGU), following a 7 N HNO3 digestion. Lead concentrations along the transect show (1) generally higher values in the soil A-horizon than the C-horizon (median 21 vs. 16.5 mg/kg), (2) an increase in the median value of the soil A-horizon for the central to eastern U.S. (Missouri to Maryland) when compared to the western U.S. (California to Kansas) (median 26 vs. 20 mg/kg) and (3) a higher A/C ratio for the central to eastern US (1.35 vs. 1.14). Lead isotopes show a distinct trend across the U.S., with the highest 206Pb/207Pb ratios occurring in the centre (Missouri, median A-horizon: 1.245; C-horizon: 1.251) and the lowest at both coasts (e.g. California, median A-horizon: 1.195; C-horizon:1.216). The soil C-horizon samples show generally higher 206Pb/207Pb ratios than the A-horizon (median C-horizon: 1.224; A-horizon: 1.219). The 206Pb/207Pb isotope ratios in the soil A horizon show a correlation with the total

  3. Significant role of organic sulfur in supporting sedimentary sulfate reduction in low-sulfate environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakhraee, Mojtaba; Li, Jiying; Katsev, Sergei

    2017-09-01

    Dissimilatory sulfate reduction (DSR) is a major carbon mineralization pathway in aquatic sediments, soils, and groundwater, which regulates the production of hydrogen sulfide and the mobilization rates of biologically important elements such as phosphorus and mercury. It has been widely assumed that water-column sulfate is the main sulfur source to fuel this reaction in sediments. While this assumption may be justified in high-sulfate environments such as modern seawater, we argue that in low-sulfate environments mineralization of organic sulfur compounds can be an important source of sulfate. Using a reaction-transport model, we investigate the production of sulfate from sulfur-containing organic matter for a range of environments. The results show that in low sulfate environments (<500 μM) the in-sediment production of sulfate can support a substantial portion (>50%) of sulfate reduction. In well-oxygenated systems, porewater sulfate profiles often exhibit sub-interface peaks so that sulfate fluxes are directed out of the sediment. Our measurements in Lake Superior, the world's largest lake, corroborate this conclusion: offshore sediments act as sources rather than sinks of sulfate for the water column, and sediment DSR is supported entirely by the in-sediment production of sulfate. Sulfate reduction rates are correlated to the depth of oxygen penetration and strongly regulated by the supply of reactive organic matter; rate co-regulation by sulfate availability becomes appreciable below 500 μM level. The results indicate the need to consider the mineralization of organic sulfur in the biogeochemical cycling in low-sulfate environments, including several of the world's largest freshwater bodies, deep subsurface, and possibly the sulfate-poor oceans of the Early Earth.

  4. Effects of fertilizer on inorganic soil N in East Africa maize systems: vertical distributions and temporal dynamics.

    PubMed

    Tully, Katherine L; Hickman, Jonathan; McKenna, Madeline; Neill, Christopher; Palm, Cheryl A

    2016-09-01

    Fertilizer applications are poised to increase across sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), but the fate of added nitrogen (N) is largely unknown. We measured vertical distributions and temporal variations of soil inorganic N following fertilizer application in two maize (Zea mays L.)-growing regions of contrasting soil type. Fertilizer trials were established on a clayey soil in Yala, Kenya, and on a sandy soil in Tumbi, Tanzania, with application rates of 0-200 kg N/ha/yr. Soil profiles were collected (0-400 cm) annually (for three years in Yala and two years in Tumbi) to examine changes in inorganic N pools. Topsoils (0-15 cm) were collected every 3-6 weeks to determine how precipitation and fertilizer management influenced plant-available soil N. Fertilizer management altered soil inorganic N, and there were large differences between sites that were consistent with differences in soil texture. Initial soil N pools were larger in Yala than Tumbi (240 vs. 79 kg/ha). Inorganic N pools did not change in Yala (277 kg/ha), but increased fourfold after cultivation and fertilization in Tumbi (371 kg/ha). Intra-annual variability in NO(-)3 -N concentrations (3-33 μg/g) in Tumbi topsoils strongly suggested that the sandier soils were prone to high leaching losses. Information on soil inorganic N pools and movement through soil profiles can h vulnerability of SSA croplands to N losses and determine best fertilizer management practices as N application rates increase. A better understanding of the vertical and temporal patterns of soil N pools improves our ability to predict the potential environmental effects of a dramatic increase in fertilizer application rates that will accompany the intensification of African croplands.

  5. Effects of fertilizer industry emissions on local soil contamination: a case study of a phosphate plant on the east Mediterranean coast.

    PubMed

    Kassir, Lina Nafeh; Lartiges, Bruno; Ouaini, Naim

    2012-01-01

    Fugitive dust emission, transport and deposition from phosphate fertilizer industries may pose an environmental hazard to the surrounding environment, particularly to soil. This study is to evaluate such hazard by investigating the fate of airborne pollutants, their transfer from atmosphere to soil surface, and their contamination potential. Concentrations of elements were measured in soil samples. Elemental analyses were carried out using ICP-AES and ICP-MS. Analysis of speciation of trace elements, using a sequential extraction method, was performed on the plant's raw material (apatite), product and waste (phosphate fertilizer and phosphogypsum). A model estimating local atmospheric dry deposition was formulated. Statistical analyses were performed on sample data. Measured phosphorus accumulated considerably to the north-east of the plant, mainly due to the prevailing wind and associated dry deposition. Results exhibited considerably above-threshold enrichments in potentially toxic, bio-available trace elements (Cd, Zn) (2.5-6.9, 295-506 mg kg(-1)) and radionuclide (U, 20-98.69 mg kg(-1)) within a major deposition area. Speciation results revealed Zn and Cd occurring predominantly in mobile phases within the pollution source materials. Dry deposition calculation showed extensive input fluxes of Sr, Zn, Cr, U, Ni and Cd. Significant correlation was established between measured trace elements concentrations and their calculated deposition fluxes. Phosphorus species were the principal carriers of trace elements in soils. The phosphate industry poses a serious soil pollution hazard, with deposited contaminants being potentially hazardous to plants and groundwater. This study serves as a basis to assess the phosphate industry's risk impact on soil, while it introduces combined analytical methodologies for such assessment.

  6. Current assessment of integrated content of long-lived radionuclides in soils of the head part of the East Ural Radioactive Trace.

    PubMed

    Molchanova, I; Mikhailovskaya, L; Antonov, K; Pozolotina, V; Antonova, E

    2014-12-01

    Based on the datasets obtained during investigations from 2003 to 2012, the spatial distributions of (90)Sr, (137)Cs, and (239,240)Pu content in the soils of the head part of the East Ural Radioactive Trace (EURT) were mapped using the geographic information system ArcGIS. Taking into account the presence of spatial autocorrelation and anisotropy in the source data, an ordinary kriging method was applied to interpolate values of radionuclide contamination density at unsampled places. Further geostatistical data analysis was performed to determine the basic parameters of spatial dependencies and to integrally assess the contamination by long-lived radionuclides in soils of the central, east peripheral, and west peripheral parts of the trace. This analysis was based on simplified geometric models (sector- and rectangle-shaped areas). The Monte Carlo method was used to quantitatively assess the uncertainty of the values for the integrated quantities resulting from the statistical errors of the source data approximation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of an intense rainfall event on soil properties following a wildfire in a Mediterranean environment (North-East Spain).

    PubMed

    Francos, Marcos; Pereira, Paulo; Alcañiz, Meritxell; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Úbeda, Xavier

    2016-12-01

    Intense rainfall events after severe wildfires can have an impact on soil properties, above all in the Mediterranean environment. This study seeks to examine the immediate impact and the effect after a year of an intense rainfall event on a Mediterranean forest affected by a high severity wildfire. The work analyses the following soil properties: soil aggregate stability, total nitrogen, total carbon, organic and inorganic carbon, the C/N ratio, carbonates, pH, electrical conductivity, extractable calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, available phosphorous and the sodium and potassium adsorption ratio (SPAR). We sampled soils in the burned area before, immediately after and one year after the rainfall event. The results showed that the intense rainfall event did not have an immediate impact on soil aggregate stability, but a significant difference was recorded one year after. The intense precipitation did not result in any significant changes in soil total nitrogen, total carbon, inorganic carbon, the C/N ratio and carbonates during the study period. Differences were only registered in soil organic carbon. The soil organic carbon content was significantly higher after the rainfall than in the other sampling dates. The rainfall event did increase soil pH, electrical conductivity, major cations, available phosphorous and the SPAR. One year after the fire, a significant decrease in soil aggregate stability was observed that can be attributed to high SPAR levels and human intervention, while the reduction in extractable elements can be attributed to soil leaching and vegetation consumption. Overall, the intense rainfall event, other post-fire rainfall events and human intervention did not have a detrimental impact on soil properties in all probability owing to the flat plot topography. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Sulfur accumulation and atmospherically deposited sulfate in the Lake States.

    Treesearch

    Mark B. David; George Z. Gernter; David F. Grigal; Lewis F. Ohmann

    1989-01-01

    Characterizes the mass of soil sulfur (adjusted for nitrogen), and atmospherically deposited sulfate along an acid precipitation gradient from Minnesota to Michigan. The relationship of these variables, presented graphically through contour mapping, suggests that patterns of atmospheric wet sulfate deposition are reflected in soil sulfur pools.

  9. Soils

    Treesearch

    Emily Moghaddas; Ken Hubbert

    2014-01-01

    When managing for resilient forests, each soil’s inherent capacity to resist and recover from changes in soil function should be evaluated relative to the anticipated extent and duration of soil disturbance. Application of several key principles will help ensure healthy, resilient soils: (1) minimize physical disturbance using guidelines tailored to specific soil types...

  10. Sulfate deposition to surface waters

    SciTech Connect

    Henriksen, A.; Brakke, D.F.

    1988-01-01

    Critical loads are the highest deposition of strong acid anions in surface waters that will not cause harmful biological effects on populations, such as declines in or extinctions of fish. Our analysis focuses on sulfate deposition because in glaciated regions sulfate is conservative in soils, whereas nitrate in biologically cycled. Sulfate also is the dominant anion in acidic deposition and in most acidic lakes. This analysis, represents the first evaluation of certain data available from Norway and the eastern United States, with an emphasis on the data from Scandinavia. The concept of dose-response is widely used in connection with water pollution. Any lake system subjected to an external dose of pollutants will have an internal resistance (or buffer capacity) to the change. The response of the lake system will depend on the relative magnitudes of the dose and the resistance parameters.

  11. Pleistocene soil development and paleoenvironmental dynamics in East Africa: a multidisciplinary study of the Homo-bearing Aalat succession, Dandiero Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarciglia, Fabio; Mercatante, Giuseppe; Donato, Paola; Ghinassi, Massimiliano; Carnevale, Giorgio; Delfino, Massimo; Oms, Oriol; Papini, Mauro; Pavia, Marco; Sani, Federico; Rook, Lorenzo

    2015-04-01

    constraints of the Aalat section to a time span approximately bracketed between the Jaramillo event (ca. 1.07-0.99 Ma) and the Matuyama-Brunhes magnetic field reversal (ca. 0.78 Ma). High rates of sedimentary aggradation can be estimated around 1 mm/a, coherently with a poor to moderate degree of soil development and evidence of soil truncation by erosion. Physico-chemical, mineralogical, geochemical and micromorphological analyses were carried out on selected soil samples. Weathering and pedogenetic features mainly consist of pedogenic structure, secondary carbonate accumulations (following carbonate leaching) and iron-oxide/hydroxide segregations, promoted by water infiltration under varying drainage conditions and/or seasonal contrast. The complex patterns of some petrocalcic horizons and rare rubified soils testify for occasionally longer geomorphic stability and non-deposition, which were more prone to pedogenesis. Our multidisciplinary study revealed that the Aalat section in the Dandiero Basin represents a promising continental archive of the main paleoenvironmental changes occurred during the Early-Middle Pleistocene transition in East Africa.

  12. Soil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil is a diverse natural material characterized by solid, liquid, and gas phases that impart unique chemical, physical, and biological properties. Soil provides many key functions, including supporting plant growth and providing environmental remediation. Monitoring key soil properties and processe...

  13. [Factors determining the origin and maintenance of redundant species diversity of the soil animal population (by a case study of the Far East)].

    PubMed

    Ganin, G N; Striganova, B P

    2012-01-01

    The factors determining the origin and maintenance of a high taxonomic diversity of soil communities are discussed by a case study of the key groups constituting the soil saproblock. The bulk of the species richness in the southern Far East is localized to the coniferous-deciduous forests retaining the tertiary elements in their flora and ancient relations with the Asian tropical fauna. The roles of the following factors are considered: the long-term geographic isolation in the absence of catastrophic climate changes; pyrogenic effects, enhancing formation of isolated survival sites; and abundance of mutagenesis in various pedobiont groups. The high species richness of individual taxocenes in combination with a high topic association in the distribution of closely related and ecologically similar species suggests the absence of competitive exclusion. It has been demonstrated that this phenomenon is determined, on the one hand, by rich resource reserves and their spatial differentiation in the soil-litter stratum and, on the other, by spatial-temporal segregation and dense packing of ecological niches, decreasing competition.

  14. Isolation and Characterization of Putative Probiotic Bacterial Strain, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, from North East Himalayan Soil Based on In Vitro and In Vivo Functional Properties.

    PubMed

    Hairul Islam, V I; Prakash Babu, N; Pandikumar, P; Ignacimuthu, S

    2011-12-01

    This study is aimed to isolate some novel probiotics from the soils of North East Himalayas. Eleven Gram positive isolates were obtained in MRS with Oxgall media from soil samples. Four of the isolates withstood the in vitro gastric juice pH 3.0 and 0.45% bile salt tolerance screening. Among these, PBT 3 showed high cell surface hydrophobicity and adhered to the Caco-2 cells. 16s rDNA gene sequences of this probiotic strains were identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (accession no: JF836079). In in vivo bioefficacy evaluation by DSS-induced colitis animals, B. amyloliquefaciens significantly ameliorated the loss in body weight. Further, the treatment altered the levels of myeloperoxidase, lipoperoxides, and mucous content in the colon tissues compared with normal colon. It reduced the protein and mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-1β. These biochemical findings were supported by histopathological evidences. Our study reports the use of B. amyloliquefaciens isolated from Himalayan soil as probiotic and its beneficial effect on IBD for the first time and suggests that this could be used as potential probiotics in functional foods or as a curative agent.

  15. Factors controlling sulfate retention and transport in a forested watershed in the Georgia Piedmont

    SciTech Connect

    Shanley, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    The mechanisms that control sulfate retention and transport were investigated at Panola Mountain, a 41-ha forested watershed in the Georgia Piedmont. The approach combined laboratory determination of soil sulfate sorption properties with a field study that was designed to infer mechanisms controlling sulfate chemistry from temporal and spatial variations in sulfate concentration and flux. Aqueous sulfate concentrations are regulated at two discrete levels: near 100 {mu}eq L{sup {minus}1} by organic-rich upper horizon soils and near 10 {mu}eq L{sup {minus}1} by deeper mineral soils. Upper horizon soils contain a large pool of labile sulfate that damps variations in sulfate concentrations. Runoff from a 3-ha granodiorite outcrop in the headwaters varied from near zero to greater than 500 {mu}eq L{sup {minus}1} sulfate. After only minimal contact with organic-rich soils, however, sulfate was regulated at 80-120 {mu}eq L{sup {minus}1} in the headwater stream. Soil solution (200 {mu}eq L{sup {minus}1} sulfate) and groundwater in the upper part of the watershed (50 {mu}eq L{sup {minus}1} sulfate) also were controlled primarily by the organic horizon. In the lower part of the basin, mineral soil regulates sulfate in groundwater and low-flow streamwater at approximately 10 {mu}eq L{sup {minus}1}. Streamwater sulfate, however, increased to 100 {mu}eq L{sup {minus}1} or more during storms. Regulation of stream sulfate concentration shifted from the sulfate-retaining mineral soil at low flow to the upper-horizon, organic-rich soil at high flow. From October 1985 to September 1988, the watershed retained 75.4% of sulfate in wet deposition. For individual storms, however, sulfate retention ranged from less than 0% (net export) to greater than 99%.

  16. Plant available silicon in South-east Asian rice paddy soils - relevance of agricultural practice and of abiotic factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marxen, A.; Klotzbücher, T.; Vetterlein, D.; Jahn, R.

    2012-12-01

    Background Silicon (Si) plays a crucial role in rice production. Si content of rice plants exceeds the content of other major nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorous or potassium. Recent studies showed that in some environments external supply of Si can enhance the growth of rice plants. Rice plants express specific Si transporters to absorb Si from soil solutions in form of silicic acid, which precipitates in tissue cells forming amorphous silica bodies, called phytoliths. The phytoliths are returned to soils with plant residues. They might be a main source of plant available silicic acid in soils. Aims In this study we assess the effects of rice paddy cultivation on the stocks of `reactive` Si fractions in mineral topsoils of rice paddy fields in contrasting landscapes. The `reactive` Si fractions are presumed to determine the release of plant-available silicic acid in soils. We consider the relevance of abiotic factors (mineral assemblage; soil weathering status) and agricultural practice for these fractions. Agricultural practices, which were assumed to affect the stocks of `reactive` Si were (i) the usage of different rice varieties (which might differ in Si demand), (ii) straw residue management (i.e., whether straw residues are returned to the fields or removed and used e.g. as fodder), and (iii) yield level and number of crops per year. Material and methods Soils (top horizon of about 0-20 cm depth) were sampled from rice paddy fields in 2 mountainous and 5 lowland landscapes of contrasting geologic conditions in Vietnam and the Philippines. Ten paddy fields were sampled per landscape. The rice paddy management within landscapes differed when different farmers and/or communities managed the fields. We analysed the following fractions of `reactive` Si in the soils: acetate-extractable Si (dissolved and easily exchangeable Si), phosphate-extractable Si (adsorbed Si), oxalate extractable Si (Si associated with poorly-ordered sesquioxides), NaOH extractable Si

  17. Assessment of Holocene soil erosion rates on the loess plateau in East Poland using sedimentary archives from closed depressions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kołodyńska-Gawrysiak, Renata; Poesen, Jean; Gawrysiak, Leszek

    2016-04-01

    Closed depressions (CDs) are typical geomorphological features of the European loess belt. They are closed sedimentation basins that enable the estimation of long-term soil erosion rates for different land use environments. This study was conducted in eastern Poland (Nałęczów Plateau). In this region CDs are rather small landforms and the area of 70% of all CDs does not exceed 1500 m2. The study objective was to assess Holocene soil erosion rates in the loess plateau based on a quantitative analysis of colluvial sediments deposited in CDs. Two representative CDs were selected for this study: one CD is located in an old (long-term) forest and the other is situated in a long-term agricultural land. The maximum depth of the CD in the forest, the mean slope gradient and area of the corresponding catchment are 4.9 m, 3.410 and 7568 m² respectively. For the CD in agricultural land these values are 3.2 m, 2.760 and 5156 m² respectively. In both CDs several dozen of drillings and two trenches (2 m long, 1m wide, 2 m deep) were made in the deepest point of the CDs. Mean long-term soil erosion rates were calculated based on the stratigraphy of the soil-sediment sequence infilling the CDs. C-14 and OSL datings of soils and colluvial sediments within the CDs were obtained. For the long-term agricultural used catchment of the CD it was calculated that since 6.31 ± 0.35 ka BP the mean annual soil loss due to water and tillage erosion is 0.63-0.7 t/ha/year or 279.3 mm. In the prehistoric period since 6.31 ± 0.35 ka BP until 1026-1162 AD the mean annual soil erosion rate amounted to 0,10-0.11 t/ha/year or 41.5 mm. During the last ca. 1000 years mean soil erosion rates increased to 3.99-4.63 t/ha/year or 249.2 mm. Results of long-term soil erosion rates (calculated using colluvial sediment sequences in CDs) from agricultural catchments in the loess regions of eastern Poland (this study) and Central Belgium (Gillijns et al. 2005) are quite similar. For the forested catchment

  18. Acid Sulfate Alteration on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of mineralogical and geochemical indicators for aqueous alteration on Mars have been identified by a combination of surface and orbital robotic missions, telescopic observations, characterization of Martian meteorites, and laboratory and terrestrial analog studies. Acid sulfate alteration has been identified at all three landing sites visited by NASA rover missions (Spirit, Opportunity, and Curiosity). Spirit landed in Gusev crater in 2004 and discovered Fe-sulfates and materials that have been extensively leached by acid sulfate solutions. Opportunity landing on the plains of Meridiani Planum also in 2004 where the rover encountered large abundances of jarosite and hematite in sedimentary rocks. Curiosity landed in Gale crater in 2012 and has characterized fluvial, deltaic, and lacustrine sediments. Jarosite and hematite were discovered in some of the lacustrine sediments. The high elemental abundance of sulfur in surface materials is obvious evidence that sulfate has played a major role in aqueous processes at all landing sites on Mars. The sulfate-rich outcrop at Meridiani Planum has an SO3 content of up to 25 wt.%. The interiors of rocks and outcrops on the Columbia Hills within Gusev crater have up to 8 wt.% SO3. Soils at both sites generally have between 5 to 14 wt.% SO3, and several soils in Gusev crater contain around 30 wt.% SO3. After normalization of major element compositions to a SO3-free basis, the bulk compositions of these materials are basaltic, with a few exceptions in Gusev crater and in lacustrine mudstones in Gale crater. These observations suggest that materials encountered by the rovers were derived from basaltic precursors by acid sulfate alteration under nearly isochemical conditions (i.e., minimal leaching). There are several cases, however, where acid sulfate alteration minerals (jarosite and hematite) formed in open hydrologic systems, e.g., in Gale crater lacustrine mudstones. Several hypotheses have been suggested for the

  19. Soil Contamination with Toxocara Spp. Eggs in Public Parks of Mashhad and Khaf, North East of Iran.

    PubMed

    Berenji, Fariba; Movahedi Rudy, Abdul Ghayoum; Fata, Abdolmajid; Tavassoli, Mousa; Mousavi Bazaz, Mojtaba; Salehi Sangani, Ghodratolah

    2015-01-01

    Toxocariasis is an important disease caused by the larvae of parasitic worms such as Toxocara canis and T. cati. Public parks can be the source of toxocariasis for small children. This survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of Toxocara spp. ova in parks of Mashhad and Khaf northeastern Iran. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, performed in November 2011 to June 2012, overall, 340 soil samples were collected from 39 parks of Mashhad and 29 parks in Khaf city. Flotation method and direct smear were used, and the samples were evaluated using a light microscope. The results were analyzed using SPSS version 19 and Chi-square test. In the evaluation of 195 and 145 soil samples, 18 (9.2%) and 16 cases (11.3%) of contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs were detected, respectively. Although the prevalence of Toxocara eggs in soil samples was low, parks can be a source of Toxocara infection of children in these areas.

  20. Distribution and source analysis of heavy metals in soils and sediments of Yueqing Bay basin, East China Sea.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaohui; Wu, Pengbao; Yin, Aijing; Zhang, Huan; Zhang, Ming; Gao, Chao

    2017-02-15

    Concentrations of heavy metals in coastal soils, stream sediments and intertidal sediments of Yueqing Bay basin were analyzed to study their distribution and trace the possible sources. According to various single- and multi-index methods, heavy metal enrichment, especially for Cu, Zn, Cr and Ni in stream sediments, should draw environmental concern. Controlling factors such as inorganic scavengers, organic matter, sample grain size and hydrodynamic conditions were identified to influence the transportation and distribution of metals within coastal soils and sediments. Principal component analysis indicated that most metals in soils and stream sediments originate primarily from natural and anthropogenic sources, respectively. Most metals in intertidal sediments, originating both from natural processes and human activities, tend to be concentrated in fine particles. The exchange of water and sediment between the bay and open waters is strong enough to keep the metals in the tidal flats from rising to very high levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Tracing atmospheric transport of soil microorganisms and higher plant waxes in the East Asian outflow to the North Pacific Rim by using hydroxy fatty acids: Year-round observations at Gosan, Jeju Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyagi, Poonam; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Kariya, Tadashi; Bikkina, Srinivas; Fu, Pingqing; Lee, Meehye

    2017-04-01

    Atmospheric transport of soil microorganisms and higher plant waxes in East Asia significantly influences the aerosol composition over the North Pacific. This study investigates the year-round atmospheric abundances of hydroxy fatty acids (FAs), tracers of soil microorganisms (β-isomers), and plant waxes (α- and ω-isomers), in total suspended particles collected at Gosan, Jeju Island, during April 2001 to March 2002. These hydroxy FAs showed a pronounced seasonality, higher concentrations in winter/spring and lower concentrations in summer/autumn, which are consistent with other tracers of soil microbes (trehalose), resuspended dust (nss-Ca2+), and stable carbon isotopic composition (δ13C) of total carbon. The molecular distributions of β-hydroxy FAs (predominance of C12 and C16 in winter/spring and summer/autumn, respectively) are consistent with those from a remote island (Chichijima) in the North Pacific and Asian dust standards (CJ-1 and CJ-2). This observation together with back trajectories over Gosan reveal that desert sources in China during winter and arid regions of Mongolia and Russian Far East during spring are the major contributors of soil microbes over the North Pacific. Predominance of ω-isomers (83%) over β-hydroxy FAs (16%) revealed a major contribution of terrestrial lipids from higher plant waxes over soil microbes in the East Asian outflow.

  2. Sulfate adsorption on goethite

    SciTech Connect

    Rietra, R.P.J.J.; Hiemstra, T.; Riemsdijk, W.H. van

    1999-10-15

    Recent spectroscopic work has suggested that only one surface species of sulfate is dominant on hematite. Sulfate is therefore a very suitable anion to test and develop adsorption models for variable charge minerals. The authors have studied sulfate adsorption on goethite covering a large range of sulfate concentrations, surface coverages, pH values, and electrolyte concentrations. Four different techniques were used to cover the entire range of conditions. For characterization at low sulfate concentrations, below the detection limit of sulfate with ICP-AES, the authors used proton-sulfate titrations at constant pH. Adsorption isotherms were studied for the intermediate sulfate concentration range. Acid-base titrations in sodium sulfate and electromobility were used for high sulfate concentrations. All the data can be modeled with one adsorbed species if it is assumed that the charge of adsorbed sulfate is spatially distributed in the interface. The charge distribution of sulfate follows directly from modeling the proton-sulfate adsorption stoichoimemtry sine this stoichiometry is independent of the intrinsic affinity constant of sulfate. The charge distribution can be related to the structure of the surface complex by use of the Pauling bond valence concept and is in accordance with the microscopic structure found by spectroscopy. The intrinsic affinity constant follows from the other measurements. Modeling of the proton-ion stoichoimetry with the commonly used 2-pK models, where adsorbed ions are treated as point charges, is possible only if at least two surface species for sulfate are used.

  3. History of east European chernozem soil degradation: Protection and restoration by tree windbreaks in the Russian steppe

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The physiographic region of the Central Russian Upland, situated in the Central part of Eastern Europe, is characterized by the most fertile grassland soils – Chernozems (Mollisols in the USDA taxonomy). However, over the last several centuries this region has experienced intense land-use conversion...

  4. Simulating soybean productivity under rainfed conditions for major soil types using APEX model in East Central Mississippi

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Because soybean is commonly grown under rainfed conditions in Mississippi, and farmers recognize benefits of installing irrigation, knowledge of rainfed soybean productivity and yield difference of different soil types is needed for deciding where irrigation may be most effective. This research empl...

  5. Diversity of Phototrophic Genes Suggests Multiple Bacteria May Be Able to Exploit Sunlight in Exposed Soils from the Sør Rondane Mountains, East Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Tahon, Guillaume; Tytgat, Bjorn; Willems, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Microbial life in exposed terrestrial surface layers in continental Antarctica is faced with extreme environmental conditions, including scarcity of organic matter. Bacteria in these exposed settings can therefore be expected to use alternative energy sources such as solar energy, abundant during the austral summer. Using Illumina MiSeq sequencing, we assessed the diversity and abundance of four conserved protein encoding genes involved in different key steps of light-harvesting pathways dependent on (bacterio)chlorophyll (pufM, bchL/chlL, and bchX genes) and rhodopsins (actinorhodopsin genes), in exposed soils from the Sør Rondane Mountains, East Antarctica. Analysis of pufM genes, encoding a subunit of the type 2 photochemical reaction center found in anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria, revealed a broad diversity, dominated by Roseobacter- and Loktanella-like sequences. The bchL and chlL, involved in (bacterio)chlorophyll synthesis, on the other hand, showed a high relative abundance of either cyanobacterial or green algal trebouxiophyceael chlL reads, depending on the sample, while most bchX sequences belonged mostly to previously unidentified phylotypes. Rhodopsin-containing phototrophic bacteria could not be detected in the samples. Our results, while suggesting that Cyanobacteria and green algae are the main phototrophic groups, show that light-harvesting bacteria are nevertheless very diverse in microbial communities in Antarctic soils. PMID:28066352

  6. Integrated Spectroscopic Studies of Anhydrous Sulfate Minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, M. D.; Bishop, J. L.; Dyar, M. D.; Cloutis, E.; Forray, F. L.; Hiroi, T.

    2005-01-01

    Sulfates have been identified in Martian soils and bedrock and are emerging as an important indicator for aqueous activity on Mars. Sulfate minerals can form in a variety of low-temperature (evaporitic; chemical-weathering) and high-temperature (volcanic/fumarolic; hydrothermal) environments and their formational environments can range from alkaline to acidic. Although sulfates generally form in the presence of water, not all sulfates are hydrous or contain water in their structures. Many of these anhydrous sulfates (Dana group 28; Strunz class 67A) are minerals that form as accompanying phases to the main minerals in ore deposits or as replacement deposits in sedimentary rocks. However, some form from thermal decomposition of OH or H2O-bearing sulfates, such as from the reaction [1]: jarosite = yavapaiite + Fe2O3 + H2O. Where known, the stability fields of these minerals all suggest that they would be stable under martian surface conditions [2]. Thus, anhydrous sulfate minerals may contribute to martian surface mineralogy, so they must be well-represented in spectral libraries used for interpretation of the Martian surface. We present here the preliminary results of an integrated study of emittance, reflectance, and Mossbauer spectroscopy of a suite of wel-lcharacterized anhydrous sulfates.

  7. Nitrogen fixation activity in biological soil crusts dominated by cyanobacteria in the Subpolar Urals (European North-East Russia).

    PubMed

    Patova, Elena; Sivkov, Michail; Patova, Anna

    2016-09-01

    The nitrogen fixation by biological soil crusts with a dominance of cyanobacteria was studied using the acetylene reduction assay in the territory of the Subpolar Urals (65°11' N, 60°18' E), Russia. The field measurements of nitrogen fixation activity were conducted in situ for two different types of soil crusts dominated by Stigonema (V1 type) and Nostoc with Scytonema (V2 type). The nitrogen fixation process had similar dynamics in both crusts but nitrogen fixation rates were different. The crusts of the V2 type showed a significantly higher acetylene reduction activity, with ethylene production rate of 1.76 ± 0.49 g C2H4 m(-2) h(-1) at 15°C, compared with V1-type soil crusts, with a rate of 0.53 ± 0.21 mg C2H4 m(-2) h(-1) at 15°C. The daily value of acetylene reduction activity in V2-type soil crusts was 32.7 ± 6.2 mg C2H4 m(-2) d(-1) and in V1-type crusts, 12.3 ± 1.8 mg C2H4 m(-2) d(-1) After recalculation for N, the daily values of nitrogen fixation were in the range 3.3-22.3 mg N m(-2) d(-1), which is a few times higher than the values of N input from the precipitation to the soil in the studied regions. The dependence of nitrogen-fixation activity on temperature and light intensity of biological soil crusts was investigated. On the basis of temperature models obtained from the dependence, the nitrogen balance was calculated for the growing season (approximately 120 days). The crusts dominated by Stigonema species were fixing 0.3 g N m(-2) (ethylene production rate, 1.10 g C2H4 m(-2)) and crusts dominated by Nostoc and Scytonema were fixing 1.3 g N m(-2) (4.10 g C2H4 m(-2)).

  8. Baseline element concentrations in soils and plants, Wattenmeer National Park, North and East Frisian Islands, Federal Republic of Germany

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Severson, R.C.; Gough, L.P.; van den Boom, G.

    1992-01-01

    Baseline element concentrations are given for dune grass (Ammophilia arenaria), willow (Salix repens), moss (Hylocomium splendens) and associated surface soils. Baseline and variability data for pH, ash, Al, As, Ba, C, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Nb, Nd, Ni, P, Pb, S, Sc, Se, Sr, Th, Ti, V, Y, Yb, and Zn are reported; however, not all variables are reported for all media because, in some media, certain elements were below the analytical detection limit. Spatial variation in element concentration between five Frisian Islands are given for each of the sample media. In general, only a few elements in each media showed statistically significant differences between the islands sampled. The measured concentrations in all sample media exhibited ranges that cannot be attributed to anthropogenic additions of trace elements, with the possible exception of Hg and Pb in surface soils.Baseline element concentrations are given for dune grass (Ammophilia arenaria), willow (Salix repens), moss (Hylocomium splendens) and associated surface soils. Baseline and variability data for pH, ash, Al, As, Ba, C, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Nb, Nd, Ni, P, Pb, S, Sc, Se, Sr, Th, Ti, V, Y, Yb, and Zn are reported; however, not all variables are reported for all media because, in some media, certain elements were below the analytical detection limit. Spatial variation in element concentration between five Frisian Islands are given for each of the sample media. In general, only a few elements in each media showed statistically significant differences between the islands sampled. The measured concentrations in all sample media exhibited ranges that cannot be attributed to anthropogenic additions of trace elements, with the possible exception of Hg and Pb in surface soils.

  9. Use of dendrochronological method in Pinus halepensis to estimate the soil erosion in the South East of Madrid (Spain).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Raquel; Marques, Maria Jose; Bienes, Ramón

    2007-05-25

    The rate of soil erosion in pine forests (Pinus halepensis) located in the Southeast of Madrid has been estimated using dendrochronological analysis based on the change in ring-growth pattern from concentric to eccentric when the root is exposed. Using 49 roots spread across five inclined areas, it has been found that the length and direction of the hillsides, as well as their vegetation cover affect the rate of erosion, while the slope itself does not. The erosion rates found for the different areas studied vary between 3.5 and 8.8 mm year(-1), that is between 40 and 101 t ha(-1) year(-1) respectively. These values are between 2 and 3 times greater than those predicted by USLE, for which this equation underestimates soil loss for Central Spain's Mediterranean conditions. Nonetheless, both methods (using dendrochronology to determine actual soil loss and theoretical prediction with USLE) are able to establish the same significant differences among the areas studied, allowing for the comparative estimate of the severity of the area's erosion problem.

  10. Cadmium sulfate application to sludge-amended soils: III. Relationship between treatment and plant available cadmium, zinc, and manganese. [Beta vulgaris, Zea mays

    SciTech Connect

    Mahler, R.J. ); Ryan, J.A. )

    1988-01-01

    Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris var. cicla) and corn (Zea mays L.) were used as biological indicators of Cd, Zn, and Mn availability in 12 soils amended with and without sludge, CdSO{sub 4} and CaCO{sub 3}. Soil Cd, Zn and Mn were partitioned into six fractions: soluble, exchangeable, adsorbed, organically bound, carbonate bound and sulfide bound, by the use of H{sub 2}O, KNO{sub 3}, H{sub 2}O, NaOH, EDTA and HNO{sub 3}, respectively. The data indicate that the major portion of total Cd was found in the carbonate, residual and organic fractions. Addition of CaCO{sub 3} caused an increase in the soluble and exchangeable fractions of Cd in the soils. The concentrations of Cd in the saturation extracts of the limed soils were significantly greater than those of the unlimed soils; however, this was not reflected in greater plant uptake of Cd from limed soils.

  11. Effects of the addition of nitrogen and sulfate on CH4 and CO2 emissions, soil, and pore water chemistry in a high marsh of the Min River estuary in southeastern China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Minjie; Wilson, Benjamin J; Sun, Zhigao; Ren, Peng; Tong, Chuan

    2017-02-01

    Exogenous nitrogen (N) and sulfate (SO4(2-)), resulting from human activity, can strongly influence the emission of CH4 and CO2 from soil ecosystems. Studies have reported the effects of N and SO4(2-) on CH4 and CO2 emissions from inland peatlands and paddies. However, very few studies have presented year-round data on the effects of the addition of N and SO4(2-) on CH4 and CO2 emissions in estuarine marshes. The effects of the addition of N and SO4(2-) on the emission of CH4 and CO2 were investigated in a Cyperus malaccensis marsh in the high tidal flat of the Min River estuary of southeastern China from September 2014 to August 2015. Dissolved NH4Cl, KNO3, and K2SO4 were applied every month, in doses of 24gN/SO4(2-)m(-2)·yr(-1). The emission of CH4 and CO2 showed distinct monthly and seasonal variations. Compared with the control, the addition of NH4Cl and NH4NO3+K2SO4 showed increases in CH4 fluxes (p<0.05), while the effects of the addition of KNO3 and K2SO4 on CH4 were minor (p>0.05). NH4Cl had a positive impact on CO2 emissions (p<0.01), while the addition of KNO3, K2SO4, and NH4NO3+K2SO4 had minor positive impacts, compared to the control (p>0.05). Correlation analysis found that soil sulfate concentration, nitrogen availability and enzyme activity were the dominant factors influencing CH4 and CO2 variation. Our findings suggest that CH4 and CO2 emissions were influenced more by ammonium than by nitrate. We propose that the suppressive effect of additional sulfate on CH4 production is insignificant, due to which the inhibition may be overestimated in the estuarine brackish marsh.

  12. Fiscal Year 2007 Phased Construction Completion Report for the Zone 2 Soils, Slabs, and Subsurface Structures at East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    RSI

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this Phased Construction Completion Report (PCCR) is to present the fiscal year (FY) 2007 results of characterization activities and recommended remedial actions (RAs) for 11 exposure units (EUs) in Zone 2 (Z2-01, Z2-03, Z2-08, Z2-23, Z2-24, Z2-28, Z2-34, Z2-37, Z2-41, Z2-43, and Z2-44) at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), which is located in the northwest corner of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Fig. 1). ETTP encompasses a total land area of approximately 5000 acres that has been subdivided into three zones--Zone 1 ({approx}1400 acres), Zone 2 ({approx}800 acres), and the Boundary Area ({approx}2800 acres). Zone 2, which encompasses the highly industrialized portion of ETTP shown in Fig. 1, consists of all formerly secured areas of the facility, including the large processing buildings and direct support facilities; experimental laboratories and chemical and materials handling facilities; materials storage and waste disposal facilities; secure document records libraries; and shipping and receiving warehouses. The Zone 2 Record of Decision for Soil, Buried Waste, and Subsurface Structure Actions in Zone 2, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE 2005) (Zone 2 ROD) specifies the future end use for Zone 2 acreage as uncontrolled industrial for the upper 10 ft of soils. Characterization activities in these areas were conducted in compliance with the Zone 2 ROD and the Dynamic Verification Strategy (DVS) and data quality objectives (DQOs) presented in the Remedial Design Report/Remedial Action Work Plan for Zone 2 Soils, Slabs, and Subsurface Structures, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE 2007) (Zone 2 RDR/RAWP). The purpose of this PCCR is to address the following: (1) Document DVS characterization results for the accessible EUs in FY 2007; (2) Describe and document the risk evaluation for each EU, and determine if the EU met the Zone 2 ROD requirements

  13. The impact of ornithogenic inputs on phosphorous transport from altered wetland soils to waterways in East Mediterranean ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Litaor, M Iggy; Reichmann, O; Dente, E; Naftaly, A; Shenker, M

    2014-03-01

    Large flocks of Eurasian crane (Grus grus, >35,000) have begun wintering in an altered wetland agro-ecosystem located in Northern Israel, a phenomenon that attracts more than 400,000 eco-tourists a year. A 100-ha plot has been used to feed the cranes in order to protect nearby fields. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of this bird's feeding practice on the P status of the altered wetland soils and waterways. We installed a series of wells at two depths (40 and 90 cm) between two major waterways in the feeding area and monitored the hydraulic heads and collected groundwater samples for elemental analyses. We collected six soil cores and four sediment samples from the waterways and conducted sequential P extraction. We found significant increase in groundwater soluble reactive P (SRP) (>0.5 mg l(-1)) compared with much lower concentrations (~0.06 mg l(-1)) collected in the period prior to the feeding. We found significant decrease in Fe((II)), Ca, and SO4 concentrations in the shallow groundwater (33, 208, and 213 mg l(-1), respectively) compared with the period prior to the feeding (47, 460, and 370 mg l(-1) respectively). An increase in the more labile P fraction was observed in soils and sediments compared with the period before the feeding. The P input by bird excrement to the feeding area was estimated around 700 kg P per season, while P removal by plant harvesting was estimated around 640 kg Pyr(-1). This finding supports the current eco-tourism practices in the middle of intensive farming area, suggesting little impact on waterways. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Monohydrated Sulfates in Aurorae Chaos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image of sulfate-containing deposits in Aurorae Chaos was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) at 0653 UTC (2:53 a.m. EDT) on June 10, 2007, near 7.5 degrees south latitude, 327.25 degrees east longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 40 meters (132 feet) across. The region covered is roughly 12 kilometers (7.5 miles) wide at its narrowest point.

    Aurorae Chaos lies east of the Valles Marineris canyon system. Its western edge extends toward Capri and Eos Chasmata, while its eastern edge connects with Aureum Chaos. Some 750 kilometers (466 miles) wide, Aurorae Chaos is most likely the result of collapsed surface material that settled when subsurface ice or water was released.

    The top panel in the montage above shows the location of the CRISM image on a mosaic taken by the Mars Odyssey spacecraft's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS). The CRISM data covers an area featuring several knobs of erosion-resistant material at one end of what appears to be a large teardrop shaped plateau. Similar plateaus occur throughout the interior of Valles Marineris, and they are formed of younger, typically layered rocks that post-date formation of the canyon system. Many of the deposits contain sulfate-rich layers, hinting at ancient saltwater.

    The center left image, an infrared false color image, reveals a swath of light-colored material draped over the knobs. The center right image unveils the mineralogical composition of the area, with yellow representing monohydrated sulfates (sulfates with one water molecule incorporated into each molecule of the mineral).

    The lower two images are renderings of data draped over topography with 5 times vertical exaggeration. These images provide a view of the topography and reveal how the monohydrated sulfate-containing deposits drape over the knobs and also an outcrop in lower-elevation parts of the

  15. A study of contaminated soils near Crucea-Botus, ana uranium mine (East Carpathians, Romania): metal distribution and partitioning of natural actinides with implications for vegetation uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrescu, L.; Bilal, E.

    2012-04-01

    Between 1962 and 2009, National Company of Uranium - CNU, the former Romanian Rare Metals Mining Company, mined over 1,200,000 tones of pitchblende ore in the East Carpathians (Crucea-Botušana area, Bistrita Mountains). The exploration and mining facilities include 32 adits, situated between 780 and 1040 m above sea level. Radioactive waste resulted from mining are disposed next to the mining facilities. Mine dumps (32) cover an area of 364,000 square meters and consist of waste rock (rocks with sub-economic mineralization) and gangue minerals. Older dumps (18) have been already naturally reclaimed by forest vegetation, which played an important role in stabilizing the waste dump cover and in slowing down the uranium migration processes. The soils samples have been collected from different mine dumps in the Crucea-Botušana uranium deposit, mainly from 1, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 1/30 and 950 mine waste galleries. Soil samples were collected from the upper part and slope at each mine dump, from the vegetation root zones. Total uranium concentration in soils collected from Crucea-Botušana site ranged from 6.10 to 680.70 ppm, with a mean of 52.48 ppm (dry wt.). Total thorium varies between 7.70 and 115.30 ppm (dry wt.). This indicates that the adsorption of the radioactive elements by the soils is high and variable, influenced by the ore dump - sample relationship. The sequential extraction has emphasized the fact that the uranium is associated with all the mineral fractions present in the soil samples. A great percentage of U can be found in the carbonate (21.77%), organic (15.04%) and oxides fractions (15.88%) - in accordance with the high absorbed/adsorbed properties of this element. The percentage of uranium detected in the exchangeable fraction is rather small - 2.16%. It is also to be expected that the uranium should be irreversible adsorbed by the organic matter and by the clay minerals due to its ionic radius and to its positive charge. The fact that 21.77% of the

  16. Infrared Spectroscopic Analyses of Sulfate, Nitrate, and Carbonate-bearing Atacama Desert Soils: Analogs for the Interpretation of Infrared Spectra from the Martian Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, J. B.; Dalton, J. B.; Ewing, S. A.; Amundson, R.; McKay, C. P.

    2005-01-01

    The Atacama Desert of northern Chile is the driest desert on Earth, receiving only a few mm of rain per decade. The Mars climate may, in the past, have been punctuated by short-lived episodes of aqueous activity. The paleo-Martian environment may have had aqueous conditions similar to the current conditions that exist in the Atacama, and Mars soils may have formed with soil chemistry and mineralogy similar to those found in the Atacama. Remote and in-situ analysis of the Martian surface using infrared technology has a long heritage. Future investigations of the subsurface mineralogy are likely to build upon this heritage, and will benefit from real life lessons to be learned from terrestrial analog studies. To that end, preliminary results from a near- and mid-infrared spectroscopic study of Atacama soil profiled at a range of depths are presented.

  17. Mercury in Fish from a Sulfate-Amended Wetland Mesocosm

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, S.M.

    2003-05-29

    This study used an experimental model of a constructed wetland to evaluate the risk of mercury methylation when the soil is amended with sulfate. The model was planted with Schoenoplectus californicus, and the sediments were varied during construction to provide a control and two levels of sulfate treatment.

  18. Contribution of nitrous oxide and methan to the overall climate impact of maize on well-drained sandy soils of north-east Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres, M.; Hagemann, U.; Pohl, M.; Sommer, M.; Augustin, J.

    2012-04-01

    Erosion effects and the influence of organic fertiliser (fermentation residues, FR) on the climate impact and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of N2O, CH4 and CO2 were investigated at an experimental field side in the lowlands of north-east Germany during the years 2010 and 2011. This intensively used agricultural landscape is glacially shaped and characterized by well-drained sandy and loamy soils. Erosion effects on GHG exchange were investigated for energy maize at the CarboZALF-D project site near Dedelow, Uckermark. In addition to a non-eroded haplic luvisol (reference), emissions were measured for three eroded soil types: a) eroded haplic luvisol, b) haplic regosol (calcaric) and c) endogleyic colluvic regosol (deposition side). In a second field trial, the impact of organic fertilization on GHG emissions was assessed for a range of FR fertilization (0-200% N) and compared to a non-fertilized and a minerally fertilized control. Only 70% of the N content of the FR was assumed to be available for plants. Discontinuous measurements of N2O and CH4 were carried out bi-weekly using the closed-chamber method and 20-minute interval sampling. Gas samples were analysed using a gas chromatograph. Gas fluxes were calculated using linear regression, interpolated and finally cumulated. CO2 flux measurements of ecosystem respiration (Reco) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) were conducted every four weeks by using a non-flow-through non-steady-state closed chamber system (Livingston and Hutchinson 1995) based on Drösler (2005). Measurement gaps of NEE were filled by modeling the Reco fluxes using the Lloyd-Taylor (Lloyd and Taylor 1994) method and the gross primary production (GPP) fluxes using Michaelis-Menten (Michaelis and Menten 1913) modeling approach. Annual NEE balances were then calculated based on the modeled Reco and GPP fluxes. All investigated soil types were C sinks, storing up to 9,6 t CO2eq ha-1 yr-1. As expected for this well-drained soils, the climate impact

  19. Soils

    Treesearch

    John R. Jones; Norbert V. DeByle

    1985-01-01

    Edaphic and climatic characteristics of a site quite well define the quality of that site for plant growth. The importance of soil characteristics to the growth and well-being of aspen in the West is apparent from observations by many authors, from inferences resulting from work with other trees and agricultural crops, and from detailed study of aspen soils and site...

  20. Sulfate in fetal development.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Paul A

    2011-08-01

    Sulfate (SO(4)(2-)) is an important nutrient for human growth and development, and is obtained from the diet and the intra-cellular metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids, including methionine and cysteine. During pregnancy, fetal tissues have a limited capacity to produce sulfate, and rely on sulfate obtained from the maternal circulation. Sulfate enters and exits placental and fetal cells via transporters on the plasma membrane, which maintain a sufficient intracellular supply of sulfate and its universal sulfonate donor 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) for sulfate conjugation (sulfonation) reactions to function effectively. Sulfotransferases mediate sulfonation of numerous endogenous compounds, including proteins and steroids, which biotransforms their biological activities. In addition, sulfonation of proteoglycans is important for maintaining normal structure and development of tissues, as shown for reduced sulfonation of cartilage proteoglycans that leads to developmental dwarfism disorders and four different osteochondrodysplasias (diastrophic dysplasia, atelosteogenesis type II, achondrogenesis type IB and multiple epiphyseal dysplasia). The removal of sulfate via sulfatases is an important step in proteoglycan degradation, and defects in several sulfatases are linked to perturbed fetal bone development, including mesomelia-synostoses syndrome and chondrodysplasia punctata 1. In recent years, interest in sulfate and its role in developmental biology has expanded following the characterisation of sulfate transporters, sulfotransferases and sulfatases and their involvement in fetal growth. This review will focus on the physiological roles of sulfate in fetal development, with links to human and animal pathophysiologies.

  1. [Effects of different tillage and fertilization modes on the soil physical and chemical properties and crop yield under winter wheat/spring corn rotation on dryland of east Gansu, Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-jun; Wang, Yong; Fan, Ting-lu; Guo, Tian-wen; Zhao, Gang; Dang, Yi; Wang, Lei; Li, Shang-zhong

    2013-04-01

    Based on the 7-year field experiment on the dryland of east Gansu of Northwest China in 2005-2011, this paper analyzed the variations of soil moisture content, bulk density, and nutrients content at harvest time of winter wheat and of the grain yield under no-tillage and conventional tillage and five fertilization modes, and approached the effects of different tillage and fertilization modes on the soil water storage and conservation, soil fertility, and grain yield under winter wheat/ spring corn rotation. In 2011, the soil moisture content in 0-200 cm layer and the soil bulk density and soil organic matter and available nitrogen and phosphorus contents in 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm layers under different fertilization modes were higher under no-tillage than under conventional tillage. Under the same tillage modes, the contents of soil organic matter and available nitrogen and available phosphorus were higher under the combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers, as compared with other fertilization modes. The soil available potassium content under different tillage and fertilization modes decreased with years. The grain yield under conventional tillage was higher than that under no-tillage. Under the same tillage modes, the grain yield was the highest under the combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers, and the lowest under no fertilization. In sum, no-tillage had the superiority than conventional tillage in improving the soil water storage and conservation and soil fertility, and the combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers under conventional tillage could obtain the best grain yield.

  2. Strength deterioration of high strength concrete in sulfate environment

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y.S.; Suh, J.K.; Lee, J.H.; Shin, Y.S.

    1999-09-01

    Sulfate in soil and groundwater may cause damage to the concrete in underground structures. In this paper, laboratory tests were performed to assess the damage of chemical attack by magnesium sulfate and sodium sulfate on normal and high strength concretes. The selected solutions were pure water and 10% sulfate solutions (sodium and magnesium), which were determined by consideration of the soil environment in Korea. The parameters in experimental programs were water-binder ratio, silica fume content, and the compressive strength of concrete. Observed differences in the characteristics between normal and high strength concretes are discussed, and a scheme for maximizing the resistance of high strength concrete against various kinds of sulfates is suggested.

  3. Sulfation pathways in plants.

    PubMed

    Koprivova, Anna; Kopriva, Stanislav

    2016-11-25

    Plants take up sulfur in the form of sulfate. Sulfate is activated to adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (APS) and reduced to sulfite and then to sulfide when it is assimilated into amino acid cysteine. Alternatively, APS is phosphorylated to 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS), and sulfate from PAPS is transferred onto diverse metabolites in its oxidized form. Traditionally, these pathways are referred to as primary and secondary sulfate metabolism, respectively. However, the synthesis of PAPS is essential for plants and even its reduced provision leads to dwarfism. Here the current knowledge of enzymes involved in sulfation pathways of plants will be summarized, the similarities and differences between different kingdoms will be highlighted, and major open questions in the research of plant sulfation will be formulated.

  4. Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans

    PubMed Central

    Sarrazin, Stephane; Lamanna, William C.; Esko, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are found at the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix, where they interact with a plethora of ligands. Over the last decade, new insights have emerged regarding the mechanism and biological significance of these interactions. Here, we discuss changing views on the specificity of protein–heparan sulfate binding and the activity of HSPGs as receptors and coreceptors. Although few in number, heparan sulfate proteoglycans have profound effects at the cellular, tissue, and organismal level. PMID:21690215

  5. Stabilization and reuse of heavy metal contaminated soils by means of quicklime sulfate salt treatment. Final report, September 1992--February 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Dermatas, D.

    1995-08-01

    Capillary and hydraulic flows of water in porous media contaminated by heavy metal species often result in severe aquifer contamination. In the present study a chemical admixture stabilization approach is proposed, where heavy metal stabilization/immobilization is achieved by means of quicklime-based treatment. Both in-situ treatment by injection and on-site stabilization by excavation, mixing, and compaction will be investigated. In addition, the potential to reuse the resulting stabilized material as readily available construction material will also be investigated. The heavy metals under study include: arsenic, chromium, lead, and mercury. The proposed technical approach consists of three separate phases. During phase A, both artificial and naturally occurring contaminated soil mixes were treated, and then tested for stress-strain properties, leachability, micromorphology, mineralogical composition, permeability, setting time, and durability. In such a way, the effectiveness of the proposed remediation technology was verified, the treatment approach was optimized, and the underlying mechanisms responsible for stabilization were established. During phase B, the proposed technology will be tested for two DOE-site subscale systems, involving naturally occurring contaminated soil, using the same testing methodology as the one outlined for phase A. Provided that the proposed technology is proven effective for the subscale systems, a field application will be demonstrated. Again process quality monitoring will be performed by testing undisturbed samples collected from the treated sites, in the same fashion as for the previous phases. Following completion of the proposed study, a set of comprehensive guidelines for field applications will be developed. 42 refs., 196 figs., 26 tabs.

  6. Automotive sulfate emission data.

    PubMed Central

    Somers, J H

    1975-01-01

    This paper discusses automotive sulfate emission results obtained by the Office of Mobile Source Air Pollution Control of EPA, General Motors, Ford, Chrysler, and Esso. This work has been directed towards obtaining sulfate emission factors for cars with and without catalyst. While the EPA and Chrysler investigations have found significant sulfate formation in noncatalyst cars, GM, Ford, and Esso have found only trace levels from noncatalyst cars. All of these investigators agree that much higher quantities of sulfate are emitted from catalyst cars. The work done to date shows pelleted catalysts to have much lower sulfate emissions over the low speed-EPA Federal Test Procedures than monolith catalysts. This is probably due to temporary storage of sulfates on the catalyst due to chemical interaction with the alumina pellets. The sulfate compounds are, to a large degree, emitted later under higher speed conditions which result in higher catalyst temperatures which decompose the alumina salt. Future work will be directed towards further elucidation of this storage mechanism as well as determining in detail how factors such as air injection rate and catalyst location affect sulfate emissions. PMID:50932

  7. Assessing the contributions of East African and West Pacific warming to the 2014 boreal spring East African drought

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Funk, Christopher C.; Shukla, Shraddhanand; Hoell, Andrew; Livneh, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic warming contributed to the 2014 East African drought by increasing East African and west Pacific temperatures, and increasing the gradient between standardized western and central Pacific SST causing reduced rainfall, evapotranspiration, and soil moisture.

  8. Spectral variations in rocks and soils containing ferric iron hydroxide and(or) sulfate minerals as seen by AVIRIS and laboratory spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data covering the Big Rock Candy Mountain area of the Marysvale volcanic field, west-central Utah, identified abundant rocks and soils bearing jarosite, goethite, and chlorite associated with volcanic rocks altered to propylitic grade during the Miocene (2321 Ma). Propylitically-altered rocks rich in pyrite associated with the relict feeder zones of convecting, shallow hydrothermal systems are currently undergoing supergene oxidation to natrojarosite, kaolinite, and gypsum. Goethite coatings are forming at the expense of jarosite where most pyrite has been consumed through oxidation in alluvium derived from pyrite-bearing zones. Spectral variations in the goethite-bearing rocks that resemble variations found in reference library samples of goethites of varying grain size were observed in the AVIRIS data. Rocks outside of the feeder zones have relatively low pyrite content and are characterized by chlorite, epidote, and calcite, with local copper-bearing quartz-calcite veins. Iron-bearing minerals in these rocks are weathering directly to goethite. Laboratory spectral analyses were applied to samples of iron-bearing rock outcrops and alluvium collected from the area to determine the accuracy of the AVIRIS-based mineral identification. The accuracy of the iron mineral identification results obtained by analysis of the AVIRIS data was confirmed. In general, the AVIRIS analysis results were accurate in identifying medium-grained goethite, coarse-grained goethite, medium- to coarse-grained goethite with trace jarosite, and mixtures of goethite and jarosite. However, rock fragments from alluvial areas identified as thin coatings of goethite with the AVIRIS data were found to consist mainly of medium- to coarse-grained goethite based on spectral characteristics in the visible and near-infrared. To determine if goethite abundance contributed to the spectral variations observed in goethite-bearing rocks

  9. Burkholderia heleia sp. nov., a nitrogen-fixing bacterium isolated from an aquatic plant, Eleocharis dulcis, that grows in highly acidic swamps in actual acid sulfate soil areas of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, Tomoko; Ve, Nguyen Bao; Nakajima, Mutsuyasu; Sunairi, Michio

    2010-05-01

    Nitrogen-fixing bacteria, strains SA41(T), SA42 and SA53, were isolated from an aquatic plant, Eleocharis dulcis, that grows in highly acidic swamps (pH 2-4) in actual acid sulfate soil areas of Vietnam. The isolates were Gram-negative, aerobic, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacteria, having a cell width of 0.6-0.7 microm and a length of 1.5-1.7 microm. They showed good growth between pH 3.0 and 7.0, and between 17 and 37 degrees C. The organisms contained ubiquinone Q-8 as the predominant isoprenoid quinone, and C(16 : 0), C(17 : 0) cyclo, C(18 : 1) omega7c and summed feature 3 (C(16 : 1) omega7c and/or iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH) as major fatty acids. Their fatty acid profiles are similar to those reported for other Burkholderia species. The DNA G+C content of these strains was 64 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, these strains were shown to belong to the genus Burkholderia. Although their calculated 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values to Burkholderia silvatlantica, Burkholderia mimosarum, Burkholderia ferrariae and Burkholderia tropica were 98.5, 98.2, 98.0 and 97.0 %, respectively, the isolates formed a distinct group in phylogenetic trees, and the DNA-DNA relatedness values of strain SA41(T) to these species were 39, 41, 39 and 33 %, respectively. The results of physiological and biochemical tests, including whole-cell protein pattern analysis, allowed phenotypic differentiation of these strains from the published Burkholderia species. Therefore, strains SA41(T), SA42 and SA53 represent a novel species for which the name Burkholderia heleia sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SA41(T) (=NBRC 101817(T)=VTCC-D6-7(T)).

  10. [Dynamic changes of soil respiration in Citrus reticulata and Castanea henryi orchards in Wanmulin Nature Reserve, Fujian Province of East China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Huang, Rong; Yang, Zhi-Jie; Liu, Qiang; Chen, Guang-Shui; Wan, Xiao-Hua

    2012-06-01

    From January 2009 to December 2009, the soil respiration in the Citrus reticulata and Castanea henryi orchards in Wanmulin Nature Reserve was measured with Li-8100, aimed to characterize the dynamic changes of the soil respiration and its relationships with soil temperature and moisture in the two orchards. The monthly variation of the soil respiration in the orchards was single-peaked, with the peak appeared in July (3.76 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1)) ) and August (2.69 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1)). Soil temperature was the main factor affecting the soil respiration, and explained 73%-86% of the monthly variation of soil respiration. The average annual soil respiration rate was significantly higher in Citrus reticulata orchard than in Castanea henryi orchard, with the mean value being 2.68 and 1.55 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1), respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between the soil respiration rate and soil moisture content in Castanea henryi orchard, but less correlation in Citrus reticulata orchard. The Q10 value of the soil respiration in Citrus reticulata and Castanea henryi orchards was 1.58 and 1.75, and the annual CO2 flux was 10.01 and 5.77 t C x hm(-2) x a(-1), respectively.

  11. [Spatial heterogeneity of soil properties and its relationships with terrain factors in broad-leaved forest in Tiantong of Zhejiang Province, East China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Na; Wang, Xi-Hua; Zheng, Ze-Mei; Ma, Zun-Ping; Yang, Qing-Song; Fang, Xiao-Feng; Xie, Yu-Bin

    2012-09-01

    By using geostatistical methods, this paper studied the spatial heterogeneity and distribution patterns of soil pH, total carbon, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus in an evergreen broad-leaved forest in Tiantong of Zhejiang Province, and the effects of terrain factors (elevation, convexity, and slope) on the soil properties were quantified based on RDA ordination and partial regression analysis. The coefficient of variation for the soil pH, total carbon, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus was 5.18%, 42.98%, 36.55%, and 46.27%, respectively, and the spatial dependence of the soil properties was at a scale of 81.6-54.5 m. The soil pH, total carbon, and total nitrogen had moderate spatial autocorrelation, while the soil total phosphorus had a strong spatial autocorrelation. The soil pH, total carbon, and total nitrogen showed scattered spatial distribution, while the soil total phosphorus presented banded type. Among the terrain factors, convexity had the strongest effects on the soil pH and total phosphorus, both of which had negative correlation with convexity, and the convexity could explain 21.24% and 14.62% of the spatial variability of soil pH and total phosphorus, respectively. Elevation had the most powerful effects on the soil total carbon and total nitrogen, both of which had positive correlation with elevation, and the elevation could explain 10.54% and 10.60% of the spatial variability of soil total carbon and total nitrogen, respectively. There existed differences in the effects of different terrain factors on the spatial variability of the soil properties, which was related to the effects of terrain factors on the distribution of acidic rainfall in the region and on the local soil moisture content and air temperature.

  12. The Effect of Land Use Change on Transformation of Relief and Modification of Soils in Undulating Loess Area of East Poland

    PubMed Central

    Rejman, Jerzy; Rafalska-Przysucha, Anna; Rodzik, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The change of primary forest areas into arable land involves the transformation of relief and modification of soils. In this study, we hypothesized that relatively flat loess area was largely transformed after the change of land use due to erosion. The modifications in soil pedons and distribution of soil properties were studied after 185 years of arable land use. Structure of pedons and solum depth were measured in 128 and soil texture and soil organic carbon in 39 points. Results showed that soils of noneroded and eroded profiles occupied 14 and 50%, respectively, and depositional soils 36% of the area. As a consequence, the clay, silt, and SOC concentration varied greatly in the plowed layer and subsoil. The reconstructed profiles of eroded soils and depositional soils without the accumulation were used to develop the map of past relief. The average inclination of slopes decreased from 4.3 to 2.2°, and slopes >5° vanished in the present topography. Total erosion was 23.8 Mg ha−1 year−1. From that amount, 88% was deposited within the study area, and 12% was removed outside. The study confirmed the hypothesis of the significant effect of the land use change on relief and soils in loess areas. PMID:25614883

  13. Formation and deposition of volcanic sulfate aerosols on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Settle, M.

    1979-01-01

    The paper considers the formation and deposition of volcanic sulfate aerosols on Mars. The rate limiting step in sulfate aerosol formation on Mars is the gas phase oxidation of SO2 by chemical reactions with O, OH, and HO2; submicron aerosol particles would circuit Mars and then be removed from the atmosphere by gravitational forces, globally dispersed, and deposited over a range of equatorial and mid-latitudes. Volcanic sulfate aerosols on Mars consist of liquid droplets and slurries containing sulfuric acid; aerosol deposition on a global or hemispheric scale could account for the similar concentrations of sulfur within surficial soils at the two Viking lander sites.

  14. Methylmercury formation in a wetland mesocosm amended with sulfate.

    PubMed

    Harmon, S M; King, J K; Gladden, J B; Chandler, G T; Newman, L A

    2004-01-15

    This study used an experimental model to evaluate methylmercury accumulation when the soil of a constructed wetland is amended with sulfate. The model was planted with Schoenoplectus californicus and designed to reduce wastestream metals and metal-related toxicity. The soil was varied during construction to provide a control and two sulfate treatments which were equally efficient at overall mercury and copper removal. After an initial stabilization period, methylmercury concentrations in porewater were up to three times higher in the sulfate-treated porewater (0.5-1.6 ng/L) than in the control (<0.02-0.5 ng/L). Mean percent methylmercury was 9.0% in the control with 18.5 and 16.6% in the low- and high-sulfate treatments, respectively. Methylmercury concentrations measured in mesocosm surface water did not reflect the differences between the control and the sulfate treatments that were noted in porewater. The mean bulk sediment methylmercury concentration in the top 6 cm of the low-sulfate treatment (2.33 ng/g) was significantly higher than other treatment means which ranged from 0.96 to 1.57 ng/g. Total mercury in sediment ranged from 20.8 to 33.4 ng/g, with no differences between treatments. Results suggest that the non-sulfate-amended control was equally effective in removing metals while keeping mercury methylation low.

  15. Mineralogy, Abundance, and Hydration State of Sulfates and Chlorides at the Mars Pathfinder Landing Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolotov, M. Y.; Kuzmin, R. O.; Shock, E. L.

    2004-01-01

    Detection of elevated concentrations of S and Cl at the landing sites of Viking 1 and 2 [1], and Mars Pathfinder (MP) [2-5] reveals the presence of sulfates and chlorides in soil and rock samples [1-10]. These data are consistent with the findings of Ca sulfates and NaCl in Martian meteorites [11,12], and with Earth-based spectroscopic observations [13,14] tentatively indicating the presence of sulfates on Mars. Although the correlation of S and Mg in Viking and MP samples could reveal the occurrence of Mg sulfate [1-10], the mineralogy of sulfates and chlorides remains unclear.

  16. Assessment of TRMM Products and Their Influence on Hydrologic Models within the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) Region Using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milewski, A.; El Kadiri, R.; Durham, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing datasets have been increasingly employed as an ancillary source of essential hydrologic measurements used for the modeling of hydrologic fluxes. Precipitation is one of the most important meteorological forcing parameter in hydrological investigations and land surface modeling, yet it is largely unknown or misused in water budgets and hydrologic models. The Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) satellite products are widely being used by the scientific community due to the general spatial and temporal paucity of precipitation data in many parts of world and particularly in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. This research utilized a two-fold approach towards understanding the accuracy of satellite-based rainfall and its application in hydrologic models First, we evaluated the uncertainty, accuracy, and precision of various rainfall satellite products (i.e. TRMM 3B42 V6, TRMM 3B42 V7, TRMM 3B42 V7a and TRMM 3B42 RT) in comparison to in situ gauge data from more than 150 rain gauges in Morocco and across the MENA region. Our analyses extend over many parts of the MENA region in order to assess the effect that different climatic regimes and topographic characteristics have on each TRMM product. Secondly, we analyzed and compared the hydrologic fluxes produced from different modeling inputs for several watersheds within the MENA region. SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) hydrologic models have been developed for the Oum Er Rbia (Morocco), Asyuti (Egypt), and the Sakarya (Turkey) watersheds. SWAT models produced for each watershed include, one model for each of the four satellite TRMM product (STBM-V6, STBM-V7, STBM-V7a, and STBM-RT) and one model for rain gauge based model (RGBM). Findings indicate the best correlation between field-based and satellite-based rainfall measurements is the TRMM V7a (Pearson coefficient: 0.875) product, followed by TRMM V7 (Pearson coefficient: 0.84), then TRMM V6 (Pearson coefficient: 0

  17. Structural and Spectral Characteristics of Amorphous Iron Sulfates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sklute, E.; Jensen, H. B.; Rogers, D.; Reeder, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    Substantial evidence points to the existence of hydrated sulfate phases on the Martian surface1-3. In addition, the discovery of recurring slope lineae could point to an active brine hydrologic cycle on the surface4,5. The rapid dehydration of both hydrated sulfates and sulfate-rich brines can lead to the formation of amorphous sulfates. Evidence suggests that the Rocknest soil target and the Sheepbed mudstone interrogated by the Mars Science Laboratory at Gale crater contain ~30 wt.% XRD amorphous material that is rich in both sulfur and iron6. These factors have led us to consider hydrated amorphous iron sulfates as possible components in Martian surface materials. Amorphous iron sulfates were created through multiple synthesis routes, and then characterized with total x-ray scattering, TGA, SEM, visible/near-infrared (VNIR), thermal infrared (TIR), and Mössbauer techniques. We synthesized amorphous ferric sulfates (Fe(III)2(SO4)3•~5-8H2O) from sulfate-saturated fluids via two pathways: vacuum dehydration and exposure to low relative humidity (<11%) using a LiCl buffer. Amorphous ferrous sulfate (Fe(II)SO4•~1H2O) was synthesized via vacuum dehydration of melanterite (Fe(II) SO4•7H2O). We find that both the ferric and ferrous sulfates synthesized from these methods lack long-range (>10Å) order, and thus are truly amorphous. VNIR and TIR spectral data for the amorphous sulfates display broad, muted features consistent with structural disorder and are spectrally distinct from all crystalline sulfates considered for comparison. Mössbauer spectra are also distinct from all crystalline phase spectra available for comparison. The amorphous sulfates should be distinguishable based on the position of their Fe-related absorptions in the visible range and their spectral characteristics in the TIR. In the NIR, which is the spectral range that has primarily been used to detect sulfates on Mars, the bands associated with hydration at ~1.4 and 1.9 μm are significantly

  18. Far East

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, G.L.

    1981-10-01

    Petroleum activity throughout the Far East region was on the upswing during 1980. In spite of increased interest in many parts of the Far East, no major new discoveries were reported. From India to Indonesia, old fields are being rehabilitated and previously uneconomic areas are being looked at again. Indonesia set a new record in 1980 for the number of exploratory wells drilled. Peninsular Malaysia set a record for oil production. Overall, however, 1980 was a banner year for petroleum exploration in the Far East. Sri Lanka saw its first foreign contractor interest in several years. India made major moves toward increasing exploration by offering offshore and onshore blocks to foreign contractors . Bangladesh and even Burma signed exploitation contracts with Japanese investors in order to increase production. Malaysia offered new acreage blocks for the first time in several years. Indonesia and the Philippines also actively encouraged exploration by offering new contract areas. One country in the Far East that did not participate in the 1980 oil boom was China. Taiwan also carried on, as in previous years with the Chinese Petroleum Corporation as the only operator. Japanese and South Korean activities were at approximately the same level as in previous years, although drilling did start in the joint development zone. Total production of the Far East reporting region declined slightly. One significant aspect of 1980 petroleum activities throughout the Far East region is the growing acceptance by various Far East countries of Asian investment for developing and exploring for hydrocarbons. Japan is the major investor, but South Korean interests and the Chinese Petroleum Corporation also began to invest in petroleum rights in other Asian countries. The main area for investment continued to be Indonesia. 39 figures, 9 tables.

  19. High rate of N2 fixation by East Siberian cryophilic soil bacteria as determined by measuring acetylene reduction in nitrogen-poor medium solidified with gellan gum.

    PubMed

    Hara, Shintaro; Hashidoko, Yasuyuki; Desyatkin, Roman V; Hatano, Ryusuke; Tahara, Satoshi

    2009-05-01

    For evaluating N(2) fixation of diazotrophic bacteria, nitrogen-poor liquid media supplemented with at least 0.5% sugar and 0.2% agar are widely used for acetylene reduction assays. In such a soft gel medium, however, many N(2)-fixing soil bacteria generally show only trace acetylene reduction activity. Here, we report that use of a N(2) fixation medium solidified with gellan gum instead of agar promoted growth of some gellan-preferring soil bacteria. In a soft gel medium solidified with 0.3% gellan gum under appropriate culture conditions, bacterial microbiota from boreal forest bed soils and some free-living N(2)-fixing soil bacteria isolated from the microbiota exhibited 10- to 200-fold-higher acetylene reduction than those cultured in 0.2% agar medium. To determine the N(2) fixation-activating mechanism of gellan gum medium, qualitative differences in the colony-forming bacterial components from tested soil microbiota were investigated in plate cultures solidified with either agar or gellan gum for use with modified Winogradsky's medium. On 1.5% agar plates, apparently cryophilic bacterial microbiota showed strictly distinguishable microbiota according to the depth of soil in samples from an eastern Siberian Taiga forest bed. Some pure cultures of proteobacteria, such as Pseudomonas fluorescens and Burkholderia xenovorans, showed remarkable acetylene reduction. On plates solidified with 1.0% gellan gum, some soil bacteria, including Luteibacter sp., Janthinobacterium sp., Paenibacillus sp., and Arthrobacter sp., uniquely grew that had not grown in the presence of the same inoculants on agar plates. In contrast, Pseudomonas spp. and Burkholderia spp. were apparent only as minor colonies on the gellan gum plates. Moreover, only gellan gum plates allowed some bacteria, particularly those isolated from the shallow organic soil layer, to actively swarm. In consequence, gellan gum is a useful gel matrix to bring out growth potential capabilities of many soil

  20. Sulfate attack expansion mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Müllauer, Wolfram Beddoe, Robin E.; Heinz, Detlef

    2013-10-15

    A specially constructed stress cell was used to measure the stress generated in thin-walled Portland cement mortar cylinders caused by external sulfate attack. The effects of sulfate concentration of the storage solution and C{sub 3}A content of the cement were studied. Changes in mineralogical composition and pore size distribution were investigated by X-ray diffraction and mercury intrusion porosimetry, respectively. Damage is due to the formation of ettringite in small pores (10–50 nm) which generates stresses up to 8 MPa exceeding the tensile strength of the binder matrix. Higher sulfate concentrations and C{sub 3}A contents result in higher stresses. The results can be understood in terms of the effect of crystal surface energy and size on supersaturation and crystal growth pressure.

  1. Morphological, structural, and spectral characteristics of amorphous iron sulfates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sklute, E. C.; Jensen, H. B.; Rogers, A. D.; Reeder, R. J.

    2015-04-01

    Current or past brine hydrologic activity on Mars may provide suitable conditions for the formation of amorphous ferric sulfates. Once formed, these phases would likely be stable under current Martian conditions, particularly at low- to mid-latitudes. Therefore, we consider amorphous iron sulfates (AIS) as possible components of Martian surface materials. Laboratory AIS were created through multiple synthesis routes and characterized with total X-ray scattering, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, visible/near-infrared (VNIR), thermal infrared (TIR), and Mössbauer techniques. We synthesized amorphous ferric sulfates (Fe(III)2(SO4)3 · ~ 6-8H2O) from sulfate-saturated fluids via vacuum dehydration or exposure to low relative humidity (<11%). Amorphous ferrous sulfate (Fe(II)SO4 · ~ 1H2O) was synthesized via vacuum dehydration of melanterite. All AIS lack structural order beyond 11 Å. The short-range (<5 Å) structural characteristics of amorphous ferric sulfates resemble all crystalline reference compounds; structural characteristics for the amorphous ferrous sulfate are similar to but distinct from both rozenite and szomolnokite. VNIR and TIR spectral data for all AIS display broad, muted features consistent with structural disorder and are spectrally distinct from all crystalline sulfates considered for comparison. Mössbauer spectra are also distinct from crystalline phase spectra available for comparison. AIS should be distinguishable from crystalline sulfates based on the position of their Fe-related absorptions in the visible range and their spectral characteristics in the TIR. In the NIR, bands associated with hydration at ~1.4 and 1.9 µm are significantly broadened, which greatly reduces their detectability in soil mixtures. AIS may contribute to the amorphous fraction of soils measured by the Curiosity rover.

  2. Soil salination indicators

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salts are naturally present in soils, and many salt elements are essential nutrients for plants. The most common soluble salts in soil include major cations of sodium (Na+), magnesium (Mg2+), calcium (Ca2+), potassium (K+), and anions of chloride (Cl-), sulfate (SO42-), bicarbonate (HCO3-) and carbo...

  3. Changes in the agrochemical properties of major arable soils in the south of the Far East of Russia under the impact of their long-term agricultural use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdukovskii, M. L.; Golov, V. I.; Kovshik, I. G.

    2016-10-01

    Agrochemical properties of meadow-brown (Gleyic Cambisols (Clayic, Aric)) and meadow-chernozemic (Luvic Gleyic Chernic Phaeozems (Loamic, Aric, Pachic)) soils under the impact of long-term application of mineral and organic fertilizers were studied. The investigations were performed at the agrochemical experimental stations of the Primorskii region and Amur oblast founded in 1941 and 1962, respectively. It was shown that the long-term crop cultivation without fertilizers or with great rates of mineral fertilizers and lime resulted in the soil dehumification, a rise in the soil acidity, and a decrease of the content of exchangeable bases. These processes were slowed down by the application of organic fertilizers. Agrochemical parameters of meadow-chernozemic and floodplain meadow (Fluvic Phaeozems (Loamic, Aric, Oxyaquic)) soils of Amur oblast (Russia) and the Heilongjiang border province (China) were compared.

  4. Aluminum Sulfate 18 Hydrate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) of the chemical, aluminum sulfate 18 hydrate, is presented. The profile lists physical and harmful properties, exposure limits, reactivity risks, and symptoms of major exposure for the benefit of teachers and students using the chemical in the laboratory.

  5. Hydrazine/Hydrazine sulfate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Hydrazine / Hydrazine sulfate ; CASRN 302 - 01 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Non

  6. Aluminum Sulfate 18 Hydrate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) of the chemical, aluminum sulfate 18 hydrate, is presented. The profile lists physical and harmful properties, exposure limits, reactivity risks, and symptoms of major exposure for the benefit of teachers and students using the chemical in the laboratory.

  7. Acid Sulfate Alteration in Gusev Crater, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Catalano, J. G.

    2016-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit landed on the Gusev Crater plains west of the Columbia Hills in January, 2004, during the Martian summer (sol 0; sol = 1 Martian day = 24 hr 40 min). Spirit explored the Columbia Hills of Gusev Crater in the vicinity of Home Plate at the onset on its second winter (sol approximately 900) until the onset of its fourth winter (sol approximately 2170). At that time, Spirit became mired in a deposit of fined-grained and sulfate-rich soil with dust-covered solar panels and unfavorable pointing of the solar arrays toward the sun. Spirit has not communicated with the Earth since sol 2210 (January, 2011). Like its twin rover Opportunity, which landed on the opposite side of Mars at Meridiani Planum, Spirit has an Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) instrument for chemical analyses and a Moessbauer spectrometer (MB) for measurement of iron redox state, mineralogical speciation, and quantitative distribution among oxidation (Fe(3+)/sigma Fe) and coordination (octahedral versus tetrahedral) states and mineralogical speciation (e.g., olivine, pyroxene, ilmenite, carbonate, and sulfate). The concentration of SO3 in Gusev rocks and soils varies from approximately 1 to approximately 34 wt%. Because the APXS instrument does not detect low atomic number elements (e.g., H and C), major-element oxide concentrations are normalized to sum to 100 wt%, i.e., contributions of H2O, CO2, NO2, etc. to the bulk composition care not considered. The majority of Gusev samples have approximately 6 plus or minus 5 wt% SO3, but there is a group of samples with high SO3 concentrations (approximately 30 wt%) and high total iron concentrations (approximately 20 wt%). There is also a group with low total Fe and SO3 concentrations that is also characterized by high SiO2 concentrations (greater than 70 wt%). The trend labeled "Basaltic Soil" is interpreted as mixtures in variable proportions between unaltered igneous material and oxidized and SO3-rich basaltic

  8. Impact of landform and type of land use on soils developed over granite in the monsoonal climate of North-East India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokop, Paweł; Kruczkowska, Bogusława; Jones Syiemlieh, Hiambok; Bucała, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Soil properties are determined by the factors such climate, organisms, topography, geology, and time. Despite human activity will be recognized as part of biotic factors or distinct from other organisms it change soil directly or indirectly by changing both soil morphology and the underlying soil-forming processes. Thus it is difficult to distinguish soil properties modified only due to human impact. A small hilly catchment (3.9 km2) at an altitude of 1750-1800 m a.s.l. was selected for the investigation of landform and land use impact on soil properties. The climate is monsoonal with 14oC of mean annual temperature and 2400 mm of mean annual rainfall. The catchment is underlain by deeply weathered (up to 20 m) granite with abundant corestones embedded in sandy grus. Soils have been classified as sandy-loam and silty-loam Ultisols. Site has relatively uniform climate and parent material, so that a large proportion of the local soil variation can be attributed to landforms and land use changes within them. Thirty soil samples from topsoil (depth up to10 cm) were analysed from two landforms: flat ridge and the middle part of 150 m length slope (15o) with three types of land use: natural deciduous forest, cultivated land (potatoes, cabbage) and 20-years old pine forest on former cultivated land. Physical (texture, bulk density) and chemical (pH, C, N, P, K, CEC) soil properties were analysed. Significant differences between the means of soil properties were identified using the t-statistics, with a level of probability of 5%. Impact of landform on topsoil properties was visible under all three land use types. Soil under natural deciduous forest on flat ridge has statistically significant less sand, higher content of C and N in comparison to soil profile localized on slope. The differences between ridge and slope under pine forest and cultivated land were limited to some chemical properties such content of C, N and CEC, while statistically significant differences in

  9. Dynamics of methane production, sulfate reduction, and denitrification in a permanently waterlogged alder swamp

    SciTech Connect

    Westermann, P.; Ahring, B.K.

    1987-10-01

    The dynamics of sulfate reduction, methane production, and denitrification were investigated in a permanently waterlogged alder swamp. Molybdate, an inhibitor of sulfate reduction, stimulated methane production in soil slurries, thus suggesting competition for common substrates between sulfate-reducing and methane-producing bacteria. Acetate, hydrogen, and methanol were found to stimulate both sulfate reduction and methane production, while trimethylamine mainly stimulated methane production. Nitrate addition reduced both methane production and sulfate reduction, either as a consequence of competition of poisoning of the bacteria. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were only slightly limited by the availability of electron acceptors, while denitrifying bacteria were seriously limited by low nitrate concentrations. Arrhenius plots of the three processes revealed different responses to temperature changes in the slurries. Methane production was most sensitive to temperature changes, followed by denitrification and sulfate reduction. No significant differences between slope patterns were observed when comparing summer and winter measurements, indicating similar populations regarding temperature responses.

  10. 21 CFR 184.1307 - Ferric sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....1307 Ferric sulfate. (a) Ferric sulfate (iron (III) sulfate, Fe2(SO4)3 CAS Reg. No. 10028-22-5) is a yellow substance that may be prepared by oxidizing iron (II) sulfate or by treating ferric oxide...

  11. Formation of Se (0) Nanoparticles by Duganella sp. andAgrobacterium sp. isolated from Se-laden soil of North-East Punjab, India

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element, but is toxic at high concentrations. Depending upon the geological background, the land use or on anthropogenic pollution, different amounts of Se may be present in soil. Its toxicity is related to the oxyanions selenate and selenite as they are water soluble and bioavailable. Microorganisms play an important role in Se transformations in soil and its cycling in the environment by transforming water-soluble oxyanions into water insoluble, non-toxic elemental Se (0). For this study, soil samples were collected from selenium-contaminated agricultural soils of Punjab/India to enrich and isolate microbes that interacted with the Se cycle. Results A mixed microbial culture enriched from the arable soil of Punjab could reduce 230 mg/l of water soluble selenite to spherical Se (0) nanoparticles during aerobic growth as confirmed by SEM-EDX. Four pure cultures (C 1, C 4, C 6, C 7) of Gram negative, oxidase and catalase positive, aerobic bacteria were isolated from this mixed microbial consortium and identified by 16 S rDNA gene sequence alignment as two strains of Duganella sp. (C 1, C 4) and two strains of Agrobacterium sp.(C 6, C 7). SEM/TEM-EDX analyses of the culture broth of the four strains revealed excretion of uniformly round sharply contoured Se (0) nanoparticles by all cultures. Their size ranged from 140–200 nm in cultures of strains C 1 and C 4, and from 185–190 nm in cultures of strains C 6 and C 7. Both Duganella sp. revealed better selenite reduction efficiencies than the two Agrobacterium sp. Conclusions This is the first study reporting the capability of newly isolated, aerobically growing Duganella sp. and Agrobacterium sp. from soils of Punjab/India to form spherical, regularly formed Se (0) nanoparticles from water soluble selenite. Among others, the four strains may significantly contribute to the biogeochemical cycling of Se in soil. Bioconversion of toxic selenite to non-toxic Se (0

  12. MICROBIAL DEGRADATION OF TOLUENE UNDER SULFATE- REDUCING CONDITIONS AND THE INFLUENCE OF IRON ON THE PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toluene degradation occurred concomitantly with sulfate reduction in anaerobic microcosms inoculated with contaminated subsurface soil from an aviation fuel storage facility near the Patuxent River (Md.). Similar results were obtained for enrichment cultures in which toluene was ...

  13. MICROBIAL DEGRADATION OF TOLUENE UNDER SULFATE- REDUCING CONDITIONS AND THE INFLUENCE OF IRON ON THE PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toluene degradation occurred concomitantly with sulfate reduction in anaerobic microcosms inoculated with contaminated subsurface soil from an aviation fuel storage facility near the Patuxent River (Md.). Similar results were obtained for enrichment cultures in which toluene was ...

  14. Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals Contamination in Paddy Soil, Plants, and Grains (Oryza sativa L.) at the East Coast of India

    PubMed Central

    Satpathy, Deepmala; Reddy, M. Vikram; Dhal, Soumya Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metals known to be accumulated in plants adversely affect human health. This study aims to assess the effects of agrochemicals especially chemical fertilizers applied in paddy fields, which release potential toxic heavy metals into soil. Those heavy metals get accumulated in different parts of paddy plant (Oryza sativa L.) including the grains. Concentrations of nonessential toxic heavy metals (Cd, Cr, and Pb) and the micronutrients (Cu, Mn, and Zn) were measured in the paddy field soil and plant parts. Mn and Cd are found to be accumulated more in shoot than in root. The metal transfer factors from soil to rice plant were significant for Pb, Cd, Cu, Cr, Mn, and Zn. The ranking order of bioaccumulation factor (BAF) for heavy metals was Zn > Mn > Cd > Cu > Cr > Pb indicating that the accumulation of micronutrients was more than that of nonessential toxic heavy metals. The concentrations of heavy metals were found to be higher in paddy field soils than that of the nearby control soil but below permissible limits. The higher Health Index (HI) values of rice consuming adults (1.561) and children (1.360) suggest their adverse health effects in the near future. PMID:24995308

  15. Risk assessment of heavy metals contamination in paddy soil, plants, and grains (Oryza sativa L.) at the East Coast of India.

    PubMed

    Satpathy, Deepmala; Reddy, M Vikram; Dhal, Soumya Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metals known to be accumulated in plants adversely affect human health. This study aims to assess the effects of agrochemicals especially chemical fertilizers applied in paddy fields, which release potential toxic heavy metals into soil. Those heavy metals get accumulated in different parts of paddy plant (Oryza sativa L.) including the grains. Concentrations of nonessential toxic heavy metals (Cd, Cr, and Pb) and the micronutrients (Cu, Mn, and Zn) were measured in the paddy field soil and plant parts. Mn and Cd are found to be accumulated more in shoot than in root. The metal transfer factors from soil to rice plant were significant for Pb, Cd, Cu, Cr, Mn, and Zn. The ranking order of bioaccumulation factor (BAF) for heavy metals was Zn > Mn > Cd > Cu > Cr > Pb indicating that the accumulation of micronutrients was more than that of nonessential toxic heavy metals. The concentrations of heavy metals were found to be higher in paddy field soils than that of the nearby control soil but below permissible limits. The higher Health Index (HI) values of rice consuming adults (1.561) and children (1.360) suggest their adverse health effects in the near future.

  16. Soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics in the first year following herbicide and scalping in a revegetation trial in south-east Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Hosseini Bai, Shahla; Xu, Zhihong; Blumfield, Timothy J; Wild, Clyde H; Chen, Chengrong

    2014-04-01

    During revegetation, the maintenance of soil carbon (C) pools and nitrogen (N) availability is considered essential for soil fertility and this study aimed to evaluate contrasting methods of site preparation (herbicide and scalping) with respect to the effects on soil organic matter (SOM) during the critical early establishment phase. Soil total C (TC), total N (TN), hot-water extractable organic C (HWEOC), hot-water extractable total N (HWETN), microbial biomass C and N (MBC and MBN), total inorganic N (TIN) and potentially mineralizable N (PMN) were measured over 53 weeks. MBC and MBN were the only variables affected by herbicide application. Scalping caused an immediate reduction in all variables, and the values remained low without any sign of recovery for the period of the study. The impact of scalping on HWETN and TIN lasted 22 weeks and stabilised afterwards. MBC and MBN were affected by both herbicide and scalping after initial treatment application and remained lower than control during the period of the study but did not decrease over time. While scalping had an inevitable impact on all soil properties that were measured, that impact did not worsen over time, and actually improved plant growth (unpublished data) while reducing site establishment costs. Therefore, it provides a useful alternative for weed control in revegetation projects where it is applied only once at site establishment and where SOM would be expected to recover as canopy closure is obtained and nutrient cycling through litterfall commences.

  17. Analyzing the soil sorption and transfer environmental functions in the South-East part of Western Siberia using Pt and Ni nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulizhskiy, Sergey; Loyko, Sergey; Morgalev, Yuriy; Istigechev, Georgiy; Novokreshchennykh, Tatiana; Rodikova, Anna

    2015-04-01

    The soil with flushing water regime has a very important environmental function, the regulative one in the migration of the dispersed substances caused by natural and anthropogenic activity. The study of these processes is necessary to solve questions of the origins and functioning of soils and also to estimate the parameters of finely dispersed xenobiotics (man-made nanoparticles) accumulation and transfer in the landscapes. The model substance to explore the ways and potential function of migration in texture-differentiated soils of the southern forest zone of Western Siberia are the suspensions of nanosized platinum (diameter from 5 to 15 nm). The research is based on the properties and behavior of nanoparticles in porous media and their ability to keep highly dispersed state for a long time in the aqueous suspensions due to the small size (up to 100 nm) and low surface charge. Particle identification tags will be conducted using mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. That is possible due to the small percentage abundance of platinum. Two groups of experiments were conducted with support of RFBR grant №14-04-00967. First one has been done for evaluation the platinum nanoparticles transmission and interception in soil horizons inside undisturbed monoliths. Second group has dealt with the mechanical barriers investigation for nanoparticles behavior in the native Haplic Albeluvisols profiles by standard method application to determine the filtration properties. The significant variability of detention and transmission values of nanoparticles columns through soil horizons has been detected. There are no simple correlations between the evaluated with the nanoparticles pass-through function through the soil column and soil properties. The main factor that determines the conditions of nanoparticles transfer through the horizon is the geometry of the pore space, and the type of filtering suspensions: linear or front one. Thus, the presences of dead

  18. Barefoot on Hot Ground: Formation Temperatures of Plio-Pleistocene Soil Carbonates in East Africa Based on the Clumped Isotope in Carbonate (Δ47) Thermometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passey, B. H.; Eiler, J. M.; Levin, N. E.; Cerling, T. E.

    2008-12-01

    We utilize the carbonate clumped isotope thermometer to investigate paleoenvironments of human evolution in the Turkana Basin of northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia. Analyses were made using a new automated online peripheral that reduces the human workload and improves the success rate of this analysis. Paleotemperatures for Plio-Pleistocene soil carbonates that formed >50cm below the paleosurface range between ~30°C and 40°C; some of this temperature variation is temporally systematic and coherent across depositional facies. Present day mean annual temperature in this region averages 29°C, and there is very little seasonal variation in average monthly temperature (<4°C), although daily maximum temperatures often exceed 40°C. These clumped isotope paleotemperatures seem unexpectedly high because soil temperatures at >50 cm depth are strongly buffered against diurnal and short-term (i.e., weeks) temperature variations. Possible explanations for these high temperatures include 1) much higher mean annual or mean seasonal air temperatures during parts of the Plio-Pleistocene, 2) a temporal bias of soil carbonate formation towards short-lived extreme temperature events, 3) nonequilibrium or diagenetic isotope effects, and 4) persistent elevation of soil temperatures relative to air temperatures. A brief deployment of remote temperature sensors near Lake Turkana revealed that soil temperatures were considerably higher than air temperatures. Temperatures at 50 cm depth were stable between 35°C and 37°C; those at 10 cm ranged diurnally between 44°C (day) and 33°C (night). Air temperatures in the shade ranged between 37°C (day) and 26°C (night). These study localities were sparsely vegetated, and the elevated soil temperatures are consistent with surface heating by solar radiation. A survey of previous data reveals that temperatures well above 45°C are common for surfaces receiving direct solar radiation. The relevant boundary condition for soil temperature is

  19. East Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image shows the East African nations of Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Somalia, as well as portions of Kenya, Sudan, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia. Dominating the scene are the green Ethiopian Highlands. With altitudes as high as 4,620 meters (15,157 feet), the highlands pull moisture from the arid air, resulting in relatively lush vegetation. In fact, coffee-one of the world's most prized crops-originated here. To the north (above) the highlands is Eritrea, which became independent in 1993. East (right) of Ethiopia is Somalia, jutting out into the Indian Ocean. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) captured this true-color image on November 29, 2000. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  20. East Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image shows the East African nations of Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Somalia, as well as portions of Kenya, Sudan, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia. Dominating the scene are the green Ethiopian Highlands. With altitudes as high as 4,620 meters (15,157 feet), the highlands pull moisture from the arid air, resulting in relatively lush vegetation. In fact, coffee-one of the world's most prized crops-originated here. To the north (above) the highlands is Eritrea, which became independent in 1993. East (right) of Ethiopia is Somalia, jutting out into the Indian Ocean. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) captured this true-color image on November 29, 2000. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  1. Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Hemer, D.O.; Mason, J.F.; Hatch, G.C.

    1981-10-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1980 totaled 6,747,719,000 bbl or an average rate of 18,436,390,000 bbl/d, down 13.9% from 1979. Increases were in Saudi Arabia and Syria. Significant decreases occurred in Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, and Turkey. New discoveries were made in Abu Dhabi, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Sharjah, and Oman. New areas were explored in Bahrain, Oman, Syria, and Yemen. 9 figures, 16 tables.

  2. Sulfation of chondroitin. Specificity, degree of sulfation, and detergent effects with 4-sulfating and 6-sulfating microsomal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sugumaran, G.; Silbert, J.E.

    1988-04-05

    Microsomal preparations from chondroitin 6-sulfate-producing chick embryo epiphyseal cartilage, and from chondroitin 4-sulfate-producing mouse mastocytoma cells, were incubated with UDP-(14C)glucuronic acid and UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine to form non-sulfated proteo(14C)chondroitin. Aliquots of the incubations were then incubated with 3'-phosphoadenylylphosphosulfate (PAPS) in the presence or absence of various detergents. In the absence of detergents, there was good sulfation of this endogenous proteo(14C)chondroitin by the original microsomes from both sources. Detergents, with the exception of Triton X-100, markedly inhibited sulfation in the mast cell system but not in the chick cartilage system. These results indicate that sulfation and polymerization are closely linked on cell membranes and that in some cases this organization can be disrupted by detergents. When aliquots of the original incubation were heat inactivated, and then reincubated with new microsomes from chick cartilage and/or mouse mastocytoma cells plus PAPS, there was no significant sulfation of this exogenous proteo(14C) chondroitin with either system unless Triton X-100 was added. Sulfation of exogenous chondroitin and chondroitin hexasaccharide was compared with sulfation of endogenous and exogenous proteo(14C)chondroitin. Sulfate incorporation into hexasaccharide and chondroitin decreased as their concentrations (based on uronic acid) approached that of the proteo(14C)chondroitin. At the same time, the degree of sulfation in percent of substituted hexosamine increased. However, the degree of sulfation did not reach that of the endogenous proteo(14C)chondroitin. Hexasaccharide and chondroitin sulfation were stimulated by the presence of Triton X-100. However, in contrast to the exogenous proteo(14C)chondroitin, there was some sulfation of hexasaccharide and chondroitin in the absence of this detergent.

  3. Off limits: sulfate below the sulfate-methane transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, Benjamin; Arnold, Gail; Røy, Hans; Müller, Inigo; Jørgensen, Bo

    2016-07-01

    One of the most intriguing recent discoveries in biogeochemistry is the ubiquity of cryptic sulfur cycling. From subglacial lakes to marine oxygen minimum zones, and in marine sediments, cryptic sulfur cycling - the simultaneous sulfate consumption and production - has been observed. Though this process does not leave an imprint in the sulfur budget of the ambient environment - thus the term cryptic - it may have a massive impact on other element cycles and fundamentally change our understanding of biogeochemical processes in the subsurface. Classically, the sulfate-methane transition (SMT) in marine sediments is considered to be the boundary that delimits sulfate reduction from methanogenesis as the predominant terminal pathway of organic matter mineralization. Two sediment cores from Aarhus Bay, Denmark reveal the constant presence of sulfate (generally 0.1 to 0.2 mM) below the SMT. The sulfur and oxygen isotope signature of this deep sulfate (34S = 18.9‰, 18O = 7.7‰) was close to the isotope signature of bottom-seawater collected from the sampling site (34S = 19.8‰, 18O = 7.3‰). In one of the cores, oxygen isotope values of sulfate at the transition from the base of the SMT to the deep sulfate pool (18O = 4.5‰ to 6.8‰) were distinctly lighter than the deep sulfate pool. Our findings are consistent with a scenario where sulfate enriched in 34S and 18O is removed at the base of the SMT and replaced with isotopically light sulfate below. Here, we explore scenarios that explain this observation, ranging from sampling artifacts, such as contamination with seawater or auto-oxidation of sulfide - to the potential of sulfate generation in a section of the sediment column where sulfate is expected to be absent which enables reductive sulfur cycling, creating the conditions under which sulfate respiration can persist in the methanic zone.

  4. Final report from VFL Technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils. LEFPC Appendices, Volume 3, Appendix V-B

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    This report consists of appendix V-B which contains the final verification run data package. Validation of analytical data is presented for Ecotek LSI. Analytical results are included of both soil and creek bed samples for the following contaminants: metals; metals (TCLP); uranium; gross alpha/beta; and polychlorinated biphenyls.

  5. Tree species effects on soil properties and greenhouse gas fluxes in East-central Amazonia: comparison between monoculture and diverse forest

    Treesearch

    J. Van Haren; R.C. de Oliveira, Jr.; P.T. Beldini; P.B. de Camargo; M. Keller; S. Saleska

    2013-01-01

    Tropical plantations are considered a viable option to sequester carbon on abandoned agricultural lands, but implications of tree species selection for overall greenhouse gas budgets on plantations have been little studied. During three wet seasons, we investigated the influence of nine tree species on soil pH, temperature (ST), bulk density (BD), moisture content...

  6. Crystal structure of tris-(piperidinium) hydrogen sulfate sulfate.

    PubMed

    Lukianova, Tamara J; Kinzhybalo, Vasyl; Pietraszko, Adam

    2015-12-01

    In the title molecular salt, 3C5H12N(+)·HSO4 (-)·SO4 (2-), each cation adopts a chair conformation. In the crystal, the hydrogen sulfate ion is connected to the sulfate ion by a strong O-H⋯O hydrogen bond. The packing also features a number of N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, which lead to a three-dimensional network structure. The hydrogen sulfate anion accepts four hydrogen bonds from two cations, whereas the sulfate ion, as an acceptor, binds to five separate piperidinium cations, forming seven hydrogen bonds.

  7. Environmental Management Waste Management Facility Waste Lot Profile for the K-770 Scrap Yard Soils and Miscellaneous Debris, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee - EMWMF Waste Lot 4.12

    SciTech Connect

    Davenport M.

    2009-04-15

    Waste Lot 4.12 consists of approximately 17,500 yd{sup 3} of low-level, radioactively contaminated soil, concrete, and incidental metal and debris generated from remedial actions at the K-770 Scrap Metal Yard and Contaminated Debris Site (the K-770 Scrap Yard) at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP). The excavated soil will be transported by dump truck to the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF). This profile provides project-specific information to demonstrate compliance with Attainment Plan for Risk/Toxicity-based Waste Acceptance Criteria at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE 2001). The K-770 Scrap Yard is an approximately 36-acre storage area located southwest of the main portion of ETTP, outside the security perimeter fence in the Powerhouse Area adjacent to the Clinch River. The K-770 area was used to store radioactively contaminated or suspected contaminated materials during and previous to the K-25 Site cascade upgrading program. The waste storage facility began operation in the 1960s and is estimated to at one time contain in excess of 40,000 tons of low-level, radioactively contaminated scrap metal. Scrap metal was taken to the site when it was found to contain alpha or beta/gamma activity on the surface or if the scrap metal originated from a process building. The segregated metal debris was removed from the site as part of the K-770 Scrap Removal Action (RA) Project that was completed in fiscal year (FY) 2007 by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC). An area of approximately 10 acres is located in EUs 29 and 31 where the scrap was originally located in the 100-year floodplain. In the process of moving the materials around and establishing segregated waste piles above the 100-year floodplain, the footprint of the site was expanded by 10-15 acres in EUs 30 and 32. The area in EUs 29 and 31 that was cleared of metallic debris in the floodplain was sown with grass. The areas in EUs 30 and 32 have some scattered

  8. Ferric sulfates on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Roger G.

    1987-01-01

    Evidence is presented for the possible existence of ferric sulfato complexes and hydroxo ferric sulfate minerals in the permafrost of Mars. A sequential combination of ten unique conditions during the cooling history of Mars is suggested which is believed to have generated an environment within Martian permafrost that has stabilized Fe(3+)-SO4(2-)-bearing species. It is argued that minerals belonging to the jarosite and copiapite groups could be present in Martian regolith analyzed in the Viking XRF measurements at Chryse and Utopia, and that maghemite suspected to be coating the Viking magnet arrays is a hydrolysate of dissolved ferric sulfato complexes from exposed Martian permafrost.

  9. Glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate.

    PubMed

    Miller, Karla L; Clegg, Daniel O

    2011-02-01

    Glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate, components of normal cartilage that are marketed as dietary supplements in the United States, have been evaluated for their potential role in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Due to claims of efficacy, increased prevalence of osteoarthritis, and a lack of other effective therapies, there has been substantial interest in using these dietary supplements as therapeutic agents for osteoarthritis. Though pharmacokinetic and bioavailability data are limited, use of these supplements has been evaluated for management of osteoarthritis symptoms and modification of disease progression. Relevant clinical trial efficacy and safety data are reviewed and summarized.

  10. Sulfate scale dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, R.L.; Paul, J.M.

    1992-01-28

    This patent describes a method for removing barium sulfate scale. It comprises contacting the scale with an aqueous solution having a pH of about 8 to about 14 and consisting essentially of a chelating agent comprising a polyaminopolycarboxylic acid or salt of such an acid in a concentration of 0.1 to 1.0 M, and anions of a monocarboxylic acid selected form mercaptoacetic acid, hydroxyacetic acid, aminoacetic acid, or salicyclic acid in a concentration of 0.1 to 1.0 M and which is soluble in the solution under the selected pH conditions, to dissolve the scale.

  11. Magnesium sulfate as a key mineral for the detection of organic molecules on Mars using pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    François, P.; Szopa, C.; Buch, A.; Coll, P.; McAdam, A. C.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Freissinet, C.; Glavin, D. P.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Cabane, M.

    2016-01-01

    Pyrolysis of soil or rock samples is the preferred preparation technique used on Mars to search for organic molecules up today. During pyrolysis, oxichlorines present in the soil of Mars release oxidant species that alter the organic molecules potentially contained in the samples collected by the space probes. This process can explain the difficulty experienced by in situ exploration probes to detect organic materials in Mars soil samples until recently. Within a few months, the Curiosity rover should reach and analyze for the first time soils rich in sulfates which could induce a different behavior of the organics during the pyrolysis compared with the types of soils analyzed up today. For this reason, we systematically studied the pyrolysis of organic molecules trapped in magnesium sulfate, in the presence or absence of calcium perchlorate. Our results show that organics trapped in magnesium sulfate can undergo some oxidation and sulfuration during the pyrolysis. But these sulfates are also shown to protect organics trapped inside the crystal lattice and/or present in fluid inclusions from the oxidation induced by the decomposition of calcium perchlorate and probably other oxychlorine phases currently detected on Mars. Trapped organics may also be protected from degradation processes induced by other minerals present in the sample, at least until these organics are released from the pyrolyzed sulfate mineral (~700°C in our experiment). Hence, we suggest magnesium sulfate as one of the minerals to target in priority for the search of organic molecules by the Curiosity and ExoMars 2018 rovers.

  12. Urinary chondroitin sulfates, heparan sulfate and total sulfated glycosaminoglycans in interstitial cystitis.

    PubMed

    Erickson, D R; Ordille, S; Martin, A; Bhavanandan, V P

    1997-01-01

    We compared urinary glycosaminoglycan levels in patients with interstitial cystitis and healthy controls. Total sulfated glycosaminoglycans assayed by dimethylmethylene blue binding and individual glycosaminoglycans analyzed by cellulose acetate electrophoresis were compared in patients with interstitial cystitis and healthy controls. Also, multiple urine samples were obtained from healthy female controls for 2 months to assess the relationship of urinary glycosaminoglycan and creatinine concentrations, and to determine whether glycosaminoglycan excretion changes during the menstrual cycle. Total sulfated glycosaminoglycan and creatinine concentrations correlated well in random voided samples. Menstrual cycle day did not affect total sulfated glycosaminoglycan levels. Cellulose acetate electrophoresis revealed 3 bands corresponding to chondroitin sulfates, heparan sulfate and acidic glycoprotein. Patients with interstitial cystitis had decreased urinary concentrations of each of these individual components and total sulfated glycosaminoglycans. However, glycosaminoglycan-to-creatinine ratios were similar in interstitial cystitis and control urine. Using these assays total and individual urinary glycosaminoglycan levels normalized to creatinine were not altered in interstitial cystitis.

  13. Sulfated polysaccharides (chondroitin sulfate and carrageenan) plus glucosamine sulfate are potent inhibitors of HIV.

    PubMed

    Konlee, M

    1998-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate, a fusion inhibitor found in human milk, appears to work by blocking the ability of a virus, such as HIV, to infect a cell. There are questions about whether cow or goat milk can offer the same fusion-inhibiting benefits. One sulfated monosaccharide, glucosamine 6-sulfate, appears to have significant anti-HIV activity. Carrageenan, a seaweed derivative, shows promise as a vaginal microbicide, and should be tested further to determine its effectiveness against HIV transmission.

  14. 21 CFR 184.1315 - Ferrous sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ferrous sulfate. 184.1315 Section 184.1315 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1315 Ferrous sulfate. (a) Ferrous sulfate heptahydrate (iron (II) sulfate... as pale, bluish-green crystals or granules. Progressive heating of ferrous sulfate heptahydrate...

  15. Acid-Sulfate Alteration at Gusev Crater and Across Mars: High-SiO2 Residues and Ferric Sulfate Precipitates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, R. V.; Catalano, J. G.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Schroeder, C.; Gellert, R.; Clark, B. C.; Ming, D. W.; Yen, A. S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Cohen, B. A.; hide

    2017-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit ended its mission in Gusev crater on sol 2210 after it had become stuck in a deposit of fined-grained and sulfate rich soil with dust covered solar panels unfavorably pointed toward the sun. Final analysis of remaining data from Spirit's Moessbauer spectrometer (Fe redox and mineralogy) for sols 1529 through 2071 is now complete. We focus here on chemical (APXS) and MB data for targets having high-SiO2 or high-SO3 and process link the targets through mixing and geochemical modelling to an acid-sulfate system centered at Home Plate, which is considered to be a hydrovolcanic complex.

  16. Soils [Chapter 5

    Treesearch

    R. W. E. Hopper; P. M. Walthall

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the soils of the Lost Lake, West Glacier Lake, and East Glacier Lake watersheds of GLEES and presents the methods used in conducting both the field and laboratory work. In addition, general statements about the nature of the mapping units used in making the soil maps are provided.

  17. Pathways of sulfate enhancement by natural and anthropogenic mineral aerosols in China

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Xin; Song, Yu; Zhao, Chun; Li, Mengmeng; Zhu, Tong; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Xiaoye

    2014-12-27

    China, the world’s largest consumer of coal, emits approximately 30 million tons of sulfur dioxide (SO₂) per year. SO₂ is subsequently oxidized to sulfate in the atmosphere. However, large gaps exist between model-predicted and measured sulfate levels in China. Long-term field observations and numerical simulations were integrated to investigate the effect of mineral aerosols on sulfate formation. We found that mineral aerosols contributed a nationwide average of approximately 22% to sulfate production in 2006. The increased sulfate concentration was approximately 2 μg m⁻³ in the entire China. In East China and the Sichuan Basin, the increments reached 6.3 μg m⁻³ and 7.3 μg m⁻³, respectively. Mineral aerosols led to faster SO₂ oxidation through three pathways. First, more SO₂ was dissolved as cloud water alkalinity increased due to water-soluble mineral cations. Sulfate production was then enhanced through the aqueous-phase oxidation of S(IV) (dissolved sulfur in oxidation state +4). The contribution to the national sulfate production was 5%. Second, sulfate was enhanced through S(IV) catalyzed oxidation by transition metals. The contribution to the annual sulfate production was 8%, with 19% during the winter that decreased to 2% during the summer. Third, SO₂ reacts on the surface of mineral aerosols to produce sulfate. The contribution to the national average sulfate concentration was 9% with 16% during the winter and a negligible effect during the summer. The inclusion of mineral aerosols does resolve model discrepancies with sulfate observations in China, especially during the winter. These three pathways, which are not fully considered in most current chemistry-climate models, will significantly impact assessments regarding the effects of aerosol on climate change in China.

  18. 21 CFR 184.1307 - Ferric sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1307 Ferric sulfate. (a) Ferric sulfate (iron (III) sulfate, Fe2(SO4)3 CAS... treating ferric oxide or ferric hydroxide with sulfuric acid. (b) The ingredient must be of a...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1307 - Ferric sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1307 Ferric sulfate. (a) Ferric sulfate (iron (III) sulfate, Fe2(SO4)3 CAS... treating ferric oxide or ferric hydroxide with sulfuric acid. (b) The ingredient must be of a...

  20. Sulfation of von Willebrand factor

    SciTech Connect

    Carew, J.A.; Browning, P.J.; Lynch, D.C. )

    1990-12-15

    von Willebrand factor (vWF) is a multimeric adhesive glycoprotein essential for normal hemostasis. We have discovered that cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells incorporate inorganic sulfate into vWF. Following immunoisolation and analysis by polyacrylamide or agarose gel electrophoresis, metabolically labeled vWF was found to have incorporated (35S)-sulfate into all secreted multimer species. The time course of incorporation shows that sulfation occurs late in the biosynthesis of vWF, near the point at which multimerization occurs. Quantitative analysis suggests the presence, on average, of one molecule of sulfate per mature vWF subunit. Virtually all the detectable sulfate is released from the mature vWF subunit by treatment with endoglycosidases that remove asparagine-linked carbohydrates. Sulfated carbohydrate was localized first to the N-terminal half of the mature subunit (amino acids 1 through 1,365) by partial proteolytic digestion with protease V8; and subsequently to a smaller fragment within this region (amino acids 273 through 511) by sequential digestions with protease V8 and trypsin. Thus, the carbohydrate at asparagine 384 and/or 468 appears to be the site of sulfate modification. Sodium chlorate, an inhibitor of adenosine triphosphate-sulfurylase, blocks sulfation of vWF without affecting either the ability of vWF to assemble into high molecular weight multimers or the ability of vWF multimers to enter Weible-Palade bodies. The stability of vWF multimers in the presence of an endothelial cell monolayer also was unaffected by the sulfation state. Additionally, we have found that the cleaved propeptide of vWF is sulfated on asparagine-linked carbohydrate.

  1. Chernobyl fallout in the uppermost (0-3 cm) humus layer of forest soil in Finland, North East Russia and the Baltic countries in 2000--2003.

    PubMed

    Ylipieti, J; Rissanen, K; Kostiainen, E; Salminen, R; Tomilina, O; Täht, K; Gilucis, A; Gregorauskiene, V

    2008-12-15

    The situation resulting from the Chernobyl fallout in 1987 was compared to that in 2000--2001 in Finland and NW Russia and that in 2003 in the Baltic countries. 786 humus (0-3 cm layer) samples were collected during 2000--2001 in the Barents Ecogeochemistry Project, and 177 samples in the Baltic countries in 2003. Nuclides emitting gamma-radiation in the 0-3 cm humus layer were measured by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority-STUK in Finland. In 1987 the project area was classified by the European Commission into four different fallout classes. 137Cs inventory Bg/m2 levels measured in 2000--2003 were compared to the EU's class ranges. Fitting over the whole project area was implemented by generalizing the results for samples from the Baltic countries, for which Bq/m2 inventories could be calculated. A rough estimation was made by comparing the mass of organic matter and humus with 137Cs concentrations in these two areas. Changes in 137Cs concentration levels are illustrated in both thematic maps and tables. Radionuclide 137Cs concentrations (Bq/kg d.w.) were detected in the humus layer at all the 988 sampling sites. 134Cs was still present in 198 sites 15 years after the nuclear accident in Chernobyl. No other anthropogenic nuclides emitting gamma-radiation were detected, but low levels of 60Co, 125Sb and 154Eu isotopes were found in 14 sites. Fifteen years after the Chernobyl accident, the radioactive nuclide 137Cs was and still is the most significant fallout radionuclide in the environment and in food chains. The results show that the fallout can still be detected in the uppermost humus layer in North East Europe.

  2. Causes of unrest at silicic calderas in the East African Rift: New constraints from InSAR and soil-gas chemistry at Aluto volcano, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchison, William; Biggs, Juliet; Mather, Tamsin A.; Pyle, David M.; Lewi, Elias; Yirgu, Gezahegn; Caliro, Stefano; Chiodini, Giovanni; Clor, Laura E.; Fischer, Tobias P.

    2016-08-01

    Restless silicic calderas present major geological hazards, and yet many also host significant untapped geothermal resources. In East Africa, this poses a major challenge, although the calderas are largely unmonitored their geothermal resources could provide substantial economic benefits to the region. Understanding what causes unrest at these volcanoes is vital for weighing up the opportunities against the potential risks. Here we bring together new field and remote sensing observations to evaluate causes of ground deformation at Aluto, a restless silicic volcano located in the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER). Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data reveal the temporal and spatial characteristics of a ground deformation episode that took place between 2008 and 2010. Deformation time series reveal pulses of accelerating uplift that transition to gradual long-term subsidence, and analytical models support inflation source depths of ˜5 km. Gases escaping along the major fault zone of Aluto show high CO2 flux, and a clear magmatic carbon signature (CO2-δ13C of -4.2‰ to -4.5‰). This provides compelling evidence that the magmatic and hydrothermal reservoirs of the complex are physically connected. We suggest that a coupled magmatic-hydrothermal system can explain the uplift-subsidence signals. We hypothesize that magmatic fluid injection and/or intrusion in the cap of the magmatic reservoir drives edifice-wide inflation while subsequent deflation is related to magmatic degassing and depressurization of the hydrothermal system. These new constraints on the plumbing of Aluto yield important insights into the behavior of rift volcanic systems and will be crucial for interpreting future patterns of unrest.

  3. Confirmation of Soluble Sulfate at the Phoenix Landing Site: Implications for Martian Geochemistry and Habitability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kounaves, S. P.; Hecht, M. H.; Kapit, J.; Quinn, R. C.; Catling, D. C.; Clark, B. C.; Ming, D. W.; Gospodinova, K.; Hredzak, P.; McElhoney, K.; hide

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several decades, elemental sulfur in martian soils and rocks has been detected by a number of missions using X-ray spectroscopy [1-3]. Optical spectroscopy has also provided evidence for widespread sulfates on Mars [4,5]. The ubiquitous presence of sulfur in soils has been interpreted as a widely distributed sulfate mineralogy [6]. However, direct confirmation as to the identity and solubility of the sulfur species in martian soil has never been obtained. One goal of the Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL) [7] on board the 2007 Phoenix Mars Lander [8] was to determine soluble sulfate in the martian soil. The WCL received three primary samples. Each sample was added to 25 mL of leaching solution and analysed for solvated ionic species, pH, and conductivity [9,10]. The analysis also showed a discrepancy between charge balance, ionic strength, and conductivity, suggesting unidentified anionic species.

  4. Sulfate threshold target to control methylmercury levels in wetland ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corrales, J.; Naja, G.M.; Dziuba, C.; Rivero, R.G.; Orem, W.

    2011-01-01

    Sulfate contamination has a significant environmental implication through the stimulation of toxic hydrogen sulfide and methylmercury (MeHg) production. High levels of MeHg are a serious problem in many wetland ecosystems worldwide. In the Florida Everglades, it has been demonstrated that increasing MeHg occurrence is due to a sulfate contamination problem. A promising strategy of lowering the MeHg occurrence is to reduce the amount of sulfate entering the ecosystem. High surface water sulfate concentrations in the Everglades are mainly due to discharges from the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) canals. Water and total sulfur mass balances indicated that total sulfur released by soil oxidation, Lake Okeechobee and agricultural application were the major sources contributing 49,169, 35,217 and 11,775mtonsyear-1, respectively. Total sulfur loads from groundwater, levees, and atmospheric deposition contributed to a lesser extent: 4055; 5858 and 4229mtonsyear-1, respectively. Total sulfur leaving the EAA into Water Conservation Areas (WCAs) through canal discharge was estimated at 116,360mtonsyear-1, and total sulfur removed by sugarcane harvest accounted for 23,182mtonsyear-1. Furthermore, a rise in the mineral content and pH of the EAA soil over time, suggested that the current rates of sulfur application would increase as the buffer capacity of the soil increases. Therefore, a site specific numeric criterion for sulfate of 1mgL-1 was recommended for the protection of the Everglades; above this level, mercury methylation is enhanced. In parallel, sulfide concentrations in the EAA exceeded the 2??gL-1 criterion for surface water already established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  5. Sulfate threshold target to control methylmercury levels in wetland ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Corrales, Juliana; Naja, Ghinwa M; Dziuba, Catherine; Rivero, Rosanna G; Orem, William

    2011-05-01

    Sulfate contamination has a significant environmental implication through the stimulation of toxic hydrogen sulfide and methylmercury (MeHg) production. High levels of MeHg are a serious problem in many wetland ecosystems worldwide. In the Florida Everglades, it has been demonstrated that increasing MeHg occurrence is due to a sulfate contamination problem. A promising strategy of lowering the MeHg occurrence is to reduce the amount of sulfate entering the ecosystem. High surface water sulfate concentrations in the Everglades are mainly due to discharges from the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) canals. Water and total sulfur mass balances indicated that total sulfur released by soil oxidation, Lake Okeechobee and agricultural application were the major sources contributing 49,169, 35,217 and 11,775mtonsyear(-1), respectively. Total sulfur loads from groundwater, levees, and atmospheric deposition contributed to a lesser extent: 4055; 5858 and 4229mtonsyear(-1), respectively. Total sulfur leaving the EAA into Water Conservation Areas (WCAs) through canal discharge was estimated at 116,360mtonsyear(-1), and total sulfur removed by sugarcane harvest accounted for 23,182mtonsyear(-1). Furthermore, a rise in the mineral content and pH of the EAA soil over time, suggested that the current rates of sulfur application would increase as the buffer capacity of the soil increases. Therefore, a site specific numeric criterion for sulfate of 1mgL(-1) was recommended for the protection of the Everglades; above this level, mercury methylation is enhanced. In parallel, sulfide concentrations in the EAA exceeded the 2μgL(-1) criterion for surface water already established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to assess land use impact on water resources in an East African watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Tracy J.; Miller, Scott N.

    2013-04-01

    SummaryLand cover and land use changes in Kenya's Rift Valley have altered the hydrologic response of the River Njoro watershed by changing the partitioning of excess rainfall into surface discharge and groundwater recharge. The watershed contributes a significant amount of water to Lake Nakuru National Park, an internationally recognized Ramsar site, as well as groundwater supplies for local communities and the city of Nakuru. Three land use maps representing a 17-year period when the region underwent significant transitions served as inputs for hydrologic modeling using the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (AGWA) tool, a GIS-based hydrologic modeling system. AGWA was used to parameterize the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a hydrologic model suitable for assessing the relative impact of land cover change on hydrologic response. The SWAT model was calibrated using observation data taken during the 1990s with high annual concordance. Simulation results showed that land use changes have resulted in corresponding increases in surface runoff and decreases in groundwater recharge. Hydrologic changes were highly variable both spatially and temporally, and the uppermost reaches of the forested highlands were most significantly affected. These changes have negative implications for the ecological health of the river system as well as Lake Nakuru and local communities.

  7. Animal evolution, bioturbation, and the sulfate concentration of the oceans

    PubMed Central

    Canfield, Donald E.; Farquhar, James

    2009-01-01

    As recognized already by Charles Darwin, animals are geobiological agents. Darwin observed that worms aerate and mix soils on a massive scale, aiding in the decomposition of soil organic matter. A similar statement can be made about marine benthic animals. This mixing, also known as bioturbation, not only aides in the decomposition of sedimentary organic material, but as contended here, it has also significantly influenced the chemistry of seawater. In particular, it is proposed that sediment mixing by bioturbating organisms resulted in a severalfold increase in seawater sulfate concentration. For this reason, the evolution of bioturbation is linked to the significant deposition of sulfate evaporate minerals, which is largely a phenomena of the Phanerozoic, the last 542 million years and the time over which animals rose to prominence. PMID:19451639

  8. 10. A PHOTOGRAPH OF THE FIRST PIER ON THE EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. A PHOTOGRAPH OF THE FIRST PIER ON THE EAST END OF THE BRIDGE (NORTH ELEVATION). IT SUPPORTS A SOLID, SEMI-CIRCULAR ARCH. CONSIDERABLE SOIL HAS WASHED IN UNDER THE BRIDGE FROM THE BANKS OF THE RAVINE. - Main Street Bridge, Spanning East Fork Whitewater River, Richmond, Wayne County, IN

  9. Residual keratan sulfate in chondroitin sulfate formulations for oral administration.

    PubMed

    Pomin, Vitor H; Piquet, Adriana A; Pereira, Mariana S; Mourão, Paulo A S

    2012-10-01

    Chondroitin sulfate is a biomedical glycosaminoglycan (GAG) mostly used as a dietary supplement. We undertook analysis on some formulations of chondroitin sulfates available for oral administration. The analysis was based on agarose-gel electrophoresis, strong anion-exchange chromatography, digestibility with specific GAG lyases, uronic acid content, NMR spectroscopy, and size-exclusion chromatography. Keratan sulfate was detected in batches from shark cartilage, averaging ∼16% of the total GAG. Keratan sulfate is an inert material, and hazardous effects due to its presence in these formulations are unlikely to occur. However, its unexpected high percentage compromises the desired amounts of the real ingredient specified on the label claims, and forewarns the pharmacopeias to update their monographs. The techniques they recommended, especially cellulose acetate electrophoresis, are inefficient in detecting keratan sulfate in chondroitin sulfate formulations. In addition, this finding also alerts the manufacturers for improved isolation procedures as well as the supervisory agencies for better audits. Analysis based on strong anion-exchange chromatography is shown to be more reliable than the methods presently suggested by standard pharmacopeias.

  10. p-Cresyl Sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Gryp, Tessa; Vanholder, Raymond; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Glorieux, Griet

    2017-01-01

    If chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with an impairment of kidney function, several uremic solutes are retained. Some of these exert toxic effects, which are called uremic toxins. p-Cresyl sulfate (pCS) is a prototype protein-bound uremic toxin to which many biological and biochemical (toxic) effects have been attributed. In addition, increased levels of pCS have been associated with worsening outcomes in CKD patients. pCS finds its origin in the intestine where gut bacteria metabolize aromatic amino acids, such as tyrosine and phenylalanine, leading to phenolic end products, of which pCS is one of the components. In this review we summarize the biological effects of pCS and its metabolic origin in the intestine. It appears that, according to in vitro studies, the intestinal bacteria generating phenolic compounds mainly belong to the families Bacteroidaceae, Bifidobacteriaceae, Clostridiaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcaceae, Eubacteriaceae, Fusobacteriaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Lactobacillaceae, Porphyromonadaceae, Staphylococcaceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Veillonellaceae. Since pCS remains difficult to remove by dialysis, the gut microbiota could be a future target to decrease pCS levels and its toxicity, even at earlier stages of CKD, aiming at slowing down the progression of the disease and decreasing the cardiovascular burden. PMID:28146081

  11. IMPACT OF CRITICAL ANION SOIL SOLUTION CONCENTRATION ON ALUMINUM ACTIVITY IN ALPINE TUNDRA SOIL Andrew Evans, Jr.1 , Michael B. Jacobs2, and Jason R. Janke1, (1) Metropolitan State University of Denver, Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, (2) Dept. of Chemistry, Denver, CO, United States.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, A.

    2015-12-01

    Soil solution anionic composition can impact both plant and microbial activity in alpine tundra soils by altering biochemical cycling within the soil, either through base cation leaching, or shifts in aluminum controlling solid phases. Although anions play a critical role in the aqueous speciation of metals, relatively few high altitude field studies have examined their impact on aluminum controlling solid phases and aluminum speciation in soil water. For this study, thirty sampling sites were selected on Trail Ridge Road in Rocky Mountain National Park, Estes Park, CO, and sampled during July, the middle of the growing season. Sampling elevations ranged from approximately 3560 - 3710 m. Soil samples were collected to a depth of 15.24 cm, and the anions were extracted using a 2:1 D.I. water to soil ratio. Filtered extracts were analyzed using IC and ICP-MS. Soil solution NO3- concentrations were significantly higher for sampling locations east of Iceberg Pass (EIBP) (mean = 86.94 ± 119.8 mg/L) compared to locations west of Iceberg Pass (WIBP) (mean 1.481 ± 2.444 mg/L). Both F- and PO43- soil solution concentrations, 0.533 and 0.440 mg/L, respectively, were substantially lower, for sampling sites located EIBP, while locations WIBP averaged 0.773 and 0.829 mg/L respectively, for F- and PO43-. Sulfate concentration averaged 3.869 ± 3.059 mg/L for locations EIBP, and 3.891 ± 3.1970 for locations WIBP. Geochemical modeling of Al3+ in the soil solution indicated that a suite of aluminum hydroxyl sulfate minerals controlled Al3+ activity in the alpine tundra soil, with shifts between controlling solid phases occurring in the presence of elevated F- concentrations.

  12. Final report on the safety assessment of sodium cetearyl sulfate and related alkyl sulfates as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Klaassen, Curtis D; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Alan Andersen, F

    2010-05-01

    Sodium cetearyl sulfate is the sodium salt of a mixture of cetyl and stearyl sulfate. The other ingredients in this safety assessment are also alkyl salts, including ammonium coco-sulfate, ammonium myristyl sulfate, magnesium coco-sulfate, sodium cetyl sulfate, sodium coco/hydrogenated tallow sulfate, sodium coco-sulfate, sodium decyl sulfate, sodium ethylhexyl sulfate, sodium myristyl sulfate, sodium oleyl sulfate, sodium stearyl sulfate, sodium tallow sulfate, sodium tridecyl sulfate, and zinc coco-sulfate. These ingredients are surfactants used at concentrations from 0.1% to 29%, primarily in soaps and shampoos. Many of these ingredients are not in current use. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel previously completed a safety assessment of sodium and ammonium lauryl sulfate. The data available for sodium lauryl sulfate and ammonium lauryl sulfate provide sufficient basis for concluding that sodium cetearyl sulfate and related alkyl sulfates are safe in the practices of use and concentration described in the safety assessment.

  13. Simultaneous quantification of cholesterol sulfate, androgen sulfates, and progestagen sulfates in human serum by LC-MS/MS[S

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Guijo, Alberto; Oji, Vinzenz; Hartmann, Michaela F.; Traupe, Heiko; Wudy, Stefan A.

    2015-01-01

    Steroids are primarily present in human fluids in their sulfated forms. Profiling of these compounds is important from both diagnostic and physiological points of view. Here, we present a novel method for the quantification of 11 intact steroid sulfates in human serum by LC-MS/MS. The compounds analyzed in our method, some of which are quantified for the first time in blood, include cholesterol sulfate, pregnenolone sulfate, 17-hydroxy-pregnenolone sulfate, 16-α-hydroxy-dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, androstenediol sulfate, androsterone sulfate, epiandrosterone sulfate, testosterone sulfate, epitestosterone sulfate, and dihydrotestosterone sulfate. The assay was conceived to quantify sulfated steroids in a broad range of concentrations, requiring only 300 μl of serum. The method has been validated and its performance was studied at three quality controls, selected for each compound according to its physiological concentration. The assay showed good linearity (R2 > 0.99) and recovery for all the compounds, with limits of quantification ranging between 1 and 80 ng/ml. Averaged intra-day and between-day precisions (coefficient of variation) and accuracies (relative errors) were below 10%. The method has been successfully applied to study the sulfated steroidome in diseases such as steroid sulfatase deficiency, proving its diagnostic value. This is, to our best knowledge, the most comprehensive method available for the quantification of sulfated steroids in human blood. PMID:26239050

  14. Simultaneous quantification of cholesterol sulfate, androgen sulfates, and progestagen sulfates in human serum by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Guijo, Alberto; Oji, Vinzenz; Hartmann, Michaela F; Traupe, Heiko; Wudy, Stefan A

    2015-09-01

    Steroids are primarily present in human fluids in their sulfated forms. Profiling of these compounds is important from both diagnostic and physiological points of view. Here, we present a novel method for the quantification of 11 intact steroid sulfates in human serum by LC-MS/MS. The compounds analyzed in our method, some of which are quantified for the first time in blood, include cholesterol sulfate, pregnenolone sulfate, 17-hydroxy-pregnenolone sulfate, 16-α-hydroxy-dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, androstenediol sulfate, androsterone sulfate, epiandrosterone sulfate, testosterone sulfate, epitestosterone sulfate, and dihydrotestosterone sulfate. The assay was conceived to quantify sulfated steroids in a broad range of concentrations, requiring only 300 μl of serum. The method has been validated and its performance was studied at three quality controls, selected for each compound according to its physiological concentration. The assay showed good linearity (R(2) > 0.99) and recovery for all the compounds, with limits of quantification ranging between 1 and 80 ng/ml. Averaged intra-day and between-day precisions (coefficient of variation) and accuracies (relative errors) were below 10%. The method has been successfully applied to study the sulfated steroidome in diseases such as steroid sulfatase deficiency, proving its diagnostic value. This is, to our best knowledge, the most comprehensive method available for the quantification of sulfated steroids in human blood. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Cement composition and sulfate attack

    SciTech Connect

    Shanahan, Natalya; Zayed, Abla . E-mail: zayed@eng.usf.edu

    2007-04-15

    Four cements were used to address the effect of tricalcium silicate content of cement on external sulfate attack in sodium sulfate solution. The selected cements had similar fineness and Bogue-calculated tricalcium aluminate content but variable tricalcium silicates. Durability was assessed using linear expansion and compressive strength. Phases associated with deterioration were examined using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Mineralogical phase content of the as-received cements was studied by X-ray diffraction using two methods: internal standard and Rietveld analysis. The results indicate that phase content of cements determined by X-ray mineralogical analysis correlates better with the mortar performance in sulfate environment than Bogue content. Additionally, it was found that in cements containing triclacium aluminate only in the cubic form, the observed deterioration is affected by tricalcium silicate content. Morphological similarities between hydration products of high tricalcium aluminate and high tricalcium silicate cements exposed to sodium sulfate environment were also observed.

  16. Acid deposition in east Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Phadnis, M.J.; Carmichael, G.R.; Ichikawa, Y.

    1996-12-31

    A comparison between transport models was done to study the acid deposition in east Asia. The two models in question were different in the way the treated the pollutant species and the way simulation was carried out. A single-layer, trajectory model with simple (developed by the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Japan) was compared with a multi-layered, eulerian type model (Sulfur Transport Eulerian Model - II [STEM-II]) treating the chemical processes in detail. The acidic species used in the simulation were sulfur dioxide and sulfate. The comparison was done for two episodes: each a month long in winter (February) and summer (August) of 1989. The predicted results from STEM-II were compared with the predicted results from the CRIEPI model as well as the observed data at twenty-one stations in Japan. The predicted values from STEM-II were similar to the ones from the CRIEPI results and the observed values in regards to the transport features. The average monthly values of SO{sub 2} in air, sulfate in air and sulfate in precipitation were in good agreement. Sensitivity studies were carried out under different scenarios of emissions, dry depositions velocities and mixing heights. The predicted values in these sensitivity studies showed a strong dependence on the mixing heights. The predicted wet deposition of sulfur for the two months is 0.7 gS/m2.mon, while the observed deposition is around 1.1 gS/m2.mon. It was also observed that the wet deposition on the Japan sea side of the islands is more than those on the Pacific side and the Okhotsk sea, mainly because of the continental outflow of pollutant air masses from mainland China and Korea. The effects of emissions from Russia and volcanoes were also evaluated.

  17. Optical properties and bioavailability of dissolved organic matter along a flow-path continuum from soil pore waters to the Kolyma River mainstem, East Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Karen E.; Sobczak, William V.; Mann, Paul J.; Holmes, Robert M.

    2016-04-01

    The Kolyma River in northeast Siberia is among the six largest Arctic rivers and drains a region underlain by vast deposits of Holocene-aged peat and Pleistocene-aged loess known as yedoma, most of which is currently stored in ice-rich permafrost throughout the region. These peat and yedoma deposits are important sources of dissolved organic matter (DOM) to inland waters that in turn play a significant role in the transport and ultimate remineralization of organic carbon to CO2 and CH4 along the terrestrial flow-path continuum. The turnover and fate of terrigenous DOM during offshore transport largely depends upon the composition and amount of carbon released to inland and coastal waters. Here, we measured the ultraviolet-visible optical properties of chromophoric DOM (CDOM) from a geographically extensive collection of waters spanning soil pore waters, streams, rivers, and the Kolyma River mainstem throughout a ˜ 250 km transect of the northern Kolyma River basin. During the period of study, CDOM absorption coefficients were found to be robust proxies for the concentration of DOM, whereas additional CDOM parameters such as spectral slopes (S) were found to be useful indicators of DOM quality along the flow path. In particular, the spectral slope ratio (SR) of CDOM demonstrated statistically significant differences between all four water types and tracked changes in the concentration of bioavailable DOC, suggesting that this parameter may be suitable for clearly discriminating shifts in organic matter characteristics among water types along the full flow-path continuum across this landscape. However, despite our observations of downstream shifts in DOM composition, we found a relatively constant proportion of DOC that was bioavailable ( ˜ 3-6 % of total DOC) regardless of relative water residence time along the flow path. This may be a consequence of two potential scenarios allowing for continual processing of organic material within the system, namely (a

  18. Indoxyl sulfate induces nephrovascular senescence.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Toshimitsu; Shimizu, Hidehisa

    2012-01-01

    Indoxyl sulfate is markedly accumulated in the serum of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. The oral sorbent AST-120 reduces serum levels of indoxyl sulfate in CKD patients by adsorbing indole, a precursor of indoxyl sulfate, in the intestine. Indoxyl sulfate is taken up by proximal tubular cells through organic anion transporters (OAT1, OAT3), and it induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) with impairment of cellular antioxidative system. Indoxyl sulfate stimulates progression of CKD by increasing renal expression of profibrotic cytokines such as transforming growth factor beta 1. Further, it promotes the expression of p53 by ROS-induced activation of nuclear factor kappa B, thereby accelerating senescence of proximal tubular cells with progression of CKD. Administration of indoxyl sulfate to hypertensive rats reduces renal expression of Klotho and promotes cell senescence, with expression of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase, p53, p21, p16, and retinoblastoma protein, accompanied by kidney fibrosis. Indoxyl sulfate downregulates Klotho expression in the kidneys through production of ROS and activation of nuclear factor kappa B in proximal tubular cells. It promotes cell senescence, with expression of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase, p53, p21, p16, and retinoblastoma protein, in the aorta of hypertensive rats. It also promotes aortic calcification and aortic wall thickening in hypertensive rats with expression of osteoblast-specific proteins, induces ROS in vascular smooth muscle cells and vascular endothelial cells, stimulates proliferation and osteoblastic transdifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells, and inhibits viability and nitric oxide production of vascular endothelial cells. Thus, indoxyl sulfate accelerates the progression of not only CKD but also of cardiovascular disease by inducing nephrovascular cell senescence. Copyright © 2012 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. In defense of magnesium sulfate.

    PubMed

    Elliott, John P; Lewis, David F; Morrison, John C; Garite, Thomas J

    2009-06-01

    Magnesium sulfate has been used by obstetricians for more than 25 years to treat preterm labor. Magnesium sulfate is effective in delaying delivery for at least 48 hours in patients with preterm labor when used in higher dosages. There do not seem to be any harmful effects of the drug on the fetus, and indeed there is a neuroprotective effect in reducing the incidence of cerebral palsy in premature newborns weighing less than 1,500 g.

  20. Biogeography of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes in river floodplains.

    PubMed

    Miletto, Marzia; Loy, Alexander; Antheunisse, A Martijn; Loeb, Roos; Bodelier, Paul L E; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J

    2008-06-01

    In this study, a large-scale field survey was conducted to describe the biogeography of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRPs) in river floodplains. Fingerprints obtained with three methods, i.e. 16S rRNA gene-based oligonucleotide microarray, dsrB-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and polar lipid-derived fatty acid (PLFA) analyses, were used as a proxy to describe the SRPs community diversity. Each set of profiles was subjected to a combined multivariate/correlation analysis in order to compare SRP community profiles and to highlight the environmental variables influencing the SRPs distribution along environmental gradients. Floodplain soils harbored distinct SRP communities displaying biogeographic patterns. Nearly all profiles from the tidal sites consistently separated from the nontidal sites, independently from the screening method and the multivariate statistics used. The distribution of the microarray/DGGE/PLFA-based fingerprints in the principal component plots could be correlated to eight soil variables, i.e. soil organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorous and total potassium, and extractable ammonium, nitrate, phosphate and sulfate, as well as seven pore water variables, i.e. phosphate, sulfate, sulfide, chloride, sodium, potassium and magnesium ions. Indication of a salinity- and plant nutrient-dependent distribution of SRPs related to Desulfosarcina, Desulfomonile and Desulfobacter was suggested by microarray, DGGE and PLFA analyses.

  1. Sulfate decomposition by bacterial leaching

    SciTech Connect

    Deveci, N.; Delaloglu, C.G.

    1995-04-01

    Sulfate disposal is the main problem of many industrial effluents, such as excess sulfuric acid, gypsum, coal desulfurization byproducts, acid-mine waters, and general metallurgical effluents. It has been established that sulfate present in wastes can be converted to elemental sulfur by bacterial mutualism. This study presents the results of an investigation of the industrial feasibility of utilizing a biological system capable of converting hydrous calcium sulfate (gypsum) to elemental sulfur. Gypsum, which was used in this study, is a byproduct of the fertilizer industry. The biological system is referred to as a bacterial mutualism, and involves Desulfovibrio desulfuricans for sulfate conversion and Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum for hydrogen sulfide conversion. Bacterial mutualism and utilization of sulfate were investigated by means of a two-stage anaerobic system. In the first stage, a gas purge system was used for sulfate conversion to sulfide, and it was found that maximum conversion is 34%. In the second stage, a static culture system was used for sulfide conversion to sulfur with a conversion of 92%. 14 refs., 5 tabs.

  2. 21 CFR 184.1307 - Ferric sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1307 Ferric sulfate. (a) Ferric sulfate (iron (III) sulfate, Fe2(SO4)3 CAS Reg. No. 10028-22-5) is a yellow substance that may be prepared by oxidizing iron (II) sulfate or by treating ferric oxide or ferric hydroxide with sulfuric acid. (b) The ingredient must be of a purity...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1307 - Ferric sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1307 Ferric sulfate. (a) Ferric sulfate (iron (III) sulfate, Fe2(SO4)3 CAS Reg. No. 10028-22-5) is a yellow substance that may be prepared by oxidizing iron (II) sulfate or by treating ferric oxide or ferric hydroxide with sulfuric acid. (b) The ingredient must be of a purity...

  4. Microarray and Functional Gene Analyses of Sulfate-Reducing Prokaryotes in Low-Sulfate, Acidic Fens Reveal Cooccurrence of Recognized Genera and Novel Lineages

    PubMed Central

    Loy, Alexander; Küsel, Kirsten; Lehner, Angelika; Drake, Harold L.; Wagner, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Low-sulfate, acidic (approximately pH 4) fens in the Lehstenbach catchment in the Fichtelgebirge mountains in Germany are unusual habitats for sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRPs) that have been postulated to facilitate the retention of sulfur and protons in these ecosystems. Despite the low in situ availability of sulfate (concentration in the soil solution, 20 to 200 μM) and the acidic conditions (soil and soil solution pHs, approximately 4 and 5, respectively), the upper peat layers of the soils from two fens (Schlöppnerbrunnen I and II) of this catchment displayed significant sulfate-reducing capacities. 16S rRNA gene-based oligonucleotide microarray analyses revealed stable diversity patterns for recognized SRPs in the upper 30 cm of both fens. Members of the family “Syntrophobacteraceae” were detected in both fens, while signals specific for the genus Desulfomonile were observed only in soils from Schlöppnerbrunnen I. These results were confirmed and extended by comparative analyses of environmentally retrieved 16S rRNA and dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase (dsrAB) gene sequences; dsrAB sequences from Desulfobacca-like SRPs, which were not identified by microarray analysis, were obtained from both fens. Hypotheses concerning the ecophysiological role of these three SRP groups in the fens were formulated based on the known physiological properties of their cultured relatives. In addition to these recognized SRP lineages, six novel dsrAB types that were phylogenetically unrelated to all known SRPs were detected in the fens. These dsrAB sequences had no features indicative of pseudogenes and likely represent novel, deeply branching, sulfate- or sulfite-reducing prokaryotes that are specialized colonists of low-sulfate habitats. PMID:15574893

  5. A 'rare biosphere' microorganism contributes to sulfate reduction in a peatland.

    PubMed

    Pester, Michael; Bittner, Norbert; Deevong, Pinsurang; Wagner, Michael; Loy, Alexander

    2010-12-01

    Methane emission from peatlands contributes substantially to global warming but is significantly reduced by sulfate reduction, which is fuelled by globally increasing aerial sulfur pollution. However, the biology behind sulfate reduction in terrestrial ecosystems is not well understood and the key players for this process as well as their abundance remained unidentified. Comparative 16S rRNA gene stable isotope probing (SIP) in the presence and absence of sulfate indicated that a Desulfosporosinus species, which constitutes only 0.006% of the total microbial community 16S rRNA genes, is an important sulfate reducer in a long-term experimental peatland field site. Parallel SIP using dsrAB (encoding subunit A and B of the dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase) identified no additional sulfate reducers under the conditions tested. For the identified Desulfosporosinus species a high cell-specific sulfate reduction rate of up to 341 fmol SO₄²⁻ cell⁻¹ day⁻¹ was estimated. Thus, the small Desulfosporosinus population has the potential to reduce sulfate in situ at a rate of 4.0-36.8 nmol (g soil w. wt.)⁻¹ day⁻¹, sufficient to account for a considerable part of sulfate reduction in the peat soil. Modeling of sulfate diffusion to such highly active cells identified no limitation in sulfate supply even at bulk concentrations as low as 10 μM. Collectively, these data show that the identified Desulfosporosinus species, despite being a member of the 'rare biosphere', contributes to an important biogeochemical process that diverts the carbon flow in peatlands from methane to CO₂ and, thus, alters their contribution to global warming.

  6. A ‘rare biosphere’ microorganism contributes to sulfate reduction in a peatland

    PubMed Central

    Pester, Michael; Bittner, Norbert; Deevong, Pinsurang; Wagner, Michael; Loy, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Methane emission from peatlands contributes substantially to global warming but is significantly reduced by sulfate reduction, which is fuelled by globally increasing aerial sulfur pollution. However, the biology behind sulfate reduction in terrestrial ecosystems is not well understood and the key players for this process as well as their abundance remained unidentified. Comparative 16S rRNA gene stable isotope probing in the presence and absence of sulfate indicated that a Desulfosporosinus species, which constitutes only 0.006% of the total microbial community 16S rRNA genes, is an important sulfate reducer in a long-term experimental peatland field site. Parallel stable isotope probing using dsrAB [encoding subunit A and B of the dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase] identified no additional sulfate reducers under the conditions tested. For the identified Desulfosporosinus species a high cell-specific sulfate reduction rate of up to 341 fmol SO42− cell−1 day−1 was estimated. Thus, the small Desulfosporosinus population has the potential to reduce sulfate in situ at a rate of 4.0–36.8 nmol (g soil w. wt.)−1 day−1, sufficient to account for a considerable part of sulfate reduction in the peat soil. Modeling of sulfate diffusion to such highly active cells identified no limitation in sulfate supply even at bulk concentrations as low as 10 μM. Collectively, these data show that the identified Desulfosporosinus species, despite being a member of the ‘rare biosphere’, contributes to an important biogeochemical process that diverts the carbon flow in peatlands from methane to CO2 and, thus, alters their contribution to global warming. PMID:20535221

  7. Starch properties of the sago palm (Metroxylon sagu Rottb.) in different soils.

    PubMed

    Nozaki, K; Nuyim, T; Shinano, T; Hamada, S; Ito, H; Matsui, H; Osaki, M

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the relationships between starch concentrations and activities of starch synthetic enzymes in sago palms (Metroxylon sagu Rottb.) under acid sulfate and mineral soil conditions. Plants grown naturally that had reached their maturated stage were sampled. We found that the growth in acid sulfate soil is lower than that in mineral soil and that starch granules were larger and there was more amylase activity in acid sulfate soil than in mineral soil. Lower amylase activity in mineral soil could eliminate the degradation of starch, making the smaller granules suitable for storing large amounts of starch in a limited space inside cells.

  8. Global source attribution of sulfate concentration and direct and indirect radiative forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang; Wang, Hailong; Smith, Steven J.; Easter, Richard; Ma, Po-Lun; Qian, Yun; Yu, Hongbin; Li, Can; Rasch, Philip J.

    2017-07-01

    The global source-receptor relationships of sulfate concentrations, and direct and indirect radiative forcing (DRF and IRF) from 16 regions/sectors for years 2010-2014 are examined in this study through utilizing a sulfur source-tagging capability implemented in the Community Earth System Model (CESM) with winds nudged to reanalysis data. Sulfate concentrations are mostly contributed by local emissions in regions with high emissions, while over regions with relatively low SO2 emissions, the near-surface sulfate concentrations are primarily attributed to non-local sources from long-range transport. Regional source efficiencies of sulfate concentrations are higher over regions with dry atmospheric conditions and less export, suggesting that lifetime of aerosols, together with regional export, is important in determining regional air quality. The simulated global total sulfate DRF is -0.42 W m-2, with -0.31 W m-2 contributed by anthropogenic sulfate and -0.11 W m-2 contributed by natural sulfate, relative to a state with no sulfur emissions. In the Southern Hemisphere tropics, dimethyl sulfide (DMS) contributes 17-84 % to the total DRF. East Asia has the largest contribution of 20-30 % over the Northern Hemisphere mid- and high latitudes. A 20 % perturbation of sulfate and its precursor emissions gives a sulfate incremental IRF of -0.44 W m-2. DMS has the largest contribution, explaining -0.23 W m-2 of the global sulfate incremental IRF. Incremental IRF over regions in the Southern Hemisphere with low background aerosols is more sensitive to emission perturbation than that over the polluted Northern Hemisphere.

  9. Global source attribution of sulfate concentration and direct and indirect radiative forcing

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Yang; Wang, Hailong; Smith, Steven J.; ...

    2017-07-25

    The global source–receptor relationships of sulfate concentrations, and direct and indirect radiative forcing (DRF and IRF) from 16 regions/sectors for years 2010–2014 are examined in this study through utilizing a sulfur source-tagging capability implemented in the Community Earth System Model (CESM) with winds nudged to reanalysis data. Sulfate concentrations are mostly contributed by local emissions in regions with high emissions, while over regions with relatively low SO2 emissions, the near-surface sulfate concentrations are primarily attributed to non-local sources from long-range transport. Regional source efficiencies of sulfate concentrations are higher over regions with dry atmospheric conditions and less export, suggesting thatmore » lifetime of aerosols, together with regional export, is important in determining regional air quality. The simulated global total sulfate DRF is –0.42 W m–2, with –0.31 W m–2 contributed by anthropogenic sulfate and –0.11 W m–2 contributed by natural sulfate, relative to a state with no sulfur emissions. In the Southern Hemisphere tropics, dimethyl sulfide (DMS) contributes 17–84 % to the total DRF. East Asia has the largest contribution of 20–30 % over the Northern Hemisphere mid- and high latitudes. A 20 % perturbation of sulfate and its precursor emissions gives a sulfate incremental IRF of –0.44 W m–2. DMS has the largest contribution, explaining –0.23 W m–2 of the global sulfate incremental IRF. Here, incremental IRF over regions in the Southern Hemisphere with low background aerosols is more sensitive to emission perturbation than that over the polluted Northern Hemisphere.« less

  10. Chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate sulfatases from mammals and bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shumin; Sugahara, Kazuyuki; Li, Fuchuan

    2016-12-01

    Sulfatases that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of the sulfate groups on chondroitin sulfate (CS)/dermatan sulfate (DS) poly- and oligosaccharides belong to the formylglycine-dependent family of sulfatases and have been widely found in various mammalian and bacterial organisms. However, only a few types of CS/DS sulfatase have been identified so far. Recently, several novel CS/DS sulfatases have been cloned and characterized. Advanced studies have provided significant insight into the biological function and mechanism of action of CS/DS sulfatases. Moreover, further studies will provide powerful tools for structural and functional studies of CS/DS as well as related applications. This article reviews the recent progress in CS/DS sulfatase research and is expected to initiate further research in this field.

  11. Sulfate-rich Archean Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brainard, J. L.; Choney, A. P.; Ohmoto, H.

    2012-12-01

    There is a widely held belief that prior to 2.4 Ga, the Archean oceans and atmosphere were reducing, and therefore sulfate poor (concentrations <0.1 mmol). However, there is mounting evidence from diverse rock types of Archean ages that sulfate concentrations were likely similar to those in the modern ocean (~28 mmol). In this study we demonstrate that in different lithologies, representing a wide range of marine environments, there is ubiquitous evidence for abundant seawater sulfate. One of the more apparent lines of evidence for sulfate rich Archean waters are bedded barite (BaSO4) deposits, such as those in the ~3.4 Ga Fig Tree Group, South Africa and ~3.5 Ga Dresser Formation, Western Australia (WA). These deposits are thick (>100 m), widely distributed (> km2), and contain only minor amounts of sulfides. These barite beds may have developed from reactions between Ba-rich hydrothermal fluids and evaporate bodies. Simple mass balance calculations suggest that the sulfate contents of the pre-evaporitic seawater must have been greater than ~1 mM. Some researchers have suggested that the SO4 for these beds was derived from the hydrolysis of SO2-rich magmatic fluids. However, this was unlikely as the reaction, 4SO2 + 4H2O → 3H2SO4 + H2S would have produced large amounts of sulfide, as well as sulfate minerals. Many Archean-aged volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits, much like those of the younger ages, record evidence for abundant seawater sulfate. As VMS deposits are most likely formed by submarine hydrothermal fluids that developed from seawater circulating through the seafloor rock, much of the seawater sulfate is reduced to from sulfides at depths. However, some residual sulfate in the hydrothermal fluids, with or without the addition of sulfate from the local seawater, can form sulfate minerals such as barite at near the seafloor. The d34S relationships between barites and pyrites in the Archean VMS deposits are similar to those of the younger VMS

  12. Methods of producing sulfate salts of cations from heteroatomic compounds and dialkyl sulfates and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Friesen, Cody A.; Wolfe, Derek; Johnson, Paul Bryan

    2015-09-29

    Methods of preparing sulfate salts of heteroatomic compounds using dialkyl sulfates as a primary reactant are disclosed. Also disclosed are methods of making ionic liquids from the sulfate salts of the heteroatomic compound, and electrochemical cells comprising the ionic liquids.

  13. Bioengineered heparins and heparan sulfates.

    PubMed

    Fu, Li; Suflita, Matthew; Linhardt, Robert J

    2016-02-01

    Heparin and heparan sulfates are closely related linear anionic polysaccharides, called glycosaminoglycans, which exhibit a number of important biological and pharmacological activities. These polysaccharides, having complex structures and polydispersity, are biosynthesized in the Golgi of animal cells. While heparan sulfate is a widely distributed membrane and extracellular glycosaminoglycan, heparin is found primarily intracellularly in the granules of mast cells. While heparin has historically received most of the scientific attention for its anticoagulant activity, interest has steadily grown in the multi-faceted role heparan sulfate plays in normal and pathophysiology. The chemical synthesis of these glycosaminoglycans is largely precluded by their structural complexity. Today, we depend on livestock animal tissues for the isolation and the annual commercial production of hundred ton quantities of heparin used in the manufacture of anticoagulant drugs and medical device coatings. The variability of animal-sourced heparin and heparan sulfates, their inherent impurities, the limited availability of source tissues, the poor control of these source materials and their manufacturing processes, suggest a need for new approaches for their production. Over the past decade there have been major efforts in the biotechnological production of these glycosaminoglycans, driven by both therapeutic applications and as probes to study their natural functions. This review focuses on the complex biology of these glycosaminoglycans in human health and disease, and the use of recombinant technology in the chemoenzymatic synthesis and metabolic engineering of heparin and heparan sulfates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Rising from the sea: correlations between sulfated polysaccharides and salinity in plants.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Rafael S; Grativol, Clicia; Mourão, Paulo A S

    2011-04-28

    High salinity soils inhibit crop production worldwide and represent a serious agricultural problem. To meet our ever-increasing demand for food, it is essential to understand and engineer salt-resistant crops. In this study, we evaluated the occurrence and function of sulfated polysaccharides in plants. Although ubiquitously present in marine algae, the presence of sulfated polysaccharides among the species tested was restricted to halophytes, suggesting a possible correlation with salt stress or resistance. To test this hypothesis, sulfated polysaccharides from plants artificially and naturally exposed to different salinities were analyzed. Our results revealed that the sulfated polysaccharide concentration, as well as the degree to which these compounds were sulfated in halophytic species, were positively correlated with salinity. We found that sulfated polysaccharides produced by Ruppia maritima Loisel disappeared when the plant was cultivated in the absence of salt. However, subjecting the glycophyte Oryza sativa Linnaeus to salt stress did not induce the biosynthesis of sulfated polysaccharides but increased the concentration of the carboxylated polysaccharides; this finding suggests that negatively charged cell wall polysaccharides might play a role in coping with salt stress. These data suggest that the presence of sulfated polysaccharides in plants is an adaptation to high salt environments, which may have been conserved during plant evolution from marine green algae. Our results address a practical biological concept; additionally, we suggest future strategies that may be beneficial when engineering salt-resistant crops.

  15. Sulfate deterioration of cement-based materials examined by x-ray microtomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, Nikhila N.; Kurtis, Kimberly E.; Wilkinson, Angus P.; Jupe, Andrew C.; Stock, Stuart R.

    2004-10-01

    Sulfate ions present in soil, groundwater, seawater, decaying organic matter, acid rain, and industrial effluent adversely affect the long-term durability of portland cement concrete, but lack of complete understanding of the nature and consequences of sulfate attack hamper our ability to accurately predict performance of concrete in sulfate-rich environments. One impediment to improved understanding of sulfate deterioration of cement-based materials has been the lack of appropriate non-destructive characterization techniques. Laboratory x-ray microtomography affords an opportunity to study in situ the evolution of physical manifestations of damage due to sulfate exposure. The influence of materials selection and mixture parameters - including water-to-cement ratio, cement type, and presence or absence of aggregate, as well as the influence of sulfate exposure conditions, including sulfate and cation type (i.e., Na2SO4 and MgSO4) and concentration - have been examined by microtomography to determine their influence on the rate and character of the sulfate-induced deterioration.

  16. Rising from the Sea: Correlations between Sulfated Polysaccharides and Salinity in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Aquino, Rafael S.; Grativol, Clicia; Mourão, Paulo A. S.

    2011-01-01

    High salinity soils inhibit crop production worldwide and represent a serious agricultural problem. To meet our ever-increasing demand for food, it is essential to understand and engineer salt-resistant crops. In this study, we evaluated the occurrence and function of sulfated polysaccharides in plants. Although ubiquitously present in marine algae, the presence of sulfated polysaccharides among the species tested was restricted to halophytes, suggesting a possible correlation with salt stress or resistance. To test this hypothesis, sulfated polysaccharides from plants artificially and naturally exposed to different salinities were analyzed. Our results revealed that the sulfated polysaccharide concentration, as well as the degree to which these compounds were sulfated in halophytic species, were positively correlated with salinity. We found that sulfated polysaccharides produced by Ruppia maritima Loisel disappeared when the plant was cultivated in the absence of salt. However, subjecting the glycophyte Oryza sativa Linnaeus to salt stress did not induce the biosynthesis of sulfated polysaccharides but increased the concentration of the carboxylated polysaccharides; this finding suggests that negatively charged cell wall polysaccharides might play a role in coping with salt stress. These data suggest that the presence of sulfated polysaccharides in plants is an adaptation to high salt environments, which may have been conserved during plant evolution from marine green algae. Our results address a practical biological concept; additionally, we suggest future strategies that may be beneficial when engineering salt-resistant crops. PMID:21552557

  17. Developing a More Rapid Test to Assess Sulfate Resistance of Hydraulic Cements

    PubMed Central

    Ferraris, Chiara; Stutzman, Paul; Peltz, Max; Winpigler, John

    2005-01-01

    External sulfate attack of concrete is a major problem that can appear in regions where concrete is exposed to soil or water containing sulfates, leading to softening and cracking of the concrete. Therefore, it is important that materials selection and proportioning of concrete in susceptible regions be carefully considered to resist sulfate attack. American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) limits the tricalcium aluminate phase in cements when sulfate exposure is of concern. The hydration products of tricalcium aluminate react with the sulfates resulting in expansion and cracking. While ASTM standard tests are available to determine the susceptibility of cements to sulfate attack, these tests require at least 6 months and often up to a year to perform; a delay that hinders development of new cements. This paper presents a new method for testing cement resistance to sulfate attack that is three to five times faster than the current ASTM tests. Development of the procedure was based upon insights on the degradation process by petrographic examination of sulfate-exposed specimens over time. Also key to the development was the use of smaller samples and tighter environmental control. PMID:27308177

  18. East yard, looking east at material storage rack (right), and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East yard, looking east at material storage rack (right), and east yard office at left background. - Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad, Thurmond Yards, East side New River, mouths of Arbuckle & Dunlop Circles, Thurmond, Fayette County, WV

  19. Success in East Harlem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Deborah

    1987-01-01

    Traces the history of the Central Park East Elementary and Secondary Schools in Manhattan (NY), discusses the educational philosophy of the schools, and pinpoints changes Central Park East teachers have made in the traditional school structure. (PS)

  20. Early Triassic seawater sulfate drawdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Huyue; Tong, Jinnan; Algeo, Thomas J.; Song, Haijun; Qiu, Haiou; Zhu, Yuanyuan; Tian, Li; Bates, Steven; Lyons, Timothy W.; Luo, Genming; Kump, Lee R.

    2014-03-01

    The marine sulfur cycle is intimately linked to global carbon fluxes, atmospheric composition, and climate, yet relatively little is known about how it responded to the end-Permian biocrisis, the largest mass extinction of the Phanerozoic. Here, we analyze carbonate-associated-sulfate (CAS) from three Permo-Triassic sections in South China in order to document the behavior of the C-S cycle and its relationship to marine environmental changes during the mass extinction and its aftermath. We find that δ34SCAS varied from +9‰ to +44‰ at rates up to 100‰ Myr-1 during the Griesbachian-Smithian substages of the Early Triassic. We model the marine sulfur cycle to demonstrate that such rapid variation required drawdown of seawater sulfate concentrations to ⩽4 mM and a reduction in its residence time to ⩽200 kyr. This shorter residence time resulted in positive covariation with δ13Ccarb due to strong coupling of the organic carbon and pyrite burial fluxes. Carbon and sulfur isotopic shifts were associated with contemporaneous changes in climate, marine productivity, and microbial sulfate reduction rates, with negative shifts in δ13Ccarb and δ34SCAS linked to warming, decreased productivity, and reduced sulfate reduction. Sustained cooling during the Spathian re-invigorated oceanic overturning circulation, reduced marine anoxia, and limited pyrite burial. As seawater sulfate built to higher concentrations during the Spathian, the coupling of the marine C and S cycles came to an end and a general amelioration of marine environmental conditions set the stage for a recovery of invertebrate faunas. Variation in seawater sulfate during the Early Triassic was probably controlled by climate change, possibly linked to major eruptive phases of the Siberian Traps.

  1. Wastewater treatment using ferrous sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Boetskaya, K.P.; Ioffe, E.M.

    1980-01-01

    Treatment of industrial wastewater with coagulants is used extensively in the thorough removal of emulsified tars and oils. The central plant laboratory at the Zhdanov Coke Works conducted investigations of the treatment of wastewater, subsequently used for quenching coke, with ferrous sulfate. Laboratory tests and subsequent industrial tests demonstrated the efficiency of the method. In order to further intensify the wastewater treatment process we conducted laboratory tests with the addition of certain quantities of other coagulation reagents, for example polyacrylamide (PAA) and caustic soda, in addition to the ferrous sulfate. The combined use of polyacrylamide and ferrous sulfate permits instant coagulation of the sludge and very rapid (5 to 10 min) clarification of the water. In addition, in this case the degree of purification of the water is less dependent on the initial concentration of impurities. The purification is also improved when caustic soda is added, raising the pH. From the data it is apparent that an identical degree of purification of the water may be achieved either by increasing the consumption of ferrous sulfate, or by adding PAA or NaOH. During industrial tests of the purification of wastewater with ferrous sulfate, we also investigated the resulting sludge. The use of ferrous sulfate causes a significant increase in its quantity (by a factor of 1.5 to 1.8) and in its oil content (by a factor of 2 to 2.5). The water content in the sludge decreases. The sludge (in the quantity of 0.6% of the charge) may be added to the coking charge.

  2. Characterization of Sulfate Minerals in Juventae Chasma from CRISM images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parente, M.; Bishop, J. L.; Noe Dobrea, E.; Calvin, W.; Roach, L.; Murchie, S.

    2007-12-01

    We are investigating the mineralogy of the Juventae Chasma region that lies north-east of Valles Marineris. The OMEGA investigation on the Mars Express spacecraft identified sulfates in the light-toned outcrops inside Juventae Chasma (Gendrin et al 2005). In particular they observed spectral features attributed to gypsum and kieserite in the mound labelled B by Catling et al (2006). This study analyzed the geomorphology using MOC, MOLA, TES and THEMIS data and formulated hypotheses on the formation of light-toned layered outcrops labeled A to D from the South-West to the North rim of Juventae Chasma. The order of magnitude increase in spatial resolution of the CRISM instrument on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter over OMEGA is used here to assess mineralogic diversity and to analyze stratigraphic relationships between the mounds and the surrounding Chasma walls. CRISM data show evidence for diagnostic sulfate absorptions in a few locations. These are consistent with monohydrated sulfates such as kieserite and szomolnokite as well as polyhydrated sulfates such as starkeyite. The strongest occurrences of sulfates appear at the location occupied by the light-toned outcrops, in particular mound "A". A mobile basaltic sand sheet covers much of the chasma floor. Patches of olivine and pyroxene are observed in the chasma wall rock but require further spectroscopic study to assess their extent and stratigraphic relationship with the mounds. The detection of sulfate bands in the exposed light-toned material in the mounds, which date back to late - noachian / early hesperian (Catling et al. 2006), indicates the presence of an early acidic environment in the Chasma and probable evaporitic processes. The "sulfate" layered mounds present evidence of high erosion and in some regions of exhumation from the west wall of the chasma and the hummochy terrains in the north, as visible from ConText Imager (CTX) and HiRISE data. References: Gendrin A., et al.(2005). Science, 307, 1587

  3. JPRS Report, East Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    rent news and information and is published Monday through Friday in 8 volumes: China, East Europe, Soviet Union, East Asia, Near East & South Asia...JPRS-EER-87-141 23 SEPTFMRFR 1QS7 u etc* U ü J. Ma M i%\\ ■■■■■« FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE JPRS Report— East Eur ft e N9BQ6W M...EER-87-141 23 SEPTEMBER 1987 EAST EUROPE CONTENTS POLITICAL INTRABLOC Romanian Efforts To Weaken Minority Magyar Position Viewed (Martti Valkonen

  4. Soil and soil water studies at the HUMEX site

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, R.D.; Seip, H.M.; Ranneklev, S. )

    1992-01-01

    Changes to natural organic compounds by acid deposition and subsequent effects on Al mobilization are not well understood. The HUMEX catchment-scale acidification experiment in western Norway offers a unique possibility for an integrated assessment of these interactions. In this report, the soil and soil water chemical data from the HUMEX site, from before and after the onset of experimental acidification, are used to characterize the catchment. Changes in soil water chemistry are discussed and controls on dissolved organic carbon are addressed in relation to Al mobilization. Decreases in the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and organic Al fractions were found in soil water after the treatment started. These changes were related to an increase in soil water sulfate concentrations. The sulfate levels showed a significant increase (on a 95% level) in four of ten soil horizons while nitrate remained nearly unchanged. In organic soils, where the dissolved organic carbon content was high, the major control for monomeric aluminum concentration appeared to be the amount of exchangeable aluminum in the soil. In mineral soils, the gibbsite dissolution may govern inorganic Al concentrations in soil water, though substantial undersaturation was found when DOC was high. 32 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. A sulfate conundrum: Dissolved sulfates of deep-saline brines and carbonate-associated sulfates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labotka, Dana M.; Panno, Samuel V.; Locke, Randall A.

    2016-10-01

    Sulfates in deeply circulating brines and carbonate-associated sulfates (CAS) within sedimentary units of the Cambrian strata in the Illinois Basin record a complex history. Dissolved sulfate within the Mt. Simon Sandstone brines exhibits average δ34SSO4 values of 35.4‰ and δ18OSO4 values of 14.6‰ and appears to be related to Cambrian seawater sulfate, either original seawater or sourced from evaporite deposits such as those in the Michigan Basin. Theoretical and empirical relationships based on stable oxygen isotope fractionation suggest that sulfate within the lower depths of the Mt. Simon brines has experienced a long period of isolation, possibly several tens of millions of years. Comparison with brines from other stratigraphic units shows the Mt. Simon brines are geochemically unique. Dissolved sulfate from brines within the Ironton-Galesville Sandstone averages 22.7‰ for δ34SSO4 values and 13.0‰ for δ18OSO4 values. The Ironton-Galesville brine has mixed with younger groundwater, possibly of Ordovician to Devonian age and younger. The Eau Claire Formation lies between the Mt. Simon and Ironton-Galesville Sandstones. The carbonate units of the Eau Claire and stratigraphically equivalent Bonneterre Formation contain CAS that appears isotopically related to the Late Pennsylvanian-Early Permian Mississippi Valley-type ore pulses that deposited large sulfide minerals in the Viburnum Trend/Old Lead Belt ore districts. The δ34SCAS values range from 21.3‰ to 9.3‰, and δ18OCAS values range from +1.4‰ to -2.6‰ and show a strong covariance (R2 = 0.94). The largely wholesale replacement of Cambrian seawater sulfate signatures in these dolomites does not appear to have affected the sulfate signatures in the Mt. Simon brines even though these sulfide deposits are found in the stratigraphically equivalent Lamotte Sandstone to the southwest. On the basis of this and previous studies, greater fluid densities of the Mt. Simon brines may have prevented the

  6. Chiral Crystallization of Ethylenediamine Sulfate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koby, Lawrence; Ningappa, Jyothi B.; Dakesssian, Maria; Cuccia, Louis A.

    2005-01-01

    The optimal conditions for the crystallization of achiral ethylenediamine sulfate into large chiral crystals that are ideal for polarimetry studies and observation using Polaroid sheets are presented. This experiment is an ideal undergraduate experiment, which clearly demonstrates the chiral crystallization of an achiral molecule.

  7. Chiral Crystallization of Ethylenediamine Sulfate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koby, Lawrence; Ningappa, Jyothi B.; Dakesssian, Maria; Cuccia, Louis A.

    2005-01-01

    The optimal conditions for the crystallization of achiral ethylenediamine sulfate into large chiral crystals that are ideal for polarimetry studies and observation using Polaroid sheets are presented. This experiment is an ideal undergraduate experiment, which clearly demonstrates the chiral crystallization of an achiral molecule.

  8. 21 CFR 582.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or feeding practice. ...

  9. Characterization of sulfated quercetin and epicatechin metabolites.

    PubMed

    Dueñas, Montserrat; González-Manzano, Susana; Surco-Laos, Felipe; González-Paramas, Ana; Santos-Buelga, Celestino

    2012-04-11

    Different monosulfates of quercetin and epicatechin with metabolic interest were obtained by hemisynthesis and characterized regarding their chromatographic behavior and absorption and mass spectra. Three of these compounds were further isolated, and their structures were elucidated by mass spectrometry and (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance using one- and two-dimensional techniques (heteronuclear single-quantum coherence and heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation). The calculation of the proton and carbon shifts caused by sulfation allowed for the assignment of the position of the sulfate group in the flavonoids, so that the compounds were identified as quercetin-3'-O-sulfate, quercetin 4'-O-sulfate, and epicatechin 4'-O-sulfate. It was found that sulfation at position 3' induced a large upfield shift in the carbon bearing the sulfate group and downfield displacements of the adjacent carbons, whereas no significant upfield or downfield shifts were observed with respect to the parent flavonoid when sulfation was produced at position 4'.

  10. Occurrence and sources of selected organochlorine pesticides in the soil of seven major Indian cities: Assessment of air-soil exchange.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Paromita; Zhang, Gan; Li, Jun; Sivakumar, A; Jones, Kevin C

    2015-09-01

    India is an agricultural country and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) accounts for nearly three fourth of the annual pesticide consumption. Selected OCPs were therefore quantified in 81 soil samples along urban-suburban-rural transect from New Delhi and Agra in the north, Kolkata in the east, Mumbai and Goa in the west and Chennai and Bangalore in the southern part of India. ΣOCPs ranges from 2 to 410 ng/g dry weight (Mean, 35) with dominance of endosulfan sulfate in the rural sites. Urban centers and suburbs reflects OCP usage for vector control. Lower winter temperature in New Delhi favored site-specific deposition of most OCPs in soil. Volatilization of OCPs from soil occurred in the Indian cities having higher ambient temperature. Due to the compounded impact of past and ongoing usage of selected OCPs like DDT, a sporadic cycle of emission and re-emission from Indian soil is expected to continue for many more years to come.

  11. 21 CFR 184.1261 - Copper sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Copper sulfate. 184.1261 Section 184.1261 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1261 Copper sulfate. (a) Copper sulfate (cupric sulfate, CuSO4·5H2O, CAS... the reaction of sulfuric acid with cupric oxide or with copper metal. (b) The ingredient must be of...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1261 - Copper sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Copper sulfate. 184.1261 Section 184.1261 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1261 Copper sulfate. (a) Copper sulfate (cupric sulfate, CuSO4·5 H2O, CAS... the reaction of sulfuric acid with cupric oxide or with copper metal. (b) The ingredient must be of...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1261 - Copper sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Copper sulfate. 184.1261 Section 184.1261 Food and....1261 Copper sulfate. (a) Copper sulfate (cupric sulfate, CuSO4·5 H2O, CAS Reg. No. 7758-99-8) usually... sulfuric acid with cupric oxide or with copper metal. (b) The ingredient must be of a purity suitable...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1261 - Copper sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Copper sulfate. 184.1261 Section 184.1261 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1261 Copper sulfate. (a) Copper sulfate (cupric sulfate, CuSO4·5H2O, CAS... the reaction of sulfuric acid with cupric oxide or with copper metal. (b) The ingredient must be of...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1261 - Copper sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Copper sulfate. 184.1261 Section 184.1261 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1261 Copper sulfate. (a) Copper sulfate (cupric sulfate, CuSO4·5 H2O, CAS... the reaction of sulfuric acid with cupric oxide or with copper metal. (b) The ingredient must be of...

  16. Soil Remediation to Begin at Superfund Site in Walpole, Mass.

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Work to excavate and remove contaminated soil at the Blackburn and Union Privileges Superfund Site begins this week. The soil remediation is focused on South Street on the east side properties, where the former Cosmec building sits.

  17. Design and implementation of a leach field to remove metals, nitrate, selenium, and sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, J.M.; Levy, D.B.; Harrington, J.G.

    1999-07-01

    Soils with good metals attenuation characteristics were evaluated for utilization in a constructed leach field to treat northern Nevada heap leach effluent. Operation of soil test columns showed sufficient attenuation ability for passive system comprised of caliche and top soils to remove most metals, pH, WAD CN, and arsenic. However, mercury, nitrate, selenium, and sulfate were not attenuated. The authors investigated the addition of organic carbon amendments to stimulate biological reduction of these constituents within the proposed leach field. Column tests with the organic amendment without any additional non-native microorganisms showed efficient nitrate, selenium, and sulfate reduction as evidenced by effluent water quality. Controls showed minimal removal of these constituents. Based on the data from these column studies, a leach field combining two soil layers and an organic amendment was designed and implemented. Parameters controlling the successful application of this technology at other sites will be discussed.

  18. 21 CFR 582.5315 - Ferrous sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ferrous sulfate. 582.5315 Section 582.5315 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5315 Ferrous sulfate. (a) Product. Ferrous sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  19. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  20. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  1. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  2. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  3. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  4. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  5. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  6. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  7. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  8. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7778-80-5) occurs.... It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with potassium hydroxide or potassium carbonate...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg... having a bitter, saline taste. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with potassium...

  12. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  14. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg... having a bitter, saline taste. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with potassium...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg... having a bitter, saline taste. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with potassium...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg... having a bitter, saline taste. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with potassium...

  19. 21 CFR 582.5461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manganese sulfate. 582.5461 Section 582.5461 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Product. Manganese sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manganese sulfate. 184.1461 Section 184.1461 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Manganese sulfate (MnSO4·H2O, CAS... manganese compounds with sulfuric acid. It is also obtained as a byproduct in the manufacture of...

  1. 21 CFR 582.5461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manganese sulfate. 582.5461 Section 582.5461 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Product. Manganese sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manganese sulfate. 184.1461 Section 184.1461 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Manganese sulfate (MnSO4·H2O, CAS... manganese compounds with sulfuric acid. It is also obtained as a byproduct in the manufacture of...

  3. 21 CFR 582.5461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manganese sulfate. 582.5461 Section 582.5461 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Product. Manganese sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Manganese sulfate (MnSO4·H2O, CAS... dioxide in sulfuric acid, and the roasting of pyrolusite (MnO2) ore with solid ferrous sulfate and coal...

  5. 21 CFR 182.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 182.1125 Section 182.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  6. 21 CFR 582.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 582.1125 Section 582.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 582.1125 Section 582.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 582.1125 Section 582.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  9. 21 CFR 182.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 182.1125 Section 182.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  10. 21 CFR 182.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 182.1125 Section 182.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  11. 21 CFR 582.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 582.1125 Section 582.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  12. 21 CFR 182.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum sulfate. 182.1125 Section 182.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 582.1125 Section 582.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  14. 21 CFR 182.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 182.1125 Section 182.1125 Food... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS... magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with sulfuric acid and evaporating the solution to crystallization...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS... magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with sulfuric acid and evaporating the solution to crystallization...

  17. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 582.5443 Section 582.5443 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Product. Magnesium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS... magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with sulfuric acid and evaporating the solution to crystallization...

  19. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 582.5443 Section 582.5443 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Product. Magnesium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  20. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 582.5443 Section 582.5443 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Product. Magnesium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS... magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with sulfuric acid and evaporating the solution to crystallization...

  2. Low sulfate seawater mitigates barite scale

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, J.A.; Simm, I.

    1996-12-09

    Low-sulfate seawater (LSSW) technology provides operational and economic benefits for desulfating seawater to control barium sulfate (BaSO{sub 4}) and strontium sulfate (SrSO{sub 4}) scale. This concluding article in a three part series describes, from a scale control perspective, the membrane technology deployed in the North Sea Brae fields.

  3. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b)...

  4. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b)...

  5. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b)...

  6. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b)...

  7. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and....1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6), also known as Glauber's salt... by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient is used as...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ammonium sulfate. 184.1143 Section 184.1143 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4, CAS...

  9. 21 CFR 582.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ammonium sulfate. 582.1143 Section 582.1143 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ammonium sulfate. 582.1143 Section 582.1143 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ammonium sulfate. 184.1143 Section 184.1143 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT... GRAS § 184.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7783-20-2)...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium sulfate. 184.1143 Section 184.1143 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4, CAS...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ammonium sulfate. 184.1143 Section 184.1143 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4, CAS...

  14. 21 CFR 582.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium sulfate. 582.1143 Section 582.1143 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  15. 21 CFR 582.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ammonium sulfate. 582.1143 Section 582.1143 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  16. Sulfate transport in Penicillium chrysogenum plasma membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Hillenga, D J; Versantvoort, H J; Driessen, A J; Konings, W N

    1996-01-01

    Transport studies with Penicillium chrysogenum plasma membranes fused with cytochrome c oxidase liposomes demonstrate that sulfate uptake is driven by the transmembrane pH gradient and not by the transmembrane electrical potential. Ca2+ and other divalent cations are not required. It is concluded that the sulfate transport system catalyzes the symport of two protons with one sulfate anion. PMID:8682803

  17. Modeling and minimization of barium sulfate scale

    Treesearch

    Alan W. Rudie; Peter W. Hart

    2006-01-01

    The majority of the barium present in the pulping process exits the digester as barium carbonate. Barium carbonate dissolves in the bleach plant when the pH drops below 7 and, if barium and sulfate concentrations are too high, begins to precipitate as barium sulfate. Barium is difficult to control because a mill cannot avoid this carbonate-to-sulfate transition using...

  18. 21 CFR 582.5461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manganese sulfate. 582.5461 Section 582.5461 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Product. Manganese sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  19. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 582.5443 Section 582.5443 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Product. Magnesium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  20. 21 CFR 582.5230 - Calcium sulfate.