Science.gov

Sample records for sulfur anomalous signal

  1. Anomalous fractionations of sulfur isotopes during thermochemical sulfate reduction.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yumiko; Farquhar, James; Ohmoto, Hiroshi

    2009-04-17

    Anomalously fractionated sulfur isotopes in many sedimentary rocks older than 2.4 billion years have been widely believed to be the products of ultraviolet photolysis of volcanic sulfur dioxide in an anoxic atmosphere. Our laboratory experiments have revealed that reduced-sulfur species produced by reactions between powders of amino acids and sulfate at 150 degrees to 200 degrees C possess anomalously fractionated sulfur isotopes: Delta33S = +0.1 to +2.1 per mil and Delta36S = -1.1 to +1.1 per mil. These results suggest that reactions between organic matter in sediments and sulfate-rich hydrothermal solutions may have produced anomalous sulfur isotope signatures in some sedimentary rocks. If so, the sulfur isotope record of sedimentary rocks may be linked to the biological and thermal evolution of Earth in ways different than previously thought.

  2. Crystallographic Phasing from Weak Anomalous Signals

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qun; Hendrickson, Wayne A.

    2015-01-01

    The exploitation of anomalous signals for biological structural solution is maturing. Single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) is dominant in de novo structure analysis. Nevertheless, for challenging structures where the resolution is low (dmin ≥ 3.5 Å) or where only lighter atoms (Z ≤ 20) are present, as for native macromolecules, solved SAD structures are still scarce. With the recent rapid development in crystal handling, beamline instrumentation, optimization of data collection strategies, use of multiple crystals and structure determination technologies, the weak anomalous diffraction signals are now robustly measured and should be used for routine SAD structure determination. The review covers these recent advances on weak anomalous signals measurement, analysis and utilization. PMID:26432413

  3. Anomalous Emissions of Sulfur Dioxide and Seismicity of San Miguel Volcano, EL Salvador in October, 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olmos, R.; Barahona, F.; Hernández, A.; Cartagena, R.; Henríquez, B.; López, D.; Cárdenas, C.; Galle, B.

    2007-12-01

    San Miguel (also known as Chaparrastique) volcano in eastern El Salvador is located 15 km southwest of the city of San Miguel. This volcano has erupted more than 30 times since 1699, with the last gas and ash emission on January 16, 2002. During 2006, San Miguel presented anomalous gas emissions and seismicity. In this work, the seismic parameters reported by SNET (Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales de El Salvador) and the crater gas emissions measured by researchers of the University of El Salvador are compared. For the gas efflux, two types of measurements were done using the Mini-DOAS system (Galle et al., 2002): transects around the crater perimeter (~100 m) and transects following roads located between 5 and 10 km from the crater. Several measurements between October 2005 and May 2006 indicate that the sulfur dioxide efflux during quiet periods is around 20 ton/day. From May to June 2006, a progressive increase in fumarolic activity and noise from gas emissions were observed. From May to August 2006, the sulfur dioxide emissions increased to 60 ton/day. A seismic crisis started on October 9, 2006, increasing the RSAM from 10-20 to 208 on October 10, 2006. During this time, the sulfur dioxide efflux reached a maximum of 492 ton/day. This increase in sulfur dioxide efflux represents 25 times the basic emissions during the previous quiet period and 8 times the values observed from May to August 2006. The correlation coefficient between sulfur dioxide efflux and RSAM values during this period of time was 0.81, which is statistically significant at a level higher than 99.9% . These anomalous changes in seismicity and sulfur dioxide emissions at San Miguel volcano suggest a magmatic reactivation with an increase in the exsolution of magma volatiles, long period seismic events, and volcanic tremor.

  4. Can I solve my structure by SAD phasing? Anomalous signal in SAD phasing

    PubMed Central

    Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Bunkóczi, Gábor; Hung, Li-Wei; Zwart, Peter H.; Smith, Janet L.; Akey, David L.; Adams, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    A key challenge in the SAD phasing method is solving a structure when the anomalous signal-to-noise ratio is low. A simple theoretical framework for describing measurements of anomalous differences and the resulting useful anomalous correlation and anomalous signal in a SAD experiment is presented. Here, the useful anomalous correlation is defined as the correlation of anomalous differences with ideal anomalous differences from the anomalous substructure. The useful anomalous correlation reflects the accuracy of the data and the absence of minor sites. The useful anomalous correlation also reflects the information available for estimating crystallographic phases once the substructure has been determined. In contrast, the anomalous signal (the peak height in a model-phased anomalous difference Fourier at the coordinates of atoms in the anomalous substructure) reflects the information available about each site in the substructure and is related to the ability to find the substructure. A theoretical analysis shows that the expected value of the anomalous signal is the product of the useful anomalous correlation, the square root of the ratio of the number of unique reflections in the data set to the number of sites in the substructure, and a function that decreases with increasing values of the atomic displacement factor for the atoms in the substructure. This means that the ability to find the substructure in a SAD experiment is increased by high data quality and by a high ratio of reflections to sites in the substructure, and is decreased by high atomic displacement factors for the substructure. PMID:26960122

  5. Early inner solar system origin for anomalous sulfur isotopes in differentiated protoplanets

    PubMed Central

    Antonelli, Michael A.; Kim, Sang-Tae; Peters, Marc; Labidi, Jabrane; Cartigny, Pierre; Walker, Richard J.; Lyons, James R.; Hoek, Joost; Farquhar, James

    2014-01-01

    Achondrite meteorites have anomalous enrichments in 33S, relative to chondrites, which have been attributed to photochemistry in the solar nebula. However, the putative photochemical reactions remain elusive, and predicted accompanying 33S depletions have not previously been found, which could indicate an erroneous assumption regarding the origins of the 33S anomalies, or of the bulk solar system S-isotope composition. Here, we report well-resolved anomalous 33S depletions in IIIF iron meteorites (<−0.02 per mil), and 33S enrichments in other magmatic iron meteorite groups. The 33S depletions support the idea that differentiated planetesimals inherited sulfur that was photochemically derived from gases in the early inner solar system (<∼2 AU), and that bulk inner solar system S-isotope composition was chondritic (consistent with IAB iron meteorites, Earth, Moon, and Mars). The range of mass-independent sulfur isotope compositions may reflect spatial or temporal changes influenced by photochemical processes. A tentative correlation between S isotopes and Hf-W core segregation ages suggests that the two systems may be influenced by common factors, such as nebular location and volatile content. PMID:25453079

  6. Early inner solar system origin for anomalous sulfur isotopes in differentiated protoplanets.

    PubMed

    Antonelli, Michael A; Kim, Sang-Tae; Peters, Marc; Labidi, Jabrane; Cartigny, Pierre; Walker, Richard J; Lyons, James R; Hoek, Joost; Farquhar, James

    2014-12-16

    Achondrite meteorites have anomalous enrichments in (33)S, relative to chondrites, which have been attributed to photochemistry in the solar nebula. However, the putative photochemical reactions remain elusive, and predicted accompanying (33)S depletions have not previously been found, which could indicate an erroneous assumption regarding the origins of the (33)S anomalies, or of the bulk solar system S-isotope composition. Here, we report well-resolved anomalous (33)S depletions in IIIF iron meteorites (<-0.02 per mil), and (33)S enrichments in other magmatic iron meteorite groups. The (33)S depletions support the idea that differentiated planetesimals inherited sulfur that was photochemically derived from gases in the early inner solar system (<∼2 AU), and that bulk inner solar system S-isotope composition was chondritic (consistent with IAB iron meteorites, Earth, Moon, and Mars). The range of mass-independent sulfur isotope compositions may reflect spatial or temporal changes influenced by photochemical processes. A tentative correlation between S isotopes and Hf-W core segregation ages suggests that the two systems may be influenced by common factors, such as nebular location and volatile content. PMID:25453079

  7. Early inner solar system origin for anomalous sulfur isotopes in differentiated protoplanets.

    PubMed

    Antonelli, Michael A; Kim, Sang-Tae; Peters, Marc; Labidi, Jabrane; Cartigny, Pierre; Walker, Richard J; Lyons, James R; Hoek, Joost; Farquhar, James

    2014-12-16

    Achondrite meteorites have anomalous enrichments in (33)S, relative to chondrites, which have been attributed to photochemistry in the solar nebula. However, the putative photochemical reactions remain elusive, and predicted accompanying (33)S depletions have not previously been found, which could indicate an erroneous assumption regarding the origins of the (33)S anomalies, or of the bulk solar system S-isotope composition. Here, we report well-resolved anomalous (33)S depletions in IIIF iron meteorites (<-0.02 per mil), and (33)S enrichments in other magmatic iron meteorite groups. The (33)S depletions support the idea that differentiated planetesimals inherited sulfur that was photochemically derived from gases in the early inner solar system (<∼2 AU), and that bulk inner solar system S-isotope composition was chondritic (consistent with IAB iron meteorites, Earth, Moon, and Mars). The range of mass-independent sulfur isotope compositions may reflect spatial or temporal changes influenced by photochemical processes. A tentative correlation between S isotopes and Hf-W core segregation ages suggests that the two systems may be influenced by common factors, such as nebular location and volatile content.

  8. Can I solve my structure by SAD phasing? Anomalous signal in SAD phasing

    DOE PAGES

    Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Bunkóczi, Gábor; Hung, Li-Wei; Zwart, Peter H.; Smith, Janet L.; Akey, David L.; Adams, Paul D.

    2016-03-01

    A key challenge in the SAD phasing method is solving a structure when the anomalous signal-to-noise ratio is low. We present a simple theoretical framework for describing measurements of anomalous differences and the resulting useful anomalous correlation and anomalous signal in a SAD experiment. Here, the useful anomalous correlation is defined as the correlation of anomalous differences with ideal anomalous differences from the anomalous substructure. The useful anomalous correlation reflects the accuracy of the data and the absence of minor sites. The useful anomalous correlation also reflects the information available for estimating crystallographic phases once the substructure has been determined.more » In contrast, the anomalous signal (the peak height in a model-phased anomalous difference Fourier at the coordinates of atoms in the anomalous substructure) reflects the information available about each site in the substructure and is related to the ability to find the substructure. A theoretical analysis shows that the expected value of the anomalous signal is the product of the useful anomalous correlation, the square root of the ratio of the number of unique reflections in the data set to the number of sites in the substructure, and a function that decreases with increasing values of the atomic displacement factor for the atoms in the substructure. In conclusion, this means that the ability to find the substructure in a SAD experiment is increased by high data quality and by a high ratio of reflections to sites in the substructure, and is decreased by high atomic displacement factors for the substructure.« less

  9. Can I solve my structure by SAD phasing? Planning an experiment, scaling data and evaluating the useful anomalous correlation and anomalous signal.

    PubMed

    Terwilliger, Thomas C; Bunkóczi, Gábor; Hung, Li Wei; Zwart, Peter H; Smith, Janet L; Akey, David L; Adams, Paul D

    2016-03-01

    A key challenge in the SAD phasing method is solving a structure when the anomalous signal-to-noise ratio is low. Here, algorithms and tools for evaluating and optimizing the useful anomalous correlation and the anomalous signal in a SAD experiment are described. A simple theoretical framework [Terwilliger et al. (2016), Acta Cryst. D72, 346-358] is used to develop methods for planning a SAD experiment, scaling SAD data sets and estimating the useful anomalous correlation and anomalous signal in a SAD data set. The phenix.plan_sad_experiment tool uses a database of solved and unsolved SAD data sets and the expected characteristics of a SAD data set to estimate the probability that the anomalous substructure will be found in the SAD experiment and the expected map quality that would be obtained if the substructure were found. The phenix.scale_and_merge tool scales unmerged SAD data from one or more crystals using local scaling and optimizes the anomalous signal by identifying the systematic differences among data sets, and the phenix.anomalous_signal tool estimates the useful anomalous correlation and anomalous signal after collecting SAD data and estimates the probability that the data set can be solved and the likely figure of merit of phasing.

  10. Can I solve my structure by SAD phasing? Planning an experiment, scaling data and evaluating the useful anomalous correlation and anomalous signal

    PubMed Central

    Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Bunkóczi, Gábor; Hung, Li-Wei; Zwart, Peter H.; Smith, Janet L.; Akey, David L.; Adams, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    A key challenge in the SAD phasing method is solving a structure when the anomalous signal-to-noise ratio is low. Here, algorithms and tools for evaluating and optimizing the useful anomalous correlation and the anomalous signal in a SAD experiment are described. A simple theoretical framework [Terwilliger et al. (2016 ▸), Acta Cryst. D72, 346–358] is used to develop methods for planning a SAD experiment, scaling SAD data sets and estimating the useful anomalous correlation and anomalous signal in a SAD data set. The phenix.plan_sad_experiment tool uses a database of solved and unsolved SAD data sets and the expected characteristics of a SAD data set to estimate the probability that the anomalous substructure will be found in the SAD experiment and the expected map quality that would be obtained if the substructure were found. The phenix.scale_and_merge tool scales unmerged SAD data from one or more crystals using local scaling and optimizes the anomalous signal by identifying the systematic differences among data sets, and the phenix.anomalous_signal tool estimates the useful anomalous correlation and anomalous signal after collecting SAD data and estimates the probability that the data set can be solved and the likely figure of merit of phasing. PMID:26960123

  11. Can I solve my structure by SAD phasing? Planning an experiment, scaling data and evaluating the useful anomalous correlation and anomalous signal.

    PubMed

    Terwilliger, Thomas C; Bunkóczi, Gábor; Hung, Li Wei; Zwart, Peter H; Smith, Janet L; Akey, David L; Adams, Paul D

    2016-03-01

    A key challenge in the SAD phasing method is solving a structure when the anomalous signal-to-noise ratio is low. Here, algorithms and tools for evaluating and optimizing the useful anomalous correlation and the anomalous signal in a SAD experiment are described. A simple theoretical framework [Terwilliger et al. (2016), Acta Cryst. D72, 346-358] is used to develop methods for planning a SAD experiment, scaling SAD data sets and estimating the useful anomalous correlation and anomalous signal in a SAD data set. The phenix.plan_sad_experiment tool uses a database of solved and unsolved SAD data sets and the expected characteristics of a SAD data set to estimate the probability that the anomalous substructure will be found in the SAD experiment and the expected map quality that would be obtained if the substructure were found. The phenix.scale_and_merge tool scales unmerged SAD data from one or more crystals using local scaling and optimizes the anomalous signal by identifying the systematic differences among data sets, and the phenix.anomalous_signal tool estimates the useful anomalous correlation and anomalous signal after collecting SAD data and estimates the probability that the data set can be solved and the likely figure of merit of phasing. PMID:26960123

  12. Can I solve my structure by SAD phasing? Planning an experiment, scaling data and evaluating the useful anomalous correlation and anomalous signal

    DOE PAGES

    Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Bunkóczi, Gábor; Hung, Li-Wei; Zwart, Peter H.; Smith, Janet L.; Akey, David L.; Adams, Paul D.

    2016-03-01

    A key challenge in the SAD phasing method is solving a structure when the anomalous signal-to-noise ratio is low. Here, we describe algorithms and tools for evaluating and optimizing the useful anomalous correlation and the anomalous signal in a SAD experiment. A simple theoretical framework [Terwilliger et al.(2016),Acta Cryst.D72, 346–358] is used to develop methods for planning a SAD experiment, scaling SAD data sets and estimating the useful anomalous correlation and anomalous signal in a SAD data set. Thephenix.plan_sad_experimenttool uses a database of solved and unsolved SAD data sets and the expected characteristics of a SAD data set to estimatemore » the probability that the anomalous substructure will be found in the SAD experiment and the expected map quality that would be obtained if the substructure were found. Thephenix.scale_and_mergetool scales unmerged SAD data from one or more crystals using local scaling and optimizes the anomalous signal by identifying the systematic differences among data sets, and thephenix.anomalous_signaltool estimates the useful anomalous correlation and anomalous signal after collecting SAD data and estimates the probability that the data set can be solved and the likely figure of merit of phasing.« less

  13. Sulfur as a Signaling Nutrient Through Hydrogen Sulfide

    PubMed Central

    Kabil, Omer; Vitvitsky, Victor; Banerjee, Ruma

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has emerged as an important signaling molecule with beneficial effects on various cellular processes affecting, for example, cardiovascular and neurological functions. The physiological importance of H2S is motivating efforts to develop strategies for modulating its levels. However, advancement in the field of H2S-based therapeutics is hampered by fundamental gaps in our knowledge of how H2S is regulated, its mechanism of action, and its molecular targets. This review provides an overview of sulfur metabolism; describes recent progress that has shed light on the mechanism of H2S as a signaling molecule; and examines nutritional regulation of sulfur metabolism, which pertains to health and disease. PMID:25033061

  14. Signal asymmetries in the anomalous Hall effect of bilayer magnetic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, R. A.; Nutter, P. W.; Neumann, A.; Thönnißen, C.; Wilhelm, E.-S.; Thomson, T.

    2016-09-01

    We propose an interpretation for the signal asymmetry observed in anomalous Hall effect (AHE) transport measurements of magnetic nanostructures patterned from bilayer magnetic thin films. Experimental data and simulations demonstrate that the signal asymmetry observed in hysteresis loops arises due to a combination of the anomalous Hall effect together with a contribution from longitudinal giant magnetoresistance (GMR). The effect shows a high-sensitivity to nanoscale misalignments in Hall cross geometry. Consequently, the complex nature of the origin of electrical signals should be taken into account when undertaking any transport measurements on magnetic bilayer nanostructures, such as GMR or spintronic devices.

  15. Redox signaling regulated by electrophiles and reactive sulfur species.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Motohiro; Kumagai, Yoshito; Ihara, Hideshi; Fujii, Shigemoto; Motohashi, Hozumi; Akaike, Takaaki

    2016-03-01

    Redox signaling is a key modulator of oxidative stress induced by nonspecific insults of biological molecules generated by reactive oxygen species. Current redox biology is revisiting the traditional concept of oxidative stress, such that toxic effects of reactive oxygen species are protected by diverse antioxidant systems upregulated by oxidative stress responses that are physiologically mediated by redox-dependent cell signaling pathways. Redox signaling is thus precisely regulated by endogenous electrophilic substances that are generated from reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide and its derivative reactive species during stress responses. Among electrophiles formed endogenously, 8-nitroguanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-nitro-cGMP) has unique cell signaling functions, and pathways for its biosynthesis, signaling mechanism, and metabolism in cells have been clarified. Reactive sulfur species such as cysteine hydropersulfides that are abundant in cells are likely involved in 8-nitro-cGMP metabolism. These new aspects of redox biology may stimulate innovative and multidisciplinary research in cell and stem cell biology; infectious diseases, cancer, metabolic syndrome, ageing, and neurodegenerative diseases; and other oxidative stress-related disorders. This review focuses on the most recent progress in the biosynthesis, cell signaling, and metabolism of 8-nitro-cGMP, which is a likely target for drug development and lead to discovery of novel therapeutics for many diseases. PMID:27013774

  16. Redox signaling regulated by electrophiles and reactive sulfur species

    PubMed Central

    Nishida, Motohiro; Kumagai, Yoshito; Ihara, Hideshi; Fujii, Shigemoto; Motohashi, Hozumi; Akaike, Takaaki

    2016-01-01

    Redox signaling is a key modulator of oxidative stress induced by nonspecific insults of biological molecules generated by reactive oxygen species. Current redox biology is revisiting the traditional concept of oxidative stress, such that toxic effects of reactive oxygen species are protected by diverse antioxidant systems upregulated by oxidative stress responses that are physiologically mediated by redox-dependent cell signaling pathways. Redox signaling is thus precisely regulated by endogenous electrophilic substances that are generated from reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide and its derivative reactive species during stress responses. Among electrophiles formed endogenously, 8-nitroguanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-nitro-cGMP) has unique cell signaling functions, and pathways for its biosynthesis, signaling mechanism, and metabolism in cells have been clarified. Reactive sulfur species such as cysteine hydropersulfides that are abundant in cells are likely involved in 8-nitro-cGMP metabolism. These new aspects of redox biology may stimulate innovative and multidisciplinary research in cell and stem cell biology; infectious diseases, cancer, metabolic syndrome, ageing, and neurodegenerative diseases; and other oxidative stress-related disorders. This review focuses on the most recent progress in the biosynthesis, cell signaling, and metabolism of 8-nitro-cGMP, which is a likely target for drug development and lead to discovery of novel therapeutics for many diseases. PMID:27013774

  17. Signals for top quark anomalous chromomagnetic moments at colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Rizzo, T.G.

    1994-07-01

    The Tevatron and the Next Linear Collider (NLC) will be excellent tools for probing the detailed nature of the top quark. We perform a preliminary examination of the influence of an anomalous chromomagnetic moment for the top, {kappa}, on the characteristics of t{bar t} production at the Tevatron and on the spectrum of gluon radiation associated with t{bar t} production at the NLC. In particular, we analyze the sensitivity of future data to non-zero values of {kappa} and estimate the limits that can be placed on this parameter at the Tevatron and at the NLC with center of mass of energies of {radical}s = 500 and 1000 GeV. Constraints on {kappa} from low energy processes, such as b {yields} s{gamma} are briefly discussed.

  18. Reliable resource-constrained telecardiology via compressive detection of anomalous ECG signals.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Bollepalli S; Sastry, Challa S; Jana, Soumya

    2015-11-01

    Telecardiology is envisaged as a supplement to inadequate local cardiac care, especially, in infrastructure deficient communities. Yet the associated infrastructure constraints are often ignored while designing a traditional telecardiology system that simply records and transmits user electrocardiogram (ECG) signals to a professional diagnostic facility. Against this backdrop, we propose a two-tier telecardiology framework, where constraints on resources, such as power and bandwidth, are met by compressively sampling ECG signals, identifying anomalous signals, and transmitting only the anomalous signals. Specifically, we design practical compressive classifiers based on inherent properties of ECG signals, such as self-similarity and periodicity, and illustrate their efficacy by plotting receiver operating characteristics (ROC). Using such classifiers, we realize a resource-constrained telecardiology system, which, for the PhysioNet databases, allows no more than 0.5% undetected patients even at an average downsampling factor of five, reducing the power requirement by 80% and bandwidth requirement by 83.4% compared to traditional telecardiology.

  19. Sulfur single-wavelength anomalous diffraction crystal structure of a pheromone-binding protein from the honeybee Apis mellifera L.

    PubMed

    Lartigue, Audrey; Gruez, Arnaud; Briand, Loïc; Blon, Florence; Bézirard, Valérie; Walsh, Martin; Pernollet, Jean-Claude; Tegoni, Mariella; Cambillau, Christian

    2004-02-01

    Pheromone binding proteins (PBPs) are small helical proteins ( approximately 13-17 kDa) present in several sensory organs from moth and other insect species. They are involved in the transport of pheromones from the sensillar lymph to the olfactory receptors. We report here the crystal structure of a PBP (Amel-ASP1) originating from the honey-bee (Apis mellifera) antennae and expressed as recombinant protein in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Crystals of Amel-ASP1 were obtained at pH 5.5 using the nano-drops technique of crystallization with a novel optimization procedure, and the structure was solved initially with the single-wavelength anomalous diffraction technique using sulfur anomalous dispersion. The structure of Amel-ASP1 has been refined at 1.6-A resolution. Its fold is roughly similar to that of other PBP/odorant binding proteins, presenting six helices and three disulfide bridges. Contrary to the PBPs from Bombyx mori (Sandler, B. H., Nikonova, L., Leal, W. S., and Clardy, J. (2000) Chem. Biol. 7, 143-151) and Leucophea maderae (Lartigue, A., Gruez, A., Spinelli, S., Riviere, S., Brossut, R., Tegoni, M., and Cambillau, C. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278, 30213-30218), the extended C terminus folds into the protein and forms a wall of the internal hydrophobic cavity. Its backbone groups establish two hydrogen bonds with a serendipitous ligand, n-butyl-benzene-sulfonamide, an additive used in plastics. This mode of binding might, however, mimic that used by one of the pheromonal blend components and illustrates the binding versatility of PBPs.

  20. Sulfur

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Apodaca, L.E.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, elemental sulfur and the byproduct sulfuric acid were produced at 109 operations in 29 states and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Total shipments were valued at about $1.6 billion. Elemental sulfur production was 8.2 Mt (9 million st); Louisiana and Texas accounted for about 53 percent of domestic production.

  1. Signal attenuation of PFG restricted anomalous diffusions in plate, sphere, and cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Guoxing; Zheng, Shaokuan; Liao, Xinli

    2016-11-01

    Pulsed field gradient (PFG) NMR is a noninvasive tool to study anomalous diffusion, which exists widely in many systems such as in polymer or biological systems, in porous material, in single file structures and in fractal geometries. In a real system, the diffusion could be a restricted or a tortuous anomalous diffusion, rather than a free diffusion as the domains for fast and slow transport could coexist. Though there are signal attenuation expressions for free anomalous diffusion in literature, the signal attenuation formalisms for restricted anomalous diffusion is very limited, except for a restricted time-fractional diffusion within a plate reported recently. To better understand the PFG restricted fractional diffusion, in this paper, the PFG signal attenuation expressions were derived for three typical structures (plate, sphere, and cylinder) based on two models: fractal derivative model and fractional derivative model. These signal attenuation expressions include two parts, the time part Tn(t) and the space part Xn(r). Unlike normal diffusion, the time part Tn(t) in time-fractional diffusion can be either a Mittag-Leffler function from the fractional derivative model or a stretched exponential function from the fractal derivative model. However, provided the restricted normal diffusion and the restricted time-fractional diffusion are in an identical structure, they will have the same space part Xn(r) as both diffusions have the same space derivative parameter β equaling 2, therefore, they should have similar diffractive patterns. The restricted general fractional diffusion within a plate is also investigated, which indicates that at a long time limit, the diffusion type is insignificant to the diffractive pattern that depends only on the structure and the gradient pulses. The expressions describing the time-dependent behaviors of apparent diffusion coefficient Df,app for restricted anomalous diffusion are also proposed in this paper. Both the short and long

  2. An Anomalous Formation Pathway for Dislocation-Sulfur Vacancy Complexes in Polycrystalline Monolayer MoS2.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhi Gen; Zhang, Yong-Wei; Yakobson, Boris I

    2015-10-14

    Two-dimensional (2D) molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has attracted significant attention recently due to its direct bandgap semiconducting characteristics. Experimental studies on monolayer MoS2 show that S vacancy concentration varies greatly; while recent theoretical studies show that the formation energy of S vacancy is high and thus its concentration should be low. We perform density functional theory calculations to study the structures and energetics of vacancy and interstitial in both grain boundary (GB) and grain interior (GI) in monolayer MoS2 and uncover an anomalous formation pathway for dislocation-double S vacancy (V2S) complexes in MoS2. In this pathway, a (5|7) defect in an S-polar GB energetically favorably converts to a (4|6) defect, which possesses a duality: dislocation and double S vacancy. Its dislocation character allows it to glide into GI through thermal activation at high temperatures, bringing the double vacancy with it. Our findings here not only explain why VS is predominant in exfoliated 2D MoS2 and V2S is predominant in chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown 2D MoS2 but also reproduce GB patterns in CVD-grown MoS2. The new pathway for sulfur vacancy formation revealed here provides important insights and guidelines for controlling the quality of monolayer MoS2.

  3. SQUID–SIMS is a useful approach to uncover primary signals in the Archean sulfur cycle

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Woodward W.; Fike, David A.; Johnson, Jena E.; Raub, Timothy D.; Guan, Yunbin; Kirschvink, Joseph L.; Eiler, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Many aspects of Earth’s early sulfur cycle, from the origin of mass-anomalous fractionations to the degree of biological participation, remain poorly understood—in part due to complications from postdepositional diagenetic and metamorphic processes. Using a combination of scanning high-resolution magnetic superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) microscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) of sulfur isotopes (32S, 33S, and 34S), we examined drill core samples from slope and basinal environments adjacent to a major Late Archean (∼2.6–2.5 Ga) marine carbonate platform from South Africa. Coupled with petrography, these techniques can untangle the complex history of mineralization in samples containing diverse sulfur-bearing phases. We focused on pyrite nodules, precipitated in shallow sediments. These textures record systematic spatial differences in both mass-dependent and mass-anomalous sulfur-isotopic composition over length scales of even a few hundred microns. Petrography and magnetic imaging demonstrate that mass-anomalous fractionations were acquired before burial and compaction, but also show evidence of postdepositional alteration 500 million y after deposition. Using magnetic imaging to screen for primary phases, we observed large spatial gradients in Δ33S (>4‰) in nodules, pointing to substantial environmental heterogeneity and dynamic mixing of sulfur pools on geologically rapid timescales. In other nodules, large systematic radial δ34S gradients (>20‰) were observed, from low values near their centers increasing to high values near their rims. These fractionations support hypotheses that microbial sulfate reduction was an important metabolism in organic-rich Archean environments—even in an Archean ocean basin dominated by iron chemistry. PMID:24706767

  4. SQUID-SIMS is a useful approach to uncover primary signals in the Archean sulfur cycle.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Woodward W; Fike, David A; Johnson, Jena E; Raub, Timothy D; Guan, Yunbin; Kirschvink, Joseph L; Eiler, John M

    2014-04-15

    Many aspects of Earth's early sulfur cycle, from the origin of mass-anomalous fractionations to the degree of biological participation, remain poorly understood--in part due to complications from postdepositional diagenetic and metamorphic processes. Using a combination of scanning high-resolution magnetic superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) microscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) of sulfur isotopes ((32)S, (33)S, and (34)S), we examined drill core samples from slope and basinal environments adjacent to a major Late Archean (∼2.6-2.5 Ga) marine carbonate platform from South Africa. Coupled with petrography, these techniques can untangle the complex history of mineralization in samples containing diverse sulfur-bearing phases. We focused on pyrite nodules, precipitated in shallow sediments. These textures record systematic spatial differences in both mass-dependent and mass-anomalous sulfur-isotopic composition over length scales of even a few hundred microns. Petrography and magnetic imaging demonstrate that mass-anomalous fractionations were acquired before burial and compaction, but also show evidence of postdepositional alteration 500 million y after deposition. Using magnetic imaging to screen for primary phases, we observed large spatial gradients in Δ(33)S (>4‰) in nodules, pointing to substantial environmental heterogeneity and dynamic mixing of sulfur pools on geologically rapid timescales. In other nodules, large systematic radial δ(34)S gradients (>20‰) were observed, from low values near their centers increasing to high values near their rims. These fractionations support hypotheses that microbial sulfate reduction was an important metabolism in organic-rich Archean environments--even in an Archean ocean basin dominated by iron chemistry.

  5. SQUID-SIMS is a useful approach to uncover primary signals in the Archean sulfur cycle.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Woodward W; Fike, David A; Johnson, Jena E; Raub, Timothy D; Guan, Yunbin; Kirschvink, Joseph L; Eiler, John M

    2014-04-15

    Many aspects of Earth's early sulfur cycle, from the origin of mass-anomalous fractionations to the degree of biological participation, remain poorly understood--in part due to complications from postdepositional diagenetic and metamorphic processes. Using a combination of scanning high-resolution magnetic superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) microscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) of sulfur isotopes ((32)S, (33)S, and (34)S), we examined drill core samples from slope and basinal environments adjacent to a major Late Archean (∼2.6-2.5 Ga) marine carbonate platform from South Africa. Coupled with petrography, these techniques can untangle the complex history of mineralization in samples containing diverse sulfur-bearing phases. We focused on pyrite nodules, precipitated in shallow sediments. These textures record systematic spatial differences in both mass-dependent and mass-anomalous sulfur-isotopic composition over length scales of even a few hundred microns. Petrography and magnetic imaging demonstrate that mass-anomalous fractionations were acquired before burial and compaction, but also show evidence of postdepositional alteration 500 million y after deposition. Using magnetic imaging to screen for primary phases, we observed large spatial gradients in Δ(33)S (>4‰) in nodules, pointing to substantial environmental heterogeneity and dynamic mixing of sulfur pools on geologically rapid timescales. In other nodules, large systematic radial δ(34)S gradients (>20‰) were observed, from low values near their centers increasing to high values near their rims. These fractionations support hypotheses that microbial sulfate reduction was an important metabolism in organic-rich Archean environments--even in an Archean ocean basin dominated by iron chemistry. PMID:24706767

  6. Anomalous Effect of Surface Diffusion on NMR Signal: Tracing the Fiber Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apalkov, Vadym; Edirisinghe, Neranjan; Cymbalyuk, Gennady

    2008-03-01

    We show the strong qualitative effect of the surface diffusion channel on the echo attenuation of the NMR signal from restricted geometry, e.g. fiber system. In some range of parameters of the system the residual echo signal, which is obtained by subtracting the background value, can have anomalous behavior, which means that the echo signal has a maximum value at some finite value of the magnitude of the gradient pulses. This fact can be used to enhance the accuracy of the measurements by studying the echo signal around the maximum value. Effect described here could be also used for tuning the MRI measurements to trace fibers with particular characteristic diameters or for timely detection of changes in the diffusion coefficients and fiber diameters.

  7. Task Control Signals in Pediatric Tourette Syndrome Show Evidence of Immature and Anomalous Functional Activity

    PubMed Central

    Church, Jessica A.; Wenger, Kristin K.; Dosenbach, Nico U. F.; Miezin, Francis M.; Petersen, Steven E.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.

    2009-01-01

    Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a pediatric movement disorder that may affect control signaling in the brain. Previous work has proposed a dual-networks architecture of control processing involving a task-maintenance network and an adaptive control network (Dosenbach et al., 2008). A prior resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) analysis in TS has revealed functional immaturity in both putative control networks, with “anomalous” correlations (i.e., correlations outside the typical developmental range) limited to the adaptive control network (Church et al., 2009). The present study used functional MRI (fMRI) to study brain activity related to adaptive control (by studying start-cues signals), and to task-maintenance (by studying signals sustained across a task set). Two hypotheses from the previous rs-fcMRI results were tested. First, adaptive control (i.e., start-cue) activity will be altered in TS, including activity inconsistent with typical development (“anomalous”). Second, group differences found in task-maintenance (i.e., sustained) activity will be consistent with functional immaturity in TS. We examined regions found through a direct comparison of adolescents with and without TS, as well as regions derived from a previous investigation that showed differences between unaffected children and adults. The TS group showed decreased start-cue signal magnitude in regions where start-cue activity is unchanged over typical development, consistent with anomalous adaptive control. The TS group also had higher magnitude sustained signals in frontal cortex regions that overlapped with regions showing differences over typical development, consistent with immature task-maintenance in TS. The results demonstrate task-related fMRI signal differences anticipated by the atypical functional connectivity found previously in adolescents with TS, strengthening the evidence for functional immaturity and anomalous signaling in control networks in adolescents with TS

  8. Fractional motion model for characterization of anomalous diffusion from NMR signals.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yang; Gao, Jia-Hong

    2015-07-01

    Measuring molecular diffusion has been used to characterize the properties of living organisms and porous materials. NMR is able to detect the diffusion process in vivo and noninvasively. The fractional motion (FM) model is appropriate to describe anomalous diffusion phenomenon in crowded environments, such as living cells. However, no FM-based NMR theory has yet been established. Here, we present a general formulation of the FM-based NMR signal under the influence of arbitrary magnetic field gradient waveforms. An explicit analytic solution of the stretched exponential decay format for NMR signals with finite-width Stejskal-Tanner bipolar pulse magnetic field gradients is presented. Signals from a numerical simulation matched well with the theoretical prediction. In vivo diffusion-weighted brain images were acquired and analyzed using the proposed theory, and the resulting parametric maps exhibit remarkable contrasts between different brain tissues.

  9. Fractional motion model for characterization of anomalous diffusion from NMR signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yang; Gao, Jia-Hong

    2015-07-01

    Measuring molecular diffusion has been used to characterize the properties of living organisms and porous materials. NMR is able to detect the diffusion process in vivo and noninvasively. The fractional motion (FM) model is appropriate to describe anomalous diffusion phenomenon in crowded environments, such as living cells. However, no FM-based NMR theory has yet been established. Here, we present a general formulation of the FM-based NMR signal under the influence of arbitrary magnetic field gradient waveforms. An explicit analytic solution of the stretched exponential decay format for NMR signals with finite-width Stejskal-Tanner bipolar pulse magnetic field gradients is presented. Signals from a numerical simulation matched well with the theoretical prediction. In vivo diffusion-weighted brain images were acquired and analyzed using the proposed theory, and the resulting parametric maps exhibit remarkable contrasts between different brain tissues.

  10. Augmenting Sulfur Metabolism and Herbivore Defense in Arabidopsis by Bacterial Volatile Signaling.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Mina; Nadipalli, Ranjith K; Xie, Xitao; Sun, Yan; Surowiec, Kazimierz; Zhang, Jin-Lin; Paré, Paul W

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur is an element necessary for the life cycle of higher plants. Its assimilation and reduction into essential biomolecules are pivotal factors determining a plant's growth and vigor as well as resistance to environmental stress. While certain soil microbes can enhance ion solubility via chelating agents or oxidation, microbial regulation of plant-sulfur assimilation has not been reported. With an increasing understanding that soil microbes can activate growth and stress tolerance in plants via chemical signaling, the question arises as to whether such beneficial bacteria also regulate sulfur assimilation. Here we report a previously unidentified mechanism by which the growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (GB03) transcriptionally activates genes responsible for sulfur assimilation, increasing sulfur uptake and accumulation in Arabidopsis. Transcripts encoding for sulfur-rich aliphatic and indolic glucosinolates are also GB03 induced. As a result, GB03-exposed plants with elevated glucosinolates exhibit greater protection against the generalist herbivore, Spodoptera exigua (beet armyworm, BAW). In contrast, a previously characterized glucosinolate mutant compromised in the production of both aliphatic and indolic glucosinolates is also compromised in terms of GB03-induced protection against insect herbivory. As with in vitro studies, soil-grown plants show enhanced glucosinolate accumulation and protection against BAW feeding with GB03 exposure. These results demonstrate the potential of microbes to enhance plant sulfur assimilation and emphasize the sophisticated integration of microbial signaling in plant defense. PMID:27092166

  11. Augmenting Sulfur Metabolism and Herbivore Defense in Arabidopsis by Bacterial Volatile Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Mina; Nadipalli, Ranjith K.; Xie, Xitao; Sun, Yan; Surowiec, Kazimierz; Zhang, Jin-Lin; Paré, Paul W.

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur is an element necessary for the life cycle of higher plants. Its assimilation and reduction into essential biomolecules are pivotal factors determining a plant’s growth and vigor as well as resistance to environmental stress. While certain soil microbes can enhance ion solubility via chelating agents or oxidation, microbial regulation of plant-sulfur assimilation has not been reported. With an increasing understanding that soil microbes can activate growth and stress tolerance in plants via chemical signaling, the question arises as to whether such beneficial bacteria also regulate sulfur assimilation. Here we report a previously unidentified mechanism by which the growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (GB03) transcriptionally activates genes responsible for sulfur assimilation, increasing sulfur uptake and accumulation in Arabidopsis. Transcripts encoding for sulfur-rich aliphatic and indolic glucosinolates are also GB03 induced. As a result, GB03-exposed plants with elevated glucosinolates exhibit greater protection against the generalist herbivore, Spodoptera exigua (beet armyworm, BAW). In contrast, a previously characterized glucosinolate mutant compromised in the production of both aliphatic and indolic glucosinolates is also compromised in terms of GB03-induced protection against insect herbivory. As with in vitro studies, soil-grown plants show enhanced glucosinolate accumulation and protection against BAW feeding with GB03 exposure. These results demonstrate the potential of microbes to enhance plant sulfur assimilation and emphasize the sophisticated integration of microbial signaling in plant defense. PMID:27092166

  12. Native sulfur/chlorine SAD phasing for serial femtosecond crystallography.

    PubMed

    Nakane, Takanori; Song, Changyong; Suzuki, Mamoru; Nango, Eriko; Kobayashi, Jun; Masuda, Tetsuya; Inoue, Shigeyuki; Mizohata, Eiichi; Nakatsu, Toru; Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Rie; Shimamura, Tatsuro; Tono, Kensuke; Joti, Yasumasa; Kameshima, Takashi; Hatsui, Takaki; Yabashi, Makina; Nureki, Osamu; Iwata, So; Sugahara, Michihiro

    2015-12-01

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) allows structures to be determined with minimal radiation damage. However, phasing native crystals in SFX is not very common. Here, the structure determination of native lysozyme from single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) by utilizing the anomalous signal of sulfur and chlorine at a wavelength of 1.77 Å is successfully demonstrated. This sulfur SAD method can be applied to a wide range of proteins, which will improve the determination of native crystal structures.

  13. Native sulfur/chlorine SAD phasing for serial femtosecond crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Nakane, Takanori; Song, Changyong; Suzuki, Mamoru; Nango, Eriko; Kobayashi, Jun; Masuda, Tetsuya; Inoue, Shigeyuki; Mizohata, Eiichi; Nakatsu, Toru; Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Rie; Shimamura, Tatsuro; Tono, Kensuke; Joti, Yasumasa; Kameshima, Takashi; Hatsui, Takaki; Yabashi, Makina; Nureki, Osamu; Iwata, So; Sugahara, Michihiro

    2015-01-01

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) allows structures to be determined with minimal radiation damage. However, phasing native crystals in SFX is not very common. Here, the structure determination of native lysozyme from single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) by utilizing the anomalous signal of sulfur and chlorine at a wavelength of 1.77 Å is successfully demonstrated. This sulfur SAD method can be applied to a wide range of proteins, which will improve the determination of native crystal structures. PMID:26627659

  14. NMR Signal Amplification by Reversible Exchange of Sulfur-Heterocyclic Compounds Found In Petroleum

    PubMed Central

    Coffey, Aaron M.; Goodson, Boyd M.; Chekmenev, Eduard Y.

    2016-01-01

    NMR hyperpolarization via Signal Amplification by Reversible Exchange (SABRE) was employed to investigate the feasibility of enhancing the NMR detection sensitivity of sulfur-heterocycles (specifically 2-methylthiophene and dibenzothiophenes), a family of compounds typically found in petroleum and refined petroleum products. SABRE hyperpolarization of sulfur-heterocycles (conducted in seconds) offers potential advantages of providing structural information about sulfur-containing contaminants in petroleum, thereby informing petroleum purification and refining to minimize sulfur content in refined products such as gasoline. Moreover, NMR spectroscopy sensitivity gains endowed by hyperpolarization potentially allows for performing structural assays using inexpensive, low-magnetic-field (ca. 1 T) high-resolution NMR spectrometers ideally suited for industrial applications in the field. PMID:27500206

  15. Hydrogen sulfide in plants: from dissipation of excess sulfur to signaling molecule.

    PubMed

    Calderwood, Alexander; Kopriva, Stanislav

    2014-09-15

    Sulfur is essential in all organisms for the synthesis of amino acids cysteine and methionine and as an active component of numerous co-factors and prosthetic groups. However, only plants, algae, fungi, and some prokaryotes are capable of using the abundant inorganic source of sulfur, sulfate. Plants take sulfate up, reduce it, and assimilate into organic compounds with cysteine being the first product of the pathway and a donor of reduced sulfur for synthesis of other S-containing compounds. Cysteine is formed in a reaction between sulfide, derived from reduction of sulfite and an activated amino acid acceptor, O-acetylserine. Sulfide is thus an important intermediate in sulfur metabolism, but numerous other functions in plants has been revealed. Hydrogen sulfide can serve as an alternative source of sulfur for plants, which may be significant in anaerobic conditions of waterlogged soils. On the other hand, emissions of hydrogen sulfide have been detected from many plant species. Since the amount of H2S discharged correlated with sulfate supply to the plants, the emissions were considered a mechanism for dissipation of excess sulfur. Significant hydrogen sulfide emissions were also observed in plants infected with pathogens, particularly with fungi. H2S thus seems to be part of the widely discussed sulfur-induced-resistance/sulfur-enhanced-defense. Recently, however, more evidence has emerged for a role for H2S in regulation and signaling. Sulfide stabilizes the cysteine synthase complex, increasing so the synthesis of its acceptor O-acetylserine. H2S has been implicating in regulation of plant stress response, particularly draught stress. There are more and more examples of processes regulated by H2S in plants being discovered, and hydrogen sulfide is emerging as an important signaling molecule, similar to its role in the animal and human world. How similar the functions, and homeostasis of H2S are in these diverse organisms, however, remains to be elucidated.

  16. Ethylene signaling pathway is not linear, however its lateral part is responsible for sensing and signaling of sulfur status in plants

    PubMed Central

    Moniuszko, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    A secondary, non-linear, lateral part of ethylene signaling pathway has been anticipated and speculated before. Recently, it has been found that part of the proteomic response of Eruca sativa to silver nitrate (which is an inhibitor of ethylene signaling) is related to sulfur metabolism. Using public Arabidopsis thaliana microarray data, I show that silver nitrate mimics the signal of sulfur starvation at the transcriptome level. This, combined with data mined from literature, indicates that ethylene receptors are localized at the beginning of the response to sulfur deficiency in plants. This means that the non-linear, lateral part of ethylene signaling pathway exists and is responsible for transduction of the signal of sulfur deficit. Here, I present a model of such a pathway and anticipate it to be the starting point for more detailed analysis of the lateral part of ethylene signaling pathway and the exact mechanism of sulfur status sensing in plants. PMID:26340594

  17. Ethylene signaling pathway is not linear, however its lateral part is responsible for sensing and signaling of sulfur status in plants.

    PubMed

    Moniuszko, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    A secondary, non-linear, lateral part of ethylene signaling pathway has been anticipated and speculated before. Recently, it has been found that part of the proteomic response of Eruca sativa to silver nitrate (which is an inhibitor of ethylene signaling) is related to sulfur metabolism. Using public Arabidopsis thaliana microarray data, I show that silver nitrate mimics the signal of sulfur starvation at the transcriptome level. This, combined with data mined from literature, indicates that ethylene receptors are localized at the beginning of the response to sulfur deficiency in plants. This means that the non-linear, lateral part of ethylene signaling pathway exists and is responsible for transduction of the signal of sulfur deficit. Here, I present a model of such a pathway and anticipate it to be the starting point for more detailed analysis of the lateral part of ethylene signaling pathway and the exact mechanism of sulfur status sensing in plants.

  18. The function of hydrogen sulphide in iron availability: Sulfur nutrient or signaling molecule?

    PubMed

    Chen, Juan; Shangguan, Zhou-Ping; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2016-06-01

    Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) has traditionally been considered as a phytotoxin, having deleterious effects on the plant growth and survival. Recently, it was recongnized as a potential signaling molecule involving in physiological regulation similar to nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) in plants. In a recent study, we mainly focused on the signaling function of H2S in improving adaptation of Zea mays seedlings to iron deficiency. We reported that H2S was closely related to iron uptake, transport, and accumulation, and consequently increased chlorophyll biosynthesis, chloroplast development, and photosynthesis in Z. mays seedlings. Here, we provide more commentary on the signaling roles of H2S in coping with Fe deficiency in plants through increasing sulfur containing metabolites and regulating the expression level of iron homeostasis and sulfur metabolism-related genes in maize seedlings. PMID:26906467

  19. Native sulfur/chlorine SAD phasing for serial femtosecond crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Nakane, Takanori; Song, Changyong; Suzuki, Mamoru; Nango, Eriko; Kobayashi, Jun; Masuda, Tetsuya; Inoue, Shigeyuki; Mizohata, Eiichi; Nakatsu, Toru; Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Rie; Shimamura, Tatsuro; Tono, Kensuke; Joti, Yasumasa; Kameshima, Takashi; Hatsui, Takaki; Yabashi, Makina; Nureki, Osamu; Iwata, So; Sugahara, Michihiro

    2015-11-27

    Sulfur SAD phasing facilitates the structure determination of diverse native proteins using femtosecond X-rays from free-electron lasers via serial femtosecond crystallography. Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) allows structures to be determined with minimal radiation damage. However, phasing native crystals in SFX is not very common. Here, the structure determination of native lysozyme from single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) by utilizing the anomalous signal of sulfur and chlorine at a wavelength of 1.77 Å is successfully demonstrated. This sulfur SAD method can be applied to a wide range of proteins, which will improve the determination of native crystal structures.

  20. Estimates of the prevalence of anomalous signal losses in the Yellow Sea derived from acoustic and oceanographic computer model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin-Bing, Stanley A.; King, David B.; Warn-Varnas, Alex C.; Lamb, Kevin G.; Hawkins, James A.; Teixeira, Marvi

    2002-05-01

    The results from collocated oceanographic and acoustic simulations in a region of the Yellow Sea near the Shandong peninsula have been presented [Chin-Bing et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 108, 2577 (2000)]. In that work, the tidal flow near the peninsula was used to initialize a 2.5-dimensional ocean model [K. G. Lamb, J. Geophys. Res. 99, 843-864 (1994)] that subsequently generated internal solitary waves (solitons). The validity of these soliton simulations was established by matching satellite imagery taken over the region. Acoustic propagation simulations through this soliton field produced results similar to the anomalous signal loss measured by Zhou, Zhang, and Rogers [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 90, 2042-2054 (1991)]. Analysis of the acoustic interactions with the solitons also confirmed the hypothesis that the loss mechanism involved acoustic mode coupling. Recently we have attempted to estimate the prevalence of these anomalous signal losses in this region. These estimates were made from simulating acoustic effects over an 80 hour space-time evolution of soliton packets. Examples will be presented that suggest the conditions necessary for anomalous signal loss may be more prevalent than previously thought. [Work supported by ONR/NRL and by a High Performance Computing DoD grant.

  1. Anomalous electrical signals associated with microbial activity: Results from Iron and Nitrate-Reducing Columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaron, R. B.; Zheng, Q.; Flynn, P.; Singha, K.; Brantley, S.

    2008-12-01

    /m), increased in the iron reducing column (0.2 S/m to 0.8 S/m) and increased markedly in the nitrate reducing column (0.3 S/m to 1.2 S/m). This runs counter to our expectations. We expected to see an increase in σ b as [Fe(II)] increased and a decrease in σ b as nitrate was removed from the columns. All three columns showed little or no IP response at the outset and developed negative chargeabilities over the course of the experiment (as great as -20 mV/V). These values are anomalous and difficult to interpret. SP signals show the most variable response. Initially all three columns had SP values at or very near 0 mV. SP for the nitrate reducing column remained constant around 0mV. The iron reducing column displayed an increasingly negative SP response for the first two months that became constant at about -200mV for the remainder of the experiment. The alternating redox column displayed an oscillating signal recording large positive values (~475 mV) when nitrate concentrations were low and returning to a baseline value (~160mV) when nitrate was introduced to the column. The results of these column experiments indicate that there is a link between microbial activity and geophysical signals and that further research is needed to better quantify these signals.

  2. Biogenesis of reactive sulfur species for signaling by hydrogen sulfide oxidation pathways

    PubMed Central

    Mishanina, Tatiana V; Libiad, Marouane; Banerjee, Ruma

    2016-01-01

    The chemical species involved in H2S signaling remain elusive despite the profound and pleiotropic physiological effects elicited by this molecule. The dominant candidate mechanism for sulfide signaling is persulfidation of target proteins. However, the relatively poor reactivity of H2S toward oxidized thiols, such as disulfides, the low concentration of disulfides in the reducing milieu of the cell and the low steady-state concentration of H2S raise questions about the plausibility of persulfide formation via reaction between an oxidized thiol and a sulfide anion or a reduced thiol and oxidized hydrogen disulfide. In contrast, sulfide oxidation pathways, considered to be primarily mechanisms for disposing of excess sulfide, generate a series of reactive sulfur species, including persulfides, polysulfides and thiosulfate, that could modify target proteins. We posit that sulfide oxidation pathways mediate sulfide signaling and that sulfurtransferases ensure target specificity. PMID:26083070

  3. Anomalous tidal loading signals in South-West England and Brittany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshin, M.; Penna, N. T.; Clarke, P. J.; Bos, M. S.; Baker, T. F.

    2010-05-01

    priori using the FES2004 model in the reference frame of the whole Earth system (CM); the residual harmonic displacements are estimated per component per principal tidal constituent. Minor tidal harmonics are removed a priori using the routine "hardisp" by D. Agnew. Because of this, post-processing nodal corrections are not applied; (3) Amplitude and phase from kinematic PPP processing: kinematic GPS processing with a priori OTL modelling using FES2004 and hardisp as in (2); amplitude spectra are later estimated from the entire coordinate time series using the Lomb-Scargle periodogram method. We typically obtain excellent (0.3-0.7mm except for the K1 and K2 constituents) phasor agreement between all three strategies, comparable to the inter-model agreement between computed OTL displacements and suggesting that the GPS analysis strategy robustly detects actual tidal displacements. For sites in inland Europe where computed OTL displacements are less than 10mm with inter-model differences of less than 0.2mm, residual harmonic amplitudes are also at the 0.3-0.7mm level, confirming that solid Earth tides are modelled to at least this accuracy. For GPS stations located in South-West England and Brittany, onshore of the continental shelf, anomalous residual tidal signals were detected of about 2-3mm magnitude for the vertical M2 OTL constituent (10% of the expected signal). In contrast, sites in the Iberian Peninsula, with similar expected OTL magnitudes, have residuals at the expected 0.3-0.7mm level. Sites near to the Bay of Biscay show transitional behaviour between these regimes. Therefore at these locations, the different modern ocean tide models that agree very well must all either be systematically in error, or the difference in behaviour may be caused by errors in the displacement Green's functions applicable to loads on the nearby continental shelf.

  4. Anomalous Ba/Ca signals associated with low temperature stresses in Porites corals from Daya Bay, northern South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tianran; Yu, Kefu; Li, Shu; Chen, Tegu; Shi, Qi

    2011-01-01

    Barium to calcium (Ba/Ca) ratio in corals has been considered as a useful geochemical proxy for upwelling, river flood and other oceanic processes. However, recent studies indicated that additional environmental or biological factors can influence the incorporation of Ba into coral skeletons. In this study, Ba/Ca ratios of two Porites corals collected from Daya Bay, northern South China Sea were analyzed. Ba/Ca signals in the two corals were 'anomalous' in comparison with Ba behaviors seen in other near-shore corals influenced by upwelling or riverine runoff. Our Ba/Ca profiles displayed similar and remarkable patterns characterized by low and randomly fluctuating background signals periodically interrupted by sharp and large synchronous peaks, clearly indicating an environmental forcing. Further analysis indicated that the Ba/Ca profiles were not correlated with previously claimed environmental factors such as precipitation, coastal upwelling, anthropogenic activities or phytoplankton blooms in other areas. The maxima of Ba/Ca appeared to occur in the period of Sr/Ca maxima, coinciding with the winter minimum temperatures, which suggests that the anomalous high Ba/Ca signals were related to winter-time low sea surface temperature. We speculated that the Ba/Ca peaks in corals of the Daya Bay were most likely the results of enrichment of Ba-rich particles in their skeletons when coral polyps retracted under the stresses of anomalous winter low temperatures. In this case, Ba/Ca ratio in relatively high-latitude corals can be a potential proxy for tracing the low temperature stress.

  5. Inorganic sulfur-nitrogen compounds: from gunpowder chemistry to the forefront of biological signaling.

    PubMed

    Cortese-Krott, Miriam M; Butler, Anthony R; Woollins, J Derek; Feelisch, Martin

    2016-04-14

    The reactions between inorganic sulfur and nitrogen-bearing compounds to form S-N containing species have a long history and, besides assuming importance in industrial synthetic processes, are of relevance to microbial metabolism; waste water treatment; aquatic, soil and atmospheric chemistry; and combustion processes. The recent discovery that hydrogen sulfide and nitric oxide exert often similar, sometimes mutually dependent effects in a variety of biological systems, and that the chemical interaction of these two species leads to formation of S-N compounds brought this chemistry to the attention of physiologists, biochemists and physicians. We here provide a perspective about the potential role of S-N compounds in biological signaling and briefly review their chemical properties and bioactivities in the context of the chronology of their discovery. Studies of the biological role of NO revealed why its chemistry is ideally suited for the tasks Nature has chosen for it; realising how the distinctive properties of sulfur can enrich this bioactivity does much to revive 'die Freude am experimentellen Spiel' of the pioneers in this field.

  6. Thermoelectric Signal Enhancement by Reconciling the Spin Seebeck and Anomalous Nernst Effects in Ferromagnet/Non-magnet Multilayers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyeong-Dong; Kim, Dong-Jun; Yeon Lee, Hae; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Kyung-Min; Jeong, Jong-Ryul; Lee, Ki-Suk; Song, Hyon-Seok; Sohn, Jeong-Woo; Shin, Sung-Chul; Park, Byong-Guk

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of ferromagnetic (FM) materials in thermoelectric devices allows one to have a simpler structure and/or independent control of electric and thermal conductivities, which may further remove obstacles for this technology to be realized. The thermoelectricity in FM/non-magnet (NM) heterostructures using an optical heating source is studied as a function of NM materials and a number of multilayers. It is observed that the overall thermoelectric signal in those structures which is contributed by spin Seebeck effect and anomalous Nernst effect (ANE) is enhanced by a proper selection of NM materials with a spin Hall angle that matches to the sign of the ANE. Moreover, by an increase of the number of multilayer, the thermoelectric voltage is enlarged further and the device resistance is reduced, simultaneously. The experimental observation of the improvement of thermoelectric properties may pave the way for the realization of magnetic-(or spin-) based thermoelectric devices. PMID:26020492

  7. Thermoelectric Signal Enhancement by Reconciling the Spin Seebeck and Anomalous Nernst Effects in Ferromagnet/Non-magnet Multilayers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyeong-Dong; Kim, Dong-Jun; Yeon Lee, Hae; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Kyung-Min; Jeong, Jong-Ryul; Lee, Ki-Suk; Song, Hyon-Seok; Sohn, Jeong-Woo; Shin, Sung-Chul; Park, Byong-Guk

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of ferromagnetic (FM) materials in thermoelectric devices allows one to have a simpler structure and/or independent control of electric and thermal conductivities, which may further remove obstacles for this technology to be realized. The thermoelectricity in FM/non-magnet (NM) heterostructures using an optical heating source is studied as a function of NM materials and a number of multilayers. It is observed that the overall thermoelectric signal in those structures which is contributed by spin Seebeck effect and anomalous Nernst effect (ANE) is enhanced by a proper selection of NM materials with a spin Hall angle that matches to the sign of the ANE. Moreover, by an increase of the number of multilayer, the thermoelectric voltage is enlarged further and the device resistance is reduced, simultaneously. The experimental observation of the improvement of thermoelectric properties may pave the way for the realization of magnetic-(or spin-) based thermoelectric devices.

  8. Thermoelectric Signal Enhancement by Reconciling the Spin Seebeck and Anomalous Nernst Effects in Ferromagnet/Non-magnet Multilayers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyeong-Dong; Kim, Dong-Jun; Yeon Lee, Hae; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Kyung-Min; Jeong, Jong-Ryul; Lee, Ki-Suk; Song, Hyon-Seok; Sohn, Jeong-Woo; Shin, Sung-Chul; Park, Byong-Guk

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of ferromagnetic (FM) materials in thermoelectric devices allows one to have a simpler structure and/or independent control of electric and thermal conductivities, which may further remove obstacles for this technology to be realized. The thermoelectricity in FM/non-magnet (NM) heterostructures using an optical heating source is studied as a function of NM materials and a number of multilayers. It is observed that the overall thermoelectric signal in those structures which is contributed by spin Seebeck effect and anomalous Nernst effect (ANE) is enhanced by a proper selection of NM materials with a spin Hall angle that matches to the sign of the ANE. Moreover, by an increase of the number of multilayer, the thermoelectric voltage is enlarged further and the device resistance is reduced, simultaneously. The experimental observation of the improvement of thermoelectric properties may pave the way for the realization of magnetic-(or spin-) based thermoelectric devices. PMID:26020492

  9. Endogenous Sulfur Dioxide Inhibits Vascular Calcification in Association with the TGF-β/Smad Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhenzhen; Huang, Yaqian; Du, Junbao; Liu, Angie Dong; Tang, Chaoshu; Qi, Yongfen; Jin, Hongfang

    2016-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate whether endogenous sulfur dioxide (SO2) plays a role in vascular calcification (VC) in rats and its possible mechanisms. In vivo medial vascular calcification was induced in rats by vitamin D3 and nicotine for four weeks. In vitro calcification of cultured A7r5 vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) was induced by calcifying media containing 5 mmol/L CaCl2. Aortic smooth muscle (SM) α-actin, runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and Smad expression was measured. VC rats showed dispersed calcified nodules among the elastic fibers in calcified aorta with increased aortic calcium content and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. SM α-actin was markedly decreased, but the osteochondrogenic marker Runx2 concomitantly increased and TGF-β/Smad signaling was activated, in association with the downregulated SO2/aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) pathway. However, SO2 supplementation successfully ameliorated vascular calcification, and increased SM α-actin expression, but inhibited Runx2 and TGF-β/Smad expression. In calcified A7r5 VSMCs, the endogenous SO2/AAT pathway was significantly downregulated. SO2 treatment reduced the calcium deposits, calcium content, ALP activity and Runx2 expression and downregulated the TGF-β/Smad pathway in A7r5 cells but increased SM α-actin expression. In brief, SO2 significantly ameliorated vascular calcification in association with downregulation of the TGF-β/Smad pathway. PMID:26907267

  10. Anomalous variation in the wireless signals propagation associated with earthquake preparation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouzounov, Dimitar; Velichkova-Yotsova, Sylvia; Pulinets, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    propagation correlated with earthquake preparation processes. Our observations revealed a phenomena associated with the artificially enhancement of the intensity 3.5GHz signals by using WiMax technology (no change in the transmitting level) as a result of electric and electrochemical processes in atmosphere over the regions of ongoing earthquake preparation. To illustrate the nature of such variations in the range of 3.5GHz in relation to earthquake processes we present two case studies: 1/ for M5.8 of May 22, 2012 in Bulgaria and 2/ for M6.9 of May 24, 2014 in Aegean Sea. Concerning the M5.8 of May 22, 2012 the abnormal intensity modulation started on 05.17.2012 (five days in advance) and reached 200% increase. Epicenter of the M5.8 of May 25 was on 15 km from the wireless receiver. Concerning and M6.9 of May 24, 2014 in Aegean Sea abnormal signal was observed on May 22 (two days in advance) with 30% intensity increase. Epicenter of M6.9 of May 24 was at 260 km from the wireless receiver. Most likely the observed increase in the intensity is a direct result of the change in the atmospheric properties in the Atmospheric boundary level (ABL) triggered by intensification of radon and other gases release, which lead to change in lowers atmosphere conductivity, already suggested by Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere Coupling concept (Pulinets and Ouzounov, 2011). Another possible reason is the forward scattering of WiMax signal (similar to meteor wakes scattering) on aerosol layers formed over the earthquake preparation zone. We are registering an effect of systematic increase (with different rate) at 3.5 GHz associated with the regional seismicity and no significant intensify modulation with an absence of major seismicity in the region.

  11. Anomalous ocean load tide signal observed in lake-level variations in Tierra del Fuego

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, A.; Hormaechea, J. L.; Dietrich, R.; Perdomo, R.; Fritsche, M.; Del Cogliano, D.; Liebsch, G.; Mendoza, L.

    2009-03-01

    We demonstrate the application of a 100 km long lake as a sensor for studying the tidal effects on Tierra del Fuego main island. The lake-level variations observed in Lago Fagnano reflect both the direct response to the tidal potential and the indirect effect of the ocean tidal loading. Modeling both contributions explains the observed tidal signal in the lake to about 70%. Underestimated model load tide amplitudes are found to be probably responsible for the remaining difference. We interpret this discrepancy as a hint for regional elastic lithosphere properties differing substantially from those represented by currently available global models.

  12. Synthetic modeling chemistry of iron-sulfur clusters in nitric oxide signaling.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Jessica; Kim, Eunsuk

    2015-08-18

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signaling molecule that is involved in many physiological and pathological functions. Iron-sulfur proteins are one of the main reaction targets for NO, and the [Fe-S] clusters within these proteins are converted to various iron nitrosyl species upon reaction with NO, of which dinitrosyl iron complexes (DNICs) are the most prevalent. Much progress has been made in identifying the origin of cellular DNIC generation. However, it is not well-understood which other products besides DNICs may form during [Fe-S] cluster degradation nor what effects DNICs and other degradation products can have once they are generated in cells. Even more elusive is an understanding of the manner by which cells cope with unwanted [Fe-S] modifications by NO. This Account describes our synthetic modeling efforts to identify cluster degradation products derived from the [2Fe-2S]/NO reaction in order to establish their chemical reactivity and repair chemistry. Our intent is to use the chemical knowledge that we generate to provide insight into the unknown biological consequences of cluster modification. Our recent advances in three different areas are described. First, new reaction conditions that lead to the formation of previously unrecognized products during the reaction of [Fe-S] clusters with NO are identified. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a gaseous signaling molecule, can be generated from the reaction between [2Fe-2S] clusters and NO in the presence of acid or formal H• (e(-)/H(+)) donors. In the presence of acid, a mononitrosyl iron complex (MNIC) can be produced as the major iron-containing product. Second, cysteine analogues can efficiently convert MNICs back to [2Fe-2S] clusters without the need for any other reagents. This reaction is possible for cysteine analogues because of their ability to labilize NO from MNICs and their capacity to undergo C-S bond cleavage, providing the necessary sulfide for [2Fe-2S] cluster formation. Lastly, unique dioxygen

  13. Sulfur isotope signals in molybdenite - a persistent message from the past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, H. J.; Hannah, J. L.

    2010-12-01

    Trace elements in ore deposits, gleaned from minerals or isolated inclusions, are used by economic geologists to speculate on source and to model ore-forming processes. As well, sulfur isotope data are often obtained for sulfide minerals, but the interpretation of these isotopic data for understanding ore genesis has been thin - often simplistically concluding a “mantle source” or “crustal source”. With starting parameters for ore-bound metals that may include magmatic-hydrothermal components from lower crust with its own initial biogenic and redox history, subseqeuntly compromised by metamorphic processes, just about any source can be invoked to explain a measured range of sulfur isotopic data. Added constraints are essential. The sulfur isotopic composition of pyrite in magmatic-hydrothermal systems ranges widely, from negative to positive per mil values, as is also the case for other ore-forming sulfides of Cu, Pb, and Zn. In contrast, from Paleoarchean to Recent, the sulfur isotopic composition of molybdenite (molybdenum disulfide) is eerily consistent and decisively positive (δ34S commonly +2 to +6 per mil). This requires either an unwavering source for sulfur in all magmatic-hydrothermal molybdenites, and/or a template for a process that has been perfectly reproduced throughout earth history. A sedimentary sulfur source would have to be extraordinarily unique through time to fit the bill. Molybdenite, a common mineral in magmatic-hydrothermal ore deposits, is clearly tied to the magmatic system, occurring as disseminations and/or generations of veins spatially associated with evolved intrusive phases. Thus, the metals have traveled a finite distance from their source, forcing reliance on geochemical tracers to elucidate controlling processes. Molybdenum isotope ratios in molybdenite from some individual deposits span a large range of values, comparable to the range observed in all rock types. Rather than revealing source, the Mo isotopes reflect

  14. Role of pressure in understanding the anomalous superconductivity in europium (molybdenum)/sub 6/(sulfur)/sub 8/ and (TMTSF)/sub 2/FSO/sub 3/

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, S.A.; Huang, C.Y.; Lacoe, R.C.; Chaikin, P.M.; Fuller, W.W.; Luo, H.L.; Wudl, F.

    1983-01-01

    Both the Chevrel phase compound EuMo/sub 6/S/sub 8/ and the organic material, (TMTSF)/sub 2/FSO/sub 3/ are superconducting only under moderate pressure. In both instances the absence of superconductivity at ambient pressure is directly attributed to a low temperature structural distortion that introduces a gap over all or part of the Fermi surface. The role of pressure is to suppress the transition and thus allow the electrons to condense into the superconducting state. In EuMo/sub 6/S/sub 8/, details of the pressure dependence of both the structural and superconducting transition have been explained on the basis of a competition between a charge density wave-type state and superconductivity. In the case of (TMTSF)/sub 2/FSO/sub 3/ an anion ordering giving rise to a metal-insulator transition is responsible for suppressing superconductivity. The critical magnetic fields of EuMo/sub 6/S/sub 8/ are extremely anomalous and are related to the magnetism of the Eu as well as the structure of the compound.

  15. Anomalous gauge boson interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Aihara, H.; Barklow, T.; Baur, U. |

    1995-03-01

    We discuss the direct measurement of the trilinear vector boson couplings in present and future collider experiments. The major goals of such experiments will be the confirmation of the Standard Model (SM) predictions and the search for signals of new physics. We review our current theoretical understanding of anomalous trilinear gauge-boson self interactions. If the energy scale of the new physics is {approximately} 1 TeV, these low energy anomalous couplings are expected to be no larger than {Omicron}(10{sup {minus}2}). Constraints from high precision measurements at LEP and low energy charged and neutral current processes are critically reviewed.

  16. Sulfur rate control system

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, T.A.; Mullendore, M.G.; Kleinfeldt, T.E.; Walker, H.G. Jr.

    1993-07-20

    A sulfur rate control system is described for substantially optimizing particulate removal performance of an electrostatic precipitator in fluid communication with a flue carrying combustion products of a fossil fuel, comprising: an electrostatic precipitator having an inlet for receiving a flue gas: means for injecting sulfur trioxide into a flue for mixing with said flue gas at a location preceding entry of said flue gas into said electrostatic precipitator, said injection of sulfur trioxide being varied responsive to a proportional control signal; and, control means coupled to both said flue and said sulfur trioxide injection means for generating said proportional control signal, said control means including (1) means for measuring a sulfur dioxide concentration quantity in said flue gas at a location preceding said sulfur trioxide injection means, (2) means for measuring a flow rate of particulates in said flue gas at a location preceding said sulfur trioxide injection means, and (3) a controller for calculating a ratio between said sulfur dioxide concentration quantity and said flow rate of particulates, said ratio calculating controller having a first input coupled to said sulfur dioxide measuring means and a second input coupled to said particulate flow rate measuring means for generating said proportional control signal in proportion to a difference between a predetermined value and said ratio between said sulfur dioxide concentration quantity and said flow rate of particulates, said ratio controller having an output coupled to said sulfur trioxide injection means for maximizing particulate removal efficiency of said electrostatic precipitator.

  17. Detecting anomalous gravity signals prior to earthquakes larger than Mw7.0 based on a superconducting gravimeter records in recent four years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, W. B.; Wang, D.; Hwang, C.; Ding, H.

    2012-04-01

    Using continuous 1-Hz data series recorded by a superconducting gravimeter (SG) at Hsinchu station, Taiwan, we investigate the anomalous gravity signals prior to 71 large earthquakes with seismic moment magnitude larger than 7.0 (Mw7.0) occurred in the period from 1 Jan. 2008 to 31 Dec 2011. For the first time we evaluated the noise level of the SG records at Hsinchu (HS) station in microseismic bands from 0.05Hz to 0.1Hz by computing the power spectral density (PSD) of seismically quiet days selected based on the RMS of records. The results suggest that the noise level in micro-seismic band of the SG data in HS station corresponds to that of the new low-noise model (NLNM). Based on the analysis of the noise level and the spectral features of the SG records, we detected anomalous gravity signals (AGSs) prior to large earthquakes. We apply Hilbert-Huang transformation (HHT) technique to the SG records to establish the time-frequency-energy paradigms (TFEP) and marginal spectra (MS) to examine whether there are such kinds of AGSs prior to all large earthquakes. Our statistical results show that 56.3% of all the examined large earthquakes were preceded by AGSs; and if we constrain the epicenter distance being smaller than 3500km and focal depth less than 300km, 75% of the examined large earthquakes have AGSs. We also investigated the TFEP and MS of the typhoon events, and results show that both of them have different natures from the corresponding ones of the AGSs non-contaminated by typhoon event prior to large earthquakes. In addition, our investigations suggest that the AGSs prior to large earthquakes may be related to focal depth, the epicentre distance and the location of the source. This study is supported by Natural Science Foundation China (grant No.40974015; No.41174011; No.41021061; No.41128003).

  18. Shared Segment Analysis and Next-Generation Sequencing Implicates the Retinoic Acid Signaling Pathway in Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return (TAPVR)

    PubMed Central

    Nash, Dustin; Arrington, Cammon B.; Kennedy, Brett J.; Yandell, Mark; Wu, Wilfred; Zhang, Wenying; Ware, Stephanie; Jorde, Lynn B.; Gruber, Peter J.; Yost, H. Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Most isolated congenital heart defects are thought to be sporadic and are often ascribed to multifactorial mechanisms with poorly understood genetics. Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return (TAPVR) occurs in 1 in 15,000 live-born infants and occurs either in isolation or as part of a syndrome involving aberrant left-right development. Previously, we reported causative links between TAVPR and the PDGFRA gene. TAPVR has also been linked to the ANKRD1/CARP genes. However, these genes only explain a small fraction of the heritability of the condition. By examination of phased single nucleotide polymorphism genotype data from 5 distantly related TAPVR patients we identified a single 25 cM shared, Identical by Descent genomic segment on the short arm of chromosome 12 shared by 3 of the patients and their obligate-carrier parents. Whole genome sequence (WGS) analysis identified a non-synonymous variant within the shared segment in the retinol binding protein 5 (RBP5) gene. The RBP5 variant is predicted to be deleterious and is overrepresented in the TAPVR population. Gene expression and functional analysis of the zebrafish orthologue, rbp7, supports the notion that RBP5 is a TAPVR susceptibility gene. Additional sequence analysis also uncovered deleterious variants in genes associated with retinoic acid signaling, including NODAL and retinol dehydrogenase 10. These data indicate that genetic variation in the retinoic acid signaling pathway confers, in part, susceptibility to TAPVR. PMID:26121141

  19. Signal regulation involved in sulfur dioxide-induced guard cell apoptosis in Hemerocallis fulva.

    PubMed

    Wei, Aili; Xin, Xiaojing; Wang, Yunshan; Zhang, Chao; Cao, Dongmei

    2013-12-01

    Chronic and acute exposure to SO₂ is associated with increased risks of various damages to plants. In the present study, epidermal strip experiment was employed to investigate SO₂-induced guard cells apoptosis and the signal regulation in Hemerocallis fulva. The results showed that with the increase of treatment concentrate of SO₂ derivates (a mixture of sodium sulfite and sodium bisulfite, 3:1, mmol L⁻¹/mmol L⁻¹, 1.0-5.0 mmol L⁻¹), the physiological activity of the guard cells declined and cell death occurred. While the concentration of SO₂ derivatives exceeded 2.0 mmol L⁻¹, the percentage of cell death increased significantly (P<0.05). Typical features of apoptosis including nuclear condensation, nuclear elongation, fragmentation etc. were found. Meanwhile, concomitant presence of nitric oxide (NO), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca²⁺ level increment appeared. However, SO₂-induced cell death can be effectively blocked by either of the following substances with their respective optimal concentrations: antioxidant ascorbic acid (Asc; 0.05 mmol L⁻¹) or catalase (CAT; 200 U mL⁻¹), nitric oxide (NO) scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4, 4, 5, 5- tetramethylmidiazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (c-PTIO; 0.20 mmol L⁻¹), nitrate reductase inhibitor NaN₃ (0.20 mmol L⁻¹), Ca²⁺ chelating agent EGTA (0.05 mmol L⁻¹) or plasma membrane Ca²⁺ channel blocker LaCl₃ (0.05 mmol L⁻¹). In addition to a significant decrease in cell death rate, a reduction in the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), NO and Ca²⁺ was observed. Further study showed that compared to treatment with SO₂ alone, Asc treatment led to a decrease in NO and Ca²⁺ levels and NaN₃ treatment led to a decrease in ROS and Ca²⁺ levels, but the NO and ROS levels of the LaCl₃ treatment changed little. All results suggested that NO, ROS and Ca²⁺ were involved in the apoptosis induced by SO₂ in H. fulva. The process might be related to the burst of NO or ROS

  20. Signal regulation involved in sulfur dioxide-induced guard cell apoptosis in Hemerocallis fulva.

    PubMed

    Wei, Aili; Xin, Xiaojing; Wang, Yunshan; Zhang, Chao; Cao, Dongmei

    2013-12-01

    Chronic and acute exposure to SO₂ is associated with increased risks of various damages to plants. In the present study, epidermal strip experiment was employed to investigate SO₂-induced guard cells apoptosis and the signal regulation in Hemerocallis fulva. The results showed that with the increase of treatment concentrate of SO₂ derivates (a mixture of sodium sulfite and sodium bisulfite, 3:1, mmol L⁻¹/mmol L⁻¹, 1.0-5.0 mmol L⁻¹), the physiological activity of the guard cells declined and cell death occurred. While the concentration of SO₂ derivatives exceeded 2.0 mmol L⁻¹, the percentage of cell death increased significantly (P<0.05). Typical features of apoptosis including nuclear condensation, nuclear elongation, fragmentation etc. were found. Meanwhile, concomitant presence of nitric oxide (NO), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca²⁺ level increment appeared. However, SO₂-induced cell death can be effectively blocked by either of the following substances with their respective optimal concentrations: antioxidant ascorbic acid (Asc; 0.05 mmol L⁻¹) or catalase (CAT; 200 U mL⁻¹), nitric oxide (NO) scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4, 4, 5, 5- tetramethylmidiazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (c-PTIO; 0.20 mmol L⁻¹), nitrate reductase inhibitor NaN₃ (0.20 mmol L⁻¹), Ca²⁺ chelating agent EGTA (0.05 mmol L⁻¹) or plasma membrane Ca²⁺ channel blocker LaCl₃ (0.05 mmol L⁻¹). In addition to a significant decrease in cell death rate, a reduction in the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), NO and Ca²⁺ was observed. Further study showed that compared to treatment with SO₂ alone, Asc treatment led to a decrease in NO and Ca²⁺ levels and NaN₃ treatment led to a decrease in ROS and Ca²⁺ levels, but the NO and ROS levels of the LaCl₃ treatment changed little. All results suggested that NO, ROS and Ca²⁺ were involved in the apoptosis induced by SO₂ in H. fulva. The process might be related to the burst of NO or ROS

  1. Sulfur Dioxide Inhibits Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase Signaling to Attenuate Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation in Angiotensin II-induced Hypertensive Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hui-Juan; Huang, Ya-Qian; Chen, Qing-Hua; Tian, Xiao-Yu; Liu, Jia; Tang, Chao-Shu; Jin, Hong-Fang; Du, Jun-Bao

    2016-01-01

    Background: Clarifying the mechanisms underlying vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation is important for the prevention and treatment of vascular remodeling and the reverse of hyperplastic lesions. Previous research has shown that the gaseous signaling molecule sulfur dioxide (SO2) inhibits VSMC proliferation, but the mechanism for the inhibition of the angiotensin II (AngII)-induced VSMC proliferation by SO2 has not been fully elucidated. This study was designed to investigate if SO2 inhibited VSMC proliferation in mice with hypertension induced by AngII. Methods: Thirty-six male C57 mice were randomly divided into control, AngII, and AngII + SO2 groups. Mice in AngII group and AngII + SO2 group received a capsule-type AngII pump implanted under the skin of the back at a slow-release dose of 1000 ng·kg−1·min−1. In addition, mice in AngII + SO2 received intraperitoneal injections of SO2 donor. Arterial blood pressure of tail artery was determined. The thickness of the aorta was measured by elastic fiber staining, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and phosphorylated-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (P-ERK) were detected in aortic tissues. The concentration of SO2 in serum and aortic tissue homogenate supernatant was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence determination. In the in vitro study, VSMC of A7R5 cell lines was divided into six groups: control, AngII, AngII + SO2, PD98059 (an inhibitor of ERK phosphorylation), AngII + PD98059, and AngII + SO2 + PD98059. Expression of PCNA, ERK, and P-ERK was determined by Western blotting. Results: In animal experiment, compared with the control group, AngII markedly increased blood pressure (P < 0.01) and thickened the aortic wall in mice (P < 0.05) with an increase in the expression of PCNA (P < 0.05). SO2, however, reduced the systemic hypertension and the wall thickness induced by AngII (P < 0.05). It inhibited the increased expression of PCNA and P

  2. Anomalous Arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    In this composite image of spiral galaxy M106 (NGC 4258), optical data from the Digitized Sky Survey is shown as yellow, radio data from the Very Large Array appears as purple, X-ray data from Chandra is coded blue, and infrared data from the Spitzer Space Telescope appears red. Two anomalous arms, which aren't visible at optical wavelengths, appear as purple and blue emission.

  3. Effect of LISA Pathfinder spacecraft self-gravity on anomalous gravitational signals near the Sun-Earth saddle point predicted by quasilinear MOND

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trenkel, Christian; Wealthy, David

    2014-10-01

    The possibility of sending the LISA Pathfinder spacecraft through the Sun-Earth saddle point following its nominal mission around L1 has now been studied for a few years. The principal motivation for doing so is to search for anomalous gravity gradients predicted by several alternative theories of gravity. In turn, these have originally been motivated by the dark matter problem, and predict deviations from General Relativity in regions of low acceleration. All signal estimates to date have ignored the presence of the spacecraft mass distribution and its self-gravity, on the basis that the gravitational field due to Sun and Earth is larger than that due to the spacecraft itself, for any realistic saddle point fly-by distances. In this paper, we show that at least for one of the theoretical frameworks, Quasilinear MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (QMOND), the presence of the local mass distribution cannot be ignored. Using simplified representations of the spacecraft mass distribution, we demonstrate that internal self-gravity, in particular internal gravitational gradients, can enhance the QMOND signals by more than 3 orders of magnitude. These preliminary results indicate that the parameter space accessible to LISA Pathfinder may be significantly larger than previously thought. We find further that the details of the matter distribution as well as of the trajectory can affect the expected signal shape, due to the coupling between internal and external gravitational fields and field gradients. We hope that this work will motivate a more comprehensive investigation of the effect, not just in QMOND, but also in the context of other theoretical frameworks.

  4. Sulfur Mustard

    MedlinePlus

    ... the environment. Sulfur mustard was introduced in World War I as a chemical warfare agent. Historically it ... fatal. When sulfur mustard was used during World War I, it killed fewer than 5% of the ...

  5. The Role of Fas-FasL Signaling Pathway in Induction of Apoptosis in Patients with Sulfur Mustard-Induced Chronic Bronchiolitis

    PubMed Central

    Pirzad, Gila; Jafari, Mahvash; Tavana, Sasan; Sadrayee, Homayoon; Ghavami, Saeid; Shajiei, Arezoo; Ghanei, Mostafa

    2010-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is an alkylating agent that induces apoptosis and necrosis in cells. Fas-Fas ligand (FasL) interaction could induce apoptosis as well. In this study, it was hypothesized that apoptosis might play an important role in the pathogenesis of SM-induced lung injury via Fas-FasL signaling pathway. In a case-control study, Fas and FasL levels, caspase-3 activity and percent of apoptotic cells were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of patients 20 years after exposure to sulfur mustard and compared with the control group. Results show that Fas and FasL levels were significantly higher in BAL fluid cells in patients group compared with the control (P = .001). No significant differences were observed between mild and moderate-severe groups. BAL fluid cells caspase-3 activity was not significantly different among the mild, moderate-severe, and control groups. The data suggest that Fas-FasL-induced apoptosis was impaired in BAL fluid cells of SM-exposed patients which might be one of the initiators of pathogenesis in SM-induced lung injury in these patients. PMID:21317984

  6. ESR signal of the iron-sulfur center F(X) and its function in the homodimeric reaction center of Heliobacterium modesticaldum.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Ryo; Iwaki, Masayo; Mino, Hiroyuki; Harada, Jiro; Itoh, Shigeru; Oh-Oka, Hirozo

    2006-05-23

    Electron transfer in the membranes and the type I reaction center (RC) core protein complex isolated from Heliobacterium modesticaldum was studied by optical and ESR spectroscopy. The RC is a homodimer of PshA proteins. In the isolated membranes, illumination at 14 K led to accumulation of a stable ESR signal of the reduced iron-sulfur center F(B)(-) in the presence of dithiothreitol, and an additional 20 min illumination at 230 K induced the spin-interacting F(A)(-)/F(B)(-) signal at 14 K. During illumination at 5 K in the presence of dithionite, we detected a new transient signal with the following values: g(z)= 2.040, g(y)= 1.911, and g(x)= 1.896. The signal decayed rapidly with a 10 ms time constant after the flash excitation at 5 K and was attributed to the F(X)(-)-type center, although the signal shape was more symmetrical than that of F(X)(-) in photosystem I. In the purified RC core protein, laser excitation induced the absorption change of a special pair, P800. The flash-induced P800(+) signal recovered with a fast 2-5 ms time constant below 150 K, suggesting charge recombination with F(X)(-). Partial destruction of the RC core protein complex by a brief exposure to air increased the level of the P800(+)A(0)(-) state that gave a lifetime (t(1/2)) of 100 ns at 77 K. The reactions of F(X) and quinone were discussed on the basis of the three-dimensional structural model of RC that predicts the conserved F(X)-binding site and the quinone-binding site, which is more hydrophilic than that in the photosystem I RC. PMID:16700542

  7. Sulfur Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hariss, R.; Niki, H.

    1985-01-01

    Among the general categories of tropospheric sulfur sources, anthropogenic sources have been quantified the most accurately. Research on fluxes of sulfur compounds from volcanic sources is now in progress. Natural sources of reduced sulfur compounds are highly variable in both space and time. Variables, such as soil temperature, hydrology (tidal and water table), and organic flux into the soil, all interact to determine microbial production and subsequent emissions of reduced sulfur compounds from anaerobic soils and sediments. Available information on sources of COS, CS2, DMS, and H2S to the troposphere in the following paragraphs are summarized; these are the major biogenic sulfur species with a clearly identified role in tropospheric chemistry. The oxidation of SO2 to H2SO4 can often have a significant impact on the acidity of precipitation. A schematic representation of some important transformations and sinks for selected sulfur species is illustrated.

  8. Experimental phasing using zinc anomalous scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, Sun-Shin; An, Young Jun; Jeong, Chang-Sook; Kim, Min-Kyu; Lee, Sung-Gyu; Lee, Kwang-Hoon; Oh, Byung-Ha

    2012-09-01

    The surface of proteins can be charged with zinc ions and the anomalous signals from these zinc ions can be used for structure determination of proteins. Zinc is a suitable metal for anomalous dispersion phasing methods in protein crystallography. Structure determination using zinc anomalous scattering has been almost exclusively limited to proteins with intrinsically bound zinc(s). Here, it is reported that multiple zinc ions can easily be charged onto the surface of proteins with no intrinsic zinc-binding site by using zinc-containing solutions. Zn derivatization of protein surfaces appears to be a largely unnoticed but promising method of protein structure determination.

  9. Sulfur mustard primes human neutrophils for increased degranulation and stimulates cytokine release via TRPM2/p38 MAPK signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, Hwa-Yong; Hong, Chang-Won; Lee, Si-Nae; Kwon, Min-Soo; Kim, Yeon-Ja; Song, Dong-Keun

    2012-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (2,2′-bis-chloroethyl-sulfide; SM) has been a military threat since the World War I. The emerging threat of bioterrorism makes SM a major threat not only to military but also to civilian world. SM injury elicits an inflammatory response characterized by infiltration of neutrophils. Although SM was reported to prime neutrophils, the mechanism has not been identified yet. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism of SM-induced priming in human neutrophils. SM increased [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} in human neutrophils in a concentration-dependent fashion. Transient receptor potential melastatin (TRPM) 2 inhibitors (clotrimazole, econazole and flufenamic acid) and silencing of TRPM2 by shRNA attenuated SM-induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} increase. SM primed degranulation of azurophil and specific granules in response to activation by fMLP as previously reported. SB203580, an inhibitor of p38 MAPK, inhibited SM-induced priming. Neither PD98057, an ERK inhibitor, nor SP600215, a JNK inhibitor, inhibited SM-induced priming. In addition, SM enhanced phosphorylation of NF-kB p65 and release of TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. SB203580 inhibited SM-induced NF-kB phosphorylation and cytokine release. These results suggest the involvement of TRPM2/p38 MAPK pathway in SM-induced priming and cytokines release in neutrophils. -- Highlights: ► SM increased [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} in human neutrophils through TPRM2-mediated calcium influx. ► SM primed degranulation of azurophil and specific granules. ► SM enhanced p38 MAPK and NF-κB p65 phosphorylation in human neutrophils. ► SM enhanced release of TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 from human neutrophils. ► SB203580 inhibited SM-induced priming, NF-κB p65 phosphorylation and cytokine release.

  10. Anomalous extracellular diffusion in rat cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Fanrong; Hrabe, Jan; Hrabetova, Sabina

    2015-05-01

    Extracellular space (ECS) is a major channel transporting biologically active molecules and drugs in the brain. Diffusion-mediated transport of these substances is hindered by the ECS structure but the microscopic basis of this hindrance is not fully understood. One hypothesis proposes that the hindrance originates in large part from the presence of dead-space (DS) microdomains that can transiently retain diffusing molecules. Because previous theoretical and modeling work reported an initial period of anomalous diffusion in similar environments, we expected that brain regions densely populated by DS microdomains would exhibit anomalous extracellular diffusion. Specifically, we targeted granular layers (GL) of rat and turtle cerebella that are populated with large and geometrically complex glomeruli. The integrative optical imaging (IOI) method was employed to evaluate diffusion of fluorophore-labeled dextran (MW 3000) in GL, and the IOI data analysis was adapted to quantify the anomalous diffusion exponent dw from the IOI records. Diffusion was significantly anomalous in rat GL, where dw reached 4.8. In the geometrically simpler turtle GL, dw was elevated but not robustly anomalous (dw = 2.6). The experimental work was complemented by numerical Monte Carlo simulations of anomalous ECS diffusion in several three-dimensional tissue models containing glomeruli-like structures. It demonstrated that both the duration of transiently anomalous diffusion and the anomalous exponent depend on the size of model glomeruli and the degree of their wrapping. In conclusion, we have found anomalous extracellular diffusion in the GL of rat cerebellum. This finding lends support to the DS microdomain hypothesis. Transiently anomalous diffusion also has a profound effect on the spatiotemporal distribution of molecules released into the ECS, especially at diffusion distances on the order of a few cell diameters, speeding up short-range diffusion-mediated signals in less permeable

  11. Anomalous Extracellular Diffusion in Rat Cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Fanrong; Hrabe, Jan; Hrabetova, Sabina

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular space (ECS) is a major channel transporting biologically active molecules and drugs in the brain. Diffusion-mediated transport of these substances is hindered by the ECS structure but the microscopic basis of this hindrance is not fully understood. One hypothesis proposes that the hindrance originates in large part from the presence of dead-space (DS) microdomains that can transiently retain diffusing molecules. Because previous theoretical and modeling work reported an initial period of anomalous diffusion in similar environments, we expected that brain regions densely populated by DS microdomains would exhibit anomalous extracellular diffusion. Specifically, we targeted granular layers (GL) of rat and turtle cerebella that are populated with large and geometrically complex glomeruli. The integrative optical imaging (IOI) method was employed to evaluate diffusion of fluorophore-labeled dextran (MW 3000) in GL, and the IOI data analysis was adapted to quantify the anomalous diffusion exponent dw from the IOI records. Diffusion was significantly anomalous in rat GL, where dw reached 4.8. In the geometrically simpler turtle GL, dw was elevated but not robustly anomalous (dw = 2.6). The experimental work was complemented by numerical Monte Carlo simulations of anomalous ECS diffusion in several three-dimensional tissue models containing glomeruli-like structures. It demonstrated that both the duration of transiently anomalous diffusion and the anomalous exponent depend on the size of model glomeruli and the degree of their wrapping. In conclusion, we have found anomalous extracellular diffusion in the GL of rat cerebellum. This finding lends support to the DS microdomain hypothesis. Transiently anomalous diffusion also has a profound effect on the spatiotemporal distribution of molecules released into the ECS, especially at diffusion distances on the order of a few cell diameters, speeding up short-range diffusion-mediated signals in less permeable

  12. Anomalous extracellular diffusion in rat cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Fanrong; Hrabe, Jan; Hrabetova, Sabina

    2015-05-01

    Extracellular space (ECS) is a major channel transporting biologically active molecules and drugs in the brain. Diffusion-mediated transport of these substances is hindered by the ECS structure but the microscopic basis of this hindrance is not fully understood. One hypothesis proposes that the hindrance originates in large part from the presence of dead-space (DS) microdomains that can transiently retain diffusing molecules. Because previous theoretical and modeling work reported an initial period of anomalous diffusion in similar environments, we expected that brain regions densely populated by DS microdomains would exhibit anomalous extracellular diffusion. Specifically, we targeted granular layers (GL) of rat and turtle cerebella that are populated with large and geometrically complex glomeruli. The integrative optical imaging (IOI) method was employed to evaluate diffusion of fluorophore-labeled dextran (MW 3000) in GL, and the IOI data analysis was adapted to quantify the anomalous diffusion exponent dw from the IOI records. Diffusion was significantly anomalous in rat GL, where dw reached 4.8. In the geometrically simpler turtle GL, dw was elevated but not robustly anomalous (dw = 2.6). The experimental work was complemented by numerical Monte Carlo simulations of anomalous ECS diffusion in several three-dimensional tissue models containing glomeruli-like structures. It demonstrated that both the duration of transiently anomalous diffusion and the anomalous exponent depend on the size of model glomeruli and the degree of their wrapping. In conclusion, we have found anomalous extracellular diffusion in the GL of rat cerebellum. This finding lends support to the DS microdomain hypothesis. Transiently anomalous diffusion also has a profound effect on the spatiotemporal distribution of molecules released into the ECS, especially at diffusion distances on the order of a few cell diameters, speeding up short-range diffusion-mediated signals in less permeable

  13. Lunar sulfur

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuck, David L.

    1991-01-01

    Ideas introduced by Vaniman, Pettit and Heiken in their 1988 Uses of Lunar Sulfur are expanded. Particular attention is given to uses of SO2 as a mineral-dressing fluid. Also introduced is the concept of using sulfide-based concrete as an alternative to the sulfur-based concretes proposed by Leonard and Johnson. Sulfur is abundant in high-Ti mare basalts, which range from 0.16 to 0.27 pct. by weight. Terrestrial basalts with 0.15 pct. S are rare. For oxygen recovery, sulfur must be driven off with other volatiles from ilmenite concentrates, before reduction. Troilite (FeS) may be oxidized to magnetite (Fe3O4) and SO2 gas, by burning concentrates in oxygen within a magnetic field, to further oxidize ilmenite before regrinding the magnetic reconcentration. SO2 is liquid at -20 C, the mean temperature underground on the Moon, at a minimum of 0.6 atm pressure. By using liquid SO2 as a mineral dressing fluid, all the techniques of terrestrial mineral separation become available for lunar ores and concentrates. Combination of sulfur and iron in an exothermic reaction, to form iron sulfides, may be used to cement grains of other minerals into an anhydrous iron-sulfide concrete. A sulfur-iron-aggregate mixture may be heated to the ignition temperature of iron with sulfur to make a concrete shape. The best iron, sulfur, and aggregate ratios need to be experimentally established. The iron and sulfur will be by-products of oxygen production from lunar minerals.

  14. Lunar sulfur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuck, David L.

    Ideas introduced by Vaniman, Pettit and Heiken in their 1988 Uses of Lunar Sulfur are expanded. Particular attention is given to uses of SO2 as a mineral-dressing fluid. Also introduced is the concept of using sulfide-based concrete as an alternative to the sulfur-based concretes proposed by Leonard and Johnson. Sulfur is abundant in high-Ti mare basalts, which range from 0.16 to 0.27 pct. by weight. Terrestrial basalts with 0.15 pct. S are rare. For oxygen recovery, sulfur must be driven off with other volatiles from ilmenite concentrates, before reduction. Troilite (FeS) may be oxidized to magnetite (Fe3O4) and SO2 gas, by burning concentrates in oxygen within a magnetic field, to further oxidize ilmenite before regrinding the magnetic reconcentration. SO2 is liquid at -20 C, the mean temperature underground on the Moon, at a minimum of 0.6 atm pressure. By using liquid SO2 as a mineral dressing fluid, all the techniques of terrestrial mineral separation become available for lunar ores and concentrates. Combination of sulfur and iron in an exothermic reaction, to form iron sulfides, may be used to cement grains of other minerals into an anhydrous iron-sulfide concrete. A sulfur-iron-aggregate mixture may be heated to the ignition temperature of iron with sulfur to make a concrete shape. The best iron, sulfur, and aggregate ratios need to be experimentally established. The iron and sulfur will be by-products of oxygen production from lunar minerals.

  15. ACS SBC Recovery from Anomalous Shutdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    This proposal is designed to permit recovery of the SBC {FUV MAMA} detector after an anomalous shutdown. Anomalous shutdowns can occur as a result of bright object violations which trigger the Bright Scene Detection or Software Global Monitor. Anomalous shutdowns can also occur as a result of SBC hardware problems. The recovery from anomalous shutdown procedure consists of four tests: 1} a signal processing electronics check, 2} a slow high voltage ramp-up to an intermediate voltage, 3} a slow high-voltage ramp-up to the full operating voltage, and 4} a Fold Test. During the two high-voltage ramp-ups, dark ACCUM exposures are taken. At high voltage, dark ACCUM exposures and diagnostics are taken. This proposal is based on Proposal 12738 from Cycle 19.

  16. ACS SBC Recovery from Anomalous Shutdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    This proposal is designed to permit recovery of the SBC {FUV MAMA} detector after an anomalous shutdown. Anomalous shutdowns can occur as a result of bright object violations which trigger the Bright Scene Detection or Software Global Monitor. Anomalous shutdowns can also occur as a result of SBC hardware problems. The recovery from anomalous shutdown procedure consists of four tests: a signal processing electronics check, a slow high voltage ramp-up to an intermediate voltage, a slow high-voltage ramp-up to the full operating voltage, and lastly, a Fold Test. During the two high-voltage ramp-ups, dark ACCUM exposures are taken. At high voltage, dark ACCUM exposures and diagnostics are taken. This proposal is based on proposal 11884, visits 1 to 4.

  17. Anomalous Random Telegraph Signal Extractions from a Very Large Number of n-Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors Using Test Element Groups with 0.47 Hz-3.0 MHz Sampling Frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Kenichi; Fujisawa, Takafumi; Teramoto, Akinobu; Watabe, Shunichi; Sugawa, Shigetoshi; Ohmi, Tadahiro

    2009-04-01

    Random telegraph signal (RTS) noise in small gate area metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) transistors occurs frequently and causes serious problems in the field of flash memories and complementary MOS (CMOS) image sensors. The trap in the gate insulator, which is considered the origin of RTS, varies widely in terms of spatial location and energy level, so that RTS characteristics including the amplitude and time constants have large variability by nature and statistical analysis of RTS should become indispensable. In this paper, we propose a high-speed RTS measurement system with a newly developed test circuit and discuss the drain current and temperature dependences of RTS amplitude distributions. Moreover, we expand the sampling frequency between 0.47 Hz-3.0 MHz and the observation length up to about 4 h and can thereby observe some anomalous RTSs such as ones with long time constants, ones generated abruptly, and ones disappearing.

  18. A Spectral Framework for Anomalous Subgraph Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Benjamin A.; Beard, Michelle S.; Wolfe, Patrick J.; Bliss, Nadya T.

    2015-08-01

    A wide variety of application domains are concerned with data consisting of entities and their relationships or connections, formally represented as graphs. Within these diverse application areas, a common problem of interest is the detection of a subset of entities whose connectivity is anomalous with respect to the rest of the data. While the detection of such anomalous subgraphs has received a substantial amount of attention, no application-agnostic framework exists for analysis of signal detectability in graph-based data. In this paper, we describe a framework that enables such analysis using the principal eigenspace of a graph's residuals matrix, commonly called the modularity matrix in community detection. Leveraging this analytical tool, we show that the framework has a natural power metric in the spectral norm of the anomalous subgraph's adjacency matrix (signal power) and of the background graph's residuals matrix (noise power). We propose several algorithms based on spectral properties of the residuals matrix, with more computationally expensive techniques providing greater detection power. Detection and identification performance are presented for a number of signal and noise models, including clusters and bipartite foregrounds embedded into simple random backgrounds as well as graphs with community structure and realistic degree distributions. The trends observed verify intuition gleaned from other signal processing areas, such as greater detection power when the signal is embedded within a less active portion of the background. We demonstrate the utility of the proposed techniques in detecting small, highly anomalous subgraphs in real graphs derived from Internet traffic and product co-purchases.

  19. Anomalous is ubiquitous

    SciTech Connect

    Eliazar, Iddo; Klafter, Joseph

    2011-09-15

    Brownian motion is widely considered the quintessential model of diffusion processes-the most elemental random transport processes in Science and Engineering. Yet so, examples of diffusion processes displaying highly non-Brownian statistics-commonly termed 'Anomalous Diffusion' processes-are omnipresent both in the natural sciences and in engineered systems. The scientific interest in Anomalous Diffusion and its applications is growing exponentially in the recent years. In this Paper we review the key statistics of Anomalous Diffusion processes: sub-diffusion and super-diffusion, long-range dependence and the Joseph effect, Levy statistics and the Noah effect, and 1/f noise. We further present a theoretical model-generalizing the Einstein-Smoluchowski diffusion model-which provides a unified explanation for the prevalence of Anomalous Diffusion statistics. Our model shows that what is commonly perceived as 'anomalous' is in effect ubiquitous. - Highlights: > The article provides an overview of Anomalous Diffusion (AD) statistics. > The Einstein-Smoluchowski diffusion model is extended and generalized. > The generalized model universally generates AD statistics. > A unified 'universal macroscopic explanation' for AD statistics is established. > AD statistics are shown to be fundamentally connected to robustness.

  20. A potassium Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yin, B.; Shay, T. M.

    1992-01-01

    The characteristics of a potassium Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter operating on the blue and near infrared transitions are calculated. The results show that the filter can be designed to provide high transmission, very narrow pass bandwidth, and low equivalent noise bandwidth. The Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter (FADOF) provides a narrow pass bandwidth (about GHz) optical filter for laser communications, remote sensing, and lidar. The general theoretical model for the FADOF has been established in our previous paper. In this paper, we have identified the optimum operational conditions for a potassium FADOF operating on the blue and infrared transitions. The signal transmission, bandwidth, and equivalent noise bandwidth (ENBW) are also calculated.

  1. In-house phase determination of the lima bean trypsin inhibitor: a low-resolution sulfur-SAD case.

    PubMed

    Debreczeni, Judit E; Bunkóczi, Gábor; Girmann, Beatrix; Sheldrick, George M

    2003-02-01

    SAD (single-wavelength anomalous diffraction) has enormous potential for phasing proteins using only the anomalous signal of the almost ubiquitous native sulfur, but requires extremely precise data. The previously unknown structure of the lima bean trypsin inhibitor (LBTI) was solved using highly redundant data collected to 3 A using a CCD detector with a rotating-anode generator and three-circle goniometer. The seven 'super-S' atoms (disulfide bridges) were located by dual-space recycling with SHELXD and the high solvent content enabled the density-modification program SHELXE to generate high-quality maps despite the modest resolution. Subsequently, a 2.05 A synchrotron data set was collected and used for further phase extension and structure refinement.

  2. Apparatus for responding to an anomalous change in downhole pressure

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe; Wilde, Tyson; Barlow, Jonathan S.

    2010-04-13

    A method of responding to an anomalous change in downhole pressure in a bore hole comprises detecting the anomalous change in downhole pressure, sending a signal along the segmented electromagnetic transmission path, receiving the signal, and performing a automated response. The anomalous change in downhole pressure is detected at a first location along a segmented electromagnetic transmission path, and the segmented electromagnetic transmission path is integrated into the tool string. The signal is received by at least one receiver in communication with the segmented electromagnetic transmission path. The automated response is performed along the tool string. Disclosed is an apparatus for responding to an anomalous change in downhole pressure in a downhole tool string, comprising a segmented electromagnetic transmission path connecting one or more receivers and at least one pressure sensor.

  3. Anomalous law of cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Lapas, Luciano C.; Ferreira, Rogelma M. S.; Rubí, J. Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A.

    2015-03-14

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton’s law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

  4. Anomalous law of cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapas, Luciano C.; Ferreira, Rogelma M. S.; Rubí, J. Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A.

    2015-03-01

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton's law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

  5. Anomalous law of cooling.

    PubMed

    Lapas, Luciano C; Ferreira, Rogelma M S; Rubí, J Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A

    2015-03-14

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton's law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

  6. Uses of lunar sulfur

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaniman, D.; Pettit, D.; Heiken, G.

    1992-01-01

    Sulfur and sulfur compounds have a wide range of applications for their fluid, electrical, chemical, and biochemical properties. Although known abundances on the Moon are limited (approximately 0.1 percent in mare soils), sulfur is relatively extractable by heating. Coproduction of sulfur during oxygen extraction from ilmenite-rich mare soils could yield sulfur in masses up to 10 percent of the mass of oxygen produced. Sulfur deserves serious consideration as a lunar resource.

  7. Robust structural analysis of native biological macromolecules from multi-crystal anomalous diffraction data

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qun; Liu, Qinglian; Hendrickson, Wayne A.

    2013-01-01

    Structure determinations for biological macromolecules that have no known structural antecedents typically involve the incorporation of heavier atoms than those found natively in biological molecules. Currently, selenomethionyl proteins analyzed using single- or multi-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD or MAD) data predominate for such de novo analyses. Naturally occurring metal ions such as zinc or iron often suffice in MAD or SAD experiments, and sulfur SAD has been an option since it was first demonstrated using crambin 30 years ago; however, SAD analyses of structures containing only light atoms (Z max ≤ 20) have not been common. Here, robust procedures for enhancing the signal to noise in measurements of anomalous diffraction by combining data collected from several crystals at a lower than usual X-ray energy are described. This multi-crystal native SAD method was applied in five structure determinations, using between five and 13 crystals to determine substructures of between four and 52 anomalous scatterers (Z ≤ 20) and then the full structures ranging from 127 to 1200 ordered residues per asymmetric unit at resolutions from 2.3 to 2.8 Å. Tests were devised to assure that all of the crystals used were statistically equivalent. Elemental identities for Ca, Cl, S, P and Mg were proven by f′′ scattering-factor refinements. The procedures are robust, indicating that truly routine structure determination of typical native macromolecules is realised. Synchrotron beamlines that are optimized for low-energy X-ray diffraction measurements will facilitate such direct structural analysis. PMID:23793158

  8. On the anomalous component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potgieter, M. S.; Fisk, L. A.; Lee, M. A.

    1985-01-01

    The so-called anomalous cosmic ray component, which occurs at energies of about 10 MeV/nucleon and consists only of He, N, O, and Ne, has been a subject of interest for more than a decade. The origin of this component is generally considered to be interstellar neutral gas that is ionized and accelerated in the solar wind. The mechanism and the location for the acceleration, however, remains an unsolved problem. A model is used which includes the effects of gradient and curvature drifts and considers the implications of observed spatial gradients of the anomalous component for the location of the acceleration region. It is concluded that if drifts are important the acceleration region cannot lie at the solar poles. It is also concluded that there is no single region for the acceleration which can account for both the observed intensities and gradients in models which include drift effects.

  9. Sulfuric acid-sulfur heat storage cycle

    DOEpatents

    Norman, John H.

    1983-12-20

    A method of storing heat is provided utilizing a chemical cycle which interconverts sulfuric acid and sulfur. The method can be used to levelize the energy obtained from intermittent heat sources, such as solar collectors. Dilute sulfuric acid is concentrated by evaporation of water, and the concentrated sulfuric acid is boiled and decomposed using intense heat from the heat source, forming sulfur dioxide and oxygen. The sulfur dioxide is reacted with water in a disproportionation reaction yielding dilute sulfuric acid, which is recycled, and elemental sulfur. The sulfur has substantial potential chemical energy and represents the storage of a significant portion of the energy obtained from the heat source. The sulfur is burned whenever required to release the stored energy. A particularly advantageous use of the heat storage method is in conjunction with a solar-powered facility which uses the Bunsen reaction in a water-splitting process. The energy storage method is used to levelize the availability of solar energy while some of the sulfur dioxide produced in the heat storage reactions is converted to sulfuric acid in the Bunsen reaction.

  10. STIS MAMA Recovery from Anomalous Shutdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    This proposal is designed to permit a safe and orderly recovery of the STIS FUV MAMA or NUV MAMA detector after an anomalous shutdown. This is accomplished by using slower-than-normal MCP high-voltage ramp-ups and diagnostics. Anomalous shutdowns can occur because of bright object violations, which trigger the Global Hardware Monitor or the Global Software Monitor. Anomalous shutdowns can also occur because of MAMA hardware anomalies or failures. The cause of the shutdown should be thoroughly investigated and understood prior to recovery. Twenty-four hour wait intervals are required after each test for MCP gas desorption and data analysis. Event flags are used to prevent inadvertent MAMA usage.The recovery procedure consists of three separate tests {i.e. visits} to check the MAMAâ_Ts health after an anomalous shutdown: 1} signal processing electronics check, 2} slow, intermediate voltage high voltage ramp-up, and 3} ramp-up to full operating voltage followed by a fold analysis test {See STIS ISR 98-02R}. Each must be successfully completed before proceeding onto the next. This proposal executes the same steps as Cycle 19 proposal 12779.

  11. COS NUV Detector Recovery After Anomalous Shutdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Thomas

    2011-10-01

    This proposal is designed to permit a safe and orderly recovery of the NUV-MAMA detector after an anomalous shutdown. This is accomplished by using slower-than-normal MCP high-voltage ramp-ups and diagnostics. Anomalous shutdowns can occur because of bright object violations, which trigger the Global Hardware Monitor or the Global Software Monitor. Anomalous shutdowns can also occur because of MAMA hardware anomalies or failures. The cause of the shutdown should be thoroughly investigated and understood prior to recovery. Twenty-four hour wait intervals are required after each test for MCP gas desorption and data analysis. Event flag 2 is used to prevent inadvertent MAMA usage.The recovery procedure consists of four separate tests {i.e. visits} to check the MAMAâ??s health after an anomalous shutdown: signal processing electronics check, slow, intermediate voltage high-voltage ramp-up, ramp-up to full operating voltage, and fold analysis test {See COS TIR 2010-01}. Each must be successfully completed before proceeding onto the next. This proposal executes the same steps as Cycle 18 proposal 12430.

  12. STIS MAMA Recovery from Anomalous Shutdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    This proposal is designed to permit a safe and orderly recovery of the STIS FUV MAMA or NUV MAMA detector after an anomalous shutdown. This is accomplished by using slower-than-normal MCP high-voltage ramp-ups and diagnostics. Anomalous shutdowns can occur because of bright object violations which trigger the Global Hardware Monitor or the Global Software Monitor. Anomalous shutdowns can also occur because of MAMA hardware anomalies or failures. The cause of the shutdown should be thoroughly investigated and understood prior to recovery. Twenty-four hour wait intervals are required after each test for MCP gas desorption and data analysis. Event flags are used to prevent inadvertent MAMA usage.The recovery procedure consists of three separate tests {i.e. visits} to check the MAMA's health after an anomalous shutdown: 1} signal processing electronics check, 2} slow, intermediate voltage high voltage ramp-up, and 3} ramp-up to full operating voltage followed by a fold analysis test {See STIS ISR 98-02R}. Each must be successfully completed before proceeding onto the next. This proposal executes the same steps as Cycle 20 proposal 13150.

  13. COS NUV Detector Recovery after Anomalous Shutdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    This proposal is designed to permit a safe and orderly recovery of the NUV-MAMA detector after an anomalous shutdown. This is accomplished by using slower-than-normal MCP high-voltage ramp-ups and diagnostics. Anomalous shutdowns can occur because of bright object violations which trigger the Global Hardware Monitor or the Global Software Monitor. Anomalous shutdowns can also occur because of MAMA hardware anomalies or failures. The cause of the shutdown should be thoroughly investigated and understood prior to recovery. Twenty-four hour wait intervals are required after each test for MCP gas desorption and data analysis. Event flag 2 is used to prevent inadvertent MAMA usage.The recovery procedure consists of four separate tests {i.e. visits} to check the MAMA's health after an anomalous shutdown: 1} signal processing electronics check, 2} slow, intermediate voltage high-voltage ramp-up, 3} ramp-up to full operating voltage, and 4} fold analysis test {See COS TIR 2010-01}. Each must be successfully completed before proceeding onto the next. This proposal executes the same steps as Cycle 20 proposal 13129. Adjustments were made the the Software Global Monitor {SGM} to account for an increase in the dark counts due to window glow and to align the SGM to previously obtained Fold Analysis event data.

  14. ACS SBC Recovery from Anomalous Shutdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    This proposal is designed to permit a safe and orderly recovery of the SBC {FUV MAMA} detector after an anomalous shutdown. This is accomplished by using slower-than-normal MCP high-voltage ramp-ups and diagnostics. Anomalous shutdowns can occur because of bright object violations, which trigger the Global Hardware Monitor or the Global Software Monitor. Anomalous shutdowns can also occur because of MAMA hardware anomalies or failures. The cause of the shutdown should be thoroughly investigated and understood prior to recovery. Twenty-four hour wait intervals are required after each test for MCP gas desorption and data analysis. Event flag 2 is used to prevent inadvertent MAMA usage. The recovery procedure consists of four separate tests {i.e. visits} to check the MAMA's health after an anomalous shutdown: 1} signal processing electronics check, 2} slow, high-voltage ramp-up to an intermediate voltage, 3} a slow high-voltage ramp-up to the nominal operating HV, and 4} fold analysis test. Each must be completed successfully before proceeding onto the next. During the two high-voltage ramp-ups, dark ACCUM exposures are taken. At high voltage, dark ACCUM exposures and diagnostics are taken. This proposal is based on Proposal 13163 from Cycle 20. For additional MAMA recovery information, see STIS ISR 98-02R.

  15. COS NUV Detector Recovery After Anomalous Shutdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    This proposal is designed to permit a safe and orderly recovery of the NUV-MAMA detector after an anomalous shutdown. This is accomplished by using slower-than-normal MCP high-voltage ramp-ups and diagnostics. Anomalous shutdowns can occur because of bright object violations, which trigger the Global Hardware Monitor or the Global Software Monitor. Anomalous shutdowns can also occur because of MAMA hardware anomalies or failures. The cause of the shutdown should be thoroughly investigated and understood prior to recovery. Twenty-four hour wait intervals are required after each test for MCP gas desorption and data analysis. Event flag 2 is used to prevent inadvertent MAMA usage.The recovery procedure consists of four separate tests {i.e. visits} to check the MAMAâ_Ts health after an anomalous shutdown: 1} signal processing electronics check, 2} slow, intermediate voltage high-voltage ramp-up, 3} ramp-up to full operating voltage, and 4} fold analysis test {See COS TIR 2010-01}. Each must be successfully completed before proceeding onto the next. This proposal executes almost the same steps as Cycle 19 proposal 12723. Adjustments were made the the Software Global Monitor {SGM} to account for an increase in the dark counts due to window glow and to align the SGM to previously obtained Fold Analysis event data.

  16. Nonlocal Anomalous Hall Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Steven S.-L.; Vignale, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    The anomalous Hall (AH) effect is deemed to be a unique transport property of ferromagnetic metals, caused by the concerted action of spin polarization and spin-orbit coupling. Nevertheless, recent experiments have shown that the effect also occurs in a nonmagnetic metal (Pt) in contact with a magnetic insulator [yttrium iron garnet (YIG)], even when precautions are taken to ensure that there is no induced magnetization in the metal. We propose a theory of this effect based on the combined action of spin-dependent scattering from the magnetic interface and the spin-Hall effect in the bulk of the metal. At variance with previous theories, we predict the effect to be of first order in the spin-orbit coupling, just as the conventional anomalous Hall effect—the only difference being the spatial separation of the spin-orbit interaction and the magnetization. For this reason we name this effect the nonlocal anomalous Hall effect and predict that its sign will be determined by the sign of the spin-Hall angle in the metal. The AH conductivity that we calculate from our theory is in order of magnitude agreement with the measured values in Pt /YIG structures.

  17. Nonlocal Anomalous Hall Effect.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Steven S-L; Vignale, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    The anomalous Hall (AH) effect is deemed to be a unique transport property of ferromagnetic metals, caused by the concerted action of spin polarization and spin-orbit coupling. Nevertheless, recent experiments have shown that the effect also occurs in a nonmagnetic metal (Pt) in contact with a magnetic insulator [yttrium iron garnet (YIG)], even when precautions are taken to ensure that there is no induced magnetization in the metal. We propose a theory of this effect based on the combined action of spin-dependent scattering from the magnetic interface and the spin-Hall effect in the bulk of the metal. At variance with previous theories, we predict the effect to be of first order in the spin-orbit coupling, just as the conventional anomalous Hall effect-the only difference being the spatial separation of the spin-orbit interaction and the magnetization. For this reason we name this effect the nonlocal anomalous Hall effect and predict that its sign will be determined by the sign of the spin-Hall angle in the metal. The AH conductivity that we calculate from our theory is in order of magnitude agreement with the measured values in Pt/YIG structures.

  18. Anomalous Diffusion Near Resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, Tanaji; /Fermilab

    2010-05-01

    Synchro-betatron resonances can lead to emittance growth and the loss of luminosity. We consider the detailed dynamics of a bunch near such a low order resonance driven by crossing angles at the collision points. We characterize the nature of diffusion and find that it is anomalous and sub-diffusive. This affects both the shape of the beam distribution and the time scales for growth. Predictions of a simplified anomalous diffusion model are compared with direct simulations. Transport of particles near resonances is still not a well understood phenomenon. Often, without justification, phase space motion is assumed to be a normal diffusion process although at least one case of anomalous diffusion in beam dynamics has been reported [1]. Here we will focus on the motion near synchro-betatron resonances which can be excited by several means, including beams crossing at an angle at the collision points as in the LHC. We will consider low order resonances which couple the horizontal and longitudinal planes, both for simplicity and to observe large effects over short time scales. While the tunes we consider are not practical for a collider, nonetheless the transport mechanisms we uncover are also likely to operate at higher order resonances.

  19. Anomalous dimensions of conformal baryons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco

    2016-10-01

    We determine the anomalous dimensions of baryon operators for the three-color theory as functions of the number of massless flavors within the conformal window to the maximum known order in perturbation theory. We show that the anomalous dimension of the baryon is controllably small, within the δ expansion, for a wide range of number of flavors. We also find that this is always smaller than the anomalous dimension of the fermion mass operator. These findings challenge the partial compositeness paradigm.

  20. Spectrum of anomalous random telegraph noise

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y. )

    1993-12-15

    The alternate capture and emission of electrons at an individual defect site generates discrete switching in resistance, referred to as a random telegraph signal (RTS). Recent experiments indicate that some defects might have two mutually exclusive emission modes with distinct emission rates, which result in the anomalous RTS: a rapid-switching RTS modulated in time by a slow-switching RTS of the same amplitude. The spectrum is calculated of the anomalous RTS by assuming that the emission mode for a captured electron is determined at the moment of capture of the electron, and the probability for a given mode is a constant [ital p] in each event of capturing. It is shown that a distribution in [ital p] might lead to a 1/[ital f] spectrum.

  1. Fickian dispersion is anomalous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cushman, John H.; O'Malley, Dan

    2015-12-01

    The thesis put forward here is that the occurrence of Fickian dispersion in geophysical settings is a rare event and consequently should be labeled as anomalous. What people classically call anomalous is really the norm. In a Lagrangian setting, a process with mean square displacement which is proportional to time is generally labeled as Fickian dispersion. With a number of counter examples we show why this definition is fraught with difficulty. In a related discussion, we show an infinite second moment does not necessarily imply the process is super dispersive. By employing a rigorous mathematical definition of Fickian dispersion we illustrate why it is so hard to find a Fickian process. We go on to employ a number of renormalization group approaches to classify non-Fickian dispersive behavior. Scaling laws for the probability density function for a dispersive process, the distribution for the first passage times, the mean first passage time, and the finite-size Lyapunov exponent are presented for fixed points of both deterministic and stochastic renormalization group operators. The fixed points of the renormalization group operators are p-self-similar processes. A generalized renormalization group operator is introduced whose fixed points form a set of generalized self-similar processes. Power-law clocks are introduced to examine multi-scaling behavior. Several examples of these ideas are presented and discussed.

  2. Fickian dispersion is anomalous

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, John H.; O’Malley, Dan

    2015-06-22

    The thesis put forward here is that the occurrence of Fickian dispersion in geophysical settings is a rare event and consequently should be labeled as anomalous. What people classically call anomalous is really the norm. In a Lagrangian setting, a process with mean square displacement which is proportional to time is generally labeled as Fickian dispersion. With a number of counter examples we show why this definition is fraught with difficulty. In a related discussion, we show an infinite second moment does not necessarily imply the process is super dispersive. By employing a rigorous mathematical definition of Fickian dispersion we illustrate why it is so hard to find a Fickian process. We go on to employ a number of renormalization group approaches to classify non-Fickian dispersive behavior. Scaling laws for the probability density function for a dispersive process, the distribution for the first passage times, the mean first passage time, and the finite-size Lyapunov exponent are presented for fixed points of both deterministic and stochastic renormalization group operators. The fixed points of the renormalization group operators are p-self-similar processes. A generalized renormalization group operator is introduced whose fixed points form a set of generalized self-similar processes. Finally, power-law clocks are introduced to examine multi-scaling behavior. Several examples of these ideas are presented and discussed.

  3. Fickian dispersion is anomalous

    DOE PAGES

    Cushman, John H.; O’Malley, Dan

    2015-06-22

    The thesis put forward here is that the occurrence of Fickian dispersion in geophysical settings is a rare event and consequently should be labeled as anomalous. What people classically call anomalous is really the norm. In a Lagrangian setting, a process with mean square displacement which is proportional to time is generally labeled as Fickian dispersion. With a number of counter examples we show why this definition is fraught with difficulty. In a related discussion, we show an infinite second moment does not necessarily imply the process is super dispersive. By employing a rigorous mathematical definition of Fickian dispersion wemore » illustrate why it is so hard to find a Fickian process. We go on to employ a number of renormalization group approaches to classify non-Fickian dispersive behavior. Scaling laws for the probability density function for a dispersive process, the distribution for the first passage times, the mean first passage time, and the finite-size Lyapunov exponent are presented for fixed points of both deterministic and stochastic renormalization group operators. The fixed points of the renormalization group operators are p-self-similar processes. A generalized renormalization group operator is introduced whose fixed points form a set of generalized self-similar processes. Finally, power-law clocks are introduced to examine multi-scaling behavior. Several examples of these ideas are presented and discussed.« less

  4. Efficient merging of data from multiple samples for determination of anomalous substructure.

    PubMed

    Akey, David L; Terwilliger, Thomas C; Smith, Janet L

    2016-03-01

    Merging of data from multiple crystals has proven to be useful for determination of the anomalously scattering atomic substructure for crystals with weak anomalous scatterers (e.g. S and P) and/or poor diffraction. Strategies for merging data from many samples, which require assessment of sample isomorphism, rely on metrics of variability in unit-cell parameters, anomalous signal correlation and overall data similarity. Local scaling, anomalous signal optimization and data-set weighting, implemented in phenix.scale_and_merge, provide an efficient protocol for merging data from many samples. The protein NS1 was used in a series of trials with data collected from 28 samples for phasing by single-wavelength anomalous diffraction of the native S atoms. The local-scaling, anomalous-optimization protocol produced merged data sets with higher anomalous signal quality indicators than did standard global-scaling protocols. The local-scaled data were also more successful in substructure determination. Merged data quality was assessed for data sets where the multiplicity was reduced in either of two ways: by excluding data from individual crystals (to reduce errors owing to non-isomorphism) or by excluding the last-recorded segments of data from each crystal (to minimize the effects of radiation damage). The anomalous signal was equivalent at equivalent multiplicity for the two procedures, and structure-determination success correlated with anomalous signal metrics. The quality of the anomalous signal was strongly correlated with data multiplicity over a range of 12-fold to 150-fold multiplicity. For the NS1 data, the local-scaling and anomalous-optimization protocol handled sample non-isomorphism and radiation-induced decay equally well. PMID:26960117

  5. Solubility of Sulfur Dioxide in Sulfuric Acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, K. K.; Compton, L. E.; Lawson, D. D.

    1982-01-01

    The solubility of sulfur dioxide in 50% (wt./wt.) sulfuric acid was evaluated by regular solution theory, and the results verified by experimental measurements in the temperature range of 25 C to 70 C at pressures of 60 to 200 PSIA. The percent (wt./wt.) of sulfur dioxide in 50% (wt./wt.) sulfuric acid is given by the equation %SO2 = 2.2350 + 0.0903P - 0.00026P 10 to the 2nd power with P in PSIA.

  6. Fractal model of anomalous diffusion.

    PubMed

    Gmachowski, Lech

    2015-12-01

    An equation of motion is derived from fractal analysis of the Brownian particle trajectory in which the asymptotic fractal dimension of the trajectory has a required value. The formula makes it possible to calculate the time dependence of the mean square displacement for both short and long periods when the molecule diffuses anomalously. The anomalous diffusion which occurs after long periods is characterized by two variables, the transport coefficient and the anomalous diffusion exponent. An explicit formula is derived for the transport coefficient, which is related to the diffusion constant, as dependent on the Brownian step time, and the anomalous diffusion exponent. The model makes it possible to deduce anomalous diffusion properties from experimental data obtained even for short time periods and to estimate the transport coefficient in systems for which the diffusion behavior has been investigated. The results were confirmed for both sub and super-diffusion.

  7. Anomalous gauge boson couplings

    SciTech Connect

    Barklow, T.; Rizzo, T.; Baur, U.

    1997-01-13

    The measurement of anomalous gauge boson self couplings is reviewed for a variety of present and planned accelerators. Sensitivities are compared for these accelerators using models based on the effective Lagrangian approach. The sensitivities described here are for measurement of {open_quotes}generic{close_quotes} parameters {kappa}{sub V}, {lambda}{sub V}, etc., defined in the text. Pre-LHC measurements will not probe these coupling parameters to precision better than O(10{sup -1}). The LHC should be sensitive to better than O(10{sup -2}), while a future NLC should achieve sensitivity of O(10{sup -3}) to O(10{sup -4}) for center of mass energies ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 TeV.

  8. Spectrum of anomalous magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2016-05-01

    The equations of anomalous magnetohydrodynamics describe an Abelian plasma where conduction and chiral currents are simultaneously present and constrained by the second law of thermodynamics. At high frequencies the magnetic currents play the leading role, and the spectrum is dominated by two-fluid effects. The system behaves instead as a single fluid in the low-frequency regime where the vortical currents induce potentially large hypermagnetic fields. After deriving the physical solutions of the generalized Appleton-Hartree equation, the corresponding dispersion relations are scrutinized and compared with the results valid for cold plasmas. Hypermagnetic knots and fluid vortices can be concurrently present at very low frequencies and suggest a qualitatively different dynamics of the hydromagnetic nonlinearities.

  9. Detection of anomalous events

    DOEpatents

    Ferragut, Erik M.; Laska, Jason A.; Bridges, Robert A.

    2016-06-07

    A system is described for receiving a stream of events and scoring the events based on anomalousness and maliciousness (or other classification). The system can include a plurality of anomaly detectors that together implement an algorithm to identify low-probability events and detect atypical traffic patterns. The anomaly detector provides for comparability of disparate sources of data (e.g., network flow data and firewall logs.) Additionally, the anomaly detector allows for regulatability, meaning that the algorithm can be user configurable to adjust a number of false alerts. The anomaly detector can be used for a variety of probability density functions, including normal Gaussian distributions, irregular distributions, as well as functions associated with continuous or discrete variables.

  10. The Sulfur Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellogg, W. W.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    A model estimating the contributions of sulfur compounds by natural and human activities, and the rate of removal of sulfur from the atmosphere, is based on a review of the existing literature. Areas requiring additional research are identified. (AL)

  11. Anomalous Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaosa, Naoto; Sinova, Jairo; Onoda, Shigeki; MacDonald, A. H.; Ong, N. P.

    2010-04-01

    The anomalous Hall effect (AHE) occurs in solids with broken time-reversal symmetry, typically in a ferromagnetic phase, as a consequence of spin-orbit coupling. Experimental and theoretical studies of the AHE are reviewed, focusing on recent developments that have provided a more complete framework for understanding this subtle phenomenon and have, in many instances, replaced controversy by clarity. Synergy between experimental and theoretical works, both playing a crucial role, has been at the heart of these advances. On the theoretical front, the adoption of the Berry-phase concepts has established a link between the AHE and the topological nature of the Hall currents. On the experimental front, new experimental studies of the AHE in transition metals, transition-metal oxides, spinels, pyrochlores, and metallic dilute magnetic semiconductors have established systematic trends. These two developments, in concert with first-principles electronic structure calculations, strongly favor the dominance of an intrinsic Berry-phase-related AHE mechanism in metallic ferromagnets with moderate conductivity. The intrinsic AHE can be expressed in terms of the Berry-phase curvatures and it is therefore an intrinsic quantum-mechanical property of a perfect crystal. An extrinsic mechanism, skew scattering from disorder, tends to dominate the AHE in highly conductive ferromagnets. The full modern semiclassical treatment of the AHE is reviewed which incorporates an anomalous contribution to wave-packet group velocity due to momentum-space Berry curvatures and correctly combines the roles of intrinsic and extrinsic (skew-scattering and side-jump) scattering-related mechanisms. In addition, more rigorous quantum-mechanical treatments based on the Kubo and Keldysh formalisms are reviewed, taking into account multiband effects, and demonstrate the equivalence of all three linear response theories in the metallic regime. Building on results from recent experiment and theory, a

  12. Sulfuric acid on Europa and the radiolytic sulfur cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, R. W.; Johnson, R. E.; Anderson, M. S.

    1999-01-01

    A comparison of laboratory spectra with Galileo data indicates that hydrated sulfuric acid is present and is a major component of Europa's surface. In addition, this moon's visually dark surface material, which spatially correlates with the sulfuric acid concentration, is identified as radiolytically altered sulfur polymers. Radiolysis of the surface by magnetospheric plasma bombardment continuously cycles sulfur between three forms: sulfuric acid, sulfur dioxide, and sulfur polymers, with sulfuric acid being about 50 times as abundant as the other forms. Enhanced sulfuric acid concentrations are found in Europa's geologically young terrains, suggesting that low-temperature, liquid sulfuric acid may influence geological processes.

  13. Sulfur tolerant anode materials

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-05-01

    The goal of this program is the development of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) anode which is more tolerant of sulfur contaminants in the fuel than the current state-of-the-art nickel-based anode structures. This program addresses two different but related aspects of the sulfur contamination problem. The primary aspect is concerned with the development of a sulfur tolerant electrocatalyst for the fuel oxidation reaction. A secondary issue is the development of a sulfur tolerant water-gas-shift reaction catalyst and an investigation of potential steam reforming catalysts which also have some sulfur tolerant capabilities. These two aspects are being addressed as two separate tasks.

  14. Biochemistry of sulfur

    SciTech Connect

    Huxtable, R.J.; LaFranconi, W.M.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: the chemistry of sulfur; the oxidation states of sulfur; the reduction of sulfate and the oxidation of sulfide; the sulfur cycle; oxidation of inorganic sulfide; the metabolism and functions of methionine; taurine and the oxidative metabolism of cysteine; thiols, disulfides, and thioesters; thioethers; thiamine; biotin; sulfates; inherited disorders of sulfur metabolism; cystinuria; sulfur and the metabolism of xenobiotics; general aspects of xenobiotic metabolism; glutathione and sulfation of xenobiotics; and metabolic activation as a result of sulfate conjugation.

  15. Sulfur tolerant anode materials

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-02-01

    The goal of this program is the development of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) anode which is more tolerant of sulfur contaminants in the fuel than the current state-of-the-art nickel-based anode structures. This program addresses two different but related aspects of the sulfur contamination problem. The primary aspect is concerned with the development of a sulfur tolerant electrocatalyst for the fuel oxidation reaction. A secondary issue is the development of a sulfur tolerant water-gas-shift reaction catalyst and an investigation of potential steam reforming catalysts which also have some sulfur tolerant capabilities. These two aspects are being addressed as two separate tasks.

  16. Sulfur tolerant anode materials

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-02-01

    The goal of this program is the development of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) anode which is more tolerant of sulfur contaminants in the fuel than the current state-of-the-art nickel-based anode structures. This program addresses two different but related aspects of the sulfur contamination problem. The primary aspect is concerned with the development of a sulfur tolerant electrocatalyst for the fuel oxidation reaction. A secondary issue is the development of a sulfur tolerant water-gas-shift reaction catalyst and an investigation of potential steam reforming catalysts which also have some sulfur tolerant capabilities. These two aspects are being addressed as two separate tasks.

  17. Surface Induced Anomalous Superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, Herman J.; Haley, Stephen B.

    The Ginzburg Landau (GL) theory is recast using a Hamiltonian involving the complete kinetic energy density which requires that the surface energy must contain a term ∇∣ψ∣2 to support superconducting (SC) states. The GL equations contain two temperature t dependent parameters α(t) and β(t), which are respectively the coefficients of the SC pair density ∝∣ψ∣2, and the pair interaction term ∝∣ψ∣4 in the free energy density. The sign of these parameters, which defines distinct solution classes, and the ratio s(t)=√ {|α |/|β |} are governed by the characteristics of the surface energy density. In addition to the conventional bulk superconducting states with (α < 0, β > 0), anomalous superconducting states exist for all other sign combinations, including cases with β < 0 which may exist only when surface pair interactions are significant. All possible solutions of our generalized nonlinear, one-dimensional GL equations are found analytically and applied to a thin superconducting slab which manifests the possibility of states exhibiting enhanced, diminished, and pre-wetting superconductivity. Critical currents are determined as functions of s(t) and surface parameters. The results are applied to critical current experiments on SNS systems.

  18. Anomalous - viscosity current drive

    DOEpatents

    Stix, Thomas H.; Ono, Masayuki

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus and method for maintaining a steady-state current in a toroidal magnetically confined plasma. An electric current is generated in an edge region at or near the outermost good magnetic surface of the toroidal plasma. The edge current is generated in a direction parallel to the flow of current in the main plasma and such that its current density is greater than the average density of the main plasma current. The current flow in the edge region is maintained in a direction parallel to the main current for a period of one or two of its characteristic decay times. Current from the edge region will penetrate radially into the plasma and augment the main plasma current through the mechanism of anomalous viscosity. In another aspect of the invention, current flow driven between a cathode and an anode is used to establish a start-up plasma current. The plasma-current channel is magnetically detached from the electrodes, leaving a plasma magnetically insulated from contact with any material obstructions including the cathode and anode.

  19. Structure of the CFA/III major pilin subunit CofA from human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli determined at 0.90 Å resolution by sulfur-SAD phasing.

    PubMed

    Fukakusa, Shunsuke; Kawahara, Kazuki; Nakamura, Shota; Iwashita, Takaki; Baba, Seiki; Nishimura, Mitsuhiro; Kobayashi, Yuji; Honda, Takeshi; Iida, Tetsuya; Taniguchi, Tooru; Ohkubo, Tadayasu

    2012-10-01

    CofA, a major pilin subunit of colonization factor antigen III (CFA/III), forms pili that mediate small-intestinal colonization by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). In this study, the crystal structure of an N-terminally truncated version of CofA was determined by single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) phasing using five sulfurs in the protein. Given the counterbalance between anomalous signal strength and the undesired X-ray absorption of the solvent, diffraction data were collected at 1.5 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. These data were sufficient to elucidate the sulfur substructure at 1.38 Å resolution. The low solvent content (29%) of the crystal necessitated that density modification be performed with an additional 0.9 Å resolution data set to reduce the phase error caused by the small sulfur anomalous signal. The CofA structure showed the αβ-fold typical of type IVb pilins and showed high structural homology to that of TcpA for toxin-coregulated pili of Vibrio cholerae, including spatial distribution of key residues critical for pilin self-assembly. A pilus-filament model of CofA was built by computational docking and molecular-dynamics simulation using the previously reported filament model of TcpA as a structural template. This model revealed that the CofA filament surface was highly negatively charged and that a 23-residue-long loop between the α1 and α2 helices filled the gap between the pilin subunits. These characteristics could provide a unique binding epitope for the CFA/III pili of ETEC compared with other type IVb pili. PMID:22993096

  20. Sulfur dioxide and benzo(a)pyrene trigger apoptotic and anti-apoptotic signals at different post-exposure times in mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Qin, Guohua; Wu, Meiqiong; Sang, Nan

    2015-11-01

    There is considerable concern that exposure to PAHs in combination with other air pollutants may lead to cancer or apoptosis in different cells. This study investigated the interaction effects between SO2 and BaP in mouse liver after long-term exposure. Mice were exposed to BaP for 5days or SO2 inhalation for 4weeks alone or together. The mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was assessed using the lipophilic cationic probe JC-1. The mRNA and protein level of several mitochondrial respiratory complex subunits and apoptosis-related genes were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR and/or western blot, respectively. We observed the pathology change of the mouse liver after 4-week treatments. It was revealed that MMP was reduced after co-exposure of SO2 and BaP after a 4-week treatment (1day post-exposure, p.e. 1d), with the suppression of the mRNA expression of complexes IV and V subunits, CO1, CO4, and ATP6. Co-exposure of SO2 and BaP appeared to be able to cause apoptotic signals, as judged by the suppression of bcl-2 and the bcl-2/bax ratio and the elevation of bax, caspase 3 activation, p53 accumulation and phosphorylation 1d post-exposure to SO2 and BaP, while the anti-apoptotic signal was detected by the elevation of bcl-2 and the bcl-2/bax ratio as well as the suppression of bax and p53 expression after a 13-week post-exposure (p.e. 13w) of SO2 and BaP. These results indicate that co-exposure to SO2 and BaP appears to lead to apoptotic as well as anti-apoptotic signals at different post-exposure times.

  1. Nonlocal anomalous Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shulei; Vignale, Giovanni

    Anomalous Hall effect (AHE) is a distinctive transport property of ferromagnetic metals arising from spin orbit coupling (SOC) in concert with spontaneous spin polarization. Nonetheless, recent experiments have shown that the effect also appears in a nonmagnetic metal in contact with a magnetic insulator. The main puzzle lies in the apparent absence of spin polarized electrons in the non-magnetic metal. Here, we theoretically demonstrate that the scattering of electrons from a rough metal-insulator interface is generally spin-dependent, which results in mutual conversion between spin and charge currents flowing in the plane of the layer. It is the current-carrying spin polarized electrons and the spin Hall effect in the bulk of the metal layer that conspire to generate the AH current. This novel AHE differs from the conventional one only in the spatial separation of the SOC and the magnetization, so we name it as nonlocal AHE. In contrast to other previously proposed mechanisms (e.g., spin Hall AHE and magnetic proximity effect (MPE)), the nonlocal AHE appears on the first order of spin Hall angle and does not rely on the induced moments in the metal layer, which make it experimentally detectable by contrasting the AH current directions of two layered structures such as Pt/Cu/YIG and β -Ta/Cu/YIG (with a thin inserted Cu layer to eliminate the MPE). We predict that the directions of the AH currents in these two trilayers would be opposite since the spin Hall angles of Pt and β -Ta are of opposite signs. Work supported by NSF Grants DMR-1406568.

  2. Petrology of Anomalous Eucrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Peng, Z. X.; Ross, D. K.

    2015-01-01

    Most mafic achondrites can be broadly categorized as being "eucritic", that is, they are composed of a ferroan low-Ca clinopyroxene, high-Ca plagioclase and a silica phase. They are petrologically distinct from angritic basalts, which are composed of high-Ca, Al-Ti-rich clinopyroxene, Carich olivine, nearly pure anorthite and kirschsteinite, or from what might be called brachinitic basalts, which are composed of ferroan orthopyroxene and high-Ca clinopyroxene, intermediate-Ca plagioclase and ferroan olivine. Because of their similar mineralogy and composition, eucrite-like mafic achondrites formed on compositionally similar asteroids under similar conditions of temperature, pressure and oxygen fugacity. Some of them have distinctive isotopic compositions and petrologic characteristics that demonstrate formation on asteroids different from the parent of the HED clan (e.g., Ibitira, Northwest Africa (NWA) 011). Others show smaller oxygen isotopic distinctions but are otherwise petrologically and compositionally indistinguishable from basaltic eucrites (e.g., Pasamonte, Pecora Escarpment (PCA) 91007). The degree of uniformity in delta O-17 of eucrites and diogenites is one piece of evidence considered to favor of a magma-ocean scenario for their petrogenesis. Given that the O isotopic differences separating Pasamonte and PCA 91007 from other eucrites are small, and that there is an absence of other distinguishing characteristics, a legitimate question is: Did the HED parent asteroid fail to homogenize via a magma-ocean stage, thus explaining outliers like Pasamonte? We are initiating a program of study of anomalous eucrite-like achondrites as one part of our effort to seek a resolution of this issue. Here we present preliminary petrologic information on Asuka (A-) 881394, Elephant Moraine (EET) 87520 and EET 87542. We will have studied several more by conference time.

  3. Can Anomalous Amplification be Attained without Postselection?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Rincón, Julián; Liu, Wei-Tao; Viza, Gerardo I.; Howell, John C.

    2016-03-01

    We present a parameter estimation technique based on performing joint measurements of a weak interaction away from the weak-value-amplification approximation. Two detectors are used to collect full statistics of the correlations between two weakly entangled degrees of freedom. Without discarding of data, the protocol resembles the anomalous amplification of an imaginary-weak-value-like response. The amplification is induced in the difference signal of both detectors allowing robustness to different sources of technical noise, and offering in addition the advantages of balanced signals for precision metrology. All of the Fisher information about the parameter of interest is collected. A tunable phase controls the strength of the amplification response. We experimentally demonstrate the proposed technique by measuring polarization rotations in a linearly polarized laser pulse. We show that in the presence of technical noise the effective sensitivity and precision of a split detector is increased when compared to a conventional continuous-wave balanced detection technique.

  4. Pushing the limits of sulfur SAD phasing: de novo structure solution of the N-terminal domain of the ectodomain of HCV E1

    SciTech Connect

    El Omari, Kamel; Iourin, Oleg; Kadlec, Jan; Fearn, Richard; Hall, David R.; Harlos, Karl; Grimes, Jonathan M.; Stuart, David I.

    2014-08-01

    The sulfur SAD phasing method was successfully used to determine the structure of the N-terminal domain of HCV E1 from low-resolution diffracting crystals by combining data from 32 crystals. Single-wavelength anomalous dispersion of S atoms (S-SAD) is an elegant phasing method to determine crystal structures that does not require heavy-atom incorporation or selenomethionine derivatization. Nevertheless, this technique has been limited by the paucity of the signal at the usual X-ray wavelengths, requiring very accurate measurement of the anomalous differences. Here, the data collection and structure solution of the N-terminal domain of the ectodomain of HCV E1 from crystals that diffracted very weakly is reported. By combining the data from 32 crystals, it was possible to solve the sulfur substructure and calculate initial maps at 7 Å resolution, and after density modication and phase extension using a higher resolution native data set to 3.5 Å resolution model building was achievable.

  5. The global sulfur cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, D. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The results of the planetary biology microbial ecology's 1984 Summer Research Program, which examined various aspects of the global sulfur cycle are summarized. Ways in which sulfur flows through the many living and chemical species that inhabit the surface of the Earth were investigated. Major topics studied include: (1) sulfur cycling and metabolism of phototropic and filamentous sulfur bacteria; (2) sulfur reduction in sediments of marine and evaporite environments; (3) recent cyanobacterial mats; (4) microanalysis of community metabolism in proximity to the photic zone in potential stromatolites; and (5) formation and activity of microbial biofilms on metal sulfides and other mineral surfaces. Relationships between the global sulfur cycle and the understanding of the early evolution of the Earth and biosphere and current processes that affect global habitability are stressed.

  6. DSRP, Direct Sulfur Production

    SciTech Connect

    Gangwal, S.K.; McMichael, W.J.; Agarwal, S.K.; Jang, B.L.; Howe, G.B.; Chen, D.H.; Hopper, J.R.

    1993-08-01

    Hot-gas desulfurization processes for IGCC and other advanced power applications utilize regenerable mixed-metal oxide sorbents to remove hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from raw coal gas. Regeneration of these sorbents produces an off-gas typically containing I to 3 percent sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}). Production of elemental sulfur is a highly desirable option for the ultimate disposal of the SO{sub 2} content of this off-gas. Elemental sulfur, an essential industrial commodity, is easily stored and transported. As shown in Figure 1, the DSRP consists of two catalytic reactors, each followed by a sulfur condenser. Hot regenerator off-gas is mixed with a hot coal-gas slip stream and fed to the first DSRP reactor. Approximately 95 percent of the sulfur gas in the inlet stream of the first reactor is converted to elemental sulfur. The outlet gas of the first DSRP reactor is cooled, condensing out sulfur. The gas could be recycled after the Stage I condenser. Alteratively, by adjusting the proportion of coal gas to regenerator off-gas, the effluent composition of the first reactor can be controlled to produce an H{sub 2}S-to-SO{sub 2} ratio of 2 to 1 at 95 percent sulfur conversion. The cooled gas stream is then passed to the second DSRP reactor where 80 to 90 percent of the remaining sulfur compounds are converted to elemental sulfur via the modified Claus reaction at high pressure. The total efficiency of the two reactors for the conversion of sulfur compounds to elemental sulfur is projected to be about 99.5 percent.

  7. Fly ash sulfur concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Head, W.J.; Liao, M.

    1981-05-01

    Two waste products, flyash and elemental sulfur, can be combined with a modifying agent to produce a potentially useful construction material, flyash sulfur concrete. Manufacturing processes and characteristics of this concrete are described. Compared with a conventional crushed stone aggregate, flyash sulfur concrete is a viable highway pavement base course material. The material's strength characteristics are analyzed. (1 diagram, 4 graphs, 2 photos, 9 references, 5 tables)

  8. Is anomalous transport diffusive

    SciTech Connect

    Rewoldt, G.

    1989-09-01

    It has often been assumed that the anomalous transport from saturated plasma instabilities is diffusive'' in the sense that the particle flux, {Gamma}, the electron energy flux, q{sub e}, and the ion energy flux, q{sub i}, can be written in forms that are linear in the density gradient, dn/dr, the electron temperature gradient, dT{sub e}/dr, and the ion temperature gradient dT{sub i}/dr. In the simplest form, {Gamma} = {minus} D{sub n}{sup n}(dn/dr), q{sub e} = {minus} D{sub e}{sup e}n(dT{sub e}/dr), and q{sub i} = {minus}D{sub i}{sup i}n(dT{sub i}/dr). A possible generalization of this is to include so-called off-diagonal'' terms, with {Gamma} = nV{sub n} {minus} D{sub n}{sup n}(dn/dr) {minus} D{sub n}{sup e}(n/T{sub e})(dT{sub e}/dr) {minus} D{sub n}{sup i}(n/T{sub i})(dT{sub i}/dr), with corresponding forms for the energy fluxes. Here, general results for the quasilinear particle and energy fluxes, resulting from tokamak linear microinstabilities, are evaluated to assess the relative importance of the diagonal and the off-diagonal terms. A further possible generatlization is to include also contributions to the fluxes from higher powers of the gradients, specifically quadratic'' contributions proportional to (dn/dr){sup 2}, (dn/dr)(dT{sub e}/dr), and so on. A procedure is described for evaluating the corresponding coefficients, and results are presented for illustrative realistic tokamak cases. Qualitatively, it is found that the off-diagonal diffusion coefficients can be as big as the diagonal ones, and that the quadratic terms can be larger than the linear ones. The results thus strongly suggest that the commonly used diffusive'' approximation with only diagonal terms, {Gamma} = {minus}D{sub n}{sup n}(dn/dr), and correspondingly for the energy fluxes, is not adequate in practice. 9 refs., 1 tabs.

  9. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS

    SciTech Connect

    Apostolos A. Nikolopoulos; Santosh K. Gangwal; William J. McMichael; Jeffrey W. Portzer

    2003-01-01

    Conventional sulfur removal in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants involves numerous steps: COS (carbonyl sulfide) hydrolysis, amine scrubbing/regeneration, Claus process, and tail-gas treatment. Advanced sulfur removal in IGCC systems involves typically the use of zinc oxide-based sorbents. The sulfides sorbent is regenerated using dilute air to produce a dilute SO{sub 2} (sulfur dioxide) tail gas. Under previous contracts the highly effective first generation Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) for catalytic reduction of this SO{sub 2} tail gas to elemental sulfur was developed. This process is currently undergoing field-testing. In this project, advanced concepts were evaluated to reduce the number of unit operations in sulfur removal and recovery. Substantial effort was directed towards developing sorbents that could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur in an Advanced Hot Gas Process (AHGP). Development of this process has been described in detail in Appendices A-F. RTI began the development of the Single-step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP) to eliminate the use of sorbents and multiple reactors in sulfur removal and recovery. This process showed promising preliminary results and thus further process development of AHGP was abandoned in favor of SSRP. The SSRP is a direct Claus process that consists of injecting SO{sub 2} directly into the quenched coal gas from a coal gasifier, and reacting the H{sub 2}S-SO{sub 2} mixture over a selective catalyst to both remove and recover sulfur in a single step. The process is conducted at gasifier pressure and 125 to 160 C. The proposed commercial embodiment of the SSRP involves a liquid phase of molten sulfur with dispersed catalyst in a slurry bubble-column reactor (SBCR).

  10. Effective actions for anomalous hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haehl, Felix M.; Loganayagam, R.; Rangamani, Mukund

    2014-03-01

    We argue that an effective field theory of local fluid elements captures the constraints on hydrodynamic transport stemming from the presence of quantum anomalies in the underlying microscopic theory. Focussing on global current anomalies for an arbitrary flavour group, we derive the anomalous constitutive relations in arbitrary even dimensions. We demonstrate that our results agree with the constraints on anomaly governed transport derived hitherto using a local version of the second law of thermodynamics. The construction crucially uses the anomaly inflow mechanism and involves a novel thermofield double construction. In particular, we show that the anomalous Ward identities necessitate non-trivial interaction between the two parts of the Schwinger-Keldysh contour.

  11. Advanced sulfur control concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Gangwal, S.K.; Turk, B.S.; Gupta, R.P.

    1995-11-01

    Regenerable metal oxide sorbents, such as zinc titanate, are being developed to efficiently remove hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gas in advanced power systems. Dilute air regeneration of the sorbents produces a tailgas containing a few percent sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}). Catalytic reduction of the SO{sub 2} to elemental sulfur with a coal gas slipstream using the Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) is a leading first-generation technology. Currently the DSRP is undergoing field testing at gasifier sites. The objective of this study is to develop second-generation processes that produce elemental sulfur without coal gas or with limited use. Novel approaches that were evaluated to produce elemental sulfur from sulfided sorbents include (1) sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) regeneration, (2) substoichiometric (partial) oxidation, (3) steam regeneration followed by H{sub 2}S oxidation, and (4) steam-air regeneration. Preliminary assessment of these approaches indicated that developing SO{sub 2} regeneration faced the fewest technical and economic problems among the four process options. Elemental sulfur is the only likely product of SO{sub 2} regeneration and the SO{sub 2} required for the regeneration can be obtained by burning a portion of the sulfur produced. Experimental efforts have thus been concentrated on SO{sub 2}-based regeneration processes. Results from laboratory investigations are presented and discussed.

  12. Sulfur isotopic data

    SciTech Connect

    Rye, R.O.

    1987-01-01

    Preliminary sulfur isotope data have been determined for samples of the Vermillion Creek coal bed and associated rocks in the Vermillion Creek basin and for samples of evaporites collected from Jurassic and Triassic formations that crop out in the nearby Uinta Mountains. The data are inconclusive, but it is likely that the sulfur in the coal was derived from the evaporites.

  13. The Phases of Sulfur.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birdwhistell, Kurt R.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a demonstration that illustrates the dramatic changes that sulfur undergoes upon heating to 200 degrees centigrade and then cooling to room temperature. Supplements the demonstration of the rubberlike properties of catenasulfur made by rapid cooling of the sulfur melt in ice water. (JRH)

  14. Macromolecular structure phasing by neutron anomalous diffraction

    PubMed Central

    Cuypers, Maxime G.; Mason, Sax A.; Mossou, Estelle; Haertlein, Michael; Forsyth, V. Trevor; Mitchell, Edward P.

    2016-01-01

    In this report we show for the first time that neutron anomalous dispersion can be used in a practical manner to determine experimental phases of a protein crystal structure, providing a new tool for structural biologists. The approach is demonstrated through the use of a state-of-the-art monochromatic neutron diffractometer at the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) in combination with crystals of perdeuterated protein that minimise the level of hydrogen incoherent scattering and enhance the visibility of the anomalous signal. The protein used was rubredoxin in which cadmium replaced the iron at the iron-sulphur site. While this study was carried out using a steady-state neutron beam source, the results will be of major interest for capabilities at existing and emerging spallation neutron sources where time-of-flight instruments provide inherent energy discrimination. In particular this capability may be expected to offer unique opportunities to a rapidly developing structural biology community where there is increasing interest in the identification of protonation states, protein/water interactions and protein-ligand interactions – all of which are of central importance to a wide range of fundamental and applied areas in the biosciences. PMID:27511806

  15. Sulfur isotope fractionation during the reduction of elemental sulfur and thiosulfate by Dethiosulfovibrio spp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surkov, A. V.; Böttcher, M. E.; Kuever, J.

    2009-04-01

    Thiosulfate and elemental sulfur are typical by-products of the oxidation of dissolved sulfide and important sulfur intermediates in the biogeochemical sulfur cycle of natural sediments where they can be further transformed by microbial or chemical oxidation, reduction, or disproportionation. Due to the often superimposing reaction pathways of the sulfur intermediates in natural environments specific tracers are needed to better resolve the complex microbial and biogeochemical reactions. An important fingerprint for sulfur cycling is provided by the microbial fractionation of the stable sulfur isotopes S-34 and S-32. Proper interpretation of isotope signals in nature, however, is only possible by the calibration with results obtained with pure cultures under defined experimental conditions. In addition, sulfur isotope discrimination may provide informations about specific encymatic biochemical pathways within the bacterial cells. In this study, we report the results for the discrimination of stable sulfur isotopes S-32 and S-34 during reduction of thiosulfate and elemental sulfur by non-sulfate, but sulfur- and thiosulfate-reducing bacteria which are phylogenetically not related to sulfate-reducing bacteria. Experiments with were conducted at known cell-specific thiosulfate reduction rates. Stable sulfur isotope fractionation was investigated during reduction of thiosulfate and elemental sulfur at 28°C by growing batch cultures of Dethiosulfovibrio marinus WS100 (type strain DSM 12537) and Dethiosulfovibrio russensis (type strain DSM 12538) using citrate as carbon and energy source. The cell-specific reduction rates were 0.3 to 2.4 fmol cell-1 d-1 (thiosulfate) and 31 to 38 fmol cell-1 d-1 (elemental sulphur), respectively. The sulfide produced was depleted in S-34 by 12 per mil compared to total thiosulfate sulfur, close to previous results observed for sulfate-reducing bacteria, indicating that the thiosulfate-reducing mechanism of sulfate reducers is similar to

  16. Elemental sulfur recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Zhicheng Hu.

    1993-09-07

    An improved catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO[sub 2]-containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides combined high activity and selectivity for the reduction of SO[sub 2] to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over certain catalyst formulations based on cerium oxide. The process is a single-stage, catalytic sulfur recovery process in conjunction with regenerators, such as those used in dry, regenerative flue gas desulfurization or other processes, involving direct reduction of the SO[sub 2] in the regenerator off gas stream to elemental sulfur in the presence of a catalyst. 4 figures.

  17. Elemental sulfur recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria; Hu, Zhicheng

    1993-01-01

    An improved catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO.sub.2 -containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides combined high activity and selectivity for the reduction of SO.sub.2 to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over certain catalyst formulations based on cerium oxide. The process is a single-stage, catalytic sulfur recovery process in conjunction with regenerators, such as those used in dry, regenerative flue gas desulfurization or other processes, involving direct reduction of the SO.sub.2 in the regenerator off gas stream to elemental sulfur in the presence of a catalyst.

  18. Regional river sulfur runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husar, Rudolf B.; Husar, Janja Djukic

    1985-01-01

    The water and sulfur runoff data for 54 large river basins were assembled, covering 65% of the nondesert land area of the world. The sulfur concentration ranges from 0.5 mg S/L for the West African rivers Niger and Volta to 100 mg S/L in the Colorado River; the world average is 3.2 mg S/L. The concentrations in central and eastern Europe as well as central and eastern North America exceed 8 mg S/L. The sulfur runoff density is also highest in the river basins over these industrialized regions, exceeding 2 g S/m2/yr. However, high sulfur runoff density in excess of 3 g S/m2/yr is also measured over the Pacific islands New Zealand and New Guinea and the archipelagos of Indonesia and the Philippines. The natural background sulfur runoff was estimated by assuming that South America, Africa, Australia, and the Pacific Islands are unperturbed by man and that the average river sulfur concentration is in the range 1-3 mg S/L. Taking these background concentration values, the man-induced sulfur runoff for Europe ranges between 2 and 8 times the natural flow, and over North America, man's contribution ranges between 1 and 5 times the natural runoff. The global sulfur flow from nondesert land to the oceans and the Caspian Sea is estimated as 131 Tg S/yr, of which 46-85 Tg S/yr is attributed to natural causes. The regional river sulfur runoff pattern discussed in this paper does not have enough spatial resolution to be directly applicable to studies of the environmental effects of man-induced sulfur flows. However, it points to the continental-size regions where those perturbations are most evident and to the magnitude of the perturbations as expressed in units of the natural flows.

  19. Regional river sulfur runoff

    SciTech Connect

    Husar, R.B.; Husar, J.D.

    1985-01-20

    The water and sulfur runoff data for 54 large river basins were assembled, covering 65% of the nondesert land area of the world. The sulfur concentration ranges from 0.5 mg S/L for the West African rivers Niger and Volta to 100 mg S/L in the Colorado River; the world average is 3.2 mg S/L. The concentrations in central and eastern Europe as well as central and eastern North America exceed 8 mg S/L. The sulfur runoff density is also highest in the river basins over these industrialized regions, exceeding 2 g S/m/sup 2//yr. However, high sulfur runoff density in excess of 3 g S/m/sup 2//yr is also measured over the Pacific islands New Zealand and New Guinea and the archipelagos of Indonesia and the Philippines. The natural background sulfur runoff was estimated by assuming that South America, Africa, Australia, and the Pacific Islands are unperturbed by man and that the average river sulfur concentration is in the range 1--3 mg S/L. Taking these background concentration values, the man-induced sulfur runoff for Europe ranges between 2 and 8 times the natural flow, and over North America, man's contribution ranges between 1 and 5 times the natural runoff. The global sulfur flow from nondesert land to the oceans and the Caspian Sea is estimated as 131 Tg S/yr, of which 46--85 Tg S/yr is attributed to natural causes. The regional river sulfur runoff pattern discussed in this paper does not have enough spatial resolution to be directly applicable to studies of the environmental effects of man-induced sulfur flows. However, it points to the continental-size regions where those perturbations are most evident and to the magnitude of the perturbations as expressed in units of the natural flows.

  20. Parameters Influencing Sulfur Speciation in Environmental Samples Using Sulfur K-Edge X-Ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure

    PubMed Central

    Pongpiachan, Siwatt; Thumanu, Kanjana; Kositanont, Charnwit; Schwarzer, Klaus; Prietzel, Jörg; Hirunyatrakul, Phoosak; Kittikoon, Itthipon

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to enhance the credibility of applying the sulfur K-edge XANES spectroscopy as an innovative “fingerprint” for characterizing environmental samples. The sensitivities of sulfur K-edge XANES spectra of ten sulfur compound standards detected by two different detectors, namely, Lytle detector (LyD) and Germanium detector (GeD), were studied and compared. Further investigation on “self-absorption” effect revealed that the maximum sensitivities of sulfur K-edge XANES spectra were achieved when diluting sulfur compound standards with boron nitride (BN) at the mixing ratio of 0.1%. The “particle-size” effect on sulfur K-edge XANES spectrum sensitivities was examined by comparing signal-to-noise ratios of total suspended particles (TSP) and particulate matter of less than 10 millionths of a meter (PM10) collected at three major cities of Thailand. The analytical results have demonstrated that the signal-to-noise ratios of sulfur K-edge XANES spectra were positively correlated with sulfate content in aerosols and negatively connected with particle sizes. The combination of hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) has proved that sulfur K-edge XANES spectrum can be used to characterize German terrestrial soils and Andaman coastal sediments. In addition, this study highlighted the capability of sulfur K-edge XANES spectra as an innovative “fingerprint” to distinguish tsunami backwash deposits (TBD) from typical marine sediments (TMS). PMID:23193498

  1. Anomalous-viscosity current drive

    DOEpatents

    Stix, T.H.; Ono, M.

    1986-04-25

    The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for maintaining a steady-state current for magnetically confining the plasma in a toroidal magnetic confinement device using anomalous viscosity current drive. A second aspect of this invention relates to an apparatus and method for the start-up of a magnetically confined toroidal plasma.

  2. Sulfuric Acid on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Frozen sulfuric acid on Jupiter's moon Europa is depicted in this image produced from data gathered by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The brightest areas, where the yellow is most intense, represent regions of high frozen sulfuric acid concentration. Sulfuric acid is found in battery acid and in Earth's acid rain.

    This image is based on data gathered by Galileo's near infrared mapping spectrometer.

    Europa's leading hemisphere is toward the bottom right, and there are enhanced concentrations of sulfuric acid in the trailing side of Europa (the upper left side of the image). This is the face of Europa that is struck by sulfur ions coming from Jupiter's innermost moon, Io. The long, narrow features that crisscross Europa also show sulfuric acid that may be from sulfurous material extruded in cracks.

    Galileo, launched in 1989, has been orbiting Jupiter and its moons since December 1995. JPL manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

  3. Sulfur volcanoes on Io?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R.; Fink, J. H.

    1984-01-01

    The unusual rheological properties of sulfur are discussed in order to determine the distinctive volcanic flow morphologies which indicate the presence of sulfur volcanoes on the Saturnian satellite Io. An analysis of high resolution Voyager imagery reveals three features which are considered to be possible sulfur volcanoes: Atar Patera, Daedalus Patera, and Kibero Patera. All three features are distinguished by circular-to-oval central masses surrounded by irregular widespread flows. The central zones of the features are interpreted to be domes formed of high temperature sulfur. To confirm the interpretations of the satellite data, molten sulfur was extruded in the laboratory at a temperature of 210 C on a flat surface sloping 0.5 deg to the left. At this temperature, the sulfur formed a viscous domelike mass over the event. As parts of the mass cooled to 170 C the viscosity decreased to a runny stage, forming breakout flows. It is concluded that a case can be made for sulfur volcanoes on Io sufficient to warrant further study, and it is recommended that the upcoming Galileo mission examine these phenomena.

  4. Venus Highland Anomalous Reflectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Richard A.; Tyler, G. L.; Häusler, B.; Mattei, R.; Patzold, M.

    2009-09-01

    Maxwell Montes was one of several unusually bright areas identified from early Venus radar backscatter observations. Pioneer Venus' orbiting radar associated low emissivity with the bright areas and established a correlation between reflectivity and altitude. Magellan, using an oblique bistatic geometry, showed that the bright surface dielectric constant was not only large but also imaginary -- i.e., the material was conducting, at least near Cleopatra Patera (Pettengill et al., Science, 272, 1996). Venus Express (VEX) repeated Magellan's bistatic observations over Maxwell, using the more conventional circular polarization carried by most spacecraft. Although VEX signal-to-noise ratio was lower than Magellan's, echoes were sufficiently strong to verify the Magellan conclusions near Cleopatra (see J. Geophys. Res., 114, E00B41, doi:10.1029/2008JE003156). Only about 40% of the surface at Cleopatra scatters specularly, opening the Fresnel (specular) interpretation model to question. Elsewhere in Maxwell, the specular percentage may be even lower. Nonetheless, the echo polarization is reversed throughout Maxwell, a result that is consistent with large dielectric constants and difficult to explain without resorting qualitatively (if not quantitatively) to specular models. VEX was scheduled to explore other high altitude regions when its S-Band (13-cm wavelength) radio system failed in late 2006, so further probing of high altitude targets awaits arrival of a new spacecraft.

  5. Cytoplasmic sulfur trafficking in sulfur-oxidizing prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Christiane

    2015-04-01

    Persulfide groups are chemically versatile and participate in a wide array of biochemical pathways. Although it is well documented that persulfurated proteins supply a number of important and elaborate biosynthetic pathways with sulfane sulfur, it is far less acknowledged that the enzymatic generation of persulfidic sulfur, the successive transfer of sulfur as a persulfide between multiple proteins, and the oxidation of sulfane sulfur in protein-bound form are also essential steps during dissimilatory sulfur oxidation in bacteria and archaea. Here, the currently available information on sulfur trafficking in sulfur oxidizing prokaryotes is reviewed, and the idea is discussed that sulfur is always presented to cytoplasmic oxidizing enzymes in a protein-bound form, thus preventing the occurrence of free sulfide inside of the prokaryotic cell. Thus, sulfur trafficking emerges as a central element in sulfur-oxidizing pathways, and TusA homologous proteins appear to be central and common elements in these processes.

  6. Sulfur compounds in coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Attar, A.; Corcoran, W. H.

    1977-01-01

    The literature on the chemical structure of the organic sulfur compounds (or functional groups) in coal is reviewed. Four methods were applied in the literature to study the sulfur compounds in coal: direct spectrometric and chemical analysis, depolymerization in drastic conditions, depolymerization in mild conditions, and studies on simulated coal. The data suggest that most of the organic sulfur in coal is in the form of thiophenic structures and aromatic and aliphatic sulfides. The relative abundance of the sulfur groups in bituminous coal is estimated as 50:30:20%, respectively. The ratio changes during processing and during the chemical analysis. The main effects are the transformation during processing of sulfides to the more stable thiophenic compounds and the elimination of hydrogen sulfide.

  7. Separation of sulfur isotopes

    DOEpatents

    DeWitt, Robert; Jepson, Bernhart E.; Schwind, Roger A.

    1976-06-22

    Sulfur isotopes are continuously separated and enriched using a closed loop reflux system wherein sulfur dioxide (SO.sub.2) is reacted with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or the like to form sodium hydrogen sulfite (NaHSO.sub.3). Heavier sulfur isotopes are preferentially attracted to the NaHSO.sub.3, and subsequently reacted with sulfuric acid (H.sub.2 SO.sub.4) forming sodium hydrogen sulfate (NaHSO.sub.4) and SO.sub.2 gas which contains increased concentrations of the heavier sulfur isotopes. This heavy isotope enriched SO.sub.2 gas is subsequently separated and the NaHSO.sub.4 is reacted with NaOH to form sodium sulfate (Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4) which is subsequently decomposed in an electrodialysis unit to form the NaOH and H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 components which are used in the aforesaid reactions thereby effecting sulfur isotope separation and enrichment without objectionable loss of feed materials.

  8. Colligative properties of anomalous water.

    PubMed

    Everett, D H; Haynes, J M; McElroy, P J

    1970-06-13

    Investigations of the phase behaviour on freezing and subsequent melting and of other properties indicate that anomalous water is a solution containing a fixed amount of relatively involatile material in normal water. There seems to be no need to postulate the existence of a new polymer of water in such solutions. If only water and silica are present, the properties are consistent with those of a silicic acid gel.

  9. Sulfur cycling in freshwater sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klug, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    Organic sulfur containing compounds represent greater than 80% of the total sulfur in sediments of eutrophic freshwater lakes. Although sedimentary sulfur is predominantly in the form of organic compounds, more sulfur is transformed by sulfate reduction than by any other process. Rates of sulfate reduction in these sediments average 7 mmol/sq m/day. This rate is 19 times greater than the net rate of production of inorganic sulfur from organic compounds on an annual basis.

  10. Anomalous Diffraction at Ultra-High Energy for Protein Crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Jakoncic,J.; Di Michiel, M.; Zhong, Z.; Honkimaki, V.; Jouanneau, Y.; Stojanoff, V.

    2006-01-01

    Single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD), multiwavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD) and single isomorphous replacement with anomalous scattering (SIRAS) phasing at ultra-high X-ray energy, 55 keV, are used successfully to determine a high-quality and high-resolution experimental electronic density map of hen egg-white lysozyme, a model protein. Several combinations, between single- and three-wavelength, with native data were exploited to demonstrate that standard phasing procedures with standard equipment and software can successfully be applied to three-dimensional crystal structure determination of a macromolecule, even at these very short wavelengths. For the first time, a high-quality three-dimensional molecular structure is reported from SAD phasing with ultra-high-energy X-rays. The quality of the crystallographic data and the experimental electron density maps meet current standards. The 2.7% anomalous signal from three Ho atoms, at the Ho K edge, was sufficient to obtain a remarkable electron density and build the first lanthanide structure for HEWL in its entirety.

  11. Anomalous Right Subclavian Artery Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Gordon C.; Codd, John E.

    1991-01-01

    During the past 2 years, 3 anomalous right subclavian artery aneurysms have been encountered at the St. Louis Heart Institute. The 1st patient, a 72-year-old woman, was found to have an asymptomatic 5-cm-diameter anomalous right subclavian artery aneurysm after surgery for suspected rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm. Resection was not attempted because of her poor cardiopulmonary and renal condition. One year later, the patient remains alive with marked cardiopulmonary limitations. The 2nd patient, a 77-year-old man, experienced dysphagia and severe weight loss because of a 14-cm-diameter aneurysm. Three days after undergoing surgical repair, he required reoperation for graft occlusion with right upper-extremity ischemia. Six months after hospital discharge, he died of pulmonary insufficiency and metastatic colon cancer. The 3rd patient, a 73-year-old woman, required emergency surgical intervention because of acute rupture and hypovolemic shock. Thirteen days later, she died of aspiration, asphyxia, and cardiac arrest. On the basis of our experience and a review of the literature, we conclude that symptomatic anomalous right subclavian artery aneurysms are rare, and that surgical intervention entails a relatively high morbidity and mortality rate. If long-term survival is anticipated, associated medical illnesses should be considered before surgery is undertaken. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1991;18:209-18) Images PMID:15227483

  12. Sulfur Volcanoes on Io?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R.; Fink, J.

    1985-01-01

    The unusual rheological properties of molten sulfur, in which viscosity decreases approximately four orders of magnitude as it cools from 170 to 120 C, may result in distinctive volcanic flow morphologies that allow sulfur flows and volcanoes to be identified on Io. Search of high resolution Voyager images reveals three features--Atar Patera, Daedalus Patera, and Kibero Patera--considered to be possible sulfur volcanoes based on their morphology. All three average 250 km in diameter and are distinguished by circular-to-oval central masses surrounded by irregular, widespread flows. Geometric relations indicate that the flows were emplaced after the central zone and appear to have emanated from their margins. The central zones are interpreted to be domes representing the high temperature stage of sulfur formed initially upon eruption. Rapid quenching formed a crust which preserved this phase of the emplacement. Upon cooling to 170 C, the sulfur reached a low viscosity runny stage and was released as the thin, widespread flows.

  13. Corrosion-resistant sulfur concretes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBee, W. C.; Sullivan, T. A.; Jong, B. W.

    1983-04-01

    Sulfur concretes have been developed by the Bureau of Mines as construction materials with physical and mechanical properties that suit them for use in acid and salt corrosive environments where conventional concretes fail. Mixture design methods were established for preparing sulfur concretes using different types of aggregates and recently developed mixed-modified sulfur cements. Bench-scale testing of the sulfur concretes has shown their potential value. Corrosion resistance, strength, and durability of sulfur concrete are superior to those of conventional materials. Field in situ evaluation tests of the sulfur concretes as replacement for conventional concrete materials are in progress in corrosive areas of 24 commercial chemical, fertilizer, and metallurgical plants.

  14. Sulfur activation in Hiroshima

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, G.D.; Pace, J.V. III

    1987-01-01

    In 1979, we attempted to establish the validity of source terms for the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs using experimental data on sulfur activation. Close agreement was observed between measured and calculated values for test firings of Nagasaki-type bombs. The calculated values were based on source terms developed by W.E. Preeg at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). A discrepancy was found, however, when we compared calculated values for the two bombs because a 1956 report by R.R. Wilson stated that sulfur acitvation by fast neutrons in Hiroshima was approximately three times greater than in Nagasaki. Our calculations based on Preeg's source-term data predicted about equal sulfur activation in the two cities.

  15. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOEpatents

    Mikkor, Mati

    1981-01-01

    This disclosure is directed to an improvement in a sodium sulfur battery construction in which a seal between various battery compartments is made by a structure in which a soft metal seal member is held in a sealing position by holding structure. A pressure applying structure is used to apply pressure on the soft metal seal member when it is being held in sealing relationship to a surface of a container member of the sodium sulfur battery by the holding structure. The improvement comprises including a thin, well-adhered, soft metal layer on the surface of the container member of the sodium sulfur battery to which the soft metal seal member is to be bonded.

  16. Anomalous phosphenes in ocular protontherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, E.; Maréchal, F.; Dendale, R.; Mabit, C.; Calugaru, V.; Desjardin, L.; Narici, L.

    2010-04-01

    We have undertaken a clinical ground study of proton-induced light flashes (phosphenes). Patients treated at the Institut Curie - Centre de Protonthérapie in Orsay, France, received radiation therapy to cure ocular and skull-base cancers. Sixty percent of the patients treated for choroidal melanomas using 73 MeV protons report anomalous phosphenes. Delivering a radiation dose on the retina only is not sufficient to trigger the light flash. The present study may be the first indication of phosphenes triggered by protons of few tens of MeV.

  17. Anomalous Hall effect in localization regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lin; Zhu, Kai; Yue, Di; Tian, Yuan; Jin, Xiaofeng

    2016-06-01

    The anomalous Hall effect in the ultrathin film regime is investigated in Fe(001)(1-3 nm) films epitaxial on MgO(001). The logarithmic localization correction to longitudinal resistivity and anomalous Hall resistivity are observed at low temperature. We identify that the coefficient of skew scattering has a reduction from metallic to localized regime, while the contribution of side jump has inconspicuous change except for a small drop below 10 K. Furthermore, we discover that the intrinsic anomalous Hall conductivity decreases with the reduction of thickness below 2 nm. Our results provide unambiguous experimental evidence to clarify the problem of localization correction to the anomalous Hall effect.

  18. Anomalous Hall effect in ferromagnetic semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Jungwirth, T; Niu, Qian; MacDonald, A H

    2002-05-20

    We present a theory of the anomalous Hall effect in ferromagnetic (III, Mn)V semiconductors. Our theory relates the anomalous Hall conductance of a homogeneous ferromagnet to the Berry phase acquired by a quasiparticle wave function upon traversing closed paths on the spin-split Fermi surface. The quantitative agreement between our theory and experimental data in both (In, Mn)As and (Ga, Mn)As systems suggests that this disorder independent contribution to the anomalous Hall conductivity dominates in diluted magnetic semiconductors. The success of this model for (III, Mn)V materials is unprecedented in the longstanding effort to understand origins of the anomalous Hall effect in itinerant ferromagnets.

  19. Catalyst for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur

    DOEpatents

    Jin, Yun; Yu, Qiquan; Chang, Shih-Ger

    1996-01-01

    The inventive catalysts allow for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur in smokestack scrubber environments. The catalysts have a very high sulfur yield of over 90% and space velocity of 10,000 h.sup.-1. They also have the capacity to convert waste gases generated during the initial conversion into elemental sulfur. The catalysts have inexpensive components, and are inexpensive to produce. The net impact of the invention is to make this technology practically available to industrial applications.

  20. Compensation for red-green contrast loss in anomalous trichromats

    PubMed Central

    Boehm, A. E.; MacLeod, D. I. A.; Bosten, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    For anomalous trichromats, threshold contrasts for color differences captured by the L and M cones and their anomalous analogs are much higher than for normal trichromats. The greater spectral overlap of the cone sensitivities reduces chromatic contrast both at and above threshold. But above threshold, adaptively nonlinear processing might compensate for the chromatically impoverished photoreceptor inputs. Ratios of sensitivity for threshold variations and for color appearance along the two cardinal axes of MacLeod-Boynton chromaticity space were calculated for three groups: normals (N = 15), deuteranomals (N = 9), and protanomals (N = 5). Using a four-alternative forced choice (4AFC) task, threshold sensitivity was measured in four color-directions along the two cardinal axes. For the same participants, we reconstructed perceptual color spaces for the positions of 25 hues using multidimensional scaling (MDS). From the reconstructed color spaces we extracted “color difference ratios,” defined as ratios for the size of perceived color differences along the L/(L + M) axis relative to those along the S/(L + M) axis, analogous to “sensitivity ratios” extracted from the 4AFC task. In the 4AFC task, sensitivity ratios were 38% of normal for deuteranomals and 19% of normal for protanomals. Yet, in the MDS results, color difference ratios were 86% of normal for deuteranomals and 67% of normal for protanomals. Thus, the contraction along the L/(L + M) axis shown in the perceptual color spaces of anomalous trichromats is far smaller than predicted by their reduced sensitivity, suggesting that an adaptive adjustment of postreceptoral gain may magnify the cone signals of anomalous trichromats to exploit the range of available postreceptoral neural signals. PMID:25413625

  1. Zeolites Remove Sulfur From Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voecks, Gerald E.; Sharma, Pramod K.

    1991-01-01

    Zeolites remove substantial amounts of sulfur compounds from diesel fuel under relatively mild conditions - atmospheric pressure below 300 degrees C. Extracts up to 60 percent of sulfur content of high-sulfur fuel. Applicable to petroleum refineries, natural-gas processors, electric powerplants, and chemical-processing plants. Method simpler and uses considerably lower pressure than current industrial method, hydro-desulfurization. Yields cleaner emissions from combustion of petroleum fuels, and protects catalysts from poisoning by sulfur.

  2. Sulfur dioxide removal process

    SciTech Connect

    Sliger, A.G.; O'Donnell, J.J.; Northup, A.H. Jr.

    1987-01-06

    A process is described for removing sulfur dioxide from a gas stream with a buffered, aqueous thiosulfate/polythionate solution which comprises: (a) introducing sulfur dioxide-containing gas, recovered hydrogen sulfide, and a buffered, aqueous, lean thiosulfate/polythionate solution to an SO/sub 2/-gas/liquid contacting zone; (b) recovering cleaned gas and a buffered, aqueous, enriched thiosulfate/polythionate solution from the SO/sub 2/-gas/liquid contacting zone; (c) introducing the recovered, enriched solution to a regeneration zone; (d) introducing externally supplied hydrogen sulfide to the regeneration zone to react a portion of the recovered, enriched solution therein to form a slurry of elemental sulfur in a buffered, aqueous, lean thiosulfate/polythionate solution; (e) recovering unreacted excess hydrogen sulfide from the regeneration zone for use in step (a); and (f) withdrawing the slurry from the regeneration zone, separating elemental sulfur from the slurry, and recovering the buffered, aqueous, lean thiosulfate/polythionate solution for use in step (a).

  3. Sulfur Dioxide Pollution Monitor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Bureau of Standards (DOC), Washington, DC.

    The sulfur dioxide pollution monitor described in this document is a government-owed invention that is available for licensing. The background of the invention is outlined, and drawings of the monitor together with a detailed description of its function are provided. A sample stream of air, smokestack gas or the like is flowed through a…

  4. Meteoritic Sulfur Isotopic Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thiemens, Mark H.

    1996-01-01

    Funds were requested to continue our program in meteoritic sulfur isotopic analysis. We have recently detected a potential nucleosynthetic sulfur isotopic anomaly. We will search for potential carriers. The documentation of bulk systematics and the possible relation to nebular chemistry and oxygen isotopes will be explored. Analytical techniques for delta(sup 33), delta(sup 34)S, delta(sup 36)S isotopic analysis were improved. Analysis of sub milligram samples is now possible. A possible relation between sulfur isotopes and oxygen was detected, with similar group systematics noted, particularly in the case of aubrites, ureilites and entstatite chondrites. A possible nucleosynthetic excess S-33 has been noted in bulk ureilites and an oldhamite separate from Norton County. High energy proton (approximately 1 GeV) bombardments of iron foils were done to experimentally determine S-33, S-36 spallogenic yields for quantitation of isotopic measurements in iron meteorites. Techniques for measurement of mineral separates were perfected and an analysis program initiated. The systematic behavior of bulk sulfur isotopes will continue to be explored.

  5. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOEpatents

    Topouzian, Armenag

    1980-01-01

    This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which a flexible diaphragm sealing elements respectively engage opposite sides of a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

  6. Mineral resource of the month: sulfur

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, Joyce A.

    2003-01-01

    Since domestic sulfur production peaked at nearly 11 million metric tons in 1974, the sulfur industry has undergone dramatic change. In 1974, mined sulfur produced using the Frasch hot water method provided 8 million tons of sulfur, representing 75 percent of total elemental sulfur production. (In the Frasch process, hot water is injected directly into the sulfur-containing mineral strata, melting the crystalline sulfur, which then lifts to the surface with air.) The remaining 25 percent was produced as byproduct sulfur.

  7. SULFUR POLYMER ENCAPSULATION.

    SciTech Connect

    KALB, P.

    2001-08-22

    Sulfur polymer cement (SPC) is a thermoplastic polymer consisting of 95 wt% elemental sulfur and 5 wt% organic modifiers to enhance long-term durability. SPC was originally developed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines as an alternative to hydraulic cement for construction applications. Previous attempts to use elemental sulfur as a construction material in the chemical industry failed due to premature degradation. These failures were caused by the internal stresses that result from changes in crystalline structure upon cooling of the material. By reacting elemental sulfur with organic polymers, the Bureau of Mines developed a product that successfully suppresses the solid phase transition and significantly improves the stability of the product. SPC, originally named modified sulfur cement, is produced from readily available, inexpensive waste sulfur derived from desulfurization of both flue gases and petroleum. The commercial production of SPC is licensed in the United States by Martin Resources (Odessa, Texas) and is marketed under the trade name Chement 2000. It is sold in granular form and is relatively inexpensive ({approx}$0.10 to 0.12/lb). Application of SPC for the treatment of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes was initially developed and patented by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in the mid-1980s (Kalb and Colombo, 1985; Colombo et al., 1997). The process was subsequently investigated by the Commission of the European Communities (Van Dalen and Rijpkema, 1989), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (Darnell, 1991), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Mattus and Mattus, 1994). SPC has been used primarily in microencapsulation applications but can also be used for macroencapsulation of waste. SPC microencapsulation has been demonstrated to be an effective treatment for a wide variety of wastes, including incinerator hearth and fly ash; aqueous concentrates such as sulfates, borates, and chlorides; blowdown solutions; soils; and sludges. It is not

  8. Process for forming sulfuric acid

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Wen-Tong P.

    1981-01-01

    An improved electrode is disclosed for the anode in a sulfur cycle hydrogen generation process where sulfur dioxie is oxidized to form sulfuric acid at the anode. The active compound in the electrode is palladium, palladium oxide, an alloy of palladium, or a mixture thereof. The active compound may be deposited on a porous, stable, conductive substrate.

  9. The multiple sulfur isotopic composition of iron meteorites: Implications for nebular evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonelli, Michael Ariel

    2013-12-01

    Multiple sulfur isotopic measurements of troilite from 61 different iron meteorites were undertaken in order to test for sulfur isotopic homogeneity within (and between) 8 different iron meteorite groups. It was found that different members within a given group of iron meteorites have homogeneous Delta 33S compositions, but that these Delta33S compositions differ between groups. This thesis shows that iron meteorites from the groups IC, IIAB, IIIAB, IIIF, and IVA have small yet resolvable enrichments or depletions in Delta33S relative to Canyon Diablo Troilite (CDT) and troilite from other non-magmatic (IAB and IIE) iron meteorites. The observed anomalous sulfur isotopic compositions in magmatic iron meteorites are most consistent with Lyman-alpha photolysis of H2S, pointing towards inheritance of an unexpected photolytically-derived sulfur component in magmatic iron meteorite groups which is absent in non-magmatic iron meteorites, chondrites, and the Earth-Moon System.

  10. Wanted: A Positive Control for Anomalous Subdiffusion

    PubMed Central

    Saxton, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Anomalous subdiffusion in cells and model systems is an active area of research. The main questions are whether diffusion is anomalous or normal, and if it is anomalous, its mechanism. The subject is controversial, especially the hypothesis that crowding causes anomalous subdiffusion. Anomalous subdiffusion measurements would be strengthened by an experimental standard, particularly one able to cross-calibrate the different types of measurements. Criteria for a calibration standard are proposed. First, diffusion must be anomalous over the length and timescales of the different measurements. The length-scale is fundamental; the time scale can be adjusted through the viscosity of the medium. Second, the standard must be theoretically well understood, with a known anomalous subdiffusion exponent, ideally readily tunable. Third, the standard must be simple, reproducible, and independently characterizable (by, for example, electron microscopy for nanostructures). Candidate experimental standards are evaluated, including obstructed lipid bilayers; aqueous systems obstructed by nanopillars; a continuum percolation system in which a prescribed fraction of randomly chosen obstacles in a regular array is ablated; single-file diffusion in pores; transient anomalous subdiffusion due to binding of particles in arrays such as transcription factors in randomized DNA arrays; and computer-generated physical trajectories. PMID:23260043

  11. Anomalous scattering of light on Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfenstein, Paul; Lee, Pascal; Mccarthy, Derek; Veverka, Joseph

    1991-01-01

    Researchers report here the discovery of an isolated region of anomalously forward scattering materials on the surface of Triton. The researchers' best-fit Hapke parameters indicate that regolith particles in the anomalous scattering region are not only less backward scattering, but also slightly lower in single scattering albedo than average materials on Triton's surface. While it might be possible to account for such differences in terms of differences in particle size and transparency, it is also possible that the anomalous region is compositionally distinct from other terrains. It is noteworthy that, for the anomalous region, there exists a distinctively strong spatial correlation between the photometric ratios at different phase angles, and that, relative to other terrains, the anomalous region reddens at a different rate with increasing phase angle.

  12. Anomalous diffusion in silo drainage.

    PubMed

    Arévalo, R; Garcimartín, A; Maza, D

    2007-06-01

    The silo discharge process is studied by molecular dynamics simulations. The development of the velocity profile and the probability density function for the displacements in the horizontal and vertical axis are obtained. The PDFs obtained at the beginning of the discharge reveal non-Gaussian statistics and superdiffusive behaviors. When the stationary flow is developed, the PDFs at shorter temporal scales are non-Gaussian too. For big orifices a well-defined transition between ballistic and diffusive regime is observed. In the case of a small outlet orifice, no well-defined transition is observed. We use a nonlinear diffusion equation introduced in the framework of non-extensive thermodynamics in order to describe the movements of the grains. The solution of this equation gives a well-defined relationship (gamma = 2/(3 - q)) between the anomalous diffusion exponent gamma and the entropic parameter q introduced by the non-extensive formalism to fit the PDF of the fluctuations.

  13. Anomalous Growth of Aging Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebenkov, Denis S.

    2016-04-01

    We consider a discrete-time population dynamics with age-dependent structure. At every time step, one of the alive individuals from the population is chosen randomly and removed with probability q_k depending on its age, whereas a new individual of age 1 is born with probability r. The model can also describe a single queue in which the service order is random while the service efficiency depends on a customer's "age" in the queue. We propose a mean field approximation to investigate the long-time asymptotic behavior of the mean population size. The age dependence is shown to lead to anomalous power-law growth of the population at the critical regime. The scaling exponent is determined by the asymptotic behavior of the probabilities q_k at large k. The mean field approximation is validated by Monte Carlo simulations.

  14. Anomalous Sediment Mixing by Bioturbation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, K. R.; Aubeneau, A. F.; Xie, M.; Packman, A. I.

    2013-12-01

    Bioturbation, the reworking of sediments by animals and plants, is the dominant mode of sediment mixing in low-energy environments, and plays an important role in sedimentary biogeochemical processes. Mixing resulting from bioturbation has historically been modeled as a diffusive process. However, diffusion models often do not provide a sufficient description of sediment mixing due to bioturbation. Stochastic models, such as the continuous time random walk (CTRW) model, provide more general descriptions of mixing behavior that are applicable even when regular diffusion assumptions are not met. Here we present results from an experimental investigation of anomalous sediment mixing by bioturbation in freshwater sediments. Clean and heavy-metal-contaminated sediments were collected from Lake DePue, a backwater lake of the Illinois River. The burrowing worm species Lumbriculus variegatus was introduced to homogenized Lake DePue sediments in aerated aquaria. We then introduced inert fine fluorescent particles to the sediment-water interface. Using time-lapse photography, we observed the mixing of the fluorescent particles into the sediment bed over a two-week period. We developed image analysis software to characterize the concentration distribution of the fluorescent particles as a function of sediment depth, and applied this to the time-series of images to evaluate sediment mixing. We fit a one-dimensional CTRW model to the depth profiles to evaluate the underlying statistical properties of the mixing behavior. This analysis suggests that the sediment mixing caused by L. variegatus burrowing is subdiffusive in time and superdiffusive in space. We also found that heavy metal contamination significantly reduces L. variegatus burrowing, causing increasingly anomalous sediment mixing. This result implies that there can be important feedbacks between sediment chemistry, organism behavior, and sediment mixing that are not considered in current environmental models.

  15. Triple oxygen and multiple sulfur isotope constraints on the evolution of the post-Marinoan sulfur cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crockford, Peter W.; Cowie, Benjamin R.; Johnston, David T.; Hoffman, Paul F.; Sugiyama, Ichiko; Pellerin, Andre; Bui, Thi Hao; Hayles, Justin; Halverson, Galen P.; Macdonald, Francis A.; Wing, Boswell A.

    2016-02-01

    Triple oxygen isotopes within post-Marinoan barites have played an integral role in our understanding of Cryogenian glaciations. Reports of anomalous Δ17O values within cap carbonate hosted barites however have remained restricted to South China and Mauritania. Here we extend the Δ17O anomaly to northwest Canada with our new measurements of barites from the Ravensthroat cap dolostone with a minimum Δ17O value of - 0.75 ‰. For the first time we pair triple oxygen with multiple sulfur isotopic data as a tool to identify the key processes that controlled the post-Marinoan sulfur cycle. We argue using a dynamic 1-box model that the observed isotopic trends both in northwest Canada and South China can be explained through the interplay between sulfide weathering, microbial sulfur cycling and pyrite burial. An important outcome of this study is a new constraint placed on the size of the post-Marinoan sulfate reservoir (≈0.1% modern), with a maximum concentration of less than 10% modern. Through conservative estimates of sulfate fluxes from sulfide weathering and under a small initial sulfate reservoir, we suggest that observed isotopic trends are the product of a dynamic sulfur cycle that saw both the addition and removal of the Δ17O anomaly over four to five turnovers of the post-Marinoan marine sulfate reservoir.

  16. Acidophilic sulfur disproportionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardisty, Dalton S.; Olyphant, Greg A.; Bell, Jonathan B.; Johnson, Adam P.; Pratt, Lisa M.

    2013-07-01

    Bacterial disproportionation of elemental sulfur (S0) is a well-studied metabolism and is not previously reported to occur at pH values less than 4.5. In this study, a sediment core from an abandoned-coal-mine-waste deposit in Southwest Indiana revealed sulfur isotope fractionations between S0 and pyrite (Δ34Ses-py) of up to -35‰, inferred to indicate intense recycling of S0 via bacterial disproportionation and sulfide oxidation. Additionally, the chemistry of seasonally collected pore-water profiles were found to vary, with pore-water pH ranging from 2.2 to 3.8 and observed seasonal redox shifts expressed as abrupt transitions from Fe(III) to Fe(II) dominated conditions, often controlled by fluctuating water table depths. S0 is a common product during the oxidation of pyrite, a process known to generate acidic waters during weathering and production of acid mine drainage. The H2S product of S0 disproportionation, fractionated by up to -8.6‰, is rapidly oxidized to S0 near redox gradients via reaction with Fe(III) allowing for the accumulation of isotopically light S0 that can then become subject to further sulfur disproportionation. A mass-balance model for S0 incorporating pyrite oxidation, S0 disproportionation, and S0 oxidation readily explains the range of observed Δ34Ses-py and emphasizes the necessity of seasonally varying pyrite weathering and metabolic rates, as indicated by the pore water chemistry. The findings of this research suggest that S0 disproportionation is potentially a common microbial process at a pH < 4.5 and can create large sulfur isotope fractionations, even in the absence of sulfate reduction.

  17. Sulfur plumes off Namibia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Sulfur plumes rising up from the bottom of the ocean floor produce colorful swirls in the waters off the coast of Namibia in southern Africa. The plumes come from the breakdown of marine plant matter by anaerobic bacteria that do not need oxygen to live. This image was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra satellite on April 24, 2002 Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  18. Sulfur compounds in comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, S.; Ahearn, M.

    1989-01-01

    Cometary atmospheres exhibit abundant sulfur and sulfur compounds, which are absent in planetary atmospheres. Sulfur compounds were also detected in interstellar media, including SO, SO2, CS, etc., but excluding S2 which was identified only in IRAS-Araki-Alcock 1983d. Fluorescence calculations are used to analyze the B-X system of S2 which appeared in IUE and ground-based spectra of IRAS-Araki-Alcock 1983d. Single- and multiple-cycle fluorescence calculations indicate that fluorescent equilibrium accounts for the observed spectra despite the fact that the S2 lifetime against solar ultraviolet radiation is relatively short. This analysis confirms unambiguously that emission peaks in the 3000 to 4000 A spectral range of the ground-based data are due to the B-X bands of S2. New evidence is presented of at least one S2 outburst before it was detected by A'Hearn, Feldman, and Schleicher. The time variation of S2 outgassing rates and discussion on the correlation between solar wind flux and the S2 outbursts will be presented.

  19. Anomalous glassy relaxation near the isotropic-nematic phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jose, Prasanth P.; Chakrabarti, Dwaipayan; Bagchi, Biman

    2005-03-01

    Dynamical heterogeneity in a system of Gay-Berne ellipsoids near its isotropic-nematic (I-N) transition, and also in an equimolar mixture of Lennard-Jones spheres and Gay-Berne ellipsoids in deeply supercooled regime, is probed by the time evolution of non-Gaussian parameters (NGP). The appearance of a dominant second peak in the rotational NGP near the I-N transition signals the growth of pseudonematic domains. Surprisingly, such a second peak is instead observed in the translational NGP for the glassy binary mixture. Localization of orientational motion near the I-N transition is found to be responsible for the observed anomalous orientational relaxation.

  20. Anomalous Edge Transport in the Quantum Anomalous Hall State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shou-Cheng; Wang, Jing; Lian, Biao; Zhang, Haijun

    2014-03-01

    We predict by first-principles calculations that thin films of a Cr-doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3 magnetic topological insulator have gapless nonchiral edge states coexisting with the chiral edge state. Such gapless nonchiral states are not immune to backscattering, which would explain dissipative transport in the quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) state observed in this system experimentally. Here, we study the edge transport with both chiral and nonchiral states by the Landauer-Buttiker formalism and find that the longitudinal resistance is nonzero, whereas Hall resistance is quantized to h/e2. In particular, the longitudinal resistance can be greatly reduced by adding an extra floating probe even if it is not used, while the Hall resistance remains at the quantized value. We propose several transport experiments to detect the dissipative nonchiral edge channels. These results will facilitate the realization of pure dissipationless transport of QAH states in magnetic topological insulators. This work is supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, under contract No. DE-AC02-76SF00515.

  1. Lunar Sulfur Capture System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berggren, Mark; Zubrin, Robert; Bostwick-White, Emily

    2013-01-01

    The Lunar Sulfur Capture System (LSCS) protects in situ resource utilization (ISRU) hardware from corrosion, and reduces contaminant levels in water condensed for electrolysis. The LSCS uses a lunar soil sorbent to trap over 98 percent of sulfur gases and about two-thirds of halide gases evolved during hydrogen reduction of lunar soils. LSCS soil sorbent is based on lunar minerals containing iron and calcium compounds that trap sulfur and halide gas contaminants in a fixed-bed reactor held at temperatures between 250 and 400 C, allowing moisture produced during reduction to pass through in vapor phase. Small amounts of Earth-based polishing sorbents consisting of zinc oxide and sodium aluminate are used to reduce contaminant concentrations to one ppm or less. The preferred LSCS configuration employs lunar soil beneficiation to boost concentrations of reactive sorbent minerals. Lunar soils contain sulfur in concentrations of about 0.1 percent, and halogen compounds including chlorine and fluorine in concentrations of about 0.01 percent. These contaminants are released as gases such as H2S, COS, CS2,HCl, and HF during thermal ISRU processing with hydrogen or other reducing gases. Removal of contaminant gases is required during ISRU processing to prevent hardware corrosion, electrolyzer damage, and catalyst poisoning. The use of Earth-supplied, single-use consumables to entirely remove contaminants at the levels existing in lunar soils would make many ISRU processes unattractive due to the large mass of consumables relative to the mass of oxygen produced. The LSCS concept of using a primary sorbent prepared from lunar soil was identified as a method by which the majority of contaminants could be removed from process gas streams, thereby substantially reducing the required mass of Earth-supplied consumables. The LSCS takes advantage of minerals containing iron and calcium compounds that are present in lunar soil to trap sulfur and halide gases in a fixedbed reactor

  2. Immobilization of sulfur in microgels for lithium-sulfur battery.

    PubMed

    Chang, Aiping; Wu, Qingshi; Du, Xue; Chen, Shoumin; Shen, Jing; Song, Qiuyi; Xie, Jianda; Wu, Weitai

    2016-03-25

    Immobilization of sulfur in microgels is achieved via free radical polymerization of commercial poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate in the solution of sulfur-terminated poly(3-oligo(ethylene oxide)4-thiophene), a copolymer prepared by the inverse vulcanization of S8 with allyl-terminated poly(3-oligo(ethylene oxide)4-thiophene). This microgelation leads to enhanced Li-S battery performance over the sulfur-terminated polymer. PMID:26936016

  3. Immobilization of sulfur in microgels for lithium-sulfur battery.

    PubMed

    Chang, Aiping; Wu, Qingshi; Du, Xue; Chen, Shoumin; Shen, Jing; Song, Qiuyi; Xie, Jianda; Wu, Weitai

    2016-03-25

    Immobilization of sulfur in microgels is achieved via free radical polymerization of commercial poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate in the solution of sulfur-terminated poly(3-oligo(ethylene oxide)4-thiophene), a copolymer prepared by the inverse vulcanization of S8 with allyl-terminated poly(3-oligo(ethylene oxide)4-thiophene). This microgelation leads to enhanced Li-S battery performance over the sulfur-terminated polymer.

  4. Catalyst for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur

    DOEpatents

    Jin, Y.; Yu, Q.; Chang, S.G.

    1996-02-27

    The inventive catalysts allow for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur in smokestack scrubber environments. The catalysts have a very high sulfur yield of over 90% and space velocity of 10,000 h{sup {minus}1}. They also have the capacity to convert waste gases generated during the initial conversion into elemental sulfur. The catalysts have inexpensive components, and are inexpensive to produce. The net impact of the invention is to make this technology practically available to industrial applications. 21 figs.

  5. Anomalous Behavior of D-Layer Preparation Time of the Ionosphere Due to Earthquakes as observed from Malda (India)

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Achintya K.; Nandy, Nilmadhab; Bari, Md. Washimul; Choudhury, Asit K.

    2010-10-20

    The anomalous behavior of D-layer preparation time of the ionosphere are observed only before, during and after the earthquakes, which took place in the neighbouring region by monitoring the Very Low Frequency (VLF) signal using Gyrator II loop antenna. The anomalies were also observed in the sunrise terminator times during seismically active days. These anomalous behavior may be due to the Lithosphere-Ionosphere coupling. These anomalies may be a precursor of earthquake.

  6. Anomalous Diffraction in Crystallographic Phase Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Hendrickson, Wayne A.

    2014-01-01

    X-ray diffraction patterns from crystals of biological macromolecules contain sufficient information to define atomic structures, but atomic positions are inextricable without having electron-density images. Diffraction measurements provide amplitudes, but the computation of electron density also requires phases for the diffracted waves. The resonance phenomenon known as anomalous scattering offers a powerful solution to this phase problem. Exploiting scattering resonances from diverse elements, the methods of multiwavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD) and single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) now predominate for de novo determinations of atomic-level biological structures. This review describes the physical underpinnings of anomalous diffraction methods, the evolution of these methods to their current maturity, the elements, procedures and instrumentation used for effective implementation, and the realm of applications. PMID:24726017

  7. The charmonium dissociation in an ''anomalous wind''

    DOE PAGES

    Sadofyev, Andrey V.; Yin, Yi

    2016-01-11

    We study the charmonium dissociation in a strongly coupled chiral plasma in the presence of magnetic field and axial charge imbalance. This type of plasma carries "anomalous flow" induced by the chiral anomaly and exhibits novel transport phenomena such as chiral magnetic effect. We found that the "anomalous flow" would modify the charmonium color screening length by using the gauge/gravity correspondence. We derive an analytical expression quantifying the "anomalous flow" experienced by a charmonium for a large class of chiral plasma with a gravity dual. We elaborate on the similarity and it qualitative difference between anomalous effects on the charmoniummore » color screening length which are model-dependent and those on the heavy quark drag force which are fixed by the second law of thermodynamics. As a result, we speculate on the possible charmonium dissociation induced by the chiral anomaly in heavy ion collisions.« less

  8. Detecting anomalous phase synchronization from time series

    SciTech Connect

    Tokuda, Isao T.; Kumar Dana, Syamal; Kurths, Juergen

    2008-06-15

    Modeling approaches are presented for detecting an anomalous route to phase synchronization from time series of two interacting nonlinear oscillators. The anomalous transition is characterized by an enlargement of the mean frequency difference between the oscillators with an initial increase in the coupling strength. Although such a structure is common in a large class of coupled nonisochronous oscillators, prediction of the anomalous transition is nontrivial for experimental systems, whose dynamical properties are unknown. Two approaches are examined; one is a phase equational modeling of coupled limit cycle oscillators and the other is a nonlinear predictive modeling of coupled chaotic oscillators. Application to prototypical models such as two interacting predator-prey systems in both limit cycle and chaotic regimes demonstrates the capability of detecting the anomalous structure from only a few sets of time series. Experimental data from two coupled Chua circuits shows its applicability to real experimental system.

  9. Anomalous Internal Pair Conversion Signaling Elusive Light Neutral Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, Fokke

    2005-11-01

    In this paper we report on a systematic search for a new light neutral boson in the mass range between 5 and 15 MeV in nuclear decay from high energy levels. Its signature is found in a deviation in the angular correlation of de-exciting e+e- pairs from conventional internal pair conversion (IPC) which is explained by superposition of its two-body decay. With an e+e- pair-spectrometer, a number of transitions has been investigated in the α-nuclei 8Be, 12C and 16O, following light ion induced reactions at low bombarding energies, first at IKF in Frankfurt and during the last years at ATOMKI in Debrecen. Startlingly, in all isoscalar transitions excess e+e- pairs are found at large angles with branching ratios ranging from 10-1 to 10-6. If these deviations are all related to the two-body decay of an X-boson, this observation implies additional X-bosons. An analysis of all angular spectra with a boson search program, yields a pandemonium of more than ten candidate bosons.

  10. Stabilized sulfur dissolving compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstrom, M.J.

    1991-07-02

    This patent describes a storage-stable composition for the dissolution of sulfur. It comprises a major proportion of a sulfide of the formula R{sup 1}SS{sub A}SR{sup 2} where R{sup 1} and R{sup 2} are independently alkyl, aryl, alkaryl, alkoxyalkyl or hydroxyalkyl radicals wherein the alkyl moiety has from 1 to 24 carbon atoms and A is an average number ranging from 0 to 3, a catalytic amount of a mixture of an amine and a mercaptan, and a stabilizing component effective for an in an amount sufficient to inhibit loss of catalyst activity on storage.

  11. Method of removing and recovering elemental sulfur from highly reducing gas streams containing sulfur gases

    DOEpatents

    Gangwal, Santosh K.; Nikolopoulos, Apostolos A.; Dorchak, Thomas P.; Dorchak, Mary Anne

    2005-11-08

    A method is provided for removal of sulfur gases and recovery of elemental sulfur from sulfur gas containing supply streams, such as syngas or coal gas, by contacting the supply stream with a catalyst, that is either an activated carbon or an oxide based catalyst, and an oxidant, such as sulfur dioxide, in a reaction medium such as molten sulfur, to convert the sulfur gases in the supply stream to elemental sulfur, and recovering the elemental sulfur by separation from the reaction medium.

  12. Sulfuric acid as autocatalyst in the formation of sulfuric acid.

    PubMed

    Torrent-Sucarrat, Miquel; Francisco, Joseph S; Anglada, Josep M

    2012-12-26

    Sulfuric acid can act as a catalyst of its own formation. We have carried out a computational investigation on the gas-phase formation of H(2)SO(4) by hydrolysis of SO(3) involving one and two water molecules, and also in the presence of sulfuric acid and its complexes with one and two water molecules. The hydrolysis of SO(3) requires the concurrence of two water molecules, one of them acting as a catalyzer, and our results predict an important catalytic effect, ranging between 3 and 11 kcal·mol(-1) when the catalytic water molecule is substituted by a sulfuric acid molecule or one of its hydrates. In these cases, the reaction products are either bare sulfuric acid dimer or sulfuric acid dimer complexed with a water molecule. There are broad implications from these new findings. The results of the present investigation show that the catalytic effect of sulfuric acid in the SO(3) hydrolysis can be important in the Earth's stratosphere, in the heterogeneous formation of sulfuric acid and in the formation of aerosols, in H(2)SO(4) formation by aircraft engines, and also in understanding the formation of sulfuric acid in the atmosphere of Venus.

  13. Process for removing sulfur from sulfur-containing gases

    DOEpatents

    Rochelle, Gary T.; Jozewicz, Wojciech

    1989-01-01

    The present disclosure relates to improved processes for treating hot sulfur-containing flue gas to remove sulfur therefrom. Processes in accorda The government may own certain rights in the present invention pursuant to EPA Cooperative Agreement CR 81-1531.

  14. Analysis of reaction-diffusion systems with anomalous subdiffusion.

    PubMed

    Haugh, Jason M

    2009-07-22

    Reaction-diffusion equations are the cornerstone of modeling biochemical systems with spatial gradients, which are relevant to biological processes such as signal transduction. Implicit in the formulation of these equations is the assumption of Fick's law, which states that the local diffusive flux of species i is proportional to its concentration gradient; however, in the context of complex fluids such as cytoplasm and cell membranes, the use of Fick's law is based on empiricism, whereas evidence has been mounting that such media foster anomalous subdiffusion (with mean-squared displacement increasing less than linearly with time) over certain length scales. Particularly when modeling diffusion-controlled reactions and other systems where the spatial domain is considered semi-infinite, assuming Fickian diffusion might not be appropriate. In this article, two simple, conceptually extreme models of anomalous subdiffusion are used in the framework of Green's functions to demonstrate the solution of four reaction-diffusion problems that are well known in the biophysical context of signal transduction: fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, the Smolochowski limit for diffusion-controlled reactions in solution, the spatial range of a diffusing molecule with finite lifetime, and the collision coupling mechanism of diffusion-controlled reactions in two dimensions. In each case, there are only subtle differences between the two subdiffusion models, suggesting how measurements of mean-squared displacement versus time might generally inform models of reactive systems with partial diffusion control.

  15. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level...). (c) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide by the reference...

  16. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level...). (c) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide by the reference...

  17. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level...). (c) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide by the reference...

  18. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level...). (c) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide by the reference...

  19. Multiwavelength anomalous diffraction analyses of protein structures based on xenon and selenium resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slama, Betty Nicole

    The 'phase problem' is central to X-ray crystallography, and multiwavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD) provides an elegant and broadly accessible solution. In the first part, the use of MAD at the xenon L3 edge is explored, as an alternative to the well established selenium K-edge phasing. In the second part, the structure of the bacterial protein Vibrio cholerae LuxQ, part of a two component signaling system involved in quorum sensing, is solved and analyzed. Keywords: anomalous scattering, x-ray diffraction, phasing, protein structure.

  20. Demonstrating Allotropic Modifications of Sulfur.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Jillian L.; Dragojlovic, Veljko

    2002-01-01

    Shows how a common demonstration that consists of slowly heating sulfur powder in a test tube to illustrate sulfur's allotropic modifications can convince students of conclusions about the moon Io which they often find surprising. Describes the demonstration in full. (Author/MM)

  1. Volume efficient sodium sulfur battery

    DOEpatents

    Mikkor, Mati

    1980-01-01

    In accordance with the teachings of this specification, a sodium sulfur battery is formed as follows. A plurality of box shaped sulfur electrodes are provided, the outer surfaces of which are defined by an electrolyte material. Each of the electrodes have length and width dimensions substantially greater than the thicknesses thereof as well as upwardly facing surface and a downwardly facing surface. An electrode structure is contained in each of the sulfur electrodes. A holding structure is provided for holding the plurality of sulfur electrodes in a stacked condition with the upwardly facing surface of one sulfur electrode in facing relationship to the downwardly facing surface of another sulfur electrode thereabove. A small thickness dimension separates each of the stacked electrodes thereby defining between each pair of sulfur electrodes a volume which receives the sodium reactant. A reservoir is provided for containing sodium. A manifold structure interconnects the volumes between the sulfur electrodes and the reservoir. A metering structure controls the flow of sodium between the reservoir and the manifold structure.

  2. Anomalous rectification in horizontal cells.

    PubMed Central

    Werblin, F S

    1975-01-01

    1. The electrical properties of horizontal cells in the mudpuppy in light and dark were measured with a pair of micropipettes separated by about 1 mum with low coupling resistance so that no bridge circuitry was required. 2. All horizontal cells studied showed significant anomalous rectification: the current-voltage characteristic for about 60 per cent of the cells studied had a slope resistance of about 20-30 M omega at the dark potential level; the slope resistance increased by about 15% for each 10 mV depolarization and decreased by about 15% for each 10 mV hyperpolarization. The remaining 40% of the horizontal cells showed a higher input resistance at corresponding potential levels but had similar rectifying properties. 3. The increase in resistance with depolrization developed with a time course of about 1/2 sec when steady steps of outward current were passed across the membrane, but the time course for resistance decrease with hyperpolarization was much shorter for steady inward current steps. In about half the horizontal cells there was a transient decrease in resistance lasting about 100 msec immediately following the outward current steps superimposed upon the slower sustained resistance increase. 4. The normal 20-30 mV hyperpolarizing light response was associated with little or no change in input resistance. However, if the membrane potential was held at the dark potential level with extrinsic current, thereby eliminating the potential-dependent resistance change, a light-elicited resistance increase of about 10 M omega was measured. 5. The time-dependent change in membrane resistance elicited by polarizing steps of current obscured the reversal potential for the response. However, when the reversal potential was measured at short times following polarization of the membrane, before the time-dependent resistance change developed, it was estimated at between +15 and +50 m V. 6. The results suggest that the horizontal cell response is mediated by a light

  3. ON THE SOURCE OF ASTROMETRIC ANOMALOUS REFRACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, M. Suzanne; McGraw, John T.; Zimmer, Peter C.; Pier, Jeffrey R.

    2013-03-15

    More than a century ago, astronomers using transit telescopes to determine precise stellar positions were hampered by an unexplained periodic shifting of the stars they were observing. With the advent of CCD transit telescopes in the past three decades, this unexplained motion, termed 'anomalous refraction' by these early astronomers, is again being observed. Anomalous refraction is described as a low-frequency, large angular scale ({approx}2 Degree-Sign ) motion of the entire image plane with respect to the celestial coordinate system as observed and defined by astrometric catalogs. These motions, of typically several tenths of an arcsecond amplitude with timescales on the order of 10 minutes, are ubiquitous to ground-based drift-scan astrometric measurements regardless of location or telescopes used and have been attributed to the effect of tilting of equal-density layers of the atmosphere. The cause of this tilting has often been attributed to atmospheric gravity waves, but this cause has never been confirmed. Although theoretical models of atmospheric refraction show that atmospheric gravity waves are a plausible cause of anomalous refraction, an observational campaign specifically directed at defining this relationship provides clear evidence that anomalous refraction is not consistent with the passage of atmospheric gravity waves. The source of anomalous refraction is found to be meter-scale, slowly evolving quasi-coherent dynamical structures in the boundary layer below 60 m above ground level.

  4. Parametric probability distributions for anomalous change detection

    SciTech Connect

    Theiler, James P; Foy, Bernard R; Wohlberg, Brendt E; Scovel, James C

    2010-01-01

    The problem of anomalous change detection arises when two (or possibly more) images are taken of the same scene, but at different times. The aim is to discount the 'pervasive differences' that occur thoughout the imagery, due to the inevitably different conditions under which the images were taken (caused, for instance, by differences in illumination, atmospheric conditions, sensor calibration, or misregistration), and to focus instead on the 'anomalous changes' that actually take place in the scene. In general, anomalous change detection algorithms attempt to model these normal or pervasive differences, based on data taken directly from the imagery, and then identify as anomalous those pixels for which the model does not hold. For many algorithms, these models are expressed in terms of probability distributions, and there is a class of such algorithms that assume the distributions are Gaussian. By considering a broader class of distributions, however, a new class of anomalous change detection algorithms can be developed. We consider several parametric families of such distributions, derive the associated change detection algorithms, and compare the performance with standard algorithms that are based on Gaussian distributions. We find that it is often possible to significantly outperform these standard algorithms, even using relatively simple non-Gaussian models.

  5. Protein structure determination by single-wavelength anomalous diffraction phasing of X-ray free-electron laser data

    DOE PAGES

    Nass, Karol; Meinhart, Anton; Barends, Thomas R. M.; Foucar, Lutz; Gorel, Alexander; Aquila, Andrew; Botha, Sabine; Doak, R. Bruce; Koglin, Jason; Liang, Mengning; et al

    2016-03-09

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) offers unprecedented possibilities for macromolecular structure determination of systems that are prone to radiation damage. However, phasing XFEL data de novo is complicated by the inherent inaccuracy of SFX data, and only a few successful examples, mostly based on exceedingly strong anomalous or isomorphous difference signals, have been reported. Here, it is shown that SFX data from thaumatin microcrystals can be successfully phased using only the weak anomalous scattering from the endogenous S atoms. Furthermore, a step-by-step investigation is presented of the particular problems of SAD phasing of SFX data, analysingmore » data from a derivative with a strong anomalous signal as well as the weak signal from endogenous S atoms.« less

  6. Protein structure determination by single-wavelength anomalous diffraction phasing of X-ray free-electron laser data

    PubMed Central

    Nass, Karol; Meinhart, Anton; Barends, Thomas R. M.; Foucar, Lutz; Gorel, Alexander; Aquila, Andrew; Botha, Sabine; Doak, R. Bruce; Koglin, Jason; Liang, Mengning; Shoeman, Robert L.; Williams, Garth; Boutet, Sebastien; Schlichting, Ilme

    2016-01-01

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) offers unprecedented possibilities for macromolecular structure determination of systems that are prone to radiation damage. However, phasing XFEL data de novo is complicated by the inherent inaccuracy of SFX data, and only a few successful examples, mostly based on exceedingly strong anomalous or isomorphous difference signals, have been reported. Here, it is shown that SFX data from thaumatin microcrystals can be successfully phased using only the weak anomalous scattering from the endogenous S atoms. Moreover, a step-by-step investigation is presented of the particular problems of SAD phasing of SFX data, analysing data from a derivative with a strong anomalous signal as well as the weak signal from endogenous S atoms. PMID:27158504

  7. Anomalous magnetohydrodynamics in the extreme relativistic domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2016-10-01

    The evolution equations of anomalous magnetohydrodynamics are derived in the extreme relativistic regime and contrasted with the treatment of hydromagnetic nonlinearities pioneered by Lichnerowicz in the absence of anomalous currents. In particular we explore the situation where the conventional vector currents are complemented by the axial-vector currents arising either from the pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone bosons of a spontaneously broken symmetry or because of finite fermionic density effects. After expanding the generally covariant equations in inverse powers of the conductivity, the relativistic analog of the magnetic diffusivity equation is derived in the presence of vortical and magnetic currents. While the anomalous contributions are generally suppressed by the diffusivity, they are shown to disappear in the perfectly conducting limit. When the flow is irrotational, boost invariant and with vanishing four-acceleration, the corresponding evolution equations are explicitly integrated so that the various physical regimes can be directly verified.

  8. Total least squares for anomalous change detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theiler, James; Matsekh, Anna M.

    2010-04-01

    A family of subtraction-based anomalous change detection algorithms is derived from a total least squares (TLSQ) framework. This provides an alternative to the well-known chronochrome algorithm, which is derived from ordinary least squares. In both cases, the most anomalous changes are identified with the pixels that exhibit the largest residuals with respect to the regression of the two images against each other. The family of TLSQbased anomalous change detectors is shown to be equivalent to the subspace RX formulation for straight anomaly detection, but applied to the stacked space. However, this family is not invariant to linear coordinate transforms. On the other hand, whitened TLSQ is coordinate invariant, and special cases of it are equivalent to canonical correlation analysis and optimized covariance equalization. What whitened TLSQ offers is a generalization of these algorithms with the potential for better performance.

  9. Sulfur cycling and metabolism of phototrophic and filamentous sulfur bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guerrero, R.; Brune, D.; Poplawski, R.; Schmidt, T. M.

    1985-01-01

    Phototrophic sulfur bacteria taken from different habitate (Alum Rock State Park, Palo Alto salt marsh, and Big Soda Lake) were grown on selective media, characterized by morphological and pigment analysis, and compared with bacteria maintained in pure culture. A study was made of the anaerobic reduction of intracellular sulfur globules by a phototrophic sulfur bacterium (Chromatium vinosum) and a filamentous aerobic sulfur bacterium (Beggiatoa alba). Buoyant densities of different bacteria were measured in Percoll gradients. This method was also used to separate different chlorobia in mixed cultures and to assess the relative homogeneity of cultures taken directly or enriched from natural samples (including the purple bacterial layer found at a depth of 20 meters at Big Soda Lake.) Interactions between sulfide oxidizing bacteria were studied.

  10. Sulfur condensation in Claus catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Schoffs, G.R.

    1985-02-01

    The heterogeneous reactions in which catalyst deactivation by pore plugging occur are listed and include: coke formation in petroleum processing, especially hydrocracking and hydrodesulfurization catalysts; steam reforming and methnation catalysts; ammonia synthesis catalyst; and automobile exhause catalysts. The authors explain how the Claus process converts hydrogen sulfide produced by petroleum desulfurization units and gas treatment processes into elemental sulfur and water. More than 15 million tons of sulfur are recovered annually by this process. Commercial Claus plants appear to operate at thermodynamic equilibrium. Depending on the H2S content of the feed and the number of reactors, total H2S conversion to elemental sulfur can exceed 95%.

  11. Cohomological Resolutions for Anomalous Lie Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasiewicz, Zbigniew; Walczyk, Cezary J.

    2014-06-01

    It is shown that the BRST resolution of the spaces of physical states of the systems with anomalies can be consistently defined. The appropriate anomalous complexes are obtained by canonical restrictions of the ghost extended spaces to the kernel of anomaly operator without any modifications of the 'matter' sector. The cohomologies of the anomalous complex for the case of constraints constituting a centrally extended simple Lie algebra of compact type are calculated and analyzed in details within the framework of Hodge-deRham-Kähler theory: the vanishing theorem of the relative cohomologies is proved and the absolute cohomologies are reconstructed.

  12. Anomalous Diffraction in Cold Magnetized Plasma.

    PubMed

    Abelson, Z; Gad, R; Bar-Ad, S; Fisher, A

    2015-10-01

    Cold magnetized plasma possesses an anisotropic permittivity tensor with a unique dispersion relation that for adequate electron density and magnetic field results in anomalous diffraction of a right-hand circularly polarized beam. In this work, we demonstrate experimentally anomalous diffraction of a microwave beam in plasma. Additionally, decreasing the electron density enables observation of the transition of the material from a hyperbolic to a standard material. Manipulation of the control parameters will enable plasma to serve as a reconfigurable metamaterial-like medium. PMID:26551813

  13. Anomalous Feeding of the Left Upper Lobe.

    PubMed

    Hazzard, Christopher; Itagaki, Shinobu; Lajam, Fouad; Flores, Raja M

    2016-09-01

    We report the case of a 53-year-old woman who presented with massive hemoptysis. Computed tomographic angiography revealed an anomalous vessel arising from the abdominal aorta, coursing anteriorly and through the diaphragm, and feeding the left upper lobe. At operation the vessel was found to anastomose to the left upper lobe lingula, which contained multiple vascular abnormalities and arteriovenous fistulas. The vessel was ligated, and the affected portion of the left upper lobe was resected. Anomalous systemic arterial supply of an upper lobe is an especially rare form of a Pryce type 1 abnormality. Recognition of these unusual anatomic variants is crucial to successful treatment and avoidance of adverse events.

  14. Deep sulfur cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, N.; Mandeville, C. W.

    2009-12-01

    Geochemical cycle of sulfur in near-surface reservoirs has been a subject of intense studies for decades. It has been shown that sulfur isotopic compositions of sedimentary sulfides and sulfates record interactions of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere and lithosphere, with δ34S of sedimentary sulfides continuously decreasing from 0‰ toward present-day values of ~-30 to -40‰ over the Phanerozoic (e.g., Canfield, 2004). It has also been shown that microbial reduction of the present-day seawater sulfate (δ34S=+21‰) results in large shifts in isotopic compositions of secondary pyrites in altered oceanic crust (to δ34S=-70‰: Rouxel et al., 2009). How much of these near surface isotopic variations survive during deep geochemical cycle of sulfur interacting with the mantle infinite reservoir with δ34S=0‰? Could extent of their survival be used as a tracer of processes and dynamics involved in deep geochemical cycle? As a first step toward answering these questions, δ34S was determined in-situ using a Cameca IMS 1280 ion microprobe at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in materials representing various domains of deep geochemical cycle. They include pyrites in altered MORB as potential subducting materials and pyrites in UHP eclogites as samples that have experienced subduction zone processes, and mantle-derived melts are represented by olivine-hosted melt inclusions in MORB and those in IAB, and undegassed submarine OIB glasses. Salient features of the results include: (1) pyrites in altered MORB (with O. Rouxel; from ODP site 801 and ODP Hole 1301B) range from -70 to +19‰, (2) pyrites in UHP eclogites from the Western Gneiss Region, Norway (with B. Hacker and A. Kylander-Clark) show a limited overall range from -3.4 to + 2.8‰ among five samples, with one of them covering almost the entire range, indicating limited scale lengths of isotopic equilibration during subduction, (3) olivine-hosted melt inclusions in arc basalts from Galunggung (-2

  15. Production of sulfur from sulfur dioxide obtained from flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.

    1989-06-06

    This patent describes a regenerable process for recovery of elemental sulfur from a gas containing sulfur dioxide comprising the steps of: contacting the gas with an aqueous, alkaline reaction medium containing sodium sulfite in concentration sufficient so that a slurry containing solid sodium sulfide is formed to react sulfur dioxide with sodium sulfite to form a solution containing dissolved sodium pyrosulfite and sodium sulfite; separating sulfur dioxide from the solution produced to leave a residual mixture containing water, sodium sulfite and a sodium pyrosulfite, the amount of sulfur dioxide separated being equal to about one-third the amount of sulfur dioxide which reacted with sodium sulfite; adding, in substantial absence of air, sufficient water and sodium bicarbonate to the residual mixture to react with the dissolved sodium pyrsulfide and form a slurry of solid sodium sulfite suspended in the resulting aqueous, alkaline reaction medium and gaseous carbon dioxide; separating the gaseous carbon dioxide; separating the solid sodium sulfite from the aqueous alkaline reaction medium and recycling the separated reaction medium; reducing the separated sodium sulfite to sodium sulfide; adding the sodium sulfide to an aqueous reaction medium containing sodium bicarbonate and, in the substantial absence of air, carbonating the resulting mixture with the gaseous carbon dioxide to form a slurry of solid particles of sodium bicarbonate dispersed in an aqueous reactor medium containing sodium bicarbonate, along with a gas composed primarily of hydrogen sulfide.

  16. Over-the-Horizon Anomalous VHF Propagation and Earthquake Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devi, M.; Barbara, A. K.; Ruzhin, Ya. Yu.; Hayakawa, M.

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review current activities for the identification of earthquake (EQ) precursors and their epicentres. Starting with a brief description on the background to approaches using ultra-low (ULF), extremely low (ELF), very low/low (VLF/LF), medium (MF), high (HF), very high frequency (VHF) etc. radio waves for short-term EQ prediction, the paper concentrates on those characteristics of anomalous VHF reception from frequency-modulation (FM) radio transmissions and broadcast television (TV) signals in relation to EQ precursors. The possible ways to identify an impending EQ and its epicentre position as defined and observed by workers from a variety of studies fall within the purview of the paper. In attempts to find pre-EQ energy exchange and coupling processes between the lithosphere and atmosphere, the paper highlights some relevant observations of surface latent heat flux, sonic detection and ranging (SODAR) echograms and LF propagation. Explanations on possible causes leading to such anomalous reception are reviewed with reported results in association with pre-seismic induced modifications to tropospheric and ionospheric parameters.

  17. Sulfuric Acid in the Venus Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sill, G. T.

    1972-01-01

    The visible and ultraviolet transmission features of a thin layer of elemental bromine and hydrobromic acid dissolved in sulfuric acid somewhat resemble the Venus spectrum, up to 14 microns. The chemical process postulated for forming sulfuric acid involves the oxidation of sulfur and its compounds to sulfuric acid through the agency of elemental bromine, produced by the photolytic decomposition of hydrogen bromide.

  18. Mineral resource of the month: sulfur

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2010-01-01

    The article presents information on sulfur. Sulfur is said to be among the few solid elements found in elemental form in nature and has industrial uses. Changes in the sulfur production process over the years are discussed as well as the mining process developed by German engineer Herman Frasch that involves melting the sulfur underground and pumping it to the surface.

  19. 46 CFR 148.04-20 - Sulfur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sulfur. 148.04-20 Section 148.04-20 Shipping COAST GUARD... Special Additional Requirements for Certain Material § 148.04-20 Sulfur. (a) When sulfur is loaded in a deep hold with general cargo in the 'tween deck hold above the sulfur, a dust proof wooden...

  20. Method of preparing graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Jun; Lemmon, John P; Yang, Zhenguo; Cao, Yuliang; Li, Xiaolin

    2015-04-07

    A method of preparing a graphene-sulfur nanocomposite for a cathode in a rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery comprising thermally expanding graphite oxide to yield graphene layers, mixing the graphene layers with a first solution comprising sulfur and carbon disulfide, evaporating the carbon disulfide to yield a solid nanocomposite, and grinding the solid nanocomposite to yield the graphene-sulfur nanocomposite. Rechargeable-lithium-sulfur batteries having a cathode that includes a graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can exhibit improved characteristics. The graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can be characterized by graphene sheets with particles of sulfur adsorbed to the graphene sheets. The sulfur particles have an average diameter of less than 50 nm.

  1. Toxicology of sulfur in ruminants: review

    SciTech Connect

    Kandylis, K.

    1984-10-01

    This review deals with the toxicology of sulfur in ruminants including toxicity, neurotoxic effects, and mechanism of toxic action of hydrogen sulfide, clinical signs, and treatment. It will report effects of excessive intake of sulfur by ruminants on feed intake, animal performance, ruminal digestion and motility, rumination, and other physiological functions. Poisoning of animals with sulfur from industrial emissions (sulfur dioxide) also is discussed. Excessive quantities of dietary sulfur (above .3 to .4%) as sulfate or elemental sulfur may cause toxic effects and in extreme cases can be fatal. The means is discussed whereby consumption of excessive amounts of sulfur leads to toxic effects. 53 references, 1 table.

  2. Anomalous Insulating States in Landau Levels N >= 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knighton, Talbot; Huang, Jian; Wu, Zhe; Pfeiffer, Loren; West, Ken

    2014-03-01

    Quantum Hall measurements are performed for a rectangular two-dimensional (2D) hole system confined to a 20 nm quantum well in < 100 > GaAs. Quantum oscillations reveal a density of 4 . 3 .1010 cm-2 with mobility μ = 1 . 9 .106 cm2/V .s. For temperatures less than ~150 mK, anomalous insulating peaks are observed near integer fillings 1,2, and 3 for which both in-phase and out-of-phase signals rise substantially to be near or well above the quantum resistance. They differ from usual re-entrant insulating phases such as that observed before ν = 1 / 3 where the out-of-phase signal remains less than 3% of the in-phase signal. The relationship between in-phase and out-of-phase signals of the magnetoresistances resembles that of the orthogonal components ρxx and ρyy previously observed for collective anisotropic states in < 100 > and < 311 > GaAs 2D systems. These non-monotonic phase shifts will be discussed in relation to possible stripe phases. NSF DMR-1105183.

  3. Graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Jun; Lemmon, John P; Yang, Zhenguo; Cao, Yuiliang; Li, Xiaolin

    2014-06-17

    Rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries having a cathode that includes a graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can exhibit improved characteristics. The graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can be characterized by graphene sheets with particles of sulfur adsorbed to the graphene sheets. The sulfur particles have an average diameter less than 50 nm..

  4. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75...

  5. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75...

  6. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75...

  7. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  8. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  9. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  10. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  11. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75...

  12. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  13. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). Link to an... to or greater than 0.005 ppm shall be rounded up). (c) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the...

  14. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75...

  15. Sulfur diagenesis in marine sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldhaber, M.

    1985-01-01

    Bacterial sulfate reduction occurs in all marine sediments that contain organic matter. Aqueous sulfide (HS-, H2S), one of the initial products of bacterial sulfide reduction, is extremely reactive with iron bearing minerals: sulfur is fixed into sediments as iron sulfide (first FeS and then Fe2S2). A working definition is given of sulfur diagenesis in marine sediments. Controls and consequences of sulfate reduction rates in marine sediments are examined.

  16. Alkali metal/sulfur battery

    DOEpatents

    Anand, Joginder N.

    1978-01-01

    Alkali metal/sulfur batteries in which the electrolyte-separator is a relatively fragile membrane are improved by providing means for separating the molten sulfur/sulfide catholyte from contact with the membrane prior to cooling the cell to temperatures at which the catholyte will solidify. If the catholyte is permitted to solidify while in contact with the membrane, the latter may be damaged. The improvement permits such batteries to be prefilled with catholyte and shipped, at ordinary temperatures.

  17. Assessment of anomalous sentences repetition test

    PubMed Central

    Rai, G S; Stewart, K; Scott, L C

    1990-01-01

    Use of Anomalous Sentences Repetition Test (ASRT) in 16 patients with diagnosis of dementia of Alzheimer's type, 16 normal elderly and 18 patients with depression revealed no difference in the age adjusted scores between the three groups, suggesting that it is not a good test for diagnosing dementia or differentiating dementia from depression. PMID:2391527

  18. Electroweak baryogenesis with anomalous Higgs couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobakhidze, Archil; Wu, Lei; Yue, Jason

    2016-04-01

    We investigate feasibility of efficient baryogenesis at the electroweak scale within the effective field theory framework based on a non-linear realisation of the electroweak gauge symmetry. In this framework the LHC Higgs boson is described by a singlet scalar field, which, therefore, admits new interactions. Assuming that Higgs couplings with the eletroweak gauge bosons are as in the Standard Model, we demonstrate that the Higgs cubic coupling and the CP-violating Higgs-top quark anomalous couplings alone may drive the a strongly first-order phase transition. The distinguished feature of this transition is that the anomalous Higgs vacuum expectation value is generally non-zero in both phases. We identify a range of anomalous couplings, consistent with current experimental data, where sphaleron rates are sufficiently fast in the `symmetric' phase and are suppressed in the `broken' phase and demonstrate that the desired baryon asymmetry can indeed be generated in this framework. This range of the Higgs anomalous couplings can be further constrained from the LHC Run 2 data and be probed at high luminosity LHC and beyond.

  19. Total least squares for anomalous change detection

    SciTech Connect

    Theiler, James P; Matsekh, Anna M

    2010-01-01

    A family of difference-based anomalous change detection algorithms is derived from a total least squares (TLSQ) framework. This provides an alternative to the well-known chronochrome algorithm, which is derived from ordinary least squares. In both cases, the most anomalous changes are identified with the pixels that exhibit the largest residuals with respect to the regression of the two images against each other. The family of TLSQ-based anomalous change detectors is shown to be equivalent to the subspace RX formulation for straight anomaly detection, but applied to the stacked space. However, this family is not invariant to linear coordinate transforms. On the other hand, whitened TLSQ is coordinate invariant, and furthermore it is shown to be equivalent to the optimized covariance equalization algorithm. What whitened TLSQ offers, in addition to connecting with a common language the derivations of two of the most popular anomalous change detection algorithms - chronochrome and covariance equalization - is a generalization of these algorithms with the potential for better performance.

  20. Multivariable scaling for the anomalous Hall effect.

    PubMed

    Hou, Dazhi; Su, Gang; Tian, Yuan; Jin, Xiaofeng; Yang, Shengyuan A; Niu, Qian

    2015-05-29

    We derive a general scaling relation for the anomalous Hall effect in ferromagnetic metals involving multiple competing scattering mechanisms, described by a quadratic hypersurface in the space spanned by the partial resistivities. We also present experimental findings, which show strong deviation from previously found scaling forms when different scattering mechanisms compete in strength but can be nicely explained by our theory.

  1. RSRM Nozzle Anomalous Throat Erosion Investigation Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinton, R. G., Jr.; Wendel, Gary M.

    1998-01-01

    In September, 1996, anomalous pocketing erosion was observed in the aft end of the throat ring of the nozzle of one of the reusable solid rocket motors (RSRM 56B) used on NASA's space transportation system (STS) mission 79. The RSRM throat ring is constructed of bias tape-wrapped carbon cloth/ phenolic (CCP) ablative material. A comprehensive investigation revealed necessary and sufficient conditions for occurrence of the pocketing event and provided rationale that the solid rocket motors for the subsequent mission, STS-80, were safe to fly. The nozzles of both of these motors also exhibited anomalous erosion similar to, but less extensive than that observed on STS-79. Subsequent to this flight, the investigation to identify both the specific causes and the corrective actions for elimination of the necessary and sufficient conditions for the pocketing erosion was intensified. A detailed fault tree approach was utilized to examine potential material and process contributors to the anomalous performance. The investigation involved extensive constituent and component material property testing, pedigree assessments, supplier audits, process audits, full scale processing test article fabrication and evaluation, thermal and thermostructural analyses, nondestructive evaluation, and material performance tests conducted using hot fire simulation in laboratory test beds and subscale and full scale solid rocket motor static test firings. This presentation will provide an over-view of the observed anomalous nozzle erosion and the comprehensive, fault-tree based investigation conducted to resolve this issue.

  2. Anomalous adaptive conditions associated with strabismus.

    PubMed

    Verma, Arun

    2007-01-01

    Anomalous adaptive conditions (AAC) associated with strabismus include: suppression, amblyopia, abnormal retinal correspondence, eccentric fixation, retinal rivalry, horror fusionis, and suspension. This article poses the hypothesis that AAC, in certain cases, may be the cause of strabismus rather than the result of strabismus. PMID:17984497

  3. Tensor charge and anomalous magnetic moment correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Mekhfi, Mustapha

    2005-12-01

    We propose a generalization of the upgraded Karl-Sehgal formula which relates baryon magnetic moments to the spin structure of constituent quarks, by adding anomalous magnetic moments of quarks. We first argue that the relativistic nature of quarks inside baryons requires the introduction of two kinds of magnetisms, one axial and the other tensorial. The first one is associated with integrated quark helicity distributions {delta}{sub i}-{delta}{sub i} (standard) and the second with integrated transversity distributions {delta}{sub i}-{delta}{sub i}. The weight of each contribution is controlled by the combination of two parameters, x{sub i} the ratio of the quark mass to the average kinetic energy and a{sub i} the quark anomalous magnetic moment. The quark anomalous magnetic moment is correlated to transversity, and both are necessary ingredients in describing relativistic quarks. The proposed formula, when confronted with baryon magnetic moments data with reasonable inputs, yields, besides quark magnetic densities, anomalous magnetic moments large enough not to be ignored.

  4. Sulfur minimization in bacterial leaching

    SciTech Connect

    Seth, R.; Prasad, D.; Henry, J.G.

    1996-11-01

    The production of sewage biosolids in Ontario in 1989 was estimated to be 7 million m{sup 3} of wet sludge per year. Of this amount, land application accounts for between 20 and 30% of the total. Unfortunately, the use of sewage biosolids on agricultural land is often prohibited because of heavy metal contamination of the biosolids. High cost and operational problems have made chemical methods of metal extraction unattractive. Consequently, microbiological methods of leaching of heavy metals have been studied for over a decade. A relatively simple microbiological process has been investigated in recent years in flask level experiments and recently in a semicontinuous system. The process exploits nonacidophilic and acidophilic indigenous thiobacilli to extract heavy metals from sewage biosolids. These thiobacilli use elemental sulfur as the energy source, producing sulfuric acid. However, the resulting decontaminated biosolids can cause environmental problems like acidification of the soil, when acid is generated from the residual sulfur in the biosolids. The present study examines the possibility of reducing the amount of sulfur added in batch and semicontinuous bacterial leaching systems, and maximizing sulfur oxidation efficiency, thereby reducing the residual sulfur in leached biosolids.

  5. Plant sulfur and Big Data.

    PubMed

    Kopriva, Stanislav; Calderwood, Alexander; Weckopp, Silke C; Koprivova, Anna

    2015-12-01

    Sulfur is an essential mineral nutrient for plants, therefore, the pathways of its uptake and assimilation have been extensively studied. Great progress has been made in elucidation of the individual genes and enzymes and their regulation. Sulfur assimilation has been intensively investigated by -omics technologies and has been target of several genome wide genetic approaches. This brought a significant step in our understanding of the regulation of the pathway and its integration in cellular metabolism. However, the large amount of information derived from other experiments not directly targeting sulfur has also brought new and exciting insights into processes affecting sulfur homeostasis. In this review we will integrate the findings of the targeted experiments with those that brought unintentional progress in sulfur research, and will discuss how to synthesize the large amount of information available in various repositories into a meaningful dissection of the regulation of a specific metabolic pathway. We then speculate how this might be used to further advance knowledge on control of sulfur metabolism and what are the main questions to be answered. PMID:26706053

  6. Plant sulfur and Big Data.

    PubMed

    Kopriva, Stanislav; Calderwood, Alexander; Weckopp, Silke C; Koprivova, Anna

    2015-12-01

    Sulfur is an essential mineral nutrient for plants, therefore, the pathways of its uptake and assimilation have been extensively studied. Great progress has been made in elucidation of the individual genes and enzymes and their regulation. Sulfur assimilation has been intensively investigated by -omics technologies and has been target of several genome wide genetic approaches. This brought a significant step in our understanding of the regulation of the pathway and its integration in cellular metabolism. However, the large amount of information derived from other experiments not directly targeting sulfur has also brought new and exciting insights into processes affecting sulfur homeostasis. In this review we will integrate the findings of the targeted experiments with those that brought unintentional progress in sulfur research, and will discuss how to synthesize the large amount of information available in various repositories into a meaningful dissection of the regulation of a specific metabolic pathway. We then speculate how this might be used to further advance knowledge on control of sulfur metabolism and what are the main questions to be answered.

  7. Anomalous Symmetry Fractionalization and Surface Topological Order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xie; Burnell, F. J.; Vishwanath, Ashvin; Fidkowski, Lukasz

    2015-10-01

    In addition to possessing fractional statistics, anyon excitations of a 2D topologically ordered state can realize symmetry in distinct ways, leading to a variety of symmetry-enriched topological (SET) phases. While the symmetry fractionalization must be consistent with the fusion and braiding rules of the anyons, not all ostensibly consistent symmetry fractionalizations can be realized in 2D systems. Instead, certain "anomalous" SETs can only occur on the surface of a 3D symmetry-protected topological (SPT) phase. In this paper, we describe a procedure for determining whether a SET of a discrete, on-site, unitary symmetry group G is anomalous or not. The basic idea is to gauge the symmetry and expose the anomaly as an obstruction to a consistent topological theory combining both the original anyons and the gauge fluxes. Utilizing a result of Etingof, Nikshych, and Ostrik, we point out that a class of obstructions is captured by the fourth cohomology group H4(G ,U (1 )) , which also precisely labels the set of 3D SPT phases, with symmetry group G . An explicit procedure for calculating the cohomology data from a SET is given, with the corresponding physical intuition explained. We thus establish a general bulk-boundary correspondence between the anomalous SET and the 3D bulk SPT whose surface termination realizes it. We illustrate this idea using the chiral spin liquid [U (1 )2 ] topological order with a reduced symmetry Z2×Z2⊂SO (3 ) , which can act on the semion quasiparticle in an anomalous way. We construct exactly solved 3D SPT models realizing the anomalous surface terminations and demonstrate that they are nontrivial by computing three-loop braiding statistics. Possible extensions to antiunitary symmetries are also discussed.

  8. The Comprehension of Anomalous Sentences: Evidence from Structural Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanova, Iva; Pickering, Martin J.; Branigan, Holly P.; McLean, Janet F.; Costa, Albert

    2012-01-01

    We report three experiments investigating how people process anomalous sentences, in particular those in which the anomaly is associated with the verb. We contrast two accounts for the processing of such anomalous sentences: a syntactic account, in which the representations constructed for anomalous sentences are similar in nature to the ones…

  9. NLO BFKL and Anomalous Dimensions of Light-Ray Operators

    SciTech Connect

    Balitsky, Ian

    2014-01-01

    The anomalous dimensions of light-ray operators of twist two are obtained by analytical continuation of the anomalous dimensions of corresponding local operators. I demonstrate that the asymptotics of these anomalous dimensions at the "BFKL point" j → 1 can be obtained by comparing the light-cone operator expansion with the high-energy expansion in Wilson lines.

  10. Anomalous glassy relaxation near the isotropic-nematic phase transition.

    PubMed

    Jose, Prasanth P; Chakrabarti, Dwaipayan; Bagchi, Biman

    2005-03-01

    Dynamical heterogeneity in a system of Gay-Berne ellipsoids near its isotropic-nematic (I-N) transition, and also in an equimolar mixture of Lennard-Jones spheres and Gay-Berne ellipsoids in deeply supercooled regime, is probed by the time evolution of non-Gaussian parameters (NGP). The appearance of a dominant second peak in the rotational NGP near the I-N transition signals the growth of pseudonematic domains. Surprisingly, such a second peak is instead observed in the translational NGP for the glassy binary mixture. Localization of orientational motion near the I-N transition is found to be responsible for the observed anomalous orientational relaxation. PMID:15903399

  11. Minimal anomalous U(1){sup '} extension of the MSSM

    SciTech Connect

    Anastasopoulos, Pascal; Fucito, Francesco; Lionetto, Andrea; Pradisi, Gianfranco; Racioppi, Antonio; Stanev, Yassen S.

    2008-10-15

    We study an extension of the minimal supersymmetric standard model by an anomalous Abelian vector multiplet and a Stueckelberg multiplet. The anomalies are cancelled by the Green-Schwarz mechanism and the addition of Chern-Simons terms. The advantage of this choice over the standard one is that it allows for arbitrary values of the quantum numbers of the extra U(1). As a first step toward the study of hadron annihilations producing four leptons in the final state (a clean signal which might be studied at LHC), we then compute the decays Z{sup '}{yields}Z{sub 0}{gamma} and Z{sup '}{yields}Z{sub 0}Z{sub 0}. We find that the largest values of the decay rate are {approx}10{sup -4} GeV, while the expected number of events per year at LHC is at most of the order of 10.

  12. Process for removing sulfur and sulfur compounds from the effluent of industrial processes

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, A.V.

    1981-03-10

    Sulfur dioxide in the stack gas from an industrial process is converted to elemental sulfur in a claus reactor at low temperature to produce sulfur fume. The sulfur is condensed by direct heat transfer with a continuously flowing countercurrent recirculating catalyst and a substantially sulfur dioxide-free gas is discharged. Catalyst and condensed sulfur are fed into the top of a sulfur recovery column and heated in the top of the column by direct heat transfer with a countercurrent stream of recycle gas. The sulfur and catalyst descend into a vaporization zone of the column where sulfur is vaporized. The vaporized sulfur is carried by the recycle gas back towards the top of the column and condensed to a fume by incoming sulfur bearing catalyst. The sulfur fume is carried from the top of the column in cold recycle gas. Hot catalyst from the vaporization section of the column is cooled by recycle gas entering the bottom of the column. Sulfur fume is recovered conventionally. Regenerated catalyst from the column is returned to the sulfur dioxide reactor. Claus plant tail gas with air passes into the base of an incinerator and passes countercurrent to recycled heat transfer solids and is oxidized to convert sulfur and sulfur bearing compounds to sulfur dioxide. The sulfur dioxide is then converted to sulfur in the process just described.

  13. Optimizing stratospheric sulfur geoengineering by seasonally changing sulfur injections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laakso, Anton; Partanen, Antti-Ilari; Kokkola, Harri; Lehtinen, Kari; Korhonen, Hannele

    2015-04-01

    Solar radiation management (SRM) by stratospheric sulfur injection has been shown to have potential in counteracting global warming if reducing of greenhouse gases has not been achieved fast enough and if climate warming will continue. Injecting large amounts of sulfate particles to the stratosphere would increase the reflectivity of the atmosphere and less sunlight would reach the surface. However, the effectivity (per injected sulphur mass unit) of this kind of geoengineering would decrease when amount of injected sulfur is increased. When sulfur concentration increases, stratospheric particles would grow to larger sizes which have larger gravitational settling velocity and which do not reflect radiation as efficiently as smaller particles. In many previous studies, sulfur has been assumed to be injected along the equator where yearly mean solar intensity is the highest and from where sulfur is spread equally to both hemispheres. However, the solar intensity will change locally during the year and sulfate has been assumed to be injected and spread to the hemisphere also during winter time, when the solar intensity is low. Thus sulfate injection could be expected to be more effective, if sulfur injection area is changed seasonally. Here we study effects of the different SRM injection scenarios by using two versions of the MPI climate models. First, aerosol spatial and temporal distributions as well as the resulting radiative properties from the SRM are defined by using the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM6.1-HAM2.2-SALSA. After that, the global and regional climate effects from different injection scenarios are predicted by using the Max Planck Institute's Earth System Model (MPI-ESM). We carried out simulations, where 8 Tg of sulfur is injected as SO2 to the stratosphere at height of 20-22 km in an area ranging over a 20 degree wide latitude band. Results show that changing the sulfur injection area seasonally would lead to similar global mean shortwave

  14. Selective catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wei; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Sarofim, A.F.

    1992-01-01

    Elemental sulfur recovery from SO[sub 2]-containing gas streams is highly attractive as it produces a saleable. Product and no waste to dispose of. However, commercially available schemes are complex and involve multi-stage reactors, such as, most notably in the Resox (reduction of SO[sub 2] with coke) and Claus plants(reaction of SO[sub 2] with H[sub 2]S over catalyst). This project win investigate a cerium oxide catalyst for the single-stage selective reduction SO[sub 2] to elemental sulfur by a reductant, such as carbon monoxide. Cerium oxide has been identified as a superior catalyst for SO[sub 2] reduction by CO to elemental sulfur because of its high activity and high selectivity to sulfur over COS over a wide temperature range(400--650C). Kinetic and parametric studies of SO[sub 2] reduction planned over various CeO[sub 2]-formulations will provide the necessary basis for development of a simplified process, a single-stage elemental sulfur recovery scheme from variable concentration gas streams. A first apparent application is treatment of regenerator off-gases in power plants using regenerative flue gas desulfurization. Such a simple catalytic converter may offer the long-sought Claus-alternative'' for coal-fired power plant applications.

  15. Direct catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur

    SciTech Connect

    Loftus, P.J.; Benedek, K.R.; Lunt, R.R.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.

    1996-12-31

    More than 170 wet scrubber systems applied to 72,000 MW of US, coal-fired, utility boilers are in operation or under construction. A small fraction of these systems produce a useable byproduct (gypsum): the remainder generate approximately 20 million tons per annum of disposable flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproduct, which are transported and disposed of in landfills. The use of regenerable sorbent technologies has the potential to reduce or eliminate this solid waste production, transportation and disposal. All regenerable FGD systems produce an off-gas stream from the regenerator that must be processed further in order to obtain a saleable byproduct, such as elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid or liquid SO{sub 2}. This off-gas has only a fraction of the flue gas volume, and contains no oxygen. Recovery of sulfur from this stream in a single-stage catalytic converter, avoiding a multi-stage Claus plant, could decrease the cost and accelerate the commercialization of many regenerable FGD processes. The paper describes the plan to develop and scale-up an advanced byproduct recovery technology that is based on a direct, single-stage, catalytic process for converting sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. This catalytic process reduces SO{sub 2} over a fluorite-type oxide such as ceria and zirconia.

  16. Detector signal correction method and system

    DOEpatents

    Carangelo, Robert M.; Duran, Andrew J.; Kudman, Irwin

    1995-07-11

    Corrective factors are applied so as to remove anomalous features from the signal generated by a photoconductive detector, and to thereby render the output signal highly linear with respect to the energy of incident, time-varying radiation. The corrective factors may be applied through the use of either digital electronic data processing means or analog circuitry, or through a combination of those effects.

  17. Anomalous phenomena on HF radio paths during geomagnetic disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagoveshchenskii, D. V.

    2016-07-01

    We analyze ionospheric oblique sounding data on three high-latitude and one high-latitude-midlatitude HF radio paths for February 15 and 16, 2014, when two substorms and one magnetic storm occurred. We investigate cases of anomalous propagation of signals: their reflection from sporadic layer Es, lateral reflections, type "M" or "N" modes, the presence of traveling ionospheric disturbances, and the diffusivity of signals and triplets. The most significant results are the following. In geomagnetically undisturbed times, sporadic Es-layers with reduced maximum observed frequencies (MOF Es) on three high-latitude paths were observed in both days. The values of MOF Es during disturbances are large, which leads to the screening of other oblique sounding signals reflected from the ionosphere. On all four paths, the most frequently traveling ionospheric disturbances due to the terminator were observed in quiet hours from 03:00 to 15:00 UT on the first day and from 06:00 to 13:00 UT on the second day of the experiment. In addition, both the sunset terminator and the magnetic storm on the high-latitude-mid-latitude path were found to generate traveling ionospheric disturbances jointly. No such phenomenon was found on high-latitude paths.

  18. Sulfur-doped ordered mesoporous carbons: A stability-improving sulfur host for lithium-sulfur battery cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitze, Florian; Fossum, Kjell; Xiong, Shizhao; Matic, Aleksandar; Palmqvist, Anders E. C.

    2016-06-01

    We report on sulfur-functionalized ordered mesoporous carbons aimed for lithium-sulfur battery electrode applications with improved charge capacity retention. The carbons were obtained by a hard-template strategy using a mixture of furfuryl alcohol and furfuryl mercaptan. For the application as electrode material in lithium-sulfur batteries, the carbons were additionally loaded with sulfur following a traditional melt-diffusion approach. It was found that the sulfur interacts stronger with the sulfur-functionalized carbon matrix than with the non-functionalized material. Electrodes showed very high capacity in the second discharge-charge cycle amounting to approximately 1500, 1200 and 1400 mAh/g (sulfur) for carbon materials with no, medium and high degrees of sulfur functionalization, respectively. More importantly, the sulfur-functionalization of the carbon was found to increase the capacity retention after 50 discharge-charge cycles by 8 and 5% for the carbons with medium and high degrees of sulfur-functionalization, respectively, compared to carbon with no sulfur-functionalization. We attribute this significant improvement to the presence of covalently bound sulfur groups at the internal surface of the functionalized carbon providing efficient anchoring sites for catenation to the sulfur loaded into the pores of the carbons and provide experimental support for this in the form of results from cyclic voltammetry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  19. Anomalous Feeding of the Left Upper Lobe.

    PubMed

    Hazzard, Christopher; Itagaki, Shinobu; Lajam, Fouad; Flores, Raja M

    2016-09-01

    We report the case of a 53-year-old woman who presented with massive hemoptysis. Computed tomographic angiography revealed an anomalous vessel arising from the abdominal aorta, coursing anteriorly and through the diaphragm, and feeding the left upper lobe. At operation the vessel was found to anastomose to the left upper lobe lingula, which contained multiple vascular abnormalities and arteriovenous fistulas. The vessel was ligated, and the affected portion of the left upper lobe was resected. Anomalous systemic arterial supply of an upper lobe is an especially rare form of a Pryce type 1 abnormality. Recognition of these unusual anatomic variants is crucial to successful treatment and avoidance of adverse events. PMID:27549539

  20. The resurgence of the cusp anomalous dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aniceto, Inês

    2016-02-01

    This work addresses the resurgent properties of the cusp anomalous dimension’s strong coupling expansion, obtained from the integral Beisert-Eden-Staudacher (BES) equation. This expansion is factorially divergent, and its first non-perturbative corrections are related to the mass gap of the O(6)σ -model. The factorial divergence can also be analyzed from a resurgence perspective. Building on the work of Basso and Korchemsky, a transseries ansatz for the cusp anomalous dimension is proposed and the corresponding expected large-order behaviour studied. One finds non-perturbative phenomena in both the positive and negative real coupling directions, which need to be included to address the analyticity conditions coming from the BES equation. After checking the resurgence structure of the proposed transseries, it is shown that it naturally leads to an unambiguous resummation procedure, furthermore allowing for a strong/weak coupling interpolation.

  1. Anomalous electromagnetism of pions and magnons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiese, U.-J.

    2005-04-01

    Pions and magnons — the Goldstone bosons of the strong interactions and of magnetism — share a number of common features. Pion and magnon fields couple anomalously to electromagnetism through the conserved Goldstone-Wilczek current of their topological Skyrmion excitations. In the pion case, this coupling gives rise to the decay of the neutral pion into two photons. In the magnon case, the anomalous coupling leads to photonmagnon conversion in an external magnetic field. A measurement of the conversion rate in quantum Hall ferromagnets determines the anyon statistics angle of baby-Skyrmions. If photon-magnon conversion also occurs in antiferromagnets, baby-Skyrmions carry electric charge and may represent the Cooper-pairs of high-temperature superconductors.

  2. Anomalous Hall effect in Weyl superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednik, G.; Zyuzin, A. A.; Burkov, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    We present a theory of the anomalous Hall effect in a topological Weyl superconductor with broken time reversal symmetry. Specifically, we consider a ferromagnetic Weyl metal with two Weyl nodes of opposite chirality near the Fermi energy. In the presence of inversion symmetry, such a metal experiences a weak-coupling Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer instability, with pairing of parity-related eigenstates. Due to the nonzero topological charge, carried by the Weyl nodes, such a superconductor is necessarily topologically nontrivial, with Majorana surface states coexisting with the Fermi arcs of the normal Weyl metal. We demonstrate that, surprisingly, the anomalous Hall conductivity of such a superconducting Weyl metal coincides with that of a nonsuperconducting one, under certain conditions, in spite of the nonconservation of charge in a superconductor. We relate this to the existence of an extra (nearly) conserved quantity in a Weyl metal, the chiral charge.

  3. Anomalous feedback and negative domain wall resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Ran; Zhu, Jian-Gang; Xiao, Di

    2016-11-01

    Magnetic induction can be regarded as a negative feedback effect, where the motive-force opposes the change of magnetic flux that generates the motive-force. In artificial electromagnetics emerging from spintronics, however, this is not necessarily the case. By studying the current-induced domain wall dynamics in a cylindrical nanowire, we show that the spin motive-force exerting on electrons can either oppose or support the applied current that drives the domain wall. The switching into the anomalous feedback regime occurs when the strength of the dissipative torque β is about twice the value of the Gilbert damping constant α. The anomalous feedback manifests as a negative domain wall resistance, which has an analogy with the water turbine.

  4. Apochromatic telescope without anomalous dispersion glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duplov, Roman

    2006-07-01

    In order to correct secondary longitudinal chromatic aberration in conventional refracting optical systems, it is necessary to use at least one optical material having anomalous partial dispersion. A novel lens system with correction of the secondary spectrum by using only normal glasses is presented. The lens system comprises three widely separated lens components; both second and third components are subaperture. The presented example of an apochromatic telescope demonstrates secondary spectrum correction with the use of only crown BK7 and flint F2, which are among the most inexpensive optical glasses available at the market. Two more similar designs are presented, both with the use of low-cost slightly anomalous dispersion glasses. These telescopes have a higher relative aperture and a smaller tertiary spectrum.

  5. Remote sensing and characterization of anomalous debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridharan, R.; Beavers, W.; Lambour, R.; Gaposchkin, E. M.; Kansky, J.; Stansbery, E.

    1997-01-01

    The analysis of orbital debris data shows a band of anomalously high debris concentration in the altitude range between 800 and 1000 km. Analysis indicates that the origin is the leaking coolant fluid from nuclear power sources that powered a now defunct Soviet space-based series of ocean surveillance satellites. A project carried out to detect, track and characterize a sample of the anomalous debris is reported. The nature of the size and shape of the sample set, and the possibility of inferring the composition of the droplets were assessed. The technique used to detect, track and characterize the sample set is described and the results of the characterization analysis are presented. It is concluded that the nature of the debris is consistent with leaked Na-K fluid, although this cannot be proved with the remote sensing techniques used.

  6. Method for identifying anomalous terrestrial heat flows

    DOEpatents

    Del Grande, Nancy Kerr

    1977-01-25

    A method for locating and mapping the magnitude and extent of terrestrial heat-flow anomalies from 5 to 50 times average with a tenfold improved sensitivity over orthodox applications of aerial temperature-sensing surveys as used for geothermal reconnaissance. The method remotely senses surface temperature anomalies such as occur from geothermal resources or oxidizing ore bodies by: measuring the spectral, spatial, statistical, thermal, and temporal features characterizing infrared radiation emitted by natural terrestrial surfaces; deriving from these measurements the true surface temperature with uncertainties as small as 0.05 to 0.5 K; removing effects related to natural temperature variations of topographic, hydrologic, or meteoric origin, the surface composition, detector noise, and atmospheric conditions; factoring out the ambient normal-surface temperature for non-thermally enhanced areas surveyed under otherwise identical environmental conditions; distinguishing significant residual temperature enhancements characteristic of anomalous heat flows and mapping the extent and magnitude of anomalous heat flows where they occur.

  7. Anomalous Cherenkov spin-orbit sound

    SciTech Connect

    Smirnov, Sergey

    2011-02-15

    The Cherenkov effect is a well-known phenomenon in the electrodynamics of fast charged particles passing through transparent media. If the particle is faster than the light in a given medium, the medium emits a forward light cone. This beautiful phenomenon has an acoustic counterpart where the role of photons is played by phonons and the role of the speed of light is played by the sound velocity. In this case the medium emits a forward sound cone. Here, we show that in a system with spin-orbit interactions in addition to this normal Cherenkov sound there appears an anomalous Cherenkov sound with forward and backward sound propagation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the transition from the normal to anomalous Cherenkov sound happens in a singular way at the Cherenkov cone angle. The detection of this acoustic singularity therefore represents an alternative experimental tool for the measurement of the spin-orbit coupling strength.

  8. Biochemistry of Dissimilatory Sulfur Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Blake II, R.

    2003-05-30

    The long term goals of this research were to define the substrate oxidation pathways, the electron transport mechanisms, and the modes of energy conservation employed during the dissimilatory oxidation of sulfur practiced by various species of the thiobacilli. Specific adhesion of the thiobacilli to elemental sulfur was studied by electrical impedance, dynamic light scattering, laser Doppler velocimetry, and optical trapping methods. The conclusion is that the thiobacilli appear to express specific receptors that enable the bacteria to recognize and adhere to insoluble sulfur. The enzyme tetrathionate oxidase was purified from two species of the thiobacilli. Extensive structural and functional studies were conducted on adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase purified from cell-free extracts of Thiobacillus denitrificans. The kinetic mechanism of rhodanese was studied.

  9. Method for removing sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Ermini, E.

    1980-12-16

    Sulfur dioxide is removed from waste gases generated in a thermoelectric plant by contacting the gases countercurrently with an aqueous alkaline solution having a ph of about 9-12 and containing both sodium hydroxide and manganic hydroxide, whereby the sulfur dioxide reacts with the sodium hydroxide to form sodium sulfite until the ph of the solution is about 6-7 and the sodium hydroxide is substantially exhausted and wherein the sulfur dioxide then reacts with the manganic hydroxide to form manganese sulfite. The resultant sodium sulfite and manganese sulfite are oxidized and transformed into sodium sulfate and manganese sulfate respectively, by the action of oxygen in the mixture, in the presence of the manganic ion and also by the direct oxidizing action of the manganic ion.

  10. Electroweak Baryogenesis with Anomalous Higgs Couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobakhidze, Archil; Wu, Lei; Yue, Jason

    2016-07-01

    In non-linear realisation of the electroweak gauge symmetry, the LHC Higgs boson can be assumed to be a singlet under SU(2)L ⊗ U(1)Y. In such scenario, the Standard Model particle content can be kept but new sets of couplings are allowed. We identify a range of anomalous Higgs cubic and the 𝒞𝒫-violating Higgs-top quark couplings that leads to first order phase transition and successful baryogenesis at the electroweak scale.

  11. Anomalous Energetics and Dynamics of Moving Vortices.

    PubMed

    Radzihovsky, Leo

    2015-12-11

    Motivated by the general problem of moving topological defects in an otherwise ordered state and specifically, by the anomalous dynamics observed in vortex-antivortex annihilation and coarsening experiments in freely suspended smectic-C films, I study the deformation, energetics, and dynamics of moving vortices in an overdamped XY model and show that their properties are significantly and qualitatively modified by the motion. PMID:26705656

  12. Anomalous Energetics and Dynamics of Moving Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radzihovsky, Leo

    2015-12-01

    Motivated by the general problem of moving topological defects in an otherwise ordered state and specifically, by the anomalous dynamics observed in vortex-antivortex annihilation and coarsening experiments in freely suspended smectic-C films, I study the deformation, energetics, and dynamics of moving vortices in an overdamped X Y model and show that their properties are significantly and qualitatively modified by the motion.

  13. Anomalous energetics and dynamics of moving vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radzihovsky, Leo

    Motivated by the general problem of moving topological defects in an otherwise ordered state and specifically, by the anomalous dynamics observed in vortex-antivortex annihilation and coarsening experiments in freely-suspended smectic-C films, I study the deformation, energetics and dynamics of moving vortices in an overdamped xy-model and show that their properties are significantly and qualitatively modified by the motion. Supported by NSF through DMR-1001240, MRSEC DMR-0820579, and by Simons Investigator award from Simons Foundation.

  14. Probing anomalous gauge boson couplings at LEP

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, S.; Valencia, G.

    1994-12-31

    We bound anomalous gauge boson couplings using LEP data for the Z {yields} {bar {integral}}{integral} partial widths. We use an effective field theory formalism to compute the one-loop corrections resulting from non-standard model three and four gauge boson vertices. We find that measurements at LEP constrain the three gauge boson couplings at a level comparable to that obtainable at LEPII.

  15. Anomalously extended minima of solar cycle~23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ambika; Tiwari, Anil Kumar; Agrawal, S. P.

    The new millennium extended solar minimum of solar cycle 23 (2007-2009) contains some distinct surprises and is anomalous in comparison to the past few solar cycles. In general, the level of solar activity goes through the cyclic changes lasting roughly 11 years. The last solar cycle 23 started in the year 1996 and was expected to last until 2006. Nevertheless, the solar activity minima continued beyond the year 2006 and lasted till 2009. In fact, anomalously, during the years 2007-09, a deep sunspot minima was observed at the end of the last solar cycle 23. It is observed that the sun had no sunspots continuously for over 50 days in July-August, 2009. More so, it is found that the solar cycle 23 has the longest quiet period as compared to the last many previous solar cycles. Anomalously low values of the geomagnetic disturbance Ap is observed during the whole quiet period (2007-09) of the sun, particularly in the month of January-September 2009, during which the high speed solar wind streams are also not observed. As such, the past solar cycle 23 seems to have the very long period of about 14 years, which is anomalously distinct from previous four solar cycles, besides the obvious Ap correlation of very low activity. The low values of the sunspot numbers in years 2007-2009 also have a very distinct effect in producing lowest modulation in cosmic ray intensity, with highest values of neutron monitor counts observed in the year 2009, as compared to that observed so far in previous solar cycles. These results are discussed in the light of many associated solar-terrestrial phenomena.

  16. Anomalous toroidal field penetration in Tormac V

    SciTech Connect

    Feinberg, B.; Vaucher, B.G.; Shaw, R.S.; Vella, M.C.

    1981-07-01

    Magnetic field penetration into a cool, collisional, magnetized plasma has been investigated in Tormac V. Magnetic probe and laser interferometer studies reveal anomalous penetration of the applied toroidal field into a plasma with an initial parallel bias toroidal field. The applied poloidal field, however, formed a well-defined magnetic front which was effective at sweeping up particles. Strong shear in the vacuum magnetic field does not inhibit the apparent decoupling of the applied toroidal field from the applied poloidal field.

  17. Anomalous toroidal field penetration in Tormac V

    SciTech Connect

    Feinberg, B.; Vaucher, B. G.; Shaw, R. S.; Vella, M. C.

    1981-07-01

    We investigate magnetic field penetration into a cool, collisional, magnetized plasma in Tormac V. Magnetic probe and laser interferometer studies reveal anomalous penetration of the applied toroidal field into a plasma with an initial parallel bias toroidal field. The applied poloidal field, however, formed a well-defined magnetic front which was effective at sweeping up particles. Lastly, strong shear in the vacuum magnetic field does not inhibit the apparent decoupling of the applied toroidal field from the applied poloidal field.

  18. Anomalous Charge Transport in Disordered Organic Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Muniandy, S. V.; Woon, K. L.; Choo, K. Y.

    2011-03-30

    Anomalous charge carrier transport in disordered organic semiconductors is studied using fractional differential equations. The connection between index of fractional derivative and dispersion exponent is examined from the perspective of fractional Fokker-Planck equation and its link to the continuous time random walk formalism. The fractional model is used to describe the bi-scaling power-laws observed in the time-of flight photo-current transient data for two different types of organic semiconductors.

  19. Monoclinic sulfur cathode utilizing carbon for high-performance lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Sung Chul; Han, Young-Kyu

    2016-09-01

    Sulfur cathodes for lithium-sulfur batteries have been designed to be combined with conductive carbon because the insulating nature of sulfur causes low active material utilization and poor rate capability. This paper is the first to report that carbon can induce a phase transition in a sulfur cathode. The stable form of a sulfur crystal at ambient temperature is orthorhombic sulfur. We found that monoclinic sulfur becomes more stable than orthorhombic sulfur if carbon atoms penetrate into the sulfur at elevated temperatures and the carbon density exceeds a threshold of C0.3S8. The high stability of the carbon-containing monoclinic sulfur persists during lithiation and is attributed to locally formed linear SC3S chains with marked stability. This study provides a novel perspective on the role of carbon in the sulfur cathode and suggests control of the crystal phase of electrodes by composite elements as a new way of designing efficient electrode materials.

  20. Anomalous diffusion induced by enhancement of memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-Joo

    2014-07-01

    We introduced simple microscopic non-Markovian walk models which describe the underlying mechanism of anomalous diffusions. In the models, we considered the competitions between randomness and memory effects of previous history by introducing the probability parameters. The memory effects were considered in two aspects: one is the perfect memory of whole history and the other is the latest memory enhanced with time. In the perfect memory model superdiffusion was induced with the relation of the Hurst exponent H to the controlling parameter p as H =p for p >1/2, while in the latest memory enhancement models, anomalous diffusions involving both superdiffusion and subdiffusion were induced with the relations H =(1+α)/2 and H =(1-α)/2 for 0≤α≤1, where α is the parameter controlling the degree of the latest memory enhancement. Also we found that, although the latest memory was only considered, the memory improved with time results in the long-range correlations between steps and the correlations increase as time goes on. Thus we suggest the memory enhancement as a key origin describing anomalous diffusions.

  1. Characterizing cosmic inhomogeneity with anomalous diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraljic, D.

    2015-08-01

    Dark matter (DM) clustering at the present epoch is investigated from a fractal viewpoint in order to determine the scale where the self-similar scaling property of the DM halo distribution transits to homogeneity. Methods based on well-established `counts-in-cells' as well as new methods based on anomalous diffusion and random walks are investigated. Both are applied to DM haloes of the biggest N-body simulation in the `Dark Sky Simulations' (DS) catalogue and an equivalent randomly distributed catalogue. Results based on the smaller `Millennium Run' (MR) simulation are revisited and improved. It is found that the MR simulation volume is too small and prone to bias to reliably identify the onset of homogeneity. Transition to homogeneity is defined when the fractal dimension of the clustered and random distributions cannot be distinguished within the associated uncertainties. The `counts-in-cells' method applied to the DS then yields a homogeneity scale roughly consistent with previous work (˜150 h-1 Mpc). The characteristic length-scale for anomalous diffusion to behave homogeneously is found to be at about 250 h-1 Mpc. The behaviour of the fractal dimensions for a halo catalogue with the same two-point function as the original but with shuffled Fourier phases is investigated. The methods based on anomalous diffusion are shown to be sensitive to the phase information, whereas the `counts-in-cells' methods are not.

  2. Anomalous diffusion induced by enhancement of memory.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Joo

    2014-07-01

    We introduced simple microscopic non-Markovian walk models which describe the underlying mechanism of anomalous diffusions. In the models, we considered the competitions between randomness and memory effects of previous history by introducing the probability parameters. The memory effects were considered in two aspects: one is the perfect memory of whole history and the other is the latest memory enhanced with time. In the perfect memory model superdiffusion was induced with the relation of the Hurst exponent H to the controlling parameter p as H = p for p>1/2, while in the latest memory enhancement models, anomalous diffusions involving both superdiffusion and subdiffusion were induced with the relations H = (1+α)/2 and H = (1-α)/2 for 0 ≤ α ≤ 1, where α is the parameter controlling the degree of the latest memory enhancement. Also we found that, although the latest memory was only considered, the memory improved with time results in the long-range correlations between steps and the correlations increase as time goes on. Thus we suggest the memory enhancement as a key origin describing anomalous diffusions.

  3. Anomalous Right Coronary Artery: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Keswani, Amit N.; Dann, Kristen; Ramee, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Background Anomalous coronary arteries (ACAs) are rare but potentially life-threatening abnormalities of coronary circulation. Most variations are benign; however, some may lead to myocardial ischemia and/or sudden cardiac arrest. Case Report We present the case of a patient with a significant medical history of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, type 2 diabetes, obesity, and gastroesophageal reflux disease who presented to the emergency department with atypical chest pain. She underwent a cardiac catheterization that showed an anomalous right coronary artery originating near the anterior left coronary artery sinus and coursing between the pulmonary artery and aorta. The patient was deemed a poor surgical candidate, was discharged home on medical management with beta blocker therapy, and was instructed to restrict her physical activity. Conclusion Treatment of significant anomalies should be guided by the nature of the anomalous vessel. Symptomatic patients with ACAs have 3 treatment options: medical management, coronary angioplasty and stent deployment, or surgical correction. These treatment options remain controversial. Some clinicians advocate revascularization, but the long-term benefits of revascularization therapies have not yet been demonstrated. PMID:24940145

  4. Anomalous dominance, immune parameters, and spatial ability.

    PubMed

    Hassler, M

    1993-02-01

    In a sample of male and female subjects in late adolescence, we investigated the relationship of spatial abilities to anomalous dominance and immune parameters as suggested by Geschwind's model of cerebral lateralization (Geschwind & Galaburda, 1985) In addition to the behavioral markers asthma/allergies, migraine, and myopia, we measured IgE and Ig total in blood serum. Atypical handedness, atypical language dominance, and atypical visuospatial dominance were found to be connected with spatial giftedness, and atypical handedness was related to immune vulnerability in males. This outcome provided some support for the Geschwind model in men. In women, spatial giftedness was related to immune vulnerability, but no indicator of anomalous dominance was connected with either giftedness, or immune parameters. Thus, the central thesis of the Geschwind model, i.e., elevated prenatal testosterone effects on the developing brain cause anomalous dominance and, as side effects, spatial giftedness and immune vulnerability, and all these consequences should be related to each other, was not confirmed by our data for females.

  5. Electronic and structural properties of femtosecond laser sulfur hyperdoped silicon pn-junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saring, Philipp; Lena Baumann, Anna; Schlieper-Ludewig, Bettina; Kontermann, Stefan; Schade, Wolfgang; Seibt, Michael

    2013-08-01

    The structural properties of femtosecond laser sulfur hyperdoped silicon pn-junctions are correlated to electronic transport characteristics at the interface. The depth of the planar space charge region obtained from cross-sectional electron beam induced current analysis is in good agreement with the sulfur concentration depth profile, derived from secondary ion mass spectroscopy. EBIC signals from the crest regions of the laser structured surface reveal increased recombination activity. Using transmission electron microscopy, we show that such recombination is related to dislocations, which are most probably highly decorated with sulfur.

  6. Reduction mechanism of sulfur in lithium-sulfur battery: From elemental sulfur to polysulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Dong; Zhang, Xuran; Wang, Jiankun; Qu, Deyu; Yang, Xiaoqing; Qu, Deyang

    2016-01-01

    The polysulfide ions formed during the first reduction wave of sulfur in Li-S battery were determined through both in-situ and ex-situ derivatization of polysulfides. By comparing the cyclic voltammetric results with and without the derivatization reagent (methyl triflate) as well as the in-situ and ex-situ derivatization results under potentiostatic condition, in-situ derivatization was found to be more appropriate than its ex-situ counterpart, since subsequent fast chemical reactions between the polysulfides and sulfur may occur during the timeframe of ex-situ procedures. It was found that the major polysulfide ions formed at the first reduction wave of elemental sulfur were the S4 2 - and S5 2 - species, while the widely accepted reduction products of S8 2 - and S6 2 - for the first reduction wave were in low abundance.

  7. Sulfur isotopes of organic matter preserved in 3.45-billion-year-old stromatolites reveal microbial metabolism.

    PubMed

    Bontognali, Tomaso R R; Sessions, Alex L; Allwood, Abigail C; Fischer, Woodward W; Grotzinger, John P; Summons, Roger E; Eiler, John M

    2012-09-18

    The 3.45-billion-year-old Strelley Pool Formation of Western Australia preserves stromatolites that are considered among the oldest evidence for life on Earth. In places of exceptional preservation, these stromatolites contain laminae rich in organic carbon, interpreted as the fossil remains of ancient microbial mats. To better understand the biogeochemistry of these rocks, we performed microscale in situ sulfur isotope measurements of the preserved organic sulfur, including both Δ(33)S and . This approach allows us to tie physiological inference from isotope ratios directly to fossil biomass, providing a means to understand sulfur metabolism that is complimentary to, and independent from, inorganic proxies (e.g., pyrite). Δ(33)S values of the kerogen reveal mass-anomalous fractionations expected of the Archean sulfur cycle, whereas values show large fractionations at very small spatial scales, including values below -15‰. We interpret these isotopic patterns as recording the process of sulfurization of organic matter by H(2)S in heterogeneous mat pore-waters influenced by respiratory S metabolism. Positive Δ(33)S anomalies suggest that disproportionation of elemental sulfur would have been a prominent microbial process in these communities.

  8. Sulfur isotopes of organic matter preserved in 3.45-billion-year-old stromatolites reveal microbial metabolism.

    PubMed

    Bontognali, Tomaso R R; Sessions, Alex L; Allwood, Abigail C; Fischer, Woodward W; Grotzinger, John P; Summons, Roger E; Eiler, John M

    2012-09-18

    The 3.45-billion-year-old Strelley Pool Formation of Western Australia preserves stromatolites that are considered among the oldest evidence for life on Earth. In places of exceptional preservation, these stromatolites contain laminae rich in organic carbon, interpreted as the fossil remains of ancient microbial mats. To better understand the biogeochemistry of these rocks, we performed microscale in situ sulfur isotope measurements of the preserved organic sulfur, including both Δ(33)S and . This approach allows us to tie physiological inference from isotope ratios directly to fossil biomass, providing a means to understand sulfur metabolism that is complimentary to, and independent from, inorganic proxies (e.g., pyrite). Δ(33)S values of the kerogen reveal mass-anomalous fractionations expected of the Archean sulfur cycle, whereas values show large fractionations at very small spatial scales, including values below -15‰. We interpret these isotopic patterns as recording the process of sulfurization of organic matter by H(2)S in heterogeneous mat pore-waters influenced by respiratory S metabolism. Positive Δ(33)S anomalies suggest that disproportionation of elemental sulfur would have been a prominent microbial process in these communities. PMID:22949693

  9. Sulfur isotopes of organic matter preserved in 3.45-billion-year-old stromatolites reveal microbial metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Bontognali, Tomaso R. R.; Sessions, Alex L.; Allwood, Abigail C.; Fischer, Woodward W.; Grotzinger, John P.; Summons, Roger E.; Eiler, John M.

    2012-01-01

    The 3.45-billion-year-old Strelley Pool Formation of Western Australia preserves stromatolites that are considered among the oldest evidence for life on Earth. In places of exceptional preservation, these stromatolites contain laminae rich in organic carbon, interpreted as the fossil remains of ancient microbial mats. To better understand the biogeochemistry of these rocks, we performed microscale in situ sulfur isotope measurements of the preserved organic sulfur, including both Δ33S and . This approach allows us to tie physiological inference from isotope ratios directly to fossil biomass, providing a means to understand sulfur metabolism that is complimentary to, and independent from, inorganic proxies (e.g., pyrite). Δ33S values of the kerogen reveal mass-anomalous fractionations expected of the Archean sulfur cycle, whereas values show large fractionations at very small spatial scales, including values below -15‰. We interpret these isotopic patterns as recording the process of sulfurization of organic matter by H2S in heterogeneous mat pore-waters influenced by respiratory S metabolism. Positive Δ33S anomalies suggest that disproportionation of elemental sulfur would have been a prominent microbial process in these communities. PMID:22949693

  10. Apparatus and process for producing particulate sulfur

    SciTech Connect

    Harbolt, B.A.; Howell, D.W.

    1989-09-05

    This patent describes apparatus for producing relatively large, high bulk density sulfur particles from molten sulfur. The apparatus including a means disposed beneath the porous belt for receiving both quenching liquid drained from sulfur particles on the belt and sulfur particles falling from the porous belt which are not discharged onto the second conveyor belt, and including means for recycling the received fallen particles back onto a particle receiving end region of the porous belt.

  11. The sulfur cycle in the marine atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, Owen B.; Kasting, James F.; Turco, Richard P.; Liu, May S.

    1987-01-01

    The simulation of the sulfur cycle in the marine atmosphere using a one-dimensional photochemical model is described and evaluated. Theoretical uncertainties concerning the operation of the marine sulfur cycle are examined, and measurements of sulfur gases in the marine atmosphere necessary for developing the model are derived. Previous modeling studies are reviewed, and the data from these studies are compared to the model simulations. Recommendations for improving the simulation of the sulfur cycle in the marine atmosphere are discussed.

  12. Behavior of sulfur during coal pyrolysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shao, D.; Hutchinson, E.J.; Heidbrink, J.; Pan, W.-P.; Chou, C.-L.

    1994-01-01

    The behavior of sulfur in Illinois coals during pyrolysis was evaluated by thermogravimetry/ Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (TG/FT-IR) techniques. SO2, COS, and H2S were major gaseous sulfur-containing products observed during coal pyrolysis. The release rates of the gaseous sulfur species showed several peaks within the temperature ranges, which were due to the emission of different forms of sulfur in coal. ?? 1994.

  13. Recovering sulfur from gas streams

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    Linde AG (Hoellriegeiskreuth, Germany) has developed ClinSulf-SDP process, a two-reactor system that offers better than 99.5% sulfur recovery at low capital and operating costs. In a traditional Claus plant, sulfur-recovery rates of 99.3% can be achieved by combining a two- or three-stage Claus plant with a separate tail-gas cleanup unit (TGCU). Common TGCU methods include H{sub 2}S scrubbing, subdewpoint condensation and direct oxidation. Such combined units are not only costly and complicated to build and maintain, but many of today`s operators require higher sulfur-recovery rates--on the order of 99.3%--99.8%. The Clin-Sulf-SDP combines several catalytic stages of a Claus plant with a subdewpoint, tailgas-treatment system, and the process uses only two reactors. At the heart of the process are two identical, internally cooled reactors. Two four-way valves periodically reverse the sequence of the matching reactors, allowing them to alternate between sulfur-adsorption and catalyst-regeneration modes.

  14. Sulfur Dioxide and Material Damage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillette, Donald G.

    1975-01-01

    This study relates sulfur dioxide levels with material damage in heavily populated or polluted areas. Estimates of loss were determined from increased maintenance and replacement costs. The data indicate a decrease in losses during the past five years probably due to decline in pollution levels established by air quality standards. (MR)

  15. Seal for sodium sulfur battery

    DOEpatents

    Topouzian, Armenag; Minck, Robert W.; Williams, William J.

    1980-01-01

    This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which the sealing is accomplished by a radial compression seal made on a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

  16. TRENDS IN RURAL SULFUR CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents an analysis of regional trends in atmospheric concentrations in sulfur dioxide (502) and particulate sulfate (50~- ) at rural monitoring sites in the Clean Air Act Status and Trends Monitoring Network (CAsTNet) from 1990 to 1999. A two-stage approach is used t...

  17. Sulfur monochloride in organic synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantinova, L. S.; Rakitin, O. A.

    2014-03-01

    The data on the reactivity of sulfur monochloride published in the past 15 years have been reviewed and systematized. The review focuses on the synthesis of acyclic and heterocyclic compounds with the use of S2Cl2. The bibliography includes 154 references.

  18. Why are surface equatorial ENSO winds anomalously westerly under anomalous large-scale convection?

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, A.J.

    1994-10-01

    Previous work has shown that the near-surface tropospheric response to anomalous heating can be described in terms of damped equatorial Rossby waves and a damped equatorial Kelvin wave. The zonal and meridional extent of the dominant ENSO heating/cooling region is such that the westward decaying Rossby waves dominate the response. Consequently, eastward of the forcing region the flow is small. Zonal convergence caused by the heating and small zonal flow to the east together imply that winds must be anomalously westerly in the heating region. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Crossover behavior of the anomalous Hall effect and anomalous nernst effect in itinerant ferromagnets.

    PubMed

    Miyasato, T; Abe, N; Fujii, T; Asamitsu, A; Onoda, S; Onose, Y; Nagaosa, N; Tokura, Y

    2007-08-24

    The anomalous Hall effect (AHE) and anomalous Nernst effect (ANE) are experimentally investigated in a variety of ferromagnetic metals including pure transition metals, oxides, and chalcogenides, whose resistivities range over 5 orders of magnitude. For these ferromagnets, the transverse conductivity sigma{xy} versus the longitudinal conductivity sigma{xx} shows a crossover behavior with three distinct regimes in accordance qualitatively with a recent unified theory of the intrinsic and extrinsic AHE. We also found that the transverse Peltier coefficient alpha{xy} for the ANE obeys the Mott rule. These results offer a coherent and semiquantitative understanding of the AHE and ANE to an issue of controversy for many decades.

  20. Two stage sorption of sulfur compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, W.E.

    1991-12-31

    A two stage method for reducing the sulfur content of exhaust gases is disclosed. Alkali- or alkaline-earth-based sorbent is totally or partially vaporized 10 and introduced into a sulfur-containing gas stream. The activated sorbent can be introduced in the reaction zone or the exhaust gases of a combustor or a gasifier. High efficiencies of sulfur removal can be achieved.

  1. Eagle-Picher Industries Sodium Sulfur Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silvey, Ronald L.

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs of the sodium sulfur program are presented. Sodium sulfur low earth orbit (LEO) cells are described. Topics covered include cell sizes, areas of improvement, and NaS cell testing. Sodium sulfur cell and battery designs continue to evolve with significant improvement demonstrated in resistance, rechargeability, cycle life, energy density, and electrolyte characterization.

  2. Air Quality Criteria for Sulfur Oxides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Included is a literature review which comprehensively discusses knowledge of the sulfur oxides commonly found in the atmosphere. The subject content is represented by the 10 chapter titles: Physical and Chemical Properties and the Atmospheric Reactions of the Oxides of Sulfur; Sources and Methods of Measurements of Sulfur Oxides in the Atmosphere;…

  3. Two stage sorption of sulfur compounds

    DOEpatents

    Moore, William E.

    1992-01-01

    A two stage method for reducing the sulfur content of exhaust gases is disclosed. Alkali- or alkaline-earth-based sorbent is totally or partially vaporized and introduced into a sulfur-containing gas stream. The activated sorbent can be introduced in the reaction zone or the exhaust gases of a combustor or a gasifier. High efficiencies of sulfur removal can be achieved.

  4. Sulfur: its clinical and toxicologic aspects.

    PubMed

    Komarnisky, Lioudmila A; Christopherson, Robert J; Basu, Tapan K

    2003-01-01

    Although there is no known dietary requirement for inorganic sulfur, it is an essential element for all animal species in as much as they all require the sulfur-containing amino acid methionine. There are three predominate forms of organic sulfur in animals and humans: 1). the thiomethyl of methionine residues in protein; 2). the sulfhydryl disulfides of protein; and 3). the compounds containing ester or amide bound sulfates of glycosaminoglycans, steroids, and many xenobiotic metabolites. Thus, sulfur becomes an important constituent of amino acids, proteins, enzymes, vitamins and other biomolecules. Unlike mammalian species, plants can use inorganic sulfur and synthesize methionine from which are synthesized all the other important sulfur compounds. Hence, sulfur deficiency occurs mainly when plants are grown in sulfur-depleted soils and when humans and animals consume low-protein diets. In recent times, however, the increasing prevalence of refining petroleum and smelting sulfur compounds of metallic minerals into free metals are having a large impact on the balance of sulfur in the environment. Sulfur toxicity is associated mainly with high levels of the element and its toxic volatile substances in the environment. Sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), a major air pollutant, may adversely affect animal and human health by causing bronchitis, bronchoconstriction, and increased pulmonary resistance.

  5. 21 CFR 182.3862 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 182.3862 Section 182.3862 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3862 Sulfur dioxide. (a) Product. Sulfur dioxide. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This substance...

  6. 21 CFR 582.3862 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 582.3862 Section 582.3862 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sulfur dioxide. (a) Product. Sulfur dioxide. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation....

  7. 21 CFR 582.3862 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 582.3862 Section 582.3862 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sulfur dioxide. (a) Product. Sulfur dioxide. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation....

  8. 21 CFR 182.3862 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 182.3862 Section 182.3862 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3862 Sulfur dioxide. (a) Product. Sulfur...

  9. 21 CFR 582.3862 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 582.3862 Section 582.3862 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sulfur dioxide. (a) Product. Sulfur dioxide. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation....

  10. 21 CFR 182.3862 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 182.3862 Section 182.3862 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3862 Sulfur dioxide. (a) Product. Sulfur dioxide. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This substance...

  11. 21 CFR 582.3862 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 582.3862 Section 582.3862 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sulfur dioxide. (a) Product. Sulfur dioxide. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation....

  12. 21 CFR 182.3862 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 182.3862 Section 182.3862 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3862 Sulfur dioxide. (a) Product. Sulfur dioxide. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This substance...

  13. 46 CFR 153.1046 - Sulfuric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sulfuric acid. 153.1046 Section 153.1046 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK....1046 Sulfuric acid. No person may liquefy frozen or congealed sulfuric acid other than by external...

  14. 46 CFR 153.1046 - Sulfuric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sulfuric acid. 153.1046 Section 153.1046 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK....1046 Sulfuric acid. No person may liquefy frozen or congealed sulfuric acid other than by external...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1095 - Sulfuric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sulfuric acid. 184.1095 Section 184.1095 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1095 Sulfuric acid. (a) Sulfuric acid (H2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7664-93-9),...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1095 - Sulfuric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sulfuric acid. 582.1095 Section 582.1095 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1095 Sulfuric acid. (a) Product. Sulfuric acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  17. 46 CFR 153.1046 - Sulfuric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sulfuric acid. 153.1046 Section 153.1046 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK....1046 Sulfuric acid. No person may liquefy frozen or congealed sulfuric acid other than by external...

  18. 46 CFR 153.1046 - Sulfuric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sulfuric acid. 153.1046 Section 153.1046 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK....1046 Sulfuric acid. No person may liquefy frozen or congealed sulfuric acid other than by external...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1095 - Sulfuric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sulfuric acid. 582.1095 Section 582.1095 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1095 Sulfuric acid. (a) Product. Sulfuric acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  20. 21 CFR 582.1095 - Sulfuric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sulfuric acid. 582.1095 Section 582.1095 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1095 Sulfuric acid. (a) Product. Sulfuric acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  1. 21 CFR 582.1095 - Sulfuric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sulfuric acid. 582.1095 Section 582.1095 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1095 Sulfuric acid. (a) Product. Sulfuric acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1095 - Sulfuric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sulfuric acid. 184.1095 Section 184.1095 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1095 Sulfuric acid. (a) Sulfuric acid (H2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7664-93-9),...

  3. 21 CFR 582.1095 - Sulfuric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sulfuric acid. 582.1095 Section 582.1095 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1095 Sulfuric acid. (a) Product. Sulfuric acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  4. 46 CFR 153.1046 - Sulfuric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sulfuric acid. 153.1046 Section 153.1046 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK....1046 Sulfuric acid. No person may liquefy frozen or congealed sulfuric acid other than by external...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1095 - Sulfuric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sulfuric acid. 184.1095 Section 184.1095 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1095 Sulfuric acid. (a) Sulfuric acid (H2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7664-93-9),...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1095 - Sulfuric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sulfuric acid. 184.1095 Section 184.1095 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1095 Sulfuric acid. (a) Sulfuric acid (H2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7664-93-9),...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1095 - Sulfuric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sulfuric acid. 184.1095 Section 184.1095 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD....1095 Sulfuric acid. (a) Sulfuric acid (H2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7664-93-9), also known as oil of vitriol,...

  8. Sulfur-oxygen processes on Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Robert M.; Smythe, William D.

    1987-01-01

    Laboratory studies of irradiated sulfur dioxide frost have found that sulfur trioxide should be formed as a consequence of the irradiation process. The spectral reflectance of solid sulfur trioxide was measured in the laboratory and it was found that the compound has strong absorption features at 3.37 and 3.70 microns. These features are not present in the spectral geometric albedo of Io. This is interpreted as an indication that sulfur trioxide may exist in such limited abundance that it is undetectable in disk averaged spectrophotometry. It is suggested that the Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer on the Galileo spacecraft should be able to identify condensed sulfur trioxide on Io particularly in regions bordering the sulfur dioxide deposits. The presence of elemental sulfur on Io's surface has been questioned on several grounds, most notably the suggested production process (quenched molten sulfur extrusions) and the effect of radiation (particularly X-rays) on some of the allotropes. Mixtures of sulfur allotropes were produced in the laboratory by quenching molten sulfur and it was found that the spectra indicate the presence of certain red-colored allotropes which are preserved upon quenching. The color of the sulfur glass produced is redder when the temperature of the original melt is higher. This is consistent with the suggestion that Io's spectral geometric albedo can be partly explained by the presence of quenched sulfur glasses.

  9. Sulfur and oxygen isotope insights into sulfur cycling in shallow-sea hydrothermal vents, Milos, Greece

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Shallow-sea (5 m depth) hydrothermal venting off Milos Island provides an ideal opportunity to target transitions between igneous abiogenic sulfide inputs and biogenic sulfide production during microbial sulfate reduction. Seafloor vent features include large (>1 m2) white patches containing hydrothermal minerals (elemental sulfur and orange/yellow patches of arsenic-sulfides) and cells of sulfur oxidizing and reducing microorganisms. Sulfide-sensitive film deployed in the vent and non-vent sediments captured strong geochemical spatial patterns that varied from advective to diffusive sulfide transport from the subsurface. Despite clear visual evidence for the close association of vent organisms and hydrothermalism, the sulfur and oxygen isotope composition of pore fluids did not permit delineation of a biotic signal separate from an abiotic signal. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the free gas had uniform δ34S values (2.5 ± 0.28‰, n = 4) that were nearly identical to pore water H2S (2.7 ± 0.36‰, n = 21). In pore water sulfate, there were no paired increases in δ34SSO4 and δ18OSO4 as expected of microbial sulfate reduction. Instead, pore water δ34SSO4 values decreased (from approximately 21‰ to 17‰) as temperature increased (up to 97.4°C) across each hydrothermal feature. We interpret the inverse relationship between temperature and δ34SSO4 as a mixing process between oxic seawater and 34S-depleted hydrothermal inputs that are oxidized during seawater entrainment. An isotope mass balance model suggests secondary sulfate from sulfide oxidation provides at least 15% of the bulk sulfate pool. Coincident with this trend in δ34SSO4, the oxygen isotope composition of sulfate tended to be 18O-enriched in low pH (<5), high temperature (>75°C) pore waters. The shift toward high δ18OSO4 is consistent with equilibrium isotope exchange under acidic and high temperature conditions. The source of H2S contained in hydrothermal fluids could not be

  10. Sulfur and oxygen isotope insights into sulfur cycling in shallow-sea hydrothermal vents, Milos, Greece.

    PubMed

    Gilhooly, William P; Fike, David A; Druschel, Gregory K; Kafantaris, Fotios-Christos A; Price, Roy E; Amend, Jan P

    2014-01-01

    Shallow-sea (5 m depth) hydrothermal venting off Milos Island provides an ideal opportunity to target transitions between igneous abiogenic sulfide inputs and biogenic sulfide production during microbial sulfate reduction. Seafloor vent features include large (>1 m(2)) white patches containing hydrothermal minerals (elemental sulfur and orange/yellow patches of arsenic-sulfides) and cells of sulfur oxidizing and reducing microorganisms. Sulfide-sensitive film deployed in the vent and non-vent sediments captured strong geochemical spatial patterns that varied from advective to diffusive sulfide transport from the subsurface. Despite clear visual evidence for the close association of vent organisms and hydrothermalism, the sulfur and oxygen isotope composition of pore fluids did not permit delineation of a biotic signal separate from an abiotic signal. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the free gas had uniform δ(34)S values (2.5 ± 0.28‰, n = 4) that were nearly identical to pore water H2S (2.7 ± 0.36‰, n = 21). In pore water sulfate, there were no paired increases in δ(34)SSO4 and δ(18)OSO4 as expected of microbial sulfate reduction. Instead, pore water δ(34)SSO4 values decreased (from approximately 21‰ to 17‰) as temperature increased (up to 97.4°C) across each hydrothermal feature. We interpret the inverse relationship between temperature and δ(34)SSO4 as a mixing process between oxic seawater and (34)S-depleted hydrothermal inputs that are oxidized during seawater entrainment. An isotope mass balance model suggests secondary sulfate from sulfide oxidation provides at least 15% of the bulk sulfate pool. Coincident with this trend in δ(34)SSO4, the oxygen isotope composition of sulfate tended to be (18)O-enriched in low pH (<5), high temperature (>75°C) pore waters. The shift toward high δ(18)OSO4 is consistent with equilibrium isotope exchange under acidic and high temperature conditions. The source of H2S contained in hydrothermal

  11. Visible-frequency metasurfaces for broadband anomalous reflection and high-efficiency spectrum splitting.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhongyang; Palacios, Edgar; Butun, Serkan; Aydin, Koray

    2015-03-11

    Ultrathin metasurfaces have recently emerged as promising materials that have huge potential to enable novel, flat optical components, and surface-confined, miniature photonic devices. Metasurfaces offer new degrees of freedom in molding the optical wavefronts by introducing abrupt and drastic changes in the amplitude, phase, and/or polarization of electromagnetic radiation at the wavelength scale. By carefully arranging multiple subwavelength anisotropic or gradient optical resonators, metasurfaces have been shown to enable anomalous transmission, anomalous reflection, optical holograms, and spin-orbit interaction. However, experimental realization of high-performance metasurfaces that can operate at visible frequency range has been a significant challenge due to high optical losses of plasmonic materials and difficulties in fabricating several plasmonic resonators of subwavelength size with high uniformity. Here, we propose a highly efficient yet a simple metasurface design comprising of a single, anisotropic silver antenna in its unit cell. We demonstrate broadband (450-850 nm) anomalous reflection and spectrum splitting at visible and near-IR frequencies with high conversion efficiency. Average power ratio of anomalous reflection to the strongest diffraction mode was calculated to be on the order of 10(3) and measured to be on the order of 10. The anomalous reflected photons have been visualized using a charge-coupled device camera, and broadband spectrum splitting performance has been confirmed experimentally using a free space, angle-resolved reflection measurement setup. Metasurface design proposed in this study is a clear departure from conventional metasurfaces utilizing multiple, anisotropic and/or gradient optical resonators and could enable high-efficiency, broadband metasurfaces for achieving flat high signal-to-noise ratio optical spectrometers, polarization beam splitters, directional emitters, and spectrum splitting surfaces for photovoltaics.

  12. Anomalous Subsidence at Rifted Continental Margins: Distinguishing Mantle Dynamic Topography from Anomalous Oceanic Crustal Thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowie, L.; Kusznir, N. J.

    2012-12-01

    It has been proposed that some continental rifted margins have anomalous subsidence histories and that at breakup they were elevated at shallower bathymetries than the isostatic response of classical rift models (McKenzie 1978) would predict. The existence of anomalous syn or post breakup subsidence of this form would have important implications for our understanding of the geodynamics of continental breakup and rifted continental margin formation, margin subsidence history and the evolution of syn and post breakup depositional systems. We have investigated three rifted continental margins; the Gulf of Aden, Galicia Bank and the Gulf of Lions, to determine whether the oceanic crust in the ocean-continent transition of these margins has present day anomalous subsidence and if so, whether it is caused by mantle dynamic topography or anomalous oceanic crustal thickness. Residual depth anomalies (RDA) corrected for sediment loading, using flexural backstripping and decompaction, have been calculated by comparing observed and age predicted oceanic bathymetries in order to identify anomalous oceanic bathymetry and subsidence at these margins. Age predicted bathymetric anomalies have been calculated using the thermal plate model predictions from Crosby & McKenzie (2009). Non-zero sediment corrected RDAs may result from anomalous oceanic crustal thickness with respect to the global average, or from mantle dynamic uplift. Positive RDAs may result from thicker than average oceanic crust or mantle dynamic uplift; negative RDAs may result from thinner than average oceanic crust or mantle dynamic subsidence. Gravity inversion incorporating a lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly correction and sediment thickness from 2D seismic data has been used to determine Moho depth and oceanic crustal basement thickness. The reference Moho depths used in the gravity inversion have been calibrated against seismic refraction Moho depths. The gravity inversion crustal basement thicknesses

  13. Sulfur isotope distribution in solfatares, Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoen, R.; Rye, R.O.

    1970-01-01

    Sulfur isotope data on hydrogen sulfide, native sulfur, and sulfates from acid hot-spring areas at Yellowstone National Park suggest that hydrogen sulfide oxidizes to sulfur analogically, whereas sulfur undergoes biological oxidation to sulfuric acid. An exception occurs at Mammoth Hot Springs where hydrogen sulfide apparently undergoes biochemical oxidation to sulfur.

  14. Anomalous diffusion due to obstacles: a Monte Carlo study.

    PubMed Central

    Saxton, M J

    1994-01-01

    In normal lateral diffusion, the mean-square displacement of the diffusing species is proportional to time. But in disordered systems anomalous diffusion may occur, in which the mean-square displacement is proportional to some other power of time. In the presence of moderate concentrations of obstacles, diffusion is anomalous over short distances and normal over long distances. Monte Carlo calculations are used to characterize anomalous diffusion for obstacle concentrations between zero and the percolation threshold. As the obstacle concentration approaches the percolation threshold, diffusion becomes more anomalous over longer distances; the anomalous diffusion exponent and the crossover length both increase. The crossover length and time show whether anomalous diffusion can be observed in a given experiment. PMID:8161693

  15. Photosynthetic reaction center of green sulfur bacteria studied by EPR

    SciTech Connect

    Nitschke, W.; Rutherford, A.W. ); Fieler, U. )

    1990-04-24

    Membrane preparations of two species of the green sulfur bacteria Chlorobium have been studied be EPR. Three signals were detected which were attributed to iron-sulfur centers acting as electron acceptors in the photosynthetic reaction center. (1) A signal from a center designated F{sub B}, was photoinduced at 4K. (2) A similar signal, F{sub A}, was photoinduced in addition to the F{sub B} signal upon a short period of illumination at 200 K. (3) Further illumination at 200 K resulted in the appearance of a broad feature at g=1.78. This is attributed to the g{sub x} component of an iron-sulfur center designated F{sub X}. The designations of these signals as F{sub B}, F{sub A}, and F{sub X} are based on their spectroscopic similarities to signals in photosystem I (PS I). The orientation dependence of these EPR signals in ordered Chlorobium membrane multilayers is remarkably similar to that of their PS I homologues. A magnetic interaction between the reduced forms of F{sub B} and F{sub A} occurs, which is also very similar to that seen in PS I. The triplet state of P{sub 840}, the primary electron donor, could be photoinduced at 4 K in samples which had been preincubated with sodium dithionite and methyl viologen and then preilluminated at 200 K. The preillumination reduces the iron-sulfur centers while the preincubation is thought to result in the inactivation of an earlier electron acceptor. Orientation studies of the triplet signal in ordered multilayers indicate that the bacteriochlorophylls which act as the primary electron donor in Chlorobium are arranged with a structural geometry almost identical with that of the special pair in purple bacteria. The Chlorobium reaction center appears to be similar in some respects to both PS I and to the purple bacterial reaction center. This is discussed with regard to the evolution of the different types of reaction centers from a common ancestor.

  16. Wet Chemistry Synthesis of Multidimensional Nanocarbon-Sulfur Hybrid Materials with Ultrahigh Sulfur Loading for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    PubMed

    Du, Wen-Cheng; Yin, Ya-Xia; Zeng, Xian-Xiang; Shi, Ji-Lei; Zhang, Shuai-Feng; Wan, Li-Jun; Guo, Yu-Guo

    2016-02-17

    An optimized nanocarbon-sulfur cathode material with ultrahigh sulfur loading of up to 90 wt % is realized in the form of sulfur nanolayer-coated three-dimensional (3D) conducting network. This 3D nanocarbon-sulfur network combines three different nanocarbons, as follows: zero-dimensional carbon nanoparticle, one-dimensional carbon nanotube, and two-dimensional graphene. This 3D nanocarbon-sulfur network is synthesized by using a method based on soluble chemistry of elemental sulfur and three types of nanocarbons in well-chosen solvents. The resultant sulfur-carbon material shows a high specific capacity of 1115 mA h g(-1) at 0.02C and good rate performance of 551 mA h g(-1) at 1C based on the mass of sulfur-carbon composite. Good battery performance can be attributed to the homogeneous compositing of sulfur with the 3D hierarchical hybrid nanocarbon networks at nanometer scale, which provides efficient multidimensional transport pathways for electrons and ions. Wet chemical method developed here provides an easy and cost-effective way to prepare sulfur-carbon cathode materials with high sulfur loading for application in high-energy Li-S batteries. PMID:26378622

  17. Tellurium - Should it be isotopically anomalous in the Allende meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymann, D.; Dziczkaniec, M.

    1981-01-01

    Isotopically anomalous Te is a by-product of the nuclear processes in zones of supernovae that have been proposed as sources for isotopically anomalous Xe. The calculated composition of the anomalous Te is roughly consistent with the disputed measurements made by Ballad et at. (1979) and Oliver et al. (1979) of samples of the Allende meteorite, with the exception that the large Te-123 overabundance reported by Oliver et al. (1979) is not predicted by the theory.

  18. Scaling theory for anomalous semiclassical quantum transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sena-Junior, M. I.; Macêdo, A. M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Quantum transport through devices coupled to electron reservoirs can be described in terms of the full counting statistics (FCS) of charge transfer. Transport observables, such as conductance and shot-noise power are just cumulants of FCS and can be obtained from the sample's average density of transmission eigenvalues, which in turn can be obtained from a finite element representation of the saddle-point equation of the Keldysh (or supersymmetric) nonlinear sigma model, known as quantum circuit theory. Normal universal metallic behavior in the semiclassical regime is controlled by the presence of a Fabry-Pérot singularity in the average density of transmission eigenvalues. We present general conditions for the suppression of Fabry-Pérot modes in the semiclassical regime in a sample of arbitrary shape, a disordered conductor or a network of ballistic quantum dots, which leads to an anomalous metallic phase. Through a double-scaling limit, we derive a scaling equation for anomalous metallic transport, in the form of a nonlinear differential equation, which generalizes the ballistic-diffusive scaling equation of a normal metal. The two-parameter stationary solution of our scaling equation generalizes Dorokhov's universal single-parameter distribution of transmission eigenvalues. We provide a simple interpretation of the stationary solution using a thermodynamic analogy with a spin-glass system. As an application, we consider a system formed by a diffusive wire coupled via a barrier to normal-superconductor reservoirs. We observe anomalous reflectionless tunneling, when all perfectly transmitting channels are suppressed, which cannot be explained by the usual mechanism of disorder-induced opening of tunneling channels.

  19. Anomalous Hall effect in disordered multiband metals.

    PubMed

    Kovalev, Alexey A; Sinova, Jairo; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav

    2010-07-16

    We present a microscopic theory of the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) in metallic multiband ferromagnets, which accounts for all scattering-independent contributions, i.e., both the intrinsic and the so-called side jump. For a model of Gaussian disorder, the AHE is expressed solely in terms of the material's electronic band structure. Our theory handles systematically the interband-scattering coherence effects. We demonstrate the method in the 2D Rashba and 3D ferromagnetic (III,Mn)V semiconductor models. Our formalism is directly amenable to ab initio treatments for a wide range of ferromagnetic metals.

  20. Anomalous Hall effect in Weyl metals.

    PubMed

    Burkov, A A

    2014-10-31

    We present a theory of the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) in a doped Weyl semimetal, or Weyl metal, including both intrinsic and extrinsic (impurity scattering) contributions. We demonstrate that a Weyl metal is distinguished from an ordinary ferromagnetic metal by the absence of the extrinsic and the Fermi surface part of the intrinsic contributions to the AHE, as long as the Fermi energy is sufficiently close to the Weyl nodes. The AHE in a Weyl metal is thus shown to be a purely intrinsic, universal property, fully determined by the location of the Weyl nodes in the first Brillouin zone.

  1. Anomalous Hall Effect in a Kagome Ferromagnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Linda; Wicker, Christina; Suzuki, Takehito; Checkelsky, Joseph; Joseph Checkelsky Team

    The ferromagnetic kagome lattice is theoretically known to possess topological band structures. We have synthesized large single crystals of a kagome ferromagnet Fe3Sn2 which orders ferromagnetically well above room temperature. We have studied the electrical and magnetic properties of these crystals over a broad temperature and magnetic field range. Both the scaling relation of anomalous Hall effect and anisotropic magnetic susceptibility show that the ferromagnetism of Fe3Sn2 is unconventional. We discuss these results in the context of magnetism in kagome systems and relevance to the predicted topological properties in this class of compounds. This research is supported by DMR-1231319.

  2. Anomalous diffusion in generalized Dykhne model

    SciTech Connect

    Dvoretskaya, O. A.; Kondratenko, P. S. Matveev, L. V.

    2010-01-15

    Contaminant transport is investigated in the generalized Dykhne model differing from the original Dykhne model by the presence of advection in the high-permeability medium. An analysis is presented of transport regimes and concentration tail behavior in the high-permeability medium. It is found that the transport regimes include anomalous ones: subdiffusion and quasi-diffusion. A difference is revealed between longitudinal and transverse transport. Regime change over time leads to multiple-regime long-distance asymptotic behavior of concentration distributions. An analogy is drawn between the problems examined here and transport through comb structures.

  3. Anomalous-scattering region on Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Pascal; Helfenstein, Paul; Veverka, Joseph; Mccarthy, Derek

    1992-01-01

    A photometric analysis of Voyager 2 images of a broad, 'anomalous scattering region' (ASR) on Triton shows its material to differ from the average Triton regolith in being only weakly backward scattering at all Voyager 2 camera wavelengths; the ASR also displays distinctive phase-dependent green/violet color ratios and clear-filter albedo. These characteristics are used to map the global distribution of the ASR areas for which photometric coverage is incomplete. The ASR may form an almost continuous band of material that runs parallel to the Triton equator, characterized by the presence of a transparent and optically thin, seasonally-controlled veneer of well-annealed solid N2.

  4. Process for reducing sulfur in coal char

    DOEpatents

    Gasior, Stanley J.; Forney, Albert J.; Haynes, William P.; Kenny, Richard F.

    1976-07-20

    Coal is gasified in the presence of a small but effective amount of alkaline earth oxide, hydroxide or carbonate to yield a char fraction depleted in sulfur. Gases produced during the reaction are enriched in sulfur compounds and the alkaline earth compound remains in the char fraction as an alkaline earth oxide. The char is suitable for fuel use, as in a power plant, and during combustion of the char the alkaline earth oxide reacts with at least a portion of the sulfur oxides produced from the residual sulfur contained in the char to further lower the sulfur content of the combustion gases.

  5. Determination of sulfur trioxide in engine exhaust.

    PubMed

    Arnold, D R

    1975-04-01

    Sulfur trioxide in the exhaust gas of an internal combustion engine is removed and concentrated by absorption in a solution of 80% isopropyl alcohol, which quantitatively absorbs it and inhibits the oxidation of any sulfur dioxide which may be absorbed. The absorbed sulfur trioxide (sulfuric acid) is determined by an absorption titration by using barium chloride as the titrant and thorin as the indicator. The sulfur dioxide content of the exhaust is measured continuously by means of a DuPont Model 411 ultraviolet photoanalyzer.

  6. Determination of sulfur trioxide in engine exhaust.

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, D R

    1975-01-01

    Sulfur trioxide in the exhaust gas of an internal combustion engine is removed and concentrated by absorption in a solution of 80% isopropyl alcohol, which quantitatively absorbs it and inhibits the oxidation of any sulfur dioxide which may be absorbed. The absorbed sulfur trioxide (sulfuric acid) is determined by an absorption titration by using barium chloride as the titrant and thorin as the indicator. The sulfur dioxide content of the exhaust is measured continuously by means of a DuPont Model 411 ultraviolet photoanalyzer. PMID:50930

  7. Linear magnetization dependence of the intrinsic anomalous Hall effect.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Changgan; Yao, Yugui; Niu, Qian; Weitering, Hanno H

    2006-01-27

    The anomalous Hall effect is investigated experimentally and theoretically for ferromagnetic thin films of Mn5Ge3. We have separated the intrinsic and extrinsic contributions to the experimental anomalous Hall effect and calculated the intrinsic anomalous Hall conductivity from the Berry curvature of the Bloch states using first-principles methods. The intrinsic anomalous Hall conductivity depends linearly on the magnetization, which can be understood from the long-wavelength fluctuations of the spin orientation at finite temperatures. The quantitative agreement between theory and experiment is remarkably good, not only near 0 K but also at finite temperatures, up to about approximately 240 K (0.8TC).

  8. Sulfur and sulfides in chondrules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrocchi, Yves; Libourel, Guy

    2013-10-01

    The nature and distribution of sulfides within type I PO, POP and PP chondrules of the carbonaceous chondrite Vigarano (CV3) have been studied by secondary electron microscopy and electron microprobe. They occur predominantly as spheroidal blebs composed entirely of low-Ni iron sulfide (troilite, FeS) or troilite + magnetite but in less abundance in association with metallic Fe-Ni beads in opaque assemblages. Troilites are mainly located within the low-Ca pyroxene outer zone and their amounts increase with the abundance of low-Ca pyroxene within chondrules, suggesting co-crystallization of troilite and low-Ca pyroxene during high-temperature events. We show that sulfur concentration and sulfide occurrence in chondrules obey high temperature sulfur solubility and saturation laws. Depending on the fS2 and fO2 of the surrounding gas and on the melt composition, mainly the FeO content, sulfur dissolved in chondrule melts may eventually reach a concentration limit, the sulfur content at sulfide saturation (SCSS), at which an immiscible iron sulfide liquid separates from the silicate melt. The occurrence of both a silicate melt and an immiscible iron sulfide liquid is further supported by the non-wetting behavior of sulfides on silicate phases in chondrules due to the high interfacial tension between their precursor iron-sulfide liquid droplets and the surrounding silicate melt during the high temperature chondrule-forming event. The evolution of chondrule melts from PO to PP towards more silicic compositions, very likely due to high PSiO(g) of the surrounding nebular gas, induces saturation of FeS at much lower S content in PP than in PO chondrules, leading to the co-crystallization of iron sulfides and low-Ca pyroxenes. Conditions of co-saturation of low-Ca pyroxene and FeS are only achieved in non canonical environments characterized by high partial pressures of sulfur and SiO and redox conditions more oxidizing than IW-3. Fe and S mass balance calculations also

  9. Anomalous superfluid density in quantum critical superconductors

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Kenichiro; Mizukami, Yuta; Katsumata, Ryo; Shishido, Hiroaki; Yamashita, Minoru; Ikeda, Hiroaki; Matsuda, Yuji; Schlueter, John A.; Fletcher, Jonathan D.; Carrington, Antony; Gnida, Daniel; Kaczorowski, Dariusz; Shibauchi, Takasada

    2013-01-01

    When a second-order magnetic phase transition is tuned to zero temperature by a nonthermal parameter, quantum fluctuations are critically enhanced, often leading to the emergence of unconventional superconductivity. In these “quantum critical” superconductors it has been widely reported that the normal-state properties above the superconducting transition temperature Tc often exhibit anomalous non-Fermi liquid behaviors and enhanced electron correlations. However, the effect of these strong critical fluctuations on the superconducting condensate below Tc is less well established. Here we report measurements of the magnetic penetration depth in heavy-fermion, iron-pnictide, and organic superconductors located close to antiferromagnetic quantum critical points, showing that the superfluid density in these nodal superconductors universally exhibits, unlike the expected T-linear dependence, an anomalous 3/2 power-law temperature dependence over a wide temperature range. We propose that this noninteger power law can be explained if a strong renormalization of effective Fermi velocity due to quantum fluctuations occurs only for momenta k close to the nodes in the superconducting energy gap Δ(k). We suggest that such “nodal criticality” may have an impact on low-energy properties of quantum critical superconductors. PMID:23404698

  10. Anomalous Micellization of Pluronic Block Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonardi, Amanda; Ryu, Chang Y.

    2014-03-01

    Poly(ethylene oxide) - poly(propylene oxide) - poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) block copolymers, commercially known as Pluronics, are a unique family of amphiphilic triblock polymers, which self-assemble into micelles in aqueous solution. These copolymers have shown promise in therapeutic, biomedical, cosmetic, and nanotech applications. As-received samples of Pluronics contain low molecular weight impurities (introduced during the manufacturing and processing), that are ignored in most applications. It has been observed, however, that in semi-dilute aqueous solutions, at concentrations above 1 wt%, the temperature dependent micellization behavior of the Pluronics is altered. Anomalous behavior includes a shift of the critical micellization temperature and formation of large aggregates at intermediate temperatures before stable sized micelles form. We attribute this behavior to the low molecular weight impurities that are inherent to the Pluronics which interfere with the micellization process. Through the use of Dynamic Light Scattering and HPLC, we compared the anomalous behavior of different Pluronics of different impurity levels to their purified counterparts.

  11. Anomalous event diagnosis for environmental satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsay, Bruce H.

    1993-01-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) is responsible for the operation of the NOAA geostationary and polar orbiting satellites. NESDIS provides a wide array of operational meteorological and oceanographic products and services and operates various computer and communication systems on a 24-hour, seven days per week schedule. The Anomaly Reporting System contains a database of anomalous events regarding the operations of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), communication, or computer systems that have degraded or caused the loss of GOES imagery. Data is currently entered manually via an automated query user interface. There are 21 possible symptoms (e.g., No Data), and 73 possible causes (e.g., Sectorizer - World Weather Building) of an anomalous event. The determination of an event's cause(s) is made by the on-duty computer operator, who enters the event in a paper based daily log, and by the analyst entering the data into the reporting system. The determination of the event's cause(s) impacts both the operational status of these systems, and the performance evaluation of the on-site computer and communication operations contractor.

  12. Corruption of genomic databases with anomalous sequence.

    PubMed Central

    Lamperti, E D; Kittelberger, J M; Smith, T F; Villa-Komaroff, L

    1992-01-01

    We describe evidence that DNA sequences from vectors used for cloning and sequencing have been incorporated accidentally into eukaryotic entries in the GenBank database. These incorporations were not restricted to one type of vector or to a single mechanism. Many minor instances may have been the result of simple editing errors, but some entries contained large blocks of vector sequence that had been incorporated by contamination or other accidents during cloning. Some cases involved unusual rearrangements and areas of vector distant from the normal insertion sites. Matches to vector were found in 0.23% of 20,000 sequences analyzed in GenBank Release 63. Although the possibility of anomalous sequence incorporation has been recognized since the inception of GenBank and should be easy to avoid, recent evidence suggests that this problem is increasing more quickly than the database itself. The presence of anomalous sequence may have serious consequences for the interpretation and use of database entries, and will have an impact on issues of database management. The incorporated vector fragments described here may also be useful for a crude estimate of the fidelity of sequence information in the database. In alignments with well-defined ends, the matching sequences showed 96.8% identity to vector; when poorer matches with arbitrary limits were included, the aggregate identity to vector sequence was 94.8%. PMID:1614861

  13. Diffraction Anomalous Near-Edge Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moltaji, Habib O., Jr.

    1995-11-01

    To determine the atomic structure about atom of an element in a sample of a condensed multicomponent single crystal, contrast radiation is proposed with the use of Diffraction Anomalous Near-Edge Structure (DANES), which combines the long-range order sensitivity of the x-ray diffraction and short-range order of the x-ray absorption near-edge techniques. This is achieved by modulating the photon energy of the x-ray beam incident on the sample over a range of energies near an absorption edge of the selected element. Due to anomalous dispersion, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray absorption, the DANES intensity with respect to the selected element is obtained in a single experiment. I demonstrate that synchrotron DANES measurements for the single crystal of thin film and the powder samples and provide the same local atomic structural information as the x-ray absorption near-edge with diffraction condition and can be used to provide enhanced site selectivity. I demonstrate calculations of DAFS intensity and measurements of polarized DANES and XANES intensity.

  14. Unparticles and anomalous dimensions in the cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karch, Andreas; Limtragool, Kridsanaphong; Phillips, Philip W.

    2016-03-01

    Motivated by the overwhelming evidence some type of quantum criticality underlies the power-law for the optical conductivity and T-linear resistivity in the cuprates, we demonstrate here how a scale-invariant or unparticle sector can lead to a unifying description of the observed scaling forms. We adopt the continuous mass formalism or multi band (flavor) formalism of the unparticle sector by letting various microscopic parameters be mass-dependent. In particular, we show that an effective mass that varies with the flavor index as well as a running band edge and lifetime capture the AC and DC transport phenomenology of the cuprates. A key consequence of the running mass is that the effective dynamical exponent can differ from the underlying bare critical exponent, thereby providing a mechanism for realizing the fractional values of the dynamical exponent required in a previous analysis [1]. We also predict that regardless of the bare dynamical exponent, z, a non-zero anomalous dimension for the current is required. Physically, the anomalous dimension arises because the charge depends on the flavor, mass or energy. The equivalent phenomenon in a d + 1 gravitational construction is the running of the charge along the radial direction. The nature of the superconducting instability in the presence of scale invariant stuff shows that the transition temperature is not necessarily a monotonic function of the pairing interaction.

  15. Corruption of genomic databases with anomalous sequence.

    PubMed

    Lamperti, E D; Kittelberger, J M; Smith, T F; Villa-Komaroff, L

    1992-06-11

    We describe evidence that DNA sequences from vectors used for cloning and sequencing have been incorporated accidentally into eukaryotic entries in the GenBank database. These incorporations were not restricted to one type of vector or to a single mechanism. Many minor instances may have been the result of simple editing errors, but some entries contained large blocks of vector sequence that had been incorporated by contamination or other accidents during cloning. Some cases involved unusual rearrangements and areas of vector distant from the normal insertion sites. Matches to vector were found in 0.23% of 20,000 sequences analyzed in GenBank Release 63. Although the possibility of anomalous sequence incorporation has been recognized since the inception of GenBank and should be easy to avoid, recent evidence suggests that this problem is increasing more quickly than the database itself. The presence of anomalous sequence may have serious consequences for the interpretation and use of database entries, and will have an impact on issues of database management. The incorporated vector fragments described here may also be useful for a crude estimate of the fidelity of sequence information in the database. In alignments with well-defined ends, the matching sequences showed 96.8% identity to vector; when poorer matches with arbitrary limits were included, the aggregate identity to vector sequence was 94.8%.

  16. Transporters in plant sulfur metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Gigolashvili, Tamara; Kopriva, Stanislav

    2014-01-01

    Sulfur is an essential nutrient, necessary for synthesis of many metabolites. The uptake of sulfate, primary and secondary assimilation, the biosynthesis, storage, and final utilization of sulfur (S) containing compounds requires a lot of movement between organs, cells, and organelles. Efficient transport systems of S-containing compounds across the internal barriers or the plasma membrane and organellar membranes are therefore required. Here, we review a current state of knowledge of the transport of a range of S-containing metabolites within and between the cells as well as of their long distance transport. An improved understanding of mechanisms and regulation of transport will facilitate successful engineering of the respective pathways, to improve the plant yield, biotic interaction and nutritional properties of crops. PMID:25250037

  17. Anomalous Schumann resonance observed in China, possibly associated with Honshu, Japan Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, X. Y.; Zhang, X. M.; Shen, X. H.; Miao, Y. Q.

    2012-04-01

    Schumann resonance (hereafter SR) occurs in the cavity between the Earth and the ionosphere, and it is originated by the global lightning activities [1]. Some recent publications showed that anomalous SR phenomena may occur before major earthquakes [2-4]. Considering good prospects for the application of SR in Earthquake monitoring, we have established four observatories in Yunnan province, a region with frequent seismicity in the southwest of China. Our instruments can provide three components of magnetic field in 0-30 Hz, including BNS(North-South component), BEW(East-West component) and BV (Vertical component). The sample frequency is 100 Hz. In this research, we use high quality data recorded at Yongsheng observatory (geographic coordinates: 26.7° N, 100.77°E) to analyze SR phenomena to find out anomalous effects possibly related with the Ms9.0 Earthquake (epicenter: 38.297° N, 142.372° E) near the east coast of Honshu, Japan on 11 March 2011. We select the data 15 days before and after the earthquake. SR in BNS and SR in BEWappear different in background characteristics. Frequencies of four SR modes in BNSare generally higher than that in BEW. Amplitude of SR in BNSis strong at around 05:00 LT, 15:00 LT and 23:00 LT of the day, while amplitude of SR in BEW is just intense around 16:00 LT, corresponding to about 08:00 UT. Because American, African and Asian thunderstorm centers play their dominant roles respectively in the intervals of 21:00UT±1h, 15:00UT±1h and 08:00UT±1h [1, 3], we can see that SR in BEWis most sensitive to signals from Asian center and SR in BNS is in good response to three centers. SR in BNS and SR in BEW have presented different features in the aspect of anomalous effects related with earthquakes. BEW component gives us a clear picture of anomalous SR phenomena, which are characterized by increase in amplitude of four SR modes and increase in frequency at first SR mode several days before the earthquake. The amplitude of four SR

  18. Method for removing sulfur oxide from waste gases and recovering elemental sulfur

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Raymond H.

    1977-01-01

    A continuous catalytic fused salt extraction process is described for removing sulfur oxides from gaseous streams. The gaseous stream is contacted with a molten potassium sulfate salt mixture having a dissolved catalyst to oxidize sulfur dioxide to sulfur trioxide and molten potassium normal sulfate to solvate the sulfur trioxide to remove the sulfur trioxide from the gaseous stream. A portion of the sulfur trioxide loaded salt mixture is then dissociated to produce sulfur trioxide gas and thereby regenerate potassium normal sulfate. The evolved sulfur trioxide is reacted with hydrogen sulfide as in a Claus reactor to produce elemental sulfur. The process may be advantageously used to clean waste stack gas from industrial plants, such as copper smelters, where a supply of hydrogen sulfide is readily available.

  19. Detection of sulfur in the reinforced concrete structures using a dual pulsed LIBS system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gondal, M. A.; Dastageer, A.; Maslehuddin, M.; Alnehmi, A. J.; Al-Amoudi, O. S. B.

    2012-04-01

    In concrete structures, an excessive amount of sulfate ions can cause severe damage to the strength and the stability of the building structures and hence a sensitive and reliable technique for sulfate ion detection in concrete is highly desirable. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is one of the most reliable and sensitive techniques to identify the presence of potentially dangerous sulfur in the concrete structure. The atomic emission lines of sulfur lying in the 200-900 nm region are mostly singly ionized states and hence inherently very weak. In order to enhance the sensitivity of the conventional LIBS system, we employed a dual pulsed LIBS system for detection of weak spectral line of sulfur in concrete using the S II peak at 545.38 nm as a marker for quantifying sulfur content in the concrete. The 1064 nm fundamental and 266 nm fourth harmonic of the Nd:YAG laser in conjunction with Spectrograph/gated ICCD camera are the core factors in improvement of sensitivity. Furthermore, the dual pulsed LIBS system and the fine maneuvering of the gate parameters and interpulse delay yielded improvement in the sensitivity, and resulted in a systematic correlation of the LIBS signal with the concentration of sulfur in the concrete sample. In order to quantify the sulfur content in concrete, a calibration curve was also drawn by recording the LIBS spectra of sample having sulfur in various concentrations. The limit of detection achieved with our dual pulsed LIBS system is approximately 38 μg/g.

  20. [Sulfur isotopic ratios indicating sulfur cycling in slope soils of karst areas].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Liu, Cong-qiang; Li, Xiao-dong; Liu, Tao-ze; Zhang, Li-li

    2010-02-01

    Sequential extraction methods for soil sulfur were used to determine delta34 S ratios and sulfur contents of total sulfur, organic sulfur, SO4(21) and FeS2 in slope soils of karst areas. In general, FeS2 has the lowest delta34 S ratios, ranging from -6.86% per hundred to -4.229% per hundred, followed in ascending order by SO4(2-) (-2.64% per hundred - -1.34% per hundred), total sulfur (-3.25% per hundred - -1.03% per hundred) and organic sulfur (-1.63% per hundred -0.50% per hundred) in surface soils of profiles, and delta34 S ratios in different sulfur forms all show increasing trend with profiles deepening. Covariations of delta34 S ratios of SO4(2-) and FeS2 with increasing depth are related to SO4(2-) dissimilatory reduction, while the increase in parallel of delta34 S ratios of total sulfur and organic sulfur could be resulted from organic sulfur cycling. delta34 S ratios have been extensively used to indicate sulfur sources, moreover, SO4(2-) dissimilatory reduction and organic sulfur mineralization result in significant sulfur isotopic fractionation, and sulfides oxidation and SO4(2-) assimilation have no isotopic fractionation occurred, the vertical variations of delta34 S ratios in different sulfur forms can therefore be good records for depth-dependant sulfur cycling processes. Furthermore, by comparing depth distributions of sulfur contents and delta34 S ratios in different sulfur forms, it is easily to discuss the migration of SO4(-1) and organic sulfur fractions in soil profiles.

  1. Radar-anomalous, high-altitude features on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muhleman, Duane O.; Butler, Bryan J.

    1992-01-01

    Over nearly all of the surface of Venus the reflectivity and emissivity at centimeter wavelengths are about 0.15 and 0.85 respectively. These values are consistent with moderately dense soils and rock populations, but the mean reflectivity is about a factor of 2 greater than that for the Moon and other terrestrial planets. Pettingill and Ford, using Pioneer Venus reflectivities and emissivities, found a number of anomalous features on Venus that showed much higher reflectivities and much lower emissivities with both values approaching 0.5. These include Maxwell Montes, a number of high regions in Aphrodite Terra and Beta Regio, and several isolated mountain peaks. Most of the features are at altitudes above the mean radius by 2 to 3 km or more. However, such features have been found in the Magellan data at low altitudes and the anomalies do not exist on all high structures, Maat Mons being the most outstanding example. A number of papers have been written that attempt to explain the phenomena in terms of the geochemistry balance of weathering effects on likely surface minerals. The geochemists have shown that the fundamentally basaltic surface would be stable at the temperatures and pressures of the mean radius in the form of magnetite, but would evolve to pyrite and/or pyrrhotite in the presence of sulfur-bearing compounds such as SO2. Pyrite will be stable at altitudes above 4 or 5 km on Venus. Although the geochemical arguments are rather compelling, it is vitally important to rationally look at other explanations for radar and radio emission measurements such as that presented by Tryka and Muhleman. The radar reflectivity values are retrieved from the raw Magellan backscatter measurements by fitting the Hagfors' radar scattering model in which a surface roughness parameters and a normal incidence electrical reflectivity are estimated. The assumptions of the theory behind the model must be considered carefully before the results can be believed. These include

  2. Reduction mechanism of sulfur in lithium-sulfur battery: From elemental sulfur to polysulfide

    DOE PAGES

    Zheng, Dong; Yang, Xuran; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Wang, Jiankun; Qu, Deyu; Qu, Deyang

    2015-10-30

    In this study, the polysulfide ions formed during the first reduction wave of sulfur in Li–S battery were determined through both in-situ and ex-situ derivatization of polysulfides. By comparing the cyclic voltammetric results with and without the derivatization reagent (methyl triflate) as well as the in-situ and ex-situ derivatization results under potentiostatic condition, in-situ derivatization was found to be more appropriate than its ex-situ counterpart, since subsequent fast chemical reactions between the polysulfides and sulfur may occur during the timeframe of ex-situ procedures. It was found that the major polysulfide ions formed at the first reduction wave of elemental sulfurmore » were the S42– and S52– species, while the widely accepted reduction products of S82– and S62– for the first reduction wave were in low abundance.« less

  3. Surgical management of tricuspid atresia and anomalous left brachiocephalic vein.

    PubMed

    Koutlas, T C; Wernovsky, G; Slack, M C; Weinberg, P M; Spray, T L

    1998-06-01

    An anomalous left brachiocephalic vein is an uncommon systemic venous anomaly, which usually has no clinical significance. We describe a case of tricuspid atresia with such an anomalous left brachiocephalic vein. The presence of this unusual venous anomaly had a number of implications in the surgical management of the tricuspid atresia. PMID:9647100

  4. Radiolysis of Sulfuric Acid, Sulfuric Acid Monohydrate, and Sulfuric Acid Tetrahydrate and Its Relevance to Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeffler, M. J.; Hudson, R. L.; Moore, M. H.; Carlson, R. W.

    2011-01-01

    We report laboratory studies on the 0.8 MeV proton irradiation of ices composed of sulfuric acid (H2SO4), sulfuric acid monohydrate (H2SO4 H2O), and sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (H2SO4 4H2O) between 10 and 180 K. Using infrared spectroscopy, we identify the main radiation products as H2O, SO2, (S2O3)x, H3O+, HSO4(exp -), and SO4(exp 2-). At high radiation doses, we find that H2SO4 molecules are destroyed completely and that H2SO4 H2O is formed on subsequent warming. This hydrate is significantly more stable to radiolytic destruction than pure H2SO4, falling to an equilibrium relative abundance of 50% of its original value on prolonged irradiation. Unlike either pure H2SO4 or H2SO4 H2O, the loss of H2SO4 4H2O exhibits a strong temperature dependence, as the tetrahydrate is essentially unchanged at the highest irradiation temperatures and completely destroyed at the lowest ones, which we speculate is due to a combination of radiolytic destruction and amorphization. Furthermore, at the lower temperatures it is clear that irradiation causes the tetrahydrate spectrum to transition to one that closely resembles the monohydrate spectrum. Extrapolating our results to Europa s surface, we speculate that the variations in SO2 concentrations observed in the chaotic terrains are a result of radiation processing of lower hydration states of sulfuric acid and that the monohydrate will remain stable on the surface over geological times, while the tetrahydrate will remain stable in the warmer regions but be destroyed in the colder regions, unless it can be reformed by other processes, such as thermal reactions induced by diurnal cycling.

  5. Reduction mechanism of sulfur in lithium-sulfur battery: From elemental sulfur to polysulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Dong; Yang, Xuran; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Wang, Jiankun; Qu, Deyu; Qu, Deyang

    2015-10-30

    In this study, the polysulfide ions formed during the first reduction wave of sulfur in Li–S battery were determined through both in-situ and ex-situ derivatization of polysulfides. By comparing the cyclic voltammetric results with and without the derivatization reagent (methyl triflate) as well as the in-situ and ex-situ derivatization results under potentiostatic condition, in-situ derivatization was found to be more appropriate than its ex-situ counterpart, since subsequent fast chemical reactions between the polysulfides and sulfur may occur during the timeframe of ex-situ procedures. It was found that the major polysulfide ions formed at the first reduction wave of elemental sulfur were the S42– and S52– species, while the widely accepted reduction products of S82– and S62– for the first reduction wave were in low abundance.

  6. Anomalous Evidence, Confidence Change, and Theory Change.

    PubMed

    Hemmerich, Joshua A; Van Voorhis, Kellie; Wiley, Jennifer

    2016-08-01

    A novel experimental paradigm that measured theory change and confidence in participants' theories was used in three experiments to test the effects of anomalous evidence. Experiment 1 varied the amount of anomalous evidence to see if "dose size" made incremental changes in confidence toward theory change. Experiment 2 varied whether anomalous evidence was convergent (of multiple types) or replicating (similar finding repeated). Experiment 3 varied whether participants were provided with an alternative theory that explained the anomalous evidence. All experiments showed that participants' confidence changes were commensurate with the amount of anomalous evidence presented, and that larger decreases in confidence predicted theory changes. Convergent evidence and the presentation of an alternative theory led to larger confidence change. Convergent evidence also caused more theory changes. Even when people do not change theories, factors pertinent to the evidence and alternative theories decrease their confidence in their current theory and move them incrementally closer to theory change.

  7. Venus Express bistatic radar: High-elevation anomalous reflectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Richard A.; Tyler, G. Leonard; Häusler, Bernd; Mattei, Riccardo; Pätzold, Martin

    2009-06-01

    Magellan (MGN) bistatic radar observations in 1994 confirmed earlier Pioneer Venus reports of unusual Venus surface reflectivity and emissivity at elevations above 6054 km radius. They also revealed that the anomalous values of surface dielectric constant $\\varepsilon$ near Cleopatra Patera included a large imaginary component ($\\varepsilon$ ≈ -i 100) at 13 cm wavelength, consistent with a semiconducting surface material. The MGN observations were conducted using a linearly polarized wave, canted at 45° with respect to the plane of incidence and radiated by the MGN synthetic aperture radar antenna toward the specularly reflecting region of the mean planetary surface. In 2006 similar experiments were conducted using 13 cm circularly polarized transmissions from Venus Express (VEX). The VEX signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was lower than that of MGN, but elevated ∣$\\varepsilon$∣ has been inferred broadly over Maxwell Montes. A quasi-specular echo was detected near Cleopatra but with insufficient SNR to address the question of conductivity. An early failure of the VEX 13 cm radio system precludes further measurements with VEX.

  8. Anomalous Reflection of Gold: A Novel Platform for Biochips.

    PubMed

    Syahir, Amir; Tomizaki, Kin-ya; Kajikawa, Kotaro; Mihara, Hisakazu

    2016-01-01

    The importance of protein detection system for protein functions analyses in recent post-genomic era is rising with the emergence of label-free protein detection methods. We are focusing on a simple and practical label-free optical-detection method called anomalous reflection (AR) of gold. When a molecular layer forms on the gold surface, significant reduction in reflectivity can be observed at wavelengths of 400-500 nm. This allows the detection of molecular interactions by monitoring changes in reflectivity. In this chapter, we describe the AR method with three different application platforms: (1) gold, (2) gold containing alloy/composite (AuAg2O), and (3) metal-insulator-metal (MIM) thin layers. The AuAg2O composite and MIM are implemented as important concepts for signal enhancement process for the AR technique. Moreover, the observed molecular adsorption and activity is aided by a three-dimensional surface geometry, performed using poly(amidoamine) or PAMAM dendrimer modification. The described system is suitable to be used as a platform for high-throughput detection system in a chip format.

  9. Tunable Anomalous Supercurrent in a topological tri-junction SQUID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurter, C.; Finck, A. D. K.; Ghaemi, P.; Hor, Y. S.; van Harlingen, D. J.

    2014-03-01

    There has been intense interest in realizing Majorana fermions (MFs) in solid-state systems. Circuits of Josephson junctions (JJs) made of closely spaced s-wave superconductors on 3D topological insulators have been proposed to host zero energy Andreev bound states (ABSs) that act like MFs. Here, we present signatures of an anomalous supercurrent carried by topologically non-trivial low energy ABSs in a Nb/Bi2Se3/Nb tri-junction SQUID where two of the three superconducting leads are connected by a loop. An electrostatic top gate allows strong modulation of the supercurrent despite a high bulk contribution to the normal state conductance. In response to a magnetic field threading flux within the superconducting loop, we find unconventional SQUID oscillations enclosed by an envelope associated with a clear diffraction pattern, indicating spatially uniform and symmetric JJs. At a critical gate voltage, when the trivial 2DEG at the surface is nearly depleted, we observe a sharp drop in the critical current, signaling a topological phase transition in which the nature of the supercurrent-carrying states is transformed. This transition is accompanied by qualitative changes in the SQUID oscillations, magnetic diffraction pattern, and temperature dependence of the critical current. We acknowledge funding from Microsoft Station-Q.

  10. Anomalous rectification in a purely electronic memristor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingrui; Pan, Ruobing; Cao, Hongtao; Wang, Yang; Liang, Lingyan; Zhang, Hongliang; Gao, Junhua; Zhuge, Fei

    2016-10-01

    An anomalous rectification was observed in a purely electronic memristive device Ti/ZnO/Pt. It could be due to (1) an Ohmic or quasi-Ohmic contact at the ZnO/Pt interface and (2) a Schottky contact at the Ti/ZnO interface. The Ohmic contact originates from the reduction of ZnO occurring in the whole film instead of only at the Ti/ZnO interface. The Schottky contact may come from moisture adsorbed in the nanoporous ZnO. The conduction in the electroformed device is controlled by the carrier trapping/detrapping of the trap sites, inducing a poor rectification and high nonlinearity. Furthermore, a complementary resistive switching was achieved.

  11. Anomalous velocity distributions in active Brownian suspensions.

    PubMed

    Fiege, Andrea; Vollmayr-Lee, Benjamin; Zippelius, Annette

    2013-08-01

    Large-scale simulations and analytical theory have been combined to obtain the nonequilibrium velocity distribution, f(v), of randomly accelerated particles in suspension. The simulations are based on an event-driven algorithm, generalized to include friction. They reveal strongly anomalous but largely universal distributions, which are independent of volume fraction and collision processes, which suggests a one-particle model should capture all the essential features. We have formulated this one-particle model and solved it analytically in the limit of strong damping, where we find that f(v) decays as 1/v for multiple decades, eventually crossing over to a Gaussian decay for the largest velocities. Many particle simulations and numerical solution of the one-particle model agree for all values of the damping. PMID:24032806

  12. Anomalous threshold laws in quantum sticking.

    PubMed

    Clougherty, Dennis P

    2003-11-28

    It has been stated that for a short-ranged surface interaction, the probability of a low-energy particle sticking to a surface always vanishes as s approximately k with k-->0 where k=sqrt[E]. Deviations from this so-called universal threshold law are derived using a linear model of particle-surface scattering. The Fredholm theory of integral equations is used to find the global conditions necessary for a convergent solution. The exceptional case of a zero-energy resonance is considered in detail. Anomalous threshold laws, where s approximately k(1+alpha),alpha>0 as k-->0, are shown to arise from a soft gap in the weighted density of states of excitations; alpha is determined by the behavior of the weighted density of states near the binding energy. PMID:14683254

  13. Anomalous Threshold Laws in Quantum Sticking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clougherty, Dennis P.

    2003-11-01

    It has been stated that for a short-ranged surface interaction, the probability of a low-energy particle sticking to a surface always vanishes as s˜k with k→0 where k=√(E). Deviations from this so-called universal threshold law are derived using a linear model of particle-surface scattering. The Fredholm theory of integral equations is used to find the global conditions necessary for a convergent solution. The exceptional case of a zero-energy resonance is considered in detail. Anomalous threshold laws, where s˜k1+α,α>0 as k→0, are shown to arise from a soft gap in the weighted density of states of excitations; α is determined by the behavior of the weighted density of states near the binding energy.

  14. Anomalous Threshold Laws in Quantum Sticking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clougherty, Dennis

    2004-03-01

    It has been stated that for a short-ranged surface interaction, the probability of a low-energy particle sticking to a surface always vanishes as s ˜ k with k→ 0 where k=√E. Deviations from this so-called universal threshold law are derived using a linear model of particle-surface scattering. The Fredholm theory of integral equations is used to find the global conditions necessary for a convergent solution. The exceptional case of a zero-energy resonance is considered in detail. Anomalous threshold laws, where s ˜ k^1+α, α > 0 as k→ 0, are shown to arise from a soft gap in the weighted density of states of excitations; α is determined by the behavior of the weighted density of states near the binding energy.

  15. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy in anomalous kidneys.

    PubMed

    Baltaci, S; Sarica, K; Ozdiler, E; Dinçel, C; Küpeli, S; Gögüş, O

    1994-06-01

    Traditionally, stones in anomalous kidneys have been removed by open or percutaneous surgery. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) with the Dornier MPL 9000 lithotripter was performed in seven patients with horseshoe kidneys, four with pelvic ectopic kidneys, and six with malrotated kidneys. Twelve patients (71%) needed repeated treatments. A total of 11 patients (65%) in all the groups were stone free, and four patients had asymptomatic residual fragments no more than 5 mm in diameter. In the remaining two patients, no sign of stone disintegration was observed, and they underwent open surgery. Extracorporeal lithotripsy is the treatment of choice for stones in horseshoe or malrotated kidneys but is not useful for stones in most pelvic kidneys.

  16. Anomalous dominance in Down syndrome young adults.

    PubMed

    Giencke, S; Lewandowski, L

    1989-03-01

    The ear advantages of groups of Down Syndrome and developmentally retarded (NonDown) young adults, and normal youngsters matched for mental age were compared on dichotic listening performance. The paradigm employed strings of single, double, and triple digits presented to each ear under both free and cued recall conditions. The developmentally retarded and normal groups demonstrated the typical right ear advantage (REA), whereas the Down Syndrome group produced a significant left ear advantage (LEA) in four of the six experimental conditions. In addition, for the cued as compared to free recall conditions, all three groups demonstrated relatively better right ear performance. These results indicate anomalous dominance in Down Syndrome young adults which is consistent across varying memory load and attentional demands. Furthermore, these results are not likely due to a maturational lag phenomenon, but more likely related to genetic, biologic, and neurologic, factors as suggested by Geschwind and Galaburda (1985). PMID:2523281

  17. Anomalous magnetoresistance in magnetized topological insulator cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siu, Zhuo Bin; Jalil, Mansoor B. A.

    2015-05-01

    The close coupling between the spin and momentum degrees of freedom in topological insulators (TIs) presents the opportunity for the control of one to manipulate the other. The momentum can, for example, be confined on a curved surface and the spin influenced by applying a magnetic field. In this work, we study the surface states of a cylindrical TI magnetized in the x direction perpendicular to the cylindrical axis lying along the z direction. We show that a large magnetization leads to an upwards bending of the energy bands at small |kz| . The bending leads to an anomalous magnetoresistance where the transmission between two cylinders magnetized in opposite directions is higher than when the cylinders are magnetized at intermediate angles with respect to each other.

  18. Anomalous magnetoresistance in magnetized topological insulator cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Siu, Zhuo Bin; Jalil, Mansoor B. A.

    2015-05-07

    The close coupling between the spin and momentum degrees of freedom in topological insulators (TIs) presents the opportunity for the control of one to manipulate the other. The momentum can, for example, be confined on a curved surface and the spin influenced by applying a magnetic field. In this work, we study the surface states of a cylindrical TI magnetized in the x direction perpendicular to the cylindrical axis lying along the z direction. We show that a large magnetization leads to an upwards bending of the energy bands at small |k{sub z}|. The bending leads to an anomalous magnetoresistance where the transmission between two cylinders magnetized in opposite directions is higher than when the cylinders are magnetized at intermediate angles with respect to each other.

  19. Anomalous Flavor U(1)_X for Everything

    SciTech Connect

    Dreiner, Herbi K.; Murayama, Hitoshi; Thormeier, Marc

    2003-12-01

    We present an ambitious model of flavor, based on an anomalous U(1)_X gauge symmetry with one flavon, only two right-handed neutrinos and only two mass scales: M_{grav} and m_{3/2}. In particular, there are no new scales introduced for right-handed neutrino masses. The X-charges of the matter fields are such that R-parity is conserved exactly, higher-dimensional operators are sufficiently suppressed to guarantee a proton lifetime in agreement with experiment, and the phenomenology is viable for quarks, charged leptons, as well as neutrinos. In our model one of the three light neutrinos automatically is massless. The price we have to pay for this very successful model are highly fractional X-charges which can likely be improved with less restrictive phenomenological ansatze for mass matrices.

  20. Communication: Probing anomalous diffusion in frequency space

    SciTech Connect

    Stachura, Sławomir; Kneller, Gerald R.

    2015-11-21

    Anomalous diffusion processes are usually detected by analyzing the time-dependent mean square displacement of the diffusing particles. The latter evolves asymptotically as W(t) ∼ 2D{sub α}t{sup α}, where D{sub α} is the fractional diffusion constant and 0 < α < 2. In this article we show that both D{sub α} and α can also be extracted from the low-frequency Fourier spectrum of the corresponding velocity autocorrelation function. This offers a simple method for the interpretation of quasielastic neutron scattering spectra from complex (bio)molecular systems, in which subdiffusive transport is frequently encountered. The approach is illustrated and validated by analyzing molecular dynamics simulations of molecular diffusion in a lipid POPC bilayer.

  1. Quantum anomalous Hall effect with higher plateaus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Lian, Biao; Zhang, Haijun; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Shou-Cheng

    2013-09-27

    The quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect in magnetic topological insulators is driven by the combination of spontaneous magnetic moments and spin-orbit coupling. Its recent experimental discovery raises the question if higher plateaus can also be realized. Here, we present a general theory for a QAH effect with higher Chern numbers and show by first-principles calculations that a thin film magnetic topological insulator of Cr-doped Bi2(Se,Te)3 is a candidate for the C=2 QAH insulator. Remarkably, whereas a higher magnetic field leads to lower Hall conductance plateaus in the integer quantum Hall effect, a higher magnetic moment leads to higher Hall conductance plateaus in the QAH effect.

  2. 44th Annual Anomalous Absorption Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Beg, Farhat

    2014-03-03

    Conference Grant Report July 14, 2015 Submitted to the U. S. Department of Energy Attn: Dr. Sean Finnegan By the University of California, San Diego 9500 Gilman Drive La Jolla, California 92093 On behalf of the 44th Annual Anomalous Absorption Conference 8-13 June 2014, in Estes Park, Colorado Support Requested: $10,100 Amount expended: $3,216.14 Performance Period: 1 March 20 14 to 28 February 20 15 Principal Investigator Dr. Farhat Beg Center for Energy Research University of California, San Diego 9500 Gilman Drive La Jolla, California 92093-0417 858-822-1266 (telephone) 858-534-4543 (fax) fbeg@ucsd.edu Administrative Point of Contact: Brandi Pate, 858-534-0851, blpate®ucsd.edu I. Background The forty-fourth Anomalous Absorption Conference was held in Estes Park, Colorado from June 5-8, 2014 (aac2014.ucsd.edu). The first Anomalous Absorption Conference was held in 1971 to assemble experts in the poorly understood area of laser-plasma absorption. The goal of that conference was to address the anomalously large laser absorption seen in plasma experiments with respect to the laser absorption predicted by linear plasma theory. Great progress in this research area has been made in the decades since that first meeting, due in part to the scientific interactions that have occurred annually at this conference. Specifically, this includes the development of nonlinear laser-plasma theory and the simulation of laser interactions with plasmas. Each summer since that first meeting, this week-long conference has been held at unique locations in North America as a scientific forum for intense scientific exchanges relevant to the interaction of laser radiation with plasmas. Responsibility for organizing the conference has traditional rotated each year between the major Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) laboratories and universities including LANL, LLNL, LLE, UCLA UC Davis and NRL. As the conference has matured over the past four decades, its technical footprint has expanded

  3. Ergodic properties of anomalous diffusion processes

    SciTech Connect

    Magdziarz, Marcin Weron, Aleksander

    2011-09-15

    In this paper we study ergodic properties of some classes of anomalous diffusion processes. Using the recently developed measure of dependence called the Correlation Cascade, we derive a generalization of the classical Khinchin theorem. This result allows us to determine ergodic properties of Levy-driven stochastic processes. Moreover, we analyze the asymptotic behavior of two different fractional Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes, both originating from subdiffusive dynamics. We show that only one of them is ergodic. - Highlights: > We derive a generalization of the classical Khinchin ergodic theorem for the general class of Levy-driven processes. > We study ergodic properties of stable and tempered stable processes. > We verify ergodicity and mixing of two fractional Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes, both originating from subdiffusive dynamics.

  4. Anomalous krypton in the Allende meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frick, U.

    1977-01-01

    The reported investigation provides important new data for the heavy noble gases, especially Kr, in the Allende meteorite. The data are used to criticize the original model of Lewis et al. (1975) based on the noble gas data of these researchers. The conclusions reached in the investigation support alternative models which have been mainly based on Xe data by Lewis et al. (1975, 1977). Because of the relatively high noble gas abundances in the separates studied, disturbance from nuclear effects occurring in situ such as spallation and neutron capture is insignificant, offering an opportunity to study primordial Ar, Kr, and Xe. The isotopic and abundance data obtained from the samples largely confirm the noble gas results of Lewis et al. (1975, 1977) where isotopic correlations agree with the correlations of the considered samples. It is found that both Kr and Xe data are consistent with a two component mixture of 'ordinary' as well as 'anomalous' planetary gases.

  5. An 'Anomalous' Triggered Lightning Flash in Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamerota, W. R.; Uman, M. A.; Hill, J. D.; Pilkey, J. T.; Ngin, T.; Jordan, D. M.; Mata, C.; Mata, A.

    2012-12-01

    Classical (grounded wire) rocket-and-wire triggered lightning flashes whose leaders do not traverse the path of the wire remnants are sometimes referred to as 'anomalous'. We present high-speed video images captured at 10 kilo-frames per second (kfps), with supporting data, to characterize an 'anomalous' rocket-triggered lightning flash that occurred on 15 May 2012 at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) in north-central Florida. The event begins as a classical rocket-triggered lightning flash with an upward positive leader (UPL) initiating from the tip of the wire at a height of about 280 m above ground level. The top 259 m of the trailing wire explodes 2.7 s after the rocket exits the launch tube, while the bottom 17 m of the wire does not explode (does not become luminous). Approximately 1.4 ms after wire explosion, a stepped leader initiates a few meters above the top of the wire remnants and propagates downward, attaching to the top of a grounded utility pole 2.1 ms after initiation and 117 m southwest of the launching facility. Beginning 600 μs prior to this sustained stepped leader development, attempted stepped leaders (luminous steps emanating from the UPL channel above the wire remnants) are observed in three locations: 20 m and 5 m above the top of the wire remnants and at the top of the wire remnants. Correlated electric field derivative (dE/dt), channel-base current, and high-speed video captured at 300 kfps reveal an electrical discharge of peak current 365 A initiating from about 17 m above the launching facility, apparently the top of the unexploded triggering wire, when the stepped leader is no more than 60 m above ground level. There are significant differences between the 'anomalous' triggered lightning flash described here and those observed in New Mexico and in France in the late 1970s and early 1980s: First, the time duration between explosion of our wire and the sustained stepped leader development a few meters

  6. World petroleum-derived sulfur production

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, A.

    1982-08-02

    Research efforts in new uses for sulfur, among them those of the Sulfur Development Institute of Canada, have resulted in the development of several new product markets. Petroleum and natural gas derived sulfurs are finding use as asphalt extenders in road construction throughout North America and as concrete extenders and substitutes for Portland cement in the construction industries of Mexico and the Middle East. Their use in masonry blocks is now being commercialized. Canada is the world's largest producer of commercial sulfur; 80% of it is used as a processing chemical in the form of sulfuric acid. Saudi Arabia, recently having begun to commercialize its vast resources, is constructing plants for the extraction of sulfur from natural gas and plans to export between 6 and 7 x 10/sup 5/ tons annually, much of it for fertilizer manufacture to India, Tunisia, Italy, Pakistan, Greece, Morocco, and Thailand.

  7. Anomalous Paramagnetic State in Naturally Layered Manganites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Andreas

    2002-03-01

    The nature of the magnetic state near the ferromagnetic phase transition is studied for the layered manganites SrO(La_1-xSr_xMnO_3)2 in the composition range x = 0.32 - 0.40 by means of magnetic field and temperature dependent measurements of the magnetic susceptibility, magnetization and conductivity. In a temperature range T ~ 1.05-1.45 T_C, the paramagnetic phase exhibits a number of very unusual properties, which reflects the fact that the magnetic free energy is distorted due to the existence of a second competing order parameter. In particular, we observe that the field-dependent susceptibility exhibits an anomalous maximum at an intermediate magnetic field value. The size of this field-induced susceptibility enhancement increases dramatically with x from 100.40. The temperature dependence of the effect shows a maximum at T ~ 1.1 TC independent of x. Quantitative analysis of the experimental data reveals that the ferromagnetic exchange coupling is reduced for temperatures above the ferromagnetic phase transition, an effect that is especially pronounced for the x = 0.40 compound. For this material, we also find a strong correlation between the exchange coupling reduction and the measured conductivity, which indicates that the electronic band structure change at the metal-insulator transition also affects the exchange coupling strength in this very compound in contrast to other, mostly perovskite-type manganites. In addition, we observe the appearance of anomalous magnetic losses for temperatures just above TC and applied field values that coincide with the occurrence of the metal-insulator transition. These data suggest that the metal-insulator transition in these layered manganites is associated with a magnetically inhomogeneous state. This work was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy, Basic Energy Sciences - Materials Sciences under Contract W-31-109-ENG-38.

  8. Anomalous cases of astronaut helmet detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolph, Chester; Moore, Andrew J.; Schubert, Matthew; Woodell, Glenn

    2015-05-01

    An astronaut's helmet is an invariant, rigid image element that is well suited for identification and tracking using current machine vision technology. Future space exploration will benefit from the development of astronaut detection software for search and rescue missions based on EVA helmet identification. However, helmets are solid white, except for metal brackets to attach accessories such as supplementary lights. We compared the performance of a widely used machine vision pipeline on a standard-issue NASA helmet with and without affixed experimental feature-rich patterns. Performance on the patterned helmet was far more robust. We found that four different feature-rich patterns are sufficient to identify a helmet and determine orientation as it is rotated about the yaw, pitch, and roll axes. During helmet rotation the field of view changes to frames containing parts of two or more feature-rich patterns. We took reference images in these locations to fill in detection gaps. These multiple feature-rich patterns references added substantial benefit to detection, however, they generated the majority of the anomalous cases. In these few instances, our algorithm keys in on one feature-rich pattern of the multiple feature-rich pattern reference and makes an incorrect prediction of the location of the other feature-rich patterns. We describe and make recommendations on ways to mitigate anomalous cases in which detection of one or more feature-rich patterns fails. While the number of cases is only a small percentage of the tested helmet orientations, they illustrate important design considerations for future spacesuits. In addition to our four successful feature-rich patterns, we present unsuccessful patterns and discuss the cause of their poor performance from a machine vision perspective. Future helmets designed with these considerations will enable automated astronaut detection and thereby enhance mission operations and extraterrestrial search and rescue.

  9. Anomalous Cases of Astronaut Helmet Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolph, Chester; Moore, Andrew J.; Schubert, Matthew; Woodell, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    An astronaut's helmet is an invariant, rigid image element that is well suited for identification and tracking using current machine vision technology. Future space exploration will benefit from the development of astronaut detection software for search and rescue missions based on EVA helmet identification. However, helmets are solid white, except for metal brackets to attach accessories such as supplementary lights. We compared the performance of a widely used machine vision pipeline on a standard-issue NASA helmet with and without affixed experimental feature-rich patterns. Performance on the patterned helmet was far more robust. We found that four different feature-rich patterns are sufficient to identify a helmet and determine orientation as it is rotated about the yaw, pitch, and roll axes. During helmet rotation the field of view changes to frames containing parts of two or more feature-rich patterns. We took reference images in these locations to fill in detection gaps. These multiple feature-rich patterns references added substantial benefit to detection, however, they generated the majority of the anomalous cases. In these few instances, our algorithm keys in on one feature-rich pattern of the multiple feature-rich pattern reference and makes an incorrect prediction of the location of the other feature-rich patterns. We describe and make recommendations on ways to mitigate anomalous cases in which detection of one or more feature-rich patterns fails. While the number of cases is only a small percentage of the tested helmet orientations, they illustrate important design considerations for future spacesuits. In addition to our four successful feature-rich patterns, we present unsuccessful patterns and discuss the cause of their poor performance from a machine vision perspective. Future helmets designed with these considerations will enable automated astronaut detection and thereby enhance mission operations and extraterrestrial search and rescue.

  10. Thiophenic Sulfur Compounds Released During Coal Pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Xing, Mengwen; Kong, Jiao; Dong, Jie; Jiao, Haili; Li, Fan

    2013-06-01

    Thiophenic sulfur compounds are released during coal gasification, carbonization, and combustion. Previous studies indicate that thiophenic sulfur compounds degrade very slowly in the environment, and are more carcinogenic than polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrogenous compounds. Therefore, it is very important to study the principle of thiophenic sulfur compounds during coal conversion, in order to control their emission and promote clean coal utilization. To realize this goal and understand the formation mechanism of thiophenic sulfur compounds, this study focused on the release behavior of thiophenic sulfur compounds during coal pyrolysis, which is an important phase for all coal thermal conversion processes. The pyrolyzer (CDS-5250) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Focus GC-DSQII) were used to analyze thiophenic sulfur compounds in situ. Several coals with different coal ranks and sulfur contents were chosen as experimental samples, and thiophenic sulfur compounds of the gas produced during pyrolysis under different temperatures and heating rates were investigated. Levels of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene were obtained during pyrolysis at temperatures ranging from 200°C to 1300°C, and heating rates ranging from 6°C/ms to 14°C/ms and 6°C/s to 14°C/s. Moreover, the relationship between the total amount of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene released during coal pyrolysis and the organic sulfur content in coal was also discussed. This study is beneficial for understanding the formation and control of thiophenic sulfur compounds, since it provides a series of significant results that show the impact that operation conditions and organic sulfur content in coal have on the amount and species of thiophenic sulfur compounds produced during coal pyrolysis. PMID:23781126

  11. Thiophenic Sulfur Compounds Released During Coal Pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Xing, Mengwen; Kong, Jiao; Dong, Jie; Jiao, Haili; Li, Fan

    2013-06-01

    Thiophenic sulfur compounds are released during coal gasification, carbonization, and combustion. Previous studies indicate that thiophenic sulfur compounds degrade very slowly in the environment, and are more carcinogenic than polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrogenous compounds. Therefore, it is very important to study the principle of thiophenic sulfur compounds during coal conversion, in order to control their emission and promote clean coal utilization. To realize this goal and understand the formation mechanism of thiophenic sulfur compounds, this study focused on the release behavior of thiophenic sulfur compounds during coal pyrolysis, which is an important phase for all coal thermal conversion processes. The pyrolyzer (CDS-5250) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Focus GC-DSQII) were used to analyze thiophenic sulfur compounds in situ. Several coals with different coal ranks and sulfur contents were chosen as experimental samples, and thiophenic sulfur compounds of the gas produced during pyrolysis under different temperatures and heating rates were investigated. Levels of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene were obtained during pyrolysis at temperatures ranging from 200°C to 1300°C, and heating rates ranging from 6°C/ms to 14°C/ms and 6°C/s to 14°C/s. Moreover, the relationship between the total amount of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene released during coal pyrolysis and the organic sulfur content in coal was also discussed. This study is beneficial for understanding the formation and control of thiophenic sulfur compounds, since it provides a series of significant results that show the impact that operation conditions and organic sulfur content in coal have on the amount and species of thiophenic sulfur compounds produced during coal pyrolysis.

  12. HYDROCARBON AND SULFUR SENSORS FOR SOFC SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    A.M. Azad; Chris Holt; Todd Lesousky; Scott Swartz

    2003-11-01

    The following report summarizes work conducted during the Phase I program Hydrocarbon and Sulfur Sensors for SOFC Systems under contract No. DE-FC26-02NT41576. For the SOFC application, sensors are required to monitor hydrocarbons and sulfur in order to increase the operation life of SOFC components. This report discusses the development of two such sensors, one based on thick film approach for sulfur monitoring and the second galvanic based for hydrocarbon monitoring.

  13. Thiophenic Sulfur Compounds Released During Coal Pyrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Mengwen; Kong, Jiao; Dong, Jie; Jiao, Haili; Li, Fan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Thiophenic sulfur compounds are released during coal gasification, carbonization, and combustion. Previous studies indicate that thiophenic sulfur compounds degrade very slowly in the environment, and are more carcinogenic than polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrogenous compounds. Therefore, it is very important to study the principle of thiophenic sulfur compounds during coal conversion, in order to control their emission and promote clean coal utilization. To realize this goal and understand the formation mechanism of thiophenic sulfur compounds, this study focused on the release behavior of thiophenic sulfur compounds during coal pyrolysis, which is an important phase for all coal thermal conversion processes. The pyrolyzer (CDS-5250) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (Focus GC-DSQII) were used to analyze thiophenic sulfur compounds in situ. Several coals with different coal ranks and sulfur contents were chosen as experimental samples, and thiophenic sulfur compounds of the gas produced during pyrolysis under different temperatures and heating rates were investigated. Levels of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene were obtained during pyrolysis at temperatures ranging from 200°C to 1300°C, and heating rates ranging from 6°C/ms to 14°C/ms and 6°C/s to 14°C/s. Moreover, the relationship between the total amount of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene released during coal pyrolysis and the organic sulfur content in coal was also discussed. This study is beneficial for understanding the formation and control of thiophenic sulfur compounds, since it provides a series of significant results that show the impact that operation conditions and organic sulfur content in coal have on the amount and species of thiophenic sulfur compounds produced during coal pyrolysis. PMID:23781126

  14. Cytochromes and iron sulfur proteins in sulfur metabolism of phototrophic bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, U.

    1985-01-01

    Dissimilatory sulfur metabolism in phototrophic sulfur bacteria provides the bacteria with electrons for photosynthetic electron transport chain and, with energy. Assimilatory sulfate reduction is necessary for the biosynthesis of sulfur-containing cell components. Sulfide, thiosulfate, and elemental sulfur are the sulfur compounds most commonly used by phototrophic bacteria as electron donors for anoxygenic photosynthesis. Cytochromes or other electron transfer proteins, like high-potential-iron-sulfur protein (HIPIP) function as electron acceptors or donors for most enzymatic steps during the oxidation pathways of sulfide or thiosulfate. Yet, heme- or siroheme-containing proteins themselves undergo enzymatic activities in sulfur metabolism. Sirohemes comprise a porphyrin-like prosthetic group of sulfate reductase. eenzymatic reactions involve electron transfer. Electron donors or acceptors are necessary for each reaction. Cytochromes and iron sulfur problems, are able to transfer electrons.

  15. Ceramic-metal seals for advanced battery systems. [sodium sulfur and lithium sulfur batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, L.

    1978-01-01

    The search for materials which are electrochemically compatible with the lithium sulfur and sodium sulfur systems is discussed. The use liquid or braze alloys, titanium hydrite coatings, and tungsten yttria for bonding beryllium with ceramic is examined.

  16. No need to replace an "anomalous" primate (Primates) with an "anomalous" bear (Carnivora, Ursidae).

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Eliécer E; Pine, Ronald H

    2015-01-01

    By means of mitochondrial 12S rRNA sequencing of putative "yeti", "bigfoot", and other "anomalous primate" hair samples, a recent study concluded that two samples, presented as from the Himalayas, do not belong to an "anomalous primate", but to an unknown, anomalous type of ursid. That is, that they match 12S rRNA sequences of a fossil Polar Bear (Ursusmaritimus), but neither of modern Polar Bears, nor of Brown Bears (Ursusarctos), the closest relative of Polar Bears, and one that occurs today in the Himalayas. We have undertaken direct comparison of sequences; replication of the original comparative study; inference of phylogenetic relationships of the two samples with respect to those from all extant species of Ursidae (except for the Giant Panda, Ailuropodamelanoleuca) and two extinct Pleistocene species; and application of a non-tree-based population aggregation approach for species diagnosis and identification. Our results demonstrate that the very short fragment of the 12S rRNA gene sequenced by Sykes et al. is not sufficiently informative to support the hypotheses provided by these authors with respect to the taxonomic identity of the individuals from which these sequences were obtained. We have concluded that there is no reason to believe that the two samples came from anything other than Brown Bears. These analyses afforded an opportunity to test the monophyly of morphologically defined species and to comment on both their phylogenetic relationships and future efforts necessary to advance our understanding of ursid systematics.

  17. No need to replace an "anomalous" primate (Primates) with an "anomalous" bear (Carnivora, Ursidae).

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Eliécer E; Pine, Ronald H

    2015-01-01

    By means of mitochondrial 12S rRNA sequencing of putative "yeti", "bigfoot", and other "anomalous primate" hair samples, a recent study concluded that two samples, presented as from the Himalayas, do not belong to an "anomalous primate", but to an unknown, anomalous type of ursid. That is, that they match 12S rRNA sequences of a fossil Polar Bear (Ursusmaritimus), but neither of modern Polar Bears, nor of Brown Bears (Ursusarctos), the closest relative of Polar Bears, and one that occurs today in the Himalayas. We have undertaken direct comparison of sequences; replication of the original comparative study; inference of phylogenetic relationships of the two samples with respect to those from all extant species of Ursidae (except for the Giant Panda, Ailuropodamelanoleuca) and two extinct Pleistocene species; and application of a non-tree-based population aggregation approach for species diagnosis and identification. Our results demonstrate that the very short fragment of the 12S rRNA gene sequenced by Sykes et al. is not sufficiently informative to support the hypotheses provided by these authors with respect to the taxonomic identity of the individuals from which these sequences were obtained. We have concluded that there is no reason to believe that the two samples came from anything other than Brown Bears. These analyses afforded an opportunity to test the monophyly of morphologically defined species and to comment on both their phylogenetic relationships and future efforts necessary to advance our understanding of ursid systematics. PMID:25829853

  18. #FluxFlow: Visual Analysis of Anomalous Information Spreading on Social Media.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian; Cao, Nan; Wen, Zhen; Song, Yale; Lin, Yu-Ru; Collins, Christopher

    2014-12-01

    We present FluxFlow, an interactive visual analysis system for revealing and analyzing anomalous information spreading in social media. Everyday, millions of messages are created, commented, and shared by people on social media websites, such as Twitter and Facebook. This provides valuable data for researchers and practitioners in many application domains, such as marketing, to inform decision-making. Distilling valuable social signals from the huge crowd's messages, however, is challenging, due to the heterogeneous and dynamic crowd behaviors. The challenge is rooted in data analysts' capability of discerning the anomalous information behaviors, such as the spreading of rumors or misinformation, from the rest that are more conventional patterns, such as popular topics and newsworthy events, in a timely fashion. FluxFlow incorporates advanced machine learning algorithms to detect anomalies, and offers a set of novel visualization designs for presenting the detected threads for deeper analysis. We evaluated FluxFlow with real datasets containing the Twitter feeds captured during significant events such as Hurricane Sandy. Through quantitative measurements of the algorithmic performance and qualitative interviews with domain experts, the results show that the back-end anomaly detection model is effective in identifying anomalous retweeting threads, and its front-end interactive visualizations are intuitive and useful for analysts to discover insights in data and comprehend the underlying analytical model. PMID:26356891

  19. #FluxFlow: Visual Analysis of Anomalous Information Spreading on Social Media.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian; Cao, Nan; Wen, Zhen; Song, Yale; Lin, Yu-Ru; Collins, Christopher

    2014-12-01

    We present FluxFlow, an interactive visual analysis system for revealing and analyzing anomalous information spreading in social media. Everyday, millions of messages are created, commented, and shared by people on social media websites, such as Twitter and Facebook. This provides valuable data for researchers and practitioners in many application domains, such as marketing, to inform decision-making. Distilling valuable social signals from the huge crowd's messages, however, is challenging, due to the heterogeneous and dynamic crowd behaviors. The challenge is rooted in data analysts' capability of discerning the anomalous information behaviors, such as the spreading of rumors or misinformation, from the rest that are more conventional patterns, such as popular topics and newsworthy events, in a timely fashion. FluxFlow incorporates advanced machine learning algorithms to detect anomalies, and offers a set of novel visualization designs for presenting the detected threads for deeper analysis. We evaluated FluxFlow with real datasets containing the Twitter feeds captured during significant events such as Hurricane Sandy. Through quantitative measurements of the algorithmic performance and qualitative interviews with domain experts, the results show that the back-end anomaly detection model is effective in identifying anomalous retweeting threads, and its front-end interactive visualizations are intuitive and useful for analysts to discover insights in data and comprehend the underlying analytical model.

  20. Four-fermion production at γ γ colliders: 1. Lowest-order predictions and anomalous couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bredenstein, A.; Dittmaier, S.; Roth, M.

    2004-08-01

    We have constructed a Monte Carlo generator (the corresponding FORTRAN code can be obtained from the authors upon request) for lowest-order predictions for the processes γγto 4f and γγto 4fγ in the standard model and extensions thereof by an effective γγ H coupling as well as anomalous triple and quartic gauge-boson couplings. Polarization is fully supported, and a realistic photon beam spectrum can be taken into account. For the processes γγto 4f all helicity amplitudes are explicitly given in a compact form. The presented numerical results contain, in particular, a survey of cross sections for representative final states and their comparison to results obtained with the program package Whizard/Madgraph. The impact of a realistic beam spectrum on cross sections and distributions is illustrated. Moreover, the size of various contributions to cross sections, such as from weak charged- or neutral-current, or from strong interactions, is analyzed. Particular attention is paid to W-pair production channels γγto W Wto 4f(γ) where we investigate the impact of background diagrams, possible definitions of the W-pair signal, and the issue of gauge-invariance violation caused by finite gauge-boson widths. Finally, the effects of triple and quartic anomalous gauge-boson couplings on cross sections as well as the possibility to constrain these anomalous couplings at future γγ colliders are discussed.

  1. Are the clouds of Venus sulfuric acid.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, A. T.

    1973-01-01

    It is shown that strong aqueous sulfuric acid solutions have the right refractive index and freeze at Venusian cloud temperature, explain the dryness of the Venusian stratosphere, are consistent with some features of the Venusian IR spectrum, and do not absorb in highly reflecting areas of Venus. It is also indicated that such solutions should be produced by reactions between known atmospheric constituents and most sulfur-bearing rock at the Venusian surface temperature, and require only small amounts of sulfur consistent with its cosmic abundance and with the amounts of other volatile elements present in the atmosphere. It is believed therefore that the clouds of Venus consist of sulfuric acid solutions.

  2. Elemental sulfur in Eddy County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinds, Jim S.; Cunningham, Richard R.

    1970-01-01

    Sulfur has been reported in Eddy County, N. Mex., in rocks ranging from Silurian to Holocene in age at depths of 0-15,020 feet. Targets of present exploration are Permian formations in the Delaware Basin and northwest shelf areas at depths of less than 4,000 feet. Most of the reported sulfur occurrences in the shelf area are in the 'Abo' (as used by some subsurface geologists), Yeso, and San Andres Formations and the Artesia Group. Sulfur deposition in the dense dolomites of the 'Abo,' Yeso, and San Andres Formations is attributed to the reduction of ionic sulfate by hydrogen sulfide in formation waters in zones of preexisting porosity and permeability. A similar origin accounts for most of the sulfur deposits in the formations of the Artesia Group, but some of the sulfur in these formations may have originated in place through the alteration of anhydrite to carbonate and sulfur by the metabolic processes of bacteria in the presence of hydrocarbons. Exploration in the Delaware Basin area is directed primarily toward the Castile Formation. Sulfur deposits in the Castile Formation are found in irregular masses of cavernous brecciated secondary carbonate rock enveloped by impermeable anhydrite. The carbonate masses, or 'castiles,' probably originated as collapse features resulting from subsurface solution and upward stopping. Formation of carbonate rock and sulfur in the castiles is attributed to the reduction of brecciated anhydrite by bacteria and hydrocarbons in the same process ascribed to the formation of carbonate and sulfur in the caprocks of salt domes.

  3. Sulfur recovery process including removal of residual sulfur from Claus catalyst after regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Cabanaw, B.E.

    1990-03-13

    This patent describes a process for the recovery of sulfur. It comprises: passing an acid gas feedstream having as a sulfur species essentially only hydrogen sulfide therein to a Claus plant comprising a thermal conversion zone and at least one Claus catalytic reaction zone operated under adsorption conditions including temperature for forming and depositing a preponderance of sulfur formed on catalyst therein.

  4. 40 CFR 52.1881 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... amount of hydrogen peroxide absorbent. (ii) The test methods and procedures used for determining... sulfuric acid by the contact process by burning elemental sulfur, alkylation acid, hydrogen sulfide... gas containing a total sulfur content expressed as hydrogen sulfide in excess of 350 grains...

  5. Binding mechanism of sulfur and dehydrogenated polyacrylonitrile in sulfur/polymer composite cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doan, The Nam Long; Ghaznavi, Mahmoudreza; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Yongguang; Konarov, Aishuak; Sadhu, Mikhail; Tangirala, Ravichandra; Chen, P.

    2013-11-01

    A composite consisting of sulfur/dehydrogenated polyacrylonitrile is one of the most promising cathode materials for use in rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries. However, the reported sulfur contents have been low, less than 50 wt%, which compromise the intrinsic high specific capacity and energy of elemental sulfur and hence decrease significantly the specific energy of the composite. To identify the potential to further increase the sulfur content, we elucidate the binding mechanism of sulfur and polyacrylonitrile in their composite. The heat treatment experiments at varying timespans with excess sulfur showed a constancy of sulfur content after a critical length of timespan, indicating the saturation of sulfur in the structure of dehydrogenated polyacrylonitrile. Based on molecular structure and size consideration, it is proposed that the binding involves the formation of an 8 membered ring of sulfur embedded between 4 heterocyclic rings of dehydrogenated polyacrylonitrile. From this model and experimental results, we show that there exists an upper limit of sulfur content in the sulfur/dehydrogenated polyacrylonitrile composite at 56 wt%.

  6. Characterization of Sulfur Compounds in Coffee Beans by Sulfur K-XANES Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtenberg, H.; Hormes, J.; Prange, A.; Modrow, H.

    2007-02-02

    In this 'feasibility study' the influence of roasting on the sulfur speciation in Mexican coffee beans was investigated by sulfur K-XANES Spectroscopy. Spectra of green and slightly roasted beans could be fitted to a linear combination of 'standard' reference spectra for biological samples, whereas longer roasting obviously involves formation of additional sulfur compounds in considerable amounts.

  7. Theory of anomalous backscattering in second harmonic X-mode ECRH experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusakov, E. Z.; Popov, A. Yu.

    2016-08-01

    A quantitative model explaining generation of the anomalous backscattering signal in the second harmonic X-mode electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) experiments at TEXTOR tokamak as a secondary nonlinear process which accompanies a primary low-threshold parametric decay instability (PDI) leading to excitation of two—upper hybrid (UH)—plasmons trapped in plasma is developed. The primary absolute PDI enhancing the UH wave fluctuations from the thermal noise level is supposed to be saturated due to a cascade of secondary low-threshold decays of the daughter UH wave leading to excitation of the secondary UH waves down-shifted in frequency and the ion Bernstein wave. A set of equations describing the cascade is derived and solved numerically. The results of numerical modelling are shown to be in agreement with the analytical estimations of the growth rate of the initial and secondary parametric decays and the saturation level. The generation of backscattering signal is explained by coupling of the daughter UH waves. The fine details of the frequency spectrum of the anomalously reflected extraordinary wave and the absolute value of the observed backscattering signal in the second harmonic X-mode ECRH experiments at TEXTOR are reproduced.

  8. The morphology of the Anomalous Microwave Emission in the Planck 2015 data release

    SciTech Connect

    Hausegger, Sebastian von; Liu, Hao E-mail: liuhao@nbi.dk

    2015-08-01

    We calculate weighted mosaic correlations between the recently published Planck 2015 foreground maps— both anomalous microwave emission (AME) maps, free-free emission, synchrotron radiation and thermal dust emission. The weighting coefficients are constructed taking account of the signal-to-error ratio given by the data product. Positive correlation is found for AME compared with thermal dust emission as well as synchrotron radiation. We find AME and free-free emission tending to be anti-correlated, however, when investigating different scales, their relationship appears to be more complex. We argue that dust particles responsible for AME are pushed out of hot zones in the interstellar medium (ISM)

  9. Hadronic light-by-light scattering contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment from lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, Thomas; Chowdhury, Saumitra; Hayakawa, Masashi; Izubuchi, Taku

    2015-01-07

    The form factor that yields the light-by-light scattering contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment is computed in lattice QCD+QED and QED. A non-perturbative treatment of QED is used and is checked against perturbation theory. The hadronic contribution is calculated for unphysical quark and muon masses, and only the diagram with a single quark loop is computed. Statistically significant signals are obtained. Initial results appear promising, and the prospect for a complete calculation with physical masses and controlled errors is discussed.

  10. Global Constraints on Anomalous Triple Gauge Couplings in the Effective Field Theory Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkowski, Adam; González-Alonso, Martín; Greljo, Admir; Marzocca, David

    2016-01-01

    We present a combined analysis of LHC Higgs data (signal strengths) together with LEP-2 W W production measurements. To characterize possible deviations from the standard model (SM) predictions, we employ the framework of an effective field theory (EFT) where the SM is extended by higher-dimensional operators suppressed by the mass scale of new physics Λ . The analysis is performed consistently at the order Λ-2 in the EFT expansion keeping all the relevant operators. While the two data sets suffer from flat directions, together they impose stringent model-independent constraints on the anomalous triple gauge couplings.

  11. Anomalous optical events detected by rocket-borne sensor in the WIPP campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Ya QI; Holzworth, Robert H.; Hu, Hua; Mccarthy, Michael; Massey, R. Dayle

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the instruments used in the Wave Induced Particle Precipitation campaign in 1987, in which one rocket and four balloons were launched near thunderstorms from the NASA Wallops Flight Facility. Examples of both the lightning events and the anomalous optical events (AOEs) detected on July 31, 1987 are presented. It is shown that the signatures of these AOEs differ from those of well-known optical sources in the atmosphere. It was found that AOEs were sometimes associated with subionospheric VLF signal perturbations (Trimpi events), suggesting a possibility that AOEs might be linked to a disturbance of the electron concentration in the high-altitude atmosphere or lower ionosphere.

  12. Global Constraints on Anomalous Triple Gauge Couplings in the Effective Field Theory Approach.

    PubMed

    Falkowski, Adam; González-Alonso, Martín; Greljo, Admir; Marzocca, David

    2016-01-01

    We present a combined analysis of LHC Higgs data (signal strengths) together with LEP-2 WW production measurements. To characterize possible deviations from the standard model (SM) predictions, we employ the framework of an effective field theory (EFT) where the SM is extended by higher-dimensional operators suppressed by the mass scale of new physics Λ. The analysis is performed consistently at the order Λ(-2) in the EFT expansion keeping all the relevant operators. While the two data sets suffer from flat directions, together they impose stringent model-independent constraints on the anomalous triple gauge couplings. PMID:26799011

  13. Graphene-wrapped sulfur nanospheres with ultra-high sulfur loading for high energy density lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ya; Guo, Jinxin; Zhang, Jun; Su, Qingmei; Du, Gaohui

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery with high theoretical energy density is one of the most promising energy storage systems for electric vehicles and intermittent renewable energy. However, due to the poor conductivity of the active material, considerable weight of the electrode is occupied by the conductive additives. Here we report a graphene-wrapped sulfur nanospheres composite (S-nanosphere@G) with sulfur content up to 91 wt% as the high energy density cathode material for Li-S battery. The sulfur nanospheres with diameter of 400-500 nm are synthesized through a solution-based approach with the existence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Then the sulfur nanospheres are uniformly wrapped by conductive graphene sheets through the electrostatic interaction between graphene oxide and PVP, followed by reducing of graphene oxide with hydrazine. The design of graphene wrapped sulfur nanoarchitecture provides flexible conductive graphene coating with void space to accommodate the volume expansion of sulfur and to minimize polysulfide dissolution. As a result, the S-nanosphere@G nanocomposite with 91 wt% sulfur shows a reversible initial capacity of 970 mA h g-1 and an average columbic efficiency > 96% over 100 cycles at a rate of 0.2 C. Taking the total mass of electrode into account, the S-nanosphere@G composite is a promising cathode material for high energy density Li-S batteries.

  14. Anomalous diffusion process applied to magnetic resonance image enhancement.

    PubMed

    Senra Filho, A C da S; Salmon, C E Garrido; Murta Junior, L O

    2015-03-21

    Diffusion process is widely applied to digital image enhancement both directly introducing diffusion equation as in anisotropic diffusion (AD) filter, and indirectly by convolution as in Gaussian filter. Anomalous diffusion process (ADP), given by a nonlinear relationship in diffusion equation and characterized by an anomalous parameters q, is supposed to be consistent with inhomogeneous media. Although classic diffusion process is widely studied and effective in various image settings, the effectiveness of ADP as an image enhancement is still unknown. In this paper we proposed the anomalous diffusion filters in both isotropic (IAD) and anisotropic (AAD) forms for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enhancement. Filters based on discrete implementation of anomalous diffusion were applied to noisy MRI T2w images (brain, chest and abdominal) in order to quantify SNR gains estimating the performance for the proposed anomalous filter when realistic noise is added to those images. Results show that for images containing complex structures, e.g. brain structures, anomalous diffusion presents the highest enhancements when compared to classical diffusion approach. Furthermore, ADP presented a more effective enhancement for images containing Rayleigh and Gaussian noise. Anomalous filters showed an ability to preserve anatomic edges and a SNR improvement of 26% for brain images, compared to classical filter. In addition, AAD and IAD filters showed optimum results for noise distributions that appear on extreme situations on MRI, i.e. in low SNR images with approximate Rayleigh noise distribution, and for high SNR images with Gaussian or non central χ noise distributions. AAD and IAD filter showed the best results for the parametric range 1.2 < q < 1.6, suggesting that the anomalous diffusion regime is more suitable for MRI. This study indicates the proposed anomalous filters as promising approaches in qualitative and quantitative MRI enhancement.

  15. Sulfur-bridged BODIPY DYEmers.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Johannes; Böker, Birte; Brandhorst, Kai; Funk, Markus; Bröring, Martin

    2013-08-19

    Reactions of BODIPY monomers with sulfur nucleophiles and electrophiles result in the formation of new BODIPY dimers. Mono- and disulfur bridges are established, and the new dyestuff molecules were studied with respect to their structural, optical, and electrochemical properties. X-ray diffraction analyses reveal individual angulated orientations of the BODIPY subunits in all cases. DFT calculations provide solution conformers of the DYEmers which deviate in a specific manner from the crystallographic results. Clear exciton-like splittings are observed in the absorption spectra, with maxima at up to 628 nm, in combination with the expected weak fluorescence in polar solvents. A strong communication between the BODIPY subunits was detected by cyclic voltammetry, where two separated one-electron oxidation and reduction waves with peak-to-peak potential differences of 120-400 mV are observed. The qualitative applicability of the exciton model by Kasha for the interpretation of the absorption spectral shape with respect to the conformational state, subunit orientation and distance, and conjugation through the different sulfur bridges, is discussed in detail for the new BODIPY derivatives. This work is part of our concept of DYEmers, where the covalent oligomerisation of BODIPY-type dye molecules with close distances is leading to new functional dyes with predictable properties. PMID:23843344

  16. No-Drag Frame for Anomalous Chiral Fluid.

    PubMed

    Stephanov, Mikhail A; Yee, Ho-Ung

    2016-03-25

    We show that for an anomalous fluid carrying dissipationless chiral magnetic and/or vortical currents there is a frame in which a stationary obstacle experiences no drag, but energy and charge currents do not vanish, resembling superfluidity. However, unlike ordinary superfluid flow, the anomalous chiral currents can transport entropy in this frame. We show that the second law of thermodynamics completely determines the amounts of these anomalous nondissipative currents in the "no-drag frame" as polynomials in temperature and chemical potential with known anomaly coefficients. These general results are illustrated and confirmed by a calculation in the chiral kinetic theory and in the quark-gluon plasma at high temperature.

  17. Double connections in total anomalous pulmonary venous connection.

    PubMed

    Arciprete, P; McKay, R; Watson, G H; Hamilton, D I; Wilkinson, J L; Arnold, R M

    1986-07-01

    Three infants who underwent operation for total anomalous pulmonary venous connection had unobstructed drainage of all the pulmonary veins to both the coronary sinus and left vertical vein. In one patient the anatomy was demonstrated preoperatively and complete correction accomplished without difficulty, but in two patients the second connection was discovered only at postoperative reinvestigation. Arbitrary classification of total anomalous pulmonary venous connection into cardiac, supracardiac, infracardiac, and mixed types does not lend itself to description of such lesions and may obscure their clinical importance. For these less common variants of total anomalous pulmonary venous connection, a more detailed and precise definition of morphology facilitates accurate surgical repair.

  18. Anomalous therapies and public health: a utilitarian bioethical response.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kevin R

    2008-01-01

    A utilitarian approach is used to evaluate the ethics of incorporating unscientific anomalous therapies within health care and related settings. This paper argues that incorporation of anomalous therapy methods into health care systems is highly problematic, and should be avoided on ethical grounds. The ethical responses open to various bodies and individuals are discussed, including legislative bodies, public health care providers, the medical research community, medical providers, individual agents, and international bodies. It is argued that a moral imperative exists to act against the inclusion of anomalous therapy methods in health care systems. PMID:18477378

  19. Tests of anomalous quartic couplings at the Next Linear Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Éboli, O. J. P.; Gonzalez-Garcia, M. C.; Mizukoshi, J. K.

    1998-08-01

    We analyze the potential of the Next Linear e+e- Collider to study anomalous quartic vector-boson interactions through the processes e+e--->W+W-Z and ZZZ. In the framework of SU(2)L⊗U(1)Y chiral Lagrangians, we examine all effective operators of order p4 that lead to four-gauge-boson interactions but do not induce anomalous trilinear vertices. In our analysis, we take into account the decay of the vector bosons to fermions and evaluate the efficiency in their reconstruction. We obtain the bounds that can be placed on the anomalous quartic interactions and we study the strategies to distinguish the possible couplings.

  20. Sulfur-carbon nanocomposites and their application as cathode materials in lithium-sulfur batteries

    DOEpatents

    Liang, Chengdu; Dudney, Nancy J; Howe, Jane Y

    2015-05-05

    The invention is directed in a first aspect to a sulfur-carbon composite material comprising: (i) a bimodal porous carbon component containing therein a first mode of pores which are mesopores, and a second mode of pores which are micropores; and (ii) elemental sulfur contained in at least a portion of said micropores. The invention is also directed to the aforesaid sulfur-carbon composite as a layer on a current collector material; a lithium ion battery containing the sulfur-carbon composite in a cathode therein; as well as a method for preparing the sulfur-composite material.

  1. Sulfur recovery plant and process using oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Palm, J.W.

    1989-07-18

    This patent describes a process for recovery of sulfur from a gaseous stream containing hydrogen sulfide. The process consists the steps of: introducing a thermal reaction mixture comprising the gaseous stream containing hydrogen sulfide, and an oxygen-enriched stream of air or pure oxygen into a combustion zone of a Claus furnace; combusting the thermal reaction mixture in the Claus furnace to thereby produce hot combustion gases comprising hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, water, and elemental sulfur; introducing the hot combustion gases into a Claus catalytic reactor; subjecting the hot combustion gases in the catalytic reactor to Claus reaction conditions in the presence of a Claus catalyst to thereby produce a Claus plant gaseous effluent stream comprising hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, water, and elemental sulfur; introducing the Claus plant gaseous effluent into a condenser to thereby produce liquid sulfur, which is recovered, and a gaseous condenser effluent, which comprises hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide and water and which is divided into a recycle portion and a tailgas portion; converting substantially all sulfur species in the recycle portion of the gaseous condenser effluent to hydrogen sulfide to thereby form condenser effluent comprising hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide and water; removing water from the recycle portion of the condenser; and moderating the temperature in the Claus furnace by returning at least a portion of the dried recycle condenser, as a diluent stream, to a combustion zone of the Claus furnace.

  2. Sulfur recovery plant and process using oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Palm, J.W.

    1989-01-17

    This patent describes a process for the recovery of sulfur from a gaseous stream containing hydrogen sulfide, the process comprising the steps of: (a) introducing a thermal reaction mixture comprising (1) the gaseous stream containing hydrogen sulfide, and (2) an oxygen-enriched stream of air or pure oxygen into a combustion zone of a Claus furnace; (b) combusting the thermal reaction mixture in the Claus furnace to thereby produce hot combustion gases comprising hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, water, and elemental sulfur; (c) introducing the hot combustion gases into a Claus catalytic reactor; (d) subjecting the hot combustion gases in the catalytic reactor to Claus reaction conditions in the presence of a Claus catalyst to thereby produce a Claus plant gaseous effluent stream comprising hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, water, and elemental sulfur; (e) introducing the Claus plant gaseous effluent into a condenser to thereby produce liquid sulfur, which is recovered, and a gaseous condenser effluent, which comprises hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide and water; (f) converting substantially all sulfur species in the gaseous condenser effluent to hydrogen sulfide, to thereby form a condenser effluent comprising hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide and water; (g) removing water from the condenser effluent from step (f); and (h) moderating the temperature in the Claus furnace by returning at least a portion of the dried condenser effluent from step (g), as a diluent stream, to a combustion zone of the Claus furnace in step (a) above.

  3. Stability of sulfur slopes on Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clow, G. D.; Carr, M. H.

    1980-01-01

    The mechanical properties of elemental sulfur are such that the upper crust of Io cannot be primarily sulfur. For heat flows in the range 100-1000 ergs/sq cm sec sulfur becomes ductile within several hundred meters of the surface and would prevent the formation of calderas with depths greater than this. However, the one caldera for which precise depth data are available is 2 km deep, and this value may be typical. A study of the mechanical equilibrium of simple slopes shows that the depth to the zone of rapid ductile flow strongly controls the maximum heights for sulfur slopes. Sulfur scarps with heights greater than 1 km will fail for all heat flows greater than 180 ergs/sq cm sec and slope angles greater than 22.5 deg. The observed relief on Io is inconsistent with that anticipated for a predominantly sulfur crust. However, a silicate crust with several percent sulfur included satisfies both the mechanical constraints and the observed presence of sulfur on Io.

  4. Stabilized sulfur binding using activated fillers

    DOEpatents

    Kalb, Paul D.; Vagin, Vyacheslav P.; Vagin, Sergey P.

    2015-07-21

    A method of making a stable, sulfur binding composite comprising impregnating a solid aggregate with an organic modifier comprising unsaturated hydrocarbons with at least one double or triple covalent bond between adjacent carbon atoms to create a modifier-impregnated aggregate; heating and drying the modifier-impregnated aggregate to activate the surface of the modifier-impregnated aggregate for reaction with sulfur.

  5. Sulfur extended asphalt pavement evaluation: Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahoney, J. P.

    1982-09-01

    This summary report overviews two previously issued study reports. One report assesses The availability and pricing of sulfur with respect to sulfur extended asphalt (SEA) paving mixture is assessed. A laboratory oriented testing program which was principally used to examine the durability and aging characteristics of SEA paving mixtures is reported.

  6. Ambient Air Monitoring for Sulfur Compounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrest, Joseph; Newman, Leonard

    1973-01-01

    A literature review of analytical techniques available for the study of compounds at low concentrations points up some of the areas where further research is needed. Compounds reviewed are sulfur dioxide, sulfuric acid, ammonium sulfate and bisulfate, metal sulfates, hydrogen sulfide, and organic sulfides. (BL)

  7. Sulfur in Distillers Grains for Dairy Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sulfur is an essential element needed by animals for many functions. About 0.15% of the body weight is sulfur. It is found in the amino acids methionine, cysteine, cystine, homocysteine, and taurine; in chondroitin sulfate of cartilage; and in the B-vitamins, thiamin and biotin. Methionine, thiam...

  8. Heterogeneous photocatalytic reactions of sulfur aromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Samokhvalov, Alexander

    2011-11-18

    Sulfur aromatic compounds, such as mono-, di-, tri-, and tetraalkyl-substituted thiophene, benzothiophenes, dibenzothiophenes, are the molecular components of many fossils (petroleum, oil shale, tar sands, bitumen). Structural units of natural, cross-linked heteroaromatic polymers present in brown coals, turf, and soil are similar to those of sulfur aromatic compounds. Many sulfur aromatic compounds are found in the streams of petroleum refining and upgrading (naphthas, gas oils) and in the consumer products (gasoline, diesel, jet fuels, heating fuels). Besides fossils, the structural fragments of sulfur aromatic compounds are present in molecules of certain organic semiconductors, pesticides, small molecule drugs, and in certain biomolecules present in human body (pheomelanin pigments). Photocatalysis is the frontier area of physical chemistry that studies chemical reactions initiated by absorption of photons by photocatalysts, that is, upon electronic rather than thermal activation, under "green" ambient conditions. This review provides systematization and critical review of the fundamental chemical and physicochemical information on heterogeneous photocatalysis of sulfur aromatic compounds accumulated in the last 20-30 years. Specifically, the following topics are covered: physicochemical properties of sulfur aromatic compounds, major classes of heterogeneous photocatalysts, mechanisms and reactive intermediates of photocatalytic reactions of sulfur aromatic compounds, and the selectivity of these reactions. Quantum chemical calculations of properties and structures of sulfur aromatic compounds, their reactive intermediates, and the structure of adsorption complexes formed on the surface of the photocatalysts are also discussed.

  9. Sulfur oxide adsorbents and emissions control

    DOEpatents

    Li, Liyu; King, David L.

    2006-12-26

    High capacity sulfur oxide absorbents utilizing manganese-based octahedral molecular sieve (Mn--OMS) materials are disclosed. An emissions reduction system for a combustion exhaust includes a scrubber 24 containing these high capacity sulfur oxide absorbents located upstream from a NOX filter 26 or particulate trap.

  10. Fate of excess sulfur in higher plants

    SciTech Connect

    Rennenberg, H.

    1984-01-01

    The mechanisms which have evolved in higher plants to cope with excess sulfur in their environments are reviewed. Survival in a sulfur-rich environment is seldom achieved through avoidance of the intake of sulfur. The presence of excess sulfur in the soil or in the air usually results in an intake of excess sulfur into plants. An immediate injury by the excess sulfur taken up is, however, prevented by a series of metabolic processes. Storage of excess sulfur in a metabolically inactive compartment, i.e. the vacuole, appears to occur in most plants. The finding of a storage of glutathione is several investigations suggests that with increasing accumulation of sulfate its reduction also increases. Under these conditions the cysteine concentration in different compartments of the cell may still be maintained at a low level by the incorporation of the excess cysteine synthesized into glutathione. This peptide appears to be the storage form of reduced sulfur in higher plants. 167 references, 2 figures.

  11. Sulfuric Acid and Water: Paradoxes of Dilution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leenson, I. A.

    2004-01-01

    On equilibrium properties of aqueous solutions of sulfuric acid, Julius Thomsen has marked that the heat evolved on diluting liquid sulfuric acid with water is a continuous function of the water used, and excluded absolutely the acceptance of definite hydrates as existing in the solution. Information about thermochemical measurement, a discussion…

  12. [Determination of sulfur in plant using a high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometer].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Li, Jia-xi

    2009-05-01

    A method for the analysis of sulfur (S) in plant by molecular absorption of carbon monosulfide (CS) using a high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometer (CS AAS) with a fuel-rich air/acetylene flame has been devised. The strong CS absorption band was found around 258 nm. The half-widths of some absorption bands were of the order of picometers, the same as the common atomic absorption lines. The experimental procedure in this study provided optimized instrumental conditions (the ratio of acetylene to air, the burner height) and parameters, and researched the spectral interferences and chemical interferences. The influence of the organic solvents on the CS absorption signals and the different digestion procedures for the determination of sulfur were also investigated. The limit of detection achieved for sulfur was 14 mg x L(-1), using the CS wavelength of 257. 961 nm and a measurement time of 3 s. The accuracy and precision were verified by analysis of two plant standard reference materials. The major applications of this method have been used for the determination of sulfur in plant materials, such as leaves. Compared to the others, this method for the analysis of sulfur is rapid, easy and simple for sulfur determination in plant. PMID:19650504

  13. Pathways for Neoarchean pyrite formation constrained by mass-independent sulfur isotopes

    PubMed Central

    Farquhar, James; Cliff, John; Zerkle, Aubrey L.; Kamyshny, Alexey; Poulton, Simon W.; Claire, Mark; Adams, David; Harms, Brian

    2013-01-01

    It is generally thought that the sulfate reduction metabolism is ancient and would have been established well before the Neoarchean. It is puzzling, therefore, that the sulfur isotope record of the Neoarchean is characterized by a signal of atmospheric mass-independent chemistry rather than a strong overprint by sulfate reducers. Here, we present a study of the four sulfur isotopes obtained using secondary ion MS that seeks to reconcile a number of features seen in the Neoarchean sulfur isotope record. We suggest that Neoarchean ocean basins had two coexisting, significantly sized sulfur pools and that the pathways forming pyrite precursors played an important role in establishing how the isotopic characteristics of each of these pools was transferred to the sedimentary rock record. One of these pools is suggested to be a soluble (sulfate) pool, and the other pool (atmospherically derived elemental sulfur) is suggested to be largely insoluble and unreactive until it reacts with hydrogen sulfide. We suggest that the relative contributions of these pools to the formation of pyrite depend on both the accumulation of the insoluble pool and the rate of sulfide production in the pyrite-forming environments. We also suggest that the existence of a significant nonsulfate pool of reactive sulfur has masked isotopic evidence for the widespread activity of sulfate reducers in the rock record. PMID:23407162

  14. Kinase regulation by sulfur and selenium containing compounds.

    PubMed

    Sanmartín, Carmen; Plano, Daniel; Font, María; Palop, Juan Antonio

    2011-05-01

    Kinases are enzymes that are involved in a wide-range of cellular targets such as cell proliferation, metabolism, survival and apoptosis. Aberrations in the activity of the kinases have been linked to many human diseases such as diabetes, inflammation and cancer. The discovery of more than 518 kinases encoded by the human genome has spurred the development of rapid screening techniques for potential drugs against these enzymes and these have been identified as interesting targets for medicinal chemistry programs, especially in cancer therapy. On the other hand, sulfur and selenium have been increasingly recognized as essential elements in biology and medicine. Converging data from epidemiological and clinical studies have highlighted these elements as effective chemopreventive agents, particularly against various types of cancer (prostate, lung, breast, leukemia, colon, skin, lymphome, thyroid, pancreas, liver). These elements act through a wide range of potential mechanisms where one identified signal pathway event is kinase modulation, which is common for the two elements and emerges as a valid target. The kinases modulated by sulfur and selenium derivatives include MAP, ERK, JNK, Akt, Cdc2, Cyclin B1 and Cdc25c amongst others. Although both of the elements in question are in the same group in the periodic table and have similar biochemistries, there are relevant differences related to redox potentials, stabilities, oxidation states and anticancer activity. Literature data suggest that the replacement of sulfur by selenium in established cancer chemopreventive agents results in more effective chemopreventive analogs. In view of the multi-target kinase mechanisms in preventing cellular transformation, as well as the differences and similarities between them, in this review we focus on the development of new structures that contain selenium and/or sulfur and discuss our understanding of the regulation of antitumoral effects with emphasis on kinase modulation

  15. Temperature anisotropy of the Jovian sulfur nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eviatar, A.; Siscoe, G. L.; Mekler, Y.

    1979-01-01

    The apparent paradox between the reported observation of a 3-eV gyration energy of Jupiter's ionized sulfur nebula and its observed thickness is discussed. An observation of the thickness of the cloud taken nearly edge-on is presented and shown to imply a large bounce-averaged anisotropy of the sulfur in temperature. These observations are used to construct a self-consistent model of the sulfur nebula in which the sulfur ions are injected by Io as ions and remain sufficiently collisionless in the magnetosphere to maintain the anisotropy for a time longer than a characteristic diffusion time. It is also shown that the proton-electron plasma is collisionally thermalized and provides an adequate means of tapping the rotational energy of the planet to provide the power radiated in the sulfur lines.

  16. Drug Targets in Mycobacterial Sulfur Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Bhave, Devayani P.; Muse, Wilson B.; Carroll, Kate S.

    2011-01-01

    The identification of new antibacterial targets is urgently needed to address multidrug resistant and latent tuberculosis infection. Sulfur metabolic pathways are essential for survival and the expression of virulence in many pathogenic bacteria, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In addition, microbial sulfur metabolic pathways are largely absent in humans and therefore, represent unique targets for therapeutic intervention. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the enzymes associated with the production of sulfated and reduced sulfur-containing metabolites in Mycobacteria. Small molecule inhibitors of these catalysts represent valuable chemical tools that can be used to investigate the role of sulfur metabolism throughout the Mycobacterial lifecycle and may also represent new leads for drug development. In this light, we also summarize recent progress in the development of inhibitors of sulfur metabolism enzymes. PMID:17970225

  17. Sulfur chemistry in bacterial leaching of pyrite.

    PubMed

    Schippers, A; Jozsa, P; Sand, W

    1996-09-01

    In the case of pyrite bioleaching by Leptospirillum ferrooxidans, an organism without sulfur-oxidizing capacity, besides the production of tetra- and pentathionate, a considerable accumulation of elemental sulfur occurred. A similar result was obtained for chemical oxidation assays with acidic, sterile iron(III) ion-containing solutions. In the case of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, only slight amounts of elemental sulfur were detectable because of the organism's capacity to oxidize sulfur compounds. In the course of oxidative, chemical pyrite degradation under alkaline conditions, the accumulation of tetrathionate, trithionate, and thiosulfate occurred. The data indicate that thiosulfate, trithionate, tetrathionate, and disulfane-monosulfonic acid are key intermediate sulfur compounds in oxidative pyrite degradation. A novel (cyclic) leaching mechanism is proposed which basically is indirect.

  18. Sulfur Chemistry in Bacterial Leaching of Pyrite

    PubMed Central

    Schippers, A.; Jozsa, P.; Sand, W.

    1996-01-01

    In the case of pyrite bioleaching by Leptospirillum ferrooxidans, an organism without sulfur-oxidizing capacity, besides the production of tetra- and pentathionate, a considerable accumulation of elemental sulfur occurred. A similar result was obtained for chemical oxidation assays with acidic, sterile iron(III) ion-containing solutions. In the case of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, only slight amounts of elemental sulfur were detectable because of the organism's capacity to oxidize sulfur compounds. In the course of oxidative, chemical pyrite degradation under alkaline conditions, the accumulation of tetrathionate, trithionate, and thiosulfate occurred. The data indicate that thiosulfate, trithionate, tetrathionate, and disulfane-monosulfonic acid are key intermediate sulfur compounds in oxidative pyrite degradation. A novel (cyclic) leaching mechanism is proposed which basically is indirect. PMID:16535406

  19. Seawater sulfur isotope fluctuations in the Cretaceous.

    PubMed

    Paytan, Adina; Kastner, Miriam; Campbell, Douglas; Thiemens, Mark H

    2004-06-11

    The exogenic sulfur cycle is tightly coupled with the carbon and oxygen cycles, and therefore a central component of Earth's biogeochemistry. Here we present a high-resolution record of the sulfur isotopic composition of seawater sulfate for the Cretaceous. The general enrichment of isotopically light sulfur that prevailed during the Cretaceous may have been due to increased volcanic and hydrothermal activity. Two excursions toward isotopically lighter sulfur represent periods of lower rates of pyrite burial, implying a shift in the location of organic carbon burial to terrestrial or open-ocean settings. The concurrent changes in seawater sulfur and inorganic carbon isotopic compositions imply short-term variability in atmospheric oxygen partial pressure.

  20. Reactive, anomalous compression in shocked polyurethane foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dattelbaum, Dana M.; Coe, Joshua D.; Kiyanda, Charles B.; Gustavsen, Richard L.; Patterson, Brian M.

    2014-05-01

    We present the results of plate impact experiments performed on 30%-75% porous, polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate polyurethane foams. The combination of new data with those previously obtained on full-density material was used to calibrate complete equations-of-state under both inert and chemically reactive frameworks. Description of unreacted polyurethane was based on a combination of Hayes and P-α models, whereas its decomposition products were predicted via free energy minimization under the assumption of chemical and thermodynamic equilibrium. Correspondence of experiment and theory suggests that polyurethane at all densities decomposes when shocked above some threshold pressure, and that this threshold falls dramatically as a function of initial porosity. The shock locus of foams at 50% or less of theoretical maximum density was found "anomalous" in the sense that final volumes increased with pressure. We attribute this anomaly to chemical decomposition of the initial matrix to a mixture of small-molecule fluids and bulk carbon (graphite or diamond, depending on the initial density).

  1. Diagnosing Anomalous Network Performance with Confidence

    SciTech Connect

    Settlemyer, Bradley W; Hodson, Stephen W; Kuehn, Jeffery A; Poole, Stephen W

    2011-04-01

    Variability in network performance is a major obstacle in effectively analyzing the throughput of modern high performance computer systems. High performance interconnec- tion networks offer excellent best-case network latencies; how- ever, highly parallel applications running on parallel machines typically require consistently high levels of performance to adequately leverage the massive amounts of available computing power. Performance analysts have usually quantified network performance using traditional summary statistics that assume the observational data is sampled from a normal distribution. In our examinations of network performance, we have found this method of analysis often provides too little data to under- stand anomalous network performance. Our tool, Confidence, instead uses an empirically derived probability distribution to characterize network performance. In this paper we describe several instances where the Confidence toolkit allowed us to understand and diagnose network performance anomalies that we could not adequately explore with the simple summary statis- tics provided by traditional measurement tools. In particular, we examine a multi-modal performance scenario encountered with an Infiniband interconnection network and we explore the performance repeatability on the custom Cray SeaStar2 interconnection network after a set of software and driver updates.

  2. Hydrodynamic waves in an anomalous charged fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, Navid; Davody, Ali; Hejazi, Kasra; Rezaei, Zahra

    2016-11-01

    We study the collective excitations in a relativistic fluid with an anomalous U (1) current. In 3 + 1 dimensions at zero chemical potential, in addition to ordinary sound modes we find two propagating modes in presence of an external magnetic field. The first one which is a transverse degenerate mode, propagates with a velocity proportional to the coefficient of gravitational anomaly; this is in fact the Chiral Alfvén wave recently found in [1]. Another one is a wave of density perturbation, namely a chiral magnetic wave (CMW). The velocity dependence of CMW on the chiral anomaly coefficient is well known. We compute the dependence of CMW's velocity on the coefficient of gravitational anomaly as well. We also show that the dissipation splits the degeneracy of CAW. At finite chiral charge density we show that in general there may exist five chiral hydrodynamic waves. Of these five waves, one is the CMW while the other four are mixed Modified Sound-Alfvén waves. It turns out that in propagation transverse to the magnetic field no anomaly effect appears while in parallel to the magnetic field we find sound waves become dispersive due to anomaly.

  3. Anomalous frequency dependent diamagnetism in metal silicide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahal, Ashutosh; Gunasekera, Jagat; Harriger, Leland; Singh, David J.; Singh, Deepak K.; Leland Harriger Collaboration

    Discovery of superconductivity in PbO-type FeSe has generated a lot of interest. Among the samples we synthesize with similar structure, NiSi has showed anomalous but very interesting results. Nickel silicides are important electronic materials that have been used as contacts for field effect transistors, as interconnects and in nanoelectronic devices. The magnetic properties of NiSi are not well known, however. In this presentation, we report a highly unusual magnetic phenomenon in NiSi. The ac susceptibility measurements on NiSi reveal strong frequency dependence of static and dynamic susceptibilities that are primarily diamagnetic at room temperature. The static susceptibility is found to exhibit a strong frequency dependence of the diamagnetic response below 100K, while dynamic susceptibility showed peak type feature at 10KHz frequency around 50K. Detailed neutron scattering measurements on high quality powder sample of NiSi on SPINS cold spectrometer further revealed an inelastic peak around 1.5meV, even though no magnetic order is detected. The inelastic peak dissipates above 100K, which is where the static susceptibility starts to diverge with frequency. Research is supported by U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Grant No. DE-SC0014461.

  4. Anomalous Anticipatory Responses in Networked Random Data

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Roger D.; Bancel, Peter A.

    2006-10-16

    We examine an 8-year archive of synchronized, parallel time series of random data from a world spanning network of physical random event generators (REGs). The archive is a publicly accessible matrix of normally distributed 200-bit sums recorded at 1 Hz which extends from August 1998 to the present. The primary question is whether these data show non-random structure associated with major events such as natural or man-made disasters, terrible accidents, or grand celebrations. Secondarily, we examine the time course of apparently correlated responses. Statistical analyses of the data reveal consistent evidence that events which strongly affect people engender small but significant effects. These include suggestions of anticipatory responses in some cases, leading to a series of specialized analyses to assess possible non-random structure preceding precisely timed events. A focused examination of data collected around the time of earthquakes with Richter magnitude 6 and greater reveals non-random structure with a number of intriguing, potentially important features. Anomalous effects in the REG data are seen only when the corresponding earthquakes occur in populated areas. No structure is found if they occur in the oceans. We infer that an important contributor to the effect is the relevance of the earthquake to humans. Epoch averaging reveals evidence for changes in the data some hours prior to the main temblor, suggestive of reverse causation.

  5. An Anomalous Force on the Map Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starin, Scott R.; ODonnell, James R., Jr.; Ward, David K.; Wollack, Edward J.; Bay, P. Michael; Fink, Dale R.; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) orbits the second Earth-Sun libration point (L2)-about 1.5 million kilometers outside Earth's orbit-mapping cosmic microwave background radiation. To achieve orbit near L2 on a small fuel budget, the MAP spacecraft needed to swing past the Moon for a gravity assist. Timing the lunar swing-by required MAP to travel in three high-eccentricity phasing loops with critical maneuvers at a minimum of two, but nominally all three, of the perigee passes. On the approach to the first perigee maneuver, MAP telemetry showed a considerable change in system angular momentum that threatened to cause on-board Failure Detection and Correction (FDC) to abort the critical maneuver. Fortunately, the system momentum did not reach the FDC limit; however, the MAP team did develop a contingency strategy should a stronger anomaly occur before or during subsequent perigee maneuvers, Simultaneously, members of the MAP team developed and tested various hypotheses for the cause of the anomalous force. The final hypothesis was that water was outgassing from the thermal blanketing and freezing to the cold side of the solar shield. As radiation from Earth warmed the cold side of the spacecraft, the uneven sublimation of frozen water created a torque on the spacecraft.

  6. Anomalous Wien Effects in Supercooled Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Patro, L N; Burghaus, O; Roling, B

    2016-05-01

    We have measured conductivity spectra of several supercooled monocationic and dicationic ionic liquids in the nonlinear regime by applying ac electric fields with large amplitudes up to about 180  kV/cm. Thereby, higher harmonic ac currents up to the 7th order were detected. Our results point to the existence of anomalous Wien effects in supercooled ionic liquids. Most ionic liquids studied here exhibit a conductivity-viscosity relation, which is close to the predictions of the Nernst-Einstein and Stokes-Einstein equations, as observed for classical strong electrolytes like KCl. These "strong" ionic liquids show a much stronger nonlinearity of the conductivity than classical strong electrolytes. On the other hand, the conductivity-viscosity relation of the ionic liquid [P_{6,6,6,14}][Cl] points to ion association effects. This "weak" ionic liquid shows a strength of the nonlinear effect, which is comparable to classical weak electrolytes. However, the nonlinearity increases quadratically with the field. We suggest that a theory for explaining these anomalies will have to go beyond the level of Coulomb lattice gas models. PMID:27203333

  7. Anomalous human behavior detection: an adaptive approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Leeuwen, Coen; Halma, Arvid; Schutte, Klamer

    2013-05-01

    Detection of anomalies (outliers or abnormal instances) is an important element in a range of applications such as fault, fraud, suspicious behavior detection and knowledge discovery. In this article we propose a new method for anomaly detection and performed tested its ability to detect anomalous behavior in videos from DARPA's Mind's Eye program, containing a variety of human activities. In this semi-unsupervised task a set of normal instances is provided for training, after which unknown abnormal behavior has to be detected in a test set. The features extracted from the video data have high dimensionality, are sparse and inhomogeneously distributed in the feature space making it a challenging task. Given these characteristics a distance-based method is preferred, but choosing a threshold to classify instances as (ab)normal is non-trivial. Our novel aproach, the Adaptive Outlier Distance (AOD) is able to detect outliers in these conditions based on local distance ratios. The underlying assumption is that the local maximum distance between labeled examples is a good indicator of the variation in that neighborhood, and therefore a local threshold will result in more robust outlier detection. We compare our method to existing state-of-art methods such as the Local Outlier Factor (LOF) and the Local Distance-based Outlier Factor (LDOF). The results of the experiments show that our novel approach improves the quality of the anomaly detection.

  8. Anomalous Light Phenomena vs. Bioelectric Brain Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodorani, M.; Nobili, G.

    We present a research proposal concerning the instrumented investigation of anomalous light phenomena that are apparently correlated with particular mind states, such as prayer, meditation or psi. Previous research by these authors demonstrate that such light phenomena can be monitored and measured quite efficiently in areas of the world where they are reported in a recurrent way. Instruments such as optical equipment for photography and spectroscopy, VLF spectrometers, magnetometers, radar and IR viewers were deployed and used massively in several areas of the world. Results allowed us to develop physical models concerning the structural and time-variable behaviour of light phenomena, and their kinematics. Recent insights and witnesses have suggested to us that a sort of "synchronous connection" seems to exist between plasma-like phenomena and particular mind states of experiencers who seem to trigger a light manifestation which is very similar to the one previously investigated. The main goal of these authors is now aimed at the search for a concrete "entanglement-like effect" between the experiencer's mind and the light phenomena, in such a way that both aspects are intended to be monitored and measured simultaneously using appropriate instrumentation. The goal of this research project is twofold: a) to verify quantitatively the existence of one very particular kind of mind-matter interaction and to study in real time its physical and biophysical manifestations; b) to repeat the same kind of experiment using the same test-subject in different locations and under various conditions of geomagnetic activity.

  9. Anomalous transfer of syntax between languages.

    PubMed

    Vaughan-Evans, Awel; Kuipers, Jan Rouke; Thierry, Guillaume; Jones, Manon W

    2014-06-11

    Each human language possesses a set of distinctive syntactic rules. Here, we show that balanced Welsh-English bilinguals reading in English unconsciously apply a morphosyntactic rule that only exists in Welsh. The Welsh soft mutation rule determines whether the initial consonant of a noun changes based on the grammatical context (e.g., the feminine noun cath--"cat" mutates into gath in the phrase y gath--"the cat"). Using event-related brain potentials, we establish that English nouns artificially mutated according to the Welsh mutation rule (e.g., "goncert" instead of "concert") require significantly less processing effort than the same nouns implicitly violating Welsh syntax. Crucially, this effect is found whether or not the mutation affects the same initial consonant in English and Welsh, showing that Welsh syntax is applied to English regardless of phonological overlap between the two languages. Overall, these results demonstrate for the first time that abstract syntactic rules transfer anomalously from one language to the other, even when such rules exist only in one language.

  10. Anomalous Nernst Effect with Magnetocrystalline Anisotropy (110)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesman, Carlos; Costa Neto, Jose; Department of Physics-UFRN Team

    2014-03-01

    When a ferromagnetic material is submitted to a temperature gradient and the magnetic field generates voltage on the edges of the samples, this is called the Anomalous Nernst Effect (ANE). The Heusler alloys that currently exhibit this effect are the most promising for spintronics and spin caloritronics. In this study we perform a theoretical investigation of voltage curves associated to the ANE, when the material displays magnetocrystalline anisotropy for experimental results in two configurations, ANE versus applied magnetic field and planar angle variations of ANE. We analyzed three types of magnetocrystalline anisotropy: cubic anisotropy (100) with C4 symmetry, uniaxial anisotropy with C2 symmetry and cubic anisotropy (110). The aim was to prove that cubic anisotropy (110) is equivalent to anisotropy (100) combined with uniaxial anisotropy. Theoretical fitting of experimental ANE data demonstrates this total equivalence and that a new interpretation with the use of cubic anisotropy (110) may be due to the atomic arrangement of the so-called full-Heusler. Comparative analyses of Co2FeAl and Co2MnGe alloys will be presented. CNPq, CAPES, FAPERN.

  11. Anomalous water diffusion in salt solutions

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yun; Hassanali, Ali A.; Parrinello, Michele

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics of water exhibits anomalous behavior in the presence of different electrolytes. Recent experiments [Kim JS, Wu Z, Morrow AR, Yethiraj A, Yethiraj A (2012) J Phys Chem B 116(39):12007–12013] have found that the self-diffusion of water can either be enhanced or suppressed around CsI and NaCl, respectively, relative to that of neat water. Here we show that unlike classical empirical potentials, ab initio molecular dynamics simulations successfully reproduce the qualitative trends observed experimentally. These types of phenomena have often been rationalized in terms of the “structure-making” or “structure-breaking” effects of different ions on the solvent, although the microscopic origins of these features have remained elusive. Rather than disrupting the network in a significant manner, the electrolytes studied here cause rather subtle changes in both structural and dynamical properties of water. In particular, we show that water in the ab initio molecular dynamics simulations is characterized by dynamic heterogeneity, which turns out to be critical in reproducing the experimental trends. PMID:24522111

  12. Anomalous Wien Effects in Supercooled Ionic Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patro, L. N.; Burghaus, O.; Roling, B.

    2016-05-01

    We have measured conductivity spectra of several supercooled monocationic and dicationic ionic liquids in the nonlinear regime by applying ac electric fields with large amplitudes up to about 180 kV /cm . Thereby, higher harmonic ac currents up to the 7th order were detected. Our results point to the existence of anomalous Wien effects in supercooled ionic liquids. Most ionic liquids studied here exhibit a conductivity-viscosity relation, which is close to the predictions of the Nernst-Einstein and Stokes-Einstein equations, as observed for classical strong electrolytes like KCl. These "strong" ionic liquids show a much stronger nonlinearity of the conductivity than classical strong electrolytes. On the other hand, the conductivity-viscosity relation of the ionic liquid [P6 ,6 ,6 ,14][Cl ] points to ion association effects. This "weak" ionic liquid shows a strength of the nonlinear effect, which is comparable to classical weak electrolytes. However, the nonlinearity increases quadratically with the field. We suggest that a theory for explaining these anomalies will have to go beyond the level of Coulomb lattice gas models.

  13. Anomalous thermodynamic power laws in nodal superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintanilla, Jorge; Mazidian, Bayan; Annett, James F.; Hillier, Adrian D.

    2013-03-01

    Unconventional superconductors are frequently identified by the observation of power law behaviour on low temperature thermodynamic properties such as specific heat. These power laws generally derive from the linear spectrum near points or lines of zeros, or nodes, in the superconducting energy gap on the Fermi surface. Here we show that, in addition to the usual point and line nodes, a much wider class of different nodal types can occur. Some of these new types of nodes typically occur when there are transitions between different types of gap node topology, for example when point or line nodes first appear as a function of some physical parameter. We derive anomalous, non-integer thermodynamic power laws associated with these new nodal types and predict their occurrence in iron pnictide superconductors and in the noncentrosymmetric system Li2Pd3-xPtxB. This works was supported by EPSRC and STFC (U.K.) J.Q. gratefully acknowledges funding from HEFCE and STFC through the South-East Physics network (SEPnet).

  14. Anomalous transfer of syntax between languages.

    PubMed

    Vaughan-Evans, Awel; Kuipers, Jan Rouke; Thierry, Guillaume; Jones, Manon W

    2014-06-11

    Each human language possesses a set of distinctive syntactic rules. Here, we show that balanced Welsh-English bilinguals reading in English unconsciously apply a morphosyntactic rule that only exists in Welsh. The Welsh soft mutation rule determines whether the initial consonant of a noun changes based on the grammatical context (e.g., the feminine noun cath--"cat" mutates into gath in the phrase y gath--"the cat"). Using event-related brain potentials, we establish that English nouns artificially mutated according to the Welsh mutation rule (e.g., "goncert" instead of "concert") require significantly less processing effort than the same nouns implicitly violating Welsh syntax. Crucially, this effect is found whether or not the mutation affects the same initial consonant in English and Welsh, showing that Welsh syntax is applied to English regardless of phonological overlap between the two languages. Overall, these results demonstrate for the first time that abstract syntactic rules transfer anomalously from one language to the other, even when such rules exist only in one language. PMID:24920636

  15. From the Cover: Sulfur isotopes of organic matter preserved in 3.45-billion-year-old stromatolites reveal microbial metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bontognali, Tomaso R. R.; Sessions, Alex L.; Allwood, Abigail C.; Fischer, Woodward W.; Grotzinger, John P.; Summons, Roger E.; Eiler, John M.

    2012-09-01

    The 3.45-billion-year-old Strelley Pool Formation of Western Australia preserves stromatolites that are considered among the oldest evidence for life on Earth. In places of exceptional preservation, these stromatolites contain laminae rich in organic carbon, interpreted as the fossil remains of ancient microbial mats. To better understand the biogeochemistry of these rocks, we performed microscale in situ sulfur isotope measurements of the preserved organic sulfur, including both Δ33S and . This approach allows us to tie physiological inference from isotope ratios directly to fossil biomass, providing a means to understand sulfur metabolism that is complimentary to, and independent from, inorganic proxies (e.g., pyrite). Δ33S values of the kerogen reveal mass-anomalous fractionations expected of the Archean sulfur cycle, whereas values show large fractionations at very small spatial scales, including values below -15‰. We interpret these isotopic patterns as recording the process of sulfurization of organic matter by H2S in heterogeneous mat pore-waters influenced by respiratory S metabolism. Positive Δ33S anomalies suggest that disproportionation of elemental sulfur would have been a prominent microbial process in these communities.

  16. The Chelyabinsk Meteorite Hits an Anomalous Zone in the Urals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2013-09-01

    The Chelyabinsk meteorite is "strange" because it hits an area in the Urals where anomalous events are observed: shining skies, light balls, UFOs, electrphonic bolids. The area tectonically occurs at the intersection of two fold belts: Urals and Timan.

  17. Wave associated anomalous drag during magnetic field reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Mozer, F. S.; Wilber, M.; Drake, J. F.

    2011-10-15

    The anomalous drag, D, due to large amplitude plasma waves is used for the first time, in place of {eta}*j, to estimate dissipation at the sub-solar magnetopause and to determine the extent to which this drag accounts for the reconnection electric field. This anomalous drag is determined by measuring correlations of the fluctuations in the electric field and plasma density. Large amplitude electric fields occurred more than 60% of the time in the more than 100 sub-solar, low latitude magnetopause crossings of the THEMIS satellite. They occurred mainly near the magnetospheric separatrix in the form of electrostatic lower hybrid and whistler waves. The anomalous drag at the separatrix was generally <10% of the average reconnection electric field, and it was <1% of the field in the current sheet. Thus, anomalous drag due to waves is not a significant driver of reconnection or of the required dissipation at the sub-solar magnetopause.

  18. Treatment of stones associated with complex or anomalous renal anatomy.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Mantu; Lee, Michael W

    2007-08-01

    This article reviews the most common renal anomalies and the management of patients with calculus disease in anomalous kidneys. The emphasis is on minimally invasive techniques to achieve a stone-free status with minimal morbidity. PMID:17678992

  19. Modeling anomalous radial transport in kinetic transport codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodi, K.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Cohen, R. H.; Rognlien, T. D.

    2009-11-01

    Anomalous transport is typically the dominant component of the radial transport in magnetically confined plasmas, where the physical origin of this transport is believed to be plasma turbulence. A model is presented for anomalous transport that can be used in continuum kinetic edge codes like TEMPEST, NEO and the next-generation code being developed by the Edge Simulation Laboratory. The model can also be adapted to particle-based codes. It is demonstrated that the model with a velocity-dependent diffusion and convection terms can match a diagonal gradient-driven transport matrix as found in contemporary fluid codes, but can also include off-diagonal effects. The anomalous transport model is also combined with particle drifts and a particle/energy-conserving Krook collision operator to study possible synergistic effects with neoclassical transport. For the latter study, a velocity-independent anomalous diffusion coefficient is used to mimic the effect of long-wavelength ExB turbulence.

  20. Application of anomalous diffusion in production of negative ions

    SciTech Connect

    Jimbo, K.

    1984-11-01

    The production of negative hydrogen ions is investigated in the reflex-type negative ion sources. When anomalous diffusion in the positive column was found by Hoh and Lehnert (Phys. Fluids 3, 600 (1960)), it was pointed out that the large particle loss produced by anomalous diffusion is compensated for by the larger particle production inside the plasma. In the present experiments anomalous diffusion was artificially encouraged by changing the radial electric field inside the reflex discharge. Apparent encouragement of negative ion current by the increase of the density fluctuation amplitude is observed. Twice as much negative ion current was obtained with the artificial encouragement as without. On the other hand, the larger extracted negative ion current was observed with a lower electron temperature, which is calculated from the anomalous diffusion coefficient derived from a simple nonlinear theory. This result is consistent with Wadehra's calculated results (Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 917 (1979)).

  1. Sampling and Characterization of 618-2 Anomalous Material

    SciTech Connect

    A.E. Zacharias

    2006-04-27

    Excavation of the 618-2 Burial Ground has produced many items of anomalous waste. Prior to temporary packaging and/or storage, these items have been characterized in the field to identify radiological and industrial safety conditions.

  2. Linear Magnetization Dependence of the Intrinsic Anomalous Hall Effect

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, C.; Yao, Y.; Niu, Q.; Weitering, Harm H

    2006-01-01

    The anomalous Hall effect is investigated experimentally and theoretically for ferromagnetic thin films of Mn{sub 5}Ge{sub 3}. We have separated the intrinsic and extrinsic contributions to the experimental anomalous Hall effect and calculated the intrinsic anomalous Hall conductivity from the Berry curvature of the Bloch states using first-principles methods. The intrinsic anomalous Hall conductivity depends linearly on the magnetization, which can be understood from the long-wavelength fluctuations of the spin orientation at finite temperatures. The quantitative agreement between theory and experiment is remarkably good, not only near 0 K but also at finite temperatures, up to about -240 K (0.8T{sub c}).

  3. Compositions of Normal and Anomalous Eucrite-Type Mafic Achondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Peng, Z. X.; Mertzman, S. A.

    2016-08-01

    Eucrite-type mafic achondrites include some with anomalous petrologic and/or isotopic characteristics compared to normal eucrites. We are examining the bulk compositions of several mafic achondrites to better understand asteroidal igneous evolution.

  4. Anomalous scaling of a scalar field advected by turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Kraichnan, R.H.

    1995-12-31

    Recent work leading to deduction of anomalous scaling exponents for the inertial range of an advected passive field from the equations of motion is reviewed. Implications for other turbulence problems are discussed.

  5. Tensor Charges, Quark Anomalous Magnetic Moments And Baryons

    SciTech Connect

    Mekhfi, M.

    2007-06-13

    We propose an 'ultimate' upgrade of the Karl- Sehgal (KS) formula which relates baryon magnetic moments to the spin structure of constituent quarks, by adding anomalous magnetic moments of quarks. We first argue that relativistic nature of quarks inside baryons requires introduction of two kinds of magnetisms, one axial and the other tensoriel. The first one is associated with integrated quark helicity distributions {delta}i - {delta}i-bar (standard ) and the second with integrated transversity distributions {delta}i - {delta}i-bar. The weight of each contribution is controlled by the combination of two parameters, xi the ratio of the quark mass to the average kinetic energy and ai the quark anomalous magnetic moment. The quark anomalous magnetic moment is thus shown to be correlated to transversity. The proposed formula confirms, with reasonable inputs that anomalous magnetic moments of quarks are unavoidable intrinsic properties.

  6. Data collection with a tailored X-ray beam size at 2.69 Å wavelength (4.6 keV): sulfur SAD phasing of Cdc23Nterm

    PubMed Central

    Cianci, Michele; Groves, Matthew R.; Barford, David; Schneider, Thomas R.

    2016-01-01

    The capability to reach wavelengths of up to 3.1 Å at the newly established EMBL P13 beamline at PETRA III, the new third-generation synchrotron at DESY in Hamburg, provides the opportunity to explore very long wavelengths to harness the sulfur anomalous signal for phase determination. Data collection at λ = 2.69 Å (4.6 keV) allowed the crystal structure determination by sulfur SAD phasing of Cdc23Nterm, a subunit of the multimeric anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C). At this energy, Cdc23Nterm has an expected Bijvoet ratio 〈|F anom|〉/〈F〉 of 2.2%, with 282 residues, including six cysteines and five methionine residues, and two molecules in the asymmetric unit (65.4 kDa; 12 Cys and ten Met residues). Selectively illuminating two separate portions of the same crystal with an X-ray beam of 50 µm in diameter allowed crystal twinning to be overcome. The crystals diffracted to 3.1 Å resolution, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 61.2, c = 151.5 Å, and belonged to space group P43. The refined structure to 3.1 Å resolution has an R factor of 18.7% and an R free of 25.9%. This paper reports the structure solution, related methods and a discussion of the instrumentation. PMID:26960127

  7. Anomalous abductor digiti minimi in Guyon canal: A cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Ciani, Mario James; LaFay, Vicki; Ciani, Gioia; Carey, Paul; Parnes, Nata

    2016-10-01

    A routine cadaver dissection revealed a noteworthy anomalous muscle in the distal anterior forearm. Clinicians should be aware of this finding and consider it as a differential diagnosis in patients with wrist disorders such as ulnar tunnel syndrome from occlusion of the ulnar canal. A space-occupying lesion, such as the anomalous muscle found in this dissection, is an important potential source of ulnar canal obstruction.

  8. Anomalous abductor digiti minimi in Guyon canal: A cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Ciani, Mario James; LaFay, Vicki; Ciani, Gioia; Carey, Paul; Parnes, Nata

    2016-10-01

    A routine cadaver dissection revealed a noteworthy anomalous muscle in the distal anterior forearm. Clinicians should be aware of this finding and consider it as a differential diagnosis in patients with wrist disorders such as ulnar tunnel syndrome from occlusion of the ulnar canal. A space-occupying lesion, such as the anomalous muscle found in this dissection, is an important potential source of ulnar canal obstruction. PMID:27685508

  9. Simulation framework for spatio-spectral anomalous change detection

    SciTech Connect

    Theiler, James P; Harvey, Neal R; Porter, Reid B; Wohlberg, Brendt E

    2009-01-01

    The authors describe the development of a simulation framework for anomalous change detection that considers both the spatial and spectral aspects of the imagery. A purely spectral framework has previously been introduced, but the extension to spatio-spectral requires attention to a variety of new issues, and requires more careful modeling of the anomalous changes. Using this extended framework, they evaluate the utility of spatial image processing operators to enhance change detection sensitivity in (simulated) remote sensing imagery.

  10. Anomalous Surface Diffusion in Nanoscale Direct Deposition Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manandhar, P.; Jang, J.; Schatz, G. C.; Ratner, M. A.; Hong, S.

    2003-03-01

    We report the first observation of anomalous diffusion in nanometer scale direct deposition processes utilizing dip-pen nanolithography (DPN). DPN permits quite general nanostructure patterns to be drawn on flat surfaces. Here we demonstrate experimentally, and discuss theoretically, the situation in which the molecular ink in DPN binds weakly to the surface. We observe, for the weak-binding case of 1-dodecylamine on mica, that anomalous diffusion occurs, leading to nearly fractal deposition patterns.

  11. Large anomalous Nernst effect in a skyrmion crystal.

    PubMed

    Mizuta, Yo Pierre; Ishii, Fumiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Thermoelectric properties of a model skyrmion crystal were theoretically investigated, and it was found that its large anomalous Hall conductivity, corresponding to large Chern numbers induced by its peculiar spin structure leads to a large transverse thermoelectric voltage through the anomalous Nernst effect. This implies the possibility of finding good thermoelectric materials among skyrmion systems, and thus motivates our quests for them by means of the first-principles calculations as were employed in this study. PMID:27306142

  12. Anomalous diffusion in quantum Brownian motion with colored noise

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, G. W.; O'Connell, R. F.

    2006-03-15

    Anomalous diffusion is discussed in the context of quantum Brownian motion with colored noise. It is shown that earlier results follow simply and directly from the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. The limits on the long-time dependence of anomalous diffusion are shown to be a consequence of the second law of thermodynamics. The special case of an electron interacting with the radiation field is discussed in detail. We apply our results to wave-packet spreading.

  13. CP violating anomalous top-quark couplings at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Sudhir Kumar; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Valencia, G.

    2009-08-01

    We study the T odd correlations induced by CP violating anomalous top-quark couplings at both production and decay level in the process gg{yields}tt{yields}(b{mu}{sup +}{nu}{sub {mu}})(b{mu}{sup -}{nu}{sub {mu}}). We consider several counting asymmetries at the parton level and find the ones with the most sensitivity to each of these anomalous couplings at the LHC.

  14. Searching for the fourth family quarks through anomalous decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahin, M.; Sultansoy, S.; Turkoz, S.

    2010-09-01

    The flavor democracy hypothesis predicts the existence of the fourth standard model family. Because of the high masses of the fourth family quarks, their anomalous decays could be dominant if certain criteria are met. This will drastically change the search strategy at hadron colliders. We show that the fourth standard model family down quarks with masses up to 400-450 GeV can be observed (or excluded) via anomalous decays by Tevatron.

  15. Large anomalous Nernst effect in a skyrmion crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuta, Yo Pierre; Ishii, Fumiyuki

    2016-06-01

    Thermoelectric properties of a model skyrmion crystal were theoretically investigated, and it was found that its large anomalous Hall conductivity, corresponding to large Chern numbers induced by its peculiar spin structure leads to a large transverse thermoelectric voltage through the anomalous Nernst effect. This implies the possibility of finding good thermoelectric materials among skyrmion systems, and thus motivates our quests for them by means of the first-principles calculations as were employed in this study.

  16. Large anomalous Nernst effect in a skyrmion crystal

    PubMed Central

    Mizuta, Yo Pierre; Ishii, Fumiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Thermoelectric properties of a model skyrmion crystal were theoretically investigated, and it was found that its large anomalous Hall conductivity, corresponding to large Chern numbers induced by its peculiar spin structure leads to a large transverse thermoelectric voltage through the anomalous Nernst effect. This implies the possibility of finding good thermoelectric materials among skyrmion systems, and thus motivates our quests for them by means of the first-principles calculations as were employed in this study. PMID:27306142

  17. Anomalous low-frequency grain-boundary capacitance in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seager, C. H.; Pike, G. E.

    1980-10-01

    The admittance of silicon bicrystals has been measured as a function of temperature, frequency, and dc voltage. In some cases the low-frequency capacitance is anomalously large. The ac response of a simple double depletion layer structure is calculated. The anomalous capacitive currents are due to an out-of-phase modulation of the barrier height caused by charge injected into grain-boundary traps.

  18. Method for processing seismic data to identify anomalous absorption zones

    DOEpatents

    Taner, M. Turhan

    2006-01-03

    A method is disclosed for identifying zones anomalously absorptive of seismic energy. The method includes jointly time-frequency decomposing seismic traces, low frequency bandpass filtering the decomposed traces to determine a general trend of mean frequency and bandwidth of the seismic traces, and high frequency bandpass filtering the decomposed traces to determine local variations in the mean frequency and bandwidth of the seismic traces. Anomalous zones are determined where there is difference between the general trend and the local variations.

  19. Anomalous contours and illusion of angularity: phenomenal and theoretical comparisons.

    PubMed

    Pinna, B

    1991-01-01

    Many experimental comparisons between real and anomalous contours have proven the functional equivalence of the two conditions; however, there are some contradictory findings. One of these is obtained by analyzing the anomalous contours in the light of a new illusion, called the 'illusion of angularity'. A circle becomes a polygon when it covers the centre of a radial arrangement of black stripes, and a polygon changes its perceptual shape depending on its orientation with respect to the same radial arrangement. Phenomenally, it appears like a very pointed polygon, in which every side is concave or, alternatively, a shape that looks like a circle with angles added in the spaces between the radial stripes, or a polygonal shape in which every side is convex. The reciprocal anomalous counterparts of these conditions, obtained by removing the geometrical/polygonal contours, reveal different results. In the first case, one sees a perfect circle; in the second case, a polygon with blunted vertices, or a circular shape with angular protrusions; in the third case, a deformed circle. These results are inconsistent with some theoretical models proposed to explain the emergence of anomalous contours, namely, all the top-down models expressed in terms of cognitive constructions and perceptual hypotheses, or in terms of global figural organizations. Rather, these comparisons suggest a different interpretation for the two phenomena (the illusion of angularity and anomalous contours). This interpretation is based on dynamic interactions or on network computations that synthesize both real and anomalous contours.

  20. Symmetrized local co-registration optimization for anomalous change detection

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlberg, Brendt E; Theiler, James P

    2009-01-01

    The goal of anomalous change detection (ACD) is to identify what unusual changes have occurred in a scene, based on two images of the scene taken at different times and under different conditions. The actual anomalous changes need to be distinguished from the incidental differences that occur throughout the imagery, and one of the most common and confounding of these incidental differences is due to the misregistration of the images, due to limitations of the registration pre-processing applied to the image pair. We propose a general method to compensate for residual misregistration in any ACD algorithm which constructs an estimate of the degree of 'anomalousness' for every pixel in the image pair. The method computes a modified misregistration-insensitive anomalousness by making local re-registration adjustments to minimize the local anomalousness. In this paper we describe a symmetrized version of our initial algorithm, and find significant performance improvements in the anomalous change detection ROC curves for a number of real and synthetic data sets.

  1. Structural controls on anomalous transport in fractured porous rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edery, Yaniv; Geiger, Sebastian; Berkowitz, Brian

    2016-07-01

    Anomalous transport is ubiquitous in a wide range of disordered systems, notably in fractured porous formations. We quantitatively identify the structural controls on anomalous tracer transport in a model of a real fractured geological formation that was mapped in an outcrop. The transport, determined by a continuum scale mathematical model, is characterized by breakthrough curves (BTCs) that document anomalous (or "non-Fickian") transport, which is accounted for by a power law distribution of local transition times ψ>(t>) within the framework of a continuous time random walk (CTRW). We show that the determination of ψ>(t>) is related to fractures aligned approximately with the macroscopic direction of flow. We establish the dominant role of fracture alignment and assess the statistics of these fractures by determining a concentration-visitation weighted residence time histogram. We then convert the histogram to a probability density function (pdf) that coincides with the CTRW ψ>(t>) and hence anomalous transport. We show that the permeability of the geological formation hosting the fracture network has a limited effect on the anomalous nature of the transport; rather, it is the fractures transverse to the flow direction that play the major role in forming the long BTC tail associated with anomalous transport. This is a remarkable result, given the complexity of the flow field statistics as captured by concentration transitions.

  2. Symmetrized local co-registration optimization for anomalous change detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlberg, Brendt; Theiler, James

    2010-01-01

    The goal of anomalous change detection (ACD) is to identify what unusual changes have occurred in a scene, based on two images of the scene taken at different times and under different conditions. The actual anomalous changes need to be distinguished from the incidental differences that occur throughout the imagery, and one of the most common and confounding of these incidental differences is due to the misregistration of the images, due to limitations of the registration pre-processing applied to the image pair. We propose a general method to compensate for residual misregistration in any ACD algorithm which constructs an estimate of the degree of "anomalousness" for every pixel in the image pair. The method computes a modified misregistration-insensitive anomalousness by making local re-registration adjustments to minimize the local anomalousness. In this paper we describe a symmetrized version of our initial algorithm, and find significant performance improvements in the anomalous change detection ROC curves for a number of real and synthetic data sets.

  3. Sulfur nanocrystals anchored graphene composite with highly improved electrochemical performance for lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Dong, Zimin; Wang, Xiuli; Zhao, Xuyang; Tu, Jiangping; Su, Qingmei; Du, Gaohui

    2014-12-01

    Two kinds of graphene-sulfur composites with 50 wt% of sulfur are prepared using hydrothermal method and thermal mixing, respectively. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectra mapping show that sulfur nanocrystals with size of ∼5 nm dispersed on graphene sheets homogeneously for the sample prepared by hydrothermal method (NanoS@G). While for the thermal mixed graphene-sulfur composite (S-G mixture), sulfur shows larger and uneven size (50-200 nm). X-ray Photoelectron Spectra (XPS) reveals the strong chemical bonding between the sulfur nanocrystals and graphene. Comparing with the S-G mixture, the NanoS@G composite shows highly improved electrochemical performance as cathode for lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery. The NanoS@G composite delivers an initial capacity of 1400 mAh g-1 with the sulfur utilization of 83.7% at a current density of 335 mA g-1. The capacity keeps above 720 mAh g-1 over 100 cycles. The strong adherence of the sulfur nanocrystals on graphene immobilizes sulfur and polysulfides species and suppressed the "shuttle effect", resulting higher coulombic efficiency and better capacity retention. Electrochemical impedance also suggests that the strong bonding enabled rapid electronic/ionic transport and improved electrochemical kinetics, therefore good rate capability is obtained. These results demonstrate that the NanoS@G composite is a very promising candidate for high-performance Li-S batteries.

  4. A mesoporous carbon–sulfur composite as cathode material for high rate lithium sulfur batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Hyunji; Zhao, Xiaohui; Kim, Dul-Sun; Ahn, Hyo-Jun; Kim, Ki-Won; Cho, Kwon-Koo; Ahn, Jou-Hyeon

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • CMK-3 mesoporous carbon was synthesized as conducting reservoir for housing sulfur. • Sulfur/CMK-3 composites were prepared by two-stage thermal treatment. • The composite at 300 °C for 20 h shows improved electrochemical properties. - Abstract: Sulfur composite was prepared by encapsulating sulfur into CMK-3 mesoporous carbon with different heating times and then used as the cathode material for lithium sulfur batteries. Thermal treatment at 300 °C plays an important role in the sulfur encapsulation process. With 20 h of heating time, a portion of sulfur remained on the surface of carbon, whereas with 60 h of heating time, sulfur is confined deeply in the small pores of carbon that cannot be fully exploited in the redox reaction, thus causing low capacity. The S/CMK-3 composite with thermal treatment for 40 h at 300 °C contained 51.3 wt.% sulfur and delivered a high initial capacity of 1375 mA h g{sup −1} at 0.1 C. Moreover, it showed good capacity retention of 704 mA h g{sup −1} at 0.1 C and 578 mA h g{sup −1} at 2 C even after 100 cycles, which proves its potential as a cathode material for high capability lithium sulfur batteries.

  5. Fractional order analysis of Sephadex gel structures: NMR measurements reflecting anomalous diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magin, Richard L.; Akpa, Belinda S.; Neuberger, Thomas; Webb, Andrew G.

    2011-12-01

    We report the appearance of anomalous water diffusion in hydrophilic Sephadex gels observed using pulse field gradient (PFG) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The NMR diffusion data was collected using a Varian 14.1 Tesla imaging system with a home-built RF saddle coil. A fractional order analysis of the data was used to characterize heterogeneity in the gels for the dynamics of water diffusion in this restricted environment. Several recent studies of anomalous diffusion have used the stretched exponential function to model the decay of the NMR signal, i.e., exp[-( bD) α], where D is the apparent diffusion constant, b is determined the experimental conditions (gradient pulse separation, durations and strength), and α is a measure of structural complexity. In this work, we consider a different case where the spatial Laplacian in the Bloch-Torrey equation is generalized to a fractional order model of diffusivity via a complexity parameter, β, a space constant, μ, and a diffusion coefficient, D. This treatment reverts to the classical result for the integer order case. The fractional order decay model was fit to the diffusion-weighted signal attenuation for a range of b-values (0 < b < 4000 s mm -2). Throughout this range of b values, the parameters β, μ and D, were found to correlate with the porosity and tortuosity of the gel structure.

  6. Carbon-, sulfur-, and phosphorus-based charge transfer reactions in inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grindlay, Guillermo; Gras, Luis; Mora, Juan; de Loos-Vollebregt, Margaretha T. C.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the influence of carbon-, sulfur-, and phosphorus-based charge transfer reactions on the emission signal of 34 elements (Ag, Al, As, Au, B, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, Hg, I, In, Ir, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Pd, Pt, S, Sb, Se, Sr, Te, and Zn) in axially viewed inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry has been investigated. To this end, atomic and ionic emission signals for diluted glycerol, sulfuric acid, and phosphoric acid solutions were registered and results were compared to those obtained for a 1% w w- 1 nitric acid solution. Experimental results show that the emission intensities of As, Se, and Te atomic lines are enhanced by charge transfer from carbon, sulfur, and phosphorus ions. Iodine and P atomic emission is enhanced by carbon- and sulfur-based charge transfer whereas the Hg atomic emission signal is enhanced only by carbon. Though signal enhancement due to charge transfer reactions is also expected for ionic emission lines of the above-mentioned elements, no experimental evidence has been found with the exception of Hg ionic lines operating carbon solutions. The effect of carbon, sulfur, and phosphorus charge transfer reactions on atomic emission depends on (i) wavelength characteristics. In general, signal enhancement is more pronounced for electronic transitions involving the highest upper energy levels; (ii) plasma experimental conditions. The use of robust conditions (i.e. high r.f. power and lower nebulizer gas flow rates) improves carbon, sulfur, and phosphorus ionization in the plasma and, hence, signal enhancement; and (iii) the presence of other concomitants (e.g. K or Ca). Easily ionizable elements reduce ionization in the plasma and consequently reduce signal enhancement due to charge transfer reactions.

  7. Phanerozoic cycles of sedimentary carbon and sulfur

    PubMed Central

    Garrels, Robert M.; Lerman, Abraham

    1981-01-01

    A reservoir model of a Recent steady-state sedimentary system in which the reduced sulfur and oxidized sulfur reservoirs were coupled with the oxidized carbon and reduced carbon reservoirs was constructed. The time curve of the sulfur isotope ratios of the sedimentary sulfate reservoir was used to drive the model back to the beginning of Cambrian time (600 million years ago), producing the reservoir sizes and isotope values and material fluxes of the carbon-sulfur system. The predicted values of carbon isotope ratios of the carbonate reservoir agree well with observed values, showing that the model is basically sound. Some general conclusions from this success are (i) material flux rates in the carbon-oxygen-sulfur system of the geologic past (averaged over tens of millions of years) lie within about a factor of 2 of Recent rates. (ii) The oxidation-reduction balances of Phanerozoic time were dominated by reciprocal relationships between carbon and sulfur compounds. (iii) The rate of production of atmospheric oxygen by storage in sediments of organic carbon of photosynthetic origin increased from the Cambrian Period to the Permian Period and declined somewhat from the Permian Period to the Present. (iv) The storage of oxygen in oxidized sulfur compounds kept pace (within the limits of the data) with oxygen production. (v) Transfer of oxygen from CO2 to SO4 from the Cambrian to the Permian Period was several times the Recent free oxygen content of the atmosphere. PMID:16593066

  8. Phanerozoic cycles of sedimentary carbon and sulfur.

    PubMed

    Garrels, R M; Lerman, A

    1981-08-01

    A reservoir model of a Recent steady-state sedimentary system in which the reduced sulfur and oxidized sulfur reservoirs were coupled with the oxidized carbon and reduced carbon reservoirs was constructed. The time curve of the sulfur isotope ratios of the sedimentary sulfate reservoir was used to drive the model back to the beginning of Cambrian time (600 million years ago), producing the reservoir sizes and isotope values and material fluxes of the carbon-sulfur system. The predicted values of carbon isotope ratios of the carbonate reservoir agree well with observed values, showing that the model is basically sound. Some general conclusions from this success are (i) material flux rates in the carbon-oxygen-sulfur system of the geologic past (averaged over tens of millions of years) lie within about a factor of 2 of Recent rates. (ii) The oxidation-reduction balances of Phanerozoic time were dominated by reciprocal relationships between carbon and sulfur compounds. (iii) The rate of production of atmospheric oxygen by storage in sediments of organic carbon of photosynthetic origin increased from the Cambrian Period to the Permian Period and declined somewhat from the Permian Period to the Present. (iv) The storage of oxygen in oxidized sulfur compounds kept pace (within the limits of the data) with oxygen production. (v) Transfer of oxygen from CO(2) to SO(4) from the Cambrian to the Permian Period was several times the Recent free oxygen content of the atmosphere.

  9. Sodium sulfur battery flight experiment definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Rebecca R.; Minck, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Sodium-sulfur batteries were identified as the most likely successor to nickel-hydrogen batteries for space applications. One advantage of the Na/S battery system is that the usable specific energy is two to three times that of nickel-hydrogen batteries. This represents a significant launch cost savings or increased payload mass capabilities. Sodium-sulfur batteries support NASA OAST's proposed Civil Space Technology Initiative goal of a factor of two improvement in spacecraft power system performance, as well as the proposed Spacecraft 2000 initiative. The sodium-sulfur battery operates at between 300 and 400 C, using liquid sodium and sulfur/polysulfide electrodes and solid ceramic electrolyte. The transport of the electrode materials to the surface of the electrolyte is through wicking/capillary forces. These critical transport functions must be demonstrated under actual microgravity conditions before sodium-sulfur batteries can be confidently utilized in space. Ford Aerospace Corporation, under contract to NASA Lewis Research Center, is currently working on the sodium-sulfur battery space flight experiment definition study. The objective is to design the experiment that will demonstrate operation of the sodium-sulfur battery/cell in the space environment with particular emphasis on evaluation of microgravity effects. Experimental payload definitions were completed and preliminary designs of the experiment were defined.

  10. Phanerozoic cycles of sedimentary carbon and sulfur.

    PubMed

    Garrels, R M; Lerman, A

    1981-08-01

    A reservoir model of a Recent steady-state sedimentary system in which the reduced sulfur and oxidized sulfur reservoirs were coupled with the oxidized carbon and reduced carbon reservoirs was constructed. The time curve of the sulfur isotope ratios of the sedimentary sulfate reservoir was used to drive the model back to the beginning of Cambrian time (600 million years ago), producing the reservoir sizes and isotope values and material fluxes of the carbon-sulfur system. The predicted values of carbon isotope ratios of the carbonate reservoir agree well with observed values, showing that the model is basically sound. Some general conclusions from this success are (i) material flux rates in the carbon-oxygen-sulfur system of the geologic past (averaged over tens of millions of years) lie within about a factor of 2 of Recent rates. (ii) The oxidation-reduction balances of Phanerozoic time were dominated by reciprocal relationships between carbon and sulfur compounds. (iii) The rate of production of atmospheric oxygen by storage in sediments of organic carbon of photosynthetic origin increased from the Cambrian Period to the Permian Period and declined somewhat from the Permian Period to the Present. (iv) The storage of oxygen in oxidized sulfur compounds kept pace (within the limits of the data) with oxygen production. (v) Transfer of oxygen from CO(2) to SO(4) from the Cambrian to the Permian Period was several times the Recent free oxygen content of the atmosphere. PMID:16593066

  11. COS FUV Recovery after Anomalous Shutdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    This proposal consists of the steps for turning on and ramping up the COS FUV high voltage in a conservative manner after a HV anomalous shutdown by executing a "reduced set" of visits from Cycle 19 Proposal 12810. The nature of the shutdown, i.e., over-light, HV current transient {"crackle"}, ion feedback {induced by a high energy particle}, or field emission {possibly caused by dust or other particulate on the QE grid or other close-by structure or hardware}, and the value of the commanded HV at the time of the shutdown will determine what visits are executed. Because of gain sag, commanded HV settings updates may be required. First, prior to execution of this proposal or selected visits from this proposal, all preliminary steps should be exercised to gather the necessary diagnostic data, e.g., science data evaluation {if a science exposure was in progress and the science data is available}, memory dumps {DCE, EXEC RAM, and possibly the CS BUFFER}, engineering telemetry, or other information that might provide insight as to the nature of the shutdown and estimated count rate. The complete step-by-step procedure is detailed in the Observing Description, but in summary, the following is done:Day 01 activities, visits 01-07, contain both QE grid off and on HV ramping to HVLow {100/100} with diagnostics {DCE dumps} and darks to exclude QE grid involvement in the shutdown. Subsequent to day 01, all HV ramping will be with the QE grid on with the same diagnostics and exposures. All days end with the setting of COS event flag 3 to prevent any FUV HV commanding.Time is allotted for cognizant detector and COS instrument scientist and engineers to examine data dumps, science exposures, and engineering telemetry. If all is well, the go-ahead will be given to clear flag 3 for the next day's visits.This proposal is modeled after the Cycle 19 Proposal 12718.

  12. Anomalous baryogenesis at the weak scale

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, R.L. Jr.

    1991-06-01

    One of the fundamental constants of nature is the baryon asymmetry of the universe -- the ratio of the number of baryons to the entropy. This constant is about 10{sup {minus}11}. In baryon- number conserving theories, this was just an initial condition. With the advent of the grand unified theories (GUTs), baryon number is no longer conserved, and this asymmetry can be generated dynamically. Unfortunately, however, there are reasons for preferring another mechanism. For example, GUTs predict proton decay which, after extensive searches, has not been found. An alternative place to look for baryogenesis is the electroweak phase transition, described by the standard model, which posses all the necessary ingredients for baryogenesis. Anomalous baryon-number violation in weak interactions becomes large at high temperatures, which offers the prospect of creating the asymmetry with the standard model or minimal extensions. This can just barely be done if certain conditions are fulfilled. CP violation must be large, which rules out the minimal standard model as the source of the asymmetry, but which is easily arranged with an extended Higgs sector. The baryon-number violating rates themselves are not exactly known, and they must be pushed to their theoretical limits. A more exact determination of these rates is needed before a definitive answer can be given. Finally, the phase transition must be at least weakly first order. Such phase transitions are accompanied by the formation and expansion of bubbles of true vacuum within the false vacuum, much like the boiling of water. As the bubbles expand, they provide a departure from thermal equilibrium, otherwise the dynamics will adjust the net baryon number to zero. The bubble expansion also provides a biasing that creates an asymmetry on the bubbles surface. Under optimal conditions, the observed asymmetry can just be produced. 31 refs., 10 figs.

  13. Quasars with Anomalous Hβ Profiles. I. Demographics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinhardt, Charles L.; Silverman, John D.

    2013-08-01

    The Hβ emission line in a typical Type I quasar is composed of a broad base and a narrow core, with the core velocity characteristic of narrow-line region emission, and line-fitting routines typically assume this picture. We test the effects of removing this constraint, and find a substantial group of Type I quasars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey catalog with Hβ emission line cores broader than 1200 km s-1 , above the velocity believed possible for gas in the quasar narrow-line region. We identify this group of ``anomalous Hβ quasars'' (AHQs) as a distinct population because of a variety of spectral and photometric signatures common to these AHQs but atypical of other quasars. These features are similar to some aspects of narrow-line Seyfert 1s and correlations identified by Eigenvector 1, but also contain distinct features that make it difficult to classify AHQs. We demonstrate that AHQs comprise at least 11% and most likely approximately one quarter of the SDSS Type I quasar population at 0.2 < z < 0.8. For AHQs, the [O III]λ 4959, 5007 profile is often better fit by de-linking it from the Hβ core, while a more standard linked fit produces a tight correlation between narrow- and broad-line velocities. We find that [O III] in AHQs sometimes has a standard narrow-line profile and other times matches the Hβ core, but is rarely in between the two, implying that the broadened core emission arises from a distinct physical region. Another feature of AHQs is a diminished [O II] line, which might indicate a connection between AHQs and the interstellar mediums of their host galaxies, through reduced photoionization or star formation. We find that it is difficult to produce AHQs using the current quasar standard model.

  14. Sulfur and Hydrogen Isotope Anomalies in Organic Compounds from the Murchison Meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, G. W.; Thiemens, M. H.; Jackson, T.; Chang, Sherwood

    1996-01-01

    defined by Delta-33 = (delta)S-33 -0.50(delta)S-34 and Delta-36 = (delta)s-36 - 1.97 (delta)S-34. From these relationships Delta-33 = 1.24 % and Delta-36 = 0.89 % are observed. These anomalies, particularly the Delta-33, lie well outside the range of analytical uncertainty. They are the largest observed in any meteoritic component and the first found in an organosulfur compound. As discussed by Thiemens and Jackson, due to it's position on the periodic chart, sulfur undergoes chemically induced mass independent isotopic fractionations as does oxygen. Experiments by Mauersberger et. al. show that in such processes, the magnitude of fractionation for the different isotopically substituted species varies with mass and angular momentum; thus, anomalies are expected for both S-33 and S-36, but not necessarily of the same magnitude. Laboratory experiments have also confirmed that chemically produced, mass independent fractionations are mediated by molecular symmetry factors. A chemical source of fractionation requires that the sulfur isotopic anomaly was established in the gas phase, probably in reactions involving symmetric CS2. The discovery of an anomalous sulfur isotopic composition in a specific molecule containing excess deuterium is an important advance in the understanding of the cosmochemistry of sulfur. This evidence suggests that methanesulfonic acid was synthesized by interstellar processes. Further measurements and details of possible synthesis and fractionation mechanisms will be presented.

  15. Matrix effects of calcium on high-precision sulfur isotope measurement by multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chenhui; Bian, Xiao-Peng; Yang, Tao; Lin, An-Jun; Jiang, Shao-Yong

    2016-05-01

    Multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) has been successfully applied in the rapid and high-precision measurement for sulfur isotope ratios in recent years. During the measurement, the presence of matrix elements would affect the instrumental mass bias for sulfur and these matrix-induced effects have aroused a lot of researchers' interest. However, these studies have placed more weight on highlighting the necessity for their proposed correction protocols (e.g., chemical purification and matrix-matching) while less attention on the key property of the matrix element gives rise to the matrix effects. In this study, four groups of sulfate solutions, which have different concentrations of sulfur (0.05-0.60mM) but a constant sequence of atomic calcium/sulfur ratios (0.1-50), are investigated under wet (solution) and dry (desolvation) plasma conditions to make a detailed evaluation on the matrix effects from calcium on sulfur isotope measurement. Based on a series of comparative analyses, we indicated that, the matrix effects of calcium on both measured sulfur isotope ratios and detected (32)S signal intensities are dependent mainly on the absolute calcium concentration rather than its relative concentration ratio to sulfur (i.e., atomic calcium/sulfur ratio). Also, for the same group of samples, the matrix effects of calcium under dry plasma condition are much more significant than that of wet plasma. This research affords the opportunity to realize direct and relatively precise sulfur isotope measurement for evaporite gypsum, and further provides some suggestions with regard to sulfur isotope analytical protocols for sedimentary pore water.

  16. Multiphoton imaging the disruptive nature of sulfur mustard lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werrlein, Robert J.; Braue, Catherine R.; Dillman, James F.

    2005-03-01

    Sulfur mustard [bis-2-chloroethyl sulfide] is a vesicating agent first used as a weapon of war in WWI. It causes debilitating blisters at the epidermal-dermal junction and involves molecules that are also disrupted by junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB) and other blistering skin diseases. Despite its recurring use in global conflicts, there is still no completely effective treatment. We have shown by imaging human keratinocytes in cell culture and in intact epidermal tissues that the basal cells of skin contain well-organized molecules (keratins K5/K14, α6β4 integrin, laminin 5 and α3β1 integrin) that are early targets of sulfur mustard. Disruption and collapse of these molecules is coincident with nuclear displacement, loss of functional asymmetry, and loss of polarized mobility. The progression of this pathology precedes basal cell detachment by 8-24 h, a time equivalent to the "clinical latent phase" that defines the extant period between agent exposure and vesication. Our images indicate that disruption of adhesion-complex molecules also impairs cytoskeletal proteins and the integration of structures required for signal transduction and tissue repair. We have recently developed an optical system to test this hypothesis, i.e., to determine whether and how the early disruption of target molecules alters signal transduction. This environmentally controlled on-line system provides a nexus for real-time correlation of imaged lesions with DNA microarray analysis, and for using multiphoton microscopy to facilitate development of more effective treatment strategies.

  17. Glucose enhances indolic glucosinolate biosynthesis without reducing primary sulfur assimilation

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Huiying; Cai, Congxi; Wei, Jia; Huang, Jirong; Chang, Jiaqi; Qian, Hongmei; Zhang, Xin; Zhao, Yanting; Sun, Bo; Wang, Bingliang; Wang, Qiaomei

    2016-01-01

    The effect of glucose as a signaling molecule on induction of aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis was reported in our former study. Here, we further investigated the regulatory mechanism of indolic glucosinolate biosynthesis by glucose in Arabidopsis. Glucose exerted a positive influence on indolic glucosinolate biosynthesis, which was demonstrated by induced accumulation of indolic glucosinolates and enhanced expression of related genes upon glucose treatment. Genetic analysis revealed that MYB34 and MYB51 were crucial in maintaining the basal indolic glucosinolate accumulation, with MYB34 being pivotal in response to glucose signaling. The increased accumulation of indolic glucosinolates and mRNA levels of MYB34, MYB51, and MYB122 caused by glucose were inhibited in the gin2-1 mutant, suggesting an important role of HXK1 in glucose-mediated induction of indolic glucosinolate biosynthesis. In contrast to what was known on the function of ABI5 in glucose-mediated aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis, ABI5 was not required for glucose-induced indolic glucosinolate accumulation. In addition, our results also indicated that glucose-induced glucosinolate accumulation was due to enhanced sulfur assimilation instead of directed sulfur partitioning into glucosinolate biosynthesis. Thus, our data provide new insights into molecular mechanisms underlying glucose-regulated glucosinolate biosynthesis. PMID:27549907

  18. Glucose enhances indolic glucosinolate biosynthesis without reducing primary sulfur assimilation.

    PubMed

    Miao, Huiying; Cai, Congxi; Wei, Jia; Huang, Jirong; Chang, Jiaqi; Qian, Hongmei; Zhang, Xin; Zhao, Yanting; Sun, Bo; Wang, Bingliang; Wang, Qiaomei

    2016-01-01

    The effect of glucose as a signaling molecule on induction of aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis was reported in our former study. Here, we further investigated the regulatory mechanism of indolic glucosinolate biosynthesis by glucose in Arabidopsis. Glucose exerted a positive influence on indolic glucosinolate biosynthesis, which was demonstrated by induced accumulation of indolic glucosinolates and enhanced expression of related genes upon glucose treatment. Genetic analysis revealed that MYB34 and MYB51 were crucial in maintaining the basal indolic glucosinolate accumulation, with MYB34 being pivotal in response to glucose signaling. The increased accumulation of indolic glucosinolates and mRNA levels of MYB34, MYB51, and MYB122 caused by glucose were inhibited in the gin2-1 mutant, suggesting an important role of HXK1 in glucose-mediated induction of indolic glucosinolate biosynthesis. In contrast to what was known on the function of ABI5 in glucose-mediated aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis, ABI5 was not required for glucose-induced indolic glucosinolate accumulation. In addition, our results also indicated that glucose-induced glucosinolate accumulation was due to enhanced sulfur assimilation instead of directed sulfur partitioning into glucosinolate biosynthesis. Thus, our data provide new insights into molecular mechanisms underlying glucose-regulated glucosinolate biosynthesis. PMID:27549907

  19. Process for removing sulfur dioxide from gas

    SciTech Connect

    Parish, W.R.

    1980-06-03

    There is disclosed a process for obtaining purer sodium sulfate from a mixture of solids containing sodium sulfate and sodium sulfite. The process involves contacting an aqueous slurry of the sulfate-sulfite mixture with a sulfur dioxide-containing gas under conditions which solubilize a significant amount of the sulfite as sodium bisulfite dissolved in the liquid aqueous phase. The remaining solid phase contains sodium sulfate of greater purity than in the mixture treated with sulfur dioxide. The mixture of sodium sulfate and sodium sulfite which is purified by the process may be obtained advantageously as a purge material from a process for removing sulfur dioxide from a gas stream.

  20. Equity, efficiency, and sulfur emission reductions

    SciTech Connect

    Pechman, C.

    1985-05-16

    The author describes how historic legislation and regulations have led to the current sulfur emission patterns. He evaluates possible sulfur emission policy options from the perspective of equity and efficiency, the latter in terms of its allocative and productive aspects, and concludes that relying upon direct controls of emissions to meet air quality objectives is an inefficient use of resources. Regulations to protect public health create an incentive to disperse rather than reduce sulfur emissions. Reliance on market forces, including emission taxes or auctions, is efficient at a minimum cost. 23 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.