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Sample records for super marx generator

  1. Comparison of the recently proposed super-Marx generator approach to thermonuclear ignition with the deuterium-tritium laser fusion-fission hybrid concept by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    DOE PAGES

    Winterberg, F.

    2009-01-01

    The recently proposed super-Marx generator pure deuterium microdetonation ignition concept is compared to the Lawrence Livermore National Ignition Facility (NIF) Laser deuterium-tritium fusion-fission hybrid concept (LIFE). In a super-Marx generator, a large number of ordinary Marx generators charge up a much larger second stage ultrahigh voltage Marx generator from which for the ignition of a pure deuterium microexplosion an intense GeV ion beam can be extracted. Typical examples of the LIFE concept are a fusion gain of 30 and a fission gain of 10, making up a total gain of 300, with about ten times more energy released into fissionmore » as compared to fusion. This means the substantial release of fission products, as in fissionless pure fission reactors. In the super-Marx approach for the ignition of pure deuterium microdetonation, a gain of the same magnitude can, in theory, be reached. If feasible, the super-Marx generator deuterium ignition approach would make lasers obsolete as a means for the ignition of thermonuclear microexplosions.« less

  2. Comparison of the recently proposed super-Marx generator approach to thermonuclear ignition with the deuterium-tritium laser fusion-fission hybrid concept by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Winterberg, F.

    2009-01-01

    The recently proposed super-Marx generator pure deuterium microdetonation ignition concept is compared to the Lawrence Livermore National Ignition Facility (NIF) Laser deuterium-tritium fusion-fission hybrid concept (LIFE). In a super-Marx generator, a large number of ordinary Marx generators charge up a much larger second stage ultrahigh voltage Marx generator from which for the ignition of a pure deuterium microexplosion an intense GeV ion beam can be extracted. Typical examples of the LIFE concept are a fusion gain of 30 and a fission gain of 10, making up a total gain of 300, with about ten times more energy released into fission as compared to fusion. This means the substantial release of fission products, as in fissionless pure fission reactors. In the super-Marx approach for the ignition of pure deuterium microdetonation, a gain of the same magnitude can, in theory, be reached. If feasible, the super-Marx generator deuterium ignition approach would make lasers obsolete as a means for the ignition of thermonuclear microexplosions.

  3. High Energy Output Marx Generator Design

    SciTech Connect

    Monty Lehmann

    2011-07-01

    High Energy Output Marx Generator Design a design of a six stage Marx generator that has a unipolar pulse waveform of 200 kA in a 50×500 microsecond waveform is presented. The difficulties encountered in designing the components to withstand the temperatures and pressures generated during the output pulse are discussed. The unique methods and materials used to successfully overcome these problems are given. The steps necessary to increase the current output of this Marx generator design to the meg-ampere region or higher are specified.

  4. Design of the Second-Generation ILC Marx Modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, M.A.; Benwell, A.; Burkhart, C.; Larsen, R.; MacNair, D.; Nguyen, M.; Olsen, J.; /SLAC

    2010-09-14

    SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC) has initiated a program to design and build a Marx-topology modulator to produce a relatively compact, low-cost, high availability klystron modulator for the International Linear Collider (ILC). Building upon the success of the P1 Marx, the SLAC P2 Marx is a second-generation modulator whose design further emphasizes the qualities of modularity and high-availability. This paper outlines highlights of this design and presents single-cell performance data obtained during the proof-of-concept phase of the project.

  5. Ultra-compact Marx-type high-voltage generator

    DOEpatents

    Goerz, David A.; Wilson, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    An ultra-compact Marx-type high-voltage generator includes individual high-performance components that are closely coupled and integrated into an extremely compact assembly. In one embodiment, a repetitively-switched, ultra-compact Marx generator includes low-profile, annular-shaped, high-voltage, ceramic capacitors with contoured edges and coplanar extended electrodes used for primary energy storage; low-profile, low-inductance, high-voltage, pressurized gas switches with compact gas envelopes suitably designed to be integrated with the annular capacitors; feed-forward, high-voltage, ceramic capacitors attached across successive switch-capacitor-switch stages to couple the necessary energy forward to sufficiently overvoltage the spark gap of the next in-line switch; optimally shaped electrodes and insulator surfaces to reduce electric field stresses in the weakest regions where dissimilar materials meet, and to spread the fields more evenly throughout the dielectric materials, allowing them to operate closer to their intrinsic breakdown levels; and uses manufacturing and assembly methods to integrate the capacitors and switches into stages that can be arranged into a low-profile Marx generator.

  6. A solid state Marx generator for TEL2

    SciTech Connect

    Kamerdzhiev, V.; Pfeffer, H.; Saewert, G.; Shiltsev, V.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    The solid-state Marx generator modulates the anode of the electron gun to produce the electron beam pulses in the second Tevatron Electron Lens (TEL2). It is capable of driving the 60 pF terminal with 600 ns pulses of up to 6 kV with a p.r.r. of 50 kHz. The rise and fall times are 150 ns. Stangenes Industries developed the unit and is working on a second version which will go to higher voltage and have the ability to vary its output in 396 ns intervals over a 5 {micro}s pulse.

  7. Status Update on the Second-Generation ILC Marx Modulator Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, Mark A.; Benwell, Andrew; Burkhart, Craig; Larsen, Ray; MacNair, David; Nguyen, Minh; Olsen, Jeff; /SLAC

    2010-08-26

    This paper is a status update of the SLAC P2 Marx. This Marx-topology klystron modulator is a second-generation modulator which builds upon experience gained from the SLAC P1 Marx. There are several fundamental differences between these modulators including the correction scheme, bus voltages, and the control system architecture. These differences, along with preliminary experimental results and the schedule for further development, are detailed in this paper.

  8. Impedance matching of a coaxial Marx generator with a relativistic field emission limited diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ming-Chieh; Peng, Kuan-Lin

    2007-06-01

    The impedance matching between the coaxial Marx generator and the relativistic field emission limited diode (RFELD) is investigated by using PSpice simulations. The PSpice model of the coaxial Marx generator has been built and verified by comparing the output voltage wave forms with the results of Kubota et al. [Y. Kubota, J. Kodaira, and A. Miyahara, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 20, 2397 (1981)]. By varying the passive resistive loads, the impedance of the coaxial Marx generator can be determined. In the PSpice simulation, we employ the analog behavioral modeling to describe the current-voltage characteristics of the RFELDs. The output characteristics including the voltage, current, and output power wave forms have been obtained. It is found that the output characteristics of the RFELDs with an effective work function of around 0.4 eV are in good matching with the coaxial Marx generator. The simulation results show a degradation in pulse duration or beam power for the cases of the RFELDs with higher or lower effective work functions. With our method, the impedance matching of the RFELDs with the coaxial Marx generator can be achieved and the corresponding output characteristics can be determined.

  9. Compact 180-kV Marx generator triggered in atmospheric air by femtosecond laser filaments

    SciTech Connect

    Arantchouk, L. Larour, J.; Point, G.; Brelet, Y.; Carbonnel, J.; André, Y.-B.; Mysyrowicz, A.; Houard, A.

    2014-03-10

    We developed a compact Marx generator triggered in atmospheric air by a single femtosecond laser beam undergoing filamentation. Voltage pulses of 180 kV could be generated with a subnanosecond jitter. The same laser beam was also used to initiate simultaneously guided discharges up to 21 cm long at the output of the generator.

  10. A compact bipolar pulse-forming network-Marx generator based on pulse transformers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huibo; Yang, Jianhua; Lin, Jiajin; Yang, Xiao

    2013-11-01

    A compact bipolar pulse-forming network (PFN)-Marx generator based on pulse transformers is presented in this paper. The high-voltage generator consisted of two sets of pulse transformers, 6 stages of PFNs with ceramic capacitors, a switch unit, and a matched load. The design is characterized by the bipolar pulse charging scheme and the compact structure of the PFN-Marx. The scheme of bipolar charging by pulse transformers increased the withstand voltage of the ceramic capacitors in the PFNs and decreased the number of the gas gap switches. The compact structure of the PFN-Marx was aimed at reducing the parasitic inductance in the generator. When the charging voltage on the PFNs was 35 kV, the matched resistive load of 48 Ω could deliver a high-voltage pulse with an amplitude of 100 kV. The full width at half maximum of the load pulse was 173 ns, and its rise time was less than 15 ns.

  11. A compact bipolar pulse-forming network-Marx generator based on pulse transformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huibo; Yang, Jianhua; Lin, Jiajin; Yang, Xiao

    2013-11-01

    A compact bipolar pulse-forming network (PFN)-Marx generator based on pulse transformers is presented in this paper. The high-voltage generator consisted of two sets of pulse transformers, 6 stages of PFNs with ceramic capacitors, a switch unit, and a matched load. The design is characterized by the bipolar pulse charging scheme and the compact structure of the PFN-Marx. The scheme of bipolar charging by pulse transformers increased the withstand voltage of the ceramic capacitors in the PFNs and decreased the number of the gas gap switches. The compact structure of the PFN-Marx was aimed at reducing the parasitic inductance in the generator. When the charging voltage on the PFNs was 35 kV, the matched resistive load of 48 Ω could deliver a high-voltage pulse with an amplitude of 100 kV. The full width at half maximum of the load pulse was 173 ns, and its rise time was less than 15 ns.

  12. A Low Impedance Marx Generator as a Test bed for Vacuum Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikary, Biswajit; Deb, P.; Verma, R.; Shukla, R.; Sharma, S. K.; Banerjee, P.; Das, R.; Prabaharan, T.; Das, B. K.; Shyam, Anurag

    2012-11-01

    A low impedance Marx generator was developed, which will serve as a test bed for Vacuum diodes of various electrode materials and geometries. The vacuum diodes will be used for high power microwave generation. The generator is capable to supply ~3GW of pulsed power to the vacuum diodes which is sufficient enough to produce plasma within the diode for electron beam generation. A vacuum of 10-5Torr is required for virtual cathode formation within the diode, when the beam current exceeds the space charge limiting current. A vacuum diode of reflex triode geometry has been designed and vacuum of 10-5 Torr has been achieved. The repetitive operation of the vacuum diode depends upon the recovery of the diode, the importance of the vacuum system on the recovery of the diode will be explained. A vacuum system with high voltage isolator has been installed for getting the desired vacuum within the diode. The design criterion of the vacuum system will be discussed. The 300kV/1.8kJ Marx generator which will power the vacuum diode has six stages with stage capacitance and voltage of 240nF and 50kV respectively. It has an impedance of ~7 ohm and can deliver 200kV voltage across the diode in critically damped load condition. The generator has a very fast rise time of 200ns.The operational characteristics of the Marx generator are determined experimentally. The results have been analyzed and compared to an equivalent circuit model of the system.

  13. Solid-state pulse modulator using Marx generator for a medical linac electron-gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Heuijin; Hyeok Jeong, Dong; Lee, Manwoo; Lee, Mujin; Yi, Jungyu; Yang, Kwangmo; Ro, Sung Chae

    2016-04-01

    A medical linac is used for the cancer treatment and consists of an accelerating column, waveguide components, a magnetron, an electron-gun, a pulse modulator, and an irradiation system. The pulse modulator based on hydrogen thyratron-switched pulse-forming network is commonly used in linac. As the improvement of the high power semiconductors in switching speed, voltage rating, and current rating, an insulated gate bipolar transistor has become the more popular device used for pulsed power systems. We propose a solid-state pulse modulator to generator high voltage by multi-stacked storage-switch stages based on the Marx generator. The advantage of our modulator comes from the use of two semiconductors to control charging and discharging of the storage capacitor at each stage and it allows to generate the pulse with various amplitudes, widths, and shapes. In addition, a gate driver for two semiconductors is designed to reduce the control channels and to protect the circuits. It is developed for providing the pulsed power to a medical linac electron-gun that requires 25 kV and 1 A as the first application. In order to improve the power efficiency and achieve the compactness modulator, a capacitor charging power supply, a Marx pulse generator, and an electron-gun heater isolated transformer are constructed and integrated. This technology is also being developed to extend the high power pulsed system with > 1 MW and also other applications such as a plasma immersed ion implantation and a micro pulse electrostatic precipitator which especially require variable pulse shape and high repetition rate > 1 kHz. The paper describes the design features and the construction of this solid-state pulse modulator. Also shown are the performance results into the linac electron-gun.

  14. A compact, low cost Marx bank for generating capillary discharge plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyson, A. E.; Thornton, C.; Hooker, S. M.

    2016-09-01

    We describe in detail a low power Compact Marx Bank (CMB) circuit that can provide 20 kV, 500 A pulses of approximately 100-200 ns duration. One application is the generation of capillary discharge plasmas of density ≈1018 cm-3 used in laser plasma accelerators. The CMB is triggered with a high speed solid state switch and gives a high voltage output pulse with a ns scale rise time into a 50 Ω load (coaxial cable) with <4 ns voltage jitter. Its small size (10 cm × 25 cm × 5 cm) means that it can be placed right next to the capillary discharge in the target chamber to avoid the need to impedance match. The electrical energy required per discharge is <1 J, and the CMB can be run at shot repetition rates of ≳1 Hz. This low power requirement means that the circuit can easily be powered by a small lead acid battery and, therefore, can be floated relative to laboratory earth. The CMB is readily scalable and pulses >45 kV are demonstrated in air discharges.

  15. Mid-IR super-continuum generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Mohammed N.; Xia, Chenan; Freeman, Mike J.; Mauricio, Jeremiah; Zakel, Andy; Ke, Kevin; Xu, Zhao; Terry, Fred L., Jr.

    2009-02-01

    A Mid-InfraRed FIber Laser (MIRFIL) has been developed that generates super-continuum covering the spectral range from 0.8 to 4.5 microns with a time-averaged power as high as 10.5W. The MIRFIL is an all-fiber integrated laser with no moving parts and no mode-locked lasers that uses commercial off-the-shelf parts and leverages the mature telecom/fiber optics platform. The MIRFIL power can be easily scaled by changing the repetition rate and modifying the erbium-doped fiber amplifier. Some of the applications using the super-continuum laser will be described in defense, homeland security and healthcare. For example, the MIRFIL is being applied to a catheter-based medical diagnostic system to detect vulnerable plaque, which is responsible for most heart attacks resulting from hardening-of-the-arteries or atherosclerosis. More generally, the MIRFIL can be a platform for selective ablation of lipids without damaging normal protein or smooth muscle tissue.

  16. Development of a stereo-symmetrical nanosecond pulsed power generator composed of modularized avalanche transistor Marx circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiang-Tao; Zhong, Xu; Cao, Hui; Zhao, Zheng; Xue, Jing; Li, Tao; Li, Zheng; Wang, Ya-Nan

    2015-09-01

    Avalanche transistors have been widely studied and used in nanosecond high voltage pulse generations. However, output power improvement is always limited by the low thermal capacities of avalanche transistors, especially under high repetitive working frequency. Parallel stacked transistors can effectively improve the output current but the controlling of trigger and output synchronism has always been a hard and complex work. In this paper, a novel stereo-symmetrical nanosecond pulsed power generator with high reliability was developed. By analyzing and testing the special performances of the combined Marx circuits, numbers of meaningful conclusions on the pulse amplitude, pulse back edge, and output impedance were drawn. The combining synchronism of the generator was confirmed excellent and lower conducting current through the transistors was realized. Experimental results showed that, on a 50 Ω resistive load, pulses with 1.5-5.2 kV amplitude and 5.3-14.0 ns width could be flexibly generated by adjusting the number of combined modules, the supply voltage, and the module type.

  17. Super Boiler: First Generation, Ultra-High Efficiency Firetube Boiler

    SciTech Connect

    2006-06-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop and demonstrate a first-generation ultra-high-efficiency, ultra-low emissions, compact gas-fired package boiler (Super Boiler), and formulate a long-range RD&D plan for advanced boiler technology out to the year 2020.

  18. Studies on Laser Generated Ultrasonic Waves in Inconel Super Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Pramila, T.; Shukla, Anita; Raghuram, V.

    2010-05-28

    This paper deals with the generation, characterization and analysis of ultrasonic waves generated in a thick stepped sample of inconel super alloy using Laser Based Ultrasonic Technique. Nd-YAG pulsed laser is used for ultrasonic generation while He-Ne laser is used for heterodyne detection. Ultrasonic signals are analyzed using Fourier and wavelet transforms. Here the identification and estimation of velocity of pressure waves is presented. The mechanism of pressure wave generation is discussed in brief. Laser ultrasonics studies of inconel are being reported for the first time.

  19. A Vernier Regulator for ILC Marx Droop Compensation

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Tao

    2009-10-30

    A two-part compensation scheme, Vernier Regulation, has been applied to offset the voltage droop (40% without correction) in a Marx-topology klystron modulator developed for the International Linear Collider (ILC). Coarse regulation, {+-}5%, is achieved by turning on additional Main Marx cells (Delayed Cells) sequentially as the droop reaches the cell voltage (11 kV). Further regulation to {+-}0.5% is achieved by adding a small Marx in series with the Main Marx. This Vernier Marx is composed of sixteen, 1.2 kV cells that are assembled as a seventeenth cell in the Main Marx. These Vernier Cells are turned on sequentially to generate a series of discrete corrections to the droop in the Main Marx cells with a step size {le}1% of the output voltage. As the required correction reaches 11 kV, all Vernier Cells are turned off synchronously with the turn on of a Delayed Cell. There are up to five Delayed Cells and six Vernier Marx cycles during each ILC Marx output pulse. The Vernier Marx has a local control system that will detect and respond to over-voltage and over-current errors. In this paper, a detailed description of the design, implementation and testing of the Vernier Marx is presented.

  20. Superconducting super collider second generation dipole magnet cryostat design

    SciTech Connect

    Niemann, R.C.; Bossert, R.C.; Carson, J.A.; Engler, N.H.; Gonczy, J.D.; Larson, E.T.; Nicol, T.H.; Ohmori, T.

    1989-03-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider, a planned colliding beam particle physics research facility, requires --10,000 superconducting devices for the control of high energy particle beams. The --7,500 collider ring superconducting dipole magnets require cryostats that are functional, cryogenically efficient, mass producible and cost effective. A second generation cryostat design has been developed utilizing the experiences gained during the construction, installation and operation of several full length first generation dipole magnet models. The nature of the cryostat improvements is presented. Considered are the connections between the magnet cold mass and its supports, cryogenic supports, cold mass axial anchor, thermal shields, insulation, vacuum vessel and interconnections. The details of the improvements are enumerated and the abstracted results of available component and system evaluations are presented.

  1. Superconducting super collider second generation dipole magnet cryostat design

    SciTech Connect

    Niemann, R.C.; Bossert, R.C.; Carson, J.A.; Engler, N.H.; Gonczy, J.D.; Larson, E.T.; Nicol, T.H.; Ohmori, T.

    1988-12-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider, a planned colliding beam particle physics research facility, requires /approximately/10,000 superconducting devices for the control of high energy particle beams. The /approximately/7,500 collider ring superconducting dipole magnets require cryostats that are functional, cryogenically efficient, mass producible and cost effective. A second generation cryostat design has been developed utilizing the experiences gained during the construction, installation and operation of several full length first generation dipole magnet models. The nature of the cryostat improvements is presented. Considered are the connections between the magnet cold mass and its supports, cryogenic supports, cold mass axial anchor, thermal shields, insulation, vacuum vessel and interconnections. The details of the improvements are enumerated and the abstracted results of available component and system evaluations are presented. 8 refs., 11 figs.

  2. Super-luminescent jet light generated by femtosecond laser pulses

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhijun; Zhu, Xiaonong; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Nan; Zhao, Jiefeng

    2014-01-01

    Phenomena of nonlinear light-matter interaction that occur during the propagation of intense ultrashort laser pulses in continuous media have been extensively studied in ultrafast optical science. In this vibrant research field, conversion of the input laser beam into optical filament(s) is commonly encountered. Here, we demonstrate generation of distinctive single or double super-luminescent optical jet beams as a result of strong spatial-temporal nonlinear interaction between focused 50 fs millijoule laser pulses and their induced micro air plasma. Such jet-like optical beams, being slightly divergent and coexisting with severely distorted conical emission of colored speckles, are largely different from optical filaments, and obtainable when the focal lens of proper f-number is slightly tilted or shifted. Once being collimated, the jet beams can propagate over a long distance in air. These beams not only reveal a potentially useful approach to coherent optical wave generation, but also may find applications in remote sensing. PMID:24463611

  3. P1-Marx Modulator for the ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Beukers, T.; Burkhart, C.; Kemp, M.; Larsen, R.; Nguyen, M.; Olsen, J.; Tang, T.; /SLAC

    2010-08-26

    A first generation prototype, P1, Marx-topology klystron modulator has been developed at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory for the International Linear Collider (ILC) project. It is envisioned as a lower cost, smaller footprint, and higher reliability alternative to the present, bouncer-topology, baseline design. The application requires 120 kV (+/-0.5%), 140 A, 1.6 ms pulses at a rate of 5 Hz. The Marx constructs the high voltage pulse by combining, in series, a number of lower voltage cells. The Marx employs solid state elements; IGBTs and diodes, to control the charge, discharge and isolation of the cells. Active compensation of the output is used to achieve the voltage regulation while minimizing the stored energy. The P1-Marx has been integrated into a test stand with a 10 MW L-band klystron, where each is undergoing life testing. A review of the P1-Marx design and its operational history in the L-band test stand are presented.

  4. ILC Marx Modulator Development Program Status

    SciTech Connect

    Burkhart, C.; Beukers, T.; Larsen, R.; Macken, K.; Nguyen, M.; Olsen, J.; Tang, T.; /SLAC

    2009-03-04

    Development of a first generation prototype (P1) Marx-topology klystron modulator for the International Linear Collider is nearing completion at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. It is envisioned as a smaller, lower cost, and higher reliability alternative to the present, bouncer-topology, 'Baseline Conceptual Design'. The Marx presents several advantages over conventional klystron modulator designs. It is physically smaller; there is no pulse transformer (quite massive at ILC parameters) and the energy storage capacitor bank is quite small, owing to the active droop compensation. It is oil-free; voltage hold-off is achieved using air insulation. It is air cooled; the secondary air-water heat exchanger is physically isolated from the electronic components. The P1-Marx employs all solid state elements; IGBTs and diodes, to control the charge, discharge and isolation of the cells. A general overview of the modulator design and the program status are presented.

  5. Super Boiler 2nd Generation Technology for Watertube Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Mr. David Cygan; Dr. Joseph Rabovitser

    2012-03-31

    This report describes Phase I of a proposed two phase project to develop and demonstrate an advanced industrial watertube boiler system with the capability of reaching 94% (HHV) fuel-to-steam efficiency and emissions below 2 ppmv NOx, 2 ppmv CO, and 1 ppmv VOC on natural gas fuel. The boiler design would have the capability to produce >1500 F, >1500 psig superheated steam, burn multiple fuels, and will be 50% smaller/lighter than currently available watertube boilers of similar capacity. This project is built upon the successful Super Boiler project at GTI. In that project that employed a unique two-staged intercooled combustion system and an innovative heat recovery system to reduce NOx to below 5 ppmv and demonstrated fuel-to-steam efficiency of 94% (HHV). This project was carried out under the leadership of GTI with project partners Cleaver-Brooks, Inc., Nebraska Boiler, a Division of Cleaver-Brooks, and Media and Process Technology Inc., and project advisors Georgia Institute of Technology, Alstom Power Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Phase I of efforts focused on developing 2nd generation boiler concepts and performance modeling; incorporating multi-fuel (natural gas and oil) capabilities; assessing heat recovery, heat transfer and steam superheating approaches; and developing the overall conceptual engineering boiler design. Based on our analysis, the 2nd generation Industrial Watertube Boiler when developed and commercialized, could potentially save 265 trillion Btu and $1.6 billion in fuel costs across U.S. industry through increased efficiency. Its ultra-clean combustion could eliminate 57,000 tons of NOx, 460,000 tons of CO, and 8.8 million tons of CO2 annually from the atmosphere. Reduction in boiler size will bring cost-effective package boilers into a size range previously dominated by more expensive field-erected boilers, benefiting manufacturers and end users through lower capital costs.

  6. The Next Generation Microlensing Search: SuperMacho

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, A; Cook, K; Hiriart, R; Keller, S; Miknaitis, G; Nilolaev, S; Olsen, K; Prochter, G; Rest, A; Schmidt, B; Smith, C; Stubbs, C; Suntzeff, N; Welch, D; Becker, A; Clocchiati, A; Covarrubias, R

    2003-10-27

    Past microlensing experiments such as the MACHO project have discovered the presence of a larger than expected number of microlensing events toward the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). These events could represent a large fraction of the dark matter in the halo of our Galaxy, if they are indeed due to halo lenses. However the locations of most of the lenses are poorly defined. The SuperMacho project will detect and follow up {approx}60 microlensing events exhibiting special properties due to binarity, etc., will allow us to better determine the location and nature of the lenses causing the LMC microlensing events.

  7. A Prognostic Method for Scheduling Maintenance on the P2- Marx Modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Benwell, Andrew; Burkhart, Craig; Kemp, Mark; Macken, Koen; Nguyen, Minh; MacNair, Dave; Olsen, Jeff; Larsen, Ray; /SLAC

    2010-06-10

    The SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory is developing a second generation Marx-type modulator for the ILC, the P2-Marx. The modulator is expected to operate reliably in excess of 10{sup 5} hours with minimum downtime. A prognostic system is being implemented with the development of the P2-Marx to monitor and track the health of key high voltage components. This paper discusses the way in which the prognostic system will be implemented and used to monitor the health of the P2-Marx modulator.

  8. ILC MARX MODULATOR DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM STATUS

    SciTech Connect

    Burkhart, Craig; Benwell, Andrew; Beukers, Tony; Kemp, Mark; Larsen, Raymond; MacNair, David; Nguyen, Minh; Olsen, Jeff; Tang, Tao; /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    A Marx-topology klystron modulator is under development for the International Linear Collider (ILC) project. It is envisioned as a lower cost, smaller footprint, and higher reliability alternative to the present, bouncer-topology, baseline design. The application requires 120 kV (+/-0.5%), 140 A, 1.6 ms pulses at a rate of 5 Hz. The Marx constructs the high voltage pulse by combining, in series, a number of lower voltage cells. The Marx employs solid state elements; IGBTs and diodes, to control the charge, discharge and disolation of the cells. Active compensation of the output is used to achieve the voltage regulation while minimizing the stored energy. The developmental testing of a first generation prototype, P1, has been completed. This modulator has been integrated into a test stand with a 10 MW L-band klystron, where each is undergoing life testing. Development of a second generation prototype, P2, is underway. The P2 is based on the P1 topology but incorporates an alternative cell configuration to increase redundancy and improve availability. Status updates for both prototypes are presented.

  9. Super-spinning compact objects generated by thick accretion disks

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zilong; Bambi, Cosimo E-mail: bambi@fudan.edu.cn

    2013-03-01

    If astrophysical black hole candidates are the Kerr black holes predicted by General Relativity, the value of their spin parameter must be subject to the theoretical bound |a{sub *}| ≤ 1. In this work, we consider the possibility that these objects are either non-Kerr black holes in an alternative theory of gravity or exotic compact objects in General Relativity. We study the accretion process when their accretion disk is geometrically thick with a simple version of the Polish doughnut model. The picture of the accretion process may be qualitatively different from the one around a Kerr black hole. The inner edge of the disk may not have the typical cusp on the equatorial plane any more, but there may be two cusps, respectively above and below the equatorial plane. We extend previous work on the evolution of the spin parameter and we estimate the maximum value of a{sub *} for the super-massive black hole candidates in galactic nuclei. Since measurements of the mean radiative efficiency of AGNs require η > 0.15, we infer the ''observational'' bound |a{sub *}|∼<1.3, which seems to be quite independent of the exact nature of these objects. Such a bound is only slightly weaker than |a{sub *}|∼<1.2 found in previous work for thin disks.

  10. Optical stealth transmission based on super-continuum generation in highly nonlinear fiber over WDM network.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Huatao; Wang, Rong; Pu, Tao; Fang, Tao; Xiang, Peng; Zheng, Jilin; Chen, Dalei

    2015-06-01

    In this Letter, the optical stealth transmission carried by super-continuum spectrum optical pulses generated in highly nonlinear fiber is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. In the proposed transmission scheme, super-continuum signals are reshaped in the spectral domain through a wavelength-selective switch and are temporally spread by a chromatic dispersion device to achieve the same noise-like characteristic as the noise in optical networks, so that in both the time domain and the spectral domain, the stealth signals are hidden in public channel. Our experimental results show that compared with existing schemes where stealth channels are carried by amplified spontaneous emission noise, super-continuum signal can increase the transmission performance and robustness.

  11. Optical stealth transmission based on super-continuum generation in highly nonlinear fiber over WDM network.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Huatao; Wang, Rong; Pu, Tao; Fang, Tao; Xiang, Peng; Zheng, Jilin; Chen, Dalei

    2015-06-01

    In this Letter, the optical stealth transmission carried by super-continuum spectrum optical pulses generated in highly nonlinear fiber is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. In the proposed transmission scheme, super-continuum signals are reshaped in the spectral domain through a wavelength-selective switch and are temporally spread by a chromatic dispersion device to achieve the same noise-like characteristic as the noise in optical networks, so that in both the time domain and the spectral domain, the stealth signals are hidden in public channel. Our experimental results show that compared with existing schemes where stealth channels are carried by amplified spontaneous emission noise, super-continuum signal can increase the transmission performance and robustness. PMID:26030557

  12. Generation of a super-Rayleigh speckle field via a spatial light modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinzhong; Tai, Yuping; Li, Hehe; Wang, Jingge; Wang, Hui; Nie, Zhaogang

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the generation method and properties of a super-Rayleigh speckle field that had a contrast value greater than 1. First, an exponential factor was added to the complex amplitude of the Rayleigh speckle, and then, its inverse Fourier-transformed phase matrix was applied to a spatial light modulator (SLM). As the collimated light beam illuminated the SLM, the super-Rayleigh speckle field was formed at the SLM's Fourier plane. The effects of the exponential factor, size of the macro-pixel of the SLM, and diameter of the entrance pupil on the contrast values of the super-Rayleigh speckle patterns were investigated. Especially, the influence of different macro-pixel sizes of the SLM was systematically studied. Moreover, the stability region of the super-Rayleigh speckle field was examined. The experimental results showed that the contrast values of the super-Rayleigh speckle field increased exponentially as the exponential factor increased under the same conditions. In addition, the contrast values increased as the size of the macro-pixel or diameter of the entrance pupil increased. Furthermore, as the pupil diameter increased, the width of the stability region decreased according to a negative quadratic index that corresponded to the longitudinal length of a single speckle.

  13. Strong terahertz generation by optical rectification of a super-Gaussian laser beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Subodh; Kishor Singh, Ram; Sharma, R. P.

    2016-06-01

    Terahertz (THz) generation by optical rectification of a laser beam having spatially super-Gaussian and temporally Gaussian intensity profile is investigated when it is propagating in a pre-formed rippled density plasma. The quasi-static ponderomotive force which is generated due to the variation in intensity of laser pulse leads to a nonlinear current density in the direction transverse to the direction of propagation which drives a radiation. The frequency of this radiation falls in the THz range if the pulse duration of the laser is chosen suitably. The density ripple provides the phase matching. The yield of generated THz has been compared when the phase matching is exact and when there is slight mismatch of phases. The variation in the intensity of the generated THz with the index of super-Gaussian pulse has also been studied.

  14. Generation and transmission of 512-Gb/s quad-carrier digital super-Nyquist spectral shaped signal.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junwen; Yu, Jianjun; Chi, Nan

    2013-12-16

    A novel digital super-Nyquist signal generation scheme is proposed to further suppress the Nyquist signal bandwidth and reduce the channel crosstalk without using optical pre-filtering. The spectrum of the generated super-Nyquist 9-QAM signal is much more compact compared with regular Nyquist QPSK signal. Therefore, only optical couplers are needed for super-Nyquist WDM channel multiplexing. By using the 64-GSa/s high speed DAC, 32-GBaud super-Nyquist 9-QAM signal is generated within 25-GHz grid for quad-carrier 400G channels. We successfully generate and transmit 4 channels quad-carrier 512-Gb/s super-Nyquist 9-QAM-like signal within 100-GHz grid over 2975-km at a net SE of 4b/s/Hz (after excluding the 20% soft-decision FEC overhead).

  15. Second generation superconducting super collider dipole magnet cryostat design

    SciTech Connect

    Niemann, R.C.; Bossert, R.C.; Carson, J.A.; Engler, N.H.; Gonczy, J.D.; Larson, E.T.; Nicol, T.H.; Ohmori, T.

    1988-12-01

    The SSC Magnet Development Program is developing accelerator dipole magnets in successive iterations. The initial iteration is complete with six full length model magnets and a thermal model having been built and tested. This initial experience along with the evolving SSC Magnet System Requirements have resulted in the second generation magnet cryostat design. It is this configuration that will be employed for the near term ongoing magnetic, thermal, string and accelerated life testing and will be the design considered for Phase I; i.e., Technology Orientation, of the SSC Magnet Industrialization Program. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Origami with negative refractive index to generate super-lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenneau, Fanny; Chakrabarti, Sangeeta; Guenneau, Sebastien; Ramakrishna, S. Anantha

    2014-10-01

    Negative refractive index materials (NRIM) enable unique effects including superlenses with a high degree of sub-wavelength image resolution, a capability that stems from the ability of NRIM to support a host of surface plasmon states. Using a generalized lens theorem and the powerful tools of transformational optics, a variety of focusing configurations involving complementary positive and negative refractive index media can be generated. A paradigm of such complementary media are checkerboards that consist of alternating cells of positive and negative refractive index, and are associated with very singular electromagnetics. We present here a variety of multi-scale checkerboard lenses that we call origami lenses and investigate their electromagnetic properties both theoretically and computationally. Some of these meta-structures in the plane display thin bridges of complementary media, and this highly enhances their plasmonic response. We demonstrate the design of three-dimensional checkerboard meta-structures of complementary media using transformational optics to map the checkerboard onto three-dimensional corner lenses, the only restriction being that the corresponding unfolded structures in the plane are constrained by the four color-map theorem.

  17. The role of rotation in the evolution of dynamo-generated magnetic fields in Super Earths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuluaga, Jorge I.; Cuartas, Pablo A.

    2012-01-01

    Planetary magnetic fields could impact the evolution of planetary atmospheres and have a role in the determination of the required conditions for the emergence and evolution of life (planetary habitability). We study here the role of rotation in the evolution of dynamo-generated magnetic fields in massive Earth-like planets, Super Earths (1-10 M⊕). Using the most recent thermal evolution models of Super Earths (Gaidos, E., Conrad, C.P., Manga, M., Hernlund, J. [2010]. Astrophys. J. 718, 596-609; Tachinami, C., Senshu, H., Ida, S. [2011]. Astrophys. J. 726, 70) and updated scaling laws for convection-driven dynamos, we predict the evolution of the local Rossby number. This quantity is one of the proxies for core magnetic field regime, i.e. non-reversing dipolar, reversing dipolar and multipolar. We study the dependence of the local Rossby number and hence the core magnetic field regime on planetary mass and rotation rate. Previous works have focused only on the evolution of core magnetic fields assuming rapidly rotating planets, i.e. planets in the dipolar regime. In this work we go further, including the effects of rotation in the evolution of planetary magnetic field regime and obtaining global constraints to the existence of intense protective magnetic fields in rapidly and slowly rotating Super Earths. We find that the emergence and continued existence of a protective planetary magnetic field is not only a function of planetary mass but also depend on rotation rate. Low-mass Super Earths ( M ≲ 2 M⊕) develop intense surface magnetic fields but their lifetimes will be limited to 2-4 Gyrs for rotational periods larger than 1-4 days. On the other hand and also in the case of slowly rotating planets, more massive Super Earths ( M ≳ 2 M⊕) have weak magnetic fields but their dipoles will last longer. Finally we analyze tidally locked Super Earths inside and outside the habitable zone of GKM stars. Using the results obtained here we develop a classification of

  18. The SLAC P2 Marx

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, Mark; Benwell, Andrew; Burkhart, Craig; MacNair, David; Nguyen1, Minh; /SLAC

    2012-07-05

    A proposed high energy physics accelerator, the International Linear Collider, will require greater than five hundred rf stations. Each station is composed of a klystron driven by a modulator. Recently, the SLAC P2 Marx was designated the baseline modulator for the ILC. This paper describes some key features of this modulator and presents recent experimental results. The P2 Marx is presently being transported to another facility for lifetime testing. Here, we will gain understanding of how the Marx performs into a klystron load and gain experience operating the Marx for longer periods. Long term plans include the possibility of using this rf station for L-band technology demonstration at SLAC. While the Marx was designed with the ILC in mind, the topology can be readily applied to several different applications. We are currently evaluating the use of the topology for ESS, CLIC, and upgrades for systems at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. Because of the modular nature of the cell and the robustness of the control system, many different combinations of series and parallel operation are possible along with different load currents and pulse shapes.

  19. Development of a super high speed motor-generator and controller

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Do-Kwan Ahn, Min-Hyuk; Joo, Dae-Suk; Woo, Byung-Chul; Koo, Dae-Hyun

    2014-05-07

    To develop a super high speed motor-generator, it is essential to deal with magnetic analysis, dynamic analysis, and experimental evaluation of the heart of the MTG (Microturbine Generator) system, the motor-generator. An amorphous core is applied to a stator core for reduction of iron loss at high speed, and the motor-generator is analyzed with considerations focused on magnetic losses and the statistical optimum design. The performance of the amorphous core is validated by the analysis and experiment by back-to-back tests considering the AC load. Rotor dynamics is performed for dynamic stability at high speed using transient analysis orbit diagrams and compared with the experimental results. The simulation results of the generator are compared with the experiment. Also a super high speed controller of the MTG system is developed using a sensorless algorithm, power stack, gate driver, digital signal processing, analog circuit, and radiation heat design. Based on these results, a high speed motor-generator and controller are successfully developed.

  20. Development of a super high speed motor-generator and controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Do-Kwan; Ahn, Min-Hyuk; Joo, Dae-Suk; Woo, Byung-Chul; Koo, Dae-Hyun

    2014-05-01

    To develop a super high speed motor-generator, it is essential to deal with magnetic analysis, dynamic analysis, and experimental evaluation of the heart of the MTG (Microturbine Generator) system, the motor-generator. An amorphous core is applied to a stator core for reduction of iron loss at high speed, and the motor-generator is analyzed with considerations focused on magnetic losses and the statistical optimum design. The performance of the amorphous core is validated by the analysis and experiment by back-to-back tests considering the AC load. Rotor dynamics is performed for dynamic stability at high speed using transient analysis orbit diagrams and compared with the experimental results. The simulation results of the generator are compared with the experiment. Also a super high speed controller of the MTG system is developed using a sensorless algorithm, power stack, gate driver, digital signal processing, analog circuit, and radiation heat design. Based on these results, a high speed motor-generator and controller are successfully developed.

  1. Super-flat supercontinuum generation from a Tm-doped fiber amplifier.

    PubMed

    Tao, Mengmeng; Yu, Ting; Wang, Zhenbao; Chen, Hongwei; Shen, Yanlong; Feng, Guobin; Ye, Xisheng

    2016-01-01

    Super-flat supercontinua are generated from a double clad Tm-doped fiber amplifier. Two different laser configurations are investigated and compared. In the direct-output configuration, the long-wavelength edge of the supercontinuum spectra is extended to beyond 2.65 μm with a 10 dB bandwidth of 740 nm. In the passive pigtail configuration, the generated supercontinuum features excellent flatness with an intensity difference smaller than 1 dB in the wide central spectral range from 1.98 μm to 2.41 μm. PMID:27021113

  2. Super-flat supercontinuum generation from a Tm-doped fiber amplifier

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Mengmeng; Yu, Ting; Wang, Zhenbao; Chen, Hongwei; Shen, Yanlong; Feng, Guobin; Ye, Xisheng

    2016-01-01

    Super-flat supercontinua are generated from a double clad Tm-doped fiber amplifier. Two different laser configurations are investigated and compared. In the direct-output configuration, the long-wavelength edge of the supercontinuum spectra is extended to beyond 2.65 μm with a 10 dB bandwidth of 740 nm. In the passive pigtail configuration, the generated supercontinuum features excellent flatness with an intensity difference smaller than 1 dB in the wide central spectral range from 1.98 μm to 2.41 μm. PMID:27021113

  3. Karl Marx and the Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shifferd, K. D.

    1972-01-01

    Implications from Karl Marx's concept of nature are explored. Serving as a frame of reference for the fight against pollution, the Marxian philosophy provides a kind of systems analysis of the origins and dynamics of pollution at the level of society and a set of conceptual tools and attitudes for unmasking the claims of industry. (BL)

  4. A composite of borohydride and super absorbent polymer for hydrogen generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z. P.; Liu, B. H.; Liu, F. F.; Xu, D.

    To develop a hydrogen source for underwater applications, a composite of sodium borohydride and super absorbent polymer (SAP) is prepared by ball milling sodium borohydride powder with SAP powder, and by dehydrating an alkaline borohydride gel. When sodium polyacrylate (NaPAA) is used as the SAP, the resulting composite exhibits a high rate of borohydride hydrolysis for hydrogen generation. A mechanism of hydrogen evolution from the NaBH 4-NaPAA composite is suggested based on structure analysis by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The effects of water and NiCl 2 content in the precursor solution on the hydrogen evolution behavior are investigated and discussed.

  5. Numerical studies of powerful terahertz pulse generation from a super-radiant surface wave oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Hai; Wang Jianguo; Tong Changjiang; Li Xiaoze; Wang Guangqiang

    2009-12-15

    The results of theoretical and numerical studies of coherent stimulated terahertz radiation from intense, subnanosecond electron beam are presented. The mechanism of terahertz pulse generation is associated with self-bunching of the beam and slippage of the wave over the whole electron flow. This so called Cherenkov super-radiance (SR) is used to propose a compact terahertz generator with high peak power. A large cross-section (overmoded), slow wave structure is designed to support the high power handling capability, and the mode competition is avoided by operating the device in the surface wave status. With 2.5 D particle-in-cell simulation, the 'hot' characteristics of the proposed super-radiant terahertz generator are investigated, and the numerical results show that the SR peak power could be further increased by optimizing the amplitude profile of electron pulse. Under the condition of 0.5 ns pulsewidth, 500 kV voltage, and 1.5 kA current, the 110 ps, 680 MW, and 0.14 THz SR pulse is achieved with a power efficiency of 90.67% in TM{sub 01} mode.

  6. The ILC P2 Marx and Application of the Marx Topology to Future Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, M.A.; Benwell, A.; Burkhart, C.; Hugyik, J.; Larsen, R.; Macken, K.; MacNair, D.; Nguyen, M.; Olsen, J.; /SLAC

    2011-08-19

    The SLAC P2 Marx is under development as the linac klystron modulator for the ILC. This modulator builds upon the success of the P1 Marx, which is currently undergoing lifetime evaluation. While the SLAC P2 Marx's (henceforth, 'P2 Marx') target application is the ILC, characteristics of the Marx topology make it equally well-suited for operation at different parameter ranges; for example, increased pulse repetition frequency, increased output current, longer pulse width, etc. Marx parameters such as the number of cells, cell capacitance, and component selection can be optimized for the application. This paper provides an overview of the P2 Marx development. In addition, the scalability of the Marx topology to other long-pulse parameter ranges is discussed.

  7. [Medical history impressions of Karl Marx 1983].

    PubMed

    Kaiser, W

    1983-12-15

    Excerpts of his London era first published on the occasion of the Karl Marx testimonials of 1983 gave rise to extend the memory of the fundamental achievements of Karl Marx to medico-historical aspects. In this case Karl Marx paid special attention to the working and living conditions of the working class and an analysis of his adequate statements and records shows multifarious details which give a research basis also for the history of medicine. Marx and Engels had friendly contacts with several physicians who shared the opinions of the two classics: their way of life is shown in the most important points.

  8. Terahertz generation by mixing of two super-Gaussian laser beams in collisional plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Divya; Malik, Hitendra K.

    2014-08-01

    Considering a realistic situation, where electron-neutral collisions persist in plasma, analytical calculations are carried out for the Terahertz (THz) radiation generation by beating of two Super-Gaussian (SG) lasers of index p. The competency of these lasers over Gaussian lasers is discussed in detail with respect to the effects of collision and beam width on the THz field amplitude and efficiency of the mechanism. A critical transverse distance of the peak of the THz field is defined that shows a dependence on the index of SG lasers. Although electron-neutral collisions and larger beam width lead to the drastic reduction in the THz field when the SG lasers are used in the plasma, the efficiency of the mechanism remains much larger than the case of Gaussian lasers. Moreover, the higher index SG lasers produce stronger and focused THz radiation.

  9. Spin-on-glass coatings for the generation of super-polishedsubstrates for extreme ultraviolet optics

    SciTech Connect

    Salmassi, Farhad; Naulleau, Patrick P.; Gullikson, Eric M.

    2005-01-01

    Substrates intended for use as extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optics have extremely stringent requirements in terms of finish. These requirements can dramatically increase the cost and fabrication time, especially when non-conventional shapes, such as toroids, are required. Here we present a spin-on-glass resist process capable of generating super-polished parts from inexpensive substrates. The method has been used to render diamond-turned substrates compatible for use as EUV optics. Toroidal diamond-turned optics with starting rms roughness in the 3.3 to 3.7 nm range have been smoothed to the 0.4 to 0.6 nm range. EUV reflectometry characterization of these optics has demonstrated reflectivities of approximately 63%.

  10. Terahertz generation by mixing of two super-Gaussian laser beams in collisional plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Divya; Malik, Hitendra K. E-mail: hkmalik@physics.iitd.ac.in

    2014-08-15

    Considering a realistic situation, where electron-neutral collisions persist in plasma, analytical calculations are carried out for the Terahertz (THz) radiation generation by beating of two Super-Gaussian (SG) lasers of index p. The competency of these lasers over Gaussian lasers is discussed in detail with respect to the effects of collision and beam width on the THz field amplitude and efficiency of the mechanism. A critical transverse distance of the peak of the THz field is defined that shows a dependence on the index of SG lasers. Although electron-neutral collisions and larger beam width lead to the drastic reduction in the THz field when the SG lasers are used in the plasma, the efficiency of the mechanism remains much larger than the case of Gaussian lasers. Moreover, the higher index SG lasers produce stronger and focused THz radiation.

  11. Marx and the Education of the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rikowski, Glenn

    2004-01-01

    With reference to Karl Marx's writings on education, this article outlines the education of the future as anti-capitalist education. In starting out from a conception of communism as the "real movement which abolishes the present state of things" (Marx), it is argued that the anti-capitalist education of the future consists of three moments:…

  12. Design of compact Marx module with square pulse output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongwei; Xie, Weiping; Yuan, Jianqiang; Wang, Lingyun; Ma, Xun; Jiang, Ping

    2016-07-01

    Compact pulsed power system based on compact Marx generator is widely used in terms of drive resistance and capacitive loads. This system usually adopts high performance components such as high energy density capacitors, compact switches, and integrated structure. Traditional compact Marx generator can only output double-exponential pulse profile. In this paper a compact, low-impedance Marx module which can output rectangular pulse profile is design and tested. This module has multiple circuits of different discharge frequencies in parallel to generate quasi-rectangular pulse. Discharge characteristic of an ideal module with infinite branches is calculated theoretically. A module with two branches has been designed and tested. Test results show that the impedance of the module is 1.2 Ω. When charging voltage is 100.6 kV and load resistance is 1 Ω, the peak output pulse is 45.2 kV voltage, the peak power is about 2 GW, the pulse width is about 130 ns, and the rise time is about 35 ns. The energy density and power density of the module are 15 kJ/m3 and 140 GW/m3, respectively.

  13. Design of compact Marx module with square pulse output.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongwei; Xie, Weiping; Yuan, Jianqiang; Wang, Lingyun; Ma, Xun; Jiang, Ping

    2016-07-01

    Compact pulsed power system based on compact Marx generator is widely used in terms of drive resistance and capacitive loads. This system usually adopts high performance components such as high energy density capacitors, compact switches, and integrated structure. Traditional compact Marx generator can only output double-exponential pulse profile. In this paper a compact, low-impedance Marx module which can output rectangular pulse profile is design and tested. This module has multiple circuits of different discharge frequencies in parallel to generate quasi-rectangular pulse. Discharge characteristic of an ideal module with infinite branches is calculated theoretically. A module with two branches has been designed and tested. Test results show that the impedance of the module is 1.2 Ω. When charging voltage is 100.6 kV and load resistance is 1 Ω, the peak output pulse is 45.2 kV voltage, the peak power is about 2 GW, the pulse width is about 130 ns, and the rise time is about 35 ns. The energy density and power density of the module are 15 kJ/m(3) and 140 GW/m(3), respectively. PMID:27475580

  14. Terahertz radiation generation by beating of two super Gaussian lasers in plasma having static dc electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Saba; Singh, Ram Kishor; Sharma, R. P.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a scheme for the generation of high power terahertz radiation by the beating of two femtosecond super Gaussian lasers in plasma having dc electric field in the transverse direction. In this mechanism, a strong nonlinear ponderomotive force acts on the plasma electrons at the frequency difference of the two lasers ( ω 1 - ω 2 ) that imparts a nonlinear oscillatory velocity to plasma electrons which further result in the generation of a nonlinear current at this difference frequency (lying in THz domain). The dynamical equations governing the generation of THz waves have been solved semi-analytically; the result shows that the amplitude of the generated waves is considerably enhanced in the presence of dc electric field, and the index of super Gaussian beams also plays a keen role in governing the yield of THz waves.

  15. Detection of Heater Generated Super Small Scale Striations Using GPS Signal Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najmi, A. C.; Milikh, G. M.; Chiang, K.; Psiaki, M.; Secan, J. A.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Briczinski, S. J.; Siefring, C. L.; Papadopoulos, K.

    2013-12-01

    Recent theoretical models predict that super small striations (SSS) of the electron density, on the order of ten centimeters, can be excited by HF waves with frequency close to multiples of the electron gyro frequency [Gurevich et al., 2006]. The first experimental verification of SSS was made at HAARP [Milikh et al., 2008]. We present results of HAARP experiments that include simultaneous observations of GPS carrier phase and SEE observations of ionospheric turbulence. These observations show that SSS excited by HF frequencies near the fourth harmonic of the gyro frequency scatter GPS signals, and in three out of six experiments indicate the presence of strong turbulence, similar to that observed in descending artificial ionized layer experiments [Pedersen et al., 2010]. This turbulence is capable of generating suprathermal electrons, and in one of the experiments, the presence of fast electrons was confirmed by the HAARP incoherent scattering radar. Estimates on the SSS shows that they correspond to 3-10% electron density depletions. Such irregularities affect UHF signals including GPS, and thus can be important in applications. Gurevich, A.V. and K.P. Zybin (2006), Phys. Lett. A, 358, 159. Milikh, G., et al. (2008), Geophys. Res. Let., 35, L22102, doi:10.1029/2008GL035527. Pedersen, T. et al. (2010), Geophys. Res. Let., 37, L02106, doi:10.1029/2009GL041895.

  16. Next-generation biomarkers based on 100-parameter functional super-resolution microscopy TIS.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Walter; Gieseler, Anne; Krusche, Andreas; Serocka, Peter; Hillert, Reyk

    2012-06-15

    Functional super-resolution (fSR) microscopy is based on the automated toponome imaging system (TIS). fSR-TIS provides insight into the myriad of different cellular functionalities by direct imaging of large subcellular protein networks in morphologically intact cells and tissues, referred to as the toponome. By cyclical fluorescence imaging of at least 100 molecular cell components, fSR-TIS overcomes the spectral limitations of fluorescence microscopy, which is the essential condition for the detection of protein network structures in situ/in vivo. The resulting data sets precisely discriminate between cell types, subcellular structures, cell states and diseases (fSR). With up to 16 bits per protein, the power of combinatorial molecular discrimination (PCMD) is at least 2(100) per subcellular data point. It provides the dimensionality necessary to uncover thousands of distinct protein clusters including their subcellular hierarchies controlling protein network topology and function in the one cell or tissue section. Here we review the technology and findings showing that functional protein networks of the cell surface in different cancers encompass the same hierarchical and spatial coding principle, but express cancer-specific toponome codes within that scheme (referred to as TIS codes). Findings suggest that TIS codes, extracted from large-scale toponome data, have the potential to be next-generation biomarkers because of their cell type and disease specificity. This is functionally substantiated by the observation that blocking toponome-specific lead proteins results in disassembly of molecular networks and loss of function.

  17. Development Status of The ILC Marx Modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, M; Beukers, T.; Burkhart, C.; Larsen, R.; Olsen, J.; Tang, T.; /SLAC

    2010-06-07

    The ILC Marx Modulator is under development as a lower cost alternative to the 'Baseline Conceptual Design' (BCD) klystron modulator. Construction of a prototype Marx is complete and testing is underway at SLAC. The Marx employs solid state elements, IGBTs and diodes, to control the charge, discharge and isolation of the modules. The prototype is based on a stack of sixteen modules, each initially charged to {approx}11 kV, which are arranged in a Marx topology. Initially, eleven modules combine to produce the 120 kV output pulse. The remaining modules are switched in after appropriate delays to compensate for the voltage droop that results from the discharge of the energy storage capacitors. Additional elements will further regulate the output voltage to {+-}0.5%. The Marx presents several advantages over the conventional klystron modulator designs. It is physically smaller; there is no pulse transformer (quite massive at these parameters) and the energy storage capacitor bank is quite small, owing to the active droop compensation. It is oil-free; voltage hold-off is achieved using air insulation. It is air cooled; the secondary air-water heat exchanger is physically isolated from the electronic components. This paper outlines the current developmental status of the prototype Marx. It presents a detailed electrical and mechanical description of the modulator and operational test results. It will discuss electrical efficiency measurements, fault testing, and output voltage regulation.

  18. Development Status of the ILC Marx Modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, M.; Beukers, T.; Burkhart, C.; Larsen, R.; Olsen, J.; Tang, T.; /SLAC

    2008-06-16

    The ILC Marx Modulator is under development as a lower cost alternative to the 'Baseline Conceptual Design' (BCD) klystron modulator. Construction of a prototype Marx is complete and testing is underway at SLAC. The Marx employs solid state elements, IGBTs and diodes, to control the charge, discharge and isolation of the modules. The prototype is based on a stack of sixteen modules, each initially charged to {approx}11 kV, which are arranged in a Marx topology. Initially, eleven modules combine to produce the 120 kV output pulse. The remaining modules are switched in after appropriate delays to compensate for the voltage droop that results from the discharge of the energy storage capacitors. Additional elements will further regulate the output voltage to {+-} 0.5%. The Marx presents several advantages over the conventional klystron modulator designs. It is physically smaller; there is no pulse transformer (quite massive at these parameters) and the energy storage capacitor bank is quite small, owing to the active droop compensation. It is oil-free; voltage hold-off is achieved using air insulation. It is air cooled; the secondary air-water heat exchanger is physically isolated from the electronic components. This paper outlines the current developmental status of the prototype Marx. It presents a detailed electrical and mechanical description of the modulator and operational test results. It will discuss electrical efficiency measurements, fault testing, and output voltage regulation.

  19. Looking for Marx: A Review of "Marx and Education" by Jean Anyon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banfield, Grant

    2011-01-01

    "Marx and Education" is the second and latest volume in the new "Routledge Key Ideas in Education Series". The series is intended to offer readers concise introductions to specific sub-field developments in the field of educational scholarship. For their "Marx and Education" volume, Greg Dimitriadis and Bob Lingard invited Jean Anyon to illuminate…

  20. Generation of super-size macroparticles in a direct current vacuum arc discharge from a Mo-Cu cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhirkov, Igor; Petruhins, Andrejs; Polcik, Peter; Kolozsvári, Szilard; Rosen, Johanna

    2016-02-01

    An inherent property of cathodic arc is the generation of macroparticles, of a typical size ranging from submicrometer up to a few tens of μm. In this work, we have studied macroparticle generation from a Mo0.78Cu0.22 cathode used in a dc vacuum arc discharge, and we present evidence for super-size macroparticles of up to 0.7 mm in diameter. All analyzed particles are found to be rich in Mo (≥98 at. %). The particle generation is studied by visual observation of the cathode surface during arcing, by analysis of composition and geometrical features of the used cathode surface, and by examination of the generated macroparticles with respect to shape and composition. A mechanism for super-size macroparticle generation is suggested based on observed segregated layers of Mo and Cu identified in the topmost part of the cathode surface, likely due to the discrepancy in melting and evaporation temperatures of Mo and Cu. The results are of importance for increasing the fundamental understanding of macroparticle generation, which in turn may lead to increased process control and potentially provide paths for tuning, or even mitigating, macroparticle generation.

  1. SuperHERO: the next generation hard x-ray HEROES telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaskin, Jessica A.; Christe, Steven D.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Kilaru, Kiranmayee; Ramsey, Brian D.; Seller, Paul; Shih, Albert Y.; Stuchlik, David W.; Swartz, Douglas A.; Tennant, Allyn F.; Weddendorf, Bruce; Wilson, Matthew D.; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.

    2014-07-01

    SuperHERO is a new high-resolution, Long Duration Balloon-capable, hard-x-ray (20-75 keV) focusing telescope for making novel astrophysics and heliophysics observations. The SuperHERO payload, currently in its proposal phase, is being developed jointly by the Astrophysics Office at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the Solar Physics Laboratory and the Wallops Flight Facility at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. SuperHERO is a follow-on payload to the High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) balloon-borne telescope that recently flew from Fort Sumner, NM in September of 2013, and will utilize many of the same features. Significant enhancements to the HEROES payload will be made, including the addition of optics, novel solid-state multi-pixel CdTe detectors, integration of the Wallops Arc-Second Pointer and a significantly lighter gondola suitable for Long Duration Flights.

  2. Marx and Education. Routledge Key Ideas in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anyon, Jean

    2011-01-01

    There was only one Karl Marx, but there have been a multitude of Marxisms. This concise, introductory book by internationally renowned scholar Jean Anyon centers on the ideas of Marx that have been used in education studies as a guide to theory, analysis, research, and practice. "Marx and Education" begins with a brief overview of basic Marxist…

  3. "Our Table Factory, Inc.": Learning Marx through Role Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maghbouleh, Neda; Childress, Clayton; Alamo-Pastrana, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Marx's critique of capitalism remains foundational to the university social science curriculum yet little is known about how instructors teach Marx. In post-industrial, service-oriented economies, students are also increasingly disconnected from the conditions of industrial capitalism that animate Marx's analysis. Inspired by the discussion of how…

  4. SuperHERO: The Next Generation Hard X-Ray HEROES Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Gaskin, Jessica A.; Christe, Steven D.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Seller, Paul; Shih, Albert Y.; Stuchlik, David W.; Swartz, Douglas A.; Tenant, Allyn F.; Wilson, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    SuperHERO is a new high-sensitivity Long Duration Balloon (LDB)-capable, hard-x-ray (20-75 keV) telescope for making novel astrophysics and heliophysics observations. The proposed SuperHERO payload will be developed jointly by the Astrophysics Office at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, the Solar Physics Laboratory and Wallops Flight Facility at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. SuperHERO is a follow-on payload to the High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) balloon-borne telescope that recently launched from Fort Sumner, NM in September of 2013. The HEROES core instrument is a hard x-ray telescope consisting of x-ray 109 optics configured into 8 modules. Each module is aligned to a matching gas-filled detector at a focal length of 6 m. SuperHERO will make significant improvements to the HEROES payload, including: new solid-state multi-pixel CdTe detectors, additional optics, the Wallops Arc-Second Pointer, alignment monitoring systems and lighter gondola.

  5. SuperHERO: The Next Generation Hard X-ray HEROES Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaskin, Jessica A.; Christe, Steven D.; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen; Shih, Albert Y. M.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Tennant, Allyn F.; Swartz, Douglas A.

    2014-01-01

    SuperHERO is a new high-sensitivity Long Duration Balloon (LDB)-capable, hard-x-ray (20-75 keV) telescope for making novel astrophysics and heliophysics observations. The proposed SuperHERO payload will be developed jointly by the Astrophysics Office at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, the Solar Physics Laboratory and Wallops Flight Facility at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. SuperHERO is a follow-on payload to the High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) balloon-borne telescope that recently launched from Fort Sumner, NM in September of 2013. The HEROES core instrument is a hard x-ray telescope consisting of x-ray 109 optics configured into 8 modules. Each module is aligned to a matching gas-filled detector at a focal length of 6 m. SuperHERO will make significant improvements to the HEROES payload, including: new solid-state multi-pixel CdTe detectors, additional optics, the Wallops Arc-Second Pointer, alignment monitoring systems and lighter gondola.

  6. Solid State Marx Modulators for Emerging Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, M.A.; /SLAC

    2012-09-14

    Emerging linear accelerator applications increasingly push the boundaries of RF system performance and economics. The power modulator is an integral part of RF systems whose characteristics play a key role in the determining parameters such as efficiency, footprint, cost, stability, and availability. Particularly within the past decade, solid-state switch based modulators have become the standard in high-performance, high power modulators. One topology, the Marx modulator, has characteristics which make it particularly attractive for several emerging applications. This paper is an overview of the Marx topology, some recent developments, and a case study of how this architecture can be applied to a few proposed linear accelerators.

  7. New generation super alloy candidates for medical applications: corrosion behavior, cation release and biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Reclaru, L; Ziegenhagen, R; Unger, R E; Eschler, P Y; Constantin, F

    2014-12-01

    Three super alloy candidates (X1 CrNiMoMnW 24-22-6-3-2 N, NiCr21 MoNbFe 8-3-5 AlTi, CoNiCr 35-20 Mo 10 BTi) for a prolonged contact with skin are evaluated in comparison with two reference austenitic stainless steels 316L and 904L. Several electrochemical parameters were measured and determined (E(oc), E(corr), i(corr), b(a), b(c), E(b), R(p), E(crev) and coulometric analysis) in order to compare the corrosion behavior. The cation release evaluation and in vitro biological characterization also were performed. In terms of corrosion, the results reveal that the 904L steels presented the best behavior followed by the super austenitic steel X1 CrNiMoMnW 24-22-6-3-2 N. For the other two super alloys (NiCr and CoNiCr types alloys) tested in different conditions (annealed, work hardened and work hardened+age hardened) it was found that their behavior to corrosion was weak and close to the other reference stainless steel, 316L. Regarding the extraction a mixture of cations in relatively high concentrations was noted and therefore a cocktail effect was not excluded. The results obtained in the biological assays WST-1 and TNF-alpha were in correlation with the corrosion and extraction evaluation.

  8. Processes of Alienation: Marx, Orff and Kodaly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benedict, Cathy

    2009-01-01

    Using Marx as a lens through which to interrogate music methodology, in particular those espoused by Orff and Kodaly, this article suggests that rather than the free play and creativity Orff and Kodaly intended, the implementation of these methods in a strict and unmindful manner, often alienates both teacher and student from musicking. Thus these…

  9. Some Educational Implications of Karl Marx's Communism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellerich, Gert

    1970-01-01

    According to the expressed ideas of Karl Marx, education should be viewed as a means to develop a person's whole potential and to make him a better human being. It is his contention that in a capitalist society, the educational process causes misery and exists solely to further entrench the power of the rich. (CK)

  10. Karl Marx: "A Swarthy Fellow from Trier."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machalek, Richard

    1983-01-01

    Discussed are Marx's roles as a student, a journalist-scholar, a revolutionary, and a family member. Revealed is a political and intellectual figure of enormous stature and complexity, but a person typically human in passions and commitments, strengths, and shortcomings. (RM)

  11. SuperHERO: The Next Generation Hard X-Ray Focusing Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaskin, Jessica; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen; Ramsey, Brian; Elsner, Ronald; Tennant, Allyn F.; Kilaru, Kiranmayee; Swartz, Douglas A.; Christe, Steven; Shih, Albert Y.; Baganoff, Frederick K.; Seller, Paul; Wilson, Matthew; Stuchlik, David

    2015-01-01

    SuperHERO is a balloon-borne hard x-ray (20-75 keV) telescope that couples high-angular resolution (~20 arcsecs) electroformed-nickel grazing incidence optics to state-of-the-art fine pixel-pitch (250 µm) Cadmium-Telluride detectors with a 6 m focal length. This telescope, currently in the proposal phase, will have the highest angular resolution of any hard x-ray telescope to date, and comparable energy resolution to that of the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array. The high angular resolution afforded by focusing optics is essential for mitigating source confusion in crowded fields, for direct imaging of extended sources on fine spatial scales, and for efficient observing through greatly-increased sensitivity. As such, the primary astronomical targets are the Galactic Center, pulsar-powered synchrotron nebulae and diffusive shock accelerated sites in supernova remnants. To facilitate solar observations, the SuperHERO detectors have a high processing rate of ~10 kHz over the entire 80x80 pixel array, or over 5M photons per second over the detector area. The current SuperHERO configuration has a total on-axis effective area of 145 cm2 at 30 keV and a field of view of ~7 arcmin FWHM at 30 keV (simulated). The optics, developed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, have significant flight heritage as similar mirrors have flown on balloon payloads, sounding rockets and a satellite mission. The detectors, developed at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), utilize the novel HEXITEC Application Specific Integrated Circuit. RAL has been working on these and similar detectors for over a decade for applications ranging from medical to defense. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, working with RAL and MSFC has been adapting these detectors for flight, with good progress. The telescope will reside on a carbon-composite frame that will integrate the Wallops Arc Second Pointer. This design will allow for Long Duration Balloon flights from Antarctica that can last up to 4 weeks

  12. Generation of an axially super-resolved quasi-spherical focal spot using an amplitude-modulated radially polarized beam.

    PubMed

    Lin, Han; Jia, Baohua; Gu, Min

    2011-07-01

    An axially super-resolved quasi-spherical focal spot can be generated by focusing an amplitude-modulated radially polarized beam through a high numerical aperture objective. A method based on the unique depolarization properties of a circular focus is proposed to design the amplitude modulation. The generated focal spot shows a ratio of x:y:z=1:1:1.48 for the normalized FWHM in three dimensions, compared to that of x:y:z=1:0.74:1.72 under linear polarization (in the x direction) illumination. Moreover, the focusable light efficiency of the designed amplitude-modulated beam is 65%, which is more than 3 times higher than the optimized case under linear polarization and thus make the amplitude-modulated radial polarization beam more suitable for a wide range of applications.

  13. Application of Super-Synchronization Speed Control Technology in Two 80 MVA Motor-Generator Units of HL-2A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huajun; Du, Chang; Xuan, Weiming; Pen, Jianfei; Hu, Haotian; Liu, Lin; Kang, Li; Xu, Lirong; Huang, Zhaorong; Wang, Fen; Wang, Xiaoping

    2007-04-01

    Two sets of super-synchronization speed control assemblies for two 80 MVA motor-generator units have been developed successfully in order to satisfy the demand of the toroidal field system in the HL-2A tokamak. Based on the three-phase logical no-circumfluence a.c./a.c. cycloconverter, the speeds of two 2500 kW double fed drive motors have been regulated by means of the vector control technology. The maximum operating speed of each motor- generator unit has been raised from 1488 rpm (revolutions per minute) to 1650 rpm and the released energy of each unit during a pulsed discharge can reach 500 MJ. As a result, the toroidal field system has the capacity to provide 2.8 tesla (T) in HL-2A experiments.

  14. Generation and detection of super small striations by F region HF heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najmi, A.; Milikh, G.; Secan, J.; Chiang, K.; Psiaki, M.; Bernhardt, P.; Briczinski, S.; Siefring, C.; Chang, C. L.; Papadopoulos, K.

    2014-07-01

    Recent theoretical models and preliminary observations indicate that super small striations (SSS) in the plasma density with scale size of 10 cm can be excited by F region HF heating at frequencies close to multiples of the electron gyrofrequency. We present here new experimental results using the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program ionospheric heater at a frequency close to the fourth electron gyroharmonic with simultaneous GPS, Stimulated Electromagnetic Emission, ionosonde, and occasional Incoherent Radar Scattering diagnostics. Differential phase measurements of GPS signals through the heated region indicated the presence of SSS with extremely high amplitude (δn/n = 0.2-0.3) at scale size comparable to the electron gyroradius. The highest amplitude of GPS scintillations coincide with the highest level of the Broad Upshifted Maximum (BUM) and occurred when the HF frequency is slightly above the fourth harmonic of the electron cyclotron frequency. Frequency sweeps indicate that the scintillation amplitude exhibits hysteresis similar to that observed for the BUM amplitude when the HF frequency is cycled about the fourth harmonic of the cyclotron frequency. The results favor a four wave parametric process as the physical mechanism of the SSS. Additional experiments allowed the determination of the excitation and decay rates of the SSS.

  15. 0.4-1.4 {mu}m Visible to Near-Infrared Widely Broadened Super Continuum Generation with Er-doped Ultrashort Pulse Fiber Laser System

    SciTech Connect

    Nishizawa, Norihiko; Sumimura, Kazuhiko; Mitsuzawa, Hideyuki

    2009-03-17

    Visible to near-infrared widely broadened super continuum generation is demonstrated using ultrashort-pulse fiber laser system. Er-doped fiber chirped-pulse amplification system operated at 1550 nm in wavelength is used for the amplifier system, which generated ultrashort-pulse of 112 fs in FWHM with output power of 160 mW, on average. Almost pedestal free 200 fs second harmonic generation pulse is generated at 780 nm region using periodically poled LiNbO{sub 3} and conversion efficiency is as high as 37%. 0.45-1.40 {mu}m widely broadened super continuum is generated in highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber and spectrum flatness is within {+-}6 dB. All of the fiber devices are fusion spliced so that this system shows a good stability.

  16. Super continuum generation for real time ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishizawa, Norihiko; Aguirre, Aaron D.; Fujimoto, James G.

    2006-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging technology for micrometer-scale, cross-sectional imaging of biological tissue and materials. One of the key limitations to achieving ultrahigh-resolution OCT imaging outside the laboratory setting has been the lack of compact, high-performance broadband light sources with sufficient power and stability to allow practical real-time imaging. The broad-bandwidth supercontinuum (SC) sources were recently demonstrated with femtosecond lasers in combination with nonlinear fibers. Using SC, we can demonstrate ultrahigh resolution OCT. However, wideband SC generally has large excess noise and significant fine structure. Low noise and smooth spectral shape are desired in the ideal supercontinnum source. In this paper, we describe recent studies on practical SC generation for ultrahigh-resolution OCT. SC generation is first analyzed both numerically and experimentally in terms of OCT imaging requirements and optimized conditions for generation are discussed. Supercontinua generated by use of highly nonlinear fiber which have a zero-dispersion wavelength near the pump wavelength, generally result in severe spectral modulation and fluctuating fine structure in the spectra. This spectral modulation produces sidelobes and reduced contrast in the interferometric point-spread function. In contrast, normally dispersive, highly nonlinear fibers (ND-HNFs) can generate smooth and Gaussian shaped supercontinua by the combination of self-phase modulation and normal dispersion. Low noise and wideband SC generation is demonstrated using ND-HNFs. Two colored SC generation is also demonstrated using a photonic crystal fiber which has two close zero dispersion wavelengths. The numerical results are almost in agreement with the experimental ones. Finally, low noise SC generation is demonstrated in an all fiber system based on an ultrashort pulse fiber laser. Wideband, low noise, near Gaussian shaped, high power SC is generated in the 1.55

  17. A Coreless Approaches for On/Off Marx Type Modulators

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnykh, Anatoly; /SLAC

    2007-03-05

    SLAC was first to report using ON/OFF switches in Marx type modulator. The development of Marx type modulator was bounded with the NLC need. The high energy physics runs based on the ILC concept where longer modulator pulse width is required. The SLAC idea of coreless modulators was useful for other applications (medicine, military, home security, etc.). The discussed conception is presented as a continuation of the earlier published articles. Several types of the Marx ON/OFF type modulators are under consideration. This article describes the new coreless approach, based on the solid state ON/OFF Marx's topology. An AC high voltage network feeds individual Marx's cells through the inductive and diode assemblies. Further integration of the ON/OFF Marx type modulator and its power supply is proposed. Two topologies are under consideration. The first scheme is an integration of DC/DC converters with ON/OFF Marx. The second topology is based on the usage of AC network directly with ON/OFF Marx scheme.

  18. Karl Marx as a Social Scientist and Utopian Dreamer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, James A.

    The central paradox of Karl Marx's work is his belief that the vision of mankind leaving inequality and scarcity behind is attainable. The idea that human alienation, inequality, and need could be rendered obsolete by a future communist society of abundance is a significant failing in Marx's thought. It is at the same time the critical element in…

  19. Tunable THz Generation by the Interaction of a Super-luminous Laser Pulse with Biased Semiconductor Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Papadopoulos, K.; Zigler, A.

    2006-01-03

    Terahertz (THz) radiation is electromagnetic radiation in the range between several hundred and a few thousand GHz. It covers the gap between fast-wave electronics (millimeter waves) and optics (infrared). This spectral region offers enormous potential for detection of explosives and chemical/biological agents, non-destructive testing of non-metallic structural materials and coatings of aircraft structures, medical imaging, bio-sensing of DNA stretching modes and high-altitude secure communications. The development of these applications has been hindered by the lack of powerful, tunable THz sources with controlled waveform. The need for such sources is accentuated by the strong, but selective absorption of THz radiation during transmission through air with high vapor content. The majority of the current experimental work relies on time-domain spectroscopy using fast electrically biased photoconductive sources in conjunction with femto-second mode-locked Ti:Sapphire lasers. These sources known as Large Aperture Photoconductive Antennas (LAPA) have very limited tunability, relatively low upper bound of power and no bandwidth control. The paper presents a novel source of THz radiation known as Miniature Photoconductive Capacitor Array (MPCA). Experiments demonstrated tunability between .1 - 2 THz, control of the relative bandwidth {delta}f/f between .5-.01, and controlled pulse length and pulse waveform (temporal shape, chirp, pulse-to-pulse modulation etc.). Direct scaling from the current device indicates efficiency in excess of 30% at 1 THz with 1/f2 scaling at higher frequencies, peak power of 100 kW and average power between .1-1 W. The physics underlying the MPCA is the interaction of a super-luminous ionization front generated by the oblique incidence of a Ti:Sapphire laser pulse on a semiconductor crystal (ZnSe) biased with an alternating electrostatic field, similar to that of a frozen wave generator. It is shown theoretically and experimentally that the

  20. Second generation, in situ bioremediation: Enzymes, super-bugs and geobotany

    SciTech Connect

    Zodrow, J.J.

    1997-02-01

    Second generation, in situ bioremediation technology strives to identify the enzyme-catalyzed reaction in microorganisms to remediate contaminated sites. Microbes digest contaminants, called substrates, through the use of complex proteins called enzymes. By piercing the cell wall, enzymes used by the microorganism to metabolize contamination can be extracted and collected. Whether collected in volume or synthetically reproduced, enzymes may be used to treat contamination at sites without requiring the injection of a living microorganism population, thereby eliminating the site concerns and laboratory costs associated with developing and maintaining live microbial populations. Microbes consume hazardous contaminants -- even those highly toxic to humans -- and reduce the contaminant chemicals to simpler forms through metabolism. It is understood that the microorganisms metabolize contaminants through enzyme digestion. When microbes come into contact with certain organic and inorganic materials, such compounds are readily incorporated into the microbial cells. Enzymes are released to convert high molecular weight materials into fractions, which can then be transported by osmosis through the semipermeable cell membrane for assimilation by the microorganism.

  1. [Karl Marx and the Malthusian theory of population].

    PubMed

    Jaggi, S

    1985-06-01

    An analysis of the works of Karl Marx is presented in order to demonstrate the importance of the population factor. The author contends that population growth is a critical factor in Marx's theory of the progressive impoverishment of the working class. However, because of his reluctance to acknowledge the value of the Malthusian contribution, Marx focused his analysis of the labor force under capitalism on the demand for workers and neglected the supply side, which is determined by the growth of population. The author concludes that Marxist theory would have benefited from greater consideration of Malthusian theory.

  2. [Karl Marx and the Malthusian theory of population].

    PubMed

    Jaggi, S

    1985-06-01

    An analysis of the works of Karl Marx is presented in order to demonstrate the importance of the population factor. The author contends that population growth is a critical factor in Marx's theory of the progressive impoverishment of the working class. However, because of his reluctance to acknowledge the value of the Malthusian contribution, Marx focused his analysis of the labor force under capitalism on the demand for workers and neglected the supply side, which is determined by the growth of population. The author concludes that Marxist theory would have benefited from greater consideration of Malthusian theory. PMID:12157696

  3. Generating Super Stimulated-Echoes in MRI and their Application to Hyperpolarized C-13 Diffusion Metabolic Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Peder E. Z.; Kerr, Adam B.; Reed, Galen D.; Hurd, Ralph E.; Kurhanewicz, John; Pauly, John M.; Vigneron, Daniel B.

    2011-01-01

    Stimulated-echoes in MR can be used to provide high sensitivity to motion and flow, creating diffusion and perfusion weighting as well as T1 contrast, but conventional approaches inherently suffer from a 50% signal loss. The super stimulated-echo, which uses a specialized radiofrequency (RF) pulse train, has been proposed in order to improve the signal while preserving motion and T1 sensitivity. This paper presents a novel and straightforward method for designing the super stimulated-echo pulse train using inversion pulse design techniques. This method can also create adiabatic designs with an improved response to RF transmit field variations. The scheme was validated in phantom experiments and shown in vivo to improve SNR. We have applied a super stimulated-echo to metabolic MRI with hyperpolarized 13C-labeled molecules. For spectroscopic imaging of hyperpolarized agents, several repetition times are required but only a single stimulated-echo encoding is feasible, which can lead to unwanted motion blurring. To address this, a super stimulated-echo preparation scheme was used in which the diffusion weighting is terminated prior to the acquisition, and we observed a SNR increases of 60% in phantoms and 49% in vivo over a conventional stimulated-echo. Experiments following injection of hyperpolarized [1-13C]-pyruvate in murine transgenic cancer models have shown improved delineation for tumors since signals from metabolites within tumor tissues are retained while those from the vasculature are suppressed by the diffusion preparation scheme. PMID:22027366

  4. Super loop groups, Hamiltonian actions and super Virasoro algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harnad, J.; Kupershmidt, B. A.

    1990-09-01

    The quotient{{widetilde{LG}} G} of a super loop groupwidetilde{LG} by the subgroup of constant loops is given a supersymplectic structure and identified through a moment map embedding MediaObjects/220_2005_BF02096652_f1.jpg with a coadjoint orbit of the centrally extended super loop algebra. The algebra widetilde{diff}^c S^1 of super-conformal vector fields on the circle is shown to have a natural representation as Hamiltonian vector fields on{{widetilde{LG}} G} generated by an equivariant moment map. This map is obtained by composition of 315-8 with a super Poisson map defining a supersymmetric extension of the classical Sugawara formula. Upon quantization, this yields the corresponding formula of Kac and Todorov on unitary highest weight representations. For any homomorphism ρ: u(1)→ G, an associated "twisted" moment map is also derived, generating a super Poisson bracket realization of a super Virasoro subalgebra widetilde{Vir} of the semi-direct sum. The corresponding super Poisson map is interpreted as a nonabelian generalization of the super Miura map and applied to two super KdV hierarchies to derive corresponding integrable generalized super MKdV hierarchies in Figure 8.

  5. ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS: Generation of a Super Strong Attosecond Pulse from an Atomic Superposition State Irradiated by a Shape-Optimized Short Pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Fu-Ming; Yang, Yu-Jun; Jin, Ming-Xing; Ding, Da-Jun; Zhu, Qi-Ren

    2009-11-01

    Using a linearly polarized, phase-stabilized 3-fs driving pulse of 800 nm central wavelength shape-optimized on its ascending edge by its an amplitude-reduced pulse irradiating on a superposition state of the helium atom, we demonstrate theoretically the generation of a super strong isolated 176-attosecond pulse in the spectral region of 93-124 eV. The unusually high intensity of this attosecond pulse is marked by the Rabi-like oscillations emerging in the time-dependent populations of the ground state and the continuum during the occurrence of the electron recombination, which is for the first time observed in this work.

  6. Problematizing the "Taken for Granted" in Educational Issues: Karl Marx, Antonio Gramsci, and Michel Foucault.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qi, Jie

    This paper explores how educators would raise different questions about educational issues by using Karl Marx's framework, Antonio Gramsci's conception, and Michel Foucault's notions, respectively. First, the paper compares the historical perspectives of Marx and Foucault. Marx concludes that history is a progressive linear production and that…

  7. Contributions to a Marxist Critical Pedagogy: Revisiting Marx's Humanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malott, Curry

    2014-01-01

    In this essay Malott makes a case for a Marxist-informed critical pedagogy situating Marx's approach to Hegelian dialectics at the center. After reviewing Marx's critique of Hegel in his 1844 manuscripts, Malott outlines Marx's shifting conception of the falling rate of profit reflecting his developing understanding of what the…

  8. The ILC Marx Modulator Development Program at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Leyh, G.E.; /SLAC

    2005-06-07

    The International Linear Collider [ILC] baseline design requires 576 L-band klystron stations, each supplying 10MW peak RF power to the accelerating structures. Each klystron requires a modulator capable of delivering 120kV, 140A 1.6ms pulses, at 5Hz. Solid-state Marx modulator topologies are rapidly becoming feasible with the advent of PC-board-level 4500V IGBTs, fast single junction HV diodes, high density capacitors, and sophisticated modeling software. Making full use of recent technology advances, the ILC Marx Modulator program at SLAC plans to pursue a 120kV solid-state Marx design, which appears to offer significantly higher efficiency, availability, and cost savings than existing modulator options.

  9. The MARX Modulator Development Program for the International Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Leyh, G.E.; /SLAC

    2006-06-12

    The ILC Marx Modulator Development Program at SLAC is working towards developing a full-scale ILC Marx ''Reference Design'' modulator prototype, with the goal of significantly reducing the size and cost of the ILC modulator while improving overall modulator efficiency and availability. The ILC Reference Design prototype will provide a proof-of-concept model to industry in advance of Phase II SBIR funding, and also allow operation of the new 10MW L-Band Klystron prototypes immediately upon their arrival at SLAC.

  10. Conceptional design of a novel next-generation cryogenic stopping cell for the Low-Energy Branch of the Super-FRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickel, T.; Plaß, W. R.; Geissel, H.; Heiße, F.; Miskun, I.; Purushothman, S.; Reiter, M. P.; Rink, A.-K.; Scheidenberger, C.

    2016-06-01

    The conceptual design of a next-generation cryogenic stopping cell (CSC) for the Low-Energy Branch (LEB) of the Super-FRS has been developed. It builds on advanced techniques implemented in the prototype version of the CSC, which has recently been commissioned as part of the FRS Ion Catcher with 238U projectile and fission fragments produced at 1000 MeV/u. These techniques include cryogenic operation to ensure a high purity of the stopping gas and high-density operation enabled using an RF carpet with a small electrode structure size. The next generation CSC implements several novel concepts (e.g. perpendicular extraction) which lead to enhanced performance compared to the prototype CSC: (i) extremely short extraction times, (ii) higher rate capability, (iii) increased areal density without deteriorating extraction times, efficiencies or rate capability, (iv) minimized RF power, (v) precise range measurement of the ions and (vii) improved cleanliness of the CSC.

  11. The nature and consequence of Karl Marx's skin disease.

    PubMed

    Shuster, S

    2008-01-01

    From an analysis of the original correspondence, it has been possible to establish that Karl Marx's incapacitating skin disease was hidradenitis suppurativa, not 'boils' as was universally assumed at the time and since; the psychological effect of this illness on the man and his work appears to have been considerable. PMID:17986303

  12. Kant or Marx? Philosophy and the Origins of Social Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scaff, Lawrence A.

    The origins of social science as a discipline are analyzed in terms of the German scientific community before 1920, which tended to define itself according to the theories of Karl Marx or Immanuel Kant. Following a brief introduction about the nature of social science debates in intellectual Germany, section 2 of the paper considers whether the…

  13. Developmental Stages in School Computer Use: Neither Marx Nor Piaget.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lengel, James G.

    Karl Marx's theory of stages can be applied to computer use in the schools. The first stage, the P Stage, comprises the entry of the computer into the school. Computer use at this stage is personal and tends to center around one personality. Social studies teachers are seldom among this select few. The second stage of computer use, the D Stage, is…

  14. Inverse Marx modulators for self-biasing klystron depressed collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, Mark A.

    2014-07-31

    A novel pulsed depressed collector biasing scheme is proposed. This topology feeds forward energy recovered during one RF pulse for use on the following RF pulse. The presented ''inverse'' Marx charges biasing capacitors in series, and discharges them in parallel. Simulations are shown along with experimental demonstration on a 62kW klystron.

  15. Marx and Education: Working with the Revolutionary Educator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banfield, Grant

    2015-01-01

    This paper positions education as productive work, i.e. radical labour. It argues that education is a deliberate and conscious process directed to the building of human capacities to labour for socialist transformation. In drawing on the intellectual resources left by Marx the objective of education is the production of the "revolutionary…

  16. The nature and consequence of Karl Marx's skin disease.

    PubMed

    Shuster, S

    2008-01-01

    From an analysis of the original correspondence, it has been possible to establish that Karl Marx's incapacitating skin disease was hidradenitis suppurativa, not 'boils' as was universally assumed at the time and since; the psychological effect of this illness on the man and his work appears to have been considerable.

  17. Super Ears.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Stan

    1995-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students design, construct, and test "super ears" to investigate sound and hearing. Students work in groups of three and explore how the outer ear funnels sound waves to the inner ear and how human hearing compares to that of other animals. (NB)

  18. Final Design of the SLAC P2 Marx Klystron Modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, M.A.; Benwell, A.; Burkhart, C.; Larsen, R.; MacNair, D.; Nguyen, M.; Olsen, J.; /SLAC

    2011-11-08

    The SLAC P2 Marx has been under development for two years, and follows on the P1 Marx as an alternative to the baseline klystron modulator for the International Linear Collider. The P2 Marx utilizes a redundant architecture, air-insulation, a control system with abundant diagnostic access, and a novel nested droop correction scheme. This paper is an overview of the design of this modulator. There are several points of emphasis for the P2 Marx design. First, the modulator must be compatible with the ILC two-tunnel design. In this scheme, the modulator and klystron are located within a service tunnel with limited access and available footprint for a modulator. Access to the modulator is only practical from one side. Second, the modulator must have high availability. Robust components are not sufficient alone to achieve availability much higher than 99%. Therefore, redundant architectures are necessary. Third, the modulator must be relatively low cost. Because of the large number of stations in the ILC, the investment needed for the modulator components is significant. High-volume construction techniques which take advantage of an economy of scale must be utilized. Fourth, the modulator must be simple and efficient to maintain. If a modulator does become inoperable, the MTTR must be small. Fifth, even though the present application for the modulator is for the ILC, future accelerators can also take advantage of this development effort. The hardware, software, and concepts developed in this project should be designed such that further development time necessary for other applications is minimal.

  19. Meibomian orifices and Marx's line. Studied by triple vital staining.

    PubMed

    Norn, M

    1985-12-01

    The ciliary margins of the lower lids have been vital stained by the lipid-specific Sudan III powder, fluorescein 0.1% and the bottom of the lacrimal river (Marx's line) by lissamine green 1% in 100 cases. The Meibomian orifices are situated in a straight row just in front of the Marx's line in the lipid phase. With increasing age (greater than 50 years) the orifices are more often displaced and also discharge their lipid in the depth of the aqueous phase. The number averaged 21.5 in the lipid phase and 1.7 in the aqueous phase. Active orifices staining with lipid were found in 45% of all orifices in normals, independent of age, and were increased in conjunctivitis in the lipid phase. Lissamine green-stained orifices were independent of age, phase and diagnosis. The anterior edge of Marx's line may run an irregular course in elderly normals (greater than 50 years), significantly more often in conjunctivitis and blepharitis.

  20. Solid-state Marx based two-switch voltage modulator for the On-Line Isotope Mass Separator accelerator at the European Organization for Nuclear Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redondo, L. M.; Silva, J. Fernando; Canacsinh, H.; Ferrão, N.; Mendes, C.; Soares, R.; Schipper, J.; Fowler, A.

    2010-07-01

    A new circuit topology is proposed to replace the actual pulse transformer and thyratron based resonant modulator that supplies the 60 kV target potential for the ion acceleration of the On-Line Isotope Mass Separator accelerator, the stability of which is critical for the mass resolution downstream separator, at the European Organization for Nuclear Research. The improved modulator uses two solid-state switches working together, each one based on the Marx generator concept, operating as series and parallel switches, reducing the stress on the series stacked semiconductors, and also as auxiliary pulse generator in order to fulfill the target requirements. Preliminary results of a 10 kV prototype, using 1200 V insulated gate bipolar transistors and capacitors in the solid-state Marx circuits, ten stages each, with an electrical equivalent circuit of the target, are presented, demonstrating both the improved voltage stability and pulse flexibility potential wanted for this new modulator.

  1. Solid-state Marx based two-switch voltage modulator for the On-Line Isotope Mass Separator accelerator at the European Organization for Nuclear Research.

    PubMed

    Redondo, L M; Silva, J Fernando; Canacsinh, H; Ferrão, N; Mendes, C; Soares, R; Schipper, J; Fowler, A

    2010-07-01

    A new circuit topology is proposed to replace the actual pulse transformer and thyratron based resonant modulator that supplies the 60 kV target potential for the ion acceleration of the On-Line Isotope Mass Separator accelerator, the stability of which is critical for the mass resolution downstream separator, at the European Organization for Nuclear Research. The improved modulator uses two solid-state switches working together, each one based on the Marx generator concept, operating as series and parallel switches, reducing the stress on the series stacked semiconductors, and also as auxiliary pulse generator in order to fulfill the target requirements. Preliminary results of a 10 kV prototype, using 1200 V insulated gate bipolar transistors and capacitors in the solid-state Marx circuits, ten stages each, with an electrical equivalent circuit of the target, are presented, demonstrating both the improved voltage stability and pulse flexibility potential wanted for this new modulator.

  2. Marx and Dahrendorf on Income Inequality, Class Consciousness and Class Conflict: An Empirical Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Robert V.; Kelley, Jonathan

    The issue addressed by this paper is the lack of empirical research on the class theories of Karl Marx and Ralf Dahrendorf. In order to bridge this gap, data are analyzed on the theoretical and statistical implications of Marx's theory (which focuses on ownership of the means of production) and Dahrendorf's theory (which focuses on authority in…

  3. Transistorized Marx bank pulse circuit provides voltage multiplication with nanosecond rise-time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, E. A.; Lewis, R. N.

    1968-01-01

    Base-triggered avalanche transistor circuit used in a Marx bank pulser configuration provides voltage multiplication with nanosecond rise-time. The avalanche-mode transistors replace conventional spark gaps in the Marx bank. The delay time from an input signal to the output signal to the output is typically 6 nanoseconds.

  4. Capacitor and rail-gap development for the Atlas machine Marx modules

    SciTech Connect

    Reass, W.A.; Bowman, D.W.; Gribble, R.F.; Griego, J.R.; Thompson, C.; Parsons, W.M.; Cooper, R.A.; Casper, D.C.

    1995-09-01

    This paper presents the engineering issues and development criteria utilized to evolve the Atlas Marx bank pulse power components. The capacitor and rail-gap required alterations from existing designs to minimize system inductance and component count, maximize reliability, and enhance maintainability. For the capacitors, development has resulted in a plastic cased device with double ended bushings. The design of the capacitors` output electrodes, foil packs, and internal interconnect webbing results in a capacitor with improved performance. The capacitors are rated at 33.5 uF and 60 kV and are housed in a 28 in. {times} 29 in. {times} 13 in. fiberglass case. Terminal inductance is less than 15 nH with a design discharge current greater than 650 kA. An improved ``third generation`` rail-gap will be utilized and is a product of the ACE machine developments at Maxwell Laboratories. The gap has a polyurethane body and one piece electrodes. To minimize prefires, a modified internal profile reduces the E-field and increases tracking length between the electrodes. With an individual Marx stage charged ``+`` and ``{minus}`` and a trigger rail with 50/50 grading (mid-plane), external trigger bias or coupling components are not required. This further reduces system component count. To further reduce gap prefires and environmental concerns, high pressure air, instead of the typical Argon/SF6 mixture, will be used. The metallic switching by-products will form insulating oxides and the gap flushing procedures are simplified. To ensure multi-channel discharges, fast dV/dT trigger voltages ({approximately}30 kV/nS), similar to those developed for the Staged Theta-Pinch railgaps (a Scyllac era machine at Los Alamos), will be utilized.

  5. Application of ChemDraw NMR Tool: Correlation of Program-Generated (Super 13)C Chemical Shifts and pK[subscript a] Values of Para-Substituted Benzoic Acids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hongyi Wang

    2005-01-01

    A study uses the ChemDraw nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) tool to process 15 para-substituted benzoic acids and generate (super 13)C NMR chemical shifts of C1 through C5. The data were plotted against their pK[subscript a] value and a fairly good linear fit was found for pK[subscript a] versus delta[subscript c1].

  6. Sparse Representations-Based Super-Resolution of Key-Frames Extracted from Frames-Sequences Generated by a Visual Sensor Network

    PubMed Central

    Sajjad, Muhammad; Mehmood, Irfan; Baik, Sung Wook

    2014-01-01

    Visual sensor networks (VSNs) usually generate a low-resolution (LR) frame-sequence due to energy and processing constraints. These LR-frames are not very appropriate for use in certain surveillance applications. It is very important to enhance the resolution of the captured LR-frames using resolution enhancement schemes. In this paper, an effective framework for a super-resolution (SR) scheme is proposed that enhances the resolution of LR key-frames extracted from frame-sequences captured by visual-sensors. In a VSN, a visual processing hub (VPH) collects a huge amount of visual data from camera sensors. In the proposed framework, at the VPH, key-frames are extracted using our recent key-frame extraction technique and are streamed to the base station (BS) after compression. A novel effective SR scheme is applied at BS to produce a high-resolution (HR) output from the received key-frames. The proposed SR scheme uses optimized orthogonal matching pursuit (OOMP) for sparse-representation recovery in SR. OOMP does better in terms of detecting true sparsity than orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP). This property of the OOMP helps produce a HR image which is closer to the original image. The K-SVD dictionary learning procedure is incorporated for dictionary learning. Batch-OMP improves the dictionary learning process by removing the limitation in handling a large set of observed signals. Experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme and show its superiority over other state-of-the-art schemes. PMID:24566632

  7. Sparse representations-based super-resolution of key-frames extracted from frames-sequences generated by a visual sensor network.

    PubMed

    Sajjad, Muhammad; Mehmood, Irfan; Baik, Sung Wook

    2014-02-21

    Visual sensor networks (VSNs) usually generate a low-resolution (LR) frame-sequence due to energy and processing constraints. These LR-frames are not very appropriate for use in certain surveillance applications. It is very important to enhance the resolution of the captured LR-frames using resolution enhancement schemes. In this paper, an effective framework for a super-resolution (SR) scheme is proposed that enhances the resolution of LR key-frames extracted from frame-sequences captured by visual-sensors. In a VSN, a visual processing hub (VPH) collects a huge amount of visual data from camera sensors. In the proposed framework, at the VPH, key-frames are extracted using our recent key-frame extraction technique and are streamed to the base station (BS) after compression. A novel effective SR scheme is applied at BS to produce a high-resolution (HR) output from the received key-frames. The proposed SR scheme uses optimized orthogonal matching pursuit (OOMP) for sparse-representation recovery in SR. OOMP does better in terms of detecting true sparsity than orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP). This property of the OOMP helps produce a HR image which is closer to the original image. The K-SVD dictionary learning procedure is incorporated for dictionary learning. Batch-OMP improves the dictionary learning process by removing the limitation in handling a large set of observed signals. Experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme and show its superiority over other state-of-the-art schemes.

  8. Sparse representations-based super-resolution of key-frames extracted from frames-sequences generated by a visual sensor network.

    PubMed

    Sajjad, Muhammad; Mehmood, Irfan; Baik, Sung Wook

    2014-01-01

    Visual sensor networks (VSNs) usually generate a low-resolution (LR) frame-sequence due to energy and processing constraints. These LR-frames are not very appropriate for use in certain surveillance applications. It is very important to enhance the resolution of the captured LR-frames using resolution enhancement schemes. In this paper, an effective framework for a super-resolution (SR) scheme is proposed that enhances the resolution of LR key-frames extracted from frame-sequences captured by visual-sensors. In a VSN, a visual processing hub (VPH) collects a huge amount of visual data from camera sensors. In the proposed framework, at the VPH, key-frames are extracted using our recent key-frame extraction technique and are streamed to the base station (BS) after compression. A novel effective SR scheme is applied at BS to produce a high-resolution (HR) output from the received key-frames. The proposed SR scheme uses optimized orthogonal matching pursuit (OOMP) for sparse-representation recovery in SR. OOMP does better in terms of detecting true sparsity than orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP). This property of the OOMP helps produce a HR image which is closer to the original image. The K-SVD dictionary learning procedure is incorporated for dictionary learning. Batch-OMP improves the dictionary learning process by removing the limitation in handling a large set of observed signals. Experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme and show its superiority over other state-of-the-art schemes. PMID:24566632

  9. SLAC P2 Marx Control System and Regulation Scheme

    SciTech Connect

    MacNair, David; Kemp, Mark A.; Macken, Koen; Nguyen, Minh N.; Olsen, Jeff; /SLAC

    2011-05-20

    The SLAC P2 MARX Modulator consists of 32 cells charged in parallel by a -4 kV supply and discharged in series to provide a -120 kV 140 amp 1.7 millisecond pulse. Each cell has a 350 uF main storage capacitor. The voltage on the capacitor will droop approximately 640 volts during each pulse. Each cell will have a boost supply that can add up to 700 V to the cell output. This allows the output voltage of the cell to remain constant within 0.1% during the pulse. The modulator output voltage control is determined by the -4 kV charging voltage. A voltage divider will measure the modulator voltage on each pulse. The charging voltage will be adjusted by the data from previous pulses to provide the desired output. The boost supply in each cell consists of a 700 V buck regulator in series with the main capacitor. The supply uses a lookup table for PWM control. The lookup table is calculated from previous pulse data to provide a constant cell output. The paper will describe the modulator and cell regulation used by the MARX modulator. Measured data from a single cell and three cell string will be included.

  10. The SuperB project

    SciTech Connect

    Lesiak, Tadeusz

    2011-05-23

    This paper presents a very short review of the SuperB project which aims to construct a new generation flavour factory with a designed luminosity of at least 10{sup 36} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. The main issues related to the physics programme, together with the description of the conceptual design of the accelerator and detector are briefly discussed.

  11. [Darwin versus Marx? Reflections on a book by Giovanni Jervis].

    PubMed

    Cavallaro, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    Giovanni Jervis'2002 book Individualismo e cooperazione. Psicologia della politica [Individualism and Cooperation: Psychology of Politics] is the outcome of a critical reflection begun by the author at the end of the 1970s in order to explore the manifestations and the problems of cooperation between individuals, and to identify some "universal" psychological factors that could define the role of psychology within politics and constitute an "objective foundation" of any human culture. Although Jervis was, so to speak,favoring Darwin against Marx, it is argued that,from his overall reasoning, several of his arguments actually are in favor of the inevitable "historicity" of individuals, due to the social conditioning they are subjected since birth: too often certain "universalistic" approaches transmit, together with scientific advances (or even without them), well identifiable ideological motives linked to precise and well defined historical and economic interests? PMID:25807696

  12. [Darwin versus Marx? Reflections on a book by Giovanni Jervis].

    PubMed

    Cavallaro, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    Giovanni Jervis'2002 book Individualismo e cooperazione. Psicologia della politica [Individualism and Cooperation: Psychology of Politics] is the outcome of a critical reflection begun by the author at the end of the 1970s in order to explore the manifestations and the problems of cooperation between individuals, and to identify some "universal" psychological factors that could define the role of psychology within politics and constitute an "objective foundation" of any human culture. Although Jervis was, so to speak,favoring Darwin against Marx, it is argued that,from his overall reasoning, several of his arguments actually are in favor of the inevitable "historicity" of individuals, due to the social conditioning they are subjected since birth: too often certain "universalistic" approaches transmit, together with scientific advances (or even without them), well identifiable ideological motives linked to precise and well defined historical and economic interests?

  13. Design of a Marx-Topology Modulator for FNAL Linac

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, T. A.; Garcia, F. G.; Kufer, M. R.; Pfeffer, H.; Wolff, D.

    2015-04-28

    The Fermilab Proton Improvement Plan (PIP) was formed in late 2011 to address important and necessary upgrades to the Proton Source machines (Injector line, Linac and Booster). The goal is to increase the proton flux by doubling the Booster beam cycle rate while maintaining the same intensity per cycle, the same uptime, and the same residual activation in the enclosure. For the Linac, the main focus within PIP is to address reliability. One of the main tasks is to replace the present hard-tube modulator used on the 200 MHz RF system. Plans to replace this high power system with a Marx-topology modulator, capable of providing the required waveform shaping to stabilize the accelerating gradient and compensate for beam loading, will be presented, along with development data from the prototype unit.

  14. Pioneers of laser propulsion: Saenger, Marx, Moeckel, and Kantrowitz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaelis, Max M.; Hey, John D.

    2002-09-01

    The strength of empires and civilizations has often depended on novel forms of transportation: the Viking long boat, the Roman road, Iberian galleons, French and British steam ships, Indian trains, the car of the early twentieth century, the plane of the middle and the rocket of late. But Space has now come up against a barrier: the enormous and barely affordable expense of putting things into orbit and the unaffordable energy required to travel to the stars. The recent advent of very energetic lasers may reduce the cost. The pioneering ideas of the mid sixties appear less fanciful. Laser space propulsion is about to become such an important topic that its scientific origin and engineering roots need to be investigated. This is by no means an exhaustive survey. We review here the laser propulsion work of four eminent experts: Eugen Saenger, George Marx, Wolfgang Moeckel and Arthur Kantrowitz.

  15. Compact, Intelligent, Digitally Controlled IGBT Gate Drivers for a PEBB-Based ILC Marx Modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, M.N.; Burkhart, C.; Olsen, J.J.; Macken, K.; /SLAC

    2010-06-07

    SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has built and is currently operating a first generation prototype Marx klystron modulator to meet ILC specifications. Under development is a second generation prototype, aimed at improving overall performance, serviceability, and manufacturability as compared to its predecessor. It is designed around 32 cells, each operating at 3.75 kV and correcting for its own capacitor droop. Due to the uniqueness of this application, high voltage gate drivers needed to be developed for the main 6.5 kV and droop correction 1.7 kV IGBTs. The gate driver provides vital functions such as protection of the IGBT from over-voltage and over-current, detection of gate-emitter open and short circuit conditions, and monitoring of IGBT degradation (based on collector-emitter saturation voltage). Gate drive control, diagnostic processing capabilities, and communication are digitally implemented using an FPGA. This paper details the design of the gate driver circuitry, component selection, and construction layout. In addition, experimental results are included to illustrate the effectiveness of the protection circuit.

  16. Super Stationery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Laurie K.

    1994-01-01

    Having students create personalized stationery is a good way to promote student writing. Children of all ages can design computer-generated stationery in just a few steps using predrawn or original graphics and a variety of typefaces. The article describes three programs that enable students to create stationery. (SM)

  17. Does Choosing Autograft Hamstring vs. Patellar Tendon by Gender, Sport, Level of Competition or Laxity in High School and College Aged Athletes Improve KOOS, IKDC or Marx?

    PubMed Central

    Huston, Laura J.; Reinke, Emily; Kattan, Michael W.; Chagin, Kevin; Spindler, Kurt P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Physicians’ and patients’ decision-making process between autograft hamstring (HG) vs. patellar tendon (BTB) for ACL reconstruction (ACLR) may be influenced by patient gender, laxity level, sport played, and/or competition level in the young, active athlete. ACLR specific to high school and college-aged athletes with these aforementioned factors in mind has not been evaluated. Therefore, our objectives were twofold: first, to develop a simple web-based risk calculator as a decision-making aid to provide the best estimate of expected 2-year KOOS, IKDC, and Marx outcomes by gender, sport, level of competition, and knee laxity. Second, to identify whether autograft HG or BTB is the optimal graft choice given any combination of the aforementioned variables. Methods: Our inclusion criteria in the MOON cohort were patients aged 11-22 who were injured in sport (football, soccer, basketball, other), who were due to have a unilateral primary ACLR with either an autograft HG or BTB, and who had a contralateral normal knee. Excluded were revisions, allografts, those with a contralateral ACLR and concomitant MCL/LCL/PCL surgery. Laxity was graded as increased (Lachman > 10 mm or a pivot lock) or normal based on the EUA. Our modeling controlled for BMI, ethnicity, and baseline measures of patient-reported outcomes. Our two year outcomes were the KOOS knee related quality of life subscale, KOOS sports and recreation subscale, IKDC, and Marx activity level. Our multivariable modeling for risk online calculator and nomograms was generated in two ways. The performances for our models were measured using R squared, calibration curves, and bootstrapping. Results: 937 patients were eligible, 809 (86%) had 2 year follow-up data. The average age was 17, with 50% females, and the distribution of HG to BTB was 301/508 respectively. First, in evaluating our models for ACLR autograft choice, neither KOOS subscale models performed better than chance. The IKDC and Marx models

  18. Supermanifolds and super Riemann surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Rabin, J.M.

    1986-09-01

    The theory of super Riemann surfaces is rigorously developed using Rogers' theory of supermanifolds. The global structures of super Teichmueller space and super moduli space are determined. The super modular group is shown to be precisely the ordinary modular group. Super moduli space is shown to be the gauge-fixing slice for the fermionic string path integral.

  19. Super-stable Poissonian structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2012-10-01

    In this paper we characterize classes of Poisson processes whose statistical structures are super-stable. We consider a flow generated by a one-dimensional ordinary differential equation, and an ensemble of particles ‘surfing’ the flow. The particles start from random initial positions, and are propagated along the flow by stochastic ‘wave processes’ with general statistics and general cross correlations. Setting the initial positions to be Poisson processes, we characterize the classes of Poisson processes that render the particles’ positions—at all times, and invariantly with respect to the wave processes—statistically identical to their initial positions. These Poisson processes are termed ‘super-stable’ and facilitate the generalization of the notion of stationary distributions far beyond the realm of Markov dynamics.

  20. SuperPILOT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissmann, Stephen M.

    1983-01-01

    SuperPILOT is Apple Computer's new computer assisted instruction authoring language. Provided is a review of SuperPILOT, indicated to be ideally suited for the development of interactive tutorials for the classroom. Includes comments on the language's strengths/weaknesses as well as comments on system requirements and special program features. (JN)

  1. KML Super Overlay to WMS Translator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plesea, Lucian

    2007-01-01

    This translator is a server-based application that automatically generates KML super overlay configuration files required by Google Earth for map data access via the Open Geospatial Consortium WMS (Web Map Service) standard. The translator uses a set of URL parameters that mirror the WMS parameters as much as possible, and it also can generate a super overlay subdivision of any given area that is only loaded when needed, enabling very large areas of coverage at very high resolutions. It can make almost any dataset available as a WMS service visible and usable in any KML application, without the need to reformat the data.

  2. Background considerations for SuperCDMS

    SciTech Connect

    Cooley, J.; Collaboration: SuperCDMS Collaboration

    2013-08-08

    Rejection and protection from background is a key issue for the next generation SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment that will have a cross-section sensitivity of better than 8 × 10{sup −46} cm{sup 2} for spin-independent WIMP-nucleon interactions. This paper presents the details of the methods used to reject electromagnetic backgrounds using the new iZIP detectors that are currently operated in the Soudan Underground Laboratory, MN and the methods the collaboration is investigating to protect against neutron background in the next generation SuperCDMS experiment.

  3. The Educator Needs to Be Educated: Reflections on the Political Pedagogy of Marx, Lenin and Habermas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welton, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    This essay examines one of the most intractable pedagogical problems of the Marxian revolutionary tradition: who will educate the educator and how ought the learning process to proceed. The solutions of Marx, Lenin and Habermas are critically examined towards the clarification of the emancipatory learning process. This learning process has three…

  4. Karl Marx in One Lesson (1818-1883). Series on Public Issues No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pejovich, Steve

    This booklet, one of a series intended to apply economic principles to major social and political issues of the day, starts from the premise that Marxism is a threat to our way of life and offers a critique of fundamental components of the social movement Marx created. The first of six subsections focuses on sources of influence on Karl Marx…

  5. Pop Culture in the Classroom: "American Idol," Karl Marx, and Alexis de Tocqueville

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centellas, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the use of pop culture in the classroom as a means to teach foundational political science authors and concepts. I focus on my experience using "American Idol" as a point of reference to discuss Marx and Engel's "The Communist Manifesto" and Tocqueville's "Democracy in America" in undergraduate comparative politics courses.…

  6. Karl Marx and Group Therapy: An Old Warning about a New Phenomenon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Terry D.

    1984-01-01

    Uses Marx's classic critique of religion to explore the social function of therapy groups. Investigates the manner in which groups conserve the status quo and argues that the Marxist critique can help promote a more realistic social awareness and a more effective perception of groups. (Author/JAC)

  7. From Commodity Production to Sign Production: A Triple Triangle Model for Marx's Semiotics and Peirce's Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Joohoan

    Using the viewpoint of semiotics, this paper "re-reads" Karl Marx's labor theory of value and suggests a "triple triangle" model for commodity production and shows how this model could be a model for semiosis in general. The paper argues that there are three advantages to considering homogeneity of the sign production and the commodity production:…

  8. Marx and Foucault: Subjectivity, Employability and the Crisis of Youth Unemployment in the Great Global Recession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.; Besley, Tina

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the different approaches taken to the concepts of work or labour by Marx and Foucault, examining in particular the question of subjectivity in relation to youth unemployment and the current crisis of youth unemployment as part of the aftermath of the global recession of 2008.

  9. Reconsidering Marx in Post-Marxist Times: A Requiem for Postmodernism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaren, Peter; Farahmandpur, Ramin

    2000-01-01

    Marx's description of capitalism as a dark force that has become uncontrollable is very apt today, despite the fact that postmodernists have relegated Marxism to the status of failed aspirations. Discusses postmodernism, the postmodern promise, postmodern politics, the new social movements, hybridity and postmodern multiculturalism, postmodern…

  10. [Results of school inspections in the county of Karl-Marx-Stadt (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Arnold, J

    1978-10-01

    Within the Health Protection in Childhood and Adolescence Research Project a hygienic inspection questionnaire was designed for schools. To test this questionnaire, 248 schools in 11 districts of the county of Karl-Marx-Stadt were inspected. From the ascertainments made, several instances are cited to point out the priorities of school hygiene.

  11. Super Ball Bot

    NASA Video Gallery

    Tensegrity Robot: Child's Play or Space Tech? Super Ball Bot is an all-in-one landing and mobility platform based on tensegrity structures, allowing for lower-cost, and more reliable planetary miss...

  12. Super Thin Ceramic Coatings

    NASA Video Gallery

    New technology being developed at NASA's Glenn Research Center creates super thin ceramic coatings on engine components. The Plasma Spray – Physical Vapor Deposition (PS-PVD) rig uses a powerful ...

  13. Super-Kamiokande

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magro, Lluís Martí

    2016-06-01

    The Super-Kamiokande experiment performs a large variety of studies, many of them in the neutrino sector. The archetypes are atmospheric neutrino (recently awarded with the Nobel prize for Mr. T. Kajita) and the solar neutrinos analyses. In these proceedings we report our latest results and present updates to indirect dark matter searches, our solar neutrino analysis and discuss the future upgrade of Super-Kamiokande by loading gadolinium into our ultra-pure water.

  14. Disk-cathode flash X-ray tube driven by a repetitive two-stage Marx pulser.

    PubMed

    Kimura, S; Sato, E; Sagae, M; Shikoda, A; Oizumi, T; Takahashi, K; Tamakawa, Y; Yanagisawa, T

    1993-07-01

    Fundamental studies of a repetitive flash X-ray generator using a disk-cathode radiation tube are described. The high-voltage pulser employed a modified two-stage surge-Marx circuit. The two condensers in the pulser were charged from 40 to 60 kV, and the electric charges were discharged to the X-ray tube repetitively to generate flash X-rays. The total capacity during the main discharge was 425 pF, and the maximum output voltage from the pulser was about 1.9 times the charged voltage. The flash X-ray tube was of the demountable-diode type and was composed of a rod-shaped anode tip made of tungsten, a disk cathode made of graphite and a tube body made of polymethylmethacrylate. The peak tube voltage was primarily determined by the anode-cathode (A-C) space, and the peak tube current was less than 0.5 kA. Thus the maximum photon energy could be easily controlled by varying the A-C space, and the tube current roughly increased according to increases in the charged voltage. The pulse width ranged from 40 to 100 ns, and the X-ray intensity was less than 1.1 microC kg-1 at 0.5 m per pulse. The repetition rate was less than 50 Hz, and the effective focal spot size was equivalent to the anode diameter.

  15. Angled Layers in Super Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Researchers used a special imaging technique with the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity to get as detailed a look as possible at a target region near eastern foot of 'Burns Cliff.' The intervening terrain was too difficult for driving the rover closer. The target is the boundary between two sections of layered rock. The layers in lower section (left) run at a marked angle to the layers in next higher section (right).

    This view is the product of a technique called super resolution. It was generated from data acquired on sol 288 of Opportunity's mission (Nov. 14, 2004) from a position along the southeast wall of 'Endurance Crater.' Resolution slightly higher than normal for the panoramic camera was synthesized for this view by combining 17 separate images of this scene, each one 'dithered' or pointed slightly differently from the previous one. Computer manipulation of the individual images was then used to generate a new synthetic view of the scene in a process known mathematically as iterative deconvolution, but referred to informally as super resolution. Similar methods have been used to enhance the resolution of images from the Mars Pathfinder mission and the Hubble Space Telescope.

  16. The Super HMS

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Yan

    1998-06-01

    As a part of physics instrumentation development for TJNAF long range institution upgrade plan, a 12 GeV/c Super High Momentum Spectrometer (the Super HMS) has been proposed for high luminosity and high q2 physics in endstation Hall C. The fundamental configuration of Super HMS is QQDD. Two identical quadrupoles are the superconducting HMS Q1s with maximum gradient 8 Tesla/m. Two identical SLAC B202/B203 dipole magnets are considered for the use of dispersive elements with accumulative bending power 18.7 degree at 12 GeV/c while the central field is set to 2.05 Tesla. A sliding mechanism could guide the whole system, including the magnetic elements and detector house, moving forwards and backwards by +/- 100 cm. Under an assumed magnetic structure, the Super HMS optics performance has been studied by using TRANSPORT, TURTLE, and RAYTRACE codes and related reconstruction methods. The applicable solid angle can be adjusted between 1 msr and 2.3 msr. The maximum central momentum is 12 GeV/c. The reconstructed momentum resolution within full momentum range 20% is better than 10-3. The in-plane angle reconstruction accuracy is about 0.5 mr, mainly determined by the local multiple scattering from detector materials. This report also points out the strategy of super HMS optics adapting low rigidity quadrupoles for the use of high momentum operation, and the potential capability of very forward angle operations.

  17. Super-resolution benefit for face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shuowen; Maschal, Robert; Young, S. Susan; Hong, Tsai Hong; Phillips, Jonathon P.

    2011-06-01

    Vast amounts of video footage are being continuously acquired by surveillance systems on private premises, commercial properties, government compounds, and military installations. Facial recognition systems have the potential to identify suspicious individuals on law enforcement watchlists, but accuracy is severely hampered by the low resolution of typical surveillance footage and the far distance of suspects from the cameras. To improve accuracy, super-resolution can enhance suspect details by utilizing a sequence of low resolution frames from the surveillance footage to reconstruct a higher resolution image for input into the facial recognition system. This work measures the improvement of face recognition with super-resolution in a realistic surveillance scenario. Low resolution and super-resolved query sets are generated using a video database at different eye-to-eye distances corresponding to different distances of subjects from the camera. Performance of a face recognition algorithm using the super-resolved and baseline query sets was calculated by matching against galleries consisting of frontal mug shots. The results show that super-resolution improves performance significantly at the examined mid and close ranges.

  18. [Development of child neuropsychiatry at the Karl Marx University of Leipzig].

    PubMed

    Gebelt, H

    1978-05-01

    The development of pedoneuropsychiatry at the University of Leipzig is marked by the opening in 1926 of the first "Department of Pedopsychiatric Observation", the establishment of the Clinic of Pedoneuropsychiatry as an independent unit of the Department of Medicine, Karl Marx University, and the setting up in 1976 of a Chair of Pedoneuropsychiatry. Paul Schröder's and R. A. Pfeifer's services to their university are particularly appreciated.

  19. Super Guppy in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Super Guppy, bigger sister of the aptly named Pregnant Guppy, was the only airplane in the world capable of carrying a complete S-IVB stage. This aircraft was built by John M. Conroy of Aero Spaceliners, Incorporated, who started with the fuselages of a surplus Boeing C-97 Stratocruiser, ballooned out the upper decks enormously, and hinged the front sections so that they could be folded back 110 degrees. The Super Guppy flew smoothly at a 250-mph cruising speed, and its cargo deck provided a 25-foot clear diameter.

  20. Super resolution fluorescence microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bo; Bates, Mark; Zhuang, Xiaowei

    2010-01-01

    Achieving a spatial resolution that is not limited by the diffraction of light, recent developments of super-resolution fluorescence microscopy techniques allow the observation of many biological structures not resolvable in conventional fluorescence microscopy. New advances in these techniques now give them the ability to image three-dimensional (3D) structures, measure interactions by multicolor colocalization, and record dynamic processes in living cells at the nanometer scale. It is anticipated that super-resolution fluorescence microscopy will become a widely used tool for cell and tissue imaging to provide previously unobserved details of biological structures and processes. PMID:19489737

  1. Design Considerations for a PEBB-Based Marx-Topology ILC Klystron Modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Macken, K.; Beukers, T.; Burkhart, C.; Kemp, M.A.; Nguyen, M.N.; Tang, T.; /SLAC

    2009-12-09

    The concept of Power Electronic Building Blocks (PEBBs) has its origin in the U.S. Navy during the last decade of the past century. As compared to a more conventional or classical design approach, a PEBB-oriented design approach combines various potential advantages such as increased modularity, high availability and simplified serviceability. This relatively new design paradigm for power conversion has progressively matured since then and its underlying philosophy has been clearly and successfully demonstrated in a number of real-world applications. Therefore, this approach has been adopted here to design a Marx-topology modulator for an International Linear Collider (ILC) environment where easy serviceability and high availability are crucial. This paper describes various aspects relating to the design of a 32-cell Marx-topology ILC klystron modulator. The concept of nested droop correction is introduced and illustrated. Several design considerations including cosmic ray withstand, power cycling capability, fault tolerance, etc., are discussed. Details of the design of a Marx cell PEBB are included.

  2. Enhanced catalytic performance in hydrogen generation from NaBH4 hydrolysis by super porous cryogel supported Co and Ni catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seven, Fahriye; Sahiner, Nurettin

    2014-12-01

    The neutral 3-D superporous cryogel is prepared from a poly(acrylamide) (p(AAm)) hydrogel network modified with an amidoximation reaction to induce chemical changes to produce superporous amidoximated-p(AAm) (amid-p(AAm)) cryogel. The newly-formed strongly ionizable matrices can readily absorb metal ions such as Co(II) and Ni(II) enabling in situ preparation of corresponding metal nanoparticles by NaBH4 treatments. It is found that the superporous amid-p(AAm)-Co cryogel composite is very effective as a catalyst for H2 generation from hydrolysis of NaBH4 in alkaline medium. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the metal ion loading capacity and catalytic activity of superporous amid-p(AAm)-Co cryogel composites increased with 2nd and 3rd Co(II) ion loading and reduction cycles. The hydrogen generation rate of p(AAm)-Co metal composites is increased to 1926.3 ± 1.1 from 1130.2 ± 1.5 (mL H2) (min)-1 (g of M)-1. The effect of various parameters such as porosity, metal type, the number of reloading and reduction cycles of the metal ion, and temperature are investigated for the hydrolysis of NaBH4. The kinetic parameters such as energy, enthalpy and entropy are determined as Ea = 39.7 ± 0.2 kJ mol-1, ΔH = 37.2 ± 0.1 kJ mol-1 and ΔS = -171.9 ± 0.5 J mol-1 K-1, respectively.

  3. Handbook of Super 8 Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telzer, Ronnie, Ed.

    This handbook is designed for anyone interested in producing super 8 films at any level of complexity and cost. Separate chapters present detailed discussions of the following topics: super 8 production systems and super 8 shooting and editing systems; budgeting; cinematography and sound recording; preparing to edit; editing; mixing sound tracks;…

  4. Energy Conversion over Super-hydrophobic Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hui; Zhai, Shengjie

    2015-11-01

    The streaming potential generated by a pressure-driven flow over a charged slip-stick surface with an arbitrary double layer thickness is both theoretically and experimentally studied. To understand the impact of the slip, the streaming potential is compared against that over a homogenously charged smooth surface. Our results indicate that the streaming potential over a super-hydrophobic surface only can be enhanced under certain conditions. In addition, the Onsager relation which directly relates the magnitude of electro-osmotic effect to that of the streaming current effect has been explicitly proved to be valid for thin and thick double layers and homogeneously charged super-hydrophobic surfaces. Comparisons between the streaming current and electro-osmotic mobility for an arbitrary electric double layer thickness under various conditions indicate that the Onsager relation seems applicable for arbitrary weakly charged super-hydrophobic surfaces though there is no general proof. Knowledge of the streaming potential over a slip-stick surface can provide guidance for designing novel and efficient microfluidic energy-conversion devices using super-hydrophobic surfaces. The work was supported by the NSF Grant No. ECCS-1509866.

  5. Typhoon effects on super-tall buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Q. S.; Xiao, Y. Q.; Wu, J. R.; Fu, J. Y.; Li, Z. N.

    2008-06-01

    Full-scale measurement is considered to be the most reliable method for evaluating wind effects on buildings and structures. This paper presents selected results of wind characteristics and structural responses measured from four super-tall buildings, The Center (350 m high, 79 floors) in Hong Kong, Di Wang Tower (384 m high, 78 floors) in Shenzhen, CITIC Plaza Tower (391 m high, 80 floors) in Guangzhou and Jin Mao Building (421 m high, 88 floors) in Shanghai, during the passages of three typhoons. The field data such as wind speed, wind direction and acceleration responses, etc., were continuously measured from the super-tall buildings during the typhoons. Detailed analysis of the field data was conducted to investigate the characteristics of typhoon-generated wind and wind-induced vibrations of these super-tall buildings under typhoon conditions. The dynamic characteristics of the tall buildings were determined from the field measurements and comparisons with those calculated from the finite element (FE) models of the structures were made. Furthermore, the full-scale measurements were compared with wind tunnel results to evaluate the accuracy of the model test results and the adequacy of the techniques used in the wind tunnel tests. The results presented in this paper are expected to be of considerable interest and of use to researchers and professionals involved in designing super-tall buildings.

  6. Research Program of a Super Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Oka, Yoshiaki; Ishiwatari, Yuki; Liu, Jie; Terai, Takayuki; Nagasaki, Shinya; Muroya, Yusa; Abe, Hiroaki; Akiba, Masato; Akimoto, Hajime; Okumura, Keisuke; Akasaka, Naoaki; GOTO, Shoji

    2006-07-01

    Research program of a supercritical-pressure light water cooled fast reactor (Super Fast Reactor) is funded by MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology) in December 2005 as one of the research programs of Japanese NERI (Nuclear Energy Research Initiative). It consists of three programs. (1) development of Super Fast Reactor concept; (2) thermal-hydraulic experiments; (3) material developments. The purpose of the concept development is to pursue the advantage of high power density of fast reactor over thermal reactors to achieve economic competitiveness of fast reactor for its deployment without waiting for exhausting uranium resources. Design goal is not breeding, but maximizing reactor power by using plutonium from spent LWR fuel. MOX will be the fuel of the Super Fast Reactor. Thermal-hydraulic experiments will be conducted with HCFC22 (Hydro chlorofluorocarbons) heat transfer loop of Kyushu University and supercritical water loop at JAEA. Heat transfer data including effect of grid spacers will be taken. The critical flow and condensation of supercritical fluid will be studied. The materials research includes the development and testing of austenitic stainless steel cladding from the experience of PNC1520 for LMFBR. Material for thermal insulation will be tested. SCWR (Supercritical-Water Cooled Reactor) of GIF (Generation-4 International Forum) includes both thermal and fast reactors. The research of the Super Fast Reactor will enhance SCWR research and the data base. The research period will be until March 2010. (authors)

  7. OPE for super loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sever, Amit; Vieira, Pedro; Wang, Tianheng

    2011-11-01

    We extend the Operator Product Expansion for Null Polygon Wilson loops to the Mason-Skinner-Caron-Huot super loop dual to non MHV gluon amplitudes. We explain how the known tree level amplitudes can be promoted into an infinite amount of data at any loop order in the OPE picture. As an application, we re-derive all one loop NMHV six gluon amplitudes by promoting their tree level expressions. We also present some new all loops predictions for these amplitudes.

  8. Unstable laser resonators with super-Gaussian mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    De Silvestri, S.; Laporta, P.; Magni, V.; Svelto, O.; Majocchi, B.

    1988-03-01

    A new class of tapered reflectivity mirrors with a super-Gaussian profile R atmI exp(-kr/sup n/) is introduced, and a geometrical-optics approach for analysis and design of unstable resonators made with these mirrors is presented. A super-Gaussian mirror, built by a special evaporation technique, has been tested in an unstable resonator of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser, demonstrating its effectiveness in generating diffraction-limited beams.

  9. Unstable laser resonators with super-Gaussian mirrors.

    PubMed

    De Silvestri, S; Laporta, P; Magni, V; Svelto, O; Majocchi, B

    1988-03-01

    A new class of tapered reflectivity mirrors with a super-Gaussian profile R infinity exp(-kr(n)) is introduced, and a geometrical-optics approach for analysis and design of unstable resonators made with these mirrors is presented. A super-Gaussian mirror, built by a special evaporation technique, has been tested in an unstable resonator of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser, demonstrating its effectiveness in generating diffraction-limited beams. PMID:19742027

  10. Unstable laser resonators with super-Gaussian mirrors.

    PubMed

    De Silvestri, S; Laporta, P; Magni, V; Svelto, O; Majocchi, B

    1988-03-01

    A new class of tapered reflectivity mirrors with a super-Gaussian profile R infinity exp(-kr(n)) is introduced, and a geometrical-optics approach for analysis and design of unstable resonators made with these mirrors is presented. A super-Gaussian mirror, built by a special evaporation technique, has been tested in an unstable resonator of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser, demonstrating its effectiveness in generating diffraction-limited beams.

  11. Super-quantum curves from super-eigenvalue models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciosmak, Paweł; Hadasz, Leszek; Manabe, Masahide; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-10-01

    In modern mathematical and theoretical physics various generalizations, in particular supersymmetric or quantum, of Riemann surfaces and complex algebraic curves play a prominent role. We show that such supersymmetric and quantum generalizations can be combined together, and construct supersymmetric quantum curves, or super-quantum curves for short. Our analysis is conducted in the formalism of super-eigenvalue models: we introduce β-deformed version of those models, and derive differential equations for associated α/ β-deformed super-matrix integrals. We show that for a given model there exists an infinite number of such differential equations, which we identify as super-quantum curves, and which are in one-to-one correspondence with, and have the structure of, super-Virasoro singular vectors. We discuss potential applications of super-quantum curves and prospects of other generalizations.

  12. Note: Compact, reusable inductive-storage-cum-opening-switch based 1.5 GW single-shot pulsed power generator.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Rohit; Shyam, Anurag

    2014-03-01

    The results of a very-compact (Marx generator-cum-inductor confined into 0.20 m cylindrical diameter and 0.75 m length) and light-weight (<15 kg) pulsed-power generator are being presented in the paper. The load voltage at 10.5 Ω is measured 125 kV (150 ns full width at half maximum FWHM) with 1.5 GW peak-power. The use of single-optimized-exploding-copper-wire along with the use of air for all the switches of the generator (closing switches of Marx generator used as primary energy source and opening switch of exploding wire) make device very attractive. Marx generator shape itself provides the desired inductance for the inductive storage.

  13. Explosive Super-eruptions: Problems and Prejudices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Self, S.

    2010-12-01

    associated ash falls is vital to ash-fall deposit generation mechanisms and the estimating total volume of magma expelled during super-eruptions. The potential impact of super-eruptions on the environment and climate is a topic of considerable interest, centered around the YTT case. Recent work suggests that the release of sulfur (S) gas, while still large by modern standards due to the huge magma volumes involved, is limited by low S solubility in silicic super-eruption magmas. The vast ash-fall deposits may, however, have considerable direct and indirect environmental effects; there is much current debate about the impact of the YTT ash fall on the Indian subcontinent. Deposits of explosive super-eruptions are widespread and considerable deposition occurs over the sea; also products are rapidly eroded on land. Moreover, it is sometimes difficult to correlate remnant patches of deposit. Accordingly, we have only a rough idea of the true erupted magma volumes of these significant events. While several super-eruption deposits have been recognized back through the Cenozoic, Paleozoic and older examples are rare and recognized usually by extensive ash-fall deposits (bentonites) or meta-volcanic deposits. Future work will provide further evidence of ancient super-eruptions; a new case from North America will be briefly discussed.

  14. Towards a PEBB-Based Design Approach for a Marx-Topology ILC Klystron Modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Macken, K

    2009-10-17

    Introduced by the U.S. Navy more than a decade ago, the concept of Power Electronic Building Blocks (PEBBs) has been successfully applied in various applications. It is well accepted within the power electronics arena that this concept offers the potential to achieve increased levels of modularity and compactness. This approach is thus ideally suited for applications where easy serviceability and high availability are key, such as the ILC. This paper presents a building block approach for designing a Marx-topology ILC klystron modulator.

  15. The super collider revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Hussein, M.S.; Pato, M.P. )

    1992-05-20

    In this paper, the authors suggest a revised version of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) that employs the planned SSC first stage machine as an injector of 0.5 TeV protons into a power laser accelerator. The recently developed Non-linear Amplification of Inverse Bremsstrahlung Acceleration (NAIBA) concept dictates the scenario of the next stage of acceleration. Post Star Wars lasers, available at several laboratories, can be used for the purpose. The 40 TeV CM energy, a target of the SSC, can be obtained with a new machine which can be 20 times smaller than the planned SSC.

  16. Super-heptazethrene.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Wangdong; Sun, Zhe; Herng, Tun Seng; Gonçalves, Théo P; Gopalakrishna, Tullimilli Y; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Ding, Jun; Wu, Jishan

    2016-07-18

    The challenging synthesis of a laterally extended heptazethrene molecule, the super-heptazethrene derivative SHZ-CF3, is reported. This molecule was prepared using a strategy involving a multiple selective intramolecular Friedel-Crafts alkylation followed by oxidative dehydrogenation. Compound SHZ-CF3 exhibits an open-shell singlet diradical ground state with a much larger diradical character compared with the heptazethrene derivatives. An intermediate dibenzo-terrylene SHZ-2H was also obtained during the synthesis. This study provides a new synthetic method to access large-size quinoidal polycyclic hydrocarbons with unique physical properties. PMID:27240255

  17. Design of a groundwater model to determine the feasibility of extending an artificial salmon-spawning stream: case study for Marx Creek, near Hyder, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, T. P.; Lachmar, T. E.

    2013-09-01

    Marx Creek is a groundwater-fed, artificial salmon-spawning stream near Hyder, Alaska. The purpose of this project was to develop a groundwater flow model to predict baseflow to a proposed 450-m extension of Marx Creek. To accomplish this purpose, water levels were monitored in 20 monitor wells and discharge measurements were recorded from Marx Creek. These data were used to create a three-dimensional groundwater flow model using Visual MODFLOW. Three predictive simulations were run after the model was calibrated to groundwater levels and stream discharge measurements. The proposed extension was added to the calibrated model during the first simulation, resulting in simulated baseflow to the extension stream exceeding simulated baseflow to the existing Marx Creek by 39 %. Sections of Marx Creek were removed from the model during the second simulation, resulting in a 5 % increase in simulated baseflow to the extension stream. A 32-cm reduction in the water table was simulated during the third simulation, resulting in an 18 % decrease in simulated baseflow to the extension stream. These modeling results were used by Tongass National Forest personnel to determine that baseflow to the proposed extension would likely be sufficient to provide habitat conducive to salmon spawning. The extension stream was constructed and portions of Marx Creek were decommissioned during the summer of 2008. It was observed that there is comparable or greater discharge in the extension stream than there was in the decommissioned sections of Marx Creek, although neither discharge nor stream stage measurements have yet been collected.

  18. Conducted noise analysis and protection of 45 kJ/s, ±50 kV capacitor charging power supply when interfaced with repetitive Marx based pulse power system.

    PubMed

    Naresh, P; Patel, Ankur; Sharma, Archana

    2015-09-01

    Pulse power systems with highly dynamic loads like klystron, backward wave oscillator (BWO), and magnetron generate highly dynamic noise. This noise leads to frequent failure of controlled switches in the inverter stage of charging power supply. Designing a reliable and compatible power supply for pulse power applications is always a tricky job when charging rate is in multiples of 10 kJ/s. A ±50 kV and 45 kJ/s capacitor charging power supply based on 4th order LCLC resonant topology has been developed for a 10 Hz repetitive Marx based system. Conditions for load independent constant current and zero current switching (ZCS) are derived mathematically. Noise generated at load end due to dynamic load is tackled effectively and reduction in magnitude noise voltage is achieved by providing shielding between primary and secondary of high voltage high frequency transformer and with LCLC low pass filter. Shielding scales down the ratio between coupling capacitance (Cc) and the collector-emitter capacitance of insulated gate bi-polar transistor switch, which in turn reduces the common mode noise voltage magnitude. The proposed 4th order LCLC resonant network acts as a low pass filter for differential mode noise in the reverse direction (from load to source). Power supply has been tested repeatedly with 5 Hz repetition rate with repetitive Marx based system connected with BWO load working fine without failure of single switch in the inverter stage. PMID:26429461

  19. Conducted noise analysis and protection of 45 kJ/s, ±50 kV capacitor charging power supply when interfaced with repetitive Marx based pulse power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naresh, P.; Patel, Ankur; Sharma, Archana

    2015-09-01

    Pulse power systems with highly dynamic loads like klystron, backward wave oscillator (BWO), and magnetron generate highly dynamic noise. This noise leads to frequent failure of controlled switches in the inverter stage of charging power supply. Designing a reliable and compatible power supply for pulse power applications is always a tricky job when charging rate is in multiples of 10 kJ/s. A ±50 kV and 45 kJ/s capacitor charging power supply based on 4th order LCLC resonant topology has been developed for a 10 Hz repetitive Marx based system. Conditions for load independent constant current and zero current switching (ZCS) are derived mathematically. Noise generated at load end due to dynamic load is tackled effectively and reduction in magnitude noise voltage is achieved by providing shielding between primary and secondary of high voltage high frequency transformer and with LCLC low pass filter. Shielding scales down the ratio between coupling capacitance (Cc) and the collector-emitter capacitance of insulated gate bi-polar transistor switch, which in turn reduces the common mode noise voltage magnitude. The proposed 4th order LCLC resonant network acts as a low pass filter for differential mode noise in the reverse direction (from load to source). Power supply has been tested repeatedly with 5 Hz repetition rate with repetitive Marx based system connected with BWO load working fine without failure of single switch in the inverter stage.

  20. Point spread function of the optical needle super-oscillatory lens

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Tapashree; Rogers, Edward T. F.; Yuan, Guanghui; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2014-06-09

    Super-oscillatory optical lenses are known to achieve sub-wavelength focusing. In this paper, we analyse the imaging capabilities of a super-oscillatory lens by studying its point spread function. We experimentally demonstrate that a super-oscillatory lens can generate a point spread function 24% smaller than that dictated by the diffraction limit and has an effective numerical aperture of 1.31 in air. The object-image linear displacement property of these lenses is also investigated.

  1. Generations.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2005-01-01

    Groups naturally promote their strengths and prefer values and rules that give them an identity and an advantage. This shows up as generational tensions across cohorts who share common experiences, including common elders. Dramatic cultural events in America since 1925 can help create an understanding of the differing value structures of the Silents, the Boomers, Gen Xers, and the Millennials. Differences in how these generations see motivation and values, fundamental reality, relations with others, and work are presented, as are some applications of these differences to the dental profession. PMID:16623137

  2. [From Paul Flechsig to the Paul Flechsig Institute for Brain Research. Development of brain research at the Karl Marx University].

    PubMed

    Leibnitz, L; Werner, L; Schober, W; Brauer, K

    1977-04-01

    A review is given on the development of the brain research institute of the Karl-Marx-University of Leipzig during the directorates of Paul Flechsig (1883-1920), Richard Arwed Pfeifer (1925-1957), and Wolfgang Wünscher (1957-1971).

  3. [Territorial differences in the occurrence of caries in Karl Marx Stadt children and adolescent after 12 years of water fluoridation].

    PubMed

    Künzel, W

    1976-01-01

    Cariostatistical comparisons made since the start of drinking-water fluoridation in Karl-Marx-Stadt suggested territorial differences in the prevalence of dental decay. In the present paper an attempt is made to analyse the problems involved, with due consideration being given to both demographic and ecological factors.

  4. [Development, problems and results of specialty-specific genetic counseling at the Neurology Clinic of the Karl Marx University].

    PubMed

    Bachmann, H

    1987-11-01

    Genetic counselling for inherited neurological diseases has been established at the Clinic for Neurology of Karl Marx University. Comprehensive experiences have been got with the specific and sometimes markedly different problems and aims of counselling in Wilsons disease, X-linked recessive muscular dystrophies, myotonic dystrophy and other neuromuscular disorders, Huntingtons chorea and hereditary ataxias.

  5. Melting in super-earths.

    PubMed

    Stixrude, Lars

    2014-04-28

    We examine the possible extent of melting in rock-iron super-earths, focusing on those in the habitable zone. We consider the energetics of accretion and core formation, the timescale of cooling and its dependence on viscosity and partial melting, thermal regulation via the temperature dependence of viscosity, and the melting curves of rock and iron components at the ultra-high pressures characteristic of super-earths. We find that the efficiency of kinetic energy deposition during accretion increases with planetary mass; considering the likely role of giant impacts and core formation, we find that super-earths probably complete their accretionary phase in an entirely molten state. Considerations of thermal regulation lead us to propose model temperature profiles of super-earths that are controlled by silicate melting. We estimate melting curves of iron and rock components up to the extreme pressures characteristic of super-earth interiors based on existing experimental and ab initio results and scaling laws. We construct super-earth thermal models by solving the equations of mass conservation and hydrostatic equilibrium, together with equations of state of rock and iron components. We set the potential temperature at the core-mantle boundary and at the surface to the local silicate melting temperature. We find that ancient (∼4 Gyr) super-earths may be partially molten at the top and bottom of their mantles, and that mantle convection is sufficiently vigorous to sustain dynamo action over the whole range of super-earth masses.

  6. Conical diffraction illumination opens the way for low phototoxicity super-resolution imaging

    PubMed Central

    Caron, Julien; Fallet, Clément; Tinevez, Jean-Yves; Moisan, Lionel; Braitbart, L Philippe (Ori); Sirat, Gabriel Y; Shorte, Spencer L

    2014-01-01

    We present a new technology for super-resolution fluorescence imaging, based on conical diffraction. Conical diffraction is a linear, singular phenomenon, taking place when a laser beam is diffracted through a biaxial crystal. We use conical diffraction in a thin biaxial crystal to generate illumination patterns that are more compact than the classical Gaussian beam, and use them to generate a super-resolution imaging modality. While there already exist several super-resolution modalities, our technology (biaxial super-resolution: BSR) is distinguished by the unique combination of several performance features. Using BSR super-resolution data are achieved using low light illumination significantly less than required for classical confocal imaging, which makes BSR ideal for live-cell, long-term time-lapse super-resolution imaging. Furthermore, no specific sample preparation is required, and any fluorophore can be used. Perhaps most exciting, improved resolution BSR-imaging resolution enhancement can be achieved with any type of objective no matter the magnification, numerical aperture, working distance, or the absence or presence of immersion medium. In this article, we present the first implementation of BSR modality on a commercial confocal microscope. We acquire and analyze validation data, showing high quality super-resolved images of biological objects, and demonstrate the wide applicability of the technology. We report live-cell super-resolution imaging over a long period, and show that the light dose required for super-resolution imaging is far below the threshold likely to generate phototoxicity. PMID:25482642

  7. Beam Tilt Due to Transverse Wakefields for DAFNE, SuperB, KEKB and SuperKEKB

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, D.; Ohmi, K.; Chao, A.W.; /SLAC

    2012-04-30

    When a beam bunch traverses a transverse impedance, the bunch head generates a transverse wakefield that kicks the bunch tail, generating a betatron motion of the tail relative to the head. In a storage ring, in a steady state, this kick to the bunch tail produces a transverse closed orbit (e.g. in the y-direction) of the bunch tail relative to the bunch head, which means the beam now has a y-z tilt. Such beam tilt due to transverse wakefields may cause a loss of luminosity in storage ring colliders or loss of brightness in light sources. In this paper, we present a preliminary study of the beam tilt effect for the colliders DAFNE, SuperB, KEKB and SuperKEKB.

  8. Mirror-enhanced super-resolution microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xusan; Xie, Hao; Alonas, Eric; Liu, Yujia; Chen, Xuanze; Santangelo, Philip J; Ren, Qiushi; Xi, Peng; Jin, Dayong

    2016-01-01

    Axial excitation confinement beyond the diffraction limit is crucial to the development of next-generation, super-resolution microscopy. STimulated Emission Depletion (STED) nanoscopy offers lateral super-resolution using a donut-beam depletion, but its axial resolution is still over 500 nm. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy is widely used for single-molecule localization, but its ability to detect molecules is limited to within the evanescent field of ~ 100 nm from the cell attachment surface. We find here that the axial thickness of the point spread function (PSF) during confocal excitation can be easily improved to 110 nm by replacing the microscopy slide with a mirror. The interference of the local electromagnetic field confined the confocal PSF to a 110-nm spot axially, which enables axial super-resolution with all laser-scanning microscopes. Axial sectioning can be obtained with wavelength modulation or by controlling the spacer between the mirror and the specimen. With no additional complexity, the mirror-assisted excitation confinement enhanced the axial resolution six-fold and the lateral resolution two-fold for STED, which together achieved 19-nm resolution to resolve the inner rim of a nuclear pore complex and to discriminate the contents of 120 nm viral filaments. The ability to increase the lateral resolution and decrease the thickness of an axial section using mirror-enhanced STED without increasing the laser power is of great importance for imaging biological specimens, which cannot tolerate high laser power. PMID:27398242

  9. Bacteriological findings in patients with bone marrow transplantation (Karl Marx University Leipzig, 1985-1987).

    PubMed

    Wonitzki, C; Hoffmann, F A

    1989-01-01

    The results of the bacteriological surveillance cultures for 26 patients with bone marrow transplantation (Karl Marx University Leipzig, G.D.R., 1985-1987) are presented. 5.9% of all surveillance cultures contained facultatively pathogenic germs (with Pseudomonas aeruginosa as the most frequent representative, which was the reason of a sepsis in two patients). Coagulasenegative Staphylococci and other germs with an obscure pathogenicity were isolated upon a large scale, especially from the mucous membrane regions. There are hints, that above all special strains of coagulasenegative Staphylococci "colonize" the patient's body (also for longer periods) and turn into the blood too. During the total decontamination intestinal anaerobic flora is absent. After closing of total decontamination Clostridium perfringens is the first detectable anaerobic species. During the selective decontamination systemic applications of antibiotics are able to obliterate anaerobic findings for certain periods. Recommendations for an effective arrangement of the surveillance cultures of bone marrow transplantation patients are given.

  10. SuperB Progress Report: Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Grauges, E.; Donvito, G.; Spinoso, V.; Manghisoni, M.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.; Eigen, G.; Fehlker, D.; Helleve, L.; Carbone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Gabrielli, A.; Galli, D.; Giorgi, F.; Marconi, U.; Perazzini, S.; Sbarra, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valentinetti, S.; Villa, M.; Zoccoli, A.; /INFN, Bologna /Bologna U. /Caltech /Carleton U. /Cincinnati U. /INFN, CNAF /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /UC, Irvine /Taras Shevchenko U. /Orsay, LAL /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Frascati /INFN, Legnaro /Orsay, IPN /Maryland U. /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Pavia /Pavia U. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /Caltech /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /PNL, Richland /Queen Mary, U. of London /Rutherford /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome2 /Rome U.,Tor Vergata /INFN, Rome3 /Rome III U. /SLAC /Tel Aviv U. /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Padua /Trento U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /TRIUMF /British Columbia U. /Montreal U. /Victoria U.

    2012-02-14

    This report describes the present status of the detector design for SuperB. It is one of four separate progress reports that, taken collectively, describe progress made on the SuperB Project since the publication of the SuperB Conceptual Design Report in 2007 and the Proceedings of SuperB Workshop VI in Valencia in 2008.

  11. Super-sample signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yin; Hu, Wayne; Takada, Masahiro

    2014-11-01

    When extracting cosmological information from power spectrum measurements, we must consider the impact of super-sample density fluctuations whose wavelengths are larger than the survey scale. These modes contribute to the mean density fluctuation δb in the survey and change the power spectrum in the same way as a change in the cosmological background. They can be simply included in cosmological parameter estimation and forecasts by treating δb as an additional cosmological parameter enabling efficient exploration of its impact. To test this approach, we consider here an idealized measurement of the matter power spectrum itself in the Λ CDM cosmology though our techniques can readily be extended to more observationally relevant statistics or other parameter spaces. Using subvolumes of large-volume N -body simulations for power spectra measured with respect to either the global or local mean density, we verify that the minimum variance estimator of δb is both unbiased and has the predicted variance. Parameter degeneracies arise since the response of the matter power spectrum to δb and cosmological parameters share similar properties in changing the growth of structure and dilating the scale of features especially in the local case. For matter power spectrum measurements, these degeneracies can lead in certain cases to substantial error degradation and motivates future studies of specific cosmological observables such as galaxy clustering and weak lensing statistics with these techniques.

  12. Evaluating super resolution algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youn Jin; Park, Jong Hyun; Shin, Gun Shik; Lee, Hyun-Seung; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Park, Se Hyeok; Kim, Jaehyun

    2011-01-01

    This study intends to establish a sound testing and evaluation methodology based upon the human visual characteristics for appreciating the image restoration accuracy; in addition to comparing the subjective results with predictions by some objective evaluation methods. In total, six different super resolution (SR) algorithms - such as iterative back-projection (IBP), robust SR, maximum a posteriori (MAP), projections onto convex sets (POCS), a non-uniform interpolation, and frequency domain approach - were selected. The performance comparison between the SR algorithms in terms of their restoration accuracy was carried out through both subjectively and objectively. The former methodology relies upon the paired comparison method that involves the simultaneous scaling of two stimuli with respect to image restoration accuracy. For the latter, both conventional image quality metrics and color difference methods are implemented. Consequently, POCS and a non-uniform interpolation outperformed the others for an ideal situation, while restoration based methods appear more accurate to the HR image in a real world case where any prior information about the blur kernel is remained unknown. However, the noise-added-image could not be restored successfully by any of those methods. The latest International Commission on Illumination (CIE) standard color difference equation CIEDE2000 was found to predict the subjective results accurately and outperformed conventional methods for evaluating the restoration accuracy of those SR algorithms.

  13. Holography based super resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Anwar; Mudassar, Asloob A.

    2012-05-01

    This paper describes the simulation of a simple technique of superresolution based on holographic imaging in spectral domain. The input beam assembly containing 25 optical fibers with different orientations and positions is placed to illuminate the object in the 4f optical system. The position and orientation of each fiber is calculated with respect to the central fiber in the array. The positions and orientations of the fibers are related to the shift of object spectrum at aperture plane. During the imaging process each fiber is operated once in the whole procedure to illuminate the input object transparency which gives shift to the object spectrum in the spectral domain. This shift of the spectrum is equal to the integral multiple of the pass band aperture width. During the operation of single fiber (ON-state) all other fibers are in OFF-state at that time. The hologram recorded by each fiber at the CCD plane is stored in computer memory. At the end of illumination process total 25 holograms are recorded by the whole fiber array and by applying some post processing and specific algorithm single super resolved image is obtained. The superresolved image is five times better than the band-limited image. The work is demonstrated using computer simulation only.

  14. [Experiences and results in hypertension screening in women between 20 and 65 years of age in Karl-Marx-City].

    PubMed

    Voigt, G; Börker, G; Edelmann, S; Hartung, A; Hartung, G; Heyne, S; Töpfer, V

    1980-11-15

    From 1975 to 1979 in the district of the City of Karl-Marx-Stadt 91,130 females at the age between 20 and 65 years were summoned to a gynaecologico-cardiological mass examination which was supported by computer. 56,460 females underwent the examination. According to the WHO-criteria two measurements of blood pressure were carried out, when increased blood pressure was present a third one and a fourth one by an examination group. A diagnostic standard programme was used. In the second measurement of blood pressure we established 19.8% of patients with hypertension and 28.6% patients with borderline values. 52.8% of the hypertensions were known. Of 10,685 females with known or established hypertension 10.1% underwent an optimum therapy. On the basis of these results a programme for the fight against hypertension was developed for the county Karl-Marx-Stadt.

  15. [Management of functional sterility using clomiphene and cyclophenyl at the Karl-Marx-Stadt District Hospital Gynecologic Clinic].

    PubMed

    Neubert, S; Melzer, H

    1977-01-01

    We report on 39 barren patients suffering from anovulatory cycle disturbances or corpus luteum inadequacies. Them were given treatment in the Gynecological Hospital of Karl-Marx-Stadt County at Karl-Marx-Stadt in the past few years and were administered Clomiphendihydrogencitrate or Cyclophenyl to provoke ovulation. Before and during therapy, the total of estrogenes and pregnanediol were determined in the 24h-urine every two days. The clinical data and the results of the hormone investigations were analysed, and an attempt was made to derive a forecast from the estrogene and pregnanediol secretion so as to be able to form an opinion on the positive or negative result of the treatment.

  16. Lifetime Tests on a High Ohms/Square Metalized High Crystalline Polypropylene Film Capacitor with Application to a Marx Modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, Mark A.; Burkhart, Craig; Tang, Tao; /SLAC

    2010-06-07

    This paper presents accelerated lifetime tests on a polypropylene film capacitor. Experimental parameters (20% droop, 5 Hz repetition rate) simulate anticipated operating conditions encountered in the SLAC P2 Marx. Elevated film electric field stress is utilized as the acceleration parameter. Results indicate that, for the particular film of interest, a film stress of {approx}290 V/{mu}m corresponds to a 10{sup 5} hour lifetime. In addition, the voltage scaling exponent for this film is 13.1.

  17. Extreme super-resolution using the spherical geodesic waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miñano, Juan Carlos; González, Juan Carlos; Benítez, Pablo; Grabovičkić, Dejan

    2012-06-01

    Leonhardt demonstrated (2009) that the 2D Maxwell Fish Eye lens (MFE) can focus perfectly 2D Helmholtz waves of arbitrary frequency, i.e., it can transport perfectly an outward (monopole) 2D Helmholtz wave field, generated by a point source, towards a "perfect point drain" located at the corresponding image point. Moreover, a prototype with λ/5 super-resolution (SR) property for one microwave frequency has been manufactured and tested (Ma et al, 2010). Although this prototype has been loaded with an impedance different from the "perfect point drain", it has shown super-resolution property. However, neither software simulations nor experimental measurements for a broad band of frequencies have yet been reported. Here we present steady state simulations for two cases, using perfect drain as suggested by Leonhardt and without perfect drain as in the prototype. All the simulations have been done using a device equivalent to the MFE, called the Spherical Geodesic Waveguide (SGW). The results show the super-resolution up to λ/3000, for the system loaded with the perfect drain, and up to λ /500 for a not perfect load. In both cases super-resolution only happens for discrete number of frequencies. Out of these frequencies, the SGW does not show super-resolution in the analysis carried out.

  18. SUPER ESP: Ultimate electrostatic precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Plaks, N.

    1991-01-01

    The paper discusses SUPER ESP, a new electrostatic precipitator (ESP) concept, enabling high collection efficiencies with considerably smaller collection areas than has previously been possible. The new concept allows a major reduction in ESP size by using an alternating sequence of prechargers and short collector sections. The length of the collection section in each precharger/collector pair (module) dominates the optimization. The size reduction is greater for ESPs operating with high resistivity particulate matter than with low resistivity particulate matter. The relationship in number of modules, collector section size, and overall ESP collection is presented and discussed. Comparisons are given of ESP size for both conventional and SUPER ESP technology operating with either high or low resistivity particulate matter. Because of the size reduction, the cost of the SUPER ESP is projected to be lower than that of a conventional ESP of comparable efficiencY. The paper is based on an ESP model, ESPVI 4.0.

  19. SOWFA + Super Controller User's Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, P.; Gebraad, P.; Churchfield, M.; Lee, S.; Johnson, K.; Michalakes, J.; van Wingerden, J. W.; Moriarty, P.

    2013-08-01

    SOWFA + Super Controller is a modification of the NREL's SOWFA tool which allows for a user to apply multiturbine or centralized wind plant control algorithms within the high-fidelity SOWFA simulation environment. The tool is currently a branch of the main SOWFA program, but will one day will be merged into a single version. This manual introduces the tool and provides examples such that a user can implement their own super controller and set up and run simulations. The manual only discusses enough about SOWFA itself to allow for the customization of controllers and running of simulations, and details of SOWFA itself are reported elsewhere Churchfield and Lee (2013); Churchfield et al. (2012). SOWFA + Super Controller, and this manual, are in alpha mode.

  20. Coiled transmission line pulse generators

    DOEpatents

    McDonald, Kenneth Fox

    2010-11-09

    Methods and apparatus are provided for fabricating and constructing solid dielectric "Coiled Transmission Line" pulse generators in radial or axial coiled geometries. The pour and cure fabrication process enables a wide variety of geometries and form factors. The volume between the conductors is filled with liquid blends of monomers, polymers, oligomers, and/or cross-linkers and dielectric powders; and then cured to form high field strength and high dielectric constant solid dielectric transmission lines that intrinsically produce ideal rectangular high voltage pulses when charged and switched into matched impedance loads. Voltage levels may be increased by Marx and/or Blumlein principles incorporating spark gap or, preferentially, solid state switches (such as optically triggered thyristors) which produce reliable, high repetition rate operation. Moreover, these Marxed pulse generators can be DC charged and do not require additional pulse forming circuitry, pulse forming lines, transformers, or an a high voltage spark gap output switch. The apparatus accommodates a wide range of voltages, impedances, pulse durations, pulse repetition rates, and duty cycles. The resulting mobile or flight platform friendly cylindrical geometric configuration is much more compact, light-weight, and robust than conventional linear geometries, or pulse generators constructed from conventional components. Installing additional circuitry may accommodate optional pulse shape improvements. The Coiled Transmission Lines can also be connected in parallel to decrease the impedance, or in series to increase the pulse length.

  1. A Hierarchical Control Architecture for a PEBB-Based ILC Marx Modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Macken, K.; Burkhart, C.; Larsen, R.; Nguyen, M.N.; Olsen, J.; /SLAC

    2011-12-15

    The idea of building power conversion systems around Power Electronic Building Blocks (PEBBs) was initiated by the U.S. Office of Naval Research in the mid 1990s. A PEBB-based design approach is advantageous in terms of power density, modularity, reliability, and serviceability. It is obvious that this approach has much appeal for pulsed power conversion including the International Linear Collider (ILC) klystron modulator application. A hierarchical control architecture has the inherent capability to support the integration of PEBBs. This has already been successfully demonstrated in a number of industrial applications in the recent past. This paper outlines the underlying concepts of a hierarchical control architecture for a PEBB-based Marx-topology ILC klystron modulator. The control in PEBB-based power conversion systems can be functionally partitioned into (three) hierarchical layers; system layer, application layer, and PEBB layer. This has been adopted here. Based on such a hierarchical partition, the interfaces are clearly identified and defined and, consequently, are easily characterised. A conceptual design of the hardware manager, executing low-level hardware oriented tasks, is detailed. In addition, the idea of prognostics is briefly discussed.

  2. Super 8: The Modest Medium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Jonathan F.

    This state of the art review gives an overview of the history of the development of Super 8 film, and describes a range of hardware associated with it, covering such areas as camera, sound synchronization, double system recording, lighting, film processing, sound transfer, editing, sound mixing, display, and methods of distribution. It examines…

  3. Review: SuperCalc3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jadrnicek, Rik

    1984-01-01

    Reviews the latest version of the SuperCalc spreadsheet, indicating that it now provides color graphics, two-key sorting, and database management functions (including Internal Rate of Return). Also indicates that the program is not copy protected, useful in trying to integrate a variety of programs. (JN)

  4. Focusing super resolution on the cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Shelden, Eric A.; Colburn, Zachary T.; Jones, Jonathan C.R.

    2016-01-01

    Super resolution imaging is becoming an increasingly important tool in the arsenal of methods available to cell biologists. In recognition of its potential, the Nobel Prize for chemistry was awarded to three investigators involved in the development of super resolution imaging methods in 2014. The availability of commercial instruments for super resolution imaging has further spurred the development of new methods and reagents designed to take advantage of super resolution techniques. Super resolution offers the advantages traditionally associated with light microscopy, including the use of gentle fixation and specimen preparation methods, the ability to visualize multiple elements within a single specimen, and the potential to visualize dynamic changes in living specimens over time. However, imaging of living cells over time is difficult and super resolution imaging is computationally demanding. In this review, we discuss the advantages/disadvantages of different super resolution systems for imaging fixed live specimens, with particular regard to cytoskeleton structures. PMID:27303635

  5. On the origin of super-hot electrons from intense laser interactions with solid targets having moderate scale length preformed plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Krygier, A. G.; Schumacher, D. W.; Freeman, R. R.

    2014-02-15

    We use particle-in-cell modeling to identify the acceleration mechanism responsible for the observed generation of super-hot electrons in ultra-intense laser-plasma interactions with solid targets with pre-formed plasma. We identify several features of direct laser acceleration that drive the generation of super-hot electrons. We find that, in this regime, electrons that become super-hot are primarily injected by a looping mechanism that we call loop-injected direct acceleration.

  6. Reference Values for the Marx Activity Rating Scale in a Young Athletic Population

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Kenneth L.; Peck, Karen Y.; Thompson, Brandon S.; Svoboda, Steven J.; Owens, Brett D.; Marshall, Stephen W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Activity-related patient-reported outcome measures are an important component of assessment after knee ligament injury in young and physically active patients; however, normative data for most activity scales are limited. Objective: To present reference values by sex for the Marx Activity Rating Scale (MARS) within a young and physically active population while accounting for knee ligament injury history and sex. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Level of Evidence: Level 2. Methods: All incoming freshman entering a US Service Academy in June of 2011 were recruited to participate in this study. MARS was administered to 1169 incoming freshmen (203 women) who consented to participate within the first week of matriculation. All subjects were deemed healthy and medically fit for military service on admission. Subjects also completed a baseline questionnaire that asked for basic demographic information and injury history. We calculated means with standard deviations, medians with interquartile ranges, and percentiles for ordinal and continuous variables, and frequencies and proportions for dichotomous variables. We also compared median scores by sex and history of knee ligament injury using the Kruskal-Wallis test. MARS was the primary outcome of interest. Results: The median MARS score was significantly higher for men when compared with women (χ2 = 13.22, df = 1, P < 0.001) with no prior history of knee ligament injury. In contrast, there was no significant difference in median MARS scores between men and women (χ2 = 0.47, df = 1, P = 0.493) who reported a history of injury. Overall, median MARS scores were significantly higher among those who reported a history of knee ligament injury when compared with those who did not (χ2 = 9.06, df = 1, P = 0.003). Conclusion: Assessing activity as a patient-reported outcome after knee ligament injury is important, and reference values for these instruments need to account for the influence of prior injury and sex

  7. Wake Fields in the Super B Factory Interaction Region

    SciTech Connect

    Weathersby, Stephen; Novokhatski, Alexander; /SLAC

    2011-06-02

    The geometry of storage ring collider interaction regions present an impedance to beam fields resulting in the generation of additional electromagnetic fields (higher order modes or wake fields) which affect the beam energy and trajectory. These affects are computed for the Super B interaction region by evaluating longitudinal loss factors and averaged transverse kicks for short range wake fields. Results indicate at least a factor of 2 lower wake field power generation in comparison with the interaction region geometry of the PEP-II B-factory collider. Wake field reduction is a consderation in the Super B design. Transverse kicks are consistent with an attractive potential from the crotch nearest the beam trajectory. The longitudinal loss factor scales as the -2.5 power of the bunch length. A factor of 60 loss factor reduction is possible with crotch geometry based on an intersecting tubes model.

  8. Super-heavy element research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oganessian, Yu Ts; Utyonkov, V. K.

    2015-02-01

    A review of the discovery and investigation of the ‘island of stability’ of super-heavy nuclei at the separator DGFRS (FLNR, JINR) in the fusion reactions of 48Ca projectiles with target nuclei 238U-249Cf is presented. The synthesis of the heaviest nuclei, their decay properties, and methods of identification are discussed. The role of shell effects in the stability of super-heavy nuclei is demonstrated by comparison of the experimental data and results of theoretical calculations. The radioactive properties of the new nuclei, the isotopes of elements 112-118 as well as of their decay products, give evidence of the significant increase of the stability of the heavy nuclei with rise of their neutron number and approaching magic number N = 184.

  9. Super VGA Primitives Graphics System.

    1992-05-14

    Version 00 These primitives are the lowest level routines needed to perform super VGA graphics on a PC. A sample main program is included that exercises the primitives. Both Lahey and Microsoft FORTRAN's have graphics libraries. However, the libraries do not support 256 color graphics at resolutions greater than 320x200. The primitives bypass these libraries while still conforming to standard usage of BIOS. The supported graphics modes depend upon the PC graphics card and itsmore » memory. Super VGA resolutions of 640x480 and 800x600 have been tested on an ATI VGA Wonder card with 512K memory and on several 80486 PC's (unknown manufacturers) at retail stores.« less

  10. Super Resolution Image of Yogi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Yogi is a meter-size rock about 5 meters northwest of the Mars Pathfinder lander and was the second rock visited by the Sojourner Rover's alpha proton X-ray spectrometer (APXS) instrument. This mosaic shows super resolution techniques applied to the second APXS target rock, which was poorly illuminated in the rover's forward camera view taken before the instrument was deployed. Super resolution was applied to help to address questions about the texture of this rock and what it might tell us about its mode of origin.

    This mosaic of Yogi was produced by combining four 'Super Pan' frames taken with the IMP camera. This composite color mosaic consists of 7 frames from the right eye, taken with different color filters that were enlarged by 500% and then co-added using Adobe Photoshop to produce, in effect, a super-resolution panchromatic frame that is sharper than an individual frame would be. This panchromatic frame was then colorized with the red, green, and blue filtered images from the same sequence. The color balance was adjusted to approximate the true color of Mars. Shadows were processed separately from the rest of the rock and combined with the rest of the scene to bring out details in the shadow of Yogi that would be too dark to view at the same time as the sunlit surfaces.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  11. Multi-pulse operation of a super-radiant backward-wave oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Bandurkin, I. V.; Savilov, A. V.

    2014-08-15

    Theory of a backward-wave electron oscillator operating in the non-stationary regime of super-radiation of short powerful rf pulses is developed. It is shown that there exist multi-frequency regimes of generation of either two-peak or three-peak output signal with different characteristic frequencies in every peak. The use of such regimes allows increasing the duration, the peak power, and the total energy of the output super-radiation rf pulse.

  12. Polarimetery for SuperB

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Michael; Field, R.; Moffeit, Kenneth; Nosochkov, Yuri; Wienands, Ulrich; Wittmer, Walter; Woods, Mike; /SLAC

    2012-07-06

    We provide an overview description of a Compton polarimeter for measuring electron beam polarization near the IR in the Low Energy Ring of SuperB. The polarimeter is designed to achieve 1.0% accuracy. A scheme for measuring the electron beam polarization at SuperB near the IR has been described. The Compton polarimeter has been designed to fit into the existing lattice of the SuperB ring and results in a Compton IP measuring the polarization located where the beam is almost longitudinal with opposite helicity to that at the IR. The polarization at the IR is expected to be determined with an accuracy of {approx}1% from the measurement at the Compton IP provided the beam direction at the electron-positron interaction region and the Compton IP are well known and the beam energy is measured to better than 20 MeV. Detailed detector studies are needed to study resolution and acceptance effects on detector analyzing powers, and to determine sensitivity to beam and machine parameters.

  13. SUPER-ECCENTRIC MIGRATING JUPITERS

    SciTech Connect

    Socrates, Aristotle; Katz, Boaz; Dong Subo; Tremaine, Scott

    2012-05-10

    An important class of formation theories for hot Jupiters involves the excitation of extreme orbital eccentricity (e = 0.99 or even larger) followed by tidal dissipation at periastron passage that eventually circularizes the planetary orbit at a period less than 10 days. In a steady state, this mechanism requires the existence of a significant population of super-eccentric (e > 0.9) migrating Jupiters with long orbital periods and periastron distances of only a few stellar radii. For these super-eccentric planets, the periastron is fixed due to conservation of orbital angular momentum and the energy dissipated per orbit is constant, implying that the rate of change in semi-major axis a is a-dot {proportional_to}a{sup 1/2} and consequently the number distribution satisfies dN/d log a{proportional_to}a{sup 1/2}. If this formation process produces most hot Jupiters, Kepler should detect several super-eccentric migrating progenitors of hot Jupiters, allowing for a test of high-eccentricity migration scenarios.

  14. Discovery of Super-Mediators of Information Diffusion in Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Kazumi; Kimura, Masahiro; Ohara, Kouzou; Motoda, Hiroshi

    We address the problem of discovering a different kind of influential nodes, which we call "super-mediator", i.e. those nodes which play an important role to pass the information to other nodes, and propose a method for discovering super-mediators from information diffusion samples without using a network structure. We divide the diffusion sequences in two groups (lower and upper), each assuming some probability distribution, find the best split by maximizing the likelihood, and rank the nodes in the upper sequences by the F-measure. We apply this measure to the information diffusion samples generated by two real networks, identify and rank the super-mediator nodes. We show that the high ranked super-mediators are also the high ranked influential nodes when the diffusion probability is large, i.e. the influential nodes also play a role of super-mediator for the other source nodes, and interestingly enough that when the high ranked super-mediators are different from the top ranked influential nodes, which is the case when the diffusion probability is small, those super-mediators become the high ranked influential nodes when the diffusion probability becomes larger. This finding will be useful to predict the influential nodes for the unexperienced spread of new information, e.g. spread of new acute contagion.

  15. Status of the Super B Factory Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Sangro, Riccardo de

    2010-08-05

    Two proposals have been presented for the construction of super high luminosity B factories, the SuperB in Italy and SuperKEKB in Japan. We review the physics case for the construction of such facilities in the LHC era and highlight several topics of hadronic physics that can benefit from the high luminosity they will integrate. The present status of the accelerator and detector work toward the Technical Design Reports is also presented.

  16. Novel Materials with Effective Super Dielectric Constants for Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortes, Francisco Javier Quintero; Phillips, Jonathan

    2015-05-01

    To test a theory of the recently discovered phenomenon of super dielectric behavior at very low frequency, the dielectric constants of several `pastes', composed of porous alumina powders filled to the point of incipient wetness with water containing dissolved sodium chloride, were measured. The effective dielectric low frequency constants of some of the pastes were greater than 1010, dramatically higher than that of any material ever reported. Moreover, the total energy density reported for one capacitor generated with NaCl-based super dielectric material is marginally higher than found in any prior report. These results are consistent with this recently postulated model of low frequency super dielectric behavior in porous, non-conductive materials saturated with ion-containing liquids: upon the application of an electric field, ions dissolved in the saturating liquid contained in the pores will travel to the ends of pore-filling liquid droplets creating giant dipoles. The fields of these giant dipoles oppose the applied field, reducing the net field created per unit of charge on the capacitor plates, effectively increasing charge/voltage ratio, hence capacitance. This is simply a version of the theory of `polarizable media' found in most classic texts on electromagnetism. Other observations reported here include (1) the impact of ion concentration on dielectric values, (2) a maximum voltage similar to that associated with the electrical breakdown of water, (3) the loss of capacitance upon drying, (4) the recovery of capacitance upon the addition of water to a dry super dielectric material, and (5) the linear relationship between capacitance and inverse thickness. All observations are consistent with the earlier proposed model of the super dielectric phenomenon. An extrapolation of results suggests this technology can lead to energy density greater than the best lithium-ion battery.

  17. Observation of super-resolution in digital breast tomosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Acciavatti, Raymond J.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a 3D x-ray imaging modality in which tomographic sections of the breast are generated from a limited range of tube angles. Because oblique x-ray incidence shifts the image of an object in subpixel detector element increments with each increasing projection angle, it is demonstrated that DBT is capable of super-resolution (i.e., subpixel resolution). Methods: By convention, DBT reconstructions are performed on planes parallel to the breast support at various depths of the breast volume. In order for resolution in each reconstructed slice to be comparable to the detector, the pixel size should match that of the detector elements; hence, the highest frequency that can be resolved in the plane of reconstruction is the alias frequency of the detector. This study considers reconstruction grids with much smaller pixelation to visualize higher frequencies. For analytical proof of super-resolution, a theoretical framework is developed in which the reconstruction of a high frequency sinusoidal input is calculated using both simple backprojection (SBP) and filtered backprojection. To study the frequency spectrum of the reconstruction, its Fourier transform is also determined. The experimental feasibility of super-resolution was investigated by acquiring images of a bar pattern phantom with frequencies higher than the detector alias frequency. Results: Using analytical modeling, it is shown that the central projection cannot resolve frequencies exceeding the detector alias frequency. The Fourier transform of the central projection is maximized at a lower frequency than the input as evidence of aliasing. By contrast, SBP reconstruction can resolve the input, and its Fourier transform is correctly maximized at the input frequency. Incorporating filters into the reconstruction smoothens pixelation artifacts in the spatial domain and reduces spectral leakage in the Fourier domain. It is also demonstrated that the existence of super

  18. SuperB: A High-Luminosity Asymmetric e+e- Super Flavor Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Bona, M.; /et al.

    2007-05-18

    We discuss herein the exciting physics program that can be accomplished with a very large sample of heavy quark and heavy lepton decays produced in the very clean environment of an e{sup +}e{sup -} collider; a program complementary to that of an experiment such as LHCb at a hadronic machine. It then presents the conceptual design of a new type of e{sup +}e{sup -} collider that produces a nearly two-order-of-magnitude increase in luminosity over the current generation of asymmetric B Factories. The key idea is the use of low emittance beams produced in an accelerator lattice derived from the ILC Damping Ring Design, together with a new collision region, again with roots in the ILC final focus design, but with important new concepts developed in this design effort. Remarkably, SuperB produces this very large improvement in luminosity with circulating currents and wallplug power similar to those of the current B Factories. There is clear synergy with ILC R&D; design efforts have already influenced one another, and many aspects of the ILC Damping Rings and Final Focus would be operationally tested at SuperB. Finally, the design of an appropriate detector, based on an upgrade of BABAR as an example, is discussed in some detail. A preliminary cost estimate is presented, as is an example construction timeline.

  19. Notes on super Killing tensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, P. S.; Lindström, U.

    2016-03-01

    The notion of a Killing tensor is generalised to a superspace setting. Conserved quantities associated with these are defined for superparticles and Poisson brackets are used to define a supersymmetric version of the even Schouten-Nijenhuis bracket. Superconformal Killing tensors in flat superspaces are studied for spacetime dimensions 3,4,5,6 and 10. These tensors are also presented in analytic superspaces and super-twistor spaces for 3,4 and 6 dimensions. Algebraic structures associated with superconformal Killing tensors are also briefly discussed.

  20. SuperLU users' guide

    SciTech Connect

    Demmel, James W.; Gilbert, John R.; Li, Xiaoye S.

    1999-11-01

    This document describes a collection of three related ANSI C subroutine libraries for solving sparse linear systems of equations AX = B: Here A is a square, nonsingular, n x n sparse matrix, and X and B are dense n x nrhs matrices, where nrhs is the number of right-hand sides and solution vectors. Matrix A need not be symmetric or definite; indeed, SuperLU is particularly appropriate for matrices with very unsymmetric structure. All three libraries use variations of Gaussian elimination optimized to take advantage both of sparsity and the computer architecture, in particular memory hierarchies (caches) and parallelism.

  1. Super B Factory at KEK

    SciTech Connect

    Cheon, Byung Gu

    2008-11-23

    A Super--KEKB factory, an asymmetric--energy e{sup +}e{sup -} lepton collider at KEK in Japan, has been proposed with the design peak luminosity of 8x10{sup 35} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, which is about 50 times higher than that of the current operation of the KEKB collider. The physics goal of this project is mainly to measure extremely rare heavy flavor weak decays and CP violation phenomena, which are very sensitive on physics beyond the Standard Model. Hot physics topics and the status of experimental design are briefly described.

  2. Genetic dissection of the α-globin super-enhancer in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hay, Deborah; Hughes, Jim R; Babbs, Christian; Davies, James O J; Graham, Bryony J; Hanssen, Lars L P; Kassouf, Mira T; Oudelaar, A Marieke; Sharpe, Jacqueline A; Suciu, Maria C; Telenius, Jelena; Williams, Ruth; Rode, Christina; Li, Pik-Shan; Pennacchio, Len A; Sloane-Stanley, Jacqueline A; Ayyub, Helena; Butler, Sue; Sauka-Spengler, Tatjana; Gibbons, Richard J; Smith, Andrew J H; Wood, William G; Higgs, Douglas R

    2016-08-01

    Many genes determining cell identity are regulated by clusters of Mediator-bound enhancer elements collectively referred to as super-enhancers. These super-enhancers have been proposed to manifest higher-order properties important in development and disease. Here we report a comprehensive functional dissection of one of the strongest putative super-enhancers in erythroid cells. By generating a series of mouse models, deleting each of the five regulatory elements of the α-globin super-enhancer individually and in informative combinations, we demonstrate that each constituent enhancer seems to act independently and in an additive fashion with respect to hematological phenotype, gene expression, chromatin structure and chromosome conformation, without clear evidence of synergistic or higher-order effects. Our study highlights the importance of functional genetic analyses for the identification of new concepts in transcriptional regulation.

  3. Request for Support for the Conference on Super Intense Laser Atom Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Todd Ditmire

    2004-10-21

    The Conference on Super Intense Laser Atom Physics (SILAP) was held in November 2003 in Dallas, Texas. The venue for the meeting was South Fork Ranch in the outskirts of Dallas. The topics of the meeting included high harmonic generation and attosecond pulse generation, strong field interactions with molecules and clusters, particle acceleration, and relativistic laser atom interactions.

  4. Laser plasma accelerator driven by a super-Gaussian pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostermayr, Tobias; Petrovics, Stefan; Iqbal, Khalid; Klier, Constantin; Ruhl, Hartmut; Nakajima, Kazuhisa; Deng, Aihua; Zhang, Xiaomei; Shen, Baifei; Liu, Jiansheng; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan; Tajima, Toshiki; Tajima

    2012-08-01

    A laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) with a weak focusing force is considered to seek improved beam quality in LWFA. We employ super-Gaussian laser pulses to generate the wakefield and study the behavior of the electron beam dynamics and synchrotron radiation arising from the transverse betatron oscillations through analysis and computation. We note that the super-Gaussian wakefields radically reduce the betatron oscillations and make the electron orbits mainly ballistic over a single stage. This feature permits to obtain small emittance and thus high luminosity, while still benefitting from the low-density operation of LWFA (Nakajima et al. 2011 Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 14, 091301), such as the reduced radiation loss, less number of stages, less beam instabilities, and less required wall plug power than in higher density regimes.

  5. SuperPILOT: Between Student and Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pattison, Linda J.

    1984-01-01

    Apple's SuperPILOT is an authoring language that allows teachers to easily and quickly create effective programs for classroom use. SuperPILOT features (such as turtle graphics routines) and commands are described. Several sample program listings (including one for a tutorial on the periodic table) are presented. (JN)

  6. The quest for ultimate super resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmer, Philip; Ben-Benjamin, Jonathan Samuel

    2016-09-01

    With the wealth of super-resolution techniques available in the literature it is useful to provide a succinct review of the general concepts involved in the different schemes. In this paper we group super-resolution schemes into several broad categories to simplify comparison, and to elucidate the factors limiting their respective resolutions.

  7. Contributions from the SuperKamiokande Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkes, R.J.; Fukuda, Y.; Inoue, K.

    1995-09-01

    This document consists of two reports contributed to the XXIV International Cosmic Ray Conference (Rome, Italy, August 28--September 8, 1995) from the SuperKamiokande Collaboration: one on the SuperKamiokande outer data acquisition system, and one on preliminary results from muon/electron identification tests at KEK of IMB3-detector phototubes and electronics.

  8. Ending Aging in Super Glassy Polymer Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, CH; Nguyen, PT; Hill, MR; Thornton, AW; Konstas, K; Doherty, CM; Mulder, RJ; Bourgeois, L; Liu, ACY; Sprouster, DJ; Sullivan, JP; Bastow, TJ; Hill, AJ; Gin, DL; Noble, RD

    2014-04-16

    Aging in super glassy polymers such as poly(trimethylsilylpropyne) (PTMSP), poly(4-methyl-2-pentyne) (PMP), and polymers with intrinsic microporosity (PIM-1) reduces gas permeabilities and limits their application as gas-separation membranes. While super glassy polymers are initially very porous, and ultra-permeable, they quickly pack into a denser phase becoming less porous and permeable. This age-old problem has been solved by adding an ultraporous additive that maintains the low density, porous, initial stage of super glassy polymers through absorbing a portion of the polymer chains within its pores thereby holding the chains in their open position. This result is the first time that aging in super glassy polymers is inhibited whilst maintaining enhanced CO2 permeability for one year and improving CO2/N-2 selectivity. This approach could allow super glassy polymers to be revisited for commercial application in gas separations.

  9. Multifrequency super-thin cloaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiafu; Qu, Shaobo; Xu, Zhuo; Zhang, Anxue; Ma, Hua; Zhang, Jieqiu; Chen, Hongya; Feng, Mingde

    2014-04-01

    Bandwidth and thickness have become the most troublesome problems for EM cloaks. In this paper, we propose to solve the two problems using connected patches based on the microwave network model. By covering an obstacle with combined connected patches, cloaking effect can be achieved at multiple frequencies so as to expand the operating band. As an explicit example, a dual-band super-thin cloak using two different connected patch unit cells is demonstrated. Cloaking effect can be achieved at 3.50 GHz and 4.14 GHz simultaneously with an 8 dB transmission enhancement. The cloak design method provides a new route to broadening the bandwidth of thin EM cloaks.

  10. The SuperCDMS Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Schnee, Richard W.; Akerib, D.S.; Attisha, M.J.; Bailey, C.N.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, Daniel A.; Brink, P.L.; Brusov, P.P.; Bunker, R.; Cabrera, B.; Caldwell, D.O.; Chang, C.L.; Cooley, J.; Crisler, M.B.; Cushman, P.; Denes, P.; Dragowsky, M.R.; Duong, L.; Filippini, J.; Gaitskell, R.J.; Golwala, S.R.; /Case Western Reserve U. /Brown U. /Florida U. /Fermilab /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /UC, Santa Barbara /Minnesota U. /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Caltech /Colorado U., Denver /NIST, Boulder /Santa Clara U.

    2005-02-01

    Modest improvements in the level and/or discrimination of backgrounds are needed to keep backgrounds negligible during the three phases of SuperCDMS. By developing production designs that require only modest testing, detector production rates may be improved sufficiently to allow an exposure of 500 ton d within a reasonable time and budget. Overall, the improvement estimates described above are conservative. Previous development efforts have shown that some areas prove easier and provide larger factors while others prove more difficult. The conservative estimates together with the broad approach reduce the risk and give us confidence that we will succeed, providing the surest way to probe to WIMP-nucleon cross sections of 10{sup -46} cm{sup 2}.

  11. Hierarchy within the mammary STAT5-driven Wap super-enhancer.

    PubMed

    Shin, Ha Youn; Willi, Michaela; Yoo, Kyung Hyun; Zeng, Xianke; Wang, Chaochen; Metser, Gil; Hennighausen, Lothar

    2016-08-01

    Super-enhancers comprise dense transcription factor platforms highly enriched for active chromatin marks. A paucity of functional data led us to investigate the role of super-enhancers in the mammary gland, an organ characterized by exceptional gene regulatory dynamics during pregnancy. ChIP-seq analysis for the master regulator STAT5A, the glucocorticoid receptor, H3K27ac and MED1 identified 440 mammary-specific super-enhancers, half of which were associated with genes activated during pregnancy. We interrogated the Wap super-enhancer, generating mice carrying mutations in STAT5-binding sites within its constituent enhancers. Individually, the most distal site displayed the greatest enhancer activity. However, combinatorial mutation analysis showed that the 1,000-fold induction in gene expression during pregnancy relied on all enhancers. Disabling the binding sites of STAT5, NFIB and ELF5 in the proximal enhancer incapacitated the entire super-enhancer. Altogether, these data suggest a temporal and functional enhancer hierarchy. The identification of mammary-specific super-enhancers and the mechanistic exploration of the Wap locus provide insights into the regulation of cell-type-specific expression of hormone-sensing genes. PMID:27376239

  12. SuperB Progress Report for Physics

    SciTech Connect

    O'Leary, B.; Matias, J.; Ramon, M.; Pous, E.; De Fazio, F.; Palano, A.; Eigen, G.; Asgeirsson, D.; Cheng, C.H.; Chivukula, A.; Echenard, B.; Hitlin, D.G.; Porter, F.; Rakitin, A.; Heinemeyer, S.; McElrath, B.; Andreassen, R.; Meadows, B.; Sokoloff, M.; Blanke, M.; Lesiak, T.; /Cracow, INP /DESY /Zurich, ETH /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /Glasgow U. /Indiana U. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Karlsruhe, Inst. Technol. /KEK, Tsukuba /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Lisbon, IST /Ljubljana U. /Madrid, Autonoma U. /Maryland U. /MIT /INFN, Milan /McGill U. /Munich, Tech. U. /Notre Dame U. /PNL, Richland /INFN, Padua /Paris U., VI-VII /Orsay, LAL /Orsay, LPT /INFN, Pavia /INFN, Perugia /INFN, Pisa /Queen Mary, U. of London /Regensburg U. /Republica U., Montevideo /Frascati /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rutherford /Sassari U. /Siegen U. /SLAC /Southern Methodist U. /Tel Aviv U. /Tohoku U. /INFN, Turin /INFN, Trieste /Uppsala U. /Valencia U., IFIC /Victoria U. /Wayne State U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2012-02-14

    SuperB is a high luminosity e{sup +}e{sup -} collider that will be able to indirectly probe new physics at energy scales far beyond the reach of any man made accelerator planned or in existence. Just as detailed understanding of the Standard Model of particle physics was developed from stringent constraints imposed by flavour changing processes between quarks, the detailed structure of any new physics is severely constrained by flavour processes. In order to elucidate this structure it is necessary to perform a number of complementary studies of a set of golden channels. With these measurements in hand, the pattern of deviations from the Standard Model behavior can be used as a test of the structure of new physics. If new physics is found at the LHC, then the many golden measurements from SuperB will help decode the subtle nature of the new physics. However if no new particles are found at the LHC, SuperB will be able to search for new physics at energy scales up to 10-100 TeV. In either scenario, flavour physics measurements that can be made at SuperB play a pivotal role in understanding the nature of physics beyond the Standard Model. Examples for using the interplay between measurements to discriminate New Physics models are discussed in this document. SuperB is a Super Flavour Factory, in addition to studying large samples of B{sub u,d,s}, D and {tau} decays, SuperB has a broad physics programme that includes spectroscopy both in terms of the Standard Model and exotica, and precision measurements of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W}. In addition to performing CP violation measurements at the {Upsilon}(4S) and {phi}(3770), SuperB will test CPT in these systems, and lepton universality in a number of different processes. The multitude of rare decay measurements possible at SuperB can be used to constrain scenarios of physics beyond the Standard Model. In terms of other precision tests of the Standard Model, this experiment will be able to perform precision over

  13. High-voltage pulsed generators for electro-discharge technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalchuk, B. M.; Kharlov, A. V.; Kumpyak, E. V.; Sinebrykhov, V. A.

    2013-09-01

    A high-voltage pulse technology is one of effective techniques for the disintegration and milling of rocks, separation of ores and synthesized materials, recycling of building and elastoplastic materials. We present here the design and test results of two portable HV pulsed generators, designed for materials fragmentation, though some other technological applications are possible as well. Generator #1 consists of low voltage block, high voltage transformer, high voltage capacitive storage block, two electrode gas switch, fragmentation chamber and control system block. Technical characteristics of the #1 generator: stored energy in HV capacitors can be varied from 50 to 1000 J, output voltage up to 300 kV, voltage rise time ~ 50 ns, typical operation regime 1000 pulses bursts with a repetitive rate up to 10 Hz. Generator #2 is made on an eight stages Marx scheme with two capacitors (100 kV-400 nF) per stage, connected in parallel. Two electrode spark gap switches, operated in atmospheric air, are used in the Marx generator. Parameters of the generator: stored energy in capacitors 2÷8 kJ, amplitude of the output voltage 200÷400 kV, voltage rise time on a load 50÷100 ns, repetitive rate up to 0.5 Hz. The fragmentation process can be controlled within a wide range of parameters for both generators.

  14. Fabrication of super slippery sheet-layered and porous anodic aluminium oxide surfaces and its anticorrosion property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Tingting; Liu, Qi; Liu, Jingyuan; Yang, Wanlu; Chen, Rongrong; Jing, Xiaoyan; Takahashi, Kazunobu; Wang, Jun

    2015-11-01

    Inspired by natural plants such as Nepenthes pitcher plants, super slippery surfaces have been developed to improve the attributes of repellent surfaces. In this report, super slippery porous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) surfaces have fabricated by a simple and reproducible method. Firstly, the aluminium substrates were treated by an anodic process producing micro-nano structured sheet-layered pores, and then immersed in Methyl Silicone Oil, Fluororalkylsilane (FAS) and DuPont Krytox, respectively, generating super slippery surfaces. Such a good material with excellent anti-corrosion property through a simple and repeatable method may be potential candidates for metallic application in anti-corrosion and extreme environment.

  15. Super-Memorizers Are Not Super-Recognizers.

    PubMed

    Ramon, Meike; Miellet, Sebastien; Dzieciol, Anna M; Konrad, Boris Nikolai; Dresler, Martin; Caldara, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Humans have a natural expertise in recognizing faces. However, the nature of the interaction between this critical visual biological skill and memory is yet unclear. Here, we had the unique opportunity to test two individuals who have had exceptional success in the World Memory Championships, including several world records in face-name association memory. We designed a range of face processing tasks to determine whether superior/expert face memory skills are associated with distinctive perceptual strategies for processing faces. Superior memorizers excelled at tasks involving associative face-name learning. Nevertheless, they were as impaired as controls in tasks probing the efficiency of the face system: face inversion and the other-race effect. Super memorizers did not show increased hippocampal volumes, and exhibited optimal generic eye movement strategies when they performed complex multi-item face-name associations. Our data show that the visual computations of the face system are not malleable and are robust to acquired expertise involving extensive training of associative memory. PMID:27008627

  16. Super-Memorizers Are Not Super-Recognizers

    PubMed Central

    Ramon, Meike; Miellet, Sebastien; Dzieciol, Anna M.; Konrad, Boris Nikolai

    2016-01-01

    Humans have a natural expertise in recognizing faces. However, the nature of the interaction between this critical visual biological skill and memory is yet unclear. Here, we had the unique opportunity to test two individuals who have had exceptional success in the World Memory Championships, including several world records in face-name association memory. We designed a range of face processing tasks to determine whether superior/expert face memory skills are associated with distinctive perceptual strategies for processing faces. Superior memorizers excelled at tasks involving associative face-name learning. Nevertheless, they were as impaired as controls in tasks probing the efficiency of the face system: face inversion and the other-race effect. Super memorizers did not show increased hippocampal volumes, and exhibited optimal generic eye movement strategies when they performed complex multi-item face-name associations. Our data show that the visual computations of the face system are not malleable and are robust to acquired expertise involving extensive training of associative memory. PMID:27008627

  17. Super Resolution Read Only Memory Disc Using Super-Resolution Near-Field Structure Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Duseop; Kim, Jooho; Kim, Hyunki; Hwang, Inoh; Park, Insik; Shin, Dongho; Park, Yunchang; Tominaga, Junji

    2004-07-01

    Super resolution near-field structure (super-RENS) technology is one of the promising technologies for a sub-terabyte optical storage of around 200 GB capacity. We confirmed the possibility of super-RENS read only memory (ROM) media with multilayer structure using the combination of the PtOx, AgInSbTe, ZnS-SiO2 films. The carrier to noise ratio (CNR) and readout cyclability was measured for the super-RENS ROM disc in both the red laser and the blue laser systems.

  18. Super Bubble and For Fingers Only.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Lloyd H.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Presents two activities, the "Super Bubble" that challenges students and parents to blow the biggest bubbles and "For Fingers Only" that asks them to duplicate a pattern of blocks using only the sense of touch. (JRH)

  19. Super Capacitor Development At NASA MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, David K.

    2000-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation outlines super capacitor development at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The concept, proof of concept testing and the test set-ups are described. An overview of super capacitor classification is shown and several types of capacitors are detailed: Ni-C chemical double layer (CDL), Ru-Oxide pseudo-cap, and a Ru-Oxide 2 F 30 V capacitor.

  20. On Bayesian adaptive video super resolution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ce; Sun, Deqing

    2014-02-01

    Although multiframe super resolution has been extensively studied in past decades, super resolving real-world video sequences still remains challenging. In existing systems, either the motion models are oversimplified or important factors such as blur kernel and noise level are assumed to be known. Such models cannot capture the intrinsic characteristics that may differ from one sequence to another. In this paper, we propose a Bayesian approach to adaptive video super resolution via simultaneously estimating underlying motion, blur kernel, and noise level while reconstructing the original high-resolution frames. As a result, our system not only produces very promising super resolution results outperforming the state of the art, but also adapts to a variety of noise levels and blur kernels. To further analyze the effect of noise and blur kernel, we perform a two-step analysis using the Cramer-Rao bounds. We study how blur kernel and noise influence motion estimation with aliasing signals, how noise affects super resolution with perfect motion, and finally how blur kernel and noise influence super resolution with unknown motion. Our analysis results confirm empirical observations, in particular that an intermediate size blur kernel achieves the optimal image reconstruction results.

  1. Super Typhoon Halong off Taiwan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On July 14, 2002, Super Typhoon Halong was east of Taiwan (left edge) in the western Pacific Ocean. At the time this image was taken the storm was a Category 4 hurricane, with maximum sustained winds of 115 knots (132 miles per hour), but as recently as July 12, winds were at 135 knots (155 miles per hour). Halong has moved northwards and pounded Okinawa, Japan, with heavy rain and high winds, just days after tropical Storm Chataan hit the country, creating flooding and killing several people. The storm is expected to be a continuing threat on Monday and Tuesday. This image was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra satellite on July 14, 2002. Please note that the high-resolution scene provided here is 500 meters per pixel. For a copy of the scene at the sensor's fullest resolution, visit the MODIS Rapid Response Image Gallery. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  2. SUPER-B LATTICE STUDIES

    SciTech Connect

    Biagini, M.E.; Raimondi, P.; Piminov, P.; Sinyatkin, S.; Nosochkov, Y.; Wittmer, W.; /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    The SuperB asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} collider is designed for 10{sup 36} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} luminosity and beam energies of 6.7 and 4.18 GeV for e{sup +} and e{sup -} respectively. The High and Low Energy Rings (HER and LER) have one Interaction Point (IP) with 66 mrad crossing angle. The 1258 m rings fit to the INFN-LNF site at Frascati. The ring emittance is minimized for the high luminosity. The Final Focus (FF) chromaticity correction is optimized for maximum transverse acceptance and energy bandwidth. Included Crab Waist sextupoles suppress betatron resonances induced in the collisions with a large Piwinski angle. The LER Spin Rotator sections provide longitudinally polarized electron beam at the IP. The lattice is flexible for tuning the machine parameters and compatible with reusing the PEP-II magnets, RF cavities and other components. Details of the lattice design are presented.

  3. Super-B Project Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Biagini, M.E.; Boni, R.; Boscolo, M.; Demma, T.; Drago, A.; Guiducci, S.; Raimondi, P.; Tomassini, S.; Zobov, M.; Bertsche, K.; Donald, M.; Nosochkov, Y.; Novokhatski, A.; Seeman, J.; Sullivan, M.; Yocky, G.; Wienands, U.; Wittmer, W.; Koop, I.; Levichev, E.; Nikitin, S.; /Novosibirsk, IYF /KEK, Tsukuba /Pisa U. /CERN

    2010-08-26

    The SuperB project aims at the construction of an asymmetric very high luminosity B-Factory on the Frascati/Tor Vergata (Italy) area, providing a uniquely sensitive probe of New Physics in the flavour sector of the Standard Model. The luminosity goal of 10{sup 36} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} can be reached with a new collision scheme with 'large Piwinski angle' (LPA) and the use of 'crab waist sextupoles' (CW). A LPA&CW Interaction Region (IR) has been successfully tested at the DA{Phi}NE {Phi}-Factory at LNF-Frascati in 2008. The LPA&CW scheme, together with very low {beta}*, will allow for operation with relatively low beam currents and reasonable bunch length, comparable to those of PEP-II and KEKB. In the High Energy Ring (HER), two spin rotators will bring longitudinally polarized beams into collision at the IP. The lattice has been designed with a very low intrinsic emittance and is quite compact, less than 2 km long. The tight focusing requires the final doublet quadrupoles to be very close to the IP and very compact. A Conceptual Design Report was published in March 2007, and beam dynamics and collective effects R&D studies are in progress in order to publish a Technical Design Report by the end of 2010.

  4. dbSUPER: a database of super-enhancers in mouse and human genome

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Aziz; Zhang, Xuegong

    2016-01-01

    Super-enhancers are clusters of transcriptional enhancers that drive cell-type-specific gene expression and are crucial to cell identity. Many disease-associated sequence variations are enriched in super-enhancer regions of disease-relevant cell types. Thus, super-enhancers can be used as potential biomarkers for disease diagnosis and therapeutics. Current studies have identified super-enhancers in more than 100 cell types and demonstrated their functional importance. However, a centralized resource to integrate all these findings is not currently available. We developed dbSUPER (http://bioinfo.au.tsinghua.edu.cn/dbsuper/), the first integrated and interactive database of super-enhancers, with the primary goal of providing a resource for assistance in further studies related to transcriptional control of cell identity and disease. dbSUPER provides a responsive and user-friendly web interface to facilitate efficient and comprehensive search and browsing. The data can be easily sent to Galaxy instances, GREAT and Cistrome web-servers for downstream analysis, and can also be visualized in the UCSC genome browser where custom tracks can be added automatically. The data can be downloaded and exported in variety of formats. Furthermore, dbSUPER lists genes associated with super-enhancers and also links to external databases such as GeneCards, UniProt and Entrez. dbSUPER also provides an overlap analysis tool to annotate user-defined regions. We believe dbSUPER is a valuable resource for the biology and genetic research communities. PMID:26438538

  5. Super Saver Investigators: An Elementary, Interdisciplinary, Environmental Studies Activity Guidebook about Solid Waste and Natural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landis, David; And Others

    This is an elementary, interdisciplinary, environmental studies activity guidebook about solid waste and natural resources. "Super Saver Investigators" what solid waste is, where it is generated, how we manage it and could manage it better, and the consequence of mismanagement. It contains many hands-on, skill enhancing activities for elementary…

  6. Are Articular Cartilage Lesions and Meniscus Tears Predictive of IKDC, KOOS, and Marx Activity Level Outcomes after ACL Reconstruction? A 6-Year Multicenter Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Charles L.; Huston, Laura J.; Dunn, Warren R.; Reinke, Emily K.; Nwosu, Samuel K.; Parker, Richard D.; Wright, Rick W.; Kaeding, Christopher C.; Marx, Robert G.; Amendola, Annunziata; McCarty, Eric C.; Wolf, Brian R.; Harrell, Frank E.; Spindler, Kurt P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Identifying risk factors for inferior outcomes after ACL reconstruction (ACLR) is important for prognosis and future treatment. The goal of this study was to determine whether articular cartilage and meniscal variables are predictive of 3 validated sports outcome instruments after ACLR. Hypothesis/Purpose We hypothesized that articular cartilage lesions and meniscus tears/treatment would be predictors of the IKDC, KOOS (all 5 subscales), and Marx activity level at 6 years following ACLR. Study Design Prospective cohort, Level 1 Methods Between 2002 and 2004, 1512 ACLR subjects were prospectively enrolled and followed longitudinally with the IKDC, KOOS, and Marx activity score completed at entry, 2, and 6 years. A logistic regression model was built incorporating variables from patient demographics, surgical technique, articular cartilage injuries, and meniscus tears/treatment to determine the predictors (risk factors) of IKDC, KOOS, and Marx at 6 years. Results We completed a minimum follow-up on 86% (1307/1512) of our cohort at 6 years. The cohort was 56% male, had a median age of 23 years at the time of enrollment, with 76% reporting a non-contact injury mechanism. Incidence of concomitant pathology at the time of surgery consisted of the following: articular cartilage (medial femoral condyle [MFC]-25%, lateral femoral condyle [LFC]-20%, medial tibial plateau [MTP]-6%, lateral tibial plateau [LTP]-12%, patella-20%, trochlear-9%) and meniscal (medial-38%, lateral-46%). Both articular cartilage lesions and meniscal tears were significant predictors of 6-year outcomes on IKDC and KOOS. Grade 3 or 4 articular cartilage lesions (excluding patella) significantly reduced IKDC and KOOS scores at 6 years. IKDC demonstrated worse outcomes with the presence of a grade 3-4 chondral lesion on the MFC, MTP, and LFC. Likewise, KOOS was negatively affected by cartilage injury. The sole significant predictor of reduced Marx activity was the presence of a grade 4 lesion

  7. Searching for New Physics at SuperB - The Super Flavor Factory

    ScienceCinema

    Hiltin, David [Caltech, Pasadena, California, United States

    2016-07-12

    SuperB – a Super Flavor Factory, an electron-positron collider with a luminosity of 1036 cm-2 s-1, can conduct conduct unique sensitive searches for New Physics effects such as lepton flavor violation and new sources of CP violation in the quark and lepton sectors.

  8. SIMcheck: a Toolbox for Successful Super-resolution Structured Illumination Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ball, Graeme; Demmerle, Justin; Kaufmann, Rainer; Davis, Ilan; Dobbie, Ian M; Schermelleh, Lothar

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM) is a versatile and accessible method for super-resolution fluorescence imaging, but generating high-quality data is challenging, particularly for non-specialist users. We present SIMcheck, a suite of ImageJ plugins enabling users to identify and avoid common problems with 3D-SIM data, and assess resolution and data quality through objective control parameters. Additionally, SIMcheck provides advanced calibration tools and utilities for common image processing tasks. This open-source software is applicable to all commercial and custom platforms, and will promote routine application of super-resolution SIM imaging in cell biology.

  9. SIMcheck: a Toolbox for Successful Super-resolution Structured Illumination Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Graeme; Demmerle, Justin; Kaufmann, Rainer; Davis, Ilan; Dobbie, Ian M.; Schermelleh, Lothar

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM) is a versatile and accessible method for super-resolution fluorescence imaging, but generating high-quality data is challenging, particularly for non-specialist users. We present SIMcheck, a suite of ImageJ plugins enabling users to identify and avoid common problems with 3D-SIM data, and assess resolution and data quality through objective control parameters. Additionally, SIMcheck provides advanced calibration tools and utilities for common image processing tasks. This open-source software is applicable to all commercial and custom platforms, and will promote routine application of super-resolution SIM imaging in cell biology. PMID:26525406

  10. A super-resolution algorithm for enhancement of flash lidar data: flight test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulyshev, Alexander; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Roback, Eric; Reisse, Robert

    2013-03-01

    This paper describes the results of a 3D super-resolution algorithm applied to the range data obtained from a recent Flash Lidar helicopter flight test. The flight test was conducted by the NASA's Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) project over a simulated lunar terrain facility at NASA Kennedy Space Center. ALHAT is developing the technology for safe autonomous landing on the surface of celestial bodies: Moon, Mars, asteroids. One of the test objectives was to verify the ability of 3D super-resolution technique to generate high resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) and to determine time resolved relative positions and orientations of the vehicle. 3D super-resolution algorithm was developed earlier and tested in computational modeling, and laboratory experiments, and in a few dynamic experiments using a moving truck. Prior to the helicopter flight test campaign, a 100mX100m hazard field was constructed having most of the relevant extraterrestrial hazard: slopes, rocks, and craters with different sizes. Data were collected during the flight and then processed by the super-resolution code. The detailed DEM of the hazard field was constructed using independent measurement to be used for comparison. ALHAT navigation system data were used to verify abilities of super-resolution method to provide accurate relative navigation information. Namely, the 6 degree of freedom state vector of the instrument as a function of time was restored from super-resolution data. The results of comparisons show that the super-resolution method can construct high quality DEMs and allows for identifying hazards like rocks and craters within the accordance of ALHAT requirements.

  11. A Super-Resolution Algorithm for Enhancement of FLASH LIDAR Data: Flight Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulyshev, Alexander; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Roback, Eric; Reisse Robert

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a 3D super-resolution algorithm applied to the range data obtained from a recent Flash Lidar helicopter flight test. The flight test was conducted by the NASA's Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) project over a simulated lunar terrain facility at NASA Kennedy Space Center. ALHAT is developing the technology for safe autonomous landing on the surface of celestial bodies: Moon, Mars, asteroids. One of the test objectives was to verify the ability of 3D super-resolution technique to generate high resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) and to determine time resolved relative positions and orientations of the vehicle. 3D super-resolution algorithm was developed earlier and tested in computational modeling, and laboratory experiments, and in a few dynamic experiments using a moving truck. Prior to the helicopter flight test campaign, a 100mX100m hazard field was constructed having most of the relevant extraterrestrial hazard: slopes, rocks, and craters with different sizes. Data were collected during the flight and then processed by the super-resolution code. The detailed DEM of the hazard field was constructed using independent measurement to be used for comparison. ALHAT navigation system data were used to verify abilities of super-resolution method to provide accurate relative navigation information. Namely, the 6 degree of freedom state vector of the instrument as a function of time was restored from super-resolution data. The results of comparisons show that the super-resolution method can construct high quality DEMs and allows for identifying hazards like rocks and craters within the accordance of ALHAT requirements.

  12. Wavelength scanning achieves pixel super-resolution in holographic on-chip microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Wei; Göröcs, Zoltan; Zhang, Yibo; Feizi, Alborz; Greenbaum, Alon; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2016-03-01

    Lensfree holographic on-chip imaging is a potent solution for high-resolution and field-portable bright-field imaging over a wide field-of-view. Previous lensfree imaging approaches utilize a pixel super-resolution technique, which relies on sub-pixel lateral displacements between the lensfree diffraction patterns and the image sensor's pixel-array, to achieve sub-micron resolution under unit magnification using state-of-the-art CMOS imager chips, commonly used in e.g., mobile-phones. Here we report, for the first time, a wavelength scanning based pixel super-resolution technique in lensfree holographic imaging. We developed an iterative super-resolution algorithm, which generates high-resolution reconstructions of the specimen from low-resolution (i.e., under-sampled) diffraction patterns recorded at multiple wavelengths within a narrow spectral range (e.g., 10-30 nm). Compared with lateral shift-based pixel super-resolution, this wavelength scanning approach does not require any physical shifts in the imaging setup, and the resolution improvement is uniform in all directions across the sensor-array. Our wavelength scanning super-resolution approach can also be integrated with multi-height and/or multi-angle on-chip imaging techniques to obtain even higher resolution reconstructions. For example, using wavelength scanning together with multi-angle illumination, we achieved a halfpitch resolution of 250 nm, corresponding to a numerical aperture of 1. In addition to pixel super-resolution, the small scanning steps in wavelength also enable us to robustly unwrap phase, revealing the specimen's optical path length in our reconstructed images. We believe that this new wavelength scanning based pixel super-resolution approach can provide competitive microscopy solutions for high-resolution and field-portable imaging needs, potentially impacting tele-pathology applications in resource-limited-settings.

  13. Breeding Super-Earths and Birthing Super-Puffs in Transitional Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eve J.; Chiang, Eugene

    2015-12-01

    The riddle posed by super-Earths (1--4 Earth radii, 2--20 Earth masses) is that they are not Jupiters: their core masses are large enough to trigger runaway gas accretion, yet somehow super-Earths accreted atmospheres that weigh only a few percent of their total mass. We show that this puzzle is solved if super-Earthsformed late, as the last vestiges of their parent gas disks were about to clear. This scenario would seem to present fine-tuning problems, but we show that there are none. Ambient gas densities can span many orders of magnitude, and super-Earths can robustly emerge with percent-by-weight atmospheres after ~0.1--1 Myr. We propose that 1) close-in super-Earths form in situ, because their cores necessarily coagulate in gas-poor environments—gas dynamical friction must be weakened sufficiently to allow constituent protocores to cross orbits and merge; 2) super- Earths acquire their atmospheres from ambient wisps of gas that are supplied from a diffusing outer disk. The formation environment is reminiscent of the largely evacuated but still accreting inner cavities of transitional protoplanetary disks. We also 3) address the inverse problem presented by super-puffs: an uncommon class of short- period planets seemingly too voluminous for their small masses (4--10 Earth radii, 2--6 Earth masses). Super-puffs most easily acquire their thick atmospheres as dust-free, rapidly cooling worlds outside ~1 AU where nebular gas is colder, less dense, and therefore less opaque. Unlike super-Earths which can form in situ, super-puffs probably migrated in to their current orbits; they are expected to form the outer links of mean-motion resonant chains, and to exhibit greater water content.

  14. Demosaiced pixel super-resolution for multiplexed holographic color imaging.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yichen; Zhang, Yibo; Luo, Wei; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2016-01-01

    To synthesize a holographic color image, one can sequentially take three holograms at different wavelengths, e.g., at red (R), green (G) and blue (B) parts of the spectrum, and digitally merge them. To speed up the imaging process by a factor of three, a Bayer color sensor-chip can also be used to demultiplex three wavelengths that simultaneously illuminate the sample and digitally retrieve individual set of holograms using the known transmission spectra of the Bayer color filters. However, because the pixels of different channels (R, G, B) on a Bayer color sensor are not at the same physical location, conventional demosaicing techniques generate color artifacts in holographic imaging using simultaneous multi-wavelength illumination. Here we demonstrate that pixel super-resolution can be merged into the color de-multiplexing process to significantly suppress the artifacts in wavelength-multiplexed holographic color imaging. This new approach, termed Demosaiced Pixel Super-Resolution (D-PSR), generates color images that are similar in performance to sequential illumination at three wavelengths, and therefore improves the speed of holographic color imaging by 3-fold. D-PSR method is broadly applicable to holographic microscopy applications, where high-resolution imaging and multi-wavelength illumination are desired. PMID:27353242

  15. Demosaiced pixel super-resolution for multiplexed holographic color imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yichen; Zhang, Yibo; Luo, Wei; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2016-01-01

    To synthesize a holographic color image, one can sequentially take three holograms at different wavelengths, e.g., at red (R), green (G) and blue (B) parts of the spectrum, and digitally merge them. To speed up the imaging process by a factor of three, a Bayer color sensor-chip can also be used to demultiplex three wavelengths that simultaneously illuminate the sample and digitally retrieve individual set of holograms using the known transmission spectra of the Bayer color filters. However, because the pixels of different channels (R, G, B) on a Bayer color sensor are not at the same physical location, conventional demosaicing techniques generate color artifacts in holographic imaging using simultaneous multi-wavelength illumination. Here we demonstrate that pixel super-resolution can be merged into the color de-multiplexing process to significantly suppress the artifacts in wavelength-multiplexed holographic color imaging. This new approach, termed Demosaiced Pixel Super-Resolution (D-PSR), generates color images that are similar in performance to sequential illumination at three wavelengths, and therefore improves the speed of holographic color imaging by 3-fold. D-PSR method is broadly applicable to holographic microscopy applications, where high-resolution imaging and multi-wavelength illumination are desired. PMID:27353242

  16. Demosaiced pixel super-resolution for multiplexed holographic color imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yichen; Zhang, Yibo; Luo, Wei; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2016-06-01

    To synthesize a holographic color image, one can sequentially take three holograms at different wavelengths, e.g., at red (R), green (G) and blue (B) parts of the spectrum, and digitally merge them. To speed up the imaging process by a factor of three, a Bayer color sensor-chip can also be used to demultiplex three wavelengths that simultaneously illuminate the sample and digitally retrieve individual set of holograms using the known transmission spectra of the Bayer color filters. However, because the pixels of different channels (R, G, B) on a Bayer color sensor are not at the same physical location, conventional demosaicing techniques generate color artifacts in holographic imaging using simultaneous multi-wavelength illumination. Here we demonstrate that pixel super-resolution can be merged into the color de-multiplexing process to significantly suppress the artifacts in wavelength-multiplexed holographic color imaging. This new approach, termed Demosaiced Pixel Super-Resolution (D-PSR), generates color images that are similar in performance to sequential illumination at three wavelengths, and therefore improves the speed of holographic color imaging by 3-fold. D-PSR method is broadly applicable to holographic microscopy applications, where high-resolution imaging and multi-wavelength illumination are desired.

  17. Demosaiced pixel super-resolution for multiplexed holographic color imaging.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yichen; Zhang, Yibo; Luo, Wei; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2016-06-29

    To synthesize a holographic color image, one can sequentially take three holograms at different wavelengths, e.g., at red (R), green (G) and blue (B) parts of the spectrum, and digitally merge them. To speed up the imaging process by a factor of three, a Bayer color sensor-chip can also be used to demultiplex three wavelengths that simultaneously illuminate the sample and digitally retrieve individual set of holograms using the known transmission spectra of the Bayer color filters. However, because the pixels of different channels (R, G, B) on a Bayer color sensor are not at the same physical location, conventional demosaicing techniques generate color artifacts in holographic imaging using simultaneous multi-wavelength illumination. Here we demonstrate that pixel super-resolution can be merged into the color de-multiplexing process to significantly suppress the artifacts in wavelength-multiplexed holographic color imaging. This new approach, termed Demosaiced Pixel Super-Resolution (D-PSR), generates color images that are similar in performance to sequential illumination at three wavelengths, and therefore improves the speed of holographic color imaging by 3-fold. D-PSR method is broadly applicable to holographic microscopy applications, where high-resolution imaging and multi-wavelength illumination are desired.

  18. Design and development of a prototype 25 kV, 10 A long pulse Marx modulator for high power klystron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Mahesh; Shrivastava, Purushottam

    2016-02-01

    Research, design, and development of high average power modulators for the proposed Indian Spallation Neutron Source are in progress at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology. With this objective, a prototype of 25 kV, 10 A, 1 ms Marx modulator at repetition rate of 1 Hz has been designed and developed which serves as a proof of principle and technology assessment stage for further development of high repetition rate high voltage high average power modulators. Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) based modules of 2.8 kV switching capability have been used as main modules. The modulator had 8.2% droop in output voltage pulse without any droop compensation circuit. A droop compensation involving 15 corrector modules has been used to reduce the droop up to 1%. We have used IGBT based 250 V switches to realize the corrector module. A microcontroller based control unit was designed and developed for triggering the main and corrector modules. With this control unit, programmable output pulse has been achieved. Electrical isolation between high voltage circuits and control circuit has been achieved by the use of fiber optic based control signal transmission. Output pulses of 1 ms pulse width, 800 ns rise time, and 5 μs fall time have been achieved. The modulator has advantages of modular design, adjustable pulse width, adjustable rise time, and fall time.

  19. Concept of Operation for Tactical Separation Assurance in Super-Density Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denery, Dallas G.; Tang, Huabin; Robinson, John E.

    2010-01-01

    The Airspace Systems Program is committed to supporting the Next Generation Air Transportation System through research and development in select areas. One such area, referred to as Super Density Operations, is conducting research to develop technologies that will safely increase the throughput in busy terminal area environments. The purpose of this document is to develop a Concept of Operations for the Tactical Separation Assurance function, one of the functions included in Super Density Operations. A functional description of the technologies required for Super Density Operations is presented followed by a more detail description of the Tactical Separation Assurance function. Two story boards are presented to illustrate the operational use of the Tactical Separation Assurance function under different situations. The last section proposes a pathway to implementing the Tactical Separation Assurance function.

  20. SuperLFV: An SLHA tool for lepton flavor violating observables in supersymmetric models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Brandon

    2014-02-01

    We introduce SuperLFV, a numerical tool for calculating low-energy observables that exhibit charged lepton flavor violation (LFV) in the context of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM). As the Large Hadron Collider and MEG, a dedicated μ+→e+γ experiment, are presently acquiring data, there is need for tools that provide rapid discrimination of models that exhibit LFV. SuperLFV accepts a spectrum file compliant with the SUSY Les Houches Accord (SLHA), containing the MSSM couplings and masses with complex phases at the supersymmetry breaking scale. In this manner, SuperLFV is compatible with but divorced from existing SLHA spectrum calculators that provide the low energy spectrum. Hence, input spectra are not confined to the LFV sources provided by established SLHA spectrum calculators. Input spectra may be generated by personal code or by hand, allowing for arbitrary models not supported by existing spectrum calculators.

  1. Non-diffracting super-airy beam with intensified main lobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Brijesh Kumar; Remez, Roei; Tsur, Yuval; Arie, Ady

    2016-04-01

    We study, theoretically and experimentally, the concept of non-diffracting super-Airy beam, where the main lobe of the beam is observed to be nearly half in size and with increased intensity compared to the main lobe of the Airy beam. However, reducing the main lobe size does not affect the transverse acceleration and non-spreading features of the beam. Furthermore, we observed that during propagation, super Airy main lobe shows faster self-reconstruction after an obstruction than the Airy main lobe. Therefore, we envision that specifically, a beam with a smaller lobe size and higher intensity can out-perform the Airy beam for applications such as nonlinear optics, curved plasma generation, laser micromachining, and micro- particle manipulation, while the faster reconstruction property of the super-Airy main lobe can surpass the Airy beam in applications of scattering and turbulent media.

  2. Infrared super-resolution imaging method based on retina micro-motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Xiubao; Gao, Hang; Sun, Yicheng; Chen, Qian; Gu, Guohua

    2013-09-01

    With the wide application of infrared focal plane arrays (IRFPA), military, aerospace, public security and other applications have higher and higher requirements on the spatial resolution of infrared images. However, traditional super-resolution imaging methods have increasingly unable to meet this requirement in technology. In this paper, we adopt the achievement that the human retina micro-motion is the important reason why the human has the hyperacuity ability. Based on the achievement, we bring forward an infrared super-resolution imaging method based on retina micro-motion. In the method, we use the piezoelectric ceramic equipment to control the infrared detector moving variably within a plane parallel to the focal plane. The motion direction is toward each other into a direction of 90°. In the four directions of the movement, we get four sub-images and generate a high spatial resolution infrared image by image interpolation method. In the process of the shifting movement of the detector, we set the threshold of the detector response and record the response time difference when adjacent pixel responses are up to the threshold. By the method, we get the object's edges, enhance them in the high resolution infrared image and get the super-resolution infrared image. The experimental results show that our proposed super-resolution imaging methods can improve the spatial resolution of the infrared image effectively. The method will offer a new idea for the super-resolution reconstruction of infrared images.

  3. Super-diffusion versus competitive advection processes on the solar surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Moro, Dario; Berrilli, Francesco; Giovannelli, Luca; Scardigli, Stefano; Giannattasio, Fabio; Consolini, Giuseppe; Lepreti, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    From the analysis of the displacement spectrum of magnetic element, it has recently been agreed that a regime of super-diffusivity dominates the solar surface. Quite habitually this result is discussed in the framework of fully developed turbulence. However, the debate whether the super-diffusivity is generated by a turbulent dispersion process, by the advection due to the convective pattern, or even by another process is still open, as is the question of the amount of diffusivity at the scales relevant to the local dynamo process. To understand how such peculiar diffusion in the solar atmosphere takes place, we compared the results from two different data sets (ground-based and space-borne) and confronted those results also to simulation of passive tracers advection. The displacement spectra of the magnetic elements obtained by the data sets are consistent in retrieving a super-diffusive regime for the solar photosphere, but also the simulation shows a super-diffusive displacement spectrum: its competitive advection process can reproduce the signature of super-diffusion. Therefore, it is not necessary to hypothesize a totally developed turbulence regime to explain the motion of the magnetic elements on the solar surface.

  4. Fast compressed sensing analysis for super-resolution imaging using L1-homotopy.

    PubMed

    Babcock, Hazen P; Moffitt, Jeffrey R; Cao, Yunlong; Zhuang, Xiaowei

    2013-11-18

    In super-resolution imaging techniques based on single-molecule switching and localization, the time to acquire a super-resolution image is limited by the maximum density of fluorescent emitters that can be accurately localized per imaging frame. In order to increase the imaging rate, several methods have been recently developed to analyze images with higher emitter densities. One powerful approach uses methods based on compressed sensing to increase the analyzable emitter density per imaging frame by several-fold compared to other reported approaches. However, the computational cost of this approach, which uses interior point methods, is high, and analysis of a typical 40 µm x 40 µm field-of-view super-resolution movie requires thousands of hours on a high-end desktop personal computer. Here, we demonstrate an alternative compressed-sensing algorithm, L1-Homotopy (L1H), which can generate super-resolution image reconstructions that are essentially identical to those derived using interior point methods in one to two orders of magnitude less time depending on the emitter density. Moreover, for an experimental data set with varying emitter density, L1H analysis is ~300-fold faster than interior point methods. This drastic reduction in computational time should allow the compressed sensing approach to be routinely applied to super-resolution image analysis.

  5. Comparative CFD Investigation on the Performance of a New Family of Super-Cavitating Hydrofoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brizzolara, S.; Bonfiglio, L.

    2015-12-01

    We present a CFD characterization of a new type of super-cavitating hydrofoil section designed to have optimal performance both in super-cavitating conditions and in sub-cavitating conditions (including transitional regime). The basic concepts of the new profile family are first introduced. Lift, drag and cavity shapes at different cavitation numbers are calculated for a new foil and compared with those of conventional sub-cavitating and super-cavitating profiles. Numerical calculations confirm the superior characteristics of the new hydrofoil family, which is able to attain high lift and efficiency both in sub-cavitating and super-cavitating conditions. Numerical calculations are based on a multi-phase fully turbulent URANSE solver with a bubble dynamic cavitation model to follow the generation and evaporation of the vapor phase. The new profile family, initially devised for ultra-high speed hydrofoil crafts, may result useful for diverse applications such as super-cavitating or surface-piercing propellers or high-speed sailing boats.

  6. Four-loop dressing phase of N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory

    SciTech Connect

    Beisert, N.; McLoughlin, T.; Roiban, R.

    2007-08-15

    We compute the dilatation generator in the su(2) sector of planar N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory at four loops. We use the known world-sheet scattering matrix to constrain the structure of the generator. The remaining few coefficients can be computed directly from Feynman diagrams. This allows us to confirm previous conjectures for the leading contribution to the dressing phase which is proportional to {zeta}(3)

  7. Assessing resolution in super-resolution imaging.

    PubMed

    Demmerle, Justin; Wegel, Eva; Schermelleh, Lothar; Dobbie, Ian M

    2015-10-15

    Resolution is a central concept in all imaging fields, and particularly in optical microscopy, but it can be easily misinterpreted. The mathematical definition of optical resolution was codified by Abbe, and practically defined by the Rayleigh Criterion in the late 19th century. The limit of conventional resolution was also achieved in this period, and it was thought that fundamental constraints of physics prevented further increases in resolution. With the recent development of a range of super-resolution techniques, it is necessary to revisit the concept of optical resolution. Fundamental differences in super-resolution modalities mean that resolution is not a directly transferrable metric between techniques. This article considers the issues in resolution raised by these new technologies, and presents approaches for comparing resolution between different super-resolution methods.

  8. Earths, Super-Earths, and Jupiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Eugene; Lee, Eve J.

    2015-12-01

    We review and add to the theory of how planets acquire atmospheres from parent circumstellar disks. We derive (in real time) a simple and general analytic expression for how a planet's atmosphere grows with time, as a function of the underlying core mass and nebular conditions, including the gas metallicity. Planets accrete as much gas as can cool: an atmosphere's doubling time is given by its Kelvin-Helmholtz time. The theory can be applied in any number of settings --- gas-rich vs. gas-poor nebulae; dusty vs. dust-free atmospheres; close-in vs. far-out distances --- and is confirmed against detailed numerical models for objects ranging in mass from Mars (0.1 Mearth) to the most extreme super Earths (10--20 Mearth). We explain why heating from planetesimal accretion, commonly invoked in models of core accretion, is irrelevant. This talk sets the stage for another presentation, "Breeding Super-Earths and Birthing Super-Puffs".

  9. Super-sampling SART with ordered subsets.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Michael; Frangakis, Achilleas S

    2014-11-01

    In tomography, the quality of the reconstruction is essential because the complete cascade of the subsequent analysis is based on it. To date, weighted back-projection (WBP) has been the most commonly used technique due to its versatility and performance in sub-tomogram averaging. Here we present super-sampling SART that is based on the simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique. While algebraic reconstruction techniques typically produce better contrast and lately showed a significant improvement in terms of processing speed, sub-tomogram averages derived from those reconstructions were inferior in resolution compared to those derived from WBP data. Super-sampling SART, however, outperforms both in term of contrast and the resolution achieved in sub-tomogram averaging several other tested methods and in particular WBP. The main feature of super-sampling SART, as the name implies, is the super-sampling option - by which parameter-based up-sampling and down-sampling are used to reduce artifacts. In particular, the aliasing that is omnipresent in the reconstruction can be practically eliminated without a significant increase in the computational time. Furthermore, super-sampling SART reaches convergence within a single iteration, making the processing time comparable to WBP, and eliminating the ambiguity of parameter-controlled convergence times. We find that grouping of projections increases the contrast, while when projections are used individually the resolution can be maximized. Using sub-tomogram averaging of ribosomes as a test case, we show that super-sampling SART achieves equal or better sub-tomogram averaging results than WBP, which is of particular importance in cryo-electron tomography.

  10. Super-ion inspired colorful hybrid perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Hong; Jena, Puru

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites, with the general formula AMX3 (A =cation; M =metal; X =halogen), have emerged as a new generation of efficient yet inexpensive photovoltaic cells. These materials show record high conversion efficiency as solar cells and have excellent light-emission properties that can also be used in other optoelectronic devices. They can be processed easily from solution with optic band gaps, tunable from visible to infrared regions and are considered to be ``the next big thing in photovoltaics''. However, several important issues such as the relationship between their photoexcitation properties and the chemical structures, their stability under ambient conditions, as well as the possibility to invent their environment-friendly analogues remain unsolved. In this work, our aim is not only to gain a fundamental understanding of the structure-property relationship of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites, but also to rationally design a new class of hybrid perovskites that have desired electronic band gaps for solar cell applications. This is accomplished by using super-ions that can mimic the properties of elementary alkali and halogen ions as building blocks. These super-ions include superalkalis - CH3NH3+,HC(NH2) 2 + , and Li3O+ as cations and hyperhalogens - Ge(BH4) 3 - and Sn(BH4) 3 - as anions. The results are compared with perovskites composed of GeCl3-,GeBr3-,GeI3-,SnCl3-,SnBr3-,and SnI3-superhalogen anions. We develop a strategy to assemble these super-ions to form environment-friendly solar cells with adjustable band gaps (covering the visible range and beyond) and with improved resistance to moisture.

  11. Super-resolution optical microscopy: multiple choices.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bo

    2010-02-01

    The recent invention of super-resolution optical microscopy enables the visualization of fine features in biological samples with unprecedented clarity. It creates numerous opportunities in biology because vast amount of previously obscured subcellular processes now can be directly observed. Rapid development in this field in the past two years offers many imaging modalities that address different needs but they also complicates the choice of the 'perfect' method for answering a specific question. Here I will briefly describe the principles of super-resolution optical microscopy techniques and then focus on comparing their characteristics in various aspects of practical applications. PMID:19897404

  12. The current status of super computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    In this paper, commercially available super computers are surveyed. Computer performance in general is limited by circuit speeds and physical size. Assuming the use of the fastest technology, super computers typically use parallelism in the form of either vector processing or array processing to obtain performance. The Burroughs Scientific Processor is an array computer with 16 separate processors, the Cray-1 and CDC STAR-100 are vector processors, the Goodyear Aerospace STARAN is an array processor with up to 8192 single bit processors, and the Systems Development Corporation PEPE is a collection of up to 288 separate processors.

  13. Super-collimation by axisymmetric photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Purlys, V.; Gailevičius, D.; Peckus, M.; Gadonas, R.; Maigyte, L.; Staliunas, K.

    2014-06-02

    We propose and experimentally show the mechanism of beam super-collimation by axisymmetric photonic crystals, specifically by periodic (in propagation direction) structure of layers of concentric rings. The physical mechanism behind the effect is an inverse scattering cascade of diffracted wave components back into on- and near-axis angular field components, resulting in substantial enhancement of intensity of these components. We explore the super-collimation by numerical calculations and prove it experimentally. We demonstrate experimentally the axial field enhancement up to 7 times in terms of field intensity.

  14. The SuperCDMS SNOLAB Detector Tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aramaki, Tsuguo

    2016-08-01

    The SuperCDMS collaboration is moving forward with the design and construction of SuperCDMS SNOLAB, where the initial deployment will include ˜ 30 kg of Ge and ˜ 5 kg of Si detectors. Here, we will discuss the associated cryogenic cold hardware required for the detector readout. The phonon signals will be read out with superconducting quantum interference device arrays and the ionization signals will use high electron mobility transistor amplifiers operating at 4 K. A number of design challenges exist regarding the required wiring complex impedance, noise pickup, vibration, and thermal isolation. Our progress to date will be presented.

  15. The Weighted Super Bergman Kernels Over the Supermatrix Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhiming

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is threefold. Firstly, using Howe duality for , we obtain integral formulas of the super Schur functions with respect to the super standard Gaussian distributions. Secondly, we give explicit expressions of the super Szegö kernels and the weighted super Bergman kernels for the Cartan superdomains of type I. Thirdly, combining these results, we obtain duality relations of integrals over the unitary groups and the Cartan superdomains, and the marginal distributions of the weighted measure.

  16. Phase Change Super Resolution near Field Structure ROM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyunki; Hwang, Inoh; Kim, Jooho; Park, Changmin; Ro, Myongdo; Lee, Jinkyung; Jung, Moonil; Park, Insik

    2005-05-01

    We confirmed a super resolution phenomenon and a typical super resolution near field structure threshold phenomenon in a read only memory (ROM)-type sample disk. We found that this super resolution phenomenon originates from a phase-change layer and is closely related to the thermal properties of the super resolution layer. We also improved the readout stability using a co-sputtered layer with phase change (GST) and dielectric materials (ZnS-SiO2).

  17. ON THE VIGOR OF MANTLE CONVECTION IN SUPER-EARTHS

    SciTech Connect

    Miyagoshi, Takehiro; Tachinami, Chihiro; Kameyama, Masanori; Ogawa, Masaki E-mail: ctchnm.geo@gmail.com E-mail: cmaogawa@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2014-01-01

    Numerical models are presented to clarify how adiabatic compression affects thermal convection in the mantle of super-Earths ten times the Earth's mass. The viscosity strongly depends on temperature, and the Rayleigh number is much higher than that of the Earth's mantle. The strong effect of adiabatic compression reduces the activity of mantle convection; hot plumes ascending from the bottom of the mantle lose their thermal buoyancy in the middle of the mantle owing to adiabatic decompression, and do not reach the surface. A thick lithosphere, as thick as 0.1 times the depth of the mantle, develops along the surface boundary, and the efficiency of convective heat transport measured by the Nusselt number is reduced by a factor of about four compared with the Nusselt number for thermal convection of incompressible fluid. The strong effect of adiabatic decompression is likely to inhibit hot spot volcanism on the surface and is also likely to affect the thermal history of the mantle, and hence, the generation of magnetic field in super-Earths.

  18. Super ready: how a regional approach to Super Bowl EMS paid off.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Terry; Cortacans, Henry P

    2014-07-01

    The Super Bowl and its associated activities represent one of the largest special events in the world. Super Bowl XLVIII was geographically unique because the NFL's and Super Bowl Host Committee's activities, venues and events encompassed two states and fell across numerous jurisdictions within six counties (Bergen, Hudson, Morris, Essex, Middlesex, and Manhattan).This Super Bowl was the first to do this. EMS was one of the largest operational components during this event. Last and most important, it is the people and relationships that make any planning initiative and event a success. Sit down and have a cup a coffee with your colleagues, partners and neighbors in and out of state to discuss your planning initiatives. Do it early-it will make your efforts less painful should an event of this magnitude come to a city near you! PMID:25181868

  19. Super ready: how a regional approach to Super Bowl EMS paid off.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Terry; Cortacans, Henry P

    2014-07-01

    The Super Bowl and its associated activities represent one of the largest special events in the world. Super Bowl XLVIII was geographically unique because the NFL's and Super Bowl Host Committee's activities, venues and events encompassed two states and fell across numerous jurisdictions within six counties (Bergen, Hudson, Morris, Essex, Middlesex, and Manhattan).This Super Bowl was the first to do this. EMS was one of the largest operational components during this event. Last and most important, it is the people and relationships that make any planning initiative and event a success. Sit down and have a cup a coffee with your colleagues, partners and neighbors in and out of state to discuss your planning initiatives. Do it early-it will make your efforts less painful should an event of this magnitude come to a city near you!

  20. Towards an Educational SuperInterface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Diana, Italo P. F.; White, T. N.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an educational computer network, SuperInterface, that could be used for telestudy for university education. Topics discussed include computer-supported collaborative work; computer-based learning; multimedia databases, or electronic books; human-machine interfaces; hardware, software, and groupware; learners; teachers; organizations and…

  1. Super-sensing through industrial process tomography

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In this introduction article, we present a brief overview of industrial process tomography. This will start by linking between the concept of industrial process tomography and super-sensing. This will follow with a brief introduction to various process tomography systems and in particular electrical tomography methods. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Supersensing through industrial process tomography’. PMID:27185965

  2. Super-Higgs mechanism in string theory

    SciTech Connect

    Bagger, Jonathan; Giannakis, Ioannis

    2006-05-15

    We exhibit the super-Higgs effect in heterotic string theory by turning on a background antisymmetric tensor B field and deforming the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin operator consistent with superconformal invariance. The B field spontaneously breaks spacetime supersymmetry. We show how the gravitini and the physical dilatini gain mass by eating the would-be Goldstone fermions.

  3. Searching for Frozen Super Earth via Microlensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batista, V.; Beaulieu, J. P.; Cassan, A.; Coutures, C.; Donatowicz, J.; Fouqué, P.; Kubas, D.; Marquette, J. B.

    2009-04-01

    Microlensing planet hunt is a unique method to probe efficiently for frozen Super Earth orbiting the most common stars of our galaxy. It is nicely complementing the parameter space probed by very high accuracy radial velocity measurements and future space based detections of low mass transiting planets. In order to maximize the planet catch, the microlensing community is engaged in a total cooperation among the different groups (OGLE, MicroFUN, MOA, PLANET/RoboNET) by making the real time data available, and mutual informing/reporting about modeling efforts. Eight planets have been published so far by combinations of the different groups, 4 Jovian analogues, one Neptune and two Super Earth. Given the microlensing detection efficiency, it suggests that these Neptunes/Super Earths may be quite common. Using networks of dedicated 1-2m class telescopes, the microlensing community has entered a new phase of planet discoveries, and will be able to provide constraints on the abundance of frozen Super-Earths in the near future. Statistics about Mars to Earth mass planets, extending to the habitable zone will be achieved with space based wide field imagers (EUCLID) at the horizon 2017.

  4. Facile preparation of super durable superhydrophobic materials.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lei; Zhang, Junping; Li, Bucheng; Fan, Ling; Li, Lingxiao; Wang, Aiqin

    2014-10-15

    The low stability, complicated and expensive fabrication procedures seriously hinder practical applications of superhydrophobic materials. Here we report an extremely simple method for preparing super durable superhydrophobic materials, e.g., textiles and sponges, by dip coating in fluoropolymers (FPs). The morphology, surface chemical composition, mechanical, chemical and environmental stabilities of the superhydrophobic textiles were investigated. The results show how simple the preparation of super durable superhydrophobic textiles can be! The superhydrophobic textiles outperform their natural counterparts and most of the state-of-the-art synthetic superhydrophobic materials in stability. The intensive mechanical abrasion, long time immersion in various liquids and repeated washing have no obvious influence on the superhydrophobicity. Water drops are spherical in shape on the samples and could easily roll off after these harsh stability tests. In addition, this simple dip coating approach is applicable to various synthetic and natural textiles and can be easily scaled up. Furthermore, the results prove that a two-tier roughness is helpful but not essential with regard to the creation of super durable superhydrophobic textiles. The combination of microscale roughness of textiles and materials with very low surface tension is enough to form super durable superhydrophobic textiles. According to the same procedure, superhydrophobic polyurethane sponges can be prepared, which show high oil absorbency, oil/water separation efficiency and stability. PMID:25069050

  5. Diffusion of Super-Gaussian Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, C.-J.; Anderson, D.; Desaix, M.; Johannisson, P.; Lisak, M.

    2007-01-01

    The present analysis describes an analytically simple and systematic approximation procedure for modelling the free diffusive spreading of initially super-Gaussian profiles. The approach is based on a self-similar ansatz for the evolution of the diffusion profile, and the parameter functions involved in the modelling are determined by suitable…

  6. Difficult Decisions: The Superconducting Super Collider.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, David E.; Slesnick, Irwin L.

    1990-01-01

    The fundamental principles of the superconducting super collider are presented. Arguments for the construction of this apparatus and policy issues surrounding its construction are discussed. Charts of the fundamental atomic particles and forces and the history of particle accelerators are provided. An activity for discussing this controversial…

  7. Breeding Super-Earths and Birthing Super-puffs in Transitional Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eve J.; Chiang, Eugene

    2016-02-01

    The riddle posed by super-Earths (1-4R⊕, 2-20M⊕) is that they are not Jupiters: their core masses are large enough to trigger runaway gas accretion, yet somehow super-Earths accreted atmospheres that weigh only a few percent of their total mass. We show that this puzzle is solved if super-Earths formed late, as the last vestiges of their parent gas disks were about to clear. This scenario would seem to present fine-tuning problems, but we show that there are none. Ambient gas densities can span many (in one case up to 9) orders of magnitude, and super-Earths can still robustly emerge after ˜0.1-1 Myr with percent-by-weight atmospheres. Super-Earth cores are naturally bred in gas-poor environments where gas dynamical friction has weakened sufficiently to allow constituent protocores to gravitationally stir one another and merge. So little gas is present at the time of core assembly that cores hardly migrate by disk torques: formation of super-Earths can be in situ. The basic picture—that close-in super-Earths form in a gas-poor (but not gas-empty) inner disk, fed continuously by gas that bleeds inward from a more massive outer disk—recalls the largely evacuated but still accreting inner cavities of transitional protoplanetary disks. We also address the inverse problem presented by super-puffs: an uncommon class of short-period planets seemingly too voluminous for their small masses (4-10R⊕, 2-6M⊕). Super-puffs most easily acquire their thick atmospheres as dust-free, rapidly cooling worlds outside ˜1 AU where nebular gas is colder, less dense, and therefore less opaque. Unlike super-Earths, which can form in situ, super-puffs probably migrated in to their current orbits; they are expected to form the outer links of mean-motion resonant chains, and to exhibit greater water content. We close by confronting observations and itemizing remaining questions.

  8. [Tumors of the 4th ventricle and the craniospinal transitional zone. Review of patients of the Neurosurgical Clinic of the Department of Medicine of the Karl Marx University].

    PubMed

    Niebeling, H G; Fried, H; Goldhahn, W E; Skrzypczak, J; Brachmann, J; Eichler, I

    1983-01-01

    From a total of 1,028 infratentorial tumours operated on at the Neurosurgical Hospital of the Section Medicine of the Karl-Marx University Leipzig in the last 30 years, 167 tumours in the region of the 4th ventrical have been selected. Their statistical processing was carried out with respect to specific localisation, average age, kind of tumour, sex, clinical findings, duration of case history, application of instrumental diagnostic procedures and radicality of operation, success and failure. Some fundamental conclussions are drawn. A subdivision in detail will be contained in the following articles based on this material.

  9. [Development and status of intensive care medicine in internal medicine at the Karl Marx University in Leipzig].

    PubMed

    Engelmann, L; Schneider, D

    1989-01-15

    Issuing from the accomplishments of Köhler for the development of the intensive medicine in internal medicine-in 1964 he performed the first long-term respiration at the then Medical Clinic of the Karl Marx University, in 1969 he institutionalized the young subdiscipline at the clinic, in 1978 he founded the department for intensive medicine and is at work by his decisions concerning the development of young scientists, by the handbook "Intensive Medicine. Internal Medicine and Adjacent Subjects" as well as a member of the presidium of the GDR Society for Internal Medicine for the development of the internal intensive medicine-a description of the development of the department, its achievements and problems is given. The promotion of the intensive medicine by Köhler results, as we think, also from the comprehension that it has the duty to perform a function integrating the subdisciplines, which the modern internal medicine oriented to organs and systems threatens to lose, which, however, makes its self-apprehension, which the patient wishes and the teaching is demanding. From this and from the charge for a highly specialized care of patients who life-threateningly fell ill with internal diseases as well as from the duty to create a scientific forerunning results the stringent necessity of the development of the non-operative, in reality internal intensive medicine in the clinics for internal medicine of the county hospitals and university institutions as well as the greater identification of the internist with the subdiscipline in the district hospitals dealing with multidisciplinary intensive medicine.

  10. A statistical look at the retrieval of exoplanetary atmospheres of super Earths and giant planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocchetto, Marco; Waldmann, Ingo Peter; Tinetti, Giovanna; Yurchenko, Sergey; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2015-08-01

    Over the past decades transit spectroscopy has become one of the pioneering methods to characterise exoplanetary atmospheres. With the increasing number of observations, and the advent of new ground and spaced based instruments, it is now crucial to find the most optimal and objective methodologies to interpret these data, and understand the information content they convey. This is particularly true for smaller and fainter super Earth type planets.In this conference we will present a new take on the spectral retrieval of transiting planets, with particular focus on super Earth atmospheres. TauREx (Waldmann et al. 2015a,b.) is a new line-by-line radiative transfer atmospheric retrieval framework for transmission and emission spectroscopy of exoplanetary atmospheres, optimised for hot Jupiters and super Earths. The code has been built from scratch with the ideas of scalability, flexibility and automation. This allows to run retrievals with minimum user input that can be scaled to large cluster computing. Priors on the number and types of molecules considered are automatically determined using a custom built pattern recognition algorithm able to identify the most likely absorbers/emitters in the exoplanetary spectra, minimising the human bias in selecting the major atmospheric constituents.Using these tools, we investigate the impact of signal to noise, spectral resolution and wavelength coverage on the retrievability of individual model parameters from transit spectra of super Earths, and put our models to test (Rocchetto et al. 2015). Characterisation of the atmospheres of super Earths through transit spectroscopy is paramount, as it can provide an indirect - and so far unique - way to probe the nature of these planets. For the first time we analyse in a systematic way large grids of spectra generated for different observing scenarios. We perform thousands of retrievals aimed to fully map the degeneracies and understand the statistics of current exoplanetary

  11. The 2015 super-resolution microscopy roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hell, Stefan W.; Sahl, Steffen J.; Bates, Mark; Zhuang, Xiaowei; Heintzmann, Rainer; Booth, Martin J.; Bewersdorf, Joerg; Shtengel, Gleb; Hess, Harald; Tinnefeld, Philip; Honigmann, Alf; Jakobs, Stefan; Testa, Ilaria; Cognet, Laurent; Lounis, Brahim; Ewers, Helge; Davis, Simon J.; Eggeling, Christian; Klenerman, David; Willig, Katrin I.; Vicidomini, Giuseppe; Castello, Marco; Diaspro, Alberto; Cordes, Thorben

    2015-11-01

    Far-field optical microscopy using focused light is an important tool in a number of scientific disciplines including chemical, (bio)physical and biomedical research, particularly with respect to the study of living cells and organisms. Unfortunately, the applicability of the optical microscope is limited, since the diffraction of light imposes limitations on the spatial resolution of the image. Consequently the details of, for example, cellular protein distributions, can be visualized only to a certain extent. Fortunately, recent years have witnessed the development of ‘super-resolution’ far-field optical microscopy (nanoscopy) techniques such as stimulated emission depletion (STED), ground state depletion (GSD), reversible saturated optical (fluorescence) transitions (RESOLFT), photoactivation localization microscopy (PALM), stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM), structured illumination microscopy (SIM) or saturated structured illumination microscopy (SSIM), all in one way or another addressing the problem of the limited spatial resolution of far-field optical microscopy. While SIM achieves a two-fold improvement in spatial resolution compared to conventional optical microscopy, STED, RESOLFT, PALM/STORM, or SSIM have all gone beyond, pushing the limits of optical image resolution to the nanometer scale. Consequently, all super-resolution techniques open new avenues of biomedical research. Because the field is so young, the potential capabilities of different super-resolution microscopy approaches have yet to be fully explored, and uncertainties remain when considering the best choice of methodology. Thus, even for experts, the road to the future is sometimes shrouded in mist. The super-resolution optical microscopy roadmap of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics addresses this need for clarity. It provides guidance to the outstanding questions through a collection of short review articles from experts in the field, giving a thorough

  12. The SuperMAG data processing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gjerloev, J. W.

    2012-09-01

    In this paper I outline the data processing technique which is used in the SuperMAG initiative. SuperMAG is a worldwide collaboration of organizations and national agencies that currently operate more than 300 ground based magnetometers. SuperMAG provides easy access to validated ground magnetic field perturbations in the same coordinate system, identical time resolution and with a common baseline removal approach. The purpose of SuperMAG is to provide scientists, teachers, students and the general public easy access to measurements of the magnetic field at the surface of the Earth. Easy access to data, plots and derived products maximizes the utilization of this unique data set. It is outlined how SuperMAG processes the observations obtained by the individual data provider. Data are rotated into a local magnetic coordinate system by determining a time dependent declination angle. This angle displays a slow gradual change and a yearly periodic variation attributed to changes in the Earth main field and season temperature variations. The baseline is determined from the data itself in a three step process: (1) a daily baseline, (2) a yearly trend, and (3) a residual offset. This technique does not require so-called quiet days and thus it avoids all the well-known problems associated with their identification. The residual offset for the N- and Z-components shows a distinct latitudinal dependence while the E-component is independent of the latitude. This result is interpreted as being due to a weak ring current (likely asymmetric) which is present even during official quiet days. For the purpose of M-I research using 1-min data I find no difference between observatories and variometers. I finally argue that there is no correct baseline determination technique since we do not have a set of ground-truth observations required to make an objective evaluation. Instead, the user must keep in mind the assumptions on which the baseline was determined and draw conclusions

  13. Interface board for providing time signals to a super minicomputer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Robert J.

    1991-10-01

    This invention relates generally to signal interface circuit boards and more particularly to an interface board providing timing signals from a timing source to a super minicomputer (Q Bus compatible). In developing acoustic signatures for underwater vehicles, it is necessary to have accurate range and bearing data to the vehicle and have that data time correlated with the acoustic signals. Present equipment used for these purposes includes the Atlantic Undersea Test and Evaluation Center (AUTEC) Tracking System for providing three-dimensional positional information and the Acoustic Measurement Array for receiving the acoustic signals that are generated by the underwater vehicle. The tracking system determines the position of the underwater vehicle by the use of a pinger attached to the vehicle and bottom mounted hydrophones.

  14. In vivo super-resolution RESOLFT microscopy of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Schnorrenberg, Sebastian; Grotjohann, Tim; Vorbrüggen, Gerd; Herzig, Alf; Hell, Stefan W; Jakobs, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Despite remarkable developments in diffraction unlimited super-resolution microscopy, in vivo nanoscopy of tissues and model organisms is still not satisfactorily established and rarely realized. RESOLFT nanoscopy is particularly suited for live cell imaging because it requires relatively low light levels to overcome the diffraction barrier. Previously, we introduced the reversibly switchable fluorescent protein rsEGFP2, which facilitated fast RESOLFT nanoscopy (Grotjohann et al., 2012). In that study, as in most other nanoscopy studies, only cultivated single cells were analyzed. Here, we report on the use of rsEGFP2 for live-cell RESOLFT nanoscopy of sub-cellular structures of intact Drosophila melanogaster larvae and of resected tissues. We generated flies expressing fusion proteins of alpha-tubulin and rsEGFP2 highlighting the microtubule cytoskeleton in all cells. By focusing through the intact larval cuticle, we achieved lateral resolution of. PMID:27355614

  15. Super-paramagnetic clustering of yeast gene expression profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getz, G.; Levine, E.; Domany, E.; Zhang, M. Q.

    2000-04-01

    High-density DNA arrays, used to monitor gene expression at a genomic scale, have produced vast amounts of information which require the development of efficient computational methods to analyze them. The important first step is to extract the fundamental patterns of gene expression inherent in the data. This paper describes the application of a novel clustering algorithm, super-paramagnetic clustering (SPC) to analysis of gene expression profiles that were generated recently during a study of the yeast cell cycle. SPC was used to organize genes into biologically relevant clusters that are suggestive for their co-regulation. Some of the advantages of SPC are its robustness against noise and initialization, a clear signature of cluster formation and splitting, and an unsupervised self-organized determination of the number of clusters at each resolution. Our analysis revealed interesting correlated behavior of several groups of genes which has not been previously identified.

  16. Strain mapping accuracy improvement using super-resolution techniques.

    PubMed

    Bárcena-González, G; Guerrero-Lebrero, M P; Guerrero, E; Fernández-Reyes, D; González, D; Mayoral, A; Utrilla, A D; Ulloa, J M; Galindo, P L

    2016-04-01

    Super-resolution (SR) software-based techniques aim at generating a final image by combining several noisy frames with lower resolution from the same scene. A comparative study on high-resolution high-angle annular dark field images of InAs/GaAs QDs has been carried out in order to evaluate the performance of the SR technique. The obtained SR images present enhanced resolution and higher signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio and sharpness regarding the experimental images. In addition, SR is also applied in the field of strain analysis using digital image processing applications such as geometrical phase analysis and peak pairs analysis. The precision of the strain mappings can be improved when SR methodologies are applied to experimental images.

  17. Astrophysics of Super-Massive Black Hole Mergers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnittman, Jeremy D.

    2013-01-01

    We present here an overview of recent work in the subject of astrophysical manifestations of super-massive black hole (SMBH) mergers. This is a field that has been traditionally driven by theoretical work, but in recent years has also generated a great deal of interest and excitement in the observational astronomy community. In particular, the electromagnetic (EM) counterparts to SMBH mergers provide the means to detect and characterize these highly energetic events at cosmological distances, even in the absence of a space-based gravitational-wave observatory. In addition to providing a mechanism for observing SMBH mergers, EM counterparts also give important information about the environments in which these remarkable events take place, thus teaching us about the mechanisms through which galaxies form and evolve symbiotically with their central black holes.

  18. Super-resolved optical lithography with phase controlled source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Peilong; Zhang, Guoquan

    2015-05-01

    Recently, we have demonstrated that second-order subwavelength interference could be realized in an optical lithography scheme with an effective entangled source [P. Hong and G. Zhang, Phys. Rev. A 88, 043838 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevA.88.043838]. In this paper, by considering the correlation function in both the source plane and observation plane, we show how the coherence property of such a source is controlled via introduction of random-phase correlation, which finally affects the two-photon interference effect observed in the far-field plane. Furthermore, by introducing different but similar random-phase correlations, we generalize the phase controlled source with particular high-order coherence properties to obtain higher-order subwavelength interference, i.e., high-order super-resolved optical lithography. These results show the importance of phase control in generating a light field with particular high-order coherence properties.

  19. Heralded Generation of an Atomic NOON State

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Yuao; Bao Xiaohui; Yuan Zhensheng; Chen Shuai; Pan Jianwei; Zhao Bo

    2010-01-29

    We report the heralded generation of an atomic NOON state by observation of phase super resolution in a motion-sensitive spin-wave (SW) interferometer. The SW interferometer is implemented by generating a superposition of two SWs and observing the interference between them, where the interference fringe is sensitive to the atomic collective motion. By heralded generation of a second order NOON state in the SW interferometer, we observe the interference pattern which provides strong evidence of phase super resolution. The demonstrated SW interferometer can in principle be scaled up to a highly entangled state, and thus is of fundamental importance, and might be used as an inertial sensor.

  20. Super-Resolution Enhancement From Multiple Overlapping Images: A Fractional Area Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaels, Joshua A.

    With the availability of large quantities of relatively low-resolution data from several decades of space borne imaging, methods of creating an accurate, higher-resolution image from the multiple lower-resolution images (i.e. super-resolution), have been developed almost since such imagery has been around. The fractional-area super-resolution technique developed in this thesis has never before been documented. Satellite orbits, like Landsat, have a quantifiable variation, which means each image is not centered on the exact same spot more than once and the overlapping information from these multiple images may be used for super-resolution enhancement. By splitting a single initial pixel into many smaller, desired pixels, a relationship can be created between them using the ratio of the area within the initial pixel. The ideal goal for this technique is to obtain smaller pixels with exact values and no error, yielding a better potential result than those methods that yield interpolated pixel values with consequential loss of spatial resolution. A Fortran 95 program was developed to perform all calculations associated with the fractional-area super-resolution technique. The fractional areas are calculated using traditional trigonometry and coordinate geometry and Linear Algebra Package (LAPACK; Anderson et al., 1999) is used to solve for the higher-resolution pixel values. In order to demonstrate proof-of-concept, a synthetic dataset was created using the intrinsic Fortran random number generator and Adobe Illustrator CS4 (for geometry). To test the real-life application, digital pictures from a Sony DSC-S600 digital point-and-shoot camera with a tripod were taken of a large US geological map under fluorescent lighting. While the fractional-area super-resolution technique works in perfect synthetic conditions, it did not successfully produce a reasonable or consistent solution in the digital photograph enhancement test. The prohibitive amount of processing time (up to

  1. Super-resolution imaging in live cells.

    PubMed

    Cox, Susan

    2015-05-01

    Over the last twenty years super-resolution fluorescence microscopy has gone from proof-of-concept experiments to commercial systems being available in many labs, improving the resolution achievable by up to a factor of 10 or more. There are three major approaches to super-resolution, stimulated emission depletion microscopy, structured illumination microscopy, and localisation microscopy, which have all produced stunning images of cellular structures. A major current challenge is optimising performance of each technique so that the same sort of data can be routinely taken in live cells. There are several major challenges, particularly phototoxicity and the speed with which images of whole cells, or groups of cells, can be acquired. In this review we discuss the various approaches which can be successfully used in live cells, the tradeoffs in resolution, speed, and ease of implementation which one must make for each approach, and the quality of results that one might expect from each technique.

  2. Is the Universe Teeming with Super Civilizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shechtman, I.

    The time that passes from the moment a life similar to us on some other planet attains humanity's present level of development until it reaches singularity is extremely short in cosmic terms. This means that if such a life managed to reach humanity's present level by the time a violent cosmic event hits it, and certainly later, it probably is near to or already in a state of singularity. In this state it becomes immune to most cosmic catastrophes and subsequently transforms into a super civilization. It is therefore concluded that contrary to the pessimists the universe is probably teeming with super civilizations. This should be taken into account when interpreting astronomical phenomena by allowing for the possibility that not only inanimate nature but intelligence as well may be involved in these phenomena. It is proposed to call this science Intelligent Astronomy.

  3. FDIRC design for SuperB

    SciTech Connect

    Va'vra, J.; Roberts, D.; Ratcliff, B.; /SLAC

    2011-03-01

    We describe a new design of a focusing DIRC (FDIRC) for the barrel PID at SuperB. The new FDIRC will use a new detector camera attached to the existing BaBar DIRC bar boxes. The camera's double-folded optics, made of solid fused silica, uses two mirrors, one cylindrical, and one flat. The camera's volume is 25-times smaller than the BaBar DIRC stand-off box, and its photon detectors will be 10-times faster than the BaBar DIRC PMTs, ensuring a good protection against backgrounds at SuperB, which is designed to operate at {approx}100-times higher luminosity than BaBar. The detector plane consists of a matrix of H-8500 MaPMTs.

  4. Super-earth Detection and "Planet Fever"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pont, Frederic; Aigrain, S.; Zucker, S.

    2009-09-01

    Radial-velocity spectrographs and space transit searches have become sensitive enough to detect planets only a few times more massive than the Earth - the telluric planets or "super-Earths." We are getting one step nearer to knowing how common are Earth analogs. There is a catch however: many of the super-Earth detections are very close to the detection thresholds, and intrinsic stellar variations are an important source of false positive with both the radial velocity and transit technique. In preparation for the coming harvest of new detections, it seems worth attempting to develop some vaccine against the most extreme strands of "planet fever," the contagious disease of seeing extra-solar planet in any signal.

  5. Italian super-eruption larger than thought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-07-01

    Recent research suggested that the super-eruption of the Campi Flegrei caldera volcano in southern Italy about 40,000 years ago may have played a part in wiping out, or forcing the migration of, the Neanderthal and modern human populations in the eastern Mediterranean regions that were covered in ash. Now a new modeling study by Costa et al. suggests that this eruption may have been even larger than previously thought. This Campi Flegrei eruption produced a widespread ash layer known as Campanian Ignimbrite (CI). Using ash thickness measurements collected at 115 sites and a three-dimensional ash dispersal model, the researchers found that the CI super-eruption would have spread 250-300 cubic kilometers of ash across a 3.7-million-square kilometer region—2 to 3 times previous ash volume estimates.

  6. Penrose Pixels for Super-Resolution.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ezra, M; Lin, Zhouchen; Wilburn, Bennett; Zhang, Wei

    2011-07-01

    We present a novel approach to reconstruction-based super-resolution that uses aperiodic pixel tilings, such as a Penrose tiling or a biological retina, for improved performance. To this aim, we develop a new variant of the well-known error back projection super-resolution algorithm that makes use of the exact detector model in its back projection operator for better accuracy. Pixels in our model can vary in shape and size, and there may be gaps between adjacent pixels. The algorithm applies equally well to periodic or aperiodic pixel tilings. We present analysis and extensive tests using synthetic and real images to show that our approach using aperiodic layouts substantially outperforms existing reconstruction-based algorithms for regular pixel arrays. We close with a discussion of the feasibility of manufacturing CMOS or CCD chips with pixels arranged in Penrose tilings.

  7. SuperAGILE and Gamma Ray Bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Pacciani, Luigi; Costa, Enrico; Del Monte, Ettore; Donnarumma, Immacolata; Evangelista, Yuri; Feroci, Marco; Frutti, Massimo; Lazzarotto, Francesco; Lapshov, Igor; Rubini, Alda; Soffitta, Paolo; Tavani, Marco; Barbiellini, Guido; Mastropietro, Marcello; Morelli, Ennio; Rapisarda, Massimo

    2006-05-19

    The solid-state hard X-ray imager of AGILE gamma-ray mission -- SuperAGILE -- has a six arcmin on-axis angular resolution in the 15-45 keV range, a field of view in excess of 1 steradian. The instrument is very light: 5 kg only. It is equipped with an on-board self triggering logic, image deconvolution, and it is able to transmit the coordinates of a GRB to the ground in real-time through the ORBCOMM constellation of satellites. Photon by photon Scientific Data are sent to the Malindi ground station at every contact. In this paper we review the performance of the SuperAGILE experiment (scheduled for a launch in the middle of 2006), after its first onground calibrations, and show the perspectives for Gamma Ray Bursts.

  8. Super-Resolution Imaging Strategies for Cell Biologists Using a Spinning Disk Microscope

    PubMed Central

    Hosny, Neveen A.; Song, Mingying; Connelly, John T.; Ameer-Beg, Simon; Knight, Martin M.; Wheeler, Ann P.

    2013-01-01

    In this study we use a spinning disk confocal microscope (SD) to generate super-resolution images of multiple cellular features from any plane in the cell. We obtain super-resolution images by using stochastic intensity fluctuations of biological probes, combining Photoactivation Light-Microscopy (PALM)/Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (STORM) methodologies. We compared different image analysis algorithms for processing super-resolution data to identify the most suitable for analysis of particular cell structures. SOFI was chosen for X and Y and was able to achieve a resolution of ca. 80 nm; however higher resolution was possible >30 nm, dependant on the super-resolution image analysis algorithm used. Our method uses low laser power and fluorescent probes which are available either commercially or through the scientific community, and therefore it is gentle enough for biological imaging. Through comparative studies with structured illumination microscopy (SIM) and widefield epifluorescence imaging we identified that our methodology was advantageous for imaging cellular structures which are not immediately at the cell-substrate interface, which include the nuclear architecture and mitochondria. We have shown that it was possible to obtain two coloured images, which highlights the potential this technique has for high-content screening, imaging of multiple epitopes and live cell imaging. PMID:24130668

  9. Super-resolution fluorescent materials: an insight into design and bioimaging applications.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhigang; Sharma, Amit; Qi, Jing; Peng, Xiao; Lee, Dong Yeop; Hu, Rui; Lin, Danying; Qu, Junle; Kim, Jong Seung

    2016-08-22

    Living organisms are generally composed of complex cellular processes which persist only within their native environments. To enhance our understanding of the biological processes lying within complex milieus, various techniques have been developed. Specifically, the emergence of super-resolution microscopy has generated a renaissance in cell biology by redefining the existing dogma towards nanoscale cell dynamics, single synaptic vesicles, and other complex bioprocesses by overcoming the diffraction-imposed resolution barrier that is associated with conventional microscopy techniques. Besides the typical technical reliance on the optical framework and computational algorithm, super-resolution imaging microscopy resorts largely to fluorescent materials with special photophysical properties, including fluorescent proteins, organic fluorophores and nanomaterials. In this tutorial review article, with the emphasis on cell biology, we summarize the recent developments in fluorescent materials being utilized in various super-resolution techniques with successful integration into bio-imaging applications. Fluorescent proteins (FP) applied in super-resolution microscopy will not be covered herein as it has already been well summarized; additionally, we demonstrate the breadth of opportunities offered from a future perspective. PMID:27296269

  10. Super-resolution fluorescent materials: an insight into design and bioimaging applications.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhigang; Sharma, Amit; Qi, Jing; Peng, Xiao; Lee, Dong Yeop; Hu, Rui; Lin, Danying; Qu, Junle; Kim, Jong Seung

    2016-08-22

    Living organisms are generally composed of complex cellular processes which persist only within their native environments. To enhance our understanding of the biological processes lying within complex milieus, various techniques have been developed. Specifically, the emergence of super-resolution microscopy has generated a renaissance in cell biology by redefining the existing dogma towards nanoscale cell dynamics, single synaptic vesicles, and other complex bioprocesses by overcoming the diffraction-imposed resolution barrier that is associated with conventional microscopy techniques. Besides the typical technical reliance on the optical framework and computational algorithm, super-resolution imaging microscopy resorts largely to fluorescent materials with special photophysical properties, including fluorescent proteins, organic fluorophores and nanomaterials. In this tutorial review article, with the emphasis on cell biology, we summarize the recent developments in fluorescent materials being utilized in various super-resolution techniques with successful integration into bio-imaging applications. Fluorescent proteins (FP) applied in super-resolution microscopy will not be covered herein as it has already been well summarized; additionally, we demonstrate the breadth of opportunities offered from a future perspective.

  11. Cubanes: Super explosives and potential pharmaceutical intermediates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bashir-Hashemi, A.

    1994-01-01

    The cubane molecule, in which eight carbon atoms are locked in a cubic framework, shows great potential for both military and pharmaceutical applications. Octanitrocubane, with a predicted density of 2.1 g/cc and strain energy of more than 165 kcal/mol, is considered to be the 'super-explosive', while cubane derivatives submitted to the National Institutes of Health for preliminary biological activity screening have displayed promising anti-cancer and anti-HIV activity.

  12. Super multi-view display with a lower resolution flat-panel display.

    PubMed

    Takaki, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Kosuke; Nakamura, Junya

    2011-02-28

    A lenticular-type super multi-view (SMV) display normally requires an ultra high-resolution flat-panel display. To reduce this resolution requirement, two or more views are generated around each eye with an interval smaller than the pupil diameter. Cylindrical lenses constituting a lenticular lens project a group of pixels of the flat-panel display to generate a group of viewing zones. Pixel groups generating left and right viewing zones through the same cylindrical lens are partitioned to separate the two zones. The left and right pixel groups for different cylindrical lenses are interlaced horizontally. A prototype SMV display is demonstrated. PMID:21369242

  13. PeoplePersonality: Chris Clarke - a physicist who studies ice cream Teaching Anecdotes: Annie Jump Cannon Obituary: György Marx 1927-2002 Starting Out: What Katie did next: part 3 Opinions: What is really important?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-03-01

    Featuring relationships, personalities, interactions, environments and reputations involved in physics and education PERSONALITY (156) Chris Clarke - a physicist who studies ice cream TEACHING ANECDOTES (157) Annie Jump Cannon OBITUARY (158) György Marx 1927-2002 Steven Chapman STARTING OUT (159) What Katie did next: part 3 Katie Pennicott OPINIONS (160) What is really important? Kerry Parker

  14. SuperB Simulation Production System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomassetti, L.; Bianchi, F.; Ciaschini, V.; Corvo, M.; Del Prete, D.; Di Simone, A.; Donvito, G.; Fella, A.; Franchini, P.; Giacomini, F.; Gianoli, A.; Longo, S.; Luitz, S.; Luppi, E.; Manzali, M.; Pardi, S.; Paolini, A.; Perez, A.; Rama, M.; Russo, G.; Santeramo, B.; Stroili, R.

    2012-12-01

    The SuperB asymmetric e+e- collider and detector to be built at the newly founded Nicola Cabibbo Lab will provide a uniquely sensitive probe of New Physics in the flavor sector of the Standard Model. Studying minute effects in the heavy quark and heavy lepton sectors requires a data sample of 75 ab-1 and a peak luminosity of 1036 cm-2 s-1. The SuperB Computing group is working on developing a simulation production framework capable to satisfy the experiment needs. It provides access to distributed resources in order to support both the detector design definition and its performance evaluation studies. During last year the framework has evolved from the point of view of job workflow, Grid services interfaces and technologies adoption. A complete code refactoring and sub-component language porting now permits the framework to sustain distributed production involving resources from two continents and Grid Flavors. In this paper we will report a complete description of the production system status of the art, its evolution and its integration with Grid services; in particular, we will focus on the utilization of new Grid component features as in LB and WMS version 3. Results from the last official SuperB production cycle will be reported.

  15. Probing the Birth of Super Star Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Kelsey

    2009-05-01

    Super star clusters are among the most extreme star formation environments known; they have incredible stellar densities, and each can harbor thousands of massive stars within radii of only a few parsecs. The most robust of these clusters may even be precursors to the ancient globular clusters ubiquitous around massive galaxies in the local universe today. Understanding the formation and feedback of super star clusters has the potential to provide us with insight into the evolution of starburst episodes throughout the universe. At present the relationship between the local physical conditions and the voracity of star formation is not well-constrained. Some progress has been made: over the last decade, a number of natal super star clusters have been discovered, providing us with a glimpse into their early evolution. However, the set of existing observations is anemic, and our current physical model for these natal clusters in simplistic. I will overview what we think we know about these objects based on existing observations and outline some of the most significant gaps in our current understanding.

  16. Cryogenics for Super-FRS at FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Yu; Kauschke, Marion; Schroeder, Claus H.; Kollmus, Holger

    The challenge of cooling down the huge cold mass up to 1100 tons (dominated by iron) to 4.5 K is addressed as one of the most important features for Super-FRS cryogenics at FAIR. For such large cold mass precooling with LN2 is necessary due to the reason that approximately 80% of the cool down load is from 300K to 80K. The capacity of the LN2 precooler at 80 K as well as the 4.5 K cooling power have been specified in order to reach a reasonable cooldown time of three to four weeks. In the paper we will also discuss the technical issues for Super-FRS magnet testing at CERN in terms of the limitations of the cooldown / warmup rates on magnets, interface definition, and the magnet cryostat protection against over-pressure under worst-case scenarios, i.e., quench and insulation vacuum sudden loss to air, which are the key issues for the cryogenic test facility planning and machine protection at FAIR. Meanwhile the important features of the refrigerator and the cryogenic distribution system for the Super-FRS at FAIR will be discussed.

  17. Atmospheric composition of cold super-Earths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Paris, P.; Patzer, B.; Grenfell, J. L.; Hedelt, P.; Stracke, B.; Rauer, H.

    2008-09-01

    Planets of masses below 10 times that of Earth (so-called Super-Earths) orbiting far away from their central star have been discovered by Microlensing surveys. Super-Earth atmospheres cannot be characterized remotely yet. However, based on climate modelling and analogies with our solar system, we can put constraints on possible atmospheric compositions. Whenever the triple point of a gaseous constituent is reached on the surface, this constituent is likely to freeze out until equilibrium between ice and vapour/liquid is reached. Important greenhouse gases which are essential for habitability considerations are water (triple point 6.5 mb, 273 K) and carbon dioxide (triple point 5.18 bar, 216 K). In our work we apply a 1D radiative-convective model to Super-Earth atmospheres. We investigate the effect of varying orbital distance, stellar type and planetary mass upon the ability of water and carbon dioxide to remain in the atmosphere. Our results indicate a threshold regime where atmospheres switch from being CO2-rich to being N2-dominated. Implications for habitability and surface conditions are discussed.

  18. Vibration Budget for SuperB

    SciTech Connect

    Bertsche, K; Wittmer, W.; Bolzon, B.; Brunetti, L.; Jeremie, A.; Esposito, M.; Tomassini, S.; /Frascati

    2011-04-05

    We present a vibration budget for the SuperB accelerator. We include ground motion data, motion sensitivity of machine components, and beam feedback system requirements. The SuperB accelerator design attains at least 50 times higher than current B-factories due to smaller beam sizes and a crabbed waist crossing angle scheme at the IP (interaction point). The beam size (1{sigma}) at the IP will be about 10 {micro}m (horizontal) by 40 nm (vertical). These small beam sizes will make the luminosity very sensitive to mechanical vibration and electrical noise. Relative vertical misalignment of the two beams at the IP by only 8 nm will result in a 1% reduction in luminosity. The corresponding horizontal alignment tolerance of is 250x looser (2 {micro}m). The vertical beam angle at the IP for a 1% luminosity loss is fairly loose at 200 {micro}rad, and the horizontal beam angle tolerance is looser still. We will focus on vertical beam position at the IP, since this presents the greatest alignment challenge. The values presented here are for a closed orbit with tunes near a half-integer in the SuperB v.12 lattice.

  19. Volatile Transport in Pluto's Super Seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earle, Alissa M.; Binzel, Richard; Young, Leslie; Stern, S. Alan; Olkin, Catherine B.; Ennico, Kimberly; Moore, Jeffrey M.; Weaver, Harold A.; NASA New Horizons Composition Team, The NASA New Horizons GGI Team

    2016-10-01

    The data returned from NASA's New Horizons' reconnaissance of the Pluto system shows striking albedo variations from polar to equatorial latitudes as well as sharp boundaries for longitudinal variations. Pluto has a high obliquity (currently around 119 degrees) which varies by more than 23 degrees (between roughly 103 and 127 degrees) over a period of less than 3 million years. These obliquity properties, combined with Pluto's orbital regression in longitude of perihelion (360 degrees over 3.7 million years), create epochs of "Super Seasons" on Pluto. A "Super Season" occurs, for example, when Pluto happens to be pole-on towards the Sun at the same time as perihelion. In such a case, one pole experiences a short, intense summer (relative to its long-term average) followed by a longer than average period of winter darkness. By complement, the other pole experiences a much longer, but less intense summer and short winter season. We explore the relationship between albedo variations and volatile transport for the current epoch as well as historical epochs during which Pluto experienced these "Super Seasons". Our investigation suggests Pluto's orbit creates the potential for runaway albedo variations, particularly in the equatorial region, which would create and support stark longitudinal contrasts like the ones we see between the informally named Tombaugh and Cthulhu Regios.This work was supported by the NASA New Horizons mission.

  20. Super-resolution imaging with stochastic single-molecule localization: concepts, technical developments, and biological applications.

    PubMed

    Oddone, Anna; Vilanova, Ione Verdeny; Tam, Johnny; Lakadamyali, Melike

    2014-07-01

    Light microscopy has undergone a revolution with the advent of super-resolution microscopy methods that can surpass the diffraction limit. These methods have generated much enthusiasm, in particular with regards to the new possibilities they offer for biological imaging. The recent years have seen a great advancement both in terms of new technological developments and exciting biological applications. Here, we review some of the important milestones in the field and highlight some recent biological applications.

  1. A Layman's Guide to Thrust Engine Development for Super/Hyper Sonic Flight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiesse, James L.

    The intention of this paper is to discuss the advances in thrust engines from the initial development of the J58/SR-71 (JT11D-20) of the U.S. Air Force's SR-71 Blackbird to the development of the RAM and SCRAM engines necessary to propel the new generations of high-flying super-speed aircraft. Engineering complexities suggest that the engines and…

  2. SuperB: An opportunity to study baryons with beauty and bottom super-nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feliciello, A.

    2012-05-01

    SuperB is an INFN flagship project for a new high-luminosity heavy-flavor factory. Along with its companion detector, it is dedicated to the search for CP violation effects in the B meson sector with the aim of looking for direct and indirect signals of new physics, beyond the Standard Model. However it could offer as well the opportunity for a systematic, high-statistics study of b baryon properties and for a search for bottom super-nuclei, that is bound nuclear systems with an explicit content of beauty.

  3. Review of super Ni/Cd cell designs and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams-Blakemore, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc., in cooperation with Hughes Aircraft Company, began production of the Super Nickel-Cadmium cell in 1989. Since that time the Super Nickel-Cadmium cell has been deployed in a wide variety of satellites. This paper will review one of those programs and provide a performance update. We will discuss storage requirements and capacity histories for the various Super NiCad Cell designs.

  4. F-region ionosphere effects on the mapping accuracy of SuperDARN HF radar echoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiangcai; Lorentzen, Dag; Moen, Jøran; Oksavik, Kjellmar; Baddeley, Lisa; Lester, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Structured particle precipitation in the cusp is an important source for the generation of F -region ionospheric irregularities. The equatorward boundaries of broad Doppler spectral width in Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) data and the concurrent OI 630.0 nm auroral emission are good empirical proxies for the dayside open-closed field line boundary (OCB). However, SuperDARN currently employs a simple virtual model to determine the location of its echoes, instead of a direct calculation of the radio wave path. The varying ionospheric conditions could influence the final mapping accuracy of SuperDARN echoes. A statistical comparison of the offsets between the SuperDARN Finland radar spectral width boundary (SWB) and the OI 630.0 nm auroral emission boundary (AEB) from a meridian-scanning photometer (MSP) in Longyearbyen from December 1995 to January 2014 in wintertime is performed. By restricting the location of the OI 630.0 nm data to be near local zenith, where the MSP has the highest spatial resolution, the mapping errors were significantly reduced for the AEB. The variation of the SWB - AEB offset confirms that there is a close relationship between the mapping accuracy of the HF radar echoes and solar activity. The asymmetric variation of the SWB - AEB offset versus magnetic local time suggests that the intake of high density solar extreme ultraviolet ionized plasma from post-noon at sub-auroral latitudes could result in a stronger refraction of the HF radar signals in the noon sector. The changing HF radar operating frequency also has a refraction effect that contributes to the final location of the HF radar echoes.

  5. F region ionosphere effects on the mapping accuracy of SuperDARN HF radar echoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.-C.; Lorentzen, D. A.; Moen, J. I.; Oksavik, K.; Baddeley, L. J.; Lester, M.

    2016-05-01

    Structured particle precipitation in the cusp is an important source for the generation of F region ionospheric irregularities. The equatorward boundaries of broad Doppler spectral width in Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) data and the concurrent OI 630.0 nm auroral emission are good empirical proxies for the dayside open-closed field line boundary. However, SuperDARN currently employs a simple virtual model to determine the location of its echoes, instead of a direct calculation of the radio wave path. The varying ionospheric conditions could influence the final mapping accuracy of SuperDARN echoes. A statistical comparison of the offsets between the SuperDARN Finland radar spectral width boundary (SWB) and the OI 630.0 nm auroral emission boundary (AEB) from a meridian-scanning photometer (MSP) on Svalbard is performed in this paper. By restricting the location of the 630.0 nm data to be near local zenith where the MSP has the highest spatial resolution, the optical mapping errors were significantly reduced. The variation of the SWB-AEB offset confirms that there is a close relationship between the mapping accuracy of the HF radar echoes and solar activity. The asymmetric variation of the SWB-AEB offset versus magnetic local time suggests that the intake of high-density solar extreme ultraviolet ionized plasma from postnoon at subauroral latitudes could result in a stronger refraction of the HF radar signals in the noon sector, while changing the HF radar operating frequency also has a refraction effect that contributes to the final location of the HF radar echoes.

  6. Super-resolution microscopy: going live and going fast.

    PubMed

    Lakadamyali, Melike

    2014-03-17

    Super-resolution microscopy is increasingly becoming an important tool for biological research, providing valuable information at the nanometer-length scales inside cells and tissues. In the past decade numerous technological advancements have transformed super-resolution microscopes into powerful tools of discovery. While the first super-resolution images took several hours to acquire, recent progress has led to tremendous improvement in acquisition speed, enabling researchers to probe dynamic processes in living cells with unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution. This minireview focuses on the recent developments in live-cell super-resolution microscopy and its biological applications.

  7. Production of super-smooth articles

    SciTech Connect

    Duchane, D.V.

    1981-05-29

    Super-smooth rounded or formed articles made of thermoplastic materials including various poly(methyl methacrylate) or acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymers are produced by immersing the articles into a bath, the composition of which is slowly changed with time. The starting composition of the bath is made up of at least one solvent for the polymer and a diluent made up of at least one nonsolvent for the polymer and optional materials which are soluble in the bath. The resulting extremely smooth articles are useful as mandrels for laser fusion and should be useful for a wide variety of other purposes, for example lenses.

  8. Production of super-smooth articles

    DOEpatents

    Duchane, David V.

    1983-01-01

    Super-smooth rounded or formed articles made of thermoplastic materials including various poly(methyl methacrylate) or acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymers are produced by immersing the articles into a bath, the composition of which is slowly changed with time. The starting composition of the bath is made up of at least one solvent for the polymer and a diluent made up of at least one nonsolvent for the polymer and optional materials which are soluble in the bath. The resulting extremely smooth articles are useful as mandrels for laser fusion and should be useful for a wide variety of other purposes, for example lenses.

  9. A Trio of Super-Earths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-06-01

    Today, at an international conference, a team of European astronomers announced a remarkable breakthrough in the field of extra-solar planets. Using the HARPS instrument at the ESO La Silla Observatory, they have found a triple system of super-Earths around the star HD 40307. Moreover, looking at their entire sample studied with HARPS, the astronomers count a total of 45 candidate planets with a mass below 30 Earth masses and an orbital period shorter than 50 days. This implies that one solar-like star out of three harbours such planets. A trio of Super-Earths ESO PR Photo 19a/08 A trio of Super-Earths "Does every single star harbour planets and, if yes, how many?" wonders planet hunter Michel Mayor from Geneva Observatory. "We may not yet know the answer but we are making huge progress towards it." Since the discovery in 1995 of a planet around the star 51 Pegasi by Mayor and Didier Queloz, more than 270 exoplanets have been found, mostly around solar-like stars. Most of these planets are giants, such as Jupiter or Saturn, and current statistics show that about 1 out of 14 stars harbours this kind of planet. "With the advent of much more precise instruments such as the HARPS spectrograph on ESO's 3.6-m telescope at La Silla, we can now discover smaller planets, with masses between 2 and 10 times the Earth's mass," says Stéphane Udry, one of Mayor's colleagues. Such planets are called super-Earths, as they are more massive than the Earth but less massive than Uranus and Neptune (about 15 Earth masses). The group of astronomers have now discovered a system of three super-Earths around a rather normal star, which is slightly less massive than our Sun, and is located 42 light-years away towards the southern Doradus and Pictor constellations. "We have made very precise measurements of the velocity of the star HD 40307 over the last five years, which clearly reveal the presence of three planets," says Mayor. The planets, having 4.2, 6.7, and 9.4 times the mass of the

  10. Investigation of Super*Zip separation joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Schimmel, Morry L.

    1988-01-01

    An investigation to determine the most likely cause of two failures of five tests on 79 inch diameter Lockheed Super*Zip spacecraft separation joints being used for the development of a Shuttle/Centaur propulsion system. This joint utilizes an explosively expanded tube to fracture surrounding prenotched aluminum plates to achieve planar separation. A test method was developed and more than 300 tests firings were made to provide an understanding of severance mechanisms and the functional performance effects of system variables. An approach for defining functional margin was developed, and specific recommendations were made for improving existing and future systems.

  11. Vibration and buckling of super elliptical plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C. M.; Wang, L.; Liew, K. M.

    1994-03-01

    This paper is concerned with the vibration and buckling of a new class of plates, the periphery shape of which is defined by a super elliptical function. Such a plate shape has practical applications, as the advantageous curved corners help to diffuse stress concentrations. The loading considered for the buckling problem is that of in-plane uniform pressure along the periphery. Accurate frequency and buckling factors are tabulated for such plates with either simply supported or clamped edges. The solutions are obtained using the pb - 2 Rayleigh-Ritz method.

  12. Transfer function characteristics of super resolving systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milster, Tom D.; Curtis, Craig H.

    1992-01-01

    Signal quality in an optical storage device greatly depends on the optical system transfer function used to write and read data patterns. The problem is similar to analysis of scanning optical microscopes. Hopkins and Braat have analyzed write-once-read-many (WORM) optical data storage devices. Herein, transfer function analysis of magnetooptic (MO) data storage devices is discussed with respect to improving transfer-function characteristics. Several authors have described improving the transfer function as super resolution. However, none have thoroughly analyzed the MO optical system and effects of the medium. Both the optical system transfer function and effects of the medium of this development are discussed.

  13. Super-utilizers get red carpet treatment.

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    MetroHealth Medical Center in Cleveland has partnered with two health plans to provide intensive care coordination for high-cost patients with multiple medical problems and, often, behavioral health issues. Nurse practitioners at two primary care sites provide one-on-one care coordination for super-utilizers. They assess the patients' needs, help coordinate community resources, and prepare a treatment plan that is flagged when patients visit the emergency department. The nurse practitioners meet with health plan representatives monthly and brainstorm on ways to meet patients' needs.

  14. -MgO Melt by Super Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Juncheng; Guo, Zhancheng; Gao, Jintao; Li, Jingwei

    2014-08-01

    Perovskite phase was successfully separated from CaO-TiO2-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO melt by super gravity. Under the hypothesis that the titanium exists in the slag in terms of TiO2, with the gravity coefficient G = 600, time t = 5 minutes, and temperature T = 1563 K (1290 °C), the mass fraction of TiO2 in the concentrate is up to 52.94 pct, while that of the tailing is just 5.88 pct. The recovery ratio of Ti in the concentrate is up to 81.28 pct by centrifugal separation.

  15. From super beams to neutrino factories

    SciTech Connect

    Bross, Alan; /Fermilab

    2009-11-01

    The Neutrino Factory, which produces an extremely intense source of flavor-tagged neutrinos from muon decays in a storage ring, arguably gives the best physics reach for CP violation, as well as virtually all parameters in the neutrino oscillation parameter space. I will briefly describe the physics capabilities of the baseline Neutrino Factory as compared to other possible future facilities ({beta}-beam and super-beam facilities), give an overview of the accelerator complex and describe in detail the current international R&D program.

  16. Medical care at the Super Bowl.

    PubMed

    Ellis, J M

    2000-06-01

    Although coordinating medical care at the Super Bowl is something that we look forward to and have a lot of fun doing, we take it very seriously and understand the importance of delivering medical care at what many people consider to be the greatest sporting event in the world. It is certainly one of the most watched and recognized events in the world and because of this, we attempt to set up a system that will allow for the best medical care available and standardization of this medical care through our experience within Medical Sports Group.

  17. [Development of the legal abortion situation at the gynecologic hospital of Karl-Marx-University, Leipzig from 1.1.1960 to 30.6.1972].

    PubMed

    Schulz, S; Henning, G

    1973-07-13

    Statistics on legal abortions at the Women's Clinic, Karl Marx University, Leipzig, East Germany, are reported. Between 1960-June 30, 1972, there were 3955 abortions and 53,972 births. Of these, 1368 abortions and 1831 births occurred in 1972; a similar large increase in abortions has been reported from other socialist countries. Average age of patients was 30.6 years in 1960, 27.7 years in 1972. In 1960, 83.1% of patients were married, but only 66.4% in 1972. Average hospital stay was 10.3 days in 1960, 3.7 days in 1972. Complications were seen in 32.5% of cases in 1960, and in 8.3% in 1972. Statistics for each year, 1960-1972, are given, and the implications of this information for medical practice and social policy are discussed.

  18. [Profile and tasks of a medical university polyclinic in the past and present using as example the Medical Polyclinical Institutes of the Karl Marx University of Leipzig].

    PubMed

    Hambsch, K; Treutler, H; Pietruschka, W D

    1981-03-15

    After a short survey of the historical development of the Medico-Policlinical Institute of the Karl Marx University Leipzig tasks and developmental tendencies of university medical policlinics are described, evaluating hereby the results of the Vth conference of higher education. They are understood as a university representation of ambulatorily working internists and to a large extent of the specialists for general medicine. Their main tasks consist in education and continued professional training of this group of physicians under integrative description of the whole subject internal medicine, a research oriented to practice as well as a guiding and coordination function for the ambulatory internistic care, taking into particular consideration the early recognition of a disease, in primary and secondary prevention as well as in a scientifically based ambulatory therapy of epidemiologically important diseases.

  19. Marx in Narnia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Barrie; Sheppard, John

    1989-01-01

    Argues that teachers must understand the different values found in children's literature. Examines four aspects of values present in C. S. Lewis's "Chronicles of Narnia." Asserts that teachers must take responsibility for how such texts are received by young readers in the current multicultural, sexually equal society. (MM)

  20. Generalized recovery algorithm for 3D super-resolution microscopy using rotating point spread functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuang, Bo; Wang, Wenxiao; Shen, Hao; Tauzin, Lawrence J.; Flatebo, Charlotte; Chen, Jianbo; Moringo, Nicholas A.; Bishop, Logan D. C.; Kelly, Kevin F.; Landes, Christy F.

    2016-08-01

    Super-resolution microscopy with phase masks is a promising technique for 3D imaging and tracking. Due to the complexity of the resultant point spread functions, generalized recovery algorithms are still missing. We introduce a 3D super-resolution recovery algorithm that works for a variety of phase masks generating 3D point spread functions. A fast deconvolution process generates initial guesses, which are further refined by least squares fitting. Overfitting is suppressed using a machine learning determined threshold. Preliminary results on experimental data show that our algorithm can be used to super-localize 3D adsorption events within a porous polymer film and is useful for evaluating potential phase masks. Finally, we demonstrate that parallel computation on graphics processing units can reduce the processing time required for 3D recovery. Simulations reveal that, through desktop parallelization, the ultimate limit of real-time processing is possible. Our program is the first open source recovery program for generalized 3D recovery using rotating point spread functions.

  1. Generalized recovery algorithm for 3D super-resolution microscopy using rotating point spread functions

    PubMed Central

    Shuang, Bo; Wang, Wenxiao; Shen, Hao; Tauzin, Lawrence J.; Flatebo, Charlotte; Chen, Jianbo; Moringo, Nicholas A.; Bishop, Logan D. C.; Kelly, Kevin F.; Landes, Christy F.

    2016-01-01

    Super-resolution microscopy with phase masks is a promising technique for 3D imaging and tracking. Due to the complexity of the resultant point spread functions, generalized recovery algorithms are still missing. We introduce a 3D super-resolution recovery algorithm that works for a variety of phase masks generating 3D point spread functions. A fast deconvolution process generates initial guesses, which are further refined by least squares fitting. Overfitting is suppressed using a machine learning determined threshold. Preliminary results on experimental data show that our algorithm can be used to super-localize 3D adsorption events within a porous polymer film and is useful for evaluating potential phase masks. Finally, we demonstrate that parallel computation on graphics processing units can reduce the processing time required for 3D recovery. Simulations reveal that, through desktop parallelization, the ultimate limit of real-time processing is possible. Our program is the first open source recovery program for generalized 3D recovery using rotating point spread functions. PMID:27488312

  2. Generalized recovery algorithm for 3D super-resolution microscopy using rotating point spread functions.

    PubMed

    Shuang, Bo; Wang, Wenxiao; Shen, Hao; Tauzin, Lawrence J; Flatebo, Charlotte; Chen, Jianbo; Moringo, Nicholas A; Bishop, Logan D C; Kelly, Kevin F; Landes, Christy F

    2016-01-01

    Super-resolution microscopy with phase masks is a promising technique for 3D imaging and tracking. Due to the complexity of the resultant point spread functions, generalized recovery algorithms are still missing. We introduce a 3D super-resolution recovery algorithm that works for a variety of phase masks generating 3D point spread functions. A fast deconvolution process generates initial guesses, which are further refined by least squares fitting. Overfitting is suppressed using a machine learning determined threshold. Preliminary results on experimental data show that our algorithm can be used to super-localize 3D adsorption events within a porous polymer film and is useful for evaluating potential phase masks. Finally, we demonstrate that parallel computation on graphics processing units can reduce the processing time required for 3D recovery. Simulations reveal that, through desktop parallelization, the ultimate limit of real-time processing is possible. Our program is the first open source recovery program for generalized 3D recovery using rotating point spread functions.

  3. Generalized recovery algorithm for 3D super-resolution microscopy using rotating point spread functions.

    PubMed

    Shuang, Bo; Wang, Wenxiao; Shen, Hao; Tauzin, Lawrence J; Flatebo, Charlotte; Chen, Jianbo; Moringo, Nicholas A; Bishop, Logan D C; Kelly, Kevin F; Landes, Christy F

    2016-01-01

    Super-resolution microscopy with phase masks is a promising technique for 3D imaging and tracking. Due to the complexity of the resultant point spread functions, generalized recovery algorithms are still missing. We introduce a 3D super-resolution recovery algorithm that works for a variety of phase masks generating 3D point spread functions. A fast deconvolution process generates initial guesses, which are further refined by least squares fitting. Overfitting is suppressed using a machine learning determined threshold. Preliminary results on experimental data show that our algorithm can be used to super-localize 3D adsorption events within a porous polymer film and is useful for evaluating potential phase masks. Finally, we demonstrate that parallel computation on graphics processing units can reduce the processing time required for 3D recovery. Simulations reveal that, through desktop parallelization, the ultimate limit of real-time processing is possible. Our program is the first open source recovery program for generalized 3D recovery using rotating point spread functions. PMID:27488312

  4. Rayleigh-Taylor Instability and Excitation of Super-Dreicer Electric Fields in the Solar Chromosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitsev, V. V.; Kronshtadtov, P. V.; Stepanov, A. V.

    2016-09-01

    Within the framework of the long-standing so-called "number problem" in the physics of solar flares, we consider the excitation of a super-Dreicer electric field at the leading edge of the electric current pulse that occurs at the chromospheric legs of a coronal magnetic loop as a result of the magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability. It is shown that for a sufficiently strong electric current, I0 ≥ 10^{10} A, the current pulse propagates in the non-linear mode and generates a strong longitudinal electric field Ez, which strongly depends on the current ( Ez ∝ I03) and can exceed the Dreicer field ( Ez > ED). In this case, the bulk of electrons in the site of the current pulse is in a runaway mode, and the energy release rate in the chromosphere increases significantly. Super-Dreicer electric fields also provide injection of protons into the regime of acceleration by Langmuir turbulence generated by fast electrons at the leading edge of the electric current pulse. The electric field at the pulse edge can exceed the Dreicer field starting from the chromosphere level with the number density n ≈ 10^{13} cm^{-3}. At a lower current I0 < 10^{10} A, a super-Dreicer mode at the higher levels of the chromosphere with n < 10^{12} cm^{-3} occurs.

  5. Forecasting Financial Extremes: A Network Degree Measure of Super-Exponential Growth.

    PubMed

    Yan, Wanfeng; van Tuyll van Serooskerken, Edgar

    2015-01-01

    Investors in stock market are usually greedy during bull markets and scared during bear markets. The greed or fear spreads across investors quickly. This is known as the herding effect, and often leads to a fast movement of stock prices. During such market regimes, stock prices change at a super-exponential rate and are normally followed by a trend reversal that corrects the previous overreaction. In this paper, we construct an indicator to measure the magnitude of the super-exponential growth of stock prices, by measuring the degree of the price network, generated from the price time series. Twelve major international stock indices have been investigated. Error diagram tests show that this new indicator has strong predictive power for financial extremes, both peaks and troughs. By varying the parameters used to construct the error diagram, we show the predictive power is very robust. The new indicator has a better performance than the LPPL pattern recognition indicator.

  6. Mapping synaptic input fields of neurons with super-resolution imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sigal, Yaron M.; Speer, Colenso M.; Babcock, Hazen P.; Zhuang, Xiaowei

    2016-01-01

    Summary As a basic functional unit in neural circuits, each neuron integrates input signals from hundreds to thousands of synapses. Knowledge of the synaptic input fields of individual neurons, including the identity, strength and location of each synapse, is essential for understanding how neurons compute. Here we developed a volumetric super-resolution reconstruction platform for large-volume imaging and automated segmentation of neurons and synapses with molecular identity information. We used this platform to map inhibitory synaptic input fields of On-Off direction-selective ganglion cells (On-Off DSGCs), which are important for computing visual motion direction in the mouse retina. The reconstructions of On-Off DSGCs showed a GABAergic, receptor subtype-specific input field for generating direction selective responses without significant glycinergic inputs for mediating monosynaptic crossover inhibition. These results demonstrate unique capabilities of this super-resolution platform for interrogating neural circuitry. PMID:26435106

  7. Single-exposure super-resolved interferometric microscopy by red-green-blue multiplexing.

    PubMed

    Calabuig, Alejandro; Micó, Vicente; Garcia, Javier; Zalevsky, Zeev; Ferreira, Carlos

    2011-03-15

    We present single-exposure super-resolved interferometric microscopy (SESRIM) as a novel approach capable of providing one-dimensional (1-D) super-resolution (SR) imaging in holographic microscopy using a single illumination shot. The single-exposure SR working principle is achieved by combining angular and wavelength multiplexing incoming from a set of tilted beams with different wavelengths where each wavelength is tuned with the red-green-blue (RGB) channels of a color CCD. Thus, the information included in each color channel is retrieved by holographic recording using a single-color CCD capture and by analyzing the RGB channels. Finally, 1-D SR imaging is obtained after the digital postprocessing stage yielding the generation of a synthetic aperture. Experimental results are reported validating the proposed SESRIM approach while an extension of the proposed approach to the two-dimensional case is considered.

  8. Mapping Synaptic Input Fields of Neurons with Super-Resolution Imaging.

    PubMed

    Sigal, Yaron M; Speer, Colenso M; Babcock, Hazen P; Zhuang, Xiaowei

    2015-10-01

    As a basic functional unit in neural circuits, each neuron integrates input signals from hundreds to thousands of synapses. Knowledge of the synaptic input fields of individual neurons, including the identity, strength, and location of each synapse, is essential for understanding how neurons compute. Here, we developed a volumetric super-resolution reconstruction platform for large-volume imaging and automated segmentation of neurons and synapses with molecular identity information. We used this platform to map inhibitory synaptic input fields of On-Off direction-selective ganglion cells (On-Off DSGCs), which are important for computing visual motion direction in the mouse retina. The reconstructions of On-Off DSGCs showed a GABAergic, receptor subtype-specific input field for generating direction selective responses without significant glycinergic inputs for mediating monosynaptic crossover inhibition. These results demonstrate unique capabilities of this super-resolution platform for interrogating neural circuitry. PMID:26435106

  9. Forecasting Financial Extremes: A Network Degree Measure of Super-Exponential Growth.

    PubMed

    Yan, Wanfeng; van Tuyll van Serooskerken, Edgar

    2015-01-01

    Investors in stock market are usually greedy during bull markets and scared during bear markets. The greed or fear spreads across investors quickly. This is known as the herding effect, and often leads to a fast movement of stock prices. During such market regimes, stock prices change at a super-exponential rate and are normally followed by a trend reversal that corrects the previous overreaction. In this paper, we construct an indicator to measure the magnitude of the super-exponential growth of stock prices, by measuring the degree of the price network, generated from the price time series. Twelve major international stock indices have been investigated. Error diagram tests show that this new indicator has strong predictive power for financial extremes, both peaks and troughs. By varying the parameters used to construct the error diagram, we show the predictive power is very robust. The new indicator has a better performance than the LPPL pattern recognition indicator. PMID:26339793

  10. Forecasting Financial Extremes: A Network Degree Measure of Super-Exponential Growth

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Wanfeng; van Tuyll van Serooskerken, Edgar

    2015-01-01

    Investors in stock market are usually greedy during bull markets and scared during bear markets. The greed or fear spreads across investors quickly. This is known as the herding effect, and often leads to a fast movement of stock prices. During such market regimes, stock prices change at a super-exponential rate and are normally followed by a trend reversal that corrects the previous overreaction. In this paper, we construct an indicator to measure the magnitude of the super-exponential growth of stock prices, by measuring the degree of the price network, generated from the price time series. Twelve major international stock indices have been investigated. Error diagram tests show that this new indicator has strong predictive power for financial extremes, both peaks and troughs. By varying the parameters used to construct the error diagram, we show the predictive power is very robust. The new indicator has a better performance than the LPPL pattern recognition indicator. PMID:26339793

  11. Fabrication of optical multilayer for two-color phase plate in super-resolution microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Iketaki, Yoshinori; Kitagawa, Katsuichi; Hidaka, Kohjiro; Kato, Naoki; Hirabayashi, Akira; Bokor, Nandor

    2014-07-15

    In super-resolution microscopy based on fluorescence depletion, the two-color phase plate (TPP) is an indispensable optical element, which can independently control the phase shifts for two beams of different color, i.e., the pump and erase beams. By controlling a phase shift of the erase beam through the TPP, the erase beam can be modulated into a doughnut shape, while the pump beam maintains the initial Gaussian shape. To obtain a reliable optical multiplayer (ML) for the TPP, we designed a ML with only two optical layers by performing numerical optimization. The measured phase shifts generated by the fabricated ML using interferometry correspond to the design values. The beam profiles in the focal plane are also consistent with theoretical results. Although the fabricated ML consists of only two optical layers, the ML can provide a suitable phase modulation function for the TPP in a practical super-resolution microscope.

  12. Fabrication of optical multilayer for two-color phase plate in super-resolution microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iketaki, Yoshinori; Kitagawa, Katsuichi; Hidaka, Kohjiro; Kato, Naoki; Hirabayashi, Akira; Bokor, Nandor

    2014-07-01

    In super-resolution microscopy based on fluorescence depletion, the two-color phase plate (TPP) is an indispensable optical element, which can independently control the phase shifts for two beams of different color, i.e., the pump and erase beams. By controlling a phase shift of the erase beam through the TPP, the erase beam can be modulated into a doughnut shape, while the pump beam maintains the initial Gaussian shape. To obtain a reliable optical multiplayer (ML) for the TPP, we designed a ML with only two optical layers by performing numerical optimization. The measured phase shifts generated by the fabricated ML using interferometry correspond to the design values. The beam profiles in the focal plane are also consistent with theoretical results. Although the fabricated ML consists of only two optical layers, the ML can provide a suitable phase modulation function for the TPP in a practical super-resolution microscope.

  13. Onshore Transport of Large Nearshore Boulders during Super Typhoon Haiyan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, A. B.; Mori, N.; Zhang, Y.; Tajima, Y.; Pecor, W.; Yasuda, T.; Chen, S. E.; Nakamura, S.; Cruz, E.

    2014-12-01

    Super Typhoon Haiyan made a Philippines landfall in November, 2013 as one of the strongest storms in history. The coast of Eastern Samar Province has deep water very close to shore and experienced extreme wave conditions, with hindcast Hs>18m near landfall. These waves generated large shoreline runup, and caused severe damage to coastal communities even though hindcast storm surge was <1m at these locations. One consequence of the storm was the transport of very large (up to 5m length) boulders shoreward to elevations near 10m, where they were stranded as waves and surge diminished. This presentation describes a field survey of a boulder field on Calicoan Island, combined with Boussinesq simulation of the nearshore storm hydrodynamics and boulder transport modeling using a modified version of the Imamura et al. methodology. Results show highly intermittent shoreward boulder transport driven by infragravity runup, with both inertial and drag forces significant. Boulder transport distance was found to be sensitive to wave properties, enough so that it may in some instances be possible to estimate hydrodynamic properties of historical storms. The coastal boulder transport literature often features uncertainty about whether boulder fields with unknown origin were generated by storms or by tsunamis, and has suggested that coastal storms can not transport boulders very far inland. However, the present work demonstrates that the potential to transport large boulders far onshore to high inland elevations does not lie exclusively with tsunamis, but can also be achieved by strong tropical cyclones.

  14. Low energy neutrinos in Super-Kamiokande

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiya, Hiroyuki

    2016-05-01

    Super-Kamiokande (SK), a 50 kton water Cherenkov detector, observes 8B solar neutrinos via neutrino-electron elastic scattering. The analysis threshold was successfully lowered to 3.5 MeV (recoil electron kinetic energy) in SK-IV. To date SK has observed solar neutrinos for 18 years. An analysis regarding possible correlations between the solar neutrino flux and the 11 year solar activity cycle is shown. With large statistics, SK searches for distortions of the solar neutrino energy spectrum caused by the MSW resonance in the core of the sun. SK also searches for a day/night solar neutrino flux asymmetry induced by the matter in the Earth. The Super-Kamiokande Gd (SK-Gd) project is the upgrade of the SK detector via the addition of water-soluble gadolinium (Gd) salt. This modification will enable it to efficiently identify low energy anti-neutrinos. SK-Gd will pursue low energy physics currently inaccessible to SK due to backgrounds. The most important will be the world’s first observation of the diffuse supernova neutrino background. The main R&D program towards SK-Gd is EG ADS: a 200 ton, fully instrumented tank built in a new cavern in the Kamioka mine.

  15. The Supergranule Super-Rotation Illusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, David H.; Williams, Peter; Cuntz, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    Peculiar aspects of the rotation rate of the supergranules have been noted for over 20 years now. This has culminated in recent reports suggesting that the supergranules have wave-like characteristics and propagate prograde at a rate that exceeds that of the plasma anywhere below the surface. We have simulated supergranules that rotate at a rate that is independent of position or size and find that they appear to rotate at a more rapid rate. This super-rotation of the supergranules is seen in both cross-correlation and Fourier analyses of the Doppler velocity pattern. The amplitude of the rotation excess as a function of-size matches that seen in the Fourier analyses of MDI data. The source of this rotation excess is identified with the effect of projecting velocity signals into the line-of-sight. We conclude that supergranules are merely advected by the flow in the near-surface shear layer and that their apparent super-rotation does not indicate wave-like properties.

  16. Super-sample covariance in simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yin; Hu, Wayne; Takada, Masahiro

    2014-04-01

    Using separate universe simulations, we accurately quantify super-sample covariance (SSC), the typically dominant sampling error for matter power spectrum estimators in a finite volume, which arises from the presence of super survey modes. By quantifying the power spectrum response to a background mode, this approach automatically captures the separate effects of beat coupling in the quasilinear regime, halo sample variance in the nonlinear regime and a new dilation effect which changes scales in the power spectrum coherently across the survey volume, including the baryon acoustic oscillation scale. It models these effects at typically the few percent level or better with a handful of small volume simulations for any survey geometry compared with directly using many thousands of survey volumes in a suite of large-volume simulations. The stochasticity of the response is sufficiently small that in the quasilinear regime, SSC can be alternately included by fitting the mean density in the volume with these fixed templates in parameter estimation. We also test the halo model prescription and find agreement typically at better than the 10% level for the response.

  17. Parameters for a Super-Flavor-Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Seeman, J.T.; Cai, Y.; Ecklund, S.; Novokhatski, A.; Seryi, A.; Sullivan, M.; Wienands, U.; Biagini, M.; Raimondi, P.; /Frascati

    2006-06-27

    A Super Flavor Factory, an asymmetric energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider with a luminosity of order 10{sup 36} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, can provide a sensitive probe of new physics in the flavor sector of the Standard Model. The success of the PEP-II and KEKB asymmetric colliders in producing unprecedented luminosity above 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} has taught us about the accelerator physics of asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} collider in a new parameter regime. Furthermore, the success of the SLAC Linear Collider and the subsequent work on the International Linear Collider allow a new Super-Flavor collider to also incorporate linear collider techniques. This note describes the parameters of an asymmetric Flavor-Factory collider at a luminosity of order 10{sup 36} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} at the Y(4S) resonance and about 10{sup 35} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} at the {tau} production threshold. Such a collider would produce an integrated luminosity of about 10,000 fb{sup -1} (10 ab{sup -1}) in a running year (10{sup 7} sec) at the Y(4S) resonance. In the following note only the parameters relative to the Y(4S) resonance will be shown, the ones relative to the lower energy operations are still under study.

  18. ATMOSPHERES OF HOT SUPER-EARTHS

    SciTech Connect

    Castan, Thibaut; Menou, Kristen

    2011-12-20

    Hot super-Earths likely possess minimal atmospheres established through vapor saturation equilibrium with the ground. We solve the hydrodynamics of these tenuous atmospheres at the surface of CoRot-7b, Kepler-10b, and 55 Cnc-e, including idealized treatments of magnetic drag and ohmic dissipation. We find that atmospheric pressures remain close to their local saturation values in all cases. Despite the emergence of strongly supersonic winds which carry sublimating mass away from the substellar point, the atmospheres do not extend much beyond the day-night terminators. Ground temperatures, which determine the planetary thermal (infrared) signature, are largely unaffected by exchanges with the atmosphere and thus follow the effective irradiation pattern. Atmospheric temperatures, however, which control cloud condensation and thus albedo properties, can deviate substantially from the irradiation pattern. Magnetic drag and ohmic dissipation can also strongly impact the atmospheric behavior, depending on atmospheric composition and the planetary magnetic field strength. We conclude that hot super-Earths could exhibit interesting signatures in reflection (and possibly in emission) which would trace a combination of their ground, atmospheric, and magnetic properties.

  19. Convolutional Neural Network Based dem Super Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zixuan; Wang, Xuewen; Xu, Zekai; Hou, Wenguang

    2016-06-01

    DEM super resolution is proposed in our previous publication to improve the resolution for a DEM on basis of some learning examples. Meanwhile, the nonlocal algorithm is introduced to deal with it and lots of experiments show that the strategy is feasible. In our publication, the learning examples are defined as the partial original DEM and their related high measurements due to this way can avoid the incompatibility between the data to be processed and the learning examples. To further extent the applications of this new strategy, the learning examples should be diverse and easy to obtain. Yet, it may cause the problem of incompatibility and unrobustness. To overcome it, we intend to investigate a convolutional neural network based method. The input of the convolutional neural network is a low resolution DEM and the output is expected to be its high resolution one. A three layers model will be adopted. The first layer is used to detect some features from the input, the second integrates the detected features to some compressed ones and the final step transforms the compressed features as a new DEM. According to this designed structure, some learning DEMs will be taken to train it. Specifically, the designed network will be optimized by minimizing the error of the output and its expected high resolution DEM. In practical applications, a testing DEM will be input to the convolutional neural network and a super resolution will be obtained. Many experiments show that the CNN based method can obtain better reconstructions than many classic interpolation methods.

  20. Focusing DIRC Design for Super B

    SciTech Connect

    Va'Vra, J.; /SLAC

    2009-12-17

    In this paper we present a new design of the Focusing DIRC for the Barrel PID to be used at the proposed Super-B factory. The new imaging optics is made of a solid Fused Silica block with a double folded optics using two mirrors, one cylindrical and one flat, focusing photons on a detector plane conveniently accessible for the detector access. The design assumes that the BaBar bar boxes are re-used without any modification, including the wedges and windows. Each bar box will have its own focusing block, which will contain 40 H-9500 (or H-8500) MaPMTs according to present thinking. There are 12 bar boxes in the entire detector, so the entire SuperB FDIRC system would have 480 MaPMTs. The design is very compact and therefore reduces sensitivity to the background. The chosen MaPMTs are fast enough to be able both to reject the background and to perform the chromatic correction. The 3D optics simulation is coded with the Mathematica program. The work in this paper was a basis of the LDRD proposal made to SLAC in 2009 [1].

  1. Super Sensitive Mass Detection in Nonlinear Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizi, Saber; Ahmadian, Iman; Cetinkaya, Cetin; Rezazadeh, Ghader

    2015-11-01

    Nonlinear dynamics of a clamped-clamped micro-beam exposed to a two sided electrostatic actuation is investigated to determine super sensitive regions for mass detection. The objective is to investigate the sensitivity of the frequency spectrum of various regions in the phase space to the added mass and force the system to operate in its super sensitive regions by applying an appropriate pulse to its control electrodes. The electrostatic actuation in the top electrode is a combination of a DC, AC and a pulse voltage, the excitation on the lower electrode is only a DC and a pulse voltage. The governing equation of the motion, derived using the Hamiltonian principle, is discretized to an equivalent single-degree of freedom system using the Galerkin method. Depending on the applied electrostatic voltage to the micro-beam, it is demonstrated that the number and types of equilibrium points of the system can be modified. In this study, the level of the DC electrostatic voltage is chosen such a way that the system has three equilibrium points including two centers and a saddle node where the homoclinic orbit originates. According to the reported results, the mass sensing sensitivity depends on the operating orbit; some orbits exhibit considerably higher mass detection sensitivity to the added mass compared to that of a typical quartz crystal micro balance instrument.

  2. Exploring the Diversity of Super-Earths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benneke, Björn; Crossfield, Ian; Knutson, Heather; Lothringer, Joshua; Dragomir, Diana; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Howard, Andrew; McCullough, Peter R.; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Kempton, Eliza; Morley, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of planets with masses and radii intermediate between Earth and Neptune was one of the biggest surprises in the brief history of exoplanet science. These "super-Earths" are an order of magnitude more abundant than close-in giant planets. Despite this ubiquity, we know little about their typical compositions and formation histories. Spectroscopic transit observations can shed new light on these mysterious worlds by probing their atmospheric compositions. In this talk, we will give an overview of our ongoing 124-orbit (200-hour) Hubble Space Telescope program to reveal the chemical diversity and formation histories of super-Earths. This unprecedented survey will provide the first comprehensive look at this intriguing new class of planets ranging from 1 Neptune mass and temperatures close to 2000K to a 1 Earth mass planet near the habitable zone of its host star. We will discuss the scope of the program, demonstrate observational techniques to observe extremely bright exoplanet targets with HST WFC3 and STIS, and present early results.

  3. Facile fabrication of super-hydrophobic nano-needle arrays via breath figures method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jiseok; Lew, Brian; Kim, Woo Soo

    2011-12-01

    Super-hydrophobic surfaces which have been fabricated by various methods such as photolithography, chemical treatment, self-assembly, and imprinting have gained enormous attention in recent years. Especially 2D arrays of nano-needles have been shown to have super-hydrophobicity due to their sharp surface roughness. These arrays can be easily generated by removing the top portion of the honeycomb films prepared by the breath figures method. The hydrophilic block of an amphiphilic polymer helps in the fabrication of the nano-needle arrays through the production of well-ordered honeycomb films and good adhesion of the film to a substrate. Anisotropic patterns with water wettability difference can be useful for patterning cells and other materials using their selective growth on the hydrophilic part of the pattern. However, there has not been a simple way to generate patterns with highly different wettability. Mechanical stamping of the nano-needle array with a polyurethane stamp might be the simplest way to fabricate patterns with wettability difference. In this study, super-hydrophobic nano-needle arrays were simply fabricated by removing the top portion of the honeycomb films. The maximum water contact angle obtained with the nano-needle array was 150°. By controlling the pore size and the density of the honeycomb films, the height, width, and density of nano-needle arrays were determined. Anisotropic patterns with different wettability were fabricated by simply pressing the nano-needle array at ambient temperature with polyurethane stamps which were flexible but tough. Mechanical stamping of nano-needle arrays with micron patterns produced hierarchical super-hydrophobic structures. PACS: 05.70.Np, 68.55.am, 68.55.jm

  4. Multimedia C for Remote Language Teaching over SuperJANET.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, E.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes work carried out as part of a remote language teaching research investigation, which is looking into the use of multicast, multimedia conferencing over SuperJANET. The fundamental idea is to investigate the feasibility of sharing language teaching resources among universities within the United Kingdom by using the broadband SuperJANET…

  5. A Super Contribution to Vocational Theory: Work Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zytowski, Donald G.

    1994-01-01

    Traces influence of Donald Super in introducing work values into career development/vocational theory. Reviews conceptualization, taxonomy, and assessment of work values. Presents research bearing on Super's "onion model," representing his views on relationship of work values to other affective variables. Reviews research regarding functional role…

  6. Super-Group Field Cosmology in Batalin-Vilkovisky Formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyay, Sudhaker

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we study the third quantized super-group field cosmology, a model in multiverse scenario, in Batalin-Vilkovisky (BV) formulation. Further, we propose the superfield/super-antifield dependent BRST symmetry transformations. Within this formulation we establish connection between the two different solutions of the quantum master equation within the BV formulation.

  7. The salt-responsive transcriptome of chickpea roots and nodules via deepSuperSAGE

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The combination of high-throughput transcript profiling and next-generation sequencing technologies is a prerequisite for genome-wide comprehensive transcriptome analysis. Our recent innovation of deepSuperSAGE is based on an advanced SuperSAGE protocol and its combination with massively parallel pyrosequencing on Roche's 454 sequencing platform. As a demonstration of the power of this combination, we have chosen the salt stress transcriptomes of roots and nodules of the third most important legume crop chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). While our report is more technology-oriented, it nevertheless addresses a major world-wide problem for crops generally: high salinity. Together with low temperatures and water stress, high salinity is responsible for crop losses of millions of tons of various legume (and other) crops. Continuously deteriorating environmental conditions will combine with salinity stress to further compromise crop yields. As a good example for such stress-exposed crop plants, we started to characterize salt stress responses of chickpeas on the transcriptome level. Results We used deepSuperSAGE to detect early global transcriptome changes in salt-stressed chickpea. The salt stress responses of 86,919 transcripts representing 17,918 unique 26 bp deepSuperSAGE tags (UniTags) from roots of the salt-tolerant variety INRAT-93 two hours after treatment with 25 mM NaCl were characterized. Additionally, the expression of 57,281 transcripts representing 13,115 UniTags was monitored in nodules of the same plants. From a total of 144,200 analyzed 26 bp tags in roots and nodules together, 21,401 unique transcripts were identified. Of these, only 363 and 106 specific transcripts, respectively, were commonly up- or down-regulated (>3.0-fold) under salt stress in both organs, witnessing a differential organ-specific response to stress. Profiting from recent pioneer works on massive cDNA sequencing in chickpea, more than 9,400 UniTags were able to be linked to

  8. An expression of interest in a Super Fixed Target Beauty Facility (SFT) at the Superconducting Super Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-05-25

    The concept of a Super Fixed Target Beauty Facility (SFT) which uses a relatively low intensity 20 TeV proton beam as a generator of very high momenta B's is an exciting prospect which is very competitive with other B factory ideas. The yields of B's in such a facility are quite high (3 {times} 10{sup 10} {yields} 10{sup 11} B's per year). At this level of statistics, CP violation measurements will be possible in many modes. In addition, the fixed target configuration, because of the high momenta of the produced B's and the resulting long decay lengths, facilitates the detection and reconstruction of B's and offers unique opportunities for observation of the B decays. The limited solid angle coverage required for the fixed target spectrometer makes the cost of the facility much cheaper than other e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} or hadron collider options under consideration. The relatively low intensity 20 TeV beam (1 {yields} 2 {times} 10{sup 8} protons/second) needed for the SFT makes it possible to consider an extraction system which operates concurrently and in a non-interfering manner with the other collider experiments. One possible method for generating such a beam, crystal channeling, is discussed.

  9. Scalar Readout Model for Super-Rens Focused Spot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assafrao, A. C.; Pereira, S. F.; Urbach, H. P.

    2011-12-01

    A scalar readout model is presented to investigate the readout characteristics of the super resolution near field (SRens) disc. The super resolution effect is described by means of a threshold model, where the super resolution material imparts a phase change on the focused spot if the laser density energy is high enough to trigger the SRens effect. This approach results in a very fast way of computing the basic characteristics of the SRens readout signal, being suitable for large investigations. Moreover, many simulation results have been experimentally confirmed by other groups, which further validates the model. Thus, this simplified model is an useful tool for a better comprehension of the readout signal of the super resolution effect in optical data storage and other super resolution applications.

  10. Classical imaging theory of a microlens with super-resolution.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yubo; Barbastathis, George; Zhang, Baile

    2013-08-15

    Super-resolution in imaging through a transparent spherical microlens has attracted lots of attention because of recent promising experimental results with remarkable resolution improvement. To provide physical insight for this super-resolution phenomenon, previous studies adopted a phenomenological explanation mainly based on the super-focusing effect of a photonic nanojet, while a direct imaging calculation with classical imaging theory has rarely been studied. Here we theoretically model the imaging process through a microlens with vectorial electromagnetic analysis, and then exclude the previously plausible explanation of super-resolution based on the super-focusing effect. The results showed that, in the context of classical imaging theory subject to the two-point resolution criterion, a microlens with a perfect spherical shape cannot achieve the experimentally verified sub-100 nm resolution. Therefore, there must be some other physical mechanisms that contribute to the reported ultrahigh resolution but have not been revealed in theory.

  11. Head-Tail Instability of a Super-bunch

    SciTech Connect

    Shimosaki, Yoshito; Toyama, Takeshi; Takayama, Ken

    2005-06-08

    Super-bunch acceleration is a key concept in an induction synchrotron. In the induction synchrotron, super-bunches confined in the longitudinal direction by a pair of barrier voltages are accelerated with long induction step voltage pulses. Synchrotron oscillation of the super-bunch is notable, which consists of long drifting between the barriers and quick reflection in the barrier regions. This is apparently distinguished from that of the conventional RF bunch, which is the pendulum oscillation. This property has been supposed to bring about qualitatively different features in the head-tail instability of the super-bunch. Recently the head-tail instability of the super-bunch has been systematically examined. In this paper, the preliminary results of macro-particle simulations is reported.

  12. Classical imaging theory of a microlens with super-resolution.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yubo; Barbastathis, George; Zhang, Baile

    2013-08-15

    Super-resolution in imaging through a transparent spherical microlens has attracted lots of attention because of recent promising experimental results with remarkable resolution improvement. To provide physical insight for this super-resolution phenomenon, previous studies adopted a phenomenological explanation mainly based on the super-focusing effect of a photonic nanojet, while a direct imaging calculation with classical imaging theory has rarely been studied. Here we theoretically model the imaging process through a microlens with vectorial electromagnetic analysis, and then exclude the previously plausible explanation of super-resolution based on the super-focusing effect. The results showed that, in the context of classical imaging theory subject to the two-point resolution criterion, a microlens with a perfect spherical shape cannot achieve the experimentally verified sub-100 nm resolution. Therefore, there must be some other physical mechanisms that contribute to the reported ultrahigh resolution but have not been revealed in theory. PMID:24104628

  13. Molecules and Methods for Super-Resolution Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Michael A.; Biteen, Julie S.; Lord, Samuel J.; Conley, Nicholas R.; Moerner, W. E.

    2011-01-01

    By looking at a fluorescently labeled structure one molecule at a time, it is possible to side-step the optical diffraction limit and obtain “super-resolution” images of small nanostructures. In the Moerner Lab, we seek to develop both molecules and methods to extend super-resolution fluorescence imaging. Methodologies and protocols for designing and characterizing fluorophores with switchable fluorescence required for super-resolution imaging are reported. These fluorophores include azido-DCDHF molecules, covalently linked Cy3–Cy5 dimers, and also the first example of a photoswitchable fluorescent protein, enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP). The imaging of protein superstructures in living Caulobacter crescentus bacteria is used as an example of the power of super-resolution imaging by single-molecule photoswitching to extract information beyond the diffraction limit. Finally, a new method is described for obtaining three-dimensional super-resolution information using a double-helix point-spread function. PMID:20627152

  14. Super Enhancers in Cancers, Complex Disease, and Developmental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Niederriter, Adrienne R.; Varshney, Arushi; Parker, Stephen C. J.; Martin, Donna M.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, unique areas of transcriptional regulation termed super-enhancers have been identified and implicated in human disease. Defined by their magnitude of size, transcription factor density, and binding of transcriptional machinery, super-enhancers have been associated with genes driving cell differentiation. While their functions are not completely understood, it is clear that these regions driving high-level transcription are susceptible to perturbation, and trait-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) occur within super-enhancers of disease-relevant cell types. Here we review evidence for super-enhancer involvement in cancers, complex diseases, and developmental disorders and discuss interactions between super-enhancers and cofactors/chromatin regulators. PMID:26569311

  15. 75 FR 77670 - SuperMedia, LLC, Formerly Known as Idearc Media, LLC, a Subsidiary of SuperMedia Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... the Federal Register on October 25, 2010 (75 FR 65515). Workers at the subject firm are engaged in... Employment and Training Administration SuperMedia, LLC, Formerly Known as Idearc Media, LLC, a Subsidiary of SuperMedia Information Services, LLC Publishing Group, Troy, NY; Notice of Revised Determination...

  16. Galactic Super-volcano in Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-08-01

    A galactic "super-volcano" in the massive galaxy M87 is erupting and blasting gas outwards, as witnessed by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and NSF's Very Large Array. The cosmic volcano is being driven by a giant black hole in the galaxy's center and preventing hundreds of millions of new stars from forming. Astronomers studying this black hole and its effects have been struck by the remarkable similarities between it and a volcano in Iceland that made headlines earlier this year. At a distance of about 50 million light years, M87 is relatively close to Earth and lies at the center of the Virgo cluster, which contains thousands of galaxies. M87's location, coupled with long observations over Chandra's lifetime, has made it an excellent subject for investigations of how a massive black hole impacts its environment. "Our results show in great detail that supermassive black holes have a surprisingly good control over the evolution of the galaxies in which they live," said Norbert Werner of the Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology at Stanford University and the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, who led one of two papers describing the study. "And it doesn't stop there. The black hole's reach extends ever farther into the entire cluster, similar to how one small volcano can affect practically an entire hemisphere on Earth." The cluster surrounding M87 is filled with hot gas glowing in X-ray light, which is detected by Chandra. As this gas cools, it can fall toward the galaxy's center where it should continue to cool even faster and form new stars. However, radio observations with the Very Large Array suggest that in M87 jets of very energetic particles produced by the black hole interrupt this process. These jets lift up the relatively cool gas near the center of the galaxy and produce shock waves in the galaxy's atmosphere because of their supersonic speed. The scientists involved in this research have found the interaction of this cosmic

  17. Galactic Super-volcano in Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-08-01

    A galactic "super-volcano" in the massive galaxy M87 is erupting and blasting gas outwards, as witnessed by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and NSF's Very Large Array. The cosmic volcano is being driven by a giant black hole in the galaxy's center and preventing hundreds of millions of new stars from forming. Astronomers studying this black hole and its effects have been struck by the remarkable similarities between it and a volcano in Iceland that made headlines earlier this year. At a distance of about 50 million light years, M87 is relatively close to Earth and lies at the center of the Virgo cluster, which contains thousands of galaxies. M87's location, coupled with long observations over Chandra's lifetime, has made it an excellent subject for investigations of how a massive black hole impacts its environment. "Our results show in great detail that supermassive black holes have a surprisingly good control over the evolution of the galaxies in which they live," said Norbert Werner of the Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology at Stanford University and the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, who led one of two papers describing the study. "And it doesn't stop there. The black hole's reach extends ever farther into the entire cluster, similar to how one small volcano can affect practically an entire hemisphere on Earth." The cluster surrounding M87 is filled with hot gas glowing in X-ray light, which is detected by Chandra. As this gas cools, it can fall toward the galaxy's center where it should continue to cool even faster and form new stars. However, radio observations with the Very Large Array suggest that in M87 jets of very energetic particles produced by the black hole interrupt this process. These jets lift up the relatively cool gas near the center of the galaxy and produce shock waves in the galaxy's atmosphere because of their supersonic speed. The scientists involved in this research have found the interaction of this cosmic

  18. The SuperCDMS Soudan high threshold WIMP search and the planned SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calkins, R.; SuperCDMS collaboration

    2016-05-01

    There is ample evidence that visible matter cannot account for a large component of the mass in the universe. Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) are one popular hypothesis to account for the missing mass. The Super Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (SuperCDMS) experiment is designed to directly detect WIMPs through interactions with a nucleus in a target crystal. The SuperCDMS detectors are instrumented with phonon and charge sensors, enabling excellent rejection of electron-recoil backgrounds. Approximately 3000 kg-days of exposure have been collected with the SuperCDMS Soudan experiment. We will describe the search for WIMPs with masses between 10-100 GeV and work towards the SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment.

  19. Selection of quasi-monodisperse super-micron aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rösch, Michael; Pfeifer, Sascha; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Stratmann, Frank

    2014-05-01

    Size-segregated quasi monodisperse particles are essential for e.g. fundamental research concerning cloud microphysical processes. Commonly a DMA (Differential Mobility Analyzer) is used to produce quasi-monodisperse submicron particles. Thereto first, polydisperse aerosol particles are bipolarly charged by a neutralizer, and then selected according to their electrical mobility with the DMA [Knutson et al. 1975]. Selecting a certain electrical mobility with a DMA results in a particle size distribution, which contains singly charged particles as well as undesired multiply charged larger particles. Often these larger particles need to either be removed from the generated aerosol or their signals have to be corrected for in the data inversion and interpretation process. This problem becomes even more serious when considering super-micron particles. Here we will present two different techniques for generating quasi-monodisperse super-micron aerosol particles with no or only an insignificant number of larger sized particles being present. First, we use a combination of a cyclone with adjustable aerodynamic cut-off diameter and our custom-built Maxi-DMA [Raddatz et al. 2013]. The cyclone removes particles larger than the desired ones prior to mobility selection with the DMA. This results in a reduction of the number of multiply charged particles of up to 99.8%. Second, we utilize a new combination of cyclone and PCVI (Pumped Counterflow Virtual Impactor), which is based on purely inertial separation and avoids particle charging. The PCVI instrument was previously described by Boulter et al. (2006) and Kulkarni et al. (2011). With our two setups we are able to produce quasi-monodisperse aerosol particles in the diameter range from 0.5 to 4.4 µm without a significant number of larger undesired particles being present. Acknowledgements: This work was done within the framework of the DFG funded Ice Nucleation research UnIT (INUIT, FOR 1525) under WE 4722/1-1. References

  20. A super-Li rich turnoff star in NGC 6397 - the puzzle persists.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, A.; Lind, K.; Thompson, I. B.; Rich, R. M.

    This presentation focuses on a recently discovered super-Li rich turnoff star in the old, metal poor globular cluster NGC 6397 (Koch et al. 2011, ApJL, 738, L29). Its unusually high NLTE lithium abundance of A(7Li) = 4.21, the highest Li enhancement found in a Galactic GC dwarf star to date, has defied any unambiguous explanation through canonical enrichment channels. Spectra of the star show no convincing evidence for binarity, and measured line strengths and chemical element abundance ratios are fully compatible with other turnoff stars in this GC, seemingly ruling out mass transfer from an AGB companion as origin of the high A(Li). A possible cause is an interaction with a red giant that has undergone cool bottom processing.

  1. What is so super about super-emitters? Characterizing methane high emitters from natural gas infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavala Araiza, D.; Lyon, D. R.; Alvarez, R.; Harriss, R. C.; Palacios, V.; Hamburg, S.

    2015-12-01

    Methane emissions across the natural gas supply chain are dominated at any one time by a few high-emitters (super-emitters or fat-tail of the distribution), often underrepresented in published datasets used to construct emission inventories. Characterization of high-emitters is essential for improving emission estimates based on atmospheric data (top-down) and emission inventories (bottom-up). The population of high-emitters (e.g. 10-20% of sites that account for 80-90% of the emissions) is temporally and spatially dynamic. As a consequence, it is challenging to design sampling methods and construct estimates that accurately represent their frequency and magnitude of emissions. We present new methods to derive facility-specific emission distribution functions that explicitly integrate the influence of the relatively rare super-emitters. These methods were applied in the Barnett Shale region to construct a custom emission inventory that is then compared to top-down emission estimates for the region. We offer a methodological framework relevant to the design of future sampling campaigns, in which these high-emitters are seamlessly incorporated to representative emissions distributions. This framework can be applied to heterogeneous oil and gas production regions across geographies to obtain accurate regional emission estimates. Additionally, we characterize emissions relative to the fraction of a facility's total methane throughput; an effective metric to identify sites with excess emissions resulting from avoidable operating conditions, such as malfunctioning equipment (defined here as functional super-emitters). This work suggests that identifying functional super-emitters and correcting their avoidable operating conditions would result in significant emission reductions. However, due to their spatiotemporal dynamic behavior, achieving and maintaining uniformly low emissions across the entire population of sites will require mitigation steps (e.g. leak detection

  2. Crystal Structure of a Super Leucine Zipper an Extended Two-Stranded Super Long Coiled Coil

    SciTech Connect

    J Diao

    2011-12-31

    Coiled coil is a ubiquitous structural motif in proteins, with two to seven alpha helices coiled together like the strands of a rope, and coiled coil folding and assembly is not completely understood. A GCN4 leucine zipper mutant with four mutations of K3A, D7A, Y17W, and H18N has been designed, and the crystal structure has been determined at 1.6 {angstrom} resolution. The peptide monomer shows a helix trunk with short curved N- and C-termini. In the crystal, two monomers cross in 35{sup o} and form an X-shaped dimer, and each X-shaped dimer is welded into the next one through sticky hydrophobic ends, thus forming an extended two-stranded, parallel, super long coiled coil rather than a discrete, two-helix coiled coil of the wild-type GCN4 leucine zipper. Leucine residues appear at every seventh position in the super long coiled coil, suggesting that it is an extended super leucine zipper. Compared to the wild-type leucine zipper, the N-terminus of the mutant has a dramatic conformational change and the C-terminus has one more residue Glu 32 determined. The mutant X-shaped dimer has a large crossing angle of 35{sup o} instead of 18{sup o} in the wild-type dimer. The results show a novel assembly mode and oligomeric state of coiled coil, and demonstrate that mutations may affect folding and assembly of the overall coiled coil. Analysis of the formation mechanism of the super long coiled coil may help understand and design self-assembling protein fibers.

  3. Super Safety and Health Day at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Employees gather around a demonstration by Florida Power and Light during Super Safety and Health Day at KSC. Safety Day is a full day of NASA-sponsored, KSC and 45th Space Wing events involving a number of health- and safety-related activities: Displays, vendors, technical paper sessions, panel discussions, a keynote speaker, etc. The entire Center and Wing stand down to participate in the planned events. Safety Day is held annually to proactively increase awareness in safety and health among the government and contractor workforce population. The first guiding principle at KSC is '''Safety and Health First.''' KSC's number one goal is to '''Assure sound, safe and efficient practices and processes are in place for privatized/commercialized launch site processing.'''

  4. THE BNL SUPER NEUTRINO BEAM PROJECT.

    SciTech Connect

    RAPARIA,D.

    2005-01-26

    BNL plans to create a very long base line super neutrino beam facility by upgrading the AGS from the current 0.14 MW to 1.0 MW and beyond. The proposed facility consists of three major components. First is a 1.5 GeV superconducting linac to replace the booster as injector for the AGS, second is the performance upgrade of the AGS itself for higher intensity and repetition rate, and finally is the target and horn system for the neutrino production. The major contribution for the higher power is from the increase of the repetition rate of the AGS from 0.3 Hz to 2.5 Hz, with moderate increase from the intensity. The accelerator design considerations to achieve high intensity and low losses for the new linac and the AGS will be presented. The target and horn design for high power operation and easy maintenance will also be covered.

  5. Super-crystals in composite ferroelectrics

    PubMed Central

    Pierangeli, D.; Ferraro, M.; Di Mei, F.; Di Domenico, G.; de Oliveira, C. E. M.; Agranat, A. J.; DelRe, E.

    2016-01-01

    As atoms and molecules condense to form solids, a crystalline state can emerge with its highly ordered geometry and subnanometric lattice constant. In some physical systems, such as ferroelectric perovskites, a perfect crystalline structure forms even when the condensing substances are non-stoichiometric. The resulting solids have compositional disorder and complex macroscopic properties, such as giant susceptibilities and non-ergodicity. Here, we observe the spontaneous formation of a cubic structure in composite ferroelectric potassium–lithium–tantalate–niobate with micrometric lattice constant, 104 times larger than that of the underlying perovskite lattice. The 3D effect is observed in specifically designed samples in which the substitutional mixture varies periodically along one specific crystal axis. Laser propagation indicates a coherent polarization super-crystal that produces an optical X-ray diffractometry, an ordered mesoscopic state of matter with important implications for critical phenomena and applications in miniaturized 3D optical technologies. PMID:26907725

  6. SuperB Muon Detector Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-11-01

    The test objective is to optimize the muon identification in an experiment at a Super B Factory. To accomplish this, experimenters will study the muon identification capability of a detector with different iron configurations at different beam energies. The detector is a full scale prototype, composed of a stack of iron tiles. The segmentation of the iron allows the study of different configurations. Between the tiles, one or two extruded scintillator slabs can be inserted to test two different readout options; a Binary Readout and a Time Readout. In the Binary Readout option the two coordinates are given by the two orthogonal scintillator bars, and the spatial resolution is driven by the bar width. In the Time Readout option one coordinate is determined by the scintillator position and the other by the arrival time of the signal read with a TDC.

  7. Super-Resonant Intracavity Coherent Absorption

    PubMed Central

    Malara, P.; Campanella, C. E.; Giorgini, A.; Avino, S.; De Natale, P.; Gagliardi, G.

    2016-01-01

    The capability of optical resonators to extend the effective radiation-matter interaction length originates from a multipass effect, hence is intrinsically limited by the resonator’s quality factor. Here, we show that this constraint can be overcome by combining the concepts of resonant interaction and coherent perfect absorption (CPA). We demonstrate and investigate super-resonant coherent absorption in a coupled Fabry-Perot (FP)/ring cavity structure. At the FP resonant wavelengths, the described phenomenon gives rise to split modes with a nearly-transparent peak and a peak whose transmission is exceptionally sensitive to the intracavity loss. For small losses, the effective interaction pathlength of these modes is proportional respectively to the ratio and the product of the individual finesse coefficients of the two resonators. The results presented extend the conventional definition of resonant absorption and point to a way of circumventing the technological limitations of ultrahigh-quality resonators in spectroscopy and optical sensing schemes. PMID:27364475

  8. Super-crystals in composite ferroelectrics.

    PubMed

    Pierangeli, D; Ferraro, M; Di Mei, F; Di Domenico, G; de Oliveira, C E M; Agranat, A J; DelRe, E

    2016-01-01

    As atoms and molecules condense to form solids, a crystalline state can emerge with its highly ordered geometry and subnanometric lattice constant. In some physical systems, such as ferroelectric perovskites, a perfect crystalline structure forms even when the condensing substances are non-stoichiometric. The resulting solids have compositional disorder and complex macroscopic properties, such as giant susceptibilities and non-ergodicity. Here, we observe the spontaneous formation of a cubic structure in composite ferroelectric potassium-lithium-tantalate-niobate with micrometric lattice constant, 10(4) times larger than that of the underlying perovskite lattice. The 3D effect is observed in specifically designed samples in which the substitutional mixture varies periodically along one specific crystal axis. Laser propagation indicates a coherent polarization super-crystal that produces an optical X-ray diffractometry, an ordered mesoscopic state of matter with important implications for critical phenomena and applications in miniaturized 3D optical technologies.

  9. A Super-Resolution Laser Altimetry Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Xiaomei; Hu, Yongxiang; Trepte, Charles; Liu, Zhaoyan

    2014-01-01

    A super-resolution laser altimetry technique has been proposed to provide improved lidar altimetry from Cloud Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) lidar data, and it is applicable to other similar atmospheric profiling lidar with low-pass filters. To achieve high altimetry resolution, the new technique relies on an empirical relationship between the peak signal ratio and the distance between land surface and the peak signal range bin center, which is directly derived from the CALIPSO lidar measurements and does not require the CALIPSO's transient response. The CALIPSO surface elevation results in Northern America retrieved by the new technique agree with the National Elevation Database high resolution elevation maps, and the comparisons suggest that the precision of the technique is much better than 1.4 m. The preliminary data product of land surface elevation retrieved by the new technique from CALIPSO lidar measurements is available to the altimetry community for evaluation.

  10. Super-Resonant Intracavity Coherent Absorption.

    PubMed

    Malara, P; Campanella, C E; Giorgini, A; Avino, S; De Natale, P; Gagliardi, G

    2016-01-01

    The capability of optical resonators to extend the effective radiation-matter interaction length originates from a multipass effect, hence is intrinsically limited by the resonator's quality factor. Here, we show that this constraint can be overcome by combining the concepts of resonant interaction and coherent perfect absorption (CPA). We demonstrate and investigate super-resonant coherent absorption in a coupled Fabry-Perot (FP)/ring cavity structure. At the FP resonant wavelengths, the described phenomenon gives rise to split modes with a nearly-transparent peak and a peak whose transmission is exceptionally sensitive to the intracavity loss. For small losses, the effective interaction pathlength of these modes is proportional respectively to the ratio and the product of the individual finesse coefficients of the two resonators. The results presented extend the conventional definition of resonant absorption and point to a way of circumventing the technological limitations of ultrahigh-quality resonators in spectroscopy and optical sensing schemes. PMID:27364475

  11. Simulating Super Earth Atmospheres in the Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claudi, R.; Erculiani, S. M.

    2014-03-01

    The "Atmosphere in a Test Tube" project is a laboratory experiment that will be able to reproduce condition of extreme environments by means of a simulator. These conditions span from those existing inside some parts of the human body to combinations of temperatures, pressures, irradiation and atmospheric gases present on other planets. In this latter case the experiments to be performed will be useful as preliminary tests for both simulation of atmosphere of exoplanets and Solar System planets and Astrobiology experiments that should be performed by planetary landers or by instruments to be launched in the next years. In particular at INAF Astronomical Observatory of Padova Laboratory we are approaching the characterization of extrasolar planet atmospheres taking advantage by innovative laboratory experiments with a particular focus on low mass Neptunes and Super earths and low mass M dwarfs primaries.

  12. Super Safety and Health Day at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    -- In the Training Auditorium at KSC, Center Director Roy Bridges addresses attendees at a presentation for Super Safety and Health Day. Safety Day is a full day of NASA-sponsored, KSC and 45th Space Wing events involving a number of health and safety related activities: Displays, vendors, technical paper sessions, panel discussions, a keynote speaker, etc. The entire Center and Wing stand down to participate in the planned events. Safety Day is held annually to proactively increase awareness in safety and health among the government and contractor workforce population. The first guiding principle at KSC is '''Safety and Health First.''' KSC's number one goal is to '''Assure sound, safe and efficient practices and processes are in place for privatized/commercialized launch site processing.'''

  13. Super Safety and Health Day at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    During Super Safety and Health Day at KSC, keynote speaker Dr. Beck Weathers is given a memento of his visit by Center Director Roy Bridges. Weathers spoke about his ordeal of surviving the 1996 Mt. Everest disaster and the lessons learned from the experience. Safety Day is a full day of NASA-sponsored, KSC and 45th Space Wing events involving a number of health and safety related activities: Displays, vendors, technical paper sessions, panel discussions, a keynote speaker, etc. The entire Center and Wing stand down to participate in the planned events. Safety Day is held annually to proactively increase awareness in safety and health among the government and contractor workforce population. The first guiding principle at KSC is '''Safety and Health First.''' KSC's number one goal is to '''Assure sound, safe and efficient practices and processes are in place for privatized/commercialized launch site processing.'''

  14. Super Safety and Health Day at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    During Super Safety and Health Day at KSC, keynote speaker Dr. Beck Weathers grimaces over the satellite photo of Mt. Everest being presented by Center Director Roy Bridges. Weathers spoke about his ordeal of surviving the 1996 Mt. Everest disaster and the lessons learned from the experience. Safety Day is a full day of NASA-sponsored, KSC and 45th Space Wing events involving a number of health and safety related activities: Displays, vendors, technical paper sessions, panel discussions, a keynote speaker, etc. The entire Center and Wing stand down to participate in the planned events. Safety Day is held annually to proactively increase awareness in safety and health among the government and contractor workforce population. The first guiding principle at KSC is '''Safety and Health First.''' KSC's number one goal is to '''Assure sound, safe and efficient practices and processes are in place for privatized/commercialized launch site processing.'''

  15. Super Safety and Health Day at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Center Director Roy Bridges talks to workers outside the Hazardous Maintenance Facility during Super Safety and Health Day at KSC. Safety Day is a full day of NASA-sponsored, KSC and 45th Space Wing events involving a number of health and safety related activities: Displays, vendors, technical paper sessions, panel discussions, a keynote speaker, etc. The entire Center and Wing stand down to participate in the planned events. Safety Day is held annually to proactively increase awareness in safety and health among the government and contractor workforce population. The first guiding principle at KSC is '''Safety and Health First.''' KSC's number one goal is to '''Assure sound, safe and efficient practices and processes are in place for privatized/commercialized launch site processing.'''

  16. Super-Resonant Intracavity Coherent Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malara, P.; Campanella, C. E.; Giorgini, A.; Avino, S.; de Natale, P.; Gagliardi, G.

    2016-07-01

    The capability of optical resonators to extend the effective radiation-matter interaction length originates from a multipass effect, hence is intrinsically limited by the resonator’s quality factor. Here, we show that this constraint can be overcome by combining the concepts of resonant interaction and coherent perfect absorption (CPA). We demonstrate and investigate super-resonant coherent absorption in a coupled Fabry-Perot (FP)/ring cavity structure. At the FP resonant wavelengths, the described phenomenon gives rise to split modes with a nearly-transparent peak and a peak whose transmission is exceptionally sensitive to the intracavity loss. For small losses, the effective interaction pathlength of these modes is proportional respectively to the ratio and the product of the individual finesse coefficients of the two resonators. The results presented extend the conventional definition of resonant absorption and point to a way of circumventing the technological limitations of ultrahigh-quality resonators in spectroscopy and optical sensing schemes.

  17. Super-crystals in composite ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierangeli, D.; Ferraro, M.; di Mei, F.; di Domenico, G.; de Oliveira, C. E. M.; Agranat, A. J.; Delre, E.

    2016-02-01

    As atoms and molecules condense to form solids, a crystalline state can emerge with its highly ordered geometry and subnanometric lattice constant. In some physical systems, such as ferroelectric perovskites, a perfect crystalline structure forms even when the condensing substances are non-stoichiometric. The resulting solids have compositional disorder and complex macroscopic properties, such as giant susceptibilities and non-ergodicity. Here, we observe the spontaneous formation of a cubic structure in composite ferroelectric potassium-lithium-tantalate-niobate with micrometric lattice constant, 104 times larger than that of the underlying perovskite lattice. The 3D effect is observed in specifically designed samples in which the substitutional mixture varies periodically along one specific crystal axis. Laser propagation indicates a coherent polarization super-crystal that produces an optical X-ray diffractometry, an ordered mesoscopic state of matter with important implications for critical phenomena and applications in miniaturized 3D optical technologies.

  18. Super Safety and Health Day at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In an exhibit tent during Super Safety and Health Day at KSC, employees sample iced tea from a vendor. Safety Day is a full day of NASA-sponsored, KSC and 45th Space Wing events involving a number of health- and safety-related activities: Displays, vendors, technical paper sessions, panel discussions, a keynote speaker, etc. The entire Center and Wing stand down to participate in the planned events. Safety Day is held annually to proactively increase awareness in safety and health among the government and contractor workforce population. The first guiding principle at KSC is '''Safety and Health First.''' KSC's number one goal is to '''Assure sound, safe and efficient practices and processes are in place for privatized/commercialized launch site processing.'''

  19. Super-speed computer interfaces and networks

    SciTech Connect

    Tolmie, D.E.; St. John, W.; DuBois, D.H.

    1997-10-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Research into super-speed computer interfaces has been directed towards identifying networking requirements from compute-intensive applications that are crucial to DOE programs. In particular, both the DOE Energy Research High Performance Computing Research Centers (HPCRC) and the DOE Defense Programs Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) have planned applications that will require large increases in network bandwidth. This project was set up to help network researchers identify those networking requirements and to plan the development of such networks. Based on studies, research, and LANL-sponsored workshops, this project helped forge the beginnings for multi-gigabit/sec network research and developments that today is being lead by Los Alamos in the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) 6.4 gigabit/sec specification called HIPPI-6400.

  20. The Superconducting Super Collider: A status report

    SciTech Connect

    Schwitters, R.F.

    1993-04-01

    The design of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) is briefly reviewed, including its key machine parameters. The scientific objectives are twofold: (1) investigation of high-mass, low-rate, rare phenomena beyond the standard model; and (2) investigation of processes within the domain of the standard model. Machine luminosity, a key parameter, is a function of beam brightness and current, and it must be preserved through the injector chain. Features of the various injectors are discussed. The superconducting magnet system is reviewed in terms of model magnet performance, including the highly successful Accelerator System String Test Various magnet design modifications are noted, reflecting minor changes in the collider arcs and improved installation procedures. The paper concludes with construction scenarios and priority issues for ensuring the earliest collider commissioning.

  1. Super integrable four-dimensional autonomous mappings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capel, H. W.; Sahadevan, R.; Rajakumar, S.

    2007-05-01

    A systematic investigation of the complete integrability of a fourth-order autonomous difference equation of the type w(n + 4) = w(n)F(w(n + 1), w(n + 2), w(n + 3)) is presented. We identify seven distinct families of four-dimensional mappings which are super integrable and have three (independent) integrals via a duality relation as introduced in a recent paper by Quispel, Capel and Roberts (2005 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 38 3965-80). It is observed that these seven families can be related to the four-dimensional symplectic mappings with two integrals including all the four-dimensional periodic reductions of the integrable double-discrete modified Korteweg-deVries and sine-Gordon equations treated in an earlier paper by two of us (Capel and Sahadevan 2001 Physica A 289 86-106).

  2. Recent results from the super EBIT

    SciTech Connect

    Marrs, R.E.

    1995-09-15

    The Super EBIT device at LLNL can produce and trap any highly charged ion at rest in the laboratory, including bare U{sup 92+} ions. Recently, the ionization cross sections for high-Z hydrogenlike ions have been measured for the first time, and measurements of the L-shell ionization cross sections for uranium ions are in progress. The two-electron contributions to the ground state energies of heliumlike ions have been directly measured using a novel technique, and spectra of 2s-2p transitions in highly ionized thorium and uranium have been used to test QED corrections to the energy levels of few electron high-Z ions. A new capability for the study of rare isotopes has been demonstrated. Ion cooling has been used to reduce the thermal broadening of x-ray emission lines to the point where natural line widths can be observed in some cases.

  3. Carbon Film Electrodes For Super Capacitor Applications

    DOEpatents

    Tan, Ming X.

    1999-07-20

    A method for treating an organic polymer material, preferably a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer (Saran) to produce a flat sheet of carbon film material having a high surface area (.apprxeq.1000 m.sup.2 /g) suitable as an electrode material for super capacitor applications. The method comprises heating a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer film disposed between two spaced apart graphite or ceramic plates to a first temperature of about 160.degree. C. for about 14 hours to form a stabilized vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride polymer film, thereafter heating the stabilized film to a second temperature of about 750.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere for about one hour to form a carbon film; and finally activating the carbon film to increase the surface area by heating the carbon film in an oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature of at least 750-850.degree. C. for between 1-6 hours.

  4. Super Safety and Health Day at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Vendor tents and displays filled the grounds in the Industrial Area as well as LC 39 Area during Super Safety and Health Day at KSC. Safety Day is a full day of NASA-sponsored, KSC and 45th Space Wing events involving a number of health and safety related activities: Displays, vendors, technical paper sessions, panel discussions, a keynote speaker, etc. The entire Center and Wing stand down to participate in the planned events. Safety Day is held annually to proactively increase awareness in safety and health among the government and contractor workforce population. The first guiding principle at KSC is '''Safety and Health First.''' KSC's number one goal is to '''Assure sound, safe and efficient practices and processes are in place for privatized/commercialized launch site processing.'''

  5. Note: Tesla based pulse generator for electrical breakdown study of liquid dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veda Prakash, G.; Kumar, R.; Patel, J.; Saurabh, K.; Shyam, A.

    2013-12-01

    In the process of studying charge holding capability and delay time for breakdown in liquids under nanosecond (ns) time scales, a Tesla based pulse generator has been developed. Pulse generator is a combination of Tesla transformer, pulse forming line, a fast closing switch, and test chamber. Use of Tesla transformer over conventional Marx generators makes the pulse generator very compact, cost effective, and requires less maintenance. The system has been designed and developed to deliver maximum output voltage of 300 kV and rise time of the order of tens of nanoseconds. The paper deals with the system design parameters, breakdown test procedure, and various experimental results. To validate the pulse generator performance, experimental results have been compared with PSPICE simulation software and are in good agreement with simulation results.

  6. In vivo acoustic super-resolution and super-resolved velocity mapping using microbubbles.

    PubMed

    Christensen-Jeffries, Kirsten; Browning, Richard J; Tang, Meng-Xing; Dunsby, Christopher; Eckersley, Robert J

    2015-02-01

    The structure of microvasculature cannot be resolved using standard clinical ultrasound (US) imaging frequencies due to the fundamental diffraction limit of US waves. In this work, we use a standard clinical US system to perform in vivo sub-diffraction imaging on a CD1, female mouse aged eight weeks by localizing isolated US signals from microbubbles flowing within the ear microvasculature, and compare our results to optical microscopy. Furthermore, we develop a new technique to map blood velocity at super-resolution by tracking individual bubbles through the vasculature. Resolution is improved from a measured lateral and axial resolution of 112 μm and 94 μ m respectively in original US data, to super-resolved images of microvasculature where vessel features as fine as 19 μm are clearly visualized. Velocity maps clearly distinguish opposing flow direction and separated speed distributions in adjacent vessels, thereby enabling further differentiation between vessels otherwise not spatially separated in the image. This technique overcomes the diffraction limit to provide a noninvasive means of imaging the microvasculature at super-resolution, to depths of many centimeters. In the future, this method could noninvasively image pathological or therapeutic changes in the microvasculature at centimeter depths in vivo.

  7. The Origin of Basin of Great Lakes in Western Mongolia: Glaciated Super Valley, Not Super Flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khukhuudei, Ulambadrakh; Otgonbayar, Orolzodmaa

    2015-04-01

    Research for morphology, its origin of the Basin of Great Lakes in Western Mongolia, is few and far between, particularly, any in recent years. The origin of the morphology of the basin presents a new study, combining previous study materials, their results and interpreting the digital photos. Also the main bases of theory is Pleistocene Last Glacial Maximum distribution. Many scholars have proven that global glaciation covered many areas of the Northern Hemisphere during the Pleistocene era. This global glaciation occurred in the northwest part of Mongolia to Mongolian Altay, Khangay and Khuvsgul mountain range. At the same time, the present appearance of basin that developed inheriting since the Mesozoic era, forms by global glaciation. The morphology of Basin of Great Lakes is super trough or glaciated super valley. At current day, "knock and lochan" topography (scoured region) and rock drumlins lie in the central part of the basin. Huge meltwater from this glaciation formed Shargasub-basin as a super kettle hole by erosion and overflowed water from it formed pluvial basins or big lakes in the Lake Valley.

  8. CoRoT-7b: SUPER-EARTH OR SUPER-Io?

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, Rory; Kaib, Nathan A.; Raymond, Sean N.; Greenberg, Richard; Jackson, Brian

    2010-02-01

    CoRoT-7b, a planet about 70% larger than the Earth orbiting a Sun-like star, is the first-discovered rocky exoplanet, and hence has been dubbed a 'super-Earth'. Some initial studies suggested that since the planet is so close to its host star, it receives enough insolation to partially melt its surface. However, these past studies failed to take into consideration the role that tides may play in this system. Even if the planet's eccentricity has always been zero, we show that tidal decay of the semimajor axis could have been large enough that the planet formed on a wider orbit which received less insolation. Moreover, CoRoT-7b could be tidally heated at a rate that dominates its geophysics and drives extreme volcanism. In this case, CoRoT-7b is a 'super-Io' that, like Jupiter's volcanic moon, is dominated by volcanism and rapid resurfacing. Such heating could occur with an eccentricity of just 10{sup -5}. This small value could be driven by CoRoT-7c if its own eccentricity is larger than {approx}10{sup -4}. CoRoT-7b may be the first of a class of planetary super-Ios likely to be revealed by the CoRoT and Kepler spacecraft.

  9. Super-strong magneto-rheological fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, R.

    2001-03-01

    A typical MR fluid is a suspension of magnetic particles of micrometer size in a liquid. Upon application of a strong magnetic field, the fluid turns into a solid. This process is reversible and the response time is of milliseconds. MR fluids presently have a yield shear stress around 80 kPa, which is adequate for applications in shock absorbers and vibration dampers, but is inadequate for automobile clutch etc. Efforts in searching for new materials in the past decades came with limited results. Thus we have developed a new approach to change the microstructure of MR fluids and make them super-strong. It is well known that under a strong magnetic field, the ideal structure of MR fluids is a body-centered tetragonal (bct) lattice. The mechanical strength of MR fluids strongly depends on the microstructure. A bct-lattice based thick column has a much higher yield stress than a single-chain structure. When a magnetic field is applied to a MR fluid, the particles first form chains. With time, the chains may aggregate into columns. However, the unassisted aggregation is not very useful, as it is slow and produces columns with a limited thickness. Our method is based on assisted aggregations. Immediately after a magnetic field is applied, we compress the MR fluid in the field direction before a shear force is applied. The compression pushes the induced chains together to form thick columns. This microstructure change greatly enhances the yield stress. The experiment on an iron-based MR fluid finds 800 kPa for the yield stress, ten times stronger than that without the compression. When the magnetic field is removed, the MR fluid still returns to the liquid state quickly. The upper limit of this structure-enhanced yield stress seems well above 800 kPa. The super-strong MR fluids are suitable for many industrial applications. *Supported by NSF Grant 0196022

  10. Temporal and spatial resolved SuperDARN line of sight velocity measurements corrected for plasma index of refraction using Bayesian inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spaleta, J.; Bristow, W. A.; Klein, J.

    2015-04-01

    Recent work by Gillies et al. (2012, 2009, 2010) has sought an explanation for the SuperDARN line-of-sight velocity underestimate of ionospheric plasma velocity. The reason for the underestimation is thought to be from the modification of the measured Doppler shift of the backscattered signal due to phase refractive index of the ionospheric plasma in the scattering region. Presented here is an analysis technique to estimate the plasma drift velocity, correcting for the index of the refraction of the scattering medium. The technique requires dual frequency SuperDARN observations and calculates velocity from the phase of the SuperDARN autocorrelation function (ACF). Both plasma velocity and plasma density are treated as independent unknowns, and self-consistent error estimates are generated for each. This new technique was employed at the McMurdo radar, resulting in estimates of plasma velocity on scales relevant to existing SuperDARN data products. The McMurdo dual frequency analysis also provides a new SuperDARN data product, an estimate for the plasma density in the ionospheric region derived wholly from SuperDARN backscatter.

  11. SuperNova, a monomeric photosensitizing fluorescent protein for chromophore-assisted light inactivation.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Kiwamu; Matsuda, Tomoki; Sakai, Naoki; Fu, Donald; Noda, Masanori; Uchiyama, Susumu; Kotera, Ippei; Arai, Yoshiyuki; Horiuchi, Masataka; Fukui, Kiichi; Ayabe, Tokiyoshi; Inagaki, Fuyuhiko; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Nagai, Takeharu

    2013-01-01

    Chromophore-assisted light inactivation (CALI) is a powerful technique for acute perturbation of biomolecules in a spatio-temporally defined manner in living specimen with reactive oxygen species (ROS). Whereas a chemical photosensitizer including fluorescein must be added to specimens exogenously and cannot be restricted to particular cells or sub-cellular compartments, a genetically-encoded photosensitizer, KillerRed, can be controlled in its expression by tissue specific promoters or subcellular localization tags. Despite of this superiority, KillerRed hasn't yet become a versatile tool because its dimerization tendency prevents fusion with proteins of interest. Here, we report the development of monomeric variant of KillerRed (SuperNova) by direct evolution using random mutagenesis. In contrast to KillerRed, SuperNova in fusion with target proteins shows proper localization. Furthermore, unlike KillerRed, SuperNova expression alone doesn't perturb mitotic cell division. Supernova retains the ability to generate ROS, and hence promote CALI-based functional analysis of target proteins overcoming the major drawbacks of KillerRed.

  12. BiPo: A dedicated radiopurity detector for the SuperNEMO experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Gómez, H.; Collaboration: SuperNEMO Collaboration; and others

    2013-08-08

    New generation experiments in Astroparticle Physics need to operate in really restrictive background conditions, which implies the use of high radiopure materials for the experimental setup construction. For this reason the screening of the materials with enough sensitivity has become a challenge that sometimes cannot be afforded with standard techniques like Germanium detector spectroscopy. BiPo is a dedicated detector, that operates in the Canfranc Underground Laboratory, designed to measure the radiopurity, mainly of the ββ sources of the SuperNEMO experiment, by the detection of BiPo events. It is composed of two modules with 40 optical lines each one, registering the energy and the time of the emitted particles. The well known features of the BiPo events (delayed coincidence between an electron and an alpha particle) facilitate the discrimination of other background events that could entangle the expected signal. In addition, the geometry of the detector, with an active area of around 3.6 m{sup 2}, has been optimized to reach the necessary sensitivity levels for the SuperNEMO source foils in the shortest time possible. Preliminary results of background measurements and calibrations taken since summer 2012 shows that the required sensitivity for the measurements of the source foils could be reached in few months. Routine measurements of samples are already started being an important point for the SuperNEMO source foils construction.

  13. Can Very Massive Population III Stars Produce a Super-Collapsar?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Sung-Chul; Kang, Jisu; Kozyreva, Alexandra

    2015-03-01

    A fraction of the first generation of stars in the early universe may be very massive (≳ 300 {{M}⊙ }) as they form in metal-free environments. Formation of black holes from these stars can be accompanied by supermassive collapsars to produce long gamma-ray bursts of a unique type having a very high total energy (˜ {{10}54} erg) as recently suggested by several authors. We present new stellar evolution models of very massive Population III stars including the effect of rotation to provide theoretical constraints on super-collapsar progenitors. We find that the angular momentum condition for a super-collapsar can be fulfilled if magnetic torques are ignored, in which case Eddington-Sweet circulations play the dominant role for the transport of angular momentum. We further find that the initial mass range for super-collapsar progenitors would be limited to 300 {{M}⊙ }≲ M≲ 700 {{M}⊙ }. However, all of our very massive star models of this mass range end their lives as red supergiants rather than blue supergiants, in good agreement with most of the previous studies. The predicted final fate of these stars is either a jet-powered type IIP supernova or an ultra-long, relatively faint gamma-ray transient, depending on the initial amount of angular momentum.

  14. Super-resolution for a point source better than λ/500 using positive refraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miñano, Juan C.; Marqués, Ricardo; González, Juan C.; Benítez, Pablo; Delgado, Vicente; Grabovickic, Dejan; Freire, Manuel

    2011-12-01

    Leonhardt (2009 New J. Phys. 11 093040) demonstrated that the two-dimensional (2D) Maxwell fish eye (MFE) lens can focus perfectly 2D Helmholtz waves of arbitrary frequency; that is, it can transport perfectly an outward (monopole) 2D Helmholtz wave field, generated by a point source, towards a ‘perfect point drain’ located at the corresponding image point. Moreover, a prototype with λ/5 super-resolution property for one microwave frequency has been manufactured and tested (Ma et al 2010 arXiv:1007.2530v1; Ma et al 2010 New J. Phys. 13 033016). However, neither software simulations nor experimental measurements for a broad band of frequencies have yet been reported. Here, we present steady-state simulations with a non-perfect drain for a device equivalent to the MFE, called the spherical geodesic waveguide (SGW), which predicts up to λ/500 super-resolution close to discrete frequencies. Out of these frequencies, the SGW does not show super-resolution in the analysis carried out.

  15. Interrogating Surface Functional Group Heterogeneity of Activated Thermoplastics Using Super-Resolution Fluorescence Microscopy.

    PubMed

    ONeil, Colleen E; Jackson, Joshua M; Shim, Sang-Hee; Soper, Steven A

    2016-04-01

    We present a novel approach for characterizing surfaces utilizing super-resolution fluorescence microscopy with subdiffraction limit spatial resolution. Thermoplastic surfaces were activated by UV/O3 or O2 plasma treatment under various conditions to generate pendant surface-confined carboxylic acids (-COOH). These surface functional groups were then labeled with a photoswitchable dye and interrogated using single-molecule, localization-based, super-resolution fluorescence microscopy to elucidate the surface heterogeneity of these functional groups across the activated surface. Data indicated nonuniform distributions of these functional groups for both COC and PMMA thermoplastics with the degree of heterogeneity being dose dependent. In addition, COC demonstrated relative higher surface density of functional groups compared to PMMA for both UV/O3 and O2 plasma treatment. The spatial distribution of -COOH groups secured from super-resolution imaging were used to simulate nonuniform patterns of electroosmotic flow in thermoplastic nanochannels. Simulations were compared to single-particle tracking of fluorescent nanoparticles within thermoplastic nanoslits to demonstrate the effects of surface functional group heterogeneity on the electrokinetic transport process.

  16. Burst wait time simulation of CALIBAN reactor at delayed super-critical state

    SciTech Connect

    Humbert, P.; Authier, N.; Richard, B.; Grivot, P.; Casoli, P.

    2012-07-01

    In the past, the super prompt critical wait time probability distribution was measured on CALIBAN fast burst reactor [4]. Afterwards, these experiments were simulated with a very good agreement by solving the non-extinction probability equation [5]. Recently, the burst wait time probability distribution has been measured at CEA-Valduc on CALIBAN at different delayed super-critical states [6]. However, in the delayed super-critical case the non-extinction probability does not give access to the wait time distribution. In this case it is necessary to compute the time dependent evolution of the full neutron count number probability distribution. In this paper we present the point model deterministic method used to calculate the probability distribution of the wait time before a prescribed count level taking into account prompt neutrons and delayed neutron precursors. This method is based on the solution of the time dependent adjoint Kolmogorov master equations for the number of detections using the generating function methodology [8,9,10] and inverse discrete Fourier transforms. The obtained results are then compared to the measurements and Monte-Carlo calculations based on the algorithm presented in [7]. (authors)

  17. Radiopurity requirements for the SuperNEMO experiment and the BiPo detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eurin, Guillaume; SuperNEMO Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The main goal of the SuperNEMO collaboration is to try to observe neutrinoless double-β decay. This would prove that the neutrino is a Majorana particle (ν = ν¯). Today the best lower limits on half-lives of this process are set around 1024 - 1026 years as obtained by the NEMO-3 experiment [1] (for the 2β isotope 100Mo) and other experiments. SuperNEMO is the next generation experiment based on the NEMO-3 tracker-calorimeter detection principle. The targeted contamination levels for the source foils are lower than can be measured through γ spectroscopy. A more sensitive detector has been constructed to measure low contaminations in 208Tl (around few μBq/kg) and 214Bi (few dozen μBq/kg) in thin materials: the BiPo detector. BiPo-3 has been fully operational at the Laboratorio Subterráneo de Canfranc (LSC) since January, 2013. The construction, performance and calibration of the BiPo-3 detector will be covered as well as the radiopurity requirements for SuperNEMO.

  18. Development of Pneumatic Channel Wing Powered-Lift Advanced Super-STOL Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englar, Robert J.; Campbell, Bryan A.

    2002-01-01

    The powered-lift Channel Wing concept has been combined with pneumatic Circulation Control aerodynamic and propulsive technology to generate a Pneumatic Channel Wing configuration intended to have Super-STOL or VSTOL capability while eliminating many of the operational problem areas of the original Channel Wing vehicle. A preliminary design study of this pneumatic vehicle based on previous wind-tunnel and flight-test data for the two technologies integrated into a simple Pneumatic Channel Wing (PCW) configuration showed very strong Super-STOL potential. Wind-tunnel development and evaluations of a PCW powered model conducted at Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) have shown substantial lift capabilities for the blown configuration (C(sub L) values of 8.5 to 9.0). Variation in blowing of the channel was shown to be more efficient than variation in propeller thrust. Also revealed was the ability to operate unstalled at very high angles of attack of 40 deg-45 deg, or to achieve very high lift at much lower angle of attack to increase visibility and controllability. In order to provide greater flexibility in Super-STOL takeoffs and landings, the blown model also displayed the ability to interchange thrust and drag by varying blowing without any moving parts. This paper presents these experimental results, discusses variations in the configuration geometry under development, and extends this integrated technology to advanced design studies of PCW-type vehicles.

  19. Sub pixel location identification using super resolved multilooking CHRIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahithi, V. S.; Agrawal, S.

    2014-11-01

    CHRIS /Proba is a multiviewing hyperspectral sensor that monitors the earth in five different zenith angles +55°, +36°, nadir, -36° and -55° with a spatial resolution of 17 m and within a spectral range of 400-1050 nm in mode 3. These multiviewing images are suitable for constructing a super resolved high resolution image that can reveal the mixed pixel of the hyperspectral image. In the present work, an attempt is made to find the location of various features constituted within the 17m mixed pixel of the CHRIS image using various super resolution reconstruction techniques. Four different super resolution reconstruction techniques namely interpolation, iterative back projection, projection on to convex sets (POCS) and robust super resolution were tried on the -36, nadir and +36 images to construct a super resolved high resolution 5.6 m image. The results of super resolution reconstruction were compared with the scaled nadir image and bicubic convoluted image for comparision of the spatial and spectral property preservance. A support vector machine classification of the best super resolved high resolution image was performed to analyse the location of the sub pixel features. Validation of the obtained results was performed using the spectral unmixing fraction images and the 5.6 m classified LISS IV image.

  20. Super-resolution for a point source using positive refraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miñano, Juan C.; Benítez, Pablo; González, Juan C.; Grabovičkić, Dejan; Ahmadpanahi, Hamed

    Leonhardt demonstrated (2009) that the 2D Maxwell Fish Eye lens (MFE) can focus perfectly 2D Helmholtz waves of arbitrary frequency, i.e., it can transport perfectly an outward (monopole) 2D Helmholtz wave field, generated by a point source, towards a receptor called "perfect drain" (PD) located at the corresponding MFE image point. The PD has the property of absorbing the complete radiation without radiation or scattering and it has been claimed as necessary to obtain super-resolution (SR) in the MFE. However, a prototype using a "drain" different from the PD has shown λ/5 resolution for microwave frequencies (Ma et al, 2010). Recently, the SR properties of a device equivalent to the MFE, called the Spherical Geodesic Waveguide (SGW) (Miñano et al, 2012) have been analyzed. The reported results show resolution up to λ /3000, for the SGW loaded with the perfect drain, and up to λ /500 for the SGW without perfect drain. The perfect drain was realized as a coaxial probe loaded with properly calculated impedance. The SGW provides SR only in a narrow band of frequencies close to the resonance Schumann frequencies. Here we analyze the SGW loaded with a small "perfect drain region" (González et al, 2011). This drain is designed as a region made of a material with complex permittivity. The comparative results show that there is no significant difference in the SR properties for both perfect drain designs.

  1. Image Super-Resolution via Adaptive Regularization and Sparse Representation.

    PubMed

    Cao, Feilong; Cai, Miaomiao; Tan, Yuanpeng; Zhao, Jianwei

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that image patches can be well represented as a sparse linear combination of elements from an appropriately selected over-complete dictionary. Recently, single-image super-resolution (SISR) via sparse representation using blurred and downsampled low-resolution images has attracted increasing interest, where the aim is to obtain the coefficients for sparse representation by solving an l0 or l1 norm optimization problem. The l0 optimization is a nonconvex and NP-hard problem, while the l1 optimization usually requires many more measurements and presents new challenges even when the image is the usual size, so we propose a new approach for SISR recovery based on regularization nonconvex optimization. The proposed approach is potentially a powerful method for recovering SISR via sparse representations, and it can yield a sparser solution than the l1 regularization method. We also consider the best choice for lp regularization with all p in (0, 1), where we propose a scheme that adaptively selects the norm value for each image patch. In addition, we provide a method for estimating the best value of the regularization parameter λ adaptively, and we discuss an alternate iteration method for selecting p and λ . We perform experiments, which demonstrates that the proposed regularization nonconvex optimization method can outperform the convex optimization method and generate higher quality images.

  2. Towards a Low Threshold SuperCDMS Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welliver, Bradford

    2013-04-01

    Astrophysical evidence points to the existence of particle dark matter that comprises the majority of the mass of the universe. A natural candidate for these particles are Weakly Interacting Massive Particles, or WIMPs. Lately there has been much interest in dark matter search experiments for low mass WIMPs. Detection of WIMP dark matter with mass below 20 GeV/c^2 requires a low-energy trigger threshold. However, lowering the trigger threshold also makes us sensitive to triggering on random noise which can hamper livetime. In order to minimize triggering on this random noise the original trigger filters for SuperCDMS were replaced with improved filters that reduce the amplitude of random noise substantially compared to an event-generated signal, thus allowing us to lower the trigger thresholds without the livetime penalty we would otherwise accrue. An overview of how this was accomplished as well as post-triggering methods of noise discrimination will be discussed. Predictions for the improved low thresholds will be compared to data, and the impact on a low mass WIMP search will be described.

  3. Super-resolution photoacoustic imaging of single gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seunghyun; Kwon, Owoong; Jeon, Mansik; Song, Jaejung; Jo, Minguk; Kim, Sungjee; Son, Junwoo; Kim, Yunseok; Kim, Chulhong

    2016-03-01

    Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) is an emerging hybrid imaging modality that can provide a strong optical absorption contrast using the photoacoustic (PA) effect, and breaks through the fundamental imaging depth limit of existing optical microscopy such as optical coherence tomography (OCT), confocal or two-photon microscopy. In PAI, a short-pulsed laser is illuminated to the tissue, and the PA waves are generated by thermoelastic expansion. Despite the high lateral resolution of optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) thanks to the tight optical focus, the lateral resolution of OR-PAM is limited to the optical diffraction limit, which is approximately a half of the excitation wavelength. Here, we demonstrate a new super-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (SR-PAM) system by breaking the optical diffraction limit. The conventional microscopes with nanoscale resolutions such as a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) are typically used to image the structures of nanomaterials, but these systems should work in a high vacuum environment and cannot provide the optical properties of the materials. Our newly developed SR-PAM system provides the optical properties with a nanoscale resolution in a normal atmosphere. We have photoacoustically imaged single gold nanoparticles with an average size of 80 nm in diameter and shown their PA expansion properties individually. The lateral resolution of this system was approximately 20 nm. Therefore, this tool will provide an unprecedented optical absorption property with an accurate nanoscale resolution and greatly impact on materials science and nanotechnology field.

  4. In vivo super-resolution RESOLFT microscopy of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Schnorrenberg, Sebastian; Grotjohann, Tim; Vorbrüggen, Gerd; Herzig, Alf; Hell, Stefan W; Jakobs, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Despite remarkable developments in diffraction unlimited super-resolution microscopy, in vivo nanoscopy of tissues and model organisms is still not satisfactorily established and rarely realized. RESOLFT nanoscopy is particularly suited for live cell imaging because it requires relatively low light levels to overcome the diffraction barrier. Previously, we introduced the reversibly switchable fluorescent protein rsEGFP2, which facilitated fast RESOLFT nanoscopy (Grotjohann et al., 2012). In that study, as in most other nanoscopy studies, only cultivated single cells were analyzed. Here, we report on the use of rsEGFP2 for live-cell RESOLFT nanoscopy of sub-cellular structures of intact Drosophila melanogaster larvae and of resected tissues. We generated flies expressing fusion proteins of alpha-tubulin and rsEGFP2 highlighting the microtubule cytoskeleton in all cells. By focusing through the intact larval cuticle, we achieved lateral resolution of <60 nm. RESOLFT nanoscopy enabled time-lapse recordings comprising 40 images and facilitated recordings 40 µm deep within fly tissues. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15567.001 PMID:27355614

  5. Super stereoscopy technique for comfortable and realistic 3D displays.

    PubMed

    Akşit, Kaan; Niaki, Amir Hossein Ghanbari; Ulusoy, Erdem; Urey, Hakan

    2014-12-15

    Two well-known problems of stereoscopic displays are the accommodation-convergence conflict and the lack of natural blur for defocused objects. We present a new technique that we name Super Stereoscopy (SS3D) to provide a convenient solution to these problems. Regular stereoscopic glasses are replaced by SS3D glasses which deliver at least two parallax images per eye through pinholes equipped with light selective filters. The pinholes generate blur-free retinal images so as to enable correct accommodation, while the delivery of multiple parallax images per eye creates an approximate blur effect for defocused objects. Experiments performed with cameras and human viewers indicate that the technique works as desired. In case two, pinholes equipped with color filters per eye are used; the technique can be used on a regular stereoscopic display by only uploading a new content, without requiring any change in display hardware, driver, or frame rate. Apart from some tolerable loss in display brightness and decrease in natural spatial resolution limit of the eye because of pinholes, the technique is quite promising for comfortable and realistic 3D vision, especially enabling the display of close objects that are not possible to display and comfortably view on regular 3DTV and cinema. PMID:25503026

  6. Super-resolution imaging of nuclear bodies by STED microscopy.

    PubMed

    Okada, Yasushi; Nakagawa, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    The sizes of nuclear bodies and other nuclear structures are normally no more than a few hundred nanometers. This size is below the resolution limit of light microscopy and thus requires electron microscopy for direct observation. Recent developments in super-resolution microscopy have extended the resolution of light microscopy to beyond 100 nm. Here, we describe a super-resolution technique, gated STED, for the analysis of the structure of nuclear bodies, with emphasis on the sample preparation and other technical tips that are important to obtain high-quality super-resolution images.

  7. A Stochastic Super-Exponential Growth Model for Population Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila, P.; Rekker, A.

    2010-11-01

    A super-exponential growth model with environmental noise has been studied analytically. Super-exponential growth rate is a property of dynamical systems exhibiting endogenous nonlinear positive feedback, i.e., of self-reinforcing systems. Environmental noise acts on the growth rate multiplicatively and is assumed to be Gaussian white noise in the Stratonovich interpretation. An analysis of the stochastic super-exponential growth model with derivations of exact analytical formulae for the conditional probability density and the mean value of the population abundance are presented. Interpretations and various applications of the results are discussed.

  8. Measurement of radon concentrations at Super-Kamiokande

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Y.; Okumura, K.; Kajita, T.; Tasaka, S.; Nemoto, M.; Fukuda, Y.; Okazawa, H.; Hayakawa, T.; Ishihara, K.; Ishino, H.; Itow, Y.; Kameda, J.; Kasuga, S.; Kobayashi, K.; Kobayashi, Y.; Koshio, Y.; Miura, M.; Nakahata, M.; Nakayama, S.; Obayashi, Y.; Okada, A.; Sakurai, N.; Shiozawa, M.; Suzuki, Y.; Takeuchi, H.; Totsuka, Y.; Yamada, S.; Earl, M.; Habig, A.; Kearns, E.; Messier, M. D.; Scholberg, K.; Stone, J. L.; Sulak, L. R.; Walter, C. W.; Goldhaber, M.; Barszczak, T.; Casper, D.; Gajewski, W.; Kropp, W. R.; Mine, S.; Price, L. R.; Smy, M.; Sobel, H. W.; Vagins, M. R.; Ganezer, K. S.; Keig, W. E.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Kibayashi, A.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Stenger, V. J.; Takemori, D.; Ishii, T.; Kanzaki, J.; Kobayashi, T.; Nakamura, K.; Nishikawa, K.; Oyama, Y.; Sakai, A.; Sakuda, M.; Sasaki, O.; Echigo, S.; Kohama, M.; Suzuki, A. T.; Haines, T. J.; Blaufuss, E.; Kim, B. K.; Sanford, R.; Svoboda, R.; Chen, M. L.; Goodman, J. A.; Sullivan, G. W.; Hill, J.; Jung, C. K.; Martens, K.; Mauger, C.; McGrew, C.; Sharkey, E.; Viren, B.; Yanagisawa, C.; Doki, W.; Kirisawa, M.; Inaba, S.; Miyano, K.; Saji, C.; Takahashi, M.; Takahata, M.; Higuchi, K.; Nagashima, Y.; Takita, M.; Yamaguchi, T.; Yoshida, M.; Kim, S. B.; Etoh, M.; Hasegawa, A.; Hasegawa, T.; Hatakeyama, S.; Inoue, K.; Iwamoto, T.; Koga, M.; Maruyama, T.; Ogawa, H.; Shirai, J.; Suzuki, A.; Tsushima, F.; Koshiba, M.; Hatakeyama, Y.; Koike, M.; Nishijima, K.; Fujiyasu, H.; Futagami, T.; Hayato, Y.; Kanaya, Y.; Kaneyuki, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Kielczewska, D.; George, J. S.; Stachyra, A. L.; Wai, L. L.; Wilkes, R. J.; Young, K. K.

    1999-04-01

    Radioactivity from radon is a major background for observing solar neutrinos at Super-Kamiokande. In this paper, we describe the measurement of radon concentrations at Super-Kamiokande, the method of radon reduction, and the radon monitoring system. The measurement shows that the current low-energy event rate between 5.0 MeV and 6.5 MeV implies a radon concentration in the Super-Kamiokande water of less than 1.4 mBq/m3.

  9. Super-resolution Imaging of the Bacterial Division Machinery

    PubMed Central

    Buss, Jackson; Coltharp, Carla; Xiao, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial cell division requires the coordinated assembly of more than ten essential proteins at midcell1,2. Central to this process is the formation of a ring-like suprastructure (Z-ring) by the FtsZ protein at the division plan3,4. The Z-ring consists of multiple single-stranded FtsZ protofilaments, and understanding the arrangement of the protofilaments inside the Z-ring will provide insight into the mechanism of Z-ring assembly and its function as a force generator5,6. This information has remained elusive due to current limitations in conventional fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy. Conventional fluorescence microscopy is unable to provide a high-resolution image of the Z-ring due to the diffraction limit of light (~200 nm). Electron cryotomographic imaging has detected scattered FtsZ protofilaments in small C. crescentus cells7, but is difficult to apply to larger cells such as E. coli or B. subtilis. Here we describe the application of a super-resolution fluorescence microscopy method, Photoactivated Localization Microscopy (PALM), to quantitatively characterize the structural organization of the E. coli Z-ring8. PALM imaging offers both high spatial resolution (~35 nm) and specific labeling to enable unambiguous identification of target proteins. We labeled FtsZ with the photoactivatable fluorescent protein mEos2, which switches from green fluorescence (excitation = 488 nm) to red fluorescence (excitation = 561 nm) upon activation at 405 nm9. During a PALM experiment, single FtsZ-mEos2 molecules are stochastically activated and the corresponding centroid positions of the single molecules are determined with <20 nm precision. A super-resolution image of the Z-ring is then reconstructed by superimposing the centroid positions of all detected FtsZ-mEos2 molecules. Using this method, we found that the Z-ring has a fixed width of ~100 nm and is composed of a loose bundle of FtsZ protofilaments that overlap with each other in three dimensions. These

  10. Conversion of an electrospun nanofibrous cellulose acetate mat from a super-hydrophilic to super-hydrophobic surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Bin; Li, Chunrong; Hotta, Yoshio; Kim, Jinho; Kuwaki, Oriha; Shiratori, Seimei

    2006-09-01

    We report a new approach to convert an electrospun nanofibrous cellulose acetate mat surface from super-hydrophilic to super-hydrophobic. Super-hydrophilic cellulose acetate nanofibrous mats can be obtained by electrospinning hydrophilic cellulose acetate. The surface properties of the fibrous mats were modified from super-hydrophilic to super-hydrophobic with a simple sol-gel coating of decyltrimethoxysilane (DTMS) and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS). The resultant samples were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), water contact angle, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and UV-visible measurements. The results of FE-SEM and XPS showed that the sol-gel (I) films were formed on the rough fibrous mats only after immersion in sol-gel. After the sol-gel (I) coating, the cellulose acetate fibrous mats formed in both 8 and 10 wt% cellulose acetate solutions showed the super-hydrophobic surface property. Additionally, the average sol-gel film thickness coated on 10 wt% cellulose acetate fibrous mats was calculated to be 80 nm. The super-hydrophobicity of fibrous mats was attributed to the combined effects of the high surface roughness of the electrospun nanofibrous mats and the hydrophobic DTMS sol-gel coating. Additionally, hydrophobic sol-gel nanofilms were found to be transparent according to UV-visible measurements.

  11. Super-resolved position and orientation of fluorescent dipoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguet, François; Geissbühler, Stefan; Märki, Iwan; Lasser, Theo; Unser, Michael

    2009-07-01

    We introduce an efficient, image formation model-based algorithm that extends super-resolution fluorescence localization to include orientation estimation, and report experimental accuracies of 5 nanometers for position estimation and 2 degrees for dipole orientation estimation.

  12. Using SuperPILOT for Creating the Russian Characters Set.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamantova-Abbas, Vera

    1986-01-01

    Examines the possibility of creating the Russian character set using a "programerless" authoring language, SuperPILOT, which allows a teacher or a learner to produce and use the Russian alphabet with no programing skills. (Author/CB)

  13. On the Physics Case of a Super Flavour Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Browder, T.; Ciuchini, M.; Gershon, T.; Hazumi, M.; Hurth, T.; Okada, Y.; Stocchi, A.; /Hawaii U. /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /Warwick U. /KEK, Tsukuba /CERN /SLAC /Tsukuba, Graduate U. Adv. Studies /Orsay, LAL /Orsay

    2007-11-07

    We summarize the physics case of a high-luminosity e{sup +}e{sup -} flavor factory collecting an integrated luminosity of 50 - 75 ab{sup -1}. Many New Physics sensitive measurements involving B and D mesons and {tau} leptons, unique to a Super Flavor Factory, can be performed with excellent sensitivity to new particles with masses up to {approx} 100 (or even {approx} 1000) TeV. Flavor- and CP-violating couplings of new particles that may be discovered at the LHC can be measured in most scenarios, even in unfavorable cases assuming minimal flavor violation. Together with the LHC, a Super Flavor Factory, following either the SuperKEKB or the SuperB proposal, could be soon starting the project of reconstructing the New Physics Lagrangian.

  14. Novae and Supernovae Searches with the Super-LOTIS Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, G. G.; Park, H. S.; Hartmann, D. H.; Porrata, R. A.

    2000-05-01

    The Super-LOTIS (Livermore Optical Transient Imaging System) telescope is a fully automated robotic telescope dedicated to the search for simultaneous and early-time optical counterparts of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Since GRB follow-up observations account for only a small fraction of the Super-LOTIS schedule, the system is available for conducting additional wide-field surveys. Super-LOTIS consists of an f/3.5 60 cm reflector equipped with a prime focus cooled CCD camera. The 2048 x 2048 array yields a total field-of-view of 51' x 51' and a pixel scale of 1.5". This automated system is capable of covering 400 fields (290 sq. deg.) per night to a limiting magnitude of approximately 18.5 (30 s). Super-LOTIS has recently been relocated to Steward Observatory's Kitt Peak site. We will present initial results from a search for novae and supernovae in nearby galaxies.

  15. 3D super-resolution microscopy of bacterial division machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedyaykin, A. D.; Sabantsev, A. V.; Vishnyakov, I. E.; Morozova, N. E.; Polinovskaya, V. S.; Khodorkovskii, M. A.

    2016-08-01

    Super-resolution microscopy is a promising tool for the field of microbiology, as bacteria sizes are comparable to the resolution limit of light microscopy. Bacterial division machinery and FtsZ protein in particular attract much attention of scientists who use different super-resolution microscopy techniques, but most of the available data on FtsZ structures was obtained using two-dimensional (2D) super-resolution microscopy. Using 3D single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM, namely dSTORM) to visualize FtsZ, we demonstrate that this approach allows more accurate interpretation of super-resolution images and provides new opportunities for the study of complex structures like bacterial divisome.

  16. Superconducting Super Collider: The presidential transition heightens uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Taubes, G.

    1993-02-05

    Funding for the Superconducting Super Collider remains uncertain with the election of Bill Clinton. As a result, the Japanese are delaying their decision on whether or not to supply approximately $1 billion. The costs of delay or termination are discussed.

  17. Translation Microscopy (TRAM) for super-resolution imaging

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Zhen; Wilson, Rhodri S; Liu, Yuewei; R Dun, Alison; Saleeb, Rebecca S; Liu, Dongsheng; Rickman, Colin; Frame, Margaret; Duncan, Rory R; Lu, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Super-resolution microscopy is transforming our understanding of biology but accessibility is limited by its technical complexity, high costs and the requirement for bespoke sample preparation. We present a novel, simple and multi-color super-resolution microscopy technique, called translation microscopy (TRAM), in which a super-resolution image is restored from multiple diffraction-limited resolution observations using a conventional microscope whilst translating the sample in the image plane. TRAM can be implemented using any microscope, delivering up to 7-fold resolution improvement. We compare TRAM with other super-resolution imaging modalities, including gated stimulated emission deletion (gSTED) microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). We further developed novel ‘ground-truth’ DNA origami nano-structures to characterize TRAM, as well as applying it to a multi-color dye-stained cellular sample to demonstrate its fidelity, ease of use and utility for cell biology. PMID:26822455

  18. Super-soft X-ray Spectral Evolution in Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, K. L.; Osborne, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Swift has performed intensive monitoring of a number of novae as they pass through their super-soft X-ray phase. While Chandra and XMM-Newton can provide high-resolution grating spectra, important for identifying individual emission and absorption features and placing constraints on abundances, few observations are obtained with these instruments, thus providing only rare snapshots of the super-soft spectral evolution. With Swift, however, we can perform daily (if not hourly) monitoring, allowing us to follow the entirety of the super-soft phase in great detail. Spectral evolution is clear, often even when simply comparing the unfitted spectra. Here, we fit stellar atmosphere models to the X-ray spectra of some of the densely-observed Swift novae, investigating the evolution of temperature, emitting radius and X-ray luminosity throughout their super-soft phases.

  19. Super Guppy Swallows T-38s; Heads for El Paso

    NASA Video Gallery

    Two NASA T-38 aircraft were swallowed whole by NASA's Super Guppy recently on Dryden Flight Research Center's back ramp. The Guppy then airlifted the two retired T-38s to El Paso, Texas, where they...

  20. The algebra of supertraces for 2+1 super de Sitter gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urrutia, L. F.; Waelbroeck, H.; Zertuche, F.

    1993-01-01

    The algebra of the observables for 2+1 super de Sitter gravity, for one genus of the spatial surface is calculated. The algebra turns out to be an infinite Lie algebra subject to non-linear constraints. The constraints are solved explicitly in terms of five independent complex supertraces. These variables are the true degrees of freedom of the system and their quantized algebra generates a new structure which is referred to as a 'central extension' of the quantum algebra SU(2)q.

  1. Stabilization of high and low solids Consolidated Incinerator Facility (CIF) waste with super cement

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, B.W.

    2000-01-11

    This report details solidification activities using selected Mixed Waste Focus Area technologies with the High and Low Solid waste streams. Ceramicrete and Super Cement technologies were chosen as the best possible replacement solidification candidates for the waste streams generated by the SRS incinerator from a list of several suggested Mixed Waste Focus Area technologies. These technologies were tested, evaluated, and compared to the current Portland cement technology being employed. Recommendation of a technology for replacement depends on waste form performance, process flexibility, process complexity, and cost of equipment and/or raw materials.

  2. An evaluation system for experimental silicon and silicon carbide super gate turn off thyristors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayne, Stephen; Lacouture, Shelby; Lawson, Kevin; Giesselmann, Michael; Scozzie, Charles J.; O'Brien, Heather; Ogunniyi, Aderinto A.

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a small-scale pulsed power system specifically intended to evaluate the suitability of experimental silicon and silicon carbide high power Super Gate Turn Off thyristors for high action (500 A2 s and above) pulsed power applications where energy is extracted from a storage element in a rapid and controlled manner. To this end, six of each type of device was placed in a controlled three phase rectifier circuit which was in turn connected to an aircraft ground power motor-generator set and subjected to testing protocols with varying power levels, while parameters such as offset firing angle were varied.

  3. An evaluation system for experimental silicon and silicon carbide super gate turn off thyristors.

    PubMed

    Bayne, Stephen; Lacouture, Shelby; Lawson, Kevin; Giesselmann, Michael; Scozzie, Charles J; O'Brien, Heather; Ogunniyi, Aderinto A

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a small-scale pulsed power system specifically intended to evaluate the suitability of experimental silicon and silicon carbide high power Super Gate Turn Off thyristors for high action (500 A(2) s and above) pulsed power applications where energy is extracted from a storage element in a rapid and controlled manner. To this end, six of each type of device was placed in a controlled three phase rectifier circuit which was in turn connected to an aircraft ground power motor-generator set and subjected to testing protocols with varying power levels, while parameters such as offset firing angle were varied.

  4. Super-light Magnetometers For Nanosatellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkman, R.; Korepanov, V.; Marussenkov, A.; Sukhynyuk, A.

    The modern tendency to decrease the weight and dimensions of the space vehicles, especially for scientific research, imply corresponding requirements to the scientific payload too. A correlation between metrological parameters (particularly sensitivity and own noise level) and mass, dimensions and power consumption of search-coil (SC) and flux gate (FG) magnetometers was studied. In this abstract both these prob- lems are considered. In order to decrease the SC weight it appeared to be necessary to derive the common equations, which describe minimum mass criterion for search- coil sensors in different frequency bands. The corresponding algorithm, based upon "generalized" SC parameters was introduced and a set of stable combinations, rela- tively independent on dimensions, number of turns and intended frequency band was developed. It was also revealed that the preamplifier connected to SC has to be charac- terized by extended set of 8 known noise parameters. As a result, the new approach of calculation and design of minimum-weight of SC magnetometers was proposed. All that allowed to manufacture first model of space qualified SC magnetometers with the following parameters: weight - 75 g, noise level density - 2 fT/sqrt(Hz) at 50 kHz. The most important problem for super-light FG magnetometers creation with low power consumption is to reduce the FG sensor (FGS) excitation power. Based on earlier de- veloped ferroresonance excitation mode a new study in this direction was made. The relations allowing to estimate the minimally possible FGS excitation power were de- rived, which allow for the given FGS dimensions and given mumetal saturation level to determine the required power. It was obtained that if we diminish the FGS volume in n^3 times, the possible power drop is only n times. Using new methodology a set of super-light FG magnetometers was manufactured with the sensor about 12 x 5 x 5 mm, consumed power about 2 mW and noise level density about 100 pT/sqrt(Hz) at

  5. Optical data transmission at the superconducting super collider

    SciTech Connect

    Leskovar, B.

    1989-04-01

    Digital and analog data transmissions via fiber optics for the Superconducting Super Collider have been investigated. The state of the art of optical transmitters, low loss fiber waveguides, receivers and associated electronics components are reviewed and summarized. Emphasis is placed on the effects of the radiation environment on the performance of an optical data transmission system components. Also, the performance of candidate components of the wide band digital and analog transmission systems intended for deployment in the Superconducting Super Collider Detector is discussed.

  6. Optimal measures for characterizing water-rich super-Earths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhusudhan, Nikku; Redfield, Seth

    2015-04-01

    The detection and atmospheric characterization of super-Earths is one of the major frontiers of exoplanetary science. Currently, extensive efforts are underway to detect molecules, particularly H2O, in super-Earth atmospheres. In the present work, we develop a systematic set of strategies to identify and observe potentially H2O-rich super-Earths that provide the best prospects for characterizing their atmospheres using existing instruments. First, we provide analytic prescriptions and discuss factors that need to be taken into account while planning and interpreting observations of super-Earth radii and spectra. We discuss how observations in different spectral bandpasses constrain different atmospheric properties of a super-Earth, including radius and temperature of the planetary surface as well as the mean molecular mass, the chemical composition and thermal profile of the atmosphere. In particular, we caution that radii measured in certain bandpasses can induce biases in the interpretation of the interior compositions. Second, we investigate the detectability of H2O-rich super-Earth atmospheres using the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 spectrograph as a function of the planetary properties and stellar brightness. We find that highly irradiated super-Earths orbiting bright stars, such as 55 Cancri e, present better candidates for atmospheric characterization compared to cooler planets such as GJ 1214b even if the latter orbit lower-mass stars. Besides being better candidates for both transmission and emission spectroscopy, hotter planets offer higher likelihood of cloud-free atmospheres which aid tremendously in the observation and interpretation of spectra. Finally, we present case studies of two super-Earths, GJ 1214b and 55 Cancri e, using available data and models of their interiors and atmospheres.

  7. Super-resolution Microscopy Approaches for Live Cell Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Godin, Antoine G.; Lounis, Brahim; Cognet, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    By delivering optical images with spatial resolutions below the diffraction limit, several super-resolution fluorescence microscopy techniques opened new opportunities to study biological structures with details approaching molecular structure sizes. They have now become methods of choice for imaging proteins and their nanoscale dynamic organizations in live cells. In this mini-review, we describe and compare the main far-field super-resolution approaches that allow studying endogenous or overexpressed proteins in live cells. PMID:25418158

  8. Detecting breast microcalcifications using super-resolution and wave-equation ultrasound imaging: a numerical phantom study

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Lianjie; Simonetti, Francesco; Huthwaite, Peter; Rosenberg, Robert; Williamson, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasound image resolution and quality need to be significantly improved for breast microcalcification detection. Super-resolution imaging with the factorization method has recently been developed as a promising tool to break through the resolution limit of conventional imaging. In addition, wave-equation reflection imaging has become an effective method to reduce image speckles by properly handling ultrasound scattering/diffraction from breast heterogeneities during image reconstruction. We explore the capabilities of a novel super-resolution ultrasound imaging method and a wave-equation reflection imaging scheme for detecting breast microcalcifications. Super-resolution imaging uses the singular value decomposition and a factorization scheme to achieve an image resolution that is not possible for conventional ultrasound imaging. Wave-equation reflection imaging employs a solution to the acoustic-wave equation in heterogeneous media to backpropagate ultrasound scattering/diffraction waves to scatters and form images of heterogeneities. We construct numerical breast phantoms using in vivo breast images, and use a finite-difference wave-equation scheme to generate ultrasound data scattered from inclusions that mimic microcalcifications. We demonstrate that microcalcifications can be detected at full spatial resolution using the super-resolution ultrasound imaging and wave-equation reflection imaging methods.

  9. Emergent ``super-solitons'' following an interaction strength quantum quench across a Luttinger liquid-Mott insulating phase boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Matthew; Yuzbashyan, Emil

    2010-03-01

    Rapid progress in cold atom experiments has motivated the study of non-equilibrium many-body dynamics following a sudden deformation of the system Hamiltonian (a ``quantum quench''). Here, we consider the dynamics of localized excitations produced via a quench across a quantum phase boundary separating critical Luttinger liquid and gapped Mott insulating states. Our initial liquid ground state is labeled by a Luttinger interaction parameter K, and subject to a density-inhomogeneity forming external potential. For the Mott insulator, we employ the quantum Sine Gordon model at the Luther-Emery (LE) point. We find that over a wide range of initial K values, the quench induces the production of relativistic, non-dispersive traveling density waves, which we dub ``super-solitons.'' The super-solitons are generated from generic antecedent localized density lumps, and appear to be a robust feature of the post-quench dynamics. An isolated exception occurs for the case of K = KLE; here, the density dynamics are generically dispersive, and depend sensitively upon the shape of the initial inhomogeneity. We show that the super-solitons do not interact, and we demonstrate that an inhomogeneous Luttinger parameter K can be used to produce super-solitons with different characteristics in the same system.

  10. Super-amphiphilic surface of nano silica/polyurethane hybrid coated PET film via a plasma treatment.

    PubMed

    Bui, Van-Tien; Liu, Xuyan; Ko, Seung Hyeon; Choi, Ho-Suk

    2015-09-01

    This study first reports the fabrication of a super-amphiphilic surface using PET films with a silica-polyurethane hybrid top-coat layer through a non-thermal, one-atmospheric-pressure plasma treatment. This surface displays contact angle close to zero with both aqueous and oily liquids, which has attracted enormous attention for a wide-range of practical applications. We systematically investigated the influence of the plasma treatment time on the wetting behavior of the silica-polyurethane coated PET surface. The changes in morphology and chemical composition of PET surfaces before and after a plasma treatment were analyzed. In order to gain an insight into the formation of a super-amphiphilic PET surface and optimize the conditions under which super-amphiphilicity can be realized, we used a hemi-wicking action as a theoretical model and experimentally verified it through determining the critical angle. We also proposed a guide for designing a nano-sphere patterned PDMS surface which can generate super-wetting properties after a plasma treatment.

  11. Detecting breast microcalcifications using super-resolution and wave-equation ultrasound imaging: a numerical phantom study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lianjie; Simonetti, Francesco; Huthwaite, Peter; Rosenberg, Robert; Williamson, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Ultrasound image resolution and quality need to be significantly improved for breast microcalcification detection. Super-resolution imaging with the factorization method has recently been developed as a promising tool to break through the resolution limit of conventional imaging. In addition, wave-equation reflection imaging has become an effective method to reduce image speckles by properly handling ultrasound scattering/diffraction from breast heterogeneities during image reconstruction. We explore the capabilities of a novel super-resolution ultrasound imaging method and a wave-equation reflection imaging scheme for detecting breast microcalcifications. Super-resolution imaging uses the singular value decomposition and a factorization scheme to achieve an image resolution that is not possible for conventional ultrasound imaging. Wave-equation reflection imaging employs a solution to the acoustic-wave equation in heterogeneous media to backpropagate ultrasound scattering/diffraction waves to scatters and reconstruct images of heterogeneities. We construct numerical breast phantoms using in vivo breast images, and use a finite-difference wave-equation scheme to generate ultrasound data scattered from inclusions that mimic microcalcifications. We demonstrate that microcalcifications can be detected at full spatial resolution using the super-resolution ultrasound imaging and wave-equation reflection imaging methods.

  12. On the statistics of SuperDARN autocorrelation function estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimer, A. S.; Hussey, G. C.; Dueck, S. R.

    2016-06-01

    Time domain signal processing techniques are employed by the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) to obtain bulk measurements of the velocity and spectral width of F region ionospheric plasma irregularities. The measurements are obtained by fitting estimates of the mean autocorrelation function (ACF) of the radar target. To accurately and consistently extract target parameters from the mean unnormalized ACF, it is necessary to utilize error-weighted fitting algorithms with a weight given by the variance of the ACF. Currently implemented weights are ad hoc, and a detailed description of the statistical characterization of SuperDARN ACFs is needed. Following the discussions in Farley (1969) and Woodman and Hagfors (1969), which describe the variance for the mean normalized ACF used with incoherent scatter radars, we present analytic expressions for obtaining the variance of the real and imaginary components of the mean unnormalized SuperDARN ACF. These expressions are based on models by André et al. (1999) and Moorcroft (2004) of the voltage signal received by SuperDARN radars but may be used for other soft target radar systems. An algorithm for obtaining the variance of both the magnitude and phase of the mean ACF is also presented. The results of this study may be directly integrated into existing SuperDARN data analysis software and other pulse-Doppler radar systems that utilize estimates of the mean unnormalized ACF.

  13. THE ALBEDOS OF KEPLER'S CLOSE-IN SUPER-EARTHS

    SciTech Connect

    Demory, Brice-Olivier

    2014-07-01

    Exoplanet research focusing on the characterization of super-Earths is currently limited to the handful of targets orbiting bright stars that are amenable to detailed study. This Letter proposes to look at alternative avenues to probe the surface and atmospheric properties of this category of planets, known to be ubiquitous in our galaxy. I conduct Markov Chain Monte Carlo light-curves analyses for 97 Kepler close-in R{sub P} ≲ 2.0 R {sub ⊕} super-Earth candidates with the aim of detecting their occultations at visible wavelengths. Brightness temperatures and geometric albedos in the Kepler bandpass are constrained for 27 super-Earth candidates. A hierarchical Bayesian modeling approach is then employed to characterize the population-level reflective properties of these close-in super-Earths. I find median geometric albedos A{sub g} in the Kepler bandpass ranging between 0.16 and 0.30, once decontaminated from thermal emission. These super-Earth geometric albedos are statistically larger than for hot Jupiters, which have medians A{sub g} ranging between 0.06 and 0.11. A subset of objects, including Kepler-10b, exhibit significantly larger albedos (A{sub g} ≳ 0.4). I argue that a better understanding of the incidence of stellar irradation on planetary surface and atmospheric processes is key to explain the diversity in albedos observed for close-in super-Earths.

  14. Simulating super earth atmospheres in the laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claudi, R.; Erculiani, M. S.; Galletta, G.; Billi, D.; Pace, E.; Schierano, D.; Giro, E.; D'Alessandro, M.

    2016-01-01

    Several space missions, such as JWST, TESS and the very recently proposed ARIEL, or ground-based experiments, as SPHERE and GPI, have been proposed to measure the atmospheric transmission, reflection and emission spectra of extrasolar planets. The planet atmosphere characteristics and possible biosignatures will be inferred by studying planetary spectra in order to identify the emission/absorption lines/bands from atmospheric molecules such as water (H2O), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4), ammonia (NH3), etc. In particular, it is important to know in detail the optical characteristics of gases in the typical physical conditions of the planetary atmospheres and how these characteristics could be affected by radiation driven photochemical and biochemical reaction. The main aim of the project `Atmosphere in a Test Tube' is to provide insights on exoplanet atmosphere modification due to biological intervention. This can be achieved simulating planetary atmosphere at different pressure and temperature conditions under the effects of radiation sources, used as proxies of different bands of the stellar emission. We are tackling the characterization of extrasolar planet atmospheres by mean of innovative laboratory experiments described in this paper. The experiments are intended to reproduce the conditions on warm earths and super earths hosted by low-mass M dwarfs primaries with the aim to understand if a cyanobacteria population hosted on a Earth-like planet orbiting an M0 star is able to maintain its photosynthetic activity and produce traceable signatures.

  15. Chemical activation through super energy transfer collisions.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jonathan M; Nikow, Matthew; Ma, Jianqiang; Wilhelm, Michael J; Han, Yong-Chang; Sharma, Amit R; Bowman, Joel M; Dai, Hai-Lung

    2014-02-01

    Can a molecule be efficiently activated with a large amount of energy in a single collision with a fast atom? If so, this type of collision will greatly affect molecular reactivity and equilibrium in systems where abundant hot atoms exist. Conventional expectation of molecular energy transfer (ET) is that the probability decreases exponentially with the amount of energy transferred, hence the probability of what we label "super energy transfer" is negligible. We show, however, that in collisions between an atom and a molecule for which chemical reactions may occur, such as those between a translationally hot H atom and an ambient acetylene (HCCH) or sulfur dioxide, ET of chemically significant amounts of energy commences with surprisingly high efficiency through chemical complex formation. Time-resolved infrared emission observations are supported by quasi-classical trajectory calculations on a global ab initio potential energy surface. Results show that ∼10% of collisions between H atoms moving with ∼60 kcal/mol energy and HCCH result in transfer of up to 70% of this energy to activate internal degrees of freedom.

  16. THE BNL SUPER NEUTRINO BEAM PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    WENG,W-T.; RAPARIA,D.

    2004-12-02

    To determine the neutrino mixing amplitudes and phase accurately, as well as the CP violation parameters, a very long base line super neutrino beam facility is needed. This is possible due to the long distance and wideband nature of the neutrino beam for the observation of several oscillations from one species of the neutrino to the other [1,2]. BNL plans to upgrade the AGS proton beam from the current 0.14 MW to higher than 1.0 MW and beyond for such a neutrino facility which consists of three major subsystems. First is a 1.5 GeV superconducting linac to replace the booster as injector for the AGS, second is the performance upgrade for the AGS itself for the higher intensity and repetition rate, and finally is target and horn system for the neutrino production. The major contribution for the higher power is from the increase of the repetition rate of the AGS form 0.3 Hz to 2.5 Hz, with moderate increase from the intensity [3]. The design consideration to achieve high intensity and low losses for the linac and the AGS will be reviewed. The target horn design for high power operation and easy maintenance will also be presented.

  17. Super-cooled droplet splash image classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xueqing; Barnes, Stuart; Fu, Shan

    2008-11-01

    It is proved that super-cooled large droplets (SLD) impingement onto airfoil have a great effect on aircraft icing. In the research facility of icing wind tunnel at Cranfield University in U.K, a great number of droplet splashing images are captured from aircraft icing experiments in order to understand the process of SLD impacting onto airfoil surfaces. Meanwhile, it also aims to classify the airfoil samples into wet/dry surface to determinate what material of samples is suitable for ice protection onto the aircraft. This paper defines a multi-dimensional feature space to characterize the images as criteria of classification. By k-means algorithm, images can be categorized into dry surface, wet surface, and ambiguous groups. Based on the results of image classification, eight of nine samples succeed to be identified into wet/dry behavior. However, one sample fell to the false identification since the raw images are insufficient to represent the entire droplets splash impact events.

  18. From crop domestication to super-domestication.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, D A; Balázs, E; Heslop-Harrison, J S

    2007-11-01

    Research related to crop domestication has been transformed by technologies and discoveries in the genome sciences as well as information-related sciences that are providing new tools for bioinformatics and systems' biology. Rapid progress in archaeobotany and ethnobotany are also contributing new knowledge to understanding crop domestication. This sense of rapid progress is encapsulated in this Special Issue, which contains 18 papers by scientists in botanical, crop sciences and related disciplines on the topic of crop domestication. One paper focuses on current themes in the genetics of crop domestication across crops, whereas other papers have a crop or geographic focus. One feature of progress in the sciences related to crop domestication is the availability of well-characterized germplasm resources in the global network of genetic resources centres (genebanks). Germplasm in genebanks is providing research materials for understanding domestication as well as for plant breeding. In this review, we highlight current genetic themes related to crop domestication. Impressive progress in this field in recent years is transforming plant breeding into crop engineering to meet the human need for increased crop yield with the minimum environmental impact - we consider this to be 'super-domestication'. While the time scale of domestication of 10 000 years or less is a very short evolutionary time span, the details emerging of what has happened and what is happening provide a window to see where domestication might - and can - advance in the future.

  19. Hybrid designs for super-pressure balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schur, W.; Baginski, F.

    The desire of the scientific community to fly large payloads at mid latitudes over durations of months while keeping altitude has propelled NASA on the path of developing an Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) design. The first design considered for ULDB was a spherical balloon, but the strength of its fabric composite fell far short of the capacity goal set by NASA. Therefore, an alternative design, the pumpkin-shape balloon, was chosen. For large balloons with a large number of gores, the pumpkin design is found to be susceptible to flawed deployment. While research on pumpkin balloon deployment is on-going, the spherical balloon design has stirred new interest for certain applications. Current spherical super-pressure designs have a load skirt that consists of straps that are attached tangentially to the fully inflated sphere. The attachment points constitute stress raisers, and the straps provide an opportunity for entanglement. The pneumatic envelope is a compliant structure that accommodates concentrated loads by large out-of-plane deformation. By embedding sufficient unidirectional strength elements in the skin that radiate from the nadir upward, we will demonstrate that the load skirt is unnecessary and the entanglement problem is avoided. We will use analytical investigations to establish the advantages of this hybrid design.

  20. Atmospheric results from Super-Kamiokande

    SciTech Connect

    Wendell, Roger

    2015-07-15

    Recent results from a 282 kiloton-year exposure of the Super-Kamiokande detector to atmospheric neutrinos are presented. The data when fit both by themselves and in conjunction with constraints from the T2K and reactor neutrino experiments show a weak, though insignificant, preference for the normal mass hierarchy at the level of~ 1σ. Searches for 2 evidence of oscillations into a sterile neutrino have resulted in limits on the parameters governing their mixing, |U{sub μ4}|{sup 2} < 0.041 and |U{sub τ4}|{sup 2} < 0.18 at 90% C.L. A similar search for an indication of Lorentz-invariance violating oscillations has yielded limits three to seven orders of magnitude more stringent than existing measurements. Additionally, analyses searching for an excess of neutrinos in the atmospheric data produced from the annihilation of dark matter particles in the galaxy and sun have placed tight limits on the cross sections governing their annihilation and scattering.

  1. Super Safety and Health Day at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    During Super Safety and Health Day at KSC, two employees were recognized for submitting winning entries in the theme and logo/poster contests. At left, Center Director Roy Bridges congratulates Dave Earhart with United Space Alliance (USA) for his winning logo; at right, Brig. Gen. Ronald D. Pettit congratulates David Koval with Space Gateway Support (SGS) for his winning theme, '''Safety and Health: A Working Relationship.''' Safety Day is a full day of NASA-sponsored, KSC and 45th Space Wing events involving a number of health and safety related activities: Displays, vendors, technical paper sessions, panel discussions, a keynote speaker, etc. The entire Center and Wing stand down to participate in the planned events. Safety Day is held annually to proactively increase awareness in safety and health among the government and contractor workforce population. The first guiding principle at KSC is '''Safety and Health First.''' KSC's number one goal is to '''Assure sound, safe and efficient practices and processes are in place for privatized/commercialized launch site processing.'''

  2. Laboratory investigation on super-Earths atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erculiani, M. S.; Claudi, R. U.; Lessio, L.; Farisato, G.; Giro, E.; Cocola, L.; Billi, D.; D'alessandro, M.; Pace, E.; Schierano, D.; Benatti, S.; Bonavita, M.; Galletta, G.

    2014-04-01

    In the framework of Atmosphere in a Test Tube, at the Astronomical Observatory of Padova (INAF) we are going to perform experiments aimed to understand the possible modification of the atmosphere by photosynthetic biota present on the planet surface. This goal can be achieved simulating M star planetary environmental conditions. The bacteria that are being studied are Acaryochloris marina, Chroococcidiopsis spp. and Halomicronema hingdechloris. Tests will be performed with LISA or MINI-LISA ambient simulator in the laboratory of the Padova Astronomic Observatory. In this paper we describe the whole road map to follow in order to perform experiments and to obtain useful data to be compared with the real ones that will be obtained by the future space missions. Starting by a fiducial experiment we will modify either environmental and thermodynamical properties in order to simulate both real irradiation by an M star and gas mixture mimicing super earths atmospheres. These laboratory tests could be used as a guideline in order to understand whether chemical disequilibrium of O2, CO2 and CH4 could be ascribed to biotic life forms.

  3. Remodeling of Super-hydrophobic Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Extrand, C W

    2016-08-30

    An experimental study on the underlying mechanisms of structured super-hydrophobic surfaces was recently published [ Butt, H.-J.; et al. How Water Advances on Superhydrophobic Surfaces. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2016, 116, 096101 . DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.096101 ]. After depositing small drops of water, Butt's group inclined their surfaces to initiate movement. They examined the contact between the water and structured surfaces with confocal microscopy. They observed that drops were suspended atop the protruding features and movement of water was different at the advancing and receding edges. At the advancing edge, the water interface descended downward and draped itself across the features. At the receding edge, water jumped from one feature to the next. As Butt and co-workers did not test their data against any existing model, that is done in this paper. Here, a previously proposed model that employs linear averaging at the contact line was adapted to their surfaces in an attempt to estimate their contact and sliding angles. Predictions from the model generally agreed with their experimental measurements. PMID:27541362

  4. SuperB Progress Report for Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Biagini, M.E.; Boni, R.; Boscolo, M.; Buonomo, B.; Demma, T.; Drago, A.; Esposito, M.; Guiducci, S.; Mazzitelli, G.; Pellegrino, L.; Preger, M.A.; Raimondi, P.; Ricci, R.; Rotundo, U.; Sanelli, C.; Serio, M.; Stella, A.; Tomassini, S.; Zobov, M.; Bertsche, K.; Brachman, A.; /SLAC /Novosibirsk, IYF /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /Orsay, LAL /Annecy, LAPP /LPSC, Grenoble /IRFU, SPP, Saclay /DESY /Cockroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech. /U. Liverpool /CERN

    2012-02-14

    This report details the progress made in by the SuperB Project in the area of the Collider since the publication of the SuperB Conceptual Design Report in 2007 and the Proceedings of SuperB Workshop VI in Valencia in 2008. With this document we propose a new electron positron colliding beam accelerator to be built in Italy to study flavor physics in the B-meson system at an energy of 10 GeV in the center-of-mass. This facility is called a high luminosity B-factory with a project name 'SuperB'. This project builds on a long history of successful e+e- colliders built around the world, as illustrated in Figure 1.1. The key advances in the design of this accelerator come from recent successes at the DAFNE collider at INFN in Frascati, Italy, at PEP-II at SLAC in California, USA, and at KEKB at KEK in Tsukuba Japan, and from new concepts in beam manipulation at the interaction region (IP) called 'crab waist'. This new collider comprises of two colliding beam rings, one at 4.2 GeV and one at 6.7 GeV, a common interaction region, a new injection system at full beam energies, and one of the two beams longitudinally polarized at the IP. Most of the new accelerator techniques needed for this collider have been achieved at other recently completed accelerators including the new PETRA-3 light source at DESY in Hamburg (Germany) and the upgraded DAFNE collider at the INFN laboratory at Frascati (Italy), or during design studies of CLIC or the International Linear Collider (ILC). The project is to be designed and constructed by a worldwide collaboration of accelerator and engineering staff along with ties to industry. To save significant construction costs, many components from the PEP-II collider at SLAC will be recycled and used in this new accelerator. The interaction region will be designed in collaboration with the particle physics detector to guarantee successful mutual use. The accelerator collaboration will consist of several groups at present universities and national

  5. Nonlocal similarity based DEM super resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zekai; Wang, Xuewen; Chen, Zixuan; Xiong, Dongping; Ding, Mingyue; Hou, Wenguang

    2015-12-01

    This paper discusses a new topic, DEM super resolution, to improve the resolution of an original DEM based on its partial new measurements obtained with high resolution. A nonlocal algorithm is introduced to perform this task. The original DEM was first divided into overlapping patches, which were classified either as "test" or "learning" data depending on whether or not they are related to high resolution measurements. For each test patch, the similar patches in the learning dataset were identified via template matching. Finally, the high resolution DEM of the test patch was restored by the weighted sum of similar patches under the condition that the reconstruction weights were the same in different resolution cases. A key assumption of this strategy is that there are some repeated or similar modes in the original DEM, which is quite common. Experiments were done to demonstrate that we can restore a DEM by preserving the details without introducing artifacts. Statistic analysis was also conducted to show that this method can obtain higher accuracy than traditional interpolation methods.

  6. Management of Super-super Obese Patients: Comparison Between Mini (One Anastomosis) Gastric Bypass and Sleeve Gastrectomy.

    PubMed

    Madhok, Brijesh; Mahawar, Kamal K; Boyle, Maureen; Carr, William R J; Jennings, Neil; Schroeder, Norbert; Balupuri, Shlok; Small, Peter K

    2016-07-01

    Management of super-super obese patients poses a particular challenge for bariatric surgeons. Many staged algorithms exist for these patients. Essentially all of these involve a lower-risk procedure like sleeve gastrectomy first before a definitive second-stage procedure like gastric bypass or duodenal switch. This study compares our results with 19 mini (one anastomosis) gastric bypass and 56 sleeve gastrectomy in super-super obese patients. Sleeve gastrectomy patients were significantly older. There was no mortality or major complication in either group. There was no minor complication in mini (one anastomosis) gastric bypass group compared to two in the sleeve gastrectomy group. Mini (one anastomsosis) gastric bypass patients experienced significantly higher weight loss compared to sleeve gastrectomy patients at 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years after surgery.

  7. [Peripartal mortality in an autopsy sample of the Pathologic Institute of the Department of Medicine of the Karl Marx University in Leipzig 1960-1982].

    PubMed

    Emmrich, P; Wötzel, E

    1986-01-01

    Between 1960 and 1982 we have autopsied 88 cases of peripartal mortality in the pathological institute of the department of medicine, Karl-Marx-University of Leipzig. According to the legal instruction in the GDR we have subdivided in direct and indirect peripartal death cases (direct and indirect relation between maternal mortality and pregnancy). We have compared both the groups (1960-1969, 1970-1982) and have found: The number of cases with indirect and direct relation between maternal mortality and pregnancy is decreased markedly in the second time period. The composition within the two time groups is very different in respect to the cause of the mortality: Between 1960 and 1969 amnioticfluid embolism, thromboembolism and air embolism, furthermore preeclampsia and their consequences as well as hemorrhages sub partu and postpartum could be found. In the second time group the most frequent causes of peripartal mortality are the different forms of embolism and preeclampsia, but then cases with a indirect relation between mortality and pregnancy with diseases of the cardiopulmonary system and of the kidneys.

  8. Super long viewing distance light homogeneous emitting three-dimensional display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Hongen

    2015-04-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) display technology has continuously been attracting public attention with the progress in today's 3D television and mature display technologies. The primary characteristics of conventional glasses-free autostereoscopic displays, such as spatial resolution, image depths, and viewing angle, are often limited due to the use of optical lenses or optical gratings. We present a 3D display using MEMS-scanning-mechanism-based light homogeneous emitting (LHE) approach and demonstrate that the display can directly generate an autostereoscopic 3D image without the need for optical lenses or gratings. The generated 3D image has the advantages of non-aberration and a high-definition spatial resolution, making it the first to exhibit animated 3D images with image depth of six meters. Our LHE 3D display approach can be used to generate a natural flat-panel 3D display with super long viewing distance and alternative real-time image update.

  9. Flexible terabit/s Nyquist-WDM super-channels using a gain-switched comb source.

    PubMed

    Pfeifle, Joerg; Vujicic, Vidak; Watts, Regan T; Schindler, Philipp C; Weimann, Claudius; Zhou, Rui; Freude, Wolfgang; Barry, Liam P; Koos, Christian

    2015-01-26

    Terabit/s super-channels are likely to become the standard for next-generation optical networks and optical interconnects. A particularly promising approach exploits optical frequency combs for super-channel generation. We show that injection locking of a gain-switched laser diode can be used to generate frequency combs that are particularly well suited for terabit/s super-channel transmission. This approach stands out due to its extraordinary stability and flexibility in tuning both center wavelength and line spacing. We perform a series of transmission experiments using different comb line spacings and modulation formats. Using 9 comb lines and 16QAM signaling, an aggregate line rate (net data rate) of 1.296 Tbit/s (1.109 Tbit/s) is achieved for transmission over 150 km of standard single mode fiber (SSMF) using a spectral bandwidth of 166.5 GHz, which corresponds to a (net) spectral efficiency of 7.8 bit/s/Hz (6.7 bit/s/Hz). The line rate (net data rate) can be boosted to 2.112 Tbit/s (1.867 Tbit/s) for transmission over 300 km of SSMF by using a bandwidth of 300 GHz and QPSK modulation on the weaker carriers. For the reported net data rates and spectral efficiencies, we assume a variable overhead of either 7% or 20% for forward- error correction depending on the individual sub-channel quality after fiber transmission.

  10. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF FISK STREET ELECTRIC GENERATING STATION COMPLEX, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF FISK STREET ELECTRIC GENERATING STATION COMPLEX, LOOKING SOUTH; IN THE CENTER, BEHIND THE STACK IS THE GENERATING STATION BUILT IN 1959; THE TALL METAL-CLAD BUILDING CONTAINS A COAL BUNKER, COAL PULVERIZER, FURNACE, BOILER, SUPER-HEATER, STEAM PIPES, AND HOT-AIR DUCTS. TO THE RIGHT OF THIS 1959 GENERATING STATION IS THE ORIGINAL POWERHOUSE. - Commonwealth Electric Company, Fisk Street Electrical Generating Station, 1111 West Cermak Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  11. Spectroscopic Studies of the Super Relaxed State of Skeletal Muscle.

    PubMed

    Nogara, Leonardo; Naber, Nariman; Pate, Edward; Canton, Marcella; Reggiani, Carlo; Cooke, Roger

    2016-01-01

    In the super-relaxed state of myosin, ATPase activity is strongly inhibited by binding of the myosin heads to the core of the thick filament in a structure known as the interacting-heads motif. In the disordered relaxed state myosin heads are not bound to the core of the thick filament and have an ATPase rate that is 10 fold greater. In the interacting-heads motif the two regulatory light chains appear to bind to each other. We have made single cysteine mutants of the regulatory light chain, placed both paramagnetic and fluorescent probes on them, and exchanged them into skinned skeletal muscle fibers. Many of the labeled light chains tended to disrupt the stability of the super-relaxed state, and showed spectral changes in the transition from the disordered relaxed state to the super-relaxed state. These data support the putative interface between the two regulatory light chains identified by cryo electron microscopy and show that both the divalent cation bound to the regulatory light chain and the N-terminus of the regulatory light chain play a role in the stability of the super-relaxed state. One probe showed a shift to shorter wavelengths in the super-relaxed state such that a ratio of intensities at 440nm to that at 520nm provided a measure of the population of the super-relaxed state amenable for high throughput screens for finding potential pharmaceuticals. The results provide a proof of concept that small molecules that bind to this region can destabilize the super-relaxed state and provide a method to search for small molecules that do so leading to a potentially effective treatment for Type 2 diabetes and obesity. PMID:27479128

  12. Clouds in Super-Earth Atmospheres: Chemical Equilibrium Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbarek, Rostom; Kempton, Eliza M.-R.

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies have unequivocally proven the existence of clouds in super-Earth atmospheres. Here we provide a theoretical context for the formation of super-Earth clouds by determining which condensates are likely to form under the assumption of chemical equilibrium. We study super-Earth atmospheres of diverse bulk composition, which are assumed to form by outgassing from a solid core of chondritic material, following Schaefer & Fegley. The super-Earth atmospheres that we study arise from planetary cores made up of individual types of chondritic meteorites. They range from highly reducing to oxidizing and have carbon to oxygen (C:O) ratios that are both sub-solar and super-solar, thereby spanning a range of atmospheric composition that is appropriate for low-mass exoplanets. Given the atomic makeup of these atmospheres, we minimize the global Gibbs free energy of formation for over 550 gases and condensates to obtain the molecular composition of the atmospheres over a temperature range of 350-3000 K. Clouds should form along the temperature-pressure boundaries where the condensed species appear in our calculation. We find that the composition of condensate clouds depends strongly on both the H:O and C:O ratios. For the super-Earth archetype GJ 1214b, KCl and ZnS are the primary cloud-forming condensates at solar composition, in agreement with previous work. However, for oxidizing atmospheres, K2SO4 and ZnO condensates are favored instead, and for carbon-rich atmospheres with super-solar C:O ratios, graphite clouds appear. For even hotter planets, clouds form from a wide variety of rock-forming and metallic species.

  13. Spectroscopic Studies of the Super Relaxed State of Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Naber, Nariman; Pate, Edward; Canton, Marcella; Reggiani, Carlo; Cooke, Roger

    2016-01-01

    In the super-relaxed state of myosin, ATPase activity is strongly inhibited by binding of the myosin heads to the core of the thick filament in a structure known as the interacting-heads motif. In the disordered relaxed state myosin heads are not bound to the core of the thick filament and have an ATPase rate that is 10 fold greater. In the interacting-heads motif the two regulatory light chains appear to bind to each other. We have made single cysteine mutants of the regulatory light chain, placed both paramagnetic and fluorescent probes on them, and exchanged them into skinned skeletal muscle fibers. Many of the labeled light chains tended to disrupt the stability of the super-relaxed state, and showed spectral changes in the transition from the disordered relaxed state to the super-relaxed state. These data support the putative interface between the two regulatory light chains identified by cryo electron microscopy and show that both the divalent cation bound to the regulatory light chain and the N-terminus of the regulatory light chain play a role in the stability of the super-relaxed state. One probe showed a shift to shorter wavelengths in the super-relaxed state such that a ratio of intensities at 440nm to that at 520nm provided a measure of the population of the super-relaxed state amenable for high throughput screens for finding potential pharmaceuticals. The results provide a proof of concept that small molecules that bind to this region can destabilize the super-relaxed state and provide a method to search for small molecules that do so leading to a potentially effective treatment for Type 2 diabetes and obesity. PMID:27479128

  14. Clouds in Super-Earth Atmospheres: Chemical Equilibrium Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbarek, Rostom; Kempton, Eliza M.-R.

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies have unequivocally proven the existence of clouds in super-Earth atmospheres. Here we provide a theoretical context for the formation of super-Earth clouds by determining which condensates are likely to form under the assumption of chemical equilibrium. We study super-Earth atmospheres of diverse bulk composition, which are assumed to form by outgassing from a solid core of chondritic material, following Schaefer & Fegley. The super-Earth atmospheres that we study arise from planetary cores made up of individual types of chondritic meteorites. They range from highly reducing to oxidizing and have carbon to oxygen (C:O) ratios that are both sub-solar and super-solar, thereby spanning a range of atmospheric composition that is appropriate for low-mass exoplanets. Given the atomic makeup of these atmospheres, we minimize the global Gibbs free energy of formation for over 550 gases and condensates to obtain the molecular composition of the atmospheres over a temperature range of 350–3000 K. Clouds should form along the temperature–pressure boundaries where the condensed species appear in our calculation. We find that the composition of condensate clouds depends strongly on both the H:O and C:O ratios. For the super-Earth archetype GJ 1214b, KCl and ZnS are the primary cloud-forming condensates at solar composition, in agreement with previous work. However, for oxidizing atmospheres, K2SO4 and ZnO condensates are favored instead, and for carbon-rich atmospheres with super-solar C:O ratios, graphite clouds appear. For even hotter planets, clouds form from a wide variety of rock-forming and metallic species.

  15. Remote Geochemical and Mineralogical Analysis with SuperCam on the Mars 2020 Rover and on Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clegg, S. M.; Wiens, R. C.; Maurice, S.; Gasnault, O.; Forni, O.; Sharma, S. K.; Misra, A. K.; Rull, F.; Johnson, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    The SuperCam instrument selected for the Mars 2020 rover is the integration of remote Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Raman spectroscopy, Time-Resolved Fluorescence, Visible and Infrared (VISIR) Reflectance Spectroscopy, and a color Remote Micro-Imager (RMI). The SuperCam instrument is based on the ChemCam architecture that includes a 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser and telescope in the mast and a suite of three spectrometers in the body connected by an optical fiber. The telescope on the mast will be used to focus the 1064 nm laser and generate a LIBS plasma from which the elemental composition will be determined up to a 7 m standoff distance. Some of the 1064 nm laser will be directed through a doubling crystal to produce 532 nm light for Raman mineralogical analysis out to 12 m from the mast. The ChemCam visible and near infrared (VNIR) spectrometer will be replaced with a transmission spectrometer and intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) that is designed to maximize the Raman mineralogical sensitivity. This transmission spectrometer and ICCD was also designed to collect time-resolved fluorescence spectra that can distinguish short lived organic fluorescence from long lived inorganic signatures. The SuperCam instrument also includes a Visible and Infrared (VISIR) Reflectance Spectrometer (400 - 900 nm, 1.3 - 2.6 µm) designed to remotely detect minerals. Finally, the ChemCam black and white RMI that is integrated into the telescope will be replaced with a color RMI with the same spatial resolution to provide context images of the samples probed with the SuperCam spectrometers. In this paper, some of the geochemical and mineralogical laboratory tests will be presented to highlight the SuperCam capabilities under both terrestrial and Mars conditions.

  16. Super-Comet or Big Asteroid Belt?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: Spectrograph of HD 69830

    This graph of data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope demonstrates that the dust around a nearby star called HD 69830 (upper line) has a very similar composition to that of Comet Hale-Bopp. Spitzer spotted large amounts of this dust in the inner portion of the HD 69830 system.

    The bumps and dips seen in these data, or spectra, represent the 'fingerprints' of various minerals. Spectra are created when an instrument called a spectrograph spreads light out into its basic parts, like a prism turning sunlight into a rainbow. These particular spectra reveal the presence of the silicate mineral called olivine, and more specifically, a type of olivine called forsterite, which is pictured in the inset box. Forsterite is a bright-green gem found on Earth, on the 'Green Sand Beach' of Hawaii among other places; and in space, in comets and asteroids.

    Because the dust around HD 69830 has a very similar make-up to that of Comet Hale-Bopp, astronomers speculate that it might be coming from a giant comet nearly the size of Pluto. Such a comet may have been knocked into the inner solar system of HD 69830, where it is now leaving in its wake a trail of evaporated dust.

    Nonetheless, astronomers say the odds that Spitzer has caught a 'super-comet' spiraling in toward its star - an unusual and relatively short-lived event - are slim. Instead, they favor the theory that the observed dust is actually the result of asteroids banging together in a massive asteroid belt.

    The data of HD 69830's dust were taken by Spitzer's infrared spectrograph. The data of Comet Hale-Bopp were taken by the European Space Agency's Infrared Observatory Satellite. The picture of forsterite comes courtesy of Dr. George Rossman, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.

  17. Environmental Forcing of Super Typhoon Paka's (1997) Latent Heat Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodgers, Edward B.; Olson, William; Halverson, Jeff; Simpson, Joanne; Pierce, Harold

    1999-01-01

    The distribution and intensity of total (i.e., combined stratified and convective processes) rainrate/latent heat release (LHR) were derived for tropical cyclone Paka during the period 9-21 December, 1997 from the F-10, F-11, F-13, and F-14 Defense Meteorological Satellite Special Sensor Microwave/Imager and the Tropical Rain Measurement Mission Microwave Imager observations. These observations were frequent enough to capture three episodes of inner core convective bursts that preceded periods of rapid intensification and a convective rainband (CRB) cycle. During these periods of convective bursts, satellite sensors revealed that the rainrates/LHR: 1) increased within the inner eye wall region; 2) were mainly convectively generated (nearly a 65% contribution), 3) propagated inwards; 4) extended upwards within the middle and upper-troposphere, and 5) became electrically charged. These factors may have caused the eye wall region to become more buoyant within the middle and upper-troposphere, creating greater cyclonic angular momentum, and, thereby, warming the center and intensifying the system. Radiosonde measurements from Kwajalein Atoll and Guam, sea surface temperature observations, and the European Center for Medium Range Forecast analyses were used to examine the necessary and sufficient condition for initiating and maintaining these inner core convective bursts. For example, the necessary conditions such as the atmospheric thermodynamics (i.e., cold tropopause temperatures, moist troposphere, and warm SSTs [greater than 26 deg]) suggested that the atmosphere was ideal for Paka's maximum potential intensity (MPI) to approach super-typhoon strength. Further, Paka encountered weak vertical wind shear (less than 15 m/s ) before interacting with the westerlies on 21 December. The sufficient conditions, on the other hand, appeared to have some influence on Paka's convective burst, but the horizontal moisture flux convergence values in the outer core were weaker than

  18. First Super-Earth Atmosphere Analysed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-12-01

    The atmosphere around a super-Earth exoplanet has been analysed for the first time by an international team of astronomers using ESO's Very Large Telescope. The planet, which is known as GJ 1214b, was studied as it passed in front of its parent star and some of the starlight passed through the planet's atmosphere. We now know that the atmosphere is either mostly water in the form of steam or is dominated by thick clouds or hazes. The results will appear in the 2 December 2010 issue of the journal Nature. The planet GJ 1214b was confirmed in 2009 using the HARPS instrument on ESO's 3.6-metre telescope in Chile (eso0950) [1]. Initial findings suggested that this planet had an atmosphere, which has now been confirmed and studied in detail by an international team of astronomers, led by Jacob Bean (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics), using the FORS instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope. "This is the first super-Earth to have its atmosphere analysed. We've reached a real milestone on the road toward characterising these worlds," said Bean. GJ 1214b has a radius of about 2.6 times that of the Earth and is about 6.5 times as massive, putting it squarely into the class of exoplanets known as super-Earths. Its host star lies about 40 light-years from Earth in the constellation of Ophiuchus (the Serpent Bearer). It is a faint star [2], but it is also small, which means that the size of the planet is large compared to the stellar disc, making it relatively easy to study [3]. The planet travels across the disc of its parent star once every 38 hours as it orbits at a distance of only two million kilometres: about seventy times closer than the Earth orbits the Sun. To study the atmosphere, the team observed the light coming from the star as the planet passed in front of it [4]. During these transits, some of the starlight passes through the planet's atmosphere and, depending on the chemical composition and weather on the planet, specific wavelengths of light are

  19. Quantifying, Assessing, and Mitigating Methane Emissions from Super-emitters in the Oil and Gas Supply Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, David Richard

    continuous leak detection systems at three example well pads. The model demonstrates that large leaks can be detected quickly with first generation systems. Continuous leak detection can be used in the near future to cost-effectively mitigate methane emissions from O&G super-emitters.

  20. Note: Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor high voltage pulse generation circuits.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiwei; Wang, Pingshan

    2013-10-01

    We present two types of on-chip pulse generation circuits. The first is based on CMOS pulse-forming-lines (PFLs). It includes a four-stage charge pump, a four-stacked-MOSFET switch and a 5 mm long PFL. The circuit is implemented in a 0.13 μm CMOS process. Pulses of ~1.8 V amplitude with ~135 ps duration on a 50 Ω load are obtained. The obtained voltage is higher than 1.6 V, the rated operating voltage of the process. The second is a high-voltage Marx generator which also uses stacked MOSFETs as high voltage switches. The output voltage is 11.68 V, which is higher than the highest breakdown voltage (~10 V) of the CMOS process. These results significantly extend high-voltage pulse generation capabilities of CMOS technologies.

  1. [Cyto-embryologic investigation of super dwarf wheat grown on board of the Mir orbital complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veselova, T. D.; Il'ina, G. M.; Dzhaliova, Kh Kh; Levinskikh, M. A.; Sychev, V. N.; Salisbury, F. B.; Campbell, W. F.

    1999-01-01

    The cytoembryologic analysis of wet and dry samples of super dwarf wheat cultivated in greenhouse SVET aboard the MIR station over the whole cycle of vegetation was made with the use of light microscopy. Characteristic features of wheat development in space flight are plentiful early tillering, and formation and rapid growth of side shoots. Elementary spikelets in the composite head were more numerous but the top spikelets were rudimentary and, therefore, the ripe head contained less of these spikelets as compared with the ground controls (9-13 and 14, respectively). The number of florets in a spike was also higher reaching 14-16 vs. 7-8 in the control. Typically, no more than 4 to 5 florets vs. 3 in the control were fully differentiated while the others died off earlier in development. The fact that there were no caryopses found in the flight crop is explained by absolute male sterility appearing at different stages of staminal development: before archesporium formation, on the stage of differentiated archesporium, during meiosis, on the stage of microspores or uninucleate "pollen". The female generative system developed mainly without abnormalities. An assumption was made that elevated ethylene concentrations in the MIR atmosphere at the time of the wheat experiment were the cause for abnormal development of the male generative system which led to barrenness of the super dwarf wheat crop.

  2. A two-step super-Gaussian independent component analysis approach for fMRI data.

    PubMed

    Ge, Ruiyang; Yao, Li; Zhang, Hang; Long, Zhiying

    2015-09-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) has been widely applied to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data analysis. Although ICA assumes that the sources underlying data are statistically independent, it usually ignores sources' additional properties, such as sparsity. In this study, we propose a two-step super-GaussianICA (2SGICA) method that incorporates the sparse prior of the sources into the ICA model. 2SGICA uses the super-Gaussian ICA (SGICA) algorithm that is based on a simplified Lewicki-Sejnowski's model to obtain the initial source estimate in the first step. Using a kernel estimator technique, the source density is acquired and fitted to the Laplacian function based on the initial source estimates. The fitted Laplacian prior is used for each source at the second SGICA step. Moreover, the automatic target generation process for initial value generation is used in 2SGICA to guarantee the stability of the algorithm. An adaptive step size selection criterion is also implemented in the proposed algorithm. We performed experimental tests on both simulated data and real fMRI data to investigate the feasibility and robustness of 2SGICA and made a performance comparison between InfomaxICA, FastICA, mean field ICA (MFICA) with Laplacian prior, sparse online dictionary learning (ODL), SGICA and 2SGICA. Both simulated and real fMRI experiments showed that the 2SGICA was most robust to noises, and had the best spatial detection power and the time course estimation among the six methods.

  3. VirusMapper: open-source nanoscale mapping of viral architecture through super-resolution microscopy.

    PubMed

    Gray, Robert D M; Beerli, Corina; Pereira, Pedro Matos; Scherer, Kathrin Maria; Samolej, Jerzy; Bleck, Christopher Karl Ernst; Mercer, Jason; Henriques, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    The nanoscale molecular assembly of mammalian viruses during their infectious life cycle remains poorly understood. Their small dimensions, generally bellow the 300nm diffraction limit of light microscopes, has limited most imaging studies to electron microscopy. The recent development of super-resolution (SR) light microscopy now allows the visualisation of viral structures at resolutions of tens of nanometers. In addition, these techniques provide the added benefit of molecular specific labelling and the capacity to investigate viral structural dynamics using live-cell microscopy. However, there is a lack of robust analytical tools that allow for precise mapping of viral structure within the setting of infection. Here we present an open-source analytical framework that combines super-resolution imaging and naïve single-particle analysis to generate unbiased molecular models. This tool, VirusMapper, is a high-throughput, user-friendly, ImageJ-based software package allowing for automatic statistical mapping of conserved multi-molecular structures, such as viral substructures or intact viruses. We demonstrate the usability of VirusMapper by applying it to SIM and STED images of vaccinia virus in isolation and when engaged with host cells. VirusMapper allows for the generation of accurate, high-content, molecular specific virion models and detection of nanoscale changes in viral architecture. PMID:27374400

  4. VirusMapper: open-source nanoscale mapping of viral architecture through super-resolution microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Robert D. M.; Beerli, Corina; Pereira, Pedro Matos; Scherer, Kathrin Maria; Samolej, Jerzy; Bleck, Christopher Karl Ernst; Mercer, Jason; Henriques, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    The nanoscale molecular assembly of mammalian viruses during their infectious life cycle remains poorly understood. Their small dimensions, generally bellow the 300nm diffraction limit of light microscopes, has limited most imaging studies to electron microscopy. The recent development of super-resolution (SR) light microscopy now allows the visualisation of viral structures at resolutions of tens of nanometers. In addition, these techniques provide the added benefit of molecular specific labelling and the capacity to investigate viral structural dynamics using live-cell microscopy. However, there is a lack of robust analytical tools that allow for precise mapping of viral structure within the setting of infection. Here we present an open-source analytical framework that combines super-resolution imaging and naïve single-particle analysis to generate unbiased molecular models. This tool, VirusMapper, is a high-throughput, user-friendly, ImageJ-based software package allowing for automatic statistical mapping of conserved multi-molecular structures, such as viral substructures or intact viruses. We demonstrate the usability of VirusMapper by applying it to SIM and STED images of vaccinia virus in isolation and when engaged with host cells. VirusMapper allows for the generation of accurate, high-content, molecular specific virion models and detection of nanoscale changes in viral architecture. PMID:27374400

  5. A Super-Resolution Algorithm for Enhancement of FLASH LIDAR data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulyshev, Alexander; Vanek, Michael; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Pierrottet, Diego; Hines, Glen; Reisse, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A novel method for enhancement of the spatial resolution of 3-dimensional Flash Lidar images is being proposed for generation of elevation maps of terrain from a moving platform. NASA recognizes the Flash LIDAR technology as an important tool for enabling safe and precision landing in future unmanned and crewed lunar and planetary missions. The ability of the Flash LIDAR to generate 3-dimensional maps of the landing site area during the final stages of the descent phase for detection of hazardous terrain features such as craters, rocks, and steep slopes is under study in the frame of the Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance (ALHAT) project. Since single frames of existing FLASH LIDAR systems are not sufficient to build a map of entire landing site with acceptable spatial resolution and precision, a super-resolution approach utilizing multiple frames has been developed to overcome the instrument s limitations. Performance of the super-resolution algorithm has been analyzed through a series of simulation runs obtained from a high fidelity Flash LIDAR model and a high resolution synthetic lunar elevation map. For each simulation run, a sequence of FLASH LIDAR frames are recorded and processed as the spacecraft descends toward the landing site. Simulations runs having different trajectory profiles and varying LIDAR look angles of the terrain are also analyzed. The results show that adequate levels of accuracy and precision are achieved for detecting hazardous terrain features and identifying safe areas of the landing site.

  6. A two-step super-Gaussian independent component analysis approach for fMRI data.

    PubMed

    Ge, Ruiyang; Yao, Li; Zhang, Hang; Long, Zhiying

    2015-09-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) has been widely applied to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data analysis. Although ICA assumes that the sources underlying data are statistically independent, it usually ignores sources' additional properties, such as sparsity. In this study, we propose a two-step super-GaussianICA (2SGICA) method that incorporates the sparse prior of the sources into the ICA model. 2SGICA uses the super-Gaussian ICA (SGICA) algorithm that is based on a simplified Lewicki-Sejnowski's model to obtain the initial source estimate in the first step. Using a kernel estimator technique, the source density is acquired and fitted to the Laplacian function based on the initial source estimates. The fitted Laplacian prior is used for each source at the second SGICA step. Moreover, the automatic target generation process for initial value generation is used in 2SGICA to guarantee the stability of the algorithm. An adaptive step size selection criterion is also implemented in the proposed algorithm. We performed experimental tests on both simulated data and real fMRI data to investigate the feasibility and robustness of 2SGICA and made a performance comparison between InfomaxICA, FastICA, mean field ICA (MFICA) with Laplacian prior, sparse online dictionary learning (ODL), SGICA and 2SGICA. Both simulated and real fMRI experiments showed that the 2SGICA was most robust to noises, and had the best spatial detection power and the time course estimation among the six methods. PMID:26057592

  7. Oblique reconstructions in tomosynthesis. II. Super-resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Acciavatti, Raymond J.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: In tomosynthesis, super-resolution has been demonstrated using reconstruction planes parallel to the detector. Super-resolution allows for subpixel resolution relative to the detector. The purpose of this work is to develop an analytical model that generalizes super-resolution to oblique reconstruction planes.Methods: In a digital tomosynthesis system, a sinusoidal test object is modeled along oblique angles (i.e., “pitches”) relative to the plane of the detector in a 3D divergent-beam acquisition geometry. To investigate the potential for super-resolution, the input frequency is specified to be greater than the alias frequency of the detector. Reconstructions are evaluated in an oblique plane along the extent of the object using simple backprojection (SBP) and filtered backprojection (FBP). By comparing the amplitude of the reconstruction against the attenuation coefficient of the object at various frequencies, the modulation transfer function (MTF) is calculated to determine whether modulation is within detectable limits for super-resolution. For experimental validation of super-resolution, a goniometry stand was used to orient a bar pattern phantom along various pitches relative to the breast support in a commercial digital breast tomosynthesis system.Results: Using theoretical modeling, it is shown that a single projection image cannot resolve a sine input whose frequency exceeds the detector alias frequency. The high frequency input is correctly visualized in SBP or FBP reconstruction using a slice along the pitch of the object. The Fourier transform of this reconstructed slice is maximized at the input frequency as proof that the object is resolved. Consistent with the theoretical results, experimental images of a bar pattern phantom showed super-resolution in oblique reconstructions. At various pitches, the highest frequency with detectable modulation was determined by visual inspection of the bar patterns. The dependency of the highest

  8. Method and apparatus for connecting high voltage leads to a high temperature super-conducting transformer

    DOEpatents

    Golner, Thomas M.; Mehta, Shirish P.

    2005-07-26

    A method and apparatus for connecting high voltage leads to a super-conducting transformer is provided that includes a first super-conducting coil set, a second super-conducting coil set, and a third super-conducting coil set. The first, second and third super-conducting coil sets are connected via an insulated interconnect system that includes insulated conductors and insulated connectors that are utilized to connect the first, second, and third super-conducting coil sets to the high voltage leads.

  9. Identifying Galactic Cosmic Ray Origins With Super-TIGER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deNolfo, Georgia; Binns, W. R.; Israel, M. H.; Christian, E. R.; Mitchell, J. W.; Hams, T.; Link, J. T.; Sasaki, M.; Labrador, A. W.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Stone, E. C.; Waddington, C. J.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.

    2009-01-01

    Super-TIGER (Super Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder) is a new long-duration balloon-borne instrument designed to test and clarify an emerging model of cosmic-ray origins and models for atomic processes by which nuclei are selected for acceleration. A sensitive test of the origin of cosmic rays is the measurement of ultra heavy elemental abundances (Z > or equal 30). Super-TIGER is a large-area (5 sq m) instrument designed to measure the elements in the interval 30 < or equal Z < or equal 42 with individual-element resolution and high statistical precision, and make exploratory measurements through Z = 60. It will also measure with high statistical accuracy the energy spectra of the more abundant elements in the interval 14 < or equal Z < or equal 30 at energies 0.8 < or equal E < or equal 10 GeV/nucleon. These spectra will give a sensitive test of the hypothesis that microquasars or other sources could superpose spectral features on the otherwise smooth energy spectra previously measured with less statistical accuracy. Super-TIGER builds on the heritage of the smaller TIGER, which produced the first well-resolved measurements of elemental abundances of the elements Ga-31, Ge-32, and Se-34. We present the Super-TIGER design, schedule, and progress to date, and discuss the relevance of UH measurements to cosmic-ray origins.

  10. Super-resolution optical telescopes with local light diffraction shrinkage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changtao; Tang, Dongliang; Wang, Yanqin; Zhao, Zeyu; Wang, Jiong; Pu, Mingbo; Zhang, Yudong; Yan, Wei; Gao, Ping; Luo, Xiangang

    2015-01-01

    Suffering from giant size of objective lenses and infeasible manipulations of distant targets, telescopes could not seek helps from present super-resolution imaging, such as scanning near-field optical microscopy, perfect lens and stimulated emission depletion microscopy. In this paper, local light diffraction shrinkage associated with optical super-oscillatory phenomenon is proposed for real-time and optically restoring super-resolution imaging information in a telescope system. It is found that fine target features concealed in diffraction-limited optical images of a telescope could be observed in a small local field of view, benefiting from a relayed metasurface-based super-oscillatory imaging optics in which some local Fourier components beyond the cut-off frequency of telescope could be restored. As experimental examples, a minimal resolution to 0.55 of Rayleigh criterion is obtained, and imaging complex targets and large targets by superimposing multiple local fields of views are demonstrated as well. This investigation provides an access for real-time, incoherent and super-resolution telescopes without the manipulation of distant targets. More importantly, it gives counterintuitive evidence to the common knowledge that relayed optics could not deliver more imaging details than objective systems. PMID:26677820

  11. Point target detection using super-resolution reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijk, Judith; van Eekeren, Adam W. M.; Schutte, Klamer; de Lange, Dirk-Jan J.

    2007-04-01

    Surveillance applications are primarily concerned with detection of targets. In electro-optical surveillance systems, missiles or other weapons coming towards you are observed as moving points. Typically, such moving targets need to be detected in a very short time. One of the problems is that the targets will have a low signal-to-noise ratio with respect to the background, and that the background can be severely cluttered like in an air-to-ground scenario. The first step in detection of point targets is to suppress the background. The novelty of this work is that a super-resolution reconstruction algorithm is used in the background suppression step. It is well-known that super-resolution reconstruction reduces the aliasing in the image. This anti-aliasing is used to model the specific aliasing contribution in the camera image, which results in a better estimate of the clutter in the background. Using super-resolution reconstruction also reduces the temporal noise, thus providing a better signal-to-noise ratio than the camera images. After the background suppression step common detection algorithms such as thresholding or track-before-detect can be used. Experimental results are given which show that the use of super-resolution reconstruction significantly increases the sensitivity of the point target detection. The detection of the point targets is increased by the noise reduction property of the super-resolution reconstruction algorithm. The background suppression is improved by the anti-aliasing.

  12. Super-resolution optical telescopes with local light diffraction shrinkage

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Changtao; Tang, Dongliang; Wang, Yanqin; Zhao, Zeyu; Wang, Jiong; Pu, Mingbo; Zhang, Yudong; Yan, Wei; Gao, Ping; Luo, Xiangang

    2015-01-01

    Suffering from giant size of objective lenses and infeasible manipulations of distant targets, telescopes could not seek helps from present super-resolution imaging, such as scanning near-field optical microscopy, perfect lens and stimulated emission depletion microscopy. In this paper, local light diffraction shrinkage associated with optical super-oscillatory phenomenon is proposed for real-time and optically restoring super-resolution imaging information in a telescope system. It is found that fine target features concealed in diffraction-limited optical images of a telescope could be observed in a small local field of view, benefiting from a relayed metasurface-based super-oscillatory imaging optics in which some local Fourier components beyond the cut-off frequency of telescope could be restored. As experimental examples, a minimal resolution to 0.55 of Rayleigh criterion is obtained, and imaging complex targets and large targets by superimposing multiple local fields of views are demonstrated as well. This investigation provides an access for real-time, incoherent and super-resolution telescopes without the manipulation of distant targets. More importantly, it gives counterintuitive evidence to the common knowledge that relayed optics could not deliver more imaging details than objective systems. PMID:26677820

  13. Super-resolution optical telescopes with local light diffraction shrinkage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Changtao; Tang, Dongliang; Wang, Yanqin; Zhao, Zeyu; Wang, Jiong; Pu, Mingbo; Zhang, Yudong; Yan, Wei; Gao, Ping; Luo, Xiangang

    2015-12-01

    Suffering from giant size of objective lenses and infeasible manipulations of distant targets, telescopes could not seek helps from present super-resolution imaging, such as scanning near-field optical microscopy, perfect lens and stimulated emission depletion microscopy. In this paper, local light diffraction shrinkage associated with optical super-oscillatory phenomenon is proposed for real-time and optically restoring super-resolution imaging information in a telescope system. It is found that fine target features concealed in diffraction-limited optical images of a telescope could be observed in a small local field of view, benefiting from a relayed metasurface-based super-oscillatory imaging optics in which some local Fourier components beyond the cut-off frequency of telescope could be restored. As experimental examples, a minimal resolution to 0.55 of Rayleigh criterion is obtained, and imaging complex targets and large targets by superimposing multiple local fields of views are demonstrated as well. This investigation provides an access for real-time, incoherent and super-resolution telescopes without the manipulation of distant targets. More importantly, it gives counterintuitive evidence to the common knowledge that relayed optics could not deliver more imaging details than objective systems.

  14. Super-resolution optical telescopes with local light diffraction shrinkage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changtao; Tang, Dongliang; Wang, Yanqin; Zhao, Zeyu; Wang, Jiong; Pu, Mingbo; Zhang, Yudong; Yan, Wei; Gao, Ping; Luo, Xiangang

    2015-12-18

    Suffering from giant size of objective lenses and infeasible manipulations of distant targets, telescopes could not seek helps from present super-resolution imaging, such as scanning near-field optical microscopy, perfect lens and stimulated emission depletion microscopy. In this paper, local light diffraction shrinkage associated with optical super-oscillatory phenomenon is proposed for real-time and optically restoring super-resolution imaging information in a telescope system. It is found that fine target features concealed in diffraction-limited optical images of a telescope could be observed in a small local field of view, benefiting from a relayed metasurface-based super-oscillatory imaging optics in which some local Fourier components beyond the cut-off frequency of telescope could be restored. As experimental examples, a minimal resolution to 0.55 of Rayleigh criterion is obtained, and imaging complex targets and large targets by superimposing multiple local fields of views are demonstrated as well. This investigation provides an access for real-time, incoherent and super-resolution telescopes without the manipulation of distant targets. More importantly, it gives counterintuitive evidence to the common knowledge that relayed optics could not deliver more imaging details than objective systems.

  15. CSI 3.0: a web server for identifying secondary and super-secondary structure in proteins using NMR chemical shifts.

    PubMed

    Hafsa, Noor E; Arndt, David; Wishart, David S

    2015-07-01

    The Chemical Shift Index or CSI 3.0 (http://csi3.wishartlab.com) is a web server designed to accurately identify the location of secondary and super-secondary structures in protein chains using only nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) backbone chemical shifts and their corresponding protein sequence data. Unlike earlier versions of CSI, which only identified three types of secondary structure (helix, β-strand and coil), CSI 3.0 now identifies total of 11 types of secondary and super-secondary structures, including helices, β-strands, coil regions, five common β-turns (type I, II, I', II' and VIII), β hairpins as well as interior and edge β-strands. CSI 3.0 accepts experimental NMR chemical shift data in multiple formats (NMR Star 2.1, NMR Star 3.1 and SHIFTY) and generates colorful CSI plots (bar graphs) and secondary/super-secondary structure assignments. The output can be readily used as constraints for structure determination and refinement or the images may be used for presentations and publications. CSI 3.0 uses a pipeline of several well-tested, previously published programs to identify the secondary and super-secondary structures in protein chains. Comparisons with secondary and super-secondary structure assignments made via standard coordinate analysis programs such as DSSP, STRIDE and VADAR on high-resolution protein structures solved by X-ray and NMR show >90% agreement between those made with CSI 3.0. PMID:25979265

  16. CSI 3.0: a web server for identifying secondary and super-secondary structure in proteins using NMR chemical shifts.

    PubMed

    Hafsa, Noor E; Arndt, David; Wishart, David S

    2015-07-01

    The Chemical Shift Index or CSI 3.0 (http://csi3.wishartlab.com) is a web server designed to accurately identify the location of secondary and super-secondary structures in protein chains using only nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) backbone chemical shifts and their corresponding protein sequence data. Unlike earlier versions of CSI, which only identified three types of secondary structure (helix, β-strand and coil), CSI 3.0 now identifies total of 11 types of secondary and super-secondary structures, including helices, β-strands, coil regions, five common β-turns (type I, II, I', II' and VIII), β hairpins as well as interior and edge β-strands. CSI 3.0 accepts experimental NMR chemical shift data in multiple formats (NMR Star 2.1, NMR Star 3.1 and SHIFTY) and generates colorful CSI plots (bar graphs) and secondary/super-secondary structure assignments. The output can be readily used as constraints for structure determination and refinement or the images may be used for presentations and publications. CSI 3.0 uses a pipeline of several well-tested, previously published programs to identify the secondary and super-secondary structures in protein chains. Comparisons with secondary and super-secondary structure assignments made via standard coordinate analysis programs such as DSSP, STRIDE and VADAR on high-resolution protein structures solved by X-ray and NMR show >90% agreement between those made with CSI 3.0.

  17. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated endogenous protein tagging for RESOLFT super-resolution microscopy of living human cells

    PubMed Central

    Ratz, Michael; Testa, Ilaria; Hell, Stefan W.; Jakobs, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Overexpression is a notorious concern in conventional and especially in super-resolution fluorescence light microscopy studies because it may cause numerous artifacts including ectopic sub-cellular localizations, erroneous formation of protein complexes, and others. Nonetheless, current live cell super-resolution microscopy studies generally rely on the overexpression of a host protein fused to a fluorescent protein. Here, we establish CRISPR/Cas9-mediated generation of heterozygous and homozygous human knockin cell lines expressing fluorescently tagged proteins from their respective native genomic loci at close to endogenous levels. We tagged three different proteins, exhibiting various localizations and expression levels, with the reversibly switchable fluorescent protein rsEGFP2. We demonstrate the benefit of endogenous expression levels compared to overexpression and show that typical overexpression-induced artefacts were avoided in genome-edited cells. Fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis revealed a narrow distribution of fusion protein expression levels in genome-edited cells, compared to a pronounced variability in transiently transfected cells. Using low light intensity RESOLFT (reversible saturable optical fluorescence transitions) nanoscopy we show sub-diffraction resolution imaging of living human knockin cells. Our strategy to generate human cell lines expressing fluorescent fusion proteins at endogenous levels for RESOLFT nanoscopy can be extended to other fluorescent tags and super-resolution approaches. PMID:25892259

  18. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated endogenous protein tagging for RESOLFT super-resolution microscopy of living human cells.

    PubMed

    Ratz, Michael; Testa, Ilaria; Hell, Stefan W; Jakobs, Stefan

    2015-04-20

    Overexpression is a notorious concern in conventional and especially in super-resolution fluorescence light microscopy studies because it may cause numerous artifacts including ectopic sub-cellular localizations, erroneous formation of protein complexes, and others. Nonetheless, current live cell super-resolution microscopy studies generally rely on the overexpression of a host protein fused to a fluorescent protein. Here, we establish CRISPR/Cas9-mediated generation of heterozygous and homozygous human knockin cell lines expressing fluorescently tagged proteins from their respective native genomic loci at close to endogenous levels. We tagged three different proteins, exhibiting various localizations and expression levels, with the reversibly switchable fluorescent protein rsEGFP2. We demonstrate the benefit of endogenous expression levels compared to overexpression and show that typical overexpression-induced artefacts were avoided in genome-edited cells. Fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis revealed a narrow distribution of fusion protein expression levels in genome-edited cells, compared to a pronounced variability in transiently transfected cells. Using low light intensity RESOLFT (reversible saturable optical fluorescence transitions) nanoscopy we show sub-diffraction resolution imaging of living human knockin cells. Our strategy to generate human cell lines expressing fluorescent fusion proteins at endogenous levels for RESOLFT nanoscopy can be extended to other fluorescent tags and super-resolution approaches.

  19. Super-Resolution Imaging of a Dielectric Microsphere Is Governed by the Waist of Its Photonic Nanojet.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui; Trouillon, Raphaël; Huszka, Gergely; Gijs, Martin A M

    2016-08-10

    Dielectric microspheres with appropriate refractive index can image objects with super-resolution, that is, with a precision well beyond the classical diffraction limit. A microsphere is also known to generate upon illumination a photonic nanojet, which is a scattered beam of light with a high-intensity main lobe and very narrow waist. Here, we report a systematic study of the imaging of water-immersed nanostructures by barium titanate glass microspheres of different size. A numerical study of the light propagation through a microsphere points out the light focusing capability of microspheres of different size and the waist of their photonic nanojet. The former correlates to the magnification factor of the virtual images obtained from linear test nanostructures, the biggest magnification being obtained with microspheres of ∼6-7 μm in size. Analyzing the light intensity distribution of microscopy images allows determining analytically the point spread function of the optical system and thereby quantifies its resolution. We find that the super-resolution imaging of a microsphere is dependent on the waist of its photonic nanojet, the best resolution being obtained with a 6 μm Ø microsphere, which generates the nanojet with the minimum waist. This comparison allows elucidating the super-resolution imaging mechanism. PMID:27398718

  20. Super-Alfvénic propagation of substorm reconnection signatures and Poynting flux.

    PubMed

    Shay, M A; Drake, J F; Eastwood, J P; Phan, T D

    2011-08-01

    The propagation of reconnection signatures and their associated energy are examined using kinetic particle-in-cell simulations and Cluster satellite observations. It is found that the quadrupolar out-of-plane magnetic field near the separatrices is associated with a kinetic Alfvén wave. For magnetotail parameters, the parallel propagation of this wave is super-Alfvénic (V(∥) ∼ 1500-5500 km/s) and generates substantial Poynting flux (S ∼ 10(-5)-10(-4) W/m(2)) consistent with Cluster observations of magnetic reconnection. This Poynting flux substantially exceeds that due to frozen-in ion bulk outflows and is sufficient to generate white light aurora in Earth's ionosphere. PMID:21902330

  1. Modeling Spectra of Super-Earth and Earth-like Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnittman, J.; Achterberg, R. K.; Domagal-Goldman, S. D.; Esman, T.; Mandell, A.; Nixon, C. A.; Oman, L.; Oreopoulos, L.; Rodriguez, J. M.; Wiscombe, W. J.

    2013-12-01

    We couple publicly-available 1-D radiative-convective and photochemistry models to a post-processor radiative transfer code to efficiently generate spectra for a wide range of exoplanet parameter space. The atmospheric composition changes due to the photochemistry module as the radiative-convective module converges toward equilibrium. We study a range of stellar types from M-dwarfs to Sun-like stars and focus on terrestrial and "Super-Earth" exoplanets in or near the habitable zone. We then pass these synthetic spectra through the expected response function of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) in order to determine the sensitivity of that observatory to measuring various atmospheric properties. Lastly, we show what might be learned from direct imaging observations with a next-generation space telescope.

  2. Observed near-surface currents under four super typhoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yu-Chia; Chu, Peter C.; Centurioni, Luca R.; Tseng, Ruo-Shan

    2014-11-01

    The upper ocean currents under four category-5 (super) typhoons [Chaba (2004), Maon (2004), Saomai (2006), and Jangmi (2008)] were studied using data from four drifters of the Surface Velocity Program (SVP) (Niiler, 2001) in the northwestern Pacific. Maximum current velocities occurring to the right of the super typhoon tracks were observed as 2.6 m s- 1 for slow-moving (2.9 m s- 1) Maon, 2.1 m s- 1 for typical-moving Chaba (5.1 m s- 1), 1.4 m s- 1 for fast-moving Jangmi (6.8 m s- 1), and 1.2 m s- 1 for fast-moving Saomai (8.1 m s- 1). Furthermore, dependence of the mixed layer current velocity under a super typhoon on its translation speed and statistical relationships between the maximum current speed and the Saffir-Simpson hurricane scale are also provided.

  3. Preparative methods for imaging plasmodesmata at super-resolution.

    PubMed

    Bell, Karen; Oparka, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Much of our knowledge of plasmodesmata has come from the ability to visualize them. Light microscopy is a popular tool for exploring subcellular structures but is limited in its resolving power due to the diffractive properties of light. At 50 nm in diameter plasmodesmata are below this limit and so cannot be resolved. Super-resolution microscopy operates beyond the limits of conventional light microscopy affording a more detailed view. Although lacking the ultrastructural resolving power of the electron microscope (EM), super-resolution microscopy helps to bridge the gap between conventional light microscopy and EM.Here we present three preparative methods for studying plasmodesmata at super-resolution using 3D-structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM).

  4. Single Image Super-resolution using Deformable Patches.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yu; Zhang, Yanning; Yuille, Alan L

    2014-06-01

    We proposed a deformable patches based method for single image super-resolution. By the concept of deformation, a patch is not regarded as a fixed vector but a flexible deformation flow. Via deformable patches, the dictionary can cover more patterns that do not appear, thus becoming more expressive. We present the energy function with slow, smooth and flexible prior for deformation model. During example-based super-resolution, we develop the deformation similarity based on the minimized energy function for basic patch matching. For robustness, we utilize multiple deformed patches combination for the final reconstruction. Experiments evaluate the deformation effectiveness and super-resolution performance, showing that the deformable patches help improve the representation accuracy and perform better than the state-of-art methods.

  5. Development of Micro-Dies Using Titanium Super Plastic Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Hidenori; Oohira, Fumikazu; Hashiguchi, Gen; Katayama, Tomoyuki; Hayashi, Hiroki; Mihara, Yutaka

    We have developed a fabrication technique of micro-dies made of titanium super plastic alloy. Shapes of micro silicon structures, which are formed on a silicon substrate by micromachining technique, were imprinted to titanium super plastic alloy using a vacuum press machine at a temperature of 720 °C. We investigated the method to flatten the sidewall of dry-etched silicon structures, and obtained the surface roughness of less than 10 nm. A graded layer of TiN/Ti film, which is deposited on the silicon microstructures by sputtering, was also examined to prevent titanium diffusion into the silicon microstructures during the high temperature pressing. Using the developed technique, a concave titanium super plastic alloy mold for an optical wave-guide was successfully produced, exhibiting filling factor of 99.58%.

  6. Actinide targets for the synthesis of super-heavy elements

    DOE PAGES

    Roberto, J.; Alexander, Charles W.; Boll, Rose Ann; Ezold, Julie G.; Felker, Leslie Kevin; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr; Hogle, Susan L.

    2015-06-18

    Since 2000, six new super-heavy elements with atomic numbers 113 through 118 have been synthesized in hot fusion reactions of 48Ca beams on actinide targets. These target materials, including 242Pu, 244Pu, 243Am, 245Cm, 248Cm, 249Cf, and 249Bk, are available in very limited quantities and require specialized production and processing facilities resident in only a few research centers worldwide. This report describes the production and chemical processing of heavy actinide materials for super-heavy element research, current availabilities of these materials, and related target fabrication techniques. The impact of actinide materials in super-heavy element discovery is reviewed, and strategies for enhancing themore » production of rare actinides including 249Bk, 251Cf, and 254Es are described.« less

  7. Actinide targets for the synthesis of super-heavy elements

    SciTech Connect

    Roberto, J.; Alexander, Charles W.; Boll, Rose Ann; Ezold, Julie G.; Felker, Leslie Kevin; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr; Hogle, Susan L.

    2015-06-18

    Since 2000, six new super-heavy elements with atomic numbers 113 through 118 have been synthesized in hot fusion reactions of 48Ca beams on actinide targets. These target materials, including 242Pu, 244Pu, 243Am, 245Cm, 248Cm, 249Cf, and 249Bk, are available in very limited quantities and require specialized production and processing facilities resident in only a few research centers worldwide. This report describes the production and chemical processing of heavy actinide materials for super-heavy element research, current availabilities of these materials, and related target fabrication techniques. The impact of actinide materials in super-heavy element discovery is reviewed, and strategies for enhancing the production of rare actinides including 249Bk, 251Cf, and 254Es are described.

  8. Experimental study of the proposed super-thermal-conductor: BAs

    SciTech Connect

    Lv, Bing; Lan, Yucheng; Zhang, Qian; Ren, Zhifeng E-mail: cwchu@uh.edu; Wang, Xiqu; Jacobson, Allan J.; Hu, Yongjie; Chen, Gang; Broido, David; Chu, Ching-Wu E-mail: cwchu@uh.edu

    2015-02-16

    Recent calculations predict a super-thermal-conductivity of ∼2000 Wm{sup −1} K{sup −1}, comparable to that of diamond, in cubic boron arsenide (BAs) crystals, which may offer inexpensive insulators with super-thermal-conductivity for microelectronic device applications. We have synthesized and characterized single crystals of BAs with a zinc blende cubic structure and lattice parameters of a = 4.7830(7) Å. A relatively high thermal conductivity of ∼200 Wm{sup −1} K{sup −1} is obtained, close to those of best non-carbon crystal insulators, such as SiC, although still an order of magnitude smaller than the value predicted. Based on our XPS, X-ray single crystal diffraction, and Raman scattering results, steps to achieve the predicted super-thermal conductivity in BAs are proposed.

  9. Photo-imprint super-resolution photoacoustic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Junjie; Wang, Lidai; Li, Chiye; Zhang, Chi; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-03-01

    Combining the absorption-based photoacoustic effect and intensity-dependent photobleaching effect, we demonstrate a simple method for super-resolution photoacoustic imaging of both fluorescent and non-fluorescent samples. Our method is based on a double-excitation process, where the first excitation pulse partially and inhomogeneously bleaches the molecules in the diffraction-limited excitation volume, thus biasing the signal contributions from a second excitation pulse striking the same region. By scanning the excitation beam, we performed three-dimensional sub-diffraction imaging of varied fluorescent and non-fluorescent species. A lateral resolution of 80 nm and an axial resolution of 370 nm have been demonstrated. This technique has the potential to enable label-free super-resolution imaging, and can be transferred to other optical imaging modalities or combined with other super-resolution methods.

  10. An overview of SuperLU: Algorithms, implementation, and userinterface

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiaoye S.

    2003-09-30

    We give an overview of the algorithms, design philosophy,and implementation techniques in the software SuperLU, for solving sparseunsymmetric linear systems. In particular, we highlight the differencesbetween the sequential SuperLU (including its multithreaded extension)and parallel SuperLU_DIST. These include the numerical pivoting strategy,the ordering strategy for preserving sparsity, the ordering in which theupdating tasks are performed, the numerical kernel, and theparallelization strategy. Because of the scalability concern, theparallel code is drastically different from the sequential one. Wedescribe the user interfaces ofthe libraries, and illustrate how to usethe libraries most efficiently depending on some matrix characteristics.Finally, we give some examples of how the solver has been used inlarge-scale scientific applications, and the performance.

  11. Actinide targets for the synthesis of super-heavy elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberto, J. B.; Alexander, C. W.; Boll, R. A.; Burns, J. D.; Ezold, J. G.; Felker, L. K.; Hogle, S. L.; Rykaczewski, K. P.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2000, six new super-heavy elements with atomic numbers 113 through 118 have been synthesized in hot fusion reactions of 48Ca beams on actinide targets. These target materials, including 242Pu, 244Pu, 243Am, 245Cm, 248Cm, 249Cf, and 249Bk, are available in very limited quantities and require specialized production and processing facilities resident in only a few research centers worldwide. This report describes the production and chemical processing of heavy actinide materials for super-heavy element research, current availabilities of these materials, and related target fabrication techniques. The impact of actinide materials in super-heavy element discovery is reviewed, and strategies for enhancing the production of rare actinides including 249Bk, 251Cf, and 254Es are described.

  12. Adaptive dual-layer super-twisting control and observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Christopher; Shtessel, Yuri

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a super-twisting-like structure with adaptive gains is proposed. The structure is parameterised by two scalar gains, both of which adapt, and by an additional time-varying term. The magnitudes of the adaptive terms are allowed to both increase and decrease as appropriate so that they are as small as possible, in the sense that they do not unnecessarily over-bound the uncertainty, and yet are large enough to sustain a sliding motion. In the paper, a new time varying gain is incorporated into the traditional super-twisting architecture. The proposed adaption law has a dual-layer structure which is formally analyzed using Lyapunov techniques. The additional term has the effect of simplifying the stability analysis whilst guaranteeing the second-order sliding mode properties of the traditional super-twisting scheme.

  13. Recovery of the SuperTIGER Instrument and Preparations for the Flight of SuperTIGER-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, N. E.; Supertiger Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    On December 8, 2012, the SuperTIGER (Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder) instrument began its long-duration balloon flight from Williams Field, Antarctica. Flying for a record-breaking 55 days at a mean altitude of 125,000 feet, the instrument successfully measured the relative elemental abundances of Galactic cosmic ray nuclei having charge (Z) greater than Z=10, showing very well resolved individual element peaks up to Z=40. The instrument measures particle charge and energy through the combined use of two Cherenkov detectors and three scintillation detectors, and determines particle trajectory with a scintillating fiber hodoscope. After cutdown and two years on the ice, SuperTIGER was successfully recovered in January, 2015. Its detectors and hodoscopes are being tested and refurbished, and are expected to be used again for a second flight, SuperTIGER-2. The second flight is aimed at improving SuperTIGER's already excellent charge resolution as well as at accumulating more data to be combined with that of SuperTIGER for improved statistics. In November 2015, a test of the scintillator saturation effect was performed at CERN using a beam of interacted Pb nuclei to help create more accurate charge reconstruction models that will help resolve elements in the range Z=41 to Z=60. This research was supported by NASA under Grants NNX09AC17G, NNX14AB25G, the Peggy and Steve Fossett Foundation and the McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences at Washington University.

  14. [The radioiodine test for the evaluation of iodine deficiency in the district of Karl-Marx-Stadt and in East Germany].

    PubMed

    Bauch, K; Weiss, O; Möckel, G; Gerlach, J; Seitz, W; Ulrich, F E; Dempe, A

    1981-10-01

    The values of the per cent 24 h radioiodine uptake in the GDR are above 60--70% and speak for a low alimentary intake of iodine or renal excretion of iodine below 40 micrograms J/d. Like the struma prevalences they show a tendency increasing from north to south and characterize the whole European situation of iodine deficiency including its decrease from west to east. The mean values of radioiodine uptake of 71.7 +/- 13.2% (n = 110) in euthyroids of the district of Karl-Marx-Stadt correspond to the iodine deficiency as it occurs approximately in the districts of Erfurt, Dresden, Munich or Freiburg/B. The alimentary iodine intake of 38.4 +/- 17.2 micrograms J/d and the renal iodine excretion of 29.9 +/- 16.1 micrograms J/d, calculated from the 24 h radioiodine accumulation values of 40 euthyroid persons by means of a mathematical model developed by Oddie and co-workers were low. The latter only slightly differed (P less than 0.05) from its chemically estimated excretion of iodine in the urine: 23.1 +/- 16.9 micrograms J/g creatinine (n = 73). Between the calculated and chemically estimated excretion of iodine there was a relatively strict correlation of r = 0.68 (n = 26; P less than 0.001). The introduction of an iodine prophylaxis is regarded as an urgent necessity. Later on a new estimation of the regional "normal values" is necessary for the per cent radioiodine uptake.

  15. Single objective light-sheet microscopy for high-speed whole-cell 3D super-resolution

    DOE PAGES

    Meddens, Marjolein B. M.; Liu, Sheng; Finnegan, Patrick S.; Edwards, Thayne L.; James, Conrad D.; Lidke, Keith A.

    2016-05-01

    Here, we have developed a method for performing light-sheet microscopy with a single high numerical aperture lens by integrating reflective side walls into a microfluidic chip. These 45° side walls generate light-sheet illumination by reflecting a vertical light-sheet into the focal plane of the objective. Light-sheet illumination of cells loaded in the channels increases image quality in diffraction limited imaging via reduction of out-of-focus background light. Single molecule super-resolution is also improved by the decreased background resulting in better localization precision and decreased photo-bleaching, leading to more accepted localizations overall and higher quality images. Moreover, 2D and 3D single moleculemore » super-resolution data can be acquired faster by taking advantage of the increased illumination intensities as compared to wide field, in the focused light-sheet.« less

  16. In Situ Visualization of Block Copolymer Self-Assembly in Organic Media by Super-Resolution Fluorescence Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Boott, Charlotte E; Laine, Romain F; Mahou, Pierre; Finnegan, John R; Leitao, Erin M; Webb, Stephen E D; Kaminski, Clemens F; Manners, Ian

    2015-12-14

    Analytical methods that enable visualization of nanomaterials derived from solution self-assembly processes in organic solvents are highly desirable. Herein, we demonstrate the use of stimulated emission depletion microscopy (STED) and single molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) to map living crystallization-driven block copolymer (BCP) self-assembly in organic media at the sub-diffraction scale. Four different dyes were successfully used for single-colour super-resolution imaging of the BCP nanostructures allowing micelle length distributions to be determined in situ. Dual-colour SMLM imaging was used to measure and compare the rate of addition of red fluorescent BCP to the termini of green fluorescent seed micelles to generate block comicelles. Although well-established for aqueous systems, the results highlight the potential of super-resolution microscopy techniques for the interrogation of self-assembly processes in organic media.

  17. Single objective light-sheet microscopy for high-speed whole-cell 3D super-resolution.

    PubMed

    Meddens, Marjolein B M; Liu, Sheng; Finnegan, Patrick S; Edwards, Thayne L; James, Conrad D; Lidke, Keith A

    2016-06-01

    We have developed a method for performing light-sheet microscopy with a single high numerical aperture lens by integrating reflective side walls into a microfluidic chip. These 45° side walls generate light-sheet illumination by reflecting a vertical light-sheet into the focal plane of the objective. Light-sheet illumination of cells loaded in the channels increases image quality in diffraction limited imaging via reduction of out-of-focus background light. Single molecule super-resolution is also improved by the decreased background resulting in better localization precision and decreased photo-bleaching, leading to more accepted localizations overall and higher quality images. Moreover, 2D and 3D single molecule super-resolution data can be acquired faster by taking advantage of the increased illumination intensities as compared to wide field, in the focused light-sheet.

  18. Single objective light-sheet microscopy for high-speed whole-cell 3D super-resolution

    PubMed Central

    Meddens, Marjolein B. M.; Liu, Sheng; Finnegan, Patrick S.; Edwards, Thayne L.; James, Conrad D.; Lidke, Keith A.

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a method for performing light-sheet microscopy with a single high numerical aperture lens by integrating reflective side walls into a microfluidic chip. These 45° side walls generate light-sheet illumination by reflecting a vertical light-sheet into the focal plane of the objective. Light-sheet illumination of cells loaded in the channels increases image quality in diffraction limited imaging via reduction of out-of-focus background light. Single molecule super-resolution is also improved by the decreased background resulting in better localization precision and decreased photo-bleaching, leading to more accepted localizations overall and higher quality images. Moreover, 2D and 3D single molecule super-resolution data can be acquired faster by taking advantage of the increased illumination intensities as compared to wide field, in the focused light-sheet. PMID:27375939

  19. Single objective light-sheet microscopy for high-speed whole-cell 3D super-resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Meddens, Marjolein B. M.; Liu, Sheng; Finnegan, Patrick S.; Edwards, Thayne L.; James, Conrad D.; Lidke, Keith A.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we have developed a method for performing light-sheet microscopy with a single high numerical aperture lens by integrating reflective side walls into a microfluidic chip. These 45° side walls generate light-sheet illumination by reflecting a vertical light-sheet into the focal plane of the objective. Light-sheet illumination of cells loaded in the channels increases image quality in diffraction limited imaging via reduction of out-of-focus background light. Single molecule super-resolution is also improved by the decreased background resulting in better localization precision and decreased photo-bleaching, leading to more accepted localizations overall and higher quality images. Moreover, 2D and 3D single molecule super-resolution data can be acquired faster by taking advantage of the increased illumination intensities as compared to wide field, in the focused light-sheet.

  20. Using an active temporal compensating system to achieve the super-Gaussian pulses in high-power lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yulei; Liu, Rui; Yuan, Hang; Li, Sensen; Liu, Zhaohong; Zhu, Xuehua; He, Weiming; Lv, Zhiwei

    2015-08-01

    In high-power solid-state laser, initiative pulse shaping can help improve the output laser's performance. The evaluation for output laser pulse is also incomplete. In this paper, we propose a method of initiative pulse shaping by using arbitrary waveform generator (AWG), and establish a relatively complete evaluation system for the output pulses shape simultaneously. It achieves the super-Gaussian pulse output with high SNR (signal-to-noise ratio). As a consequence, a square laser pulse with pulse adjustable width ~5ns, rising time 197ps is obtained. The power imbalance of the output square pulse is 3.72%. The similarity between the eight-order super-Gaussian pulse and the one we get from experiment reached 99%.