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Sample records for sulforaphane protects liver

  1. Sulforaphane induces Nrf2 and protects against CYP2E1-dependent binge alcohol-induced liver steatosis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Richard; Lin, Jianjun; Wu, Defeng

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism(s) by which alcohol causes cell injury are still not clear but a major mechanism appears to be the role of lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in alcohol toxicity. CYP2E1-generated ROS contributes to the ethanol-induced oxidant stress and inhibition of CYP2E1 activity decreases ethanol-induced fatty liver. The transcription factor Nrf2 regulates the expression of many cytoprotective enzymes which results in cellular protection against a variety of toxins. The current study was designed to evaluate the ability of sulforaphane, an activator of Nrf2, to blunt CYP2E1-dependent, ethanol-induced steatosis in vivo and in vitro. The sulforaphane treatment activated Nrf2, increased levels of the Nrf2 target heme oxygenase-1 and subsequently lowered oxidant stress as shown by the decline in lipid peroxidation and 3-nitrotyrosine protein adducts and an increase in GSH levels after the acute ethanol treatment. It decreased ethanol-elevated liver levels of triglycerides and cholesterol and Oil Red O staining. Similar results were found in vitro as addition of sulforaphane to HepG2 E47 cells, which express CYP2E1, elevated Nrf2 levels and decreased the accumulation of lipid in cells cultured with ethanol. Sulforaphane treatment had no effect on levels of or activity of CYP2E1. Sulforaphane proved to be an effective in vivo inhibitor of acute ethanol-induced fatty liver in mice. The possible amelioration of liver injury which occurs under these conditions by chemical activators of Nrf2 is of clinical relevance and worthy of further study. © 2013.

  2. Sulforaphane Induces Nrf2 and Protects Against CYP2E1-dependent Binge Alcohol –induced Liver Steatosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Richard; Lin, Jianjun; Wu, Defeng

    2013-01-01

    Background The mechanism(s) by which alcohol causes cell injury are still not clear but a major mechanism appears to be the role of lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in alcohol toxicity. CYP2E1-generated ROS contributes to the ethanol-induced oxidant stress and inhibition of CYP2E1 activity decreases ethanol-induced fatty liver. The transcription factor Nrf2 regulates the expression of many cytoprotective enzymes which results in cellular protection against a variety of toxins. Method The current study was designed to evaluate the ability of sulforaphane, an activator of Nrf2, to blunt CYP2E1-dependent, ethanol-induced steatosis in vivo and in vitro. Results The sulforaphane treatment activated Nrf2, increased levels of the Nrf2 target heme oxygenase -1 and subsequently lowered oxidant stress as shown by the decline in lipid peroxidation and 3-Nitrotyrosine protein adducts and an increase in GSH levels after the acute ethanol treatment. It decreased ethanol-elevated liver levels of triglycerides and cholesterol and Oil Red O staining. Similar results were found in vitro as addition of sulforaphane to HepG2 E47 cells, which express CYP2E1, elevated Nrf2 levels and decreased the accumulation of lipid in cells cultured with ethanol. Sulforaphane treatment had no effect on levels of or activity of CYP2E1. Conclusions Sulforaphane proved to be an effective in vivo inhibitor of acute ethanol–induced fatty liver in mice. General significance The possible amelioration of liver injury which occurs under these conditions by chemical activators of Nrf2 is of clinical relevance and worthy of further study. PMID:24060752

  3. Protection of retinal function by sulforaphane following retinal ischemic injury.

    PubMed

    Ambrecht, Lindsay A; Perlman, Jay I; McDonnell, James F; Zhai, Yougang; Qiao, Liang; Bu, Ping

    2015-09-01

    Sulforaphane, a precursor of glucosinolate in cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli and cauliflower, has been shown to protect brain ischemic injury. In this study, we examined the effect of systemic administration of sulforaphane on retinal ischemic reperfusion injury. Intraocular pressure was elevated in two groups of C57BL/6 mice (n = 8 per group) for 45 min to induce retinal ischemic reperfusion injury. Following retinal ischemic reperfusion injury, vehicle (1% DMSO saline) or sulforaphane (25 mg/kg/day) was administered intraperitoneally daily for 5 days. Scotopic electroretinography (ERG) was used to quantify retinal function prior to and one-week after retinal ischemic insult. Retinal morphology was examined one week after ischemic insult. Following ischemic reperfusion injury, ERG a- and b-wave amplitudes were significantly reduced in the control mice. Sulforaphane treatment significantly attenuated ischemic-induced loss of retinal function as compared to vehicle treated mice. In vehicle treated mice, ischemic reperfusion injury produced marked thinning of the inner retinal layers, but the thinning of the inner retinal layers appeared significantly less with sulforaphane treatment. Thus, sulforaphane may be beneficial in the treatment of retinal disorders with ischemic reperfusion injury. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of Sulforaphane Metabolites on Activities of Human Drug-Metabolizing Cytochrome P450 and Determination of Sulforaphane in Human Liver Cells.

    PubMed

    Vanduchova, Alena; Tomankova, Veronika; Anzenbacher, Pavel; Anzenbacherova, Eva

    2016-12-01

    The influence of metabolites of sulforaphane, natural compounds present in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis italica) and in other cruciferous vegetables, on drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in human liver microsomes and possible entry of sulforaphane into human hepatic cells were investigated. Metabolites studied are compounds derived from sulforaphane by the mercapturic acid pathway (conjugation with glutathione and by following reactions), namely sulforaphane glutathione and sulforaphane cysteine conjugates and sulforaphane-N-acetylcysteine. Their possible effect on four drug-metabolizing CYP enzymes, CYP3A4 (midazolam 1'-hydroxylation), CYP2D6 (bufuralol 1'-hydroxylation), CYP1A2 (7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation), and CYP2B6 (7-ethoxy-4-(trifluoromethyl)coumarin O-deethylation), was tested. Inhibition of four prototypical CYP activities by sulforaphane metabolites was studied in pooled human liver microsomes. Sulforaphane metabolites did not considerably affect biological function of drug-metabolizing CYPs in human liver microsomes except for CYP2D6, which was found to be inhibited down to 73-78% of the original activity. Analysis of the entry of sulforaphane into human hepatocytes was done by cell disruption by sonication, methylene chloride extraction, and modified high-performance liquid chromatography method. The results have shown penetration of sulforaphane into the human hepatic cells.

  5. Protective effect of sulforaphane against oxidative stress: recent advances.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Beltrán, Carlos Enrique; Calderón-Oliver, Mariel; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Chirino, Yolanda Irasema

    2012-07-01

    Sulforaphane [1-isothiocyanate-(4R)-(methylsulfinyl)butane] is a natural dietary isothiocyanate produced by the enzymatic action of the myrosinase on glucopharanin, a 4-methylsulfinylbutyl glucosinolate contained in cruciferous vegetables of the genus Brassica such as broccoli, brussel sprouts, and cabbage. Studies on this compound is increasing because its anticarcinogenic and cytoprotective properties in several in vivo experimental paradigms associated with oxidative stress such as focal cerebral ischemia, brain inflammation, intracerebral hemorrhage, ischemia and reperfusion induced acute renal failure, cisplatin induced-nephrotoxicity, streptozotocin-induced diabetes, carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity and cardiac ischemia and reperfusion. This protective effect also has been observed in in vitro studies in different cell lines such as human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y, renal epithelial proximal tubule LLC-PK1 cells and aortic smooth muscle A10 cells. Sulforaphane is considered an indirect antioxidant; this compound is able to induce many cytoprotective proteins, including antioxidant enzymes, through the Nrf2-antioxidant response element pathway. Heme oxygenase-1, NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase, glutathione-S-transferase, gamma-glutamyl cysteine ligase, and glutathione reductase are among the cytoprotective proteins induced by sulforaphane. In conclusion, sulforaphane is a promising antioxidant agent that is effective to attenuate oxidative stress and tissue/cell damage in different in vivo and in vitro experimental paradigms. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Repeated Nrf2 stimulation using sulforaphane protects fibroblasts from ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, Sherin T.; Bergström, Petra; Hammarsten, Ola, E-mail: ola.hammarsten@clinchem.gu.se

    2014-05-01

    Most of the cytotoxicity induced by ionizing radiation is mediated by radical-induced DNA double-strand breaks. Cellular protection from free radicals can be stimulated several fold by sulforaphane-mediated activation of the transcription factor Nrf2 that regulates more than 50 genes involved in the detoxification of reactive substances and radicals. Here, we report that repeated sulforaphane treatment increases radioresistance in primary human skin fibroblasts. Cells were either treated with sulforaphane for four hours once or with four-hour treatments repeatedly for three consecutive days prior to radiation exposure. Fibroblasts exposed to repeated-sulforaphane treatment showed a more pronounced dose-dependent induction of Nrf2-regulated mRNA andmore » reduced amount of radiation-induced free radicals compared with cells treated once with sulforaphane. In addition, radiation- induced DNA double-strand breaks measured by gamma-H2AX foci were attenuated following repeated sulforaphane treatment. As a result, cellular protection from ionizing radiation measured by the 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU) assay was increased, specifically in cells exposed to repeated sulforaphane treatment. Sulforaphane treatment was unable to protect Nrf2 knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts, indicating that the sulforaphane-induced radioprotection was Nrf2-dependent. Moreover, radioprotection by repeated sulforaphane treatment was dose-dependent with an optimal effect at 10 uM, whereas both lower and higher concentrations resulted in lower levels of radioprotection. Our data indicate that the Nrf2 system can be trained to provide further protection from radical damage. - Highlights: • Repeated treatment with sulforaphane protects fibroblasts from ionizing radiation • Repeated sulforaphane treatment attenuates radiation induced ROS and DNA damage • Sulforaphane mediated protection is Nrf2 dependent.« less

  7. Repeated Nrf2 stimulation using sulforaphane protects fibroblasts from ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Sherin T; Bergström, Petra; Hammarsten, Ola

    2014-05-01

    Most of the cytotoxicity induced by ionizing radiation is mediated by radical-induced DNA double-strand breaks. Cellular protection from free radicals can be stimulated several fold by sulforaphane-mediated activation of the transcription factor Nrf2 that regulates more than 50 genes involved in the detoxification of reactive substances and radicals. Here, we report that repeated sulforaphane treatment increases radioresistance in primary human skin fibroblasts. Cells were either treated with sulforaphane for four hours once or with four-hour treatments repeatedly for three consecutive days prior to radiation exposure. Fibroblasts exposed to repeated-sulforaphane treatment showed a more pronounced dose-dependent induction of Nrf2-regulated mRNA and reduced amount of radiation-induced free radicals compared with cells treated once with sulforaphane. In addition, radiation- induced DNA double-strand breaks measured by gamma-H2AX foci were attenuated following repeated sulforaphane treatment. As a result, cellular protection from ionizing radiation measured by the 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) assay was increased, specifically in cells exposed to repeated sulforaphane treatment. Sulforaphane treatment was unable to protect Nrf2 knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts, indicating that the sulforaphane-induced radioprotection was Nrf2-dependent. Moreover, radioprotection by repeated sulforaphane treatment was dose-dependent with an optimal effect at 10 uM, whereas both lower and higher concentrations resulted in lower levels of radioprotection. Our data indicate that the Nrf2 system can be trained to provide further protection from radical damage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Sulforaphane protects H9c2 cardiomyocytes from angiotensin II-induced hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Q-Q; Zong, J; Gao, L; Dai, J; Yang, Z; Xu, M; Fang, Y; Ma, Z-G; Tang, Q-Z

    2014-05-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is an adaptive process of the heart in response to various stimuli, but sustained cardiac hypertrophy will finally lead to heart failure. Sulforaphane-extracted from cruciferous vegetables of the genus Brassica such as broccoli, brussels sprouts, and cabbage-has been evaluated for its anticarcinogenic and antioxidant effects. To investigate the effect of sulforaphane on angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced cardiac hypertrophy in vitro. Embryonic rat heart-derived H9c2 cells were co-incubated with sulforaphane and Ang II. The cell surface area and mRNA levels of hypertrophic markers were measured to clarify the effect of sulforaphane on cardiac hypertrophy. The underlying mechanism was further investigated by detecting the activation of Akt and NF-κB signaling pathways. We found that H9c2 cells pretreated with sulforaphane were protected from Ang II-induced hypertrophy. The increasing mRNA levels of ANP, BNP, and β-MHC in Ang II-stimulated cells were also down-regulated after sulforaphane treatment. Moreover, sulforaphane repressed the Ang II-induced phosphorylation of Akt, GSK3β, mTOR, eIF4e, as well as of IκBα and NF-κB. Based on our results, sulforaphane attenuates Ang II-induced hypertrophy of H9c2 cardiomyocytes mediated by the inhibition of intracellular signaling pathways including Akt and NF-κB.

  9. Sulforaphane protects Microcystin-LR-induced toxicity through activation of the Nrf2-mediated defensive response

    SciTech Connect

    Gan Nanqin; Mi Lixin; Sun Xiaoyun

    2010-09-01

    Microcystins (MCs), a cyclic heptapeptide hepatotoxins, are mainly produced by the bloom-forming cyanobacerium Microcystis, which has become an environmental hazard worldwide. Long term consumption of MC-contaminated water may induce liver damage, liver cancer, and even human death. Therefore, in addition to removal of MCs in drinking water, novel strategies that prevent health damages are urgently needed. Sulforaphane (SFN), a natural-occurring isothiocyanate from cruciferous vegetables, has been reported to reduce and eliminate toxicities from xenobiotics and carcinogens. The purpose of the present study was to provide mechanistic insights into the SFN-induced antioxidative defense system against MC-LR-induced cytotoxicity. We performed cell viabilitymore » assays, including MTS assay, colony formation assay and apoptotic cell sorting, to study MC-LR-induced cellular damage and the protective effects by SFN. The results showed that SFN protected MC-LR-induced damages at a nontoxic and physiological relevant dose in HepG2, BRL-3A and NIH 3 T3 cells. The protection was Nrf2-mediated as evident by transactivation of Nrf2 and activation of its downstream genes, including NQO1 and HO-1, and elevated intracellular GSH level. Results of our studies indicate that pretreatment of cells with 10 {mu}M SFN for 12 h significantly protected cells from MC-LR-induced damage. SFN-induced protective response was mediated through Nrf2 pathway.« less

  10. Sulforaphane Protects against Cardiovascular Disease via Nrf2 Activation

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Yang; Wang, Xiaolu; Zhao, Song; Ma, Chunye; Cui, Jiuwei; Zheng, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) causes an unparalleled proportion of the global burden of disease and will remain the main cause of mortality for the near future. Oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathophysiology of cardiac disorders. Several studies have highlighted the cardinal role played by the overproduction of reactive oxygen or nitrogen species in the pathogenesis of ischemic myocardial damage and consequent cardiac dysfunction. Isothiocyanates (ITC) are sulfur-containing compounds that are broadly distributed among cruciferous vegetables. Sulforaphane (SFN) is an ITC shown to possess anticancer activities by both in vivo and epidemiological studies. Recent data have indicated that the beneficial effects of SFN in CVD are due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. SFN activates NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a basic leucine zipper transcription factor that serves as a defense mechanism against oxidative stress and electrophilic toxicants by inducing more than a hundred cytoprotective proteins, including antioxidants and phase II detoxifying enzymes. This review will summarize the evidence from clinical studies and animal experiments relating to the potential mechanisms by which SFN modulates Nrf2 activation and protects against CVD. PMID:26583056

  11. Sulforaphane as a potential protective phytochemical against neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Tarozzi, Andrea; Angeloni, Cristina; Malaguti, Marco; Morroni, Fabiana; Hrelia, Silvana; Hrelia, Patrizia

    2013-01-01

    A wide variety of acute and chronic neurodegenerative diseases, including ischemic/traumatic brain injury, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease, share common characteristics such as oxidative stress, misfolded proteins, excitotoxicity, inflammation, and neuronal loss. As no drugs are available to prevent the progression of these neurological disorders, intervention strategies using phytochemicals have been proposed as an alternative form of treatment. Among phytochemicals, isothiocyanate sulforaphane, derived from the hydrolysis of the glucosinolate glucoraphanin mainly present in Brassica vegetables, has demonstrated neuroprotective effects in several in vitro and in vivo studies. In particular, evidence suggests that sulforaphane beneficial effects could be mainly ascribed to its peculiar ability to activate the Nrf2/ARE pathway. Therefore, sulforaphane appears to be a promising compound with neuroprotective properties that may play an important role in preventing neurodegeneration.

  12. Sulforaphane as a Potential Protective Phytochemical against Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tarozzi, Andrea; Angeloni, Cristina; Malaguti, Marco; Morroni, Fabiana; Hrelia, Silvana; Hrelia, Patrizia

    2013-01-01

    A wide variety of acute and chronic neurodegenerative diseases, including ischemic/traumatic brain injury, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease, share common characteristics such as oxidative stress, misfolded proteins, excitotoxicity, inflammation, and neuronal loss. As no drugs are available to prevent the progression of these neurological disorders, intervention strategies using phytochemicals have been proposed as an alternative form of treatment. Among phytochemicals, isothiocyanate sulforaphane, derived from the hydrolysis of the glucosinolate glucoraphanin mainly present in Brassica vegetables, has demonstrated neuroprotective effects in several in vitro and in vivo studies. In particular, evidence suggests that sulforaphane beneficial effects could be mainly ascribed to its peculiar ability to activate the Nrf2/ARE pathway. Therefore, sulforaphane appears to be a promising compound with neuroprotective properties that may play an important role in preventing neurodegeneration. PMID:23983898

  13. The effects of sulforaphane on the liver and remote organ damage in hepatic ischemia-reperfusion model formed with pringle maneuver in rats.

    PubMed

    Oguz, Abdullah; Kapan, Murat; Kaplan, Ibrahim; Alabalik, Ulas; Ulger, Burak Veli; Uslukaya, Omer; Turkoglu, Ahmet; Polat, Yilmaz

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Sulforaphane on ischemia/ reperfusion (IR) injury of the liver and distant organs resulting from liver blood flow arrest. Fourty Wistar rats were assigned into four groups, each included 10 rats were used. Group I as only laparatomy, Group II laparatomy and Sulforaphane application, Group III hepatic IR; and Group IV as hepatic IR and Sulforaphane application group. Animals were subjected to liver ischemia for 30 min and then reperfusion is started. 5 mg/kg Sulforaphane was applied via oral lavage 15 minutes before initiating the experimental study. Blood samples were taken from the animals for biochemical analysis at 60th minutes of the experiment in the first and second groups; 30 minutes after beginning reperfusion in the third and forth groups. Simultaneously, liver, lung and kidney tissues were sampled for biochemical and histopathological examinations. The administration of sulforaphane significantly reduced the serum TOA and liver TOA levels, increased the serum TAC and liver TAC levels and also decreased The OSI and liver OSI levels. In the histopathologic examination, the injury was reduced by the administration of sulforaphane. Administration of sulforaphane did not lead to any significant changes in any parameter including histopathological parameters in both the kidney and the lung. Sulforaphane reduced the liver oxidative stress from I/R injury. A histological injury in liver was reduced by sulforaphane administration. However, there were no significant effects of sulforaphane on the remote organ injuries induced by IR. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Synergy between sulforaphane and selenium in the up-regulation of thioredoxin reductase and protection against hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death in human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Wang, Wei; Shan, Yujuan; Barrera, Lawrence N; Howie, Alexander F; Beckett, Geoffrey J; Wu, Kun; Bao, Yongping

    2012-07-15

    Dietary isothiocyanates and selenium are chemopreventive agents and potent inducers of antioxidant enzymes. It has been previously shown that sulforaphane and selenium have a synergistic effect on the upregulation of thioredoxin reductase-1 (TrxR-1) in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. In this paper, further evidence is presented to show that sulforaphane and selenium synergistically induce TrxR-1 expression in immortalised human hepatocytes. Sulforaphane was found to be more toxic toward hepatocytes than HepG2 cells with IC50=25.1 and 56.4 μM, respectively. Sulforaphane can protect against hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death and this protection was enhanced by co-treatment with selenium. Using siRNA to knock down TrxR-1 or Nrf2, sulforaphane (5 μM)-protected cell viability was reduced from 73% to 46% and 34%, respectively, suggesting that TrxR-1 is an important enzyme in protection against hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death. Sulforaphane-induced TrxR-1 expression was positively associated with significant levels of Nrf2 translocation into the nucleus, but co-treatment with selenium showed no significant increase in Nrf2 translocation. Moreover, MAPK (ERK, JNK and p38) and PI3K/Akt signalling pathways were found to play no significant role in sulforaphane-induced Nrf2 translocation into the nucleus. However, blocking ERK and JNK signalling pathways decreased sulforaphane-induced TrxR-1 mRNA by about 20%; whereas blocking p38 and PI3K/AKT increased TrxR-1 transcription. In summary, a combination of sulforaphane and selenium resulted in a synergistic upregulation of TrxR-1 that contributed to the enhanced protection against free radical-mediated oxidative damage in human hepatocytes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sulforaphane protects against acrolein-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory responses: modulation of Nrf-2 and COX-2 expression.

    PubMed

    Qin, Wang-Sen; Deng, Yu-Hui; Cui, Fa-Cai

    2016-08-01

    Acrolein (2-propenal) is a reactive α, β-unsaturated aldehyde which causes a health hazard to humans. The present study focused on determining the protection offered by sulforaphane against acrolein-induced damage in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Acrolein-induced oxidative stress was determined through evaluating the levels of reactive oxygen species, protein carbonyl and sulfhydryl content, thiobarbituric acid reactive species, total oxidant status and antioxidant status (total antioxidant capacity, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase activity). Also, Nrf-2 expression levels were determined using western blot analysis. Acrolein-induced inflammation was determined through analyzing expression of cyclooxygenase-2 by western blot and PGE2 levels by ELISA. The protection offered by sulforaphane against acrolein-induced oxidative stress and inflammation was studied. Acrolein showed a significant (p < 0.001) increase in the levels of oxidative stress parameters and down-regulated Nrf-2 expression. Acrolein-induced inflammation was observed through upregulation (p < 0.001) of COX-2 and PGE2 levels. Pretreatment with sulforaphane enhanced the antioxidant status through upregulating Nrf-2 expression (p < 0.001) in PBMC. Acrolein-induced inflammation was significantly inhibited through suppression of COX-2 (p < 0.001) and PGE2 levels (p < 0.001). The present study provides clear evidence that pre-treatment with sulforaphane completely restored the antioxidant status and prevented inflammatory responses mediated by acrolein. Thus the protection offered by sulforaphane against acrolein-induced damage in PBMC is attributed to its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory potential.

  16. The indirect antioxidant sulforaphane protects against thiopurine-mediated photooxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Benedict, Andrea L.; Knatko, Elena V.; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T.

    2012-01-01

    Long-term treatment with thiopurines, such as the widely used anticancer, immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory agent azathioprine, combined with exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is associated with increased oxidative stress, hyperphotosensitivity and high risk for development of aggressive squamous cell carcinomas of the skin. Sulforaphane, an isothiocyanate derived from broccoli, is a potent inducer of endogenous cellular defenses regulated by transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), including cytoprotective enzymes and glutathione, which in turn act as efficient indirect and direct antioxidants that have long-lasting effects. Treatment with 6-thioguanine, a surrogate for azathioprine, leads to profound sensitization to oxidative stress and glutathione depletion upon exposure to UVA radiation, the damaging effects of which are primarily mediated by generation of reactive oxygen species. The degree of sensitization is greater for irradiation exposures spanning the absorption spectrum of 6-thioguanine, and is dependent on the length of treatment and the level of guanine substitution with 6-thioguanine, suggesting that the 6-thioguanine that is incorporated in genomic DNA is largely responsible for this sensitization. Sulforaphane provides protection against UVA, but not UVB, radiation without affecting the levels of 6-thioguanine incorporation into DNA. The protective effect is lost under conditions of Nrf2 deficiency, implying that it is due to induction of Nrf2-dependent cytoprotective proteins, and that this strategy could provide protection against any potentially photosensitizing drugs that generate electrophilic or reactive oxygen species. Thus, our findings support the development of Nrf2 activators as protectors against drug-mediated photooxidative stress and encourage future clinical trials in populations at high risk for cutaneous photodamage and photocarcinogenesis. PMID:22983983

  17. Sulforaphane represses matrix-degrading proteases and protects cartilage from destruction in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Rose K; Jupp, Orla; de Ferrars, Rachel; Kay, Colin D; Culley, Kirsty L; Norton, Rosemary; Driscoll, Clare; Vincent, Tonia L; Donell, Simon T; Bao, Yongping; Clark, Ian M

    2013-12-01

    Sulforaphane (SFN) has been reported to regulate signaling pathways relevant to chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of SFN treatment on signaling pathways in chondrocytes and to determine whether sulforaphane could block cartilage destruction in osteoarthritis. Gene expression, histone acetylation, and signaling of the transcription factors NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and NF-κB were examined in vitro. The bovine nasal cartilage explant model and the destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) model of osteoarthritis in the mouse were used to assess chondroprotection at the tissue and whole-animal levels. SFN inhibited cytokine-induced metalloproteinase expression in primary human articular chondrocytes and in fibroblast-like synovial cells. SFN acted independently of Nrf2 and histone deacetylase activity to regulate metalloproteinase expression in human articular chondrocytes but did mediate prolonged activation of JNK and p38 MAPK. SFN attenuated NF-κB signaling at least through inhibition of DNA binding in human articular chondrocytes, with decreased expression of several NF-κB-dependent genes. Compared with cytokines alone, SFN (10 μM) abrogated cytokine-induced destruction of bovine nasal cartilage at both the proteoglycan and collagen breakdown levels. An SFN-rich diet (3 μmoles/day SFN versus control chow) decreased the arthritis score in the DMM model of osteoarthritis in the mouse, with a concurrent block of early DMM-induced gene expression changes. SFN inhibits the expression of key metalloproteinases implicated in osteoarthritis, independently of Nrf2, and blocks inflammation at the level of NF-κB to protect against cartilage destruction in vitro and in vivo. © The Authors. Arthritis & Rheumatism is published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Rheumatology.

  18. Sulforaphane Protects against High Cholesterol-Induced Mitochondrial Bioenergetics Impairments, Inflammation, and Oxidative Stress and Preserves Pancreatic β-Cells Function.

    PubMed

    Carrasco-Pozo, Catalina; Tan, Kah Ni; Gotteland, Martin; Borges, Karin

    2017-01-01

    Cholesterol plays an important role in inducing pancreatic β -cell dysfunction, leading to an impaired insulin secretory response to glucose. This study aimed to determine the protective effects of sulforaphane, a natural isothiocyanate Nrf2-inducer, against cholesterol-induced pancreatic β -cells dysfunction, through molecular and cellular mechanisms involving mitochondrial bioenergetics. Sulforaphane prevented cholesterol-induced alterations in the coupling efficiency of mitochondrial respiration, improving ATP turnover and spare capacity, and averted the impairment of the electron flow at complexes I, II, and IV. Sulforaphane also attenuated the cholesterol-induced activation of the NF κ B pathway, normalizing the expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, it also inhibited the decrease in sirtuin 1 expression and greatly increased Pgc-1α expression in Min6 cells. Sulforaphane increased the expression of antioxidant enzymes downstream of the Nrf2 pathway and prevented lipid peroxidation induced by cholesterol. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of sulforaphane and its ability to protect and improve mitochondrial bioenergetic function contribute to its protective action against cholesterol-induced pancreatic β -cell dysfunction. Our data provide a scientifically tested foundation upon which sulforaphane can be developed as nutraceutical to preserve β -cell function and eventually control hyperglycemia.

  19. Sulforaphane Protects against High Cholesterol-Induced Mitochondrial Bioenergetics Impairments, Inflammation, and Oxidative Stress and Preserves Pancreatic β-Cells Function

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Kah Ni; Gotteland, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Cholesterol plays an important role in inducing pancreatic β-cell dysfunction, leading to an impaired insulin secretory response to glucose. This study aimed to determine the protective effects of sulforaphane, a natural isothiocyanate Nrf2-inducer, against cholesterol-induced pancreatic β-cells dysfunction, through molecular and cellular mechanisms involving mitochondrial bioenergetics. Sulforaphane prevented cholesterol-induced alterations in the coupling efficiency of mitochondrial respiration, improving ATP turnover and spare capacity, and averted the impairment of the electron flow at complexes I, II, and IV. Sulforaphane also attenuated the cholesterol-induced activation of the NFκB pathway, normalizing the expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, it also inhibited the decrease in sirtuin 1 expression and greatly increased Pgc-1α expression in Min6 cells. Sulforaphane increased the expression of antioxidant enzymes downstream of the Nrf2 pathway and prevented lipid peroxidation induced by cholesterol. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of sulforaphane and its ability to protect and improve mitochondrial bioenergetic function contribute to its protective action against cholesterol-induced pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. Our data provide a scientifically tested foundation upon which sulforaphane can be developed as nutraceutical to preserve β-cell function and eventually control hyperglycemia. PMID:28386307

  20. Assessment of sulforaphane-induced protective mechanisms against cadmium toxicity in human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Alkharashi, Nouf Abdulkareem Omer; Periasamy, Vaiyapuri Subbarayan; Athinarayanan, Jegan; Alshatwi, Ali A

    2018-04-01

    Cd is a hazardous substance and carcinogen that is present in the environment; it is known to cause toxic effects in living organisms. Sulforaphane is a naturally available phytochemical with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic properties. However, the effects of sulforaphane on Cd toxicity in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are unknown. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of the effects of sulforaphane on Cd toxicity in hMSCs by using MTT assays, acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, Hoechst staining, LysoRed staining, assessment of mitochondrial membrane potential, and gene expression analysis. Cd decreased hMSC viability in a dose-dependent manner with an IC 50 value of 56.5 μM. However, sulforaphane did not induce any significant reduction in cell viability. Nuclear morphological analysis revealed that Cd induced necrotic cell death. Additionally, Cd caused mitochondrial membrane potential loss in hMSCs. The treatment of Cd-exposed cells with sulforaphane (Cd-sulforaphane co-treatment) resulted in a significant recovery of the cell viability and nuclear morphological changes compared with that of cells treated with Cd only. The gene expression pattern of cells co-treated with Cd-sulforaphane was markedly different from that of Cd-treated cells, owing to the reduction in Cd toxicity. Our results clearly indicated that sulforaphane reduced Cd-induced toxic effects in hMSCs. Overall, the results of our study suggested that sulforaphane-rich vegetables and fruits can help to improve human health through amelioration of the molecular effects of Cd poisoning.

  1. Stimulation of phagocytosis by sulforaphane

    SciTech Connect

    Suganuma, Hiroyuki, E-mail: hsuganu1@jhmi.edu; Fahey, Jed W., E-mail: jfahey@jhmi.edu; Bryan, Kelley E., E-mail: kbryanm1@jhmi.edu

    2011-02-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Sulforaphane stimulates the phagocytosis of RAW 264.7 macrophages under conditions of serum deprivation. {yields} This effect does not require Nrf2-dependent induction of phase 2 genes. {yields} Inactivation of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) by sulforaphane may be involved in stimulation of phagocytosis by sulforaphane. -- Abstract: Sulforaphane, a major isothiocyanate derived from cruciferous vegetables, protects living systems against electrophile toxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation, and radiation. A major protective mechanism is the induction of a network of endogenous cytoprotective (phase 2) genes that are regulated by transcription factor Nrf2. To obtain a more detailed understanding of the anti-inflammatorymore » and immunomodulatory effects of sulforaphane, we evaluated its effect on the phagocytosis activity of RAW 264.7 murine macrophage-like cells by measuring the uptake of 2-{mu}m diameter polystyrene beads. Sulforaphane raised the phagocytosis activity of RAW 264.7 cells but only in the absence or presence of low concentrations (1%) of fetal bovine serum. Higher serum concentrations depressed phagocytosis and abolished its stimulation by sulforaphane. This stimulation did not depend on the induction of Nrf2-regulated genes since it occurred in peritoneal macrophages of nrf2{sup -/-} mice. Moreover, a potent triterpenoid inducer of Nrf2-dependent genes did not stimulate phagocytosis, whereas sulforaphane and another isothiocyanate (benzyl isothiocyanate) had comparable inducer potencies. It has been shown recently that sulforaphane is a potent and direct inactivator of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), an inflammatory cytokine. Moreover, the addition of recombinant MIF to RAW 264.7 cells attenuated phagocytosis, but sulforaphane-inactivated MIF did not affect phagocytosis. The inactivation of MIF may therefore be involved in the phagocytosis-enhancing activity of sulforaphane.« less

  2. Stimulation of phagocytosis by sulforaphane.

    PubMed

    Suganuma, Hiroyuki; Fahey, Jed W; Bryan, Kelley E; Healy, Zachary R; Talalay, Paul

    2011-02-04

    Sulforaphane, a major isothiocyanate derived from cruciferous vegetables, protects living systems against electrophile toxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation, and radiation. A major protective mechanism is the induction of a network of endogenous cytoprotective (phase 2) genes that are regulated by transcription factor Nrf2. To obtain a more detailed understanding of the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of sulforaphane, we evaluated its effect on the phagocytosis activity of RAW 264.7 murine macrophage-like cells by measuring the uptake of 2-μm diameter polystyrene beads. Sulforaphane raised the phagocytosis activity of RAW 264.7 cells but only in the absence or presence of low concentrations (1%) of fetal bovine serum. Higher serum concentrations depressed phagocytosis and abolished its stimulation by sulforaphane. This stimulation did not depend on the induction of Nrf2-regulated genes since it occurred in peritoneal macrophages of nrf2(-/-) mice. Moreover, a potent triterpenoid inducer of Nrf2-dependent genes did not stimulate phagocytosis, whereas sulforaphane and another isothiocyanate (benzyl isothiocyanate) had comparable inducer potencies. It has been shown recently that sulforaphane is a potent and direct inactivator of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), an inflammatory cytokine. Moreover, the addition of recombinant MIF to RAW 264.7 cells attenuated phagocytosis, but sulforaphane-inactivated MIF did not affect phagocytosis. The inactivation of MIF may therefore be involved in the phagocytosis-enhancing activity of sulforaphane. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Dietary broccoli protects against fatty liver development but not against progression of liver cancer in mice pretreated with diethylnitrosamine

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yung-Ju; Myracle, Angela D.; Wallig, Matthew A.; Jeffery, Elizabeth H.

    2016-01-01

    Western-style high fat, high sugar diets are associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and increased liver cancer risk. Sulforaphane from broccoli may protect against these. Previously we initiated broccoli feeding to mice prior to exposure to the hepatocarcinogen diethylnitrosamine (DEN), and saw protection against NAFLD and liver cancer. Here we administered DEN to unweaned mice, initiating broccoli feeding two weeks later, to determine if broccoli protects against cancer progression. Specifically, male 15-day-old C57BL/6J mice were given DEN and placed on a Western or Western+10%Broccoli diet from the age of 4 weeks through 7 months. Dietary broccoli decreased hepatic triacylglycerols, NAFLD, liver damage and tumour necrosis factor by month 5 without changing body weight or relative liver weight, but did not slow carcinogenesis, seen in 100% of mice. We conclude that broccoli, a good source of sulforaphane, slows progression of hepatic lipidosis, but not tumourigenesis in this robust model. PMID:27672403

  4. Sulforaphane reduces lipopolysaccharide-induced proinflammatory markers in hippocampus and liver but does not improve sickness behavior.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Brigitte E; Johnson, Rodney W

    2017-04-01

    Acute peripheral infection is associated with central and peripheral inflammation, increased oxidative stress, and adaptive sickness behaviors. Sulforaphane (SFN) activates the transcription factor nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which upregulates antioxidant genes and lowers inflammation. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of SFN on proinflammatory markers and Nrf2 target genes in hippocampus and liver of mice challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and to evaluate sickness response following the LPS immune challenge. Adult Balb/c mice received SFN (50 mg/kg, i.p.) for 3 days before being injected i.p. with LPS (1 µg) to mimic an acute peripheral infection. Sickness behaviors were measured at baseline and 6 hours after LPS. Expression of proinflammatory mediators and antioxidant genes were analyzed in hippocampus and liver 6 hours after LPS. SFN elevated Nrf2 target genes and reduced expression of proinflammatory mediators in hippocampus and liver, but did not improve LPS-induced sickness response. The nutritional bioactive SFN displays potent anti-inflammatory properties against LPS-induced inflammation in vitro, but has not been previously assessed in vivo during peripheral infection as a potential treatment for sickness behavior. These data indicate that SFN has anti-inflammatory effects in both brain and periphery, but that longer exposure to SFN may be necessary to reduce sickness behavior.

  5. Transcription factor Nrf2 mediates an adaptive response to sulforaphane that protects fibroblasts in vitro against the cytotoxic effects of electrophiles, peroxides and redox-cycling agents

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, Larry G.; Kelleher, Michael O.; Eggleston, Ian M.

    2009-06-15

    Sulforaphane can stimulate cellular adaptation to redox stressors through transcription factor Nrf2. Using mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) as a model, we show herein that the normal homeostatic level of glutathione in Nrf2{sup -/-} MEFs was only 20% of that in their wild-type counterparts. Furthermore, the rate of glutathione synthesis following its acute depletion upon treatment with 3 {mu}mol/l sulforaphane was very substantially lower in Nrf2{sup -/-} MEFs than in wild-type cells, and the rebound leading to a {approx} 1.9-fold increase in glutathione that occurred 12-24 h after Nrf2{sup +/+} MEFs were treated with sulforaphane was not observed in Nrf2{sup -/-}more » fibroblasts. Wild-type MEFs that had been pre-treated for 24 h with 3 {mu}mol/l sulforaphane exhibited between 1.4- and 3.2-fold resistance against thiol-reactive electrophiles, including isothiocyanates, {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated carbonyl compounds (e.g. acrolein), aryl halides and alkene epoxides. Pre-treatment of Nrf2{sup +/+} MEFs with sulforaphane also protected against hydroperoxides (e.g. cumene hydroperoxide, CuOOH), free radical-generating compounds (e.g. menadione), and genotoxic electrophiles (e.g. chlorambucil). By contrast, Nrf2{sup -/-} MEFs were typically {approx} 50% less tolerant of these agents than wild-type fibroblasts, and sulforaphane pre-treatment did not protect the mutant cells against xenobiotics. To test whether Nrf2-mediated up-regulation of glutathione represents the major cytoprotective mechanism stimulated by sulforaphane, 5 {mu}mol/l buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) was used to inhibit glutathione synthesis. In Nrf2{sup +/+} MEFs pre-treated with sulforaphane, BSO diminished intrinsic resistance and abolished inducible resistance to acrolein, CuOOH and chlorambucil, but not menadione. Thus Nrf2-dependent up-regulation of GSH is the principal mechanism by which sulforaphane pre-treatment induced resistance to acrolein, CuOOH and chlorambucil, but not menadione.« less

  6. Sulforaphane preconditioning of the Nrf2/HO-1 defense pathway protects the cerebral vasculature against blood-brain barrier disruption and neurological deficits in stroke.

    PubMed

    Alfieri, Alessio; Srivastava, Salil; Siow, Richard C M; Cash, Diana; Modo, Michel; Duchen, Michael R; Fraser, Paul A; Williams, Steven C R; Mann, Giovanni E

    2013-12-01

    Disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and cerebral edema are the major pathogenic mechanisms leading to neurological dysfunction and death after ischemic stroke. The brain protects itself against infarction via activation of endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms, and we here report the first evidence that sulforaphane-mediated preactivation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its downstream target heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the cerebral vasculature protects the brain against stroke. To induce ischemic stroke, Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 70 min middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) followed by 4, 24, or 72 h reperfusion. Nrf2 and HO-1 protein expression was upregulated in cerebral microvessels of peri-infarct regions after 4-72 h, with HO-1 preferentially associated with perivascular astrocytes rather than the cerebrovascular endothelium. In naïve rats, treatment with sulforaphane increased Nrf2 expression in cerebral microvessels after 24h. Upregulation of Nrf2 by sulforaphane treatment prior to transient MCAo (1h) was associated with increased HO-1 expression in perivascular astrocytes in peri-infarct regions and cerebral endothelium in the infarct core. BBB disruption, lesion progression, as analyzed by MRI, and neurological deficits were reduced by sulforaphane pretreatment. As sulforaphane pretreatment led to a moderate increase in peroxynitrite generation, we suggest that hormetic preconditioning underlies sulforaphane-mediated protection against stroke. In conclusion, we propose that pharmacological or dietary interventions aimed to precondition the brain via activation of the Nrf2 defense pathway in the cerebral microvasculature provide a novel therapeutic approach for preventing BBB breakdown and neurological dysfunction in stroke. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sulforaphane is anticonvulsant and improves mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Carrasco-Pozo, Catalina; Tan, Kah Ni; Borges, Karin

    2015-12-01

    The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 pathway (Nrf2) has been previously identified to protect the brain against various impacts. Here, we investigated the effect of the Nrf2 activator sulforaphane in various seizure models and hippocampal mitochondrial bioenergetics. We found that daily injections of sulforaphane for 5 days elevated the seizure thresholds to 6 Hz stimulation and fluorothyl-, but not pentylenetetrazole-induced tonic seizures and protected mice against pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE). Also, sulforaphane increased the antioxidant defences within hippocampal formations and blood plasma. In addition, sulforaphane treatment reduced the extent of hippocampal lipid peroxidation 24 h post-SE and protected hippocampal mitochondria against SE-induced reduction in state 2 and uncoupler-stimulated state 3 respiration. SE-mediated partial loss of rotenone-sensitive and complex II-driven respiration was reduced, consistent with the enhanced activities of complexes I and II in sulforaphane-treated SE mice. In mitochondria isolated from both no SE and SE mice, sulforaphane increased state 3 respiration and respiration linked to ATP synthesis, which may contribute to its anticonvulsant and antioxidant effects by providing more ATP for cellular vital and protective functions. However, sulforaphane did not prevent SE-induced hippocampal cell death. In conclusion, sulforaphane and/or Nrf2 activation are viable anticonvulsant strategies, which are antioxidant and enhance mitochondrial function, especially the ability to produce ATP. Sulforaphane was anticonvulsant in two acute mouse models of epilepsy and protected mice against pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE). We also found antioxidant effects of sulforaphane in mouse plasma and hippocampal formations, exhibited by increased catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, as well as increased abilities of hippocampal mitochondria to produce ATP. These effects likely underlie

  8. Stable sulforaphane protects against gait anomalies and modifies bone microarchitecture in the spontaneous STR/Ort model of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Javaheri, Behzad; Poulet, Blandine; Aljazzar, Ahmed; de Souza, Roberto; Piles, Miriam; Hopkinson, Mark; Shervill, Elaine; Pollard, Andrea; Chan, Boris; Chang, Yu-Mei; Orriss, Isabel R; Lee, Peter D; Pitsillides, Andrew A

    2017-10-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA), affecting joints and bone, causes physical gait disability with huge socio-economic burden; treatment remains palliative. Roles for antioxidants in protecting against such chronic disorders have been examined previously. Sulforaphane is a naturally occurring antioxidant. Herein, we explore whether SFX-01®, a stable synthetic form of sulforaphane, modifies gait, bone architecture and slows/reverses articular cartilage destruction in a spontaneous OA model in STR/Ort mice. Sixteen mice (n=8/group) were orally treated for 3months with either 100mg/kg SFX-01® or vehicle. Gait was recorded, tibiae were microCT scanned and analysed. OA lesion severity was graded histologically. The effect of SFX-01® on bone turnover markers in vivo was complemented by in vitro bone formation and resorption assays. Analysis revealed development of OA-related gait asymmetry in vehicle-treated STR/Ort mice, which did not emerge in SFX-01®-treated mice. We found significant improvements in trabecular and cortical bone. Despite these marked improvements, we found that histologically-graded OA severity in articular cartilage was unmodified in treated mice. These changes are also reflected in anabolic and anti-catabolic actions of SFX-01® treatment as reflected by alteration in serum markers as well as changes in primary osteoblast and osteoclast-like cells in vitro. We report that SFX-01® improves bone microarchitecture in vivo, produces corresponding changes in bone cell behaviour in vitro and leads to greater symmetry in gait, without marked effects on cartilage lesion severity in STR/Ort osteoarthritic mice. Our findings support both osteotrophic roles and novel beneficial gait effects for SFX-01® in this model of spontaneous OA. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Sulforaphane protects against cytokine- and streptozotocin-induced {beta}-cell damage by suppressing the NF-{kappa}B pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Mi-Young; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Moon, Woo-Sung

    2009-02-15

    Sulforaphane (SFN) is an indirect antioxidant that protects animal tissues from chemical or biological insults by stimulating the expression of several NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2)-regulated phase 2 enzymes. Treatment of RINm5F insulinoma cells with SFN increases Nrf2 nuclear translocation and expression of phase 2 enzymes. In this study, we investigated whether the activation of Nrf2 by SFN treatment or ectopic overexpression of Nrf2 inhibited cytokine-induced {beta}-cell damage. Treatment of RIN cells with IL-1{beta} and IFN-{gamma} induced {beta}-cell damage through a NF-{kappa}B-dependent signaling pathway. Activation of Nrf2 by treatment with SFN and induction of Nrf2 overexpression by transfection with Nrf2 prevented cytokinemore » toxicity. The mechanism by which Nrf2 activation inhibited NF-{kappa}B-dependent cell death signals appeared to involve the reduction of oxidative stress, as demonstrated by the inhibition of cytokine-induced H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production. The protective effect of SFN was further demonstrated by the restoration of normal insulin secreting responses to glucose in cytokine-treated rat pancreatic islets. Furthermore, pretreatment with SFN blocked the development of type 1 diabetes in streptozotocin-treated mice.« less

  10. Sulforaphane induces neurovascular protection against a systemic inflammatory challenge via both Nrf2-dependent and independent pathways.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Paul M; Gillespie, Scarlett; Becker, Felix; Vital, Shantel A; Nguyen, Victoria; Alexander, J Steven; Evans, Paul C; Gavins, Felicity N E

    2016-10-01

    Sepsis is often characterized by an acute brain inflammation and dysfunction, which is associated with increased morbidity and mortality worldwide. Preventing cerebral leukocyte recruitment may provide the key to halt progression of systemic inflammation to the brain. Here we investigated the influence of the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant compound, sulforaphane (SFN) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cellular interactions in the brain. The inflammatory response elicited by LPS was blunted by SFN administration (5 and 50mg/kg i.p.) 24h prior to LPS treatment in WT animals, as visualized and quantified using intravital microscopy. This protective effect of SFN was lost in Nrf2-KO mice at the lower dose tested, however 50mg/kg SFN revealed a partial effect, suggesting SFN works in part independently of Nrf2 activity. In vitro, SFN reduced neutrophil recruitment to human brain endothelial cells via a down regulation of E-selectin and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1). Our data confirm a fundamental dose-dependent role of SFN in limiting cerebral inflammation. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that not only is Nrf2 in part essential in mediating these neuroprotective effects, but they occur via down-regulation of E-selectin and VCAM-1. In conclusion, SFN may provide a useful therapeutic drug to reduce cerebral inflammation in sepsis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sulforaphane protection against the development of doxorubicin-induced chronic heart failure is associated with Nrf2 Upregulation.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yang; Chen, Qiang; Sun, Yun-Peng; Wang, Xuan; Lv, Li; Zhang, Li-Ping; Liu, Jin-Sha; Zhao, Song; Wang, Xiao-Lu

    2017-10-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is an anthracycline antitumor drug. However, its clinical use is limited by dose-dependent cardiotoxicity and even progresses to chronic heart failure (CHF). This study aims to investigate whether the Nrf2 activator, sulforaphane (SFN), can prevent DOX-induced CHF. Male Sprague-Dawley rats which received treatment for 6 weeks were divided into four groups (n=30 per group): control, SFN, DOX and DOX plus SFN group. Results revealed that DOX induced progressive cardiac damage as indicated by increased cardiac injury markers, cardiac inflammation, fibrosis and oxidative stress. SFN significantly prevented DOX-induced progressive cardiac dysfunction between 2-6 weeks and prevented DOX-induced cardiac function deterioration. Furthermore, it significantly decreased ejection fraction and increased the expression of brain natriuretic peptide. SFN also almost completely prevented DOX-induced cardiac oxidative stress, inflammation and fibrosis. SFN upregulated NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) expression and transcription activity, which was reflected by the increased mRNA expression of Nrf2 and its downstream genes. Furthermore, in cultured H9c2 cardiomyocytes, the protective effect of SFN against DOX-induced fibrotic and inflammatory responses was abolished by Nrf2 silencing. We arrived at the conclusion that DOX-induced CHF can be prevented by SFN through the upregulation of Nrf2 expression and transcriptional function. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Sulforaphane Protects Pancreatic Acinar Cell Injury by Modulating Nrf2-Mediated Oxidative Stress and NLRP3 Inflammatory Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Zhaojun; Shang, Haixiao; Chen, Yong Q.; Pan, Li-Long

    2016-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is characterized by early activation of intra-acinar proteases followed by acinar cell death and inflammation. Cellular oxidative stress is a key mechanism underlying these pathological events. Sulforaphane (SFN) is a natural organosulfur antioxidant with undescribed effects on AP. Here we investigated modulatory effects of SFN on cellular oxidation and inflammation in AP. AP was induced by cerulean hyperstimulation in BALB/c mice. Treatment group received a single dose of 5 mg/kg SFN for 3 consecutive days before AP. We found that SFN administration attenuated pancreatic injury as evidenced by serum amylase, pancreatic edema, and myeloperoxidase, as well as by histological examination. SFN administration reverted AP-associated dysregulation of oxidative stress markers including pancreatic malondialdehyde and redox enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). In acinar cells, SFN treatment upregulated nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) expression and Nrf2-regulated redox genes including quinoneoxidoreductase-1, heme oxidase-1, SOD1, and GPx1. In addition, SFN selectively suppressed cerulein-induced activation of the nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat containing family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, in parallel with reduced nuclear factor- (NF-) κB activation and modulated NF-κB-responsive cytokine expression. Together, our data suggested that SFN modulates Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress and NLRP3/NF-κB inflammatory pathways in acinar cells, thereby protecting against AP. PMID:27847555

  13. Sulforaphane Protects Pancreatic Acinar Cell Injury by Modulating Nrf2-Mediated Oxidative Stress and NLRP3 Inflammatory Pathway.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhaojun; Shang, Haixiao; Chen, Yong Q; Pan, Li-Long; Bhatia, Madhav; Sun, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is characterized by early activation of intra-acinar proteases followed by acinar cell death and inflammation. Cellular oxidative stress is a key mechanism underlying these pathological events. Sulforaphane (SFN) is a natural organosulfur antioxidant with undescribed effects on AP. Here we investigated modulatory effects of SFN on cellular oxidation and inflammation in AP. AP was induced by cerulean hyperstimulation in BALB/c mice. Treatment group received a single dose of 5 mg/kg SFN for 3 consecutive days before AP. We found that SFN administration attenuated pancreatic injury as evidenced by serum amylase, pancreatic edema, and myeloperoxidase, as well as by histological examination. SFN administration reverted AP-associated dysregulation of oxidative stress markers including pancreatic malondialdehyde and redox enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). In acinar cells, SFN treatment upregulated nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) expression and Nrf2-regulated redox genes including quinoneoxidoreductase-1, heme oxidase-1, SOD1, and GPx1. In addition, SFN selectively suppressed cerulein-induced activation of the nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat containing family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, in parallel with reduced nuclear factor- (NF-) κ B activation and modulated NF- κ B-responsive cytokine expression. Together, our data suggested that SFN modulates Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress and NLRP3/NF- κ B inflammatory pathways in acinar cells, thereby protecting against AP.

  14. Sulforaphane protects rodent retinas against ischemia-reperfusion injury through the activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 antioxidant pathway.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hong; He, Meihua; Liu, Ruixing; Brecha, Nicholas C; Yu, Albert Cheung Hoi; Pu, Mingliang

    2014-01-01

    Retinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury induces oxidative stress, leukocyte infiltration, and neuronal cell death. Sulforaphane (SF), which can be obtained in cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, exerts protective effects in response to oxidative stress in various tissues. These effects can be initiated through nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). This investigation was designed to elucidate the neural protective mechanisms of SF in the retinal I/R rat model. Animals were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with SF (12.5 mg/kg) or vehicle (corn oil) once a day for 7 consecutive days. Then, retinal I/R was made by elevating the intraocular pressure (IOP) to 130 mmHg for 1 h. To determine if HO-1 was involved in the Nrf2 antioxidant pathway, rats were subjected to protoporphyrin IX zinc (II) (ZnPP, 30 mg/kg, i.p.) treatments at 24 h before retinal ischemia. The neuroprotective effects of SF were assessed by determining the morphology of the retina, counting the infiltrating inflammatory cells and the surviving retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and amacrine cells, and measuring apoptosis in the retinal layers. The expression of Nrf2 and HO-1 was studied by immunofluorescence analysis and western blotting. I/R induced a marked increase of ROS generation, caused pronounced inflammation, increased the apoptosis of RGCs and amacrine cells and caused the thinning of the inner retinal layer (IRL), and these effects were diminished or abolished by SF pretreatment. Meanwhile, SF pretreatment significantly elevated the nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 and the level of HO-1 expression in the I/R retinas; however, ZnPP reversed the protective effects of SF on I/R retinas. Together, we offer direct evidence that SF had protective effects on I/R retinas, which could be attributed, at least in part, to the activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 antioxidant pathway.

  15. L-Sulforaphane confers protection against oxidative stress in an in vitro model of age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Dulull, Nabeela Khadija; Dias, Daniel Anthony; Thrimawithana, Thilini Rasika; Kwa, Faith Ai Ai

    2018-01-25

    In age-related macular degeneration, oxidative damage and abnormal neovascularization in the retina are caused by the upregulation of vascular endothelium growth factor and reduced expression of Glutathione-S-transferase genes. Current treatments are only palliative. Compounds from cruciferous vegetables (e.g. L-Sulforaphane) have been found to restore normal gene expression levels in diseases including cancer via the activity of histone deacetylases and DNA methyltransferases, thus retarding disease progression. To examine L-Sulforaphane as a potential treatment to ameliorate aberrant levels of gene expression and metabolites observed in age-related macular degeneration. The in vitro oxidative stress model of AMD was based on the exposure of Adult Retinal Pigment Epithelium-19 cell line to 200µM hydrogen peroxide. The effects of L-Sulforaphane on cell proliferation were determined by MTS assay. The role of GSTM1, VEGFA, DNMT1 and HDAC6 genes in modulating these effects were investigated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The metabolic profiling of L-Sulforaphane-treated cells via gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry was established. Significant differences between control and treatment groups were validated using one-way ANOVA, student t test and post-hoc Bonferroni statistical tests (p<0.05). L-Sulforaphane induced a dose-dependent increase in cell cell proliferation in the presence of hydrogen peroxide by upregulating Glutathione-S-Transferase µ1 gene expression. Metabolic profiling revealed that L-Sulforaphane increased levels of 2-monopalmitoglycerol, 9, 12, 15,-(Z-Z-Z)-Octodecatrienoic acid, 2-[Bis(trimethylsilyl)amino]ethyl bis(trimethylsilyl)-phosphate and nonanoic acid but decreased β-alanine levels in the absence or presence of hydrogen peroxide, respectively. This study supports the use of L-Sulforaphane to promote regeneration of retinal cells under oxidative stress conditions. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any

  16. The effect of sulforaphane on oxidative stress and inflammation in rats with toxic hepatitis induced by acetaminophene.

    PubMed

    Dokumacioglu, E; Iskender, H; Aktas, M S; Hanedan, B; Dokumacioglu, A; Sen, T M; Musmul, A

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to reveal the possible effect of sulforaphane on oxidative stress and inflammation in rats liver with toxic hepatitis induced by acetaminophene. Sulforaphane is a compound with high antioxidant properties. Acetaminophen, which is a para-aminophenol derivative, can lead to fatal hepatic necrosis with direct hepatotoxic effects at high doses. Thirty six male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups. Control group (n = 9) was fed with standard rat chow and water for 3 days. Group APAP (n = 9) received a single dose acetaminophen 1 g/kg by oral gavage in addition to standard chow and water. Group SFN (n = 9) received sulforaphane 500 μg/kg by oral gavage in addition to standard chow and water for 3 days. Group APAP+SFN (n = 9) received sulforaphane 500 μg/kg and a single dose acetaminophen 1 g/kg by oral gavage in addition to standard chow and water. Acetaminophen was administered three hours after SFN administration. Neopterin, MDA, AST, ALT and CRP levels of group APAP were significantly increased compared to control group. GSH level of group APAP was significantly lower than in the control group. Sulforaphane is a protective agent against acetaminophen-induced liver damage and it can be added in the treatment protocol (Tab. 1, Fig. 5, Ref. 51).

  17. Sulforaphane Protects Rodent Retinas against Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury through the Activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 Antioxidant Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ruixing; Brecha, Nicholas C.; Yu, Albert Cheung Hoi; Pu, Mingliang

    2014-01-01

    Retinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury induces oxidative stress, leukocyte infiltration, and neuronal cell death. Sulforaphane (SF), which can be obtained in cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, exerts protective effects in response to oxidative stress in various tissues. These effects can be initiated through nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). This investigation was designed to elucidate the neural protective mechanisms of SF in the retinal I/R rat model. Animals were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with SF (12.5 mg/kg) or vehicle (corn oil) once a day for 7 consecutive days. Then, retinal I/R was made by elevating the intraocular pressure (IOP) to 130 mmHg for 1 h. To determine if HO-1 was involved in the Nrf2 antioxidant pathway, rats were subjected to protoporphyrin IX zinc (II) (ZnPP, 30 mg/kg, i.p.) treatments at 24 h before retinal ischemia. The neuroprotective effects of SF were assessed by determining the morphology of the retina, counting the infiltrating inflammatory cells and the surviving retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and amacrine cells, and measuring apoptosis in the retinal layers. The expression of Nrf2 and HO-1 was studied by immunofluorescence analysis and western blotting. I/R induced a marked increase of ROS generation, caused pronounced inflammation, increased the apoptosis of RGCs and amacrine cells and caused the thinning of the inner retinal layer (IRL), and these effects were diminished or abolished by SF pretreatment. Meanwhile, SF pretreatment significantly elevated the nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 and the level of HO-1 expression in the I/R retinas; however, ZnPP reversed the protective effects of SF on I/R retinas. Together, we offer direct evidence that SF had protective effects on I/R retinas, which could be attributed, at least in part, to the activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 antioxidant pathway. PMID:25470382

  18. [Protective effects of sulforaphane on the oxidative damage of kidney mitochondria complex in obese rats induced by high-fat diet].

    PubMed

    Xue, Hongfeng; Li, Yajie; Liang, Bing; Wang, Shuran

    2014-11-01

    To realize the oxidative damage of kidney mitochondrial complex in obese rats induced by high-fat diet and investigate the protective effects of sulforaphane against the damage. Eighty-eight adult male SD rats were used, after 1 week adaptability feeding, 8 rats were selected as control group and given low-fat diet. The other 80 rats were given high-fat diet. After 2 weeks, the 32 diet-induced obesity models were choosen whose weight gain was higher than 40%. The 32 rats were randomly divided into 4 groups, i.e. high fat group, high fat+sulforaphane low dose group, high fat+sulforaphane middle dose group and high fat+sulforaphane high dose group. The rats in the sulforaphane low, middle and high dose groups were orally administered with sulforaphane 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, all the 4 groups were kept feeding high-fat diet for 5 weeks. All rats were sacrificed and their kidneys were removed to assay the index of oxidative damages. The content of ROS (0.26 ± 0.04) and MDA((0.87 ± 0.05) U/mg) in the hight-fat group were significantly higher than those in the control group((0.20 ± 0.02),(0.57 ± 0.08) U/mg)(t values were -3.02 and -4.72, P < 0.05). The activity of T-AOC((0.43 ± 0.04) U/mg) and MMP (12.09 ± 1.56) were lower than the control group ((0.48 ± 0.04 U/mg, (16.08 ± 3.12) )(t values were 2.06 and 2.28, P < 0.05). Gavage intervention with sulforaphane, the MDA amount ((0.67 ± 0.05), (0.55 ± 0.05), (0.56 ± 0.07) U/mg) in the sulforaphane low, middle and high dose groups were lower than the hight-fat group ((0.87 ± 0.05) U/mg (t values were 3.65, 5.71 and 5.60. P < 0.05). The activity of T-AOC ((0.49 ± 0.05), (0.55 ± 0.05), (0.54 ± 0.04) U/mg), T-SOD ((61.07 ± 2.79), (55.95 ± 2.39), (60.26 ± 6.02) U/mg) and the level of MMP ((17.17 ± 2.52), (18.24 ± 2.54), (18.21 ± 3.65)) were higher than in the high-fat group ((0.43 ± 0.04) U/mg,(47.22 ± 2.43) U/mg,(12.09 ± 1.56)) (tT-AOC values were -2.36, -4.83 and -4.30; tT-SOD values were -6.37, -4.71 and -5

  19. Neuroprotective effect of sulforaphane against methylglyoxal cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Angeloni, Cristina; Malaguti, Marco; Rizzo, Benedetta; Barbalace, Maria Cristina; Fabbri, Daniele; Hrelia, Silvana

    2015-06-15

    Glycation, an endogenous process that leads to the production of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), plays a role in the etiopathogenesis of different neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methylglyoxal is the most potent precursor of AGEs, and high levels of methylglyoxal have been found in the cerebrospinal fluid of AD patients. Methylglyoxal may contribute to AD both inducing extensive protein cross-linking and mediating oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of sulforaphane, an isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables, in counteracting methylglyoxal-induced damage in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. The data demonstrated that sulforaphane protects cells against glycative damage by inhibiting activation of the caspase-3 enzyme, reducing the phosphorylation of MAPK signaling pathways (ERK1/2, JNK, and p38), reducing oxidative stress, and increasing intracellular glutathione levels. For the first time, we demonstrate that sulforaphane enhances the methylglyoxal detoxifying system, increasing the expression and activity of glyoxalase 1. Sulforaphane modulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor and its pathway, whose dysregulation is related to AD development. Moreover, sulforaphane was able to revert the reduction of glucose uptake caused by methylglyoxal. In conclusion, sulforaphane demonstrates pleiotropic behavior thanks to its ability to act on different cellular targets, suggesting a potential role in preventing/counteracting multifactorial neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's.

  20. Sulforaphane protects cortical neurons against 5-S-cysteinyl-dopamine-induced toxicity through the activation of ERK1/2, Nrf-2 and the upregulation of detoxification enzymes.

    PubMed

    Vauzour, David; Buonfiglio, Maria; Corona, Giulia; Chirafisi, Joselita; Vafeiadou, Katerina; Angeloni, Cristina; Hrelia, Silvana; Hrelia, Patrizia; Spencer, Jeremy P E

    2010-04-01

    The degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra has been linked to the formation of the endogenous neurotoxin 5-S-cysteinyl-dopamine. Sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate derived from the corresponding precursor glucosinolate found in cruciferous vegetables has been observed to exert a range of biological activities in various cell populations. In this study, we show that SFN protects primary cortical neurons against 5-S-cysteinyl-dopamine induced neuronal injury. Pre-treatment of cortical neurons with SFN (0.01-1 microM) resulted in protection against 5-S-cysteinyl-dopamine-induced neurotoxicity, which peaked at 100 nM. This protection was observed to be mediated by the ability of SFN to modulate the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 and the activation of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1/NF-E2-related factor-2 leading to the increased expression and activity of glutathione-S-transferase (M1, M3 and M5), glutathione reductase, thioredoxin reductase and NAD(P)H oxidoreductase 1. These data suggest that SFN stimulates the NF-E2-related factor-2 pathway of antioxidant gene expression in neurons and may protect against neuronal injury relevant to the aetiology of Parkinson's disease.

  1. 17β-Estradiol enhances sulforaphane cardioprotection against oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Angeloni, Cristina; Teti, Gabriella; Barbalace, Maria Cristina; Malaguti, Marco; Falconi, Mirella; Hrelia, Silvana

    2017-04-01

    The lower incidence of ischemic heart disease in female with respect to male gender suggests the possibility that female sex hormones could have specific effects in cardiovascular protection. 17β-Estradiol is the predominant premenopausal circulating form of estrogen and has a protective role on the cardiovascular system. Recent evidences suggest that gender can influence the response to cardiovascular medications; therefore, we hypothesized that sex hormones could also modulate the cardioprotective effects of nutraceutical compounds, such as the isothiocyanate sulforaphane, present in Brassica vegetables. This study was designed to explore the protective effects of sulforaphane in the presence of 17β-estradiol against H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative stress in primary cultures of rat cardiomyocytes. Interestingly, 17β-estradiol enhanced sulforaphane protective activity against H 2 O 2 -induced cell death with respect to sulforaphane or 17β-estradiol alone as measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide and lactate dehydrogenase assays. Moreover, 17β-estradiol boosted sulforaphane ability to counteract oxidative stress, reducing intracellular reactive oxygen species and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine levels and increasing the expression of phase II enzymes. Using specific antagonists of estrogen receptor α and β, we observed that these effects are not mediated by estrogen receptors. Otherwise, ERK1/2 and Akt signaling pathways seem to be involved, as the presence of specific inhibitors of these kinases reduced the protective effect of sulforaphane in the presence of 17β-estradiol. Sulforaphane and 17β-estradiol co-treatment counteracted cell morphology alterations induced by H 2 O 2 as evidenced by transmission electron microscopy. Our results demonstrated, for the first time, that estrogens could enhance sulforaphane protective effects, suggesting that nutraceutical efficacy might be modulated by sex hormones. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  2. Protection by sulforaphane from type 1 diabetes-induced testicular apoptosis is associated with the up-regulation of Nrf2 expression and function

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Xin; Bai, Yang; Zhang, Zhiguo

    Diabetes-induced testicular apoptosis is predominantly due to increased oxidative stress. The nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), as a master transcription factor in controlling anti-oxidative systems, is able to be induced by sulforaphane (SFN). To examine whether SFN prevents testicular apoptosis, type 1 diabetic mouse model was induced with multiple low-dose streptozotocin. Diabetic and age-matched control mice were treated with and without SFN at 0.5 mg/kg daily in five days of each week for 3 months and then kept until 6 months. Diabetes significantly increased testicular apoptosis that was associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial cell death pathways, shownmore » by the increased expression of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), cleaved caspase-12, Bax to Bcl2 expression ratio, and cleaved caspase-3. Diabetes also significantly increased testicular oxidative damage, inflammation and fibrosis, and decreased germ cell proliferation. All these diabetic effects were significantly prevented by SFN treatment for the first 3 months, and the protective effect could be sustained at 3 months after SFN treatment. SFN was able to up-regulate Nrf2 expression and function. The latter was reflected by the increased phosphorylation of Nrf2 at Ser40 and expression of Nrf2 downstream antioxidants at mRNA and protein levels. These results suggest that type 1 diabetes significantly induced testicular apoptosis and damage along with increasing oxidative stress and cell death and suppressing Nrf2 expression and function. SFN is able to prevent testicular oxidative damage and apoptosis in type 1 diabetes mice, which may be associated with the preservation of testicular Nrf2 expression and function under diabetic condition. - Highlights: • Sulforaphane (SFN) could attenuate diabetes-induced germ cell apoptosis. • SFN could preserve germ cell proliferation under diabetic conditions. • SFN testicular protection was sustained until 3 months

  3. Liver protective effects of Morinda citrifolia (Noni).

    PubMed

    Wang, Mian-Ying; Nowicki, Diane; Anderson, Gary; Jensen, Jarakae; West, Brett

    2008-06-01

    This study evaluated the protective effects of Noni fruit juice on acute liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) in female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Liver damage (micro-centrilobular necrosis) was observed in animals pretreated with 20% placebo (drinking water) + CCl(4). However, pretreatment with 20% Noni juice in drinking water + CCl(4) resulted in markedly decreased hepatotoxic lesions. Furthermore, serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels were significantly lower in the Noni group than the placebo group. In a correlative time-dependent study, one dose of CCl(4) (0.25 mL/kg in corn oil, p.o.) in female SD rats, pretreated with 10% placebo for 12 days, caused sequential progressive hepatotoxic lesions over a 24 h period, while a protective effect from 10% Noni juice pretreatment was observed. These results suggest that Noni juice is effective in protecting the liver from extrinsic toxin exposure.

  4. Liver Protective Effects of Morinda citrifolia (Noni)

    PubMed Central

    Nowicki, Diane; Anderson, Gary; Jensen, Jarakae; West, Brett

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the protective effects of Noni fruit juice on acute liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Liver damage (micro-centrilobular necrosis) was observed in animals pretreated with 20% placebo (drinking water) + CCl4. However, pretreatment with 20% Noni juice in drinking water + CCl4 resulted in markedly decreased hepatotoxic lesions. Furthermore, serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels were significantly lower in the Noni group than the placebo group. In a correlative time-dependent study, one dose of CCl4 (0.25 mL/kg in corn oil, p.o.) in female SD rats, pretreated with 10% placebo for 12 days, caused sequential progressive hepatotoxic lesions over a 24 h period, while a protective effect from 10% Noni juice pretreatment was observed. These results suggest that Noni juice is effective in protecting the liver from extrinsic toxin exposure. PMID:18317933

  5. Sulforaphane-induced autophagy flux prevents prion protein-mediated neurotoxicity through AMPK pathway.

    PubMed

    Lee, J-H; Jeong, J-K; Park, S-Y

    2014-10-10

    Prion diseases are neurodegenerative and infectious disorders that involve accumulation of misfolded scrapie prion protein, and which are characterized by spongiform degeneration. Autophagy, a major homeostatic process responsible for the degradation of cytoplasmic components, has garnered attention as the potential target for neurodegenerative diseases such as prion disease. We focused on protective effects of sulforaphane found in cruciferous vegetables on prion-mediated neurotoxicity and the mechanism of sulforaphane related to autophagy. In human neuroblastoma cells, sulforaphane protected prion protein (PrP) (106-126)-mediated neurotoxicity and increased autophagy flux marker microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-II protein levels, following a decrease of p62 protein level. Pharmacological and genetical inhibition of autophagy by 3MA, wortmannin and knockdown of autophagy-related 5 (ATG5) led to block the effect of sulforaphane against PrP (106-126)-induced neurotoxicity. Furthermore we demonstrated that both sulforaphane-induced autophagy and protective effect of sulforaphane against PrP (106-126)-induced neurotoxicity are dependent on the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling. The present results indicated that sulforaphane of cruciferous vegetables enhanced autophagy flux led to the protection effects against prion-mediated neurotoxicity, which was regulated by AMPK signaling pathways in human neuron cells. Our data also suggest that sulforaphane has a potential value as a therapeutic tool in neurodegenerative disease including prion diseases. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Electrophilic tuning of the chemoprotective natural product sulforaphane

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Young-Hoon; Hwang, Yousang; Liu, Hua; Wang, Xiu Jun; Zhang, Ying; Stephenson, Katherine K.; Boronina, Tatiana N.; Cole, Robert N.; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T.; Talalay, Paul; Cole, Philip A.

    2010-01-01

    Sulforaphane [1-isothiocyanato-4-(methylsulfinyl)butane], a naturally occurring isothiocyanate derived from cruciferous vegetables, is a highly potent inducer of phase 2 cytoprotective enzymes and can protect against electrophiles including carcinogens, oxidative stress, and inflammation. The mechanism of action of sulforaphane is believed to involve modifications of critical cysteine residues of Keap1, which lead to stabilization of Nrf2 to activate the antioxidant response element of phase 2 enzymes. However, the dithiocarbamate functional group formed by a reversible reaction between isothiocyanate of sulforaphane and sulfhydryl nucleophiles of Keap1 is kinetically labile, and such modification in intact cells has not yet been demonstrated. Here we designed sulforaphane analogs with replacement of the reactive isothiocyanate by the more gentle electrophilic sulfoxythiocarbamate group that also selectively targets cysteine residues in proteins but forms stable thiocarbamate adducts. Twenty-four sulfoxythiocarbamate analogs were synthesized that retain the structural features important for high potency in sulforaphane analogs: the sulfoxide or keto group and its appropriate distance to electrophilic functional group. Evaluation in various cell lines including hepatoma cells, retinal pigment epithelial cells, and keratinocytes as well as in mouse skin shows that these analogs maintain high potency and efficacy for phase 2 enzyme induction as well as the inhibitory effect on lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide formation like sulforaphane. We further show in living cells that a sulfoxythiocarbamate analog can label Keap1 on several key cysteine residues as well as other cellular proteins offering new insights into the mechanism of chemoprotection. PMID:20439747

  7. Electrophilic tuning of the chemoprotective natural product sulforaphane.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Young-Hoon; Hwang, Yousang; Liu, Hua; Wang, Xiu Jun; Zhang, Ying; Stephenson, Katherine K; Boronina, Tatiana N; Cole, Robert N; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T; Talalay, Paul; Cole, Philip A

    2010-05-25

    Sulforaphane [1-isothiocyanato-4-(methylsulfinyl)butane], a naturally occurring isothiocyanate derived from cruciferous vegetables, is a highly potent inducer of phase 2 cytoprotective enzymes and can protect against electrophiles including carcinogens, oxidative stress, and inflammation. The mechanism of action of sulforaphane is believed to involve modifications of critical cysteine residues of Keap1, which lead to stabilization of Nrf2 to activate the antioxidant response element of phase 2 enzymes. However, the dithiocarbamate functional group formed by a reversible reaction between isothiocyanate of sulforaphane and sulfhydryl nucleophiles of Keap1 is kinetically labile, and such modification in intact cells has not yet been demonstrated. Here we designed sulforaphane analogs with replacement of the reactive isothiocyanate by the more gentle electrophilic sulfoxythiocarbamate group that also selectively targets cysteine residues in proteins but forms stable thiocarbamate adducts. Twenty-four sulfoxythiocarbamate analogs were synthesized that retain the structural features important for high potency in sulforaphane analogs: the sulfoxide or keto group and its appropriate distance to electrophilic functional group. Evaluation in various cell lines including hepatoma cells, retinal pigment epithelial cells, and keratinocytes as well as in mouse skin shows that these analogs maintain high potency and efficacy for phase 2 enzyme induction as well as the inhibitory effect on lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide formation like sulforaphane. We further show in living cells that a sulfoxythiocarbamate analog can label Keap1 on several key cysteine residues as well as other cellular proteins offering new insights into the mechanism of chemoprotection.

  8. Sulforaphane improves the bronchoprotective response in asthmatics through Nrf2-mediated gene pathways.

    PubMed

    Brown, Robert H; Reynolds, Curt; Brooker, Allison; Talalay, Paul; Fahey, Jed W

    2015-09-15

    It is widely recognized that deep inspiration (DI), either before methacholine (MCh) challenge (Bronchoprotection, BP) or after MCh challenge (Bronchodilation, BD) protects against this challenge in healthy individuals, but not in asthmatics. Sulforaphane, a dietary antioxidant and antiinflammatory phytochemical derived from broccoli, may affect the pulmonary bronchoconstrictor responses to MCh and the responses to DI in asthmatic patients. Forty-five moderate asthmatics were administered sulforaphane (100 μmol daily for 14 days), BP, BD, lung volumes by body-plethsmography, and airway morphology by computed tomography (CT) were measured pre- and post sulforaphane consumption. Sulforaphane ameliorated the bronchoconstrictor effects of MCh on FEV1 significantly (on average by 21 %; p = 0.01) in 60 % of these asthmatics. Interestingly, in 20 % of the asthmatics, sulforaphane aggravated the bronchoconstrictor effects of MCh and in a similar number was without effect, documenting the great heterogeneity of the responsiveness of these individuals to sulforaphane. Moreover, in individuals in whom the FEV1 response to MCh challenge decreased after sulforaphane administration, i.e., sulforaphane was protective, the activities of Nrf2-regulated antioxidant and anti-inflammatory genes decreased. In contrast, individuals in whom sulforaphane treatment enhanced the FEV1 response to MCh, had increased expression of the activities of these genes. High resolution CT scans disclosed that in asthmatics sulforaphane treatment resulted in a significant reduction in specific airway resistance and also increased small airway luminal area and airway trapping modestly but significantly. These findings suggest the potential value of blocking the bronchoconstrictor hyperresponsiveness in some types of asthmatics by phytochemicals such as sulforaphane.

  9. Protection by sulforaphane from type 1 diabetes-induced testicular apoptosis is associated with the up-regulation of Nrf2 expression and function.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xin; Bai, Yang; Zhang, Zhiguo; Xin, Ying; Cai, Lu

    2014-09-01

    Diabetes-induced testicular apoptosis is predominantly due to increased oxidative stress. The nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), as a master transcription factor in controlling anti-oxidative systems, is able to be induced by sulforaphane (SFN). To examine whether SFN prevents testicular apoptosis, type 1 diabetic mouse model was induced with multiple low-dose streptozotocin. Diabetic and age-matched control mice were treated with and without SFN at 0.5mg/kg daily in five days of each week for 3months and then kept until 6months. Diabetes significantly increased testicular apoptosis that was associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial cell death pathways, shown by the increased expression of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), cleaved caspase-12, Bax to Bcl2 expression ratio, and cleaved caspase-3. Diabetes also significantly increased testicular oxidative damage, inflammation and fibrosis, and decreased germ cell proliferation. All these diabetic effects were significantly prevented by SFN treatment for the first 3months, and the protective effect could be sustained at 3months after SFN treatment. SFN was able to up-regulate Nrf2 expression and function. The latter was reflected by the increased phosphorylation of Nrf2 at Ser40 and expression of Nrf2 downstream antioxidants at mRNA and protein levels. These results suggest that type 1 diabetes significantly induced testicular apoptosis and damage along with increasing oxidative stress and cell death and suppressing Nrf2 expression and function. SFN is able to prevent testicular oxidative damage and apoptosis in type 1 diabetes mice, which may be associated with the preservation of testicular Nrf2 expression and function under diabetic condition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sulforaphane Inhibits Mitochondrial Permeability Transition and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Greco, Tiffany; Shafer, Jonathan; Fiskum, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Exposure of mitochondria to oxidative stress and elevated Ca2+ promotes opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (PTP), resulting in membrane depolarization, uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation, and potentially cell death. This study tested the hypothesis that treatment of rats with sulforaphane (SFP), an activator of the Nrf2 pathway of antioxidant gene expression, increases the resistance of liver mitochondria to redox-regulated PTP opening and elevates mitochondrial levels of antioxidants. Rats were injected with SFP or drug vehicle and liver mitochondria were isolated 40 hr later. Respiring mitochondria actively accumulated added Ca2+, which was then released through PTP opening induced by agents that either cause an oxidized shift in the mitochondrial redox state or that directly oxidize protein thiol groups. SFP treatment of rats inhibited the rate of pro-oxidant-induced mitochondrial Ca2+ release and increased expression of the glutathione peroxidase/reductase system, thioredoxin, and malic enzyme. These results are the first to demonstrate that SFP treatment of animals increases liver mitochondrial antioxidant defenses and inhibits redox-sensitive PTP opening. This novel form of preconditioning could protect against a variety of pathologies that include oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in their etiologies. PMID:21986339

  11. Sulforaphane mitigates cadmium-induced toxicity pattern in human peripheral blood lymphocytes and monocytes.

    PubMed

    Alkharashi, Nouf Abdulkareem Omer; Periasamy, Vaiyapuri Subbarayan; Athinarayanan, Jegan; Alshatwi, Ali A

    2017-10-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic and widely distributed heavy metal that induces various diseases in humans through environmental exposure. Therefore, alleviation of Cd-induced toxicity in living organisms is necessary. In this study, we investigated the protective role of sulforaphane on Cd-induced toxicity in human peripheral blood lymphocytes and monocytes. Sulforaphane did not show any major reduction in the viability of lymphocytes and monocytes. However, Cd treatment at a concentration of 50μM induced around 69% cell death. Treatment of IC 10 -Cd and 100μM sulforaphane combination for 24 and 48h increased viability by 2 and 9% in cells subjected to Cd toxicity, respectively. In addition, IC 25 of Cd and 100μM sulforaphane combination recovered 17-20% of cell viability. Cd induced apoptotic and necrotic cell death. Sulforaphane treatment reduced Cd-induced cell death in lymphocytes and monocytes. Our results clearly indicate that when the cells were treated with Cd+sulforaphane combination, sulforaphane decreased the Cd-induced cytotoxic effect in lymphocytes and monocytes. In addition, sulforaphane concentration plays a major role in the alleviation of Cd-induced toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Sulforaphane reduces advanced glycation end products (AGEs)-induced inflammation in endothelial cells and rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Matsui, T; Nakamura, N; Ojima, A; Nishino, Y; Yamagishi, S-I

    2016-09-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs)-receptor RAGE interaction evokes oxidative stress and inflammatory reactions, thereby being involved in endothelial cell (EC) damage in diabetes. Sulforaphane is generated from glucoraphanin, a naturally occurring isothiocyanate found in widely consumed cruciferous vegetables, by myrosinase. Sulforaphane has been reported to protect against oxidative stress-mediated cell and tissue injury. However, effects of sulforaphane on AGEs-induced vascular damage remain unclear. In this study, we investigated whether and how sulforaphane could inhibit inflammation in AGEs-exposed human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs) and AGEs-injected rat aorta. Sulforaphane treatment for 4 or 24 h dose-dependently inhibited the AGEs-induced increase in RAGE, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecular-1 (VCAM-1) gene expression in HUVECs. AGEs significantly stimulated MCP-1 production by, and THP-1 cell adhesion to, HUVECs, both of which were prevented by 1.6 μM sulforaphane. Sulforaphane significantly suppressed oxidative stress generation and NADPH oxidase activation evoked by AGEs in HUVECs. Furthermore, aortic RAGE, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression in AGEs-injected rats were increased, which were suppressed by simultaneous infusion of sulforaphane. The present study demonstrated for the first time that sulforaphane could inhibit inflammation in AGEs-exposed HUVECs and AGEs-infused rat aorta partly by suppressing RAGE expression through its anti-oxidative properties. Inhibition of the AGEs-RAGE axis by sulforaphane might be a novel therapeutic target for vascular injury in diabetes. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Sulforaphane reduces molecular response to hypoxia in ovarian tumor cells independently of their resistance to chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Pastorek, Michal; Simko, Veronika; Takacova, Martina; Barathova, Monika; Bartosova, Maria; Hunakova, Luba; Sedlakova, Olga; Hudecova, Sona; Krizanova, Olga; Dequiedt, Franck; Pastorekova, Silvia; Sedlak, Jan

    2015-07-01

    One of the recently emerging anticancer strategies is the use of natural dietary compounds, such as sulforaphane, a cancer-chemopreventive isothiocyanate found in broccoli. Based on the growing evidence, sulforaphane acts through molecular mechanisms that interfere with multiple oncogenic pathways in diverse tumor cell types. Herein, we investigated the anticancer effects of bioavailable concentrations of sulforaphane in ovarian carcinoma cell line A2780 and its two derivatives, adriamycin-resistant A2780/ADR and cisplatin-resistant A2780/CP cell lines. Since tumor microenvironment is characterized by reduced oxygenation that induces aggressive tumor phenotype (such as increased invasiveness and resistance to chemotherapy), we evaluated the effects of sulforaphane in ovarian cancer cells exposed to hypoxia (2% O2). Using the cell-based reporter assay, we identified several oncogenic pathways modulated by sulforaphane in hypoxia by activating anticancer responses (p53, ARE, IRF-1, Pax-6 and XRE) and suppressing responses supporting tumor progression (AP-1 and HIF-1). We further showed that sulforaphane decreases the level of HIF-1α protein without affecting its transcription and stability. It can also diminish transcription and protein level of the HIF-1 target, CA IX, which protects tumor cells from hypoxia-induced pH imbalance and facilitates their migration/invasion. Accordingly, sulforaphane treatment leads to diminished pH regulation and reduced migration of ovarian carcinoma cells. These effects occur in all three ovarian cell lines suggesting that sulforaphane can overcome the chemoresistance of cancer cells. This offers a path potentially exploitable in sensitizing resistant cancer cells to therapy, and opens a window for the combined treatments of sulforaphane either with conventional chemotherapy, natural compounds, or with other small molecules.

  14. Vinpocetine protects liver against ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Zaki, Hala Fahmy; Abdelsalam, Rania Mohsen

    2013-12-01

    Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is a clinical problem that leads to cellular damage and organ dysfunction mediated mainly via production of reactive oxygen species and inflammatory cytokines. Vinpocetine has long been used in cerebrovascular disorders. This study aimed to explore the protective effect of vinpocetine in IR injury to the liver. Ischemia was induced in rats by clamping the common hepatic artery and portal vein for 30 min followed by 30 min of reperfusion. Serum transaminases and liver lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, liver inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress biomarkers, and liver histopathology were assessed. IR resulted in marked histopathology changes in liver tissues coupled with elevations in serum transaminases and liver LDH activities. IR also increased the production of liver lipid peroxides, nitric oxide, and inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β and interleukin-6, in parallel with a reduction in reduced glutathione and interleukin-10 in the liver. Pretreatment with vinpocetine protected against liver IR-induced injury, in a dose-dependent manner, as evidenced by the attenuation of oxidative stress as well as inflammatory and liver injury biomarkers. The effects of vinpocetine were comparable with that of curcumin, a natural antioxidant, and could be attributed to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

  15. Sulforaphane prevents microcystin-LR-induced oxidative damage and apoptosis in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoyun; Mi, Lixin; Liu, Jin; Song, Lirong; Chung, Fung-Lung; Gan, Nanqin

    2011-08-15

    Microcystins (MCs), the products of blooming algae Microcystis, are waterborne environmental toxins that have been implicated in the development of liver cancer, necrosis, and even fatal intrahepatic bleeding. Alternative protective approaches in addition to complete removal of MCs in drinking water are urgently needed. In our previous work, we found that sulforaphane (SFN) protects against microcystin-LR (MC-LR)-induced cytotoxicity by activating the NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated defensive response in human hepatoma (HepG2) and NIH 3T3 cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate and confirm efficacy the SFN-induced multi-mechanistic defense system against MC-induced hepatotoxicity in an animal model. We report that SFN protected against MC-LR-induced liver damage and animal death at a nontoxic and physiologically relevant dose in BALB/c mice. The protection by SFN included activities of anti-cytochrome P450 induction, anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, and anti-apoptosis. Our results suggest that SFN may protect mice against MC-induced hepatotoxicity. This raises the possibility of a similar protective effect in human populations, particularly in developing countries where freshwaters are polluted by blooming algae. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Sulforaphane improves outcomes and slows cerebral ischemic/reperfusion injury via inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome activation in rats.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chang; He, Qi; Zheng, Jing; Li, Ling Yu; Hou, Yang Hao; Song, Fang Zhou

    2017-04-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury has been correlated with systemic inflammatory response. In addition, NLRP3 has been suggested as a cause in many inflammatory processes. Sulforaphane (SFN) is a naturally occurring isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables, such as broccoli and cabbage. While recent studies have demonstrated that Sulforaphane has protective effects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, little is known about how those protective effects work. In this study, we focus our investigation on the role and process of Sulforaphane in the inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome activation, as well as its effect on brain ischemia/reperfusion injury. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with Sulforaphane (5 or 10mg/kg) intraperitoneally at the beginning of reperfusion, after a 60min period of occlusion. A neurological score and infarct volume were assessed at 24h after the administration of Sulforaphane. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was measured at 24h to assess neutrophil infiltration in brain tissue. ELISA, RT-PCR and Western blot analyses were used to measure any inflammatory reaction. Sulforaphane treatment significantly reduced infarct volume and improved neurological scores when compared to a vehicle-treated group. Neutrophil infiltration was significantly higher in the vehicle-treated group than in the Sulforaphane treatment group. Sulforaphane treatment inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome activation and the downregulation of cleaved caspase-1, while reducing IL-1β and IL-18 expression. The inhibition of inflammatory response with Sulforaphane treatment improves outcomes after focal cerebral ischemia. This neuroprotective effect is likely exerted by Sulforaphane inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation caused by the downregulation of NLRP3, the induction of cleaved caspase-1, and thus the reduction of IL-1β and IL-18. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Bax and Bak are required for apoptosis induction by sulforaphane, a cruciferous vegetable-derived cancer chemopreventive agent.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sunga; Singh, Shivendra V

    2005-03-01

    Sulforaphane, a constituent of many edible cruciferous vegetables, including broccoli, effectively suppresses proliferation of cancer cells in culture and in vivo by causing apoptosis induction, but the sequence of events leading to cell death is poorly defined. Here, we show that multidomain proapoptotic Bcl-2 family members Bax and Bak play a critical role in apoptosis induction by sulforaphane. This conclusion is based on the following observations: (a) sulforaphane treatment caused a dose- and time-dependent increase in the protein levels of both Bax and Bak and conformational change and mitochondrial translocation of Bax in SV40-transformed mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) derived from wild-type mice to trigger cytosolic release of apoptogenic molecules (cytochrome c and Smac/DIABLO), activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, and ultimately cell death; (b) MEFs derived from Bax or Bak knockout mice resisted cell death by sulforaphane, and (c) MEFs derived from Bax and Bak double knockout mice exhibited even greater protection against sulforaphane-induced cytochrome c release, caspase activation, and apoptosis compared with wild-type or single knockout cells. Interestingly, sulforaphane treatment also caused a dose- and time-dependent increase in the protein level of Apaf-1 in wild-type, Bax-/-, and Bak-/- MEFs but not in double knockout, suggesting that Bax and Bak might regulate sulforaphane-mediated induction of Apaf-1 protein. A marked decline in the protein level of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis on treatment with sulforaphane was also observed. Thus, it is reasonable to postulate that sulforaphane-induced apoptosis is amplified by a decrease in X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis level, which functions to block cell death by inhibiting activities of caspases. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that Bax and Bak proteins play a critical role in initiation of cell death by sulforaphane.

  18. Isothiocyanate concentrations and interconversion of sulforaphane to erucin in human subjects after consumption of commercial frozen broccoli compared to fresh broccoli.

    PubMed

    Saha, Shikha; Hollands, Wendy; Teucher, Birgit; Needs, Paul W; Narbad, Arjan; Ortori, Catharine A; Barrett, David A; Rossiter, John T; Mithen, Richard F; Kroon, Paul A

    2012-12-01

    Sulforaphane (a potent anticarcinogenic isothiocyanate derived from glucoraphanin) is widely considered responsible for the protective effects of broccoli consumption. Broccoli is typically purchased fresh or frozen and cooked before consumption. We compared the bioavailability and metabolism of sulforaphane from portions of lightly cooked fresh or frozen broccoli, and investigated the bioconversion of sulforaphane to erucin. Eighteen healthy volunteers consumed broccoli soups produced from fresh or frozen broccoli florets that had been lightly cooked and sulforaphane thio-conjugates quantified in plasma and urine. Sulforaphane bioavailability was about tenfold higher for the soups made from fresh compared to frozen broccoli, and the reduction was shown to be due to destruction of myrosinase activity by the commercial blanching-freezing process. Sulforaphane appeared in plasma and urine in its free form and as several thio-conjugates forms. Erucin N-acetyl-cysteine conjugate was a significant urinary metabolite, and it was shown that human gut microflora can produce sulforaphane, erucin, and their nitriles from glucoraphanin. The short period of blanching used to produce commercial frozen broccoli destroys myrosinase and substantially reduces sulforaphane bioavailability. Sulforaphane was converted to erucin and excreted in urine, and it was shown that human colonic flora were capable of this conversion. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Sulforaphane prevents microcystin-LR-induced oxidative damage and apoptosis in BALB/c mice

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Xiaoyun; Mi Lixin; Liu Jin

    2011-08-15

    Microcystins (MCs), the products of blooming algae Microcystis, are waterborne environmental toxins that have been implicated in the development of liver cancer, necrosis, and even fatal intrahepatic bleeding. Alternative protective approaches in addition to complete removal of MCs in drinking water are urgently needed. In our previous work, we found that sulforaphane (SFN) protects against microcystin-LR (MC-LR)-induced cytotoxicity by activating the NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated defensive response in human hepatoma (HepG2) and NIH 3T3 cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate and confirm efficacy the SFN-induced multi-mechanistic defense system against MC-induced hepatotoxicity in an animal model. We reportmore » that SFN protected against MC-LR-induced liver damage and animal death at a nontoxic and physiologically relevant dose in BALB/c mice. The protection by SFN included activities of anti-cytochrome P450 induction, anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, and anti-apoptosis. Our results suggest that SFN may protect mice against MC-induced hepatotoxicity. This raises the possibility of a similar protective effect in human populations, particularly in developing countries where freshwaters are polluted by blooming algae. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Research Highlights: > SFN protected against MC-LR-induced liver damage and animal death in BALB/c mice. > The dose of SFN is at a nontoxic and physiologically relevant dose. > The protection included activities of anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, and anti-apoptosis. > SFN may protect mice against MC-induced hepatotoxicity.« less

  20. Sulforaphane enhances proteasomal and autophagic activities in mice and is a potential therapeutic reagent for Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanying; Hettinger, Casey L; Zhang, Dong; Rezvani, Khosrow; Wang, Xuejun; Wang, Hongmin

    2014-05-01

    The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) is impaired in Huntington's disease, a devastating neurodegenerative disorder. Sulforaphane, a naturally occurring compound, has been shown to stimulate UPS activity in cell cultures. To test whether sulforaphane enhances UPS function in vivo, we treated UPS function reporter mice ubiquitously expressing the green fluorescence protein (GFP) fused to a constitutive degradation signal that promotes its rapid degradation in the conditions of a healthy UPS. The modified GFP is termed GFP UPS reporter (GFPu). We found that both GFPu and ubiquitinated protein levels were significantly reduced and the three peptidase activities of the proteasome were increased in the brain and peripheral tissues of the mice. Interestingly, sulforaphane treatment also enhanced autophagy activity in the brain and the liver. To further examine whether sulforaphane promotes mutant huntingtin (mHtt) degradation, we treated Huntington's disease cells with sulforaphane and found that sulforaphane not only enhanced mHtt degradation but also reduced mHtt cytotoxicity. Sulforaphane-mediated mHtt degradation was mainly through the UPS pathway as the presence of a proteasome inhibitor abolished this effect. Taken together, these data indicate that sulforaphane activates protein degradation machineries in both the brain and peripheral tissues and may be a therapeutic reagent for Huntington's disease and other intractable disorders. Accumulation of mutant huntingtin (mHtt) protein causes Huntington's disease (HD). Sulforaphane (SFN), a naturally occurring compound, increased proteasome and autophagy activities in vivo and enhanced mHtt turnover and cell survival in HD cell models. SFN-mediated mHtt degradation is mainly through the proteasome pathway. These data suggest that SFN can be a therapeutic reagent for treating HD and other intractable disorders. © 2014 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  1. Isothiocyanate metabolism, distribution, and interconversion in mice following consumption of thermally processed broccoli sprouts or purified sulforaphane.

    PubMed

    Bricker, Gregory V; Riedl, Kenneth M; Ralston, Robin A; Tober, Kathleen L; Oberyszyn, Tatiana M; Schwartz, Steven J

    2014-10-01

    Broccoli sprouts are a rich source of glucosinolates, a group of phytochemicals that when hydrolyzed, are associated with cancer prevention. Our objectives were to investigate the metabolism, distribution, and interconversion of isothiocyanates (ITCs) in mice fed thermally processed broccoli sprout powders (BSPs) or the purified ITC sulforaphane. For 1 wk, mice were fed a control diet (n = 20) or one of four treatment diets (n = 10 each) containing nonheated BSP, 60°C mildly heated BSP, 5-min steamed BSP, or 3 mmol purified sulforaphane. Sulforaphane and erucin metabolite concentrations in skin, liver, kidney, bladder, lung, and plasma were quantified using HPLC-MS/MS. Thermal intensity of BSP processing had disparate effects on ITC metabolite concentrations upon consumption. Mild heating generally resulted in the greatest ITC metabolite concentrations in vivo, followed by the nonheated and steamed BSP diets. We observed interconversion between sulforaphane and erucin species or metabolites, and report that erucin is the favored form in liver, kidney, and bladder, even when only sulforaphane is consumed. ITC metabolites were distributed to all tissues analyzed, suggesting the potential for systemic benefits. We report for the first time tissue-dependent ratio of sulforaphane and erucin, though further investigation is warranted to assess biological activity of individual forms. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Isothiocyanate metabolism, distribution, and interconversion in mice following consumption of thermally processed broccoli sprouts or purified sulforaphane

    PubMed Central

    Bricker, Gregory V.; Riedl, Kenneth M.; Ralston, Robin A.; Tober, Kathleen L.; Oberyszyn, Tatiana M.; Schwartz, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Scope Broccoli sprouts are a rich source of glucosinolates, a group of phytochemicals that when hydrolyzed, are associated with cancer prevention. Our objectives were to investigate the metabolism, distribution, and interconversion of isothiocyanates (ITCs) in mice fed thermally processed broccoli sprout powders (BSPs) or the purified ITC sulforaphane. Methods and results For 1 wk, mice were fed a control diet (n = 20) or one of four treatment diets (n = 10 each) containing nonheated BSP, 60°C mildly heated BSP, 5-min steamed BSP, or 3 mmol purified sulforaphane. Sulforaphane and erucin metabolite concentrations in skin, liver, kidney, bladder, lung, and plasma were quantified using HPLC-MS/MS. Thermal intensity of BSP processing had disparate effects on ITC metabolite concentrations upon consumption. Mild heating generally resulted in the greatest ITC metabolite concentrations in vivo, followed by the nonheated and steamed BSP diets. We observed interconversion between sulforaphane and erucin species or metabolites, and report that erucin is the favored form in liver, kidney, and bladder, even when only sulforaphane is consumed. Conclusion ITC metabolites were distributed to all tissues analyzed, suggesting the potential for systemic benefits. We report for the first time tissue-dependent ratio of sulforaphane and erucin, though further investigation is warranted to assess biological activity of individual forms. PMID:24975513

  3. Sulforaphane exerts neuroprotective effects via suppression of the inflammatory response in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li-Li; Xing, Guo-Ping; Yu, Yin; Liang, Hui; Yu, Tian-Xia; Zheng, Wei-Hong; Lai, Tian-Bao

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory damage plays an important role in cerebral ischemic pathogenesis and may represent a promising target for treatment. Sulforaphane exerts protective effects in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury by alleviating brain edema. However, the possible mechanisms of sulforaphane after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury have not been fully elucidated. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the effect of sulforaphane on inflammatory reaction and the potential molecular mechanisms in cerebral ischemia rats. We found that sulforaphane significantly attenuated the blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption; decreased the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β; reduced the nitric oxide (NO) levels and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity; inhibited the expression of iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). In addition, sulforaphane inhibits the expression of p-NF-κB p65 after focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Taken together, our results suggest that sulforaphane suppresses the inflammatory response via inhibiting the NF-κB signaling pathway in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia, and sulforaphane may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of cerebral ischemia injury.

  4. A sulforaphane analogue that potently activates the Nrf2-dependent detoxification pathway.

    PubMed

    Morimitsu, Yasujiro; Nakagawa, Yoko; Hayashi, Kazuhiro; Fujii, Hiroyuki; Kumagai, Takeshi; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Osawa, Toshihiko; Horio, Fumihiko; Itoh, Ken; Iida, Katsuyuki; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Uchida, Koji

    2002-02-01

    Exposure of cells to a wide variety of chemoprotective compounds confers resistance to a broad set of carcinogens. For a subset of the chemoprotective compounds, protection is generated by an increase in the abundance of the protective phase II detoxification enzymes, such as glutathione S-transferase (GST). We have recently developed a cell culture system, using rat liver epithelial RL 34 cells, that potently responds to the phenolic antioxidants resulting in the induction of GST activity (Kawamoto, Y., Nakamura, Y., Naito, Y., Torii, Y., Kumagai, T., Osawa, T., Ohigashi, H., Satoh, K., Imagawa, M., and Uchida, K. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 11291-11299.) In the present study, we investigated the phase II-inducing potency of an isothiocyanate compound in vitro and in vivo and examined a possible induction mechanism. Based on an extensive screening of vegetable extracts for GST inducer activity in RL34 cells, we found Japanese horseradish, wasabi (Wasabia japonica, syn. Eutrema wasabi), as the richest source and identified 6-methylsulfinylhexyl isothiocyanate (6-HITC), an analogue of sulforaphane (4-methylsulfinylbutyl isothiocyanate) isolated from broccoli, as the major GST inducer in wasabi. 6-HITC potently induced both class alpha GSTA1 and class pi GSTP1 isozymes in RL34 cells. In animal experiments, we found that 6-MSHI was rapidly absorbed into the body and induced hepatic phase II detoxification enzymes more potently than sulforaphane. The observations that (i) 6-HITC activated the antioxidant response element (ARE), (ii) 6-HITC induced nuclear localization of the transcription factor Nrf2 that binds to ARE, and (iii) the induction of phase II enzyme genes by 6-HITC was completely abrogated in the nrf2-deficient mice, suggest that 6-HITC is a potential activator of the Nrf2/ARE-dependent detoxification pathway.

  5. Sulforaphane reduces vascular inflammation in mice and prevents TNF-α-induced monocyte adhesion to primary endothelial cells through interfering with the NF-κB pathway

    PubMed Central

    Nallasamy, Palanisamy; Si, Hongwei; Babu, Pon Velayutham Anandh; Pan, Dengke; Fu, Yu; Brooke, Elizabeth A.S.; Shah, Halley; Zhen, Wei; Zhu, Hong; Liu, Dongmin; Li, Yunbo; Jia, Zhenquan

    2014-01-01

    Sulforaphane, a naturally-occurring isothiocyanate present in cruciferous vegetables, has received wide attention for its potential to improve vascular function in vitro. However, its effect in vivo and the molecular mechanism of sulforaphane at physiological concentrations remain unclear. Here, we report that a sulforaphane concentration as low as 0.5 μM significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced adhesion of monocytes to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), a key event in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis both in static and under flow conditions. Such physiological concentrations of sulforaphane also significantly suppressed TNF-α-induced production of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), adhesion molecule sVCAM-1 and sE-Selectin, key mediators in the regulation of enhanced endothelial cell-monocyte interaction. Furthermore, sulforaphane inhibited TNF-α-induced NF-κB transcriptional activity, IκBα degradation and subsequent NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation in endothelial cells, suggesting that sulforaphane can inhibit inflammation by suppressing NF-κB signaling. In an animal study, sulforaphane (300 ppm) in a mouse diet significantly abolished TNF-α-increased ex vivo monocyte adhesion and circulating adhesion molecules and chemokines in C57BL/6 mice. Histology showed that sulforaphane treatment significantly prevented the eruption of endothelial lining in the intima layer of the aorta and preserved elastin fibers’ delicate organization as shown by Verhoeff-van Gieson staining. Immunohistochemistry studies showed that sulforaphane treatment also reduced VCAM-1 and monocytes-derived F4/80-positive macrophages in the aorta of TNF-α-treated mice. In conclusion, sulforaphane at physiological concentrations protects against TNF-α-induced vascular endothelial inflammation, in both in vitro and in vivo models. This anti-inflammatory effect of sulforaphane may be, at least in part, associated with interfering with the NF-κB pathway. PMID:24880493

  6. Modulation of apoptosis by sulforaphane is associated with PGC-1α stimulation and decreased oxidative stress in cardiac myoblasts.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Rafael O; Bonetto, Jéssica H P; Baregzay, Boran; de Castro, Alexandre L; Puukila, Stephanie; Forsyth, Heidi; Schenkel, Paulo C; Llesuy, Susana F; Brum, Ilma Simoni; Araujo, Alex Sander R; Khaper, Neelam; Belló-Klein, Adriane

    2015-03-01

    Sulforaphane is a naturally occurring isothiocyanate capable of stimulating cellular antioxidant defenses and inducing phase 2 detoxifying enzymes, which can protect cells against oxidative damage. Oxidative stress and apoptosis are intimately involved in the pathophysiology of cardiac diseases. Although sulforaphane is known for its anticancer benefits, its role in cardiac cells is just emerging. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether sulforaphane can modulate oxidative stress, apoptosis, and correlate with PGC-1α, a transcriptional cofactor involved in energy metabolism. H9c2 cardiac myoblasts were incubated with R-sulforaphane 5 µmol/L for 24 h. Cell viability, ANP gene expression, oxidative stress and apoptosis markers, and protein expression of PGC-1α were studied. In cells treated with sulforaphane, cellular viability increased (12 %) and ANP gene expression decreased (46 %) compared to control cells. Moreover, sulforaphane induced a significant increase in superoxide dismutase (103 %), catalase (101 %), and glutathione S-transferase (72 %) activity, reduced reactive oxygen species levels (15 %) and lipid peroxidation (65 %), as well as stimulated the expression of the cytoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (4-fold). Sulforaphane also promoted an increase in the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 (60 %), decreasing the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Active Caspase 3\\7 and p-JNK/JNK were also reduced by sulforaphane, suggesting a reduction in apoptotic signaling. This was associated with an increased protein expression of PGC-1α (42 %). These results suggest that sulforaphane offers cytoprotection to cardiac cells by activating PGC1-α, reducing oxidative stress, and decreasing apoptosis signaling.

  7. Liver metabolomics study reveals protective function of Phyllanthus urinaria against CCl4-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qing; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Chen, Jia-Qing; Zhang, Wei; Qiu, Hong-Cong; Zhang, Zun-Jian; Liu, Bu-Ming; Xu, Feng-Guo

    2017-07-01

    Phyllanthus Urinaria L. (PUL) is a traditional Chinese medicine used to treat hepatic and renal disorders. However, the mechanism of its hepatoprotective action is not fully understood. In the present study, blood biochemical indexes and liver histopathological changes were used to estimate the extent of hepatic injury. GC/MS and LC/MS-based untargeted metabolomics were used in combination to characterize the potential biomarkers associated with the protective activity of PUL against CCl 4 -induced liver injury in rats. PUL treatment could reverse the increase in ALT, AST and ALP induced by CCl 4 and attenuate the pathological changes in rat liver. Significant changes in liver metabolic profiling were observed in PUL-treated group compared with liver injury model group. Seventeen biomarkers related to the hepatoprotective effects of PUL against CCl 4 -induced liver injury were screened out using nonparametric test and Pearson's correlation analysis (OPLS-DA). The results suggested that the potential hepatoprotective effects of PUL in attenuating CCl 4 -induced hepatotoxicity could be partially attributed to regulating L-carnitine, taurocholic acid, and amino acids metabolism, which may become promising targets for treatment of liver toxicity. In conclusion, this study provides new insights into the mechanism of the hepatoprotection of Phyllanthus Urinaria. Copyright © 2017 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Are liver transplant recipients protected against hepatitis A and B?

    PubMed

    Andersson, D; Castedal, M; Friman, V

    2013-04-01

    Liver transplant recipients are at an increased risk for liver failure when infected with hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV). Therefore, it is important to vaccinate these individuals. The aim of the study was to evaluate how well liver transplanted patients in our unit were protected against HAV and HBV infection. Furthermore we investigated the vaccination rate and the antibody response to vaccination in these liver transplanted patients. Patients liver transplanted from January 2007 until August 2010 with a posttransplant check-up during the period March-November 2010 were included (n = 51). Information considering diagnose, date of transplantation, Child-Pugh score, and vaccination were collected from the patient records. Anti-HAV IgG and anti-HBs titers in serum samples were analyzed and protective levels were registered. Of the patients 45% were protected against hepatitis A infection and 29% against hepatitis B infection after transplantation. Only 26% were vaccinated according to a complete vaccination schedule and these patients had a vaccine response for HAV and HBV of 50% and 31%, respectively. An additional 31% received ≥ 1 doses of vaccine, but not a complete vaccination and the vaccine response was much lower among these patients, stressing the importance of completing the vaccination schedule. Even when patients were fully vaccinated, they did not respond to the same degree as healthy individuals. Patients seemed to be more likely to respond to a vaccination if they had a lower Child-Pugh score, suggesting that patients should be vaccinated as early as possible in the course of their liver disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cultured mycelium Cordyceps sinensis protects liver sinusoidal endothelial cells in acute liver injured mice.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yuan; Chen, Qian; Yang, Tao; Tao, Yanyan; Lu, Xiong; Liu, Chenghai

    2014-03-01

    Cultured mycelium Cordyceps sinensis (CMCS) was widely used for a variety of diseases including liver injury, the current study aims to investigate the protective effects of CMCS on liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) in acute injury liver and related action mechanisms. The mice were injected intraperitoneally with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and D-galactosamine (D-GalN). 39 male BABL/c mice were randomly divided into four groups: normal control, model control, CMCS treatment and 1,10-phenanthroline treatment groups. The Serum liver function parameters including alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were assayed with the commercial kit. The inflammation and scaffold structure in liver were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and silver staining respectively. The LSECs and sub-endothelial basement membrane were observed with the scanning and transmission electronic microscope. The protein expressions of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in liver were analyzed with Western blotting. Expression of von Willebrand factor (vWF) was investigated with immunofluorescence staining. The lipid peroxidation indicators including antisuperoxideanion (ASAFR), hydroxyl free radical (·OH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were determined with kits, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 and 9 (MMP-2/9) activities in liver were analyzed with gelatin zymography and in situ fluorescent zymography respectively. The model mice had much higher serum levels of ALT and AST than the normal mice. Compared to that in the normal control, more severe liver inflammation and hepatocyte apoptosis, worse hepatic lipid peroxidation demonstrated by the increased ASAFR, ·OH and MDA, but decreased SOD and GST, increased MMP-2/9 activities and VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and vWF expressions, which revealed obvious LSEC injury and scaffold structure broken, were shown in the model

  10. Kinetics of Sulforaphane in Mice after Consumption of Sulforaphane-Enriched Broccoli Sprout Preparation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanyan; Zhang, Tao; Li, Xiaoqin; Zou, Peng; Schwartz, Steven J.; Sun, Duxin

    2013-01-01

    Scope Sulforaphane is a natural isothiocyanate in broccoli sprouts with cancer chemopreventive activity. This study is aimed to to use different methods to develop broccoli sprout preparations to compare their ability to deliver sulforaphane to the mice and to evaluate the kinetics and biodistribution of sulforaphane. Methods and Results The sulforaphane-enriched sprout preparation generated by two-step procedure (quick-steaming followed by myrosinase treatment) contained the highest level of sulforaphane, which was 11 and 5 times higher than the freeze-dried fresh broccoli sprouts and the quick-steamed, freeze-dried broccoli sprouts, respectively. After oral administration of 2.5 mg/g body weight of the broccoli sprout preparations, sulforaphane was quickly absorbed and distributed throughout the tissues. The sulforaphane-rich preparation resulted in the highest exposure, with peak plasma sulforaphane concentration of 337 ng/ml, which is 6.0 times and 2.6 times higher compared to the other two preparations. A whole body physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model (developed with ADAPT 5 software) suggests that distribution of sulforaphane is perfusion-limited in all organs. Conclusion This study provides a broccoli sprout preparation that can serve as a good source of sulforaphane, and the model can be utilized to guide the dose design for the use of broccoli sprout preparation in chemoprevention. PMID:23929742

  11. KEAP1 and Done? Targeting the NRF2 Pathway with Sulforaphane.

    PubMed

    Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T; Fahey, Jed W; Kostov, Rumen V; Kensler, Thomas W

    2017-11-01

    Since the re-discovery of sulforaphane in 1992 and the recognition of the bioactivity of this phytochemical, many studies have examined its mode of action in cells, animals and humans. Broccoli, especially as young sprouts, is a rich source of sulforaphane and broccoli-based preparations are now used in clinical studies probing efficacy in health preservation and disease mitigation. Many putative cellular targets are affected by sulforaphane although only one, KEAP1-NRF2 signaling, can be considered a validated target at this time. The transcription factor NRF2 is a master regulator of cell survival responses to endogenous and exogenous stressors. This review summarizes the chemical biology of sulforaphane as an inducer of NRF2 signaling and efficacy as an inhibitor of carcinogenesis. It also provides a summary of the current findings from clinical trials using a suite of broccoli sprout preparations on a series of short-term endpoints reflecting a diversity of molecular actions. Sulforaphane, as a pure chemical, protects against chemical-induced skin, oral, stomach, colon, lung and bladder carcinogenesis and in genetic models of colon and prostate carcinogenesis. In many of these settings the antitumorigenic efficacy of sulforaphane is dampened in Nrf2 -disrupted animals. Broccoli preparations rich in glucoraphanin or sulforaphane exert demonstrable pharmacodynamic action in over a score of clinical trials. Measures of NRF2 pathway response and function are serving as guideposts for the optimization of dose, schedule and formulation as clinical trials with broccoli-based preparations become more commonplace and more rigorous in design and implementation.

  12. Sulforaphane-induced apoptosis in Xuanwei lung adenocarcinoma cell line XWLC-05.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lan; Yao, Qian; Li, Yan; Huang, Yun-Chao; Jiang, Hua; Wang, Chuan-Qiong; Fan, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Xuanwei district in Yunnan Province has the highest incidence of lung cancer in China, especially among non-smoking women. Cruciferous vegetables can reduce lung cancer risk by prompting a protective mechanism against respiratory tract inflammation caused by air pollution, and are rich in sulforaphane, which can induce changes in gene expression. We investigated the effect of sulforaphane-induced apoptosis in Xuanwei lung adenocarcinoma cell line (XWCL-05) to explore the value of sulforaphane in lung cancer prevention and treatment. Cell growth inhibition was determined by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay; cell morphology and apoptosis were observed under transmission electron microscope; cell cycle and apoptosis rates were detected using flow cytometry; B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-2-like protein 4 (Bax) messenger RNA expression were determined by quantitative PCR; and p53, p73, p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), Bax, Bcl-2, and caspase-9 protein expression were detected by Western blotting. Sulforaphane inhibited XWLC-05 cell growth with inhibitory concentration (IC) 50 of 4.04, 3.38, and 3.02 μg/mL at 24, 48, and 72 hours, respectively. Sulforaphane affected the XWLC-05 cell cycle as cells accumulated in the G2/M phase. The proportion of apoptotic cells observed was 27.6%. Compared with the control, the sulforaphane group showed decreased Bcl-2 and p53 expression, and significantly increased p73, PUMA, Bax, and caspase-9 protein expression (P < 0.05). Sulforaphane induces Xuanwei lung adenocarcinoma cell apoptosis. Its possible mechanism may involve the upregulation of p73 expression and its effector target genes PUMA and Bax in lung cancer cells, downregulation of the anti-apoptotic gene B cl -2, and activation of caspase-9. It may also involve downregulation of the mutant p53 protein. © 2016 The Authors. Thoracic Cancer published by China Lung Oncology Group and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Cognition Enhancing Activity of Sulforaphane Against Scopolamine Induced Cognitive Impairment in Zebra Fish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Rajesh, Venugopalan; Ilanthalir, Sakthivel

    2016-10-01

    Several epidemiological studies have shown that consumption of large quantities of vegetables especially cruciferous vegetables (Broccoli and Brussels sprouts) can protect against chronic diseases. Sulforaphane, an isothiocynate found in cruciferous vegetables has been demonstrated to have neuroprotective effects in several experimental paradigms. This study was undertaken to examine the effect of sulforaphane on cognitive impairment in zebra fish model using a novel method of fear conditioning. Initially, the normal behaviour of zebra fishes was studied in light-dark tank for 10 min daily for 10 days. Fishes were then divided into seven groups of twelve in each. Group I served as normal, group II served as fear conditioned control, group III and group IV were sulforaphane (25 µM/L) and piracetam (200 mg/L) treated respectively. Group V served as scopolamine (400 µM/L) induced memory impairment fishes. Group VI and VII were sulforaphane (25 µM/L) and piracetam (200 mg/L) treated scopolamine induced memory impairment groups respectively. In normal behavioural analysis, fishes preferred to stay in dark compartment. The average number of entries into the dark and time spent in dark were significantly more. Fishes in group II to VII were individually subjected to fear conditioning passive avoidance task and evaluated for learned task memory. It was observed that the average number of entries into dark and time spent in dark were significantly decreased. After exposure to respective treatment fishes in group III to VII were subjected to cognitive evaluation. There was no significant difference in cognition of group III and IV fishes exposed to sulforaphane and piracetam alone respectively. Fishes exposed to scopolamine showed a significant cognitive impairment. Sulforaphane exposure prior to scopolamine significantly retained the memory of learned task. These findings suggest that sulforaphane might be a promising therapeutic agent for cognitive enhancement in

  14. Spirulina maxima Protects Liver From Isoniazid and Rifampicin Drug Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Jatav, Santosh Kumar; Kulshrestha, Archana; Zacharia, Anish; Singh, Nita; Tejovathi, G; Bisen, P S; Prasad, G B K S

    2014-07-01

    Hepatotoxicity associated with isoniazid and rifampicin is one of the major impediments in antituberculosis therapy. The present study explored the prophylactic and therapeutic efficacies of Spirulina maxima in isoniazid and rifampicin induced hepatic damage in a rat model. Hepatic damage induced in Wistar rats by isoniazid and rifampicin resulted in significant alterations in biomarkers of liver function, namely, bilirubin, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and oxidative stress markers such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Co-administration of Spirulina maxima along with antituberculosis drugs protected liver from hepatotoxicity due to isoniazid and rifampicin. Administration of Spirulina maxima consecutively for 2 weeks to hepatodamaged animals resulted in restoration of hepatic function as evident from normalization of serum markers of liver function. Thus, the present study revealed remarkable prophylactic and therapeutic potential of Spirulina maxima. Co-administration of Spirulina maxima and antituberculosis drugs is advantageous as it provides extra nutritional benefit. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Microencapsulation of sulforaphane from broccoli seed extracts by gelatin/gum arabic and gelatin/pectin complexes.

    PubMed

    García-Saldaña, Jesús S; Campas-Baypoli, Olga N; López-Cervantes, Jaime; Sánchez-Machado, Dalia I; Cantú-Soto, Ernesto U; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Roberto

    2016-06-15

    Sulforaphane is a phytochemical that has received attention in recent years due to its chemopreventive properties. However, the uses and applications of this compound are very limited, because is an unstable molecule that is degraded mainly by changes in temperature and pH. In this research, the use of food grade polymers for microencapsulation of sulforaphane was studied by a complex coacervation method using the interaction of oppositely charged polymers as gelatin/gum arabic and gelatin/pectin. The polymers used were previously characterized in moisture content, ash and nitrogen. The encapsulation yield was over 80%. The gelatin/pectin complex had highest encapsulation efficiency with 17.91%. The presence of sulforaphane in the complexes was confirmed by FTIR and UV/visible spectroscopy. The materials used in this work could be a new and attractive option for the protection of sulforaphane. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sulforaphane attenuates EGFR signaling in NSCLC cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chi-Yuan; Yu, Zhu-Yun; Chuang, Yen-Shu; Huang, Rui-Mei; Wang, Tzu-Chien V

    2015-06-03

    EGFR, a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), is frequently overexpressed and mutated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been widely used in the treatment of many cancers, including NSCLC. However, intrinsic and acquired resistance to TKI remains a common obstacle. One strategy that may help overcome EGFR-TKI resistance is to target EGFR for degradation. As EGFR is a client protein of heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) and sulforaphane is known to functionally regulate HSP90, we hypothesized that sulforaphane could attenuate EGFR-related signaling and potentially be used to treat NSCLC. Our study revealed that sulforaphane displayed antitumor activity against NSCLC cells both in vitro and in vivo. The sensitivity of NSCLC cells to sulforaphane appeared to positively correlate with the inhibition of EGFR-related signaling, which was attributed to the increased proteasomal degradation of EGFR. Combined treatment of NSCLC cells with sulforaphane plus another HSP90 inhibitor (17-AAG) enhanced the inhibition of EGFR-related signaling both in vitro and in vivo. We have shown that sulforaphane is a novel inhibitory modulator of EGFR expression and is effective in inhibiting the tumor growth of EGFR-TKI-resistant NSCLC cells. Our findings suggest that sulforaphane should be further explored for its potential clinical applications against NSCLC.

  17. Stimulation of suicidal erythrocyte death by sulforaphane.

    PubMed

    Alzoubi, Kousi; Calabrò, Salvatrice; Faggio, Caterina; Lang, Florian

    2015-03-01

    Sulforaphane, an isothiocyanate from cruciferous vegetable, counteracts malignancy. The effect is at least in part due to the stimulation of suicidal death or apoptosis of tumour cells. Mechanisms invoked in sulforaphane-induced apoptosis include mitochondrial depolarization and altered gene expression. Despite the lack of mitochondria and nuclei, erythrocytes may, similar to apoptosis of nucleated cells, enter eryptosis, a suicidal cell death characterized by cell shrinkage and phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Stimulators of eryptosis include increase of cytosolic Ca(2+)-activity ([Ca(2+)]i). This study explored whether sulforaphane stimulates eryptosis. Cell volume was estimated from forward scatter, phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface from annexin V binding and [Ca(2+)]i from Fluo-3 fluorescence. A 48-hr treatment of human erythrocytes with sulforaphane (50-100 μM) significantly decreased forward scatter, significantly increased the percentage of annexin V binding cells and significantly increased [Ca(2+)]i. The effect of sulforaphane (100 μM) on annexin V binding was significantly blunted but not abrogated by the removal of extracellular Ca(2+). Sulforaphane (100 μM) significantly increased ceramide formation. In conclusion, sulforaphane stimulates suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, an effect at least partially, but not exclusively, due to the stimulation of Ca(2+) entry and ceramide formation. © 2014 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  18. Sulforaphane reduces hepatic glucose production and improves glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, Annika S; Tubbs, Emily; Mecham, Brig; Chacko, Shaji; Nenonen, Hannah A; Tang, Yunzhao; Fahey, Jed W; Derry, Jonathan M J; Wollheim, Claes B; Wierup, Nils; Haymond, Morey W; Friend, Stephen H; Mulder, Hindrik; Rosengren, Anders H

    2017-06-14

    A potentially useful approach for drug discovery is to connect gene expression profiles of disease-affected tissues ("disease signatures") to drug signatures, but it remains to be shown whether it can be used to identify clinically relevant treatment options. We analyzed coexpression networks and genetic data to identify a disease signature for type 2 diabetes in liver tissue. By interrogating a library of 3800 drug signatures, we identified sulforaphane as a compound that may reverse the disease signature. Sulforaphane suppressed glucose production from hepatic cells by nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) and decreased expression of key enzymes in gluconeogenesis. Moreover, sulforaphane reversed the disease signature in the livers from diabetic animals and attenuated exaggerated glucose production and glucose intolerance by a magnitude similar to that of metformin. Finally, sulforaphane, provided as concentrated broccoli sprout extract, reduced fasting blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in obese patients with dysregulated type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  19. Sulforaphane and TRAIL induce a synergistic elimination of advanced prostate cancer stem-like cells.

    PubMed

    Labsch, Sabrina; Liu, Li; Bauer, Nathalie; Zhang, Yiyao; Aleksandrowicz, Ewa; Gladkich, Jury; Schönsiegel, Frank; Herr, Ingrid

    2014-05-01

    Advanced androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC) is an aggressive malignancy with a poor prognosis. Apoptosis-resistant cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been identified in AIPC and are not eliminated by current therapeutics. Novel therapeutic options, which are currently being evaluated in patient studies, include TRAIL and the broccoli-derived isothiocyanate sulforaphane. Although neither agent targets normal cells, TRAIL induces apoptosis in most cancer cells, and sulforaphane eliminates CSCs. In this study, the established AIPC cell lines DU145 and PC3, with enriched CSC features, and primary patient-derived prostate CSCs were treated with sulforaphane and recombinant soluble TRAIL. We examined the effects of these drugs on NF-κB activity, self-renewal and differentiation potential, and stem cell signaling via spheroid- and colony-forming assays, FACS and western blot analyses, immunohistochemistry, and an antibody protein array in vitro and after xenotransplantation. We largely found a stronger effect of sulforaphane on CSC properties compared to TRAIL, though the agents acted synergistically when applied in combination. This was associated with the inhibition of TRAIL-induced NF-κB binding; CXCR4, Jagged1, Notch 1, SOX 2, and Nanog expression; ALDH1 activity inhibition; and the elimination of differentiation and self-renewal potential. In vivo, tumor engraftment and tumor growth were strongly inhibited, without the induction of liver necrosis or other obvious side effects. These findings suggest that sulforaphane shifts the balance from TRAIL-induced survival signals to apoptosis and thus explains the observed synergistic effect. A nutritional strategy for high sulforaphane intake may target the cancer-specific activity of TRAIL in CSCs.

  20. Sulforaphane and TRAIL induce a synergistic elimination of advanced prostate cancer stem-like cells

    PubMed Central

    LABSCH, SABRINA; LIU, LI; BAUER, NATHALIE; ZHANG, YIYAO; ALEKSANDROWICZ, EWA; GLADKICH, JURY; SCHÖNSIEGEL, FRANK; HERR, INGRID

    2014-01-01

    Advanced androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC) is an aggressive malignancy with a poor prognosis. Apoptosis-resistant cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been identified in AIPC and are not eliminated by current therapeutics. Novel therapeutic options, which are currently being evaluated in patient studies, include TRAIL and the broccoli-derived isothiocyanate sulforaphane. Although neither agent targets normal cells, TRAIL induces apoptosis in most cancer cells, and sulforaphane eliminates CSCs. In this study, the established AIPC cell lines DU145 and PC3, with enriched CSC features, and primary patient-derived prostate CSCs were treated with sulforaphane and recombinant soluble TRAIL. We examined the effects of these drugs on NF-κB activity, self-renewal and differentiation potential, and stem cell signaling via spheroid- and colony-forming assays, FACS and western blot analyses, immunohistochemistry, and an antibody protein array in vitro and after xenotransplantation. We largely found a stronger effect of sulforaphane on CSC properties compared to TRAIL, though the agents acted synergistically when applied in combination. This was associated with the inhibition of TRAIL-induced NF-κB binding; CXCR4, Jagged1, Notch 1, SOX 2, and Nanog expression; ALDH1 activity inhibition; and the elimination of differentiation and self-renewal potential. In vivo, tumor engraftment and tumor growth were strongly inhibited, without the induction of liver necrosis or other obvious side effects. These findings suggest that sulforaphane shifts the balance from TRAIL-induced survival signals to apoptosis and thus explains the observed synergistic effect. A nutritional strategy for high sulforaphane intake may target the cancer-specific activity of TRAIL in CSCs. PMID:24626333

  1. Sulforaphane inhibits advanced glycation end product-induced pericyte damage by reducing expression of receptor for advanced glycation end products.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Sayaka; Matsui, Takanori; Ojima, Ayako; Takeuchi, Masayoshi; Yamagishi, Sho-Ichi

    2014-09-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) not only inhibit DNA synthesis but also play a role in diabetic retinopathy by evoking apoptosis and inflammation in retinal pericytes via interaction with a receptor for AGE (RAGE). Similarly, sulforaphane, which is a naturally occurring isothiocyanate that is found in widely consumed cruciferous vegetables, protects against oxidative stress-induced tissue damage. Therefore, we hypothesized that sulforaphane could inhibit AGE-induced pericytes injury through its antioxidative properties. Advanced glycation end product stimulated superoxide generation as well as RAGE gene and protein expression in bovine-cultured retinal pericytes, and these effects were prevented by the treatment with sulforaphane. Antibodies directed against RAGE also blocked AGE-evoked reactive oxygen species generation in pericytes. Sulforaphane and antibodies directed against RAGE significantly inhibited the AGE-induced decrease in DNA synthesis, apoptotic cell death, and up-regulation of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 messenger RNA levels in pericytes. For the first time, the present study demonstrates that sulforaphane could inhibit DNA synthesis, apoptotic cell death, and inflammatory reactions in AGE-exposed pericytes, partly by suppressing RAGE expression via its antioxidative properties. Blockade of the AGE-RAGE axis in pericytes by sulforaphane might be a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of diabetic retinopathy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Protective Effects of Trypsin Inhibitor on Hepatic Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury and Liver Graft Survival.

    PubMed

    Guan, Lianyue; Liu, Hongyu; Fu, Peiyao; Li, Zhuonan; Li, Peidong; Xie, Lijuan; Xin, Mingang; Wang, Zhanpeng; Li, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the protective effects of ulinastatin (urinary trypsin inhibitor, UTI) on liver ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) and graft survival. We employed mouse liver cold IRI and orthotopic liver transplantation (OLTx) models. UTI was added to lactated Ringer's (LR) solution for liver perfusion and preservation in vitro or combined with UTI injection intraperitoneally to the liver graft recipient. Our results indicated that UTI supplementation protected the liver from cold IRI in a dose-dependent manner and prolonged liver graft survival from extended cold preserved liver donors significantly. The underlying mechanism of UTI on liver IRI may be mediated by inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine release, increasing the expression of the antiapoptotic gene Bcl-2 and decreasing the expression of the proapoptosis genes of Caspase-3 and Bax, and further protects hepatocytes from apoptotic death and improves liver function.

  3. The Protective Effects of Trypsin Inhibitor on Hepatic Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury and Liver Graft Survival

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Lianyue; Liu, Hongyu; Fu, Peiyao; Li, Zhuonan; Li, Peidong; Xie, Lijuan; Xin, Mingang; Wang, Zhanpeng

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the protective effects of ulinastatin (urinary trypsin inhibitor, UTI) on liver ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) and graft survival. We employed mouse liver cold IRI and orthotopic liver transplantation (OLTx) models. UTI was added to lactated Ringer's (LR) solution for liver perfusion and preservation in vitro or combined with UTI injection intraperitoneally to the liver graft recipient. Our results indicated that UTI supplementation protected the liver from cold IRI in a dose-dependent manner and prolonged liver graft survival from extended cold preserved liver donors significantly. The underlying mechanism of UTI on liver IRI may be mediated by inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine release, increasing the expression of the antiapoptotic gene Bcl-2 and decreasing the expression of the proapoptosis genes of Caspase-3 and Bax, and further protects hepatocytes from apoptotic death and improves liver function. PMID:26783413

  4. Sulforaphane Ameliorates Okadaic Acid-Induced Memory Impairment in Rats by Activating the Nrf2/HO-1 Antioxidant Pathway.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Subhash; Rajasekar, N; Hanif, Kashif; Nath, Chandishwar; Shukla, Rakesh

    2016-10-01

    Okadaic acid (OKA) causes memory impairment and attenuates nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) along with oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in rats. Sulforaphane (dietary isothiocyanate compound), an activator of Nrf2 signaling, exhibits neuroprotective effects. However, the protective effect of sulforaphane in OKA-induced neurotoxicity remains uninvestigated. Therefore, in the present study, the role of sulforaphane in OKA-induced memory impairment in rats was explored. A significant increased Nrf2 expression in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex was observed in trained (Morris water maze) rats, and a significant decreased Nrf2 expression in memory-impaired (OKA, 200 ng icv) rats indicated its involvement in memory function. Sulforaphane administration (5 and 10 mg/kg, ip, days 1 and 2) ameliorates OKA-induced memory impairment in rats. The treatment also restored Nrf2 and its downstream antioxidant protein expression (GCLC, HO-1) and attenuated oxidative stress (ROS, nitrite, GSH), neuroinflammation (NF-κB, TNF-α, IL-10), and neuronal apoptosis in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of OKA-treated rats. Further, to determine whether modulation of Nrf2 signaling is responsible for the protective effect of sulforaphane, in vitro, Nrf2 siRNA and its downstream HO-1 inhibition studies were carried out in a rat astrocytoma cell line (C6). The protective effects of sulforaphane were abolished with Nrf2 siRNA and HO-1 inhibition in astrocytes. The results suggest that Nrf2-dependent activation of cellular antioxidant machinery results in sulforaphane-mediated protection against OKA-induced memory impairment in rats. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  5. [Protective effect of octreotide on liver warm ischemia reperfusion injury].

    PubMed

    Li, Jie-qun; Qi, Hai-zhi; He, Zhi-jun; Hu, Wei; Si, Zhong-zhou; Li, Yi-ning

    2006-10-01

    To explore the protective effect of octreotide on liver warm ischemia-reperfusion injury and its possible mechanism. Pringle's maneuver liver ischemia-reperfusion models were established. Forty eight male Sprague Daweley rats were randomly divided into a sham operation group (S group, n=16), an ischemia-reperfusion group (I/R group, n=16) and an octreotide preconditioning group (OPC group, n=16). ALT and AST in the serum were measured at 30 min after the ischemia and 120 min after the reperfusion. The histomorphological changes and ultrastructure of hepatocellular were observed by optic and transmission electronic microscope. Hepatic adenine nucleotide levels and energy changes (EC) were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). (1) At 30 min after the ischemia and 120 min after the reperfusion, the levels of ALT and AST in the serum of OPC group was lower than those in I/R group, whereas the levels of ATP and EC in the hepatic tissue were higher than those in the I/R group (P<0.01 or P<0.05). Compared with the I/R group, the injury of hepatocellular histomorphology and ultrastructure in the OPC group was abated. (2) At 30, 60, and 120 min after the reperfusion, the levels of ATP and EC in the OPC groups were higher than those in the I/R group. During the ischemia, the levels of ATP and EC in the OPC group dropped more slowly than those in the I/R group, but ATP and EC in the OPC groups rose more quickly than those in the I/R group during the reperfusion. Octreotide precondition can improve the hepatocellular energy reserve, and protect the liver from warm ischemia-reperfusion injury. The protective of octreotide on warm ischemia-reperfusion injury may be related to its influence on endocrine secretion.

  6. Protective effects of C-phycocyanin on alcohol-induced acute liver injury in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Dong; Liu, Bing; Luan, Xiying; Sun, Junyan; Liu, Nana; Qin, Song; Du, Zhenning

    2016-03-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption leads to liver disease. Extensive evidence suggests that C-phycocyanin (C-PC), a chromophore phycocyanobilin derived from Spirulina platensis, exerts protective effects against chemical-induced organ damage. In this study, we investigated whether C-PC could protect against ethanol-induced acute liver injury. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (CHOL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), liver homogenate malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) content were measured, and pathological examination of liver sections were examined. C-PC showed obvious inhibitory effects on serum ALT, AST, TG, CHOL, LDL and MDA, and SOD content significantly increased in the liver. The structure of hepatic lobules was clear, liver sinus returned to normal, and liver cell cords were arranged in neat rows. Cloudiness, swelling, inflammatory cell infiltration and spotty necrosis of liver cells were significantly reduced. Therefore, C-PC can significantly protect against ethanol-induced acute liver injury.

  7. Augmenter of liver regeneration protects against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury by promoting autophagy in mice

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Hongbo; Han, Weijia; Shi, Honglin; Ren, Feng; Chen, Dexi; Chen, Yu; Duan, Zhongping

    2017-01-01

    Background Augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR) exerts strong hepatoprotective properties in various animal models of liver injury, but its protective mechanisms have not yet been explored. Autophagy is a recently recognized rudimentary cellular response to inflammation and injury. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that ALR may protect against acute liver injury through the autophagic pathway. Methods The level and role of ALR in liver injury were studied in a mouse model of acute liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). The effect of ALR on autophagy was analyzed in vitro and in vivo. After autophagy was inhibited by 3-methyladenine (3-MA), apoptosis and proliferation were detected in the mouse model with acute liver injury. The ALR and autophagic levels were measured in patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) and acute liver failure (ALF), respectively. Results During the progression of acute liver injury, the ALR levels increased slightly in early stage and significantly decreased in late stage in mice Treatment with an ALR plasmid via tail vein injection protected mice against acute liver injury. The protective effect of ALR relied on the induction of autophagy, which was supported by the following evidence: (1) ALR overexpression directly induced autophagy flux in vitro and in vivo; and (2) ALR treatment suppressed apoptosis and promoted proliferation in mice exposed to CCl4, but the inhibition of autophagy reversed these effects. More importantly, the ALR levels decreased in patients with LC and ALF compared with normal controls. Conclusion We demonstrated that ALR ameliorated liver injury via an autophagic mechanism, which indicates a potential therapeutic application for liver injury. PMID:28061452

  8. Sulforaphane treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kanwaljit; Connors, Susan L.; Macklin, Eric A.; Smith, Kirby D.; Fahey, Jed W.; Talalay, Paul; Zimmerman, Andrew W.

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), characterized by both impaired communication and social interaction, and by stereotypic behavior, affects about 1 in 68, predominantly males. The medico-economic burdens of ASD are enormous, and no recognized treatment targets the core features of ASD. In a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial, young men (aged 13–27) with moderate to severe ASD received the phytochemical sulforaphane (n = 29)—derived from broccoli sprout extracts—or indistinguishable placebo (n = 15). The effects on behavior of daily oral doses of sulforaphane (50–150 µmol) for 18 wk, followed by 4 wk without treatment, were quantified by three widely accepted behavioral measures completed by parents/caregivers and physicians: the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), and Clinical Global Impression Improvement Scale (CGI-I). Initial scores for ABC and SRS were closely matched for participants assigned to placebo and sulforaphane. After 18 wk, participants receiving placebo experienced minimal change (<3.3%), whereas those receiving sulforaphane showed substantial declines (improvement of behavior): 34% for ABC (P < 0.001, comparing treatments) and 17% for SRS scores (P = 0.017). On CGI-I, a significantly greater number of participants receiving sulforaphane had improvement in social interaction, abnormal behavior, and verbal communication (P = 0.015–0.007). Upon discontinuation of sulforaphane, total scores on all scales rose toward pretreatment levels. Dietary sulforaphane, of recognized low toxicity, was selected for its capacity to reverse abnormalities that have been associated with ASD, including oxidative stress and lower antioxidant capacity, depressed glutathione synthesis, reduced mitochondrial function and oxidative phosphorylation, increased lipid peroxidation, and neuroinflammmation. PMID:25313065

  9. Sulforaphane treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

    PubMed

    Singh, Kanwaljit; Connors, Susan L; Macklin, Eric A; Smith, Kirby D; Fahey, Jed W; Talalay, Paul; Zimmerman, Andrew W

    2014-10-28

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), characterized by both impaired communication and social interaction, and by stereotypic behavior, affects about 1 in 68, predominantly males. The medico-economic burdens of ASD are enormous, and no recognized treatment targets the core features of ASD. In a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial, young men (aged 13-27) with moderate to severe ASD received the phytochemical sulforaphane (n = 29)--derived from broccoli sprout extracts--or indistinguishable placebo (n = 15). The effects on behavior of daily oral doses of sulforaphane (50-150 µmol) for 18 wk, followed by 4 wk without treatment, were quantified by three widely accepted behavioral measures completed by parents/caregivers and physicians: the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), and Clinical Global Impression Improvement Scale (CGI-I). Initial scores for ABC and SRS were closely matched for participants assigned to placebo and sulforaphane. After 18 wk, participants receiving placebo experienced minimal change (<3.3%), whereas those receiving sulforaphane showed substantial declines (improvement of behavior): 34% for ABC (P < 0.001, comparing treatments) and 17% for SRS scores (P = 0.017). On CGI-I, a significantly greater number of participants receiving sulforaphane had improvement in social interaction, abnormal behavior, and verbal communication (P = 0.015-0.007). Upon discontinuation of sulforaphane, total scores on all scales rose toward pretreatment levels. Dietary sulforaphane, of recognized low toxicity, was selected for its capacity to reverse abnormalities that have been associated with ASD, including oxidative stress and lower antioxidant capacity, depressed glutathione synthesis, reduced mitochondrial function and oxidative phosphorylation, increased lipid peroxidation, and neuroinflammmation.

  10. Reactions of inorganic free radicals with liver protecting drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    György, I.; Blázovics, A.; Fehér, J.; Földiák, G.

    Liver protecting drugs, silibinin, a flavonolignane, and the dihydroquinoline derivates, CH 402 and MTDQ-DA, were shown to inhibit processes in which enzymatically or non-enzymatically generated free radicals were involved. Inorganic free radicals (N 3, (SCN) -2, OH, Trp, CO -2, O -2) produced by pulse radiolysis readily react with the compounds, which transform into exceptionally long-lived, unreactive transients. Time evolution of the UV and visible spectra indicate that oxidising radicals form a phenoxyl type radical from silibinin, while OH forms an adduct by attacking, simultaneously, at various sites of the molecule. Superoxide radicals reduce silibinin and oxidise CH 402 and MTDQ-DA. It is concluded that the drugs might exhibit antioxidant behavior in living systems.

  11. Sulforaphane, a cancer chemopreventive agent, induces pathways associated with membrane biosynthesis in response to tissue damage by aflatoxin B{sub 1}

    SciTech Connect

    Techapiesancharoenkij, Nirachara; Fiala, Jeannette L.A.; Navasumrit, Panida

    Aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFB{sub 1}) is one of the major risk factors for liver cancer globally. A recent study showed that sulforaphane (SF), a potent inducer of phase II enzymes that occurs naturally in widely consumed vegetables, effectively induces hepatic glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and reduces levels of hepatic AFB{sub 1}-DNA adducts in AFB{sub 1}-exposed Sprague Dawley rats. The present study characterized the effects of SF pre-treatment on global gene expression in the livers of similarly treated male rats. Combined treatment with AFB{sub 1} and SF caused reprogramming of a network of genes involved in signal transduction and transcription. Changes inmore » gene regulation were observable 4 h after AFB{sub 1} administration in SF-pretreated animals and may reflect regeneration of cells in the wake of AFB{sub 1}-induced hepatotoxicity. At 24 h after AFB{sub 1} administration, significant induction of genes that play roles in cellular lipid metabolism and acetyl-CoA biosynthesis was detected in SF-pretreated AFB{sub 1}-dosed rats. Induction of this group of genes may indicate a metabolic shift toward glycolysis and fatty acid synthesis to generate and maintain pools of intermediate molecules required for tissue repair, cell growth and compensatory hepatic cell proliferation. Collectively, gene expression data from this study provide insights into molecular mechanisms underlying the protective effects of SF against AFB{sub 1} hepatotoxicity and hepatocarcinogenicity, in addition to the chemopreventive activity of this compound as a GST inducer. - Highlights: • This study revealed sulforaphane (SF)-deregulated gene sets in aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFB{sub 1})-treated rat livers. • SF redirects biochemical networks toward lipid biosynthesis in AFB{sub 1}-dosed rats. • SF enhanced gene sets that would be expected to favor cell repair and regeneration.« less

  12. Impact of thermal processing on sulforaphane yield from broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In broccoli, sulforaphane forms when the glucosinolate glucoraphanin is hydrolyzed by the endogenous plant thiohydrolase myrosinase. A myrosinase cofactor directs hydrolysis away from formation of bioactive sulforaphane and toward an inactive product, sulforaphane nitrile. The cofactor is more hea...

  13. Sulforaphane prevents pulmonary damage in response to inhaled arsenic by activating the Nrf2-defense response

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Yi; Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona, 1703 East Mabel Street, Tucson, AZ 85721; Tao, Shasha

    2012-12-15

    Exposure to arsenic is associated with an increased risk of lung disease. Novel strategies are needed to reduce the adverse health effects associated with arsenic exposure in the lung. Nrf2, a transcription factor that mediates an adaptive cellular defense response, is effective in detoxifying environmental insults and prevents a broad spectrum of diseases induced by environmental exposure to harmful substances. In this report, we tested whether Nrf2 activation protects mice from arsenic-induced toxicity. We used an in vivo arsenic inhalation model that is highly relevant to low environmental human exposure to arsenic-containing dusts. Two-week exposure to arsenic-containing dust resulted inmore » pathological alterations, oxidative DNA damage, and mild apoptotic cell death in the lung; all of which were blocked by sulforaphane (SF) in an Nrf2-dependent manner. Mechanistically, SF-mediated activation of Nrf2 alleviated inflammatory responses by modulating cytokine production. This study provides strong evidence that dietary intervention targeting Nrf2 activation is a feasible approach to reduce adverse health effects associated with arsenic exposure. -- Highlights: ► Exposed to arsenic particles and/or SF have elevated Nrf2 and its target genes. ► Sulforaphane prevents pathological alterations, oxidative damage and cell death. ► Sulforaphane alleviates infiltration of inflammatory cells into the lungs. ► Sulforaphane suppresses arsenic-induced proinflammatory cytokine production.« less

  14. Chemopreventive Activities of Sulforaphane and Its Metabolites in Human Hepatoma HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Zhigang; Smith, Andrew J O; Bowater, Richard P; Wormstone, Ian Michael; Chen, Yuqiong; Bao, Yongping

    2018-05-09

    Sulforaphane (SFN) exhibits chemopreventive effects through various mechanisms. However, few studies have focused on the bioactivities of its metabolites. Here, three metabolites derived from SFN were studied, known as sulforaphane glutathione, sulforaphane cysteine and sulforaphane- N -acetylcysteine. Their effects on cell viability, DNA damage, tumorigenicity, cell migration and adhesion were measured in human hepatoma HepG2 cells, and their anti-angiogenetic effects were determined in a 3D co-culture model of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and pericytes. Results indicated that these metabolites at high doses decreased cancer cell viability, induced DNA damage and inhibited motility, and impaired endothelial cell migration and tube formation. Additionally, pre-treatment with low doses of SFN metabolites protected against H₂O₂ challenge. The activation of the nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway and the induction of intracellular glutathione (GSH) played an important role in the cytoprotective effects of SFN metabolites. In conclusion, SFN metabolites exhibited similar cytotoxic and cytoprotective effects to SFN, which proves the necessity to study the mechanisms of action of not only SFN but also of its metabolites. Based on the different tissue distribution profiles of these metabolites, the most relevant chemical forms can be selected for targeted chemoprevention.

  15. Sulforaphane exerts anti-inflammatory effects against lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice through the Nrf2/ARE pathway.

    PubMed

    Qi, Tianjie; Xu, Fei; Yan, Xixin; Li, Shuai; Li, Haitao

    2016-01-01

    Sulforaphane (1-isothiocyanate-4-methyl sulfonyl butane) is a plant extract (obtained from cruciferous vegetables, such as broccoli and cabbage) and is known to exert anticancer, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. It stimulates the generation of human or animal cells, which is beneficial to the body. The aim of the current study was to determine whether sulforaphane protects against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑induced acute lung injury (ALI) through its anti-inflammatory effects, and to investigate the signaling pathways involved. For this purpose, male BALB/c mice were treated with sulforaphane (50 mg/kg) and 3 days later, ALI was induced by the administration of LPS (5 mg/kg) and we thus established the model of ALI. Our results revealed that sulforaphane significantly decreased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity (as shown by LDH assay), the wet-to-dry ratio of the lungs and the serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) (measured by ELISA), as well as nuclear factor-κB protein expression in mice with LPS-induced ALI. Moreover, treatment with sulforaphane significantly inhibited prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) protein expression (as shown by western blot analysis), as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity in mice with LPS-induced ALI. Lastly, we noted that pre-treatment with sulforaphane activated the nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway in the mice with LPS-induced ALI. These findings demonstrate that sulforaphane exerts protective effects against LPS-induced ALI through the Nrf2/ARE pathway. Thus, sulforaphane may be a potential a candidate for use in the treatment of ALI.

  16. A proof-of-concept clinical study examining the NRF2 activator sulforaphane against neutrophilic airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Duran, Charity G; Burbank, Allison J; Mills, Katherine H; Duckworth, Heather R; Aleman, Maria M; Kesic, Matthew J; Peden, David B; Pan, Yinghao; Zhou, Haibo; Hernandez, Michelle L

    2016-07-22

    Sulforaphane (SFN), a naturally occurring isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables, is implicated as a possible therapy for airway inflammation via induction of the transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (NRF2). In this proof-of-concept clinical study, we show that supplementation of SFN with broccoli sprout homogenate in healthy human subjects did not induce expression of antioxidant genes or protect against neutrophilic airway inflammation in an ozone-exposure model. Therefore, dietary sulforaphane supplementation is not a promising candidate for larger scale clinical trials targeting airway inflammation. NCT01625130 . Registered 19 June, 2012.

  17. Abate Cytochrome C induced apoptosome to protect donor liver against ischemia reperfusion injury on rat liver transplantation model.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Zhuonan; Lian, Peilong; Wu, Xiaojuan; Shi, Baoxu; Zhuang, Maoyou; Zhou, Ruiling; Zhao, Rui; Zhao, Zhen; Guo, Sen; Ji, Zhipeng; Xu, Kesen

    2016-01-01

    Aim of this study is to protect donor liver against ischemia-reperfusion injury by abating Cytochrome C induced apoptosome on rat model. A total of 25 clean SD inbred male rats were used in this research. The rats in ischemia-reperfusion injury group (I/R group, n=5) were under liver transplantation operation; rats in dichloroacetate diisopropylamine group (DADA group, n=5) were treated DADA before liver transplantation; control group (Ctrl group, n=5); other 10 rats were used to offer donor livers. In DADA therapy group, Cytochrome C expression in donor hepatocellular cytoplasm was detected lower than that in I/R group. And the Cytochrome C induced apoptosome was also decreased in according to the lower expressions of Apaf-1 and Caspase3. Low level of cleaved PARP expression revealed less apoptosis in liver tissue. The morphology of donor liver mitochondria in DADA group was observed to be slightly edema but less than I/R group after operation 12 h. The liver function indexes of ALT and AST in serum were tested, and the results in DADA group showed it is significantly lower than I/R group after operation 12 h. The inflammation indexes of IL-6 and TNF-α expressions in DADA group were significantly lower than that in I/R group after operation 24 h. The dichloroacetate diisopropylamine treatment could protect the hepatocellular mitochondria in case of the spillage of Cytochrome C induced apoptosome, and protect the liver against ischemia-reperfusion injury. Thus, it may be a method to promote the recovery of donor liver function after transplantation.

  18. Potential effects of sulforaphane to fight obesity.

    PubMed

    Martins, Tânia; Colaço, Bruno; Venâncio, Carlos; Pires, Maria J; Oliveira, Paula A; Rosa, Eduardo; Antunes, Luís M

    2018-06-01

    Obesity is linked to the onset of many diseases such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases and cancer, among others. The prevalence of obesity nearly doubled worldwide between 1980 and 2014. Simultaneously, in the last decade, the effects of sulforaphane as a potential treatment for obesity have been investigated, with promising results. Fruits and vegetables and their processed agri-food co-products are good sources of natural health-promoting compounds. Brassica crops are among the most produced crops in the world and are a good source of glucoraphanin, which, following hydrolysis, releases sulforaphane. The Brassicaceae family generates large amounts of co-products with no intended use, causing negative economic and environmental impact. Valorization of these co-products could be achieved through their exploitation for the extraction of bioactive compounds such as sulforaphane. However, the extraction process still needs further improvement for its economic feasibility. This article reviews the potential effects of sulforaphane in the treatment of obesity, linked to the relevance of giving Brassica co-products added value, which is of key importance for the competitiveness of farmers and the agri-food industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Bioavailability of sulforaphane from two broccoli sprout beverages: Results of a short term, cross-over clinical trial in Qidong, China

    PubMed Central

    Egner, Patricia A.; Chen, Jian Guo; Wang, Jin Bing; Wu, Yan; Sun, Yan; Lu, Jian Hua; Zhu, Jian; Zhang, Yong Hui; Chen, Yong Sheng; Friesen, Marlin D.; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Muñoz, Alvaro; Ng, Derek; Qian, Geng Sun; Zhu, Yuan Rong; Chen, Tao Yang; Botting, Nigel P.; Zhang, Qingzhi; Fahey, Jed W.; Talalay, Paul; Groopman, John D; Kensler, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    One of several challenges in design of clinical chemoprevention trials is the selection of the dose, formulation and dose schedule of the intervention agent. Therefore, a cross-over clinical trial was undertaken to compare the bioavailability and tolerability of sulforaphane from two of broccoli sprout-derived beverages: one glucoraphanin-rich (GRR) and the other sulforaphane-rich (SFR). Sulforaphane was generated from glucoraphanin contained in GRR by gut microflora or formed by treatment of GRR with myrosinase from daikon (Raphanus sativus) sprouts to provide SFR. Fifty healthy, eligible participants were requested to refrain from crucifer consumption and randomized into two treatment arms. The study design was as follows: 5-day run-in period, 7-day administration of beverages, 5-day washout period, and 7-day administration of the opposite intervention. Isotope dilution mass spectrometry was used to measure levels of glucoraphanin, sulforaphane and sulforaphane thiol conjugates in urine samples collected daily throughout the study. Bioavailability, as measured by urinary excretion of sulforaphane and its metabolites (in approximately 12 hour collections after dosing), was substantially greater with the SFR (mean = 70%) than with GRR (mean = 5%) beverages. Interindividual variability in excretion was considerably lower with SFR than GRR beverage. Elimination rates were considerably slower with GRR allowing for achievement of steady state dosing as opposed to bolus dosing with SFR. Optimal dosing formulations in future studies should consider blends of sulforaphane and glucoraphanin as SFR and GRR mixtures to achieve peak concentrations for activation of some targets and prolonged inhibition of others implicated in the protective actions of sulforaphane. PMID:21372038

  20. Sulforaphane reduces vascular inflammation in mice and prevents TNF-α-induced monocyte adhesion to primary endothelial cells through interfering with the NF-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Nallasamy, Palanisamy; Si, Hongwei; Babu, Pon Velayutham Anandh; Pan, Dengke; Fu, Yu; Brooke, Elizabeth A S; Shah, Halley; Zhen, Wei; Zhu, Hong; Liu, Dongmin; Li, Yunbo; Jia, Zhenquan

    2014-08-01

    Sulforaphane, a naturally occurring isothiocyanate present in cruciferous vegetables, has received wide attention for its potential to improve vascular function in vitro. However, its effect in vivo and the molecular mechanism of sulforaphane at physiological concentrations remain unclear. Here, we report that a sulforaphane concentration as low as 0.5 μM significantly inhibited tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced adhesion of monocytes to human umbilical vein endothelial cells, a key event in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis both in static and under flow conditions. Such physiological concentrations of sulforaphane also significantly suppressed TNF-α-induced production of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and adhesion molecules including soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1 and soluble E-selectin, key mediators in the regulation of enhanced endothelial cell-monocyte interaction. Furthermore, sulforaphane inhibited TNF-α-induced nuclear factor (NF)-κB transcriptional activity, Inhibitor of NF-κB alpha (IκBα) degradation and subsequent NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation in endothelial cells, suggesting that sulforaphane can inhibit inflammation by suppressing NF-κB signaling. In an animal study, sulforaphane (300 ppm) in a mouse diet significantly abolished TNF-α-increased ex vivo monocyte adhesion and circulating adhesion molecules and chemokines in C57BL/6 mice. Histology showed that sulforaphane treatment significantly prevented the eruption of endothelial lining in the intima layer of the aorta and preserved elastin fibers' delicate organization, as shown by Verhoeff-van Gieson staining. Immunohistochemistry studies showed that sulforaphane treatment also reduced vascular adhesion molecule-1 and monocyte-derived F4/80-positive macrophages in the aorta of TNF-α-treated mice. In conclusion, sulforaphane at physiological concentrations protects against TNF-α-induced vascular endothelial inflammation, in both in vitro and in vivo models. This anti

  1. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid attenuates endoplasmic reticulum stress and protects the liver from chronic intermittent hypoxia induced injury.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yanpeng; Yang, Huai'an; Cui, Zeshi; Tai, Xuhui; Chu, Yanling; Guo, Xing

    2017-09-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea that characterized by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) has been reported to associate with chronic liver injury. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) exerts liver-protective effects in various liver diseases. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that TUDCA could protect liver against CIH injury. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to intermittent hypoxia for eight weeks and applied with TUDCA by intraperitoneal injection. The effect of TUDCA on liver histological changes, liver function, oxidative stress, inflammatory response, hepatocyte apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress were investigated. The results showed that administration of TUDCA attenuated liver pathological changes, reduced serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase level, suppressed reactive oxygen species activity, decreased tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β level and inhibited hepatocyte apoptosis induced by CIH. TUDCA also inhibited CIH-induced ER stress in liver as evidenced by decreased expression of ER chaperone 78 kDa glucose-related protein, unfolded protein response transducers and ER proapoptotic proteins. Altogether, the present study described a liver-protective effect of TUDCA in CIH mice model, and this effect seems at least partly through the inhibition of ER stress.

  2. Potential protection of vitamin C against liver-lesioned mice.

    PubMed

    Su, Min; Chen, Hongqiu; Wei, Chaohe; Chen, Ning; Wu, Wei

    2014-10-01

    Pathologically, liver injury can result from sustained trauma to hepatocytes, including acute damage. Thus, attenuation of hepatocellular lesion may help improve liver functions. The purpose of this study was to explore the potential advantages of vitamin C (VC) intake on acutely intralesional liver in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-exposed mice. Here our data showed that VC supplementation contributed to ameliorated vital signs of CCl4-lesioned mice, resulting in dose-dependent reduction of hepatomegaly. VC lowered the levels of liver functional enzymes including alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (AST) in serum, while concentration of lactic acid concentration in blood plasma was decreased. VC-administered CCl4-lesioned mice manifested increased activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), while the malondialdehyde (MDA) content was reduced in liver tissue. Moreover, VC consumption attenuated hepatotoxic injuries of CCl4-lesioned mice, in which the number of TNF-α positive cells was dose-dependently reduced. Furthermore, intrahepatic expression of TRL-4 mRNA, a vital inflammation-regulator, was down-regulated in VC-administered mice. Overall, we conclude that VC has the potentiality of anti-hepatotoxicity that is capable of ameliorating liver functions, speculating that therapeutic mechanism relates to normalizing metabolism and blocking inflammatory stress in the liver. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevention of Carcinogen-Induced Oral Cancer by Sulforaphane

    PubMed Central

    Bauman, Julie E.; Zang, Yan; Sen, Malabika; Li, Changyou; Wang, Lin; Egner, Patricia A.; Fahey, Jed W.; Normolle, Daniel P.; Grandis, Jennifer R.; Kensler, Thomas W.; Johnson, Daniel E.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic exposure to carcinogens represents the major risk factor for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Beverages derived from broccoli sprout extracts (BSEs) that are rich in glucoraphanin and its bioactive metabolite sulforaphane promote detoxication of airborne pollutants in humans. Herein, we investigated the potential chemopreventive activity of sulforaphane using in vitro models of normal and malignant mucosal epithelial cells and an in vivo model of murine oral cancer resulting from the carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO). Sulforaphane treatment of Het-1A, a normal mucosal epithelial cell line, and 4 HNSCC cell lines led to dose- and time-dependent induction of NRF2 and the NRF2 target genes NQO1 and GCLC, known mediators of carcinogen detoxication. Sulforaphane also promoted NRF2-independent dephosphorylation/inactivation of pSTAT3, a key oncogenic factor in HNSCC. Compared to vehicle, sulforaphane significantly reduced the incidence and size of 4NQO-induced tongue tumors in mice. A pilot clinical trial in 10 healthy volunteers evaluated the bioavailability and pharmacodynamic activity of three different BSE regimens, based upon urinary sulforaphane metabolites and NQO1 transcripts in buccal scrapings, respectively. Ingestion of sulforaphane-rich BSE demonstrated the greatest, most consistent bioavailability. Mucosal bioactivity, defined as 2-fold or greater upregulation of NQO1 mRNA, was observed in 6 of 9 evaluable participants ingesting glucoraphanin-rich BSE; 3 of 6 ingesting sulforaphane-rich BSE; and 3 of 9 after topical-only exposure to sulforaphane-rich BSE. Together, our findings demonstrate preclinical chemopreventive activity of sulforaphane against carcinogen-induced oral cancer, and support further mechanistic and clinical investigation of sulforaphane as a chemopreventive agent against tobacco-related HNSCC. PMID:27339168

  4. Prevention of Carcinogen-Induced Oral Cancer by Sulforaphane.

    PubMed

    Bauman, Julie E; Zang, Yan; Sen, Malabika; Li, Changyou; Wang, Lin; Egner, Patricia A; Fahey, Jed W; Normolle, Daniel P; Grandis, Jennifer R; Kensler, Thomas W; Johnson, Daniel E

    2016-07-01

    Chronic exposure to carcinogens represents the major risk factor for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Beverages derived from broccoli sprout extracts (BSE) that are rich in glucoraphanin and its bioactive metabolite sulforaphane promote detoxication of airborne pollutants in humans. Herein, we investigated the potential chemopreventive activity of sulforaphane using in vitro models of normal and malignant mucosal epithelial cells and an in vivo model of murine oral cancer resulting from the carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO). Sulforaphane treatment of Het-1A, a normal mucosal epithelial cell line, and 4 HNSCC cell lines led to dose- and time-dependent induction of NRF2 and the NRF2 target genes NQO1 and GCLC, known mediators of carcinogen detoxication. Sulforaphane also promoted NRF2-independent dephosphorylation/inactivation of pSTAT3, a key oncogenic factor in HNSCC. Compared with vehicle, sulforaphane significantly reduced the incidence and size of 4NQO-induced tongue tumors in mice. A pilot clinical trial in 10 healthy volunteers evaluated the bioavailability and pharmacodynamic activity of three different BSE regimens, based upon urinary sulforaphane metabolites and NQO1 transcripts in buccal scrapings, respectively. Ingestion of sulforaphane-rich BSE demonstrated the greatest, most consistent bioavailability. Mucosal bioactivity, defined as 2-fold or greater upregulation of NQO1 mRNA, was observed in 6 of 9 evaluable participants ingesting glucoraphanin-rich BSE; 3 of 6 ingesting sulforaphane-rich BSE; and 3 of 9 after topical-only exposure to sulforaphane-rich BSE. Together, our findings demonstrate preclinical chemopreventive activity of sulforaphane against carcinogen-induced oral cancer, and support further mechanistic and clinical investigation of sulforaphane as a chemopreventive agent against tobacco-related HNSCC. Cancer Prev Res; 9(7); 547-57. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. Sulforaphane Attenuation of Type 2 Diabetes-Induced Aortic Damage Was Associated with the Upregulation of Nrf2 Expression and Function

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yonggang; Zhang, Zhiguo; Sun, Wanqing; Tan, Yi; Liu, Yucheng; Zheng, Yang; Liu, Quan; Cai, Lu; Sun, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) significantly increases risk for vascular complications. Diabetes-induced aorta pathological changes are predominantly attributed to oxidative stress. Nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor orchestrating antioxidant and cytoprotective responses to oxidative stress. Sulforaphane protects against oxidative damage by increasing Nrf2 expression and its downstream target genes. Here we explored the protective effect of sulforaphane on T2DM-induced aortic pathogenic changes in C57BL/6J mice which were fed with high-fat diet for 3 months, followed by a treatment with streptozotocin at 100 mg/kg body weight. Diabetic and nondiabetic mice were randomly divided into groups with and without 4-month sulforaphane treatment. Aorta of T2DM mice exhibited significant increases in the wall thickness and structural derangement, along with significant increases in fibrosis (connective tissue growth factor and transforming growth factor), inflammation (tumor necrosis factor-α and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1), oxidative/nitrative stress (3-nitrotyrosine and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal), apoptosis, and cell proliferation. However, these pathological changes were significantly attenuated by sulforaphane treatment that was associated with a significant upregulation of Nrf2 expression and function. These results suggest that sulforaphane is able to upregulate aortic Nrf2 expression and function and to protect the aorta from T2DM-induced pathological changes. PMID:24707343

  6. Sulforaphane attenuation of type 2 diabetes-induced aortic damage was associated with the upregulation of Nrf2 expression and function.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yonggang; Zhang, Zhiguo; Sun, Wanqing; Tan, Yi; Liu, Yucheng; Zheng, Yang; Liu, Quan; Cai, Lu; Sun, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) significantly increases risk for vascular complications. Diabetes-induced aorta pathological changes are predominantly attributed to oxidative stress. Nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor orchestrating antioxidant and cytoprotective responses to oxidative stress. Sulforaphane protects against oxidative damage by increasing Nrf2 expression and its downstream target genes. Here we explored the protective effect of sulforaphane on T2DM-induced aortic pathogenic changes in C57BL/6J mice which were fed with high-fat diet for 3 months, followed by a treatment with streptozotocin at 100 mg/kg body weight. Diabetic and nondiabetic mice were randomly divided into groups with and without 4-month sulforaphane treatment. Aorta of T2DM mice exhibited significant increases in the wall thickness and structural derangement, along with significant increases in fibrosis (connective tissue growth factor and transforming growth factor), inflammation (tumor necrosis factor-α and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1), oxidative/nitrative stress (3-nitrotyrosine and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal), apoptosis, and cell proliferation. However, these pathological changes were significantly attenuated by sulforaphane treatment that was associated with a significant upregulation of Nrf2 expression and function. These results suggest that sulforaphane is able to upregulate aortic Nrf2 expression and function and to protect the aorta from T2DM-induced pathological changes.

  7. Oligofructose protects against arsenic-induced liver injury in a model of environment/obesity interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Massey, Veronica L.; Stocke, Kendall S.; Schmidt, Robin H.

    Arsenic (As) tops the ATSDR list of hazardous environmental chemicals and is known to cause liver injury. Although the concentrations of As found in the US water supply are generally too low to directly damage the liver, subhepatotoxic doses of As sensitize the liver to experimental NAFLD. It is now suspected that GI microbiome dysbiosis plays an important role in development of NALFD. Importantly, arsenic has also been shown to alter the microbiome. The purpose of the current study was to test the hypothesis that the prebiotic oligofructose (OFC) protects against enhanced liver injury caused by As in experimental NAFLD.more » Male C57Bl6/J mice were fed low fat diet (LFD), high fat diet (HFD), or HFD containing oligofructose (OFC) during concomitant exposure to either tap water or As-containing water (4.9 ppm as sodium arsenite) for 10 weeks. HFD significantly increased body mass and caused fatty liver injury, as characterized by an increased liver weight-to-body weight ratio, histologic changes and transaminases. As observed previously, As enhanced HFD-induced liver damage, which was characterized by enhanced inflammation. OFC supplementation protected against the enhanced liver damage caused by As in the presence of HFD. Interestingly, arsenic, HFD and OFC all caused unique changes to the gut flora. These data support previous findings that low concentrations of As enhance liver damage caused by high fat diet. Furthermore, these results indicate that these effects of arsenic may be mediated, at least in part, by GI tract dysbiosis and that prebiotic supplementation may confer significant protective effects. - Highlights: • Arsenic (As) enhances liver damage caused by a high-fat (HFD) diet in mice. • Oligofructose protects against As-enhanced liver damage caused by HFD. • As causes dysbiosis in the GI tract and exacerbates the dysbiosis caused by HFD. • OFC prevents the dysbiosis caused by HFD and As, increasing commensal bacteria.« less

  8. Protective effect of ethanolic extract of polyherbal formulation on carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Gurusamy, K; Kokilavani, R; Arumugasamy, K; Sowmia, C

    2009-01-01

    Protective effect of ethanolic extract of polyherbalformulation (PHF) of three medicinalplants was studied on carbon tetrachloride induced liver damage in rats. Treatment with 250mg I kg b.w. of ethanolic extract of PHF protected rats against carbon tetrachloride liver injury by significantly lowering 5’NT, GGF, GDH and SDH and bilirubin levels compared to control group of rats. Normalising the effect of these parameters indicates strong hepatoprotective property of the PHF extract. PMID:22557313

  9. Plumbagin protects liver against fulminant hepatic failure and chronic liver fibrosis via inhibiting inflammation and collagen production

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xixi; Yang, Fengrui; Zhang, Qi; Xue, Zhenyi; Li, Yan; Zhang, Lijuan; Yang, Luhong; Miao, Guolin; Li, Daiqing; Guan, Zhiyu; Da, Yurong; Yao, Zhi; Gao, Fei; Qiao, Liang; Kong, Li; Zhang, Rongxin

    2016-01-01

    Plumbagin is a quinonoid constituent extracted from Plumbago genus, and it exhibits diverse pharmacological effects. This study thoroughly investigated the effects of plumbagin on thioacetamide-induced acute and chronic liver injury. Results shown that plumbagin increased survival rate, reduced liver congestion and inflammation, and decreased macrophages and neutrophils in the fulminant hepatic failure model, and remarkably diminished liver fibrosis and inflammation in the chronic liver injury model. Furthermore, plumbagin significantly suppress the HSCs/myofibroblasts activation by reduced expression of markers α-SMA and COL-1/3, and reduced macrophage in liver. In the in vitro study, plumbagin induced apoptosis and suppressed the proliferation of LX-2 cells (human HSCs). Plumbagin treatment increased AMPK phosphorylation and attenuated NF-κB, STAT3, and Akt/mTOR signals in LX-2 cells, while SMAD2 phosphorylation was not changed. Noticeably, plumbagin promoted AMPK binding to p300 which is a cofactor of SMAD complex, this may further competitively decreases the p300/SMAD complex initiated transcription of COL-1/3 and α-SMA. Additionally, plumbagin hampered inflammation related NF-κB signal in RAW 264.7 cells. In conclusion, these findings indicate that plumbagin may be a powerful drug candidate to protect the liver from acute and chronic damage by inhibiting inflammation and collagen production. PMID:27756878

  10. Frugal Chemoprevention: Targeting Nrf2 with Foods Rich in Sulforaphane

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Li; Palliyaguru, Dushani L.; Kensler, Thomas W.

    2015-01-01

    With the properties of efficacy, safety, tolerability, practicability and low cost, foods containing bioactive phytochemicals are gaining significant attention as elements of chemoprevention strategies against cancer. Sulforaphane [1-isothiocyanato-4-(methylsulfinyl)butane], a naturally occurring isothiocyanate produced by cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, is found to be a highly promising chemoprevention agent against not only variety of cancers such as breast, prostate, colon, skin, lung, stomach or bladder carcinogenesis, but also cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases, and diabetes. For reasons of experimental exigency, pre-clinical studies have focused principally on sulforaphane itself, while clinical studies have relied on broccoli sprout preparations rich in either sulforaphane or its biogenic precursor, glucoraphanin. Substantive subsequent evaluation of sulforaphane pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics has been undertaken using either pure compound or food matrices. Sulforaphane affects multiple targets in cells. One key molecular mechanism of action for sulforaphane entails activation of the Nrf2- Keap1 signaling pathway although other actions contribute to the broad spectrum of efficacy in different animal models. This review summarizes the current status of pre-clinical chemoprevention studies with sulforaphane and highlights the progress and challenges for the application of foods rich in sulforaphane and/or glucoraphanin in the arena of clinical chemoprevention. PMID:26970133

  11. Frugal chemoprevention: targeting Nrf2 with foods rich in sulforaphane.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li; Palliyaguru, Dushani L; Kensler, Thomas W

    2016-02-01

    With the properties of efficacy, safety, tolerability, practicability and low cost, foods containing bioactive phytochemicals are gaining significant attention as elements of chemoprevention strategies against cancer. Sulforaphane [1-isothiocyanato-4-(methylsulfinyl)butane], a naturally occurring isothiocyanate produced by cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, is found to be a highly promising chemoprevention agent against not only a variety of cancers such as breast, prostate, colon, skin, lung, stomach or bladder, but also cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases, and diabetes. For reasons of experimental exigency, preclinical studies have focused principally on sulforaphane itself, while clinical studies have relied on broccoli sprout preparations rich in either sulforaphane or its biogenic precursor, glucoraphanin. Substantive subsequent evaluation of sulforaphane pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics has been undertaken using either pure compound or food matrices. Sulforaphane affects multiple targets in cells. One key molecular mechanism of action for sulforaphane entails activation of the Nrf2-Keap1 signaling pathway although other actions contribute to the broad spectrum of efficacy in different animal models. This review summarizes the current status of pre-clinical chemoprevention studies with sulforaphane and highlights the progress and challenges for the application of foods rich in sulforaphane and/or glucoraphanin in the arena of clinical chemoprevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Protection against acetaminophen-induced liver injury by allopurinol is dependent on aldehyde oxidase-mediated liver preconditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, C. David; McGill, Mitchell R.; Lebofsky, Margitta

    2014-02-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose causes severe and occasionally fatal liver injury. Numerous drugs that attenuate APAP toxicity have been described. However these compounds frequently protect by cytochrome P450 inhibition, thereby preventing the initiating step of toxicity. We have previously shown that pretreatment with allopurinol can effectively protect against APAP toxicity, but the mechanism remains unclear. In the current study, C3HeB/FeJ mice were administered allopurinol 18 h or 1 h prior to an APAP overdose. Administration of allopurinol 18 h prior to APAP overdose resulted in an 88% reduction in liver injury (serum ALT) 6 h after APAP; however, 1 h pretreatmentmore » offered no protection. APAP-cysteine adducts and glutathione depletion kinetics were similar with or without allopurinol pretreatment. The phosphorylation and mitochondrial translocation of c-jun-N-terminal-kinase (JNK) have been implicated in the progression of APAP toxicity. In our study we showed equivalent early JNK activation (2 h) however late JNK activation (6 h) was attenuated in allopurinol treated mice, which suggests that later JNK activation is more critical for the toxicity. Additional mice were administered oxypurinol (primary metabolite of allopurinol) 18 h or 1 h pre-APAP, but neither treatment protected. This finding implicated an aldehyde oxidase (AO)-mediated metabolism of allopurinol, so mice were treated with hydralazine to inhibit AO prior to allopurinol/APAP administration, which eliminated the protective effects of allopurinol. We evaluated potential targets of AO-mediated preconditioning and found increased hepatic metallothionein 18 h post-allopurinol. These data show metabolism of allopurinol occurring independent of P450 isoenzymes preconditions the liver and renders the animal less susceptible to an APAP overdose. - Highlights: • 18 h allopurinol pretreatment protects against acetaminophen-induced liver injury. • 1 h allopurinol pretreatment does not protect

  13. Protective effect of oligomeric proanthocyanidins against alcohol-induced liver steatosis and injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiguo; Su, Bo; Fan, Sumei; Fei, Haixia; Zhao, Wei

    2015-03-20

    The long-term consumption of alcohol has been associated with multiple pathologies at all levels, such as alcoholism, chronic pancreatitis, malnutrition, alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and cancer. In the current study, we investigated the protective effect of oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPC) against alcohol-induced liver steatosis and injury and the possible mechanisms using ethanol-induced chronic liver damage mouse models. The results showed that OPC significantly improved alcohol-induced dyslipidemia and alleviated liver steatosis by reducing levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density cholesterol (LDL-c) and liver malondialdehyde (MDA), and increasing levels of serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL-c), liver superoxide dismutase (SOD). Further investigation indicated that OPC markedly decreased the expressions of lipid synthesis genes and inflammation genes such as sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (Srebp-1c), protein-2 (Srebp2), interleukin IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α. Furthermore, AML-12 cells line was used to investigate the possible mechanisms which indicated that OPC might alleviate liver steatosis and damage through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation involving oxidative stress. In conclusion, our study demonstrated excellent protective effect of OPC against alcohol-induced liver steatosis and injury, which could a potential drug for the treatment of alcohol-induced liver injury in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Involvement of the Electrophilic Isothiocyanate Sulforaphane in Arabidopsis Local Defense Responses1

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Mats X.; Nilsson, Anders K.; Johansson, Oskar N.; Boztaş, Gülin; Adolfsson, Lisa E.; Pinosa, Francesco; Petit, Christel Garcia; Aronsson, Henrik; Mackey, David; Tör, Mahmut; Hamberg, Mats; Ellerström, Mats

    2015-01-01

    Plants defend themselves against microbial pathogens through a range of highly sophisticated and integrated molecular systems. Recognition of pathogen-secreted effector proteins often triggers the hypersensitive response (HR), a complex multicellular defense reaction where programmed cell death of cells surrounding the primary site of infection is a prominent feature. Even though the HR was described almost a century ago, cell-to-cell factors acting at the local level generating the full defense reaction have remained obscure. In this study, we sought to identify diffusible molecules produced during the HR that could induce cell death in naive tissue. We found that 4-methylsulfinylbutyl isothiocyanate (sulforaphane) is released by Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaf tissue undergoing the HR and that this compound induces cell death as well as primes defense in naive tissue. Two different mutants impaired in the pathogen-induced accumulation of sulforaphane displayed attenuated programmed cell death upon bacterial and oomycete effector recognition as well as decreased resistance to several isolates of the plant pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis. Treatment with sulforaphane provided protection against a virulent H. arabidopsidis isolate. Glucosinolate breakdown products are recognized as antifeeding compounds toward insects and recently also as intracellular signaling and bacteriostatic molecules in Arabidopsis. The data presented here indicate that these compounds also trigger local defense responses in Arabidopsis tissue. PMID:25371552

  15. Withaferin A induces Nrf2-dependent protection against liver injury: Role of Keap1-independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Palliyaguru, Dushani L; Chartoumpekis, Dionysios V; Wakabayashi, Nobunao; Skoko, John J; Yagishita, Yoko; Singh, Shivendra V; Kensler, Thomas W

    2016-12-01

    Small molecules of plant origin offer presumptively safe opportunities to prevent carcinogenesis, mutagenesis and other forms of toxicity in humans. However, the mechanisms of action of such plant-based agents remain largely unknown. In recent years the stress responsive transcription factor Nrf2 has been validated as a target for disease chemoprevention. Withania somnifera (WS) is a herb used in Ayurveda (an ancient form of medicine in South Asia). In the recent past, withanolides isolated from WS, such as Withaferin A (WA) have been demonstrated to be preventive and therapeutic against multiple diseases in experimental models. The goals of this study are to evaluate withanolides such as WA as well as Withania somnifera root extract as inducers of Nrf2 signaling, to probe the underlying signaling mechanism of WA and to determine whether prevention of acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatic toxicity in mice by WA occurs in an Nrf2-dependent manner. We observed that WA profoundly protects wild-type mice but not Nrf2-disrupted mice against APAP hepatotoxicity. WA is a potent inducer of Nrf2-dependent cytoprotective enzyme expression both in vivo and in vitro. Unexpectedly, WA induces Nrf2 signaling at least in part, in a Keap1-independent, Pten/Pi3k/Akt-dependent manner in comparison to prototypical Nrf2 inducers, sulforaphane and CDDO-Im. The identification of WA as an Nrf2 inducer that can signal through a non-canonical, Keap1-independent pathway provides an opportunity to evaluate the role of other regulatory partners of Nrf2 in the dietary and pharmacological induction of Nrf2-mediated cytoprotection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Protective effect of thalidomide on endotoxin-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    Enomoto, Nobuyuki; Takei, Yoshiyuki; Hirose, Miyoko; Kitamura, Tsuneo; Ikejima, Kenichi; Sato, Nobuhiro

    2003-08-01

    Activation of Kupffer cells by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plays a pivotal role in the onset of pathophysiological events that occur during endotoxemia, and intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) is involved in LPS-stimulated cytokine production. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha is produced exclusively by the monocyte-macrophage lineage, which is mostly made up of Kupffer cells, and thalidomide has been shown to reduce TNF-alpha production from macrophages. However, there is increasing evidence that TNF-alpha may play a role in the initiation or progression of multiple organ failure syndrome. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to determine whether thalidomide could prevent LPS-induced liver injury. Rats were given a single oral dose of thalidomide (5 mg/kg). To assess the sensitization of Kupffer cells, LPS (5 or 10 mg/kg) was administered intravenously, and mortality, liver histology, and transaminases were evaluated 24 hr later. Kupffer cells were isolated 2 hr after thalidomide treatment. After the addition of LPS, [Ca2+]i was measured by using a microspectrofluorometer with the fluorescent indicator fura-2, and TNF-alpha was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. LPS caused focal necrosis with neutrophil infiltration in the liver. Moreover, LPS dramatically increased transaminases. These pathologic parameters and increases of serum transaminases were diminished markedly by thalidomide. In isolated Kupffer cells, LPS-induced increases in [Ca2+]i and TNF-alpha production were suppressed by treatment with thalidomide. To further explore the mechanism by which thalidomide directly abrogated Kupffer cell sensitivity to LPS, we determined the effect of thalidomide (5 microM) in vitro on LPS-induced [Ca2+]i response and TNF-alpha production. With the addition of thalidomide (5 microM) in vitro to the culture media for 2 hr before LPS, these parameters were suppressed. Thalidomide prevents LPS-induced liver injury via mechanisms dependent on the

  17. Identification of Plants That Inhibit Lipid Droplet Formation in Liver Cells: Rubus suavissimus Leaf Extract Protects Mice from High-Fat Diet-Induced Fatty Liver by Directly Affecting Liver Cells

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Tomohiro; Sugawara, Wataru; Takiguchi, Yuya; Takizawa, Kento; Nakabayashi, Ami; Nakamura, Mitsuo; Nagano-Ito, Michiyo; Ichikawa, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    Fatty liver disease is a condition in which abnormally large numbers of lipid droplets accumulate in liver cells. Fatty liver disease induces inflammation under conditions of oxidative stress and may result in cancer. To identify plants that protect against fatty liver disease, we examined the inhibitory effects of plant extracts on lipid droplet formation in mouse hepatoma cells. A screen of 98 water extracts of plants revealed 4 extracts with inhibitory effects. One of these extracts, Rubus suavissimus S. Lee (Tien-cha or Chinese sweet tea) leaf extract, which showed strong inhibitory effects, was tested in a mouse fatty liver model. In these mouse experiments, intake of the plant extract significantly protected mice against fatty liver disease without affecting body weight gain. Our results suggest that RSE directly affects liver cells and protects them from fatty liver disease. PMID:27429636

  18. Sulforaphane alleviates scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Siyoung; Kim, Jisung; Seo, Sang Gwon; Choi, Bo-Ryoung; Han, Jung-Soo; Lee, Ki Won; Kim, Jiyoung

    2014-07-01

    Sulforaphane, an organosulfur compound present in cruciferous vegetables, has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects in experimental in vitro and in vivo models of neurodegeneration. To determine whether sulforaphane can preserve cognitive function, we examined its effects on scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice using the Morris water maze test. Sulforaphane (10 or 50mg/kg) was administered to C57BL/6 mice by oral gavage for 14 days (days 1-14), and memory impairment was induced by intraperitoneal injection of scopolamine (1mg/kg) for 7 days (days 8-14). Mice that received scopolamine alone showed impaired learning and memory retention and considerably decreased cholinergic system reactivity in the hippocampus and frontal cortex, as indicated by a decreased acetylcholine (ACh) level and an increased acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. Sulforaphane significantly attenuated the scopolamine-induced memory impairment and improved cholinergic system reactivity, as indicated by an increased ACh level, decreased AChE activity, and increased choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) expression in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. These effects of sulforaphane on cholinergic system reactivity were confirmed in vitro. Sulforaphane (10 or 20μM) increased the ACh level, decreased the AChE activity, and increased ChAT expression in scopolamine-treated primary cortical neurons. These observations suggest that sulforaphane might exert a significant neuroprotective effect on cholinergic deficit and cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Sulforaphane Inhibits the Generation of Amyloid-β Oligomer and Promotes Spatial Learning and Memory in Alzheimer's Disease (PS1V97L) Transgenic Mice.

    PubMed

    Hou, Ting-Ting; Yang, He-Yun; Wang, Wei; Wu, Qiao-Qi; Tian, Yuan-Ruhua; Jia, Jian-Ping

    2018-01-01

    Abnormal amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregates are a striking feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and Aβ oligomers have been proven to be crucial in the pathology of AD. Any intervention targeting the generation or aggregation of Aβ can be expected to be useful in AD treatment. Oxidative stress and inflammation are common pathological changes in AD that are involved in the generation and aggregation of Aβ. In the present study, 6-month-old PS1V97L transgenic (Tg) mice were treated with sulforaphane, an antioxidant, for 4 months, and this treatment significantly inhibited the generation and aggregation of Aβ. Sulforaphane also alleviated several downstream pathological changes that including tau hyperphosphorylation, oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation. Most importantly, the cognition of the sulforaphane-treated PS1V97L Tg mice remained normal compared to that of wild-type mice at 10 months of age, when dementia typically emerges in PS1V97L Tg mice. Pretreating cultured cortical neurons with sulforaphane also protected against neuronal injury caused by Aβ oligomers in vitro. These findings suggest that sulforaphane may be a potential compound that can inhibit Aβ oligomer production in AD.

  20. Obeticholic acid protects mice against lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xi; Ren, Yuqian; Cui, Yun; Li, Rui; Wang, Chunxia; Zhang, Yucai

    2017-12-01

    Cholestasis, as a main manifestation, induces liver injury during sepsis. The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) plays an important role in regulating bile acid homeostasis. Whether FXR activation by its agonist obeticholic acid (OCA) is contributed to improve sepsis-induced liver injury remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of OCA on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute liver injury in mice. 8-week old male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into control group, LPS group, oral OCA group and LPS plus oral OCA (LPS + OCA) group. The serum and livers were collected for further analysis. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bile acid (TBA) and total bilirubin (TBIL) were measured at indicated time after LPS administration. Liver sections were stained with hematoxylin & eosin (H&E). Orally OCA pretreatment stimulated the expression of FXR and BSEP in livers and protected mice from LPS-induced hepatocyte apoptosis and inflammatory infiltration. Consistently, LPS-induced higher serum levels of ALT, AST, TBA and TBIL were significantly reversed by OCA administration. Meanwhile, the mRNA levels of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and IL-6 were decreased in livers of mice in LPS + OCA group compared with LPS group. Further investigation indicated that the higher expression of ATF4 and LC3II/I were associated with the protective effect of OCA on LPS-induced liver injury. Orally OCA pretreatment protects mice from LPS-induced liver injury possibly contributed by improved bile acid homeostasis, decreased inflammatory factors and ATF4-mediated autophagy activity in hepatocytes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Puerarin protects against CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in mice: possible role of PARP-1 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; Shi, Xiao-Lei; Feng, Min; Wang, Xun; Zhang, Zhi-Heng; Zhao, Xin; Han, Bing; Ma, Hu-Cheng; Dai, Bo; Ding, Yi-Tao

    2016-09-01

    Liver fibrosis, which is the pathophysiologic process of the liver due to sustained wound healing in response to chronic liver injury, will eventually progress to cirrhosis. Puerarin, a bioactive isoflavone glucoside derived from the traditional Chinese medicine pueraria, has been reported to have many anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrosis properties. However, the detailed mechanisms are not well studied yet. This study aimed to investigate the effects of puerarin on liver function and fibrosis process in mice induced by CCl4. C57BL/6J mice were intraperitoneally injected with 10% CCl4 in olive oil(2mL/kg) with or without puerarin co-administration (100 and 200mg/kg intraperitoneally once daily) for four consecutive weeks. As indicated by the ameliorative serum hepatic enzymes and the reduced histopathologic abnormalities, the data collected showed that puerarin can protect against CCl4-induced chronic liver injury. Moreover, CCl4-induced development of fibrosis, as evidenced by increasing expression of alpha smooth muscle actin(α-SMA), collagen-1, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β and connective tissue growth factor(CTGF) in liver, were suppressed by puerarin. Possible mechanisms related to these suppressive effects were realized by inhibition on NF-κB signaling pathway, reactive oxygen species(ROS) production and mitochondrial dysfunction in vivo. In addition, these protective inhibition mentioned above were driven by down-regulation of PARP-1 due to puerarin because puerarin can attenuate the PARP-1 expression in CCl4-damaged liver and PJ34, a kind of PARP-1 inhibitor, mimicked puerarin's protection. In conclusion, puerarin played a protective role in CCl4-induced liver fibrosis probably through inhibition of PARP-1 and subsequent attenuation of NF-κB, ROS production and mitochondrial dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Dynamic regulation of canonical TGFβ signalling by endothelial transcription factor ERG protects from liver fibrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Dufton, Neil P; Peghaire, Claire R; Osuna-Almagro, Lourdes; Raimondi, Claudio; Kalna, Viktoria; Chuahan, Abhishek; Webb, Gwilym; Yang, Youwen; Birdsey, Graeme M; Lalor, Patricia; Mason, Justin C; Adams, David H; Randi, Anna M

    2017-10-12

    The role of the endothelium in protecting from chronic liver disease and TGFβ-mediated fibrosis remains unclear. Here we describe how the endothelial transcription factor ETS-related gene (ERG) promotes liver homoeostasis by controlling canonical TGFβ-SMAD signalling, driving the SMAD1 pathway while repressing SMAD3 activity. Molecular analysis shows that ERG binds to SMAD3, restricting its access to DNA. Ablation of ERG expression results in endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) and spontaneous liver fibrogenesis in EC-specific constitutive hemi-deficient (Erg cEC-Het ) and inducible homozygous deficient mice (Erg iEC-KO ), in a SMAD3-dependent manner. Acute administration of the TNF-α inhibitor etanercept inhibits carbon tetrachloride (CCL 4 )-induced fibrogenesis in an ERG-dependent manner in mice. Decreased ERG expression also correlates with EndMT in tissues from patients with end-stage liver fibrosis. These studies identify a pathogenic mechanism where loss of ERG causes endothelial-dependent liver fibrogenesis via regulation of SMAD2/3. Moreover, ERG represents a promising candidate biomarker for assessing EndMT in liver disease.The transcription factor ERG is key to endothelial lineage specification and vascular homeostasis. Here the authors show that ERG balances TGFβ signalling through the SMAD1 and SMAD3 pathways, protecting the endothelium from endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition and consequent liver fibrosis in mice via a SMAD3-dependent mechanism.

  3. The protection of meloxicam against chronic aluminium overload-induced liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; He, Qin; Wang, Hong; Hu, Xinyue; Luo, Ying; Liang, Guojuan; Kuang, Shengnan; Mai, Shaoshan; Ma, Jie; Tian, Xiaoyan; Chen, Qi; Yang, Junqing

    2017-04-04

    The present study was designed to observe the protective effect and mechanisms of meloxicam on liver injury caused by chronic aluminium exposure in rats. The histopathology was detected by hematoxylin-eosin staining. The levels of prostaglandin E2, cyclic adenosine monophosphate and inflammatory cytokines were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The expressions of cyclooxygenases-2, prostaglandin E2 receptors and protein kinase A were measured by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Our experimental results showed that aluminium overload significantly damaged the liver. Aluminium also significantly increased the expressions of cyclooxygenases-2, prostaglandin E2, cyclic adenosine monophosphate, protein kinase A and the prostaglandin E2 receptors (EP1,2,4) and the levels of inflammation and oxidative stress, while significantly decreased the EP3 expression in liver. The administration of meloxicam significantly improved the impairment of liver. The contents of prostaglandin E2 and cyclic adenosine monophosphate were significantly decreased by administration of meloxicam. The administration of meloxicam also significantly decreased the expressions of cyclooxygenases-2 and protein kinase A and the levels of inflammation and oxidative stress, while significantly increased the EP1,2,3,4 expressions in rat liver. Our results suggested that the imbalance of cyclooxygenases-2 and downstream prostaglandin E2 signaling pathway is involved in the injury of chronic aluminium-overload rat liver. The protective mechanism of meloxicam on aluminium-overload liver injury is attributed to reconstruct the balance of cyclooxygenases-2 and downstream prostaglandin E2 signaling pathway.

  4. D, L-Sulforaphane Loaded Fe3O4@ Gold Core Shell Nanoparticles: A Potential Sulforaphane Delivery System.

    PubMed

    Kheiri Manjili, Hamidreza; Ma'mani, Leila; Tavaddod, Sharareh; Mashhadikhan, Maedeh; Shafiee, Abbas; Naderi-Manesh, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    A novel design of gold-coated iron oxide nanoparticles was fabricated as a potential delivery system to improve the efficiency and stability of d, l-sulforaphane as an anticancer drug. To this purpose, the surface of gold-coated iron oxide nanoparticles was modified for sulforaphane delivery via furnishing its surface with thiolated polyethylene glycol-folic acid and thiolated polyethylene glycol-FITC. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by different techniques such as FTIR, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The average diameters of the synthesized nanoparticles before and after sulforaphane loading were obtained ∼ 33 nm and ∼ 38 nm, respectively, when ∼ 2.8 mmol/g of sulforaphane was loaded. The result of cell viability assay which was confirmed by apoptosis assay on the human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 line) as a model of in vitro-cancerous cells, proved that the bare nanoparticles showed little inherent cytotoxicity, whereas the sulforaphane-loaded nanoparticles were cytotoxic. The expression rate of the anti-apoptotic genes (bcl-2 and bcl-xL), and the pro-apoptotic genes (bax and bak) were quantified, and it was found that the expression rate of bcl-2 and bcl-xL genes significantly were decreased when MCF-7 cells were incubated by sulforaphane-loaded nanoparticles. The sulforaphane-loaded into the designed gold-coated iron oxide nanoparticles, acceptably induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells.

  5. [Synthesis, solubility, lipids-lowering and liver-protection activities of sulfonated formononetin].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiu-ya; Meng, Qing-hua; Zhang, Zun-ting; Tian, Zhen-jun; Liu, Hui

    2009-04-01

    A water-soluble compound, sodium formononetin-3'-sulfonate with good lipid-lowering and liver-protection activities was synthesized. It was synthesized by sulfonation reaction, and its structure was characterized by IR, NMR and elemental analyses. The solubility of sodium formononetin-3'-sulfonate in water and n-octanol/water partition coefficient were determined by UV spectrophotometry. The lipid-lowering and liver-protection activities of sodium formononetin-3'-sulfonate were tested by using rat's high fat model induce by feeding with high fat food. The results showed that sodium formononetin-3'-sulfonate not only had favorable water, solubility but also had good lipid-lowering and liver-protection activities.

  6. Protective effects of Centella asiatica leaf extract on dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Myung-Joo; Zheng, Hong-Mei; Kim, Jae Min; Lee, Kye Wan; Park, Yu Hwa; Lee, Don Haeng

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress in liver injury is a major pathogenetic factor in the progression of liver damage. Centella asiatica (L.) Urban, known in the United States as Gotu kola, is widely used as a traditional herbal medicine in Chinese or Indian Pennywort. The efficacy of Centella asiatica is comprehensive and is used as an anti-inflammatory agent, for memory improvement, for its antitumor activity and for treatment of gastric ulcers. The present study investigated the protective effects of Centella asiatica on dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-induced liver injury in rats. The rats in the treatment groups were treated with Centella asiatica at either 100 or 200 mg/kg in distilled water (D.W) or with silymarin (200 mg/kg in D.W) by oral administration for 5 days daily following intraperitoneal injections of 30 mg/kg DMN. Centella asiatica significantly decreased the relative liver weights in the DMN-induced liver injury group, compared with the control. The assessment of liver histology showed that Centella asiatica significantly alleviated mass periportal ± bridging necrosis, intralobular degeneration and focal necrosis, with fibrosis of liver tissues. Additionally, Centella asiatica significantly decreased the level of malondialdehyde, significantly increased the levels of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase, and may have provided protection against the deleterious effects of reactive oxygen species. In addition, Centella asiatica significantly decreased inflammatory mediators, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor. These results suggested that Centella asiatica had hepatoprotective effects through increasing the levels of antioxidant enzymes and reducing the levels of inflammatory mediators in rats with DMN-induced liver injury. Therefore, Centella asiatica may be useful in preventing liver damage. PMID:27748812

  7. Remote ischemic preconditioning protects liver ischemia-reperfusion injury by regulating eNOS-NO pathway and liver microRNA expressions in fatty liver rats.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yun-Fei; An, Yong; Zhu, Feng; Jiang, Yong

    2017-08-15

    Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is a strategy to reduce ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. The protective effect of remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) on liver I/R injury is not clear. This study aimed to investigate the roles of RIPC in liver I/R in fatty liver rats and the involvement of endothelial nitric oxide synthase-nitric oxide (eNOS-NO) pathway and microRNA expressions in this process. A total of 32 fatty rats were randomly divided into the sham group, I/R group, RIPC group and RIPC+I/R group. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and nitric oxide (NO) were measured. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was used to observe histological changes of liver tissues, TUNEL to detect hepatocyte apoptosis, and immunohistochemistry assay to detect heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression. Western blotting was used to detect liver inducible NOS (iNOS) and eNOS protein levels and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction to detect miR-34a, miR-122 and miR-27b expressions. Compared with the sham and RIPC groups, serum ALT, AST and iNOS in liver tissue were significantly higher in other two groups, while serum NO and eNOS in liver tissue were lower, and varying degrees of edema, degeneration and inflammatory cell infiltration were found. Cell apoptosis number was slightly lower in the RIPC+I/R group than that in I/R group. Compared with the sham group, HSP70 expressions were significantly increased in other three groups (all P<0.05). Compared with the sham and RIPC groups, elevated miR-34a expressions were found in I/R and RIPC+I/R groups (P<0.05). MiR-122 and miR-27b were found significantly decreased in I/R and RIPC+I/R groups compared with the sham and RIPC groups (all P<0.05). RIPC can reduce fatty liver I/R injury by affecting the eNOS-NO pathway and liver microRNA expressions. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Short and long-term soy diet vs. casein protects liver steatosis independent of the arginine content

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the major cause of abnormal liver function, is often associated with obesity. Arginine (ARG) plays a role in modulating body weight/fat, but there are limited data as to the role that ARG may play in soy protein’s ability to protect from liver steatosis. Th...

  9. [Protective effects of polysaccharides from Dendrobium huoshanense on CCl4-induced acute liver injury in mice].

    PubMed

    Huang, Jing; Li, Sheng-Li; Zhao, Hong-Wei; Pan, Li-Hua; Sun, Hao-Qiao; Luo, Jian-Ping

    2013-02-01

    To study the protective effects of polysaccharides from Dendrobium huoshanense (DHP) against CCl4-induced liver injury in mice. Eighty male Kunming mice were randomly divided into normal control group, model control group, dextran control group, starch control group, hydrolyzate control group, three different dose of DPH groups consisting of high-dosage group, middle-dosage group and low-dosage group (200, 100, 50 mg x kg(-1)). Each group contained ten mice. The mice were treated with DHP via intragastric administration for 15 days before treatment of 50% CCl4 in olive oil for consecutive two days. Both alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities in serum and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in liver tissues were determined in all groups. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of TNF-alpha in hepatic tissue. Hepatic histopathological examination was observed. DHP effectively decreased the activities of ALT and AST in serum and the contents of hepatic MDA, and restored hepatic SOD activities in acute liver injury mice. Liver tissue damage induced by CCl4 was ameliorated in mice with DHP administration through histopathology examination. Furthermore, the expression of TNF-alpha was greatly decreased in groups treated with polysaccharides. DHP has a significantly hepatoprotective effect on CCl4-induced acute liver injury in mice. Protective effect of DHP on the liver may be related to its function of scavenging free radicals and inhibiting lipid peroxidation and TNF-alpha expression.

  10. Nod2 deficiency protects mice from cholestatic liver disease by increasing renal excretion of bile acids

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lirui; Hartmann, Phillipp; Haimerl, Michael; Bathena, Sai P.; Sjöwall, Christopher; Almer, Sven; Alnouti, Yazen; Hofmann, Alan F.; Schnabl, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Background & aims Chronic liver disease is characterized by fibrosis that may progress to cirrhosis. Nucleotide oligomerization domain 2 (Nod2), a member of the Nod-like receptor (NLR) family of intracellular immune receptors, plays an important role in the defense against bacterial infection through binding to the ligand muramyl dipeptide (MDP). Here, we investigated the role of Nod2 in the development of liver fibrosis. Methods We studied experimental cholestatic liver disease induced by bile duct ligation or toxic liver disease induced by carbon tetrachloride in wild type and Nod2−/− mice. Results Nod2 deficiency protected mice from cholestatic but not toxin-induced liver injury and fibrosis. Most notably, the hepatic bile acid concentration was lower in Nod2−/− mice than wild type mice following bile duct ligation for 3 weeks. In contrast to wild type mice, Nod2−/− mice had increased urinary excretion of bile acids, including sulfated bile acids, and an upregulation of the bile acid efflux transporters MRP2 and MRP4 in tubular epithelial cells of the kidney. MRP2 and MRP4 were downregulated by IL-1β in a Nod2 dependent fashion. Conclusions Our findings indicate that Nod2 deficiency protects mice from cholestatic liver injury and fibrosis through enhancing renal excretion of bile acids that in turn contributes to decreased concentration of bile acids in the hepatocyte. PMID:24560660

  11. Interaction of Sulforaphane with DNA and RNA

    PubMed Central

    Abassi Joozdani, Farzaneh; Yari, Faramarz; Abassi Joozdani, Parvaneh; Nafisi, Shohreh

    2015-01-01

    Sulforaphane (SFN) is an isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables with anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-cancer activities. However, the antioxidant and anticancer mechanism of sulforaphane is not well understood. In the present research, we reported binding modes, binding constants and stability of SFN–DNA and -RNA complexes by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and UV–Visible spectroscopic methods. Spectroscopic evidence showed DNA intercalation with some degree of groove binding. SFN binds minor and major grooves of DNA and backbone phosphate (PO2), while RNA binding is through G, U, A bases with some degree of SFN–phosphate (PO2) interaction. Overall binding constants were estimated to be K(SFN–DNA)=3.01 (± 0.035)×104 M-1 and K(SFN–RNA)= 6.63 (±0.042)×103 M-1. At high SFN concentration (SFN/RNA = 1/1), DNA conformation changed from B to A occurred, while RNA remained in A-family structure. PMID:26030290

  12. Protective effect of IGF-1 on experimental liver cirrhosis-induced common bile duct ligation.

    PubMed

    Cantürk, Nuh Zafer; Cantürk, Zeynep; Ozden, Meltem; Dalçik, Hakki; Yardimoglu, Melda; Tülübas, Feti

    2003-01-01

    The causes of malnutrition in liver cirrhosis are multifactorial. Levels of IGF-1 (insulin like growth factor-1) that is a crucial regulator of intermediary metabolism decreases. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of IGF-1 supplementation during liver cirrhosis induced by common bile duct ligation. Rats were divided into five different groups: One sham and four experimental groups. Rats in three of four groups were treated with 2 micrograms/day IGF-1 with a different time of experiment in each group. Blood biochemical parameters, tissue malondialdehyde, glutathione levels and the activity of tissue antioxidant enzymes and conventional and immunohistochemical analysis of liver samples were studied for each group. Serum albumin, total protein, fibrinogen levels decreased and prothrombin time was prolonged in the bile duct ligated and transected experimental group but not in the IGF-I treated rats compared with the rats in sham group. Liver malondialdehyde levels significantly increased in control group but not in IGF-1 treated groups. The activities of antioxidant enzymes were decreased compared with the other groups. Histopathology findings of liver biopsy demonstrated intense degree fibrosis and overexpression of fibroblast growth factor and desmin in the control group but a lesser degree of those in the IGF-1 treated groups. IGF-1 treatment improves liver function and decreases oxidative liver damage and histopathological findings. Further studies are required to delineate the mechanisms of protective effects of IGF-1.

  13. Sulforaphane inhibits multiple inflammasomes through an Nrf2-independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Greaney, Allison J; Maier, Nolan K; Leppla, Stephen H; Moayeri, Mahtab

    2016-01-01

    The inflammasomes are intracellular complexes that have an important role in cytosolic innate immune sensing and pathogen defense. Inflammasome sensors detect a diversity of intracellular microbial ligands and endogenous danger signals and activate caspase-1, thus initiating maturation and release of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β and interleukin-18. These events, although crucial to the innate immune response, have also been linked to the pathology of several inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. The natural isothiocyanate sulforaphane, present in broccoli sprouts and available as a dietary supplement, has gained attention for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and chemopreventive properties. We discovered that sulforaphane inhibits caspase-1 autoproteolytic activation and interleukin-1β maturation and secretion downstream of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor leucine-rich repeat proteins NLRP1 and NLRP3, NLR family apoptosis inhibitory protein 5/NLR family caspase-1 recruitment domain-containing protein 4 (NAIP5/NLRC4), and absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) inflammasome receptors. Sulforaphane does not inhibit the inflammasome by direct modification of active caspase-1 and its mechanism is not dependent on protein degradation by the proteasome or de novo protein synthesis. Furthermore, sulforaphane-mediated inhibition of the inflammasomes is independent of the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like factor 2 (Nrf2) and the antioxidant response-element pathway, to which many of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of sulforaphane have been attributed. Sulforaphane was also found to inhibit cell recruitment to the peritoneum and interleukin-1β secretion in an in vivo peritonitis model of acute gout and to reverse NLRP1-mediated murine resistance to Bacillus anthracis spore infection. These findings demonstrate that sulforaphane inhibits the inflammasomes through a novel mechanism and contributes to

  14. Sulforaphane inhibits multiple inflammasomes through an Nrf2-independent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Greaney, Allison J.; Maier, Nolan K.; Leppla, Stephen H.; Moayeri, Mahtab

    2016-01-01

    The inflammasomes are intracellular complexes that have an important role in cytosolic innate immune sensing and pathogen defense. Inflammasome sensors detect a diversity of intracellular microbial ligands and endogenous danger signals and activate caspase-1, thus initiating maturation and release of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β and interleukin-18. These events, although crucial to the innate immune response, have also been linked to the pathology of several inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. The natural isothiocyanate sulforaphane, present in broccoli sprouts and available as a dietary supplement, has gained attention for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and chemopreventive properties. We discovered that sulforaphane inhibits caspase-1 autoproteolytic activation and interleukin-1β maturation and secretion downstream of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor leucine-rich repeat proteins NLRP1 and NLRP3, NLR family apoptosis inhibitory protein 5/NLR family caspase-1 recruitment domain-containing protein 4 (NAIP5/NLRC4), and absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) inflammasome receptors. Sulforaphane does not inhibit the inflammasome by direct modification of active caspase-1 and its mechanism is not dependent on protein degradation by the proteasome or de novo protein synthesis. Furthermore, sulforaphane-mediated inhibition of the inflammasomes is independent of the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like factor 2 (Nrf2) and the antioxidant response-element pathway, to which many of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of sulforaphane have been attributed. Sulforaphane was also found to inhibit cell recruitment to the peritoneum and interleukin-1β secretion in an in vivo peritonitis model of acute gout and to reverse NLRP1-mediated murine resistance to Bacillus anthracis spore infection. These findings demonstrate that sulforaphane inhibits the inflammasomes through a novel mechanism and contributes to

  15. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Protects against Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ritze, Yvonne; Bárdos, Gyöngyi; Claus, Anke; Ehrmann, Veronika; Bergheim, Ina; Schwiertz, Andreas; Bischoff, Stephan C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Experimental evidence revealed that obesity-associated non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is linked to changes in intestinal permeability and translocation of bacterial products to the liver. Hitherto, no reliable therapy is available except for weight reduction. Within this study, we examined the possible effect of the probiotic bacterial strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) as protective agent against experimental NAFLD in a mouse model. Methods Experimental NAFLD was induced by a high-fructose diet over eight weeks in C57BL/J6 mice. Fructose was administered via the drinking water containing 30% fructose with or without LGG at a concentration resulting in approximately 5×107 colony forming units/g body weight. Mice were examined for changes in small intestinal microbiota, gut barrier function, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) concentrations in the portal vein, liver inflammation and fat accumulation in the liver. Results LGG increased beneficial bacteria in the distal small intestine. Moreover, LGG reduced duodenal IκB protein levels and restored the duodenal tight junction protein concentration. Portal LPS (P≤0.05) was reduced and tended to attenuate TNF-α, IL-8R and IL-1β mRNA expression in the liver feeding a high-fructose diet supplemented with LGG. Furthermore liver fat accumulation and portal alanine-aminotransferase concentrations (P≤0.05) were attenuated in mice fed the high-fructose diet and LGG. Conclusions We show for the first time that LGG protects mice from NAFLD induced by a high-fructose diet. The underlying mechanisms of protection likely involve an increase of beneficial bacteria, restoration of gut barrier function and subsequent attenuation of liver inflammation and steatosis. PMID:24475018

  16. Obeticholic acid protects against carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury and inflammation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Da-Gang

    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that plays important roles in regulating bile acid homeostasis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of obeticholic acid (OCA), a novel synthetic FXR agonist, carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4})-induced acute liver injury. Mice were intraperitoneally injected with CCl{sub 4} (0.15 ml/kg). In CCl{sub 4} + OCA group, mice were orally with OCA (5 mg/kg) 48, 24 and 1 h before CCl{sub 4}. As expected, hepatic FXR was activated by OCA. Interestingly, OCA pretreatment alleviated CCl{sub 4}-induced elevation of serum ALT and hepatic necrosis. Moreover, OCA pretreatmentmore » inhibited CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatocyte apoptosis. Additional experiment showed that OCA inhibits CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic chemokine gene Mcp-1, Mip-2 and Kc. Moreover, OCA inhibits CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic pro-inflammatory gene Tnf-α and Il-1β. By contrast, OCA pretreatment elevated hepatic anti-inflammatory gene Il-4. Further analysis showed that OCA pretreatment inhibited hepatic IκB phosphorylation and blocked nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 and p50 subunits during CCl{sub 4}-induced acute liver injury. In addition, OCA pretreatment inhibited hepatic Akt, ERK and p38 phosphorylation in CCl{sub 4}-induced acute liver injury. These results suggest that OCA protects against CCl{sub 4}-induced acute liver injury and inflammation. Synthetic FXR agonists may be effective antidotes for hepatic inflammation during acute liver injury. - Highlights: • OCA pretreatment activates hepatic FXR. • FXR activation protects against CCl{sub 4}-induced acute liver injury. • FXR activation inhibits hepatocyte apoptosis during CCl{sub 4}-induced liver injury. • FXR activation differentially regulates hepatic inflammatory genes. • Synthetic FXR agonists are effective antidotes for acute liver injury.« less

  17. Sulforaphane induced adipolysis via hormone sensitive lipase activation, regulated by AMPK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju-Hee; Moon, Myung-Hee; Jeong, Jae-Kyo; Park, Yang-Gyu; Lee, You-Jin; Seol, Jae-Won; Park, Sang-Youel

    2012-10-05

    Sulforaphane, an aliphatic isothiocyanate derived from cruciferous vegetables, is known for its antidiabetic properties. The effects of sulforaphane on lipid metabolism in adipocytes are not clearly understood. Here, we investigated whether sulforaphane stimulates lipolysis. Mature adipocytes were incubated with sulforaphane for 24h and analyzed using a lipolysis assay which quantified glycerol released into the medium. We investigated gene expression of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), and levels of HSL phosphorylation and AMP-activated protein kinase on sulforaphane-mediated lipolysis in adipocytes. Sulforaphane promoted lipolysis and increased both HSL gene expression and HSL activation. Sulforaphane suppressed AMPK phosphorylation at Thr-172 in a dose-dependent manner, which was associated with a decrease in HSL phosphorylation at Ser-565, enhancing the phosphorylation of HSL Ser-563. Taken together, these results suggest that sulforaphane promotes lipolysis via hormone sensitive lipase activation mediated by decreasing AMPK signal activation in adipocytes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Modification of Keap1 Cysteine Residues by Sulforaphane

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Chenqi; Eggler, Aimee L.; Mesecar, Andrew D.; van Breemen, Richard B.

    2011-01-01

    Activation of the transcription factor NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) through modification of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) cysteines, leading to up-regulation of the antioxidant response element (ARE), is an important mechanism of cellular defense against reactive oxygen species and xenobiotic electrophiles. Sulforaphane, occurring in cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, is a potent natural ARE activator that functions by modifying Keap1 cysteine residues, but there are conflicting in vitro and in vivo data regarding which of these cysteine residues react. Although most biological data indicate that modification of C151 is essential for sulforaphane action, some recent studies using mass spectrometry have failed to identify C151 as a site of Keap1 sulforaphane reaction. We have reconciled these conflicting data using mass spectrometry with a revised sample preparation protocol and confirmed that C151 is indeed among the most readily modified cysteines of Keap1 by sulforaphane. Previous mass spectrometry-based studies used iodoacetamide during sample preparation to derivatize free cysteine sulfhydryl groups causing loss of sulforaphane from highly reactive and reversible cysteine residues on Keap1 including C151. By omitting iodoacetamide from the protocol and reducing sample preparation time, our mass spectrometry-based studies now confirm previous cell-based studies which showed that sulforaphane reacts with at least four cysteine residues of Keap1 including C151. PMID:21391649

  19. Protection of Flos Lonicerae against acetaminophen-induced liver injury and its mechanism.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ping; Sheng, Yu-chen; Chen, Yu-hao; Ji, Li-li; Wang, Zheng-tao

    2014-11-01

    This study aims to observe the protective action of Flos Lonicerae (FL) aqueous extract against acetaminophen (AP)-induced liver injury and its mechanism. Results show that FL decreases AP-increased serum alanine/aspartate transaminases (ALT/AST) activity, as well as total bilirubin (TB) amount, in mice. Histological evaluation of the liver further confirms the protection of FL against AP-induced hepatotoxicity. TdT-mediated biotin-dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay shows that FL reduces AP-increased apoptotic cells. Furthermore, AP-decreased liver glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL) enzymatic activity and glutathione (GSH) amount are both reversed by FL because of the increased expression of the catalytic subunit of GCL (GCLC) protein. The amount of chlorogenic acid (CGA), caffeic acid, and luteolin, the main active compounds in FL, is detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In addition, cell viability assay demonstrates that polyphenols in FL, such as CGA, caffeic acid, as well as isochlorogenic acids A, B, and C, can reverse AP-induced cytotoxicity. In conclusion, FL can prevent AP-induced liver injury by inhibiting apoptosis. The cellular antioxidant enzyme GCL is also involved in such protection. Polyphenols may be the main active hepato-protective ingredients in FL. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Protection and bidirectional effect of rhubarb anthraquinone and tannins for rats' liver].

    PubMed

    Qin, Lu-shan; Zhao, Hai-ping; Zhao, Yan-ling; Ma, Zhi-jiel; Zeng, Ling-na; Zhang, Ya-ming; Zhang, Ping; Yan, Dan; Bai, Zhao-fang; Li, Yue; Hao, Qing-xiu; Zhao, Kui-jun; Wang, Jia-bo; Xiao, Xiao-he

    2014-06-01

    To compare the bidirectional effect of rhubarb total anthraquinone (TA) and total tannins (TT) on rats' liver. One hundred rats were randomly divided into 10 groups, i.e., the blank group, the model group, the blank + high dose TA group, the blank +low dose TA group, the blank + high dose TT group, the blank + low dose TT group, the model + high dose TA group, the model + low dose TA group, the model +high dose TT group, and the model + low dose TT group, 10 in each group. The carbon tetrachloride (CCI4) was used to prepare the acute liver injury rat model. TA and TT of rhubarb (at 5.40 g crude drugs/kg and 14.69 g crude drugs/kg) were intragastrically administrated to rats in all groups except the blank group and the model group, once daily for 6 successive days.The general state of rats, biochemical indices such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), laminin (LN), hyaluronic acid (HA), transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1), as well pathological results of rat liver tissues. Finally the protection laws of TA and TT for rats' liver were analyzed using factor analysis. Compared with the blank control group, all biochemical indices increased in the blank group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). HA also increased in the blank + high dose TA group; AST, ALT, and HA also increased in the blank +high dose TT group (P < 0.05). Compared with the model group, AST, ALT, ALP, HA, and TGF-beta1 significantly decreased in the model + low dose TA group, the model + high dose TA group, the model + low dose TT group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Serum AST, ALT, and ALP also decreased in the model + high dose TT group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Pathological results showed that mild swollen liver cells in the model + high dose TA group. Fatty degeneration and fragmental necrosis around the central veins occurred in the blank + high dose TA group. The pathological injury was inproved in the model +low dose TA group. Two common factors, liver

  1. Inactivation of kupffer cells by gadolinium chloride protects murine liver from radiation-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Du, Shi-Suo; Qiang, Min; Zeng, Zhao-Chong; Ke, Ai-Wu; Ji, Yuan; Zhang, Zheng-Yu; Zeng, Hai-Ying; Liu, Zhongshan

    2010-03-15

    To determine whether the inhibition of Kupffer cells before radiotherapy (RT) would protect hepatocytes from radiation-induced apoptosis. A single 30-Gy fraction was administered to the upper abdomen of Sprague-Dawley rats. The Kupffer cell inhibitor gadolinium chloride (GdCl3; 10 mg/kg body weight) was intravenously injected 24 h before RT. The rats were divided into four groups: group 1, sham RT plus saline (control group); group 2, sham RT plus GdCl3; group 3, RT plus saline; and group 4, RT plus GdCl3. Liver tissue was collected for measurement of apoptotic cytokine expression and evaluation of radiation-induced liver toxicity by analysis of liver enzyme activities, hepatocyte micronucleus formation, apoptosis, and histologic staining. The expression of interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha was significantly attenuated in group 4 compared with group 3 at 2, 6, 24, and 48 h after injection (p <0.05). At early points after RT, the rats in group 4 exhibited significantly lower levels of liver enzyme activity, apoptotic response, and hepatocyte micronucleus formation compared with those in group 3. Selective inactivation of Kupffer cells with GdCl3 reduced radiation-induced cytokine production and protected the liver against acute radiation-induced damage. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A whole-killed, blood-stage lysate vaccine protects against the malaria liver stage.

    PubMed

    Lu, X; Liu, T; Zhu, F; Chen, L; Xu, W

    2017-01-01

    Although the attenuated sporozoite is the most efficient vaccine to prevent infection with the malaria parasite, the limitation of a source of sterile sporozoites greatly hampers its application. In this study, we found that the whole-killed, blood-stage lysate vaccine could confer protection against the blood stage as well as the liver stage. Although the protective immunity induced by the whole-organism vaccine against the blood stage is dependent on parasite-specific CD4 + T-cell responses and antibodies, in mice immunized with the whole-killed, blood-stage lysate vaccine, CD8 + , but not CD4 + effector T-cell responses greatly contributed to protection against the liver stage. Thus, our data suggested that the whole-killed, blood-stage lysate vaccine could be an alternative promising strategy to prevent malaria infection and to reduce the morbidity and mortality of patients with malaria. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Sulforaphane pretreatment prevents systemic inflammation and renal injury in response to cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Bao; Luong, Le; Naase, Hatam; Vives, Marc; Jakaj, Gentjan; Finch, Jonathan; Boyle, Joseph; Mulholland, John W; Kwak, Jong-hwan; Pyo, Suhkneung; de Luca, Amalia; Athanasiou, Thanos; Angelini, Gianni; Anderson, Jon; Haskard, Dorian O; Evans, Paul C

    2014-08-01

    Systemic inflammatory responses are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms for systemic inflammation in response to cardiopulmonary bypass are poorly understood. A porcine model was established to study the signaling pathways that promote systemic inflammation in response to cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass under well-controlled experimental conditions. The influence of sulforaphane, an anti-inflammatory compound derived from green vegetables, on inflammation and injury in response to cardiopulmonary bypass was also studied. Intracellular staining and flow cytometry were performed to measure phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB in granulocytes and mononuclear cells. Surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass for 1 to 2 hours enhanced phosphorylation of p38 (2.5-fold) and nuclear factor-κB (1.6-fold) in circulating mononuclear cells. Cardiopulmonary bypass also modified granulocytes by activating nuclear factor-κB (1.6-fold), whereas p38 was not altered. Histologic analyses revealed that cardiopulmonary bypass promoted acute tubular necrosis. Pretreatment of animals with sulforaphane reduced p38 (90% reduction) and nuclear factor-κB (50% reduction) phosphorylation in leukocytes and protected kidneys from injury. Systemic inflammatory responses after cardiopulmonary bypass were associated with activation of p38 and nuclear factor-κB pathways in circulating leukocytes. Inflammatory responses to cardiopulmonary bypass can be reduced by sulforaphane, which reduced leukocyte activation and protected against renal injury. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Protective and therapeutic effects of Crataegus aronia in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Al Humayed, Suliman

    2017-02-01

    We evaluated the potential preventive and therapeutic effects of Crataegus aronia (C. aronia) in NAFLD induced by high-fat diet (HFD) in rat models. Protective effect of Crataegus aronia or simvastatin was investigated in Wistar rats fed either low-fat diet (LFD) or HFD. Liver histopathological examinations confirmed the development of NAFLD in rats fed HFD. In both protective and therapeutic treatments, C. aronia significantly reduced liver index (3.85 ± 0.21% in HFD plus aronia group versus 6.22 ± 0.58% in HFD model group), increased the HDL-cholesterol and reduced the LDL-cholesterol in blood. The hawthorn plant also significantly ameliorated oxidative stress biomarker (p < 0.002) and liver enzymes (p < 0.0001) that indicate liver damage. C. aronia exhibits therapeutic and protective effects on NAFLD in an animal model possibly by its lipid lowering and antioxidant effects; thus, may offer therapeutic potential in humans.

  5. Decoy receptor 3 analogous supplement protects steatotic rat liver from ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Li, Tzu-Hao; Liu, Chih-Wei; Lee, Pei-Chang; Huang, Chia-Chang; Lee, Kuei-Chuan; Hsieh, Yun-Cheng; Yang, Ying-Ying; Hsieh, Shie-Liang; Lin, Han-Chieh; Tsai, Chang-Youh

    2017-07-01

    For steatotic livers, pharmacological approaches to minimize the hepatic neutrophil and macrophage infiltration, and cytokine and chemokine release in ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury are still limited. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α superfamily-stimulated pathogenic cascades and M1 macrophage/Kupffer cells (KC) polarization from Th1 cytokines are important in the pathogenesis of IR liver injury with hepatic steatosis (HS). Conversely, anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages produce Th2 cytokine (interleukin-4), which reciprocally enhances M2 polarization. Toll-like receptor 4-activated KCs can release proinflammatory mediators, skew M1 polarization and escalate liver IR injury. Decoy receptor 3 (DcR 3 ) could be potential agents simultaneously blocking the IR liver injury-related pathogenic changes and extend the survival of steatotic graft. Rats were fed with methionine and choline-deficient high-fat diet (MCD HFD) for 6 weeks to induce HS. Preliminary experiments with HS group and IR group were conducted, and either immunoglobulin G Fc protein or DcR3 analogue was treated for 14 days in all groups to evaluate the severity. In the Zucker rat-focused experiments, various serum and hepatic substances, M1 polarization, and hepatic microcirculation were assessed. We found that serum/hepatic DcR 3 levels were lower in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease patients with HS. DcR 3 a protected Zucker rats with HS from IR liver injury. The beneficial effects of DcR 3 a supplement were mediated by inhibiting hepatic M1 polarization of KCs, decreasing serum/hepatic TNFα, nitric oxide, nitrotyrosine, soluble TNF-like cytokine 1A, Fas ligand, and interferon-γ levels, neutrophil infiltration, and improving hepatic microcirculatory failure among rats with IR-injured steatotic livers. Additionally, downregulated hepatic TNF-like cytokine 1A/Fas-ligand and toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor-κB signals were found to mediate the DcR 3 a-related protective effects of steatotic livers from

  6. Hydrogen sulfide mediates the anti-survival effect of sulforaphane on human prostate cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pei, Yanxi; College of Life Science, Shanxi University, Taiyuan; Wu, Bo

    2011-12-15

    Hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) is a novel gasotransmitter that regulates cell proliferation and other cellular functions. Sulforaphane (SFN) is a sulfur-containing compound that exhibits anticancer properties, and young sprouts of broccoli are particularly rich in SFN. There is consistent epidemiological evidence that the consumption of sulfur-containing vegetables, such as garlic and cruciferous vegetables, may help reduce the occurrence of prostate cancer. Here we found that a large amount of H{sub 2}S is released when SFN is added into cell culture medium or mixed with mouse liver homogenates, respectively. Both SFN and NaHS (a H{sub 2}S donor) decreased the viability ofmore » PC-3 cells (a human prostate cancer cell line) in a dose-dependent manner, and supplement of methemoglobin or oxidized glutathione (two H{sub 2}S scavengers) reversed SFN-reduced cell viability. We further found both cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE) and cystathionine beta-synthase are expressed in PC-3 cells and mouse prostate tissues. H{sub 2}S production in prostate tissues from CSE knockout mice was only 20% of that from wild-type mice, suggesting CSE is a major H{sub 2}S-producing enzyme in prostate. CSE overexpression enhanced H{sub 2}S production and inhibited cell viability in PC-3 cells. In addition, both SFN and NaHS activated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Pre-treatment of PC-3 cells with methemoglobin decreased SFN-stimulated MAPK activities. Suppression of both p38 MAPK and JNK reversed H{sub 2}S- or SFN-reduced viability of PC-3 cells. Our results demonstrated that H{sub 2}S mediates the inhibitory effect of SFN on the proliferation of PC-3 cells, which suggests that H{sub 2}S-releasing diet or drug might be beneficial in the treatment of prostate cancer. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A large amount of H{sub 2}S is released from sulforaphane. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 2}S mediates the anti-survival effect of

  7. Physical activity as a protective factor for development of non-alcoholic fatty liver in men

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Carla Giuliano de Sá; Marega, Marcio; de Carvalho, José Antonio Maluf; Carmona, Felipe Gambetta; Lopes, Carlos Eduardo Felix; Ceschini, Fabio Luis; Bocalini, Danilo Sales; Figueira, Aylton José

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the impact of physical activity on the prevalence of fatty liver, metabolic and cardiovascular disease in adult men. Methods This study evaluated 1,399 men (40.7±8.18 years) with body mass index of 26.7kg/m2 (±3.4) who participated in the Protocol of Preventive Health Check-up at Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein from January to October 2011. We conducted tests of serum blood glucose, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, reactive c-protein, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. The statistical analysis comprised in the comparison of mean and standard deviation. The analysis of variance was based in two paths of two way ANOVA, Student’s t-test, Mann Whitney U test, Wald test and χ2. We considered a significance level at p<0.05 and correlation of univariate Poison with 95% confidence interval. Results :Fatty liver was diagnosed in 37.0% of the sample. Triglyceride levels of active men with fatty liver were 148.2±77.6mg/dL while inactive men with fatty liver had 173.4±15.6mg/dL. The remaining serum levels were normal. Inactive individuals showed higher values than active. In addition, inactive individuals have 10.68 times higher risk of developing fatty liver compared with active. Conclusion Physical activity improves metabolic parameters such as triglycerides, weight control, HDL, which interfere in the development of fatty liver. Physically active individuals had lower fatty liver prevalence regardless of values of body composition and lipid profile, leading the conclusion that physical activity has a protective role against development of fatty liver. PMID:25993066

  8. Sulforaphane Modifies Histone H3, Unpacks Chromatin, and Primes Defense.

    PubMed

    Schillheim, Britta; Jansen, Irina; Baum, Stephani; Beesley, Alexander; Bolm, Carsten; Conrath, Uwe

    2018-03-01

    Modern crop production calls for agrochemicals that prime plants for enhanced defense. Reliable test systems for spotting priming-inducing chemistry, however, are rare. We developed an assay for the high-throughput search for compounds that prime microbial pattern-induced secretion of antimicrobial furanocoumarins (phytoalexins) in cultured parsley cells. The screen produced 1-isothiocyanato-4-methylsulfinylbutane (sulforaphane; SFN), a secondary metabolite in many crucifers, as a novel defense priming compound. While elucidating SFN's mode of action in defense priming, we found that in Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) the isothiocyanate provokes covalent modification (K4me3, K9ac) of histone H3 in the promoter and promoter-proximal region of defense genes WRKY6 and PDF1 2 , but not PR1 SFN-triggered H3K4me3 and H3K9ac coincide with chromatin unpacking in the WRKY6 and PDF1 2 regulatory regions, primed WRKY6 expression, unprimed PDF1 2 activation, and reduced susceptibility to downy mildew disease ( Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis ). Because SFN also directly inhibits H arabidopsidis and other plant pathogens, the isothiocyanate is promising for the development of a plant protectant with a dual mode of action. © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Role of 4-hydroxynonenal in chemopreventive activities of sulforaphane

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rajendra; Sharma, Abha; Chaudhary, Pankaj; Sahu, Mukesh; Jaiswal, Shailesh; Awasthi, Sanjay; Awasthi, Yogesh C.

    2012-01-01

    Chemoprevention of cancer via herbal and dietary supplements is a logical approach to combat cancer and presently it is an attractive area of research investigations. Over the years, the use of isothiocyanates, such as sulforaphane (SFN) found in cruciferous vegetables, has been advocated as chemopreventive agents and their efficacy has been demonstrated in cell lines and animal models. In-vivo studies with SFN suggest that besides protecting normal healthy cells from environmental carcinogens it also exhibits cytotoxicity and apoptotic effects against various cancer cell types. Among several mechanisms for the chemopreventive activity of SFN against chemical carcinogenesis, its effect on drug metabolizing enzymes that causes activation/ neutralization of carcinogenic metabolites is well established. Recent studies suggest that SFN exerts its selective cytotoxicity to cancer cells via reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated generation of lipid peroxidation (LPO) products particularly 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE). Against the background of the known biochemical effects of SFN on normal and cancer cells, in this article we have reviewed the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for the overall chemopreventive effects of SFN focusing on the role of HNE in these mechanisms that may also contribute to its selective cytotoxicity to cancer cells. PMID:22579574

  10. Effects of sulforaphane on neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhenxian; Xu, Qian; Li, Changfu; Zhao, Hong

    2017-03-01

    Sulforaphane (SFN) is a natural organosulfur compound with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammation properties. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of SFN on the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells (NSC). NSCs were exposed to SFN at the concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 10 µM. Cell viability was evaluated with MTT assay and lactate dehydogenase (LDH) release assay. The proliferation of NSCs was evaluated with neurosphere formation assay and Ki-67 staining. The level of Tuj-1 was evaluated with immunostaining and Western blot to assess NSC neuronal differentiation. The expression of key proteins in the Wnt signaling pathway, including β-catenin and cyclin D1, in response to SFN treatment or the Wnt inhibitor, DKK-1, was determined by Western blotting. No significant cytotoxicity was seen for SFN on NSCs with SFN at concentrations of less than 10 µM. On the contrary, SFN of low concentrations stimulated cell proliferation and prominently increased neurosphere formation and NSC differentiation to neurons. SFN treatment upregulated Wnt signaling in the NSCs, whereas DKK-1 attenuated the effects of SFN. SFN is a drug to promote NSC proliferation and neuronal differentiation when used at low concentrations. These protective effects are mediated by Wnt signaling pathway. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The effects of sulforaphane on canine osteosarcoma proliferation and invasion.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, V L; Levine, C B; Wakshlag, J J

    2017-09-01

    Recent evidence in in vitro and in vivo models suggests that sulforaphane (SFN), found in raw cruciferous vegetables, may have utility in chemoprevention, as an antineoplastic agent and as a free radical scavenger. The effects of SFN alone or with doxorubicin on cell viability were examined, as well as cell cycle kinetics, invasion capabilities and apoptosis in three canine osteosarcoma cell line (D17, OS 2.4 and HMPOS). Results showed that SFN could not induce cell death at potentially physiological concentrations (<50 μM), but significantly diminished cell invasion and downregulation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling. Modest cell cycle changes were observed in each cell line. When doxorubicin was used in conjunction with SFN, there was a protective effect to doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity in D17 and OS 2.4 cells. Further studies examining SFN as a supplement are warranted, particularly in light of pro-proliferative and cytoprotective properties in canine osteosarcoma. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Supplementation of the Diet by Exogenous Myrosinase via Mustard Seeds to Increase the Bioavailability of Sulforaphane in Healthy Human Subjects After the Consumption of Cooked Broccoli.

    PubMed

    Okunade, Olukayode; Niranjan, Keshavan; Ghawi, Sameer K; Kuhnle, Gunter; Methven, Lisa

    2018-05-28

    Broccoli contains the glucosinolate glucoraphanin which, in the presence of myrosinase, can hydrolyse to the isothiocyanate sulforaphane, reported to have anti-carcinogenic activity. However, the myrosinase enzyme is denatured on cooking. Addition of an active source of myrosinase, such as from powdered mustard seed, to cooked brassica vegetables can increase the release of health beneficial isothiocyanates, however this has not previously been proven in-vivo. The concentration of sulforaphane metabolite (sulforaphane N-acetyl-L-cysteine (SF-NAC) in 12 healthy adults after the consumption of 200g cooked broccoli, with and without 1 g powdered brown mustard, was studied in a randomized crossover design. During the 24 hour period following consumption of the study sample all urine was collected. SF-NAC content was assayed by HPLC. When study subjects ingested cooked broccoli alone, mean urinary SF-NAC excreted was 9.8 ± 5.1 μmol per g creatinine, whilst when cooked broccoli was consumed with mustard powder this increased significantly to 44.7 ± 33.9 μmol SF-NAC per g creatinine. These results conclude that when powdered brown mustard is added to cooked broccoli the bioavailability of sulforaphane is over four times greater than that from cooked broccoli ingested alone. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Curcumin Protects Against Intestinal Origin Endotoxemia in Rat Liver Cirrhosis by Targeting PCSK9.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yu; Lu, Di; Zou, Yanting; Zhou, Chaohui; Liu, Hongchun; Tu, Chuantao; Li, Feng; Liu, Lili; Zhang, Shuncai

    2017-03-01

    Intestinal origin endotoxemia always occurs in severe liver injury. The aim of the current study was to test antiendotoxemia effect of curcumin on tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced liver cirrhosis rats, and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism. Rat cirrhosis models were constructed with CCl 4 subcutaneous injections with curcumin (200 mg/kg/d) administered via gavages for 12 wk until the rats were sacrificed. We found that the administration of curcumin improved the physiological condition pertaining to activity index and temperature, and ameliorated the liver injury in CCl 4 -induced cirrhosis rats. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) showed that curcumin could reduce c-reaction protein levels and inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and CINC-1/IL-8) concentrations in peripheral serum and liver tissue. Furthermore, curcumin treatment decreased lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels in peripheral vein, but not in portal vein. As low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) is the important receptor on the surface of hepatocyte during LPS detoxification process, we used qRT-PCR, western blot, and immunohistochemistry (IHC), finding that curcumin significantly increased LDLR protein levels, but not gene levels in the liver tissues. We also tested proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), one negative regulator of LDLR, by qRT-PCR, western blot, and IHC. The results showed that PCSK9 significantly decreased both gene and protein levels in the rat liver tissues of curcumin treatment. Thus, we concluded that curcumin could function to protect against intestinal origin endotoxemia by inhibiting PCSK9 to promote LDLR expression, thereby enhancing LPS detoxification as one pathogen lipid through LDLR in the liver. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  14. HIP/PAP accelerates liver regeneration and protects against acetaminophen injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Lieu, Hanh-Tu; Batteux, Frédéric; Simon, Marie-Thérèse; Cortes, Alexandre; Nicco, Carole; Zavala, Flora; Pauloin, Alain; Tralhao, José Guilherme; Soubrane, Olivier; Weill, Bernard; Bréchot, Christian; Christa, Laurence

    2005-09-01

    Human hepatocarcinoma-intestine-pancreas/pancreatic-associated protein HIP/PAP is a secreted C-type lectin belonging to group VII, according to Drickamer's classification. HIP/PAP is overexpressed in liver carcinoma; however, its functional role remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that HIP/PAP is a paracrine hepatic growth factor promoting both proliferation and viability of liver cells in vivo. First, a low number of implanted hepatocytes deriving from HIP/PAP-transgenic mice (<1:1,000) was sufficient to stimulate overall recipient severe combined immunodeficiency liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy. After a single injection of HIP/PAP protein, the percentages of bromodeoxyuridine-positive nuclei and mitosis were statistically higher than after saline injection, indicating that HIP/PAP acts as a paracrine mitogenic growth factor for the liver. Comparison of the early events posthepatectomy in control and transgenic mice indicated that HIP/PAP accelerates the accumulation/degradation of nuclear phospho-signal transducer activator transcription factor 3 and tumor necrosis factor alpha level, thus reflecting that HIP/PAP accelerates liver regeneration. Second, we showed that 80% of the HIP/PAP-transgenic mice versus 25% of the control mice were protected against lethal acetaminophen-induced fulminate hepatitis. A single injection of recombinant HIP/PAP induced a similar cytoprotective effect, demonstrating the antiapoptotic effect of HIP/PAP. Comparison of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione reductase-like effects in control and transgenic liver mice indicated that HIP/PAP exerts an antioxidant activity and prevents reactive oxygen species-induced mitochondrial damage by acetaminophen overdose. In conclusion, the present data offer new insights into the biological functions of C-type lectins. In addition, HIP/PAP is a promising candidate for the prevention and treatment of liver failure.

  15. Proteomic analysis of protective effects of polysaccharides from Salvia miltiorrhiza against immunological liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xue-Gang; Fu, Xiu-Qiong; Cai, Hong-Bing; Liu, Qiang; Li, Chun-Hua; Liu, Ya-Wei; Li, Ying-Jia; Liu, Zhi-Feng; Song, Yu-Hong; Lv, Zhi-Ping

    2011-07-01

    This study was designed to investigate mechanisms of the protective effects of Salvia miltiorrhiza polysaccharide (SMPS) against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced immunological liver injury (ILI) in Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-primed mice. Two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis showed that three proteins are down-regulated and six proteins are up-regulated by SMPS. SMPS reduces the degree of liver injury by up-regulating the enzymes of the citric acid cycle, namely malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex. LPS significantly increases nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and MDA level in BCG primed mice liver, whereas SMPS treatment protects against the immunological liver injury through inhibition of the NF-κB activation by up-regulation of PRDX6 and the subsequent attenuation of lipid peroxidation, iNOS expression and inflammation. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. The protective effects of pomegranate on liver and remote organs caused by experimental obstructive jaundice model.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, E E; Arikanoğlu, Z; Turkoğlu, A; Kiliç, E; Yüksel, H; Gümüş, M

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the protective potential of pomegranate extract on the liver and remote organs in rats with obstructive jaundice. The rats were split into 4 groups. In Group 1 (G1) (sham group) rats, the common bile duct was mobilized without any ligation. Group 2 (G2) received a combination of the sham operation and synchronous treatment with pomegranate. Group 3 (G3) received common bile duct ligation (CBDL). Group 4 (G4) were subjected to CBDL and treatment with pomegranate. After 8 days, we measured total oxidative status (TOS) and antioxidant capacity in the rats' liver tissue and remote organs, and evaluated blood levels of malondialdehyde and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). G3 rats showed significantly raised malondialdehyde level as compared to G1 rats (p < 0.001). Following the pomegranate therapy, a decrease in malondialdehyde was observed (p = 0.015). TAC levels were significantly raised in the G3 rats compared to the G1 rats (p = 0.004). TAC levels dropped after pomegranate therapy (p = 0.011). CBDL caused elevated TOS levels in the liver and remote organs, with a statistically significant increase in the lung tissue (p = 0.002). TOS levels in the CBDL groups decreased after pomegranate treatment (p < 0.001). This study reveals the marked protective effect of pomegranate on the liver and remote organs in obstructive jaundice.

  17. The protective effect of pomegranate extract against cisplatin toxicity in rat liver and kidney tissue.

    PubMed

    Bakır, Salih; Yazgan, Ümit Can; İbiloğlu, İbrahim; Elbey, Bilal; Kızıl, Murat; Kelle, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform a histopathological investigation, at the light microscopy level, of the protective effects of pomegranate extract in cisplatin-induced liver and kidney damage in rats. Twenty-eight adult male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into four groups of seven animals: Group 1: Control; Group 2: Treated for 10 consecutive days by gavage with pomegranate juice (2 ml/kg/day); Group 3: Injected intraperitoneally with cisplatin (8 mg/kg body weight, single dose) onset of the day 5, and Group 4: Treated by gavage with pomegranate juice 10 days before and after a single injection of cisplatin onset of the day 5. After 10 days, the animals were sacrificed and their kidneys and liver tissue samples were removed from each animal after experimental procedures. Cisplatin-induced renal and hepatic toxicity and the effect of pomegranate juice were evaluated by histopatological examinations. In the kidney tissue, pomegranate juice significantly ameliorated cisplatin-induced structural alterations when compared with the cisplatin alone group. But in the liver tissue, although pomegranate juice attenuated the cisplatin-induced toxicity only in two rats, significant improvement was not observed. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that the anti-oxidant pomegranate juice might have a protective effect against cisplatin-induced toxicity in rat kidney, but not in liver. Pomegranate juice could be beneficial as a dietary supplement in patients receiving chemotherapy medications.

  18. Protection from liver fibrosis by a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ agonist.

    PubMed

    Iwaisako, Keiko; Haimerl, Michael; Paik, Yong-Han; Taura, Kojiro; Kodama, Yuzo; Sirlin, Claude; Yu, Elizabeth; Yu, Ruth T; Downes, Michael; Evans, Ronald M; Brenner, David A; Schnabl, Bernd

    2012-05-22

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARδ), a member of the nuclear receptor family, is emerging as a key metabolic regulator with pleiotropic actions on various tissues including fat, skeletal muscle, and liver. Here we show that the PPARδ agonist KD3010, but not the well-validated GW501516, dramatically ameliorates liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) injections. Deposition of extracellular matrix proteins was lower in the KD3010-treated group than in the vehicle- or GW501516-treated group. Interestingly, profibrogenic connective tissue growth factor was induced significantly by GW501516, but not by KD3010, following CCl(4) treatment. The hepatoprotective and antifibrotic effect of KD3010 was confirmed in a model of cholestasis-induced liver injury and fibrosis using bile duct ligation for 3 wk. Primary hepatocytes treated with KD3010 but not GW501516 were protected from starvation or CCl(4)-induced cell death, in part because of reduced reactive oxygen species production. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that an orally active PPARδ agonist has hepatoprotective and antifibrotic effects in animal models of liver fibrosis, suggesting a possible mechanistic and therapeutic approach in treating patients with chronic liver diseases.

  19. Protective Role of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidins Against Ccl4 Induced Acute Liver Injury in Mice.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jinfa; Qi, Fengjie; Ye, Liping; Yao, Suyan

    2016-03-17

    We investigated the effect of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute liver injury. Sixty SPF KM mice were randomly divided into 6 groups: the control group, CCl4-model group, bifendate group (DDB group), and low-, moderate-, and high-dose GSP groups. The following parameters were measured: serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT); aspartate aminotransferase (AST); tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α; interleukin-6 (IL-6); high-mobility group box (HMGB)-1; body weight; liver, spleen, and thymus indexes; superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity; HMGB1 mRNA; malondialdehyde (MDA) content; hepatocyte proliferation; and changes in liver histology. Compared to the CCl4-model group, decreases in liver index and increases in thymus index significantly increased SOD and GSH-Px activities and reduced MDA content, and higher hepatocyte proliferative activity was found in all GSP dose groups and the DDB group (all P<0.001). Compared with the CCl4-model group, serum TNF-α and IL-6 levels and HMGB 1 mRNA and protein expressions decreased significantly in the high GSP dose group (all P<0.05). Our results provide strong evidence that administration of GSPs might confer significant protection against CCl4-induced acute liver injury in mice.

  20. Obeticholic acid protects against carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Da-Gang; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Jun-Xian; Wang, Bi-Wei; Wang, Hua; Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Lu, Yan; Tao, Li; Wang, Jian-Qing; Chen, Xi; Xu, De-Xiang

    2017-01-01

    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that plays important roles in regulating bile acid homeostasis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of obeticholic acid (OCA), a novel synthetic FXR agonist, carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced acute liver injury. Mice were intraperitoneally injected with CCl 4 (0.15ml/kg). In CCl 4 +OCA group, mice were orally with OCA (5mg/kg) 48, 24 and 1h before CCl 4 . As expected, hepatic FXR was activated by OCA. Interestingly, OCA pretreatment alleviated CCl 4 -induced elevation of serum ALT and hepatic necrosis. Moreover, OCA pretreatment inhibited CCl 4 -induced hepatocyte apoptosis. Additional experiment showed that OCA inhibits CCl 4 -induced hepatic chemokine gene Mcp-1, Mip-2 and Kc. Moreover, OCA inhibits CCl 4 -induced hepatic pro-inflammatory gene Tnf-α and Il-1β. By contrast, OCA pretreatment elevated hepatic anti-inflammatory gene Il-4. Further analysis showed that OCA pretreatment inhibited hepatic IκB phosphorylation and blocked nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 and p50 subunits during CCl 4 -induced acute liver injury. In addition, OCA pretreatment inhibited hepatic Akt, ERK and p38 phosphorylation in CCl 4 -induced acute liver injury. These results suggest that OCA protects against CCl 4 -induced acute liver injury and inflammation. Synthetic FXR agonists may be effective antidotes for hepatic inflammation during acute liver injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Marine collagen peptides protect against early alcoholic liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Bing; Zhang, Feng; Yu, Yongchao; Jiang, Qinghao; Zhang, Zhaofeng; Wang, Junbo; Li, Yong

    2012-04-01

    Marine collagen peptides (MCP) have been reported to exhibit antioxidative activity, which is the common property of numerous hepatoprotective agents. Previous studies have shown that MCP have biological functions including anti-hypertension, anti-ulcer, anti-skin ageing and extending the life span. However, its role in alcoholic liver injury remains unknown. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of MCP on early alcoholic liver injury in rats. Rats were administered with alcohol at a dose of 6 g/kg body weight intragastrically per d to induce early liver injury, which was then evaluated by serum markers and histopathological examination. Treatment with MCP could reverse the increased level of serum aminotransferase and reduce hepatic histological damage. In addition, MCP attenuated the alteration in serum superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde levels. MCP also counteracted the increased levels of total cholesterol and TAG. However, no significant difference was observed in the contents of alcohol dehydrogenase both in liver and serum protein of rats. These findings suggest that MCP have a protective effect on early alcoholic liver injury in rats by their antioxidative activity and improving lipid metabolism.

  2. Sulforaphane inhibits the Th2 immune response in ovalbumin-induced asthma.

    PubMed

    Park, Jun Ho; Kim, Jong Won; Lee, Chang-Min; Kim, Yeong Dae; Chung, Sung Woon; Jung, In Duk; Noh, Kyung Tae; Park, Jin Wook; Heo, Deok Rim; Shin, Yong Kyoo; Seo, Jong Keun; Park, Yeong-Min

    2012-05-01

    Sulforaphane (1-isothiocyanato-4-(methylsulfinyl)-butane), belonging to a family of natural compounds that are abundant in broccoli, has received significant therapeutic interest in recent years. However, the molecular basis of its effects remains to be elucidated. In this study, we attempt to determine whether sulforaphane regulates the inflammatory response in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced murine asthma model. Mice were sensitized with OVA, treated with sulforaphane, and then challenged with OVA. Sulforaphane administration significantly alleviated the OVA-induced airway hyperresponsiveness to inhaled methacholine. Additionally, sulforaphane suppressed the increase in the levels of SOCS-3 and GATA-3 and IL-4 expression in the OVA-challenged mice. Collectively, our results demonstrate that sulforaphane regulates Th2 immune responses. This sutdy provides novel insights into the regulatory role of sulforaphane in allergen-induced Th2 inflammation and airway responses, which indicates its therapeutic potential for asthma and other allergic diseases.

  3. Protective effects of glycyrrhizic acid against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xue; Duan, Xingping; Wang, Changyuan; Liu, Zhihao; Sun, Pengyuan; Huo, Xiaokui; Ma, Xiaodong; Sun, Huijun; Liu, Kexin; Meng, Qiang

    2017-07-05

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become a predictive factor of death from many diseases. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the protective effect of glycyrrhizic acid (GA), a natural triterpene glycoside, on NAFLD induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) in mice, and further to elucidate the mechanisms underlying GA protection. GA treatment significantly reduced the relative liver weight, serum ALT, AST activities, levels of serum lipid, blood glucose and insulin. GA suppressed lipid accumulation in liver. Further mechanism investigation indicated that GA reduced hepatic lipogenesis via downregulating SREBP-1c, FAS and SCD1 expression, increased fatty acids β-oxidation via an increase in PPARα, CPT1α and ACADS, and promoted triglyceride metabolism through inducing LPL activity. Furthermore, GA reduced gluconeogenesis through repressing PEPCK and G6Pase, and increased glycogen synthesis through an induction in gene expression of PDase and GSK3β. In addition, GA increased insulin sensitivity through upregulating phosphorylation of IRS-1 and IRS-2. In conclusion, GA produces protective effect against NAFLD, due to regulation of genes involved in lipid, glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Protective effect of artemisinin on chronic alcohol induced-liver damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaoyan; Wang, Liqing; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Duoduo; Zhang, Zhihao; Zhang, Jie

    2017-06-01

    The liver disease related to chronic alcohol consumption is one of the leading causes of death for alcoholics. The efficient drug to ameliorate the alcoholic liver injury was needed urgently. The present study was performed to investigate whether artemisinin possessed the protective effect against chronic alcohol consumption. 50 male Kunming mice were divided into 5 groups: control group (C): 10ml/kg saline+10ml/kg saline, alcohol group (A): 10ml/kg 56%(v/v) alcohol+10ml/kg saline, low dose group of artemisinin (L): 10ml/kg 56%(v/v) alcohol+30mg/kg/day artemisinin, medium dose group of artemisinin (M): 10ml/kg 56%(v/v) alcohol+60mg/kg/day artemisinin, high dose group of artemisinin (H): 10ml/kg 56%(v/v) alcohol+120mg/kg/day artemisinin. Drugs were given orally every day. The general state of mice was observed and the levels of serum activities of AST and ALT were detected after treatment with drugs for 30days. Besides, the liver weight index was calculated and histopathological analysis was performed. We successfully demonstrated that treatment with high dose of artemisinin significantly decreased the elevated levels of AST (p<0.05) and ALT (p<0.01) in plasma, as well as the liver weight index (p<0.01). The loss of body weight, tissue injury, oedema and inflammatory cell infiltration in the hepatocytes were found in the A group. These symptoms were remarkably alleviated in animals treated with artemisinin. Artemisinin can inhibit the activation of NF-кB and the expression of inflammatory cytokines inducible nitric oxide synthase. Besides, it can also enhance the stability of liver cell membrane, and reduce the damage of liver cell membrane and liver cell. Artemisinin showed a protective effect against chronic alcohol poisoning and it has a great potential for the clinical application to treat the liver injury induced by alcohol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Cannabidiol protects liver from binge alcohol-induced steatosis by mechanisms including inhibition of oxidative stress and increase in autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lili; Rozenfeld, Raphael; Wu, Defeng; Devi, Lakshmi A.; Zhang, Zhenfeng; Cederbaum, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    Acute alcohol drinking induces steatosis, and effective prevention of steatosis can protect liver from progressive damage caused by alcohol. Increased oxidative stress has been reported as one mechanism underlying alcohol-induced steatosis. We evaluated whether cannabidiol, which has been reported to function as an antioxidant, can protect the liver from alcohol-generated oxidative stress-induced steatosis. Cannabidiol can prevent acute alcohol-induced liver steatosis in mice, possibly by preventing the increase in oxidative stress and the activation of the JNK MAPK pathway. Cannabidiol per se can increase autophagy both in CYP2E1-expressing HepG2 cells and in mouse liver. Importantly, cannabidiol can prevent the decrease in autophagy induced by alcohol. In conclusion, these results show that cannabidiol protects mouse liver from acute alcohol-induced steatosis through multiple mechanisms including attenuation of alcohol-mediated oxidative stress, prevention of JNK MAPK activation, and increasing autophagy. PMID:24398069

  6. Ultra Low Dose Delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Protects Mouse Liver from Ischemia Reperfusion Injury.

    PubMed

    Hochhauser, Edith; Lahat, Eylon; Sultan, Maya; Pappo, Orit; Waldman, Maayan; Sarne, Yosef; Shainberg, Asher; Gutman, Mordechai; Safran, Michal; Ben Ari, Ziv

    2015-01-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is the main cause of both primary graft dysfunction and primary non-function of liver allografts. Cannabinoids has been reported to attenuate myocardial, cerebral and hepatic I/R oxidative injury. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), a cannabinoid agonist, is the active components of marijuana. In this study we examined the role of ultralow dose THC (0.002mg/kg) in the protection of livers from I/R injury. This extremely low dose of THC was previously found by us to protect the mice brain and heart from a variety of insults. C57Bl Mice were studied in in vivo model of hepatic segmental (70%) ischemia for 60min followed by reperfusion for 6 hours. THC administration 2h prior to the induction of hepatic I/R was associated with significant attenuated elevations of: serum liver transaminases ALT and AST, the hepatic oxidative stress (activation of the intracellular signaling CREB pathway), the acute proinflammatory response (TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-10 and c-FOS hepatic mRNA levels, and ERK signaling pathway activation). This was followed by cell death (the cleavage of the pro-apoptotic caspase 3, DNA fragmentation and TUNEL) after 6 hours of reperfusion. Significantly less hepatic injury was detected in the THC treated I/R mice and fewer apoptotic hepatocytes cells were identified by morphological criteria compared with untreated mice. A single ultralow dose THC can reduce the apoptotic, oxidative and inflammatory injury induced by hepatic I/R injury. THC may serve as a potential target for therapeutic intervention in hepatic I/R injury during liver transplantation, liver resection and trauma. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Hyperammonemia induces glial activation, neuroinflammation and alters neurotransmitter receptors in hippocampus, impairing spatial learning: reversal by sulforaphane.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Rabaza, Vicente; Cabrera-Pastor, Andrea; Taoro-González, Lucas; Malaguarnera, Michele; Agustí, Ana; Llansola, Marta; Felipo, Vicente

    2016-02-16

    Patients with liver cirrhosis and minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) show mild cognitive impairment and spatial learning dysfunction. Hyperammonemia acts synergistically with inflammation to induce cognitive impairment in MHE. Hyperammonemia-induced neuroinflammation in hippocampus could contribute to spatial learning impairment in MHE. Two main aims of this work were: (1) to assess whether chronic hyperammonemia increases inflammatory factors in the hippocampus and if this is associated with microglia and/or astrocytes activation and (2) to assess whether hyperammonemia-induced neuroinflammation in the hippocampus is associated with altered membrane expression of glutamate and GABA receptors and spatial learning impairment. There are no specific treatments for cognitive alterations in patients with MHE. A third aim was to assess whether treatment with sulforaphane enhances endogenous the anti-inflammatory system, reduces neuroinflammation in the hippocampus of hyperammonemic rats, and restores spatial learning and if normalization of receptor membrane expression is associated with learning improvement. We analyzed the following in control and hyperammonemic rats, treated or not with sulforaphane: (1) microglia and astrocytes activation by immunohistochemistry, (2) markers of pro-inflammatory (M1) (IL-1β, IL-6) and anti-inflammatory (M2) microglia (Arg1, YM-1) by Western blot, (3) membrane expression of GABA, AMPA, and NMDA receptors using the BS3 cross-linker, and (4) spatial learning using the radial maze. The results reported show that hyperammonemia induces astrocytes and microglia activation in the hippocampus, increasing pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6. This is associated with altered membrane expression of AMPA, NMDA, and GABA receptors which would be responsible for altered neurotransmission and impairment of spatial learning in the radial maze. Treatment with sulforaphane promotes microglia differentiation from pro-inflammatory M1 to anti

  8. Small heterodimer partner overexpression partially protects against liver tumor development in farnesoid X receptor knockout mice

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Guodong; Kong, Bo; Zhu, Yan

    2013-10-15

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR, Nr1h4) and small heterodimer partner (SHP, Nr0b2) are nuclear receptors that are critical to liver homeostasis. Induction of SHP serves as a major mechanism of FXR in suppressing gene expression. Both FXR{sup −/−} and SHP{sup −/−} mice develop spontaneous hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). SHP is one of the most strongly induced genes by FXR in the liver and is a tumor suppressor, therefore, we hypothesized that deficiency of SHP contributes to HCC development in the livers of FXR{sup −/−} mice and therefore, increased SHP expression in FXR{sup −/−} mice reduces liver tumorigenesis. To test this hypothesis, wemore » generated FXR{sup −/−} mice with overexpression of SHP in hepatocytes (FXR{sup −/−}/SHP{sup Tg}) and determined the contribution of SHP in HCC development in FXR{sup −/−} mice. Hepatocyte-specific SHP overexpression did not affect liver tumor incidence or size in FXR{sup −/−} mice. However, SHP overexpression led to a lower grade of dysplasia, reduced indicator cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. All tumor-bearing mice had increased serum bile acid levels and IL-6 levels, which was associated with activation of hepatic STAT3. In conclusion, SHP partially protects FXR{sup −/−} mice from HCC formation by reducing tumor malignancy. However, disrupted bile acid homeostasis by FXR deficiency leads to inflammation and injury, which ultimately results in uncontrolled cell proliferation and tumorigenesis in the liver. - Highlights: • SHP does not prevent HCC incidence nor size in FXR KO mice but reduces malignancy. • Increased SHP promotes apoptosis. • Bile acids and inflammation maybe critical for HCC formation with FXR deficiency.« less

  9. [Protective effects of five different types of Dendrobium on CCl4-induced liver injury in mice].

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Sui, Dan-Juan; Wang, Chang-Suo; Yang, Li; Ouyang, Zhen; Chen, Nai-Fu; Han, Bang-Xing; Wei, Yuan

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to investigate the protective effect of Dendrobium huoshanense, D.officinale(Huoshan), D.officinale(Yunnan), D.moniliforme and D. henanense on CCl4-induced hepatic damage in mice. C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into control group, model group, high-dose(7.5 g•kg⁻¹) and low-dose (1.25 g•kg⁻¹) groups of the five Dendrobium. Each group was intragastrically administered with drugs for 2 weeks. The control group was intraperitoneally injected with Olive oil solution, while the other groups were intraperitoneally given 0.5%CCl4combined with Olive oil solution 2 h later after the last administration. Subsequently, ALT and AST activities in serum, SOD activities and MDA contents in liver tissues were determined in all groups 16 h later after administration. The liver index was calculated, and hepatic histopathological examination was performed. The mRNA expressions of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α were analyzed by Real-time PCR. Compared with the CCl4 model group, the activities of ALT and AST in serum decreased significantly in the five different Dendrobium groups. Meanwhile, in liver tissues, the levels of MDA reduced obviously, while the SOD activities markedly increased. Furthermore, liver tissue damage induced by CCl4 was ameliorated according to the histopathological examination. IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA expressions in D.huoshanense-treated liver tissues were significantly decreased. In conclusion, the five different Dendrobium groups showed hepatoprotective effects on CCl4-induced acute liver injury in mice. However, there were differences among Dendrobium of different types and origins. The protect effect of D.huoshanense is the most obvious, and the order of the protective effect of the other Dendrobium from high to low is D.officinale(Yunnan), D. officinale(Huoshan), D.henanense and D.moniliforme. The differences between the different types of Dendrobium might be related to their chemical components. Copyright© by the Chinese

  10. The protective effect of Nigella sativa against liver injury: a review.

    PubMed

    Mollazadeh, Hamid; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2014-12-01

    Nigella sativa (Family Ranunculaceae) is a widely used medicinal plant throughout the world. N. sativa is referred in the Middle East as a part of an overall holistic approach to health. Pharmacological properties of N. sativa including immune stimulant, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, spasmolytic and bronchodilator have been shown. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress are known as the major causes of many diseases such as liver injury and many substances and drugs can induce oxidative damage by generation of ROS in the body. Many pharmacological properties of N. sativa are known to be attributed to the presence of thymoquinone and its antioxidant effects. Thymoquinone protects liver from injury via different mechanisms including inhibition of iron-dependent lipid peroxidation, elevation in total thiol content and glutathione level, radical scavengering, increasing the activity of quinone reductase, catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione transferase, inhibition of NF-κB activity and inhibition of both cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase. Therefore, this review aimed to highlight the roles of ROS in liver diseases and the mechanisms of N. sativa in prevention of liver injury.

  11. Grape Juice Concentrate Protects Rat Liver Against Cadmium Intoxication: Histopathology, Cytochrome C and Metalloproteinases Expression.

    PubMed

    de Moura, C F G; Ribeiro, F A P; Handan, B A; Aguiar, O; Oshima, C T F; Ribeiro, D A

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if grape juice concentrate is able to protect rat liver against cadmium toxicity. For this purpose, histopathological analysis, cytochrome C expression and immunoexpresssion of metalloproteinases (MMP) 2 and 9 were investigated. A total of 15 Wistar rats weighing 250 g on the average, and 8 weeks age were distributed into 3 groups (n=5), as follows: Control group (non-treated group, CTRL); Cadmium group (Cd) and grape juice concentrate group (Cd+GJ). Histopathological analysis revealed that liver from animals treated with grape juice concentrate improved tissue degeneration induced by cadmium intoxication. Animals intoxicated with cadmium and treated with grape juice concentrate showed higher cytochrome C gene expression in liver cells. No significant statistically differences (p>0.05) were found to MMP 2 and 9 immunoexpression between groups. Taken together, our results demonstrate that grape juice concentrate is able to prevent tissue degeneration in rat liver as a result of increasing apoptosis. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Protection effect of piper betel leaf extract against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Young, Shun-Chieh; Wang, Chau-Jong; Lin, Jing-Jing; Peng, Pei-Ling; Hsu, Jui-Ling; Chou, Fen-Pi

    2007-01-01

    Piper betel leaves (PBL) are used in Chinese folk medicine for the treatment of various disorders. PBL has the biological capabilities of detoxication, antioxidation, and antimutation. In this study, we evaluated the antihepatotoxic effect of PBL extract on the carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver injury in a rat model. Fibrosis and hepatic damage, as reveled by histology and the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were induced in rats by an administration of CCl(4) (8%, 1 ml/kg body weight) thrice a week for 4 weeks. PBL extract significantly inhibited the elevated AST and ALT activities caused by CCl(4) intoxication. It also attenuated total glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and GST alpha isoform activity, and on the other hand, enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities. The histological examination showed the PBL extract protected liver from the damage induced by CCl(4) by decreasing alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-sma) expression, inducing active matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) expression though Ras/Erk pathway, and inhibiting TIMP2 level that consequently attenuated the fibrosis of liver. The data of this study support a chemopreventive potential of PBL against liver fibrosis.

  13. Protective effect of wedelolactone against CCl4-induced acute liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yang; Hu, DongMei; Ma, ShanBo; Zhao, Xian; Wang, Shan; Wei, Guo; Wang, XiFang; Wen, AiDong; Wang, JingWen

    2016-05-01

    Eclipta, a traditional Chinese medicine, has been used to treat liver disease for centuries. However, the chemical basis and biological mechanisms of Eclipta remain elusive. The current study aims to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of wedelolactone (WEL), a major coumarin in Eclipta, using C57BL/6 mice with carbon tetrachloride CCl4-induced acute liver injury (ALI). Our data showed that WEL markedly decreased the CCl4-induced elevation of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, and improved hepatic histopathology changes. WEL also significantly decreased the content of MDA in liver tissues, meanwhile increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes SOD and GSH-Px. In addition, WEL reduced the protein expression of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6, as well as mRNA expression. Western blot results revealed that WEL repressed phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and translocation of NF-κB p65 from cytoplasm to nucleus and enhanced the phosphorylation of c-Jun. N-terminal kinase (JNK). Moreover, results showed that WEL significantly inhibited CCl4-induced hepatocytes apoptosis, markedly suppressed the down-regulation of Bax and active Caspase-3 expression and accelerated the expression of Bcl-2. Overall, the findings indicate that WEL exhibits a protective effect against CCl4-induced ALI in mice by enhancing the antioxidative defense system, suppressing the inflammatory response and cell apoptosis of liver. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Protective effect of purple sweet potato flavonoids on CCL4-induced acute liver injury in mice].

    PubMed

    Ye, Shuya; Li, Xiangrong; Shao, Yingying

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the protective effect of purple sweet potato flavonoids (PSPF) on CCl4-induced acute liver injury in mice. Sixty mice were randomly divided into six groups (n=10 in each): blank group, model group, PSPF groups (400 mg*kg(-1), 200 mg*kg-1 and 100 mg*kg(-1)) and positive control group (DDB 150 mg*kg(-1)). Acute liver injury was induced by administration of peanut oil with 0.1% CCl4 (10 mg*kg(-1)) in mice. The viscera index, serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured, and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) in hepatic tissues were also measured. The pathological changes of liver were observed with microscopy. PSPF significantly decreased serum ALT, AST and LDH levels (P<0.05 or P<0.01) and MDA content in hepatic tissues (P<0.01), increased the activities of SOD (P<0.01). Purple sweet potato total flavonoids can prevent CCl4-induced acute liver injury in mice, which may be related to inhibition of lipid peroxidation and reduction of oxygen free radicals.

  15. Protective Effect of Cymbopogon citratus Essential Oil in Experimental Model of Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Nancy Sayuri; Silva-Filho, Saulo Euclides; Aguiar, Rafael Pazinatto; Wiirzler, Luiz Alexandre Marques; Cardia, Gabriel Fernando Esteves; Cavalcante, Heitor Augusto Otaviano; Silva-Comar, Francielli Maria de Souza; Becker, Tânia Cristina Alexandrino; Silva, Expedito Leite; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the hepatoprotective effect of Cymbopogon citratus or lemongrass essential oil (LGO), it was used in an animal model of acute liver injury induced by acetaminophen (APAP). Swiss mice were pretreated with LGO (125, 250 and 500[Formula: see text]mg/kg) and SLM (standard drug, 200[Formula: see text]mg/kg) for a duration of seven days, followed by the induction of hepatotoxicity of APAP (single dose, 250[Formula: see text]mg/kg). The liver function markers alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma-glutamyl transferase were determined to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of the LGO. The livers were used to determine myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, nitric oxide (NO) production and histological analysis. The effect of LGO on leukocyte migration was evaluated in vitro. Anti-oxidant activity was performed by assessing the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) in vitro. LGO pretreatment decreased significantly the levels of ALT, AST and ALP compared with APAP group. MPO activity and NO production were decreased. The histopathological analysis showed an improved of hepatic lesions in mice after LGO pretreatment. LGO inhibited neutrophil migration and exhibited anti-oxidant activity. Our results suggest that LGO has protective activity against liver toxicity induced by paracetamol.

  16. Increased seizure susceptibility and other toxicity symptoms following acute sulforaphane treatment in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Socała, Katarzyna, E-mail: ksocala@op.pl

    Activation of Nrf2 with sulforaphane has recently gained attention as a new therapeutic approach in the treatment of many diseases, including epilepsy. As a plant-derived compound, sulforaphane is considered to be safe and well-tolerated. It is widely consumed, also by patients suffering from seizure and taking antiepileptic drugs, but no toxicity profile of sulforaphane exists. Since many natural remedies and dietary supplements may increase seizure risk and potentially interact with antiepileptic drugs, the aim of our study was to investigate the acute effects of sulforaphane on seizure thresholds and activity of some first- and second-generation antiepileptic drugs in mice. Inmore » addition, some preliminary toxicity profile of sulforaphane in mice after intraperitoneal injection was evaluated. The LD{sub 50} value of sulforaphane in mice was estimated at 212.67 mg/kg, while the TD{sub 50} value – at 191.58 mg/kg. In seizure tests, sulforaphane at the highest dose tested (200 mg/kg) significantly decreased the thresholds for the onset of the first myoclonic twitch and generalized clonic seizure in the iv PTZ test as well as the threshold for the 6 Hz-induced psychomotor seizure. At doses of 10–200 mg/kg, sulforaphane did not affect the threshold for the iv PTZ-induced forelimb tonus or the threshold for maximal electroshock-induced hindlimb tonus. Interestingly, sulforaphane (at 100 mg/kg) potentiated the anticonvulsant efficacy of carbamazepine in the maximal electroshock seizure test. This interaction could have been pharmacokinetic in nature, as sulforaphane increased concentrations of carbamazepine in both serum and brain tissue. The toxicity study showed that high doses of sulforaphane produced marked sedation (at 150–300 mg/kg), hypothermia (at 150–300 mg/kg), impairment of motor coordination (at 200–300 mg/kg), decrease in skeletal muscle strength (at 250–300 mg/kg), and deaths (at 200–300 mg/kg). Moreover, blood analysis showed

  17. Free phenolic acids from the seaweed Halimeda monile with antioxidant effect protecting against liver injury.

    PubMed

    Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Novoa, Alexis Vidal; González, Ana Elsa Batista; de Andrade-Wartha, Elma Regina S; de O e Silva, Ana Mara; Pinto, José Ricardo; Mancini, Dalva Assunção Portari

    2009-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are found in seaweed species together with other substances presenting antioxidant activity. The objective of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the free phenolic acids (FPA) fraction from the seaweed Halimeda monile, and its activity to protect the expression of hepatic enzymes in rats, under experimental CCl4 injury. The antioxidant activity was measured by the DPPH method. The FPA fraction (80 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered during 20 consecutive days to rats. The peroxidation was performed by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The SOD and CAT enzymatic expressions were measured by RT/PCR. The histology technique was used to evaluate liver injuries. The expression of both, CAT and SOD genes, was more preserved by FPA. Only partial injury could be observed by histology in the liver of rats receiving FPA as compared with the control group; and CCl4 administration induced 60% more peroxidation as compared with the rats receiving FPA. These data suggest that FPA could modulate the antioxidant enzymes and oxidative status in the liver through protection against adverse effects induced by chemical agents.

  18. Melatonin protects against taurolithocholic-induced oxidative stress in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Broto, Lorena; Miana-Mena, Francisco J; Piedrafita, Eduardo; Berzosa, César; Martínez-Ballarín, Enrique; García-Gil, Francisco A; Reiter, Russel J; García, Joaquín J

    2010-08-01

    Cholestasis, encountered in a variety of clinical disorders, is characterized by intracellular accumulation of toxic bile acids in the liver. Furthermore, oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of bile acids. Taurolithocholic acid (TLC) was revealed in previous studies as the most pro-oxidative bile acid. Melatonin, a well-known antioxidant, is a safe and widely used therapeutic agent. Herein, we investigated the hepatoprotective role of melatonin on lipid and protein oxidation induced by TLC alone and in combination with FeCl(3) and ascorbic acid in rat liver homogenates and hepatic membranes. The lipid peroxidation products, malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxyalkenals (MDA + 4-HDA), and carbonyl levels were quantified as indices of oxidative damage to hepatic lipids and proteins, respectively. In the current study, the rise in MDA + 4-HDA levels induced by TLC was inhibited by melatonin in a concentration-dependent manner in both liver homogenates and in hepatic membranes. Melatonin also had protective effects against structural damage to proteins induced by TLC in membranes. These results suggest that the indoleamine melatonin may potentially act as a protective agent in the therapy of those diseases that involve bile acid toxicity. Published 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Protective Effects of Lemon Juice on Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu-Jie; Xu, Dong-Ping; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Yue; Zheng, Jie; Li, Ya; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao

    2017-01-01

    Chronic excessive alcohol consumption (more than 40–80 g/day for males and more than 20–40 g/day for females) could induce serious liver injury. In this study, effects of lemon juice on chronic alcohol-induced liver injury in mice were evaluated. The serum biochemical profiles and hepatic lipid peroxidation levels, triacylglycerol (TG) contents, antioxidant enzyme activities, and histopathological changes were examined for evaluating the hepatoprotective effects of lemon juice in mice. In addition, the in vitro antioxidant capacities of lemon juice were determined. The results showed that lemon juice significantly inhibited alcohol-induced increase of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), hepatic TG, and lipid peroxidation levels in a dose-dependent manner. Histopathological changes induced by alcohol were also remarkably improved by lemon juice treatment. These findings suggest that lemon juice has protective effects on alcohol-induced liver injury in mice. The protective effects might be related to the antioxidant capacity of lemon juice because lemon juice showed in vitro antioxidant capacity. PMID:28567423

  20. Protective Effects of Lemon Juice on Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury in Mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tong; Zhang, Yu-Jie; Xu, Dong-Ping; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Yue; Zheng, Jie; Li, Ya; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Hua-Bin

    2017-01-01

    Chronic excessive alcohol consumption (more than 40-80 g/day for males and more than 20-40 g/day for females) could induce serious liver injury. In this study, effects of lemon juice on chronic alcohol-induced liver injury in mice were evaluated. The serum biochemical profiles and hepatic lipid peroxidation levels, triacylglycerol (TG) contents, antioxidant enzyme activities, and histopathological changes were examined for evaluating the hepatoprotective effects of lemon juice in mice. In addition, the in vitro antioxidant capacities of lemon juice were determined. The results showed that lemon juice significantly inhibited alcohol-induced increase of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), hepatic TG, and lipid peroxidation levels in a dose-dependent manner. Histopathological changes induced by alcohol were also remarkably improved by lemon juice treatment. These findings suggest that lemon juice has protective effects on alcohol-induced liver injury in mice. The protective effects might be related to the antioxidant capacity of lemon juice because lemon juice showed in vitro antioxidant capacity.

  1. Clinical and molecular evidence of the consumption of broccoli, glucoraphanin and sulforaphane in humans.

    PubMed

    Conzatti, Adriana; Fróes, Fernanda Carolina Telles da Silva; Schweigert Perry, Ingrid Dalira; Souza, Carolina Guerini de

    2014-11-30

    Sulforaphane (SFN) is an isothiocyanate derived from glucoraphanin (GRA), which is found in great amounts especially in broccoli. Its consumption has been reported to be associated with a lower risk of myocardial infarction and cancer development. Additionally, its effects have been studied in neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, and atherosclerosis, most of the times using animal models and cell cultures. Given the promising results of SFN, this review aimed to investigate evidence documented in human intervention studies with broccoli, GRA and SFN. A search was performed on PubMed and Virtual Health Library databases by two independent researchers using the descriptors "broccoli" or "glucoraphanin" or "sulforaphane", which should appear on the study's title or abstract. This review included randomized clinical trials performed in humans that were published in English and Portuguese from 2003 to 2013 and that considered clinical and molecular parameters of cell damage as outcomes of interest. Seventeen studies were selected, and the predominant type of intervention was broccoli sprouts. More consistent results were obtained for the clinical parameters blood glucose and lipid profile and for molecular parameters of oxidative stress, indicating that there was an improvement in these parameters after intervention. Less solid evidence was found with regard to decreased inflammation, Helicobacter pylori colonization, and protection against cancer. Although being relevant, the evidence for the use of broccoli, GRA and SFN in humans are limited; thus, further intervention studies are needed to evaluate outcomes more consistently and reach better grounded conclusions. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  2. Sulforaphane inhibits restenosis by suppressing inflammation and the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jin-Sook; Joung, Hosouk; Kim, Yong Sook; Shim, Young-Sun; Ahn, Youngkeun; Jeong, Myung Ho; Kee, Hae Jin

    2012-11-01

    Sulforaphane, a naturally occurring organosulfur compound in broccoli, has chemopreventive properties in cancer. However, the effects of sulforaphane in vascular diseases have not been examined. We therefore aimed to investigate the effects of sulforaphane on vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and neointimal formation and the related mechanisms. The expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) was examined in VSMCs. The nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and GATA6 expression was examined in VSMCs and in a carotid artery injury model by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. We also investigated whether local delivery of sulforaphane affected neointimal formation. Sulforaphane inhibited the mRNA and protein expression of VCAM-1 induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in VSMCs. Treatment of VSMCs with sulforaphane blocked TNF-α-induced IκBα degradation and NF-κB p65 and GATA6 expression. Furthermore, NF-κB p65 and GATA6 expression were reduced in sulforaphane-treated carotid injury sections. Notably, binding of GATA6 to the VCAM-1 promoter was dramatically reduced by sulforaphane. The MTT, BrdU incorporation, and in vitro scratch assays revealed that the proliferation and migration of VSMCs were reduced by sulforaphane. Furthermore, local administration of sulforaphane significantly reduced neointima formation 14 days after vascular injury in rats. Our results indicate that sulforaphane inhibits neointima formation via targeting of adhesion molecules through the suppression of NF-κB/GATA6. Furthermore, sulforaphane regulates migration and proliferation in VSMCs. Sulforaphane may be a potential therapeutic agent for preventing restenosis after vascular injury. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Arctigenin protects against liver injury from acute hepatitis by suppressing immune cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xixi; Wang, Huafeng; Yang, Jinlai; Cheng, Yingnan; Wang, Dan; Yang, Fengrui; Li, Yan; Zhou, Dongmei; Wang, Yanxia; Xue, Zhenyi; Zhang, Lijuan; Zhang, Qi; Yang, Luhong; Zhang, Rongxin; Da, Yurong

    2018-06-01

    As a phenylpropanoid and dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan present in medical plants, such as those used in traditional Chinese herbal medicine, including Arctium lappa (Niubang), arctigenin exhibits antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. In this study, we investigated the protective role of arctigenin in Concanavalin A (ConA)-induced acute hepatitis in mice. Arctigenin remarkably reduced the congestion and necroinflammation of livers, and improved hepatic function (ALT and AST) in ConA-induced acute hepatitis in vivo. The infiltration of CD4 T, NKT and macrophages into the livers was found to be reduced with arctigenin treatment. Arctigenin suppressed ConA-induced T lymphocyte proliferations that might have resulted from enhanced IL-10 production by macrophages and CD4 T cells. These results suggested that arctigenin could be a powerful drug candidate for acute hepatitis through immune suppression. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Protective effects of α-mangostin against acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Fu, Tianhua; Wang, Shijie; Liu, Jinping; Cai, Enbo; Li, Haijun; Li, Pingya; Zhao, Yan

    2018-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of α-mangostin against acetaminophen (APAP)-induced acute liver injury and discover its potential mechanisms in mice. Mice were continuously treated with α-mangostin (12.5 and 25 mg/kg) by intragastric administration once daily for 6 days, and injected intraperitoneally with APAP (300 mg/kg) after 1 h of α-mangostin administration on the last day. After APAP exposure for 24 h, the liver and serum were gathered to evaluate the hepatotoxicity. The results showed that α-mangostin effectively decreased the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate transaminase, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukin-1β and 6 (IL-1β, IL-6), and hepatic malondialdehyde level; and recovered hepatic glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. Liver histopathological observation provided further evidence that α-mangostin pretreatment significantly inhibited APAP-induced hepatocellular necrosis, infiltration of inflammatory cell and hyperemia. According to the analysis of western-blot and RT-PCR detection, α-mangostin pretreatment validly inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK, JNK and p38 MAPK induced by APAP, which was consistent with the changes of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β levels; the phosphorylation of IκBα and the translocation of NF-κBp65 were also attenuated by α-mangostin. These results provided a new mechanism for the protective effects of α-mangostin against APAP-induced acute liver injury. α-Mangostin significantly restrainted the oxidative stress induced by APAP. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory property of α-mangostin, which is mediated by the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways, also contributed to its hepatoprotective effect. Taken together, we believed that α-mangostin might be a potential material for drug development against drug-related hepatotoxicity. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Protective effect of Xingnaojia formulation on rats with brain and liver damage caused by chronic alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuang; Wang, S U; Guo, Zhi-Gang; Huang, Ning; Zhao, Fan-Rong; Zhu, Mo-Li; Ma, Li-Juan; Liang, Jin-Ying; Zhang, Yu-Lin; Huang, Zhong-Lin; Wan, Guang-Rui

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the effect of a formulation of traditional Chinese medicine extracts known as Xingnaojia (XNJ) on the liver function, learning ability and memory of rats with chronic alcoholism and to verify the mechanism by which it protects the brain and liver. A rat model of chronic alcoholism was used in the study. The spatial learning ability and memory of the rats were tested. The rats were then sacrificed and their brains and hepatic tissues were isolated. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and levels of glutamate (Glu), N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subtype 2B (NR2B), cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) and cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) in the hippocampus were analyzed. The ultrastructure of the hepatic tissue was observed by electron microscopy. In addition, the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in serum were tested and the levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides (TG) and total cholesterol (TCHOL) were analyzed. XNJ enhanced the learning and memory of rats with chronic alcoholism. Treatment with XNJ increased the activity of SOD, and decreased the expression levels of NR2B mRNA and NR2B, CB1 and CDK5 proteins in the brain tissues compared with those in the model rats. It also increased the activity of ALDH in the serum and liver, decreased the serum levels of LDL, TG and TCHOL and increased the serum level of HDL. These results indicate that XNJ exhibited a protective effect against brain and liver damage in rats with chronic alcoholism.

  6. Protective effects of cassia seed ethanol extract against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qing; Guo, Fang-Fang; Zhou, Wen

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been recognized as a critical pathogenetic mechanism for the initiation and the progression of hepatic injury in a variety of liver disorders. Antioxidants, including many natural compounds or extracts, have been used to cope with liver disorders. The present study was designed to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of cassia seed ethanol extract (CSE) in carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver injury in mice. The animals were pre-treated with different doses of CSE (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 g/kg body weight) or distilled water for 5 days, then were injected intraperitoneally with CCl(4) (0.1% in corn oil, v/v, 20 ml/kg body weight), and sacrificed at 16 hours after CCl(4) exposure. The serum aminotransferase activities, histopathological changes, hepatic and mitochondrial antioxidant indexes, and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) activities were examined. Consistent with previous studies, acute CCl(4) administration caused great lesion to the liver, shown by the elevation of the serum aminotransferase activities, mitochondria membrane permeability transition (MPT), and the ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes. However, these adverse effects were all significantly inhibited by CSE pretreatment. CCl(4)-induced decrease of the CYP2E1 activity was dose-dependently inhibited by CSE pretreatment. Furthermore, CSE dramatically decreased the hepatic and mitochondrial malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, increased the hepatic and mitochondrial glutathione (GSH) levels, and restored the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione S-transferase (GST). These results suggested that CSE could protect mice against CCl(4)-induced liver injury via enhancement of the antioxidant capacity.

  7. Dietary Fisetin Supplementation Protects Against Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury in Mice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qian; Zhang, Wenliang; Zhong, Wei; Sun, Xinguo; Zhou, Zhanxiang

    2016-10-01

    Overproduction of reactive oxygen species is associated with the development of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Plant polyphenols have been used as dietary interventions for multiple diseases including ALD. The objective of this study was to determine whether dietary supplementation with fisetin, a novel flavonoid, exerts beneficial effect on alcohol-induced liver injury. C57BL/6J mice were pair-fed with the Lieber-DeCarli control or ethanol (EtOH) diet for 4 weeks with or without fisetin supplementation at 10 mg/kg/d. Alcohol feeding induced lipid accumulation in the liver and increased plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, which were attenuated by fisetin supplementation. The EtOH concentrations in the plasma and liver were significantly elevated by alcohol exposure but were reduced by fisetin supplementation. Although fisetin did not affect the protein expression of alcohol metabolism enzymes, the aldehyde dehydrogenase activities were significantly increased by fisetin compared to the alcohol alone group. In addition, fisetin supplementation remarkably reduced hepatic NADPH oxidase 4 levels along with decreased plasma hydrogen peroxide and hepatic superoxide and 4-hydroxynonenal levels after alcohol exposure. Alcohol-induced apoptosis and up-regulation of Fas and cleaved caspase-3 in the liver were prevented by fisetin. Moreover, fisetin supplementation attenuated alcohol-induced hepatic steatosis through increasing plasma adiponectin levels and hepatic protein levels of p-AMPK, ACOX1, CYP4A, and MTTP. This study demonstrated that the protective effect of fisetin on ALD is achieved by accelerating EtOH clearance and inhibition of oxidative stress. The data suggest that fisetin has a therapeutical potential for treating ALD. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  8. Dietary fisetin supplementation protects against alcohol-induced liver injury in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qian; Zhang, Wenliang; Zhong, Wei; Sun, Xinguo; Zhou, Zhanxiang

    2016-01-01

    Background Overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is associated with the development of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Plant polyphenols have been used as dietary inverventions for multiple diseases including ALD. The objective of the present study was to determine whether dietary supplementation with fisetin, a novel flavonoid, exerts beneficial effect on alcohol-induced liver injury. Methods C57BL/6J mice were pair-fed with the Lieber-DeCarli control or ethanol diet for four weeks with or without fisetin supplementation at 10 mg/kg/d. Results Alcohol feeding induced lipid accumulation in the liver and increased plasma ALT and AST activities, which were attenuated by fisetin suplementation. The ethanol concentrations in the plasma and liver were significantly elevated by alcohol exposure but were reduced by fisetin suplementation. Although fisetin did not affect the protein expression of alcohol metabolism enzymes, the aldehyde dehydrogenase activities were significantly increased by fisetin compared to the alcohol alone group. In addition, fisetin suplementation remarkably reduced hepatic NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) levels along with decreased plasma hydrogen peroxide and hepatic superoxide and 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE) levels after alcohol exposure. Alcohol-induced apoptosis and upregulation of Fas and cleaved caspase-3 in the liver were prevented by fisetin. Moreover, fisetin suplementation attenuated alcohol-induced hepatic streatosis through increasing plasma adiponectin levels and hepatic protein levels of p-AMPK, ACOX1, CYP4A, and MTTP. Conclusion The present study demonstrated that the protective effect of fisetin on ALD is achieved by accelerating ethanol clearance and inhibition of oxidative stress. The data suggest that fisetin has a therapeutical potential for treating ALD. PMID:27575873

  9. Induction of heme oxygenase-1 protects mouse liver from apoptotic ischemia/reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Issan, Y.; Katz, Y.; Sultan, M.; Safran, M.; Michal, Laniado-Schwartzman; Nader, G. Abraham; Kornowski, R.; Grief, F.; Pappo, O.; Hochhauser, E.

    2017-01-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is the main cause of primary graft dysfunction of liver allografts. Cobalt-protoporphyrin (CoPP)–dependent induction of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 has been shown to protect the liver from I/R injury. This study analyzes the apoptotic mechanisms of HO-1-mediated cytoprotection in mouse liver exposed to I/R injury. HO-1 induction was achieved by the administration of CoPP (1.5 mg/kg body weight i.p.). Mice were studied in in vivo model of hepatic segmental (70 %) ischemia for 60 min and reperfusion injury. Mice were randomly allocated to four main experimental groups (n = 10 each): (1) A control group undergoing sham operation. (2) Similar to group 1 but with the administration of CoPP 72 h before the operation. (3) Mice undergoing in vivo hepatic I/R. (4) Similar to group 3 but with the administration of CoPP 72 h before ischemia induction. When compared with the I/R mice group, in the I/R+CoPP mice group, the increased hepatic expression of HO-1 was associated with a significant reduction in liver enzyme levels, fewer apoptotic hepatocytes cells were identified by morphological criteria and by immunohistochemistry for caspase-3, there was a decreased mean number of proliferating cells (positively stained for Ki67), and a reduced hepatic expression of: C/EBP homologous protein (an index of endoplasmic reticulum stress), the NF-κB’s regulated genes (CIAP2, MCP-1 and IL-6), and increased hepatic expression of IκBa (the inhibitory protein of NF-κB). HO-1 over-expression plays a pivotal role in reducing the hepatic apoptotic IR injury. HO-1 may serve as a potential target for therapeutic intervention in hepatic I/R injury during liver transplantation. PMID:23435964

  10. Induction of heme oxygenase-1 protects mouse liver from apoptotic ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ari, Z; Issan, Y; Katz, Y; Sultan, M; Safran, M; Michal, Laniado-Schwartzman; Nader, G Abraham; Kornowski, R; Grief, F; Pappo, O; Hochhauser, E

    2013-05-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is the main cause of primary graft dysfunction of liver allografts. Cobalt-protoporphyrin (CoPP)-dependent induction of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 has been shown to protect the liver from I/R injury. This study analyzes the apoptotic mechanisms of HO-1-mediated cytoprotection in mouse liver exposed to I/R injury. HO-1 induction was achieved by the administration of CoPP (1.5 mg/kg body weight i.p.). Mice were studied in in vivo model of hepatic segmental (70 %) ischemia for 60 min and reperfusion injury. Mice were randomly allocated to four main experimental groups (n = 10 each): (1) A control group undergoing sham operation. (2) Similar to group 1 but with the administration of CoPP 72 h before the operation. (3) Mice undergoing in vivo hepatic I/R. (4) Similar to group 3 but with the administration of CoPP 72 h before ischemia induction. When compared with the I/R mice group, in the I/R+CoPP mice group, the increased hepatic expression of HO-1 was associated with a significant reduction in liver enzyme levels, fewer apoptotic hepatocytes cells were identified by morphological criteria and by immunohistochemistry for caspase-3, there was a decreased mean number of proliferating cells (positively stained for Ki67), and a reduced hepatic expression of: C/EBP homologous protein (an index of endoplasmic reticulum stress), the NF-κB's regulated genes (CIAP2, MCP-1 and IL-6), and increased hepatic expression of IκBa (the inhibitory protein of NF-κB). HO-1 over-expression plays a pivotal role in reducing the hepatic apoptotic IR injury. HO-1 may serve as a potential target for therapeutic intervention in hepatic I/R injury during liver transplantation.

  11. Neuroprotective Effects of Sulforaphane after Contusive Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Benedict, Andrea L.; Mountney, Andrea; Hurtado, Andres; Bryan, Kelley E.; Schnaar, Ronald L.; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to oxidative stress, calcium mobilization, glutamate toxicity, the release of proinflammatory factors, and depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) at the site of injury. Induction of the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway can alleviate neurotoxicity by protecting against GSH depletion, oxidation, intracellular calcium overload, mitochondrial dysfunction, and excitotoxicity. Sulforaphane (SF), an isothiocyanate derived from broccoli, is a potent naturally-occurring inducer of the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway, leading to upregulation of genes encoding cytoprotective proteins such as NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1, and GSH-regulatory enzymes. Additionally, SF can attenuate inflammation by inhibiting the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway, and the enzymatic activity of the proinflammatory cytokine macrophage inhibitory factor (MIF). Our study examined systemic administration of SF in a rat model of contusion SCI, in an effort to utilize its indirect antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties to decrease secondary injury. Two doses of SF (10 or 50 mg/kg) were administered at 10 min and 72 h after contusion SCI. SF (50 mg/kg) treatment resulted in both acute and long-term beneficial effects, including upregulation of the phase 2 antioxidant response at the injury site, decreased mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines (i.e., MMP-9) in the injured spinal cord, inactivation of urinary MIF tautomerase activity, enhanced hindlimb locomotor function, and an increased number of serotonergic axons caudal to the lesion site. These findings demonstrate that SF provides neuroprotective effects in the spinal cord after injury, and could be a candidate for therapy of SCI. PMID:22853439

  12. Neuroprotective effects of sulforaphane after contusive spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Benedict, Andrea L; Mountney, Andrea; Hurtado, Andres; Bryan, Kelley E; Schnaar, Ronald L; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T; Talalay, Paul

    2012-11-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to oxidative stress, calcium mobilization, glutamate toxicity, the release of proinflammatory factors, and depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) at the site of injury. Induction of the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway can alleviate neurotoxicity by protecting against GSH depletion, oxidation, intracellular calcium overload, mitochondrial dysfunction, and excitotoxicity. Sulforaphane (SF), an isothiocyanate derived from broccoli, is a potent naturally-occurring inducer of the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway, leading to upregulation of genes encoding cytoprotective proteins such as NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1, and GSH-regulatory enzymes. Additionally, SF can attenuate inflammation by inhibiting the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway, and the enzymatic activity of the proinflammatory cytokine macrophage inhibitory factor (MIF). Our study examined systemic administration of SF in a rat model of contusion SCI, in an effort to utilize its indirect antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties to decrease secondary injury. Two doses of SF (10 or 50 mg/kg) were administered at 10 min and 72 h after contusion SCI. SF (50 mg/kg) treatment resulted in both acute and long-term beneficial effects, including upregulation of the phase 2 antioxidant response at the injury site, decreased mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines (i.e., MMP-9) in the injured spinal cord, inactivation of urinary MIF tautomerase activity, enhanced hindlimb locomotor function, and an increased number of serotonergic axons caudal to the lesion site. These findings demonstrate that SF provides neuroprotective effects in the spinal cord after injury, and could be a candidate for therapy of SCI.

  13. Parkin regulates mitophagy and mitochondrial function to protect against alcohol-induced liver injury and steatosis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jessica A.; Ni, Hong-Min; Ding, Yifeng

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease claims two million lives per year. We previously reported that autophagy protected against alcohol-induced liver injury and steatosis by removing damaged mitochondria. However, the mechanisms for removal of these mitochondria are unknown. Parkin is an evolutionarily conserved E3 ligase that is recruited to damaged mitochondria to initiate ubiquitination of mitochondrial outer membrane proteins and subsequent mitochondrial degradation by mitophagy. In addition to its role in mitophagy, Parkin has been shown to have other roles in maintaining mitochondrial function. We investigated whether Parkin protected against alcohol-induced liver injury and steatosis using wild-type (WT) and Parkin knockout (KO) mice treated with alcohol by the acute-binge and Gao-binge (chronic plus acute-binge) models. We found that Parkin protected against liver injury in both alcohol models, likely because of Parkin's role in maintaining a population of healthy mitochondria. Alcohol caused greater mitochondrial damage and oxidative stress in Parkin KO livers compared with WT livers. After alcohol treatment, Parkin KO mice had severely swollen and damaged mitochondria that lacked cristae, which were not seen in WT mice. Furthermore, Parkin KO mice had decreased mitophagy, β-oxidation, mitochondrial respiration, and cytochrome c oxidase activity after acute alcohol treatment compared with WT mice. Interestingly, liver mitochondria seemed able to adapt to alcohol treatment, but Parkin KO mouse liver mitochondria had less capacity to adapt to Gao-binge treatment compared with WT mouse liver mitochondria. Overall, our findings indicate that Parkin is an important mediator of protection against alcohol-induced mitochondrial damage, steatosis, and liver injury. PMID:26159696

  14. Parkin regulates mitophagy and mitochondrial function to protect against alcohol-induced liver injury and steatosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jessica A; Ni, Hong-Min; Ding, Yifeng; Ding, Wen-Xing

    2015-09-01

    Alcoholic liver disease claims two million lives per year. We previously reported that autophagy protected against alcohol-induced liver injury and steatosis by removing damaged mitochondria. However, the mechanisms for removal of these mitochondria are unknown. Parkin is an evolutionarily conserved E3 ligase that is recruited to damaged mitochondria to initiate ubiquitination of mitochondrial outer membrane proteins and subsequent mitochondrial degradation by mitophagy. In addition to its role in mitophagy, Parkin has been shown to have other roles in maintaining mitochondrial function. We investigated whether Parkin protected against alcohol-induced liver injury and steatosis using wild-type (WT) and Parkin knockout (KO) mice treated with alcohol by the acute-binge and Gao-binge (chronic plus acute-binge) models. We found that Parkin protected against liver injury in both alcohol models, likely because of Parkin's role in maintaining a population of healthy mitochondria. Alcohol caused greater mitochondrial damage and oxidative stress in Parkin KO livers compared with WT livers. After alcohol treatment, Parkin KO mice had severely swollen and damaged mitochondria that lacked cristae, which were not seen in WT mice. Furthermore, Parkin KO mice had decreased mitophagy, β-oxidation, mitochondrial respiration, and cytochrome c oxidase activity after acute alcohol treatment compared with WT mice. Interestingly, liver mitochondria seemed able to adapt to alcohol treatment, but Parkin KO mouse liver mitochondria had less capacity to adapt to Gao-binge treatment compared with WT mouse liver mitochondria. Overall, our findings indicate that Parkin is an important mediator of protection against alcohol-induced mitochondrial damage, steatosis, and liver injury. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Hsp72 protects against liver injury via attenuation of hepatocellular death, oxidative stress, and JNK signaling.

    PubMed

    Levada, Kateryna; Guldiken, Nurdan; Zhang, Xiaoji; Vella, Giovanna; Mo, Fa-Rong; James, Laura P; Haybaeck, Johannes; Kessler, Sonja M; Kiemer, Alexandra K; Ott, Thomas; Hartmann, Daniel; Hüser, Norbert; Ziol, Marianne; Trautwein, Christian; Strnad, Pavel

    2018-05-01

    Heat shock protein (Hsp) 72 is a molecular chaperone that has broad cytoprotective functions and is upregulated in response to stress. To determine its hepatic functions, we studied its expression in human liver disorders and its biological significance in newly generated transgenic animals. Double transgenic mice overexpressing Hsp72 (gene Hspa1a) under the control of a tissue-specific tetracycline-inducible system (Hsp72-LAP mice) were produced. Acute liver injury was induced by a single injection of acetaminophen (APAP). Feeding with either a methionine choline-deficient (MCD; 8 weeks) or a 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine-supplemented diet (DDC; 12 weeks) was used to induce lipotoxic injury and Mallory-Denk body (MDB) formation, respectively. Primary hepatocytes were treated with palmitic acid. Patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and chronic hepatitis C infection displayed elevated HSP72 levels. These levels increased with the extent of hepatic inflammation and HSP72 expression was induced after treatment with either interleukin (IL)-1β or IL-6. Hsp72-LAP mice exhibited robust, hepatocyte-specific Hsp72 overexpression. Primary hepatocytes from these animals were more resistant to isolation-induced stress and Hsp72-LAP mice displayed lower levels of hepatic injury in vivo. Mice overexpressing Hsp72 had fewer APAP protein adducts and were protected from oxidative stress and APAP-/MCD-induced cell death. Hsp72-LAP mice and/or hepatocytes displayed significantly attenuated Jnk activation. Overexpression of Hsp72 did not affect steatosis or the extent of MDB formation. Our results demonstrate that HSP72 induction occurs in human liver disease, thus, HSP72 represents an attractive therapeutic target owing to its broad hepatoprotective functions. HSP72 constitutes a stress-inducible, protective protein. Our data demonstrate that it is upregulated in patients with chronic hepatitis C and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Moreover, Hsp72

  16. Chitosan nanoparticles from marine squid protect liver cells against N-diethylnitrosoamine-induced hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Subhapradha, Namasivayam; Shanmugam, Vairamani; Shanmugam, Annaian

    2017-09-01

    Rationale of this study was framed to investigate the protective effect and anti-cancer property of nanoparticles based on chitosan isolated from squid, Sepioteuthis lessoniana, on hepatic cells in N-Nitrosodiethylamine-induced hepatocellular carcinoma in rats. The results conferred that the chitosan nanoparticle supplementation had a protective effect on liver cells by reducing the levels of marker enzymes and bilirubin and thus increasing the albumin levels. The level of reduced glutathione, ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol significantly increased in both post- and pre-treatment with chitosan nanoparticles. The levels of antioxidant enzymes were enhanced and lipid peroxidation products were diminished while treating nitrosodiethylamine-induced hepatocellular carcinoma with chitosan nanoparticles. Supplementation of chitosan nanoparticles had potent anti-hyperlipidemic property that was evidenced by monitoring the serum lipid levels and its components. Animals pre-treated with chitosan nanoparticles along with nitrosodiethylamine showed a significant reduction in the total cholesterol and triglycerides levels with increase in the levels of phospholipids and free fatty acids. Chitosan nanoparticles treated rats showed significant increment in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and reduction in low-density lipoprotein and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol when compared with levels in nitrosodiethylamine-induced hepatocellular carcinoma. Nitrosodiethylamine-induced carcinoma changes on circulation and hepatic antioxidant defense mechanism were regulated by chitosan nanoparticles, concluding that the chitosan nanoparticles have a potent protective effect on liver cells which might be due to its robust antioxidant and anti-lipidemic property. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Loss of 5-lipoxygenase activity protects mice against paracetamol-induced liver toxicity.

    PubMed

    Pu, Shiyun; Ren, Lin; Liu, Qinhui; Kuang, Jiangying; Shen, Jing; Cheng, Shihai; Zhang, Yuwei; Jiang, Wei; Zhang, Zhiyong; Jiang, Changtao; He, Jinhan

    2016-01-01

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is the most widely used over-the-counter analgesic and overdosing with paracetamol is the leading cause of hospital admission for acute liver failure. 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO) catalyses arachidonic acid to form LTs, which lead to inflammation and oxidative stress. In this study, we examined whether deletion or pharmacological inhibition of 5-LO could protect mice against paracetamol-induced hepatic toxicity. Both genetic deletion and pharmacological inhibition of 5-LO in C57BL/6J mice were used to study the role of this enzyme in paracetamol induced liver toxicity. Serum and tissue biochemistry, H&E staining, and real-time PCR were used to assess liver toxicity. Deletion or pharmacological inhibition of 5-LO in mice markedly ameliorated paracetamol-induced hepatic injury, as shown by decreased serum alanine transaminase and aspartate aminotransferase levels and hepatic centrilobular necrosis. The hepatoprotective effect of 5-LO inhibition was associated with induction of the antitoxic phase II conjugating enzyme, sulfotransferase2a1, suppression of the pro-toxic phase I CYP3A11 and reduction of the hepatic transporter MRP3. In 5-LO(-/-) mice, levels of GSH were increased, and oxidative stress decreased. In addition, PPAR α, a nuclear receptor that confers resistance to paracetamol toxicity, was activated in 5-LO(-/-) mice. The activity of 5-LO may play a critical role in paracetamol-induced hepatic toxicity by regulating paracetamol metabolism and oxidative stress. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  18. Protective effect of Urtica dioica on liver damage induced by biliary obstruction in rats.

    PubMed

    Oguz, Serhat; Kanter, Mehmet; Erboga, Mustafa; Ibis, Cem

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible protective effects of Urtica dioica (UD) against liver damage in the common bile duct-ligated rats. A total of 24 male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups, namely, control, bile duct ligation (BDL) and BDL + received UD groups, containing eight animals in each group. The rats in UD-treated groups were given UD oils (2 ml/kg) once a day intraperitoneally for 2 weeks starting 3 days prior to BDL operation. The change demonstrating the bile duct proliferation and fibrosis in expanded portal tracts includes the extension of proliferated bile ducts into the lobules; inflammatory cell infiltration into the widened portal areas were observed in BDL group. Treatment of BDL with UD attenuated alterations in liver histology. The α-smooth muscle actin, cytokeratin-positive ductular proliferation and the activity of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling in the BDL were observed to be reduced with the UD treatment. The data indicate that UD attenuates BDL-induced cholestatic liver injury, bile duct proliferation and fibrosis.

  19. Protective effect of Sida cordata leaf extract against CCl(4) induced acute liver toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Mistry, Sunil; Dutt, K R; Jena, J

    2013-04-13

    To investigate the hepatoprotective potential of Sida cordata (Malvaceae) (S. cordata) in experimental rats to validate its traditional claim. Wister albino rats were divided into 6 groups: Group I served as control; Group II served as hepatotoxic (CCl(4) treated) group; Group III, IV and V served as (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg b.w.) S. cordata leaf extract (SCLE) treated groups; Group VI served as positive control (Silymarin) treated group. Liver marker enzymes serum glutamate oxyloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, pancreatic enzymatic antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD), lipid peroxidation, catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH) were measured and compared along with histopathological studies. Obtained results show that the treatment with SCLE significantly (P<0.05-<0.001) and dose-dependently reduced CCl4 induced elevated serum level of hepatic enzymes. Furthermore, SCLE significantly (up to P<0.001) reduced the lipid peroxidation in the liver tissue and restored activities of defence antioxidant enzymes GSH, SOD and CAT towards normal levels, which was confirmed by the histopathological studies. The results of this study strongly indicate the protective effect of SCLE against CCl(4) induced acute liver toxicity in rats and thereby scientifically support its traditional use. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Protective effects of Ziyang tea polysaccharides on CCl4-induced oxidative liver damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongying; Zhao, Yan; Sun, Yanfei; Yang, Xingbin

    2014-01-15

    This study was designed to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of the tea polysaccharides (ZTPs) extracted from a selenium-enriched Ziyang green tea (Camellia sinensis). ZTPs were identified as the heteropolysaccharides with glucose (31.4%), arabinose (23.5%) and galactose (21.8%) being the main constitutive monosaccharides. ZTPs displayed noteworthy scavenging effects against DPPH, OH and O2(-), and high antioxidant effects in vitro, and the effects were further verified by suppressing CCl4-induced oxidative liver damage in mice at 100, 200 and 400mg/kg BW. Administration of ZTPs in mice prior to CCl4 significantly prevented the CCl4-induced increases in serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and lactic dehydrogenase, as well as hepatic malondialdehyde level. Mice treated with ZTPs showed normal glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities, relative to CCl4-treated group. ZTPs also prevented the CCl4-caused liver histological alteration, as indicated by histopathological evaluation. These findings demonstrate that ZTPs have protective effects against acute CCl4-induced oxidative liver damage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Protective Effect of N-acetylcysteine on Liver Damage During Chronic Intrauterine Hypoxia in Fetal Guinea Pig

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Kazumasa; Pinkas, Gerard; Evans, LaShauna; Liu, Hongshan; Al-Hasan, Yazan

    2012-01-01

    Chronic exposure to hypoxia during pregnancy generates a stressed intrauterine environment that may lead to fetal organ damage. The objectives of the study are (1) to quantify the effect of chronic hypoxia in the generation of oxidative stress in fetal guinea pig liver and (2) to test the protective effect of antioxidant treatment in hypoxic fetal liver injury. Pregnant guinea pigs were exposed to either normoxia (NMX) or 10.5% O2 (HPX, 14 days) prior to term (65 days) and orally administered N-acetylcysteine ([NAC] 10 days). Near-term anesthetized fetuses were excised and livers examined by histology and assayed for malondialdehyde (MDA) and DNA fragmentation. Chronic HPX increased erythroid precursors, MDA (NMX vs HPX; 1.26 ± 0.07 vs 1.78 ± 0.07 nmol/mg protein; P < .001, mean ± standard error of the mean [SEM]) and DNA fragmentation levels in fetal livers (0.069 ± 0.01 vs 0.11 ± 0.005 OD/mg protein; P < .01). N-acetylcysteine inhibited erythroid aggregation and reduced (P < .05) both MDA and DNA fragmentation of fetal HPX livers. Thus, chronic intrauterine hypoxia generates cell and nuclear damage in the fetal guinea pig liver. Maternal NAC inhibited the adverse effects of fetal liver damage suggestive of oxidative stress. The suppressive effect of maternal NAC may implicate the protective role of antioxidants in the prevention of liver injury in the hypoxic fetus. PMID:22534333

  2. Protective effect of Trillium tschonoskii saponin on CCl4-induced acute liver injury of rats through apoptosis inhibition.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hao; Qiu, Yong; Shu, Ziyang; Zhang, Xu; Li, Renpeng; Liu, Su; Chen, Longquan; Liu, Hong; Chen, Ning

    2016-12-01

    To explore hepatoprotective role and underlying mechanisms of Trillium tschonoskii Maxim (TTM), 36 rats were randomly divided into control, CCl 4 -induced liver injury model, and biphenyl dimethyl dicarboxylate (DDB) and low-, moderate-, and high-dose TTM treatment groups. After CCl 4 -induced model establishment, the rats from DDB and TTM groups were administrated with DDB at 0.2 g/kg per day and TTM at 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 g/kg per day, while the rats from control and model groups were administrated with saline. After 5 days of treatments, all rats were sacrificed for determining serum ALT and AST levels and liver index, examining histopathological changes in liver through HE and TUNEL staining, and evaluating TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA expression by real-time PCR, and caspase-3, Bcl-2, and Bax expression by Western blot. Results indicated that CCl 4 could induce acute liver injury and abnormal liver function in rats with obvious hepatomegaly, increased liver index, high ALT and AST levels, up-regulated TNF-α and IL-6, and overexpressed Bax and caspase-3. However, DDB and TTM could execute protective role in CCl 4 -induced liver injury in rats through reducing ALT and AST levels, rescuing hepatomegaly, down-regulating inflammatory factors and inhibiting hepatocyte apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, TTM has obvious protective role in CCl 4 -induced liver injury of rats through inhibiting hepatocyte apoptosis.

  3. Skin Cancer-Sun Knowledge and Sun Protection Behaviors of Liver Transplant Recipients in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Haney, Meryem Ozturk; Ordin, Yaprak Sarigol; Arkan, Gulcihan

    2017-09-08

    The aim of this study was to compare liver transplant recipients (LTRs) with the general population regarding their knowledge of skin cancer, sun health, sun protection behaviors, and affecting factors. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Turkey between March 2016 and September 2016 with 104 LTRs and 100 participants from the general population group (GPG). The mean age of the LTRs was 53.2 ± 11.8 and that of the GPG was 42.7 ± 14.5. The LTRs' skin cancer and sun knowledge were significantly lower than in the GPG, but there was no difference between the two groups in terms of their sun protection behavior scores. The most commonly used sun protection behaviors of LTRs were not being outside and not sunbathing between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m., wearing clothing that covers the skin, and avoiding the solarium. Behaviors commonly practiced by the GPG were wearing sunglasses, wearing sunscreen with a sun protection factor of 15 or higher before going outside, wearing sunscreen at the beach, while swimming or doing physical activity outside, and reapplying it every 2 h. Results of our study will contribute to the development of education and training programs for LTRs on skin cancer. The results also demonstrated the importance of practicing adequate sun protection behaviors which will certainly impact their future health.

  4. Prostate Cancer Prevention by Sulforaphane, a Novel Dietary Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    sulforaphane , a novel dietary histone deacetylase inhibitor PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Yu Zhen CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Oregon State...ANNUAL 3. DATES COVERED 1 JAN 2007 - 31 DEC 2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Prostate cancer prevention by sulforaphane , a novel dietary histone deacetylase...Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer related death in men. To test Sulforaphane (SFN) as a novel histone deacetylases (HDAC) inhibitor

  5. Inhibitor of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 protects against acetaminophen-induced liver injury

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Yuchao; Ramachandran, Anup; Breckenridge, David G.

    Metabolic activation and oxidant stress are key events in the pathophysiology of acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity. The initial mitochondrial oxidative stress triggered by protein adduct formation is amplified by c-jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK), resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction and ultimately cell necrosis. Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) is considered the link between oxidant stress and JNK activation. The objective of the current study was to assess the efficacy and mechanism of action of the small-molecule ASK1 inhibitor GS-459679 in a murine model of APAP hepatotoxicity. APAP (300 mg/kg) caused extensive glutathione depletion, JNK activation and translocation to the mitochondria, oxidant stress and livermore » injury as indicated by plasma ALT activities and area of necrosis over a 24 h observation period. Pretreatment with 30 mg/kg of GS-459679 almost completely prevented JNK activation, oxidant stress and injury without affecting the metabolic activation of APAP. To evaluate the therapeutic potential of GS-459679, mice were treated with APAP and then with the inhibitor. Given 1.5 h after APAP, GS-459679 was still protective, which was paralleled by reduced JNK activation and p-JNK translocation to mitochondria. However, GS-459679 treatment was not more effective than N-acetylcysteine, and the combination of GS-459679 and N-acetylcysteine exhibited similar efficacy as N-acetylcysteine monotherapy, suggesting that GS-459769 and N-acetylcysteine affect the same pathway. Importantly, inhibition of ASK1 did not impair liver regeneration as indicated by PCNA staining. In conclusion, the ASK1 inhibitor GS-459679 protected against APAP toxicity by attenuating JNK activation and oxidant stress in mice and may have therapeutic potential for APAP overdose patients. - Highlights: • Two ASK1 inhibitors protected against acetaminophen-induced liver injury. • The ASK1 inhibitors protect when used as pre- or post-treatment. • Protection by ASK1

  6. Turmeric extract and its active compound, curcumin, protect against chronic CCl4-induced liver damage by enhancing antioxidation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwa-Young; Kim, Seung-Wook; Lee, Geum-Hwa; Choi, Min-Kyung; Jung, Han-Wool; Kim, Young-Jun; Kwon, Ho-Jeong; Chae, Han-Jung

    2016-08-26

    Curcumin, a major active component of turmeric, has previously been reported to alleviate liver damage. Here, we investigated the mechanism by which turmeric and curcumin protect the liver against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced injury in rats. We hypothesized that turmeric extract and curcumin protect the liver from CCl4-induced liver injury by reducing oxidative stress, inhibiting lipid peroxidation, and increasing glutathione peroxidase activation. Chronic hepatic stress was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 (0.1 ml/kg body weight) into rats. Turmeric extracts and curcumin were administered once a day for 4 weeks at three dose levels (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg/day). We performed ALT and AST also measured of total lipid, triglyceride, cholesterol levels, and lipid peroxidation. We found that turmeric extract and curcumin significantly protect against liver injury by decreasing the activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase and by improving the hepatic glutathione content, leading to a reduced level of lipid peroxidase. Our data suggest that turmeric extract and curcumin protect the liver from chronic CCl4-induced injury in rats by suppressing hepatic oxidative stress. Therefore, turmeric extract and curcumin are potential therapeutic antioxidant agents for the treatment of hepatic disease.

  7. Coffee and caffeine protect against liver injury induced by thioacetamide in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Kelly S; Prado, Monize G; Aguiar E Silva, Marco A; Dias, Marcos C; Rivelli, Diogo P; Rodrigues, Maria A M; Barbisan, Luis F

    2012-11-01

    Coffee intake has been inversely related to the incidence of liver diseases, although there are controversies on whether these beneficial effects on human health are because of caffeine or other specific components in this popular beverage. Thus, this study evaluated the protective effects of coffee or caffeine intake on liver injury induced by repeated thioacetamide (TAA) administration in male Wistar rats. Rats were randomized into five groups: one untreated group (G1) and four groups (G2-G5) treated with the hepatotoxicant TAA (200 mg/kg b.w., i.p.) twice a week for 8 weeks. Concomitantly, rats received tap water (G1 and G2), conventional coffee (G3), decaffeinated coffee (G4) or 0.1% caffeine (G5). After 8 weeks of treatment, rats were killed and blood and liver samples were collected. Conventional and decaffeinated coffee and caffeine intake significantly reduced serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (p < 0.001) and oxidized glutathione (p < 0.05), fibrosis/inflammation scores (p < 0.001), collagen volume fraction (p < 0.01) and transforming growth factor β-1 (TGF-β1) protein expression (p ≤ 0.001) in the liver from TAA-treated groups. In addition, conventional coffee and caffeine intake significantly reduced proliferating cellular nuclear antigen (PCNA) S-phase indexes (p < 0.001), but only conventional coffee reduced cleaved caspase-3 indexes (p < 0.001), active metalloproteinase 2 (p ≤ 0.004) and the number of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P)-positive preneoplastic lesions (p < 0.05) in the liver from TAA-treated groups. In conclusion, conventional coffee and 0.1% caffeine intake presented better beneficial effects than decaffeinated coffee against liver injury induced by TAA in male Wistar rats. © 2012 The Authors Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology © 2012 Nordic Pharmacological Society.

  8. Protective Effects of Medium-Chain Triglycerides on the Liver and Gut in Rats Administered Endotoxin

    PubMed Central

    Kono, Hiroshi; Fujii, Hideki; Asakawa, Masami; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Matsuda, Masanori; Maki, Akira; Matsumoto, Yoshiro

    2003-01-01

    Objective To determine if medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) prevent organ injuries and mortality in rats administered endotoxin and to investigate effects of MCT on the gut. Summary Background Data Since dietary MCTs prevent alcohol-induced liver injury by inhibiting activation of Kupffer cells in the enteral feeding model, the authors hypothesized that MCT could prevent deleterious conditions in endotoxemia. Methods After a preliminary experiment determined the optimal dose of MCT, rats were given MCT (5 g/kg per day) or the same dose of corn oil by gavage daily for 1 week. Then, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was administered intravenously and survival was assessed for the next 24 hours. For analysis of mechanisms, rats were killed 9 hours after LPS injection and serum and liver sections were collected. To investigate effects of MCT on the gut, pathologic change, permeability, and microflora were assessed. Kupffer cells isolated by collagenase digestion and differential centrifugation were used for endotoxin receptor CD14 immunoblotting, phagocytic index, and TNF-α production assay. Results All rats given corn oil died after LPS administration; however, this mortality was prevented by MCT in a dose-dependent manner. Rats given corn oil showed liver injury after LPS administration. In contrast, MCT prevented this pathologic change nearly completely. MCT blunted CD14 expression on the Kupffer cells and TNF-α production by isolated Kupffer cells; however, there were no differences in phagocytic index between the two groups. The length of the intestinal epithelium was increased in the MCT group compared to the corn oil group. Further, after LPS administration, increases in gut permeability and injury were prevented by MCT. Importantly, MCT also prevented hepatic energy charge and gut injuries in this condition. Conclusions Enteral feeding using MCT could be a practical way of protecting the liver and intestine during endotoxemia. PMID:12560783

  9. ERK Signaling Pathway Plays a Key Role in Baicalin Protection Against Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chia-Chih; Day, Yuan-Ji; Lee, Hung-Chen; Liou, Jiin-Tarng; Chou, An-Hsun; Liu, Fu-Chao

    2017-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose causes hepatocytes necrosis and acute liver failure. Baicalin (BA), a major flavonoid of Scutellariae radix, has potent hepatoprotective properties in traditional medicine. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of BA on a APAP-induced liver injury in a mouse model. The mice received an intraperitoneal hepatotoxic dose of APAP (300[Formula: see text]mg/kg) and after 30[Formula: see text]min, were treated with BA at concentrations of 0, 15, 30, or 60[Formula: see text]mg/kg. After 16[Formula: see text]h of treatment, the mice were sacrificed for further analysis. APAP administration significantly elevated the serum alanine transferase (ALT) enzyme levels and hepatic myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity when compared with control animals. Baicalin treatment significantly attenuated the elevation of liver ALT levels, as well as hepatic MPO activity in a dose- dependent manner (15-60[Formula: see text]mg/kg) in APAP-treated mice. The strongest beneficial effects of BA were seen at a dose of 30[Formula: see text]mg/kg. BA treatment at 30[Formula: see text]mg/kg after APAP overdose reduced elevated hepatic cytokine (TNF-[Formula: see text] and IL-6) levels, and macrophage recruitment around the area of hepatotoxicity in immunohistochemical staining. Significantly, BA treatment can also decrease hepatic phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) expression, which is induced by APAP overdose. Our data suggests that baicalin treatment can effectively attenuate APAP-induced liver injury by down-regulating the ERK signaling pathway and its downstream effectors of inflammatory responses. These results support that baicalin is a potential hepatoprotective agent.

  10. Protective effect of human serum amyloid P on CCl4-induced acute liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Cong, Min; Zhao, Weihua; Liu, Tianhui; Wang, Ping; Fan, Xu; Zhai, Qingling; Bao, Xiaoli; Zhang, Dong; You, Hong; Kisseleva, Tatiana; Brenner, David A; Jia, Jidong; Zhuang, Hui

    2017-08-01

    Human serum amyloid P (hSAP), a member of the pentraxin family, inhibits the activation of fibrocytes in culture and inhibits experimental renal, lung, skin and cardiac fibrosis. As hepatic inflammation is one of the causes of liver fibrosis, in the present study, we investigated the hepatoprotective effects of hSAP against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury. Our data indicated that hSAP attenuated hepatic histopathological abnormalities and significantly decreased inflammatory cell infiltration and pro-inflammatory factor expression. Moreover, CCl4-induced apoptosis in the mouse liver was inhibited by hSAP, as measured by terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay and cleaved caspase-3 expression. hSAP significantly restored the expression of B cell lymphoma/leukemia (Bcl)-2 and suppressed the expression of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) in vivo. The number of hepatocytes in early apoptosis stained with Annexin V was significantly reduced by 28-30% in the hSAP treatment group compared with the CCl4 group, and the expression of Bcl-2 was increased, whereas the expression of Bax and cleaved caspase-3 were significantly inhibited in the hSAP pre-treatment group compared with the CCl4 group. hSAP administration also inhibited the migration and activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in CCl4-injured liver and suppressed the activation of isolated primary HSCs induced by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in vitro. Collectively, these findings suggest that hSAP exerts a protective effect againts CCl4-induced hepatic injury by suppressing the inflammatory response and hepatocyte apoptosis, potentially by inhibiting HSC activation.

  11. Protective effect of human serum amyloid P on CCl4-induced acute liver injury in mice

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Min; Zhao, Weihua; Liu, Tianhui; Wang, Ping; Fan, Xu; Zhai, Qingling; Bao, Xiaoli; Zhang, Dong; You, Hong; Kisseleva, Tatiana; Brenner, David A.; Jia, Jidong; Zhuang, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Human serum amyloid P (hSAP), a member of the pentraxin family, inhibits the activation of fibrocytes in culture and inhibits experimental renal, lung, skin and cardiac fibrosis. As hepatic inflammation is one of the causes of liver fibrosis, in the present study, we investigated the hepatoprotective effects of hSAP against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury. Our data indicated that hSAP attenuated hepatic histopathological abnormalities and significantly decreased inflammatory cell infiltration and pro-inflammatory factor expression. Moreover, CCl4-induced apoptosis in the mouse liver was inhibited by hSAP, as measured by terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay and cleaved caspase-3 expression. hSAP significantly restored the expression of B cell lymphoma/leukemia (Bcl)-2 and suppressed the expression of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) in vivo. The number of hepatocytes in early apoptosis stained with Annexin V was significantly reduced by 28–30% in the hSAP treatment group compared with the CCl4 group, and the expression of Bcl-2 was increased, whereas the expression of Bax and cleaved caspase-3 were significantly inhibited in the hSAP pre-treatment group compared with the CCl4 group. hSAP administration also inhibited the migration and activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in CCl4-injured liver and suppressed the activation of isolated primary HSCs induced by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in vitro. Collectively, these findings suggest that hSAP exerts a protective effect againts CCl4-induced hepatic injury by suppressing the inflammatory response and hepatocyte apoptosis, potentially by inhibiting HSC activation. PMID:28627620

  12. Atorvastatin does not protect against ischemia-reperfusion damage in cholestatic rat livers.

    PubMed

    Wiggers, Jimme K; van Golen, Rowan F; Verheij, Joanne; Dekker, Annemiek M; van Gulik, Thomas M; Heger, Michal

    2017-04-11

    Extrahepatic cholestasis sensitizes the liver to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury during surgery for perihilar cholangiocarcinoma. It is associated with pre-existent sterile inflammation, microvascular perfusion defects, and impaired energy status. Statins have been shown to protect against I/R injury in normal and steatotic mouse livers. Therefore, the hepatoprotective properties of atorvastatin were evaluated in a rat model of cholestatic I/R injury. Male Wistar rats were subjected to 70% hepatic ischemia (during 30 min) at 7 days after bile duct ligation. Rats were randomized to atorvastatin treatment or vehicle-control in three test arms: (1) oral treatment with 5 mg/kg during 7 days after bile duct ligation; (2) intravenous treatment with 2.5, 5, or 7.5 mg/kg at 24 h before ischemia; and (3) intravenous treatment with 5 mg/kg at 30 min before ischemia. Hepatocellular damage was assessed by plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and histological necrosis. I/R induced severe hepatocellular injury in the cholestatic rat livers (~10-fold increase in ALT at 6 h after I/R and ~30% necrotic areas at 24 h after I/R). Both oral and intravenous atorvastatin treatment decreased ALT levels before ischemia. Intravenous atorvastatin treatment at 5 mg/kg at 24 h before ischemia was the only regimen that reduced ALT levels at 6 h after reperfusion, but not at 24 h after reperfusion. None of the tested regimens were able to reduce histological necrosis at 24 h after reperfusion. Pre-treatment with atorvastatin did not protect cholestatic livers from hepatocellular damage after I/R. Clinical studies investigating the role of statins in the protection against hepatic I/R injury should not include cholestatic patients with perihilar cholangiocarcinoma. These patients require (pharmacological) interventions that specifically target the cholestasis-associated hepatopathology.

  13. Neuroprotective effects of sulforaphane on cholinergic neurons in mice with Alzheimer's disease-like lesions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Jingzhu; Fang, Lingduo; Li, Xi; Zhao, Yue; Shi, Wanying; An, Li

    2014-08-18

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common neurodegenerative disease in elderly individuals, and effective therapies are unavailable. This study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of sulforaphane (an activator of NF-E2-related factor 2) on mice with AD-like lesions induced by combined administration of aluminum and D-galactose. Step-down-type passive avoidance tests showed sulforaphane ameliorated cognitive impairment in AD-like mice. Immunohistochemistry results indicated sulforaphane attenuated cholinergic neuron loss in the medial septal and hippocampal CA1 regions in AD-like mice. However, spectrophotometry revealed no significant difference in acetylcholine level or the activity of choline acetyltransferase or acetylcholinesterase in the cerebral cortex among groups of control and AD-like mice with and without sulforaphane treatment. Sulforaphane significantly increased the numbers of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine-positive neurons in the subventricular and subgranular zones in AD-like mice which were significantly augmented compared with controls. Atomic absorption spectrometry revealed significantly lower aluminum levels in the brains of sulforaphane-treated AD-like mice than in those that did not receive sulforaphane treatment. In conclusion, sulforaphane ameliorates neurobehavioral deficits by reducing cholinergic neuron loss in the brains of AD-like mice, and the mechanism may be associated with neurogenesis and aluminum load reduction. These findings suggest that phytochemical sulforaphane has potential application in AD therapeutics.

  14. Sulforaphane prevents human platelet aggregation through inhibiting the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Wen-Ying; Kung, Po-Hsiung; Kuo, Chih-Yun; Wu, Chin-Chung

    2013-06-01

    Sulforaphane, a dietary isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables, has been shown to exert beneficial effects in animal models of cardiovascular diseases. However, its effect on platelet aggregation, which is a critical factor in arterial thrombosis, is still unclear. In the present study, we show that sulforaphane inhibited human platelet aggregation caused by different receptor agonists, including collagen, U46619 (a thromboxane A2 mimic), protease-activated receptor 1 agonist peptide (PAR1-AP), and an ADP P2Y12 receptor agonist. Moreover, sulforaphane significantly reduced thrombus formation on a collagen-coated surface under whole blood flow conditions. In exploring the underlying mechanism, we found that sulforaphane specifically prevented phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signalling, without markedly affecting other signlaling pathways involved in platelet aggregation, such as protein kinase C activation, calcium mobilisation, and protein tyrosine phosphorylation. Although sulforaphane did not directly inhibit the catalytic activity of PI3K, it caused ubiquitination of the regulatory p85 subunit of PI3K, and prevented PI3K translocation to membranes. In addition, sulforaphane caused ubiquitination and degradation of phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1), which is required for Akt activation. Therefore, sulforaphane is able to inhibit the PI3K/Akt pathway at two distinct sites. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that sulforaphane prevented platelet aggregation and reduced thrombus formation in flow conditions; our data also support that the inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway by sulforaphane contributes it antiplatelet effects.

  15. Protective Effects and Mechanism of Meretrix meretrix Oligopeptides against Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Fangfang; Zhao, Shasha; Yu, Fangmiao; Yang, Zuisu; Ding, Guofang

    2017-01-01

    Meretrix meretrix oligopeptides (MMO) derived from shellfish have important medicinal properties. We previously obtained MMO from alcalase by hydrolysis processes. Here we examine the protective effects of MMO against nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and explored the underlying mechanism. Human Chang liver cells were used in our experiments after exposure to palmitic acid at a final concentration of 15 μg/mL for 48 h to induce an overload of fatty acid as NAFLD model cells. Treatment with MMO for 24 h increased the viability of the NAFLD model cells by inhibiting apoptosis. MMO alleviated oxidative stress in the NAFLD model cells by preserving reactive oxygen species activity and increasing malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase activity. MMO improved mitochondrial dysfunction by decreasing the mitochondrial membrane potential and increasing the activities of Na+/K+-ATPase and Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase. In addition, MMO inhibited the activation of cell death-related pathways, based on reduced p-JNK, Bax expression, tumor necrosis factor-α, caspase-9, and caspase-3 activity in the NAFLD model cells, and Bcl-2 expression was enhanced in the NAFLD model cells compared with the control group. These findings indicate that MMO have antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects on NAFLD model cells and may thus exert protective effects against NAFLD. PMID:28216552

  16. Protective effects from Houttuynia cordata aqueous extract against acetaminophen-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Ting; Yang, Chieh-Ling; Yin, Mei-Chin

    2014-01-01

    Protective effects of Houttuynia cordata aqueous extract (HCAE) against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in Balb/cA mice were examined. HCAE, at 1 or 2 g/L, was added into the drinking water for 4 weeks. Acute liver injury was induced by acetaminophen treatment intraperitoneally (350 mg/kg body weight). Acetaminophen treatment significantly depleted hepatic glutathione (GSH) content, increased hepatic malonyldialdehyde (MDA), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels, and decreased hepatic activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPX), catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) ( p <0.05). The pre-intake of HCAE alleviated acetaminophen-induced oxidative stress by retaining GSH content, decreasing MDA, ROS and GSSG production, and maintaining activity of GPX, catalase and SOD in liver ( p <0.05). The pre-intake of HCAE also significantly lowered acetaminophen-induced increase in cytochrome P450 2E1 activity ( p <0.05). Acetaminophen treatment increased hepatic release of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 ( p <0.05). HCAE intake significantly diminished acetaminophen-induced elevation of these cytokines ( p <0.05). These results support that HCAE could provide hepato-protection.

  17. Protective Effect of Procyanidin B2 against CCl4-Induced Acute Liver Injury in Mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bing-Ya; Zhang, Xiang-Yu; Guan, Sheng-Wen; Hua, Zi-Chun

    2015-07-03

    Procyanidin B2 has demonstrated several health benefits and medical properties. However, its protective effects against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity have not been clarified. The present study aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of procyanidin B2 in CCl4-treated mice. Our data showed that procyanidin B2 significantly decreased the CCl4-induced elevation of serum alanine aminotransferase activities, as well as improved hepatic histopathological abnormalities. Procyanidin B2 also significantly decreased the content of MDA but enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT and GSH-Px. Further research demonstrated that procyanidin B2 decreased the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), as well as inhibited the translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65 from the cytosol to the nuclear fraction in mouse liver. Moreover, CCl4-induced apoptosis in mouse liver was measured by (terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated nick end labeling) TUNEL assay and the cleaved caspase-3. Meanwhile, the expression of apoptosis-related proteins Bax and Bcl-xL was analyzed by Western blot. Results showed that procyanidin B2 significantly inhibited CCl4-induced hepatocyte apoptosis, markedly suppressed the upregulation of Bax expression and restored the downregulation of Bcl-xL expression. Overall, the findings indicated that procyanidin B2 exhibited a protective effect on CCl4-induced hepatic injury by elevating the antioxidative defense potential and consequently suppressing the inflammatory response and apoptosis of liver tissues.

  18. Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Provide Protection against Radiation-Induced Liver Injury by Antioxidative Process, Vasculature Protection, Hepatocyte Differentiation, and Trophic Effects

    PubMed Central

    Francois, Sabine; Mouiseddine, Moubarak; Allenet-Lepage, Bénédicte; Voswinkel, Jan; Douay, Luc; Benderitter, Marc; Chapel, Alain

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the potential therapeutic effect of the infusion of hMSCs for the correction of liver injuries, we performed total body radiation exposure of NOD/SCID mice. After irradiation, mir-27b level decreases in liver, increasing the directional migration of hMSCs by upregulating SDF1α. A significant increase in plasmatic transaminases levels, apoptosis process in the liver vascular system, and in oxidative stress were observed. hMSC injection induced a decrease in transaminases levels and oxidative stress, a disappearance of apoptotic cells, and an increase in Nrf2, SOD gene expression, which might reduce ROS production in the injured liver. Engrafted hMSCs expressed cytokeratin CK18 and CK19 and AFP genes indicating possible hepatocyte differentiation. The presence of hMSCs expressing VEGF and Ang-1 in the perivascular region, associated with an increased expression of VEGFr1, r2 in the liver, can confer a role of secreting cells to hMSCs in order to maintain the endothelial function. To explain the benefits to the liver of hMSC engraftment, we find that hMSCs secreted NGF, HGF, and anti-inflammatory molecules IL-10, IL1-RA contributing to prevention of apoptosis, increasing cell proliferation in the liver which might correct liver dysfunction. MSCs are potent candidates to repair and protect healthy tissues against radiation damages. PMID:24369528

  19. [Study on the liver-protective and choleretic effect of zhizi baipi soup and its disassembled prescription].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xu; Zhu, Ji-Xiao; Luo, Guang-Ming; Li, Lei; Zhu, Yu-Ye; Zeng, Jin-Xiang; Wang, Xiao-Yun; Wu, Bo

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the effect of Zhizi Baipi soup and its disassembled prescription on protecting liver and improving choleresis and explore the regularity of Zhizi Baipi soup composition. The model of mouse liver injury induced by carbon tetraehlofide (CCl4) was used to observe the effects of Zhizi Baipi soup and its disassembled prescription by oral adminstration, the bile volume was determinied by common bile duct drainage. Zhizi Baipi soup and each treatment group with gardenia could significantly inhibit the increased serum ATL and AST activities, reduce liver MDA level, and significantly promote the bile flow and bilirubin in bile in normal rats. Zhizi Baipi soup has effects on protecting liver and increasing bile secretion, its monarch drug, gardenia plays an important role in the decoction, the effect of eliminating dampness and heat are mainly ascribed to the synergic effect of gardenia and phellodendron.

  20. Protective effects of extracts from Pomegranate peels and seeds on liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiang-Lan; Fang, Ru-Tang; Yang, Yong-Hua; Bi, Xue-Yuan; Ren, Guo-Xia; Luo, A-Li; Zhao, Ming; Zang, Wei-Jin

    2015-10-27

    Liver fibrosis is a feature in the majority of chronic liver diseases and oxidative stress is considered to be its main pathogenic mechanism. Antioxidants including vitamin E, are effective in preventing liver fibrogenesis. Several plant-drived antioxidants, such as silymarin, baicalin, beicalein, quercetin, apigenin, were shown to interfere with liver fibrogenesis. The antioxidans above are polyphenols, flavonoids or structurally related compounds which are the main chemical components of Pomegranate peels and seeds, and the antioxidant activity of Pomegranate peels and seeds have been verified. Here we investigated whether the extracts of pomegranate peels (EPP) and seeds (EPS) have preventive efficacy on liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats and explored its possible mechanisms. The animal model was established by injection with 50 % CCl4 subcutaneously in male wistar rats twice a week for four weeks. Meanwhile, EPP and EPS were administered orally every day for 4 weeks, respectively. The protective effects of EPP and EPS on biochemical metabolic parameters, liver function, oxidative markers, activities of antioxidant enzymes and liver fibrosis were determined in CCl4-induced liver toxicity in rats. Compared with the sham group, the liver function was worse in CCl4 group, manifested as increased levels of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and total bilirubin. EPP and EPS treatment significantly ameliorated these effects of CCl4. EPP and EPS attenuated CCl4-induced increase in the levels of TGF-β1, hydroxyproline, hyaluronic acid laminin and procollagen type III. They also restored the decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities and inhibited the formation of lipid peroxidized products in rats treated with CCl4. The EPP and EPS have protective effects against liver fibrosis induced by CCl4, and its mechanisms might be associated with their antioxidant activity, the ability of

  1. The absence of obstructive sleep apnea may protect against non-alcoholic fatty liver in patients undergoing bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Corey, Kathleen E; Misdraji, Joseph; Zheng, Hui; Malecki, Kyle M; Kneeman, Jacob; Gelrud, Louis; Chung, Raymond T

    2013-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of liver disease worldwide and its progressive form, steatohepatitis, will be the leading indication for liver transplant by 2020. While risk factors for steatohepatitis have been identified, little work has been performed to identify factors protective against NAFLD development. This study sought to identify factors predictive of normal liver histology in a bariatric cohort. Patients undergoing weight loss surgery with liver biopsies at the time of surgery were included. Patients with other causes of chronic liver disease were excluded. One hundred fifty-nine patients were included. Forty-nine patients had normal liver histology and 110 patients had NAFLD. Several previously identified factors associated with normal liver histology were found. Black race was the strongest predictor of the absence of NAFLD with an odds ratio (OR) of 6.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.4-18.9. Low HOMA-IR was also associated with normal histology (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.03-1.9). In contrast, low HDL was associated with a decreased chance of normal histology (OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.05-0.83). Interestingly, a novel protective factor, the absence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) was strongly associated with normal histology (OR 5.6, 95% CI 2.0-16.1). In multivariate regression controlling for BMI, black race, absence of OSA, low HOMA-IR and low ALT independently predicted normal liver histology with an area under the ROC curve of 0.85. Our study confirmed several factors associated with normal liver histology, including black race and identified a novel factor, absence of OSA. Further evaluation of these factors will allow for improved understanding of the pathogenesis of NAFLD.

  2. TNF-α dependent production of inducible nitric oxide is involved in PGE1 protection against acute liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Muntane, J; Rodriguez, F; Segado, O; Quintero, A; Lozano, J; Siendones, E; Pedraza, C; Delgado, M; O'Valle, F; Garcia, R; Montero, J; De la Mata, M; Mino, G

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and nitric oxide modulate damage in several experimental models of liver injury. We have previously shown that protection against D-galactosamine (D-GalN) induced liver injury by prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) was accompanied by an increase in TNF-α and nitrite/nitrate in serum.
AIMS—The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of TNF-α and nitric oxide during protection by PGE1 of liver damage induced by D-GalN.
METHODS—Liver injury was induced in male Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of 1 g/kg of D-GalN. PGE1 was administered 30 minutes before D-GalN. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was inhibited by methylisothiourea (MT), and TNF-α concentration in serum was lowered by administration of anti-TNF-α antibodies. Liver injury was evaluated by alanine aminotransferase activity in serum, and histological examination and DNA fragmentation in liver. TNF-α and nitrite/nitrate concentrations were determined in serum. Expression of TNF-α and iNOS was also assessed in liver sections.
RESULTS—PGE1 decreased liver injury and increased TNF-α and nitrite/nitrate concentrations in serum of rats treated with D-GalN. PGE1 protection was related to enhanced expression of TNF-α and iNOS in hepatocytes. Administration of anti-TNF-α antibodies or MT blocked the protection by PGE1 of liver injury induced by D-GalN.
CONCLUSIONS—This study suggests that prior administration of PGE1 to D-GalN treated animals enhanced expression of TNF-α and iNOS in hepatocytes, and that this was causally related to protection by PGE1 against D-GalN induced liver injury.


Keywords: tumour necrosis factor α; nitric oxide; prostaglandin E1; methylisothiourea; D-galactosamine; liver injury PMID:10986217

  3. Inhibiting poly ADP-ribosylation increases fatty acid oxidation and protects against fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Gariani, Karim; Ryu, Dongryeol; Menzies, Keir J; Yi, Hyon-Seung; Stein, Sokrates; Zhang, Hongbo; Perino, Alessia; Lemos, Vera; Katsyuba, Elena; Jha, Pooja; Vijgen, Sandrine; Rubbia-Brandt, Laura; Kim, Yong Kyung; Kim, Jung Tae; Kim, Koon Soon; Shong, Minho; Schoonjans, Kristina; Auwerx, Johan

    2017-01-01

    models of NAFLD confer a protection against its development. PARP inhibitors may therefore represent a novel and practical pharmacological approach for treating NAFLD. Copyright © 2016 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Protective effects against hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury after rat orthotopic liver transplantation because of BCL-2 overexpression.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kun; Ma, Long; Xu, Ting; Qin, Zhensheng; Xia, Tianfang; Wang, Yi; Yu, Xiangyou; Pang, Liqun

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the protective effects and mechanism of recombinant adenovirus Ad.VSG-hBCL-2 towards ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat liver graft. Recombinant adenovirus Ad.VSG-hBCL-2 was injected into the donor rat liver of the experiment group through the portal vein, the laparotomy was performed for liver 36 h later, and the liver was save in lactated Ringer's solution at 4°C for 4 h, "two-cuff method" was used to perform the orthotopic liver transplantation. The bile secretion situations of two groups were observed 6 h after the portal vein reflow; the recipient rats were killed to detect the plasma levels of AST, ALT and LDH. And the expressions of Bcl-2 and TNF-α in liver tissue, and TUNEL assay was used to detect the apoptosis of liver tissue cells, electron microscopy was used to observe the changes of subcellular structures of liver tissue. 6 h after the surgery, the immunohistochemistry and Western Blot test showed that the Bcl-2 expression in the liver of the experiment group significantly increased than the control group, the bile secretion increased, the levels of AST, ALT and LDH were significantly lower, and the TNF-α expression increased significantly. The changes of cellular morphology of the experiment group were milder, and the apoptotic index was significantly lower than the control group. The portal vein-transfected recombinant adenovirus Ad.VSG-hBCL-2 could be effectively expressed in rat liver, and the high expressed Bcl-2 could reduce the ischemia/reperfusion injury in the transplanted liver.

  5. Targeting cholesterol at different levels in the mevalonate pathway protects fatty liver against ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Llacuna, Laura; Fernández, Anna; Montfort, Claudia Von; Matías, Núria; Martínez, Laura; Caballero, Francisco; Rimola, Antoni; Elena, Montserrat; Morales, Albert; Fernández-Checa, José C; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2011-05-01

    Liver steatosis enhances ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and is considered a primary factor in graft failure after liver transplantation. Although previous reports have shown a role for qualitative steatosis (macrovesicular vs. microvesicular) in hepatic I/R injury, no studies have compared side by side the specific contribution of individual lipids accumulating in fatty liver to I/R damage. We used nutritional and genetic models of micro and macrovesicular fatty livers exhibiting specific lipid profiles to assess their susceptibility to normothermic I/R injury. Unlike choline-deficient (CD) diet-fed mice, characterized by predominant liver triglycerides/free fatty acids (TG/FFA) accumulation, mice fed a cholesterol-enriched (HC) diet, which exhibited enhanced hepatic cholesterol loading in mitochondria, were highly sensitive to I/R-induced liver injury. In vivo two-photon confocal imaging revealed enhanced mitochondrial depolarization and generation of reactive oxygen species following hepatic I/R in HC-fed but not in CD-fed mice, consistent with decreased mitochondrial GSH (mGSH) observed in HC-fed mice. Moreover, ob/ob mice, characterized by increased hepatic TG, FFA, and cholesterol levels, were as sensitive to I/R-mediated liver injury as mice fed the HC diet. Livers from ob/ob mice displayed increased StAR expression and mitochondrial cholesterol accumulation, resulting in mGSH depletion. Interestingly, atorvastatin therapy or squalene synthase inhibition in vivo attenuated StAR overexpression, mitochondrial cholesterol loading, and mGSH depletion, protecting ob/ob mice from I/R-mediated liver injury. Cholesterol accumulation, particularly in mitochondria, sensitizes to hepatic I/R injury, and thus represents a novel target to prevent the enhanced damage of steatotic livers to I/R-mediated damage. Copyright © 2010 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Ethyl pyruvate protects against experimental acute-on-chronic liver failure in rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lu-Wen; Wang, Li-Kun; Chen, Hui; Fan, Cheng; Li, Xun; He, Can-Ming; Gong, Zuo-Jiong

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the protective effects of ethyl pyruvate (EP) on acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) in rats. METHODS: An ACLF model was established in rats, and animals were randomly divided into normal, model and EP treatment groups. The rats in EP treatment group received EP (40 mg/kg) at 3 h, 6 h, 12 h and 24 h after induction of ACLF. Serum endotoxin, high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), alanine transaminase (ALT), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-α (IFN-γ), interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-18 levels, changes of liver histology and HMGB1 expressions in liver tissues were detected at 48 h after induction of ACLF. The effects of EP on the survival of ACLF rats were also observed. RESULTS: Serum levels of endotoxin (0.394 ± 0.066 EU/mL vs 0.086 ± 0.017 EU/mL, P < 0.001), HMGB1 (35.42 ± 10.86 μg/L vs 2.14 ± 0.27 μg/L, P < 0.001), ALT (8415.87 ± 3567.54 IU/L vs 38.64 ± 8.82 IU/L, P < 0.001), TNF-α (190.77 ± 12.34 ng/L vs 124.40 ± 4.12 ng/L, P < 0.001), IFN-γ (715.38 ± 86.03 ng/L vs 398.66 ± 32.91 ng/L, P < 0.001), IL-10 (6.85 ± 0.64 ng/L vs 3.49 ± 0.24 ng/L, P < 0.001) and IL-18 (85.19 ± 3.49 ng/L vs 55.38 ± 1.25 ng/L, P < 0.001) were significantly increased, and liver tissues presented severe pathological injury in the model group compared with the normal group. However, EP administration significantly improved hepatic histopathology and reduced the serum levels of endotoxin (0.155 ± 0.045 EU/mL vs 0.394 ± 0.066 EU/mL, P < 0.001) and inflammatory cytokines (11.13 ± 2.58 μg/L vs 35.42 ± 10.86 μg/L for HMGB1, 3512.86 ± 972.67 IU/L vs 8415.87 ± 3567.54 IU/L for ALT, 128.55 ± 5.76 ng/L vs 190.77 ± 12.34 ng/L for TNF-α, 438.16 ± 38.10 ng/L vs 715.38 ± 86.03 ng/L for IFN-γ, 3.55 ± 0.36 ng/L vs 6.85 ± 0.64 ng/L for IL-10, and 60.35 ± 1.63 ng/L vs 85.19 ± 3.49 ng/L for IL-18, respectively, P < 0.001), and the levels of HMGB1 in liver tissues regardless of treatment time after induction of ACLF. EP treatment at the four time

  7. Loss of 5‐lipoxygenase activity protects mice against paracetamol‐induced liver toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Shiyun; Ren, Lin; Liu, Qinhui; Kuang, Jiangying; Shen, Jing; Cheng, Shihai; Zhang, Yuwei; Jiang, Wei; Zhang, Zhiyong; Jiang, Changtao

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is the most widely used over‐the‐counter analgesic and overdosing with paracetamol is the leading cause of hospital admission for acute liver failure. 5‐Lipoxygenase (5‐LO) catalyses arachidonic acid to form LTs, which lead to inflammation and oxidative stress. In this study, we examined whether deletion or pharmacological inhibition of 5‐LO could protect mice against paracetamol‐induced hepatic toxicity. Experimental Approach Both genetic deletion and pharmacological inhibition of 5‐LO in C57BL/6J mice were used to study the role of this enzyme in paracetamol induced liver toxicity. Serum and tissue biochemistry, H&E staining, and real‐time PCR were used to assess liver toxicity. Key Results Deletion or pharmacological inhibition of 5‐LO in mice markedly ameliorated paracetamol‐induced hepatic injury, as shown by decreased serum alanine transaminase and aspartate aminotransferase levels and hepatic centrilobular necrosis. The hepatoprotective effect of 5‐LO inhibition was associated with induction of the antitoxic phase II conjugating enzyme, sulfotransferase2a1, suppression of the pro‐toxic phase I CYP3A11 and reduction of the hepatic transporter MRP3. In 5‐LO−/− mice, levels of GSH were increased, and oxidative stress decreased. In addition, PPAR α, a nuclear receptor that confers resistance to paracetamol toxicity, was activated in 5‐LO−/− mice. Conclusions and Implications The activity of 5‐LO may play a critical role in paracetamol‐induced hepatic toxicity by regulating paracetamol metabolism and oxidative stress. PMID:26398229

  8. Estrogen protects the liver and intestines against sepsis-induced injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Sener, Göksel; Arbak, Serap; Kurtaran, Pelin; Gedik, Nursal; Yeğen, Berrak C

    2005-09-01

    Sepsis is commonly associated with enhanced generation of reactive oxygen metabolites, leading to multiple organ dysfunctions. The aim of this study was to examine the putative protective role of estradiol against sepsis-induced oxidative organ damage. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture method in Wistar albino rats. Sham-operated (control) and sepsis groups received saline or estradiol propionate (10 mg/kg) intraperitoneally immediately after the operation and at 12 h. Twenty-four hours after the surgery, rats were decapitated and malondialdehyde, glutathione levels, and myeloperoxidase activity were determined in the liver and ileum, while oxidant-induced tissue fibrosis was determined by collagen contents. Tissues were also examined microscopically. Serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase levels, and lactate dehydrogenase were measured for the evaluation of liver functions and tissue damage, respectively. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha was also assayed in serum samples. In the saline-treated sepsis group, glutathione levels were decreased significantly, while the malondialdehyde levels, myeloperoxidase activity, and collagen content were increased in the tissues (P < 0.01 to P < 0.001), suggesting oxidative organ damage, which was also verified histologically. In the estradiol-treated sepsis group, all of these oxidant responses were reversed significantly (P < 0.05 to P < 0.01). Liver function tests and tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels, which were increased significantly (P < 0.001) following sepsis, were decreased (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001) with estradiol treatment. The results demonstrate the role of oxidative mechanisms in sepsis-induced tissue damage, and estradiol, by its antioxidant properties, ameliorates oxidative organ injury, implicating that treatment with estrogens might be applicable in clinical situations to ameliorate multiple organ damage induced by sepsis.

  9. Dolichos lablab Protects Against Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Mice Fed High-Fat Diets.

    PubMed

    Im, A-Rang; Kim, Yun Hee; Kim, Young Hwa; Yang, Won-Kyung; Kim, Seung Hyung; Song, Kwang Hoon

    2017-12-01

    Hyacinth bean, Dolichos lablab or Lablab purpureus, has been used for centuries in India and China as an edible pod and animal forage, as well as to treat diarrhea and other gastrointestinal disease in traditional Korean medicine. Recently, we have demonstrated that D. lablab extract (DLL-Ex) prevented free fatty acid-induced lipid accumulation in an in vitro cellular nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) model. In this study, we, thus, aimed at clarifying the hepatoprotective effects of DLL-Ex in a high-fat diet-induced in vivo animal NAFLD model, as well as at elucidating underlying mechanisms of identified effects. Sixty, 6-week-old, male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into six groups: a control group fed a low-fat diet, four high-fat diet (HFD) groups, three receiving daily oral supplementation of DLL-Ex (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg/day), and one HFD group receiving daily oral supplementation of MILK (100 mg/kg/day). Effects of DLL-Ex supplementation were evaluated by histopathological and histochemical assessments. DLL-Ex supplementation inhibited HFD-induced increases in body weight and body fat mass and ameliorated increases in body weight, manifested as decreased liver function tests, lower serum triglycerides and cholesterol levels, and increased serum adiponectin levels. The expression of hepatic genes involved in lipid droplet accumulation and in fatty acid uptake was also decreased. We provide evidence of a protective effect of DLL-Ex against HFD-induced fatty liver disease in an animal model.

  10. Atf6 plays protective and pathologic roles in fatty liver disease due to endoplasmic reticulum stress

    PubMed Central

    Cinaroglu, Ayca; Gao, Chuan; Imrie, Dru; Sadler, Kirsten C.

    2011-01-01

    Many etiologies of fatty liver disease (FLD) are associated with hyper-activation of one of the three pathways that comprise the unfolded protein response (UPR), a harbinger of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. The UPR is mediated by pathways initiated by PERK, IRE1a/XBP1and ATF6, and each of these pathways have been implicated as either protective or pathological in FLD. We use zebrafish with FLD and hepatic ER stress to explore the relationship between Atf6 and steatosis. Mutation of the foie gras (foigr) gene causes FLD and hepatic ER stress. Prolonged treatment of wild-type larvae with a dose of tunicamycin that causes chronic ER stress phenocopies foigr. In contrast, acute exposure to a high dose of tunicamycin robustly activates the UPR but is less effective at inducing steatosis. The Srebp transcription factors are not required for steatosis in any of these models. Instead, depleting larvae of active Atf6 either through mbtps1 mutation or atf6 morpholino injection protects against steatosis caused by chronic ER stress whereas it exacerbates steatosis caused by acute tunicamycin treatment. Conclusion ER stress causes FLD. Loss of Atf6 prevents steatosis caused by chronic ER stress but can also potentiate steatosis caused by acute ER stress. This demonstrates that Atf6 can play both protective and pathological roles in FLD. PMID:21538441

  11. Protective effects of Centella asiatica leaf extract on dimethylnitrosamine‑induced liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Choi, Myung-Joo; Zheng, Hong-Mei; Kim, Jae Min; Lee, Kye Wan; Park, Yu Hwa; Lee, Don Haeng

    2016-11-01

    Oxidative stress in liver injury is a major pathogenetic factor in the progression of liver damage. Centella asiatica (L.) Urban, known in the United States as Gotu kola, is widely used as a traditional herbal medicine in Chinese or Indian Pennywort. The efficacy of Centella asiatica is comprehensive and is used as an anti‑inflammatory agent, for memory improvement, for its antitumor activity and for treatment of gastric ulcers. The present study investigated the protective effects of Centella asiatica on dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)‑induced liver injury in rats. The rats in the treatment groups were treated with Centella asiatica at either 100 or 200 mg/kg in distilled water (D.W) or with silymarin (200 mg/kg in D.W) by oral administration for 5 days daily following intraperitoneal injections of 30 mg/kg DMN. Centella asiatica significantly decreased the relative liver weights in the DMN‑induced liver injury group, compared with the control. The assessment of liver histology showed that Centella asiatica significantly alleviated mass periportal ± bridging necrosis, intralobular degeneration and focal necrosis, with fibrosis of liver tissues. Additionally, Centella asiatica significantly decreased the level of malondialdehyde, significantly increased the levels of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase, and may have provided protection against the deleterious effects of reactive oxygen species. In addition, Centella asiatica significantly decreased inflammatory mediators, including interleukin (IL)‑1β, IL‑2, IL‑6, IL‑10, IL‑12, tumor necrosis factor‑α, interferon‑γ and granulocyte/macrophage colony‑stimulating factor. These results suggested that Centella asiatica had hepatoprotective effects through increasing the levels of antioxidant enzymes and reducing the levels of inflammatory mediators in rats with DMN‑induced liver injury. Therefore, Centella asiatica may be useful

  12. Lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) Pulp Phenolic Extract Provides Protection against Alcoholic Liver Injury in Mice by Alleviating Intestinal Microbiota Dysbiosis, Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction, and Liver Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Juan; Zhang, Ruifen; Zhou, Qiuyun; Liu, Lei; Huang, Fei; Deng, Yuanyuan; Ma, Yongxuan; Wei, Zhencheng; Tang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Mingwei

    2017-11-08

    Liver injury is the most common consequence of alcohol abuse, which is promoted by the inflammatory response triggered by gut-derived endotoxins produced as a consequence of intestinal microbiota dysbiosis and barrier dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate whether modulation of intestinal microbiota and barrier function, and liver inflammation contributes to the hepatoprotective effect of lychee pulp phenolic extract (LPPE) in alcohol-fed mice. Mice were treated with an ethanol-containing liquid diet alone or in combination with LPPE for 8 weeks. LPPE supplementation alleviated ethanol-induced liver injury and downregulated key markers of inflammation. Moreover, LPPE supplementation reversed the ethanol-induced alteration of intestinal microbiota composition and increased the expression of intestinal tight junction proteins, mucus protecting proteins, and antimicrobial proteins. Furthermore, in addition to decreasing serum endotoxin level, LPPE supplementation suppressed CD14 and toll-like receptor 4 expression, and repressed the activation of nuclear factor-κB p65 in the liver. These data suggest that intestinal microbiota dysbiosis, intestinal barrier dysfunction, and liver inflammation are improved by LPPE, and therefore, the intake of LPPE or Litchi pulp may be an effective strategy to alleviate the susceptibility to alcohol-induced hepatic diseases.

  13. Theacrine protects against nonalcoholic fatty liver disease by regulating acylcarnitine metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-En; Li, Yi-Fang; Zhai, Yu-Jia; Gong, Lian; Tian, Jing-Yu; Hong, Mo; Yao, Nan; Wu, Yan-Ping; Kurihara, Hiroshi; He, Rong-Rong

    2018-05-01

    Acylcarnitine metabolism disorder contributes significantly to the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). There are, however, few ideal medications for NAFLD, which work by targeting acylcarnitine metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of theacrine, a rare purine alkaloid isolated from Camellia assamica var. kucha, against acylcarnitine metabolism disorder in NAFLD. The pharmacological activities of theacrine were studied using high-fat diet (HFD)-fed ApoE-/- and C57BL/6 J mice models. Oleate-treated HepG2 and L-02 cells were used to investigate the molecular mechanism of theacrine on acylcarnitine metabolism. The target of theacrine was confirmed in vitro as the blockade of sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) and protein kinase A. Theacrine inhibits hepatic steatosis and liver inflammation and improves energy expenditure in HFD-fed mice. Theacrine ameliorates acylcarnitine metabolism disorder in HFD-fed mice and oleate-treated hepatocytes by improving fatty acid oxidation. The underlying mechanism involves theacrine's activation of the mitochondrial deacetylase SIRT3 and consequently, the increased activity of long-chain acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase (LCAD) through deacetylation. Theacrine promotes acylcarnitine metabolism in NAFLD through the SIRT3/LCAD signaling pathway. The target of theacrine's activities on NAFLD is identified as SIRT3. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Protective effects of silymarin against bisphenol A-induced hepatotoxicity in mouse liver

    PubMed Central

    Zaulet, Mihaela; Kevorkian, Steliana Elvira Maria; Dinescu, Sorina; Cotoraci, Coralia; Suciu, Maria; Herman, Hildegard; Buburuzan, Laura; Badulescu, Liliana; Ardelean, Aurel; Hermenean, Anca

    2017-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine-disrupting chemical released into the environment, with severe consequences for human health, including metabolic syndrome and associated pathological conditions. Due to limited information on BPA-induced hepatotoxicity, the present study focused on investigating the association between BPA-induced toxicity and inflammatory markers in the liver, and how these injuries may be alleviated using the natural agent silymarin, a flavonoid with antioxidant properties obtained from Silybum marianum. Administration of BPA to male CD-1 mice for 10 days caused a significant increase in the number of cells immunopositive for interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, pro-inflammatory cytokines that mediate the hepatic inflammatory response. Treatment with 200 mg/kg of silymarin concurrently with BPA for 10 days resulted in a diminished level of pro-inflammatory cytokines and in significantly reduced ultrastructural injuries. Additionally, silymarin was able to restore the significantly decreased glycogen deposits observed following BPA exposure to normal levels, thus favoring hepatic glycogenesis. This study represents the first report of silymarin ability to reduce hepatic lesions and to counteract inflammation caused by BPA in mice. A dose of 200 mg/kg silymarin was sufficient to induce a protective effect against structural and ultrastructural injuries induced by BPA and to lower the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines observed in murine liver tissue following exposure to BPA. PMID:28450905

  15. Antioxidant and protective effect of inulin and catechin grafted inulin against CCl4-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Lu, Jian-feng; Wen, Xiao-yuan; Kan, Juan; Jin, Chang-hai

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective effect of inulin and catechin grafted inulin (catechin-g-inulin) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute liver injury were investigated. Results showed that both inulin and catechin-g-inulin had moderate scavenging activity on superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical and H2O2, as well as lipid peroxidation inhibition effect. The antioxidant activity decreased in the order of Vc > catechin >catechin-g-inulin > inulin. Administration of inulin and catechin-g-inulin could significantly reduce the elevated levels of serum aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase as compared to CCl4 treatment group. Moreover, inulin and catechin-g-inulin significantly increased the levels of hepatic superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione and total antioxidant capacity, whereas markedly decreased the malondialdehyde level when compared with CCl4 treatment group. Notably, catechin-g-inulin showed higher hepatoprotective effect than inulin. In addition, the hepatoprotective effect of catechin-g-inulin was comparable to positive standard of silymarin. Our results suggested that catechin-g-inulin had potent antioxidant activity and potential protective effect against CCl4-induced acute liver injury. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of thermal processing on sulforaphane yield from broccoli ( Brassica oleracea L. ssp. italica).

    PubMed

    Wang, Grace C; Farnham, Mark; Jeffery, Elizabeth H

    2012-07-11

    In broccoli, sulforaphane forms when the glucosinolate glucoraphanin is hydrolyzed by the endogenous plant thiohydrolase myrosinase. A myrosinase cofactor directs hydrolysis away from the formation of bioactive sulforaphane and toward an inactive product, sulforaphane nitrile. The cofactor is more heat sensitive than myrosinase, presenting an opportunity to preferentially direct hydrolysis toward sulforaphane formation through regulation of thermal processing. Four broccoli cultivars were microwave heated, boiled, or steamed for various lengths of time. Production of nitrile during hydrolysis of unheated broccoli varied among cultivars from 91 to 52% of hydrolysis products (Pinnacle > Marathon > Patriot > Brigadier). Boiling and microwave heating caused an initial loss of nitrile, with a concomitant increase in sulforaphane, followed by loss of sulforaphane, all within 1 min. In contrast, steaming enhanced sulforaphane yield between 1.0 and 3.0 min in all but Brigadier. These data are proof of concept that steaming for 1.0-3.0 min provides less nitrile and more sulforaphane yield from a broccoli meal.

  17. Sulforaphane epigenetically enhances neuronal BDNF expression and TrkB signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jisung; Lee, Siyoung; Choi, Bo-Ryoung; Yang, Hee; Hwang, Youjin; Park, Jung Han Yoon; LaFerla, Frank M; Han, Jung-Soo; Lee, Ki Won; Kim, Jiyoung

    2017-02-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin that supports the survival of existing neurons and encourages the growth and differentiation of new neurons and synapses. We investigated the effect of sulforaphane, a hydrolysis product of glucoraphanin present in Brassica vegetables, on neuronal BDNF expression and its synaptic signaling pathways. Mouse primary cortical neurons and a triple-transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (3 × Tg-AD) were used to study the effect of sulforaphane. Sulforaphane enhanced neuronal BDNF expression and increased levels of neuronal and synaptic molecules such as MAP2, synaptophysin, and PSD-95 in primary cortical neurons and 3 × Tg-AD mice. Sulforaphane elevated levels of synaptic TrkB signaling pathway components, including CREB, CaMKII, ERK, and Akt in both primary cortical neurons and 3 × Tg-AD mice. Sulforaphane increased global acetylation of histone 3 (H3) and H4, inhibited HDAC activity, and decreased the level of HDAC2 in primary cortical neurons. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that sulforaphane increased acetylated H3 and H4 at BDNF promoters, suggesting that sulforaphane regulates BDNF expression via HDAC inhibition. These findings suggest that sulforaphane has the potential to prevent neuronal disorders such as Alzheimer's disease by epigenetically enhancing neuronal BDNF expression and its TrkB signaling pathways. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Analysis of autophagic flux in response to sulforaphane in metastatic prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Gregory W; Wickramasekara, Samanthi; Fang, Yufeng; Palomera-Sanchez, Zoraya; Maier, Claudia S; Williams, David E; Dashwood, Roderick H; Perez, Viviana I; Ho, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Scope The phytochemical sulforaphane has been shown to decrease prostate cancer metastases in a genetic mouse model of prostate carcinogenesis, though the mechanism of action is not fully known. Sulforaphane has been reported to stimulate autophagy, and modulation of autophagy has been proposed to influence sulforaphane cytotoxicity; however, no conclusions about autophagy can be drawn without assessing autophagic flux, which has not been characterized in prostate cancer cells following sulforaphane treatment. Methods and Results We conducted an investigation to assess the impact of sulforaphane on autophagic flux in two metastatic prostate cancer cell lines at a concentration shown to decrease metastasis in vivo. Autophagic flux was assessed by multiple autophagy related proteins and substrates. We found that sulforaphane can stimulate autophagic flux and cell death only at high concentrations, above what has been observed in vivo. Conclusion These results suggest that sulforaphane does not directly stimulate autophagy or cell death in metastatic prostate cancer cells under physiologically relevant conditions, but instead supports the involvement of in vivo factors as important effectors of sulforaphane- mediated prostate cancer suppression. PMID:26108801

  19. Identification of protective components that prevent the exacerbation of goose fatty liver: Characterization, expression and regulation of adiponectin receptors.

    PubMed

    Geng, Tuoyu; Yang, Biao; Li, Fuyuan; Xia, Lili; Wang, Qianqian; Zhao, Xing; Gong, Daoqing

    2016-01-01

    Fat accumulation in the liver is a natural process in goose, which prepares goose for long-distance migration. In contrast to mammalian fatty liver that usually progresses into an irreversible status, steatohepatitis, goose fatty liver can return to normal without obvious pathological damage, suggesting a protective system exists in goose liver. This study was to identify the components of this system. We first focused on goose adiponectin receptor 1 and 2 (Adipor1/2) as they have ceramidase activity, and can cleave ceramide, a group of proinflammatory signaling lipid species. Quantitative analysis indicated that tumor necrosis factor alpha (Tnfα), a key proinflammatory cytokine, was down-regulated in goose fatty liver by overfeeding. This inhibition of Tnfα was accompanied with reduced adiponectin and increased Adipor1/2 in the adipose tissues and in the livers of the overfed geese, respectively. To investigate the regulation of goose Adipor2 in the context of fatty liver, we treated goose primary hepatocytes with fatty liver associated factors. Data indicated that Adipor2 was upregulated by glucose and oleate but not palmitate. Its expression was even suppressed by high level of insulin. The regulation of Adipor1 by these factors was quite similar to that of Adipor2 except that glucose did not induce Adipor1. Together, these findings suggest the upregulation of Adipor1/2 may, at least partially, contribute to the inhibition of inflammation in goose fatty liver, and the expression of Adipor1/2 can be regulated by fatty liver-associated factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. 17β-Estradiol protects the liver against cold ischemia/reperfusion injury through the Akt kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaohua; Qin, Lei; Liu, Jianxia; Tian, Liping; Qian, Haixin

    2012-12-01

    Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury occurs during liver resection and transplantation. Recent studies have shown that 17β-estradiol (E2) can protect the heart and liver against warm IR. The present study focused on the cytoprotective effects of E2 on cold IR injury to the liver. Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham, IR, and IR plus E2. The model of rat orthotopic liver transplantation was used. The rats in the IR plus E2 group were intraperitoneally injected with E2 (100 μg/kg/d) for 7 d before surgery. The sham and IR group received the same quantity of saline. The donor livers were then orthotopically transplanted into rats after cold ischemia preservation for 4 h at 4°C lactated Ringer's solution. After 6 h reperfusion, liver function, bile flow volume, hepatocyte apoptosis, and activation of Akt, glycogen synthase kinase-3β, and Bcl-2-associated death promoter were assessed. The survival rate of the rats was also investigated. The administration of E2 significantly prolonged the survival of liver grafts by improving liver function and decreasing hepatocyte apoptosis. Rats undergoing E2 demonstrated a greater level activation of Akt in the liver compared with the IR group. In addition, E2 also inhibited the activities of glycogen synthase kinase-3β, Bcl-2-associated death promoter, and caspase-3-induced by IR injury. E2 pretreatment attenuated the hepatocellular damage caused by hepatic cold IR injury through the Akt pathway. Estrogen therapy might be important in clinical settings associated with cold IR injury during liver transplantation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Transfection of hBcl-2 gene protects the liver against ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats during liver transplantation].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ji-tong; Liu, Jing-shi; Jiang, Jin-yu; Zhou, Li-xue; Liang, Gang; Li, Yan-chun

    2010-12-01

    To study the effect of hBcl-2 gene transfer on rat liver against ischemia-reperfusion injury, and explore the feasibility of this approach to reduce ischemia-reperfusion injury in liver transplantation. We constructed the replication-deficient recombinant adenoviruses Adv-EGFP and Adv-Bcl-2 and transfected them into 293 cells and packaged into adenovirus particles for amplification and purification. The empty plasmid vector virus was constructed similarly. Male SD rats were randomized into Adv-Bcl-2-transfected group, Adv-EGFP-transfected group, ischemia-reperfusion group, and sham-operated group, and liver allograft transplantation model was established by sleeve method. In the transfected groups, the recombinant viruses were administered by perfusion through the portal vein, and the ischemia-reperfusion and sham-operated groups received no treatment. Real-time quantitative PCR and Western blotting were used to detect the mRNA and protein expressions of bcl-2 in the liver tissue of each group, and at 0, 60 and 180 min after reperfusion, serum AST, LDH, and MDA levels were measured. Histological changes of the liver cells were evaluated by HE staining. Bcl-2 mRNA and protein expressions in Adv-Bcl-2-transfected group, as compared with those in Adv-EGFP-transfected group and control group, were significantly increased (P<0.01); the serum levels of AST, LDH and MDA in Adv-Bcl-2-transfected group were significantly lower than those of Adv-EGFP-transfected group and ischemia-reperfusion group (P<0.05 or 0.01). Compared with the sham-operated group, Adv-Bcl-2 treatment group showed lessened edema and vacuolar degeneration of the liver cells without patches or spots of necrosis. In ischemia-reperfusion and Adv-EGFP group, HE staining revealed hepatic lobular destruction and extensive liver cell swelling, enlargement, vacuolar degeneration, edema and occasional focal necrosis. Adv-Bcl-2 transfection can induce the expression of bcl-2 gene to reduce ischemia

  2. Coffee consumption protects against progression in liver cirrhosis and increases long-term survival after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Kilian; Smit, Mark; Wannhoff, Andreas; Rupp, Christian; Scholl, Sabine G; Antoni, Christoph; Dollinger, Matthias; Neumann-Haefelin, Christoph; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Weiss, Karl Heinz; Schemmer, Peter; Gotthardt, Daniel Nils

    2016-08-01

    Therapeutic options to treat progression of end-stage liver disease (ESLD) or improve long-term survival after liver transplantation remain scarce. We investigated the impact of coffee consumption under these conditions. We recorded coffee consumption habits of 379 patients with ESLD awaiting liver transplantation and 260 patients after liver transplantation. Survival was analyzed based on coffee intake. One hundred ninety-five patients with ESLD consumed coffee on a daily basis, while 184 patients did not. Actuarial survival was impaired (P = 0.041) in non-coffee drinkers (40.4 ± 4.3 months, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 32.0-48.9) compared with coffee drinkers (54.9 ± 5.5 months, 95% CI: 44.0-65.7). In subgroup analysis, the survival of patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD; P = 0.020) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC; P = 0.017) was increased with coffee intake while unaffected in patients with chronic viral hepatitis (P = 0.517) or other liver disease entities (P = 0.652). Multivariate analysis showed that coffee consumption of PSC and ALD patients retained as an independent risk factor (odds ratio [OR]: 1.94; 95% CI: 1.15-3.28; P = 0.013) along with MELD score (OR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.09-1.17; P = 0.000). Following liver transplantation, long-term survival was longer in coffee drinkers (coffee: 61.8 ± 2.0 months, 95% CI: 57.9-65.8) than non-drinkers (52.3 ± 3.5 months, 95% CI: 45.4-59.3; P = 0.001). Coffee consumption delayed disease progression in ALD and PSC patients with ESLD and increased long-term survival after liver transplantation. We conclude that regular coffee intake might be recommended for these patients. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. Increased seizure susceptibility and other toxicity symptoms following acute sulforaphane treatment in mice.

    PubMed

    Socała, Katarzyna; Nieoczym, Dorota; Kowalczuk-Vasilev, Edyta; Wyska, Elżbieta; Wlaź, Piotr

    2017-07-01

    Activation of Nrf2 with sulforaphane has recently gained attention as a new therapeutic approach in the treatment of many diseases, including epilepsy. As a plant-derived compound, sulforaphane is considered to be safe and well-tolerated. It is widely consumed, also by patients suffering from seizure and taking antiepileptic drugs, but no toxicity profile of sulforaphane exists. Since many natural remedies and dietary supplements may increase seizure risk and potentially interact with antiepileptic drugs, the aim of our study was to investigate the acute effects of sulforaphane on seizure thresholds and activity of some first- and second-generation antiepileptic drugs in mice. In addition, some preliminary toxicity profile of sulforaphane in mice after intraperitoneal injection was evaluated. The LD 50 value of sulforaphane in mice was estimated at 212.67mg/kg, while the TD 50 value - at 191.58mg/kg. In seizure tests, sulforaphane at the highest dose tested (200mg/kg) significantly decreased the thresholds for the onset of the first myoclonic twitch and generalized clonic seizure in the iv PTZ test as well as the threshold for the 6Hz-induced psychomotor seizure. At doses of 10-200mg/kg, sulforaphane did not affect the threshold for the iv PTZ-induced forelimb tonus or the threshold for maximal electroshock-induced hindlimb tonus. Interestingly, sulforaphane (at 100mg/kg) potentiated the anticonvulsant efficacy of carbamazepine in the maximal electroshock seizure test. This interaction could have been pharmacokinetic in nature, as sulforaphane increased concentrations of carbamazepine in both serum and brain tissue. The toxicity study showed that high doses of sulforaphane produced marked sedation (at 150-300mg/kg), hypothermia (at 150-300mg/kg), impairment of motor coordination (at 200-300mg/kg), decrease in skeletal muscle strength (at 250-300mg/kg), and deaths (at 200-300mg/kg). Moreover, blood analysis showed leucopenia in mice injected with sulforaphane at 200

  4. Nitric oxide protects murine embryonic liver cells (BNL CL.2) from cytotoxicity induced by glucose deprivation.

    PubMed

    Pae, H O; Kim, H G; Paik, Y S; Paik, S G; Kim, Y M; Oh, G S; Chung, H T

    2000-03-01

    We investigated the protective effects of nitric oxide on cell death of murine embryonic liver cells (BNL CL.2) after glucose deprivation. Endogenous nitric oxide production by BNL CL.2 cells was induced by 6 hr pretreatment with interferon-gamma and lipopolysaccharide. We used sodium nitroprusside and S-nitroso-L-glutathione as exogenous nitric oxide-generating compounds. All agents were used at doses that did not show direct cytotoxicity as measured by crystal violet staining assay. In the BNL CL.2 cells, the viability dropped very steeply after 24 hr incubation with glucose-free media. Endogenous nitric oxide produced by treatment of the cells with interferon-gamma and lipopolysaccharide protected the cells from glucose deprivation-induced cytotoxicity, but did not protect them in the presence of the nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor, N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine. Exogenous nitric oxide protected the cells from glucose deprivation-induced cytotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. Cytoprotection by nitric oxide donors was abolished by the use of nitric oxide scavenger, 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5,-tetramethylimidazole, but not by the soluble guanosine cyclase inhibitor, 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazole[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one. In addition, cytoprotective effects comparable to endogenous or exogenous nitric oxide were not observed when the cells were incubated with dibutyl guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate. Based upon these results, we suggest that nitric oxide may enhance the cell survival of BNL CL.2 cells after glucose deprivation via a guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate-independent pathway.

  5. Maize Purple Plant Pigment Protects Against Fluoride-Induced Oxidative Damage of Liver and Kidney in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhuo; Zhou, Bo; Wang, Hiaohong; Wang, Fei; Song, Yingli; Liu, Shengnan; Xi, Shuhua

    2014-01-01

    Anthocyanins are polyphenols and well known for their biological antioxidative benefits. Maize purple plant pigment (MPPP) extracted and separated from maize purple plant is rich in anthocyanins. In the present study, MPPP was used to alleviate the adverse effects generated by fluoride on liver and kidney in rats. The results showed that the ultrastructure of the liver and kidney in fluoride treated rats displayed shrinkage of nuclear and cell volume, swollen mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum and vacuols formation in the liver and kidney cells. MPPP significantly attenuated these fluoride-induced pathological changes. The MDA levels in serum and liver tissue of fluoride alone treated group were significantly higher than those of the control group (p < 0.05). The presence of 5 g/kg MPPP in the diet reduced the elevation of MDA levels in blood and liver, and increased the SOD and GSH-Px activities in kidney and GSH level in liver and kidney compared with the fluoride alone treated group (p < 0.05). In addition, MPPP alleviated the decrease of Bcl-2 protein expression and the increase of Bax protein expression induced by fluoride. This study demonstrated the protective role of MPPP against fluoride-induced oxidative stress in liver and kidney of rats. PMID:24419046

  6. Sulforaphane promotes murine hair growth by accelerating the degradation of dihydrotestosterone.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Mari; Shinozaki, Shohei; Shimokado, Kentaro

    2016-03-25

    Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) causes the regression of human hair follicles in the parietal scalp, leading to androgenic alopecia (AGA). Sulforaphane (SFN) increases the expression of DHT degrading enzymes, such as 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (3α-HSDs), and, therefore, SFN treatment may improve AGA. To determine the effects of SFN on hair growth, we administered SFN (10 mg/kg BW, IP) or vehicle (DMSO) to ob/ob mice for six weeks and examined hair regeneration and the plasma levels of testosterone and DHT. We also tested the effects of SFN on the expression of two forms of 3α-HSD, aldo-keto reductase 1c21 and dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR family) member 9, both in vitro and in vivo. SNF significantly enhanced hair regeneration in ob/ob mice. The mice treated with SFN showed lower plasma levels of testosterone and DHT than those treated with vehicle. SFN increased the mRNA and protein levels of the two forms of 3α-HSD in the liver of the mice and in cultured murine hepatocyte Hepa1c1c7 cells. These results suggest that SFN treatment increases the amount of 3α-HSDs in the liver, accelerates the degradation of blood DHT, and subsequently blocks the suppression of hair growth by DHT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cytotoxic and Antitumor Activity of Sulforaphane: The Role of Reactive Oxygen Species

    PubMed Central

    Sestili, Piero

    2015-01-01

    According to recent estimates, cancer continues to remain the second leading cause of death and is becoming the leading one in old age. Failure and high systemic toxicity of conventional cancer therapies have accelerated the identification and development of innovative preventive as well as therapeutic strategies to contrast cancer-associated morbidity and mortality. In recent years, increasing body of in vitro and in vivo studies has underscored the cancer preventive and therapeutic efficacy of the isothiocyanate sulforaphane. In this review article, we highlight that sulforaphane cytotoxicity derives from complex, concurring, and multiple mechanisms, among which the generation of reactive oxygen species has been identified as playing a central role in promoting apoptosis and autophagy of target cells. We also discuss the site and the mechanism of reactive oxygen species' formation by sulforaphane, the toxicological relevance of sulforaphane-formed reactive oxygen species, and the death pathways triggered by sulforaphane-derived reactive oxygen species. PMID:26185755

  8. Protective Action of Se-Supplement Against Acute Alcoholism Is Regulated by Selenoprotein P (SelP) in the Liver.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenbiao; Guo, Yingfang; Qiu, Changwei; Deng, Ganzhen; Guo, Mengyao

    2017-02-01

    Acute alcoholism is a major cause of cirrhosis and liver failure around the world. Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient promoting liver health in humans and animals. Selenoprotein P (SelP) is a glycoprotein secreted within the liver, which interacts with cytokines and the growth factor pathway to provide protection for hepatic cells. The present study was conducted to confirm the effect and mechanism of Se and SelP action in livers affected by acute alcoholism. In this study, a mouse model of acute alcoholism, as well as a hepatocyte model, was successfully established. The Se content of the liver was detected by atomic fluorescence spectrophotometry. The expression of messenger RNA (mRNA) was analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The protein expression of inflammatory factors was detected by ELISA. The other proteins were analyzed by western blotting. The results showed that pathological damage to the liver was gradually weakened by Se-supplementation, which was evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and TUNEL staining. Se-supplementation inhibited expression of pro-inflammatory factors TNF-α and IL-1β and promoted production of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in the liver with acute alcoholism. Se-supplementation also prevented the apoptosis of hepatocytes by suppressing the cleavage of caspases-9, 3, 6, 7, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Through correlational analysis, it was determined that the effects of Se-supplement were closely related to SelP expression, inflammatory cytokines, and apoptosis molecule production. The sienna of SelP further confirmed the protective action of Se-supplementation on the liver and that the mechanism of SelP involves the regulation of inflammatory cytokines and apoptosis molecules in acute alcoholism. These findings provide information regarding a new potential target for the treatment of acute alcoholism.

  9. Chlorogenic acid protects D-galactose-induced liver and kidney injury via antioxidation and anti-inflammation effects in mice.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yan; Yu, Ying-Hua; Wang, Shu-Ting; Ren, Jing; Camer, Danielle; Hua, Yu-Zhou; Zhang, Qian; Huang, Jie; Xue, Dan-Lu; Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Huang, Xu-Feng; Liu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation are implicated in the aging process and its related hepatic and renal function decline. Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is one of the most abundant polyphenol compounds in the human diet. Recently, CGA has shown in vivo and in vitro antioxidant properties. The current study investigates the effects of protective effects of chlorogenic acid (CGA) on D-galactose-induced liver and kidney injury. Hepatic and renal injuries were induced in a mouse model by subcutaneously injection of D-galactose (D-gal; 100 mg/kg) once a day for 8 consecutive weeks and orally administered simultaneously with CGA included in the food (200 mg/kg of diet). The liver and renal functions were examined. Histological analyses of liver and kidney were done by haematoxylin and eosin staining. The oxidative stress markers and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the liver and the kidney were measured. Results CGA significantly reduced the serum aminotransferase, serum creatinine (SCr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels in D-gal mice (p <0.05). CGA also restored superoxide dismutase, catalase, and malondialdehyde levels and decreased glutathione content in the liver and kidney in D-gal mice (p <0.05). Improvements in liver and kidney were also noted in histopathological studies. CGA reduced tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) protein levels in the liver and kidney in D-gal mice (p <0.05). These findings suggest that CGA attenuates D-gal-induced chronic liver and kidney injury and that this protection may be due to its antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities.

  10. Sulforaphane inhibits mitotic clonal expansion during adipogenesis through cell cycle arrest.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyeong-Mi; Lee, Youn-Sun; Sin, Dong-Mi; Lee, Seunghyun; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Lee, Yong-Moon; Hong, Jin-Tae; Yun, Yeo-Pyo; Yoo, Hwan-Soo

    2012-07-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for numerous metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and coronary heart disease. Adipocyte differentiation is triggered by adipocyte hyperplasia, which leads to obesity. In this study, the inhibitory effect of sulforaphane, an isothiocyanate, on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells was investigated. Sulforaphane decreased the accumulation of lipid droplets stained with Oil Red O and inhibited the elevation of triglycerides in the adipocytes (half-maximal inhibitory concentration = 7.3 µmol/l). The expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), major transcription factors for adipocyte differentiation, was significantly reduced by sulforaphane. The major effects of sulforaphane on the inhibition of adipocyte differentiation occurred during the early stage of adipogenesis. Thus, the expression of C/EBPβ, an early-stage biomarker of adipogenesis, decreased in a concentration-dependent manner when the adipocytes were exposed to sulforaphane (0, 5, 10, and 20 µmol/l). The proliferation of adipocytes treated with 20 µmol/l sulforaphane for 24 and 48 h was also suppressed. These results indicate that sulforaphane may specifically affect mitotic clonal expansion to inhibit adipocyte differentiation. Sulforaphane arrested the cell cycle at the G(0)/G(1) phase, increased p27 expression, and decreased retinoblastoma (Rb) phosphorylation. Additionally, sulforaphane modestly decreased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Akt. Our results indicate that the inhibition of early-stage adipocyte differentiation by sulforaphane may be associated with cell cycle arrest at the G(0)/G(1) phase through upregulation of p27 expression.

  11. Effect of Sulforaphane in Men with Biochemical Recurrence after Radical Prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Cipolla, Bernard G; Mandron, Eric; Lefort, Jean Marc; Coadou, Yves; Della Negra, Emmanuel; Corbel, Luc; Le Scodan, Ronan; Azzouzi, Abdel Rahmene; Mottet, Nicolas

    2015-08-01

    Increases in serum levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) occur commonly in prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy and are designated "biochemical recurrence." Because the phytochemical sulforaphane has been studied extensively as an anticancer agent, we performed a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled multicenter trial with sulforaphane in 78 patients (mean age, 69 ± 6 years) with increasing PSA levels after radical prostatectomy. Treatment comprised daily oral administration of 60 mg of a stabilized free sulforaphane for 6 months (M0-M6) followed by 2 months without treatment (M6-M8). The study was designed to detect a 0.012 log (ng/mL)/month decrease in the log PSA slope in the sulforaphane group from M0 to M6. The primary endpoint was not reached. For secondary endpoints, median log PSA slopes were consistently lower in sulforaphane-treated men. Mean changes in PSA levels between M6 and M0 were significantly lower in the sulforaphane group (+0.099 ± 0.341 ng/mL) than in placebo (+0.620 ± 1.417 ng/mL; P = 0.0433). PSA doubling time was 86% longer in the sulforaphane than in the placebo group (28.9 and 15.5 months, respectively). PSA increases >20% at M6 were significantly greater in the placebo group (71.8%) than in the sulforaphane group (44.4%); P = 0.0163. Compliance and tolerance were very good. Sulforaphane effects were prominent after 3 months of intervention (M3-M6). After treatment, PSA slopes from M6 to M8 remained the same in the 2 arms. Daily administration of free sulforaphane shows promise in managing biochemical recurrences in prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. Isoliquiritigenin protects against sepsis-induced lung and liver injury by reducing inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiong; Cai, Xueding; Le, Rongrong; Zhang, Man; Gu, Xuemei; Shen, Feixia; Hong, Guangliang; Chen, Zimiao

    2018-02-05

    Sepsis, one of the most fatal diseases worldwide, often leads to multiple organ failure, mainly due to uncontrolled inflammatory responses. Despite accumulating knowledge obtained in recent years, effective drugs to treat sepsis in the clinic are still urgently needed. Isoliquiritigenin (ISL), a chalcone compound, has been reported to exert anti-inflammatory properties. However, little is known about the effects of ISL on sepsis and its related complications. In this study, we investigated the potential protective effects of ISL on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced injuries and identified the mechanisms underlying these effects. ISL inhibited inflammatory cytokine expression in mouse primary peritoneal macrophages (MPMs) exposed to LPS. In an acute lung injury (ALI) mouse model, ISL prevented LPS-induced structural damage and inflammatory cell infiltration. Additionally, pretreatment with ISL attenuated sepsis-induced lung and liver injury, accompanied by a reduction in inflammatory responses. Moreover, these protective effects were mediated by the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway-mediated inhibition of inflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo. Our study suggests that ISL may be a potential therapeutic agent for sepsis-induced injuries. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. [The protective effect of XD in ConA-induced liver injury].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Bin; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Liu, Tao; Dang, Tong-Mei; Cao, Yi-Ming

    2010-12-01

    To explore the protective effect and its mechanism of Modified Xiaochaihu decoction(MXD) in the liver injury of mice. METHORDS: Using Reitman methord to examine serum ALT and ATS; Using sandwich enzyme immunoassay ABC-ELISA to examine serum TNF-α and IFN-γ. Serum ALT and ATS of MXD large dose group and Xiaochaihu decoction (XD )group were lower than that of animal models group, there was significant difference among groups (P<0.05). There were not significant difference (P>0.05) between serum ALT and ATS of MXD small dose group and that of animal models group; MXD large dose group, XD group and Biphenyldimethylesterate (DDB) group are similar, no difference (P>0.05). Serum TNF-α and IFN-γ of MXD large dose group and XD group were significant lower than that of animal models group, there was significant difference among groups (P<0.05). Serum TNF-α and IFN-γ of XD group ware higher than that of MXD large dose group, there was significant difference among groups (P<0.05). MXD large dose group, XD group and DDB group were similar, no difference. Xiaocaihu decoction possesses the effect of pro2 tection of hepatic impairment and the protective mechanism might be associated with the inhibition of apoptosis and immunomodulation.

  14. RADIATION PROTECTION CABIN FOR CATHETER-DIRECTED LIVER INTERVENTIONS: OPERATOR DOSE ASSESSMENT.

    PubMed

    Maleux, Geert; Bergans, Niki; Bosmans, Hilde; Bogaerts, Ria

    2016-09-01

    The number and complexity of interventional radiological procedures and in particular catheter-directed liver interventions have increased substantially. The current study investigates the reduction of personal doses when using a dedicated radiation protection cabin (RPC) for these procedures. Operator and assistant doses were assessed for 3 series of 20 chemoinfusion/chemoembolisation interventions, including an equal number of procedures with and without RPC. Whole body doses, finger doses and doses at the level of knees and eyes were evaluated with different types of TLD-100 Harshaw dosemeters. Dosemeters were also attached on the three walls of the RPC. The operator doses were significantly reduced by the RPC, but also without RPC, the doses appear to be limited as a result of thorough optimisation with existing radiation protection tools. The added value of the RPC should thus be determined by the outcome of balancing dose reduction and other aspects such as ergonomic benefits. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Sulforaphane down-regulates SKP2 to stabilize p27(KIP1) for inducing antiproliferation in human colon adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Chung, Yuan-Kai; Chi-Hung Or, Richard; Lu, Chien-Hsing; Ouyang, Wei-Ting; Yang, Shu-Yi; Chang, Chia-Che

    2015-01-01

    Sulforaphane is a cruciferous vegetable-derived isothiocyanate with promising chemopreventive and therapeutic activities. Induction of proliferation arrest and apoptosis principally contribute to sulforaphane's anticancer activity, but the precise molecular mechanisms remain elusive. The oncoprotein SKP2 is a key component of the SKP1-CULLIN1-F-box (SCF) E3 ligase complex and is responsible for directing SCF-mediated degradation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(KIP1) to promote cell proliferation. We herein provide the first evidence supporting the critical involvement of the SKP2-p27(KIP1) axis in sulforaphane-induced antiproliferation in various human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines. Specifically, sulforaphane markedly suppressed the levels of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and clonogenicity in all tested cell lines, illustrating the antiproliferative effect of sulforaphane. Of note, sulforaphane-induced antiproliferation was accompanied with down-regulation of SKP2, leading to the stabilization and thus up-regulation of p27(KIP1). Additionally, sulforaphane was found to down-regulate SKP2 mainly through transcriptional repression, as sulforaphane lowered SKP2 mRNA expression and the SKP2 promoter activity. Furthermore, sulforaphane treatment led to the activation of both AKT and ERK, thus ruling out the possibility that sulforaphane down-regulates SKP2 by inhibiting AKT or ERK. Notably, sulforaphane-elicited suppression of BrdU incorporation and clonogenicity were significantly rescued in the context of SKP2 overexpression or p27(KIP1) depletion, therefore highlighting the important role of SKP2 down-regulation and the ensuing stabilization of p27(KIP1) in sulforaphane-induced antiproliferation. Collectively, these data expand our molecular understanding about how sulforaphane elicits proliferation arrest, but also implicate the application of sulforaphane in therapeutic modalities targeting SKP2. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology

  16. Study of Silymarin and Vitamin E Protective Effects on Silver Nanoparticle Toxicity on Mice Liver Primary Cell Culture.

    PubMed

    Faedmaleki, Firouz; Shirazi, Farshad H; Ejtemaeimehr, Shahram; Anjarani, Soghra; Salarian, Amir-Ahmad; Ahmadi Ashtiani, Hamidreza; Rastegar, Hossein

    2016-02-01

    Nanotechnology is a most promising field for generating new applications in medicine, although, only few nano products are currently in use for medical purposes. A most prominent nanoproduct is nanosilver. Nano-silver has biological properties which are significant for consumer products, food technology, textiles, and medical applications (e.g. wound care products, implantable medical devices, in diagnosis, drug delivery, and imaging). For their antibacterial activity, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are largely used in various commercially available products. The use of nano-silver is becoming more and more widespread in medicine and related applications, and due to its increasing exposure, toxicological and environmental issues need to be raised. Cytotoxicity induced by silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and the role that oxidative stress plays in this process were demonstrated in human hepatoma cells AgNPs agglomerated in the cytoplasm and nuclei of treated cells, and they induced intracellular oxidative stress. AgNP reduced ATP content of the cell and caused damage to mitochondria and increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a dose-dependent manner. Silymarin was known as a hepatoprotective agent that is used in the treatment of hepatic diseases including viral hepatitis, alcoholic liver diseases, Amanita mushroom poisoning, liver cirrhosis, toxic and drug-induced liver diseases. It promotes protein synthesis, helps in regenerating liver tissue, controls inflammation, enhances glucuronidation, and protects against glutathione depletion. Vitamin E is a well-known antioxidant and has hepatoprotective effect in liver diseases. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of Ag NPs on primary liver cells of mice. Cell viability (cytotoxicity) was examined with MTT assay after primary liver cells of mice exposure to AgNPs at 1, 10, 50, 100, 150, 200, 400 ppm for 24h. AgNPs caused a concentration- dependent decrease of cell viability (IC50 value = 121

  17. Radiation exposure and radiation protection of the physician in iodine-131 Lipiodol therapy of liver tumours.

    PubMed

    Risse, J H; Ponath, C; Palmedo, H; Menzel, C; Grünwald, F; Biersack, H J

    2001-07-01

    Intra-arterial iodine-131 labelled Lipiodol therapy for liver cancer has been investigated for safety and efficacy over a number of years, but data on radiation exposure of personnel have remained unavailable to date. The aim of this study was to assess the radiation exposure of the physician during intra-arterial 131I-Lipiodol therapy for liver malignancies and to develop appropriate radiation protection measures and equipment. During 20 intra-arterial administrations of 131I-Lipiodol (1110-1924 MBq), radiation dose equivalents (RDE) to the whole body, fingers and eyes of the physician were determined for (a) conventional manual administration through a shielded syringe, (b) administration with an automatic injector and (c) administration with a lead container developed in-house. Administration by syringe resulted in a finger RDE of 19.5 mSv, an eye RDE of 130-140 microSv, and a whole-body RDE of 108-119 microSv. The injector reduced the finger RDE to 5 mSv. With both technique (a) and technique (b), contamination of angiography materials was observed. The container allowed safe transport and administration of the radiopharmaceutical from 4 m distance and reduced the finger RDE to <3 microSv and the eye RDE to <1 microSv during injection. During femoral artery compression, radiation exposure to the fingers reached 170 microSv, but the whole-body dose could be reduced from a mean RDE of 114 microSv to 14 microSv. No more contamination occurred. In conclusion, radiation exposure was high when 131I-Lipiodol was administered by syringe or injector, but was significantly reduced with the lead container.

  18. Protective Effect of Astaxanthin on Liver Fibrosis through Modulation of TGF-β1 Expression and Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Miao; Chen, Kan; Lu, Jie; Cheng, Ping; Xu, Ling; Dai, Weiqi; Wang, Fan; He, Lei; Zhang, Yan; Chengfen, Wang; Li, Jingjing; Yang, Jing; Zhu, Rong; Zhang, Huawei; Zheng, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Yingqun; Guo, Chuanyong

    2014-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is a common pathway leading to cirrhosis and a worldwide clinical issue. Astaxanthin is a red carotenoid pigment with antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of astaxanthin on liver fibrosis and its potential protective mechanisms. Liver fibrosis was induced in a mouse model using CCL4 (intraperitoneal injection, three times a week for 8 weeks), and astaxanthin was administered everyday at three doses (20, 40, and 80 mg/kg). Pathological results indicated that astaxanthin significantly improved the pathological lesions of liver fibrosis. The levels of alanine aminotransferase aspartate aminotransferase and hydroxyproline were also significantly decreased by astaxanthin. The same results were confirmed in bile duct liagtion, (BDL) model. In addition, astaxanthin inhibited hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation and formation of extracellular matrix (ECM) by decreasing the expression of NF-κB and TGF-β1 and maintaining the balance between MMP2 and TIMP1. In addition, astaxanthin reduced energy production in HSCs by downregulating the level of autophagy. These results were simultaneously confirmed in vivo and in vitro. In conclusion, our study showed that 80 mg/kg astaxanthin had a significant protective effect on liver fibrosis by suppressing multiple profibrogenic factors. PMID:24860243

  19. Acid sphingomyelinase deficiency in Western diet-fed mice protects against adipocyte hypertrophy and diet-induced liver steatosis.

    PubMed

    Sydor, Svenja; Sowa, Jan-Peter; Megger, Dominik A; Schlattjan, Martin; Jafoui, Sami; Wingerter, Lena; Carpinteiro, Alexander; Baba, Hideo A; Bechmann, Lars P; Sitek, Barbara; Gerken, Guido; Gulbins, Erich; Canbay, Ali

    2017-05-01

    Alterations in sphingolipid and ceramide metabolism have been associated with various diseases, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) converts the membrane lipid sphingomyelin to ceramide, thereby affecting membrane composition and domain formation. We investigated the ways in which the Asm knockout (Smpd1 -/- ) genotype affects diet-induced NAFLD. Smpd1 -/- mice and wild type controls were fed either a standard or Western diet (WD) for 6 weeks. Liver and adipose tissue morphology and mRNA expression were assessed. Quantitative proteome analysis of liver tissue was performed. Expression of selected genes was quantified in adipose and liver tissue of obese NAFLD patients. Although Smpd1 -/- mice exhibited basal steatosis with normal chow, no aggravation of NAFLD-type injury was observed with a Western diet. This protective effect was associated with the absence of adipocyte hypertrophy and the increased expression of genes associated with brown adipocyte differentiation. In white adipose tissue from obese patients with NAFLD, no expression of these genes was detectable. To further elucidate which pathways in liver tissue may be affected by Smpd1 -/- , we performed an unbiased proteome analysis. Protein expression in WD-fed Smpd1 -/- mice indicated a reduction in Rictor (mTORC2) activity; this reduction was confirmed by diminished Akt phosphorylation and altered mRNA expression of Rictor target genes. These findings indicate that the protective effect of Asm deficiency on diet-induced steatosis is conferred by alterations in adipocyte morphology and lipid metabolism and by reductions in Rictor activation.

  20. Diet Supplementation with Allicin Protects against Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Mice by Improving Anti-inflammation and Antioxidative Functions.

    PubMed

    Panyod, Suraphan; Wu, Wei-Kai; Ho, Chi-Tang; Lu, Kuan-Hung; Liu, Chun-Ting; Chu, Yung-Lin; Lai, Yi-Syuan; Chen, Wei-Cheng; Lin, Yu-En; Lin, Shih-Hang; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2016-09-28

    This study investigated the liver-protective effects of allicin, an active compound in fresh garlic, against alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD) and liver inflammation. Its effects were investigated in an AFLD model in male C57BL/6 mice, which were fed Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet containing ethanol. Allicin (5 and 20 mg/kg bw/day) was orally administered daily in the AFLD mice for 4 weeks. The results indicate that allicin promotes hepatoprotection by significantly reducing aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels (p < 0.05) in the plasma, which are key indicators of liver damage. Allicin reduced fat accumulation, increased glutathione and catalase levels, and decreased microsomal protein cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) expression (p < 0.05) in the livers of the AFLD mice. Furthermore, allicin supplementation significantly decreased the levels of proinflammatory tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 and suppressed the expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) (p < 0.05). Additionally, it improved the hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity (p < 0.05). Collectively, these findings demonstrate that allicin attenuates liver oxidative stress and inflammation.

  1. Protective effect of some vitamins against the toxic action of ethanol on liver regeneration induced by partial hepatectomy in rats.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Farías, Carlett; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; Gutiérrez-Salinas, José; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Nidia; Martínez-Cruz, Maricela; Valle-Jones, Ilse; Gramlich-Martínez, Ingrid; Hernández-Ceruelos, Alejandra; Morales-Gonzaléz, José A

    2008-02-14

    To investigate the effects of vitamins (A, C and E) on liver injury induced by ethanol administration during liver regeneration in rats. Male Wistar rats subjected to 70% partial hepatectomy were divided into five groups (groups 1-5). During the experiment, animals of Group 1 drank only water. The other four groups (2-5) drank 30 mL of ethanol/L of water. Group 3 additionally received vitamin A, those of group 4 vitamin C and those of group 5 received vitamin E. Subsequently serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), albumin and bilirubin were measured colorimetrically. Lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric-acid reactive substances, TBARS) both in plasma and liver was measured, as well as liver mass gain assessment and total DNA. Compared with sham group, serum AST and ALT increased significantly under ethanol treatment (43% and 93%, respectively, with P < 0.05). Vitamin C and vitamin E treatment attenuated the ethanol-induced increases in ALT and AST activity. Ethanol treatment also decreased serum albumin concentration compared to sham group (3.1 +/- 0.4 g/dL vs 4.5 +/- 0.2 g/dL; P < 0.05). During liver regeneration vitamins C and E significantly ameliorated liver injury for ethanol administration in hepatic lipid peroxidation (4.92 nmol/mg and 4.25 nmol/mg vs 14.78 nmol/mg, respectively, with P < 0.05). In association with hepatic injury, ethanol administration caused a significant increase in both hepatic and plasma lipid peroxidation. Vitamins (C and E) treatment attenuated hepatic and plasma lipid peroxidation. Vitamins C and E protect against liver injury and dysfunction, attenuate lipid peroxidation, and thus appear to be significantly more effective than vitamin A against ethanol-mediated toxic effects during liver regeneration.

  2. Protective effect of some vitamins against the toxic action of ethanol on liver regeneration induced by partial hepatectomy in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Farías, Carlett; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; Gutiérrez-Salinas, José; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Nidia; Martínez-Cruz, Maricela; Valle-Jones, Ilse; Gramlich-Martínez, Ingrid; Hernández-Ceruelos, Alejandra; Morales-González, José A

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of vitamins (A, C and E) on liver injury induced by ethanol administration during liver regeneration in rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats subjected to 70% partial hepatectomy were divided into five groups (groups 1-5). During the experiment, animals of Group 1 drank only water. The other four groups (2-5) drank 30 mL of ethanol/L of water. Group 3 additionally received vitamin A, those of group 4 vitamin C and those of group 5 received vitamin E. Subsequently serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), albumin and bilirubin were measured colorimetrically. Lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric-acid reactive substances, TBARS) both in plasma and liver was measured, as well as liver mass gain assessment and total DNA. RESULTS: Compared with sham group, serum AST and ALT increased significantly under ethanol treatment (43% and 93%, respectively, with P < 0.05). Vitamin C and vitamin E treatment attenuated the ethanol-induced increases in ALT and AST activity. Ethanol treatment also decreased serum albumin concentration compared to sham group (3.1 ± 0.4 g/dL vs 4.5 ± 0.2 g/dL; P < 0.05). During liver regeneration vitamins C and E significantly ameliorated liver injury for ethanol administration in hepatic lipid peroxidation (4.92 nmol/mg and 4.25 nmol/mg vs 14.78 nmol/mg, respectively, with P < 0.05). In association with hepatic injury, ethanol administration caused a significant increase in both hepatic and plasma lipid peroxidation. Vitamins (C and E) treatment attenuated hepatic and plasma lipid peroxidation. CONCLUSION: Vitamins C and E protect against liver injury and dysfunction, attenuate lipid peroxidation, and thus appear to be significantly more effective than vitamin A against ethanol-mediated toxic effects during liver regeneration. PMID:18240347

  3. Programmed death-1/B7-H1 negative costimulation protects mouse liver against ischemia and reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Ji, Haofeng; Shen, Xiuda; Gao, Feng; Ke, Bibo; Freitas, Maria Cecilia S; Uchida, Yoichiro; Busuttil, Ronald W; Zhai, Yuan; Kupiec-Weglinski, Jerzy W

    2010-10-01

    Programmed death-1 (PD-1)/B7-H1 costimulation acts as a negative regulator of host alloimmune responses. Although CD4 T cells mediate innate immunity-dominated ischemia and reperfusion injury (IRI) in the liver, the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. This study focused on the role of PD-1/B7-H1 negative signaling in liver IRI. We used an established mouse model of partial liver warm ischemia (90 minutes) followed by reperfusion (6 hours). Although disruption of PD-1 signaling after anti-B7-H1 monoclonal antibody treatment augmented hepatocellular damage, its stimulation following B7-H1 immunoglobulin (B7-H1Ig) fusion protected livers from IRI, as evidenced by low serum alanine aminotransferase levels and well-preserved liver architecture. The therapeutic potential of B7-H1 engagement was evident by diminished intrahepatic T lymphocyte, neutrophil, and macrophage infiltration/activation; reduced cell necrosis/apoptosis but enhanced anti-necrotic/apoptotic Bcl-2/Bcl-xl; and decreased proinflammatory chemokine/cytokine gene expression in parallel with selectively increased interleukin (IL)-10. Neutralization of IL-10 re-created liver IRI and rendered B7-H1Ig-treated hosts susceptible to IRI. These findings were confirmed in T cell-macrophage in vitro coculture in which B7-H1Ig diminished tumor necrosis factor-α/IL-6 levels in an IL-10-dependent manner. Our novel findings document the essential role of the PD-1/B7-H1 pathway in liver IRI. This study is the first to demonstrate that stimulating PD-1 signals ameliorated liver IRI by inhibiting T cell activation and Kupffer cell/macrophage function. Harnessing mechanisms of negative costimulation by PD-1 upon T cell-Kupffer cell cross-talk may be instrumental in the maintenance of hepatic homeostasis by minimizing organ damage and promoting IL-10-dependent cytoprotection.

  4. Sulforaphane Bioavailability from Glucoraphanin-Rich Broccoli: Control by Active Endogenous Myrosinase

    PubMed Central

    Fahey, Jed W.; Holtzclaw, W. David; Wehage, Scott L.; Wade, Kristina L.; Stephenson, Katherine K.; Talalay, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Glucoraphanin from broccoli and its sprouts and seeds is a water soluble and relatively inert precursor of sulforaphane, the reactive isothiocyanate that potently inhibits neoplastic cellular processes and prevents a number of disease states. Sulforaphane is difficult to deliver in an enriched and stable form for purposes of direct human consumption. We have focused upon evaluating the bioavailability of sulforaphane, either by direct administration of glucoraphanin (a glucosinolate, or β-thioglucoside-N-hydroxysulfate), or by co-administering glucoraphanin and the enzyme myrosinase to catalyze its conversion to sulforaphane at economic, reproducible and sustainable yields. We show that following administration of glucoraphanin in a commercially prepared dietary supplement to a small number of human volunteers, the volunteers had equivalent output of sulforaphane metabolites in their urine to that which they produced when given an equimolar dose of glucoraphanin in a simple boiled and lyophilized extract of broccoli sprouts. Furthermore, when either broccoli sprouts or seeds are administered directly to subjects without prior extraction and consequent inactivation of endogenous myrosinase, regardless of the delivery matrix or dose, the sulforaphane in those preparations is 3- to 4-fold more bioavailable than sulforaphane from glucoraphanin delivered without active plant myrosinase. These data expand upon earlier reports of inter- and intra-individual variability, when glucoraphanin was delivered in either teas, juices, or gelatin capsules, and they confirm that a variety of delivery matrices may be equally suitable for glucoraphanin supplementation (e.g. fruit juices, water, or various types of capsules and tablets). PMID:26524341

  5. Sulforaphane mitigates genotoxicity induced by radiation and anticancer drugs in human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Katoch, Omika; Kumar, Arun; Adhikari, Jawahar S; Dwarakanath, Bilikere S; Agrawala, Paban K

    2013-12-12

    Sulforaphane, present in cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, is a dietary anticancer agent. Sulforaphane, added 2 or 20 h following phytohemaglutinin stimulation to cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes of individuals accidentally exposed to mixed γ and β-radiation, reduced the micronucleus frequency by up to 70%. Studies with whole blood cultures obtained from healthy volunteers confirmed the ability of sulforaphane to ameliorate γ-radiation-induced genotoxicity and to reduce micronucleus induction by other DNA-damaging anticancer agents, such as bleomycin and doxorubicin. This reduction in genotoxicity in lymphocytes treated at the G(0) or G(1) stage suggests a role for sulforaphane in modulating DNA repair. Sulforaphane also countered the radiation-induced increase in lymphocyte HDAC activity, to control levels, when cells were treated 2 h after exposure, and enhanced histone H4 acetylation status. Sulforaphane post-irradiation treatment enhanced the CD 34(+)Lin(-) cell population in culture. Sulforaphane has therapeutic potential for management of the late effects of radiation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Sulforaphane Bioavailability from Glucoraphanin-Rich Broccoli: Control by Active Endogenous Myrosinase.

    PubMed

    Fahey, Jed W; Holtzclaw, W David; Wehage, Scott L; Wade, Kristina L; Stephenson, Katherine K; Talalay, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Glucoraphanin from broccoli and its sprouts and seeds is a water soluble and relatively inert precursor of sulforaphane, the reactive isothiocyanate that potently inhibits neoplastic cellular processes and prevents a number of disease states. Sulforaphane is difficult to deliver in an enriched and stable form for purposes of direct human consumption. We have focused upon evaluating the bioavailability of sulforaphane, either by direct administration of glucoraphanin (a glucosinolate, or β-thioglucoside-N-hydroxysulfate), or by co-administering glucoraphanin and the enzyme myrosinase to catalyze its conversion to sulforaphane at economic, reproducible and sustainable yields. We show that following administration of glucoraphanin in a commercially prepared dietary supplement to a small number of human volunteers, the volunteers had equivalent output of sulforaphane metabolites in their urine to that which they produced when given an equimolar dose of glucoraphanin in a simple boiled and lyophilized extract of broccoli sprouts. Furthermore, when either broccoli sprouts or seeds are administered directly to subjects without prior extraction and consequent inactivation of endogenous myrosinase, regardless of the delivery matrix or dose, the sulforaphane in those preparations is 3- to 4-fold more bioavailable than sulforaphane from glucoraphanin delivered without active plant myrosinase. These data expand upon earlier reports of inter- and intra-individual variability, when glucoraphanin was delivered in either teas, juices, or gelatin capsules, and they confirm that a variety of delivery matrices may be equally suitable for glucoraphanin supplementation (e.g. fruit juices, water, or various types of capsules and tablets).

  7. Zizyphus spina-christi protects against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Amin, Amr; Mahmoud-Ghoneim, Doaa

    2009-08-01

    The study of chronic hepatic fibrosis has been receiving an escalating attention in the past two decades. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of the water extract of Zizyphus spina-christi (L.) (ZSC) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced hepatic fibrosis. ZSC extract was daily administered [alone (ZSC-control group) or along with CCl(4) (protected groups)] at 0.125 (low dose), 0.250 (medium dose) and 0.350 (high dose) g/kg b.wt. for 8 weeks. Histo-pathological, biochemical and histology texture analyses revealed that ZSC significantly impede the progression of hepatic fibrosis. ZSC resulted in a significant amelioration of liver injury judged by the reduced activities of serum ALT and AST. Oral administration of ZSC has also restored normal levels of malondialdehyde and retained control activities of endogenous antioxidants such as SOD, CAT and GSH. Furthermore, ZSC reduced the expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin, the deposition of types I and III collagen in CCl(4)-injured rats. Texture analysis of microscopic images along with fibrosis index calculation showed improvement in the quality of type I collagen distribution and its quantity after administration of ZSC extract. These results demonstrate that administration of ZSC may be useful in the treatment and prevention of hepatic fibrosis.

  8. Sulforaphane, a dietary component of broccoli/broccoli sprouts, inhibits breast cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanyan; Zhang, Tao; Korkaya, Hasan; Liu, Suling; Lee, Hsiu-Fang; Newman, Bryan; Yu, Yanke; Clouthier, Shawn G; Schwartz, Steven J; Wicha, Max S; Sun, Duxin

    2010-05-01

    The existence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in breast cancer has profound implications for cancer prevention. In this study, we evaluated sulforaphane, a natural compound derived from broccoli/broccoli sprouts, for its efficacy to inhibit breast CSCs and its potential mechanism. Aldefluor assay and mammosphere formation assay were used to evaluate the effect of sulforaphane on breast CSCs in vitro. A nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient xenograft model was used to determine whether sulforaphane could target breast CSCs in vivo, as assessed by Aldefluor assay, and tumor growth upon cell reimplantation in secondary mice. The potential mechanism was investigated using Western blotting analysis and beta-catenin reporter assay. Sulforaphane (1-5 micromol/L) decreased aldehyde dehydrogenase-positive cell population by 65% to 80% in human breast cancer cells (P < 0.01) and reduced the size and number of primary mammospheres by 8- to 125-fold and 45% to 75% (P < 0.01), respectively. Daily injection with 50 mg/kg sulforaphane for 2 weeks reduced aldehyde dehydrogenase-positive cells by >50% in nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient xenograft tumors (P = 0.003). Sulforaphane eliminated breast CSCs in vivo, thereby abrogating tumor growth after the reimplantation of primary tumor cells into the secondary mice (P < 0.01). Western blotting analysis and beta-catenin reporter assay showed that sulforaphane downregulated the Wnt/beta-catenin self-renewal pathway. Sulforaphane inhibits breast CSCs and downregulates the Wnt/beta-catenin self-renewal pathway. These findings support the use of sulforaphane for the chemoprevention of breast cancer stem cells and warrant further clinical evaluation. Copyright 2010 AACR.

  9. Antiplatelet activity of L-sulforaphane by regulation of platelet activation factors, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa and thromboxane A2.

    PubMed

    Oh, Chung-Hun; Shin, Jang-In; Mo, Sang Joon; Yun, Sung-Jo; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Rhee, Yun-Hee

    2013-07-01

    L-sulforaphane was identified as an anticarcinogen that could produce quinine reductase and a phase II detoxification enzyme. In recent decades, multi-effects of L-sulforaphane may have been investigated, but, to the authors' knowledge, the antiplatelet activation of L-sulforaphane has not been studied yet.In this study, 2 μg/ml of collagen, 50 μg/ml of ADP and 5 μg/ml of thrombin were used for platelet aggregations with or without L-sulforaphane. L-sulforaphane inhibited the platelet aggregation dose-dependently. Among these platelet activators, collagen was most inhibited by L-sulforaphane, which markedly decreased collagen-induced glycoprotein IIb/IIIa activation and thromboxane A2 (TxA2) formation in vitro. L-sulforaphane also reduced the collagen and epinephrine-induced pulmonary embolism, but did not affect prothrombin time (PT) in vivo. This finding demonstrated that L-sulforaphane inhibited the platelet activation through an intrinsic pathway.L-sulforaphane had a beneficial effect on various pathophysiological pathways of the collagen-induced platelet aggregation and thrombus formation as a selective inhibition of cyclooxygenase and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonist. Thus, we recommend L-sulforaphane as a potential antithrombotic drug.

  10. β-Hydroxybutyrate protects from alcohol-induced liver injury via a Hcar2-cAMP dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yonglin; Ouyang, Xinshou; Hoque, Rafaz; Garcia-Martinez, Irma; Yousaf, Muhammad Nadeem; Tonack, Sarah; Offermanns, Stefan; Dubuquoy, Laurent; Louvet, Alexandre; Mathurin, Philippe; Massey, Veronica; Schnabl, Bernd; Bataller, Ramon Alberola; Mehal, Wajahat Zafar

    2018-04-27

    Sterile inflammation resulting in alcoholic hepatitis (AH) occurs unpredictably after many years of excess alcohol intake. The factors responsible for the development of AH are not known but mitochondrial damage with loss of mitochondrial function are common features. Hcar2 is a G-protein coupled receptor which is activated by β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB). We aimed to determine the relevance of the BHB-Hcar2 pathway in alcoholic liver disease. We tested if loss of BHB production can result in increased liver inflammation. We further tested if BHB supplementation is protective in AH through interaction with Hcar2, and analyzed the immune and cellular basis for protection. Humans with AH have reduced hepatic BHB, and inhibition of BHB production in mice aggravated ethanol-induced AH, with higher plasma alanine aminotransferase levels, increased steatosis and greater neutrophil influx. Conversely supplementation of BHB had the opposite effects with reduced alanine aminotransferase levels, reduced steatosis and neutrophil influx. This therapeutic effect of BHB is dependent on the receptor Hcar2. BHB treatment increased liver Il10 transcripts, and promoted the M2 phenotype of intrahepatic macrophages. BHB also increased the transcriptional level of M2 related genes in vitro bone marrow derived macrophages. This skewing towards M2 related genes is dependent on lower mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ) induced by BHB. Collectively, our data shows that BHB production during excess alcohol consumption has an anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective role through an Hcar2 dependent pathway. This introduces the concept of metabolite-based therapy for AH. Alcoholic hepatitis is a life-threatening condition with no approved therapy that occurs unexpectedly in people who consume excess alcohol. The liver makes many metabolites, and we demonstrate that loss of one such metabolite β-hydroxybutyrate occurs in patients with alcoholic hepatitis. This loss can increase alcohol

  11. The protective effect of 1alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin d3 and metformin on liver in type 2 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Elattar, Samah; Estaphan, Suzanne; Mohamed, Enas A; Elzainy, Ahmed; Naguib, Mary

    2017-10-01

    There is an accumulating evidence suggesting an immunomodulatory role of 1α,25(OH) 2 D3. Altered 1α,25(OH) 2 D3 level may play a role in the development of T2DM and contribute to the pathogenesis of liver diseases. Our study was designed to study and compare the effect of metformin and 1α,25(OH) 2 D3 supplementation on liver injury in type 2 diabetic rat. Sixty male Albino rats were divided into 5 groups; group 1: control rats. the remaining rats were fed high fat diet for 2 weeks and injected with streptozotocin (35mg/kg BW, i.p.) to induce T2DM and were divided into: group 2: untreated diabetic rats, group 3: diabetic rats treated by metformin (100mg/kgBW/d, orally), group 4: diabetic rats supplemented by 1α,25(OH) 2 D3 (0.5μg/kg BW, i.p.) 3 times weekly and group 5: supplemented by both 1α,25(OH) 2 D3 and metformin. Eight weeks later, serum glucose and insulin levels were measured, HOMA IR was calculated, lipid profile, Ca2+, ALT and AST were estimated. Liver specimens were taken to investigate PPAR-α (regulator of lipid metabolism), NF-κB p65, caspase 3 and PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) and for histological examination. The liver enzymes were elevated in the diabetic rats and the histological results revealed an injurious effect of diabetes on the liver. 1α,25(OH) 2 D3, metformin and both drugs treatment significantly improved liver enzymes as compared to the untreated rats. The improvement was associated with a significant improvement in the glycemic control, lipid profile and serum Ca2+ with a significant reduction in NF-κB p65 and caspase 3 and increased PPAR-α, and PCNA expression as compared to the untreated group. 1α,25(OH) 2 D3 induced a slightly better effect as compared to metformin. Both agents together had a synergistic action and almost completely protected the liver. Histological results confirmed the biochemical findings. Our results showed a protective effect of 1α,25(OH) 2 D3 and metformin on liver in diabetic rats as

  12. Protective effects and mechanisms of total alkaloids of Rubus alceaefolius Poir on non‑alcoholic fatty liver disease in rats.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Haiyin; Zhao, Jinyan; Zheng, Yuqing; Wu, Juan; Liu, Yan; Peng, Jun; Hong, Zhenfeng

    2014-10-01

    The plant Rubus alceaefolius Poir is used as a hepatic protectant in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The aim of the present study was to confirm the protective effect of the total alkaloids of Rubus alceaefolius Poir (TARAP) on the liver and to evaluate the potential molecular mechanisms associated with adipocytokines underlying non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in rats. To generate the NAFLD model, Sprague-Dawley rats were administered a high‑fat diet and following 12 weeks of model construction, rats were orally treated with a positive control drug and different doses of TARAP daily for 28 days. The rats were then sacrificed and the livers were collected to evaluate the liver index (LI) and observe histological changes by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. The secretion levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in serum were examined by ELISA. Finally, the expression levels of leptin (LEP), resistin and adiponectin (APN) in liver tissues were determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The results demonstrated that, in the group treated with methionine and choline bitartrate tablets and in the groups treated with different doses of TARAP, there was a significant reduction in the LI (P<0.05 or P<0.01), a downregulation of the secretion levels of ALT and AST, reduced levels of LEP and resistin and an increased expression of APN in the liver of NAFLD rats compared with the model group. Furthermore, the effect of TARAP treatment of NAFLD rats was dose dependent. In conclusion, TARAP is a potential agent for downregulating LEP and resistin and upregulating APN expression in rats with NAFLD. Furthermore, TARAP may be a potential candidate for improving treatment responses in patients with NAFLD.

  13. The protective effect of silymarin on the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Jia, Rui; Cao, Liping; Du, Jinliang; Xu, Pao; Jeney, Galina; Yin, Guojun

    2013-03-01

    Silymarin, a mixture of bioactive flavonolignans from the milk thistle (Silybum marianum), is traditionally used in herbal medicine to defend against various hepatotoxic agents. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of silymarin against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury in fish. Common carp, with an average initial weight of 17.0 ± 1.1 g, were fed diet containing four doses of silymarin (0, 0.1, 0.5, and 1 g/kg diet) for 60 d. Fish were then given an intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 (30% in arachis oil) at a dose of 0.5 ml/kg body weight. At 72 h after CCl4 injection, blood and liver samples were collected for the analyses of serum biochemical parameters, liver index, peroxidation product, glutathione, and antioxidant enzyme activities. The results showed that administration of silymarin at 0.5 and 1 g/kg diet for 60 d prior to CCl4 intoxication significantly reduced the elevated activities of glutamate pyruvate transaminase, glutamate oxalate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and increased the reduced levels of total protein and albumin in the serum. The reduced levels of liver index, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, glutathione, and total antioxidant capacity were markedly increased, and malondialdehyde formation was significantly restrained in the liver. However, these parameters, except LDH, were not significantly changed in fish fed with silymarin at 0.1 g/kg diet. Based on the results, it can be concluded that silymarin has protective effect against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in fish. It is suggested that silymarin may be used as a hepatoprotective agent to prevent liver diseases in fish.

  14. Deletion of the Ron receptor tyrosine kinase domain in mice provides protection from endotoxin-induced acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Leonis, Mike A; Toney-Earley, Kenya; Degen, Sandra J F; Waltz, Susan E

    2002-11-01

    The targeted deletion of the cytoplasmic domain of the Ron receptor tyrosine kinase (TK) in mice leads to exaggerated responses to injury in several murine models of inflammation as well as increased lethality in response to endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]). Using a well-characterized model of LPS-induced acute liver failure (ALF) in galactosamine (GalN)-sensitized mice, we show that Ron TK(-/-) mice display marked protection compared with control Ron TK(+/+) mice. Whereas control mice have profound elevation of serum aminotransferase levels (a marker of hepatocyte injury) and hemorrhagic necrosis of the liver, in dramatic contrast, Ron TK(-/-) mice have mild elevation of aminotransferase levels and relatively normal liver histology. These findings are associated with a reduction in the number of liver cells undergoing apoptosis in Ron TK(-/-) mice. Paradoxically, treatment of Ron TK(-/-) mice with LPS/GalN leads to markedly elevated (3.5-fold) serum levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha, a key inflammatory mediator in this liver injury model, as well as reduced amounts of interleukin (IL) 10 (a suppressor of TNF-alpha production) and interferon (IFN)-gamma (a TNF-alpha sensitizer). These results show that ablation of the TK activity of the Ron receptor leads to protection from the development of hepatocellular apoptosis in response to treatment with LPS/GalN, even in the presence of excessive levels of serum TNF-alpha. In conclusion, our studies show that the Ron receptor TK plays a critical role in modulating the response of the liver to endotoxin.

  15. Estrogen Treatment After Ovariectomy Protects Against Fatty Liver and May Improve Pathway-Selective Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lin; Brown, William C.; Cai, Qing; Krust, Andrée; Chambon, Pierre; McGuinness, Owen P.; Stafford, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Pathway-selective insulin resistance where insulin fails to suppress hepatic glucose production but promotes liver fat storage may underlie glucose and lipid abnormalities after menopause. We tested the mechanisms by which estrogen treatment may alter the impact of a high-fat diet (HFD) when given at the time of ovariectomy (OVX) in mice. Female C57BL/6J mice underwent sham operation, OVX, or OVX with estradiol (E2) treatment and were fed an HFD. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps were used to assess insulin sensitivity, tracer incorporation into hepatic lipids, and liver triglyceride export. OVX mice had increased adiposity that was prevented with E2 at the time of OVX. E2 treatment increased insulin sensitivity with OVX and HFD. In sham and OVX mice, HFD feeding induced fatty liver, and insulin reduced hepatic apoB100 and liver triglyceride export. E2 treatment reduced liver lipid deposition and prevented the decrease in liver triglyceride export during hyperinsulinemia. In mice lacking the liver estrogen receptor α, E2 after OVX limited adiposity but failed to improve insulin sensitivity, to limit liver lipid deposition, and to prevent insulin suppression of liver triglyceride export. In conclusion, estrogen treatment may reverse aspects of pathway-selective insulin resistance by promoting insulin action on glucose metabolism but limiting hepatic lipid deposition. PMID:22966069

  16. Protective effect of aescin from the seeds of Aesculus hippocastanum on liver injury induced by endotoxin in mice.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Na; Xin, Wenyu; Wang, Tian; Zhang, Leiming; Fan, Huaying; Du, Yuan; Li, Chong; Fu, Fenghua

    2011-11-15

    To investigate the effect and underlying mechanism of aescin on acute liver injury induced by endotoxin, liver injury was established by injecting lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mice. Animals were assigned to seven groups: the control group and groups treated with LPS (40 mg/kg), aescin (3.6 mg/kg), LPS plus dexamethasone (4 mg/kg) and LPS plus aescin (0.9, 1.8 or 3.6 mg/kg). Hepatic histopathological changes were examined under a light microscope. Activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in serum were determined. Levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), nitric oxide (NO) and antioxidative parameters in liver homogenate were measured. Glucocorticoid receptor (GR), 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) and 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) expressions in liver were determined by western blotting. Treatment with escin could inhibit immigration of inflammatory cells, alleviate the degree of necrosis, and decrease serum ALT and AST activities. Aescin also down-regulated levels of inflammation mediators (TNF-α, IL-1β and NO) and 11β-HSD2 expression in liver, up-regulated GR expression, enhanced endogenous antioxidative capacity, but have no obvious effect on 11β-HSD1 expression in liver. The findings suggest aescin has protective effects on endotoxin-induced liver injury, and the underlying mechanisms were associated with its anti-inflammatory effects, up-regulating GR expression, down-regulating 11β-HSD2 experssion, and antixoidation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Protective effects of Spirulina maxima on hyperlipidemia and oxidative-stress induced by lead acetate in the liver and kidney

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Oxidative damage has been proposed as a possible mechanism involved in lead toxicity, specially affecting the liver and kidney. Previous studies have shown the antioxidant effect of Spirulina maxima in several experimental models of oxidative stress. The current study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant activity of Spirulina maxima against lead acetate-induced hyperlipidemia and oxidative damage in the liver and kidney of male rats. Control animals were fed on a standard diet and did not receive lead acetate (Control group). Experimental animals were fed on a standard laboratory diet with or without Spirulina maxima 5% in the standard laboratory diet and treated with three doses of lead acetate (25 mg each/weekly, intraperitoneal injection) (lead acetate with Spirulina, and lead acetate without Spirulina groups). Results The results showed that Spirulina maxima prevented the lead acetate-induced significant changes on plasma and liver lipid levels and on the antioxidant status of the liver and kidney. On the other hand, Spirulina maxima succeeded to improve the biochemical parameters of the liver and kidney towards the normal values of the Control group. Conclusions It was concluded that Spirulina maxima has protective effects on lead acetate-induced damage, and that the effects are associated with the antioxidant effect of Spirulina. PMID:20353607

  18. Differential protective effects of extra virgin olive oil and corn oil in liver injury: a proteomic study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hualin; Sit, Wat-Hung; Tipoe, George Lim; Wan, Jennifer Man-Fan

    2014-12-01

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) presents benefits against chronic liver injury induced by hepatotoxins such as carbon tetrachloride (CCl4); however, the protective mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, a two-dimensional gel based proteomic approach was constructed to explore the mechanisms. Rats are injected with CCl4 twice a week for 4 weeks to induce liver fibrosis, and were fed laboratory chow plus 20% (w/w) of either corn oil or EVOO over the entire experimental period. Histological staining, MDA assay and fibrogenesis marker gene analysis illustrate that the CCl4-treated animals fed EVOO have a lower fibrosis and lipid peroxidation level in the liver than the corn oil fed group. The proteomic study indicates that the protein expression of thioredoxin domain-containing protein 12, peroxiredoxin-1, thiosulphate sulphurtransferase, calcium-binding protein 1, Annexin A2 and heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein are higher in livers from EVOO-fed rats with the CCl4 treatment compared with those from rats fed with corn oil, whereas the expression of COQ9, cAMP-dependent protein kinase type I-alpha regulatory subunit, phenylalanine hydroxylase and glycerate kinase are lower. Our findings confirmed the benefits of EVOO against chronic liver injury, which may be attributable to the antioxidant effects, hepatocellular function regulation and hepatic metabolism modification effects of EVOO. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Protective Effect of Agaricus blazei Murrill, Submerged Culture Using the Optimized Medium Composition, on Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hang; Li, Gang; Zhang, Wenyu; Han, Chunchao; Xu, Xin; Li, Yong-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Agaricus blazei Murrill (ABM), an edible mushroom native to Brazil, is widely used for nonprescript and medicinal purposes. Alcohol liver disease (ALD) is considered as a leading cause for a liver injury in modern dietary life, which can be developed by a prolonged or large intake of alcohol. In this study, the medium composition of ABM was optimized using response surface methodology for maximum mycelial biomass and extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production. The model predicts to gain a maximal mycelial biomass and extracellular polysaccharide at 1.047 g/100 mL, and 0.367 g/100 mL, respectively, when the potato is 29.88 g/100 mL, the glucose is 1.01 g/100 mL, and the bran is 1.02 g/100 mL. The verified experiments showed that the model was significantly consistent with the model prediction and that the trends of mycelial biomass and extracellular polysaccharide were predicted by artificial neural network. After that, the optimized medium was used for the submerged culture of ABM. Then, alcohol-induced liver injury in mice model was used to examine the protective effect of ABM cultured using the optimized medium on the liver. And the hepatic histopathological observations showed that ABM had a relatively significant role in mice model, which had alcoholic liver damage. PMID:25114908

  20. The protective effect of Agaricus blazei Murrill, submerged culture using the optimized medium composition, on alcohol-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hang; Li, Gang; Zhang, Wenyu; Han, Chunchao; Xu, Xin; Li, Yong-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Agaricus blazei Murrill (ABM), an edible mushroom native to Brazil, is widely used for nonprescript and medicinal purposes. Alcohol liver disease (ALD) is considered as a leading cause for a liver injury in modern dietary life, which can be developed by a prolonged or large intake of alcohol. In this study, the medium composition of ABM was optimized using response surface methodology for maximum mycelial biomass and extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production. The model predicts to gain a maximal mycelial biomass and extracellular polysaccharide at 1.047 g/100 mL, and 0.367 g/100 mL, respectively, when the potato is 29.88 g/100 mL, the glucose is 1.01 g/100 mL, and the bran is 1.02 g/100 mL. The verified experiments showed that the model was significantly consistent with the model prediction and that the trends of mycelial biomass and extracellular polysaccharide were predicted by artificial neural network. After that, the optimized medium was used for the submerged culture of ABM. Then, alcohol-induced liver injury in mice model was used to examine the protective effect of ABM cultured using the optimized medium on the liver. And the hepatic histopathological observations showed that ABM had a relatively significant role in mice model, which had alcoholic liver damage.

  1. Toxicological evaluation of Terminalia paniculata bark extract and its protective effect against CCl4-induced liver injury in rodents.

    PubMed

    Talwar, Sahil; Jagani, Hitesh V; Nayak, Pawan G; Kumar, Nitesh; Kishore, Anoop; Bansal, Punit; Shenoy, Rekha R; Nandakumar, Krishnadas

    2013-06-06

    Based on the reported antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of Terminalia paniculata, the bark aqueous extract (TPW) was investigated against liver damage. Intrinsic cytotoxicity was tested on normal human liver (Chang) cell lines, followed by acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies in mice. TPW was then evaluated against CCl4-induced liver toxicity in rats. Liver enzymes (AST, ALT, and ALP) and antioxidant markers were assessed. The effect of TPW on isolated hepatic cells, post-CCl4 administration, was assessed by isolated mitochondrial membrane staining. The actions of TPW on apoptotic pathway in CCl4-treated Chang cells were also elucidated. TPW was found to be safe at all doses tested in both in vitro and in vivo toxicity studies. TPW (400 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly (*p <0.05) improved liver enzyme activity as compared to CCl4. Also, it improved antioxidant status (GSH, GST, MDA and total thiol) and preserved hepatic cell architecture. TPW pre-treatment significantly attenuated the levels of phospho-p53, p53, cleaved caspase-3, phospho-Bad, Bad and cleaved PARP in CCl4-treated Chang cells, improving the viability considerably. The findings support a protective role for Terminalia paniculata in pathologies involving oxidative stress.

  2. Protective effects of Spirulina maxima on hyperlipidemia and oxidative-stress induced by lead acetate in the liver and kidney.

    PubMed

    Ponce-Canchihuamán, Johny C; Pérez-Méndez, Oscar; Hernández-Muñoz, Rolando; Torres-Durán, Patricia V; Juárez-Oropeza, Marco A

    2010-03-31

    Oxidative damage has been proposed as a possible mechanism involved in lead toxicity, specially affecting the liver and kidney. Previous studies have shown the antioxidant effect of Spirulina maxima in several experimental models of oxidative stress. The current study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant activity of Spirulina maxima against lead acetate-induced hyperlipidemia and oxidative damage in the liver and kidney of male rats. Control animals were fed on a standard diet and did not receive lead acetate (Control group). Experimental animals were fed on a standard laboratory diet with or without Spirulina maxima 5% in the standard laboratory diet and treated with three doses of lead acetate (25 mg each/weekly, intraperitoneal injection) (lead acetate with Spirulina, and lead acetate without Spirulina groups). The results showed that Spirulina maxima prevented the lead acetate-induced significant changes on plasma and liver lipid levels and on the antioxidant status of the liver and kidney. On the other hand, Spirulina maxima succeeded to improve the biochemical parameters of the liver and kidney towards the normal values of the Control group. It was concluded that Spirulina maxima has protective effects on lead acetate-induced damage, and that the effects are associated with the antioxidant effect of Spirulina.

  3. Histopathological aspects of liver under variable food restriction: has the intense one-week food restriction a protective effect on non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease (NAFLD) development?

    PubMed

    Makovicky, Peter; Tumova, Eva; Volek, Zdenek; Makovicky, Pavol; Vodickova, Ludmila; Slyskova, Jana; Svoboda, Miroslav; Rejhova, Alexandra; Vodicka, Pavel; Samasca, Gabriel; Kralova, Alena; Nagy, Melinda; Mydlarova-Blascakova, Marta; Poracova, Jana

    2014-12-01

    Non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease (NAFLD) is a clinicopathologic entity characterized by a variety of hepatic injury patterns without significant alcohol use. It has a close association with obesity, so treatment includes weight loss, control of insulin sensitivity, interventions directed at inflammation and fibrosis. There is a certain relationship between the grade and duration of food restriction and hepatic function. The objective of this work was to describe the relationship between biochemistry, autoantibodies, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), and liver morphology in experimental rabbit groups with food restriction as compared to controls with ad libitum food (ADL) income. The experiment was performed on a total of 24 rabbits of a weaning age of 25-81 days. The first group (R1) was restricted between 32 and 39 days of age to 50 g of food per rabbit a day. The second group (R2) was also restricted between 32 and 39 days, but the rabbits received 65 g of food per rabbit a day. At the end of the experiment, the blood and liver samples were collected at necropsy. NAFLD has developed in all three groups. There was any autoantibody positivity in all three groups. IGF-I is moderately higher in R1 and R2 group, as compared to the control group (P > 0.05). IGFBP-3 is without statistical significance in all three groups. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is the only liver biochemical parameter that has significantly increased following food restriction (P > 0.039). Single one-week restriction has any protective effect on NAFLD development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. [Effect of anti-ischemic protection on biochemical indices of the isolated perfused liver].

    PubMed

    Kozlov, S A; Kiselev, E N; Zinov'ev, Iu V

    1987-01-01

    alpha-Tocopherol and prednisolone exhibited the highest antiischemic activity, while lidocaine and sodium glutamate were less active after administration into isolated perfused rabbit liver tissue subjected to 60-min thermic ischemia. Chlorpromazine.HCl did not affect the biochemical patterns studied in isolated perfused liver tissue.

  5. CD8 T-cell-mediated protection against liver-stage malaria: lessons from a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Van Braeckel-Budimir, Natalija; Harty, John T.

    2014-01-01

    Malaria is a major global health problem, with severe mortality in children living in sub-Saharan Africa, and there is currently no licensed, effective vaccine. However, vaccine-induced protection from Plasmodium infection, the causative agent of malaria, was established for humans in small clinical trials and for rodents in the 1960s. Soon after, a critical role for memory CD8 T cells in vaccine-induced protection against Plasmodium liver-stage infection was established in rodent models and is assumed to apply to humans. However, these seminal early studies have led to only modest advances over the ensuing years in our understanding the basic features of memory CD8 T cells required for protection against liver-stage Plasmodium infection, an issue which has likely impeded the development of effective vaccines for humans. Given the ethical and practical limitations in gaining mechanistic insight from human vaccine and challenge studies, animal models still have an important role in dissecting the basic parameters underlying memory CD8 T-cell immunity to Plasmodium. Here, we will highlight recent data from our own work in the mouse model of Plasmodium infection that identify quantitative and qualitative features of protective memory CD8 T-cell responses. Finally, these lessons will be discussed in the context of recent findings from clinical trials of vaccine-induced protection in controlled human challenge models. PMID:24936199

  6. Protective effects of hydrogen enriched saline on liver ischemia reperfusion injury by reducing oxidative stress and HMGB1 release

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The nuclear protein high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a key trigger for the inflammatory reaction during liver ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI). Hydrogen treatment was recently associated with down-regulation of the expression of HMGB1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines during sepsis and myocardial IRI, but it is not known whether hydrogen has an effect on HMGB1 in liver IRI. Methods A rat model of 60 minutes 70% partial liver ischemia reperfusion injury was used. Hydrogen enriched saline (2.5, 5 or 10 ml/kg) was injected intraperitoneally 10 minutes before hepatic reperfusion. Liver injury was assessed by serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) enzyme levels and histological changes. We also measured malondialdehyde (MDA), hydroxynonenal (HNE) and 8-hydroxy-guanosine (8-OH-G) levels as markers of the peroxidation injury induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, pro-inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α and IL-6, and high mobility group box B1 protein (HMGB1) were measured as markers of post ischemia-reperfusion inflammation. Results Hydrogen enriched saline treatment significantly attenuated the severity of liver injury induced by ischemia-reperfusion. The treatment group showed reduced serum ALT activity and markers of lipid peroxidation and post ischemia reperfusion histological changes were reduced. Hydrogen enriched saline treatment inhibited HMGB1 expression and release, reflecting a reduced local and systemic inflammatory response to hepatic ischemia reperfusion. Conclusion These results suggest that, in our model, hydrogen enriched saline treatment is protective against liver ischemia-reperfusion injury. This effect may be mediated by both the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of the solution. PMID:24410860

  7. β-Catenin is Essential for Ethanol Metabolism and Protection Against Alcohol-mediated Liver Steatosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shiguang; Yeh, Tzu-Hsuan; Singh, Vijay P.; Shiva, Sruti; Krauland, Lindsay; Li, Huanan; Zhang, Pili; Kharbanda, Kusum; Ritov, Vladimir; Monga, Satdarshan P. S.; Scott, Donald K.; Eagon, Patricia K.; Behari, Jaideep

    2011-01-01

    The liver plays a central role in ethanol metabolism and oxidative stress is implicated in alcohol-mediated liver injury. β-Catenin regulates hepatic metabolic zonation and adaptive response to oxidative stress. We hypothesized that β-catenin regulates the hepatic response to ethanol ingestion. Female liver-specific β-catenin knockout (KO) mice and wild type (WT) littermates were fed the Lieber-Decarli liquid diet (5% ethanol) in a pair-wise fashion. Liver histology, biochemistry, and gene expression studies were performed. Plasma alcohol and ammonia levels were measured using standard assays. Ethanol-fed KO mice exhibited systemic toxicity and early mortality. KO mice exhibited severe macrovesicular steatosis and five to six-fold higher serum ALT and AST levels. KO mice had modest increase in hepatic oxidative stress, lower expression of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (SOD-2), and lower citrate synthase activity, the first step in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. N-Acetyl cysteine (NAC) did not prevent ethanol-induced mortality in KO mice. In WT livers, β-catenin was found to co-precipitate with FoxO3, the upstream regulator of SOD-2. Hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activities and expression were lower in KO mice. Hepatic cytochrome P450 2E1 protein levels were upregulated in ethanol-fed WT mice but were nearly undetectable in KO mice. These changes in ethanol-metabolizing enzymes were associated with 30-fold higher blood alcohol levels in KO mice. Conclusion β-catenin is essential for hepatic ethanol metabolism and plays a protective role in alcohol-mediated liver steatosis. Our results strongly suggest that integration of these functions by β-catenin is critical for adaptation to ethanol ingestion in vivo. PMID:22031168

  8. Protective effects of Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn against fatty liver disease induced by high fat diet in rats.

    PubMed

    Peng, Qiuxian; Zhang, Qin; Xiao, Wei; Shao, Meng; Fan, Qin; Zhang, Hongwei; Zou, Yukai; Li, Xin; Xu, Wenxue; Mo, Zhixian; Cai, Hongbing

    2014-07-18

    Study the effects of alcohol extract of Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn (AESM) on the metabolism of blood fat, morphology of fenestrated liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC), and the ultrastructure of liver cells of the rats with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Divide SD rats into control group, model group, simvastatin (7.2 mg/kg) group, and S.mukorossi Gaertn group with high dosage (0.5 g/kg), moderate dosage (0.1 g/kg), and low dosage (0.05 g/kg). After feeding with fat-rich nutrients for 3 weeks and establishing the model of hepatic adipose, conduct intragastric administration and provide the rats with fat-rich nutrients at the same time. At the 43rd day, take blood sample and measure aminotransferase and different indexes of blood fat; take hepatic tissue for pathological section, and observe the hepatic morphological patterns under light microscope; obtain and fix the hepatic tissue after injecting perfusate into the body, and observe the changes of fenestrated LSEC under scanning electron microscope; observe the ultrastructure of liver cells under transmission electron microscope. High-dosage alcohol extracts of S.mukorossi Gaertn can alleviate the AST, ALT, TC, TG, LDL, γ-GT, and ALP level, as well as raise the HDL and APN level in the serum of NAFLD-rat model. In addition, through the observation from light microscope and electron microscopes, the morphology of the hepatic tissue and liver cells as well as the recovery of the fenestrated LSEC in the treatment group has become normal. Alcohol extracts of S.mukorossi Gaertn can regulate the level of blood fat and improve the pathological changes of the hepatic tissues in NAFLD-rat model, which demonstrates the effects of down-regulating fat level and protecting liver. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Experimental acute alcohol pancreatitis-related liver damage and endotoxemia: synbiotics but not metronidazole have a protective effect.

    PubMed

    Marotta, F; Barreto, R; Wu, C C; Naito, Y; Gelosa, F; Lorenzetti, A; Yoshioka, M; Fesce, E

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the effect of gut manipulation by either novel synbiotics or by metronidazole on either endotoxemia or the severity of liver damage in the course of acute pancreatitis from alcohol ingestion. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed for 1 week through an intragastric tube a liquid diet with either: (i) 1 mL t.i.d. of a mixture of synbiotics (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus and Bifidobacterium in an enriched medium); (ii) 20 mg/kg t.i.d. metronidazole; or (iii) standard diet. Then, acute pancreatitis was induced by caerulein and when the disease was full-blown, rats were fed an alcohol-rich diet. Synbiotic and metronidazole treatment was given for a further 2 weeks. Transaminase and endotoxemia levels were measured before treatment, after 6 h, after 24 h and 2 weeks later, at the time the rats were killed. Liver samples were obtained for histological analysis. Synbiotics but not metronidazole improved the acute pancreatitis-induced increase in endotoxemia and transaminase levels. The addition of alcohol worsened these variables to a limited extent in the synbiotic-treated group, while metronidazole had a negative effect on liver damage. Gut flora pretreatment with synbiotics was able to effectively protect against endotoxin/bacterial translocation, as well as liver damage in the course of acute pancreatitis and concomitant heavy alcohol consumption. The beneficial effect of synbiotics on liver histology seems to be correlated with endotoxemia. Metronidazole did not produce such a beneficial effect; in fact, it further worsened liver damage when alcohol was added to the background of ongoing acute pancreatic inflammation.

  10. Hydrogen gas inhalation protects against liver ischemia/reperfusion injury by activating the NF-κB signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, CHAO-BIN; TANG, YI-CHEN; XU, XUE-JUN; GUO, SHI-XIANG; WANG, HUAI-ZHI

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen has been demonstrated to function as a novel antioxidant and exert therapeutic antioxidant activity in a number of diseases. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of hydrogen inhalation on liver ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. The portal triad to the left lobe and the left middle lobe of the liver were completely occluded for 90 min. This was followed by reperfusion for 180 min. The rats subsequently underwent syngeneic orthotopic liver transplantation. Inhalation of various concentrations (1, 2 and 3%) of hydrogen gas and its administration for different durations (1, 3 and 6 h) immediately prior to the I/R injury allowed the optimal dose and duration of administration to be determined. Liver injury was evaluated through biochemical and histopathological examinations. The expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6, were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Liver nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) was detected by qPCR and western blot analysis. Inhalation of hydrogen gas at 2% concentration for 1 h significantly reduced the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, the expression of cytokines, including IL-6, TNF-α, early growth response protein 1 (Egr-1) and IL-1β, and morphological damage. In addition, the mRNA and protein expression levels of NF-κB, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and zinc finger protein A20 (A20) in rats where only the donors received hydrogen were significantly increased compared with those in rats where both the donor and recipient, or only the recipient received hydrogen. The results indicate that hydrogen inhalation at 2% concentration for 1 h prior to liver transplantation protected the rats from ischemia/reperfusion injury by activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. PMID:26136944

  11. Partial deletion of argininosuccinate synthase protects from pyrazole plus lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury by decreasing nitrosative stress

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yongke; Leung, Tung Ming; Ward, Stephen C.

    2012-01-01

    Argininosuccinate synthase (ASS) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the urea cycle. Along with nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-2, ASS endows cells with the l-citrulline/nitric oxide (NO·) salvage pathway to continually supply l-arginine from l-citrulline for sustained NO· generation. Because of the relevant role of NOS in liver injury, we hypothesized that downregulation of ASS could decrease the availability of intracellular substrate for NO· synthesis by NOS-2 and, hence, decrease liver damage. Previous work demonstrated that pyrazole plus LPS caused significant liver injury involving NO· generation and formation of 3-nitrotyrosine protein adducts; thus, wild-type (WT) and Ass+/− mice (Ass−/− mice are lethal) were treated with pyrazole plus LPS, and markers of nitrosative stress, as well as liver injury, were analyzed. Partial ablation of Ass protected from pyrazole plus LPS-induced liver injury by decreasing nitrosative stress and hepatic and circulating TNFα. Moreover, apoptosis was prevented, since pyrazole plus LPS-treated Ass+/− mice showed decreased phosphorylation of JNK; increased MAPK phosphatase-1, which is known to deactivate JNK signaling; and lower cleaved caspase-3 than treated WT mice, and this was accompanied by less TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling-positive staining. Lastly, hepatic neutrophil accumulation was almost absent in pyrazole plus LPS-treated Ass+/− compared with WT mice. Partial Ass ablation prevents pyrazole plus LPS-mediated liver injury by reducing nitrosative stress, TNFα, apoptosis, and neutrophil infiltration. PMID:22052013

  12. Screening for the protective effect target of deproteinized extract of calf blood and its mechanisms in mice with CCl4-induced acute liver injury.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guangyu; Han, Xiao; Yuan, Guangxin; An, Liping; Du, Peige

    2017-01-01

    Liver injury is a common pathological basis of various liver diseases, and long-term liver injury is often an important initiation factor leading to liver fibrosis and even liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It has been reported that deproteinized extract of calf blood (DECB) can inhibit the replication of hepatitis B virus and confers a protective effect on the liver after traumatic liver injury. However, few studies on the regulatory factors and mechanisms of DECB have been reported. In this current study, an acute mouse liver injury model was established with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). The differentially expressed genes and related cell signal transduction pathways were screened using mRNA expression microarray. STEM software V1.3.6 was used for clustering gene functions, and the DAVID and KEGG databases were applied for the analysis. A total of 1355 differentially expressed genes were selected, among which nine were validated by RT-qPCR. The results showed that the Fas, IL1b, Pik3r1, Pik3r5, Traf2, Traf2, Csf2rb2, Map3k14, Pik3cd and Ppp3cc genes were involved in the regulation of DECB in an acute mouse liver injury model. Targets of the protective effects of DECB and its related mechanisms were found in mice with acute liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride, which may provide an important theoretical basis for further DECB research.

  13. Valsartan decreases TGF-β1 production and protects against chlorhexidine digluconate-induced liver peritoneal fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Subeq, Yi-Maun; Ke, Chen-Yen; Lin, Nien-Tsung; Lee, Chung-Jen; Chiu, Yi-Han; Hsu, Bang-Gee

    2011-02-01

    Peritoneal fibrosis (PF) is a recognized complication of long-term peritoneal dialysis (PD) and can lead to ultrafiltration failure. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effects of valsartan on chlorhexidine digluconate-induced PF by decreasing TGF-β1 production in rats. PF was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by daily administration of 0.5 ml 0.1% chlorhexidine digluconate in normal saline via peritoneal dialysis (PD) tube for 1 week. Rats received daily intravenous injections of low dose valsartan (1 mg/kg) or high dose valsartan (3 mg/kg) for 1 week. After 7 days, conventional 4.25% Dianeal (30 ml) was administered via a PD catheter with a dwell time of 4 h and assessed of peritoneal function. At the end of dialysis, rats were sacrificed and the liver peritoneum was harvested for microscopically and immunohistochemistry. There was no significant difference in mean arterial pressure and heart rate between groups. After 4 h of PD, the D₄/P(4Urea) level was reduced, the D₄/D₀ glucose level, serum and dialysate transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) level was increased, the liver peritoneum was markedly thicker, and the expression of TGF-β1, alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), fibronectin, collagen, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were elevated in the PF group compared with the vehicle group. High dose of valsartan decreased the serum and dialysate TGF-β1 level, decreased the thickness of the liver peritoneum, and decreased the expression of TGF-β1, α-SMA, fibronectin, collagen, and VEGF-positive cells in liver peritoneum. The low dose of valsartan did not protect against chlorhexidine digluconate-induced PF in rat. Valsartan protected against chlorhexidine digluconate-induced PF in rats by decreasing TGF-β1 production. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sulforaphane induces reactive oxygen species-mediated mitotic arrest and subsequent apoptosis in human bladder cancer 5637 cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun Soo; Han, Min Ho; Kim, Gi-Young; Moon, Sung-Kwon; Kim, Wun-Jae; Hwang, Hye Jin; Park, Kun Young; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2014-02-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine whether sulforaphane-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) might cause growth arrest and apoptosis in human bladder cancer 5637 cells. Our results show that the reduced viability of 5637 cells by sulforaphane is due to mitotic arrest, but not the G2 phase. The sulforaphane-induced mitotic arrest correlated with an induction of cyclin B1 and phosphorylation of Cdk1, as well as a concomitant increased complex between cyclin B1 and Cdk1. Sulforaphane-induced apoptosis was associated with the activation of caspase-8 and -9, the initiators caspases of the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways, respectively, and activation of effector caspase-3 and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. However, blockage of caspase activation inhibited apoptosis and abrogated growth inhibition in sulforaphane-treated 5637 cells. This study further investigated the roles of ROS with respect to mitotic arrest and the apoptotic effect of sulforaphane, and the maximum level of ROS accumulation was observed 3h after sulforaphane treatment. However, a ROS scavenger, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, notably attenuated sulforaphane-mediated apoptosis as well as mitotic arrest. Overall, these results suggest that sulforaphane induces mitotic arrest and apoptosis of 5637 cells via a ROS-dependent pathway. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sulforaphane inhibits hypoxia-induced HIF-1α and VEGF expression and migration of human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Hwan; Sung, Bokyung; Kang, Yong Jung; Hwang, Seong Yeon; Kim, Min Jeong; Yoon, Jeong-Hyun; Im, Eunok; Kim, Nam Deuk

    2015-12-01

    The effects of sulforaphane (a natural product commonly found in broccoli) was investigated on hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) expression in HCT116 human colon cancer cells and AGS human gastric cancer cells. We found that hypoxia-induced HIF-1α protein expression in HCT116 and AGS cells, while treatment with sulforaphane markedly and concentration-dependently inhibited HIF-1α expression in both cell lines. Treatment with sulforaphane inhibited hypoxia-induced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in HCT116 cells. Treatment with sulforaphane modulated the effect of hypoxia on HIF-1α stability. However, degradation of HIF-1α by sulforaphane was not mediated through the 26S proteasome pathway. We also found that the inhibition of HIF-1α by sulforaphane was not mediated through AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation under hypoxic conditions. Finally, hypoxia-induced HCT116 cell migration was inhibited by sulforaphane. These data suggest that sulforaphane may inhibit human colon cancer progression and cancer cell angiogenesis by inhibiting HIF-1α and VEGF expression. Taken together, these results indicate that sulforaphane is a new and potent chemopreventive drug candidate for treating patients with human colon cancer.

  16. Sulforaphane targets cancer stemness and tumor initiating properties in oral squamous cell carcinomas via miR-200c induction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chia-Ming; Peng, Chih-Yu; Liao, Yi-Wen; Lu, Ming-Yi; Tsai, Meng-Lun; Yeh, Jung-Chun; Yu, Chuan-Hang; Yu, Cheng-Chia

    2017-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are deemed as the driving force of tumorigenesis in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs). In this study, we investigated the chemotherapeutic effect of sulforaphane, a dietary component from broccoli sprouts, on targeting OSCC-CSCs. The effect of sulforaphane on normal oral epithelial cells (SG) and sphere-forming OSCC-CSCs isolated from SAS and GNM cells was examined. ALDH1 activity and CD44 positivity of OSCC-CSCs with sulforaphane treatment was assessed by flow cytometry analysis. In vitro and in vivo tumorigenicity assays of OSCC-CSCs with sulforaphane treatment were presented. We observed that the sulforaphane dose-dependently eliminated the proliferation rate of OSCC-CSCs, whereas the inhibition on SG cells proliferation was limited. Cancer stemness properties including self-renewal, CD44 positivity, and ALDH1 activity were also decreased in OSCC-CSCs with different doses of sulforaphane treatment. Moreover, sulforaphane treatment of OSCC-CSCs decreased the migration, invasion, clonogenicity, and in vivo tumorigenicity of xenograghts. Sulforaphane treatment resulted in a dose-dependent increase in the levels of tumor suppressive miR200c. These lines of evidence suggest that sulforaphane can suppress the cancer stemness and tumor-initiating properties in OSCC-CSCs both in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Effect of Sulforaphane on NOD2 via NF-κB: implications for Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Folkard, Danielle L; Marlow, Gareth; Mithen, Richard F; Ferguson, Lynnette R

    2015-01-01

    Sulforaphane has well established anti-cancer properties and more recently anti-inflammatory properties have also been determined. Sulforaphane has been shown to inhibit PRR-mediated pro-inflammatory signalling by either directly targeting the receptor or their downstream signalling molecules such as the transcription factor, NF-κB. These results raise the possibility that PRR-mediated inflammation could be suppressed by specific dietary bioactives. We examined whether sulforaphane could suppress NF-κB via the NOD2 pathway. Human embryonic kidney 293T (HEK293T) cells were stably transfected with NOD2 variants and the NF-κB reporter, pNifty2-SEAP. The cells were co-treated with sulforaphane and MDP and secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) production was determined. We found that sulforaphane was able to significantly suppress the ligand-induced NF-κB activity at physiologically relevant concentrations, achievable via the consumption of broccoli within the diet. These results demonstrate that the anti-inflammatory role of sulforaphane is not restricted to LPS-induced inflammatory signalling. These data add to the growing evidence that PRR activation can be inhibited by specific phytochemicals and thus suggests that diet could be a way of controlling inflammation. This is particularly important for a disease like Crohn's disease where diet can play a key role in relieving or exacerbating symptoms.

  18. Inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation by sulforaphane reduces adhesion molecule expression in vascular endothelial cell.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young S; Kim, Chan H; Ha, Tae S; Ahn, Hee Y

    2015-11-18

    Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) play key roles in the initiation of vascular inflammation. In this study, we explored whether sulforaphane, a dietary phytochemical, can inhibit the expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and the mechanisms involved. Sulforaphane prevented the LPS-mediated increase in ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression, (P < 0.01) in HUVEC. Sulforaphane also prevented the LPS-mediated increase in the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) (P < 0.01). Stattic, a STAT3 inhibitor, reduced the LPS-induced expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, and STAT3 phosphorylation (P < 0.01). STAT3 small interfering RNA treatment reduced the LPS-induced expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and STAT3 (P < 0.01). Sulforaphane reduced LPS-mediated THP-1 monocyte adhesion to HUVEC (P < 0.01). In C57BL/6 mice, injection of LPS increased aortic ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression, and this effect was prevented by sulforaphane. These data provide insight into the mechanism through which sulforaphane partly reduces the expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 on the vascular wall by inhibiting STAT3 phosphorylation.

  19. Protective effects of Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn against fatty liver disease induced by high fat diet in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Qiuxian; Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong; Zhang, Qin

    Highlights: • AESM is able to prevent the elevation of ALT and AST, and to decreased LDL-C level. • AESM demonstrates the effects of down-regulating blood fat level and protecting liver. • AESM consistent with the efficacy of simvastatin in NAFLD. - Abstract: Objectives: Study the effects of alcohol extract of Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn (AESM) on the metabolism of blood fat, morphology of fenestrated liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC), and the ultrastructure of liver cells of the rats with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods: Divide SD rats into control group, model group, simvastatin (7.2 mg/kg) group, and S.mukorossi Gaertnmore » group with high dosage (0.5 g/kg), moderate dosage (0.1 g/kg), and low dosage (0.05 g/kg). After feeding with fat-rich nutrients for 3 weeks and establishing the model of hepatic adipose, conduct intragastric administration and provide the rats with fat-rich nutrients at the same time. At the 43rd day, take blood sample and measure aminotransferase and different indexes of blood fat; take hepatic tissue for pathological section, and observe the hepatic morphological patterns under light microscope; obtain and fix the hepatic tissue after injecting perfusate into the body, and observe the changes of fenestrated LSEC under scanning electron microscope; observe the ultrastructure of liver cells under transmission electron microscope. Results: High-dosage alcohol extracts of S.mukorossi Gaertn can alleviate the AST, ALT, TC, TG, LDL, γ-GT, and ALP level, as well as raise the HDL and APN level in the serum of NAFLD-rat model. In addition, through the observation from light microscope and electron microscopes, the morphology of the hepatic tissue and liver cells as well as the recovery of the fenestrated LSEC in the treatment group has become normal. Conclusions: Alcohol extracts of S.mukorossi Gaertn can regulate the level of blood fat and improve the pathological changes of the hepatic tissues in NAFLD-rat model

  20. Antioxidant and Protective Effect of Ethyl Acetate Extract of Podophyllum Hexandrum Rhizome on Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Rat Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ganie, Showkat Ahmad; Haq, Ehtishamul; Masood, Akbar; Hamid, Abid; Zargar, Mohmmad Afzal

    2011-01-01

    The antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of ethyl acetate extract was carefully investigated by the methods of DPPH radical scavenging activity, Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, Superoxide radical scavenging activity, Hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity and its Reducing power ability. All these in vitro antioxidant activities were concentration dependent which were compared with standard antioxidants such as BHT, α-tocopherol. The hepatoprotective potential of Podophyllum hexandrum extract was also evaluated in male Wistar rats against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage. Pre-treated rats were given ethyl acetate extract at 20, 30 and 50 mg/kg dose prior to CCl4 administration (1 ml/kg, 1:1 in olive oil). Rats pre-treated with Podophyllum hexandrum extract remarkably prevented the elevation of serum AST, ALT, LDH and liver lipid peroxides in CCl4-treated rats. Hepatic glutathione levels were significantly increased by the treatment with the extract in all the experimental groups. The extract at the tested doses also restored the levels of liver homogenate enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S- transferase) significantly. This study suggests that ethyl acetate extract of P. hexandrum has a liver protective effect against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity and possess in vitro antioxidant activities. PMID:21394192

  1. Protection of the liver against CCl4-induced injury by intramuscular electrotransfer of a kallistatin-encoding plasmid.

    PubMed

    Diao, Yong; Zhao, Xiao-Feng; Lin, Jun-Sheng; Wang, Qi-Zhao; Xu, Rui-An

    2011-01-07

    To investigate the effect of transgenic expression of kallistatin (Kal) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver injury by intramuscular (im) electrotransfer of a Kal-encoding plasmid formulated with poly-L-glutamate (PLG). The pKal plasmid encoding Kal gene was formulated with PLG and electrotransferred into mice skeletal muscle before the administration of CCl4. The expression level of Kal was measured. The serum biomarker levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), malonyldialdehyde (MDA), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were monitored. The extent of CCl4-induced liver injury was analyzed histopathologically. The transgene of Kal was sufficiently expressed after an im injection of plasmid formulated with PLG followed by electroporation. In the Kal gene-transferred mice, protection against CCl4-induced liver injury was reflected by significantly decreased serum ALT, AST, MDA and TNF-α levels compared to those in control mice (P<0.01 to 0.05 in a dose-dependent manner). Histological observations also revealed that hepatocyte necrosis, hemorrhage, vacuolar change and hydropic degeneration were apparent in mice after CCl4 administration. In contrast, the damage was markedly attenuated in the Kal gene-transferred mice. The expression of hepatic fibrogenesis marker transforming growth factor-β1 was also reduced in the pKal transferred mice. Intramuscular electrotransfer of plasmid pKal which was formulated with PLG significantly alleviated the CCl4-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory response, and reduced the liver damage in a mouse model.

  2. Protective Effects of Ethanolic Extracts from Artichoke, an Edible Herbal Medicine, against Acute Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xuchong; Wei, Ruofan; Deng, Aihua; Lei, Tingping

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation are well-documented pathological factors in alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) is a healthy food and folk medicine with anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. This study aimed to evaluate the preventive effects of ethanolic extract from artichoke against acute alcohol-induced liver injury in mice. Male Institute of Cancer Research mice were treated with an ethanolic extract of artichoke (0.4, 0.8, and 1.6 g/kg body weight) by gavage once daily. Up to 40% alcohol (12 mL/kg body weight) was administered orally 1 h after artichoke treatment. All mice were fed for 10 consecutive days. Results showed that artichoke extract significantly prevented elevated levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, triglyceride, total cholesterol, and malondialdehyde. Meanwhile, the decreased levels of superoxide dismutase and glutathione were elevated by artichoke administration. Histopathological examination showed that artichoke attenuated degeneration, inflammatory infiltration and necrosis of hepatocytes. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that expression levels of toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) in liver tissues were significantly suppressed by artichoke treatment. Results obtained demonstrated that artichoke extract exhibited significant preventive protective effect against acute alcohol-induced liver injury. This finding is mainly attributed to its ability to attenuate oxidative stress and suppress the TLR4/NF-κB inflammatory pathway. To the best of our knowledge, the underlying mechanisms of artichoke on acute ALD have been rarely reported. PMID:28891983

  3. Protective Effects of Ethanolic Extracts from Artichoke, an Edible Herbal Medicine, against Acute Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury in Mice.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xuchong; Wei, Ruofan; Deng, Aihua; Lei, Tingping

    2017-09-11

    Oxidative stress and inflammation are well-documented pathological factors in alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Artichoke ( Cynara scolymus L.) is a healthy food and folk medicine with anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. This study aimed to evaluate the preventive effects of ethanolic extract from artichoke against acute alcohol-induced liver injury in mice. Male Institute of Cancer Research mice were treated with an ethanolic extract of artichoke (0.4, 0.8, and 1.6 g/kg body weight) by gavage once daily. Up to 40% alcohol (12 mL/kg body weight) was administered orally 1 h after artichoke treatment. All mice were fed for 10 consecutive days. Results showed that artichoke extract significantly prevented elevated levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, triglyceride, total cholesterol, and malondialdehyde. Meanwhile, the decreased levels of superoxide dismutase and glutathione were elevated by artichoke administration. Histopathological examination showed that artichoke attenuated degeneration, inflammatory infiltration and necrosis of hepatocytes. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that expression levels of toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) in liver tissues were significantly suppressed by artichoke treatment. Results obtained demonstrated that artichoke extract exhibited significant preventive protective effect against acute alcohol-induced liver injury. This finding is mainly attributed to its ability to attenuate oxidative stress and suppress the TLR4/NF-κB inflammatory pathway. To the best of our knowledge, the underlying mechanisms of artichoke on acute ALD have been rarely reported.

  4. Relevance of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of exemestane and synergism with sulforaphane for disease prevention

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hua; Talalay, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Exemestane (6-methyleneandrosta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione) is a synthetic steroidal inhibitor of the aromatase reaction that catalyzes the terminal and rate-limiting step of the biosynthesis of estrogens. It is active clinically in preventing, delaying progression of, and treating mammary cancers, many of which are estrogen receptor-positive. A striking feature of the structure of exemestane is an extended system of conjugated Michael reaction functions, which is also characteristic of inducers of a broad network of chemoprotective genes regulated by the Keap1 (Kelch-like ECA-associated protein)/Nrf2 (nuclear factor E2-related factor 2)/ARE (antioxidant response element) signaling system. These genes are largely involved in xenobiotic metabolism and antioxidative and anti-inflammatory protection, as well as the synthesis and reduction of glutathione. We show here that exemestane transcriptionally activates NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), typical chemoprotective gene products, in a wide variety of mouse, rat, and human cells. It protects several cell lines against oxidative toxicity of tert-butyl hydroperoxide and 4-hydroxynonenal, against free radical damage arising from hypoxia–reoxygenation, and against UVA radiation damage. Exemestane also inhibits the inflammatory increases in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in mouse macrophages exposed to LPS (lipopolysaccharide), thereby resembling the isothiocyanate sulforaphane derived from broccoli. Remarkably, combinations of exemestane and sulforaphane act highly synergistically, and this property is also displayed by several other phytochemicals. Thus, exemestane has a wide range of previously unrecognized protective activities, probably unrelated to aromatase inhibition. Its potential for reducing the risk, not only of breast cancer, but also of other chronic diseases that arise from inflammation, oxidative stress, and DNA-damaging electrophiles, requires exploration

  5. Relevance of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of exemestane and synergism with sulforaphane for disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hua; Talalay, Paul

    2013-11-19

    Exemestane (6-methyleneandrosta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione) is a synthetic steroidal inhibitor of the aromatase reaction that catalyzes the terminal and rate-limiting step of the biosynthesis of estrogens. It is active clinically in preventing, delaying progression of, and treating mammary cancers, many of which are estrogen receptor-positive. A striking feature of the structure of exemestane is an extended system of conjugated Michael reaction functions, which is also characteristic of inducers of a broad network of chemoprotective genes regulated by the Keap1 (Kelch-like ECA-associated protein)/Nrf2 (nuclear factor E2-related factor 2)/ARE (antioxidant response element) signaling system. These genes are largely involved in xenobiotic metabolism and antioxidative and anti-inflammatory protection, as well as the synthesis and reduction of glutathione. We show here that exemestane transcriptionally activates NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), typical chemoprotective gene products, in a wide variety of mouse, rat, and human cells. It protects several cell lines against oxidative toxicity of tert-butyl hydroperoxide and 4-hydroxynonenal, against free radical damage arising from hypoxia-reoxygenation, and against UVA radiation damage. Exemestane also inhibits the inflammatory increases in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in mouse macrophages exposed to LPS (lipopolysaccharide), thereby resembling the isothiocyanate sulforaphane derived from broccoli. Remarkably, combinations of exemestane and sulforaphane act highly synergistically, and this property is also displayed by several other phytochemicals. Thus, exemestane has a wide range of previously unrecognized protective activities, probably unrelated to aromatase inhibition. Its potential for reducing the risk, not only of breast cancer, but also of other chronic diseases that arise from inflammation, oxidative stress, and DNA-damaging electrophiles, requires exploration, particularly

  6. Intraperitoneal administration of apigenin in liver ischemia/reperfusion injury protective effects.

    PubMed

    Tsaroucha, Alexandra K; Tsiaousidou, Anastasia; Ouzounidis, Nikolaos; Tsalkidou, Evanthia; Lambropoulou, Maria; Giakoustidis, Dimitrios; Chatzaki, Ekaterini; Simopoulos, Constantinos

    2016-11-01

    Hepatic injury caused by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is a clinical problem associated with major liver surgery. Among other flavonoids, apigenin has shown a promising effect on I/R cases. In this study, we have investigated the effects of apigenin after liver I/R injury in rats. Forty eight rats were randomized into the following eight groups: (1) Control-sham group: rats subjected to the surgical procedure, except for liver I/R; (2) DMSO group: rats subjected to surgery, except for liver I/R given the apigenin solvent dimethyl-sulfoxide intraperitoneally; (3) C60 group; (4) C120 group; (5) C240 group: rats underwent liver ischemia for 45 min followed by reperfusion for 60 min, 120 min, and 240 min; (6) AP60 group; (7) AP120 group; (8) AP240 group: rats underwent liver ischemia for 45 min, and then given apigenin (5 mg) intraperitoneally followed by reperfusion for 60 min, 120 min, and 240 min. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed on liver tissues to measure BCL-2/BAX expression, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure M30/M65 and ICAM-1. Immunohistochemistry was used to identify M30 biomarker in liver tissues. Quantitative variables were tested by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, repeated measures analysis of variance/Friedman test. Gene levels were assessed by Student's t-test/Mann-Whitney U-test. BCL-2 levels were significantly higher in I/R apigenin groups than in I/R control groups. BAX levels were lower in the AP240 group than in C240 group. Prolongation of reperfusion resulted in increased activation of M30. ICAM-1 levels were lower in the AP240 group than in C240 group. Apigenin seems to inhibit the process of apoptosis and ameliorate the hepatic I/R injury.

  7. [Protective effect of garlic oil given at different time against acute liver injury induced by CCl4].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gui-li; Zeng, Tao; Wang, Qing-shan; Zhao, Xiu-lan; Song, Fu-yong; Xie, Ke-qin

    2010-03-01

    To observe and compare the protective effect of garlic oil against carbon tetrachloride (CCL)-induced acute liver injury. The experiments include 4 preventive groups and 2 therapeutic groups. In every preventive and therapeutic group, the mice were randomized into 6 groups with 15 each, including one negative control group, one solvent control group, one CCl4 model group and 3 garlic oil groups (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight). Before given a single gavage of CCl4 (80 mg/kg), the mice were pretreated with garlic oil by gavage in preventive group 1 (30 days, once daily), preventive group 2 (5 days, once daily), preventive group 3 (ahead of 2 h, once), preventive group 4 (immediately, once) or the vehicle (corn oil, 10 ml/kg) in solvent control group. In therapeutic groups, the mice were gavaged garlic oil 2 h (once, in therapeutic 1) or for 5 days (once daily, in therapeutic 2) after administration CCl. After 24 h of the last administration, blood was collected and centrifuged at 2500 r/min at 4 degrees C for 10 min, and serum was removed to measure ALT and AST activities. The liver was dissected, weighed to calculate the liver coefficient (relative liver weight). At the same time, the liver samples were studied by histological examinations. Compared with negative group, the liver coefficient and the activities of ALT and AST in serum of model group were increased remarkably (P < 0.01). Compared with CCl model group, the liver coefficient and the activities of ALT and AST in serum were decreased significantly (P < 0.01) by garlic oil dose-dependently in each preventive group. Simultaneously, histological assessment showed that garlic oil effectively alleviated hepatocyte injuries induced by CCl4. Comparing the preventive effects of garlic oil in every group, it was better in preventive group 3 than others. However, all indexes and histological examinations in therapeutic group 1 did not show the difference with those of CCl4 model group. In therapeutic group 2

  8. Anti-oxidative protection against iron overload-induced liver damage in mice by Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Rhitajit; Hazra, Bibhabasu; Mandal, Nripendranath

    2013-02-01

    In view of the contribution of iron deposition in the oxidative pathologic process of liver disease, the potential of 70% methanolic extract of C. cajan leaf (CLME) towards antioxidative protection against iron-overload-induced liver damage in mice has been investigated. DPPH radical scavenging and protection of Fenton reaction induced DNA damage was conducted in vitro. Post oral administration of CLME to iron overloaded mice, the levels of antioxidant and serum enzymes, hepatic iron, serum ferritin, lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonyl and hydroxyproline contents were measured, in comparison to deferasirox treated mice. Oral treatment of the plant extract effectively lowered the elevated levels of liver iron, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl and hydroxyproline. There was notable increment in the dropped levels of hepatic antioxidants. The dosage of the plant extract not only made the levels of serum enzymes approach normal value, but also counteracted the overwhelmed serum ferritin level. The in vitro studies indicated potential antioxidant activity of CLME. The histopathological observations also substantiated the ameliorative function of the plant extract. Accordingly, it is suggested that Cajanus cajan leaf can be a useful herbal remedy to suppress oxidative damage caused by iron overload.

  9. In vivo Studies on the Protective Effect of Propolis on Doxorubicin-Induced Toxicity in Liver of Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Singla, Shivani; Kumar, Neelima R; Kaur, Jaspreet

    2014-05-01

    Since anticancer drugs are to be administered for long durations of time and are associated with systemic toxicities, the present studies were conducted to evaluate the protective potential of honey bee propolis against a widely used anticancer drug, doxorubicin (DXR) induced toxicity and oxidative damage in liver tissues of rats. Sixteen male Sprague Dawley rats, weighing between 200-220 g, were used and were divided into four equal groups. Propolis was given orally to rats [250 mg/kg body weight (bw) for 14 consecutive days] and DXR [25 mg/kg bw; intraperitoneally (i.p) was administered on 12(th), 13(th) and 14(th) day of the experiment. All the animals were sacrificed on day 15(th) day by decapitation. Blood and tissue samples were collected for measurement of toxicity and oxidative damage parameters (enzymatic assays and biochemical estimations). Administration of DXR for 3 days at a cumulative dose of 25 mg/kg bw, induced toxicity and oxidative stress in rats as significantly decreased activity of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione reductase (GR) were observed in rat liver supernatants when compared to control group. Increased activity of serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) and serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) was obtained in DXR administered rats. Also there are significantly increased levels of lipid peroxides (measured as malondialdehyde formation) and significantly decreased level of glutathione (GSH) in doxorubicin treated rat liver supernatants as compared to healthy controls. On the other hand, administration of animals with propolis prior to DXR treatment led to significant modulation of the oxidative damage related parameters in liver and hepatotoxicity parameters in blood, when compared to doxorubicin treated group. However results were still not comparable to control group or only propolis group indicating partial protection by propolis at

  10. Metallothionein Is Downstream of Nrf2 and Partially Mediates Sulforaphane Prevention of Diabetic Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Gu, Junlian; Cheng, Yanli; Wu, Hao; Kong, Lili; Wang, Shudong; Xu, Zheng; Zhang, Zhiguo; Tan, Yi; Keller, Bradley B; Zhou, Honglan; Wang, Yuehui; Xu, Zhonggao; Cai, Lu

    2017-02-01

    We have reported that sulforaphane (SFN) prevented diabetic cardiomyopathy in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) animal models via the upregulation of nuclear transcription factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and metallothionein (MT). In this study, we tested whether SFN protects the heart from T2DM directly through Nrf2, MT, or both. Using Nrf2-knockout (KO), MT-KO, and wild-type (WT) mice, T2DM was induced by feeding a high-fat diet for 3 months followed by a small dose of streptozotocin. Age-matched controls were given a normal diet. Both T2DM and control mice were then treated with or without SFN for 4 months by continually feeding a high-fat or normal diet. SFN prevented diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction as well as diabetes-associated cardiac oxidative damage, inflammation, fibrosis, and hypertrophy, with increases in Nrf2 and MT expressions in the WT mice. Both Nrf2-KO and MT-KO diabetic mice exhibited greater cardiac damage than WT diabetic mice. SFN did not provide cardiac protection in Nrf2-KO mice, but partially or completely protected the heart from diabetes in MT-KO mice. SFN did not induce MT expression in Nrf2-KO mice, but stimulated Nrf2 function in MT-KO mice. These results suggest that Nrf2 plays the indispensable role for SFN cardiac protection from T2DM with significant induction of MT and other antioxidants. MT expression induced by SFN is Nrf2 dependent, but is not indispensable for SFN-induced cardiac protection from T2DM. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  11. Metallothionein plays a prominent role in the prevention of diabetic nephropathy by sulforaphane via up-regulation of Nrf2

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hao; Kong, Lili; Cheng, Yanli; Zhang, Zhiguo; Wang, Yangwei; Lou, Manyu; Tan, Yi; Chen, Xiangmei; Miao, Lining; Cai, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Sulforaphane (SFN) prevents diabetic nephropathy (DN) in type 1 diabetes via up-regulation of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2). However, it has not been addressed whether SFN also prevents DN from type 2 diabetes or which Nrf2 downstream gene(s) play(s) the key role in SFN renal protection. Here we investigated whether Nrf2 is required for SFN protection against type 2 diabetes-induced DN and whether metallothionein (MT) is an Nrf2 downstream antioxidant using Nrf2 knockout (Nrf2-null) mice. In addition, MT knockout mice were used to further verify if MT is indispensable for SFN protection against DN. Diabetes-increased albuminuria, renal fibrosis, and inflammation were significantly prevented by SFN, and Nrf2 and MT expression was increased. However, SFN renal protection was completely lost in Nrf2-null diabetic mice, confirming the pivotal role of Nrf2 in SFN protection from type 2 diabetes-induced DN. Moreover, SFN failed to up-regulate MT in the absence of Nrf2, suggesting that MT is an Nrf2 downstream antioxidant. MT deletion resulted in a partial, but significant attenuation of SFN renal protection from type 2 diabetes, demonstrating a partial requirement for MT for SFN renal protection. Therefore, the present study demonstrates for the first time that as an Nrf2 downstream antioxidant, MT plays an important, though partial, role in mediating SFN renal protection from type 2 diabetes. PMID:26415026

  12. Metallothionein plays a prominent role in the prevention of diabetic nephropathy by sulforaphane via up-regulation of Nrf2.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hao; Kong, Lili; Cheng, Yanli; Zhang, Zhiguo; Wang, Yangwei; Luo, Manyu; Tan, Yi; Chen, Xiangmei; Miao, Lining; Cai, Lu

    2015-12-01

    Sulforaphane (SFN) prevents diabetic nephropathy (DN) in type 1 diabetes via up-regulation of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2). However, it has not been addressed whether SFN also prevents DN from type 2 diabetes or which Nrf2 downstream gene(s) play(s) the key role in SFN renal protection. Here we investigated whether Nrf2 is required for SFN protection against type 2 diabetes-induced DN and whether metallothionein (MT) is an Nrf2 downstream antioxidant using Nrf2 knockout (Nrf2-null) mice. In addition, MT knockout mice were used to further verify if MT is indispensable for SFN protection against DN. Diabetes-increased albuminuria, renal fibrosis, and inflammation were significantly prevented by SFN, and Nrf2 and MT expression was increased. However, SFN renal protection was completely lost in Nrf2-null diabetic mice, confirming the pivotal role of Nrf2 in SFN protection from type 2 diabetes-induced DN. Moreover, SFN failed to up-regulate MT in the absence of Nrf2, suggesting that MT is an Nrf2 downstream antioxidant. MT deletion resulted in a partial, but significant attenuation of SFN renal protection from type 2 diabetes, demonstrating a partial requirement for MT for SFN renal protection. Therefore, the present study demonstrates for the first time that as an Nrf2 downstream antioxidant, MT plays an important, though partial, role in mediating SFN renal protection from type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Short fasting does not protect perfused ex vivo rat liver against ischemia-reperfusion. On the importance of a minimal cell energy charge.

    PubMed

    Papegay, Bérengère; Stadler, Michaela; Nuyens, Vincent; Kruys, Véronique; Boogaerts, Jean G; Vamecq, Joseph

    2017-03-01

    Dietary restriction or reduced food intake was supported to protect against renal and hepatic ischemic injury. In this vein, short fasting was recently shown to protect in situ rat liver against ischemia-reperfusion. Here, perfused ex vivo instead of in situ livers were exposed to ischemia-reperfusion to study the impact of disconnecting liver from extrahepatic supply in energetic substrates on the protection given by short-term fasting. Perfused ex vivo livers using short (18 h) fasted compared with fed rats were submitted to ischemia-reperfusion and studied for release of cytolysis markers in the perfusate. Energetic stores are differently available in time and cell energetic charges (ratio of adenosine triphosphate plus half of the adenosine diphosphate concentrations to the sum of adenosine triphosphate + adenosine diphosphate + adenosine monophosphate concentrations), adenosine phosphates, and glycogen, which were further measured at different time points in livers. Short fasting versus feeding failed to protect perfused ex vivo rat livers against ischemia/reperfusion, increasing the release of cytolysis markers (potassium, cytochrome c, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase) in the perfusate during reoxygenation phase. Toxicity of short fasting versus feeding was associated with lower glycogen and energetic charges in livers and lower lactate levels in the perfusate. High energetic charge, intracellular content in glycogen, and glycolytic activity may protect liver against ischemia/reperfusion injury. This work does not question how much the protective role previously demonstrated in the literature for dietary restriction and short fasting. In fact, it suggests that exceeding the energy charge threshold value of 0.3 might trigger the effectiveness of this protective role. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Carboxylesterase 1 Is Regulated by Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4α and Protects Against Alcohol- and MCD diet-induced Liver Injury.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiesi; Xu, Yang; Li, Yuanyuan; Jadhav, Kavita; You, Min; Yin, Liya; Zhang, Yanqiao

    2016-04-14

    The liver is a major organ that controls hepatic and systemic homeostasis. Dysregulation of liver metabolism may cause liver injury. Previous studies have demonstrated that carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) regulates hepatic triglyceride metabolism and protects against liver steatosis. In the present study, we investigated whether CES1 played a role in the development of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and methionine and choline-deficient (MCD) diet-induced liver injury. Both hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) and CES1 were markedly reduced in patients with alcoholic steatohepatitis. Alcohol repressed both HNF4α and CES1 expression in primary hepatocytes. HNF4α regulated CES1 expression by directly binding to the proximal promoter of CES1. Global inactivation of CES1 aggravated alcohol- or MCD diet-induced liver inflammation and liver injury, likely as a result of increased production of acetaldehyde and reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial dysfunctions. Knockdown of hepatic CES1 exacerbated ethanol-induced steatohepatitis. These data indicate that CES1 plays a crucial role in protection against alcohol- or MCD diet-induced liver injury.

  15. Cisplatin impairs rat liver mitochondrial functions by inducing changes on membrane ion permeability: prevention by thiol group protecting agents.

    PubMed

    Custódio, José B A; Cardoso, Carla M P; Santos, Maria S; Almeida, Leonor M; Vicente, Joaquim A F; Fernandes, Maria A S

    2009-05-02

    Cisplatin (CisPt) is the most important platinum anticancer drug widely used in the treatment of head, neck, ovarian and testicular cancers. However, the mechanisms by which CisPt induces cytotoxicity, namely hepatotoxicity, are not completely understood. The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of CisPt on rat liver mitochondrial functions (Ca(2+)-induced mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), mitochondrial bioenergetics, and mitochondrial oxidative stress) to better understand the mechanism underlying its hepatotoxicity. The effect of thiol group protecting agents and some antioxidants against CisPt-induced mitochondrial damage was also investigated. Treatment of rat liver mitochondria with CisPt (20nmol/mg protein) induced Ca(2+)-dependent mitochondrial swelling, depolarization of membrane potential (DeltaPsi), Ca(2+) release, and NAD(P)H fluorescence intensity decay. These effects were prevented by cyclosporine A (CyA), a potent and specific inhibitor of the MPT. In the concentration range of up to 40nmol/mg protein, CisPt slightly inhibited state 3 and stimulated state 2 and state 4 respiration rates using succinate as respiratory substrate. The respiratory indexes, respiratory control ratio (RCR) and ADP/O ratios, the DeltaPsi, and the ADP phosphorylation rate were also depressed. CisPt induced mitochondrial inner membrane permeabilization to protons (proton leak) but did not induce significant changes on mitochondrial H(2)O(2) generation. All the effects induced by CisPt on rat liver mitochondria were prevented by thiol group protecting agents namely, glutathione (GSH), dithiothreitol (DTT), N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and cysteine (CYS), whereas superoxide-dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate (ASC) were without effect. In conclusion, the anticancer drug CisPt: (1) increases the sensitivity of mitochondria to Ca(2+)-induced MPT; (2) interferes with mitochondrial bioenergetics by increasing mitochondrial inner membrane

  16. Protective effect of Malva sylvestris L. extract in ischemia-reperfusion induced acute kidney and remote liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Najafi, Houshang; Mohamadi Yarijani, Zeynab; Changizi-Ashtiyani, Saeed; Mansouri, Kamran; Modarresi, Masoud; Madani, Seyed Hamid

    2017-01-01

    Mallow (Malva sylvestris L.) has had medicinal and therapeutic uses in addition to its oral consumption. The present study was conducted to examine the protective effect of Malva sylvestris L. extract on ischemia-reperfusion-induced kidney injury and remote organ injuries in the liver. Before ischemia-reperfusion, rats in the different groups received intraperitoneal normal saline or mallow extract at the doses of 200, 400 or 600 mg/kg of body weight. After 30-minutes of bilateral renal ischemia followed by 24-hours of reperfusion, tissue damage in the kidney and liver samples were determined through studying H&E-stained slides under a light microscope. The degree of leukocyte infiltration and tissue mRNA expressions of TNF- and ICAM-1 were then measured to examine the degree of renal inflammation. The renal tissue MDA and FRAP levels were measured for determining the amount of oxidative stress. Plasma concentrations of creatinine, urea, ALT and ALP were also measured. Ischemia-reperfusion led to a significant increase in plasma concentrations of creatinine, urea, ALT and ALP, and renal tissue MDA, and a significant decrease in renal tissue FRAP. The expression of pro-inflammatory factors in the kidney tissue, the level of leukocyte infiltration and the amount of tissue damage in the kidney and liver also increased. Pretreatment by mallow extract led to a significant improvement in all the variables measured. The 200- and 400-mg doses yielded better results in most parameters compared to the 600-mg dose. The findings showed that mallow extract protects the kidney against ischemia-reperfusion and reduces remote organ injury in the liver. PMID:29155898

  17. The Protective Effect of Selenium on Oxidative Stress Induced by Waterpipe (Narghile) Smoke in Lungs and Liver of Mice.

    PubMed

    Charab, Mohamad A; Abouzeinab, Noura S; Moustafa, Mohamed E

    2016-12-01

    Waterpipe smoking is common in the Middle East populations and results in health problems. In this study, we investigated the effects of exposure of mice to waterpipe smoke on oxidative stress in lungs and liver and the effects of selenium administration before smoke exposure on the oxidative stress. Twenty-four mice were divided equally into four groups: (i) the control mice received no exposure or treatment; (ii) mice exposed to waterpipe smoke; (iii) mice received intraperitoneal injection of 0.59 μg selenium/kg body weight as sodium selenite 15 min before the exposure to waterpipe smoke; and (iv) mice received intraperitoneal injection of 1.78 μg selenium/kg body weight as sodium selenite 15 min before the exposure to waterpipe smoke. Mice were exposed to waterpipe smoke every other day for four times within 8 successive days. Malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels were significantly higher in the lungs and liver, while the activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase-1, and catalase were significantly lower in the waterpipe smoke group when compared to control mice. Treating mice with 1.78 μg selenium/kg body weight significantly restored the normal levels of these parameters. Histological examinations of lungs and liver confirmed the protective actions of selenium against the effects of exposure to waterpipe smoke. In conclusion, exposure of mice to waterpipe smoke-induced oxidative stress in lungs and liver. Administration of low level of selenium, 1.78 μg selenium/kg body weight as sodium selenite, exerted protective effects against oxidative stress induced by exposure to waterpipe smoke.

  18. Oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol protect from bisphenol A effects in livers and kidneys of lactating mother rats and their pups'.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudi, Asma; Ghorbel, Héla; Bouallegui, Zouhair; Marrekchi, Rim; Isoda, Hiroko; Sayadi, Sami

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical found in hard plastics and the coatings of food and drinks cans which can behave in a similar way to estrogen and other hormones in the human body. This study aimed to evaluate the significance of the treatment with oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol olive leaves rich extracts in reducing functional perturbations and oxidative stress arising from BPA treatment in livers and kidneys of lactating mother rats and their pups'. For this, four groups of lactating mothers were used: controls (group A), treated with bisphenol A (group B), treated with bisphenol A and oleuropein (group C) and with bisphenol A and hydroxytyrosol (group D). As results, we had found, in BPA treated group, either in mothers or in their pups', a significant decrease in morphological parameters, in catalase activity and in total antioxidant capacity associated to an increase in malondialdehyde levels in livers and kidneys. For these rats, the histological aspect showed, also, deep changes. Indeed, we had observed, in livers, hepatocellular necrosis associated to leucocytes infiltration and in kidneys tubular and glomerular necrosis. The co-treatments with BPA and oleuropein (group C) or with BPA and hydroxytyrosol (group D) ameliorate all morphological, biochemical and histological parameters as compared to BPA treated group B. The analysis of BPA and its derivatives with LC-MS/MS showed changes in their localizations between serum, livers or kidneys in all studied groups. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates the hepato-protective and reno-protective effects of oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol olive leaves extracts from BPA and its derivates toxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Pomegranate protects against arsenic-induced p53-dependent ROS-mediated inflammation and apoptosis in liver cells.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Sreetama; Ghosh, Sayan; Mukherjee, Sudeshna; Gupta, Payal; Bhattacharya, Saurav; Adhikary, Arghya; Chattopadhyay, Sreya

    2016-12-01

    Molecular mechanisms involved in arsenic-induced toxicity are complex and elusive. Liver is one of the most favored organs for arsenic toxicity as methylation of arsenic occurs mostly in the liver. In this study, we have selected a range of environmentally relevant doses of arsenic to examine the basis of arsenic toxicity and the role of pomegranate fruit extract (PFE) in combating it. Male Swiss albino mice exposed to different doses of arsenic presented marked hepatic injury as evident from histological and electron microscopic studies. Increased activities of enzymes alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase corroborated extensive liver damage. It was further noted that arsenic exposure initiated reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent apoptosis in the hepatocytes involving loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Arsenic significantly increased nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), coupled with increase in phosphorylated Iκ-B, possibly as adaptive cellular survival strategies. Arsenic-induced oxidative DNA damage to liver cells culminated in p53 activation and increased expression of p53 targets like miR-34a and Bax. Pomegranate polyphenols are known to possess remarkable antioxidant properties and are capable of protecting normal cells from various stimuli-induced oxidative stress and toxicities. We explored the protective role of PFE in ameliorating arsenic-induced hepatic damage. PFE was shown to reduce ROS generation in hepatocytes, thereby reducing arsenic-induced Nrf2 activation. PFE also inhibited arsenic-induced NF-κB-inflammatory pathway. Data revealed that PFE reversed arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity and apoptosis by modulating the ROS/Nrf2/p53-miR-34a axis. For the first time, we have mapped the possible signaling pathways associated with arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity and its rescue by pomegranate polyphenols. Copyright

  20. Protection of rat liver against hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury by a novel selenocysteine-containing 7-mer peptide

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Qianqian; Pan, Yu; Cheng, Yupeng; Li, Huiling; Li, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury causes acute organ damage or dysfunction, and remains a problem for liver transplantation. In the I-R phase, the generation of reactive oxygen species aggravates the injury. In the current study, a novel selenocysteine-containing 7-mer peptide (H-Arg-Sec-Gly-Arg-Asn-Ala-Gln-OH) was constructed to imitate the active site of an antioxidant enzyme, glutathione peroxidase (GPX). The 7-mer peptide which has a lower molecular weight, and improved water-solubility, higher stability and improved cell membrane permeability compared with other GPX mimics. Its GPX activity reached 13 U/µmol, which was 13 times that of ebselen (a representative GPX mimic). The effect of this GPX mimic on I-R injury of the liver was assessed in rats. The 7-mer peptide significantly inhibited the increase in serum hepatic amino-transferases, tissue malondialdehyde, nitric oxide contents, myeloperoxidase activity and decrease of GPX activity compared with I-R tissue. Following treatment with the 7-mer peptide, the expression of B-cell CLL/lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) was significantly upregulated at the mRNA and protein level compared with the I-R group, as determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, respectively. By contrast, Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax) was downregulated by the 7-mer peptide compared the I-R group. Histological and ultrastructural changes of the rat liver tissue were also compared among the experimental groups. The results of the current study suggest that the 7-mer peptide protected the liver against hepatic I-R injury via suppression of oxygen-derived free radicals and regulation of Bcl-2 and Bax expression, which are involved in the apoptosis of liver cells. The findings of the present study will further the investigation of the 7-mer peptide as an effective therapeutic agent in hepatic I-R injury. PMID:27431272

  1. Dibenzoylmethane Protects Against CCl4-Induced Acute Liver Injury by Activating Nrf2 via JNK, AMPK, and Calcium Signaling.

    PubMed

    Cao, Mingnan; Wang, Huixia; Guo, Limei; Yang, Simin; Liu, Chun; Khor, Tin Oo; Yu, Siwang; Kong, Ah-Ng

    2017-11-01

    Oxidative stress is an important pathogenic factor in various hepatic diseases. Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2), which coordinates the expression of an array of antioxidant and detoxifying genes, has been proposed as a potential target for prevention and treatment of liver disease. Dibenzoylmethane (DBM) is a minor ingredient in licorice that activates Nrf2 and prevents various cancers and oxidative damage. In the present study, the mechanisms by which DBM activates Nrf2 signaling were delineated, and its protective effect against carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced liver injury was examined. DBM potently induced the expression of HO-1 in cells and in the livers of mice, but this induction was diminished in Nrf2-deficient mice and cells. Overexpression of Nrf2 enhanced DBM-induced HO-1 expression, while overexpression of a dominant-negative fragment of Nrf2 inhibited this induction. DBM treatment resulted in dissociation from Keap1 and nuclear translocation of Nrf2. Moreover, DBM activated Akt/protein kinase B, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and AMP-activated protein kinase and increased intracellular calcium levels. Inhibition of JNK, AMPK, or intracellular calcium signaling significantly suppressed the induction of HO-1 expression by DBM. Finally, DBM treatment significantly inhibited CCl 4 -induced acute liver injury in wild-type but not in Nrf2-deficient mice. Taken together, our results revealed the mechanisms by which DBM activates Nrf2 and induces HO-1 expression, and provide molecular basis for the design and development of DBM and its derivatives for prevention or treatment of liver diseases by targeting Nrf2.

  2. A Protein-Truncating HSD17B13 Variant and Protection from Chronic Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Abul-Husn, Noura S; Cheng, Xiping; Li, Alexander H; Xin, Yurong; Schurmann, Claudia; Stevis, Panayiotis; Liu, Yashu; Kozlitina, Julia; Stender, Stefan; Wood, G Craig; Stepanchick, Ann N; Still, Matthew D; McCarthy, Shane; O'Dushlaine, Colm; Packer, Jonathan S; Balasubramanian, Suganthi; Gosalia, Nehal; Esopi, David; Kim, Sun Y; Mukherjee, Semanti; Lopez, Alexander E; Fuller, Erin D; Penn, John; Chu, Xin; Luo, Jonathan Z; Mirshahi, Uyenlinh L; Carey, David J; Still, Christopher D; Feldman, Michael D; Small, Aeron; Damrauer, Scott M; Rader, Daniel J; Zambrowicz, Brian; Olson, William; Murphy, Andrew J; Borecki, Ingrid B; Shuldiner, Alan R; Reid, Jeffrey G; Overton, John D; Yancopoulos, George D; Hobbs, Helen H; Cohen, Jonathan C; Gottesman, Omri; Teslovich, Tanya M; Baras, Aris; Mirshahi, Tooraj; Gromada, Jesper; Dewey, Frederick E

    2018-03-22

    Elucidation of the genetic factors underlying chronic liver disease may reveal new therapeutic targets. We used exome sequence data and electronic health records from 46,544 participants in the DiscovEHR human genetics study to identify genetic variants associated with serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Variants that were replicated in three additional cohorts (12,527 persons) were evaluated for association with clinical diagnoses of chronic liver disease in DiscovEHR study participants and two independent cohorts (total of 37,173 persons) and with histopathological severity of liver disease in 2391 human liver samples. A splice variant (rs72613567:TA) in HSD17B13, encoding the hepatic lipid droplet protein hydroxysteroid 17-beta dehydrogenase 13, was associated with reduced levels of ALT (P=4.2×10 -12 ) and AST (P=6.2×10 -10 ). Among DiscovEHR study participants, this variant was associated with a reduced risk of alcoholic liver disease (by 42% [95% confidence interval {CI}, 20 to 58] among heterozygotes and by 53% [95% CI, 3 to 77] among homozygotes), nonalcoholic liver disease (by 17% [95% CI, 8 to 25] among heterozygotes and by 30% [95% CI, 13 to 43] among homozygotes), alcoholic cirrhosis (by 42% [95% CI, 14 to 61] among heterozygotes and by 73% [95% CI, 15 to 91] among homozygotes), and nonalcoholic cirrhosis (by 26% [95% CI, 7 to 40] among heterozygotes and by 49% [95% CI, 15 to 69] among homozygotes). Associations were confirmed in two independent cohorts. The rs72613567:TA variant was associated with a reduced risk of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, but not steatosis, in human liver samples. The rs72613567:TA variant mitigated liver injury associated with the risk-increasing PNPLA3 p.I148M allele and resulted in an unstable and truncated protein with reduced enzymatic activity. A loss-of-function variant in HSD17B13 was associated with a reduced risk of chronic liver disease and of progression from

  3. Edaravone protects endotoxin-induced liver injury by inhibiting apoptosis and reducing proinflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Zong, L; Yu, Q H; Du, Y X; Deng, X M

    2014-02-01

    Studies have shown that edaravone may prevent liver injury. This study aimed to investigate the effects of edaravone on the liver injury induced by D-galactosamine (GalN) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in female BALB/c mice. Edaravone was injected into mice 30 min before and 4 h after GalN/LPS injection. The survival rate was determined within the first 24 h. Animals were killed 8 h after GalN/LPS injection, and liver injury was biochemically and histologically assessed. Hepatocyte apoptosis was measured by TUNEL staining; proinflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)] in the liver were assayed by ELISA; expression of caspase-8 and caspase-3 proteins was detected by Western blot assay; and caspase-3 activity was also determined. Results showed that GalN/LPS induced marked elevations in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Edaravone significantly inhibited elevation of serum AST and ALT, accompanied by an improvement in histological findings. Edaravone lowered the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 and reduced the number of TUNEL-positive cells. In addition, 24 h after edaravone treatment, caspase-3 activity and mortality were reduced. Edaravone may effectively ameliorate GalN/LPS-induced liver injury in mice by reducing proinflammatory cytokines and inhibiting apoptosis.

  4. Edaravone protects endotoxin-induced liver injury by inhibiting apoptosis and reducing proinflammatory cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Zong, L.; Yu, Q.H.; Du, Y.X.; Deng, X.M.

    2014-01-01

    Studies have shown that edaravone may prevent liver injury. This study aimed to investigate the effects of edaravone on the liver injury induced by D-galactosamine (GalN) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in female BALB/c mice. Edaravone was injected into mice 30 min before and 4 h after GalN/LPS injection. The survival rate was determined within the first 24 h. Animals were killed 8 h after GalN/LPS injection, and liver injury was biochemically and histologically assessed. Hepatocyte apoptosis was measured by TUNEL staining; proinflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)] in the liver were assayed by ELISA; expression of caspase-8 and caspase-3 proteins was detected by Western blot assay; and caspase-3 activity was also determined. Results showed that GalN/LPS induced marked elevations in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Edaravone significantly inhibited elevation of serum AST and ALT, accompanied by an improvement in histological findings. Edaravone lowered the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 and reduced the number of TUNEL-positive cells. In addition, 24 h after edaravone treatment, caspase-3 activity and mortality were reduced. Edaravone may effectively ameliorate GalN/LPS-induced liver injury in mice by reducing proinflammatory cytokines and inhibiting apoptosis. PMID:24554039

  5. Alcoholic Liver Disease: A Mouse Model Reveals Protection by Lactobacillus fermentum

    PubMed Central

    Barone, Rosario; Rappa, Francesca; Macaluso, Filippo; Caruso Bavisotto, Celeste; Sangiorgi, Claudia; Di Paola, Gaia; Tomasello, Giovanni; Di Felice, Valentina; Marcianò, Vito; Farina, Felicia; Zummo, Giovanni; Conway de Macario, Everly; J.L. Macario, Alberto; Cocchi, Massimo; Cappello, MD, Francesco; Marino Gammazza, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Alcoholism is one of the most devastating diseases with high incidence, but knowledge of its pathology and treatment is still plagued with gaps mostly because of the inherent limitations of research with patients. We developed an animal model for studying liver histopathology, Hsp (heat-shock protein)-chaperones involvement, and response to treatment. Methods: The system was standardized using mice to which ethanol was orally administered alone or in combination with Lactobacillus fermentum following a precise schedule over time and applying, at predetermined intervals, a battery of techniques (histology, immunohistochemistry, western blotting, real-time PCR, immunoprecipitation, 3-nitrotyrosine labeling) to assess liver pathology (e.g., steatosis, fibrosis), and Hsp60 and iNOS (inducible form of nitric oxide synthase) gene expression and protein levels, and post-translational modifications. Results: Typical ethanol-induced liver pathology occurred and the effect of the probiotic could be reliably monitored. Steatosis score, iNOS levels, and nitrated proteins (e.g., Hsp60) decreased after probiotic intake. Conclusions: We describe a mouse model useful for studying liver disease induced by chronic ethanol intake and for testing pertinent therapeutic agents, e.g., probiotics. We tested L. fermentum, which reduced considerably ethanol-induced tissue damage and deleterious post-translational modifications of the chaperone Hsp60. The model is available to test other agents and probiotics with therapeutic potential in alcoholic liver disease. PMID:26795070

  6. Grape Leucoanthocyanidin Protects Liver Tissue in Albino Rabbits with Nonalcoholic Hepatic Steatosis.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Reginaldo; Bispo, Rodrigo Freitas Monte; Sousa-Rodrigues, Célio Fernando; Pires, Lucas Alves Sarmento; Fonseca, Albino; Babinski, Marcio Antonio

    2018-06-18

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common ailment. It is usually found in association with diabetes or obesity. There are no approved drugs to treat this condition. The study of flavonoid consumption has increased over the decades due to their antioxidative properties, although the literature is scarce when it comes to their effects in liver tissue. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of leucoanthocyanidin in nonalcoholic hepatic steatosis. Thirty male albino rabbits were divided in 3 groups. Group 1 had a regular commercial diet. The second group had a regular diet and 10 mL of egg yolk and 1.5 g of pure cholesterol. The rabbits of the third group were on the same regimen as the second, but were also treated with grape leucoanthocyanidin (50 mg/kg/day) for 100 days. On the last day of the experiment, the animals were euthanized, and the livers excised and fixated in a 10% formalin solution. Afterwards, fragments of each liver were removed and histologically processed and analyzed. The stereological evaluation showed that leucoanthocyanidin reduced NAFLD in comparison with the nontreated group. This was also observed in the histological analysis of the liver tissue, as the treated group had less foci of fatty tissue. Leucoanthocyanidin may therefore be a promising substance to treat NAFLD, although further studies are needed. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Agmatine protects rat liver from nicotine-induced hepatic damage via antioxidative, antiapoptotic, and antifibrotic pathways.

    PubMed

    El-Sherbeeny, Nagla A; Nader, Manar A; Attia, Ghalia M; Ateyya, Hayam

    2016-12-01

    Tobacco smoking with its various forms is a global problem with proved hazardous effects to human health. The present work was planned to study the defending role of agmatine (AGM) on hepatic oxidative stress and damage induced by nicotine in rats. Thirty-two rats divided into four groups were employed: control group, nicotine-only group, AGM group, and AGM-nicotine group. Measurements of serum hepatic biochemical markers, lipid profile, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 were done. In addition, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH) activity, and nitrate/nitrite (NOx) levels were estimated in the liver homogenates. Immunohistochemistry for Bax and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β1) and histopathology of the liver were also included. Data of the study demonstrated that nicotine administration exhibited marked liver deterioration, an increase in liver enzymes, changes in lipid profile, and an elevation in MDA with a decline in levels of SOD, GSH, and NOx (nitrate/nitrite). Also, levels of proapoptotic Bax and profibrotic TGF-β1 showed marked elevation in the liver. AGM treatment to rats in nicotine-only group ameliorated all the previous changes. These findings indicate that AGM could successfully overcome the nicotine-evoked hepatic oxidative stress and tissue injury, apoptosis, and fibrosis.

  8. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF MORINGA PEREGRINA LEAVES EXTRACT ON ACETAMINOPHEN -INDUCED LIVER TOXICITY IN ALBINO RATS.

    PubMed

    Azim, Samy Abdelfatah Abdel; Abdelrahem, Mohamed Taha; Said, Mostafa Mohamed; Khattab, Alshaimaa

    2017-01-01

    Acetaminophen is a common antipyretic drug but at overdose can cause severe hepatotoxicity that may further develop into liver failure and hepatic centrilobular necrosis in experimental animals and humans. This study was undertaken to assess the ameliorative role of Moringa peregrina leaves extract against acetaminophen toxicity in rats. Induction of hepatotoxicity was done by chronic oral administration of acetaminophen (750 mg/kg bwt) for 4 weeks. To study the possible hepatoprotective effect, Moringa peregrina leaves extract (200 mg/kg bwt) or Silymarin (50 mg/kg bwt) was administered orally, for 4 weeks, along with acetaminophen. acetaminophen significantly increased serum liver enzymes and caused oxidative stress, evidenced by significantly increased tissue malondialdehyde, glutathione peroxidase, hepatic DNA fragmentation, and significant decrease of glutathione and antioxidant enzymes in liver, blood and brain. On the other hand, administration of Moringa peregrina leaves extract reversed acetaminophen-related toxic effects through: powerful malondialdehyde suppression, glutathione peroxidase normalization and stimulation of the cellular antioxidants synthesis represented by significant increase of glutathione, catalase and superoxide dismutase in liver, blood and brain, besides, DNA fragmentation was significantly decreased in the liver tissue. acetaminophen induced oxidative damage can be improved by Moringa peregrina leaves extract-treatment, due to its antioxidant potential.

  9. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF MORINGA PEREGRINA LEAVES EXTRACT ON ACETAMINOPHEN -INDUCED LIVER TOXICITY IN ALBINO RATS

    PubMed Central

    Azim, Samy Abdelfatah Abdel; Abdelrahem, Mohamed Taha; Said, Mostafa Mohamed; khattab, Alshaimaa

    2017-01-01

    Background: Acetaminophen is a common antipyretic drug but at overdose can cause severe hepatotoxicity that may further develop into liver failure and hepatic centrilobular necrosis in experimental animals and humans. This study was undertaken to assess the ameliorative role of Moringa peregrina leaves extract against acetaminophen toxicity in rats. Materials and methods: Induction of hepatotoxicity was done by chronic oral administration of acetaminophen (750 mg/kg bwt) for 4 weeks. To study the possible hepatoprotective effect, Moringa peregrina leaves extract (200 mg/kg bwt) or Silymarin (50 mg/kg bwt) was administered orally, for 4 weeks, along with acetaminophen. Results: acetaminophen significantly increased serum liver enzymes and caused oxidative stress, evidenced by significantly increased tissue malondialdehyde, glutathione peroxidase, hepatic DNA fragmentation, and significant decrease of glutathione and antioxidant enzymes in liver, blood and brain. On the other hand, administration of Moringa peregrina leaves extract reversed acetaminophen-related toxic effects through: powerful malondialdehyde suppression, glutathione peroxidase normalization and stimulation of the cellular antioxidants synthesis represented by significant increase of glutathione, catalase and superoxide dismutase in liver, blood and brain, besides, DNA fragmentation was significantly decreased in the liver tissue. Conclusion: acetaminophen induced oxidative damage can be improved by Moringa peregrina leaves extract-treatment, due to its antioxidant potential. PMID:28573237

  10. The protective effect of pentoxifylline versus silymarin on the pancreas through increasing adenosine by CD39 in a rat model of liver cirrhosis: Pharmacological, biochemical and histological study.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Doaa I; Nabih, Enas S; El-Waseef, Dalia A A; El-Kharashi, Omnyah A; Abd El Samad, Abeer A

    2018-04-20

    Impaired glucose homoeostasis due to insulin resistance and decrease sensitivity of pancreatic β-cells is a feature of liver disease and results into hepatogenous diabetes. Decrease expression of CD39 was linked to inflammation and occurrence of diabetes. Therefore, we performed this study to explore the protective effect of pentoxifylline (PTX) and silymarin administration on the β-cells of the pancreas in a rat model of thioacetamide induced liver cirrhosis. Biochemical, histological and immunohistochemistry studies of the liver and pancreas were performed and provided an evidence on the protective effect of PTX to pancreatic β-cells compared to silymarin. Also, silymarin induced a significant improvement of liver cirrhosis compared to PTX. In conclusion, the potential protective effect of PTX against β-cells deterioration could be attributed to increasing pancreatic CD39 expression and the subsequent increase of adenosine. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Protective effect of grape seed and skin extract against high-fat diet-induced liver steatosis and zinc depletion in rat.

    PubMed

    Charradi, Kamel; Elkahoui, Salem; Karkouch, Ines; Limam, Ferid; Ben Hassine, Fethy; El May, Michèle Veronique; Aouani, Ezzedine

    2014-08-01

    Obesity is a tremendous public health problem, characterized by ectopic deposition of fat into non-adipose tissues as liver generating an oxidative stress that could lead to steato-hepatitis. Grape seed and skin extract (GSSE) is a complex mixture of polyphenolics exhibiting robust antioxidative properties. We hypothesize that GSSE could protect the liver from fat-induced lipotoxicity and have a beneficial effect on liver function. Hepatoprotective effect of GSSE was measured by using an experimental model of fat-induced rat liver steatosis. Male rats were fed a standard diet or a high-fat diet (HFD) during 6 weeks and treated or not with 500 mg/kg bw GSSE. Lipid deposition into the liver was assessed by triglyceride, cholesterol and phospholipid measurements. Fat-induced lipoperoxidation, carbonylation, depletion of glutathione and of antioxidant enzyme activities were used as oxidative stress markers with a special emphasis on transition metal distribution. HFD induced liver hypertrophy and inflammation as assessed by high liver transaminases. HFD also induced an oxidative stress characterized by increased lipid and protein oxidation, a drop in glutathione and antioxidant enzyme activities as glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase and a drastic depletion in liver zinc. Importantly, GSSE prevented all the deleterious effects of HFD treatment. Data suggest that GSSE could be used as a safe preventive agent against fat-induced liver lipotoxicity which could also have potential applications in other non-alcoholic liver diseases.

  12. [Protective action of corynoline, acetylcorynoline and protopine against experimental liver injury in mice].

    PubMed

    Wei, H L; Liu, G T

    1997-05-01

    Oral administration of two doses of corynoline, acetylcorynoline or protopine at 50 and 100 mg.kg-1 in an interval of 8 to 24 h before i.p. injection of CCl4, acetaminophen or thioacetamide significantly impeded the elevation of serum transaminase (SGPT) and liver damage in mice. The three compounds were found to inhibit CCl4-induced microsomal lipid peroxidation and CCl4 conversing to carbon monoxide in liver microsomes in vitro. Of these compounds, acetylcorynoline was shown to be more potent than corynoline and protopine. In addition, all the three compounds exhibited biphasic effects on the hepatic cytochrome P450, i.e. inhibition followed by induction, in mice.

  13. Protective effect of Allium neapolitanum Cyr. versus Allium sativum L. on acute ethanol-induced oxidative stress in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Nencini, Cristina; Franchi, Gian Gabriele; Cavallo, Federica; Micheli, Lucia

    2010-04-01

    This study investigated the protective effect of Allium neapolitanum Cyr., a spontaneous species of the Italian flora, compared with garlic (Allium sativum L.) on liver injury induced by ethanol in rats. Male albino Wistar rats were orally treated with fresh Allium homogenates (leaves or bulbs, 250 mg/kg) daily for 5 days, whereas controls received vehicle only. At the end of the experimental 5-day period, the animals received an acute ethanol dose (6 mL/kg, i.p.) 2 hours before the last Allium administration and were sacrificed 6 hours after ethanol administration. The activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione reductase (GR) and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), ascorbic acid (AA), and reduced (GSH) and oxidized glutathione in liver tissue were determined. Administration of both Allium species for 5 days (leaves or bulbs) led to no statistical variation of nonenzymatic parameters versus the control group; otherwise Allium treatment caused an increase of GSH and AA levels compared with the ethanol group and a diminution of MDA levels, showing in addition that A. neapolitanum bulb had the best protective effect. Regarding to enzymatic parameters, GR and CAT activities were enhanced significantly compared with the ethanol group, whereas SOD activity showed a trend different from other parameters estimated. However, the treatment with both Allium species followed by acute ethanol administration reestablished the nonenzymatic parameters similar to control values and enhanced the activities of the enzymes measured. These results suggest that fresh Allium homogenates (leaves or bulbs) possess antioxidant properties and provide protection against ethanol-induced liver injury.

  14. Vaccine induced Hepatitis A and B protection in children at risk for cystic fibrosis associated liver disease.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Adam J; Esther, Charles R; Leigh, Margaret W; Dellon, Elisabeth P

    2013-01-30

    Hepatitis A (HAV) and Hepatitis B (HBV) infections can cause serious morbidity in patients with liver disease, including cystic fibrosis associated liver disease (CFALD). HAV and HBV vaccinations are recommended in CFALD, and maintenance of detectable antibody levels is also recommended with chronic liver disease. A better understanding of factors predicting low HAV and HBV antibodies may help physicians improve protection from these viruses in CFALD patients. We examined HAV and HBV vaccine protection in children at risk for CFALD. Clinical and vaccine histories were reviewed, and HAV and HBV antibody titers measured. Those with no vaccination history or low HAV or HBV titers received primary or booster vaccinations, and responses were measured. Thirty-four of 308 children were at risk for CFALD per project criteria. Ten had previous HAV vaccination, of which 90% had positive anti-HAV antibodies. Thirty-three of 34 had previously received primary HBV vaccination (most in infancy), but only 12 (35%) had adequate anti-HBs levels (≥10mIU/mL). Children with adequate anti-HBs levels were older at first HBV vaccine (median 2.3 vs. 0.1 years, p<0.01), and at final HBV vaccine (median 4.0 vs. 0.8 years, p=0.01). Fourteen of 19 (74%) responded to HBV boosters. Z-scores for BMI at HBV booster were significantly lower in booster non-responders (p=0.04). Children at increased risk of CFALD have inadequate HAV and HBV antibody levels, and HBV antibody protection can be enhanced through vaccine boosters. HBV antibody titers should be assessed in CFALD patients with a history of vaccination, particularly in those who received HBV vaccines in infancy or who are malnourished. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sulforaphane Modifies Histone H3, Unpacks Chromatin, and Primes Defense[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Irina; Baum, Stephani; Beesley, Alexander; Bolm, Carsten

    2018-01-01

    Modern crop production calls for agrochemicals that prime plants for enhanced defense. Reliable test systems for spotting priming-inducing chemistry, however, are rare. We developed an assay for the high-throughput search for compounds that prime microbial pattern-induced secretion of antimicrobial furanocoumarins (phytoalexins) in cultured parsley cells. The screen produced 1-isothiocyanato-4-methylsulfinylbutane (sulforaphane; SFN), a secondary metabolite in many crucifers, as a novel defense priming compound. While elucidating SFN’s mode of action in defense priming, we found that in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) the isothiocyanate provokes covalent modification (K4me3, K9ac) of histone H3 in the promoter and promoter-proximal region of defense genes WRKY6 and PDF1.2, but not PR1. SFN-triggered H3K4me3 and H3K9ac coincide with chromatin unpacking in the WRKY6 and PDF1.2 regulatory regions, primed WRKY6 expression, unprimed PDF1.2 activation, and reduced susceptibility to downy mildew disease (Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis). Because SFN also directly inhibits H. arabidopsidis and other plant pathogens, the isothiocyanate is promising for the development of a plant protectant with a dual mode of action. PMID:29288231

  16. Storage in high-barrier pouches increases the sulforaphane concentration in broccoli florets.

    PubMed

    Makino, Yoshio; Nishimura, Yuto; Oshita, Seiichi; Mizosoe, Takaharu; Akihiro, Takashi

    2018-01-01

    Sulforaphane is a phytochemical that is usually found in cruciferous vegetables and is known to have a depressive effect on gastric cancer. Preliminary investigations showed that the sulforaphane concentration in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) florets increased under anoxia. Therefore, in the present study, we examined the effect of different atmospheric conditions on the sulforaphane concentration in broccoli and also tested whether there are concurrent effects on the concentration of ethanol, which is an unfavorable byproduct of fermentation. The sulforaphane concentration in broccoli florets was significantly elevated by 1.9- to 2.8-fold after 2 d of storage under hypoxia at ca. 0% O2 and ca. 24% CO2 at 20°C, whereas no such increase was observed following storage under normoxia at ca. 0% O2 without CO2 at 20°C. Furthermore, after 2 d, the sulforaphane concentration under hypoxia was 1.6- to 2.3-fold higher than that under normoxia. These results suggest that storage under hypoxia with high CO2 levels can elevate the sulforaphane concentration in broccoli florets. However, the elevated sulforaphane concentration could not be maintained beyond 2 d. There was no significant difference in the concentration of ethanol between florets that were stored under hypoxia with/without CO2 or normoxia at 2 d. However, the ethanol concentrations inside the pouches significantly increased between 2 d and 7 d. These findings indicate that the quality of broccoli florets can be improved through storage under hypoxia with high CO2 levels at 20°C for 2 d.

  17. Storage in high-barrier pouches increases the sulforaphane concentration in broccoli florets

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Yuto; Oshita, Seiichi; Mizosoe, Takaharu; Akihiro, Takashi

    2018-01-01

    Sulforaphane is a phytochemical that is usually found in cruciferous vegetables and is known to have a depressive effect on gastric cancer. Preliminary investigations showed that the sulforaphane concentration in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) florets increased under anoxia. Therefore, in the present study, we examined the effect of different atmospheric conditions on the sulforaphane concentration in broccoli and also tested whether there are concurrent effects on the concentration of ethanol, which is an unfavorable byproduct of fermentation. The sulforaphane concentration in broccoli florets was significantly elevated by 1.9- to 2.8-fold after 2 d of storage under hypoxia at ca. 0% O2 and ca. 24% CO2 at 20°C, whereas no such increase was observed following storage under normoxia at ca. 0% O2 without CO2 at 20°C. Furthermore, after 2 d, the sulforaphane concentration under hypoxia was 1.6- to 2.3-fold higher than that under normoxia. These results suggest that storage under hypoxia with high CO2 levels can elevate the sulforaphane concentration in broccoli florets. However, the elevated sulforaphane concentration could not be maintained beyond 2 d. There was no significant difference in the concentration of ethanol between florets that were stored under hypoxia with/without CO2 or normoxia at 2 d. However, the ethanol concentrations inside the pouches significantly increased between 2 d and 7 d. These findings indicate that the quality of broccoli florets can be improved through storage under hypoxia with high CO2 levels at 20°C for 2 d. PMID:29466374

  18. Dietary Sulforaphane in Cancer Chemoprevention: The Role of Epigenetic Regulation and HDAC Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Tortorella, Stephanie M.; Royce, Simon G.; Licciardi, Paul V.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Sulforaphane, produced by the hydrolytic conversion of glucoraphanin after ingestion of cruciferous vegetables, particularly broccoli and broccoli sprouts, has been extensively studied due to its apparent health-promoting properties in disease and limited toxicity in normal tissue. Recent Studies: Recent identification of a sub-population of tumor cells with stem cell-like self-renewal capacity that may be responsible for relapse, metastasis, and resistance, as a potential target of the dietary compound, may be an important aspect of sulforaphane chemoprevention. Evidence also suggests that sulforaphane may target the epigenetic alterations observed in specific cancers, reversing aberrant changes in gene transcription through mechanisms of histone deacetylase inhibition, global demethylation, and microRNA modulation. Critical Issues: In this review, we discuss the biochemical and biological properties of sulforaphane with a particular emphasis on the anticancer properties of the dietary compound. Sulforaphane possesses the capacity to intervene in multistage carcinogenesis through the modulation and/or regulation of important cellular mechanisms. The inhibition of phase I enzymes that are responsible for the activation of pro-carcinogens, and the induction of phase II enzymes that are critical in mutagen elimination are well-characterized chemopreventive properties. Furthermore, sulforaphane mediates a number of anticancer pathways, including the activation of apoptosis, induction of cell cycle arrest, and inhibition of NFκB. Future Directions: Further characterization of the chemopreventive properties of sulforaphane and its capacity to be selectively toxic to malignant cells are warranted to potentially establish the clinical utility of the dietary compound as an anti-cancer compound alone, and in combination with clinically relevant therapeutic and management strategies. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 1382–1424. PMID:25364882

  19. Novel targets of sulforaphane in primary cardiomyocytes identified by proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Angeloni, Cristina; Turroni, Silvia; Bianchi, Laura; Fabbri, Daniele; Motori, Elisa; Malaguti, Marco; Leoncini, Emanuela; Maraldi, Tullia; Bini, Luca; Brigidi, Patrizia; Hrelia, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases represent the main cause of mortality in the industrialized world and the identification of effective preventive strategies is of fundamental importance. Sulforaphane, an isothiocyanate from cruciferous vegetables, has been shown to up-regulate phase II enzymes in cardiomyocytes and counteract oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. Aim of the present study was the identification and characterization of novel sulforaphane targets in cardiomyocytes applying a proteomic approach. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were used to generate protein profiles of primary neonatal rat cardiomyocytes treated and untreated with 5 µM sulforaphane for 1-48 h. According to image analysis, 64 protein spots were found as differentially expressed and their functional correlations were investigated using the MetaCore program. We mainly focused on 3 proteins: macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), CLP36 or Elfin, and glyoxalase 1, due to their possible involvement in cardioprotection. Validation of the time-dependent differential expression of these proteins was performed by western blotting. In particular, to gain insight into the cardioprotective role of the modulation of glyoxalase 1 by sulforaphane, further experiments were performed using methylglyoxal to mimic glycative stress. Sulforaphane was able to counteract methylglyoxal-induced apoptosis, ROS production, and glycative stress, likely through glyoxalase 1 up-regulation. In this study, we reported for the first time new molecular targets of sulforaphane, such as MIF, CLP36 and glyoxalase 1. In particular, we gave new insights into the anti-glycative role of sulforaphane in cardiomyocytes, confirming its pleiotropic behavior in counteracting cardiovascular diseases.

  20. Oral Sulforaphane increases Phase II antioxidant enzymes in the human upper airway

    PubMed Central

    Riedl, Marc A.; Saxon, Andrew; Diaz-Sanchez, David

    2009-01-01

    Background Cellular oxidative stress is an important factor in asthma and is thought to be the principle mechanism by which oxidant pollutants such as ozone and particulates mediate their pro-inflammatory effects. Endogenous Phase II enzymes abrogate oxidative stress through the scavenging of reactive oxygen species and metabolism of reactive chemicals. Objective We conducted a placebo-controlled dose escalation trial to investigate the in vivo effects of sulforaphane, a naturally occurring potent inducer of Phase II enzymes, on the expression of glutathione-s-transferase M1 (GSTM1), glutathione-s-transferase P1 (GSTP1), NADPH quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), and hemoxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the upper airway of human subjects. Methods Study subjects consumed oral sulforaphane doses contained in a standardized broccoli sprout homogenate (BSH). RNA expression for selected Phase II enzymes was measured in nasal lavage cells by RT-PCR before and after sulforaphane dosing. Results All subjects tolerated oral sulforaphane dosing without significant adverse events. Increased Phase II enzyme expression in nasal lavage cells occurred in a dose-dependent manner with maximal enzyme induction observed at the highest dose of 200 grams broccoli sprouts prepared as BSH. Significant increases were seen in all sentinel Phase II enzymes RNA expression compared to baseline. Phase II enzyme induction was not seen with ingestion of non-sulforaphane containing alfalfa sprouts. Conclusion Oral sulforaphane safely and effectively induces mucosal Phase II enzyme expression in the upper airway of human subjects. This study demonstrates the potential of antioxidant Phase II enzymes induction in the human airway as a strategy to reduce the inflammatory effects of oxidative stress. Clinical Implications This study demonstrates the potential of enhancement of Phase II enzyme expression as a novel therapeutic strategy for oxidant induced airway disease. Capsule Summary A placebo-controlled dose

  1. Dietary Sulforaphane in Cancer Chemoprevention: The Role of Epigenetic Regulation and HDAC Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Tortorella, Stephanie M; Royce, Simon G; Licciardi, Paul V; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2015-06-01

    Sulforaphane, produced by the hydrolytic conversion of glucoraphanin after ingestion of cruciferous vegetables, particularly broccoli and broccoli sprouts, has been extensively studied due to its apparent health-promoting properties in disease and limited toxicity in normal tissue. Recent Studies: Recent identification of a sub-population of tumor cells with stem cell-like self-renewal capacity that may be responsible for relapse, metastasis, and resistance, as a potential target of the dietary compound, may be an important aspect of sulforaphane chemoprevention. Evidence also suggests that sulforaphane may target the epigenetic alterations observed in specific cancers, reversing aberrant changes in gene transcription through mechanisms of histone deacetylase inhibition, global demethylation, and microRNA modulation. In this review, we discuss the biochemical and biological properties of sulforaphane with a particular emphasis on the anticancer properties of the dietary compound. Sulforaphane possesses the capacity to intervene in multistage carcinogenesis through the modulation and/or regulation of important cellular mechanisms. The inhibition of phase I enzymes that are responsible for the activation of pro-carcinogens, and the induction of phase II enzymes that are critical in mutagen elimination are well-characterized chemopreventive properties. Furthermore, sulforaphane mediates a number of anticancer pathways, including the activation of apoptosis, induction of cell cycle arrest, and inhibition of NFκB. Further characterization of the chemopreventive properties of sulforaphane and its capacity to be selectively toxic to malignant cells are warranted to potentially establish the clinical utility of the dietary compound as an anti-cancer compound alone, and in combination with clinically relevant therapeutic and management strategies.

  2. Sialylation on O-glycans protects platelets from clearance by liver Kupffer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yun; Fu, Jianxin; Ling, Yun; Yago, Tadayuki; McDaniel, J Michael; Song, Jianhua; Bai, Xia; Kondo, Yuji; Qin, Yannan; Hoover, Christopher; McGee, Samuel; Shao, Bojing; Liu, Zhenghui; Sonon, Roberto; Azadi, Parastoo; Marth, Jamey D; McEver, Rodger P; Ruan, Changgeng; Xia, Lijun

    2017-08-01

    Most platelet membrane proteins are modified by mucin-type core 1-derived glycans (O-glycans). However, the biological importance of O-glycans in platelet clearance is unclear. Here, we generated mice with a hematopoietic cell-specific loss of O-glycans (HC C1galt1 -/- ). These mice lack O-glycans on platelets and exhibit reduced peripheral platelet numbers. Platelets from HC C1galt1 -/- mice show reduced levels of α-2,3-linked sialic acids and increased accumulation in the liver relative to wild-type platelets. The preferential accumulation of HC C1galt1 -/- platelets in the liver was reduced in mice lacking the hepatic asialoglycoprotein receptor [Ashwell-Morell receptor (AMR)]. However, we found that Kupffer cells are the primary cells phagocytosing HC C1galt1 -/- platelets in the liver. Our results demonstrate that hepatic AMR promotes preferential adherence to and phagocytosis of desialylated and/or HC C1galt1 -/- platelets by the Kupffer cell through its C-type lectin receptor CLEC4F. These findings provide insights into an essential role for core 1 O-glycosylation of platelets in their clearance in the liver.

  3. Sialylation on O-glycans protects platelets from clearance by liver Kupffer cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yun; Fu, Jianxin; Ling, Yun; Yago, Tadayuki; McDaniel, J. Michael; Song, Jianhua; Bai, Xia; Kondo, Yuji; Qin, Yannan; Hoover, Christopher; McGee, Samuel; Shao, Bojing; Liu, Zhenghui; Sonon, Roberto; Azadi, Parastoo; Marth, Jamey D.; McEver, Rodger P.; Ruan, Changgeng; Xia, Lijun

    2017-01-01

    Most platelet membrane proteins are modified by mucin-type core 1-derived glycans (O-glycans). However, the biological importance of O-glycans in platelet clearance is unclear. Here, we generated mice with a hematopoietic cell-specific loss of O-glycans (HC C1galt1−/−). These mice lack O-glycans on platelets and exhibit reduced peripheral platelet numbers. Platelets from HC C1galt1−/− mice show reduced levels of α-2,3-linked sialic acids and increased accumulation in the liver relative to wild-type platelets. The preferential accumulation of HC C1galt1−/− platelets in the liver was reduced in mice lacking the hepatic asialoglycoprotein receptor [Ashwell–Morell receptor (AMR)]. However, we found that Kupffer cells are the primary cells phagocytosing HC C1galt1−/− platelets in the liver. Our results demonstrate that hepatic AMR promotes preferential adherence to and phagocytosis of desialylated and/or HC C1galt1−/− platelets by the Kupffer cell through its C-type lectin receptor CLEC4F. These findings provide insights into an essential role for core 1 O-glycosylation of platelets in their clearance in the liver. PMID:28716912

  4. The effect of phytosterol protects rats against 4-nitrophenol-induced liver damage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiaqin; Song, Meiyan; Li, Yansen; Zhang, Yonghui; Taya, Kazuyoshi; Li, ChunMei

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of phytosterol (PS) in regard to liver damage induced by 4-nitrophenol (PNP). Twenty rats were randomly divided into four groups (Control, PS, PNP, and PNP+PS). The PS and PNP+PS groups were pretreated with PS for one week. The PNP and PNP+PS groups were injected subcutaneously with PNP for 28 days. The control group received a basal diet and was injected with vehicle alone. Treatment with PS prevented the elevation of the total bilirubin levels, as well as an increase in serum alkaline transaminase and aspartate transaminase, which are typically caused by PNP-induced liver damage. Histopathologically showed that liver damage was significantly mitigated by PS treatment. However, there was no significant change in antioxidant enzyme activities, and the Nrf2-antioxidant system was not activated after treatment with PS. These results suggest that PS could mitigate liver damage induced by PNP, but does not enhance antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of sulforaphane on histone deacetylase activity in keratinocytes: Differences between in vitro and in vivo analyses.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Sally E; Rusche, Jadrian J; Bec, Sergiu L; Horn, David J; Janda, Jaroslav; Rim, So Hyun; Smith, Catharine L; Bowden, G Timothy

    2015-11-01

    Sulforaphane is a natural product found in broccoli, which is known to exert many different molecular effects in the cell, including inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes. Here, we examine for the first time the potential for sulforaphane to inhibit HDACs in HaCaT keratinocytes and compare our results with those found using HCT116 colon cancer cells. Significant inhibition of HDAC activity in HCT116 nuclear extracts required prolonged exposure to sulforaphane in the presence of serum. Under the same conditions HaCaT nuclear extracts did not exhibit reduced HDAC activity with sulforaphane treatment. Both cell types displayed down-regulation of HDAC protein levels by sulforaphane treatment. Despite these reductions in HDAC family member protein levels, acetylation of marker proteins (acetylated Histone H3, H4, and tubulin) was decreased by sulforaphane treatment. Time-course analysis revealed that HDAC6, HDAC3, and acetylated histone H3 protein levels are significantly inhibited as early as 6 h into sulforaphane treatment. Transcript levels of HDAC6 are also suppressed after 48 h of treatment. These results suggest that HDAC activity noted in nuclear extracts is not always translated as expected to target protein acetylation patterns, despite dramatic inhibition of some HDAC protein levels. In addition, our data suggest that keratinocytes are at least partially resistant to the nuclear HDAC inhibitory effects of sulforaphane, which is exhibited in HCT116 and other cells. © 2014 The Authors. Molecular Carcinogenesis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The effect of sulforaphane on histone deacetylase activity in keratinocytes: differences between in vitro and in vivo analyses

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, Sally E.; Rusche, Jadrian J.; Bec, Sergiu L.; Horn, David J.; Janda, Jaroslav; Rim, So Hyun; Smith, Catharine L.; Bowden, G. Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Sulforaphane is a natural product found in broccoli which is known to exert many different molecular effects in the cell, including inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes. Here we examine for the first time the potential for sulforaphane to inhibit HDACs in HaCaT keratinocytes and compare our results with those found using HCT116 colon cancer cells. Significant inhibition of HDAC activity in HCT116 nuclear extracts required prolonged exposure to sulforaphane in the presence of serum. Under the same conditions HaCaT nuclear extracts did not exhibit reduced HDAC activity with sulforaphane treatment. Both cell types displayed down-regulation of HDAC protein levels by sulforaphane treatment. Despite these reductions in HDAC family member protein levels, acetylation of marker proteins (acetylated Histone H3, H4 and tubulin) was decreased by sulforaphane treatment. Timecourse analysis revealed that HDAC6, HDAC3 and acetylated histone H3 protein levels are significantly inhibited as early as 6hr into sulforaphane treatment. Transcript levels of HDAC6 are also suppressed after 48hr of treatment. These results suggest that HDAC activity noted in nuclear extracts is not always translated as expected to target protein acetylation patterns, despite dramatic inhibition of some HDAC protein levels. In addition, our data suggest that keratinocytes are at least partially resistant to the nuclear HDAC inhibitory effects of sulforaphane which is exhibited in HCT116 and other cells. PMID:25307283

  7. Protective effects of melatonin against thioacetamide-induced liver fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Czechowska, G; Celinski, K; Korolczuk, A; Wojcicka, G; Dudka, J; Bojarska, A; Reiter, R J

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of melatonin on thioacetamide (TAA) induced liver fibrosis in rats. The antifibrotic effects of melatonin were assessed by determining activity indirect markers of fibrosis: aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (AP), and proinflammatory cytokines: interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). Parameters of oxidative stress: oxidised glutathione (GSSG), reduced glutathione (GSH) and presaged activity of paraoxonase 1 (PON-1), an antioxidative enzyme were determined. Inflammatory changes and fibrosis extent were evaluated histologically. Experiments were carried out in Wistar rats. Animals were divided into 4 groups: I - controls, water ad libitum for 12 weeks, group II - TAA, 300 mg/L ad libitum for 12 weeks, III - melatonin, 10 mg/kg b.w. intraperitoneally (i.p.) daily for 4 weeks, IV - TAA, 300 mg/L ad libitum for 12 weeks followed by melatonin, 10 mg/kg/b.w. i.p. daily for 4 weeks. Results of serum determinations demonstrated significantly lower activity of AST, ALT and AP in the group receiving TAA followed by melatonin compared to the group receiving only TAA. Immunoenzymatic findings on effect of melatonin on concentration of proinflammatory cytokines confirmed these data. Biochemical examinations in liver homogenates revealed statistically significant improvement (concentration of GSH increases and concentration of GSSG decreases) in animals with TAA-induced liver damage receiving melatonin. Moreover, the activity of PON-1 toward phenyl acetate and paraoxon was increased in liver homogenates and serum in the group receiving TAA followed by melatonin compared to the TAA group without melatonin treatment. Microscopic evaluation disclosed inhibitory effects of melatonin on inflammatory changes and extent of liver fibrosis.

  8. Protective Effects of Vitamin E Analogs against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Fatty Liver in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yachi, Rieko; Igarashi, Osamu; Kiyose, Chikako

    2010-01-01

    Recently, it has been reported that α-tocopherol (α-Toc) is effective for amelioration of liver damage. However, it is unknown whether other vitamin E analogs are effective. In this study, we investigated the effects of γ-tocopherol (γ-Toc) and tocotrienols (T3) in rats with fatty liver. Rats fed a vitamin E-deficient diet for four weeks were divided into eight groups: Control, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), α-Toc, α-Toc + CCl4, γ-Toc, γ-Toc + CCl4, T3 mix, T3 mix + CCl4. After a 24 h fast, the rats were administered 20 mg of each of the vitamin E analogs, respectively. Moreover, the CCl4 group were given 0.5 ml/kg body weight corn oil preparation containing CCl4 6 h after vitamin E administration. We measured the activities of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in plasma, and the contents of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (T-Chol) and vitamin E analogs in the liver. Also, we determined the hepatic expression of mRNA for inflammatory cytokines. The liver TG content in the γ-Toc + CCl4 and T3 mix + CCl4 groups was decreased in comparison with the CCl4 group. Moreover, ALT activity in the T3 mix + CCl4 group was significantly lower than CCl4 group. These findings suggest that γ-Toc and T3 are effective for amelioration of fatty liver. PMID:20838570

  9. Liver Immunology

    PubMed Central

    Bogdanos, Dimitrios P.; Gao, Bin; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2014-01-01

    The liver is the largest organ in the body and is generally regarded by non-immunologists as not having lymphoid function. However, such is far from accurate. This review highlights the importance of the liver as a lymphoid organ. Firstly, we discuss experimental data surrounding the role of liver as a lymphoid organ. The liver facilitates a tolerance rather than immunoreactivity, which protects the host from antigenic overload of dietary components and drugs derived from the gut and is also instrumental to fetal immune tolerance. Loss of liver tolerance leads to autoaggressive phenomena which if are not controlled by regulatory lymphoid populations may lead to the induction of autoimmune liver diseases. Liver-related lymphoid subpopulations also act as critical antigen-presenting cells. The study of the immunological properties of liver and delineation of the microenvironment of the intrahepatic milieu in normal and diseased livers provides a platform to understand the hierarchy of a series of detrimental events which lead to immune-mediated destruction of the liver and the rejection of liver allografts. The majority of emphasis within this review will be on the normal mononuclear cell composition of the liver. However, within this context, we will discus select, but not all, immune mediated liver disease and attempt to place these data in the context of human autoimmunity. PMID:23720323

  10. Hydrogen-rich saline protects against small-scale liver ischemia-reperfusion injury by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Bai, Ge; Ge, Yansong; Zhang, Qianzhen; Kong, Xiangdong; Meng, Weijing; Wang, Hongbin

    2018-02-01

    Our research investigated the role of Hydrogen-rich saline (HRS) on the Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) pathway and the effect of HRS on tissue injury in small Bama pig model of hepatic ischemia-reperfusion combined with partial hepatectomy. Eighteen healthy Bama miniature pigs were randomly divided equally into three groups: Sham, IRI, and HRS. Laparoscopic technique was employed to establish the model of hepatic ischemia-reperfusion combined with partial hepatectomy. HRS (10mL/kg) was injected into the portal vein 10min before perfusion. Histological examinations of the liver tissues were performed after HE staining. Additionally, transmission electron microscopy was performed to detect liver cell microstructure. Real-time PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemical staining were performed to analyze various ERS molecules including GRP78, p-eIF2α, XBP-1s, Full-length ATF6α, p-JNK, ATF4, and CHOP. We observed that HRS visibly improved ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) by reducing various parameters of ERS stress as evidenced by down-regulation of the mRNA as well as protein levels of GRP78, p-eIF2α, XBP-1s, p-JNK, and CHOP, and reducing the cleavage of Full-length ATF6α. Our study demonstrates that HRS protects the liver from IRI by inhibiting ERS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Research of Hippophae rhamnoides fruits on serum lipids and liver protection effects in high-fat-diet rats].

    PubMed

    Song, Chunmei; Du, Juan; Ge, Hongjuan

    2015-07-01

    To study the effects o Hippophae rhamnoides fruits on serum lipids and liver protection in high-fat-diet rats. Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups,including control group, high lipid model group and Hippophae rhamnoides low-, medium- and high- dose groups,every group wastaken high-fat diet except control group. The rats in control group and high lipid group were lavaged with physiological saline. The doses of Hippophae rhamnoides in low, middle and high groups were determined based on the 1x, 5x, and 10x standard human doses (50 g/60 kg BW), respectively. The rat were orally given test sample respectively for 28 days, once a day. Observed the changes of serum lipids and hepatic tissues pathology. Compared with the control group, the serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were increased significantly (P < 0.05) in high-fat-diet rats. Compared with the high lipid group, Hippophae rhamnoides of different doses could significantly reduce the content of TG (P < 0.01). Hippophae rhamnoides reduced the tendency of TC and LDL-C in serum and reduced the fatty degeneration of liver cells. The Hippophae rhamnoides fruits can reduce the level of serum lipids and prevent the occurrence of fatty liver, can be used for the prevention of hyperlipidemia.

  12. Effect of rumen-protected choline supplementation on liver and adipose gene expression during the transition period in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Goselink, R M A; van Baal, J; Widjaja, H C A; Dekker, R A; Zom, R L G; de Veth, M J; van Vuuren, A M

    2013-02-01

    We previously reported that supplementation of rumen-protected choline (RPC) reduces the hepatic triacylglycerol concentration in periparturient dairy cows during early lactation. Here, we investigated the effect of RPC on the transcript levels of lipid metabolism-related genes in liver and adipose tissue biopsies, taken at wk -3, 1, 3, and 6 after calving, to elucidate the mechanisms underlying this RPC-induced reduction of hepatic lipidosis. Sixteen multiparous cows were blocked into 8 pairs and randomly allocated to either 1 of 2 treatments, with or without RPC. Treatments were applied from 3 wk before to 6 wk after calving. Both groups received a basal diet and concentrate mixture. One group received RPC supplementation, resulting in an intake of 14.4 g of choline per day, whereas controls received an isoenergetic mixture of palm oil and additional soybean meal. Liver and adipose tissue biopsies were taken at wk -3, 1, 3, and 6 to determine the mRNA abundance of 18 key genes involved in liver and adipose tissue lipid and energy metabolism. Milk samples were collected in wk 1, 2, 3, and 6 postpartum for analysis of milk fatty acid (FA) composition. The RPC-induced reduction in hepatic lipidosis could not be attributed to altered lipolysis in adipose tissue, as no treatment effect was observed on the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, lipoprotein lipase, or FA synthase in adipose tissue, or on the milk FA composition. Rumen-protected choline supplementation increased the expression of FA transport protein 5 and carnitine transporter SLC22A5 in the liver, suggesting an increase in the capacity of FA uptake and intracellular transport, but no treatment effect was observed on carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1A, transporting long-chain FA into mitochondria. In the same organ, RPC appeared to promote apolipoprotein B-containing lipoprotein assembly, as shown by elevated microsomal triglyceride transfer protein expression and apolipoprotein B

  13. Protective role of silymarin and D-penicillamine against lead-induced liver toxicity and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Seyedeh Missagh; Najafzadeh, Hossein; Bahmei, Sadegh

    2017-06-01

    This study was performed to assess hepatotoxicity and alterations in liver antioxidant defence in acute lead (Pb) exposure and the protective effects of silymarin in comparison to D-penicillamine in rats. Forty eight Albino rats were divided in eight groups and received the following treatments in a 10-day experiment - group 1: normal saline as control; group 2: 25-mg/kg Pb acetate, intraperitoneally (IP) for the last 5 days; group 3: 100-mg/kg D-penicillamine, IP for the last 5 days; group 4: 200-mg/kg silymarin, orally for 10 days; and groups 5, 6, 7 and 8: in addition to Pb, they received D-penicillamine, for the last 5 days, silymarin for 10 days, a combination of silymarin for 10 days and D-penicillamine for the last 5 days and silymarin for the last 5 days, respectively. Pb acetate exposure induced significant elevation in serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) enzyme activities in group 2 compared to control group. Significant reductions in serum total protein and albumin in all Pb-exposed groups and in serum glucose in groups 2, 6 and 8 were also observed. Liver tissue superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were significantly lower in groups 2 and 8 compared to control group. Silymarin pretreatment and D-penicillamine administration in groups 5, 7 and 8 could significantly lower ALP, ALT and AST and improve liver antioxidant enzymes. Thus, acute Pb exposure induced hepatotoxicity with suppression of liver antioxidant defence system and silymarin, as an antioxidant could alleviate this effect.

  14. Sulforaphane-rich broccoli sprout extract improves hepatic abnormalities in male subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Masahiro; Ushida, Yusuke; Shiozawa, Hirokazu; Umeda, Rumiko; Tsuruya, Kota; Aoki, Yudai; Suganuma, Hiroyuki; Nishizaki, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate effects of dietary supplementation of sulforaphane (SF)-rich broccoli sprout (BS) extract on hepatic abnormalities in Japanese male participants. METHODS: In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind trial, male participants with fatty liver received either BS capsules containing glucoraphanin [GR; a precursor of SF (n = 24)] or placebo (n = 28) for 2 mo. Liver function markers, serum levels of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT, respectively) and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GTP) and an oxidative stress marker, urinary levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), were measured and compared in participants before and after the trial period. In an animal model, chronic liver failure was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by successive intraperitoneal injection with N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) for 4 wk. Concomitantly, rats received AIN-76 diets supplemented with or without BS extract. Thereafter, rats were sacrificed, and their sera and livers were collected to measure serum liver function markers and hepatic levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels and hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity, a prototypical phase 2 antioxidant enzyme. RESULTS: Dietary supplementation with BS extract containing SF precursor GR for 2 mo significantly decreased serum levels of liver function markers, ALT [median (interquartile range), before: 54.0 (34.5-79.0) vs after supplementation: 48.5 (33.3-65.3) IU/L, P < 0.05] and γ-GTP [before: 51.5 (40.8-91.3) vs after: 50.0 (37.8-85.3) IU/L, P < 0.05], as well as the alkali phosphatase activity. Placebo showed no significant effects on the markers. The urinary level of 8-OHdG, an established oxidative stress marker, was significantly reduced in participants who had received BS capsules but not the placebo [before: 6.66 (5.51-9.03) vs after: 5.49 (4.89-6.66) ng/mg-creatinine, P < 0.05]. The reduction of urinary 8-OHdG was significantly correlated with decreased levels of

  15. Hydrogen sulfide mediates the anti-survival effect of sulforaphane on human prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Pei, Yanxi; Wu, Bo; Cao, Qiuhui; Wu, Lingyun; Yang, Guangdong

    2011-12-15

    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is a novel gasotransmitter that regulates cell proliferation and other cellular functions. Sulforaphane (SFN) is a sulfur-containing compound that exhibits anticancer properties, and young sprouts of broccoli are particularly rich in SFN. There is consistent epidemiological evidence that the consumption of sulfur-containing vegetables, such as garlic and cruciferous vegetables, may help reduce the occurrence of prostate cancer. Here we found that a large amount of H(2)S is released when SFN is added into cell culture medium or mixed with mouse liver homogenates, respectively. Both SFN and NaHS (a H(2)S donor) decreased the viability of PC-3 cells (a human prostate cancer cell line) in a dose-dependent manner, and supplement of methemoglobin or oxidized glutathione (two H(2)S scavengers) reversed SFN-reduced cell viability. We further found both cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE) and cystathionine beta-synthase are expressed in PC-3 cells and mouse prostate tissues. H(2)S production in prostate tissues from CSE knockout mice was only 20% of that from wild-type mice, suggesting CSE is a major H(2)S-producing enzyme in prostate. CSE overexpression enhanced H(2)S production and inhibited cell viability in PC-3 cells. In addition, both SFN and NaHS activated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Pre-treatment of PC-3 cells with methemoglobin decreased SFN-stimulated MAPK activities. Suppression of both p38 MAPK and JNK reversed H(2)S- or SFN-reduced viability of PC-3 cells. Our results demonstrated that H(2)S mediates the inhibitory effect of SFN on the proliferation of PC-3 cells, which suggests that H(2)S-releasing diet or drug might be beneficial in the treatment of prostate cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Protective role of c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 in acetaminophen-induced liver injury

    SciTech Connect

    Bourdi, Mohammed; Korrapati, Midhun C.; Chakraborty, Mala

    2008-09-12

    Recent studies in mice suggest that stress-activated c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase 2 (JNK2) plays a pathologic role in acetaminophen (APAP)-induced liver injury (AILI), a major cause of acute liver failure (ALF). In contrast, we present evidence that JNK2 can have a protective role against AILI. When male C57BL/6J wild type (WT) and JNK2{sup -/-} mice were treated with 300 mg APAP/kg, 90% of JNK2{sup -/-} mice died of ALF compared to 20% of WT mice within 48 h. The high susceptibility of JNK2{sup -/-} mice to AILI appears to be due in part to deficiencies in hepatocyte proliferation and repair.more » Therefore, our findings are consistent with JNK2 signaling playing a protective role in AILI and further suggest that the use of JNK inhibitors as a potential treatment for AILI, as has been recommended by other investigators, should be reconsidered.« less

  17. Genetic and Histopathological Responses to Cadmium Toxicity in Rabbit's Kidney and Liver: Protection by Ginger (Zingiber officinale).

    PubMed

    Baiomy, Ahmed A; Mansour, Ahmed A

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the protective effects of ginger (G) on the genetic response induced by cadmium (Cd) and immunohistochemical expression of Caspase3 and MKI67 in the kidney and liver of rabbits. Male rabbits were divided into three groups; each group contains 10 animals: group (C) received basic diet and tap water for 12 weeks, the second group (Cd) received 200 mg/kg b.w CdCl2 in water for 12 weeks, group (Cd + G) was given 200 mg/kg b.w CdCl2 in water and 400 mg ginger/kg b.w in food for 12 weeks. Cd administration increased the activity of mRNA expression of the examined apoptotic (Caspase3), proliferation (MKI67), proto-oncogene (C-fos), and antioxidant (GST), while decreased the expression of anti-apoptotic (Bcl2). Ginger counteracted the effects of Cd in (Cd + G) group and downregulated the previously upregulated genes under Cd administration appeared in (Cd) group. The immunohistochemical expression of Caspase3 and MKI67 in the liver and kidney cells of the (C) group was shown very faint to negative reactions, strong staining in hepatocytes and the tubular epithelium in cadmium-treated group, while slight staining in some hepatocytes and tubular epithelium in co-administration with ginger in (Cd + G) group. In conclusion, ginger administration showed a protective effect against cadmium toxicity.

  18. Sulforaphane and Other Nutrigenomic Nrf2 Activators: Can the Clinician's Expectation Be Matched by the Reality?

    PubMed Central

    Houghton, Christine A.; Fassett, Robert G.; Coombes, Jeff S.

    2016-01-01

    The recognition that food-derived nonnutrient molecules can modulate gene expression to influence intracellular molecular mechanisms has seen the emergence of the fields of nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics. The aim of this review is to describe the properties of nutrigenomic activators of transcription factor Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2), comparing the potential for sulforaphane and other phytochemicals to demonstrate clinical efficacy as complementary medicines. Broccoli-derived sulforaphane emerges as a phytochemical with this capability, with oral doses capable of favourably modifying genes associated with chemoprevention. Compared with widely used phytochemical-based supplements like curcumin, silymarin, and resveratrol, sulforaphane more potently activates Nrf2 to induce the expression of a battery of cytoprotective genes. By virtue of its lipophilic nature and low molecular weight, sulforaphane displays significantly higher bioavailability than the polyphenol-based dietary supplements that also activate Nrf2. Nrf2 activation induces cytoprotective genes such as those playing key roles in cellular defense mechanisms including redox status and detoxification. Both its high bioavailability and significant Nrf2 inducer capacity contribute to the therapeutic potential of sulforaphane-yielding supplements. PMID:26881038

  19. Sulforaphane and Other Nutrigenomic Nrf2 Activators: Can the Clinician's Expectation Be Matched by the Reality?

    PubMed

    Houghton, Christine A; Fassett, Robert G; Coombes, Jeff S

    2016-01-01

    The recognition that food-derived nonnutrient molecules can modulate gene expression to influence intracellular molecular mechanisms has seen the emergence of the fields of nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics. The aim of this review is to describe the properties of nutrigenomic activators of transcription factor Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2), comparing the potential for sulforaphane and other phytochemicals to demonstrate clinical efficacy as complementary medicines. Broccoli-derived sulforaphane emerges as a phytochemical with this capability, with oral doses capable of favourably modifying genes associated with chemoprevention. Compared with widely used phytochemical-based supplements like curcumin, silymarin, and resveratrol, sulforaphane more potently activates Nrf2 to induce the expression of a battery of cytoprotective genes. By virtue of its lipophilic nature and low molecular weight, sulforaphane displays significantly higher bioavailability than the polyphenol-based dietary supplements that also activate Nrf2. Nrf2 activation induces cytoprotective genes such as those playing key roles in cellular defense mechanisms including redox status and detoxification. Both its high bioavailability and significant Nrf2 inducer capacity contribute to the therapeutic potential of sulforaphane-yielding supplements.

  20. Protective effect of Tribulus terrestris linn on liver and kidney in cadmium intoxicated rats.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, G Dhana; Kumar, P Ravi; Bharavi, K; Annapurna, P; Rajendar, B; Patel, Pankaj T; Kumar, C S V Satish; Rao, G S

    2012-02-01

    Administration of cadmium (Cd) significantly increased the peroxidation markers such as malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls along with significant decrease in antioxidant markers such as super oxide dismutase and reduced glutathione in liver and kidney tissues. Cadmium also caused a significant alteration in hepatic and renal functional markers in serum viz. total protein, albumin, alanine transaminase, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine. Prominent pathological changes observed in liver were severe vascular and sinusoidal congestion with diffuse degenerative changes and mononuclear infiltration into peripheral areas, while the kidney showed vascular and glomerular congestion, cloudy swelling of tubular epithelium. Coadministration of ethonolic extract of T. terrestris or vitamin E along with Cd significantly reversed the Cd induced changes along with significant reduction in Cd load.

  1. Evaluation of radio-protective effect of melatonin on whole body irradiation induced liver tissue damage.

    PubMed

    Shirazi, Alireza; Mihandoost, Ehsan; Ghobadi, Ghazale; Mohseni, Mehran; Ghazi-Khansari, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Ionizing radiation interacts with biological systems to induce excessive fluxes of free radicals that attack various cellular components. Melatonin has been shown to be a direct free radical scavenger and indirect antioxidant via its stimulatory actions on the antioxidant system.The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant role of melatonin against radiation-induced oxidative injury to the rat liver after whole body irradiation. In this experimental study,thirty-two rats were divided into four groups. Group 1 was the control group, group 2 only received melatonin (30 mg/kg on the first day and 30 mg/kg on the following days), group 3 only received whole body gamma irradiation of 10 Gy, and group 4 received 30 mg/kg melatonin 30 minutes prior to radiation plus whole body irradiation of 10 Gy plus 30 mg/kg melatonin daily through intraperitoneal (IP) injection for three days after irradiation. Three days after irradiation, all rats were sacrificed and their livers were excised to measure the biochemical parameters malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH). Each data point represents mean ± standard error on the mean (SEM) of at least eight animals per group. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to compare different groups, followed by Tukey's multiple comparison tests (p<0.05). The results demonstrated that whole body irradiation induced liver tissue damage by increasing MDA levels and decreasing GSH levels. Hepatic MDA levels in irradiated rats that were treated with melatonin (30 mg/kg) were significantly decreased, while GSH levels were significantly increased, when compared to either of the control groups or the melatonin only group. The data suggest that administration of melatonin before and after irradiation may reduce liver damage caused by gamma irradiation.

  2. Parboiled Germinated Brown Rice Protects Against CCl4-Induced Oxidative Stress and Liver Injury in Rats.

    PubMed

    Wunjuntuk, Kansuda; Kettawan, Aikkarach; Charoenkiatkul, Somsri; Rungruang, Thanaporn

    2016-01-01

    Parboiled germinated brown rice (PGBR) of Khao Dawk Mali 105 variety was produced by steaming germinated paddy rice, which is well-known for its nutrients and bioactive compounds. In this study we determined the in vivo antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of PGBR in carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced oxidative stress in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, (weight 200-250 g) were randomly divided into (1) control, (2) CCl(4), (3) white rice (WR)+CCl(4), (4) brown rice (BR)+CCl(4), and (5) PGBR+CCl(4) groups. PGBR, BR, and WR diets were produced by replacing corn starch in the AIN76A diet with cooked PGBR, BR, and WR powders, respectively. All rats except the control group were gavaged with 50% CCl4 in olive oil (v/v, 1 mL/kg) twice a week for 8 weeks. CCl(4)-treated rats exhibited significant liver injury, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and DNA damage, as well as obvious changes to liver histopathology compared to control. In addition, CCl(4) treatment decreased the activities of CYP2E1 and antioxidant enzymes: glutathione S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase, and glutathione (GSH) content. However, the PGBR+CCl(4) group exhibited less liver injury, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and DNA damage, as well as better antioxidant enzyme activities and GSH content. Furthermore, PGBR inhibited degradation of CYP2E1 in CCl(4)-induced decrease of CYP2E1 activity. These data suggest that PGBR may prevent CCl(4)-induced liver oxidative stress and injury through enhancement of the antioxidant capacities, which may be due to complex actions of various bioactive compounds, including phenolic acids, γ-oryzanol, tocotrienol, and GABA.

  3. Sulforaphane inhibits damage-induced poly (ADP-ribosyl)ation via direct interaction of its cellular metabolites with PARP-1.

    PubMed

    Piberger, Ann Liza; Keil, Claudia; Platz, Stefanie; Rohn, Sascha; Hartwig, Andrea

    2015-11-01

    The isothiocyanate sulforaphane, a major breakdown product of the broccoli glucosinolate glucoraphanin, has frequently been proposed to exert anticarcinogenic properties. Potential underlying mechanisms include a zinc release from Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 followed by the induction of detoxifying enzymes. This suggests that sulforaphane may also interfere with other zinc-binding proteins, e.g. those essential for DNA repair. Therefore, we explored the impact of sulforaphane on poly (ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 (PARP-1), poly (ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation), and DNA single-strand break repair (SSBR) in cell culture. Immunofluorescence analyses showed that sulforaphane diminished H2 O2 -induced PARylation in HeLa S3 cells starting from 15 μM despite increased lesion induction under these conditions. Subcellular experiments quantifying the damage-induced incorporation of (32) P-ADP-ribose by PARP-1 displayed no direct impact of sulforaphane itself, but cellular metabolites, namely the glutathione conjugates of sulforaphane and its interconversion product erucin, reduced PARP-1 activity concentration dependently. Interestingly, this sulforaphane metabolite-induced PARP-1 inhibition was prevented by thiol compounds. PARP-1 is a stimulating factor for DNA SSBR-rate and we further demonstrated that 25 μM sulforaphane also delayed the rejoining of H2 O2 -induced DNA strand breaks, although this might be partly due to increased lesion frequencies. Sulforaphane interferes with damage-induced PARylation and SSBR, which implies a sulforaphane-dependent impairment of genomic stability. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Methanol extract of Melastoma malabathricum leaves exerted antioxidant and liver protective activity in rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Melastoma malabathricum L. (Melastomaceae) is a small shrub with various medicinal uses. The present study was carried out to determine the hepatoprotective activity of methanol extract of M. malabathricum leaves (MEMM) against the paracetamol-induced liver toxicity in rats model. Methods The respective chemicals and herbal solutions (10% DMSO, 200 mg/kg silymarin or MEMM (50, 250 and 500 mg/kg)) were administered orally to rats once everyday for 7 days followed by the hepatotoxicity assay. The blood samples and livers were collected and subjected to biochemical and microscopical analysis. Prior to the hepatoprotective study, MEMM was subjected to determination of the total phenolic content (TPC) and the antioxidant properties using several standard assays (e.g. 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl- and superoxide anion- radical scavenging assay, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay). Results MEMM exerted significant (p < 0.05) and high antioxidant activity in which high TPC was recorded; while in the hepatotoxicity study, the extract exhibited significant hepatoprotective effects against the paracetamol-induced hepatotoxic model. The results observed for serum liver enzymes (ALT, ALP and AST) as well as the microscopic observations and microscopic scoring supported the hepatoprotective potential of MEMM. The phytochemical and HPLC analysis of MEMM demonstrated the presence of flavonoids as its major constituents. Conclusions The MEMM-induced hepatoprotective activity could be allied partly to its antioxidant activity and the presence of flavonoids. PMID:24267313

  5. Protective effect of Anoectochilus roxburghii polysaccharide against CCl4-induced oxidative liver damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhenguo; Zhang, Xiaohui; Yang, Lawei; Pan, Qunwen; Li, Juan; Wu, Yongfu; Chen, Meizhen; Cui, Shichao; Yu, Jie

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the isolation and characterization of Anoectochilus roxburghii polysaccharides (ARP), and further evaluated whether ARP possessed hepatoprotective activities against CCl 4 -induced oxidative liver damage in mice. ARP is comprised of glucose and galactose in a 1.9:1 molar ratio, and the molecular weight is 19.5kDa. ARP displayed significant scavenging effects against hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion radical, DPPH radical and a strong reducing power. In vivo experiment demonstrated ARP (150mg/kg) administrated to mice for 7days prior to carbon tetrachloride treatment, attenuated the elevated expression levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), triglyceride (TG) in serum and inhibited the formation of hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA). ARP pretreatment also increased antioxidant enzyme activities such as glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in the liver of CCl 4 -induced mice. Furthermore, hepatic histopathological changes induced by CCl 4 were significantly normalized by ARP pretreatment. These findings demonstrated that ARP possessed hepatoprotective effect against acute CCl 4 -induced liver damage by reducing lipid oxidation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Protection of a Ceramide Synthase 2 Null Mouse from Drug-induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Park, Woo-Jae; Park, Joo-Won; Erez-Roman, Racheli; Kogot-Levin, Aviram; Bame, Jessica R.; Tirosh, Boaz; Saada, Ann; Merrill, Alfred H.; Pewzner-Jung, Yael; Futerman, Anthony H.

    2013-01-01

    Very long chain (C22-C24) ceramides are synthesized by ceramide synthase 2 (CerS2). A CerS2 null mouse displays hepatopathy because of depletion of C22-C24 ceramides, elevation of C16-ceramide, and/or elevation of sphinganine. Unexpectedly, CerS2 null mice were resistant to acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. Although there were a number of biochemical changes in the liver, such as increased levels of glutathione and multiple drug-resistant protein 4, these effects are unlikely to account for the lack of acetaminophen toxicity. A number of other hepatotoxic agents, such as d-galactosamine, CCl4, and thioacetamide, were also ineffective in inducing liver damage. All of these drugs and chemicals require connexin (Cx) 32, a key gap junction protein, to induce hepatotoxicity. Cx32 was mislocalized to an intracellular location in hepatocytes from CerS2 null mice, which resulted in accelerated rates of its lysosomal degradation. This mislocalization resulted from the altered membrane properties of the CerS2 null mice, which was exemplified by the disruption of detergent-resistant membranes. The lack of acetaminophen toxicity and Cx32 mislocalization were reversed upon infection with recombinant adeno-associated virus expressing CerS2. We establish that Gap junction function is compromised upon altering the sphingolipid acyl chain length composition, which is of relevance for understanding the regulation of drug-induced liver injury. PMID:24019516

  7. Involvement of catalase in the protective benefits of metformin in mice with oxidative liver injury.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jie; Liu, Mingwei; Ai, Qing; Lin, Ling; Wu, Kunwei; Deng, Xinyu; Jing, Yuping; Jia, Mengying; Wan, Jingyuan; Zhang, Li

    2014-06-05

    Metformin is a commonly used anti-diabetic drug with AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent hypoglycemic activities. Recent studies have revealed its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties. In the present study, the anti-oxidative potential of metformin and its potential mechanisms were investigated in a mouse model with carbon tetrachloride (CCl₂)-induced severe oxidative liver injury. Our results showed that treatment with metformin significantly attenuated CCl₂-induced elevation of serum aminotransferases and hepatic histological abnormalities. The alleviated liver injury was associated with decreased hepatic contents of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and malondialdehyde (MDA). In addition, metformin treatment dose-dependently enhanced the activities of catalase (CAT) and decreased CCl₄-induced elevation of hepatic H₂O₂ levels, but it had no obvious effects on the protein level of CAT. We also found that metformin increased the level of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), but treatment with AMPK activator AICAR had no obvious effects on CAT activity. A molecular docking analysis indicated that metformin might interact with CAT via hydrogen bonds. These data suggested that metformin effectively alleviated CCl₄-induced oxidative liver injury in mice and these hepatoprotective effects might be associated with CAT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Protective effect of Momordica charantia water extract against liver injury in restraint-stressed mice and the underlying mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yuanyuan; Tang, Qin; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Ruifen; Wei, Zhencheng; Tang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Mingwei

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Momordica charantia is used in China for its jianghuo (heat-clearing and detoxifying) effects. The concept of shanghuo (the antonym of jianghuo, excessive internal heat) in traditional Chinese medicine is considered a type of stress response of the body. The stress process involves internal organs, especially the liver. Objective: We hypothesized that Momordica charantia water extract (MWE) has a hepatoprotective effect and can protect the body from stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of MWE against liver injury in restraint-stressed mice. Design: The mice were intragastrically administered with MWE (250, 500 and 750 mg/kg bw) daily for 7 days. The Normal Control (NC) and Model groups were administered distilled water. A positive control group was intragastrically administered vitamin C 250 mg/kg bw. After the last administration, mice were restrained for 20 h. Results: MWE reduced the serum AST and ALT, reduced the NO content and the protein expression level of iNOSin the liver; significantly reduced the mitochondrial ROS content, increased the mitochondrial membrane potential and the activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes I and II in restraint-stressed mice. Conclusions: The results indicate that MWE has a protective effect against liver injury in restraint-stressed mice. Abbreviations: MWE: Momordica charantia water extract; M. charantia: Momordica charantia L.; ROS: reactive oxygen species; NO: nitric oxide; iNOS: inducible nitric oxide synthase; IL-1β: interleukin-1 beta; TNF-α: tumor necrosis factor alpha; IL-6: interleukin 6; IFN-γ: interferon gamma; VC: vitamin C; ALT: alanine transaminase; AST: aspartate aminotransferase; GSH: glutathione; GSH-PX: glutathione peroxidase; MDA: malondialdehyde; BCA: bicinchoninic acid; TBARS: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; Trolox: 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid; JC-B: Janus Green B; DW: dry weight; FC: Folin

  9. Protective effect of Momordica charantia water extract against liver injury in restraint-stressed mice and the underlying mechanism.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yuanyuan; Tang, Qin; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Ruifen; Wei, Zhencheng; Tang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Mingwei

    2017-01-01

    Background : Momordica charantia is used in China for its jianghuo (heat-clearing and detoxifying) effects. The concept of shanghuo (the antonym of jianghuo , excessive internal heat) in traditional Chinese medicine is considered a type of stress response of the body. The stress process involves internal organs, especially the liver. Objective : We hypothesized that Momordica charantia water extract (MWE) has a hepatoprotective effect and can protect the body from stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of MWE against liver injury in restraint-stressed mice. Design : The mice were intragastrically administered with MWE (250, 500 and 750 mg/kg bw) daily for 7 days. The Normal Control (NC) and Model groups were administered distilled water. A positive control group was intragastrically administered vitamin C 250 mg/kg bw. After the last administration, mice were restrained for 20 h. Results : MWE reduced the serum AST and ALT, reduced the NO content and the protein expression level of iNOSin the liver; significantly reduced the mitochondrial ROS content, increased the mitochondrial membrane potential and the activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes I and II in restraint-stressed mice. Conclusions : The results indicate that MWE has a protective effect against liver injury in restraint-stressed mice. Abbreviations : MWE: Momordica charantia water extract; M. charantia: Momordica charantia L.; ROS: reactive oxygen species; NO: nitric oxide; iNOS: inducible nitric oxide synthase; IL-1β: interleukin-1 beta; TNF-α: tumor necrosis factor alpha; IL-6: interleukin 6; IFN-γ: interferon gamma; VC: vitamin C; ALT: alanine transaminase; AST: aspartate aminotransferase; GSH: glutathione; GSH-PX: glutathione peroxidase; MDA: malondialdehyde; BCA: bicinchoninic acid; TBARS: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; Trolox: 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid; JC-B: Janus Green B; DW: dry weight; FC: Folin

  10. Overexpression of the long noncoding RNA TUG1 protects against cold-induced injury of mouse livers by inhibiting apoptosis and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Su, Song; Liu, Jiang; He, Kai; Zhang, Mengyu; Feng, Chunhong; Peng, Fangyi; Li, Bo; Xia, Xianming

    2016-04-01

    Hepatic injury provoked by cold storage is a major problem affecting liver transplantation, as exposure to cold induces apoptosis in hepatic tissues. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are increasingly understood to regulate apoptosis, but the contribution of lncRNAs to cold-induced liver injury remains unknown. Using RNA-seq, we determined the differential lncRNA expression profile in mouse livers after cold storage and found that expression of the lncRNA TUG1 was significantly down-regulated. Overexpression of TUG1 attenuated cold-induced apoptosis in mouse hepatocytes and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells LSECs, in part by blocking mitochondrial apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathways. Moreover, TUG1 attenuated apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress in vivo in livers subjected to cold storage. Overexpression of TUG1 also improved hepatocyte function and prolonged hepatic graft survival rates in mice. These results suggest that the lncRNA TUG1 exerts a protective effect against cold-induced liver damage by inhibiting apoptosis in mice, and suggests a potential role for TUG1 as a target for the prevention of cold-induced liver damage in liver transplantation. RNA-seq data are available from GEO using accession number GSE76609. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  11. Frequent inoculations with radiation attenuated sporozoite is essential for inducing sterile protection that correlates with a threshold level of Plasmodia liver-stage specific CD8+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Patel, Hardik; Yadav, Naveen; Parmar, Rajesh; Patel, Satish; Singh, Agam P; Shrivastava, Neeta; Dalai, Sarat K

    2017-07-01

    Whole sporozoite vaccine (WSV) is shown to induce sterile protection that targets Plasmodium liver-stage infection. There are many underlying issues associated with induction of effective sterile protracted protection. In this study, we have addressed how the alterations in successive vaccine regimen could possibly affect the induction of sterile protection. We have demonstrated that the pattern of vaccination with RAS (radiation attenuated sporozoites) induces varying degrees of protection among B6 mice. Animals receiving four successive doses generated 100% sterile protection. However, three successive doses, though with the same parasite inoculum as four doses, could induce sterile protection in ∼50% mice. Interestingly, mice immunized with the same 3 doses, but with longer gap, could not survive the challenge. We demonstrate that degree of protection correlates with the frequencies of IFN-γ + and multifunctional (IFN-γ + CD107a + ) CD8 + T EM cells present in liver. The failure to achieve protective threshold frequency of these cells in liver might make the host more vulnerable to parasite infection during infectious sporozoite challenge. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Protective effect of L-arginine against necrosis and apoptosis induced by experimental ischemic and reperfusion in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh; Shukla, Gunjan; Wahi, Arun Kumar

    2009-01-01

    To study the effect of L-arginine on apoptosis and necrosis induced by 1-h ischemia followed by 3-h reperfusion. Adult Wistar rats underwent 60 min of partial liver ischemia followed by 3-h reperfusion. Eighteen Wistar rats were divided into sham-operated control group (I) (n = 6), ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) group (0.9 % saline (5 mL/kg, orally) for 7 days) (II) (n = 6), and L-arginine-treated group (10 mg/kg body weight daily orally for 7 days before inducing ischemia-reperfusion maneuver) (III) (n = 6). Apoptotic and necrotic hepatocytes, nitric oxide levels in hepatocytes, Bcl-2 mRNA, and Bcl-2 protein were measured. Liver injury was assessed by plasma alanine transaminases (ALT), aspartate transaminases (AST), liver histopathology, and electron microscopy. An ischemic and reperfusion hepatocellular injury occurred as was indicated by increased serum ALT, AST, histopathology, and electron microscopy. Apoptosis and necrosis associated marker gene Bcl-2 mRNA and protein expression were decreased in I/R group. Pretreatment with L-arginine significantly decreased serum ALT and AST level and apoptotic and necrotic cells after 1 h ischemia followed by 3 h of reperfusion. Nitric oxide production in hepatocytes was increased twofold by L-arginine treatment when compared with I/R group. Histopathology and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies showed markedly diminished hepatocellular injury in L-arginine-pretreated rats during the hepatic I/R. Thus, it may be concluded that L-arginine afforded significant protection from necrosis and apoptosis in I/R injury by upregulated Bcl-2 gene and nitric oxide production.

  13. [Protective effect of Saccharomyces boulardii against intestinal mucosal barrier injury in rats with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease].

    PubMed

    Liu, Y T; Li, Y Q; Wang, Y Z

    2016-12-20

    Objective: To investigate the protective effect of Saccharomyces boulardii against intestinal mucosal barrier injury in rats with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods: A total of 36 healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats with a mean body weight of 180±20 g were randomly divided into control group, model group, and treatment group, with 12 rats in each group, after adaptive feeding for 1 week. The rats in the control group were given basic feed, and those in the model group and treatment group were given high-fat feed. After 12 weeks of feeding, the treatment group was given Saccharomyces boulardii (75×10 8 CFU/kg/d) by gavage, and those in the control group and model group were given isotonic saline by gavage. At the 20th week, blood samples were taken from the abdominal aorta to measure the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), triglyceride (TG), intestinal fatty acid binding protein (IFABP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and endotoxins. The liver pathological changes, intestinal histopathological changes, and expression of occludin in the intestinal mucosa were observed. Fecal samples were collected to measure the changes in Escherichia coli and Bacteroides. A one-way analysis of variance and the SNK test were used for comparison between multiple groups, and the rank sum test was used as the non-parametric test. Results: Compared with the control group, the model group had significantly higher body weight, liver mass, and liver index ( P < 0.05), and compared with the model group, the treatment group had significant reductions in body weight, liver mass, and liver index ( P < 0.05). The model group had significant increases in TG, ALT, and AST compared with the control group ( P < 0.05), the treatment group had a significant reduction in AST compared with the model group ( P < 0.05), and the treatment group had slight reductions in TG and ALT compared with the model group ( P > 0.05). Compared with the control

  14. Beta-carotene and lutein protect HepG2 human liver cells against oxidant-induced damage.

    PubMed

    Martin, K R; Failla, M L; Smith, J C

    1996-09-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies support a strong inverse relationship between consumption of carotenoid-rich fruits and vegetables and the incidence of some degenerative diseases. One proposed mechanism of protection by carotenoids centers on their putative antioxidant activity, although direct evidence in support of this contention is limited at the cellular level. The antioxidant potential of beta-carotene (BC) and lutein (LUT), carotenoids with or without provitamin A activity, respectively, was evaluated using the human liver cell line HepG2. Pilot studies showed that a 90-min exposure of confluent cultures to 500 mumol/L tert-butylhydroperoxide (TBHP) at 37 degrees C significantly (P < 0.05) increased lipid peroxidation and cellular leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and decreased the uptake of 3H-alpha-aminoisobutyric acid and 3H-2-deoxyglucose. Protein synthesis, mitochondrial activity and glucose oxidation were not affected by TBHP treatment, suggesting that the plasma membrane was the primary site of TBHP-induced damage. Overnight incubation of cultures with > or = 1 mumol/L dl-alpha-tocopherol protected cells against oxidant-induced changes. In parallel studies, overnight incubation of HepG2 in medium containing micelles with either BC or LUT (final concentrations of 1.1 and 10.9 mumol/L, respectively), the cell content of the carotenoids increased from < 0.04 to 0.32 and 3.39 nmol/mg protein, respectively. Carotenoid-loaded cells were partially or completely protected against oxidant-induced changes in lipid peroxidation, LDH release and amino acid and deoxyglucose transport. These data demonstrate that BC and LUT or their metabolites protect HepG2 cells against oxidant-induced damage and that the protective effect is independent of provitamin A activity.

  15. Adiponectin-Mediated Heme Oxygenase-1 Induction Protects Against Iron-Induced Liver Injury via a PPARα-Dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Heng; Yu, Chun-Hsien; Jen, Chih-Yu; Cheng, Ching-Feng; Chou, Ying; Chang, Chih-Cheng; Juan, Shu-Hui

    2010-01-01

    Protective effects of adiponectin (APN; an adipocytokine) were shown against various oxidative challenges; however, its therapeutic implications and the mechanisms underlying hepatic iron overload remain unclear. Herein, we show that the deleterious effects of iron dextran on liver function and iron deposition were significantly reversed by adiponectin gene therapy, which was accompanied by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 induction. Furthermore, AMPK-mediated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) activation by APN was ascribable to HO-1 induction. Additionally, we revealed direct transcriptional regulation of HO-1 by the binding of PPARα to a PPAR-responsive element (PPRE) by various experimental assessments. Interestingly, overexpression of HO-1 in hepatocytes mimicked the protective effect of APN in attenuating iron-mediated injury, whereas it was abolished by SnPP and small interfering HO-1. Furthermore, bilirubin, the end-product of the HO-1 reaction, but not CO, protected hepatocytes from iron dextran-mediated caspase activation. Herein, we demonstrate a novel functional PPRE in the promoter regions of HO-1, and APN-mediated HO-1 induction elicited an antiapoptotic effect and a decrease in iron deposition in hepatocytes subjected to iron challenge. PMID:20709802

  16. Gingerol Synergizes the Cytotoxic Effects of Doxorubicin against Liver Cancer Cells and Protects from Its Vascular Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Al-Abbasi, Fahad A; Alghamdi, Eman A; Baghdadi, Mohammed A; Alamoudi, Abdulmohsin J; El-Halawany, Ali M; El-Bassossy, Hany M; Aseeri, Ali H; Al-Abd, Ahmed M

    2016-07-08

    Hydroxyphenylalkanes and diarylheptanoids possess potential therapeutic value in different pathophysiological conditions, such as malignancy. In the current study, naturally isolated hydroxyphenylalkane and diarylheptanoid compounds were investigated for potential chemo-modulatory effects in addition to potential vascular protective roles with doxorubicin. Diarylheptanoids showed stronger antioxidant effects, in comparison to hydroxyphenylalkanes, as demonstrated by DPPH assay and amelioration of CCl₄-induced disturbed intracellular GSH/GSSG balance. Shogaol and 4'-methoxygingerol showed considerable cytotoxic effects against HCT116, HeLa, HepG2 and MCF7 cells, with IC50 values ranging from 3.1 to 19.4 µM. Gingerol significantly enhanced the cytotoxic profile of doxorubicin against HepG₂ and Huh7, cells decreasing its IC50s by 10- and 4-fold, respectively. Cell cycle distribution was studied using DNA cytometry. Doxorubicin alone induced cell accumulation at S-phase and G₂/M-phase, while in combination with gingerol it significantly induced cell cycle arrest at the G₂/M-phase. Additionally, the vascular protective effect of gingerol against doxorubicin (10 µM) was examined on isolated aortic rings. Co-incubation with 6-gingerol (30 µM) completely blocked the exaggerated vasoconstriction and impaired vascular relaxation induced by doxorubicin. In conclusion, despite its relatively weak antioxidant properties, gingerol protected from DOX-induced vascular damage, apparently not through a ROS scavenging mechanism. Besides, gingerol synergized the cytotoxic effects of DOX against liver cancer cells without influencing the cellular pharmacokinetics.

  17. Off-target effects of sulforaphane include the derepression of long terminal repeats through histone acetylation events.

    PubMed

    Baier, Scott R; Zbasnik, Richard; Schlegel, Vicki; Zempleni, Janos

    2014-06-01

    Sulforaphane is a naturally occurring isothiocyanate in cruciferous vegetables. Sulforaphane inhibits histone deacetylases, leading to the transcriptional activation of genes including tumor suppressor genes. The compound has attracted considerable attention in the chemoprevention of prostate cancer. Here we tested the hypothesis that sulforaphane is not specific for tumor suppressor genes but also activates loci such as long terminal repeats (LTRs), which might impair genome stability. Studies were conducted using chemically pure sulforaphane in primary human IMR-90 fibroblasts and in broccoli sprout feeding studies in healthy adults. Sulforaphane (2.0 μM) caused an increase in LTR transcriptional activity in cultured cells. Consumption of broccoli sprouts (34, 68 or 102 g) by human volunteers caused a dose dependent elevation in LTR mRNA in circulating leukocytes, peaking at more than a 10-fold increase. This increase in transcript levels was associated with an increase in histone H3 K9 acetylation marks in LTR 15 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from subjects consuming sprouts. Collectively, this study suggests that sulforaphane has off-target effects that warrant further investigation when recommending high levels of sulforaphane intake, despite its promising activities in chemoprevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sulforaphane prevents doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress and cell death in rat H9c2 cells

    PubMed Central

    LI, BO; KIM, DO SUNG; YADAV, RAJ KUMAR; KIM, HYUNG RYONG; CHAE, HAN JUNG

    2015-01-01

    Sulforaphane, a natural isothiocyanate compound found in cruciferous vegetables, has been shown to exert cardioprotective effects during ischemic heart injury. However, the effects of sulforaphane on cardiotoxicity induced by doxorubicin are unknown. Thus, in the present study, H9c2 rat myoblasts were pre-treated with sulforaphane and its effects on cardiotoxicity were then examined. The results revealed that the pre-treatment of H9c2 rat myoblasts with sulforaphane decreased the apoptotic cell number (as shown by trypan blue exclusion assay) and the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax, caspase-3 and cytochrome c; as shown by western blot analysis and immunostaining), as well as the doxorubicin-induced increase in mitochondrial membrane potential (measured by JC-1 assay). Furthermore, sulforaphane increased the mRNA and protein expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, measured by RT-qPCR), which consequently reduced the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS, measured using MitoSOX Red reagent) in the mitochondria which were induced by doxorubicin. The cardioprotective effects of sulforaphane were found to be mediated by the activation of the Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1)/NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant-responsive element (ARE) pathway, which in turn mediates the induction of HO-1. Taken together, the findings of this study demonstrate that sulforaphane prevents doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress and cell death in H9c2 cells through the induction of HO-1 expression. PMID:25936432

  19. Sulforaphane Potentiates the Efficacy of 17-Allylamino 17-Demethoxygeldanamycin Against Pancreatic Cancer Through Enhanced Abrogation of Hsp90 Chaperone Function

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanyan; Zhang, Tao; Schwartz, Steven J.; Sun, Duxin

    2013-01-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), an essential molecular chaperone that regulates the stability of a wide range of oncogenic proteins, is a promising target for cancer therapeutics. We investigated the combination efficacy and potential mechanisms of sulforaphane, a dietary component from broccoli and broccoli sprouts, and 17-allylamino 17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), an Hsp90 inhibitor, in pancreatic cancer. MTS assay demonstrated that sulforaphane sensitized pancreatic cancer cells to 17-AAG in vitro. Caspase-3 was activated to 6.4-fold in response to simultaneous treatment with sulforaphane and 17-AAG, whereas 17-AAG alone induced caspase-3 activity to 2-fold compared to control. ATP binding assay and coimmunoprecipitation revealed that sulforaphane disrupted Hsp90-p50Cdc37 interaction, whereas 17-AAG inhibited ATP binding to Hsp90. Concomitant use of sulforaphane and 17-AAG synergistically downregulated Hsp90 client proteins in Mia Paca-2 cells. Co-administration of sulforaphane and 17-AAG in pancreatic cancer xenograft model led to more than 70% inhibition of the tumor growth, whereas 17-AAG alone only suppressed the tumor growth by 50%. Our data suggest that sulforaphane potentiates the efficacy of 17-AAG against pancreatic cancer through enhanced abrogation of Hsp90 function. These findings provide a rationale for further evaluation of broccoli/broccoli sprout preparations combined with 17-AAG for better efficacy and lower dose-limiting toxicity in pancreatic cancer. PMID:21875325

  20. Sulforaphane prevents doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress and cell death in rat H9c2 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Kim, Do Sung; Yadav, Raj Kumar; Kim, Hyung Ryong; Chae, Han Jung

    2015-07-01

    Sulforaphane, a natural isothiocyanate compound found in cruciferous vegetables, has been shown to exert cardioprotective effects during ischemic heart injury. However, the effects of sulforaphane on cardiotoxicity induced by doxorubicin are unknown. Thus, in the present study, H9c2 rat myoblasts were pre-treated with sulforaphane and its effects on cardiotoxicity were then examined. The results revealed that the pre-treatment of H9c2 rat myoblasts with sulforaphane decreased the apoptotic cell number (as shown by trypan blue exclusion assay) and the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax, caspase-3 and cytochrome c; as shown by western blot analysis and immunostaining), as well as the doxorubicin-induced increase in mitochondrial membrane potential (measured by JC-1 assay). Furthermore, sulforaphane increased the mRNA and protein expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, measured by RT-qPCR), which consequently reduced the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS, measured using MitoSOX Red reagent) in the mitochondria which were induced by doxorubicin. The cardioprotective effects of sulforaphane were found to be mediated by the activation of the Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1)/NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant-responsive element (ARE) pathway, which in turn mediates the induction of HO-1. Taken together, the findings of this study demonstrate that sulforaphane prevents doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress and cell death in H9c2 cells through the induction of HO-1 expression.

  1. Photothrombosis-Induced Infarction of the Mouse Cerebral Cortex Is Not Affected by the Nrf2-Activator Sulforaphane

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Linda; Nilsson, Åsa; Pekna, Marcela; Pekny, Milos; Nilsson, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Sulforaphane-induced activation of the transcription factor NF-E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2 or the gene Nfe2l2) and subsequent induction of the phase II antioxidant system has previously been shown to exert neuroprotective action in a transient model of focal cerebral ischemia. However, its ability to attenuate functional and cellular deficits after permanent focal cerebral ischemia is not clear. We assessed the neuroprotective effects of sulforaphane in the photothrombotic model of permanent focal cerebral ischemia. Sulforaphane was administered (5 or 50 mg/kg, i.p.) after ischemic onset either as a single dose or as daily doses for 3 days. Sulforaphane increased transcription of Nrf2, Hmox1, GCLC and GSTA4 mRNA in the brain confirming activation of the Nrf2 system. Single or repeated administration of sulforaphane had no effect on the infarct volume, nor did it reduce the number of activated glial cells or proliferating cells when analyzed 24 and 72 h after stroke. Motor-function as assessed by beam-walking, cylinder-test, and adhesive test, did not improve after sulforaphane treatment. The results show that sulforaphane treatment initiated after photothrombosis-induced permanent cerebral ischemia does not interfere with key cellular mechanisms underlying tissue damage. PMID:22911746

  2. Photothrombosis-induced infarction of the mouse cerebral cortex is not affected by the Nrf2-activator sulforaphane.

    PubMed

    Porritt, Michelle J; Andersson, Helene C; Hou, Linda; Nilsson, Åsa; Pekna, Marcela; Pekny, Milos; Nilsson, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Sulforaphane-induced activation of the transcription factor NF-E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2 or the gene Nfe2l2) and subsequent induction of the phase II antioxidant system has previously been shown to exert neuroprotective action in a transient model of focal cerebral ischemia. However, its ability to attenuate functional and cellular deficits after permanent focal cerebral ischemia is not clear. We assessed the neuroprotective effects of sulforaphane in the photothrombotic model of permanent focal cerebral ischemia. Sulforaphane was administered (5 or 50 mg/kg, i.p.) after ischemic onset either as a single dose or as daily doses for 3 days. Sulforaphane increased transcription of Nrf2, Hmox1, GCLC and GSTA4 mRNA in the brain confirming activation of the Nrf2 system. Single or repeated administration of sulforaphane had no effect on the infarct volume, nor did it reduce the number of activated glial cells or proliferating cells when analyzed 24 and 72 h after stroke. Motor-function as assessed by beam-walking, cylinder-test, and adhesive test, did not improve after sulforaphane treatment. The results show that sulforaphane treatment initiated after photothrombosis-induced permanent cerebral ischemia does not interfere with key cellular mechanisms underlying tissue damage.

  3. AMPK activation caused by reduced liver lactate metabolism protects against hepatic steatosis in MCT1 haploinsufficient mice.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Lionel; Asrih, Mohamed; Repond, Cendrine; Sempoux, Christine; Stehle, Jean-Christophe; Leloup, Corinne; Jornayvaz, François R; Pellerin, Luc

    2017-12-01

    Hepatic steatosis is the first step leading to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which represents a major complication of obesity. Here, we show that MCT1 haploinsufficient mice resist to hepatic steatosis development when fed a high fat diet. They exhibit a reduced hepatic capacity to metabolize monocarboxylates such as lactate compared to wildtype mice. To understand how this resistance to steatosis develops, we used HFD fed wildtype mice with hepatic steatosis and MCT1 haploinsufficient mice to study hepatic metabolism. AMPK is constitutively activated in the liver of MCT1 haploinsufficient mice, leading to an inactivation of SREBP1. Therefore, expression of key transcription factors for lipid metabolism, such as PPARα and γ, CHREB, or SREBP1 itself, as well as several enzymes including FAS and CPT1, was not upregulated in these mice when fed a high fat diet. It is proposed that reduced hepatic lactate metabolism is responsible for the protection against hepatic steatosis in MCT1 haploinsufficient mice via a constitutive activation of AMPK and repression of several major elements involved in hepatic lipid metabolism. Our results support a role of increased lactate uptake in hepatocytes during HFD that, in turn, induce a metabolic shift stimulating SREBP1 activity and lipid accumulation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  4. Arg354 in the catalytic centre of bovine liver catalase is protected from methylglyoxal-mediated glycation.

    PubMed

    Scheckhuber, Christian Q

    2015-12-30

    In addition to controlled post-translational modifications proteins can be modified with highly reactive compounds. Usually this leads to a compromised functionality of the protein. Methylglyoxal is one of the most common agents that attack arginine residues. Methylglyoxal is also regarded as a pro-oxidant that affects cellular redox homeostasis by contributing to the formation of reactive oxygen species. Antioxidant enzymes like catalase are required to protect the cell from oxidative damage. These enzymes are also targets for methylglyoxal-mediated modification which could severely affect their catalytic activity in breaking down reactive oxygen species to less reactive or inert compounds. Here, bovine liver catalase was incubated with high levels of methylglyoxal to induce its glycation. This treatment did not lead to a pronounced reduction of enzymatic activity. Subsequently methylglyoxal-mediated arginine modifications (hydroimidazolone and dihydroxyimidazolidine) were quantitatively analysed by sensitive nano high performance liquid chromatography/electron spray ionisation/tandem mass spectrometry. Whereas several arginine residues displayed low to moderate levels of glycation (e.g., Arg93, Arg365, Arg444) Arg354 in the active centre of catalase was never found to be modified. Bovine liver catalase is able to tolerate very high levels of the modifying α-oxoaldehyde methylglyoxal so that its essential enzymatic function is not impaired.

  5. Protective effects of rosuvastatin and vitamin E against fipronil-mediated oxidative damage and apoptosis in rat liver and kidney.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M; Abdeen, Ahmed

    2018-04-01

    Fipronil (FPN) is a phenylpyrazole insecticide that is extensively used in agriculture and veterinary applications. However, FPN is also a potent environmental toxicant to animals and humans. Therefore, the current study aimed to investigate the protective role of rosuvastatin (ROSU) and vitamin E (Vit E) against FPN-induced hepatorenal toxicity in albino rats. Seven groups with eight rats each were used for this purpose; these groups included the control vehicle group that received corn oil, the Vit E group (1000 mg/kg, orally), the ROSU group (10 mg/kg, orally), the FPN group (20 mg/kg, orally), the FPN-ROSU group, the FPN-Vit E group, and the FPN-Vit E-ROSU group. The results revealed that FPN significantly increased serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, cholesterol, urea, and creatinine. In addition, there were substantial increases in the liver and kidney contents of malondialdehyde and nitric oxide, along with significant decreases in glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. FPN also caused histological changes and increased the expression of caspase-3 in the liver and kidney tissues. However, administration of ROSU and Vit E alone or in combination ameliorated the FPN-induced oxidative damage and apoptosis, possibly through their antioxidant properties. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Heme oxygenase-1 upregulated by Ginkgo biloba extract: potential protection against ethanol-induced oxidative liver damage.

    PubMed

    Yao, Ping; Li, Ke; Song, Fangfang; Zhou, Shaoliang; Sun, Xiufa; Zhang, Xiping; Nüssler, Andreas K; Liu, Liegang

    2007-08-01

    Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis and progression of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and HO-1 induction is suggested to protect hepatocytes from ethanol hepatotoxicity. Here, we present the data to explore the hepatoprotective effect and underlying mechanism(s) of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGB), a naturally occurring HO-1 inducer, against ethanol-induced oxidative damage. Ethanol-fed (2.4 g/kg) male rats were pretreated by EGB (48 or 96 mg/kg) for 90 days. Liver damage was evaluated by histopathology and serum aminotransferase assay. Hepatic redox parameters were measured by spectrophotometry. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression was determined by RT-PCR and flow cytometry on mRNA and protein level, respectively. Our results showed that EGB, especially at high dose, ameliorated ethanol-induced macrovesicular steatosis and parenchymatous degeneration in hepatocytes, and decreased serum aminotransferases level. Furthermore, EGB reduced ethanol-derived glutathione depletion and lipid peroxidation, and inhibited the inactivation of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase, although EGB itself had no influence on such parameters. Importantly, EGB induced hepatic microsomal HO-1 on mRNA, protein expression and enzymatic activity, which is paralleled to the EGB-derived hepatoprotective effect. Hence, HO-1 upregulation by EGB may enhance the antioxidative capacity against the ethanol-induced oxidative stress and maintain the cellular redox balance.

  7. Blocking NMDA receptors delays death in rats with acute liver failure by dual protective mechanisms in kidney and brain.

    PubMed

    Cauli, Omar; González-Usano, Alba; Cabrera-Pastor, Andrea; Gimenez-Garzó, Carla; López-Larrubia, Pilar; Ruiz-Sauri, Amparo; Hernández-Rabaza, Vicente; Duszczyk, Malgorzata; Malek, Michal; Lazarewicz, Jerzy W; Carratalá, Arturo; Urios, Amparo; Miguel, Alfonso; Torregrosa, Isidro; Carda, Carmen; Montoliu, Carmina; Felipo, Vicente

    2014-06-01

    Treatment of patients with acute liver failure (ALF) is unsatisfactory and mortality remains unacceptably high. Blocking NMDA receptors delays or prevents death of rats with ALF. The underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Clarifying these mechanisms will help to design more efficient treatments to increase patient's survival. The aim of this work was to shed light on the mechanisms by which blocking NMDA receptors delays rat's death in ALF. ALF was induced by galactosamine injection. NMDA receptors were blocked by continuous MK-801 administration. Edema and cerebral blood flow were assessed by magnetic resonance. The time course of ammonia levels in brain, muscle, blood, and urine; of glutamine, lactate, and water content in brain; of glomerular filtration rate and kidney damage; and of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and intracranial pressure was assessed. ALF reduces kidney glomerular filtration rate (GFR) as reflected by reduced inulin clearance. GFR reduction is due to both reduced renal perfusion and kidney tubular damage as reflected by increased Kim-1 in urine and histological analysis. Blocking NMDA receptors delays kidney damage, allowing transient increased GFR and ammonia elimination which delays hyperammonemia and associated changes in brain. Blocking NMDA receptors does not prevent cerebral edema or blood-brain barrier permeability but reduces or prevents changes in cerebral blood flow and brain lactate. The data show that dual protective effects of MK-801 in kidney and brain delay cerebral alterations, HE, intracranial pressure increase and death. NMDA receptors antagonists may increase survival of patients with ALF by providing additional time for liver transplantation or regeneration.

  8. Protective effect of ginger and zinc chloride mixture on the liver and kidney alterations induced by malathion toxicity.

    PubMed

    Baiomy, Ahmed A; Attia, Hossam F; Soliman, Mohamed M; Makrum, Omar

    2015-03-01

    This study was carried out on four groups of male Wistar rats, 10 rats per group. Group I got open access to food intake and water with normal balanced diet. Group II was administered 400 mg ginger per kg body weight (BW) and zinc chloride (ZnCl2) (300 mg/L) diluted in tap water for 4 months. Group III was administered malathion at a dose of 50 mg/kg BW/day in 0.2 mL corn oil via gavages for 4 months. This dose equal to 1/50 of the LD50. Group IV was given a mixture of 400 mg ginger per kg BW and ZnCl2 (300 mg/L) diluted in tap water in addition to 100 mg malathion/kg BW for 4 months. The liver showed histopathological changes include congestion, edema, and leucocytic infiltrations which were ameliorated by the addition of ginger and ZnCl2 mixture. The kidney showed cloudy swelling and hydropic degeneration of the renal tubules. These changes were ameliorated by the addition of ginger and ZnCl2 mixture. Ki67 immunoreactivity was localized in the cytoplasm and nuclear membrane. Its expression was estimated as the percentage of cells positively stained by the antibody in the different groups. In conclusion, malathion was toxic to the liver and kidney and must be avoided and protected by the addition of ginger and zinc mixture. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase protects the liver from inflammation and fibrosis by maintaining cholesterol homeostasis[S

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hailiang; Pathak, Preeti; Boehme, Shannon; Chiang, John Y. L.

    2016-01-01

    Cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) plays a critical role in control of bile acid and cholesterol homeostasis. Bile acids activate farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and Takeda G protein-coupled receptor 5 (TGR5) to regulate lipid, glucose, and energy metabolism. However, the role of bile acids in hepatic inflammation and fibrosis remains unclear. In this study, we showed that adenovirus-mediated overexpression of Cyp7a1 ameliorated lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory cell infiltration and pro-inflammatory cytokine production in WT and TGR5-deficient (Tgr5−/−) mice, but not in FXR-deficient (Fxr−/−) mice, suggesting that bile acid signaling through FXR protects against hepatic inflammation. Nuclear factor κ light-chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB)-luciferase reporter assay showed that FXR agonists significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced NF-κB activity. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation and mammalian two-hybrid assays showed that ligand-activated FXR interacted with NF-κB and blocked recruitment of steroid receptor coactivator-1 to cytokine promoter and resulted in inhibition of NF-κB activity. Methionine/choline-deficient (MCD) diet increased hepatic inflammation, free cholesterol, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and fibrosis in CYP7A1-deficient (Cyp7a1−/−) mice compared with WT mice. Remarkably, adenovirus-mediated overexpression of Cyp7a1 effectively reduced hepatic free cholesterol and oxidative stress and reversed hepatic inflammation and fibrosis in MCD diet-fed Cyp7a1−/− mice. Current studies suggest that increased Cyp7a1 expression and bile acid synthesis ameliorate hepatic inflammation through activation of FXR, whereas reduced bile acid synthesis aggravates MCD diet-induced hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. Maintaining bile acid and cholesterol homeostasis is important for protecting against liver injury and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:27534992

  10. Garlic essential oil protects against obesity-triggered nonalcoholic fatty liver disease through modulation of lipid metabolism and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yi-Syuan; Chen, Wei-Cheng; Ho, Chi-Tang; Lu, Kuan-Hung; Lin, Shih-Hang; Tseng, Hui-Chun; Lin, Shuw-Yuan; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2014-06-25

    This study investigated the protective properties of garlic essential oil (GEO) and its major organosulfur component (diallyl disulfide, DADS) against the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal or high-fat diet (HFD) with/without GEO (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg) or DADS (10 and 20 mg/kg) for 12 weeks. GEO and DADS dose-dependently exerted antiobesity and antihyperlipidemic effects by reducing HFD-induced body weight gain, adipose tissue weight, and serum biochemical parameters. Administration of 50 and 100 mg/kg GEO and 20 mg/kg DADS significantly decreased the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in liver, accompanied by elevated antioxidant capacity via inhibition of cytochrome P450 2E1 expression during NAFLD development. The anti-NAFLD effects of GEO and DADS were mediated through down-regulation of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase, and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, as well as stimulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1. These results demonstrate that GEO and DADS dose-dependently protected obese mice with long-term HFD-induced NAFLD from lipid accumulation, inflammation, and oxidative damage by ameliorating lipid metabolic disorders and oxidative stress. The dose of 20 mg/kg DADS was equally as effective in preventing NAFLD as 50 mg/kg GEO containing the same amount of DADS, which demonstrates that DADS may be the main bioactive component in GEO.

  11. Protective effects of coffee-derived compounds on lipopolysaccharide/D-galactosamine induced acute liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Akashi, Iwao; Kagami, Keisuke; Hirano, Toshihiko; Oka, Kitaro

    2009-04-01

    The protective effects of coffee-derived compounds on lipopolysaccharide/D-galactosamine (LPS/D-GalN) induced acute liver injury in rats were investigated. Wistar rats were orally administered saline (control) or one of the test compounds (caffeine, chlorogenic acid, trigonelline, nicotinic acid or eight pyrazinoic acids) at a dose of 100 mg/kg, respectively. This was followed by intraperitoneal injection with LPS (100 mug/kg)/D-GalN (250 mg/kg) 1 h after administration of the test compounds. Blood samples were collected up to 12 h after LPS/D-GalN injection, followed by determination of plasma aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin 10 (IL-10) levels. Plasma aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels were significantly increased after LPS/D-GalN-treatment, but were suppressed by pretreatment with caffeine (n = 5), nicotinic acid, non-substituted pyrazinoic acid or 5-methylpyrazinoic acid (n = 6, respectively) 12 h after LPS/D-GalN-treatment (P < 0.01, respectively). Moreover, the animals pretreated with these test compounds showed significantly higher survival rates (83-100%) compared with the control (23%). Only pretreatment with caffeine significantly suppressed the LPS/D-GalN induced elevation of plasma TNF-alpha levels 1 and 2 h after LPS/D-GalN-treatment (P < 0.01, respectively). Pretreatment with caffeine, nicotinic acid or non-substituted pyrazinoic acid activated the LPS/D-GalN induced elevation of plasma IL-10 levels at 1 and 2 h, although there were no statistically significant differences in IL-10 levels between control and nicotinic acid or non-substituted pyrazinoic acid treated rats. The results suggest that caffeine, nicotinic acid, non-substituted pyrazinoic acid and 5-methylpyrazinoic acid can protect against LPS/D-GalN induced acute liver injury, which may be mediated by the reduction of TNF-alpha production and/or increasing IL-10 production.

  12. Sulforaphane Upregulates the Heat Shock Protein Co-Chaperone CHIP and Clears Amyloid-β and Tau in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Siyoung; Choi, Bo-Ryoung; Kim, Jisung; LaFerla, Frank M; Park, Jung Han Yoon; Han, Jung-Soo; Lee, Ki Won; Kim, Jiyoung

    2018-04-30

    Sulforaphane is an herbal isothiocyanate enriched in cruciferous vegetables. Here, the authors investigate whether sulforaphane modulates the production of amyloid-β (Aβ) and tau, the two main pathological factors in Alzheimer's disease (AD). A triple transgenic mouse model of AD (3 × Tg-AD) is used to study the effect of sulforaphane. Oral gavage of sulforaphane reduces protein levels of monomeric and polymeric forms of Aβ as well as tau and phosphorylated tau in 3 × Tg-AD mice. However, sulforaphane treatment do not affect mRNA expression of amyloid precursor protein or tau. As previous studies show that Aβ and tau metabolism are influenced by a heat shock protein (HSP) co-chaperone, C-terminus of HSP70-interacting protein (CHIP), the authors examine whether sulforaphane can modulate CHIP. The authors find that sulforaphane treatment increase levels of CHIP and HSP70. Furthermore, observations of CHIP-deficient primary neurons derived from 3 × Tg-AD mice suggest that sulforaphane treatment increase CHIP level and clear the accumulation of Aβ and tau. Finally, sulforaphane ameliorated memory deficits in 3 × Tg-AD mice as reveal by novel object/location recognition tests and contextual fear conditioning tests. These results demonstrate that sulforaphane treatment upregulates CHIP and has the potential to decrease the accumulation of Aβ and tau in patients with AD. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Sulforaphane suppresses LPS-induced inflammation in primary rat microglia.

    PubMed

    Brandenburg, Lars-Ove; Kipp, Markus; Lucius, Ralph; Pufe, Thomas; Wruck, Christoph J

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the signal transduction pathways involved in sulforaphane (SF) mediated inhibition of the inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Additionally, we investigated the effects of SF and LPS on the activity of Nrf2. Primary rat microglia and the murine microglia cell line BV2 were used. Cells were treated with LPS with or without SF. Cell viability was measured via WST-assay. Real-time RT-PCR was performed to analyze cytokine mRNA levels. The nitric oxide (NO) release was measured in LPS-stimulated microglia. The induction of various signal transduction pathways and Nrf2 was determined by Western blotting. NF-kappaB and AP-1 activation was measured by dual luciferase assay. We showed that SF attenuates the LPS-induced increase of IL-1beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha expression in microglia. In addition, SF significantly decreases the NO in a concentration-dependent manner. SF inhibits LPS-stimulated ERK1/2 and JNK phosphorylation and thereby inhibits the LPS-induced activation of NF-kappaB- and activator protein-1 (AP-1). Moreover, SF and LPS together are able to induce Nrf2 activation. We showed that SF, and also LPS by itself, are able to activate the cell's defence against oxidative and electrophilic stress. We conclude that SF could be a candidate agent for anti-inflammatory treatment of the central nervous system.

  14. Changes in SeMSC, glucosinolates and sulforaphane levels, and in proteome profile in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Italica) fertilized with sodium selenate.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda, Ignacio; Barrientos, Herna; Mahn, Andrea; Moenne, Alejandra

    2013-05-07

    The aim of this work was to analyze the effect of sodium selenate fortification on the content of selenomethyl selenocysteine (SeMSC), total glucosinolates and sulforaphane, as well as the changes in protein profile of the inflorescences of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Italica). Two experimental groups were considered: plants treated with 100 μmol/L sodium selenate (final concentration in the pot) and control plants treated with water. Fortification began 2 weeks after transplantation and was repeated once a week during 10 weeks. Broccoli florets were harvested when they reached appropriate size. SeMSC content in broccoli florets increased significantly with sodium selenate fortification; but total glucosinolates and sulforaphane content as well as myrosinase activity were not affected. The protein profile of broccoli florets changed due to fortification with sodium selenate. Some proteins involved in general stress-responses were up-regulated, whereas down-regulated proteins were identified as proteins involved in protection against pathogens. This is the first attempt to evaluate the physiological effect of fortification with sodium selenate on broccoli at protein level. The results of this work will contribute to better understanding the metabolic processes related with selenium uptake and accumulation in broccoli.

  15. l-Methionine and silymarin: A comparison of prophylactic protective capabilities in acetaminophen-induced injuries of the liver, kidney and cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Onaolapo, Olakunle J; Adekola, Moses A; Azeez, Taiwo O; Salami, Karimat; Onaolapo, Adejoke Y

    2017-01-01

    We compared the relative protective abilities of silymarin and l-methionine pre-treatment in acetaminophen overdose injuries of the liver, kidney and cerebral cortex by assessing behaviours, antioxidant status, tissue histological changes and biochemical parameters of hepatic/renal function. Rats were divided into six groups of ten each; animals in five of these groups were pre-treated with oral distilled water, silymarin (25mg/kg) or l-methionine (2.5, 5 and 10mg/kg body weight) for 14days; and then administered intraperitoneal (i.p.) acetaminophen at 800mg/kg/day for 3days. Rats in the sixth group (normal control) received distilled water orally for 14days and then i.p. for 3days. Neurobehavioural tests were conducted 7days after last i.p treatment, and animals sacrificed on the 8th day. Plasma was assayed for biochemical markers of liver/kidney function; while sections of the liver, kidney and cerebral cortex were either homogenised for assay of antioxidant status or processed for histology. Acetaminophen overdose resulted in locomotor retardation, excessive self-grooming, working-memory impairment, anxiety, derangement of liver/kidney biochemistry, antioxidant imbalance, and histological changes in the liver, kidney and cerebral cortex. Administration of silymarin or increasing doses of l-methionine counteracted the behavioural changes, reversed biochemical indices of liver/kidney injury, and improved antioxidant activity. Silymarin and l-methionine also conferred variable degrees of tissue protection, on histology. Either silymarin or l-methionine can protect vulnerable tissues from acetaminophen overdose injury; however, each offers variable protection to different tissues. This study highlights an obstacle to seeking the 'ideal' protective agent against acetaminophen overdose. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Chemoprophylaxis with sporozoite immunization in P. knowlesi rhesus monkeys confers protection and elicits sporozoite-specific memory T cells in the liver

    PubMed Central

    Spring, Michele D.; Yongvanitchit, Kosol; Kum-Arb, Utaiwan; Limsalakpetch, Amporn; Im-Erbsin, Rawiwan; Ubalee, Ratawan; Vanachayangkul, Pattaraporn; Remarque, Edmond J.; Angov, Evelina; Smith, Philip L.; Saunders, David L.

    2017-01-01

    Whole malaria sporozoite vaccine regimens are promising new strategies, and some candidates have demonstrated high rates of durable clinical protection associated with memory T cell responses. Little is known about the anatomical distribution of memory T cells following whole sporozoite vaccines, and immunization of nonhuman primates can be used as a relevant model for humans. We conducted a chemoprophylaxis with sporozoite (CPS) immunization in P. knowlesi rhesus monkeys and challenged via mosquito bites. Half of CPS immunized animals developed complete protection, with a marked delay in parasitemia demonstrated in the other half. Antibody responses to whole sporozoites, CSP, and AMA1, but not CelTOS were detected. Peripheral blood T cell responses to whole sporozoites, but not CSP and AMA1 peptides were observed. Unlike peripheral blood, there was a high frequency of sporozoite-specific memory T cells observed in the liver and bone marrow. Interestingly, sporozoite-specific CD4+ and CD8+ memory T cells in the liver highly expressed chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR6, both of which are known for liver sinusoid homing. The majority of liver sporozoite-specific memory T cells expressed CD69, a phenotypic marker of tissue-resident memory (TRM) cells, which are well positioned to rapidly control liver-stage infection. Vaccine strategies that aim to elicit large number of liver TRM cells may efficiently increase the efficacy and durability of response against pre-erythrocytic parasites. PMID:28182750

  17. A small-molecule inhibitor of NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK) protects liver from toxin-induced inflammation, oxidative stress, and injury.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiaomeng; Li, Xinzhi; Jia, Linna; Chen, Deheng; Hou, Hai; Rui, Liangyou; Zhao, Yujun; Chen, Zheng

    2017-02-01

    Potent and selective chemical probes are valuable tools for discovery of novel treatments for human diseases. NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK) is a key trigger in the development of liver injury and fibrosis. Whether inhibition of NIK activity by chemical probes ameliorates liver inflammation and injury is largely unknown. In this study, a small-molecule inhibitor of NIK, B022, was found to be a potent and selective chemical probe for liver inflammation and injury. B022 inhibited the NIK signaling pathway, including NIK-induced p100-to-p52 processing and inflammatory gene expression, both in vitro and in vivo Furthermore, in vivo administration of B022 protected against not only NIK but also CCl 4 -induced liver inflammation and injury. Our data suggest that inhibition of NIK is a novel strategy for treatment of liver inflammation, oxidative stress, and injury.-Ren, X., Li, X., Jia, L., Chen, D., Hou, H., Rui, L., Zhao, Y., Chen, Z. A small-molecule inhibitor of NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK) protects liver from toxin-induced inflammation, oxidative stress, and injury. © FASEB.

  18. A novel antithrombotic effect of sulforaphane via activation of platelet adenylate cyclase: ex vivo and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Jayakumar, Thanasekaran; Chen, Wei-Fan; Lu, Wan-Jung; Chou, Duen-Suey; Hsiao, George; Hsu, Chung-Yi; Sheu, Joen-Rong; Hsieh, Cheng-Ying

    2013-06-01

    Sulforaphane is a naturally occurring isothiocyanate, which can be found in cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli and cabbage. Sulforaphane was found to have very potent inhibitory effects on tumor growth through regulation of diverse mechanisms. However, no data are available concerning the effects of sulforaphane on platelet activation and its relative issues. Activation of platelets caused by arterial thrombosis is relevant to a variety of cardiovascular diseases. Hence, the aim of this study was to examine the in vivo antithrombotic effects of sulforaphane and its possible mechanisms in platelet activation. Sulforaphane (0.125 and 0.25 mg/kg) was effective in reducing the mortality of ADP-induced acute pulmonary thromboembolism in mice. Other in vivo studies also revealed that sulforaphane (0.25 mg/kg) significantly prolonged platelet plug formation in mice. In addition, sulforaphane (15-75 μM) exhibited more-potent activity of inhibiting platelet aggregation stimulated by collagen. Sulforaphane inhibited platelet activation accompanied by inhibiting relative Ca(2+) mobilization; phosphorylation of phospholipase C (PLC)γ2, protein kinase C (PKC), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and Akt; and hydroxyl radical (OH(●)) formation. Sulforaphane markedly increased cyclic (c)AMP, but not cyclic (c)GMP levels, and stimulated vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation. SQ22536, an inhibitor of adenylate cyclase, but not ODQ (1H-[1,2,4]Oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxal in-1-one), an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase, obviously reversed the sulforaphane-mediated effects on platelet aggregation; PKC activation, p38 MAPK, Akt and VASP phosphorylation; and OH(●) formation. Furthermore, a PI3-kinase inhibitor (LY294002) and a p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB203580) both significantly diminished PKC activation and p38 MAPK and Akt phosphorylation; in contrast, a PKC inhibitor (RO318220) did not diminish p38 MAPK or Akt phosphorylation stimulated by collagen. This

  19. Protective role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α-dependent CD39 and CD73 in fulminant acute liver failure

    SciTech Connect

    Tak, Eunyoung

    Acute liver failure (ALF) is a severe life-threatening disease which usually arises in patients with-irreversible liver illnesses. Although human ectonucleotide triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-1, E-NTPDase1 (CD39) and ecto-5′-nucleotidase, Ecto5′NTase (CD73) are known to protect tissues from ALF, the expression and function of CD39 and CD73 during ALF are currently not fully investigated. We tested whether CD39 and CD73 are upregulated by hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α, and improve ischemic tolerance to ALF. To test our hypothesis, liver biopsies were obtained and we found that CD39 and CD73 mRNA and proteins from human specimens were dramatically elevated in ALF. We investigated that induction ofmore » CD39 and CD73 in ALF-related with wild type mice. In contrast, deletion of cd39 and cd73 mice has severe ALF. In this study, we concluded that CD39 and CD73 are molecular targets for the development of drugs for ALF patients care. - Highlights: • HIF-1a is stabilized during acute liver failure • Upregulation of CD39 and CD73 following acute liver failure • CD39 and CD73 are transcriptionally induced by HIF-1a • Deletion of Cd39 and CD73 aggravates murine acute liver failure • DMOG treatment induces HIF-1a stabilization, CD39 and CD73 during acute liver failure in WT mice.« less

  20. Sulforaphane alleviates muscular dystrophy in mdx mice by activation of Nrf2.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chengcao; Yang, Cuili; Xue, Ruilin; Li, Shujun; Zhang, Ting; Pan, Lei; Ma, Xuejiao; Wang, Liang; Li, Dejia

    2015-01-15

    Sulforaphane (SFN), one of the most important isothiocyanates in the human diet, is known to have chemo-preventive and antioxidant activities in different tissues via activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated induction of antioxidant/phase II enzymes, such as heme oxygenase-1 and NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1. However, its effects on muscular dystrophy remain unknown. This work was undertaken to evaluate the effects of SFN on Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Four-week-old mdx mice were treated with SFN by gavage (2 mg·kg body wt(-1)·day(-1) for 8 wk), and our results demonstrated that SFN treatment increased the expression and activity of muscle phase II enzymes NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 and heme oxygenase-1 with a Nrf2-dependent manner. SFN significantly increased skeletal muscle mass, muscle force (∼30%), running distance (∼20%), and GSH-to-GSSG ratio (∼3.2-fold) of mdx mice and decreased the activities of plasma creatine phosphokinase (∼45%) and lactate dehydrogenase (∼40%), gastrocnemius hypertrophy (∼25%), myocardial hypertrophy (∼20%), and malondialdehyde levels (∼60%). Furthermore, SFN treatment also reduced the central nucleation (∼40%), fiber size variability, and inflammation and improved the sarcolemmal integrity of mdx mice. Collectively, these results show that SFN can improve muscle function and pathology and protect dystrophic muscle from oxidative damage in mdx mice associated with Nrf2 signaling pathway, which indicate Nrf2 may have clinical implications for the treatment of patients with muscular dystrophy. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Sulforaphane attenuates the development of atherosclerosis and improves endothelial dysfunction in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Shehatou, George S G; Suddek, Ghada M

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present work was to explore possible protective effects of sulforaphane (SFN) against atherosclerosis development and endothelial dysfunction in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Rabbits were assigned to three groups of five: group I fed normal chow diet for four weeks, group II fed 1% high cholesterol diet (HCD) and group III fed HCD + SFN (0.25 mg/kg/day). Blood samples were collected for measurement of serum triglycerides (TGs), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Aortic malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and total nitrite/nitrate (NOx) were measured. Vascular reactivity and intima/media (I/M) ratio were analyzed. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation in aortic endothelial cells was identified immunohistochemically. HCD induced significant increases in serum TGs, TC, LDL-C, LDH, and CRP, and aortic MDA and SOD. Moreover, HCD caused significant reductions in serum HDL-C, aortic GSH and NOx. SFN administration significantly decreased HCD-induced elevations in serum TC, LDL-C, CRP, and LDH. while significantly increased HDL-C and GSH levels and normalized aortic SOD and NOx. Additionally, SFN significantly improved rabbit aortic endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine. Moreover, SFN significantly reduced the elevation in I/M ratio. This effect was confirmed by aortic histopathologic examination. The expression of NF-κB in aortic tissue showed a marked reduction upon treatment with SFN. In conclusion, this study reveals that SFN has the ability to ameliorate HCD-induced atherosclerotic lesions progression and vascular dysfunction, possibly via its lipid-lowering and antioxidant effects and suppression of NF-κB-mediated inflammation. © 2016 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  2. Sulforaphane attenuates the development of atherosclerosis and improves endothelial dysfunction in hypercholesterolemic rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Suddek, Ghada M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to explore possible protective effects of sulforaphane (SFN) against atherosclerosis development and endothelial dysfunction in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Rabbits were assigned to three groups of five: group I fed normal chow diet for four weeks, group II fed 1% high cholesterol diet (HCD) and group III fed HCD + SFN (0.25 mg/kg/day). Blood samples were collected for measurement of serum triglycerides (TGs), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Aortic malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and total nitrite/nitrate (NOx) were measured. Vascular reactivity and intima/media (I/M) ratio were analyzed. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation in aortic endothelial cells was identified immunohistochemically. HCD induced significant increases in serum TGs, TC, LDL-C, LDH, and CRP, and aortic MDA and SOD. Moreover, HCD caused significant reductions in serum HDL-C, aortic GSH and NOx. SFN administration significantly decreased HCD-induced elevations in serum TC, LDL-C, CRP, and LDH. while significantly increased HDL-C and GSH levels and normalized aortic SOD and NOx. Additionally, SFN significantly improved rabbit aortic endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine. Moreover, SFN significantly reduced the elevation in I/M ratio. This effect was confirmed by aortic histopathologic examination. The expression of NF-κB in aortic tissue showed a marked reduction upon treatment with SFN. In conclusion, this study reveals that SFN has the ability to ameliorate HCD-induced atherosclerotic lesions progression and vascular dysfunction, possibly via its lipid-lowering and antioxidant effects and suppression of NF-κB-mediated inflammation. PMID:26490346

  3. Sulforaphane, a natural constituent of broccoli, prevents cell death and inflammation in nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Beltrán, Carlos Enrique; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Horváth, Béla; Rajesh, Mohanraj; Tapia, Edilia; García-Torres, Itzhel; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Pacher, Pál

    2012-05-01

    Cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II, CIS) is a potent and widely used chemotherapeutic agent to treat various malignancies, but its therapeutic use is limited because of dose-dependent nephrotoxicity. Cell death and inflammation play a key role in the development and progression of CIS-induced nephropathy. Sulforaphane (SFN), a natural constituent of cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, Brussels sprouts, etc., has been shown to exert various protective effects in models of tissue injury and cancer. In this study, we have investigated the role of prosurvival, cell death and inflammatory signaling pathways using a rodent model of CIS-induced nephropathy, and explored the effects of SFN on these processes. Cisplatin triggered marked activation of stress signaling pathways [p53, Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38-α mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)] and promoted cell death in the kidneys (increased DNA fragmentation, caspases-3/7 activity, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated uridine triphosphate nick-end labeling), associated with attenuation of various prosurvival signaling pathways [e.g., extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38-β MAPK]. Cisplatin also markedly enhanced inflammation in the kidneys [promoted NF-κB activation, increased expression of adhesion molecules ICAM and VCAM, enhanced tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels and inflamma