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Sample records for super marx generator

  1. Comparison of the Recently proposed Super Marx Generator Approach to Thermonuclear Ignition with the DT Laser Fusion-Fission Hybrid Concept (LIFE) by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterberg, Friedwardt

    2009-05-01

    The recently proposed Super Marx pure deuterium micro-detonation ignition concept [1] is compared to the Lawrence Livermore National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser DT fusion-fission hybrid concept (LIFE) [2]. A typical example of the LIFE concept is a fusion gain 30, and a fission gain of 10, making up for a total gain of 300, with about 10 times more energy released into fission as compared to fusion. This means a substantial release of fission products, as in fusion-less pure fission reactors. In the Super Marx approach for the ignition of a pure deuterium micro-detonation gains of the same magnitude can in theory be reached. If the theoretical prediction can be supported by more elaborate calculations, the Super Marx approach is likely to make lasers obsolete as a means for the ignition of thermonuclear micro-explosions. [1] ``Ignition of a Deuterium Micro-Detonation with a Gigavolt Super Marx Generator,'' Winterberg, F., Journal of Fusion Energy, Springer, 2008. http://www.springerlink.com/content/r2j046177j331241/fulltext.pdf. [2] ``LIFE: Clean Energy from Nuclear Waste,'' https://lasers.llnl.gov/missions/energy&_slash;for&_slash;the&_slash;future/life/

  2. Thyratron Marx High Voltage Generator.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This invention relates to a high voltage pulse generator of the Marx type, in which capacitors are charged in parallel and discharged in series...Amongst the many techniques for producing high voltage pulses, the Marx generator is probably the best known and most widely used. For the combination of...short risetime and low output impendance (i.e. high power), large energy, high efficiency and waveform flexibility -- the Marx principle is peerless

  3. Trigger Circuit for Marx Generators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-02-08

    A trigger circuit is provided for a trigger system for a Marx generator column. The column includes a plurality of metal electrode pairs wherein the...electrode (trigatron) spark gap switch forming the first spark gap of the Marx generator column. The triggering circuit includes a trigger

  4. Comparison of the recently proposed super-Marx generator approach to thermonuclear ignition with the deuterium-tritium laser fusion-fission hybrid concept by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Winterberg, F.

    2009-01-01

    The recently proposed super-Marx generator pure deuterium microdetonation ignition concept is compared to the Lawrence Livermore National Ignition Facility (NIF) Laser deuterium-tritium fusion-fission hybrid concept (LIFE). In a super-Marx generator, a large number of ordinary Marx generators charge up a much larger second stage ultrahigh voltage Marx generator from which for the ignition of a pure deuterium microexplosion an intense GeV ion beam can be extracted. Typical examples of the LIFE concept are a fusion gain of 30 and a fission gain of 10, making up a total gain of 300, with about ten times more energy released into fission as compared to fusion. This means the substantial release of fission products, as in fissionless pure fission reactors. In the super-Marx approach for the ignition of pure deuterium microdetonation, a gain of the same magnitude can, in theory, be reached. If feasible, the super-Marx generator deuterium ignition approach would make lasers obsolete as a means for the ignition of thermonuclear microexplosions.

  5. Comparison of the recently proposed super-Marx generator approach to thermonuclear ignition with the deuterium-tritium laser fusion-fission hybrid concept by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    DOE PAGES

    Winterberg, F.

    2009-01-01

    The recently proposed super-Marx generator pure deuterium microdetonation ignition concept is compared to the Lawrence Livermore National Ignition Facility (NIF) Laser deuterium-tritium fusion-fission hybrid concept (LIFE). In a super-Marx generator, a large number of ordinary Marx generators charge up a much larger second stage ultrahigh voltage Marx generator from which for the ignition of a pure deuterium microexplosion an intense GeV ion beam can be extracted. Typical examples of the LIFE concept are a fusion gain of 30 and a fission gain of 10, making up a total gain of 300, with about ten times more energy released into fissionmore » as compared to fusion. This means the substantial release of fission products, as in fissionless pure fission reactors. In the super-Marx approach for the ignition of pure deuterium microdetonation, a gain of the same magnitude can, in theory, be reached. If feasible, the super-Marx generator deuterium ignition approach would make lasers obsolete as a means for the ignition of thermonuclear microexplosions.« less

  6. Internal Triggering Marx Generator Using Hydrogen Thyratrons.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    Operation of a Marx generator using hydrogen thyratrons as switches, with the switches in the upper stages of the Marx being triggered by a signal...derived from the lower stages (internal triggering) was investigated. The Marx was in a negative output configuration and utilized pulse forming...PFN’s. Timing requirements and erection diagnostics were determined using a two-stage Marx , with both stages triggered from separate external sources

  7. Split-Ring Marx Generator Grading.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The patent concerns metallic tubing bent to a shape consistent with the cross-sectional shape of a Marx generator. Tubing is split into two...symmetrical halves and insulated; two halves combined have an initial DC potential equal to one stage voltage, after erection of the Marx the potential collapses to zero.

  8. Pulsed Corona Discharge Generated By Marx Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sretenovic, G. B.; Obradovic, B. M.; Kovacevic, V. V.; Kuraica, M. M.; Puric J.

    2010-07-01

    The pulsed plasma has a significant role in new environmental protection technologies. As a part of a pulsed corona system for pollution control applications, Marx type repetitive pulse generator was constructed and tested in arrangement with wire-plate corona reactor. We performed electrical measurements, and obtained voltage and current signals, and also power and energy delivered per pulse. Ozone formation by streamer plasma in air was chosen to monitor chemical activity of the pulsed corona discharge.

  9. Impedance-matched Marx generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stygar, W. A.; LeChien, K. R.; Mazarakis, M. G.; Savage, M. E.; Stoltzfus, B. S.; Austin, K. N.; Breden, E. W.; Cuneo, M. E.; Hutsel, B. T.; Lewis, S. A.; McKee, G. R.; Moore, J. K.; Mulville, T. D.; Muron, D. J.; Reisman, D. B.; Sceiford, M. E.; Wisher, M. L.

    2017-04-01

    We have conceived a new class of prime-power sources for pulsed-power accelerators: impedance-matched Marx generators (IMGs). The fundamental building block of an IMG is a brick, which consists of two capacitors connected electrically in series with a single switch. An IMG comprises a single stage or several stages distributed axially and connected in series. Each stage is powered by a single brick or several bricks distributed azimuthally within the stage and connected in parallel. The stages of a multistage IMG drive an impedance-matched coaxial transmission line with a conical center conductor. When the stages are triggered sequentially to launch a coherent traveling wave along the coaxial line, the IMG achieves electromagnetic-power amplification by triggered emission of radiation. Hence a multistage IMG is a pulsed-power analogue of a laser. To illustrate the IMG approach to prime power, we have developed conceptual designs of two ten-stage IMGs with L C time constants on the order of 100 ns. One design includes 20 bricks per stage, and delivers a peak electrical power of 1.05 TW to a matched-impedance 1.22 -Ω load. The design generates 113 kV per stage and has a maximum energy efficiency of 89%. The other design includes a single brick per stage, delivers 68 GW to a matched-impedance 19 -Ω load, generates 113 kV per stage, and has a maximum energy efficiency of 90%. For a given electrical-power-output time history, an IMG is less expensive and slightly more efficient than a linear transformer driver, since an IMG does not use ferromagnetic cores.

  10. Design and Performance of the Marx Generator for the DARHT Second Axis Electron Injector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-06-01

    National Laboratory. A Marx generator develops a 3.2 MV, 2 s pulse that is applied to the diode through a high voltage (or Marx ) dome, current stalk and...of the Marx generator. The Marx consists of 88 stages, each half stage of which is a +/- 50 kV type E PFN. The Marx was tested for over 8000 shots

  11. High Repetition Rate Charging a Marx Type Generator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    Resistive ladder networks are commonly used as the charging and isolation means for Marx type generators. The efficiency is limited to 50% and the...elements are actually increased by a factor (1+k). The Marx switches cause a re-arrangement of the coupled inductors from parallel during the

  12. Electromagnetic Characterization of a Marx Pulse Generator.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    This report reviews the electrical characteristics of the Marx pulser installed in ATLAS I (TRESTLE) facility. Various individual components of the...pulser, e.g., monocone switch, central Marx column and peaker arms are studied for their electromagnetic properties. The resulting design curves and

  13. Design of the Second-Generation ILC Marx Modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, M.A.; Benwell, A.; Burkhart, C.; Larsen, R.; MacNair, D.; Nguyen, M.; Olsen, J.; /SLAC

    2010-09-14

    SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC) has initiated a program to design and build a Marx-topology modulator to produce a relatively compact, low-cost, high availability klystron modulator for the International Linear Collider (ILC). Building upon the success of the P1 Marx, the SLAC P2 Marx is a second-generation modulator whose design further emphasizes the qualities of modularity and high-availability. This paper outlines highlights of this design and presents single-cell performance data obtained during the proof-of-concept phase of the project.

  14. Compact 400 kV Marx Generator with Common Switch Housing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-06-01

    A compact four stage Marx with six parallel Marx generators per stage and a common switch housing, developed for various Air Force applications, is...described. Unique features of the Compact Marx include a single cast epoxy switch housing common to each stage that can use six independent spark gaps...or one continuous ring gap packaged in a housing measuring 76 em in diameter, 56 em in height, and 295 kg. Initial test results of the Marx into a 5 n

  15. Ultra-compact Marx-type high-voltage generator

    DOEpatents

    Goerz, David A.; Wilson, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    An ultra-compact Marx-type high-voltage generator includes individual high-performance components that are closely coupled and integrated into an extremely compact assembly. In one embodiment, a repetitively-switched, ultra-compact Marx generator includes low-profile, annular-shaped, high-voltage, ceramic capacitors with contoured edges and coplanar extended electrodes used for primary energy storage; low-profile, low-inductance, high-voltage, pressurized gas switches with compact gas envelopes suitably designed to be integrated with the annular capacitors; feed-forward, high-voltage, ceramic capacitors attached across successive switch-capacitor-switch stages to couple the necessary energy forward to sufficiently overvoltage the spark gap of the next in-line switch; optimally shaped electrodes and insulator surfaces to reduce electric field stresses in the weakest regions where dissimilar materials meet, and to spread the fields more evenly throughout the dielectric materials, allowing them to operate closer to their intrinsic breakdown levels; and uses manufacturing and assembly methods to integrate the capacitors and switches into stages that can be arranged into a low-profile Marx generator.

  16. Circuit Model for Parameter Study of Marx Generators on Megajoule Machines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is planning to redesign the pulsed power driver on Z, including the Marx generators, the intermediate-store water...capacitors, the laser triggered switches and the pulse-forming lines to increase the energy delivered to a Z-pinch load. The present Marx system...generator. A circuit model has been developed using MICROCAP to model one of the 36- Marx generators. The model contains the capacitors, inter-stage

  17. A solid state Marx generator for TEL2

    SciTech Connect

    Kamerdzhiev, V.; Pfeffer, H.; Saewert, G.; Shiltsev, V.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    The solid-state Marx generator modulates the anode of the electron gun to produce the electron beam pulses in the second Tevatron Electron Lens (TEL2). It is capable of driving the 60 pF terminal with 600 ns pulses of up to 6 kV with a p.r.r. of 50 kHz. The rise and fall times are 150 ns. Stangenes Industries developed the unit and is working on a second version which will go to higher voltage and have the ability to vary its output in 396 ns intervals over a 5 {micro}s pulse.

  18. Status Update on the Second-Generation ILC Marx Modulator Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, Mark A.; Benwell, Andrew; Burkhart, Craig; Larsen, Ray; MacNair, David; Nguyen, Minh; Olsen, Jeff; /SLAC

    2010-08-26

    This paper is a status update of the SLAC P2 Marx. This Marx-topology klystron modulator is a second-generation modulator which builds upon experience gained from the SLAC P1 Marx. There are several fundamental differences between these modulators including the correction scheme, bus voltages, and the control system architecture. These differences, along with preliminary experimental results and the schedule for further development, are detailed in this paper.

  19. An Ultra-Compact Marx-Type High-Voltage Generator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    This paper discusses the design of an ultra-compact, Marx -type, high-voltage generator. This system incorporates high-performance components that are...interlock with the low-profile switch bodies to provide an integrated support structure for all of the components. This ultra-compact Marx generator

  20. The Molecule, A Compact, High-Density, High-Precision Marx Generator.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A Marx generator with the highest energy density ever achieved (39j/pound) is described. The unit, which operates at 2 MV in atmospheric SF6, is 2 m...compactness, light weight, and atmospheric gas insulation ideally suits this Marx design for a variety of applications such as bounded-wave and radiating

  1. Marx generator engineering and assembly line technology for the PBFA II accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Woolston, T.L.; Ives, H.C.

    1985-01-01

    The energy storage section of PBFA II requires 36 Marx generators. The Marx generator was designed to minimize the total number and types of parts in order to speed the assembly process and maintain simplicity. Some mechanical highlights include a shorting system, a quick connect spark gap fitting (using unmodified existing spark gaps), and an arragement allowing insertion and removal of the Marx from a filled oil tank. A rapid assembly system for the Marx generators was also designed and consists of (1) a trolley system, (2) an industrial manipulator, and (3) a gantry crane. Three persons can safely assemble at least two Marxes a week using the equipment. The system also will be used to expedite disassembly required for routine maintenance.

  2. Development of a Compact Marx Generator for High-Power Microwave Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-06-01

    high-power microwave sources and the related pulsed power. The development of a compact Marx generator to drive loads with impedances on the order of... Marx , excluding the trigger generator, has a diameter of 0.9 m and a height of 0.7 m. The entire assembly is housed in a 1.2 m diameter aluminum pipe...pressurized with 30 psig sulfur-hexafluoride. The same sulfur-hexaflouride that insulates the Marx from its container also serves as the working gas

  3. Compact 180-kV Marx generator triggered in atmospheric air by femtosecond laser filaments

    SciTech Connect

    Arantchouk, L. Larour, J.; Point, G.; Brelet, Y.; Carbonnel, J.; André, Y.-B.; Mysyrowicz, A.; Houard, A.

    2014-03-10

    We developed a compact Marx generator triggered in atmospheric air by a single femtosecond laser beam undergoing filamentation. Voltage pulses of 180 kV could be generated with a subnanosecond jitter. The same laser beam was also used to initiate simultaneously guided discharges up to 21 cm long at the output of the generator.

  4. Compact 180-kV Marx generator triggered in atmospheric air by femtosecond laser filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arantchouk, L.; Point, G.; Brelet, Y.; Larour, J.; Carbonnel, J.; André, Y.-B.; Mysyrowicz, A.; Houard, A.

    2014-03-01

    We developed a compact Marx generator triggered in atmospheric air by a single femtosecond laser beam undergoing filamentation. Voltage pulses of 180 kV could be generated with a subnanosecond jitter. The same laser beam was also used to initiate simultaneously guided discharges up to 21 cm long at the output of the generator.

  5. Marx Development Project.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The program requirement was for a compact, fast, highly reliable Marx generator of an ’advanced integrated design utilizing components such as...exceeds the program goal of 99.97% probability of survival for 5,000 shots in typical Marx generator service. A matching switch with 40 kA peak current...proved. A non-folded Marx circuit, using completely graded construction and employing the novel concept of triggering each stage via a small (fast Marx

  6. Development of a Marx-coupled trigger generator with high voltages and low time delay.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yixiang; Zeng, Jiangtao; Sun, Fengju; Cong, Peitian; Su, Zhaofeng; Yang, Shi; Zhang, Xinjun; Qiu, Ai'ci

    2016-10-01

    Coupled by the Marx of the "JianGuang-I" facility, a high voltage, low time-delay trigger generator was developed. Working principles of this trigger generator and its key issues were described in detail. Structures of this generator were also carefully designed and optimized. Based on the "JianGuang-I" Marx generator, a test stand was established. And a series of experiment tests were carried out to the study performance of this trigger generator. Experiment results show that the output voltage of this trigger generator can be continuously adjusted from 58 kV to 384 kV. The time delay (from the beginning of the Marx-discharging pulse to the time that the output pulse of the trigger generator arises) of this trigger pulse is about 200 ns and its peak time (0%∼100%) is less than 50 ns. Experiment results also indicate that the time-delay jitter of trigger voltages decreases rapidly with the increase in the peak voltage of trigger pulses. When the trigger voltage is higher than 250 kV, the time-delay jitters (the standard deviation) are less than 7.7 ns.

  7. Development of a Marx-coupled trigger generator with high voltages and low time delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yixiang; Zeng, Jiangtao; Sun, Fengju; Cong, Peitian; Su, Zhaofeng; Yang, Shi; Zhang, Xinjun; Qiu, Ai'ci

    2016-10-01

    Coupled by the Marx of the "JianGuang-I" facility, a high voltage, low time-delay trigger generator was developed. Working principles of this trigger generator and its key issues were described in detail. Structures of this generator were also carefully designed and optimized. Based on the "JianGuang-I" Marx generator, a test stand was established. And a series of experiment tests were carried out to the study performance of this trigger generator. Experiment results show that the output voltage of this trigger generator can be continuously adjusted from 58 kV to 384 kV. The time delay (from the beginning of the Marx-discharging pulse to the time that the output pulse of the trigger generator arises) of this trigger pulse is about 200 ns and its peak time (0%˜100%) is less than 50 ns. Experiment results also indicate that the time-delay jitter of trigger voltages decreases rapidly with the increase in the peak voltage of trigger pulses. When the trigger voltage is higher than 250 kV, the time-delay jitters (the standard deviation) are less than 7.7 ns.

  8. Development of a triggering arrangement for the KALI-30GW MARX generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, S.; Kolge, T. S.; Agarwal, Ritu; Saroj, P. C.; Patel, Ankur; Senthil, K.; Sharma, Vishnu; Tewari, S. V.; Sharma, Archana; Mittal, K. C.

    2015-02-01

    This paper reports the design methodology and implementation experiments for a solid-state-based triggering arrangement for the MARX generator of the KALI-30GW (1 MV, 30 kA, 80 ns) pulsed power system. The 15-stage bipolar MARX generator of the KALI-30GW system is triggered using a trigatron-type spark gap. An insulated-gate bipolar-transistor (IGBT)-based trigger supply is used to trigger the first spark gap, and the next two spark gaps are triggered by using internally-generated trigger pulses. Optically-isolated arrangements are provided for a human interface. The entire assembly was tested with a dummy copper sulphate load, and an excellent triggering range of 7-12 kV was achieved. The circuit diagram, analysis and experimental results of the triggering arrangement are presented in the paper.

  9. Antares prototype 300-kJ, 250-kA Marx generator. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Riepe, K.B.; Barrone, L.L.; Bickford, K.J.; Livermore, G.H.

    1981-01-01

    A high-energy, low-inductance, low prefire rate, low trigger jitter, high-voltage, pulsed-power supply was needed to drive the gas discharge in the Antares laser power amplifier. This report describes the design and testing of a Marx generator that meets these requirements, the development and testing of a high-capacity spark gap, and the selection of suitable capacitors and resistors.

  10. A compact bipolar pulse-forming network-Marx generator based on pulse transformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huibo; Yang, Jianhua; Lin, Jiajin; Yang, Xiao

    2013-11-01

    A compact bipolar pulse-forming network (PFN)-Marx generator based on pulse transformers is presented in this paper. The high-voltage generator consisted of two sets of pulse transformers, 6 stages of PFNs with ceramic capacitors, a switch unit, and a matched load. The design is characterized by the bipolar pulse charging scheme and the compact structure of the PFN-Marx. The scheme of bipolar charging by pulse transformers increased the withstand voltage of the ceramic capacitors in the PFNs and decreased the number of the gas gap switches. The compact structure of the PFN-Marx was aimed at reducing the parasitic inductance in the generator. When the charging voltage on the PFNs was 35 kV, the matched resistive load of 48 Ω could deliver a high-voltage pulse with an amplitude of 100 kV. The full width at half maximum of the load pulse was 173 ns, and its rise time was less than 15 ns.

  11. Impedance matching for repetitive high voltage all-solid-state Marx generator and excimer DBD UV sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yonggang; Tong, Liqing; Liu, Kefu

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of impedance matching for a Marx generator and DBD lamp is to limit the output current of the Marx generator, provide a large discharge current at ignition, and obtain fast voltage rising/falling edges and large overshoot. In this paper, different impedance matching circuits (series inductor, parallel capacitor, and series inductor combined with parallel capacitor) are analyzed. It demonstrates that a series inductor could limit the Marx current. However, the discharge current is also limited. A parallel capacitor could provide a large discharge current, but the Marx current is also enlarged. A series inductor combined with a parallel capacitor takes full advantage of the inductor and capacitor, and avoids their shortcomings. Therefore, it is a good solution. Experimental results match the theoretical analysis well and show that both the series inductor and parallel capacitor improve the performance of the system. However, the series inductor combined with the parallel capacitor has the best performance. Compared with driving the DBD lamp with a Marx generator directly, an increase of 97.3% in radiant power and an increase of 59.3% in system efficiency are achieved using this matching circuit.

  12. Solid-state pulse modulator using Marx generator for a medical linac electron-gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Heuijin; Hyeok Jeong, Dong; Lee, Manwoo; Lee, Mujin; Yi, Jungyu; Yang, Kwangmo; Ro, Sung Chae

    2016-04-01

    A medical linac is used for the cancer treatment and consists of an accelerating column, waveguide components, a magnetron, an electron-gun, a pulse modulator, and an irradiation system. The pulse modulator based on hydrogen thyratron-switched pulse-forming network is commonly used in linac. As the improvement of the high power semiconductors in switching speed, voltage rating, and current rating, an insulated gate bipolar transistor has become the more popular device used for pulsed power systems. We propose a solid-state pulse modulator to generator high voltage by multi-stacked storage-switch stages based on the Marx generator. The advantage of our modulator comes from the use of two semiconductors to control charging and discharging of the storage capacitor at each stage and it allows to generate the pulse with various amplitudes, widths, and shapes. In addition, a gate driver for two semiconductors is designed to reduce the control channels and to protect the circuits. It is developed for providing the pulsed power to a medical linac electron-gun that requires 25 kV and 1 A as the first application. In order to improve the power efficiency and achieve the compactness modulator, a capacitor charging power supply, a Marx pulse generator, and an electron-gun heater isolated transformer are constructed and integrated. This technology is also being developed to extend the high power pulsed system with > 1 MW and also other applications such as a plasma immersed ion implantation and a micro pulse electrostatic precipitator which especially require variable pulse shape and high repetition rate > 1 kHz. The paper describes the design features and the construction of this solid-state pulse modulator. Also shown are the performance results into the linac electron-gun.

  13. Super/subradiant second harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koganov, Gennady A.; Shuker, Reuben

    2017-04-01

    A scheme for active second harmonics generation is suggested. The system comprises N three-level atoms in ladder configuration, situated into a resonant cavity. The system generates the field whose frequency is twice the frequency of the pumping laser, and the field phase is locked to the phase of the pumping field. It is found that the system can lase in either superradiant or subradiant regime, depending on the number of atoms N. When N passes some critical value the transition from the super to subradiance occurs in a phase-transition-like manner. Stability study of the steady state supports this conclusion. For experimental realization of the super/subradiant second harmonics generation we propose semiconductor quantum well structures, superconducting quantum circuits, and evanescently coupled waveguides in which equally spaced levels relevant to this study exist.

  14. Gas spark switches with increased operating life for Marx generator of lightning test complex

    SciTech Connect

    Bykov, Yu. A.; Krastelev, E. G.

    2016-12-15

    A new design of gas spark switches with an increased operating life and stable dynamic characteristics for the Marx generator of the lightning test complex has been developed. The switches are characterized by the following parameters in the mode of operation: voltage up to 80 kV, discharge current up to 50 kA, flowing charge up to 3.5 C/pulse. An increased operating life is achieved by using torus-shaped electrodes with increased working surface area and a trigger electrode in the form of a thick disk with a hole located between them. Low breakdown delay time and high stability of breakdown voltage under dynamic conditions are provided by gas preionization in the spark gap using UV radiation of an additional corona discharge in the axial region.

  15. Gas spark switches with increased operating life for Marx generator of lightning test complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bykov, Yu. A.; Krastelev, E. G.

    2016-12-01

    A new design of gas spark switches with an increased operating life and stable dynamic characteristics for the Marx generator of the lightning test complex has been developed. The switches are characterized by the following parameters in the mode of operation: voltage up to 80 kV, discharge current up to 50 kA, flowing charge up to 3.5 C/pulse. An increased operating life is achieved by using torus-shaped electrodes with increased working surface area and a trigger electrode in the form of a thick disk with a hole located between them. Low breakdown delay time and high stability of breakdown voltage under dynamic conditions are provided by gas preionization in the spark gap using UV radiation of an additional corona discharge in the axial region.

  16. Operational Testing for the 5.85MV, 185kJ Fast Marx Generator.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A 5.85 MV 185 kJ fast Marx was built and tested. Design, development, construction and initial testing were previously reported. The report covers...8217 and the determination of operating characteristics are: Marx inductance 5.2 micro-H, total series resistance 3.3 ohms, and total erection delay time

  17. A compact, low cost Marx bank for generating capillary discharge plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyson, A. E.; Thornton, C.; Hooker, S. M.

    2016-09-01

    We describe in detail a low power Compact Marx Bank (CMB) circuit that can provide 20 kV, 500 A pulses of approximately 100-200 ns duration. One application is the generation of capillary discharge plasmas of density ≈1018 cm-3 used in laser plasma accelerators. The CMB is triggered with a high speed solid state switch and gives a high voltage output pulse with a ns scale rise time into a 50 Ω load (coaxial cable) with <4 ns voltage jitter. Its small size (10 cm × 25 cm × 5 cm) means that it can be placed right next to the capillary discharge in the target chamber to avoid the need to impedance match. The electrical energy required per discharge is <1 J, and the CMB can be run at shot repetition rates of ≳1 Hz. This low power requirement means that the circuit can easily be powered by a small lead acid battery and, therefore, can be floated relative to laboratory earth. The CMB is readily scalable and pulses >45 kV are demonstrated in air discharges.

  18. A compact, low cost Marx bank for generating capillary discharge plasmas.

    PubMed

    Dyson, A E; Thornton, C; Hooker, S M

    2016-09-01

    We describe in detail a low power Compact Marx Bank (CMB) circuit that can provide 20 kV, 500 A pulses of approximately 100-200 ns duration. One application is the generation of capillary discharge plasmas of density ≈10(18) cm(-3) used in laser plasma accelerators. The CMB is triggered with a high speed solid state switch and gives a high voltage output pulse with a ns scale rise time into a 50 Ω load (coaxial cable) with <4 ns voltage jitter. Its small size (10 cm  ×  25 cm  ×  5 cm) means that it can be placed right next to the capillary discharge in the target chamber to avoid the need to impedance match. The electrical energy required per discharge is <1 J, and the CMB can be run at shot repetition rates of ≳1 Hz. This low power requirement means that the circuit can easily be powered by a small lead acid battery and, therefore, can be floated relative to laboratory earth. The CMB is readily scalable and pulses >45 kV are demonstrated in air discharges.

  19. Mid-IR super-continuum generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Mohammed N.; Xia, Chenan; Freeman, Mike J.; Mauricio, Jeremiah; Zakel, Andy; Ke, Kevin; Xu, Zhao; Terry, Fred L., Jr.

    2009-02-01

    A Mid-InfraRed FIber Laser (MIRFIL) has been developed that generates super-continuum covering the spectral range from 0.8 to 4.5 microns with a time-averaged power as high as 10.5W. The MIRFIL is an all-fiber integrated laser with no moving parts and no mode-locked lasers that uses commercial off-the-shelf parts and leverages the mature telecom/fiber optics platform. The MIRFIL power can be easily scaled by changing the repetition rate and modifying the erbium-doped fiber amplifier. Some of the applications using the super-continuum laser will be described in defense, homeland security and healthcare. For example, the MIRFIL is being applied to a catheter-based medical diagnostic system to detect vulnerable plaque, which is responsible for most heart attacks resulting from hardening-of-the-arteries or atherosclerosis. More generally, the MIRFIL can be a platform for selective ablation of lipids without damaging normal protein or smooth muscle tissue.

  20. Development of a stereo-symmetrical nanosecond pulsed power generator composed of modularized avalanche transistor Marx circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiang-Tao; Zhong, Xu; Cao, Hui; Zhao, Zheng; Xue, Jing; Li, Tao; Li, Zheng; Wang, Ya-Nan

    2015-09-01

    Avalanche transistors have been widely studied and used in nanosecond high voltage pulse generations. However, output power improvement is always limited by the low thermal capacities of avalanche transistors, especially under high repetitive working frequency. Parallel stacked transistors can effectively improve the output current but the controlling of trigger and output synchronism has always been a hard and complex work. In this paper, a novel stereo-symmetrical nanosecond pulsed power generator with high reliability was developed. By analyzing and testing the special performances of the combined Marx circuits, numbers of meaningful conclusions on the pulse amplitude, pulse back edge, and output impedance were drawn. The combining synchronism of the generator was confirmed excellent and lower conducting current through the transistors was realized. Experimental results showed that, on a 50 Ω resistive load, pulses with 1.5-5.2 kV amplitude and 5.3-14.0 ns width could be flexibly generated by adjusting the number of combined modules, the supply voltage, and the module type.

  1. Development of a stereo-symmetrical nanosecond pulsed power generator composed of modularized avalanche transistor Marx circuits.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiang-Tao; Zhong, Xu; Cao, Hui; Zhao, Zheng; Xue, Jing; Li, Tao; Li, Zheng; Wang, Ya-Nan

    2015-09-01

    Avalanche transistors have been widely studied and used in nanosecond high voltage pulse generations. However, output power improvement is always limited by the low thermal capacities of avalanche transistors, especially under high repetitive working frequency. Parallel stacked transistors can effectively improve the output current but the controlling of trigger and output synchronism has always been a hard and complex work. In this paper, a novel stereo-symmetrical nanosecond pulsed power generator with high reliability was developed. By analyzing and testing the special performances of the combined Marx circuits, numbers of meaningful conclusions on the pulse amplitude, pulse back edge, and output impedance were drawn. The combining synchronism of the generator was confirmed excellent and lower conducting current through the transistors was realized. Experimental results showed that, on a 50 Ω resistive load, pulses with 1.5-5.2 kV amplitude and 5.3-14.0 ns width could be flexibly generated by adjusting the number of combined modules, the supply voltage, and the module type.

  2. Super Boiler: First Generation, Ultra-High Efficiency Firetube Boiler

    SciTech Connect

    2006-06-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop and demonstrate a first-generation ultra-high-efficiency, ultra-low emissions, compact gas-fired package boiler (Super Boiler), and formulate a long-range RD&D plan for advanced boiler technology out to the year 2020.

  3. Studies on Laser Generated Ultrasonic Waves in Inconel Super Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Pramila, T.; Shukla, Anita; Raghuram, V.

    2010-05-28

    This paper deals with the generation, characterization and analysis of ultrasonic waves generated in a thick stepped sample of inconel super alloy using Laser Based Ultrasonic Technique. Nd-YAG pulsed laser is used for ultrasonic generation while He-Ne laser is used for heterodyne detection. Ultrasonic signals are analyzed using Fourier and wavelet transforms. Here the identification and estimation of velocity of pressure waves is presented. The mechanism of pressure wave generation is discussed in brief. Laser ultrasonics studies of inconel are being reported for the first time.

  4. A Vernier Regulator for ILC Marx Droop Compensation

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Tao

    2009-10-30

    A two-part compensation scheme, Vernier Regulation, has been applied to offset the voltage droop (40% without correction) in a Marx-topology klystron modulator developed for the International Linear Collider (ILC). Coarse regulation, {+-}5%, is achieved by turning on additional Main Marx cells (Delayed Cells) sequentially as the droop reaches the cell voltage (11 kV). Further regulation to {+-}0.5% is achieved by adding a small Marx in series with the Main Marx. This Vernier Marx is composed of sixteen, 1.2 kV cells that are assembled as a seventeenth cell in the Main Marx. These Vernier Cells are turned on sequentially to generate a series of discrete corrections to the droop in the Main Marx cells with a step size {le}1% of the output voltage. As the required correction reaches 11 kV, all Vernier Cells are turned off synchronously with the turn on of a Delayed Cell. There are up to five Delayed Cells and six Vernier Marx cycles during each ILC Marx output pulse. The Vernier Marx has a local control system that will detect and respond to over-voltage and over-current errors. In this paper, a detailed description of the design, implementation and testing of the Vernier Marx is presented.

  5. 10 Joule High Voltage Trigger Micro Marx

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    A low energy Marx generator makes a convenient trigger for various spark gaps. With an output around 200 kV and a rise time less than 2 ns, the micro... Marx can multichannel field distortion gaps or fire a number of gaps without much gap-to-gap isolation. This design features small size, low cost, and good triggering characteristics. The complete unit is shown in Fig. 1.

  6. Possible magnetic field contributions generated in oxides in Super Earths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nellis, W. J.

    2010-12-01

    Planetary magnetic fields are generated by convective motion of conducting fluids. The highest pressure on oxides in Earth is about 130 GPa (1.3 Mbar) at about 3000 K at the core-mantle boundary. At these conditions electrical conductivities and viscosities of solid oxides are too small and large, respectively, to produce a significant contribution to Earth’s magnetic field. However, oxides in super-Earth exoplanets reach interior pressures and temperatures much larger than those in Earth. Recent work has shown that solid Al2O3 is highly disordered up to ~400 GPa [1] and probably becomes a metallic glass with minimum metallic conductivity (MMC) at ~300 GPa under both shock and static compression [2]. This insulator-metal transition is probably entropy-driven; i. e., substantial compressive energy is absorbed by breaking chemical bonds, which leads to metallic energy bands. Since Al2O3 is estimated to melt on the Hugoniot at ~400 GPa, viscosity is expected to decrease near this pressure. Since interior pressures of 300 GPa are achieved at greater depths than in Earth, magnitudes of fields from oxides in super Earths are expected to be relatively small compared to the surface field of Earth. Nevertheless, the possibility exists that many extrasolar rocky planets have finite magnetic fields whether or not they have fluid Fe cores. Because of disorder, this conclusion based on experiments on Al2O3 is not expected to depend sensitively on which oxide is present. It is worth noting that fluid Fe in Earth and fluid metallic H in Jupiter [3] are also expected to have MMC, ~2000/(ohm-cm). [1] W. J. Nellis, G. I. Kanel, S. V. Razorenov, A. S. Savinykh, A. M. Rajenderan, J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 215, 012148 (2010). [2] W. J. Nellis, Phys. Rev. B (in press). [3] W. J. Nellis, S. T. Weir, and A. C. Mitchell, Science 273, 936 (1996).

  7. Biotechnologically generating 'super chickpea' for food and nutritional security.

    PubMed

    Acharjee, Sumita; Sarmah, Bidyut Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Chickpea productivity is affected by various constraints that are biotic (Helicoverpa, Aphids, Callosobruchus, Bromus and Orobanche) and abiotic (drought and salinity). In addition, the grains of this legume are deficient in sulfur amino acids, methionine and cysteine. The possibilities for genetic improvement by marker-assisted breeding and selection approaches are limited in chickpeas due to their sexually incompatible gene pool. Transgenic chickpeas expressing either the cry1Ac/b or the cry2Aa gene and the bean α-amylase inhibitor gene are resistant to Helicoverpa and bruchids, respectively, but these chickpeas have yet to be commercialized. Unfortunately, attempts to generate transgenic chickpeas with increased tolerance to drought and salinity or with increased methionine content have been less successful. The commercialization of transgenic chickpeas containing a single transgene may not give adequate yield advantage, as chickpeas are affected by many production constraints in the field and in storage. Gene pyramiding by incorporating two or more genes may be useful because improving one trait at a time will be time-consuming, labor-intensive and costly. Use of modern multi-gene vectors that contain recognition sites for zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and homing endonucleases may simplify the incorporation of multiple genes into chickpeas. This approach necessitates a collaborative effort between individuals, public and private organizations to generate 'super chickpeas' that harbor multiple transgenic traits.

  8. A 3-D "Super Surface" Combining Modern Intraocular Lens Formulas to Generate a "Super Formula" and Maximize Accuracy.

    PubMed

    Ladas, John G; Siddiqui, Aazim A; Devgan, Uday; Jun, Albert S

    2015-12-01

    Cataract surgery is the most common eye surgery. Calculating the most accurate power of the intraocular lens (IOL) is a critical factor in optimizing patient outcomes. To develop a graphical method for displaying IOL calculation formulas in 3 dimensions, and to describe a method that uses the most accurate and current information on IOL formulas, adjustments, and lens design to create one "super surface" and develop an IOL "super formula." A numerical computing environment was used to create 3-D surfaces of IOL formulas: Hoffer Q, Holladay I, Holladay I with Koch adjustment, Haigis, and SRK/T. The surfaces were then analyzed to determine where the IOL powers calculated by each formula differed by more than 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 diopters (D) from each of the other formulas. Next, based on the current literature and empirical knowledge, a super surface was rendered that incorporated the ideal portions from 4 of the 5 formulas to generate a super formula. Last, IOL power values of a set of 100 eyes from consecutive patients at an eye institute were calculated using the 5 formulas and super formula. The study was performed from December 11, 2014, to April 20, 2015. Analysis was conducted from February 18 to May 6, 2015. Intraocular lens power value in diopters and the magnitude of disparity between an existing individual IOL formula and our super formula. In the 100 eyes tested, the super formula localized to the correct portion of the super surface 100% of the time and thus chose the most appropriate IOL power value. The individual formulas deviated from the optimal super formula IOL power values by more than 0.5 D 30% of the time in Hoffer Q, 16% in Holladay I, 22% in Holladay I with Koch adjustment, 48% in Haigis, and 24% in SRK/T. A novel method was developed to represent IOL formulas in 3 dimensions. An IOL super formula was formulated that incorporates the ideal segments from each of the existing formulas and uses the ideal IOL formula for an individual eye. The

  9. Performance Characteristics of a 1 MV Miniature Marx Bank

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-06-01

    In this paper we report results of experiments with a compact Marx bank generator. The Marx was constructed with 25 spark-gap switched stages, each...stage consisting of two Murata 2 nF capacitors with N4700 ceramic dielectric rated at 40 kV. In order to evaluate the Marx efficiency and repetition...rate, inductive isolation with 5 uH per stage was implemented for the charging circuit. The Marx was charged with a 1500 J/s capacitor charging power

  10. Super Boiler 2nd Generation Technology for Watertube Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Mr. David Cygan; Dr. Joseph Rabovitser

    2012-03-31

    This report describes Phase I of a proposed two phase project to develop and demonstrate an advanced industrial watertube boiler system with the capability of reaching 94% (HHV) fuel-to-steam efficiency and emissions below 2 ppmv NOx, 2 ppmv CO, and 1 ppmv VOC on natural gas fuel. The boiler design would have the capability to produce >1500 F, >1500 psig superheated steam, burn multiple fuels, and will be 50% smaller/lighter than currently available watertube boilers of similar capacity. This project is built upon the successful Super Boiler project at GTI. In that project that employed a unique two-staged intercooled combustion system and an innovative heat recovery system to reduce NOx to below 5 ppmv and demonstrated fuel-to-steam efficiency of 94% (HHV). This project was carried out under the leadership of GTI with project partners Cleaver-Brooks, Inc., Nebraska Boiler, a Division of Cleaver-Brooks, and Media and Process Technology Inc., and project advisors Georgia Institute of Technology, Alstom Power Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Phase I of efforts focused on developing 2nd generation boiler concepts and performance modeling; incorporating multi-fuel (natural gas and oil) capabilities; assessing heat recovery, heat transfer and steam superheating approaches; and developing the overall conceptual engineering boiler design. Based on our analysis, the 2nd generation Industrial Watertube Boiler when developed and commercialized, could potentially save 265 trillion Btu and $1.6 billion in fuel costs across U.S. industry through increased efficiency. Its ultra-clean combustion could eliminate 57,000 tons of NOx, 460,000 tons of CO, and 8.8 million tons of CO2 annually from the atmosphere. Reduction in boiler size will bring cost-effective package boilers into a size range previously dominated by more expensive field-erected boilers, benefiting manufacturers and end users through lower capital costs.

  11. ILC Marx Modulator Development Program Status

    SciTech Connect

    Burkhart, C.; Beukers, T.; Larsen, R.; Macken, K.; Nguyen, M.; Olsen, J.; Tang, T.; /SLAC

    2009-03-04

    Development of a first generation prototype (P1) Marx-topology klystron modulator for the International Linear Collider is nearing completion at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. It is envisioned as a smaller, lower cost, and higher reliability alternative to the present, bouncer-topology, 'Baseline Conceptual Design'. The Marx presents several advantages over conventional klystron modulator designs. It is physically smaller; there is no pulse transformer (quite massive at ILC parameters) and the energy storage capacitor bank is quite small, owing to the active droop compensation. It is oil-free; voltage hold-off is achieved using air insulation. It is air cooled; the secondary air-water heat exchanger is physically isolated from the electronic components. The P1-Marx employs all solid state elements; IGBTs and diodes, to control the charge, discharge and isolation of the cells. A general overview of the modulator design and the program status are presented.

  12. The Next Generation Microlensing Search: SuperMacho

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, A; Cook, K; Hiriart, R; Keller, S; Miknaitis, G; Nilolaev, S; Olsen, K; Prochter, G; Rest, A; Schmidt, B; Smith, C; Stubbs, C; Suntzeff, N; Welch, D; Becker, A; Clocchiati, A; Covarrubias, R

    2003-10-27

    Past microlensing experiments such as the MACHO project have discovered the presence of a larger than expected number of microlensing events toward the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). These events could represent a large fraction of the dark matter in the halo of our Galaxy, if they are indeed due to halo lenses. However the locations of most of the lenses are poorly defined. The SuperMacho project will detect and follow up {approx}60 microlensing events exhibiting special properties due to binarity, etc., will allow us to better determine the location and nature of the lenses causing the LMC microlensing events.

  13. 10-Joule 200 kV Mini Marx

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    A low-energy Marx generator was designed at Los Alamos as a spark gap trigger. Since the initial report1 the design has been improved and is now...manufactured commercially. The Mini Marx has a risetime of less than 2 ns to over 200 kV measured in to a 23 omega load. The power output approaches one...gigawatt. The Mini Marx can multichannel field distortion gaps or fire a number of gaps with little gap-to-gap isolation. It has also been used to

  14. Super-spinning compact objects generated by thick accretion disks

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zilong; Bambi, Cosimo E-mail: bambi@fudan.edu.cn

    2013-03-01

    If astrophysical black hole candidates are the Kerr black holes predicted by General Relativity, the value of their spin parameter must be subject to the theoretical bound |a{sub *}| ≤ 1. In this work, we consider the possibility that these objects are either non-Kerr black holes in an alternative theory of gravity or exotic compact objects in General Relativity. We study the accretion process when their accretion disk is geometrically thick with a simple version of the Polish doughnut model. The picture of the accretion process may be qualitatively different from the one around a Kerr black hole. The inner edge of the disk may not have the typical cusp on the equatorial plane any more, but there may be two cusps, respectively above and below the equatorial plane. We extend previous work on the evolution of the spin parameter and we estimate the maximum value of a{sub *} for the super-massive black hole candidates in galactic nuclei. Since measurements of the mean radiative efficiency of AGNs require η > 0.15, we infer the ''observational'' bound |a{sub *}|∼<1.3, which seems to be quite independent of the exact nature of these objects. Such a bound is only slightly weaker than |a{sub *}|∼<1.2 found in previous work for thin disks.

  15. MARX: Model of AXAF Response to X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wise, Michael W.; Davis, John E.; Huenemoerder, David P.; Houck, John C.; Dewey, Dan

    2013-02-01

    MARX (Model of AXAF Response to X-rays) is a suite of programs designed to enable the user to simulate the on-orbit performance of the Chandra satellite. MARX provides a detailed ray-trace simulation of how Chandra responds to a variety of astrophysical sources and can generate standard FITS events files and images as output. It contains models for the HRMA mirror system onboard Chandra as well as the HETG and LETG gratings and all focal plane detectors.

  16. Simulated {AXAF} Observations with {MARX}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wise, Michael W.; Huenemoerder, David P.; Davis, John E.

    The AXAF Science Center group at MIT has developed an end-to-end simulator of the AXAF satellite called MARX. MARX includes models of the AXAF mirrors, the low- and high-energy transmission grating assemblies (LETG and HETG), and the HRC and ACIS focal plane detectors. We discuss the role of MARX within the ASC Data System and present sample simulated images and spectra for two typical cosmic X-ray sources.

  17. Optical stealth transmission based on super-continuum generation in highly nonlinear fiber over WDM network.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Huatao; Wang, Rong; Pu, Tao; Fang, Tao; Xiang, Peng; Zheng, Jilin; Chen, Dalei

    2015-06-01

    In this Letter, the optical stealth transmission carried by super-continuum spectrum optical pulses generated in highly nonlinear fiber is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. In the proposed transmission scheme, super-continuum signals are reshaped in the spectral domain through a wavelength-selective switch and are temporally spread by a chromatic dispersion device to achieve the same noise-like characteristic as the noise in optical networks, so that in both the time domain and the spectral domain, the stealth signals are hidden in public channel. Our experimental results show that compared with existing schemes where stealth channels are carried by amplified spontaneous emission noise, super-continuum signal can increase the transmission performance and robustness.

  18. Super Buffer: a systolic VLSI graphics engine for real-time raster image generation

    SciTech Connect

    Gharachlorloo, N.

    1985-01-01

    The new Super Buffer family of systems for real time generation of three dimensional, general-purpose, interactive and dynamic raster images is the subject of this thesis. In these systems the conventional 512 x 512 frame buffer is replaced by a 512 x 1 virtual scanline buffer. Image updating, buffering and refreshing are all performed by a single chip Systolic VLSI Raster Graphics Engine. The Engine is composed of an array of identical specialized Pixel Processors which collaborate to break the real time computation barrier by performing several billion Pixel operations per second in order to generate raster images in real time. A basic Super Buffer system has been successfully implemented and tested on a single prototype board connected to an IBM PC-AT. This approach is compared and contrasted to other high performance frame buffer based system architectures. The flexibility and power of the Super Buffer architecture is demonstrated by its ability to execute in real time the computationally intensive hidden surface removal and linear shading algorithms. Furthermore, the basic Super Buffer can be expanded in hardware to handle higher resolution displays and to generate images of high complexity, forming an entire family of systems with the same general architecture.

  19. Generation and transmission of 512-Gb/s quad-carrier digital super-Nyquist spectral shaped signal.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junwen; Yu, Jianjun; Chi, Nan

    2013-12-16

    A novel digital super-Nyquist signal generation scheme is proposed to further suppress the Nyquist signal bandwidth and reduce the channel crosstalk without using optical pre-filtering. The spectrum of the generated super-Nyquist 9-QAM signal is much more compact compared with regular Nyquist QPSK signal. Therefore, only optical couplers are needed for super-Nyquist WDM channel multiplexing. By using the 64-GSa/s high speed DAC, 32-GBaud super-Nyquist 9-QAM signal is generated within 25-GHz grid for quad-carrier 400G channels. We successfully generate and transmit 4 channels quad-carrier 512-Gb/s super-Nyquist 9-QAM-like signal within 100-GHz grid over 2975-km at a net SE of 4b/s/Hz (after excluding the 20% soft-decision FEC overhead).

  20. A Prognostic Method for Scheduling Maintenance on the P2- Marx Modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Benwell, Andrew; Burkhart, Craig; Kemp, Mark; Macken, Koen; Nguyen, Minh; MacNair, Dave; Olsen, Jeff; Larsen, Ray; /SLAC

    2010-06-10

    The SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory is developing a second generation Marx-type modulator for the ILC, the P2-Marx. The modulator is expected to operate reliably in excess of 10{sup 5} hours with minimum downtime. A prognostic system is being implemented with the development of the P2-Marx to monitor and track the health of key high voltage components. This paper discusses the way in which the prognostic system will be implemented and used to monitor the health of the P2-Marx modulator.

  1. A Laser-Triggered Mini-Marx for Low-Jitter, High-Voltage Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-06-01

    switch in a compact, eight-stage Marx generator. The spark gap is pressurized with a mixture of sulfur hexafluoride and air. The UV (266 nm) laser...remaining, self-breaking spark-gap switches in the Marx , pre-ionizing them. The Marx output is approximately 200 kV into 50 ohms, with a risetime of 2...ns. A single Marx is capable of triggering six 100-kV spark gaps via six 65-ohm cables in parallel, with an overall jitter of (+ or -) 1 ns. A single

  2. Frequency comb generation beyond the Lugiato-Lefever equation: multi-stability and super cavity solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansson, Tobias; Wabnitz, Stefan

    2015-07-01

    The generation of optical frequency combs in microresonators is considered without resorting to the mean-field approximation. New dynamical regimes are found to appear for high intracavity power that cannot be modeled using the Lugiato-Lefever equation. Using the Ikeda map we show the existence of multi-valued stationary states and analyse their stability. Period doubled patterns are considered and a novel type of super cavity soliton associated with the multi-stable states is predicted.

  3. ILC MARX MODULATOR DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM STATUS

    SciTech Connect

    Burkhart, Craig; Benwell, Andrew; Beukers, Tony; Kemp, Mark; Larsen, Raymond; MacNair, David; Nguyen, Minh; Olsen, Jeff; Tang, Tao; /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    A Marx-topology klystron modulator is under development for the International Linear Collider (ILC) project. It is envisioned as a lower cost, smaller footprint, and higher reliability alternative to the present, bouncer-topology, baseline design. The application requires 120 kV (+/-0.5%), 140 A, 1.6 ms pulses at a rate of 5 Hz. The Marx constructs the high voltage pulse by combining, in series, a number of lower voltage cells. The Marx employs solid state elements; IGBTs and diodes, to control the charge, discharge and disolation of the cells. Active compensation of the output is used to achieve the voltage regulation while minimizing the stored energy. The developmental testing of a first generation prototype, P1, has been completed. This modulator has been integrated into a test stand with a 10 MW L-band klystron, where each is undergoing life testing. Development of a second generation prototype, P2, is underway. The P2 is based on the P1 topology but incorporates an alternative cell configuration to increase redundancy and improve availability. Status updates for both prototypes are presented.

  4. Development of a super high speed motor-generator and controller

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Do-Kwan Ahn, Min-Hyuk; Joo, Dae-Suk; Woo, Byung-Chul; Koo, Dae-Hyun

    2014-05-07

    To develop a super high speed motor-generator, it is essential to deal with magnetic analysis, dynamic analysis, and experimental evaluation of the heart of the MTG (Microturbine Generator) system, the motor-generator. An amorphous core is applied to a stator core for reduction of iron loss at high speed, and the motor-generator is analyzed with considerations focused on magnetic losses and the statistical optimum design. The performance of the amorphous core is validated by the analysis and experiment by back-to-back tests considering the AC load. Rotor dynamics is performed for dynamic stability at high speed using transient analysis orbit diagrams and compared with the experimental results. The simulation results of the generator are compared with the experiment. Also a super high speed controller of the MTG system is developed using a sensorless algorithm, power stack, gate driver, digital signal processing, analog circuit, and radiation heat design. Based on these results, a high speed motor-generator and controller are successfully developed.

  5. Super-flat supercontinuum generation from a Tm-doped fiber amplifier

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Mengmeng; Yu, Ting; Wang, Zhenbao; Chen, Hongwei; Shen, Yanlong; Feng, Guobin; Ye, Xisheng

    2016-01-01

    Super-flat supercontinua are generated from a double clad Tm-doped fiber amplifier. Two different laser configurations are investigated and compared. In the direct-output configuration, the long-wavelength edge of the supercontinuum spectra is extended to beyond 2.65 μm with a 10 dB bandwidth of 740 nm. In the passive pigtail configuration, the generated supercontinuum features excellent flatness with an intensity difference smaller than 1 dB in the wide central spectral range from 1.98 μm to 2.41 μm. PMID:27021113

  6. Super-flat supercontinuum generation from a Tm-doped fiber amplifier.

    PubMed

    Tao, Mengmeng; Yu, Ting; Wang, Zhenbao; Chen, Hongwei; Shen, Yanlong; Feng, Guobin; Ye, Xisheng

    2016-03-29

    Super-flat supercontinua are generated from a double clad Tm-doped fiber amplifier. Two different laser configurations are investigated and compared. In the direct-output configuration, the long-wavelength edge of the supercontinuum spectra is extended to beyond 2.65 μm with a 10 dB bandwidth of 740 nm. In the passive pigtail configuration, the generated supercontinuum features excellent flatness with an intensity difference smaller than 1 dB in the wide central spectral range from 1.98 μm to 2.41 μm.

  7. Super-flat supercontinuum generation from a Tm-doped fiber amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Mengmeng; Yu, Ting; Wang, Zhenbao; Chen, Hongwei; Shen, Yanlong; Feng, Guobin; Ye, Xisheng

    2016-03-01

    Super-flat supercontinua are generated from a double clad Tm-doped fiber amplifier. Two different laser configurations are investigated and compared. In the direct-output configuration, the long-wavelength edge of the supercontinuum spectra is extended to beyond 2.65 μm with a 10 dB bandwidth of 740 nm. In the passive pigtail configuration, the generated supercontinuum features excellent flatness with an intensity difference smaller than 1 dB in the wide central spectral range from 1.98 μm to 2.41 μm.

  8. Investigation of Super-Ponderomotive Electron Generation Using the Texas Petawatt Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peebles, J.; Zhang, S.; McGuffey, C.; Wei, M. S.; Mariscal, D.; McLean, H. S.; Chen, H.; McCary, E.; Wagner, C.; Spinks, M.; Hegelich, B. M.; Gaul, E.; Dyer, G.; Martinez, M.; Donovan, M.; Ditmire, T.; Krasheninnikov, S.; Beg, F.

    2016-10-01

    Relativistic laser plasma interactions (LPI) in conjunction with an underdense pre-plasma have been shown to generate extremely high energy ``super-ponderomotive'' electrons. We conducted an experiment at the Texas Petawatt Laser Facility with recent pre-pulse cleaning upgrades in order to better understand the conditions required to generate such high energy electrons. We created the pre-plasma by introducing a controlled injected pre-pulse via a secondary beam prior to the main high intensity (I >1020 W/cm 2) beam's arrival. The pulse length of the main beam was varied from 150 - 600 fs. The experimental data demonstrated that super-ponderomotive electrons require a pulse of at least 450 fs to be generated. Such interactions generated electrons with energies greatly exceeded 150 MeV, which also corresponded to an unexpected drop in lower energy electron count. We present these experimental findings along with subsequent 1 and 2D PIC simulations examining the results. This work performed under the auspices of the US DOE Office of Sciences Program under contracts DE-NA0001858.

  9. A composite of borohydride and super absorbent polymer for hydrogen generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z. P.; Liu, B. H.; Liu, F. F.; Xu, D.

    To develop a hydrogen source for underwater applications, a composite of sodium borohydride and super absorbent polymer (SAP) is prepared by ball milling sodium borohydride powder with SAP powder, and by dehydrating an alkaline borohydride gel. When sodium polyacrylate (NaPAA) is used as the SAP, the resulting composite exhibits a high rate of borohydride hydrolysis for hydrogen generation. A mechanism of hydrogen evolution from the NaBH 4-NaPAA composite is suggested based on structure analysis by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The effects of water and NiCl 2 content in the precursor solution on the hydrogen evolution behavior are investigated and discussed.

  10. The SLAC P2 Marx

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, Mark; Benwell, Andrew; Burkhart, Craig; MacNair, David; Nguyen1, Minh; /SLAC

    2012-07-05

    A proposed high energy physics accelerator, the International Linear Collider, will require greater than five hundred rf stations. Each station is composed of a klystron driven by a modulator. Recently, the SLAC P2 Marx was designated the baseline modulator for the ILC. This paper describes some key features of this modulator and presents recent experimental results. The P2 Marx is presently being transported to another facility for lifetime testing. Here, we will gain understanding of how the Marx performs into a klystron load and gain experience operating the Marx for longer periods. Long term plans include the possibility of using this rf station for L-band technology demonstration at SLAC. While the Marx was designed with the ILC in mind, the topology can be readily applied to several different applications. We are currently evaluating the use of the topology for ESS, CLIC, and upgrades for systems at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. Because of the modular nature of the cell and the robustness of the control system, many different combinations of series and parallel operation are possible along with different load currents and pulse shapes.

  11. Survey of Close-in Super-Earths Using a New Generation Optical High Resolution Spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sithajan, Sirinrat; Ge, J.; Muterspaugh, M. W.; Varosi, F.; Li, R.; Ma, B.; Thomas, N. B.; Wang, J.; Barnes, R.; Maxwell, T.

    2014-01-01

    A number of planets discovered using various ground-based and space-based surveys have allowed us to begin to study their statistical properties and find clues for their formation mechanisms. However, due to the traditionally adopted survey strategy, which is to observe stars with variable observational cadences (“run and gun” style), of high precision radial velocity (RV) surveys, the resulting survey completeness is usually low, especially at the low mass regime. This prevents us from obtaining critical data needed to investigate the statistical properties and formation mechanisms of low mass planet populations. We have designed a deep and homogeneous RV survey of ~500 nearby bright FGKM dwarfs for detecting low mass planets in 2014-2017 with a totally different survey strategy and cadence. This survey will observe every selected (bright, inactive, F5V to M4V) star ~100 times randomly spread over 300 days using our new generation extremely high Doppler precision optical spectrograph, called EXtremely high Precision ExtrasolaR planet Tracker III (EXPERT-III) 1 m/s precision), at the Automatic Spectroscopic Telescope (AST), a 2-m robotic telescope at Fairborn Observatory in Arizona. The flexible queue schedule offered by this robotic telescope greatly facilitates this high precision and high cadence survey. We have demonstrated the survey performance and predicted results through simulations. They show that an unprecedented high completeness sample of close-in super-Earths can be achieved. Therefore, this survey will not only precisely measure statistical properties of the close-in super Earth population largely uncovered by the Kepler mission, but also offer a uniquely homogeneous sample to constrain various planet formation models. Furthermore, this survey has a great sensitivity to probe super-Earth planets in habitable zones around K and M dwarfs.

  12. Generation of super-Gaussian modes in Nd:YAG lasers with graded-phase mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerber, Michael; Graf, Thomas

    2003-11-01

    To change the intensity distribution of the fundamental mode in a Nd:YAG laser resonator to a top-hat profile we developed and used a dielectric graded-phase mirror. A super-Gaussian mode of the sixth order was generated by means of a graded-phase mirror with a simple ring-shaped phase step on a spherical reflector. The depth of the ring was 90 nm. The graded-phase mirror was manufactured with an ordinary vapor deposition technique. An annular mask with a thickness of 10 μm was used to avoid the deposition of the LaF3 vapor at the position of the ring. Laser experiments with continuous-wave and repetitively pulsed dioed-laser pumping were performed and compared. The results are in excellent agreement with the theory.

  13. Terahertz generation by mixing of two super-Gaussian laser beams in collisional plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Divya; Malik, Hitendra K. E-mail: hkmalik@physics.iitd.ac.in

    2014-08-15

    Considering a realistic situation, where electron-neutral collisions persist in plasma, analytical calculations are carried out for the Terahertz (THz) radiation generation by beating of two Super-Gaussian (SG) lasers of index p. The competency of these lasers over Gaussian lasers is discussed in detail with respect to the effects of collision and beam width on the THz field amplitude and efficiency of the mechanism. A critical transverse distance of the peak of the THz field is defined that shows a dependence on the index of SG lasers. Although electron-neutral collisions and larger beam width lead to the drastic reduction in the THz field when the SG lasers are used in the plasma, the efficiency of the mechanism remains much larger than the case of Gaussian lasers. Moreover, the higher index SG lasers produce stronger and focused THz radiation.

  14. Spin-on-glass coatings for the generation of super-polishedsubstrates for extreme ultraviolet optics

    SciTech Connect

    Salmassi, Farhad; Naulleau, Patrick P.; Gullikson, Eric M.

    2005-01-01

    Substrates intended for use as extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optics have extremely stringent requirements in terms of finish. These requirements can dramatically increase the cost and fabrication time, especially when non-conventional shapes, such as toroids, are required. Here we present a spin-on-glass resist process capable of generating super-polished parts from inexpensive substrates. The method has been used to render diamond-turned substrates compatible for use as EUV optics. Toroidal diamond-turned optics with starting rms roughness in the 3.3 to 3.7 nm range have been smoothed to the 0.4 to 0.6 nm range. EUV reflectometry characterization of these optics has demonstrated reflectivities of approximately 63%.

  15. Karl Marx and the Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shifferd, K. D.

    1972-01-01

    Implications from Karl Marx's concept of nature are explored. Serving as a frame of reference for the fight against pollution, the Marxian philosophy provides a kind of systems analysis of the origins and dynamics of pollution at the level of society and a set of conceptual tools and attitudes for unmasking the claims of industry. (BL)

  16. Karl Marx and the Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shifferd, K. D.

    1972-01-01

    Implications from Karl Marx's concept of nature are explored. Serving as a frame of reference for the fight against pollution, the Marxian philosophy provides a kind of systems analysis of the origins and dynamics of pollution at the level of society and a set of conceptual tools and attitudes for unmasking the claims of industry. (BL)

  17. Thermophotovoltaic Power Generation by Super-Adiabatic Combustion in Porous Quartz Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanamura, Katsunori; Kumano, Tomoyuki

    2003-01-01

    A new thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power generation system has been proposed on the basis of reciprocating-flow super-adiabatic combustion in porous media and has been investigated through numerical simulation. The porous media consists of a thin foam-ceramic plate sandwitched by a pair of porous quartz glass plates packed perpendicular to the flow direction in an insulated flowing-duct. By energy recirculation through the reciprocating-flow combustion system, the foam-ceramic temperature becomes about two times higher than the theoretical (adiabatic) flame temperature, using only a small amount of combustion heat. Strong radiant energy is emitted from the foam-ceramic plate. Of those, long wavelength components are absorbed by the porous quartz glass and are regenerated to preheat working-gases. On the other hand, short wavelength components pass through the porous quartz glass. About 48% of the combustion heat is converted into the radiant energy in a short wavelength range which are useful for (GaSb) TPV power generation.

  18. [Medical history impressions of Karl Marx 1983].

    PubMed

    Kaiser, W

    1983-12-15

    Excerpts of his London era first published on the occasion of the Karl Marx testimonials of 1983 gave rise to extend the memory of the fundamental achievements of Karl Marx to medico-historical aspects. In this case Karl Marx paid special attention to the working and living conditions of the working class and an analysis of his adequate statements and records shows multifarious details which give a research basis also for the history of medicine. Marx and Engels had friendly contacts with several physicians who shared the opinions of the two classics: their way of life is shown in the most important points.

  19. Magnetic Field Generation on Super-Earths and Sub-Earths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamenkovic, Vlada; Breuer, Doris

    2010-05-01

    The last 15 years of astronomical observation have revealed a universe filled with planets. The observational techniques still limit the possibility to detect smaller, Earth-sized planets. New missions such as Kepler and Corot, next generation telescopes such as Darwin and TPF, and improved techniques in radial velocity measurements will lower this limit and make it possible to even detect Earth-sized planets in the near future. We study the ability of planets with different masses to generate a magnetic dynamo. For this we [1] investigate the thermal evolution and convection of planets with Earth-like composition and structure of sizes ranging from 0.1 to 10 Earth masses (Mearth). Important is that we include the pressure dependence of viscosity into our parameterized 1D boundary layer and spherical 2D/3D models, with the scope to understand how the pressure-viscosity coupling changes the convection in the mantles of Super-Earths, and less massive planets, which we termed Sub-Earths. We then look how this influences magnetic dynamos on those planets. We observe that the pressure dependence of viscosity becomes an important factor for the mantle convection of planets with masses larger than 1Mearth - resulting in a sluggish convection regime in the lower mantle for Earth-sized planets. Depending on activation volume we observe with growing planetary mass the formation of a conductive lid over the core mantle boundary (CMB), termed low-lid, where convection velocities cease and where heat transport is only due to conduction. The sluggish convection and the formation of the low-lid reduce the convective vigour throughout the mantle. This leads to much lower core cooling in comparison to non-pressure-dependent viscosity models. We find using our parameterized 1D convection models that the low-lid insulates the core and thus affects the potential growth of an inner core and the ratio of CMB heat flux to critical heat flux. This on the other hand influences the

  20. Detection of Heater Generated Super Small Scale Striations Using GPS Signal Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najmi, A. C.; Milikh, G. M.; Chiang, K.; Psiaki, M.; Secan, J. A.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Briczinski, S. J.; Siefring, C. L.; Papadopoulos, K.

    2013-12-01

    Recent theoretical models predict that super small striations (SSS) of the electron density, on the order of ten centimeters, can be excited by HF waves with frequency close to multiples of the electron gyro frequency [Gurevich et al., 2006]. The first experimental verification of SSS was made at HAARP [Milikh et al., 2008]. We present results of HAARP experiments that include simultaneous observations of GPS carrier phase and SEE observations of ionospheric turbulence. These observations show that SSS excited by HF frequencies near the fourth harmonic of the gyro frequency scatter GPS signals, and in three out of six experiments indicate the presence of strong turbulence, similar to that observed in descending artificial ionized layer experiments [Pedersen et al., 2010]. This turbulence is capable of generating suprathermal electrons, and in one of the experiments, the presence of fast electrons was confirmed by the HAARP incoherent scattering radar. Estimates on the SSS shows that they correspond to 3-10% electron density depletions. Such irregularities affect UHF signals including GPS, and thus can be important in applications. Gurevich, A.V. and K.P. Zybin (2006), Phys. Lett. A, 358, 159. Milikh, G., et al. (2008), Geophys. Res. Let., 35, L22102, doi:10.1029/2008GL035527. Pedersen, T. et al. (2010), Geophys. Res. Let., 37, L02106, doi:10.1029/2009GL041895.

  1. Marx and the Education of the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rikowski, Glenn

    2004-01-01

    With reference to Karl Marx's writings on education, this article outlines the education of the future as anti-capitalist education. In starting out from a conception of communism as the "real movement which abolishes the present state of things" (Marx), it is argued that the anti-capitalist education of the future consists of three…

  2. Marx and the Education of the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rikowski, Glenn

    2004-01-01

    With reference to Karl Marx's writings on education, this article outlines the education of the future as anti-capitalist education. In starting out from a conception of communism as the "real movement which abolishes the present state of things" (Marx), it is argued that the anti-capitalist education of the future consists of three…

  3. Design of compact Marx module with square pulse output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongwei; Xie, Weiping; Yuan, Jianqiang; Wang, Lingyun; Ma, Xun; Jiang, Ping

    2016-07-01

    Compact pulsed power system based on compact Marx generator is widely used in terms of drive resistance and capacitive loads. This system usually adopts high performance components such as high energy density capacitors, compact switches, and integrated structure. Traditional compact Marx generator can only output double-exponential pulse profile. In this paper a compact, low-impedance Marx module which can output rectangular pulse profile is design and tested. This module has multiple circuits of different discharge frequencies in parallel to generate quasi-rectangular pulse. Discharge characteristic of an ideal module with infinite branches is calculated theoretically. A module with two branches has been designed and tested. Test results show that the impedance of the module is 1.2 Ω. When charging voltage is 100.6 kV and load resistance is 1 Ω, the peak output pulse is 45.2 kV voltage, the peak power is about 2 GW, the pulse width is about 130 ns, and the rise time is about 35 ns. The energy density and power density of the module are 15 kJ/m3 and 140 GW/m3, respectively.

  4. SuperHERO: the next generation hard x-ray HEROES telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaskin, Jessica A.; Christe, Steven D.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Kilaru, Kiranmayee; Ramsey, Brian D.; Seller, Paul; Shih, Albert Y.; Stuchlik, David W.; Swartz, Douglas A.; Tennant, Allyn F.; Weddendorf, Bruce; Wilson, Matthew D.; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.

    2014-07-01

    SuperHERO is a new high-resolution, Long Duration Balloon-capable, hard-x-ray (20-75 keV) focusing telescope for making novel astrophysics and heliophysics observations. The SuperHERO payload, currently in its proposal phase, is being developed jointly by the Astrophysics Office at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the Solar Physics Laboratory and the Wallops Flight Facility at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. SuperHERO is a follow-on payload to the High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) balloon-borne telescope that recently flew from Fort Sumner, NM in September of 2013, and will utilize many of the same features. Significant enhancements to the HEROES payload will be made, including the addition of optics, novel solid-state multi-pixel CdTe detectors, integration of the Wallops Arc-Second Pointer and a significantly lighter gondola suitable for Long Duration Flights.

  5. Development of a Prototype Thermophotovoltaic Power Generation System Using Super-Adiabatic Combustion in Porous Quartz Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumano, Tomoyuki; Hanamura, Katsunori

    A prototype thermophotovoltaic (TPV) generation system based on super-adiabatic combustion with reciprocating flow in porous media was developed experimentally. Stacked porous quartz glass plates in the system were used as an optical filter and for heat storage. The distributions of temperature and spectral radiation indicated that both energy recirculation and spectral control were realized with the quartz glass plates. In addition, electric power was obtained by introducing the spectral controlled radiation into GaSb cells. The measured output power was in close agreement with that estimated using a parallel ray-tracing model. Application of a one-dimensional configuration to this system is expected to result in a total fuel to electricity conversion efficiency that would reach 10%. Consequently, a spherical super-adiabatic combustion TPV system is proposed as an idealized one-dimensional system to achieve this.

  6. SuperHERO: The Next Generation Hard X-Ray HEROES Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Gaskin, Jessica A.; Christe, Steven D.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Seller, Paul; Shih, Albert Y.; Stuchlik, David W.; Swartz, Douglas A.; Tenant, Allyn F.; hide

    2014-01-01

    SuperHERO is a new high-sensitivity Long Duration Balloon (LDB)-capable, hard-x-ray (20-75 keV) telescope for making novel astrophysics and heliophysics observations. The proposed SuperHERO payload will be developed jointly by the Astrophysics Office at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, the Solar Physics Laboratory and Wallops Flight Facility at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. SuperHERO is a follow-on payload to the High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) balloon-borne telescope that recently launched from Fort Sumner, NM in September of 2013. The HEROES core instrument is a hard x-ray telescope consisting of x-ray 109 optics configured into 8 modules. Each module is aligned to a matching gas-filled detector at a focal length of 6 m. SuperHERO will make significant improvements to the HEROES payload, including: new solid-state multi-pixel CdTe detectors, additional optics, the Wallops Arc-Second Pointer, alignment monitoring systems and lighter gondola.

  7. SuperHERO: The Next Generation Hard X-ray HEROES Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaskin, Jessica A.; Christe, Steven D.; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen; Shih, Albert Y. M.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Tennant, Allyn F.; Swartz, Douglas A.

    2014-01-01

    SuperHERO is a new high-sensitivity Long Duration Balloon (LDB)-capable, hard-x-ray (20-75 keV) telescope for making novel astrophysics and heliophysics observations. The proposed SuperHERO payload will be developed jointly by the Astrophysics Office at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, the Solar Physics Laboratory and Wallops Flight Facility at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. SuperHERO is a follow-on payload to the High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) balloon-borne telescope that recently launched from Fort Sumner, NM in September of 2013. The HEROES core instrument is a hard x-ray telescope consisting of x-ray 109 optics configured into 8 modules. Each module is aligned to a matching gas-filled detector at a focal length of 6 m. SuperHERO will make significant improvements to the HEROES payload, including: new solid-state multi-pixel CdTe detectors, additional optics, the Wallops Arc-Second Pointer, alignment monitoring systems and lighter gondola.

  8. Generation of live offspring from vitrified embryos with synthetic polymers SuperCool X-1000 and SuperCool Z-1000.

    PubMed

    Marco-Jimenez, F; Jimenez-Trigos, E; Lavara, R; Vicente, J S

    2014-01-01

    Ice growth and recrystallisation are considered important factors in determining vitrification outcomes. Synthetic polymers inhibit ice formation during cooling or warming of the vitrification process. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of adding commercially available synthetic polymers SuperCool X-1000 and SuperCool Z-1000 to vitrification media on in vivo development competence of rabbit embryos. Four hundred and thirty morphologically normal embryos recovered at 72 h of gestation were used. The vitrification media contained 20% dimethyl sulphoxide and 20% ethylene glycol, either alone or in combination with 1% of SuperCool X-1000 and 1% SuperCool. Our results show that embryos can be successfully vitrified using SuperCool X-1000 and SuperCool Z-1000 and when embryos are transferred, live offspring can be successfully produced. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that we succeeded for the first time in obtaining live offspring after vitrification of embryos using SuperCool X-1000 and SuperCool Z-1000 polymers.

  9. Study of advanced mask inspection optics with super-resolution method for next-generation mask fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Ryoichi; Hirono, Masatoshi; Ogawa, Riki; Kikuiri, Nobutaka; Takahara, Kenichi; Hashimoto, Hideaki; Shigemura, Hiroyuki

    2009-03-01

    The lithography potential of an ArF (193nm) laser exposure tool with high numerical aperture (NA) will expand its lithography potential to 45nm node production and even beyond. Consequently, a mask inspection system with a wavelength nearly equal to 193nm is required so as to detect defects of the masks using resolution enhancement technology (RET). A novel high-resolution mask inspection platform using DUV wavelength has been developed, which works at 199nm. The wavelength is close to the wavelength of ArF exposure tool. In order to adapt 199nm optics for hp2x nm node and beyond defect detection on next generation mask with appropriate condition, further development such as the illumination condition modification technique has been studied. The illumination optics has the advantageous feature that super-resolution method is applied by adding the optics. To evaluate the super-resolution effect of illumination condition control optics, the interaction of light with mask features is calculated rigorously using RCWA (Rigorous Coupled-Wave Analysis) method. In this paper, image contrast enhancement effect using newly designed super-resolution optics which is applied to transmitted and reflected light image acquisition system are presented with simulation and experiment.

  10. Multiple Disk Gaps and Rings Generated by a Single Super-Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Ruobing; Li, Shengtai; Chiang, Eugene; Li, Hui

    2017-07-01

    We investigate the observational signatures of super-Earths (i.e., planets with Earth-to-Neptune mass), which are the most common type of exoplanet discovered to date, in their natal disks of gas and dust. Combining two-fluid global hydrodynamics simulations with a radiative transfer code, we calculate the distributions of gas and of submillimeter-sized dust in a disk perturbed by a super-Earth, synthesizing images in near-infrared scattered light and the millimeter-wave thermal continuum for direct comparison with observations. In low-viscosity gas (α ≲ {10}-4), a super-Earth opens two annular gaps to either side of its orbit by the action of Lindblad torques. This double gap and its associated gas pressure gradients cause dust particles to be dragged by gas into three rings: one ring sandwiched between the two gaps, and two rings located at the gap edges farthest from the planet. Depending on the system parameters, additional rings may manifest for a single planet. A double gap located at tens of au from a host star in Taurus can be detected in the dust continuum by the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) at an angular resolution of ∼0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 03 after two hours of integration. Ring and gap features persist in a variety of background disk profiles, last for thousands of orbits, and change their relative positions and dimensions depending on the speed and direction of planet migration. Candidate double gaps have been observed by ALMA in systems such as HL Tau (D5 and D6) and TW Hya (at 37 and 43 au); we submit that each double gap is carved by one super-Earth in nearly inviscid gas.

  11. New generation super alloy candidates for medical applications: corrosion behavior, cation release and biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Reclaru, L; Ziegenhagen, R; Unger, R E; Eschler, P Y; Constantin, F

    2014-12-01

    Three super alloy candidates (X1 CrNiMoMnW 24-22-6-3-2 N, NiCr21 MoNbFe 8-3-5 AlTi, CoNiCr 35-20 Mo 10 BTi) for a prolonged contact with skin are evaluated in comparison with two reference austenitic stainless steels 316L and 904L. Several electrochemical parameters were measured and determined (E(oc), E(corr), i(corr), b(a), b(c), E(b), R(p), E(crev) and coulometric analysis) in order to compare the corrosion behavior. The cation release evaluation and in vitro biological characterization also were performed. In terms of corrosion, the results reveal that the 904L steels presented the best behavior followed by the super austenitic steel X1 CrNiMoMnW 24-22-6-3-2 N. For the other two super alloys (NiCr and CoNiCr types alloys) tested in different conditions (annealed, work hardened and work hardened+age hardened) it was found that their behavior to corrosion was weak and close to the other reference stainless steel, 316L. Regarding the extraction a mixture of cations in relatively high concentrations was noted and therefore a cocktail effect was not excluded. The results obtained in the biological assays WST-1 and TNF-alpha were in correlation with the corrosion and extraction evaluation.

  12. SuperPower's Second Generation HTS Conductor Design for Stability and Low AC Losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazelton, D. W.; Xie, Y. Y.; Qiao, Y.; Zhang, E.; Selvamanickam, V.

    2006-03-01

    SuperPower is developing a conductor design for improved mechanical properties, quench stability, and low ac losses. Coated conductors are typically 12 mm wide with a few microns of silver overlayer. SuperPower's design modifies such base conductor designs into geometries more suited for practical applications. Wide conductors are slit into 4 mm wide tapes, in particular for cable applications, but also to reduce ac losses. After slitting, the conductor is stabilized with approximately 20 microns of surround copper stabilizer, completely encapsulating the conductor and providing a hermetic seal. Other advantages of the surround copper stabilizer configuration are rounded edges for dielectric integration and superior over-current handling capability (9X critical current with 300 ms wide pulses). Prototype 1 m cables made by Sumitomo Electric using this practical conductor showed total ac losses under 0.4 W/kA-m. To further reduce ac losses, especially for high frequency applications of the military, SuperPower's conductor design involves striating the current-carrying layers by a photolithography process. Several racetrack coils made with our practical coated conductors have been provided to Rockwell Automation for use in a demonstration motor. Recent results of our practical coated conductor will be discussed.

  13. Development Status of The ILC Marx Modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, M; Beukers, T.; Burkhart, C.; Larsen, R.; Olsen, J.; Tang, T.; /SLAC

    2010-06-07

    The ILC Marx Modulator is under development as a lower cost alternative to the 'Baseline Conceptual Design' (BCD) klystron modulator. Construction of a prototype Marx is complete and testing is underway at SLAC. The Marx employs solid state elements, IGBTs and diodes, to control the charge, discharge and isolation of the modules. The prototype is based on a stack of sixteen modules, each initially charged to {approx}11 kV, which are arranged in a Marx topology. Initially, eleven modules combine to produce the 120 kV output pulse. The remaining modules are switched in after appropriate delays to compensate for the voltage droop that results from the discharge of the energy storage capacitors. Additional elements will further regulate the output voltage to {+-}0.5%. The Marx presents several advantages over the conventional klystron modulator designs. It is physically smaller; there is no pulse transformer (quite massive at these parameters) and the energy storage capacitor bank is quite small, owing to the active droop compensation. It is oil-free; voltage hold-off is achieved using air insulation. It is air cooled; the secondary air-water heat exchanger is physically isolated from the electronic components. This paper outlines the current developmental status of the prototype Marx. It presents a detailed electrical and mechanical description of the modulator and operational test results. It will discuss electrical efficiency measurements, fault testing, and output voltage regulation.

  14. Development Status of the ILC Marx Modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, M.; Beukers, T.; Burkhart, C.; Larsen, R.; Olsen, J.; Tang, T.; /SLAC

    2008-06-16

    The ILC Marx Modulator is under development as a lower cost alternative to the 'Baseline Conceptual Design' (BCD) klystron modulator. Construction of a prototype Marx is complete and testing is underway at SLAC. The Marx employs solid state elements, IGBTs and diodes, to control the charge, discharge and isolation of the modules. The prototype is based on a stack of sixteen modules, each initially charged to {approx}11 kV, which are arranged in a Marx topology. Initially, eleven modules combine to produce the 120 kV output pulse. The remaining modules are switched in after appropriate delays to compensate for the voltage droop that results from the discharge of the energy storage capacitors. Additional elements will further regulate the output voltage to {+-} 0.5%. The Marx presents several advantages over the conventional klystron modulator designs. It is physically smaller; there is no pulse transformer (quite massive at these parameters) and the energy storage capacitor bank is quite small, owing to the active droop compensation. It is oil-free; voltage hold-off is achieved using air insulation. It is air cooled; the secondary air-water heat exchanger is physically isolated from the electronic components. This paper outlines the current developmental status of the prototype Marx. It presents a detailed electrical and mechanical description of the modulator and operational test results. It will discuss electrical efficiency measurements, fault testing, and output voltage regulation.

  15. Looking for Marx: A Review of "Marx and Education" by Jean Anyon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banfield, Grant

    2011-01-01

    "Marx and Education" is the second and latest volume in the new "Routledge Key Ideas in Education Series". The series is intended to offer readers concise introductions to specific sub-field developments in the field of educational scholarship. For their "Marx and Education" volume, Greg Dimitriadis and Bob Lingard…

  16. Tunable and efficient terahertz radiation generation by photomixing of two super Gaussian laser pulses in a corrugated magnetized plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Varshney, Prateek; Sajal, Vivek Kumar, Ravindra; Sharma, Navneet K.; Singh, Kunwar Pal

    2015-05-21

    A scheme of terahertz (THz) radiation generation is investigated by photo-mixing of two super Gaussian laser beams having different frequencies (ω{sub 1}, ω{sub 2}) and wave numbers (k{sup →}{sub 1}, k{sup →}{sub 2}) in a performed corrugated plasma embedded with transverse dc magnetic field. Lasers exert a nonlinear ponderomotive force, imparting an oscillatory velocity to plasma electrons that couples with the density corrugations (n{sup ′}=n{sub α0}e{sup iαz}) to generate a strong transient nonlinear current, that resonantly derives THz radiation of frequency ∼ω{sub h} (upper hybrid frequency). The periodicity of density corrugations is suitably chosen to transfer maximum momentum from lasers to THz radiation at phase matching conditions ω=ω{sub 1}−ω{sub 2} and k{sup →}=k{sup →}{sub 1}−k{sup →}{sub 2}+α{sup →}. The efficiency, power, beam quality, and tunability of the present scheme exhibit high dependency upon the applied transverse dc magnetic field along with q-indices and beam width parameters (a{sub 0}) of super Gaussian lasers. In the present scheme, efficiency ∼10{sup −2} is achieved with the optimization of all these parameters.

  17. SuperHERO: The Next Generation Hard X-Ray Focusing Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaskin, Jessica; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen; Ramsey, Brian; Elsner, Ronald; Tennant, Allyn F.; Kilaru, Kiranmayee; Swartz, Douglas A.; Christe, Steven; Shih, Albert Y.; Baganoff, Frederick K.; Seller, Paul; Wilson, Matthew; Stuchlik, David

    2015-01-01

    SuperHERO is a balloon-borne hard x-ray (20-75 keV) telescope that couples high-angular resolution (~20 arcsecs) electroformed-nickel grazing incidence optics to state-of-the-art fine pixel-pitch (250 µm) Cadmium-Telluride detectors with a 6 m focal length. This telescope, currently in the proposal phase, will have the highest angular resolution of any hard x-ray telescope to date, and comparable energy resolution to that of the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array. The high angular resolution afforded by focusing optics is essential for mitigating source confusion in crowded fields, for direct imaging of extended sources on fine spatial scales, and for efficient observing through greatly-increased sensitivity. As such, the primary astronomical targets are the Galactic Center, pulsar-powered synchrotron nebulae and diffusive shock accelerated sites in supernova remnants. To facilitate solar observations, the SuperHERO detectors have a high processing rate of ~10 kHz over the entire 80x80 pixel array, or over 5M photons per second over the detector area. The current SuperHERO configuration has a total on-axis effective area of 145 cm2 at 30 keV and a field of view of ~7 arcmin FWHM at 30 keV (simulated). The optics, developed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, have significant flight heritage as similar mirrors have flown on balloon payloads, sounding rockets and a satellite mission. The detectors, developed at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), utilize the novel HEXITEC Application Specific Integrated Circuit. RAL has been working on these and similar detectors for over a decade for applications ranging from medical to defense. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, working with RAL and MSFC has been adapting these detectors for flight, with good progress. The telescope will reside on a carbon-composite frame that will integrate the Wallops Arc Second Pointer. This design will allow for Long Duration Balloon flights from Antarctica that can last up to 4 weeks

  18. A Nanosecond Pulse Generator for Spark Chambers,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-04

    nsec. The generator consists of an Arkad’yev- Marx generator (impulse voltage generator - GIN), a stor- age capacitor and discharge chamber (nanosecond...the generator is given in fig. 2. El. Fig. 1. Generator circuit diagram. 1 - NOM-10 transformer; 2 - filament transformer; 3 - Arkad’yev- Marx ...charge circuit abcd, the primary current will initially be given to the load by Cg, not by the surge capacitance of the Arkad’yev- Marx generator. The

  19. Next-generation endomyocardial biopsy: the potential of confocal and super-resolution microscopy.

    PubMed

    Crossman, David J; Ruygrok, Peter N; Hou, Yu Feng; Soeller, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy and super-resolution microscopy provide high-contrast and high-resolution fluorescent imaging, which has great potential to increase the diagnostic yield of endomyocardial biopsy (EMB). EMB is currently the gold standard for identification of cardiac allograft rejection, myocarditis, and infiltrative and storage diseases. However, standard analysis is dominated by low-contrast bright-field light and electron microscopy (EM); this lack of contrast makes quantification of pathological features difficult. For example, assessment of cardiac allograft rejection relies on subjective grading of H&E histology, which may lead to diagnostic variability between pathologists. This issue could be solved by utilising the high contrast provided by fluorescence methods such as confocal to quantitatively assess the degree of lymphocytic infiltrate. For infiltrative diseases such as amyloidosis, the nanometre resolution provided by EM can be diagnostic in identifying disease-causing fibrils. The recent advent of super-resolution imaging, particularly direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM), provides high-contrast imaging at resolution approaching that of EM. Moreover, dSTORM utilises conventional fluorescence dyes allowing for the same structures to be routinely imaged at the cellular scale and then at the nanoscale. The key benefit of these technologies is that the high contrast facilitates quantitative digital analysis and thereby provides a means to robustly assess critical pathological features. Ultimately, this technology has the ability to provide greater accuracy and precision to EMB assessment, which could result in better outcomes for patients.

  20. Generation of an axially super-resolved quasi-spherical focal spot using an amplitude-modulated radially polarized beam.

    PubMed

    Lin, Han; Jia, Baohua; Gu, Min

    2011-07-01

    An axially super-resolved quasi-spherical focal spot can be generated by focusing an amplitude-modulated radially polarized beam through a high numerical aperture objective. A method based on the unique depolarization properties of a circular focus is proposed to design the amplitude modulation. The generated focal spot shows a ratio of x:y:z=1:1:1.48 for the normalized FWHM in three dimensions, compared to that of x:y:z=1:0.74:1.72 under linear polarization (in the x direction) illumination. Moreover, the focusable light efficiency of the designed amplitude-modulated beam is 65%, which is more than 3 times higher than the optimized case under linear polarization and thus make the amplitude-modulated radial polarization beam more suitable for a wide range of applications.

  1. Application of Super-Synchronization Speed Control Technology in Two 80 MVA Motor-Generator Units of HL-2A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huajun; Du, Chang; Xuan, Weiming; Pen, Jianfei; Hu, Haotian; Liu, Lin; Kang, Li; Xu, Lirong; Huang, Zhaorong; Wang, Fen; Wang, Xiaoping

    2007-04-01

    Two sets of super-synchronization speed control assemblies for two 80 MVA motor-generator units have been developed successfully in order to satisfy the demand of the toroidal field system in the HL-2A tokamak. Based on the three-phase logical no-circumfluence a.c./a.c. cycloconverter, the speeds of two 2500 kW double fed drive motors have been regulated by means of the vector control technology. The maximum operating speed of each motor- generator unit has been raised from 1488 rpm (revolutions per minute) to 1650 rpm and the released energy of each unit during a pulsed discharge can reach 500 MJ. As a result, the toroidal field system has the capacity to provide 2.8 tesla (T) in HL-2A experiments.

  2. Super-long photonic nanojet generated from liquid-filled hollow microcylinder.

    PubMed

    Gu, Guoqiang; Zhou, Rui; Chen, Zaichun; Xu, Huiying; Cai, Guoxiong; Cai, Zhiping; Hong, Minghui

    2015-02-15

    Photonic nanojet (PNJ) from liquid-filled hollow microcylinder (LFHM) under a liquid immersion condition is numerically investigated based on the finite element method and physically analyzed with ray optics. Simulation and analysis results show that, by simultaneously introducing the immersed liquid and filled liquid, the propagation beam is greatly flattened, and super-long PNJs with decay length more than 100 times the illumination wavelengths are obtained in the outer near-field region of the LFHM. With the variation of the refractive index contrast between the filled and immersed-liquids, the properties of the PNJs, such as the focal distance, decay length, full width at half-maximum, and maximum light intensity can be flexibly tuned.

  3. Possible magnetic fields of super earths generated by convecting, conducting oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nellis, W. J.

    2012-03-01

    Super Earths (SE) are extrasolar planets with masses up to ten times greater than Earth's. Maximum pressure and temperature of oxides in Earth are ~130 GPa and ~3000 K. SEs experience substantially more extreme conditions, which implies dense oxides in SEs could melt, achieve low viscosities, minimum metallic conductivity (MMC), and convect. MMC depends weakly on material, and thus on oxide composition. Shock and static experiments on single-crystal sapphire (Al2O3) and GGG (Gd3Ga5O12) show or suggest these oxides reach MMC at 300-400 GPa under shock and quite possibly under static compression. MMC is a likely upper limit for electrical conductivity of convecting material that can sustain a dynamo (Stevenson, 2010). Metallization is also expected to reduce substantially oxide viscosities in the solid (Karato, 2011). Thus, SEs might produce significant magnetic fields by dynamos in oxides alone, as does Fe in Earth and metallic fluid H in Jupiter.

  4. Large-scale integrated super-computing platform for next generation virtual drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Wayne; Matsumoto, Shunji

    2011-08-01

    Traditional drug discovery starts by experimentally screening chemical libraries to find hit compounds that bind to protein targets, modulating their activity. Subsequent rounds of iterative chemical derivitization and rescreening are conducted to enhance the potency, selectivity, and pharmacological properties of hit compounds. Although computational docking of ligands to targets has been used to augment the empirical discovery process, its historical effectiveness has been limited because of the poor correlation of ligand dock scores and experimentally determined binding constants. Recent progress in super-computing, coupled to theoretical insights, allows the calculation of the Gibbs free energy, and therefore accurate binding constants, for usually large ligand-receptor systems. This advance extends the potential of virtual drug discovery. A specific embodiment of the technology, integrating de novo, abstract fragment based drug design, sophisticated molecular simulation, and the ability to calculate thermodynamic binding constants with unprecedented accuracy, are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. "Our Table Factory, Inc.": Learning Marx through Role Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maghbouleh, Neda; Childress, Clayton; Alamo-Pastrana, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Marx's critique of capitalism remains foundational to the university social science curriculum yet little is known about how instructors teach Marx. In post-industrial, service-oriented economies, students are also increasingly disconnected from the conditions of industrial capitalism that animate Marx's analysis. Inspired by the discussion of how…

  6. Marx and Education. Routledge Key Ideas in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anyon, Jean

    2011-01-01

    There was only one Karl Marx, but there have been a multitude of Marxisms. This concise, introductory book by internationally renowned scholar Jean Anyon centers on the ideas of Marx that have been used in education studies as a guide to theory, analysis, research, and practice. "Marx and Education" begins with a brief overview of basic Marxist…

  7. "Our Table Factory, Inc.": Learning Marx through Role Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maghbouleh, Neda; Childress, Clayton; Alamo-Pastrana, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Marx's critique of capitalism remains foundational to the university social science curriculum yet little is known about how instructors teach Marx. In post-industrial, service-oriented economies, students are also increasingly disconnected from the conditions of industrial capitalism that animate Marx's analysis. Inspired by the discussion of how…

  8. Marx and Education. Routledge Key Ideas in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anyon, Jean

    2011-01-01

    There was only one Karl Marx, but there have been a multitude of Marxisms. This concise, introductory book by internationally renowned scholar Jean Anyon centers on the ideas of Marx that have been used in education studies as a guide to theory, analysis, research, and practice. "Marx and Education" begins with a brief overview of basic Marxist…

  9. Recent SuperB Design Choices Improve Next-Generation e e___ B-Factory Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Wittmer, W.; Bertsche, K.; Chao, A.; Novokhatski, A.; Nosochkov, Y.; Seeman, J.; Sullivan, M.K.; Wienands, U.; Bogomyagkov, A.V.; Levichev, E.; Nikitin, S.; Piminov, P.; Shatilov, D.; Sinyatkin, S.; Vobly, P.; Okunev, I.N.; Bolzon, B.; Brunetti, L.; Jeremie, A.; Biagini, M.E.; Boni, R.; /Frascati /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /CERN /Orsay, LAL /Saclay

    2011-08-19

    The SuperB international team continues to optimize the design of an electron-positron collider, which will allow the enhanced study of the origins of flavor physics. The project combines the best features of a linear collider (high single-collision luminosity) and a storage-ring collider (high repetition rate), bringing together all accelerator physics aspects to make a very high luminosity of 10{sup 36} cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1}. This asymmetric-energy collider with a polarized electron beam will produce hundreds of millions of B-mesons at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance. The present design is based on extremely low emittance beams colliding at a large Piwinski angle to allow very low {beta}*{sub y} without the need for ultra short bunches. Use of crab-waist sextupoles will enhance the luminosity, suppressing dangerous resonances and allowing for a higher beam-beam parameter. The project has flexible beam parameters, improved dynamic aperture, and spin-rotators in the Low Energy Ring for longitudinal polarization of the electron beam at the Interaction Point. Optimized for best colliding-beam performance, the facility may also provide high-brightness photon beams for synchrotron radiation applications.

  10. Generation and detection of super small striations by F region HF heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najmi, A.; Milikh, G.; Secan, J.; Chiang, K.; Psiaki, M.; Bernhardt, P.; Briczinski, S.; Siefring, C.; Chang, C. L.; Papadopoulos, K.

    2014-07-01

    Recent theoretical models and preliminary observations indicate that super small striations (SSS) in the plasma density with scale size of 10 cm can be excited by F region HF heating at frequencies close to multiples of the electron gyrofrequency. We present here new experimental results using the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program ionospheric heater at a frequency close to the fourth electron gyroharmonic with simultaneous GPS, Stimulated Electromagnetic Emission, ionosonde, and occasional Incoherent Radar Scattering diagnostics. Differential phase measurements of GPS signals through the heated region indicated the presence of SSS with extremely high amplitude (δn/n = 0.2-0.3) at scale size comparable to the electron gyroradius. The highest amplitude of GPS scintillations coincide with the highest level of the Broad Upshifted Maximum (BUM) and occurred when the HF frequency is slightly above the fourth harmonic of the electron cyclotron frequency. Frequency sweeps indicate that the scintillation amplitude exhibits hysteresis similar to that observed for the BUM amplitude when the HF frequency is cycled about the fourth harmonic of the cyclotron frequency. The results favor a four wave parametric process as the physical mechanism of the SSS. Additional experiments allowed the determination of the excitation and decay rates of the SSS.

  11. Stabilized super-thermite colloids: A new generation of advanced highly energetic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elbasuney, Sherif; Gaber Zaky, M.; Radwan, Mostafa; Mostafa, Sherif F.

    2017-10-01

    One of the great impetus of nanotechnology on energetic materials is the achievement of nanothermites (metal-oxide/metal) which are characterized by massive heat output. Yet, full exploitation of super-thermites in highly energetic systems has not been achieved. This manuscript reports on the sustainable fabrication of colloidal Fe2O3 and CuO nanoparticles for thermite applications. TEM micrographs demonstrated mono-dispersed Fe2O3 and CuO with an average particle size of 3 and 15 nm respectively. XRD diffractograms demonstrated highly crystalline materials. SEM micrographs demonstrated a great tendency of the developed oxides to aggregate over drying process. The effective integration and dispersion of mono-dispersed colloidal thermite particles into energetic systems are vital for enhanced performance. Aluminum is of interest as highly energetic metal fuel. In this paper, synthesized Fe2O3 and CuO nanoparticles were re-dispersed in isopropyl alcohol (IPA) with aluminum nanoparticles using ultrasonic prope homogenizer. The colloidal thermite peraticles can be intgegrated into highly energetic system for subsequent nanocomposite development. Thanks to stabilization of colloidal CuO nanoparticles in IPA which could offer intimate mixing between oxidizer and metal fuel. The stabilization mechanism of CuO in IPA was correlated to steric stabilization with solvent molecules. This approach eliminated nanoparticle drying and the re-dispersion of dry aggregates into energetic materials. This manuscript shaded the light on the real development of colloidal thermite mixtures and their integration into highly energetic systems.

  12. Solid State Marx Modulators for Emerging Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, M.A.; /SLAC

    2012-09-14

    Emerging linear accelerator applications increasingly push the boundaries of RF system performance and economics. The power modulator is an integral part of RF systems whose characteristics play a key role in the determining parameters such as efficiency, footprint, cost, stability, and availability. Particularly within the past decade, solid-state switch based modulators have become the standard in high-performance, high power modulators. One topology, the Marx modulator, has characteristics which make it particularly attractive for several emerging applications. This paper is an overview of the Marx topology, some recent developments, and a case study of how this architecture can be applied to a few proposed linear accelerators.

  13. 0.4-1.4 {mu}m Visible to Near-Infrared Widely Broadened Super Continuum Generation with Er-doped Ultrashort Pulse Fiber Laser System

    SciTech Connect

    Nishizawa, Norihiko; Sumimura, Kazuhiko; Mitsuzawa, Hideyuki

    2009-03-17

    Visible to near-infrared widely broadened super continuum generation is demonstrated using ultrashort-pulse fiber laser system. Er-doped fiber chirped-pulse amplification system operated at 1550 nm in wavelength is used for the amplifier system, which generated ultrashort-pulse of 112 fs in FWHM with output power of 160 mW, on average. Almost pedestal free 200 fs second harmonic generation pulse is generated at 780 nm region using periodically poled LiNbO{sub 3} and conversion efficiency is as high as 37%. 0.45-1.40 {mu}m widely broadened super continuum is generated in highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber and spectrum flatness is within {+-}6 dB. All of the fiber devices are fusion spliced so that this system shows a good stability.

  14. Super continuum generation for real time ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishizawa, Norihiko; Aguirre, Aaron D.; Fujimoto, James G.

    2006-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging technology for micrometer-scale, cross-sectional imaging of biological tissue and materials. One of the key limitations to achieving ultrahigh-resolution OCT imaging outside the laboratory setting has been the lack of compact, high-performance broadband light sources with sufficient power and stability to allow practical real-time imaging. The broad-bandwidth supercontinuum (SC) sources were recently demonstrated with femtosecond lasers in combination with nonlinear fibers. Using SC, we can demonstrate ultrahigh resolution OCT. However, wideband SC generally has large excess noise and significant fine structure. Low noise and smooth spectral shape are desired in the ideal supercontinnum source. In this paper, we describe recent studies on practical SC generation for ultrahigh-resolution OCT. SC generation is first analyzed both numerically and experimentally in terms of OCT imaging requirements and optimized conditions for generation are discussed. Supercontinua generated by use of highly nonlinear fiber which have a zero-dispersion wavelength near the pump wavelength, generally result in severe spectral modulation and fluctuating fine structure in the spectra. This spectral modulation produces sidelobes and reduced contrast in the interferometric point-spread function. In contrast, normally dispersive, highly nonlinear fibers (ND-HNFs) can generate smooth and Gaussian shaped supercontinua by the combination of self-phase modulation and normal dispersion. Low noise and wideband SC generation is demonstrated using ND-HNFs. Two colored SC generation is also demonstrated using a photonic crystal fiber which has two close zero dispersion wavelengths. The numerical results are almost in agreement with the experimental ones. Finally, low noise SC generation is demonstrated in an all fiber system based on an ultrashort pulse fiber laser. Wideband, low noise, near Gaussian shaped, high power SC is generated in the 1.55

  15. Innis, McLuhan and Marx

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marvin, Carolyn

    1986-01-01

    Investigates distinctions between the theories of Harold Innis, Marshall McLuhan, and Marx by considering some unresolved problems in how Innis conceptualizes both the historical process and the impact of media on social organization. Argues that certain fundamental notions in Innis' work inaccurately analyze key features of the historical…

  16. Processes of Alienation: Marx, Orff and Kodaly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benedict, Cathy

    2009-01-01

    Using Marx as a lens through which to interrogate music methodology, in particular those espoused by Orff and Kodaly, this article suggests that rather than the free play and creativity Orff and Kodaly intended, the implementation of these methods in a strict and unmindful manner, often alienates both teacher and student from musicking. Thus these…

  17. Some Educational Implications of Karl Marx's Communism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellerich, Gert

    1970-01-01

    According to the expressed ideas of Karl Marx, education should be viewed as a means to develop a person's whole potential and to make him a better human being. It is his contention that in a capitalist society, the educational process causes misery and exists solely to further entrench the power of the rich. (CK)

  18. Karl Marx: "A Swarthy Fellow from Trier."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machalek, Richard

    1983-01-01

    Discussed are Marx's roles as a student, a journalist-scholar, a revolutionary, and a family member. Revealed is a political and intellectual figure of enormous stature and complexity, but a person typically human in passions and commitments, strengths, and shortcomings. (RM)

  19. Karl Marx: "A Swarthy Fellow from Trier."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machalek, Richard

    1983-01-01

    Discussed are Marx's roles as a student, a journalist-scholar, a revolutionary, and a family member. Revealed is a political and intellectual figure of enormous stature and complexity, but a person typically human in passions and commitments, strengths, and shortcomings. (RM)

  20. Some Educational Implications of Karl Marx's Communism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellerich, Gert

    1970-01-01

    According to the expressed ideas of Karl Marx, education should be viewed as a means to develop a person's whole potential and to make him a better human being. It is his contention that in a capitalist society, the educational process causes misery and exists solely to further entrench the power of the rich. (CK)

  1. SENR: A Next-Generation, Super-Efficient Numerical Relativity Code for the Age of Gravitational Wave Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etienne, Zachariah; Ruchlin, Ian; Baumgarte, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Short-inspiral black hole binary (BHB) mergers are perhaps the most extensively studied LIGO source candidate by numerical relativity (NR), so it was extremely fortuitous that LIGO's first detections of gravitational waves (GWs) were from precisely these systems. In a sense, these discoveries represent coming-of-age for our field, but NR's current position is a precarious one. LIGO data analysis depends on NR-based GW catalogs built upon only one NR code and remain largely unvalidated by independent NR codes. More worryingly, LIGO may soon detect GWs from a double neutron star (DNS) binary, and there currently exist no NR codes capable of generating DNS GWs with small, convergent phase errors over large numbers of orbits in-band. We introduce SENR, a Super-Efficient, open-development NR code aimed at addressing these critical shortcomings. Building upon recent breakthroughs in reference metric-based simulations, SENR employs dynamical coordinate systems to increase the efficiency of moving-puncture BHB and DNS GW modeling by 100x. Excitingly, SENR has the potential to afford high-end gamers the opportunity to join us in source modeling, potentially increasing throughput of GW generation by an enormous factor. We present an overview of the SENR code and its development.

  2. High-Voltage Pulse Voltage Generator,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-21

    the invention: I. I. Kalyatskiy, V. I. Kurets, and V. I. Safronov Well-known are pulse voltage generators which employ the Arkad’yev- Marx principle of...P2, and hereafter the device operates like an ordinary GIN [pulse volt- age generator] according to the Arkad’yev- Marx principle. The Object of the...Invention The high-voltage pulse voltage generator, assembled according to the Arkad’yev- Marx arrangement, each stage of which incorporates reactive

  3. Tunable THz Generation by the Interaction of a Super-luminous Laser Pulse with Biased Semiconductor Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, K.; Zigler, A.

    2006-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) radiation is electromagnetic radiation in the range between several hundred and a few thousand GHz. It covers the gap between fast-wave electronics (millimeter waves) and optics (infrared). This spectral region offers enormous potential for detection of explosives and chemical/biological agents, non-destructive testing of non-metallic structural materials and coatings of aircraft structures, medical imaging, bio-sensing of DNA stretching modes and high-altitude secure communications. The development of these applications has been hindered by the lack of powerful, tunable THz sources with controlled waveform. The need for such sources is accentuated by the strong, but selective absorption of THz radiation during transmission through air with high vapor content. The majority of the current experimental work relies on time-domain spectroscopy using fast electrically biased photoconductive sources in conjunction with femto-second mode-locked Ti:Sapphire lasers. These sources known as Large Aperture Photoconductive Antennas (LAPA) have very limited tunability, relatively low upper bound of power and no bandwidth control. The paper presents a novel source of THz radiation known as Miniature Photoconductive Capacitor Array (MPCA). Experiments demonstrated tunability between .1 - 2 THz, control of the relative bandwidth Δf/f between .5-.01, and controlled pulse length and pulse waveform (temporal shape, chirp, pulse-to-pulse modulation etc.). Direct scaling from the current device indicates efficiency in excess of 30% at 1 THz with 1/f2 scaling at higher frequencies, peak power of 100 kW and average power between .1-1 W. The physics underlying the MPCA is the interaction of a super-luminous ionization front generated by the oblique incidence of a Ti:Sapphire laser pulse on a semiconductor crystal (ZnSe) biased with an alternating electrostatic field, similar to that of a frozen wave generator. It is shown theoretically and experimentally that the

  4. Prototype Development Progress Toward a 500 kV Solid State Marx Modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Leyh, G.

    2004-07-27

    Recent advances in IGBT and SiC technology have made possible a range of solid-state modulator concepts that were unthinkable a decade ago. Power densities and speeds of pulsed-power circuits have increased dramatically due to the commercial introduction of fast, multi-kilovolt IGBT silicon and SiC diodes featured in PCB-style packages. A solid-state modulator concept that stands to benefit considerably from recent IGBT and SiC breakthroughs is the Marx configuration--where an array of stacked modules generates high-voltage output pulses directly from a low voltage DC supply. The Marx scheme avoids the large, inefficient and costly magnetic cores inherent in standard modulator designs, resulting in a considerably simpler, cheaper and more compact mechanical solution. The main disadvantage to this approach is that the individual cells in a Marx bank must float at high voltages during the pulse, complicating the distribution of power and timing signals. This paper examines in closer detail the practical advantages and pitfalls of a solid-state Marx configuration, and explores a design approach with emphasis on performance, wall-plug efficiency, cost of manufacture, availability and ease of service. The paper presents electrical diagrams, mechanical CAD layout and preliminary prototype test data.

  5. Super short term forecasting of photovoltaic power generation output in micro grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Cheng; Ma, Longfei; Chi, Zhongjun; Zhang, Baoqun; Jiao, Ran; Yang, Bing; Chen, Jianshu; Zeng, Shuang

    2017-01-01

    The prediction model combining data mining and support vector machine (SVM) was built. Which provide information of photovoltaic (PV) power generation output for economic operation and optimal control of micro gird, and which reduce influence of power system from PV fluctuation. Because of the characteristic which output of PV rely on radiation intensity, ambient temperature, cloudiness, etc., so data mining was brought in. This technology can deal with large amounts of historical data and eliminate superfluous data, by using fuzzy classifier of daily type and grey related degree. The model of SVM was built, which can dock with information from data mining. Based on measured data from a small PV station, the prediction model was tested. The numerical example shows that the prediction model is fast and accurate.

  6. Generation of superDreicer electric fields in the solar chromosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitsev, V. V.; Kronshtadtov, P. V.; Stepanov, A. V.

    2016-12-01

    The electric field generation at the front of the current pulse, which originates in a coronal magnetic loop owing to the development of the Rayleigh-Taylor magnetic instability at loop footpoints, has been considered. During the τA ≈ l/V A ≈ 5-25 s time (where l is the plasma plume height entering a magnetic loop as a result of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability), a disturbance related to the magnetic field tension B ϕ( r,t), "escapes" the instability region with the Alfvén velocity in this case. As a result, an electric current pulse Iz( z - V A t), at the front of which an induction magnetic field E z, which is directed along the magnetic tube axis and can therefore accelerate particles, starts propagating along a magnetic loop with a characteristic scale of Δξ ≈ l. In the case of sufficiently large currents, when B ϕ 2/8π > p, an electric current pulse propagates nonlinearly, and a relatively large longitudinal electric field originates E z ≈ 2 I z 3 V A/ c 4a2Bz 2l, which can be larger than the Dreicer field, depending on the electric current value.

  7. Second generation, in situ bioremediation: Enzymes, super-bugs and geobotany

    SciTech Connect

    Zodrow, J.J.

    1997-02-01

    Second generation, in situ bioremediation technology strives to identify the enzyme-catalyzed reaction in microorganisms to remediate contaminated sites. Microbes digest contaminants, called substrates, through the use of complex proteins called enzymes. By piercing the cell wall, enzymes used by the microorganism to metabolize contamination can be extracted and collected. Whether collected in volume or synthetically reproduced, enzymes may be used to treat contamination at sites without requiring the injection of a living microorganism population, thereby eliminating the site concerns and laboratory costs associated with developing and maintaining live microbial populations. Microbes consume hazardous contaminants -- even those highly toxic to humans -- and reduce the contaminant chemicals to simpler forms through metabolism. It is understood that the microorganisms metabolize contaminants through enzyme digestion. When microbes come into contact with certain organic and inorganic materials, such compounds are readily incorporated into the microbial cells. Enzymes are released to convert high molecular weight materials into fractions, which can then be transported by osmosis through the semipermeable cell membrane for assimilation by the microorganism.

  8. High voltage high repetition rate pulse using Marx topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakki, A.; Kashapov, N.

    2015-06-01

    The paper describes Marx topology using MOSFET transistors. Marx circuit with 10 stages has been done, to obtain pulses about 5.5KV amplitude, and the width of the pulses was about 30μsec with a high repetition rate (PPS > 100), Vdc = 535VDC is the input voltage for supplying the Marx circuit. Two Ferrite ring core transformers were used to control the MOSFET transistors of the Marx circuit (the first transformer to control the charging MOSFET transistors, the second transformer to control the discharging MOSFET transistors).

  9. High resolution OCT image generation using super resolution via sparse representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asif, Muhammad; Akram, Muhammad Usman; Hassan, Taimur; Shaukat, Arslan; Waqar, Razi

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we propose a technique for obtaining a high resolution (HR) image from a single low resolution (LR) image -using joint learning dictionary - on the basis of image statistic research. It suggests that with an appropriate choice of an over-complete dictionary, image patches can be well represented as a sparse linear combination. Medical imaging for clinical analysis and medical intervention is being used for creating visual representations of the interior of a body, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues (physiology). A number of medical imaging techniques are in use like MRI, CT scan, X-rays and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). OCT is one of the new technologies in medical imaging and one of its uses is in ophthalmology where it is being used for analysis of the choroidal thickness in the eyes in healthy and disease states such as age-related macular degeneration, central serous chorioretinopathy, diabetic retinopathy and inherited retinal dystrophies. We have proposed a technique for enhancing the OCT images which can be used for clearly identifying and analyzing the particular diseases. Our method uses dictionary learning technique for generating a high resolution image from a single input LR image. We train two joint dictionaries, one with OCT images and the second with multiple different natural images, and compare the results with previous SR technique. Proposed method for both dictionaries produces HR images which are comparatively superior in quality with the other proposed method of SR. Proposed technique is very effective for noisy OCT images and produces up-sampled and enhanced OCT images.

  10. Super-characteristic x-ray generator utilizing a pipe and rod target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Eiichi; Tanaka, Etsuro; Mori, Hidezo; Kawai, Toshiaki; Inoue, Takashi; Ogawa, Akira; Izumisawa, Mitsuru; Takahashi, Kiyomi; Sato, Shigehiro; Ichimaru, Toshio; Takayama, Kazuyoshi

    2006-08-01

    This generator consists of the following components: a constant high-voltage power supply, a filament power supply, a turbomolecular pump, and an x-ray tube. The x-ray tube is a demountable diode which is connected to the turbomolecular pump and consists of the following major devices: a tungsten hairpin cathode (filament), a focusing (Wehnelt) electrode, a polyethylene terephthalate x-ray window 0.25 mm in thickness, a stainless-steel tube body, a pipe target, and a rod target. The pipe and rod targets are useful for forming linear and cone beams, respectively. In the x-ray tube, the positive high voltage is applied to the anode (target) electrode, and the cathode is connected to the tube body (ground potential). In this experiment, the tube voltage applied was from12 to 20 kV, and the tube current was regulated to within 0.10 mA by the filament temperature. The exposure time is controlled in order to obtain optimum x-ray intensity. The electron beams from the cathode are converged to the target by the focusing electrode, and clean K-series characteristic x-rays are produced through the focusing electrode without using a filter. The x-ray intensities of the pipe and rod targets were 1.29 and 4.28 μGy/s at 1.0 m from the x-ray source with a tube voltage of 15 kV and a tube current of 0.10 mA, and quasi-monochromatic radiography was performed using a computed radiography system.

  11. Solzhenitsyn on Marx: The Problem of Love of One's Own.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pontuso, James F.

    1986-01-01

    Provides a review of Soviet dissident, Alexander Solzhenitsyn's critique of Marx's ideas concerning property, family, women, and marriage. Demonstrates, through historical anecdotes, how the practices of Marx's communist doctrine undermines the human spirit and punishes people for their natural love of all that is their own. (JDH)

  12. A Coreless Approaches for On/Off Marx Type Modulators

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnykh, Anatoly; /SLAC

    2007-03-05

    SLAC was first to report using ON/OFF switches in Marx type modulator. The development of Marx type modulator was bounded with the NLC need. The high energy physics runs based on the ILC concept where longer modulator pulse width is required. The SLAC idea of coreless modulators was useful for other applications (medicine, military, home security, etc.). The discussed conception is presented as a continuation of the earlier published articles. Several types of the Marx ON/OFF type modulators are under consideration. This article describes the new coreless approach, based on the solid state ON/OFF Marx's topology. An AC high voltage network feeds individual Marx's cells through the inductive and diode assemblies. Further integration of the ON/OFF Marx type modulator and its power supply is proposed. Two topologies are under consideration. The first scheme is an integration of DC/DC converters with ON/OFF Marx. The second topology is based on the usage of AC network directly with ON/OFF Marx scheme.

  13. Karl Marx as a Social Scientist and Utopian Dreamer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, James A.

    The central paradox of Karl Marx's work is his belief that the vision of mankind leaving inequality and scarcity behind is attainable. The idea that human alienation, inequality, and need could be rendered obsolete by a future communist society of abundance is a significant failing in Marx's thought. It is at the same time the critical element in…

  14. Karl Marx as a Social Scientist and Utopian Dreamer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, James A.

    The central paradox of Karl Marx's work is his belief that the vision of mankind leaving inequality and scarcity behind is attainable. The idea that human alienation, inequality, and need could be rendered obsolete by a future communist society of abundance is a significant failing in Marx's thought. It is at the same time the critical element in…

  15. Solzhenitsyn on Marx: The Problem of Love of One's Own.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pontuso, James F.

    1986-01-01

    Provides a review of Soviet dissident, Alexander Solzhenitsyn's critique of Marx's ideas concerning property, family, women, and marriage. Demonstrates, through historical anecdotes, how the practices of Marx's communist doctrine undermines the human spirit and punishes people for their natural love of all that is their own. (JDH)

  16. Super loop groups, Hamiltonian actions and super Virasoro algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harnad, J.; Kupershmidt, B. A.

    1990-09-01

    The quotient{{widetilde{LG}} G} of a super loop groupwidetilde{LG} by the subgroup of constant loops is given a supersymplectic structure and identified through a moment map embedding MediaObjects/220_2005_BF02096652_f1.jpg with a coadjoint orbit of the centrally extended super loop algebra. The algebra widetilde{diff}^c S^1 of super-conformal vector fields on the circle is shown to have a natural representation as Hamiltonian vector fields on{{widetilde{LG}} G} generated by an equivariant moment map. This map is obtained by composition of 315-8 with a super Poisson map defining a supersymmetric extension of the classical Sugawara formula. Upon quantization, this yields the corresponding formula of Kac and Todorov on unitary highest weight representations. For any homomorphism ρ: u(1)→ G, an associated "twisted" moment map is also derived, generating a super Poisson bracket realization of a super Virasoro subalgebra widetilde{Vir} of the semi-direct sum. The corresponding super Poisson map is interpreted as a nonabelian generalization of the super Miura map and applied to two super KdV hierarchies to derive corresponding integrable generalized super MKdV hierarchies in Figure 8.

  17. [Karl Marx and the Malthusian theory of population].

    PubMed

    Jaggi, S

    1985-06-01

    An analysis of the works of Karl Marx is presented in order to demonstrate the importance of the population factor. The author contends that population growth is a critical factor in Marx's theory of the progressive impoverishment of the working class. However, because of his reluctance to acknowledge the value of the Malthusian contribution, Marx focused his analysis of the labor force under capitalism on the demand for workers and neglected the supply side, which is determined by the growth of population. The author concludes that Marxist theory would have benefited from greater consideration of Malthusian theory.

  18. Johann Baptist von Schweitzer: the queer Marx loved to hate.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, H

    1995-01-01

    Despite his conviction on a morals charge involving a boy, the early German Social Democrat Johann Baptist von Schweitzer went on to have a successful political career. His life furnishes the context to present remarks by his political opponents Marx and Engels, which reveal their deep-seated homophobia. It is pointed out that this has been glossed over by the translations of the recently published Marx/Engels Collected Works. Some remarks on boy-love and anarchism are appended.

  19. SMILEI: A collaborative, open-source, multi-purpose PIC code for the next generation of super-computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grech, Mickael; Derouillat, J.; Beck, A.; Chiaramello, M.; Grassi, A.; Niel, F.; Perez, F.; Vinci, T.; Fle, M.; Aunai, N.; Dargent, J.; Plotnikov, I.; Bouchard, G.; Savoini, P.; Riconda, C.

    2016-10-01

    Over the last decades, Particle-In-Cell (PIC) codes have been central tools for plasma simulations. Today, new trends in High-Performance Computing (HPC) are emerging, dramatically changing HPC-relevant software design and putting some - if not most - legacy codes far beyond the level of performance expected on the new and future massively-parallel super computers. SMILEI is a new open-source PIC code co-developed by both plasma physicists and HPC specialists, and applied to a wide range of physics-related studies: from laser-plasma interaction to astrophysical plasmas. It benefits from an innovative parallelization strategy that relies on a super-domain-decomposition allowing for enhanced cache-use and efficient dynamic load balancing. Beyond these HPC-related developments, SMILEI also benefits from additional physics modules allowing to deal with binary collisions, field and collisional ionization and radiation back-reaction. This poster presents the SMILEI project, its HPC capabilities and illustrates some of the physics problems tackled with SMILEI.

  20. Hybrid (particle in cell-fluid) simulation of ion-acoustic soliton generation including super-thermal and trapped electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Nopoush, M.; Abbasi, H.

    2011-08-15

    The present paper is devoted to the simulation of the nonlinear disintegration of a localized perturbation into an ion-acoustic soliton in a plasma. Recently, this problem was studied by a simple model [H. Abbasi et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 50, 095007 (2008)]. The main assumptions were (i) in the electron velocity distribution function (DF), the ion-acoustic soliton velocity was neglected in comparison to the electron thermal velocity, (ii) on the ion-acoustic evolution time-scale, the electron velocity DF was assumed to be stationary, and (iii) the calculation was restricted to the small amplitude case. In order to generalize the model, one has to consider the evolution of the electron velocity DF for finite amplitudes. For this purpose, a one dimensional electrostatic hybrid code, particle in cell (PIC)-fluid, was designed. It simulates the electrons dynamics by the PIC method and the cold ions dynamics by the fluid equations. The plasma contains a population of super-thermal electrons and, therefore, a Lorentzian (kappa) velocity DF is used to model the high energy tail in the electron velocity DF. Electron trapping is included in the simulation in view of their nonlinear resonant interaction with the localized perturbation. A Gaussian initial perturbation is used to model the localized perturbation. The influence of both the trapped and the super-thermal electrons on this process is studied and compared with the previous model.

  1. Conceptional design of a novel next-generation cryogenic stopping cell for the Low-Energy Branch of the Super-FRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickel, T.; Plaß, W. R.; Geissel, H.; Heiße, F.; Miskun, I.; Purushothman, S.; Reiter, M. P.; Rink, A.-K.; Scheidenberger, C.

    2016-06-01

    The conceptual design of a next-generation cryogenic stopping cell (CSC) for the Low-Energy Branch (LEB) of the Super-FRS has been developed. It builds on advanced techniques implemented in the prototype version of the CSC, which has recently been commissioned as part of the FRS Ion Catcher with 238U projectile and fission fragments produced at 1000 MeV/u. These techniques include cryogenic operation to ensure a high purity of the stopping gas and high-density operation enabled using an RF carpet with a small electrode structure size. The next generation CSC implements several novel concepts (e.g. perpendicular extraction) which lead to enhanced performance compared to the prototype CSC: (i) extremely short extraction times, (ii) higher rate capability, (iii) increased areal density without deteriorating extraction times, efficiencies or rate capability, (iv) minimized RF power, (v) precise range measurement of the ions and (vii) improved cleanliness of the CSC.

  2. An integrable generalization of the super AKNS hierarchy and its bi-Hamiltonian formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jing; Ma, Wen-Xiu; Han, Jingwei; Chen, Shouting

    2017-02-01

    Based on a Lie super-algebra B(0, 1), an integrable generalization of the super AKNS iso-spectral problem is introduced and its corresponding generalized super AKNS hierarchy is generated. By making use of the super-trace identity (or the super variational identity), the resulting super soliton hierarchy can be put into a super bi-Hamiltonian form. A generalized super AKNS soliton hierarchy with self-consistent sources is also presented.

  3. Contributions to a Marxist Critical Pedagogy: Revisiting Marx's Humanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malott, Curry

    2014-01-01

    In this essay Malott makes a case for a Marxist-informed critical pedagogy situating Marx's approach to Hegelian dialectics at the center. After reviewing Marx's critique of Hegel in his 1844 manuscripts, Malott outlines Marx's shifting conception of the falling rate of profit reflecting his developing understanding of what the…

  4. Contributions to a Marxist Critical Pedagogy: Revisiting Marx's Humanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malott, Curry

    2014-01-01

    In this essay Malott makes a case for a Marxist-informed critical pedagogy situating Marx's approach to Hegelian dialectics at the center. After reviewing Marx's critique of Hegel in his 1844 manuscripts, Malott outlines Marx's shifting conception of the falling rate of profit reflecting his developing understanding of what the…

  5. Problematizing the "Taken for Granted" in Educational Issues: Karl Marx, Antonio Gramsci, and Michel Foucault.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qi, Jie

    This paper explores how educators would raise different questions about educational issues by using Karl Marx's framework, Antonio Gramsci's conception, and Michel Foucault's notions, respectively. First, the paper compares the historical perspectives of Marx and Foucault. Marx concludes that history is a progressive linear production and that…

  6. Super Ears.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Stan

    1995-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students design, construct, and test "super ears" to investigate sound and hearing. Students work in groups of three and explore how the outer ear funnels sound waves to the inner ear and how human hearing compares to that of other animals. (NB)

  7. Generating super-shedders: co-infection increases bacterial load and egg production of a gastrointestinal helminth.

    PubMed

    Lass, Sandra; Hudson, Peter J; Thakar, Juilee; Saric, Jasmina; Harvill, Eric; Albert, Réka; Perkins, Sarah E

    2013-03-06

    Co-infection by multiple parasites is common within individuals. Interactions between co-infecting parasites include resource competition, direct competition and immune-mediated interactions and each are likely to alter the dynamics of single parasites. We posit that co-infection is a driver of variation in parasite establishment and growth, ultimately altering the production of parasite transmission stages. To test this hypothesis, three different treatment groups of laboratory mice were infected with the gastrointestinal helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus, the respiratory bacterial pathogen Bordetella bronchiseptica lux(+) or co-infected with both parasites. To follow co-infection simultaneously, self-bioluminescent bacteria were used to quantify infection in vivo and in real-time, while helminth egg production was monitored in real-time using faecal samples. Co-infection resulted in high bacterial loads early in the infection (within the first 5 days) that could cause host mortality. Co-infection also produced helminth 'super-shedders'; individuals that chronically shed the helminth eggs in larger than average numbers. Our study shows that co-infection may be one of the underlying mechanisms for the often-observed high variance in parasite load and shedding rates, and should thus be taken into consideration for disease management and control. Further, using self-bioluminescent bacterial reporters allowed quantification of the progression of infection within the whole animal of the same individuals at a fine temporal scale (daily) and significantly reduced the number of animals used (by 85%) compared with experiments that do not use in vivo techniques. Thus, we present bioluminescent imaging as a novel, non-invasive tool offering great potential to be taken forward into other applications of infectious disease ecology.

  8. The ILC Marx Modulator Development Program at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Leyh, G.E.; /SLAC

    2005-06-07

    The International Linear Collider [ILC] baseline design requires 576 L-band klystron stations, each supplying 10MW peak RF power to the accelerating structures. Each klystron requires a modulator capable of delivering 120kV, 140A 1.6ms pulses, at 5Hz. Solid-state Marx modulator topologies are rapidly becoming feasible with the advent of PC-board-level 4500V IGBTs, fast single junction HV diodes, high density capacitors, and sophisticated modeling software. Making full use of recent technology advances, the ILC Marx Modulator program at SLAC plans to pursue a 120kV solid-state Marx design, which appears to offer significantly higher efficiency, availability, and cost savings than existing modulator options.

  9. The MARX Modulator Development Program for the International Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Leyh, G.E.; /SLAC

    2006-06-12

    The ILC Marx Modulator Development Program at SLAC is working towards developing a full-scale ILC Marx ''Reference Design'' modulator prototype, with the goal of significantly reducing the size and cost of the ILC modulator while improving overall modulator efficiency and availability. The ILC Reference Design prototype will provide a proof-of-concept model to industry in advance of Phase II SBIR funding, and also allow operation of the new 10MW L-Band Klystron prototypes immediately upon their arrival at SLAC.

  10. Inverse Marx modulators for self-biasing klystron depressed collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, Mark A.

    2014-07-31

    A novel pulsed depressed collector biasing scheme is proposed. This topology feeds forward energy recovered during one RF pulse for use on the following RF pulse. The presented ''inverse'' Marx charges biasing capacitors in series, and discharges them in parallel. Simulations are shown along with experimental demonstration on a 62kW klystron.

  11. Making Marx Accessible: Understanding Alienated Labor through Experiential Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrotta, Kylie L.; Buck, Alison R.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce an exercise designed to make Marx's theory of alienated labor accessible to students in a Sociology of Work class. Through a role-playing activity where students create and sell goods under conditions of both alienated and nonalienated labor, students actually experience the different material and social consequences of these…

  12. Making Marx Accessible: Understanding Alienated Labor through Experiential Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrotta, Kylie L.; Buck, Alison R.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce an exercise designed to make Marx's theory of alienated labor accessible to students in a Sociology of Work class. Through a role-playing activity where students create and sell goods under conditions of both alienated and nonalienated labor, students actually experience the different material and social consequences of these…

  13. Developmental Stages in School Computer Use: Neither Marx Nor Piaget.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lengel, James G.

    Karl Marx's theory of stages can be applied to computer use in the schools. The first stage, the P Stage, comprises the entry of the computer into the school. Computer use at this stage is personal and tends to center around one personality. Social studies teachers are seldom among this select few. The second stage of computer use, the D Stage, is…

  14. The nature and consequence of Karl Marx's skin disease.

    PubMed

    Shuster, S

    2008-01-01

    From an analysis of the original correspondence, it has been possible to establish that Karl Marx's incapacitating skin disease was hidradenitis suppurativa, not 'boils' as was universally assumed at the time and since; the psychological effect of this illness on the man and his work appears to have been considerable.

  15. Kant or Marx? Philosophy and the Origins of Social Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scaff, Lawrence A.

    The origins of social science as a discipline are analyzed in terms of the German scientific community before 1920, which tended to define itself according to the theories of Karl Marx or Immanuel Kant. Following a brief introduction about the nature of social science debates in intellectual Germany, section 2 of the paper considers whether the…

  16. Marx and Education: Working with the Revolutionary Educator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banfield, Grant

    2015-01-01

    This paper positions education as productive work, i.e. radical labour. It argues that education is a deliberate and conscious process directed to the building of human capacities to labour for socialist transformation. In drawing on the intellectual resources left by Marx the objective of education is the production of the "revolutionary…

  17. Marx and Education: Working with the Revolutionary Educator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banfield, Grant

    2015-01-01

    This paper positions education as productive work, i.e. radical labour. It argues that education is a deliberate and conscious process directed to the building of human capacities to labour for socialist transformation. In drawing on the intellectual resources left by Marx the objective of education is the production of the "revolutionary…

  18. Developmental Stages in School Computer Use: Neither Marx Nor Piaget.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lengel, James G.

    Karl Marx's theory of stages can be applied to computer use in the schools. The first stage, the P Stage, comprises the entry of the computer into the school. Computer use at this stage is personal and tends to center around one personality. Social studies teachers are seldom among this select few. The second stage of computer use, the D Stage, is…

  19. Kant or Marx? Philosophy and the Origins of Social Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scaff, Lawrence A.

    The origins of social science as a discipline are analyzed in terms of the German scientific community before 1920, which tended to define itself according to the theories of Karl Marx or Immanuel Kant. Following a brief introduction about the nature of social science debates in intellectual Germany, section 2 of the paper considers whether the…

  20. Application of ChemDraw NMR Tool: Correlation of Program-Generated (Super 13)C Chemical Shifts and pK[subscript a] Values of Para-Substituted Benzoic Acids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hongyi Wang

    2005-01-01

    A study uses the ChemDraw nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) tool to process 15 para-substituted benzoic acids and generate (super 13)C NMR chemical shifts of C1 through C5. The data were plotted against their pK[subscript a] value and a fairly good linear fit was found for pK[subscript a] versus delta[subscript c1].

  1. Application of ChemDraw NMR Tool: Correlation of Program-Generated (Super 13)C Chemical Shifts and pK[subscript a] Values of Para-Substituted Benzoic Acids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hongyi Wang

    2005-01-01

    A study uses the ChemDraw nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) tool to process 15 para-substituted benzoic acids and generate (super 13)C NMR chemical shifts of C1 through C5. The data were plotted against their pK[subscript a] value and a fairly good linear fit was found for pK[subscript a] versus delta[subscript c1].

  2. Prospective Comparative Study of the Efficacy and Safety of New-Generation Versus First-Generation System for Super-Mini-Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy: A Revolutionary Approach to Improve Endoscopic Vision and Stone Removal.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Guohua; Zhu, Wei; Liu, Yang; Fan, Junhong; Lam, Wayne; Lan, Yu; Cai, Chao; Deng, Tuo; Li, Xiaohang; Zhao, Zhijian

    2017-10-10

    The study sought to compare the procedural and clinical results of super-mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy (SMP) with the use of first- and new-generation devices. A prospective, comparative cohort study was carried out between February 2013 and January 2017. Patients who underwent either first- or new-generation SMP were eligible for the study. Inclusion criteria were adult patients with renal stone <4 cm, or in pediatric patients with renal stone <2.5 cm with a history of failed extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy. The primary outcome of the present study was the operating time, which was calculated from the starting of percutaneous puncture to the wound closure. Secondary outcomes were the stone-free rate (SFR), blood loss (hemoglobin decrease), hospital stay, and postoperative complications. One hundred fifty-six consecutive patients who underwent SMP for treatment of renal stones were eligible for the study, with the first 85 patients undergoing SMP with the first-generation device, and the remaining 71 consecutive patients being treated with the new-generation SMP system. The two groups of patients had comparable demographic data, including age, BMI, stone size, Guy's score, stone location, comorbidities, grade of hydronephrosis, and history of urinary tract infection. The new-generation SMP had a shorter operation time (39.3 vs 50.5 min, p = 0.016) and shorter postoperative hospitalization time (2.1 vs 3.0 days, p < 0.001) than the first-generation SMP. No significant difference existed between the two groups for SFR, hemoglobin decrease, and tubeless rate. The overall operative complication rates using the Clavien-Dindo grading system were similar between the two cohorts of patients. The clinical outcomes of the new-generation SMP in patients with moderate-sized renal stone were comparable when compared with the first-generation SMP. New-generation SMP system using an irrigation/suction sheath improved intraoperative irrigation, a more

  3. Sparse representations-based super-resolution of key-frames extracted from frames-sequences generated by a visual sensor network.

    PubMed

    Sajjad, Muhammad; Mehmood, Irfan; Baik, Sung Wook

    2014-02-21

    Visual sensor networks (VSNs) usually generate a low-resolution (LR) frame-sequence due to energy and processing constraints. These LR-frames are not very appropriate for use in certain surveillance applications. It is very important to enhance the resolution of the captured LR-frames using resolution enhancement schemes. In this paper, an effective framework for a super-resolution (SR) scheme is proposed that enhances the resolution of LR key-frames extracted from frame-sequences captured by visual-sensors. In a VSN, a visual processing hub (VPH) collects a huge amount of visual data from camera sensors. In the proposed framework, at the VPH, key-frames are extracted using our recent key-frame extraction technique and are streamed to the base station (BS) after compression. A novel effective SR scheme is applied at BS to produce a high-resolution (HR) output from the received key-frames. The proposed SR scheme uses optimized orthogonal matching pursuit (OOMP) for sparse-representation recovery in SR. OOMP does better in terms of detecting true sparsity than orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP). This property of the OOMP helps produce a HR image which is closer to the original image. The K-SVD dictionary learning procedure is incorporated for dictionary learning. Batch-OMP improves the dictionary learning process by removing the limitation in handling a large set of observed signals. Experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme and show its superiority over other state-of-the-art schemes.

  4. Sparse Representations-Based Super-Resolution of Key-Frames Extracted from Frames-Sequences Generated by a Visual Sensor Network

    PubMed Central

    Sajjad, Muhammad; Mehmood, Irfan; Baik, Sung Wook

    2014-01-01

    Visual sensor networks (VSNs) usually generate a low-resolution (LR) frame-sequence due to energy and processing constraints. These LR-frames are not very appropriate for use in certain surveillance applications. It is very important to enhance the resolution of the captured LR-frames using resolution enhancement schemes. In this paper, an effective framework for a super-resolution (SR) scheme is proposed that enhances the resolution of LR key-frames extracted from frame-sequences captured by visual-sensors. In a VSN, a visual processing hub (VPH) collects a huge amount of visual data from camera sensors. In the proposed framework, at the VPH, key-frames are extracted using our recent key-frame extraction technique and are streamed to the base station (BS) after compression. A novel effective SR scheme is applied at BS to produce a high-resolution (HR) output from the received key-frames. The proposed SR scheme uses optimized orthogonal matching pursuit (OOMP) for sparse-representation recovery in SR. OOMP does better in terms of detecting true sparsity than orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP). This property of the OOMP helps produce a HR image which is closer to the original image. The K-SVD dictionary learning procedure is incorporated for dictionary learning. Batch-OMP improves the dictionary learning process by removing the limitation in handling a large set of observed signals. Experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme and show its superiority over other state-of-the-art schemes. PMID:24566632

  5. Final Design of the SLAC P2 Marx Klystron Modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, M.A.; Benwell, A.; Burkhart, C.; Larsen, R.; MacNair, D.; Nguyen, M.; Olsen, J.; /SLAC

    2011-11-08

    The SLAC P2 Marx has been under development for two years, and follows on the P1 Marx as an alternative to the baseline klystron modulator for the International Linear Collider. The P2 Marx utilizes a redundant architecture, air-insulation, a control system with abundant diagnostic access, and a novel nested droop correction scheme. This paper is an overview of the design of this modulator. There are several points of emphasis for the P2 Marx design. First, the modulator must be compatible with the ILC two-tunnel design. In this scheme, the modulator and klystron are located within a service tunnel with limited access and available footprint for a modulator. Access to the modulator is only practical from one side. Second, the modulator must have high availability. Robust components are not sufficient alone to achieve availability much higher than 99%. Therefore, redundant architectures are necessary. Third, the modulator must be relatively low cost. Because of the large number of stations in the ILC, the investment needed for the modulator components is significant. High-volume construction techniques which take advantage of an economy of scale must be utilized. Fourth, the modulator must be simple and efficient to maintain. If a modulator does become inoperable, the MTTR must be small. Fifth, even though the present application for the modulator is for the ILC, future accelerators can also take advantage of this development effort. The hardware, software, and concepts developed in this project should be designed such that further development time necessary for other applications is minimal.

  6. Series fault limiting resistors for Atlas Marx modules

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.; Bowman, D.; Gribble, R.F.; Griego, J.; Hinckley, W.B.; Kasik, R.J.; Reass, W.A.; Parsons, W.M.; Cooper, R.A.

    1995-09-01

    The proposed Atlas design provides a current pulse to the experiment chamber from a set of 20, 3-Marx-unit-wide modules radially positioned around a retangular disk transmission-line system (total of 60 Marxes in parallel){sup 1}. The Atlas circuit is designed to be near-critically-damped network with a total erected capacitance of 200 {mu}F at 600 KV. The justification for the necessary circuit resistance in this approach is based on reliability, fault tolerance and operational maintenance{sup 1}. Also the use of high energy- density capacitors that have lower tolerance to voltage reversal is a primary reason for the damping provided by significant series resistance. To obtain the damping there are two system resistors in the Atlas design. One resistor is a shunt element designed to damp the resonance caused by the relatively high-Q disk transmission-line capacitance and the Marx bank inductance. The second, more significant resistor is a series, fault-current limiting element that also performs the necessary damping for voltage reversal at the bank capacitors. The Series resistor is the subject of this paper.

  7. Generation of warm dense matter and strongly coupled plasmas using the High Radiation on Materials facility at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, Naeem A.; Schmidt, Ruediger; Brugger, Markus; Assmann, Ralph; Shutov, Alexander; Lomonosov, Igor V.; Gryaznov, Viktor; Piriz, Antonio Roberto; Udrea, Serban; Hoffmann, Dieter H. H.; Fortov, Vladimir E.; Deutsch, Claude

    2009-08-01

    A dedicated facility named High Radiation on Materials (HiRadMat) is being constructed at CERN to study the interaction of the 450 GeV protons generated by the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) with fixed solid targets of different materials. The main purpose of these future experiments is to study the generation and propagation of thermal shock waves in the target in order to assess the damage caused to the equipment, including collimators and absorbers, in case of an accident involving an uncontrolled release of the entire beam at a given point. Detailed numerical simulations of the beam-target interaction of several cases of interest have been carried out. In this paper we present simulations of the thermodynamic and the hydrodynamic response of a solid tungsten cylindrical target that is facially irradiated with the SPS beam with nominal parameters. These calculations have been carried out in two steps. First, the energy loss of the protons is calculated in the solid target using the FLUKA code [Fasso et al., "FLUKA: A multi-particle transport code," Report Nos. CERN-2005-10, INFN/TC-05/11, and SLAC-R-773, 2005; Fasso et al., Conference on Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics, La Jolla, CA, 24-28 March 2003] and this energy loss data is used as input to a sophisticated two-dimensional hydrodynamic code, BIG2 [Fortov et al., Nucl. Sci. Eng. 123, 169 (1996)], which is based on a Godunov-type numerical scheme. The transverse intensity distribution in the beam focal spot is Gaussian. We consider three different sizes of the focal spot that are characterized by standard deviations, σ =0.088, 0.28, and 0.88 mm, respectively. This study has shown that the target is severely damaged in all the three cases and the material in the beam-heated region is transformed into warm dense matter including a strongly coupled plasma state. This new experimental facility can therefore also be used for dedicated experiments to study high energy density matter.

  8. The SuperB project

    SciTech Connect

    Lesiak, Tadeusz

    2011-05-23

    This paper presents a very short review of the SuperB project which aims to construct a new generation flavour factory with a designed luminosity of at least 10{sup 36} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. The main issues related to the physics programme, together with the description of the conceptual design of the accelerator and detector are briefly discussed.

  9. Solid-state Marx based two-switch voltage modulator for the On-Line Isotope Mass Separator accelerator at the European Organization for Nuclear Research

    SciTech Connect

    Redondo, L. M.; Canacsinh, H.; Ferrao, N.; Mendes, C.; Silva, J. Fernando; Soares, R.; Schipper, J.; Fowler, A.

    2010-07-15

    A new circuit topology is proposed to replace the actual pulse transformer and thyratron based resonant modulator that supplies the 60 kV target potential for the ion acceleration of the On-Line Isotope Mass Separator accelerator, the stability of which is critical for the mass resolution downstream separator, at the European Organization for Nuclear Research. The improved modulator uses two solid-state switches working together, each one based on the Marx generator concept, operating as series and parallel switches, reducing the stress on the series stacked semiconductors, and also as auxiliary pulse generator in order to fulfill the target requirements. Preliminary results of a 10 kV prototype, using 1200 V insulated gate bipolar transistors and capacitors in the solid-state Marx circuits, ten stages each, with an electrical equivalent circuit of the target, are presented, demonstrating both the improved voltage stability and pulse flexibility potential wanted for this new modulator.

  10. Solid-state Marx based two-switch voltage modulator for the On-Line Isotope Mass Separator accelerator at the European Organization for Nuclear Research.

    PubMed

    Redondo, L M; Silva, J Fernando; Canacsinh, H; Ferrão, N; Mendes, C; Soares, R; Schipper, J; Fowler, A

    2010-07-01

    A new circuit topology is proposed to replace the actual pulse transformer and thyratron based resonant modulator that supplies the 60 kV target potential for the ion acceleration of the On-Line Isotope Mass Separator accelerator, the stability of which is critical for the mass resolution downstream separator, at the European Organization for Nuclear Research. The improved modulator uses two solid-state switches working together, each one based on the Marx generator concept, operating as series and parallel switches, reducing the stress on the series stacked semiconductors, and also as auxiliary pulse generator in order to fulfill the target requirements. Preliminary results of a 10 kV prototype, using 1200 V insulated gate bipolar transistors and capacitors in the solid-state Marx circuits, ten stages each, with an electrical equivalent circuit of the target, are presented, demonstrating both the improved voltage stability and pulse flexibility potential wanted for this new modulator.

  11. Transistorized Marx bank pulse circuit provides voltage multiplication with nanosecond rise-time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, E. A.; Lewis, R. N.

    1968-01-01

    Base-triggered avalanche transistor circuit used in a Marx bank pulser configuration provides voltage multiplication with nanosecond rise-time. The avalanche-mode transistors replace conventional spark gaps in the Marx bank. The delay time from an input signal to the output signal to the output is typically 6 nanoseconds.

  12. Marx and Dahrendorf on Income Inequality, Class Consciousness and Class Conflict: An Empirical Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Robert V.; Kelley, Jonathan

    The issue addressed by this paper is the lack of empirical research on the class theories of Karl Marx and Ralf Dahrendorf. In order to bridge this gap, data are analyzed on the theoretical and statistical implications of Marx's theory (which focuses on ownership of the means of production) and Dahrendorf's theory (which focuses on authority in…

  13. Marx and Dahrendorf on Income Inequality, Class Consciousness and Class Conflict: An Empirical Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Robert V.; Kelley, Jonathan

    The issue addressed by this paper is the lack of empirical research on the class theories of Karl Marx and Ralf Dahrendorf. In order to bridge this gap, data are analyzed on the theoretical and statistical implications of Marx's theory (which focuses on ownership of the means of production) and Dahrendorf's theory (which focuses on authority in…

  14. Computational Simulation of Explosively Generated Pulsed Power Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-21

    associated ferroelec- tric ceramics. The complex nature of these mechanisms leads to having very little in the way of mathematical theory to physically...were studied in the 1960s in England, using capacitor banks and Marx generators (a specific design of capacitor bank) to charge transmission lines with...pulsed power, the area in which they suffer is in size. The systems of capacitor banks and Marx generators can range from the size of trucks to rooms

  15. Capacitor and rail-gap development for the Atlas machine Marx modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reass, W. A.; Bowman, D. W.; Gribble, R. F.; Griego, J. R.; Thompson, C.; Parsons, W. M.; Cooper, R. A.; Casper, D. C.

    This paper presents the engineering issues and development criteria utilized to evolve the Atlas Marx bank pulse power components. The capacitor and rail-gap required alterations from existing designs to minimize system inductance and component count, maximize reliability, and enhance maintainability. For the capacitors, development has resulted in a plastic cased device with double ended bushings. The design of the capacitors' output electrodes, foil packs, and internal interconnect webbing results in a capacitor with improved performance. The capacitors are rated at 33.5 uF and 60 kV and are housed in a 28 in. x 29 in. x 13 in. fiberglass case. Terminal inductance is less than 15 nH with a design discharge current greater than 650 kA. An improved 'third generation' rail-gap will be utilized and is a product of the ACE machine developments at Maxwell Laboratories. The gap has a polyurethane body and one piece electrodes. To minimize prefires, a modified internal profile reduces the E-field and increases tracking length between the electrodes. With an individual Marx stage charged '+' and '-' and a trigger rail with 50/50 grading (mid-plane), external trigger bias or coupling components are not required. This further reduces system component count. To further reduce gap prefires and environmental concerns, high pressure air, instead of the typical Argon/SF6 mixture, will be used. The metallic switching by-products will form insulating oxides and the gap flushing procedures are simplified. To ensure multi-channel discharges, fast dV/dT trigger voltages ((approximately)30 kV/nS), similar to those developed for the Staged Theta-Pinch railgaps (a Scyllac era machine at Los Alamos), will be utilized.

  16. Super Stationery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Laurie K.

    1994-01-01

    Having students create personalized stationery is a good way to promote student writing. Children of all ages can design computer-generated stationery in just a few steps using predrawn or original graphics and a variety of typefaces. The article describes three programs that enable students to create stationery. (SM)

  17. Detecting Water on Super-Earths Using JAVST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deming, D.

    2010-01-01

    Nearby lower train sequence stars host a class of planets known as Super-Earths, that have no analog in our own solar system. Super-Earths are rocky and/or icy planets with masses up to about 10 Earth masses, They are expected to host atmospheres generated by a number of processes including accretion of chondritic material. Water vapor should be a common constituent of super-Earth atmospheres, and may be detectable in transiting super-Earths using transmission spectroscopy during primar y eclipse, and emission spectroscopy at secondary eclipse. I will discuss the prospects for super-Earth atmospheric measurements using JWST.

  18. SLAC P2 Marx Control System and Regulation Scheme

    SciTech Connect

    MacNair, David; Kemp, Mark A.; Macken, Koen; Nguyen, Minh N.; Olsen, Jeff; /SLAC

    2011-05-20

    The SLAC P2 MARX Modulator consists of 32 cells charged in parallel by a -4 kV supply and discharged in series to provide a -120 kV 140 amp 1.7 millisecond pulse. Each cell has a 350 uF main storage capacitor. The voltage on the capacitor will droop approximately 640 volts during each pulse. Each cell will have a boost supply that can add up to 700 V to the cell output. This allows the output voltage of the cell to remain constant within 0.1% during the pulse. The modulator output voltage control is determined by the -4 kV charging voltage. A voltage divider will measure the modulator voltage on each pulse. The charging voltage will be adjusted by the data from previous pulses to provide the desired output. The boost supply in each cell consists of a 700 V buck regulator in series with the main capacitor. The supply uses a lookup table for PWM control. The lookup table is calculated from previous pulse data to provide a constant cell output. The paper will describe the modulator and cell regulation used by the MARX modulator. Measured data from a single cell and three cell string will be included.

  19. Super Dielectric Materials

    PubMed Central

    Fromille, Samuel; Phillips, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Evidence is provided here that a class of materials with dielectric constants greater than 105 at low frequency (<10−2 Hz), herein called super dielectric materials (SDM), can be generated readily from common, inexpensive materials. Specifically it is demonstrated that high surface area alumina powders, loaded to the incipient wetness point with a solution of boric acid dissolved in water, have dielectric constants, near 0 Hz, greater than 4 × 108 in all cases, a remarkable increase over the best dielectric constants previously measured for energy storage capabilities, ca. 1 × 104. It is postulated that any porous, electrically insulating material (e.g., high surface area powders of silica, titania, etc.), filled with a liquid containing a high concentration of ionic species will potentially be an SDM. Capacitors created with the first generated SDM dielectrics (alumina with boric acid solution), herein called New Paradigm Super (NPS) capacitors display typical electrostatic capacitive behavior, such as increasing capacitance with decreasing thickness, and can be cycled, but are limited to a maximum effective operating voltage of about 0.8 V. A simple theory is presented: Water containing relatively high concentrations of dissolved ions saturates all, or virtually all, the pores (average diameter 500 Å) of the alumina. In an applied field the positive ionic species migrate to the cathode end, and the negative ions to the anode end of each drop. This creates giant dipoles with high charge, hence leading to high dielectric constant behavior. At about 0.8 V, water begins to break down, creating enough ionic species to “short” the individual water droplets. Potentially NPS capacitor stacks can surpass “supercapacitors” in volumetric energy density. PMID:28788298

  20. Supermanifolds and super Riemann surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Rabin, J.M.

    1986-09-01

    The theory of super Riemann surfaces is rigorously developed using Rogers' theory of supermanifolds. The global structures of super Teichmueller space and super moduli space are determined. The super modular group is shown to be precisely the ordinary modular group. Super moduli space is shown to be the gauge-fixing slice for the fermionic string path integral.

  1. Piaget, Marx, and Buck-Morss on Cognitive Development: A Critique and Reinterpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buss, Allan R.

    1977-01-01

    Piaget's and Marx's cognitive theories of development are briefly compared and contrasted. This provides background for a critical look at Buck-Morss' interpretation of cross-cultural differences in performance on Piagetian abstract formal reasoning tests. (MS)

  2. Pioneers of laser propulsion: Saenger, Marx, Moeckel, and Kantrowitz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaelis, Max M.; Hey, John D.

    2002-09-01

    The strength of empires and civilizations has often depended on novel forms of transportation: the Viking long boat, the Roman road, Iberian galleons, French and British steam ships, Indian trains, the car of the early twentieth century, the plane of the middle and the rocket of late. But Space has now come up against a barrier: the enormous and barely affordable expense of putting things into orbit and the unaffordable energy required to travel to the stars. The recent advent of very energetic lasers may reduce the cost. The pioneering ideas of the mid sixties appear less fanciful. Laser space propulsion is about to become such an important topic that its scientific origin and engineering roots need to be investigated. This is by no means an exhaustive survey. We review here the laser propulsion work of four eminent experts: Eugen Saenger, George Marx, Wolfgang Moeckel and Arthur Kantrowitz.

  3. Design of a Marx-Topology Modulator for FNAL Linac

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, T. A.; Garcia, F. G.; Kufer, M. R.; Pfeffer, H.; Wolff, D.

    2015-04-28

    The Fermilab Proton Improvement Plan (PIP) was formed in late 2011 to address important and necessary upgrades to the Proton Source machines (Injector line, Linac and Booster). The goal is to increase the proton flux by doubling the Booster beam cycle rate while maintaining the same intensity per cycle, the same uptime, and the same residual activation in the enclosure. For the Linac, the main focus within PIP is to address reliability. One of the main tasks is to replace the present hard-tube modulator used on the 200 MHz RF system. Plans to replace this high power system with a Marx-topology modulator, capable of providing the required waveform shaping to stabilize the accelerating gradient and compensate for beam loading, will be presented, along with development data from the prototype unit.

  4. [Darwin versus Marx? Reflections on a book by Giovanni Jervis].

    PubMed

    Cavallaro, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    Giovanni Jervis'2002 book Individualismo e cooperazione. Psicologia della politica [Individualism and Cooperation: Psychology of Politics] is the outcome of a critical reflection begun by the author at the end of the 1970s in order to explore the manifestations and the problems of cooperation between individuals, and to identify some "universal" psychological factors that could define the role of psychology within politics and constitute an "objective foundation" of any human culture. Although Jervis was, so to speak,favoring Darwin against Marx, it is argued that,from his overall reasoning, several of his arguments actually are in favor of the inevitable "historicity" of individuals, due to the social conditioning they are subjected since birth: too often certain "universalistic" approaches transmit, together with scientific advances (or even without them), well identifiable ideological motives linked to precise and well defined historical and economic interests?

  5. Compact, Intelligent, Digitally Controlled IGBT Gate Drivers for a PEBB-Based ILC Marx Modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, M.N.; Burkhart, C.; Olsen, J.J.; Macken, K.; /SLAC

    2010-06-07

    SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has built and is currently operating a first generation prototype Marx klystron modulator to meet ILC specifications. Under development is a second generation prototype, aimed at improving overall performance, serviceability, and manufacturability as compared to its predecessor. It is designed around 32 cells, each operating at 3.75 kV and correcting for its own capacitor droop. Due to the uniqueness of this application, high voltage gate drivers needed to be developed for the main 6.5 kV and droop correction 1.7 kV IGBTs. The gate driver provides vital functions such as protection of the IGBT from over-voltage and over-current, detection of gate-emitter open and short circuit conditions, and monitoring of IGBT degradation (based on collector-emitter saturation voltage). Gate drive control, diagnostic processing capabilities, and communication are digitally implemented using an FPGA. This paper details the design of the gate driver circuitry, component selection, and construction layout. In addition, experimental results are included to illustrate the effectiveness of the protection circuit.

  6. The Super-Cone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fülöp, Zsolt

    2009-01-01

    Using the concept of exploded and compressed numbers the author constructs the supercone which is able to turn upon the border of three dimensional space and breaks through it. The introduction of super-cone gives a possibility for students to see the properties of traditional cone while the super-cone is not a traditional cone. Moreover we show…

  7. SuperPILOT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissmann, Stephen M.

    1983-01-01

    SuperPILOT is Apple Computer's new computer assisted instruction authoring language. Provided is a review of SuperPILOT, indicated to be ideally suited for the development of interactive tutorials for the classroom. Includes comments on the language's strengths/weaknesses as well as comments on system requirements and special program features. (JN)

  8. Solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry utilized for the evaluation of the new-generation super elastic fiber assemblies.

    PubMed

    Setkova, Lucie; Risticevic, Sanja; Linton, Christopher M; Ouyang, Gangfeng; Bragg, Leslie M; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2007-01-09

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance characteristics of the recently developed super elastic solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers. The fiber needle, plunger and fiber core are manufactured with a special type of flexible alloy that exhibits excellent shape memory and tensile strength. This material makes the assemblies more robust, permitting several hundreds of analyses in a sequence, which is one of the ways to improve the robustness and sample throughput of automated SPME methods. The design and size of the needle utilized in the new fiber assemblies is discussed here, as well as the use of a septum-free injector replacement and a low-volume direct injection glass liner placed in the GC inlet. Deionized water and pump oil samples spiked with target volatile compounds (McReynold's probes and toluene) were used for the purposes of the presented study. A fully automated SPME sample preparation technique was combined with the GC-TOFMS system for the chromatographic separation and identification/quantification of the target analytes.

  9. KML Super Overlay to WMS Translator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plesea, Lucian

    2007-01-01

    This translator is a server-based application that automatically generates KML super overlay configuration files required by Google Earth for map data access via the Open Geospatial Consortium WMS (Web Map Service) standard. The translator uses a set of URL parameters that mirror the WMS parameters as much as possible, and it also can generate a super overlay subdivision of any given area that is only loaded when needed, enabling very large areas of coverage at very high resolutions. It can make almost any dataset available as a WMS service visible and usable in any KML application, without the need to reformat the data.

  10. Normal basis of finite field GF(2 super m)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pei, D. Y.; Wang, C. C.; Omura, J. K.

    1986-01-01

    Massey and Omura (1981) recently developed a new multiplication algorithm for Galois fields based on the normal basis representation. This algorithm shows a much simpler way to perform multiplication in finite field than the conventional method. The necessary and sufficient conditions are presented for an element to generate a normal basis in the field GF(2 super m), where m = 2 super k p super n and p super n has two as a primitive root. This result provides a way to find a normal basis in the field.

  11. Spin groups of super metrics and a theorem of Rogers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulp, Ronald

    2017-01-01

    We derive the canonical forms of super Riemannian metrics and the local isometry groups of such metrics. For certain super metrics we also compute the simply connected covering groups of the local isometry groups and interpret these as local spin groups of the super metric. Super metrics define reductions OSg of the relevant frame bundle. When principal bundles S˜g exist with structure group the simply connected covering group G ˜ of the structure group of OSg , representations of G ˜ define vector bundles associated to S˜g whose sections are "spinor fields" associated with the super metric g . Using a generalization of a Theorem of Rogers, which is itself one of the main results of this paper, we show that for super metrics we call body reducible, each such simply connected covering group G ˜ is a super Lie group with a conventional super Lie algebra as its corresponding super Lie algebra. Some of our results were known to DeWitt (1984) using formal Grassmann series and others were known by Rogers using finitely many Grassmann generators and passing to a direct limit. We work exclusively in the category of G∞ supermanifolds with G∞ mappings. Our supernumbers are infinite series of products of Grassmann generators subject to convergence in the ℓ1 norm introduced by Rogers (1980, 2007).

  12. High-durability surface-discharge flash x-ray tube driven by a two-stage Marx pulser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shikoda, Arimitsu; Sato, Eiichi; Kimura, Shingo; Oizumi, Teiji; Tamakawa, Yoshiharu; Yanagisawa, Toru

    1993-02-01

    We developed a high-durability flash x-ray tube with a plate-shaped ferrite cathode for the use in the field of biomedical engineering and technology. The surface-discharge cathode was very useful for generating stable flash x rays. This flash x-ray generator consisted of the following essential components: a high-voltage power supply, an energy-storage condenser of 97 nF, a two-stage Marx type pulser, an oil diffusion pump, and a flash x-ray tube. This x-ray tube was of a diode which was connected to the turbo molecular pump and had plate-shaped anode and cathode electrodes. The cathode electrode was made of ferrite, and its edge was covered with a thin gold film by means of the spattering in order to decrease contact resistance. The space between the anode and cathode electrodes could be regulated from the outside of the x-ray rube. The two condensers in Marx circuit were charged from 50 to 70 kV by a power supply, and the condensers were connected in series after closing a gap switch. Thus the maximum output voltages from the pulser were about two times the charged voltages. In this experiment, the maximum tube voltage and the current were about 110 kV and 0.8 kA, respectively. The pulse widths were less than 140 ns, and the maximum x-ray intensity was 1.27 (mu) C/kg at 0.5 m per pulse. The size of the focal spot and the maximum repetition rate were about 2 X 2.5 mm and 50 Hz (fps), respectively.

  13. Meniscal tear film fluid dynamics near Marx's line.

    PubMed

    Zubkov, V S; Breward, C J W; Gaffney, E A

    2013-09-01

    Extensive studies have explored the dynamics of the ocular surface fluid, though theoretical investigations are typically limited to the use of the lubrication approximation, which is not guaranteed to be uniformly valid a-priori throughout the tear meniscus. However, resolving tear film behaviour within the meniscus and especially its apices is required to characterise the flow dynamics where the tear film is especially thin, and thus most susceptible to evaporatively induced hyperosmolarity and subsequent epithelial damage. Hence, we have explored the accuracy of the standard lubrication approximation for the tear film by explicit comparisons with the 2D Navier-Stokes model, considering both stationary and moving eyelids. Our results demonstrate that the lubrication model is qualitatively accurate except in the vicinity of the eyelids. In particular, and in contrast to lubrication theory, the solution of the full Navier-Stokes equations predict a distinct absence of fluid flow, and thus convective mixing in the region adjacent to the tear film contact line. These observations not only support emergent hypotheses concerning the formation of Marx's line, a region of epithelial cell staining adjacent to the contact line on the eyelid, but also enhance our understanding of the pathophysiological consequences of the flow profile near the tear film contact line.

  14. Design of the individual Marx modules for the Atlas machine 36 megajoule, 25 megampere capacitor bank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reass, W. A.; Bowman, D. W.; Gribble, R. F.; Griego, J. R.; Thompson, C.; Parsons, W. M.

    This paper presents the preliminary electrical and mechanical design of the Atlas machine's 1.8 megajoule, 600 kV Marx modules. The modules are implemented with plastic cased capacitors similar to those developed for the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) ACE II and ACE IV machines. The double ended electrode capacitor style has been dubbed 'FASTCAP.' Electrodes are provided for mounting rail-gaps on one side and flat plate transmission line damping resistors on the other. This provides for an extremely low circuit inductance. A series array of ten capacitors, each rated at 60 kV, 33.5 uF, and 60 kJ, with their five triggered rail-gaps, form a Marx submodule. Three Marx submodules are nested into a large G-10 fiberglass rack to form a complete Marx module. The module support rack has individual capacitor shelves that ease assembly and replacement. The Marx's design also facilitates construction, testing and verification of a modules performance prior to installation. Modules will be repaired or maintained in a separate test bay without affecting machine operation schedules. Railgap maintenance will become part of a regularly-scheduled preventative maintenance program as spare modules are installed and removed from the machine.

  15. Polarization in SuperB

    SciTech Connect

    Wienands, Ulrich; Nosochkov, Yuri; Sullivan, Michael; Wittmer, Walter; Barber, Desmond; Biagini, Maria; Raimondi, Pantaleo; Koop, Ivan; Nikitin, Sergei; Sinyatkin, Sergey; /Novosibirsk, IYF

    2012-06-21

    SuperB, the 2nd-generation B-Factory with a luminosity of 10{sup 36}/cm{sup 2}/s proposed for LNF, is being designed from the start to be capable of providing a spin-polarized electron beam in the low-energy ring (LER) with longitudinal polarization at the interaction point. Due to the high luminosity at moderate beam current the beam lifetime is short (a few minutes), and a polarized injector will be used. Spin rotators have been designed and the equilibrium polarization evaluated. It will be shown that an average polarization of about 70% can be expected.

  16. Super Ball Bot

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Tensegrity Robot: Child's Play or Space Tech? Super Ball Bot is an all-in-one landing and mobility platform based on tensegrity structures, allowing for lower-cost, and more reliable planetary miss...

  17. Super Thin Ceramic Coatings

    NASA Image and Video Library

    New technology being developed at NASA's Glenn Research Center creates super thin ceramic coatings on engine components. The Plasma Spray – Physical Vapor Deposition (PS-PVD) rig uses a powerful ...

  18. Super-Kamiokande

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magro, Lluís Martí

    2016-06-01

    The Super-Kamiokande experiment performs a large variety of studies, many of them in the neutrino sector. The archetypes are atmospheric neutrino (recently awarded with the Nobel prize for Mr. T. Kajita) and the solar neutrinos analyses. In these proceedings we report our latest results and present updates to indirect dark matter searches, our solar neutrino analysis and discuss the future upgrade of Super-Kamiokande by loading gadolinium into our ultra-pure water.

  19. An Exploration of Educative "Praxis": Reflections on Marx's Concept "Praxis," Informed by the Lacanian Concepts "Act" and "Event"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanley, Chris

    2017-01-01

    This article explores an aspect of Karl Marx's concept, praxis. Praxis is meaningful work, through which we fulfil ourselves by fulfilling others. The discussion draws on the author's work with postgraduate student teachers, where both students and author were researching their own practice. Reflecting Marx's conception of praxis as subjective…

  20. Hippo in Super Resolution from Super Panorama

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-07-03

    This view of the "Hippo," 25 meters to the west of the lander, was produced by combining the "Super Panorama" frames from the IMP camera. Super resolution was applied to help to address questions about the texture of this rock and what it might tell us about its mode of origin. The composite color frames that make up this anaglyph were produced for both the right and left eye of the IMP. These composites consist of more than 15 frames per eye (because multiple sequences covered the same area), taken with different color filters that were enlarged by 500% and then co-added using Adobe Photoshop to produce, in effect, a super-resolution panchromatic frame that is sharper than an individual frame would be. These panchromatic frames were then colorized with the red, green, and blue filtered images from the same sequence. The color balance was adjusted to approximate the true color of Mars. The anaglyph view was produced by combining the left with the right eye color composite frames by assigning the left eye composite view to the red color plane and the right eye composite view to the green and blue color planes (cyan), to produce a stereo anaglyph mosaic. This mosaic can be viewed in 3-D on your computer monitor or in color print form by wearing red-blue 3-D glasses. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01421

  1. Deforming super Riemann surfaces with gravitinos and super Schottky groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Playle, Sam

    2016-12-01

    The (super) Schottky uniformization of compact (super) Riemann surfaces is briefly reviewed. Deformations of super Riemann surface by gravitinos and Beltrami parameters are recast in terms of super Schottky group cohomology. It is checked that the super Schottky group formula for the period matrix of a non-split surface matches its expression in terms of a gravitino and Beltrami parameter on a split surface. The relationship between (super) Schottky groups and the construction of surfaces by gluing pairs of punctures is discussed in an appendix.

  2. A hybrid pulse combining topology utilizing the combination of modularized avalanche transistor Marx circuits, direct pulse adding, and transmission line transformer.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiangtao; Zhao, Zheng; Sun, Yi; Liu, Yuhao; Ren, Ziyuan; He, Jiaxin; Cao, Hui; Zheng, Minjun

    2017-03-01

    Numerous applications driven by pulsed voltage require pulses to be with high amplitude, high repetitive frequency, and narrow width, which could be satisfied by utilizing avalanche transistors. The output improvement is severely limited by power capacities of transistors. Pulse combining is an effective approach to increase the output amplitude while still adopting conventional pulse generating modules. However, there are drawbacks in traditional topologies including the saturation tendency of combining efficiency and waveform oscillation. In this paper, a hybrid pulse combining topology was adopted utilizing the combination of modularized avalanche transistor Marx circuits, direct pulse adding, and transmission line transformer. The factors affecting the combining efficiency were determined including the output time synchronization of Marx circuits, and the quantity and position of magnetic cores. The numbers of the parallel modules and the stages were determined by the output characteristics of each combining method. Experimental results illustrated the ability of generating pulses with 2-14 kV amplitude, 7-11 ns width, and a maximum 10 kHz repetitive rate on a matched 50-300 Ω resistive load. The hybrid topology would be a convinced pulse combining method for similar nanosecond pulse generators based on the solid-state switches.

  3. A hybrid pulse combining topology utilizing the combination of modularized avalanche transistor Marx circuits, direct pulse adding, and transmission line transformer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiangtao; Zhao, Zheng; Sun, Yi; Liu, Yuhao; Ren, Ziyuan; He, Jiaxin; Cao, Hui; Zheng, Minjun

    2017-03-01

    Numerous applications driven by pulsed voltage require pulses to be with high amplitude, high repetitive frequency, and narrow width, which could be satisfied by utilizing avalanche transistors. The output improvement is severely limited by power capacities of transistors. Pulse combining is an effective approach to increase the output amplitude while still adopting conventional pulse generating modules. However, there are drawbacks in traditional topologies including the saturation tendency of combining efficiency and waveform oscillation. In this paper, a hybrid pulse combining topology was adopted utilizing the combination of modularized avalanche transistor Marx circuits, direct pulse adding, and transmission line transformer. The factors affecting the combining efficiency were determined including the output time synchronization of Marx circuits, and the quantity and position of magnetic cores. The numbers of the parallel modules and the stages were determined by the output characteristics of each combining method. Experimental results illustrated the ability of generating pulses with 2-14 kV amplitude, 7-11 ns width, and a maximum 10 kHz repetitive rate on a matched 50-300 Ω resistive load. The hybrid topology would be a convinced pulse combining method for similar nanosecond pulse generators based on the solid-state switches.

  4. Mid-infrared, super-flat, supercontinuum generation covering the 2–5 μm spectral band using a fluoroindate fibre pumped with picosecond pulses

    PubMed Central

    Michalska, Maria; Mikolajczyk, Janusz; Wojtas, Jacek; Swiderski, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    Broadband, mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in a step-index fluoroindate fibre is reported. By using ~70-picosecond laser pulses at 2.02 μm, provided by an optical parametric generator, a wide spectrum with a cut-off wavelength at 5.25 μm and a 5-dB bandwidth covering the entire 2–5 μm spectral interval has been demonstrated for the first time. The behaviour of the supercontinuum was investigated by changing the peak power and the wavelength of the pump pulses. This allowed the optimal pumping conditions to be determined for the nonlinear medium that was used. The optical damage threshold for the fluoroindate fibre was experimentally found to be ~200 GW/cm2. PMID:27974816

  5. Mid-infrared, super-flat, supercontinuum generation covering the 2-5 μm spectral band using a fluoroindate fibre pumped with picosecond pulses.

    PubMed

    Michalska, Maria; Mikolajczyk, Janusz; Wojtas, Jacek; Swiderski, Jacek

    2016-12-15

    Broadband, mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in a step-index fluoroindate fibre is reported. By using ~70-picosecond laser pulses at 2.02 μm, provided by an optical parametric generator, a wide spectrum with a cut-off wavelength at 5.25 μm and a 5-dB bandwidth covering the entire 2-5 μm spectral interval has been demonstrated for the first time. The behaviour of the supercontinuum was investigated by changing the peak power and the wavelength of the pump pulses. This allowed the optimal pumping conditions to be determined for the nonlinear medium that was used. The optical damage threshold for the fluoroindate fibre was experimentally found to be ~200 GW/cm(2).

  6. Mid-infrared, super-flat, supercontinuum generation covering the 2–5 μm spectral band using a fluoroindate fibre pumped with picosecond pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalska, Maria; Mikolajczyk, Janusz; Wojtas, Jacek; Swiderski, Jacek

    2016-12-01

    Broadband, mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in a step-index fluoroindate fibre is reported. By using ~70-picosecond laser pulses at 2.02 μm, provided by an optical parametric generator, a wide spectrum with a cut-off wavelength at 5.25 μm and a 5-dB bandwidth covering the entire 2–5 μm spectral interval has been demonstrated for the first time. The behaviour of the supercontinuum was investigated by changing the peak power and the wavelength of the pump pulses. This allowed the optimal pumping conditions to be determined for the nonlinear medium that was used. The optical damage threshold for the fluoroindate fibre was experimentally found to be ~200 GW/cm2.

  7. The Super HMS

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Yan

    1998-06-01

    As a part of physics instrumentation development for TJNAF long range institution upgrade plan, a 12 GeV/c Super High Momentum Spectrometer (the Super HMS) has been proposed for high luminosity and high q2 physics in endstation Hall C. The fundamental configuration of Super HMS is QQDD. Two identical quadrupoles are the superconducting HMS Q1s with maximum gradient 8 Tesla/m. Two identical SLAC B202/B203 dipole magnets are considered for the use of dispersive elements with accumulative bending power 18.7 degree at 12 GeV/c while the central field is set to 2.05 Tesla. A sliding mechanism could guide the whole system, including the magnetic elements and detector house, moving forwards and backwards by +/- 100 cm. Under an assumed magnetic structure, the Super HMS optics performance has been studied by using TRANSPORT, TURTLE, and RAYTRACE codes and related reconstruction methods. The applicable solid angle can be adjusted between 1 msr and 2.3 msr. The maximum central momentum is 12 GeV/c. The reconstructed momentum resolution within full momentum range 20% is better than 10-3. The in-plane angle reconstruction accuracy is about 0.5 mr, mainly determined by the local multiple scattering from detector materials. This report also points out the strategy of super HMS optics adapting low rigidity quadrupoles for the use of high momentum operation, and the potential capability of very forward angle operations.

  8. Super-resolution benefit for face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shuowen; Maschal, Robert; Young, S. Susan; Hong, Tsai Hong; Phillips, Jonathon P.

    2011-06-01

    Vast amounts of video footage are being continuously acquired by surveillance systems on private premises, commercial properties, government compounds, and military installations. Facial recognition systems have the potential to identify suspicious individuals on law enforcement watchlists, but accuracy is severely hampered by the low resolution of typical surveillance footage and the far distance of suspects from the cameras. To improve accuracy, super-resolution can enhance suspect details by utilizing a sequence of low resolution frames from the surveillance footage to reconstruct a higher resolution image for input into the facial recognition system. This work measures the improvement of face recognition with super-resolution in a realistic surveillance scenario. Low resolution and super-resolved query sets are generated using a video database at different eye-to-eye distances corresponding to different distances of subjects from the camera. Performance of a face recognition algorithm using the super-resolved and baseline query sets was calculated by matching against galleries consisting of frontal mug shots. The results show that super-resolution improves performance significantly at the examined mid and close ranges.

  9. Space-time super-resolution.

    PubMed

    Shechtman, Eli; Caspi, Yaron; Irani, Michal

    2005-04-01

    We propose a method for constructing a video sequence of high space-time resolution by combining information from multiple low-resolution video sequences of the same dynamic scene. Super-resolution is performed simultaneously in time and in space. By "temporal super-resolution," we mean recovering rapid dynamic events that occur faster than regular frame-rate. Such dynamic events are not visible (or else are observed incorrectly) in any of the input sequences, even if these are played in "slow-motion." The spatial and temporal dimensions are very different in nature, yet are interrelated. This leads to interesting visual trade-offs in time and space and to new video applications. These include: 1) treatment of spatial artifacts (e.g., motion-blur) by increasing the temporal resolution and 2) combination of input sequences of different space-time resolutions (e.g., NTSC, PAL, and even high quality still images) to generate a high quality video sequence. We further analyze and compare characteristics of temporal super-resolution to those of spatial super-resolution. These include: How many video cameras are needed to obtain increased resolution? What is the upper bound on resolution improvement via super-resolution? What is the temporal analogue to the spatial "ringing" effect?

  10. Concept for a super-clean super-efficient pressurized fluidized-bed combustion system

    SciTech Connect

    Mollott, D.J.; Reed, M.

    1994-12-31

    A paper study for a highly efficient, environmentally benign, coal-fired electric power generation system, is presented. This system falls in the category of pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) systems which has been dubbed super-clean super-efficient PFBC`s. The system presented starts with the second-generation PFBC concept and adds on advanced gas turbine, a solid oxide fuel cell, a supercritical steam cycle, a second low-temperature rankine cycle which pulls energy from the steam condenser, and inlet air cooling. The thermodynamic efficiency of the system is calculated to be 61.8 percent based on higher heating value (HHV).

  11. Super resolution fluorescence microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bo; Bates, Mark; Zhuang, Xiaowei

    2010-01-01

    Achieving a spatial resolution that is not limited by the diffraction of light, recent developments of super-resolution fluorescence microscopy techniques allow the observation of many biological structures not resolvable in conventional fluorescence microscopy. New advances in these techniques now give them the ability to image three-dimensional (3D) structures, measure interactions by multicolor colocalization, and record dynamic processes in living cells at the nanometer scale. It is anticipated that super-resolution fluorescence microscopy will become a widely used tool for cell and tissue imaging to provide previously unobserved details of biological structures and processes. PMID:19489737

  12. Super Guppy in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Super Guppy, bigger sister of the aptly named Pregnant Guppy, was the only airplane in the world capable of carrying a complete S-IVB stage. This aircraft was built by John M. Conroy of Aero Spaceliners, Incorporated, who started with the fuselages of a surplus Boeing C-97 Stratocruiser, ballooned out the upper decks enormously, and hinged the front sections so that they could be folded back 110 degrees. The Super Guppy flew smoothly at a 250-mph cruising speed, and its cargo deck provided a 25-foot clear diameter.

  13. Marx and Foucault: Subjectivity, Employability and the Crisis of Youth Unemployment in the Great Global Recession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.; Besley, Tina

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the different approaches taken to the concepts of work or labour by Marx and Foucault, examining in particular the question of subjectivity in relation to youth unemployment and the current crisis of youth unemployment as part of the aftermath of the global recession of 2008.

  14. The Educator Needs to Be Educated: Reflections on the Political Pedagogy of Marx, Lenin and Habermas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welton, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    This essay examines one of the most intractable pedagogical problems of the Marxian revolutionary tradition: who will educate the educator and how ought the learning process to proceed. The solutions of Marx, Lenin and Habermas are critically examined towards the clarification of the emancipatory learning process. This learning process has three…

  15. Karl Marx in One Lesson (1818-1883). Series on Public Issues No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pejovich, Steve

    This booklet, one of a series intended to apply economic principles to major social and political issues of the day, starts from the premise that Marxism is a threat to our way of life and offers a critique of fundamental components of the social movement Marx created. The first of six subsections focuses on sources of influence on Karl Marx…

  16. Karl Marx and Group Therapy: An Old Warning about a New Phenomenon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Terry D.

    1984-01-01

    Uses Marx's classic critique of religion to explore the social function of therapy groups. Investigates the manner in which groups conserve the status quo and argues that the Marxist critique can help promote a more realistic social awareness and a more effective perception of groups. (Author/JAC)

  17. [Results of school inspections in the county of Karl-Marx-Stadt (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Arnold, J

    1978-10-01

    Within the Health Protection in Childhood and Adolescence Research Project a hygienic inspection questionnaire was designed for schools. To test this questionnaire, 248 schools in 11 districts of the county of Karl-Marx-Stadt were inspected. From the ascertainments made, several instances are cited to point out the priorities of school hygiene.

  18. The Educator Needs to Be Educated: Reflections on the Political Pedagogy of Marx, Lenin and Habermas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welton, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    This essay examines one of the most intractable pedagogical problems of the Marxian revolutionary tradition: who will educate the educator and how ought the learning process to proceed. The solutions of Marx, Lenin and Habermas are critically examined towards the clarification of the emancipatory learning process. This learning process has three…

  19. Pop Culture in the Classroom: "American Idol," Karl Marx, and Alexis de Tocqueville

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centellas, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the use of pop culture in the classroom as a means to teach foundational political science authors and concepts. I focus on my experience using "American Idol" as a point of reference to discuss Marx and Engel's "The Communist Manifesto" and Tocqueville's "Democracy in America" in undergraduate comparative politics courses.…

  20. Pop Culture in the Classroom: "American Idol," Karl Marx, and Alexis de Tocqueville

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centellas, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the use of pop culture in the classroom as a means to teach foundational political science authors and concepts. I focus on my experience using "American Idol" as a point of reference to discuss Marx and Engel's "The Communist Manifesto" and Tocqueville's "Democracy in America" in undergraduate comparative politics courses.…

  1. Karl Marx and Group Therapy: An Old Warning about a New Phenomenon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Terry D.

    1984-01-01

    Uses Marx's classic critique of religion to explore the social function of therapy groups. Investigates the manner in which groups conserve the status quo and argues that the Marxist critique can help promote a more realistic social awareness and a more effective perception of groups. (Author/JAC)

  2. From Commodity Production to Sign Production: A Triple Triangle Model for Marx's Semiotics and Peirce's Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Joohoan

    Using the viewpoint of semiotics, this paper "re-reads" Karl Marx's labor theory of value and suggests a "triple triangle" model for commodity production and shows how this model could be a model for semiosis in general. The paper argues that there are three advantages to considering homogeneity of the sign production and the…

  3. Karl Marx in One Lesson (1818-1883). Series on Public Issues No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pejovich, Steve

    This booklet, one of a series intended to apply economic principles to major social and political issues of the day, starts from the premise that Marxism is a threat to our way of life and offers a critique of fundamental components of the social movement Marx created. The first of six subsections focuses on sources of influence on Karl Marx…

  4. Marx and Foucault: Subjectivity, Employability and the Crisis of Youth Unemployment in the Great Global Recession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.; Besley, Tina

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the different approaches taken to the concepts of work or labour by Marx and Foucault, examining in particular the question of subjectivity in relation to youth unemployment and the current crisis of youth unemployment as part of the aftermath of the global recession of 2008.

  5. Handbook of Super 8 Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telzer, Ronnie, Ed.

    This handbook is designed for anyone interested in producing super 8 films at any level of complexity and cost. Separate chapters present detailed discussions of the following topics: super 8 production systems and super 8 shooting and editing systems; budgeting; cinematography and sound recording; preparing to edit; editing; mixing sound tracks;…

  6. Super Moon Rises

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-19

    The full moon is seen as it rises near the National Mall, Saturday, March 19, 2011, in Washington. The full moon tonight is called a "Super Moon" since it is at its closest to Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  7. Raytracing with MARX: x-ray observatory design, calibration, and support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, John E.; Bautz, Marshall W.; Dewey, Daniel; Heilmann, Ralf K.; Houck, John C.; Huenemoerder, David P.; Marshall, Herman L.; Nowak, Michael A.; Schattenburg, Mark L.; Schulz, Norbert S.; Smith, Randall K.

    2012-09-01

    MARX is a portable ray-trace program that was originally developed to simulate event data from the trans- mission grating spectrometers on-board the Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO). MARX has since evolved to include detailed models of all CXO science instruments and has been further modified to serve as an event simulator for future X-ray observatory design concepts. We first review a number of CXO applications of MARX to demonstrate the roles such a program could play throughout the life of a mission, including its design and calibration, the production of input data products for the development of the various software pipelines, and for observer proposal planning. We describe how MARX was utilized in the design of a proposed future X-ray spectroscopy mission called ÆGIS (Astrophysics Experiment for Grating and Imaging Spectroscopy), a mission concept optimized for the 0.2 to 1 keV soft X-ray band. ÆGIS consists of six independent Critical Angle Transmission Grating Spectrometers (CATGS) arranged to provide a resolving power of 3000 and an effective area exceeding 1000 cm2 across its passband. Such high spectral resolution and effective area will permit ÆGIS to address many astrophysics questions including those that pertain to the evolution of Large Scale Structure of the universe, and the behavior of matter at very high densities. The MARX ray-trace of the ÆGIS spectrometer yields quantitative estimates of how the spectrometer’s performance is affected by misalignments between the various system elements, and by deviations of those elements from their idealized geometry. From this information, we are able to make the appropriate design tradeoffs to maximize the performance of the system.

  8. Superconductivity due to soft super-symmetry breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    S. Rajput, Balwant

    2017-03-01

    Revisiting the super-symmetric dyons in N = 2 super-symmetric theory and analyzing the possible soft breaking of N = 2 super-symmetric Yang Mills theory to N = 0 by making the dynamically generated mass scale ∧ a function of dilation spurion, it has been demonstrated that the scalar and auxiliary components of pre-potential, constructed in terms of dilation, are frozen to be constant to generate soft breaking of N = 2 theory and it has been shown that, as soon as these soft breaking terms are turned on, monopole condensation appears and we get a unique ground state and the superconducting phase. It is also shown that in this soft breaking of N = 2 super-symmetry, the superconductivity phase occurs due to condensation of monopoles only and the dyons do not condensate near the real u -plane.

  9. British super-shuttle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-10-01

    British Aerospace, the nationalized aerospace manufacturer, confirmed that a space shuttle of new design is indeed being studied, and that a model of the craft will be displayed. The British television network ITN had announced that secret plans were being prepared for the construction of a reusable horizontal takeoff super-shuttle, which could breathe atmospheric oxygen to supply its propulsion system. Retracting a first denial according to which the project existed merely as scribbles on the back of an envelope, a British Aerospace spokesperson declared that it was in fact a very serious study. The super-shuttle, called HOTOL (horizontal takeoff and landing), would be placed in orbit as a platform for satellite launching. The spokesperson further indicated that with a certain resemblance to the Concorde, it would be pilotless, remote controlled, and would allow frequent operations at short time intervals.

  10. Research Program of a Super Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Oka, Yoshiaki; Ishiwatari, Yuki; Liu, Jie; Terai, Takayuki; Nagasaki, Shinya; Muroya, Yusa; Abe, Hiroaki; Akiba, Masato; Akimoto, Hajime; Okumura, Keisuke; Akasaka, Naoaki; GOTO, Shoji

    2006-07-01

    Research program of a supercritical-pressure light water cooled fast reactor (Super Fast Reactor) is funded by MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology) in December 2005 as one of the research programs of Japanese NERI (Nuclear Energy Research Initiative). It consists of three programs. (1) development of Super Fast Reactor concept; (2) thermal-hydraulic experiments; (3) material developments. The purpose of the concept development is to pursue the advantage of high power density of fast reactor over thermal reactors to achieve economic competitiveness of fast reactor for its deployment without waiting for exhausting uranium resources. Design goal is not breeding, but maximizing reactor power by using plutonium from spent LWR fuel. MOX will be the fuel of the Super Fast Reactor. Thermal-hydraulic experiments will be conducted with HCFC22 (Hydro chlorofluorocarbons) heat transfer loop of Kyushu University and supercritical water loop at JAEA. Heat transfer data including effect of grid spacers will be taken. The critical flow and condensation of supercritical fluid will be studied. The materials research includes the development and testing of austenitic stainless steel cladding from the experience of PNC1520 for LMFBR. Material for thermal insulation will be tested. SCWR (Supercritical-Water Cooled Reactor) of GIF (Generation-4 International Forum) includes both thermal and fast reactors. The research of the Super Fast Reactor will enhance SCWR research and the data base. The research period will be until March 2010. (authors)

  11. NASA Super Pressure Balloon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairbrother, Debbie

    2017-01-01

    NASA is in the process of qualifying the mid-size Super Pressure Balloon (SPB) to provide constant density altitude flight for science investigations at polar and mid-latitudes. The status of the development of the 18.8 million cubic foot SPB capable of carrying one-tone of science to 110,000 feet, will be given. In addition, the operating considerations such as launch sites, flight safety considerations, and recovery will be discussed.

  12. NASA Super Pressure Balloon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairbrother, Debbie

    2016-01-01

    NASA is in the process of qualifying the mid-size Super Pressure Balloon (SPB) to provide constant density altitude flight for science investigations at polar and mid-latitudes. The status of the development of the 18.8 million cubic foot SPB capable of carrying one-tonne of science to 110,000 feet, will be given. In addition, the operating considerations such as launch sites, flight safety considerations, and recovery will be discussed.

  13. OPE for super loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sever, Amit; Vieira, Pedro; Wang, Tianheng

    2011-11-01

    We extend the Operator Product Expansion for Null Polygon Wilson loops to the Mason-Skinner-Caron-Huot super loop dual to non MHV gluon amplitudes. We explain how the known tree level amplitudes can be promoted into an infinite amount of data at any loop order in the OPE picture. As an application, we re-derive all one loop NMHV six gluon amplitudes by promoting their tree level expressions. We also present some new all loops predictions for these amplitudes.

  14. Unstable laser resonators with super-Gaussian mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    De Silvestri, S.; Laporta, P.; Magni, V.; Svelto, O.; Majocchi, B.

    1988-03-01

    A new class of tapered reflectivity mirrors with a super-Gaussian profile R atmI exp(-kr/sup n/) is introduced, and a geometrical-optics approach for analysis and design of unstable resonators made with these mirrors is presented. A super-Gaussian mirror, built by a special evaporation technique, has been tested in an unstable resonator of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser, demonstrating its effectiveness in generating diffraction-limited beams.

  15. Super-quantum curves from super-eigenvalue models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciosmak, Paweł; Hadasz, Leszek; Manabe, Masahide; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-10-01

    In modern mathematical and theoretical physics various generalizations, in particular supersymmetric or quantum, of Riemann surfaces and complex algebraic curves play a prominent role. We show that such supersymmetric and quantum generalizations can be combined together, and construct supersymmetric quantum curves, or super-quantum curves for short. Our analysis is conducted in the formalism of super-eigenvalue models: we introduce β-deformed version of those models, and derive differential equations for associated α/ β-deformed super-matrix integrals. We show that for a given model there exists an infinite number of such differential equations, which we identify as super-quantum curves, and which are in one-to-one correspondence with, and have the structure of, super-Virasoro singular vectors. We discuss potential applications of super-quantum curves and prospects of other generalizations.

  16. Explosive Super-eruptions: Problems and Prejudices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Self, S.

    2010-12-01

    associated ash falls is vital to ash-fall deposit generation mechanisms and the estimating total volume of magma expelled during super-eruptions. The potential impact of super-eruptions on the environment and climate is a topic of considerable interest, centered around the YTT case. Recent work suggests that the release of sulfur (S) gas, while still large by modern standards due to the huge magma volumes involved, is limited by low S solubility in silicic super-eruption magmas. The vast ash-fall deposits may, however, have considerable direct and indirect environmental effects; there is much current debate about the impact of the YTT ash fall on the Indian subcontinent. Deposits of explosive super-eruptions are widespread and considerable deposition occurs over the sea; also products are rapidly eroded on land. Moreover, it is sometimes difficult to correlate remnant patches of deposit. Accordingly, we have only a rough idea of the true erupted magma volumes of these significant events. While several super-eruption deposits have been recognized back through the Cenozoic, Paleozoic and older examples are rare and recognized usually by extensive ash-fall deposits (bentonites) or meta-volcanic deposits. Future work will provide further evidence of ancient super-eruptions; a new case from North America will be briefly discussed.

  17. [Development of child neuropsychiatry at the Karl Marx University of Leipzig].

    PubMed

    Gebelt, H

    1978-05-01

    The development of pedoneuropsychiatry at the University of Leipzig is marked by the opening in 1926 of the first "Department of Pedopsychiatric Observation", the establishment of the Clinic of Pedoneuropsychiatry as an independent unit of the Department of Medicine, Karl Marx University, and the setting up in 1976 of a Chair of Pedoneuropsychiatry. Paul Schröder's and R. A. Pfeifer's services to their university are particularly appreciated.

  18. Design Considerations for a PEBB-Based Marx-Topology ILC Klystron Modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Macken, K.; Beukers, T.; Burkhart, C.; Kemp, M.A.; Nguyen, M.N.; Tang, T.; /SLAC

    2009-12-09

    The concept of Power Electronic Building Blocks (PEBBs) has its origin in the U.S. Navy during the last decade of the past century. As compared to a more conventional or classical design approach, a PEBB-oriented design approach combines various potential advantages such as increased modularity, high availability and simplified serviceability. This relatively new design paradigm for power conversion has progressively matured since then and its underlying philosophy has been clearly and successfully demonstrated in a number of real-world applications. Therefore, this approach has been adopted here to design a Marx-topology modulator for an International Linear Collider (ILC) environment where easy serviceability and high availability are crucial. This paper describes various aspects relating to the design of a 32-cell Marx-topology ILC klystron modulator. The concept of nested droop correction is introduced and illustrated. Several design considerations including cosmic ray withstand, power cycling capability, fault tolerance, etc., are discussed. Details of the design of a Marx cell PEBB are included.

  19. [Studying Marx's discussion on the position and role of population in social and economic development].

    PubMed

    Li, J

    1983-03-29

    According to Marx and Engels, population is the premise for material life. The difference between man and animal is that man, in order to exist, must have a means of subsistence; thus, his 1st historical activity is to produce these means while at the same time reproduce himself. The function and position of population is to serve as the basis and primary force for all social productive activities. Population further serves as the basis for its own material production. All human relationships and functions, regardless of form or situation, influence material production. Actually, population itself is a kind of productive force as well as consuming force. Population produces material goods which ultimately are used by the population. Hence population is the unification of production and consumption. That is, population's activities consist of production and consumption. According to Marx, accumulated capital regulates population development; at the same time, population development influences the accumulation of capital. Population growth must be the basis for the realization of accumulated capital. In addition, population structure influences the accumulation of capital. Within a single nation, the larger the laboring class, the more prosperous is the country. Among countries, however, this principle is not necessarily so. Marx also believed that raising production rates is the basic way to increase accumulated capital. And, a necessary condition for raising production rates is to raise the quality of population.

  20. Constraining lightning channel growth dynamics by comparison of time domain electromagnetic simulations to Huntsville Alabama Marx Meter Array observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, B. E.; Bitzer, P. M.; Burchfield, J.

    2015-12-01

    Major unknowns in lightning research include the mechanism and dynamics of lightning channel extension. Such processes are most simple during the initial growth of the channel, when the channel is relatively short and has not yet branched extensively throughout the cloud. During this initial growth phase, impulsive electromagnetic emissions (preliminary breakdown pulses) can be well-described as produced by current pulses generated as the channel extends, but the overall growth rate, channel geometry, and degree of branching are not known. We approach such issues by examining electric field change measurements made with the Huntsville Alabama Marx Meter Array (HAMMA) during the first few milliseconds of growth of a lightning discharge. We compare HAMMA observations of electromagnetic emissions and overall field change to models of lightning channel growth and development and attempt to constrain channel growth rate, degree of branching, channel physical properties, and uniformity of thunderstorm electric field. Preliminary comparisons suggest that the lightning channel branches relatively early in the discharge, though more complete and detailed analysis will be presented.

  1. A braided monoidal category for free super-bosons

    SciTech Connect

    Runkel, Ingo

    2014-04-15

    The chiral conformal field theory of free super-bosons is generated by weight one currents whose mode algebra is the affinisation of an abelian Lie super-algebra h with non-degenerate super-symmetric pairing. The mode algebras of a single free boson and of a single pair of symplectic fermions arise for even|odd dimension 1|0 and 0|2 of h, respectively. In this paper, the representations of the untwisted mode algebra of free super-bosons are equipped with a tensor product, a braiding, and an associator. In the symplectic fermion case, i.e., if h is purely odd, the braided monoidal structure is extended to representations of the Z/2Z-twisted mode algebra. The tensor product is obtained by computing spaces of vertex operators. The braiding and associator are determined by explicit calculations from three- and four-point conformal blocks.

  2. Generations.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2005-01-01

    Groups naturally promote their strengths and prefer values and rules that give them an identity and an advantage. This shows up as generational tensions across cohorts who share common experiences, including common elders. Dramatic cultural events in America since 1925 can help create an understanding of the differing value structures of the Silents, the Boomers, Gen Xers, and the Millennials. Differences in how these generations see motivation and values, fundamental reality, relations with others, and work are presented, as are some applications of these differences to the dental profession.

  3. [Super-species genetic systems].

    PubMed

    Provorov, N A; Tikhonovich, I A

    2014-01-01

    Genetic integration of diverse organisms results in generation of three types of the super-species systems of heredity: metagenome (set of genetic factors of the microbial community which occupies a certain ecological niche), symbiogenome (functionally integrated system of the partners' symbiotic genes) and hologenome (entire hereditary system of a symbiotically originated organism). The integrity of metagenome is based on the cross-regulation and horizontal transfer of genes in co-evolving organisms which in the soil microbial communities are accompanied by maintenance of the stable extracellular DNA pool. Formation of symbiogenome is related to the highly specific partners' signaling interactions which are responsible for development of the joint metabolic pathways based on the specialized cellular and tissue structures. Transitions of symbiogenome into hologenome are due to the endosymbiotic gene transfer from microsymbionts to their hosts. In symbiotic bacteria, these transitions are coupled with establishments of multi-component, reduced and rudimentary genomes revealed for the ecologically obligatory symbionts, genetically obligatory symbionts, and cellular organelles, respectively. Their evolution is related to the stringency of transmission of microsymbionts by hosts increased from pseudo-vertical (via environment) to the trans-embryonic (via embryos and the surrounding tissues) and trans-ovarian transmission (via germ cells) which are culminated in the cytoplasmic inheritance of cellular organelles. We suggest the hypothesis about generation of endophytic plant symbiogenome on the basis of soil metagenome subjected to the control of host by its involvement into the quorum sensing auto-regulation of microbial community.

  4. Point spread function of the optical needle super-oscillatory lens

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Tapashree; Rogers, Edward T. F.; Yuan, Guanghui; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2014-06-09

    Super-oscillatory optical lenses are known to achieve sub-wavelength focusing. In this paper, we analyse the imaging capabilities of a super-oscillatory lens by studying its point spread function. We experimentally demonstrate that a super-oscillatory lens can generate a point spread function 24% smaller than that dictated by the diffraction limit and has an effective numerical aperture of 1.31 in air. The object-image linear displacement property of these lenses is also investigated.

  5. Melting in super-earths.

    PubMed

    Stixrude, Lars

    2014-04-28

    We examine the possible extent of melting in rock-iron super-earths, focusing on those in the habitable zone. We consider the energetics of accretion and core formation, the timescale of cooling and its dependence on viscosity and partial melting, thermal regulation via the temperature dependence of viscosity, and the melting curves of rock and iron components at the ultra-high pressures characteristic of super-earths. We find that the efficiency of kinetic energy deposition during accretion increases with planetary mass; considering the likely role of giant impacts and core formation, we find that super-earths probably complete their accretionary phase in an entirely molten state. Considerations of thermal regulation lead us to propose model temperature profiles of super-earths that are controlled by silicate melting. We estimate melting curves of iron and rock components up to the extreme pressures characteristic of super-earth interiors based on existing experimental and ab initio results and scaling laws. We construct super-earth thermal models by solving the equations of mass conservation and hydrostatic equilibrium, together with equations of state of rock and iron components. We set the potential temperature at the core-mantle boundary and at the surface to the local silicate melting temperature. We find that ancient (∼4 Gyr) super-earths may be partially molten at the top and bottom of their mantles, and that mantle convection is sufficiently vigorous to sustain dynamo action over the whole range of super-earth masses.

  6. SuperCam_MastUnit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deleuze, M. D.; Bernardi, P. B.; Caïs, Ph. C.; Perez, R. P.; Rees, J. M. R.; Pares, L. P.; Dubois, B. D.; Parot, Y. P.; Quertier, B. Q.; Maurice, S. M.; Maccabe, K. M.; Wiens, R. W.; Rull, F. R.

    2016-10-01

    This paper will describe and give a development status of SuperCam's mast unit. SuperCam will be carried on the Mars 2020 rover, and consists in an enhanced version of the ChemCam LIBS which is still performing at the surface of Mars, on Curiosity.

  7. Note: Compact, reusable inductive-storage-cum-opening-switch based 1.5 GW single-shot pulsed power generator.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Rohit; Shyam, Anurag

    2014-03-01

    The results of a very-compact (Marx generator-cum-inductor confined into 0.20 m cylindrical diameter and 0.75 m length) and light-weight (<15 kg) pulsed-power generator are being presented in the paper. The load voltage at 10.5 Ω is measured 125 kV (150 ns full width at half maximum FWHM) with 1.5 GW peak-power. The use of single-optimized-exploding-copper-wire along with the use of air for all the switches of the generator (closing switches of Marx generator used as primary energy source and opening switch of exploding wire) make device very attractive. Marx generator shape itself provides the desired inductance for the inductive storage.

  8. Note: Compact, reusable inductive-storage-cum-opening-switch based 1.5 GW single-shot pulsed power generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Rohit; Shyam, Anurag

    2014-03-01

    The results of a very-compact (Marx generator-cum-inductor confined into 0.20 m cylindrical diameter and 0.75 m length) and light-weight (<15 kg) pulsed-power generator are being presented in the paper. The load voltage at 10.5 Ω is measured 125 kV (150 ns full width at half maximum FWHM) with 1.5 GW peak-power. The use of single-optimized-exploding-copper-wire along with the use of air for all the switches of the generator (closing switches of Marx generator used as primary energy source and opening switch of exploding wire) make device very attractive. Marx generator shape itself provides the desired inductance for the inductive storage.

  9. Generation of pulsed ion beams by an inductive storage pulsed power generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsuki, Sunao; Akiyama, Hidenori; Maeda, Sadao

    1990-10-01

    A pulsed power generator by an inductive energy storage system is extremely compact and light in comparison with a conventional pulsed power generator, which consists of a Marx bank and a water pulse forming line. A compact and light pulse power generator is applied to the generation of pulsed ion beams. A thin copper fuse is used an an opening switch, which is necessary in the inductive storage pulsed power generator. A magnetically insulated diode is used for the generation of ion beams. The pulsed ion beams are successfully generated by the inductive storage pulsed power generator for the first time.

  10. Conical diffraction illumination opens the way for low phototoxicity super-resolution imaging

    PubMed Central

    Caron, Julien; Fallet, Clément; Tinevez, Jean-Yves; Moisan, Lionel; Braitbart, L Philippe (Ori); Sirat, Gabriel Y; Shorte, Spencer L

    2014-01-01

    We present a new technology for super-resolution fluorescence imaging, based on conical diffraction. Conical diffraction is a linear, singular phenomenon, taking place when a laser beam is diffracted through a biaxial crystal. We use conical diffraction in a thin biaxial crystal to generate illumination patterns that are more compact than the classical Gaussian beam, and use them to generate a super-resolution imaging modality. While there already exist several super-resolution modalities, our technology (biaxial super-resolution: BSR) is distinguished by the unique combination of several performance features. Using BSR super-resolution data are achieved using low light illumination significantly less than required for classical confocal imaging, which makes BSR ideal for live-cell, long-term time-lapse super-resolution imaging. Furthermore, no specific sample preparation is required, and any fluorophore can be used. Perhaps most exciting, improved resolution BSR-imaging resolution enhancement can be achieved with any type of objective no matter the magnification, numerical aperture, working distance, or the absence or presence of immersion medium. In this article, we present the first implementation of BSR modality on a commercial confocal microscope. We acquire and analyze validation data, showing high quality super-resolved images of biological objects, and demonstrate the wide applicability of the technology. We report live-cell super-resolution imaging over a long period, and show that the light dose required for super-resolution imaging is far below the threshold likely to generate phototoxicity. PMID:25482642

  11. Conical diffraction illumination opens the way for low phototoxicity super-resolution imaging.

    PubMed

    Caron, Julien; Fallet, Clément; Tinevez, Jean-Yves; Moisan, Lionel; Braitbart, L Philippe Ori; Sirat, Gabriel Y; Shorte, Spencer L

    2014-01-01

    We present a new technology for super-resolution fluorescence imaging, based on conical diffraction. Conical diffraction is a linear, singular phenomenon, taking place when a laser beam is diffracted through a biaxial crystal. We use conical diffraction in a thin biaxial crystal to generate illumination patterns that are more compact than the classical Gaussian beam, and use them to generate a super-resolution imaging modality. While there already exist several super-resolution modalities, our technology (biaxial super-resolution: BSR) is distinguished by the unique combination of several performance features. Using BSR super-resolution data are achieved using low light illumination significantly less than required for classical confocal imaging, which makes BSR ideal for live-cell, long-term time-lapse super-resolution imaging. Furthermore, no specific sample preparation is required, and any fluorophore can be used. Perhaps most exciting, improved resolution BSR-imaging resolution enhancement can be achieved with any type of objective no matter the magnification, numerical aperture, working distance, or the absence or presence of immersion medium. In this article, we present the first implementation of BSR modality on a commercial confocal microscope. We acquire and analyze validation data, showing high quality super-resolved images of biological objects, and demonstrate the wide applicability of the technology. We report live-cell super-resolution imaging over a long period, and show that the light dose required for super-resolution imaging is far below the threshold likely to generate phototoxicity.

  12. Super-Hard Superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Philip; Prozorov, Ruslan

    2005-03-01

    We present the magnetic response of Type-II superconductivity in the extreme pinning limit, where screening currents within an order of magnitude of the Ginzburg-Landau depairing critical current density develop upon the application of a magnetic field. We show that this ``super-hard'' limit is well approximated in highly disordered, cold drawn, Nb wire whose magnetization response is characterized by a cascade of Meissner-like phases, each terminated by a catastrophic collapse of the magnetization. Direct magneto-optic measurements of the flux penetration depth in the virgin magnetization branch are in excellent agreement with the exponential model in which Jc(B)=Jco(-B/Bo), where Jco˜5x10^6 A/cm^2 for Nb. The implications for the fundamental limiting hardness of a superconductor will be discussed.

  13. Mirror-enhanced super-resolution microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xusan; Xie, Hao; Alonas, Eric; Liu, Yujia; Chen, Xuanze; Santangelo, Philip J; Ren, Qiushi; Xi, Peng; Jin, Dayong

    2016-01-01

    Axial excitation confinement beyond the diffraction limit is crucial to the development of next-generation, super-resolution microscopy. STimulated Emission Depletion (STED) nanoscopy offers lateral super-resolution using a donut-beam depletion, but its axial resolution is still over 500 nm. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy is widely used for single-molecule localization, but its ability to detect molecules is limited to within the evanescent field of ~ 100 nm from the cell attachment surface. We find here that the axial thickness of the point spread function (PSF) during confocal excitation can be easily improved to 110 nm by replacing the microscopy slide with a mirror. The interference of the local electromagnetic field confined the confocal PSF to a 110-nm spot axially, which enables axial super-resolution with all laser-scanning microscopes. Axial sectioning can be obtained with wavelength modulation or by controlling the spacer between the mirror and the specimen. With no additional complexity, the mirror-assisted excitation confinement enhanced the axial resolution six-fold and the lateral resolution two-fold for STED, which together achieved 19-nm resolution to resolve the inner rim of a nuclear pore complex and to discriminate the contents of 120 nm viral filaments. The ability to increase the lateral resolution and decrease the thickness of an axial section using mirror-enhanced STED without increasing the laser power is of great importance for imaging biological specimens, which cannot tolerate high laser power. PMID:27398242

  14. Mirror-enhanced super-resolution microscopy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xusan; Xie, Hao; Alonas, Eric; Liu, Yujia; Chen, Xuanze; Santangelo, Philip J; Ren, Qiushi; Xi, Peng; Jin, Dayong

    Axial excitation confinement beyond the diffraction limit is crucial to the development of next-generation, super-resolution microscopy. STimulated Emission Depletion (STED) nanoscopy offers lateral super-resolution using a donut-beam depletion, but its axial resolution is still over 500 nm. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy is widely used for single-molecule localization, but its ability to detect molecules is limited to within the evanescent field of ~ 100 nm from the cell attachment surface. We find here that the axial thickness of the point spread function (PSF) during confocal excitation can be easily improved to 110 nm by replacing the microscopy slide with a mirror. The interference of the local electromagnetic field confined the confocal PSF to a 110-nm spot axially, which enables axial super-resolution with all laser-scanning microscopes. Axial sectioning can be obtained with wavelength modulation or by controlling the spacer between the mirror and the specimen. With no additional complexity, the mirror-assisted excitation confinement enhanced the axial resolution six-fold and the lateral resolution two-fold for STED, which together achieved 19-nm resolution to resolve the inner rim of a nuclear pore complex and to discriminate the contents of 120 nm viral filaments. The ability to increase the lateral resolution and decrease the thickness of an axial section using mirror-enhanced STED without increasing the laser power is of great importance for imaging biological specimens, which cannot tolerate high laser power.

  15. High-voltage pulse generator developed for wide-gap spark chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, L. P.; Walschon, E. G.

    1968-01-01

    Low-inductance, high-capacitance Marx pulse generator provides for minimization of internal inductance and suppression of external electromagnetic radiation. The spark gaps of the generator are enclosed in a pressurized nitrogen atmosphere which allows the charging voltage to be varied by changing the nitrogen pressure.

  16. SuperB Progress Report: Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Grauges, E.; Donvito, G.; Spinoso, V.; Manghisoni, M.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.; Eigen, G.; Fehlker, D.; Helleve, L.; Carbone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Gabrielli, A.; Galli, D.; Giorgi, F.; Marconi, U.; Perazzini, S.; Sbarra, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valentinetti, S.; Villa, M.; Zoccoli, A.; /INFN, Bologna /Bologna U. /Caltech /Carleton U. /Cincinnati U. /INFN, CNAF /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /UC, Irvine /Taras Shevchenko U. /Orsay, LAL /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Frascati /INFN, Legnaro /Orsay, IPN /Maryland U. /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Pavia /Pavia U. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /Caltech /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /PNL, Richland /Queen Mary, U. of London /Rutherford /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome2 /Rome U.,Tor Vergata /INFN, Rome3 /Rome III U. /SLAC /Tel Aviv U. /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Padua /Trento U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /TRIUMF /British Columbia U. /Montreal U. /Victoria U.

    2012-02-14

    This report describes the present status of the detector design for SuperB. It is one of four separate progress reports that, taken collectively, describe progress made on the SuperB Project since the publication of the SuperB Conceptual Design Report in 2007 and the Proceedings of SuperB Workshop VI in Valencia in 2008.

  17. A Topology of On/Off Marx Modulator with Protection of Load and Solid State Switches

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnykh, Anatoly; /SLAC

    2007-03-05

    This article discusses a proposal for an ultra fast feedback response that will protect the load and solid state switches of the ON/OFF Marx type modulators. The feedback guards main elements of a modulator against possible arcs in the load, particularly arcs inside of the electron guns. The chief concept behind the proposed response system is an employment of a fraction of the output modulator power as a controlling and guarding pulse during the delivery time. The time constant of the proposed feedback loop lies in the nanosecond range. Peculiarities of proposed topology are discussed.

  18. Towards a PEBB-Based Design Approach for a Marx-Topology ILC Klystron Modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Macken, K

    2009-10-17

    Introduced by the U.S. Navy more than a decade ago, the concept of Power Electronic Building Blocks (PEBBs) has been successfully applied in various applications. It is well accepted within the power electronics arena that this concept offers the potential to achieve increased levels of modularity and compactness. This approach is thus ideally suited for applications where easy serviceability and high availability are key, such as the ILC. This paper presents a building block approach for designing a Marx-topology ILC klystron modulator.

  19. What's So Super about Superfoods?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Most myths about super foods are perpetuated by marketing efforts, said Kris-Etherton, which is why most ... dark chocolate that you overshoot your daily calorie goal and gain weight,” said Kris-Etherton, who is ...

  20. Conducted noise analysis and protection of 45 kJ/s, ±50 kV capacitor charging power supply when interfaced with repetitive Marx based pulse power system.

    PubMed

    Naresh, P; Patel, Ankur; Sharma, Archana

    2015-09-01

    Pulse power systems with highly dynamic loads like klystron, backward wave oscillator (BWO), and magnetron generate highly dynamic noise. This noise leads to frequent failure of controlled switches in the inverter stage of charging power supply. Designing a reliable and compatible power supply for pulse power applications is always a tricky job when charging rate is in multiples of 10 kJ/s. A ±50 kV and 45 kJ/s capacitor charging power supply based on 4th order LCLC resonant topology has been developed for a 10 Hz repetitive Marx based system. Conditions for load independent constant current and zero current switching (ZCS) are derived mathematically. Noise generated at load end due to dynamic load is tackled effectively and reduction in magnitude noise voltage is achieved by providing shielding between primary and secondary of high voltage high frequency transformer and with LCLC low pass filter. Shielding scales down the ratio between coupling capacitance (Cc) and the collector-emitter capacitance of insulated gate bi-polar transistor switch, which in turn reduces the common mode noise voltage magnitude. The proposed 4th order LCLC resonant network acts as a low pass filter for differential mode noise in the reverse direction (from load to source). Power supply has been tested repeatedly with 5 Hz repetition rate with repetitive Marx based system connected with BWO load working fine without failure of single switch in the inverter stage.

  1. Conducted noise analysis and protection of 45 kJ/s, ±50 kV capacitor charging power supply when interfaced with repetitive Marx based pulse power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naresh, P.; Patel, Ankur; Sharma, Archana

    2015-09-01

    Pulse power systems with highly dynamic loads like klystron, backward wave oscillator (BWO), and magnetron generate highly dynamic noise. This noise leads to frequent failure of controlled switches in the inverter stage of charging power supply. Designing a reliable and compatible power supply for pulse power applications is always a tricky job when charging rate is in multiples of 10 kJ/s. A ±50 kV and 45 kJ/s capacitor charging power supply based on 4th order LCLC resonant topology has been developed for a 10 Hz repetitive Marx based system. Conditions for load independent constant current and zero current switching (ZCS) are derived mathematically. Noise generated at load end due to dynamic load is tackled effectively and reduction in magnitude noise voltage is achieved by providing shielding between primary and secondary of high voltage high frequency transformer and with LCLC low pass filter. Shielding scales down the ratio between coupling capacitance (Cc) and the collector-emitter capacitance of insulated gate bi-polar transistor switch, which in turn reduces the common mode noise voltage magnitude. The proposed 4th order LCLC resonant network acts as a low pass filter for differential mode noise in the reverse direction (from load to source). Power supply has been tested repeatedly with 5 Hz repetition rate with repetitive Marx based system connected with BWO load working fine without failure of single switch in the inverter stage.

  2. /N = 2 super W∞ algebra and its nonlinear realization through super KP formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Sasanka; Paul, Samir K.

    1995-01-01

    A nonlinear realizations of super W∞ algebra is shown to exist through a consistent superLax formulation of super KP hierarchy. The reduction of the superLax operator gives rise to the Lax operators for N = 2 generalized super KdV hierarchies, proposed by Inami and Kanno. The Lax equations are shown to be Hamiltonian and the associated Poisson bracket algebra among the superfields, consequently, gives rise to a realization of nonlinear super W∞ algebra.

  3. Design of a groundwater model to determine the feasibility of extending an artificial salmon-spawning stream: case study for Marx Creek, near Hyder, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, T. P.; Lachmar, T. E.

    2013-09-01

    Marx Creek is a groundwater-fed, artificial salmon-spawning stream near Hyder, Alaska. The purpose of this project was to develop a groundwater flow model to predict baseflow to a proposed 450-m extension of Marx Creek. To accomplish this purpose, water levels were monitored in 20 monitor wells and discharge measurements were recorded from Marx Creek. These data were used to create a three-dimensional groundwater flow model using Visual MODFLOW. Three predictive simulations were run after the model was calibrated to groundwater levels and stream discharge measurements. The proposed extension was added to the calibrated model during the first simulation, resulting in simulated baseflow to the extension stream exceeding simulated baseflow to the existing Marx Creek by 39 %. Sections of Marx Creek were removed from the model during the second simulation, resulting in a 5 % increase in simulated baseflow to the extension stream. A 32-cm reduction in the water table was simulated during the third simulation, resulting in an 18 % decrease in simulated baseflow to the extension stream. These modeling results were used by Tongass National Forest personnel to determine that baseflow to the proposed extension would likely be sufficient to provide habitat conducive to salmon spawning. The extension stream was constructed and portions of Marx Creek were decommissioned during the summer of 2008. It was observed that there is comparable or greater discharge in the extension stream than there was in the decommissioned sections of Marx Creek, although neither discharge nor stream stage measurements have yet been collected.

  4. Emergence and dynamics of influenza super-strains

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Influenza super-strains can emerge through recombination of strains from birds, pigs, and humans. However, once a new recombinant strain emerges, it is not clear whether the strain is capable of sustaining an outbreak. In certain cases, such strains have caused major influenza pandemics. Methods Here we develop a multi-host (i.e., birds, pigs, and humans) and multi-strain model of influenza to analyze the outcome of emergent strains. In the model, pigs act as “mixing vessels” for avian and human strains and can produce super-strains from genetic recombination. Results We find that epidemiological outcomes are predicted by three factors: (i) contact between pigs and humans, (ii) transmissibility of the super-strain in humans, and (iii) transmissibility from pigs to humans. Specifically, outbreaks will reoccur when the super-strain infections are less frequent between humans (e.g., R0=1.4) but frequent from pigs to humans, and a large-scale outbreak followed by successive dampening outbreaks will occur when super-strain infections are frequent between humans (e.g., R0=2.3). The average time between the initial outbreak and the first resurgence varies from 41 to 82 years. We determine the largest outbreak will occur when 2.3 super-strains. Counter intuitively, epidemics may occur in humans even if the transmissibility of a super-strain is low. Surprisingly, our modeling shows strains that have generated past epidemics (e.g., H1N1) could resurge decades after they have apparently disappeared. PMID:21356135

  5. [Territorial differences in the occurrence of caries in Karl Marx Stadt children and adolescent after 12 years of water fluoridation].

    PubMed

    Künzel, W

    1976-01-01

    Cariostatistical comparisons made since the start of drinking-water fluoridation in Karl-Marx-Stadt suggested territorial differences in the prevalence of dental decay. In the present paper an attempt is made to analyse the problems involved, with due consideration being given to both demographic and ecological factors.

  6. [From Paul Flechsig to the Paul Flechsig Institute for Brain Research. Development of brain research at the Karl Marx University].

    PubMed

    Leibnitz, L; Werner, L; Schober, W; Brauer, K

    1977-04-01

    A review is given on the development of the brain research institute of the Karl-Marx-University of Leipzig during the directorates of Paul Flechsig (1883-1920), Richard Arwed Pfeifer (1925-1957), and Wolfgang Wünscher (1957-1971).

  7. [Development, problems and results of specialty-specific genetic counseling at the Neurology Clinic of the Karl Marx University].

    PubMed

    Bachmann, H

    1987-11-01

    Genetic counselling for inherited neurological diseases has been established at the Clinic for Neurology of Karl Marx University. Comprehensive experiences have been got with the specific and sometimes markedly different problems and aims of counselling in Wilsons disease, X-linked recessive muscular dystrophies, myotonic dystrophy and other neuromuscular disorders, Huntingtons chorea and hereditary ataxias.

  8. Black Religion as BOTH Opiate and Inspiration of Civil Rights Militancy: Putting Marx's Data to the Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Larry L.; Hunt, Janet G.

    1977-01-01

    Concludes that Harry Marx's (1964) inference of a general opiate quality in black religion is incomplete and misleading. Examines data concerning religion and civil rights militancy. Finds that secular social factors (e.g., social class, region, and nonurban origins) are better indicators of militance than is religiosity. (Author/GC)

  9. SOWFA + Super Controller User's Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, P.; Gebraad, P.; Churchfield, M.; Lee, S.; Johnson, K.; Michalakes, J.; van Wingerden, J. W.; Moriarty, P.

    2013-08-01

    SOWFA + Super Controller is a modification of the NREL's SOWFA tool which allows for a user to apply multiturbine or centralized wind plant control algorithms within the high-fidelity SOWFA simulation environment. The tool is currently a branch of the main SOWFA program, but will one day will be merged into a single version. This manual introduces the tool and provides examples such that a user can implement their own super controller and set up and run simulations. The manual only discusses enough about SOWFA itself to allow for the customization of controllers and running of simulations, and details of SOWFA itself are reported elsewhere Churchfield and Lee (2013); Churchfield et al. (2012). SOWFA + Super Controller, and this manual, are in alpha mode.

  10. The SuperNEMO calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquet, Christine; SuperNEMO collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The SuperNEMO double beta decay project is a modular tracker-calorimeter experiment that will reach a sensitivity to the neutrinoless double beta decay half-life of ∼ 1026 years, corresponding to a Majorana neutrino mass of 50-100 meV. The main calorimeter is based on 440 Optical Modules made of large volume plastic scintillators (10L) coupled with large area photomultipliers (Hamamatsu R5912-Mod). They are assembled in walls surrounding the isotope foil and the tracking volume. One of the main challenges of the SuperNEMO detector development programme was to reach an energy resolution, better than 8%(FWHM) at 1 MeV. The other challenge was to satisfy the radiopurity requirements for all the calorimeter materials. The calorimeter design of the first SuperNEMO module is presented as well as its performances and the status of its construction under way in the Modane underground laboratory.

  11. [Treatment of super super morbid obesity by sleeve gastrectomy].

    PubMed

    Catheline, Jean-Marc; Cohen, Régis; Khochtali, Inès; Bihan, Hélène; Reach, Gérard; Benamouzig, Robert; Benichou, Joseph

    2006-03-01

    INTEREST OF WORK: The longitudinal or "sleeve" gastrectomy was recently introduced into the therapeutic arsenal of the bariatric surgeon. It is a restrictive procedure that reduces stomach capacity by 75%. We present here a preliminary experience with four patients. Four patients with super super obesity (body mass index (BMI)>60 kg/m2) underwent longitudinal or "sleeve" gastrectomy. Their average preoperative weight was 173 kg (range: 147-190 kg) and mean BMI 65 kg/m2 (range: 61-67 kg/m2). The average post-operative follow-up was 6 months (range: 2-12 months). Average weight loss at 6 months was 40 kg (range: 20-60 kg) and average decrease in BMI at 6 months 16.3 kg/m2 (range: 6-23 kg/m2). We noted a postsurgical complication in only one patient (subdiaphragmatic abscess treated with drainage). These preliminary results suggest that the sleeve gastrectomy is associated with few perioperative complications and offers rapidly effective treatment for super super morbid obesity. Long-term results require further investigation.

  12. Super-Jumbo Jet: An Airborne Village.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cave, Linda

    1997-01-01

    Presents facts about a super-jumbo jet and poses 11 questions on different subjects, including estimation and comparison, concerning the super-jumbo jet. Gives hints and solutions for the answers to those questions. (ASK)

  13. Barnacle Bill in Super Resolution from Super Panorama

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-07-03

    "Barnacle Bill" is a small rock immediately west-northwest of the Mars Pathfinder lander and was the first rock visited by the Sojourner Rover's alpha proton X-ray spectrometer (APXS) instrument. This image shows super resolution techniques applied to the first APXS target rock, which was never imaged with the rover's forward cameras. Super resolution was applied to help to address questions about the texture of this rock and what it might tell us about its mode of origin. This view of Barnacle Bill was produced by combining the "Super Panorama" frames from the IMP camera. Super resolution was applied to help to address questions about the texture of these rocks and what it might tell us about their mode of origin. The composite color frames that make up this anaglyph were produced for both the right and left eye of the IMP. The composites consist of 7 frames in the right eye and 8 frames in the left eye, taken with different color filters that were enlarged by 500% and then co-added using Adobe Photoshop to produce, in effect, a super-resolution panchromatic frame that is sharper than an individual frame would be. These panchromatic frames were then colorized with the red, green, and blue filtered images from the same sequence. The color balance was adjusted to approximate the true color of Mars. The anaglyph view was produced by combining the left with the right eye color composite frames by assigning the left eye composite view to the red color plane and the right eye composite view to the green and blue color planes (cyan), to produce a stereo anaglyph mosaic. This mosaic can be viewed in 3-D on your computer monitor or in color print form by wearing red-blue 3-D glasses. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01409

  14. Comparison of Simulations of Preliminary Breakdown to Observations from the Huntsville Alabama Marx Meter Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, B. E.; Liang, C.; Bitzer, P. M.; Christian, H. J., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    Preliminary breakdown pulses in electric field change records are thought to be produced by sudden extensions of the lightning channel. We present detailed time domain electrodynamic simulations of extension of an existing lightning leader channel due to heating processes and compare the results to observations of a natural cloud-to-ground lightning discharge made with the Huntsville Alabama Marx Meter Array (HAMMA) at a variety of locations near the discharge. Varying the geometry and parameters of the simulations in an attempt to reproduce the data allows us to constrain the directionality and physical properties of the channel. We simulate a variety of leader step phenomena, including uniform heating over the entire step, connection with a space leader, and dart leader propagation onto a preconditioned channel. Results support the notion of impulsive channel extension as the mechanism for preliminary breakdown and shed light on the mechanics of the process.

  15. Bacteriological findings in patients with bone marrow transplantation (Karl Marx University Leipzig, 1985-1987).

    PubMed

    Wonitzki, C; Hoffmann, F A

    1989-01-01

    The results of the bacteriological surveillance cultures for 26 patients with bone marrow transplantation (Karl Marx University Leipzig, G.D.R., 1985-1987) are presented. 5.9% of all surveillance cultures contained facultatively pathogenic germs (with Pseudomonas aeruginosa as the most frequent representative, which was the reason of a sepsis in two patients). Coagulasenegative Staphylococci and other germs with an obscure pathogenicity were isolated upon a large scale, especially from the mucous membrane regions. There are hints, that above all special strains of coagulasenegative Staphylococci "colonize" the patient's body (also for longer periods) and turn into the blood too. During the total decontamination intestinal anaerobic flora is absent. After closing of total decontamination Clostridium perfringens is the first detectable anaerobic species. During the selective decontamination systemic applications of antibiotics are able to obliterate anaerobic findings for certain periods. Recommendations for an effective arrangement of the surveillance cultures of bone marrow transplantation patients are given.

  16. In defense of a critical-presentist historiography: the fact-theory relationship and Marx's epistemology.

    PubMed

    Buss, A R

    1977-07-01

    It is argued that mainstream social scientists made an "error" during the crucial formative years of the 1920s and 1930s. This historical error involved relinquishing, or at the very least ignoring, some of the epistemological views within the social sciences concerning the fact-theory relationship as developed by Marx and others in his tradition. The contemporary nature of some of Mark's epistemic views is demonstrated, where the case is made that some recent developments in the philosophy of science are converging with some of his original insights. The methodological approach of the article--judging the past in the context of the present--is defended on the basis of Marxian historiography, especially as developed by those noe-Marxists of the Frankfurt School. In the latter discussion "justificationist presentism" is criticized from the perspective of a "critical presentism."

  17. Bringing Out the "Super Reader" in Everyone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichelderfer, Melissa A.

    2001-01-01

    Describes a "Super Reader" project that gives students an opportunity to show off their ability as readers. Defines "Super Readers" as students who read aloud to small groups of their peers. Notes that the "Super Reader" project encourages students to practice good reading behaviors, which are important for holding…

  18. Super 8: The Modest Medium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Jonathan F.

    This state of the art review gives an overview of the history of the development of Super 8 film, and describes a range of hardware associated with it, covering such areas as camera, sound synchronization, double system recording, lighting, film processing, sound transfer, editing, sound mixing, display, and methods of distribution. It examines…

  19. Review: SuperCalc3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jadrnicek, Rik

    1984-01-01

    Reviews the latest version of the SuperCalc spreadsheet, indicating that it now provides color graphics, two-key sorting, and database management functions (including Internal Rate of Return). Also indicates that the program is not copy protected, useful in trying to integrate a variety of programs. (JN)

  20. Space-time super-resolution using graph-cut optimization.

    PubMed

    Mudenagudi, Uma; Banerjee, Subhashis; Kalra, Prem Kumar

    2011-05-01

    We address the problem of super-resolution—obtaining high-resolution images and videos from multiple low-resolution inputs. The increased resolution can be in spatial or temporal dimensions, or even in both. We present a unified framework which uses a generative model of the imaging process and can address spatial super-resolution, space-time super-resolution, image deconvolution, single-image expansion, removal of noise, and image restoration. We model a high-resolution image or video as a Markov random field and use maximum a posteriori estimate as the final solution using graph-cut optimization technique. We derive insights into what super-resolution magnification factors are possible and the conditions necessary for super-resolution. We demonstrate spatial super-resolution reconstruction results with magnifications higher than predicted limits of magnification. We also formulate a scheme for selective super-resolution reconstruction of videos to obtain simultaneous increase of resolutions in both spatial and temporal directions. We show that it is possible to achieve space-time magnification factors beyond what has been suggested in the literature by selectively applying super-resolution constraints. We present results on both synthetic and real input sequences.

  1. Coiled transmission line pulse generators

    DOEpatents

    McDonald, Kenneth Fox

    2010-11-09

    Methods and apparatus are provided for fabricating and constructing solid dielectric "Coiled Transmission Line" pulse generators in radial or axial coiled geometries. The pour and cure fabrication process enables a wide variety of geometries and form factors. The volume between the conductors is filled with liquid blends of monomers, polymers, oligomers, and/or cross-linkers and dielectric powders; and then cured to form high field strength and high dielectric constant solid dielectric transmission lines that intrinsically produce ideal rectangular high voltage pulses when charged and switched into matched impedance loads. Voltage levels may be increased by Marx and/or Blumlein principles incorporating spark gap or, preferentially, solid state switches (such as optically triggered thyristors) which produce reliable, high repetition rate operation. Moreover, these Marxed pulse generators can be DC charged and do not require additional pulse forming circuitry, pulse forming lines, transformers, or an a high voltage spark gap output switch. The apparatus accommodates a wide range of voltages, impedances, pulse durations, pulse repetition rates, and duty cycles. The resulting mobile or flight platform friendly cylindrical geometric configuration is much more compact, light-weight, and robust than conventional linear geometries, or pulse generators constructed from conventional components. Installing additional circuitry may accommodate optional pulse shape improvements. The Coiled Transmission Lines can also be connected in parallel to decrease the impedance, or in series to increase the pulse length.

  2. Focusing super resolution on the cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Shelden, Eric A.; Colburn, Zachary T.; Jones, Jonathan C.R.

    2016-01-01

    Super resolution imaging is becoming an increasingly important tool in the arsenal of methods available to cell biologists. In recognition of its potential, the Nobel Prize for chemistry was awarded to three investigators involved in the development of super resolution imaging methods in 2014. The availability of commercial instruments for super resolution imaging has further spurred the development of new methods and reagents designed to take advantage of super resolution techniques. Super resolution offers the advantages traditionally associated with light microscopy, including the use of gentle fixation and specimen preparation methods, the ability to visualize multiple elements within a single specimen, and the potential to visualize dynamic changes in living specimens over time. However, imaging of living cells over time is difficult and super resolution imaging is computationally demanding. In this review, we discuss the advantages/disadvantages of different super resolution systems for imaging fixed live specimens, with particular regard to cytoskeleton structures. PMID:27303635

  3. [Experiences and results in hypertension screening in women between 20 and 65 years of age in Karl-Marx-City].

    PubMed

    Voigt, G; Börker, G; Edelmann, S; Hartung, A; Hartung, G; Heyne, S; Töpfer, V

    1980-11-15

    From 1975 to 1979 in the district of the City of Karl-Marx-Stadt 91,130 females at the age between 20 and 65 years were summoned to a gynaecologico-cardiological mass examination which was supported by computer. 56,460 females underwent the examination. According to the WHO-criteria two measurements of blood pressure were carried out, when increased blood pressure was present a third one and a fourth one by an examination group. A diagnostic standard programme was used. In the second measurement of blood pressure we established 19.8% of patients with hypertension and 28.6% patients with borderline values. 52.8% of the hypertensions were known. Of 10,685 females with known or established hypertension 10.1% underwent an optimum therapy. On the basis of these results a programme for the fight against hypertension was developed for the county Karl-Marx-Stadt.

  4. [Management of functional sterility using clomiphene and cyclophenyl at the Karl-Marx-Stadt District Hospital Gynecologic Clinic].

    PubMed

    Neubert, S; Melzer, H

    1977-01-01

    We report on 39 barren patients suffering from anovulatory cycle disturbances or corpus luteum inadequacies. Them were given treatment in the Gynecological Hospital of Karl-Marx-Stadt County at Karl-Marx-Stadt in the past few years and were administered Clomiphendihydrogencitrate or Cyclophenyl to provoke ovulation. Before and during therapy, the total of estrogenes and pregnanediol were determined in the 24h-urine every two days. The clinical data and the results of the hormone investigations were analysed, and an attempt was made to derive a forecast from the estrogene and pregnanediol secretion so as to be able to form an opinion on the positive or negative result of the treatment.

  5. What could be observed in the case of Super-Ios and Hyper-Ios?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briot, D.; Lellouch, E.; Schneider, J.

    2011-12-01

    Since the detection of a very strong volcanic activity on Io by Voyager, other instances of volcanic activity have been discovered in the solar system. Super-Earths are very promising extra-solar planets. If a volcanic activity is generated in a similar manner as for Io occurs in Super-Earth's, these objects would be highly active corresponding to Super-Io's and even more Hyper-Ios. They would present very interesting observational features. We investigate the conditions of a possible atmosphere and its properties, particularly the molecules corresponding to a volcanic activity.

  6. Lifetime Tests on a High Ohms/Square Metalized High Crystalline Polypropylene Film Capacitor with Application to a Marx Modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, Mark A.; Burkhart, Craig; Tang, Tao; /SLAC

    2010-06-07

    This paper presents accelerated lifetime tests on a polypropylene film capacitor. Experimental parameters (20% droop, 5 Hz repetition rate) simulate anticipated operating conditions encountered in the SLAC P2 Marx. Elevated film electric field stress is utilized as the acceleration parameter. Results indicate that, for the particular film of interest, a film stress of {approx}290 V/{mu}m corresponds to a 10{sup 5} hour lifetime. In addition, the voltage scaling exponent for this film is 13.1.

  7. Wake Fields in the Super B Factory Interaction Region

    SciTech Connect

    Weathersby, Stephen; Novokhatski, Alexander; /SLAC

    2011-06-02

    The geometry of storage ring collider interaction regions present an impedance to beam fields resulting in the generation of additional electromagnetic fields (higher order modes or wake fields) which affect the beam energy and trajectory. These affects are computed for the Super B interaction region by evaluating longitudinal loss factors and averaged transverse kicks for short range wake fields. Results indicate at least a factor of 2 lower wake field power generation in comparison with the interaction region geometry of the PEP-II B-factory collider. Wake field reduction is a consderation in the Super B design. Transverse kicks are consistent with an attractive potential from the crotch nearest the beam trajectory. The longitudinal loss factor scales as the -2.5 power of the bunch length. A factor of 60 loss factor reduction is possible with crotch geometry based on an intersecting tubes model.

  8. Super-Resolution of Dynamic Scenes Using Sampling Rate Diversity.

    PubMed

    Salem, Faisal; Yagle, Andrew E

    2016-08-01

    In earlier work, we proposed a super-resolution (SR) method that required the availability of two low resolution (LR) sequences corresponding to two different sampling rates, where images from one sequence were used as a basis to represent the polyphase components (PPCs) of the high resolution (HR) image, while the other LR sequences provided the reference LR image (to be super-resolved). The (simple) algorithm implemented by Salem and Yagle is only applicable when the scene is static. In this paper, we recast our approach to SR as a two-stage example-based algorithm to process dynamic scenes. We employ feature selection to create, from the LR frames, local LR dictionaries to represent PPCs of HR patches. To enforce sparsity, we implement Gaussian generative models as an efficient alternative to L1-norm minimization. Estimation errors are further reduced using what we refer to as the anchors, which are based on the relationship between PPCs corresponding to different sampling rates. In the second stage, we revert to simple single frame SR (applied to each frame), using HR dictionaries extracted from the super-resolved sequence of the previous stage. The second stage is thus a reiteration of the sparsity coding scheme, using only one LR sequence, and without involving PPCs. The ability of the modified algorithm to super-resolve challenging LR sequences reintroduces sampling rate diversity as a prerequisite of robust multiframe SR.

  9. Super Resolution Image of Yogi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Yogi is a meter-size rock about 5 meters northwest of the Mars Pathfinder lander and was the second rock visited by the Sojourner Rover's alpha proton X-ray spectrometer (APXS) instrument. This mosaic shows super resolution techniques applied to the second APXS target rock, which was poorly illuminated in the rover's forward camera view taken before the instrument was deployed. Super resolution was applied to help to address questions about the texture of this rock and what it might tell us about its mode of origin.

    This mosaic of Yogi was produced by combining four 'Super Pan' frames taken with the IMP camera. This composite color mosaic consists of 7 frames from the right eye, taken with different color filters that were enlarged by 500% and then co-added using Adobe Photoshop to produce, in effect, a super-resolution panchromatic frame that is sharper than an individual frame would be. This panchromatic frame was then colorized with the red, green, and blue filtered images from the same sequence. The color balance was adjusted to approximate the true color of Mars. Shadows were processed separately from the rest of the rock and combined with the rest of the scene to bring out details in the shadow of Yogi that would be too dark to view at the same time as the sunlit surfaces.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  10. swot: Super W Of Theta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coupon, Jean; Leauthaud, Alexie; Kilbinger, Martin; Medezinski, Elinor

    2017-07-01

    SWOT (Super W Of Theta) computes two-point statistics for very large data sets, based on “divide and conquer” algorithms, mainly, but not limited to data storage in binary trees, approximation at large scale, parellelization (open MPI), and bootstrap and jackknife resampling methods “on the fly”. It currently supports projected and 3D galaxy auto and cross correlations, galaxy-galaxy lensing, and weighted histograms.

  11. Super Resolution Image of Yogi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Yogi is a meter-size rock about 5 meters northwest of the Mars Pathfinder lander and was the second rock visited by the Sojourner Rover's alpha proton X-ray spectrometer (APXS) instrument. This mosaic shows super resolution techniques applied to the second APXS target rock, which was poorly illuminated in the rover's forward camera view taken before the instrument was deployed. Super resolution was applied to help to address questions about the texture of this rock and what it might tell us about its mode of origin.

    This mosaic of Yogi was produced by combining four 'Super Pan' frames taken with the IMP camera. This composite color mosaic consists of 7 frames from the right eye, taken with different color filters that were enlarged by 500% and then co-added using Adobe Photoshop to produce, in effect, a super-resolution panchromatic frame that is sharper than an individual frame would be. This panchromatic frame was then colorized with the red, green, and blue filtered images from the same sequence. The color balance was adjusted to approximate the true color of Mars. Shadows were processed separately from the rest of the rock and combined with the rest of the scene to bring out details in the shadow of Yogi that would be too dark to view at the same time as the sunlit surfaces.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  12. Multi-pulse operation of a super-radiant backward-wave oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Bandurkin, I. V.; Savilov, A. V.

    2014-08-15

    Theory of a backward-wave electron oscillator operating in the non-stationary regime of super-radiation of short powerful rf pulses is developed. It is shown that there exist multi-frequency regimes of generation of either two-peak or three-peak output signal with different characteristic frequencies in every peak. The use of such regimes allows increasing the duration, the peak power, and the total energy of the output super-radiation rf pulse.

  13. Polarimetery for SuperB

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Michael; Field, R.; Moffeit, Kenneth; Nosochkov, Yuri; Wienands, Ulrich; Wittmer, Walter; Woods, Mike; /SLAC

    2012-07-06

    We provide an overview description of a Compton polarimeter for measuring electron beam polarization near the IR in the Low Energy Ring of SuperB. The polarimeter is designed to achieve 1.0% accuracy. A scheme for measuring the electron beam polarization at SuperB near the IR has been described. The Compton polarimeter has been designed to fit into the existing lattice of the SuperB ring and results in a Compton IP measuring the polarization located where the beam is almost longitudinal with opposite helicity to that at the IR. The polarization at the IR is expected to be determined with an accuracy of {approx}1% from the measurement at the Compton IP provided the beam direction at the electron-positron interaction region and the Compton IP are well known and the beam energy is measured to better than 20 MeV. Detailed detector studies are needed to study resolution and acceptance effects on detector analyzing powers, and to determine sensitivity to beam and machine parameters.

  14. Super-scalar processor design

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, W.M.

    1989-01-01

    A super-scalar processor is one that is capable of sustaining an instruction-execution rate of more than one instruction per clock cycle. Maintaining this execution rate is primarily a problem of scheduling processor resources (such as functional units) for high utilization. This study uses trace-driven simulation to evaluate many different super-scalar hardware organizations. It uses general-purpose bench-mark programs executed with a typical RISC instruction set. Highly-optimized versions of the benchmark programs are used, to avoid measuring concurrency that is due to a lack of compiler optimization. In contrast to previous studies, this study examines a wide range of cost and performance tradeoffs, rather than focusing on one specific processor organization or scheduling algorithm. Furthermore, the results are not based on idealizations; for example, they include the effects of realistic functional-unit latencies, instruction and data caches, and multi-tasking. Within this framework, super-scalar performance is limited primarily by instruction-fetch inefficiencies caused by both branch delays and instruction misalignment. Because of this instruction-fetch limitation, it is not worthwhile to explore highly-concurrent execution hardware. Rather, it is more appropriate to explore economical execution hardware that more closely matches the instruction throughout provided by the instruction fetcher. This study examines techniques for reducing the instruction-fetch inefficiencies and explores the resulting hardware organizations.

  15. SUPER-ECCENTRIC MIGRATING JUPITERS

    SciTech Connect

    Socrates, Aristotle; Katz, Boaz; Dong Subo; Tremaine, Scott

    2012-05-10

    An important class of formation theories for hot Jupiters involves the excitation of extreme orbital eccentricity (e = 0.99 or even larger) followed by tidal dissipation at periastron passage that eventually circularizes the planetary orbit at a period less than 10 days. In a steady state, this mechanism requires the existence of a significant population of super-eccentric (e > 0.9) migrating Jupiters with long orbital periods and periastron distances of only a few stellar radii. For these super-eccentric planets, the periastron is fixed due to conservation of orbital angular momentum and the energy dissipated per orbit is constant, implying that the rate of change in semi-major axis a is a-dot {proportional_to}a{sup 1/2} and consequently the number distribution satisfies dN/d log a{proportional_to}a{sup 1/2}. If this formation process produces most hot Jupiters, Kepler should detect several super-eccentric migrating progenitors of hot Jupiters, allowing for a test of high-eccentricity migration scenarios.

  16. SuperDARN assimilative mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cousins, E. D. P.; Matsuo, Tomoko; Richmond, A. D.

    2013-12-01

    An assimilative mapping procedure is developed to optimally combine information from Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) plasma drift observations and a background statistical convection model to derive global distributions of electrostatic potential. This procedure takes into account statistical properties of the background model errors, obtained through the empirical orthogonal function analysis technique described in a companion paper. The assimilative mapping procedure is evaluated quantitatively using cross-validation and is found to reduce median prediction errors by up to 43% as compared to the existing linear regression-based SuperDARN mapping procedure. Furthermore, the mapped results from the assimilative procedure show a greater dynamic range in convection strength than do those of the regression-based procedure (i.e., the cross-polar cap potential is smaller for weak driving conditions and larger for strong driving conditions). The application of the assimilative procedure is demonstrated for a case study containing a geomagnetic storm. It is shown that, qualitatively, the results of the assimilative procedure appear more smooth and consistent across both data-dense and data-sparse regions than do those of the regression-based procedure.

  17. Status of the Super B Factory Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Sangro, Riccardo de

    2010-08-05

    Two proposals have been presented for the construction of super high luminosity B factories, the SuperB in Italy and SuperKEKB in Japan. We review the physics case for the construction of such facilities in the LHC era and highlight several topics of hadronic physics that can benefit from the high luminosity they will integrate. The present status of the accelerator and detector work toward the Technical Design Reports is also presented.

  18. Novel Materials with Effective Super Dielectric Constants for Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortes, Francisco Javier Quintero; Phillips, Jonathan

    2015-05-01

    To test a theory of the recently discovered phenomenon of super dielectric behavior at very low frequency, the dielectric constants of several `pastes', composed of porous alumina powders filled to the point of incipient wetness with water containing dissolved sodium chloride, were measured. The effective dielectric low frequency constants of some of the pastes were greater than 1010, dramatically higher than that of any material ever reported. Moreover, the total energy density reported for one capacitor generated with NaCl-based super dielectric material is marginally higher than found in any prior report. These results are consistent with this recently postulated model of low frequency super dielectric behavior in porous, non-conductive materials saturated with ion-containing liquids: upon the application of an electric field, ions dissolved in the saturating liquid contained in the pores will travel to the ends of pore-filling liquid droplets creating giant dipoles. The fields of these giant dipoles oppose the applied field, reducing the net field created per unit of charge on the capacitor plates, effectively increasing charge/voltage ratio, hence capacitance. This is simply a version of the theory of `polarizable media' found in most classic texts on electromagnetism. Other observations reported here include (1) the impact of ion concentration on dielectric values, (2) a maximum voltage similar to that associated with the electrical breakdown of water, (3) the loss of capacitance upon drying, (4) the recovery of capacitance upon the addition of water to a dry super dielectric material, and (5) the linear relationship between capacitance and inverse thickness. All observations are consistent with the earlier proposed model of the super dielectric phenomenon. An extrapolation of results suggests this technology can lead to energy density greater than the best lithium-ion battery.

  19. The SuperCOSMOS Science Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambly, N.; Read, M.; Mann, R.; Sutorius, E.; Bond, I.; MacGillivray, H.; Williams, P.; Lawrence, A.

    2004-07-01

    The SuperCOSMOS Sky Survey (SSS {http://www-wfau.roe.ac.uk/sss}; Hambly et al., 2001) consists of digitised scans of Schmidt photographic survey material in a multi-colour (BRI), multi-epoch, uniformly calibrated product. It covers the whole southern hemisphere, with an extension into the north currently underway. Public online access to the 2 Tbytes of SSS pixel data and object catalogues has been available for some time; data are being downloaded at a rate of several gigabytes per week, and many new science results are emerging from community use of the data. In this poster we describe the terabyte-scale SuperCOSMOS Science Archive {http://thoth.roe.ac.uk/ssa} (SSA), which is a recasting of the SSS object catalogue system from flat files into an RDBMS, with an enhanced user interface. We describe some aspects of the hardware and schema design of the SSA, which aims to produce a high performance, VO-compatible database, suitable for data mining by `power users', while maintaining the ease of use praised in the old SSS system. Initially, the SSA will allow access through web forms and a flexible SQL interface. It acts as the prototype for the next generation survey archives to be hosted by the University of Edinburgh's Wide Field Astronomy Unit, such as the WFCAM Science Archive of infrared sky survey data, as well as being a scalability testbed for use by AstroGrid, the UK's Virtual Observatory project. As a result of these roles, it will display subsequently an expanding functionality, as web - and later, Grid - services are deployed on it.

  20. Observation of super-resolution in digital breast tomosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Acciavatti, Raymond J.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a 3D x-ray imaging modality in which tomographic sections of the breast are generated from a limited range of tube angles. Because oblique x-ray incidence shifts the image of an object in subpixel detector element increments with each increasing projection angle, it is demonstrated that DBT is capable of super-resolution (i.e., subpixel resolution). Methods: By convention, DBT reconstructions are performed on planes parallel to the breast support at various depths of the breast volume. In order for resolution in each reconstructed slice to be comparable to the detector, the pixel size should match that of the detector elements; hence, the highest frequency that can be resolved in the plane of reconstruction is the alias frequency of the detector. This study considers reconstruction grids with much smaller pixelation to visualize higher frequencies. For analytical proof of super-resolution, a theoretical framework is developed in which the reconstruction of a high frequency sinusoidal input is calculated using both simple backprojection (SBP) and filtered backprojection. To study the frequency spectrum of the reconstruction, its Fourier transform is also determined. The experimental feasibility of super-resolution was investigated by acquiring images of a bar pattern phantom with frequencies higher than the detector alias frequency. Results: Using analytical modeling, it is shown that the central projection cannot resolve frequencies exceeding the detector alias frequency. The Fourier transform of the central projection is maximized at a lower frequency than the input as evidence of aliasing. By contrast, SBP reconstruction can resolve the input, and its Fourier transform is correctly maximized at the input frequency. Incorporating filters into the reconstruction smoothens pixelation artifacts in the spatial domain and reduces spectral leakage in the Fourier domain. It is also demonstrated that the existence of super

  1. Observation of super-resolution in digital breast tomosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Acciavatti, Raymond J.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a 3D x-ray imaging modality in which tomographic sections of the breast are generated from a limited range of tube angles. Because oblique x-ray incidence shifts the image of an object in subpixel detector element increments with each increasing projection angle, it is demonstrated that DBT is capable of super-resolution (i.e., subpixel resolution). Methods: By convention, DBT reconstructions are performed on planes parallel to the breast support at various depths of the breast volume. In order for resolution in each reconstructed slice to be comparable to the detector, the pixel size should match that of the detector elements; hence, the highest frequency that can be resolved in the plane of reconstruction is the alias frequency of the detector. This study considers reconstruction grids with much smaller pixelation to visualize higher frequencies. For analytical proof of super-resolution, a theoretical framework is developed in which the reconstruction of a high frequency sinusoidal input is calculated using both simple backprojection (SBP) and filtered backprojection. To study the frequency spectrum of the reconstruction, its Fourier transform is also determined. The experimental feasibility of super-resolution was investigated by acquiring images of a bar pattern phantom with frequencies higher than the detector alias frequency. Results: Using analytical modeling, it is shown that the central projection cannot resolve frequencies exceeding the detector alias frequency. The Fourier transform of the central projection is maximized at a lower frequency than the input as evidence of aliasing. By contrast, SBP reconstruction can resolve the input, and its Fourier transform is correctly maximized at the input frequency. Incorporating filters into the reconstruction smoothens pixelation artifacts in the spatial domain and reduces spectral leakage in the Fourier domain. It is also demonstrated that the existence of super

  2. A Hierarchical Control Architecture for a PEBB-Based ILC Marx Modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Macken, K.; Burkhart, C.; Larsen, R.; Nguyen, M.N.; Olsen, J.; /SLAC

    2011-12-15

    The idea of building power conversion systems around Power Electronic Building Blocks (PEBBs) was initiated by the U.S. Office of Naval Research in the mid 1990s. A PEBB-based design approach is advantageous in terms of power density, modularity, reliability, and serviceability. It is obvious that this approach has much appeal for pulsed power conversion including the International Linear Collider (ILC) klystron modulator application. A hierarchical control architecture has the inherent capability to support the integration of PEBBs. This has already been successfully demonstrated in a number of industrial applications in the recent past. This paper outlines the underlying concepts of a hierarchical control architecture for a PEBB-based Marx-topology ILC klystron modulator. The control in PEBB-based power conversion systems can be functionally partitioned into (three) hierarchical layers; system layer, application layer, and PEBB layer. This has been adopted here. Based on such a hierarchical partition, the interfaces are clearly identified and defined and, consequently, are easily characterised. A conceptual design of the hardware manager, executing low-level hardware oriented tasks, is detailed. In addition, the idea of prognostics is briefly discussed.

  3. SuperB: A High-Luminosity Asymmetric e+e- Super Flavor Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Bona, M.; /et al.

    2007-05-18

    We discuss herein the exciting physics program that can be accomplished with a very large sample of heavy quark and heavy lepton decays produced in the very clean environment of an e{sup +}e{sup -} collider; a program complementary to that of an experiment such as LHCb at a hadronic machine. It then presents the conceptual design of a new type of e{sup +}e{sup -} collider that produces a nearly two-order-of-magnitude increase in luminosity over the current generation of asymmetric B Factories. The key idea is the use of low emittance beams produced in an accelerator lattice derived from the ILC Damping Ring Design, together with a new collision region, again with roots in the ILC final focus design, but with important new concepts developed in this design effort. Remarkably, SuperB produces this very large improvement in luminosity with circulating currents and wallplug power similar to those of the current B Factories. There is clear synergy with ILC R&D; design efforts have already influenced one another, and many aspects of the ILC Damping Rings and Final Focus would be operationally tested at SuperB. Finally, the design of an appropriate detector, based on an upgrade of BABAR as an example, is discussed in some detail. A preliminary cost estimate is presented, as is an example construction timeline.

  4. 3-D In Vitro Acoustic Super-Resolution and Super-Resolved Velocity Mapping Using Microbubbles.

    PubMed

    Christensen-Jeffries, Kirsten; Brown, Jemma; Aljabar, Paul; Tang, Mengxing; Dunsby, Christopher; Eckersley, Robert J

    2017-10-01

    Standard clinical ultrasound (US) imaging frequencies are unable to resolve microvascular structures due to the fundamental diffraction limit of US waves. Recent demonstrations of 2-D super-resolution both in vitro and in vivo have demonstrated that fine vascular structures can be visualized using acoustic single bubble localization. Visualization of more complex and disordered 3-D vasculature, such as that of a tumor, requires an acquisition strategy which can additionally localize bubbles in the elevational plane with high precision in order to generate super-resolution in all three dimensions. Furthermore, a particular challenge lies in the need to provide this level of visualization with minimal acquisition time. In this paper, we develop a fast, coherent US imaging tool for microbubble localization in 3-D using a pair of US transducers positioned at 90°. This allowed detection of point scatterer signals in 3-D with average precisions equal to [Formula: see text] in axial and elevational planes, and [Formula: see text] in the lateral plane, compared to the diffraction limited point spread function full-widths at half-maximum of 488, 1188, and [Formula: see text] of the original imaging system with a single transducer. Visualization and velocity mapping of 3-D in vitro structures was demonstrated far beyond the diffraction limit. The capability to measure the complete flow pattern of blood vessels associated with disease at depth would ultimately enable analysis of in vivo microvascular morphology, blood flow dynamics, and occlusions resulting from disease states.

  5. Super B Factory at KEK

    SciTech Connect

    Cheon, Byung Gu

    2008-11-23

    A Super--KEKB factory, an asymmetric--energy e{sup +}e{sup -} lepton collider at KEK in Japan, has been proposed with the design peak luminosity of 8x10{sup 35} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, which is about 50 times higher than that of the current operation of the KEKB collider. The physics goal of this project is mainly to measure extremely rare heavy flavor weak decays and CP violation phenomena, which are very sensitive on physics beyond the Standard Model. Hot physics topics and the status of experimental design are briefly described.

  6. SuperLU users' guide

    SciTech Connect

    Demmel, James W.; Gilbert, John R.; Li, Xiaoye S.

    1999-11-01

    This document describes a collection of three related ANSI C subroutine libraries for solving sparse linear systems of equations AX = B: Here A is a square, nonsingular, n x n sparse matrix, and X and B are dense n x nrhs matrices, where nrhs is the number of right-hand sides and solution vectors. Matrix A need not be symmetric or definite; indeed, SuperLU is particularly appropriate for matrices with very unsymmetric structure. All three libraries use variations of Gaussian elimination optimized to take advantage both of sparsity and the computer architecture, in particular memory hierarchies (caches) and parallelism.

  7. Scintillator Cosmic Ray Super Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, L. X.; Valdés-Galicia, J. F.; Matsubara, Y.; Nagai, Y.; Itow, Y.; Sako, T.; López, D.; Mitsuka, G.; Munakata, K.; Kato, C.; Yasue, S.; Kosai, M.; Tsurusashi, M.; Nakamo, Y.; Shibata, S.; Takamaru, H.; Kojima, H.; Tsuchiya, H.; Watanabe, K.; Koi, T.; Fragoso, E.; Hurtado, A.; Musalem, O.

    2013-04-01

    The Scintillator Cosmic Ray Super Telescope (SciCRST) is a new experiment to detect solar neutrons, and also it is expected to work as a muon and cosmic ray detector. The SciCRST consist of 14,848 plastic scintillator bars, and it will be installed at the top of Sierra Negra volcano, Mexico, 4580 m.a.s.l. We use a prototype, called as miniSciBar, to test the hardware and software of the final experiment. In this paper, we present the status and details of the experiment, and results of the prototype.

  8. Super-heavy dark matter - Towards predictive scenarios from inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannike, Kristjan; Racioppi, Antonio; Raidal, Martti

    2017-05-01

    A generic prediction of the Coleman-Weinberg inflation is the existence of a heavy particle sector whose interactions with the inflaton, the lightest state in this sector, generate the inflaton potential at loop level. For typical interactions the heavy sector may contain stable states whose relic abundance is generated at the end of inflation by the gravity alone. This general feature, and the absence of any particle physics signal of dark matter so far, motivates us to look for new directions in the dark sector physics, including scenarios in which dark matter is super-heavy. In this article we study the possibility that the dark matter is even heavier than the inflaton, its existence follows from the inflaton dynamics, and its abundance today is naturally determined by the weakness of gravitational interaction. This implies that the super-heavy dark matter scenarios can be tested via the measurements of inflationary parameters and/or the CMB isocurvature perturbations and non-Gaussianities. We explicitly work out details of three Coleman-Weinberg inflation scenarios, study the systematics of super-heavy dark matter production in those cases, and compute which parts of the parameter spaces can be probed by the future CMB measurements.

  9. Genetic dissection of the α-globin super-enhancer in vivo

    DOE PAGES

    Hay, Deborah; Hughes, Jim R.; Babbs, Christian; ...

    2016-07-04

    Many genes determining cell identity are regulated by clusters of Mediator-bound enhancer elements collectively referred to as super-enhancers. Furthermore, these super-enhancers have been proposed to manifest higher-order properties important in development and disease. Here we report a comprehensive functional dissection of one of the strongest putative super-enhancers in erythroid cells. By generating a series of mouse models, deleting each of the five regulatory elements of the α-globin super-enhancer individually and in informative combinations, we demonstrate that each constituent enhancer seems to act independently and in an additive fashion with respect to hematological phenotype, gene expression, chromatin structure and chromosome conformation,more » without clear evidence of synergistic or higher-order effects. This study highlights the importance of functional genetic analyses for the identification of new concepts in transcriptional regulation.« less

  10. Genetic dissection of the α-globin super-enhancer in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, Deborah; Hughes, Jim R.; Babbs, Christian; Davies, James O. J.; Graham, Bryony J.; Hanssen, Lars L. P.; Kassouf, Mira T.; Oudelaar, A. Marieke; Sharpe, Jacqueline A.; Suciu, Maria C.; Telenius, Jelena; Williams, Ruth; Rode, Christina; Li, Pik-Shan; Pennacchio, Len A.; Sloane-Stanley, Jacqueline A.; Ayyub, Helena; Butler, Sue; Sauka-Spengler, Tatjana; Gibbons, Richard J.; Smith, Andrew J. H.; Wood, William G.; Higgs, Douglas R.

    2016-07-04

    Many genes determining cell identity are regulated by clusters of Mediator-bound enhancer elements collectively referred to as super-enhancers. Furthermore, these super-enhancers have been proposed to manifest higher-order properties important in development and disease. Here we report a comprehensive functional dissection of one of the strongest putative super-enhancers in erythroid cells. By generating a series of mouse models, deleting each of the five regulatory elements of the α-globin super-enhancer individually and in informative combinations, we demonstrate that each constituent enhancer seems to act independently and in an additive fashion with respect to hematological phenotype, gene expression, chromatin structure and chromosome conformation, without clear evidence of synergistic or higher-order effects. This study highlights the importance of functional genetic analyses for the identification of new concepts in transcriptional regulation.

  11. Request for Support for the Conference on Super Intense Laser Atom Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Todd Ditmire

    2004-10-21

    The Conference on Super Intense Laser Atom Physics (SILAP) was held in November 2003 in Dallas, Texas. The venue for the meeting was South Fork Ranch in the outskirts of Dallas. The topics of the meeting included high harmonic generation and attosecond pulse generation, strong field interactions with molecules and clusters, particle acceleration, and relativistic laser atom interactions.

  12. Maximal sfermion flavour violation in super-GUTs

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, John; Olive, Keith A.; Velasco-Sevilla, Liliana

    2016-10-20

    We consider supersymmetric grand unified theories with soft supersymmetry-breaking scalar masses m0 specified above the GUT scale (super-GUTs) and patterns of Yukawa couplings motivated by upper limits on flavour-changing interactions beyond the Standard Model. If the scalar masses are smaller than the gaugino masses m1/2, as is expected in no-scale models, the dominant effects of renormalisation between the input scale and the GUT scale are generally expected to be those due to the gauge couplings, which are proportional to m1/2 and generation independent. In this case, the input scalar masses m0 may violate flavour maximally, a scenario we call MaxSFV, and there is no supersymmetric flavour problem. As a result, we illustrate this possibility within various specific super-GUT scenarios that are deformations of no-scale gravity

  13. Maximal sfermion flavour violation in super-GUTs

    DOE PAGES

    Ellis, John; Olive, Keith A.; Velasco-Sevilla, Liliana

    2016-10-20

    We consider supersymmetric grand unified theories with soft supersymmetry-breaking scalar masses m0 specified above the GUT scale (super-GUTs) and patterns of Yukawa couplings motivated by upper limits on flavour-changing interactions beyond the Standard Model. If the scalar masses are smaller than the gaugino masses m1/2, as is expected in no-scale models, the dominant effects of renormalisation between the input scale and the GUT scale are generally expected to be those due to the gauge couplings, which are proportional to m1/2 and generation independent. In this case, the input scalar masses m0 may violate flavour maximally, a scenario we call MaxSFV,more » and there is no supersymmetric flavour problem. As a result, we illustrate this possibility within various specific super-GUT scenarios that are deformations of no-scale gravity« less

  14. Laser plasma accelerator driven by a super-Gaussian pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostermayr, Tobias; Petrovics, Stefan; Iqbal, Khalid; Klier, Constantin; Ruhl, Hartmut; Nakajima, Kazuhisa; Deng, Aihua; Zhang, Xiaomei; Shen, Baifei; Liu, Jiansheng; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan; Tajima, Toshiki; Tajima

    2012-08-01

    A laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) with a weak focusing force is considered to seek improved beam quality in LWFA. We employ super-Gaussian laser pulses to generate the wakefield and study the behavior of the electron beam dynamics and synchrotron radiation arising from the transverse betatron oscillations through analysis and computation. We note that the super-Gaussian wakefields radically reduce the betatron oscillations and make the electron orbits mainly ballistic over a single stage. This feature permits to obtain small emittance and thus high luminosity, while still benefitting from the low-density operation of LWFA (Nakajima et al. 2011 Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 14, 091301), such as the reduced radiation loss, less number of stages, less beam instabilities, and less required wall plug power than in higher density regimes.

  15. SuperPILOT: Between Student and Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pattison, Linda J.

    1984-01-01

    Apple's SuperPILOT is an authoring language that allows teachers to easily and quickly create effective programs for classroom use. SuperPILOT features (such as turtle graphics routines) and commands are described. Several sample program listings (including one for a tutorial on the periodic table) are presented. (JN)

  16. Spaceport Super Safety and Health Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-15

    Brig. Gen. J. Gregory Pavlovich (left), 45th Space Wing, and Center Director Jim Kennedy (right) present one of several individual safety awards given on Spaceport Super Safety and Health Day. An annual event at KSC and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Spaceport Super Safety and Health Day is dedicated to reinforcing safe and healthful behaviors in the workforce.

  17. Contributions from the SuperKamiokande Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkes, R.J.; Fukuda, Y.; Inoue, K.

    1995-09-01

    This document consists of two reports contributed to the XXIV International Cosmic Ray Conference (Rome, Italy, August 28--September 8, 1995) from the SuperKamiokande Collaboration: one on the SuperKamiokande outer data acquisition system, and one on preliminary results from muon/electron identification tests at KEK of IMB3-detector phototubes and electronics.

  18. The MAGPIE Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, I. H.; Bayley, J. M.; Chittenden, J. P.; Choi, P.; Worley, J. F.; Dangor, A. E.; Haines, M. G.

    1994-03-01

    The construction of MAGPIE, a terawatt pulsed power facility, has been completed at Imperial College, London. The generator consists of four 2.4MV, 86kJ Marx banks each feeding a 5Ω coaxial pulse forming line. The pulse forming lines are connected, via four trigatron switches, to a vertical coaxial transfer line and hence to the load. The generator is specifically designed to drive high impedance loads, enabling radiative collapse experiments to be carried out in cryogenic Hydrogen fibres. This requires the capability to deliver 1.5MA into a 100nH load in 150ns. A review of the project to date is given. This includes the design philosophy behind the generator, emphasising its unique aspects, and an outline of the tests which have been carried out to optimise its performance. Results from the first stage in the commissioning of the generator are also presented. This involved the firing of the complete generator, charged to 60% of maximum voltage, into a 150nH load. Currents of approximately 700kA have been achieved with an average of 7ns first to last for the four trigatron switches.

  19. Ending Aging in Super Glassy Polymer Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, CH; Nguyen, PT; Hill, MR; Thornton, AW; Konstas, K; Doherty, CM; Mulder, RJ; Bourgeois, L; Liu, ACY; Sprouster, DJ; Sullivan, JP; Bastow, TJ; Hill, AJ; Gin, DL; Noble, RD

    2014-04-16

    Aging in super glassy polymers such as poly(trimethylsilylpropyne) (PTMSP), poly(4-methyl-2-pentyne) (PMP), and polymers with intrinsic microporosity (PIM-1) reduces gas permeabilities and limits their application as gas-separation membranes. While super glassy polymers are initially very porous, and ultra-permeable, they quickly pack into a denser phase becoming less porous and permeable. This age-old problem has been solved by adding an ultraporous additive that maintains the low density, porous, initial stage of super glassy polymers through absorbing a portion of the polymer chains within its pores thereby holding the chains in their open position. This result is the first time that aging in super glassy polymers is inhibited whilst maintaining enhanced CO2 permeability for one year and improving CO2/N-2 selectivity. This approach could allow super glassy polymers to be revisited for commercial application in gas separations.

  20. Huckleberry Ridge Tuff: super-eruption not quite so super

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, B. S.; Mark, D. F.; Pritchard, C. J.; Wolff, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    New high-precision single crystal sanidine Ar/Ar ages for the Huckleberry Ridge Tuff (HRT), Yellowstone volcanic field, show that the three HRT members (A, B, and C) represent at least two different eruptions. The new Ar/Ar ages (all calculated relative to the Fish Canyon sanidine age of 28.305 ± 0.036 Ma and λtotal 5.5545 x 10-10 ± 0.0109 x 10-10 a-1) are: c. 2.105 Ma, c. 2.106 Ma, and c. 2.071 Ma, for members A, B and C, respectively. Members A and B are within uncertainty of each other and both are more precise than, but in agreement with previously published ages when all data are calculated relative to the same standard age (e.g., Lanphere et al., 2002). Member C, which has never previously been dated and is commonly assumed to be a product of the same Yellowstone super-eruption as Members A and B, was erupted > 17 ka later. Both radiogenic and stable isotopes show that member C was sourced from an isotopically discrete magma with a higher fraction of crustal material than members A and B. The volume of the first HRT eruption is reduced by approximately 12 % and explosive eruptions from the Yellowstone volcanic field occurred more frequently, producing more homogeneous magma than was previously believed. High-precision Ar/Ar dating is key for resolving the eruptive history of Yellowstone and rigorous investigation of what constitutes a 'super-eruption'. Reference: Lanphere, M.A., Champion, D.E., Christiansen, R.L., Izett, G.A., and Obradovich, J.D., 2002, Revised ages for tuffs of the Yellowstone plateau volcanic field: Assignment of the Huckleberry Ridge Tuff to a new geomagnetic polarity event: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 114, p. 559-568.

  1. Improved coagulation and haemostasis in haemophilia with inhibitors by combinations of superFactor Va and Factor VIIa.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Vikas; von Drygalski, Annette; Gale, Andrew J; Griffin, John H; Mosnier, Laurent O

    2016-03-01

    Bypassing inhibitors in haemophilia patients is limited to activated (a) Factor(F)VII products. We introduced "FVa activity augmentation" as another bypassing strategy and studied effects of an engineered FVa variant designated superFVa. Procoagulant and clot stabilising properties of superFVa and recombinant human (rh)FVIIa, either alone or in combination, were studied in thrombin generation and clot lysis assays in normal human plasma (NHP) with or without anti-FVIII inhibitors, in haemophilia plasma, and in FVIII-deficient mice or in wild-type mice with anti-FVIII inhibitors. SuperFVa was as effective as rhFVIIa to improve thrombin generation or clot lysis. Furthermore, procoagulant effects were significantly enhanced when these compounds were combined. RhFVIIa at 40 nM (a therapeutic concentration) improved thrombin generation mildly, but markedly improved thrombin generation when combined with a low concentration (e. g. 3 nM) of superFVa. In clot lysis studies, the concentration of rhFVIIa to normalise clot lysis times could be reduced by 100-fold (e. g. from 40 nM to 0.4 nM) when combined with a low concentration (0.37 nM) of superFVa. In haemostasis studies of FVIII-deficient mice, blood loss was dose-dependently reduced by either superFVa or rhFVIIa. SuperFVa (200 U/kg) corrected mean blood loss indistinguishably from rhFVIII. Blood loss correction by rhFVIIa was greatly improved when combined with superFVa. Similar blood loss correction results were observed for therapies in wild-type mice after infusion with anti-FVIII inhibitors. Thus, superFVa may be an effective procoagulant agent in the setting of haemophilia with inhibitors and it merits further evaluation for new bypassing strategies.

  2. Improved coagulation and hemostasis in hemophilia with inhibitors by combinations of superFactor Va and Factor VIIa

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Vikas; von Drygalski, Annette; Gale, Andrew J.; Griffin, John H.; Mosnier, Laurent O.

    2015-01-01

    Bypassing inhibitors in hemophilia patients is limited to activated (a) Factor(F)VII products. We introduced “FVa activity augmentation” as another bypassing strategy and studied effects of an engineered FVa variant designated superFVa. Procoagulant and clot stabilizing properties of superFVa and recombinant human (rh)FVIa, either alone or in combination, were studied in thrombin generation and clot lysis assays in normal human plasma (NHP) with or without anti-FVIII inhibitors, in hemophilia plasma, and in FVIII-deficient mice or in wild-type mice with anti-FVIII inhibitors. superFVa was as effective as rhFVIIa to improve thrombin generation or clot lysis. Furthermore, procoagulant effects were significantly enhanced when these compounds were combined. RhFVIIa at 40 nM (a therapeutic concentration) improved thrombin generation mildly, but markedly improved thrombin generation when combined with a low concentration (e.g., 3 nM) of superFVa. In clot lysis studies, the concentration of rhFVIIa to normalize clot lysis times could be reduced by 100-fold (e.g., from 40 nM to 0.4 nM) when combined with a low concentration (0.37 nM) of superFVa. In hemostasis studies of FVIII-deficient mice, blood loss was dose-dependently reduced by either superFVa or rhFVIIa. SuperFVa (200 U/kg) corrected mean blood loss indistinguishably from rhFVIII. Blood loss correction by rhFVIIa was greatly improved when combined with superFVa. Similar blood loss correction results were observed for therapies in wild-type mice after infusion with anti-FVIII inhibitors. Thus, superFVa may be an effective procoagulant agent in the setting of hemophilia with inhibitors and it merits further evaluation for new bypassing strategies. PMID:26466980

  3. The SuperCDMS Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Schnee, Richard W.; Akerib, D.S.; Attisha, M.J.; Bailey, C.N.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, Daniel A.; Brink, P.L.; Brusov, P.P.; Bunker, R.; Cabrera, B.; Caldwell, D.O.; Chang, C.L.; Cooley, J.; Crisler, M.B.; Cushman, P.; Denes, P.; Dragowsky, M.R.; Duong, L.; Filippini, J.; Gaitskell, R.J.; Golwala, S.R.; /Case Western Reserve U. /Brown U. /Florida U. /Fermilab /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /UC, Santa Barbara /Minnesota U. /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Caltech /Colorado U., Denver /NIST, Boulder /Santa Clara U.

    2005-02-01

    Modest improvements in the level and/or discrimination of backgrounds are needed to keep backgrounds negligible during the three phases of SuperCDMS. By developing production designs that require only modest testing, detector production rates may be improved sufficiently to allow an exposure of 500 ton d within a reasonable time and budget. Overall, the improvement estimates described above are conservative. Previous development efforts have shown that some areas prove easier and provide larger factors while others prove more difficult. The conservative estimates together with the broad approach reduce the risk and give us confidence that we will succeed, providing the surest way to probe to WIMP-nucleon cross sections of 10{sup -46} cm{sup 2}.

  4. Super Metallicity in solar analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Valdivia, R.; Dagostino, M. C.; Bertone, E.

    2014-03-01

    The basic stellar atmospheric parameters (effective temperature (Teff), surface gravity (log g) and global metallicity ([Fe/H])) were simultaneously determined for a sample of 271 stars, limited in magnitude (V < 15) with spectral types between G0 and G3 and luminosity class V (main sequence). The analysis was carried out starting from spectroscopic observations collected at the Observatorio Astrofísico Guillermo Haro and using a set of Lick-like indices (Trager et al. 1998) defined in the spectral range of 3800 - 4800 A. A theoretical grid of spectra (Munari et al. 2005) was used like a comparison tool in order to determine the stellar parameters. The method was validated by matching the results from spectra of the asteroids Vesta and Ceres with the Sun parameters. The main outcomes were: i) for 200 objects were determined for the first time their stellar parameters; ii) a sample of 20 super metal rich stars candidates was found.

  5. Staphylococcus aureus: superbug, super genome?

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Jodi A; Holden, Matthew T G

    2004-08-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of infection in both hospitals and the community, and it is becoming increasingly virulent and resistant to antibiotics. The recent sequencing of seven strains of S. aureus provides unprecedented information about its genome diversity. Subtle differences in core (stable) regions of the genome have been exploited by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) to understand S. aureus population structure. Dramatic differences in the carriage and spread of accessory genes, including those involved in virulence and resistance, contribute to the emergence of new strains with healthcare implications. Understanding the differences between S. aureus genomes and the controls that govern these changes is helping to improve our knowledge of S. aureus pathogenicity and to predict the evolution of super-superbugs.

  6. Super-Spreader Identification Using Meta-Centrality

    PubMed Central

    Madotto, Andrea; Liu, Jiming

    2016-01-01

    Super-spreaders are the nodes of a network that can maximize their impacts on other nodes, e.g., in the case of information spreading or virus propagation. Many centrality measures have been proposed to identify such nodes from a given network. However, it has been observed that the identification accuracy based on those measures is not always satisfactory among different types of networks. In addition, the nodes identified by using single centrality are not always placed in the top section, where the super-spreaders are supposed to be, of the ranking generated by simulation. In this paper we take a meta-centrality approach by combining different centrality measures using a modified version of Borda count aggregation method. As a result, we are able to improve the performance of super-spreader identification for a broad range of real-world networks. While doing so, we discover a pattern in the centrality measures involved in the aggregation with respect to the topological structures of the networks used in the experiments. Further, we study the eigenvalues of the Laplacian matrix, also known as Laplacian spectrum, and by using the Earth Mover’s distance as a metric for the spectrum, we are able to identify four clusters to explain the aggregation results. PMID:28008949

  7. Super-Spreader Identification Using Meta-Centrality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madotto, Andrea; Liu, Jiming

    2016-12-01

    Super-spreaders are the nodes of a network that can maximize their impacts on other nodes, e.g., in the case of information spreading or virus propagation. Many centrality measures have been proposed to identify such nodes from a given network. However, it has been observed that the identification accuracy based on those measures is not always satisfactory among different types of networks. In addition, the nodes identified by using single centrality are not always placed in the top section, where the super-spreaders are supposed to be, of the ranking generated by simulation. In this paper we take a meta-centrality approach by combining different centrality measures using a modified version of Borda count aggregation method. As a result, we are able to improve the performance of super-spreader identification for a broad range of real-world networks. While doing so, we discover a pattern in the centrality measures involved in the aggregation with respect to the topological structures of the networks used in the experiments. Further, we study the eigenvalues of the Laplacian matrix, also known as Laplacian spectrum, and by using the Earth Mover’s distance as a metric for the spectrum, we are able to identify four clusters to explain the aggregation results.

  8. Representations of Super Yang-Mills Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herscovich, Estanislao

    2013-06-01

    We study in this article the representation theory of a family of super algebras, called the super Yang-Mills algebras, by exploiting the Kirillov orbit method à la Dixmier for nilpotent super Lie algebras. These super algebras are an extension of the so-called Yang-Mills algebras, introduced by A. Connes and M. Dubois-Violette in (Lett Math Phys 61(2):149-158, 2002), and in fact they appear as a "background independent" formulation of supersymmetric gauge theory considered in physics, in a similar way as Yang-Mills algebras do the same for the usual gauge theory. Our main result states that, under certain hypotheses, all Clifford-Weyl super algebras {{Cliff}q(k) ⊗ Ap(k)}, for p ≥ 3, or p = 2 and q ≥ 2, appear as a quotient of all super Yang-Mills algebras, for n ≥ 3 and s ≥ 1. This provides thus a family of representations of the super Yang-Mills algebras.

  9. SuperB Progress Report for Physics

    SciTech Connect

    O'Leary, B.; Matias, J.; Ramon, M.; Pous, E.; De Fazio, F.; Palano, A.; Eigen, G.; Asgeirsson, D.; Cheng, C.H.; Chivukula, A.; Echenard, B.; Hitlin, D.G.; Porter, F.; Rakitin, A.; Heinemeyer, S.; McElrath, B.; Andreassen, R.; Meadows, B.; Sokoloff, M.; Blanke, M.; Lesiak, T.; /Cracow, INP /DESY /Zurich, ETH /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /Glasgow U. /Indiana U. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Karlsruhe, Inst. Technol. /KEK, Tsukuba /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Lisbon, IST /Ljubljana U. /Madrid, Autonoma U. /Maryland U. /MIT /INFN, Milan /McGill U. /Munich, Tech. U. /Notre Dame U. /PNL, Richland /INFN, Padua /Paris U., VI-VII /Orsay, LAL /Orsay, LPT /INFN, Pavia /INFN, Perugia /INFN, Pisa /Queen Mary, U. of London /Regensburg U. /Republica U., Montevideo /Frascati /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rutherford /Sassari U. /Siegen U. /SLAC /Southern Methodist U. /Tel Aviv U. /Tohoku U. /INFN, Turin /INFN, Trieste /Uppsala U. /Valencia U., IFIC /Victoria U. /Wayne State U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2012-02-14

    SuperB is a high luminosity e{sup +}e{sup -} collider that will be able to indirectly probe new physics at energy scales far beyond the reach of any man made accelerator planned or in existence. Just as detailed understanding of the Standard Model of particle physics was developed from stringent constraints imposed by flavour changing processes between quarks, the detailed structure of any new physics is severely constrained by flavour processes. In order to elucidate this structure it is necessary to perform a number of complementary studies of a set of golden channels. With these measurements in hand, the pattern of deviations from the Standard Model behavior can be used as a test of the structure of new physics. If new physics is found at the LHC, then the many golden measurements from SuperB will help decode the subtle nature of the new physics. However if no new particles are found at the LHC, SuperB will be able to search for new physics at energy scales up to 10-100 TeV. In either scenario, flavour physics measurements that can be made at SuperB play a pivotal role in understanding the nature of physics beyond the Standard Model. Examples for using the interplay between measurements to discriminate New Physics models are discussed in this document. SuperB is a Super Flavour Factory, in addition to studying large samples of B{sub u,d,s}, D and {tau} decays, SuperB has a broad physics programme that includes spectroscopy both in terms of the Standard Model and exotica, and precision measurements of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W}. In addition to performing CP violation measurements at the {Upsilon}(4S) and {phi}(3770), SuperB will test CPT in these systems, and lepton universality in a number of different processes. The multitude of rare decay measurements possible at SuperB can be used to constrain scenarios of physics beyond the Standard Model. In terms of other precision tests of the Standard Model, this experiment will be able to perform precision over

  10. Ice adhesion on super-hydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulinich, S. A.; Farzaneh, M.

    2009-06-01

    In this study, ice adhesion strength on flat hydrophobic and rough super-hydrophobic coatings with similar surface chemistry (based on same fluoropolymer) is compared. Glaze ice, similar to naturally accreted, was prepared on the surfaces by spraying super-cooled water microdroplets at subzero temperature. Ice adhesion was evaluated by spinning the samples at constantly increasing speed until ice delamination occurred. Super-hydrophobic surfaces with different contact angle hysteresis were tested, clearly showing that the latter, along with the contact angle, also influences the ice-solid adhesion strength.

  11. Shear flow on super-hydrophobic surfaces.

    SciTech Connect

    van Swol, Frank B.; Truesdell, Richard; Vorobieff, Peter V.; Challa, Sivakumar R.; Mammoli, Andrea A.

    2007-10-01

    Super-hydrophobic surfaces, which exhibit large contact angles, can give rise to slip flow of aqueous fluids. We present our work on shear flow of atomistic fluids over simple super-hydrophobic surfaces. Molecular dynamic simulations are employed to investigate the flow field of fluid between two parallel surfaces, one of which is moving. Exploring a range of fluid thermodynamic state points, we demonstrate the influence of fluid phase and structure near the surfaces on prevalence, and degree, of slip at the super-hydrophobic surface.

  12. Fabrication of super slippery sheet-layered and porous anodic aluminium oxide surfaces and its anticorrosion property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Tingting; Liu, Qi; Liu, Jingyuan; Yang, Wanlu; Chen, Rongrong; Jing, Xiaoyan; Takahashi, Kazunobu; Wang, Jun

    2015-11-01

    Inspired by natural plants such as Nepenthes pitcher plants, super slippery surfaces have been developed to improve the attributes of repellent surfaces. In this report, super slippery porous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) surfaces have fabricated by a simple and reproducible method. Firstly, the aluminium substrates were treated by an anodic process producing micro-nano structured sheet-layered pores, and then immersed in Methyl Silicone Oil, Fluororalkylsilane (FAS) and DuPont Krytox, respectively, generating super slippery surfaces. Such a good material with excellent anti-corrosion property through a simple and repeatable method may be potential candidates for metallic application in anti-corrosion and extreme environment.

  13. Super-Memorizers Are Not Super-Recognizers

    PubMed Central

    Ramon, Meike; Miellet, Sebastien; Dzieciol, Anna M.; Konrad, Boris Nikolai

    2016-01-01

    Humans have a natural expertise in recognizing faces. However, the nature of the interaction between this critical visual biological skill and memory is yet unclear. Here, we had the unique opportunity to test two individuals who have had exceptional success in the World Memory Championships, including several world records in face-name association memory. We designed a range of face processing tasks to determine whether superior/expert face memory skills are associated with distinctive perceptual strategies for processing faces. Superior memorizers excelled at tasks involving associative face-name learning. Nevertheless, they were as impaired as controls in tasks probing the efficiency of the face system: face inversion and the other-race effect. Super memorizers did not show increased hippocampal volumes, and exhibited optimal generic eye movement strategies when they performed complex multi-item face-name associations. Our data show that the visual computations of the face system are not malleable and are robust to acquired expertise involving extensive training of associative memory. PMID:27008627

  14. Possible detection of super massive very slow GUTS monopole.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, A. E.

    A conceptual design idea for a detector of super massive very slow grand unified theories (GUTS) monopoles is discussed. The idea is based on the total stopping power due to the field energy generated by the supercurrents when a slowly moving monopole β ≍ 10-4 passes through a superconductor. The detector incorporates a superconducting Al disc with dimensions chosen for maximum phonon thermalization energy, surrounded by an array of plastic scintillators to provide a monopole trigger and cosmic ray veto. The integrated system acts as a velocity filter for very slow Dirac galactic monopoles.

  15. Hybrid super-resolving pupils with smooth profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcalá Ochoa, Noé; Landgrave, J. E. A.; Hermosillo, Y.; García-Márquez, J.; González-Vega, A.

    2011-08-01

    One form of achieving super-resolution consists in reducing the size of the Point Spread Function (PSF) of a diffraction-limited optical system. For this end, good results have been obtained by means of pupils with discontinuous profiles. When devices such as deformable mirrors are used to generate such pupils, however, these cannot be accurately reproduced. To overcome this limitation, we developed a method based on a Bessel series expansion to design pupils with smooth profiles, and found that, properly designed, pupils with continuous profiles will perform equally well, and in some respects better, than pupils with discontinuous ones.

  16. Super-dissociative recombination of H2+?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, J. B. A.; Yousif, F. B.; van der Donk, P. J. T.; Morgan, T. J.; Chibisov, M. I.

    1995-11-01

    The dissociative recombination of vibrationally excited H2+ ions to form products in high Rydberg states has been measured. Surprisingly large cross-sections are found for this channel. This seems to be an example of super-dissociative recombination.

  17. Esthetics and super glue: a case report.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Sheldon; Wood, Robert; Facchiano, Anne M; Bergloff, Jonathan F

    2003-01-01

    This article describes how a man attempted to repair damage to his maxillary teeth with super glue. Such action is discouraged, however, because of possible adverse reactions in the hard and soft tissues.

  18. Repeat-PPM Super-Symbol Synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connelly, J.

    2016-11-01

    To attain a wider range of data rates in pulse position modulation (PPM) schemes with constrained pulse durations, the sender can repeat a PPM symbol multiple times, forming a super-symbol. In addition to the slot and symbol synchronization typically required for PPM, the receiver must also properly align the noisy super-symbols. We present a low-complexity approximation of the maximum-likelihood method for performing super-symbol synchronization without use of synchronization sequences. We provide simulation results demonstrating performance advantage when PPM symbols are spread by a pseudo-noise sequence, as opposed to simply repeating. Additionally, the results suggest that this super-symbol synchronization technique requires signal levels below those required for reliable communication. This validates that the PPM spreading approach proposed to CCSDS can work properly as part of the overall scheme.

  19. Optimal V/f control of super high-speed PMSM and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Chunyuan; Ren, Shuangyan; Yan, Shijie; Man, Yongkui; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2006-11-01

    Due to the features such as high efficiency, small volume and high power density, super high-speed permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) are becoming attractive in many fields such as high-speed micro-turbine generators, centrifugal compressors and pumps. V/f control is flexible and easy to be realized, moreover, voltage utilization ratio of SVPWM modulation is high, so the plan combined with V/f control and SVPWM modulation can be adopted for PMSM. The effects of the stator resistance and the dead-time on the control are generally neglected in traditional V/f control, which leads to that the low-speed performance is poor and the system is not stable at high speed. Based on considering the effects of stator resistance and dead-time, an optimal V/f control of the super high-speed PMSM is presented. Combined with the optimal V/f control and SVPWM modulation, soft starting and operating experiments for PMSM generator (105Kw, 61000rpm) are successfully implemented in the designed system of super high-speed gas micro-turbine based on DSP 320F2407A. The experiment results shows that this optimal V/f control is virtual and feasible for super high-speed PMSM. The proposed scheme provided dynamic stability and high performance of the super high-speed PMSM with an open-loop control.

  20. Super Capacitor Development At NASA MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, David K.

    2000-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation outlines super capacitor development at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The concept, proof of concept testing and the test set-ups are described. An overview of super capacitor classification is shown and several types of capacitors are detailed: Ni-C chemical double layer (CDL), Ru-Oxide pseudo-cap, and a Ru-Oxide 2 F 30 V capacitor.

  1. Super-Eddington Accreting Tidal Disruption Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Dacheng; Guillochon, James; Komossa, St.; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Irwin, Jimmy; Maksym, W. Peter; Grupe, Dirk; Godet, Olivier; Webb, Natalie; Barret, Didier; Zauderer, Bevin; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Carrasco, Eleazar R.; Gwyn, Stephen

    2017-08-01

    Multiwavelength flares from tidal disruption and subsequent accretion of stars are important for study of otherwise dormant massive black holes in galactic nuclei. Previous well-monitored candidate flares were short-lived, with most emission confined to within ~1 year. Here, we report our discovery of a well observed super-long (>11 years) luminous X-ray flare from the nuclear region of a dwarf starburst galaxy. After an apparently fast rise within ~4 months a decade ago, the X-ray luminosity, though showing a weak trend of decay, has been persistently high at around the Eddington limit. The X-ray spectra are soft and can be described with Comptonized emission from an optically thick low-temperature corona, a super-Eddington accretion signature often observed in accreting stellar-mass black holes. Dramatic spectral softening was also caught in one recent observation, implying either a temporary transition from the super-Eddington accretion state to the standard thermal state, or the presence of a transient highly blueshifted (~0.36c) warm absorber. All these properties in concert suggest a tidal disruption event with an unusually long super-Eddington accretion phase that has never before been observed. We also found two additional events showing similar X-ray spectra characteristic of super-Eddington accretion from two otherwise quiescent galaxies. Therefore these events seem to form a new, super-Eddington accreting class of tidal disruption events.

  2. On Bayesian adaptive video super resolution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ce; Sun, Deqing

    2014-02-01

    Although multiframe super resolution has been extensively studied in past decades, super resolving real-world video sequences still remains challenging. In existing systems, either the motion models are oversimplified or important factors such as blur kernel and noise level are assumed to be known. Such models cannot capture the intrinsic characteristics that may differ from one sequence to another. In this paper, we propose a Bayesian approach to adaptive video super resolution via simultaneously estimating underlying motion, blur kernel, and noise level while reconstructing the original high-resolution frames. As a result, our system not only produces very promising super resolution results outperforming the state of the art, but also adapts to a variety of noise levels and blur kernels. To further analyze the effect of noise and blur kernel, we perform a two-step analysis using the Cramer-Rao bounds. We study how blur kernel and noise influence motion estimation with aliasing signals, how noise affects super resolution with perfect motion, and finally how blur kernel and noise influence super resolution with unknown motion. Our analysis results confirm empirical observations, in particular that an intermediate size blur kernel achieves the optimal image reconstruction results.

  3. On Bayesian Adaptive Video Super Resolution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ce; Sun, Deqing

    2013-06-26

    Although multi-frame super resolution has been extensively studied in past decades, super resolving real-world video sequences still remains challenging. In existing systems, either the motion models are oversimplified, or important factors such as blur kernel and noise level are assumed to be known. Such models cannot capture the intrinsic characteristics that may differ from one sequence to another. In this paper, we propose a Bayesian approach to adaptive video super resolution via simultaneously estimating underlying motion, blur kernel and noise level while reconstructing the original high-res frames. As a result, our system not only produces very promising super resolution results outperforming the state of the art, but also adapts to a variety of noise levels and blur kernels. To further analyze the effect of noise and blur kernel, we perform a two-step analysis using the Cramer-Rao bounds. We study how blur kernel and noise influence motion estimation with aliasing signals, how noise affects super resolution with perfect motion, and finally how blur kernel and noise influence super resolution with unknown motion. Our analysis results confirm empirical observations, in particular that an intermediate size blur kernel achieves the optimal image reconstruction results.

  4. Super-B Project Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Biagini, M.E.; Boni, R.; Boscolo, M.; Demma, T.; Drago, A.; Guiducci, S.; Raimondi, P.; Tomassini, S.; Zobov, M.; Bertsche, K.; Donald, M.; Nosochkov, Y.; Novokhatski, A.; Seeman, J.; Sullivan, M.; Yocky, G.; Wienands, U.; Wittmer, W.; Koop, I.; Levichev, E.; Nikitin, S.; /Novosibirsk, IYF /KEK, Tsukuba /Pisa U. /CERN

    2010-08-26

    The SuperB project aims at the construction of an asymmetric very high luminosity B-Factory on the Frascati/Tor Vergata (Italy) area, providing a uniquely sensitive probe of New Physics in the flavour sector of the Standard Model. The luminosity goal of 10{sup 36} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} can be reached with a new collision scheme with 'large Piwinski angle' (LPA) and the use of 'crab waist sextupoles' (CW). A LPA&CW Interaction Region (IR) has been successfully tested at the DA{Phi}NE {Phi}-Factory at LNF-Frascati in 2008. The LPA&CW scheme, together with very low {beta}*, will allow for operation with relatively low beam currents and reasonable bunch length, comparable to those of PEP-II and KEKB. In the High Energy Ring (HER), two spin rotators will bring longitudinally polarized beams into collision at the IP. The lattice has been designed with a very low intrinsic emittance and is quite compact, less than 2 km long. The tight focusing requires the final doublet quadrupoles to be very close to the IP and very compact. A Conceptual Design Report was published in March 2007, and beam dynamics and collective effects R&D studies are in progress in order to publish a Technical Design Report by the end of 2010.

  5. Application-Specific Super Computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lackey, Raymond J.; Baurle, Herbert F.; Barile, John

    1989-12-01

    Super Computer processing levels will be necessary to implement real time functions in radar and communication systems. Design and fabrication of such systems require innovative approaches in addressing the problem rather than the normal methods of solution. The mathematical solution to multiple simultaneous equations is the optimum solution in many signal processing problems in radar and communications. Historically this optimum solution was not directly possible, so approximations were derived through various signal processing techniques. The advent of high-speed digital processing devices in concurrent processing architectures has raised the possibility of achieving the optimum solution. This mathematical solution is applicable to many adaptive signal processing problems including spatial, spectral, temporal, and moving target indication filtering. Hazeltine, under contract with RADC on the Systolic Array Processor Brassboard program, has built a processor solving this class of problems in a highly concurrent systolic processing architecture. The application-specific processor built on this program performs over 1.25 billion floating point operations per second (BFLOPS), solving equations with up to twelve complex variables.

  6. Super Typhoon Halong off Taiwan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On July 14, 2002, Super Typhoon Halong was east of Taiwan (left edge) in the western Pacific Ocean. At the time this image was taken the storm was a Category 4 hurricane, with maximum sustained winds of 115 knots (132 miles per hour), but as recently as July 12, winds were at 135 knots (155 miles per hour). Halong has moved northwards and pounded Okinawa, Japan, with heavy rain and high winds, just days after tropical Storm Chataan hit the country, creating flooding and killing several people. The storm is expected to be a continuing threat on Monday and Tuesday. This image was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra satellite on July 14, 2002. Please note that the high-resolution scene provided here is 500 meters per pixel. For a copy of the scene at the sensor's fullest resolution, visit the MODIS Rapid Response Image Gallery. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  7. Super Typhoon Halong off Taiwan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On July 14, 2002, Super Typhoon Halong was east of Taiwan (left edge) in the western Pacific Ocean. At the time this image was taken the storm was a Category 4 hurricane, with maximum sustained winds of 115 knots (132 miles per hour), but as recently as July 12, winds were at 135 knots (155 miles per hour). Halong has moved northwards and pounded Okinawa, Japan, with heavy rain and high winds, just days after tropical Storm Chataan hit the country, creating flooding and killing several people. The storm is expected to be a continuing threat on Monday and Tuesday. This image was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra satellite on July 14, 2002. Please note that the high-resolution scene provided here is 500 meters per pixel. For a copy of the scene at the sensor's fullest resolution, visit the MODIS Rapid Response Image Gallery. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  8. dbSUPER: a database of super-enhancers in mouse and human genome

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Aziz; Zhang, Xuegong

    2016-01-01

    Super-enhancers are clusters of transcriptional enhancers that drive cell-type-specific gene expression and are crucial to cell identity. Many disease-associated sequence variations are enriched in super-enhancer regions of disease-relevant cell types. Thus, super-enhancers can be used as potential biomarkers for disease diagnosis and therapeutics. Current studies have identified super-enhancers in more than 100 cell types and demonstrated their functional importance. However, a centralized resource to integrate all these findings is not currently available. We developed dbSUPER (http://bioinfo.au.tsinghua.edu.cn/dbsuper/), the first integrated and interactive database of super-enhancers, with the primary goal of providing a resource for assistance in further studies related to transcriptional control of cell identity and disease. dbSUPER provides a responsive and user-friendly web interface to facilitate efficient and comprehensive search and browsing. The data can be easily sent to Galaxy instances, GREAT and Cistrome web-servers for downstream analysis, and can also be visualized in the UCSC genome browser where custom tracks can be added automatically. The data can be downloaded and exported in variety of formats. Furthermore, dbSUPER lists genes associated with super-enhancers and also links to external databases such as GeneCards, UniProt and Entrez. dbSUPER also provides an overlap analysis tool to annotate user-defined regions. We believe dbSUPER is a valuable resource for the biology and genetic research communities. PMID:26438538

  9. High-voltage pulsed generators for electro-discharge technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalchuk, B. M.; Kharlov, A. V.; Kumpyak, E. V.; Sinebrykhov, V. A.

    2013-09-01

    A high-voltage pulse technology is one of effective techniques for the disintegration and milling of rocks, separation of ores and synthesized materials, recycling of building and elastoplastic materials. We present here the design and test results of two portable HV pulsed generators, designed for materials fragmentation, though some other technological applications are possible as well. Generator #1 consists of low voltage block, high voltage transformer, high voltage capacitive storage block, two electrode gas switch, fragmentation chamber and control system block. Technical characteristics of the #1 generator: stored energy in HV capacitors can be varied from 50 to 1000 J, output voltage up to 300 kV, voltage rise time ~ 50 ns, typical operation regime 1000 pulses bursts with a repetitive rate up to 10 Hz. Generator #2 is made on an eight stages Marx scheme with two capacitors (100 kV-400 nF) per stage, connected in parallel. Two electrode spark gap switches, operated in atmospheric air, are used in the Marx generator. Parameters of the generator: stored energy in capacitors 2÷8 kJ, amplitude of the output voltage 200÷400 kV, voltage rise time on a load 50÷100 ns, repetitive rate up to 0.5 Hz. The fragmentation process can be controlled within a wide range of parameters for both generators.

  10. Searching for New Physics at SuperB - The Super Flavor Factory

    ScienceCinema

    Hiltin, David [Caltech, Pasadena, California, United States

    2016-07-12

    SuperB – a Super Flavor Factory, an electron-positron collider with a luminosity of 1036 cm-2 s-1, can conduct conduct unique sensitive searches for New Physics effects such as lepton flavor violation and new sources of CP violation in the quark and lepton sectors.

  11. Regenerated Spider Silk Possess Mechanical Properties of Super- and Cyclic Contraction in Response to Environmental Humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Shan; Swaminathan, Ganesh; Evans, Samuel; Blackledge, Todd

    2013-06-01

    Major Ampullate (MA) spider silk is among the most impressive biomaterials due to its unparalleled mechanical properties, such as super-contraction and cyclic response to changes in humidity. Electro-spinning enables the generation of engineered silk fibers with controlled parameters and dimentions for various medical and commercial applications. However, their applications hinge on the ability to reproduce the mechanical properties such as a precise expansion-contraction response existed in natural silk fibers. Here, we successfully reproduced MA spider-silk fibers from solutions of natural MA silk proteins via electrospinning, which exhibit the super-contraction and cyclic response to humidity change in a manner mirroring the natural fibers.

  12. The standardization of super resolution optical microscopic images based on DICOM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Wei; Gao, Xin

    2015-03-01

    Super resolution optical microscopy allows the capture of images with a higher resolution than the diffraction limit. However, due to the lack of a standard format, the processing, visualization, transfer, and exchange of Super Resolution Optical Microscope (SROM) images are inconvenient. In this work, we present an approach to standardize the SROM images based on the Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) standard. The SROM images and associated information are encapsulated and converted to DICOM images based on the Visible Light Microscopic Image Information Object Definition of DICOM. The new generated SROM images in DICOM format can be displayed, processed, transferred, and exchanged by using most medical image processing tools.

  13. High concentrations of STOP protein induce a microtubule super-stable state.

    PubMed

    Job, D; Rauch, C T; Margolis, R L

    1987-10-14

    We have previously shown that mammalian brain crude extracts contained two classes of stable microtubules: "cold stable" and "super-stable" microtubules. We now find that both species are generated by a single protein factor (STOP protein) in a dose dependent manner. These results show that STOP protein action can be extreme, inducing resistance to -80 degrees C or to sonication and that no other factor seems to be required to account for the various subclasses of highly stable microtubules in brain. Finally, the rapid procedure described for the preparation of purified "super-stable microtubules" should be useful for the obtention of fractions with high STOP protein activity.

  14. Super-multiplex vibrational imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Lu; Chen, Zhixing; Shi, Lixue; Long, Rong; Anzalone, Andrew V.; Zhang, Luyuan; Hu, Fanghao; Yuste, Rafael; Cornish, Virginia W.; Min, Wei

    2017-04-01

    potential of this 24-colour (super-multiplex) optical imaging approach for elucidating intricate interactions in complex biological systems.

  15. Supermassive and super-hungry

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-01-04

    This NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image shows the spiral galaxy NGC 4845, located over 65 million light-years away in the constellation of Virgo (The Virgin). The galaxy’s orientation clearly reveals the galaxy’s striking spiral structure: a flat and dust-mottled disc surrounding a bright galactic bulge. NGC 4845’s glowing centre hosts a gigantic version of a black hole, known as a supermassive black hole. The presence of a black hole in a distant galaxy like NGC 4845 can be inferred from its effect on the galaxy’s innermost stars; these stars experience a strong gravitational pull from the black hole and whizz around the galaxy’s centre much faster than otherwise. From investigating the motion of these central stars, astronomers can estimate the mass of the central black hole — for NGC 4845 this is estimated to be hundreds of thousands times heavier than the Sun. This same technique was also used to discover the supermassive black hole at the centre of our own Milky Way — Sagittarius A* — which hits some four million times the mass of the Sun (potw1340a). The galactic core of NGC 4845 is not just supermassive, but also super-hungry. In 2013 researchers were observing another galaxy when they noticed a violent flare at the centre of NGC 4845. The flare came from the central black hole tearing up and feeding off an object many times more massive than Jupiter. A brown dwarf or a large planet simply strayed too close and was devoured by the hungry core of NGC 4845.

  16. Wavelength scanning achieves pixel super-resolution in holographic on-chip microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Wei; Göröcs, Zoltan; Zhang, Yibo; Feizi, Alborz; Greenbaum, Alon; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2016-03-01

    Lensfree holographic on-chip imaging is a potent solution for high-resolution and field-portable bright-field imaging over a wide field-of-view. Previous lensfree imaging approaches utilize a pixel super-resolution technique, which relies on sub-pixel lateral displacements between the lensfree diffraction patterns and the image sensor's pixel-array, to achieve sub-micron resolution under unit magnification using state-of-the-art CMOS imager chips, commonly used in e.g., mobile-phones. Here we report, for the first time, a wavelength scanning based pixel super-resolution technique in lensfree holographic imaging. We developed an iterative super-resolution algorithm, which generates high-resolution reconstructions of the specimen from low-resolution (i.e., under-sampled) diffraction patterns recorded at multiple wavelengths within a narrow spectral range (e.g., 10-30 nm). Compared with lateral shift-based pixel super-resolution, this wavelength scanning approach does not require any physical shifts in the imaging setup, and the resolution improvement is uniform in all directions across the sensor-array. Our wavelength scanning super-resolution approach can also be integrated with multi-height and/or multi-angle on-chip imaging techniques to obtain even higher resolution reconstructions. For example, using wavelength scanning together with multi-angle illumination, we achieved a halfpitch resolution of 250 nm, corresponding to a numerical aperture of 1. In addition to pixel super-resolution, the small scanning steps in wavelength also enable us to robustly unwrap phase, revealing the specimen's optical path length in our reconstructed images. We believe that this new wavelength scanning based pixel super-resolution approach can provide competitive microscopy solutions for high-resolution and field-portable imaging needs, potentially impacting tele-pathology applications in resource-limited-settings.

  17. A Super-Resolution Algorithm for Enhancement of FLASH LIDAR Data: Flight Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulyshev, Alexander; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Roback, Eric; Reisse Robert

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a 3D super-resolution algorithm applied to the range data obtained from a recent Flash Lidar helicopter flight test. The flight test was conducted by the NASA's Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) project over a simulated lunar terrain facility at NASA Kennedy Space Center. ALHAT is developing the technology for safe autonomous landing on the surface of celestial bodies: Moon, Mars, asteroids. One of the test objectives was to verify the ability of 3D super-resolution technique to generate high resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) and to determine time resolved relative positions and orientations of the vehicle. 3D super-resolution algorithm was developed earlier and tested in computational modeling, and laboratory experiments, and in a few dynamic experiments using a moving truck. Prior to the helicopter flight test campaign, a 100mX100m hazard field was constructed having most of the relevant extraterrestrial hazard: slopes, rocks, and craters with different sizes. Data were collected during the flight and then processed by the super-resolution code. The detailed DEM of the hazard field was constructed using independent measurement to be used for comparison. ALHAT navigation system data were used to verify abilities of super-resolution method to provide accurate relative navigation information. Namely, the 6 degree of freedom state vector of the instrument as a function of time was restored from super-resolution data. The results of comparisons show that the super-resolution method can construct high quality DEMs and allows for identifying hazards like rocks and craters within the accordance of ALHAT requirements.

  18. A super-resolution algorithm for enhancement of flash lidar data: flight test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulyshev, Alexander; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Roback, Eric; Reisse, Robert

    2013-03-01

    This paper describes the results of a 3D super-resolution algorithm applied to the range data obtained from a recent Flash Lidar helicopter flight test. The flight test was conducted by the NASA's Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) project over a simulated lunar terrain facility at NASA Kennedy Space Center. ALHAT is developing the technology for safe autonomous landing on the surface of celestial bodies: Moon, Mars, asteroids. One of the test objectives was to verify the ability of 3D super-resolution technique to generate high resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) and to determine time resolved relative positions and orientations of the vehicle. 3D super-resolution algorithm was developed earlier and tested in computational modeling, and laboratory experiments, and in a few dynamic experiments using a moving truck. Prior to the helicopter flight test campaign, a 100mX100m hazard field was constructed having most of the relevant extraterrestrial hazard: slopes, rocks, and craters with different sizes. Data were collected during the flight and then processed by the super-resolution code. The detailed DEM of the hazard field was constructed using independent measurement to be used for comparison. ALHAT navigation system data were used to verify abilities of super-resolution method to provide accurate relative navigation information. Namely, the 6 degree of freedom state vector of the instrument as a function of time was restored from super-resolution data. The results of comparisons show that the super-resolution method can construct high quality DEMs and allows for identifying hazards like rocks and craters within the accordance of ALHAT requirements.

  19. Demosaiced pixel super-resolution for multiplexed holographic color imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yichen; Zhang, Yibo; Luo, Wei; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2016-06-01

    To synthesize a holographic color image, one can sequentially take three holograms at different wavelengths, e.g., at red (R), green (G) and blue (B) parts of the spectrum, and digitally merge them. To speed up the imaging process by a factor of three, a Bayer color sensor-chip can also be used to demultiplex three wavelengths that simultaneously illuminate the sample and digitally retrieve individual set of holograms using the known transmission spectra of the Bayer color filters. However, because the pixels of different channels (R, G, B) on a Bayer color sensor are not at the same physical location, conventional demosaicing techniques generate color artifacts in holographic imaging using simultaneous multi-wavelength illumination. Here we demonstrate that pixel super-resolution can be merged into the color de-multiplexing process to significantly suppress the artifacts in wavelength-multiplexed holographic color imaging. This new approach, termed Demosaiced Pixel Super-Resolution (D-PSR), generates color images that are similar in performance to sequential illumination at three wavelengths, and therefore improves the speed of holographic color imaging by 3-fold. D-PSR method is broadly applicable to holographic microscopy applications, where high-resolution imaging and multi-wavelength illumination are desired.

  20. Demosaiced pixel super-resolution for multiplexed holographic color imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yichen; Zhang, Yibo; Luo, Wei; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2016-01-01

    To synthesize a holographic color image, one can sequentially take three holograms at different wavelengths, e.g., at red (R), green (G) and blue (B) parts of the spectrum, and digitally merge them. To speed up the imaging process by a factor of three, a Bayer color sensor-chip can also be used to demultiplex three wavelengths that simultaneously illuminate the sample and digitally retrieve individual set of holograms using the known transmission spectra of the Bayer color filters. However, because the pixels of different channels (R, G, B) on a Bayer color sensor are not at the same physical location, conventional demosaicing techniques generate color artifacts in holographic imaging using simultaneous multi-wavelength illumination. Here we demonstrate that pixel super-resolution can be merged into the color de-multiplexing process to significantly suppress the artifacts in wavelength-multiplexed holographic color imaging. This new approach, termed Demosaiced Pixel Super-Resolution (D-PSR), generates color images that are similar in performance to sequential illumination at three wavelengths, and therefore improves the speed of holographic color imaging by 3-fold. D-PSR method is broadly applicable to holographic microscopy applications, where high-resolution imaging and multi-wavelength illumination are desired. PMID:27353242

  1. Breeding Super-Earths and Birthing Super-Puffs in Transitional Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eve J.; Chiang, Eugene

    2015-12-01

    The riddle posed by super-Earths (1--4 Earth radii, 2--20 Earth masses) is that they are not Jupiters: their core masses are large enough to trigger runaway gas accretion, yet somehow super-Earths accreted atmospheres that weigh only a few percent of their total mass. We show that this puzzle is solved if super-Earthsformed late, as the last vestiges of their parent gas disks were about to clear. This scenario would seem to present fine-tuning problems, but we show that there are none. Ambient gas densities can span many orders of magnitude, and super-Earths can robustly emerge with percent-by-weight atmospheres after ~0.1--1 Myr. We propose that 1) close-in super-Earths form in situ, because their cores necessarily coagulate in gas-poor environments—gas dynamical friction must be weakened sufficiently to allow constituent protocores to cross orbits and merge; 2) super- Earths acquire their atmospheres from ambient wisps of gas that are supplied from a diffusing outer disk. The formation environment is reminiscent of the largely evacuated but still accreting inner cavities of transitional protoplanetary disks. We also 3) address the inverse problem presented by super-puffs: an uncommon class of short- period planets seemingly too voluminous for their small masses (4--10 Earth radii, 2--6 Earth masses). Super-puffs most easily acquire their thick atmospheres as dust-free, rapidly cooling worlds outside ~1 AU where nebular gas is colder, less dense, and therefore less opaque. Unlike super-Earths which can form in situ, super-puffs probably migrated in to their current orbits; they are expected to form the outer links of mean-motion resonant chains, and to exhibit greater water content.

  2. Comparative and practical aspects of localization-based super-resolution imaging.

    PubMed

    Laevsky, Gary S; O'Connell, Christopher B

    2013-01-01

    Super-resolution microscopy overcomes diffraction to generate images with superior resolution compared to conventional light microscopy. Localization-based super-resolution methods result in up to ten-fold improvement in resolution by determining the positions of fluorescent molecules with sub-pixel accuracy. This process critically depends on controlled emission at the level of individual fluorophores so that fluorescence is non-overlapping, allowing for accurate centroid determination of diffraction-limited spots by Gaussian fitting of the pixel intensities. The intrinsic photoswitching behavior of many fluorophores provides a convenient way to achieve emitter isolation. Here, we describe methods for label preparation and staining of cellular structures to obtain high-quality images using localization super resolution. We also compare labeling strategies and dye characteristics relevant to all localization-based techniques, such as STORM and PALM.

  3. SuperLFV: An SLHA tool for lepton flavor violating observables in supersymmetric models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Brandon

    2014-02-01

    We introduce SuperLFV, a numerical tool for calculating low-energy observables that exhibit charged lepton flavor violation (LFV) in the context of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM). As the Large Hadron Collider and MEG, a dedicated μ+→e+γ experiment, are presently acquiring data, there is need for tools that provide rapid discrimination of models that exhibit LFV. SuperLFV accepts a spectrum file compliant with the SUSY Les Houches Accord (SLHA), containing the MSSM couplings and masses with complex phases at the supersymmetry breaking scale. In this manner, SuperLFV is compatible with but divorced from existing SLHA spectrum calculators that provide the low energy spectrum. Hence, input spectra are not confined to the LFV sources provided by established SLHA spectrum calculators. Input spectra may be generated by personal code or by hand, allowing for arbitrary models not supported by existing spectrum calculators.

  4. Concept of Operation for Tactical Separation Assurance in Super-Density Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denery, Dallas G.; Tang, Huabin; Robinson, John E.

    2010-01-01

    The Airspace Systems Program is committed to supporting the Next Generation Air Transportation System through research and development in select areas. One such area, referred to as Super Density Operations, is conducting research to develop technologies that will safely increase the throughput in busy terminal area environments. The purpose of this document is to develop a Concept of Operations for the Tactical Separation Assurance function, one of the functions included in Super Density Operations. A functional description of the technologies required for Super Density Operations is presented followed by a more detail description of the Tactical Separation Assurance function. Two story boards are presented to illustrate the operational use of the Tactical Separation Assurance function under different situations. The last section proposes a pathway to implementing the Tactical Separation Assurance function.

  5. Genetic dissection of the α-globin super-enhancer in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Deborah; Hughes, Jim R.; Rode, Christina; Li, Pik-Shan; Pennacchio, Len A.; Sloane-Stanley, Jacqueline A.; Ayyub, Helena; Butler, Sue; Sauka-Spengler, Tatjana; Gibbons, Richard J.; Smith, Andrew J.H.; Wood, William G.; Higgs, Douglas R.

    2016-01-01

    Many genes determining cell identity are regulated by clusters of mediator-bound enhancer elements collectively referred to as super-enhancers. These have been proposed to manifest higher-order properties important in development and disease. Here, we report a comprehensive functional dissection of one of the strongest putative super-enhancers in erythroid cells. By generating a series of mouse models, deleting each of the five regulatory elements of the α-globin super-enhancer singly and in informative combinations, we demonstrate that each constituent enhancer appears to act independently and in an additive fashion with respect to hematologic phenotype, gene expression, chromatin structure and chromosome conformation, without clear evidence of synergistic or higher-order effects. Our study highlights the importance of functional genetic analyses for the identification of new concepts in transcriptional regulation. PMID:27376235

  6. A fully integrated CMOS super-regenerative wake-up receiver for EEG applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yiqi, Mao; Tongqiang, Gao; Xiaodong, Xu; Haigang, Yang; Xinxia, Cai

    2016-09-01

    A fully integrated super-regenerative wake-up receiver for wireless body area network applications is presented. The super-regeneration receiver is designed to receive OOK-modulated data from the base station. A low power waveform generator is adopted both to provide a quench signal for VCO and to provide a clock signal for the digital module. The receiver is manufactured in 0.18 μm CMOS process and the active area is 0.67 mm2. It achieves a sensitivity of -80 dBm for 10-3 BER with a data rate of 200 kbps. The power consumption of the super-regenerative wake-up receiver is about 2.16 mW. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (No. 2014CB744600) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61474120).

  7. Characterization and applications of VLF/LF source locations from lightning using the Huntsville Alabama Marx Meter Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitzer, Phillip M.; Christian, Hugh J.; Stewart, Mike; Burchfield, Jeff; Podgorny, Scott; Corredor, David; Hall, John; Kuznetsov, Evgeny; Franklin, Veronica

    2013-04-01

    Arrays that detect and locate the four-dimensional spacetime positions of radiation sources from lightning have largely utilized sensors sensitive to the very high frequency (VHF) regime with ˜ 15 km baselines or very low frequency/low frequency (VLF/LF) regime with ˜ 100 km baselines. This paper details initial results from the newly developed Huntsville Alabama Marx Meter Array (HAMMA), consisting of Marx meters (electric field change meters) sensitive to a frequency band ˜ 1 Hz to 400 kHz. The arrival time of HAMMA waveforms due to radiation sources from lightning are used to determine the spacetime position of these sources. The locations are compared with two well-documented and operational arrays, the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) and the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (NALMA). The standard deviation of the difference between HAMMA and NLDN locations of return strokes is 305 and 266 m in x and y, respectively, while the standard deviation of the difference between HAMMA and NALMA sources is 237, 226, and 688 m in x, y and z, respectively. We further show that NLDN intracloud locations differ in horizontal distance from the corresponding HAMMA locations by a median value of 479 m. In addition, we use HAMMA source locations to map several lightning flashes in the VLF/LF and show HAMMA sources largely map out the same electrical extent as VHF sources and provide unique insights to the properties of the discharges occurring. Finally, we show that VLF/LF sources can determine the leader polarity in several example flashes but not necessarily whether a flash comes to ground. Copyright 2013 American Geophysical Union. All rights reserved.

  8. SuperAGILE Services at ASDC

    SciTech Connect

    Preger, B.; Verrecchia, F.; Pittori, C.; Antonelli, L. A.; Giommi, P.; Lazzarotto, F.; Evangelista, Y.

    2008-05-22

    The Italian Space Agency Science Data Center (ASDC) is a facility with several responsibilities including support to all the ASI scientific missions as for management and archival of the data, acting as the interface between ASI and the scientific community and providing on-line access to the data hosted. In this poster we describe the services that ASDC provides for SuperAGILE, in particular the ASDC public web pages devoted to the dissemination of SuperAGILE scientific results. SuperAGILE is the X-Ray imager onboard the AGILE mission, and provides the scientific community with orbit-by-orbit information on the observed sources. Crucial source information including position and flux in chosen energy bands will be reported in the SuperAGILE public web page at ASDC. Given their particular interest, another web page will be dedicated entirely to GRBs and other transients, where new event alerts will be notified and where users will find all the available informations on the GRBs detected by SuperAGILE.

  9. A Fundamentally New SuperDARN Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gjerloev, Jesper; Waters, Colin; Barnes, Robin

    2017-04-01

    All past SuperDARN models have been based on the idea that global convection pattern is controlled by the solar wind conditions. The implied causality raises a list of questions such as: What is the delay between the cause and effect, whether the magnetosphere-ionosphere (M-I) system has inertia and whether internal M-I processes can be ignored. In this talk we answer these question by presenting a new SuperDARN technique which is based on a fundamentally different approach. The method combines historical data from the SuperDARN data base, Principal Component Analysis and a spherical cap basis function expansion process in order to `fill-in' convection data where there are observations for any given time. Our model show significant differences from all past SuperDARN models but its behavior is in excellent agreement with both the SuperMAG and AMPERE. We outline the technique, validate the solutions and show the results from a typical substorm as well as a storm event.

  10. Axial super-resolution evanescent wave tomography.

    PubMed

    Pendharker, Sarang; Shende, Swapnali; Newman, Ward; Ogg, Stephen; Nazemifard, Neda; Jacob, Zubin

    2016-12-01

    Optical tomographic reconstruction of a three-dimensional (3D) nanoscale specimen is hindered by the axial diffraction limit, which is 2-3 times worse than the focal plane resolution. We propose and experimentally demonstrate an axial super-resolution evanescent wave tomography method that enables the use of regular evanescent wave microscopes like the total internal reflection fluorescence microscope beyond surface imaging and achieve a tomographic reconstruction with axial super-resolution. Our proposed method based on Fourier reconstruction achieves axial super-resolution by extracting information from multiple sets of 3D fluorescence images when the sample is illuminated by an evanescent wave. We propose a procedure to extract super-resolution features from the incremental penetration of an evanescent wave and support our theory by one-dimensional (along the optical axis) and 3D simulations. We validate our claims by experimentally demonstrating tomographic reconstruction of microtubules in HeLa cells with an axial resolution of ∼130  nm. Our method does not require any additional optical components or sample preparation. The proposed method can be combined with focal plane super-resolution techniques like stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy and can also be adapted for THz and microwave near-field tomography.

  11. A super-fast-rotating asteroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C.; Waszczak, A.; Ip, W.; Prince, T.; PTF Team

    2014-07-01

    Harris (1996) showed a 'spin barrier' at 2.2 hours for asteroids with D < 1 km, which indicates large asteroids are gravitationally bound aggregates (i.e., rubble-pile structure). Following that study, Pravec & Harris (2000) revealed that asteroids with diameters larger than a few hundred meters are rubble piles and have spin rates lower than the 'spin barrier', while smaller asteroids may rotate faster than the 'spin barrier' (i.e., super-fast-rotator; see an example study by Hergenrother & Whiteley 2011) and are likely to be monolithic objects. Only one exception to this rule was found, 2001 OE_{84}, which has a diameter of 0.9 km and a rotation period of 29.19 min (Pravec et al. 2002). Subsequently, Holsapple (2007) suggested a size-dependent strength for asteroids and predicted the existence of kilometer-sized super-fast rotators. Although several km-sized super-fast-rotator candidates had been reported (Masiero et al. 2009 and Dermawan et al. 2011), none of them had been confirmed yet. Therefore, to discover more such km-sized super-fast rotators will give us a more clear picture of the interior structure of the asteroids. Here, we report another super-fast rotator discovered during the asteroid rotation survey mission of the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF) in Feb. 2014 and confirmed by the follow-up observation of the 200-inch Hale Telescope at the Palomar Observatory.

  12. Axial super-resolution evanescent wave tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendharker, Sarang; Shende, Swapnali; Newman, Ward; Ogg, Stephen; Nazemifard, Neda; Jacob, Zubin

    2016-12-01

    Optical tomographic reconstruction of a 3D nanoscale specimen is hindered by the axial diffraction limit, which is 2-3 times worse than the focal plane resolution. We propose and experimentally demonstrate an axial super-resolution evanescent wave tomography (AxSET) method that enables the use of regular evanescent wave microscopes like Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscope (TIRF) beyond surface imaging, and achieve tomographic reconstruction with axial super-resolution. Our proposed method based on Fourier reconstruction achieves axial super-resolution by extracting information from multiple sets of three-dimensional fluorescence images when the sample is illuminated by an evanescent wave. We propose a procedure to extract super-resolution features from the incremental penetration of an evanescent wave and support our theory by 1D (along the optical axis) and 3D simulations. We validate our claims by experimentally demonstrating tomographic reconstruction of microtubules in HeLa cells with an axial resolution of $\\sim$130 nm. Our method does not require any additional optical components or sample preparation. The proposed method can be combined with focal plane super-resolution techniques like STORM and can also be adapted for THz and microwave near-field tomography.

  13. SuperSpec: development towards a full-scale filter bank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, J.; Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Shirokoff, E.; Barry, P. S.; Bradford, C. M.; Chapman, S.; Che, G.; Glenn, J.; Hollister, M.; Kovács, A.; LeDuc, H. G.; Mauskopf, P.; McGeehan, R.; McKenney, C. M.; O'Brient, R.; Padin, S.; Reck, T.; Ross, C.; Shiu, C.; Tucker, C. E.; Williamson, R.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    2016-07-01

    SuperSpec is a new spectrometer-on-a-chip technology for submm/mm-wave spectroscopy. SuperSpec stands out from other direct-detection submm spectrometer technologies in that the detectors are coupled to a series of resonant filters along a single microwave feedline instead of using dispersive optics. SuperSpec makes use of kinetic inductance detectors (KIDs) to detect radiation in this filter bank. The small profile of this design makes SuperSpec a natural choice to produce a multi-object spectrometer for tomographic mapping or galaxy redshift surveys. We have recently fabricated a device that is a 50 channel subset of a full 280 channel filter bank, which would cover the 190 - 310 GHz range at R = 275. Analysis of the data from this device informs us of the potential design modifications to enable a high-yield background-limited SuperSpec spectrometer. The results indicate that this subset filter bank can scale up to a full filter bank with only a few collisions in readout space and less than 20% variation in responsivity for the detectors. Additionally, the characterization of this and other prototype devices suggests that the noise performance is limited by generation-recombination noise. Finally, we find that the detectors are sufficiently sensitive for ground-based spectroscopy at R = 100, appropriate for tomographic mapping experiments. Further modifications are required to reach the background limit for R = 400, ideal for spectroscopy of individual galaxies.

  14. An Oncogenic Super-Enhancer Formed Through Somatic Mutation of a Noncoding Intergenic Element

    PubMed Central

    Mansour, Marc R.; Abraham, Brian J; Anders, Lars; Berezovskaya, Alla; Gutierrez, Alejandro; Durbin, Adam D; Etchin, Julia; Lawton, Lee; Sallan, Stephen E.; Silverman, Lewis B.; Loh, Mignon L.; Hunger, Stephen P.; Sanda, Takaomi; Young, Richard A.; Look, A. Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In certain human cancers, the expression of critical oncogenes is driven from large regulatory elements, called super-enhancers, which recruit much of the cell’s transcriptional apparatus and are defined by extensive acetylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27ac). In a subset of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cases, we found that heterozygous somatic mutations are acquired that introduce binding motifs for the MYB transcription factor in a precise noncoding site, which creates a super-enhancer upstream of the TAL1 oncogene. MYB binds to this new site and recruits it’s H3K27 acetylase binding partner CBP, as well as core components of a major leukemogenic transcriptional complex that contains RUNX1, GATA-3, and TAL1 itself. Additionally, most endogenous super-enhancers found in T-ALL cells are occupied by MYB and CBP, suggesting a general role for MYB in super-enhancer initiation. Thus, this study identifies a genetic mechanism responsible for the generation of oncogenic super-enhancers in malignant cells. PMID:25394790

  15. Infrared super-resolution imaging method based on retina micro-motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Xiubao; Gao, Hang; Sun, Yicheng; Chen, Qian; Gu, Guohua

    2013-09-01

    With the wide application of infrared focal plane arrays (IRFPA), military, aerospace, public security and other applications have higher and higher requirements on the spatial resolution of infrared images. However, traditional super-resolution imaging methods have increasingly unable to meet this requirement in technology. In this paper, we adopt the achievement that the human retina micro-motion is the important reason why the human has the hyperacuity ability. Based on the achievement, we bring forward an infrared super-resolution imaging method based on retina micro-motion. In the method, we use the piezoelectric ceramic equipment to control the infrared detector moving variably within a plane parallel to the focal plane. The motion direction is toward each other into a direction of 90°. In the four directions of the movement, we get four sub-images and generate a high spatial resolution infrared image by image interpolation method. In the process of the shifting movement of the detector, we set the threshold of the detector response and record the response time difference when adjacent pixel responses are up to the threshold. By the method, we get the object's edges, enhance them in the high resolution infrared image and get the super-resolution infrared image. The experimental results show that our proposed super-resolution imaging methods can improve the spatial resolution of the infrared image effectively. The method will offer a new idea for the super-resolution reconstruction of infrared images.

  16. Fast compressed sensing analysis for super-resolution imaging using L1-homotopy

    PubMed Central

    Babcock, Hazen P.; Moffitt, Jeffrey R.; Cao, Yunlong; Zhuang, Xiaowei

    2013-01-01

    In super-resolution imaging techniques based on single-molecule switching and localization, the time to acquire a super-resolution image is limited by the maximum density of fluorescent emitters that can be accurately localized per imaging frame. In order to increase the imaging rate, several methods have been recently developed to analyze images with higher emitter densities. One powerful approach uses methods based on compressed sensing to increase the analyzable emitter density per imaging frame by several-fold compared to other reported approaches. However, the computational cost of this approach, which uses interior point methods, is high, and analysis of a typical 40 µm x 40 µm field-of-view super-resolution movie requires thousands of hours on a high-end desktop personal computer. Here, we demonstrate an alternative compressed-sensing algorithm, L1-Homotopy (L1H), which can generate super-resolution image reconstructions that are essentially identical to those derived using interior point methods in one to two orders of magnitude less time depending on the emitter density. Moreover, for an experimental data set with varying emitter density, L1H analysis is ~300-fold faster than interior point methods. This drastic reduction in computational time should allow the compressed sensing approach to be routinely applied to super-resolution image analysis. PMID:24514370

  17. Comparative CFD Investigation on the Performance of a New Family of Super-Cavitating Hydrofoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brizzolara, S.; Bonfiglio, L.

    2015-12-01

    We present a CFD characterization of a new type of super-cavitating hydrofoil section designed to have optimal performance both in super-cavitating conditions and in sub-cavitating conditions (including transitional regime). The basic concepts of the new profile family are first introduced. Lift, drag and cavity shapes at different cavitation numbers are calculated for a new foil and compared with those of conventional sub-cavitating and super-cavitating profiles. Numerical calculations confirm the superior characteristics of the new hydrofoil family, which is able to attain high lift and efficiency both in sub-cavitating and super-cavitating conditions. Numerical calculations are based on a multi-phase fully turbulent URANSE solver with a bubble dynamic cavitation model to follow the generation and evaporation of the vapor phase. The new profile family, initially devised for ultra-high speed hydrofoil crafts, may result useful for diverse applications such as super-cavitating or surface-piercing propellers or high-speed sailing boats.

  18. Autonomous Decentralized Voltage Profile Control of Super Distributed Energy System using Multi-agent Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Takao; Hara, Ryoichi; Oyama, Tsutomu; Yasuda, Keiichiro

    A super distributed energy system is a future energy system in which the large part of its demand is fed by a huge number of distributed generators. At one time some nodes in the super distributed energy system behave as load, however, at other times they behave as generator - the characteristic of each node depends on the customers' decision. In such situation, it is very difficult to regulate voltage profile over the system due to the complexity of power flows. This paper proposes a novel control method of distributed generators that can achieve the autonomous decentralized voltage profile regulation by using multi-agent technology. The proposed multi-agent system employs two types of agent; a control agent and a mobile agent. Control agents generate or consume reactive power to regulate the voltage profile of neighboring nodes and mobile agents transmit the information necessary for VQ-control among the control agents. The proposed control method is tested through numerical simulations.

  19. Four-loop dressing phase of N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory

    SciTech Connect

    Beisert, N.; McLoughlin, T.; Roiban, R.

    2007-08-15

    We compute the dilatation generator in the su(2) sector of planar N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory at four loops. We use the known world-sheet scattering matrix to constrain the structure of the generator. The remaining few coefficients can be computed directly from Feynman diagrams. This allows us to confirm previous conjectures for the leading contribution to the dressing phase which is proportional to {zeta}(3)

  20. Unitary Representations of Super Lie Groups and Applications to the Classification and Multiplet Structure of Super Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmeli, C.; Cassinelli, G.; Toigo, A.; Varadarajan, V. S.

    2006-04-01

    It is well known that the category of super Lie groups (SLG) is equivalent to the category of super Harish-Chandra pairs (SHCP). Using this equivalence, we define the category of unitary representations (UR's) of a super Lie group. We give an extension of the classical inducing construction and Mackey imprimitivity theorem to this setting. We use our results to classify the irreducible unitary representations of semidirect products of super translation groups by classical Lie groups, in particular of the super Poincaré groups in arbitrary dimension and signature. Finally we compare our results with those in the physical literature on the structure and classification of super multiplets.

  1. Assessing resolution in super-resolution imaging.

    PubMed

    Demmerle, Justin; Wegel, Eva; Schermelleh, Lothar; Dobbie, Ian M

    2015-10-15

    Resolution is a central concept in all imaging fields, and particularly in optical microscopy, but it can be easily misinterpreted. The mathematical definition of optical resolution was codified by Abbe, and practically defined by the Rayleigh Criterion in the late 19th century. The limit of conventional resolution was also achieved in this period, and it was thought that fundamental constraints of physics prevented further increases in resolution. With the recent development of a range of super-resolution techniques, it is necessary to revisit the concept of optical resolution. Fundamental differences in super-resolution modalities mean that resolution is not a directly transferrable metric between techniques. This article considers the issues in resolution raised by these new technologies, and presents approaches for comparing resolution between different super-resolution methods.

  2. GADZOOKS! The Future of Super Kamiokande?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vagins, M. R.

    2007-06-01

    An inexpensive, effective technique is being developed to allow tagging of antineutrinos in water Cherenkov [WC] detectors via the addition to water of a solute with a large neutron cross section and energetic gamma daughters. Gadolinium is an excellent candidate since in recent years it has become very inexpensive, now less than $8 per kilogram in the form of commercially-available gadolinium trichloride. This non-toxic, non-reactive substance is highly soluble in water. Neutron capture on gadolinium yields an 8.0 MeV gamma cascade easily seen in detectors like Super-Kamiokande [Super-K, SK]. The uses of GdCl 3 as a possible upgrade for the Super-Kamiokande detector — with a view toward improving its performance as an antineutrino detector for supernova neutrinos and reactor neutrinos — are discussed, as are the ongoing R&D efforts which aim to make this dream a reality within the next two years.

  3. Earths, Super-Earths, and Jupiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Eugene; Lee, Eve J.

    2015-12-01

    We review and add to the theory of how planets acquire atmospheres from parent circumstellar disks. We derive (in real time) a simple and general analytic expression for how a planet's atmosphere grows with time, as a function of the underlying core mass and nebular conditions, including the gas metallicity. Planets accrete as much gas as can cool: an atmosphere's doubling time is given by its Kelvin-Helmholtz time. The theory can be applied in any number of settings --- gas-rich vs. gas-poor nebulae; dusty vs. dust-free atmospheres; close-in vs. far-out distances --- and is confirmed against detailed numerical models for objects ranging in mass from Mars (0.1 Mearth) to the most extreme super Earths (10--20 Mearth). We explain why heating from planetesimal accretion, commonly invoked in models of core accretion, is irrelevant. This talk sets the stage for another presentation, "Breeding Super-Earths and Birthing Super-Puffs".

  4. Status of SuperKEKB construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanazawa, Ken-ichi

    2016-04-01

    SuperKEKB is a major upgrade of the asymmetric B-factory collider, KEKB, to provide 40 times higher luminosity than that achieved at KEKB. The design of SuperKEKB adopts the nano-beam scheme for the collision of two beams, which was originally proposed for the Italian SuperB project. The nano-beam scheme is realized with low-emittance optics, a very small β-function, and a large crossing angle at the collision point. For the low-emittance design, a substantial part of the positron ring (LER) was reconstructed. All dipole magnets in the LER were replaced with longer ones. The beam pipes in the LER were redesigned to mitigate the electron cloud problem. Around the interaction point, about 300 m of both rings were completely redesigned for the new collision scheme. The commissioning of SuperKEKB is divided into three phases. Phase 1 is used for vacuum scrubbing of new beam pipes without the Belle-II detector and the final focus magnets. The final focus magnets and Belle-II are installed in Phase 2. However, the central vertex detector (VXD) of Belle-II is not installed. Phase 2 is devoted to background studies and collision tuning. After the installation of VXD, Phase 3 starts for the new luminosity frontier. The construction of SuperKEKB for Phase 1 is nearing completion. The preparation of hardware for Phase 2 and Phase 3 is in steady progress. From various aspects, the nano-beam scheme SuperKEKB is a challenging accelerator. The tolerances for the hardware to realize nano-scale beam sizes and to keep the collision are very tight. The optics design is still being optimized to maximize the dynamic aperture. It is hard to predict how the commissioning will proceed.

  5. Super-sampling SART with ordered subsets.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Michael; Frangakis, Achilleas S

    2014-11-01

    In tomography, the quality of the reconstruction is essential because the complete cascade of the subsequent analysis is based on it. To date, weighted back-projection (WBP) has been the most commonly used technique due to its versatility and performance in sub-tomogram averaging. Here we present super-sampling SART that is based on the simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique. While algebraic reconstruction techniques typically produce better contrast and lately showed a significant improvement in terms of processing speed, sub-tomogram averages derived from those reconstructions were inferior in resolution compared to those derived from WBP data. Super-sampling SART, however, outperforms both in term of contrast and the resolution achieved in sub-tomogram averaging several other tested methods and in particular WBP. The main feature of super-sampling SART, as the name implies, is the super-sampling option - by which parameter-based up-sampling and down-sampling are used to reduce artifacts. In particular, the aliasing that is omnipresent in the reconstruction can be practically eliminated without a significant increase in the computational time. Furthermore, super-sampling SART reaches convergence within a single iteration, making the processing time comparable to WBP, and eliminating the ambiguity of parameter-controlled convergence times. We find that grouping of projections increases the contrast, while when projections are used individually the resolution can be maximized. Using sub-tomogram averaging of ribosomes as a test case, we show that super-sampling SART achieves equal or better sub-tomogram averaging results than WBP, which is of particular importance in cryo-electron tomography. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Super El Niños in a Warming World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, V. A.; Latif, M.; Park, W.

    2012-12-01

    El Niño is a disruption of the ocean-atmosphere system in the Tropical Pacific having important consequences for weather and climate around the globe. The phenomenon originates in the Equatorial Pacific, and it is the strongest interannual climate signal with global teleconnections. El Niño events are typified by strong warming of the order of a few degrees of the eastern and central Equatorial Pacific Ocean with cooling over portions of the subtropics and mid-latitudes and the tropical western Pacific. These SST anomalies drive anomalous diabatic heating in the upper atmosphere thereby perturbing the global atmospheric circulation and generating global teleconnections. Although El Niños considerably vary in strength, typical eastern Equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies generally do not exceed 4°C. Here we present an ensemble of greenhouse gas integrations (1% increase in CO2 per year) of the Kiel Climate Model (KCM), in which some events exceed SST anomalies of 6°C. Such Super El Niños force up to three times stronger teleconnection patterns in temperature and rainfall, which would have dramatic consequences for many countries around the world. Most of the Super El Niños happen during the last third of the 21st century and represent a prolonged event that sustains extremely strong SST anomalies for more than half a year. The change in the zonal wind stress climatology in the Equatorial Pacific Sector is the primary reason for the occurrence of Super El Niños in the greenhouse climate, with a second pronounced minimum favoring more persistent and powerful El Niños.

  7. Super-ion inspired colorful hybrid perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Hong; Jena, Puru

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites, with the general formula AMX3 (A =cation; M =metal; X =halogen), have emerged as a new generation of efficient yet inexpensive photovoltaic cells. These materials show record high conversion efficiency as solar cells and have excellent light-emission properties that can also be used in other optoelectronic devices. They can be processed easily from solution with optic band gaps, tunable from visible to infrared regions and are considered to be ``the next big thing in photovoltaics''. However, several important issues such as the relationship between their photoexcitation properties and the chemical structures, their stability under ambient conditions, as well as the possibility to invent their environment-friendly analogues remain unsolved. In this work, our aim is not only to gain a fundamental understanding of the structure-property relationship of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites, but also to rationally design a new class of hybrid perovskites that have desired electronic band gaps for solar cell applications. This is accomplished by using super-ions that can mimic the properties of elementary alkali and halogen ions as building blocks. These super-ions include superalkalis - CH3NH3+,HC(NH2) 2 + , and Li3O+ as cations and hyperhalogens - Ge(BH4) 3 - and Sn(BH4) 3 - as anions. The results are compared with perovskites composed of GeCl3-,GeBr3-,GeI3-,SnCl3-,SnBr3-,and SnI3-superhalogen anions. We develop a strategy to assemble these super-ions to form environment-friendly solar cells with adjustable band gaps (covering the visible range and beyond) and with improved resistance to moisture.

  8. The SuperCDMS SNOLAB Detector Tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aramaki, Tsuguo

    2016-08-01

    The SuperCDMS collaboration is moving forward with the design and construction of SuperCDMS SNOLAB, where the initial deployment will include ˜ 30 kg of Ge and ˜ 5 kg of Si detectors. Here, we will discuss the associated cryogenic cold hardware required for the detector readout. The phonon signals will be read out with superconducting quantum interference device arrays and the ionization signals will use high electron mobility transistor amplifiers operating at 4 K. A number of design challenges exist regarding the required wiring complex impedance, noise pickup, vibration, and thermal isolation. Our progress to date will be presented.

  9. Pulsating stars in SuperWASP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holdsworth, Daniel L.

    2017-09-01

    SuperWASP is one of the largest ground-based surveys for transiting exoplanets. To date, it has observed over 31 million stars. Such an extensive database of time resolved photometry holds the potential for extensive searches of stellar variability, and provide solid candidates for the upcoming TESS mission. Previous work by e.g. [15], [5], [12] has shown that the WASP archive provides a wealth of pulsationally variable stars. In this talk I will provide an overview of the SuperWASP project, present some of the published results from the survey, and some of the on-going work to identify key targets for the TESS mission.

  10. Forming Super-Puffs Beyond 1 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eve J.; Chiang, Eugene

    2017-06-01

    Super-puffs are an uncommon class of short-period planets seemingly too voluminous for their small masses (4-10 Rearth, 2-6 Mearth). Super-puffs most easily acquire their thick atmospheres as dust-free, rapidly cooling worlds outside ˜1AU where nebular gas is colder, less dense, and therefore less opaque. These puffy planets probably migrated in to their current orbits; they are expected to form the outer links of mean-motion resonant chains, and to exhibit atmospheric characteristics consistent with formation at large distances. I will also discuss, in general, how densities of planets can be used to infer their formation locations.

  11. Chemistry and Structure of Super-Earths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, S. B.; Valencia, D.; Petaev, M. I.; Sasselov, D. D.; Remo, J. L.; O'Connell, R. J.

    2008-12-01

    The chemical composition and structure of super-Earths can be understood from data and models for the chemical evolution of our galaxy, our solar system and models of formation and interiors of planets. Because the relative proportions of most rock-forming elements in stars of our galaxy are rather constant the mineralogy of solid grains that formed in the proto-planetary disks can be estimated from a calculation of condensation of a solar composition gas. Such a calculation shows that the minerals forsterite (Fo) and FeNi metal are the two most abundant solids from which Earth-like planets accrete, and therefore studying the behavior of Fo-metal mixtures at ultrahigh pressures (5-10 TPa) and temperatures is essential for modeling the internal structures of the largest super-Earths. The most critical parameter is the metal/silicate ratio of the planet. What determines the metal to silicate ratio is not well established, but it is most likely related to the amount of metal oxidized by water in planetesimals. Earth-like planets are, by definition, volatile depleted, but do have variable patterns of intermediate to highly volatile elements that are of secondary importance for understanding the chemistry of super-Earths. The deep interiors of the largest super-Earths may be in a WDM (warm dense matter) state which is an atomic fluid that may dissolve most components normally residing in the silicate mantle. We are trying to characterize this state using the high energy density lasers (ZBL and Z-Petawatt) at Sandia National Laboratories. Models of such planets with atomic fluid cores may be substantially different from the standard super-Earth models that have been discussed up to now. In anticipation of the measurement of radii (R) and masses (M) of super-Earths in the coming years (e.g., with NASA's Kepler mission) the standard super-Earth models yielded a scaling law of R ∝ M0.262 - 0.274 for Super-Earths. This law may have to be modified for planets with WDM cores.

  12. Super-resolution optical microscopy: multiple choices.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bo

    2010-02-01

    The recent invention of super-resolution optical microscopy enables the visualization of fine features in biological samples with unprecedented clarity. It creates numerous opportunities in biology because vast amount of previously obscured subcellular processes now can be directly observed. Rapid development in this field in the past two years offers many imaging modalities that address different needs but they also complicates the choice of the 'perfect' method for answering a specific question. Here I will briefly describe the principles of super-resolution optical microscopy techniques and then focus on comparing their characteristics in various aspects of practical applications.

  13. Super Guppy at the Redstone Airstrip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    The Super Guppy is shown at the Redstone Airstrip. NASA used the aircraft to transport the S-IVB upper stage used on the Saturn IB and Saturn V launch vehicles between manufacturing facilities on the West coast, and testing and launch facilities in the Southeast. This aircraft was built by John M. Conroy of Aero Spaceliners, Incorporated, who started with the fuselages of a surplus Boeing C-97 Stratocruiser, ballooned out the upper decks enormously, and hinged the front sections so that they could be folded back 110 degrees. The Super Guppy flew smoothly at a 250-mph cruising speed, and its cargo deck provided a 25-foot clear diameter.

  14. Super-collimation by axisymmetric photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Purlys, V.; Gailevičius, D.; Peckus, M.; Gadonas, R.; Maigyte, L.; Staliunas, K.

    2014-06-02

    We propose and experimentally show the mechanism of beam super-collimation by axisymmetric photonic crystals, specifically by periodic (in propagation direction) structure of layers of concentric rings. The physical mechanism behind the effect is an inverse scattering cascade of diffracted wave components back into on- and near-axis angular field components, resulting in substantial enhancement of intensity of these components. We explore the super-collimation by numerical calculations and prove it experimentally. We demonstrate experimentally the axial field enhancement up to 7 times in terms of field intensity.

  15. The current status of super computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    In this paper, commercially available super computers are surveyed. Computer performance in general is limited by circuit speeds and physical size. Assuming the use of the fastest technology, super computers typically use parallelism in the form of either vector processing or array processing to obtain performance. The Burroughs Scientific Processor is an array computer with 16 separate processors, the Cray-1 and CDC STAR-100 are vector processors, the Goodyear Aerospace STARAN is an array processor with up to 8192 single bit processors, and the Systems Development Corporation PEPE is a collection of up to 288 separate processors.

  16. Super-Laplacians and their symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, P. S.; Lindström, U.

    2017-05-01

    A super-Laplacian is a set of differential operators in superspace whose highestdimensional component is given by the spacetime Laplacian. Symmetries of super-Laplacians are given by linear differential operators of arbitrary finite degree and are determined by superconformal Killing tensors. We investigate these in flat superspaces. The differential operators determining the symmetries give rise to algebras which can be identified in many cases with the tensor algebras of the relevant superconformal Lie algebras modulo certain ideals. They have applications to Higher Spin theories.

  17. Development of 70 MW class superconducting generators

    SciTech Connect

    Ohara, T. ); Fukuda, H. ); Ogawa, T.; Shimizu, K.; Shiobara, R. ); Ohi, M. ); Veda, A. ); Itoh, K. ); Taniguchi, H. )

    1991-03-01

    The application of superconductivity technology to electric power apparatuses is very important from the viewpoint of promotion of energy saving and resource saving. Especially the superconducting generators using superconductors as the field windings have many merits compared with conventional generators. Super-GM has been researching and developing 70 MW class model machines since FY 1988 for a scheduled period of eight years, aiming at a 200 MW class superconducting generator. This paper describes the basic designs and the recent R and D situation of 70 MW superconducting generators by Super-GM.

  18. Microscale Synthesis and (super 1)H NMR Analysis of Zn(super II) and Ni(super II) Tetraphenylporphyrins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saucedo, Laura; Mink, Larry M.

    2005-01-01

    A multisection undergraduate laboratory involving the microscale synthesis and spectroscopic analysis of unmetalled porphyrins and their corresponding metalloporphyins is described. The microscale synthesis involving the isolation of the metalloporphyrins as solids and their corresponding (super 1)H NMR spectra are presented.

  19. Big Planets: Super-Earths in Science Fiction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, S.

    This paper is a survey of the portrayal of super-Earths in science fiction. The discovery of super-Earths is so recent that the theoretical study of such worlds is in its infancy. However super-Earths were anticipated to some extent in science fiction. While in retrospect not all these fictional worlds are physically plausible, they do offer a glimpse of the wide array of super-Earths, and perhaps life forms, to be anticipated in reality.

  20. The Weighted Super Bergman Kernels Over the Supermatrix Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhiming

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is threefold. Firstly, using Howe duality for , we obtain integral formulas of the super Schur functions with respect to the super standard Gaussian distributions. Secondly, we give explicit expressions of the super Szegö kernels and the weighted super Bergman kernels for the Cartan superdomains of type I. Thirdly, combining these results, we obtain duality relations of integrals over the unitary groups and the Cartan superdomains, and the marginal distributions of the weighted measure.

  1. Constructions of Lie (super)algebras from triple systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguti, Kiyosi

    The construction of Lie algebras and Lie superalgebras from Freudenthal-Kantor (super)pairs by using derivations and pairs of homomorphisms satisfying so called the condi tion (K) is given. The construction of Lie (super)algebras from the commutative associative triple systems and the Freudenthal-Kantor (super)triple systems is also given.

  2. Super-resolution thermographic imaging using blind structured illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgholzer, Peter; Berer, Thomas; Gruber, Jürgen; Mayr, Günther

    2017-07-01

    Using an infrared camera for thermographic imaging allows the contactless temperature measurement of many surface pixels simultaneously. From the measured surface data, the structure below the surface, embedded inside a sample or tissue, can be reconstructed and imaged, if heated by an excitation light pulse. The main drawback in active thermographic imaging is the degradation of the spatial resolution with the imaging depth, which results in blurred images for deeper lying structures. We circumvent this degradation by using blind structured illumination combined with a non-linear joint sparsity reconstruction algorithm. We demonstrate imaging of a line pattern and a star-shaped structure through a 3 mm thick steel sheet with a resolution four times better than the width of the thermal point-spread-function. The structured illumination is realized by parallel slits cut in an aluminum foil, where the excitation coming from a flashlight can penetrate. This realization of super-resolution thermographic imaging demonstrates that blind structured illumination allows thermographic imaging without high degradation of the spatial resolution for deeper lying structures. The groundbreaking concept of super-resolution can be transferred from optics to diffusive imaging by defining a thermal point-spread-function, which gives the principle resolution limit for a certain signal-to-noise ratio, similar to the Abbe limit for a certain optical wavelength. In future work, the unknown illumination pattern could be the speckle pattern generated by a short laser pulse inside a light scattering sample or tissue.

  3. ON THE VIGOR OF MANTLE CONVECTION IN SUPER-EARTHS

    SciTech Connect

    Miyagoshi, Takehiro; Tachinami, Chihiro; Kameyama, Masanori; Ogawa, Masaki E-mail: ctchnm.geo@gmail.com E-mail: cmaogawa@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2014-01-01

    Numerical models are presented to clarify how adiabatic compression affects thermal convection in the mantle of super-Earths ten times the Earth's mass. The viscosity strongly depends on temperature, and the Rayleigh number is much higher than that of the Earth's mantle. The strong effect of adiabatic compression reduces the activity of mantle convection; hot plumes ascending from the bottom of the mantle lose their thermal buoyancy in the middle of the mantle owing to adiabatic decompression, and do not reach the surface. A thick lithosphere, as thick as 0.1 times the depth of the mantle, develops along the surface boundary, and the efficiency of convective heat transport measured by the Nusselt number is reduced by a factor of about four compared with the Nusselt number for thermal convection of incompressible fluid. The strong effect of adiabatic decompression is likely to inhibit hot spot volcanism on the surface and is also likely to affect the thermal history of the mantle, and hence, the generation of magnetic field in super-Earths.

  4. Manufacturing of super-polished large aspheric/freeform optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dae Wook; Oh, Chang-jin; Lowman, Andrew; Smith, Greg A.; Aftab, Maham; Burge, James H.

    2016-07-01

    Several next generation astronomical telescopes or large optical systems utilize aspheric/freeform optics for creating a segmented optical system. Multiple mirrors can be combined to form a larger optical surface or used as a single surface to avoid obscurations. In this paper, we demonstrate a specific case of the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST). This optic is a 4.2 m in diameter off-axis primary mirror using ZERODUR thin substrate, and has been successfully completed in the Optical Engineering and Fabrication Facility (OEFF) at the University of Arizona, in 2016. As the telescope looks at the brightest object in the sky, our own Sun, the primary mirror surface quality meets extreme specifications covering a wide range of spatial frequency errors. In manufacturing the DKIST mirror, metrology systems have been studied, developed and applied to measure low-to-mid-to-high spatial frequency surface shape information in the 4.2 m super-polished optical surface. In this paper, measurements from these systems are converted to Power Spectral Density (PSD) plots and combined in the spatial frequency domain. Results cover 5 orders of magnitude in spatial frequencies and meet or exceed specifications for this large aspheric mirror. Precision manufacturing of the super-polished DKIST mirror enables a new level of solar science.

  5. Super Spatial Resolution (SSR) method for scintigraphic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinci, G.; Massari, R.; Scandellari, M.; Scopinaro, F.; Soluri, A.

    2011-01-01

    This work describes an innovative patented Super Spatial Resolution (SSR) method applied to scintigraphic devices. The aim of Super Resolution (SR) techniques is to enhance the resolution of an imaging system, using information from several images. SR reconstruction may be considered as a second generation problem of Image Restoration. It combines several slightly different Low Resolution (LR) images to obtain a High Resolution (HR) image. SR techniques are, widely, described in scientific literature mainly for applications in video communication, object recognition and image compression. In this paper we focus to apply the SR task to the scintigraphic imaging. Specifically, it is described as a patented method that uses a High Resolution Scintigraphic Camera (HRSC) to collect and process a set of scintigraphic images, in view of obtaining a very high resolution image. The HRSC device, which is currently used in Medical Imaging, is based on a parallel square holes collimator and on a Hamamatsu H8500 Position Sensitive Photomultiplier Tubes (PSPMT). The SSR method is applied to the synthetic images of three different phantoms, to verify the effective spatial resolution values. The results confirm that it is possible to achieve optimal spatial resolution values at different depths, useful in small object and small animal imaging. Our study confirms the feasibility of a very high resolution system in scintigraphic imaging and the possibility to have gamma cameras using the SSR method, to perform clinical applications on patients.

  6. Transformation superplasticity of super {alpha}{sub 2} titanium aluminide

    SciTech Connect

    Schuh, C.; Dunand, D.C.

    1998-10-09

    Transformation superplasticity of an intermetallic Ti{sub 3}Al-based alloy (Super {alpha}{sub 2}) is demonstrated by thermal cycling about the {alpha}{sub 2}/{beta} transformation temperature range under a uniaxial tensile biasing stress. Failure strains up to 610% were recorded at a stress of 3 MPa, compared with 110% for deformation by isothermal creep at the same stress. The strain increment produced during each half-cycle is determined as a function of applied biasing stress, thermal cycle amplitude, and cycling frequency. Since internal stresses are generated both by transformation mismatch and by thermal expansion mismatch between the two coexisting phases, an effective volume mismatch is defined to account for both contributions. Introduction of this parameter into existing continuum-mechanics models results in good agreement with experimental data in both the low-stress regime, where cycling strain rate and stress are proportional, and the high-stress regime where the stress sensitivity is increasing. Cycling strain increments at various temperature amplitudes and cycling frequencies are considered in terms of the equilibrium thermodynamics and transformation kinetics of Super {alpha}{sub 2}. Finally, thermal cycling produces ratcheting, where texture and crystallographic orientation of the {beta}/{alpha}{sub 2} transformation front affect the direction of ratcheting strains.

  7. Super-resolution surface mapping using the trajectories of molecular probes.

    PubMed

    Walder, Robert; Nelson, Nathaniel; Schwartz, Daniel K

    2011-11-01

    The surface characterization of 'soft' materials presents a significant scientific challenge, particularly under 'wet' in situ conditions where a wide variety of non-covalent interactions may be relevant. Here we introduce a new chemical imaging method, MAPT (mapping using accumulated probe trajectories) that generates images of surface interactions by distributing different aspects of molecular probe trajectories into distinct locations and then combining many trajectories to generate spatial maps. The maps are super-resolution in nature, because they are accumulated from highly localized single-molecule observations. Unlike other super-resolution techniques, which report only photon or point counts, our analysis generates spatial maps of physical quantities (adsorption rate, desorption probability, local surface diffusion coefficient, surface coverage/occupancy) that are directly associated with the molecular interactions between the probe molecule and the surface. We demonstrate the feasibility of this characterization using a surface patterned with various degrees of hydrophobicity.

  8. Difficult Decisions: The Superconducting Super Collider.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, David E.; Slesnick, Irwin L.

    1990-01-01

    The fundamental principles of the superconducting super collider are presented. Arguments for the construction of this apparatus and policy issues surrounding its construction are discussed. Charts of the fundamental atomic particles and forces and the history of particle accelerators are provided. An activity for discussing this controversial…

  9. Difficult Decisions: The Superconducting Super Collider.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, David E.; Slesnick, Irwin L.

    1990-01-01

    The fundamental principles of the superconducting super collider are presented. Arguments for the construction of this apparatus and policy issues surrounding its construction are discussed. Charts of the fundamental atomic particles and forces and the history of particle accelerators are provided. An activity for discussing this controversial…

  10. Searching for Frozen Super Earth via Microlensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batista, V.; Beaulieu, J. P.; Cassan, A.; Coutures, C.; Donatowicz, J.; Fouqué, P.; Kubas, D.; Marquette, J. B.

    2009-04-01

    Microlensing planet hunt is a unique method to probe efficiently for frozen Super Earth orbiting the most common stars of our galaxy. It is nicely complementing the parameter space probed by very high accuracy radial velocity measurements and future space based detections of low mass transiting planets. In order to maximize the planet catch, the microlensing community is engaged in a total cooperation among the different groups (OGLE, MicroFUN, MOA, PLANET/RoboNET) by making the real time data available, and mutual informing/reporting about modeling efforts. Eight planets have been published so far by combinations of the different groups, 4 Jovian analogues, one Neptune and two Super Earth. Given the microlensing detection efficiency, it suggests that these Neptunes/Super Earths may be quite common. Using networks of dedicated 1-2m class telescopes, the microlensing community has entered a new phase of planet discoveries, and will be able to provide constraints on the abundance of frozen Super-Earths in the near future. Statistics about Mars to Earth mass planets, extending to the habitable zone will be achieved with space based wide field imagers (EUCLID) at the horizon 2017.

  11. NASA’s Super Guppy aircraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-07

    Front view of NASA’s Super Guppy aircraft after it touched down at Mansfield’s Lahm Airport in November, 2015. The crew delivered the crew module adaptor for Orion’s testing at NASA's Plum Brook Station next year.

  12. Facile preparation of super durable superhydrophobic materials.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lei; Zhang, Junping; Li, Bucheng; Fan, Ling; Li, Lingxiao; Wang, Aiqin

    2014-10-15

    The low stability, complicated and expensive fabrication procedures seriously hinder practical applications of superhydrophobic materials. Here we report an extremely simple method for preparing super durable superhydrophobic materials, e.g., textiles and sponges, by dip coating in fluoropolymers (FPs). The morphology, surface chemical composition, mechanical, chemical and environmental stabilities of the superhydrophobic textiles were investigated. The results show how simple the preparation of super durable superhydrophobic textiles can be! The superhydrophobic textiles outperform their natural counterparts and most of the state-of-the-art synthetic superhydrophobic materials in stability. The intensive mechanical abrasion, long time immersion in various liquids and repeated washing have no obvious influence on the superhydrophobicity. Water drops are spherical in shape on the samples and could easily roll off after these harsh stability tests. In addition, this simple dip coating approach is applicable to various synthetic and natural textiles and can be easily scaled up. Furthermore, the results prove that a two-tier roughness is helpful but not essential with regard to the creation of super durable superhydrophobic textiles. The combination of microscale roughness of textiles and materials with very low surface tension is enough to form super durable superhydrophobic textiles. According to the same procedure, superhydrophobic polyurethane sponges can be prepared, which show high oil absorbency, oil/water separation efficiency and stability.

  13. Super Science Saturdays: Developing Hawaii's Natural Treasures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hapai, Marlene Nachbar; Sing, David Kekaulike

    1994-01-01

    Takes a closer look at Super Science Saturday, held by the Center for Gifted and Talented Native Hawaiian Children/University of Hawaii at Hilo. These children are known to Hawaiians as Na Pua No'eau, which refers to Hawaii's children as "flowers blossoming toward self-discovery." (ZWH)

  14. Super-sensing through industrial process tomography

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In this introduction article, we present a brief overview of industrial process tomography. This will start by linking between the concept of industrial process tomography and super-sensing. This will follow with a brief introduction to various process tomography systems and in particular electrical tomography methods. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Supersensing through industrial process tomography’. PMID:27185965

  15. Towards an Educational SuperInterface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Diana, Italo P. F.; White, T. N.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an educational computer network, SuperInterface, that could be used for telestudy for university education. Topics discussed include computer-supported collaborative work; computer-based learning; multimedia databases, or electronic books; human-machine interfaces; hardware, software, and groupware; learners; teachers; organizations and…

  16. Diffusion of Super-Gaussian Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, C.-J.; Anderson, D.; Desaix, M.; Johannisson, P.; Lisak, M.

    2007-01-01

    The present analysis describes an analytically simple and systematic approximation procedure for modelling the free diffusive spreading of initially super-Gaussian profiles. The approach is based on a self-similar ansatz for the evolution of the diffusion profile, and the parameter functions involved in the modelling are determined by suitable…

  17. Super-sensing through industrial process tomography.

    PubMed

    Soleimani, Manuchehr

    2016-06-28

    In this introduction article, we present a brief overview of industrial process tomography. This will start by linking between the concept of industrial process tomography and super-sensing. This will follow with a brief introduction to various process tomography systems and in particular electrical tomography methods. This article is part of the themed issue 'Supersensing through industrial process tomography'.

  18. North Twin Peak in super resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This pair of images shows the result of taking a sequence of 25 identical exposures from the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) of the northern Twin Peak, with small camera motions, and processing them with the Super-Resolution algorithm developed at NASA's Ames Research Center.

    The upper image is a representative input image, scaled up by a factor of five, with the pixel edges smoothed out for a fair comparison. The lower image allows significantly finer detail to be resolved.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    The super-resolution research was conducted by Peter Cheeseman, Bob Kanefsky, Robin Hanson, and John Stutz of NASA's Ames Research Center, Mountain View, CA. More information on this technology is available on the Ames Super Resolution home page at

    http://ic-www.arc.nasa.gov/ic/projects/bayes-group/ group/super-res/

  19. Breeding Super-Earths and Birthing Super-puffs in Transitional Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eve J.; Chiang, Eugene

    2016-02-01

    The riddle posed by super-Earths (1-4R⊕, 2-20M⊕) is that they are not Jupiters: their core masses are large enough to trigger runaway gas accretion, yet somehow super-Earths accreted atmospheres that weigh only a few percent of their total mass. We show that this puzzle is solved if super-Earths formed late, as the last vestiges of their parent gas disks were about to clear. This scenario would seem to present fine-tuning problems, but we show that there are none. Ambient gas densities can span many (in one case up to 9) orders of magnitude, and super-Earths can still robustly emerge after ˜0.1-1 Myr with percent-by-weight atmospheres. Super-Earth cores are naturally bred in gas-poor environments where gas dynamical friction has weakened sufficiently to allow constituent protocores to gravitationally stir one another and merge. So little gas is present at the time of core assembly that cores hardly migrate by disk torques: formation of super-Earths can be in situ. The basic picture—that close-in super-Earths form in a gas-poor (but not gas-empty) inner disk, fed continuously by gas that bleeds inward from a more massive outer disk—recalls the largely evacuated but still accreting inner cavities of transitional protoplanetary disks. We also address the inverse problem presented by super-puffs: an uncommon class of short-period planets seemingly too voluminous for their small masses (4-10R⊕, 2-6M⊕). Super-puffs most easily acquire their thick atmospheres as dust-free, rapidly cooling worlds outside ˜1 AU where nebular gas is colder, less dense, and therefore less opaque. Unlike super-Earths, which can form in situ, super-puffs probably migrated in to their current orbits; they are expected to form the outer links of mean-motion resonant chains, and to exhibit greater water content. We close by confronting observations and itemizing remaining questions.

  20. BREEDING SUPER-EARTHS AND BIRTHING SUPER-PUFFS IN TRANSITIONAL DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eve J.; Chiang, Eugene E-mail: echiang@astro.berkeley.edu

    2016-02-01

    The riddle posed by super-Earths (1–4R{sub ⊕}, 2–20M{sub ⊕}) is that they are not Jupiters: their core masses are large enough to trigger runaway gas accretion, yet somehow super-Earths accreted atmospheres that weigh only a few percent of their total mass. We show that this puzzle is solved if super-Earths formed late, as the last vestiges of their parent gas disks were about to clear. This scenario would seem to present fine-tuning problems, but we show that there are none. Ambient gas densities can span many (in one case up to 9) orders of magnitude, and super-Earths can still robustly emerge after ∼0.1–1 Myr with percent-by-weight atmospheres. Super-Earth cores are naturally bred in gas-poor environments where gas dynamical friction has weakened sufficiently to allow constituent protocores to gravitationally stir one another and merge. So little gas is present at the time of core assembly that cores hardly migrate by disk torques: formation of super-Earths can be in situ. The basic picture—that close-in super-Earths form in a gas-poor (but not gas-empty) inner disk, fed continuously by gas that bleeds inward from a more massive outer disk—recalls the largely evacuated but still accreting inner cavities of transitional protoplanetary disks. We also address the inverse problem presented by super-puffs: an uncommon class of short-period planets seemingly too voluminous for their small masses (4–10R{sub ⊕}, 2–6M{sub ⊕}). Super-puffs most easily acquire their thick atmospheres as dust-free, rapidly cooling worlds outside ∼1 AU where nebular gas is colder, less dense, and therefore less opaque. Unlike super-Earths, which can form in situ, super-puffs probably migrated in to their current orbits; they are expected to form the outer links of mean-motion resonant chains, and to exhibit greater water content. We close by confronting observations and itemizing remaining questions.

  1. BioSuper: A web tool for the superimposition of biomolecules and assemblies with rotational symmetry

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most of the proteins in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) are oligomeric complexes consisting of two or more subunits that associate by rotational or helical symmetries. Despite the myriad of superimposition tools in the literature, we could not find any able to account for rotational symmetry and display the graphical results in the web browser. Results BioSuper is a free web server that superimposes and calculates the root mean square deviation (RMSD) of protein complexes displaying rotational symmetry. To the best of our knowledge, BioSuper is the first tool of its kind that provides immediate interactive visualization of the graphical results in the browser, biomolecule generator capabilities, different levels of atom selection, sequence-dependent and structure-based superimposition types, and is the only web tool that takes into account the equivalence of atoms in side chains displaying symmetry ambiguity. BioSuper uses ICM program functionality as a core for the superimpositions and displays the results as text, HTML tables and 3D interactive molecular objects that can be visualized in the browser or in Android and iOS platforms with a free plugin. Conclusions BioSuper is a fast and functional tool that allows for pairwise superimposition of proteins and assemblies displaying rotational symmetry. The web server was created after our own frustration when attempting to superimpose flexible oligomers. We strongly believe that its user-friendly and functional design will be of great interest for structural and computational biologists who need to superimpose oligomeric proteins (or any protein). BioSuper web server is freely available to all users at http://ablab.ucsd.edu/BioSuper. PMID:24330655

  2. A statistical look at the retrieval of exoplanetary atmospheres of super Earths and giant planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocchetto, Marco; Waldmann, Ingo Peter; Tinetti, Giovanna; Yurchenko, Sergey; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2015-08-01

    Over the past decades transit spectroscopy has become one of the pioneering methods to characterise exoplanetary atmospheres. With the increasing number of observations, and the advent of new ground and spaced based instruments, it is now crucial to find the most optimal and objective methodologies to interpret these data, and understand the information content they convey. This is particularly true for smaller and fainter super Earth type planets.In this conference we will present a new take on the spectral retrieval of transiting planets, with particular focus on super Earth atmospheres. TauREx (Waldmann et al. 2015a,b.) is a new line-by-line radiative transfer atmospheric retrieval framework for transmission and emission spectroscopy of exoplanetary atmospheres, optimised for hot Jupiters and super Earths. The code has been built from scratch with the ideas of scalability, flexibility and automation. This allows to run retrievals with minimum user input that can be scaled to large cluster computing. Priors on the number and types of molecules considered are automatically determined using a custom built pattern recognition algorithm able to identify the most likely absorbers/emitters in the exoplanetary spectra, minimising the human bias in selecting the major atmospheric constituents.Using these tools, we investigate the impact of signal to noise, spectral resolution and wavelength coverage on the retrievability of individual model parameters from transit spectra of super Earths, and put our models to test (Rocchetto et al. 2015). Characterisation of the atmospheres of super Earths through transit spectroscopy is paramount, as it can provide an indirect - and so far unique - way to probe the nature of these planets. For the first time we analyse in a systematic way large grids of spectra generated for different observing scenarios. We perform thousands of retrievals aimed to fully map the degeneracies and understand the statistics of current exoplanetary

  3. 75 FR 77670 - SuperMedia, LLC, Formerly Known as Idearc Media, LLC, a Subsidiary of SuperMedia Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... Employment and Training Administration SuperMedia, LLC, Formerly Known as Idearc Media, LLC, a Subsidiary of SuperMedia Information Services, LLC Publishing Group, Troy, NY; Notice of Revised Determination on... Department's negative determination regarding the eligibility of workers and former workers of SuperMedia...

  4. A generalized super AKNS hierarchy associated with Lie superalgebra sl(2|1) and its super bi-Hamiltonian structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jingwei; Yu, Jing

    2017-03-01

    Starting from a 3 × 3 matrix-valued spectral problem associated with a Lie superalgebra sl(2|1), a generalized super Ablowitz-Kaup-Newell-Segur (AKNS) hierarchy is derived. The resulting super AKNS hierarchy has a super bi-Hamiltonian structure by the supertrace identity.

  5. The 2015 super-resolution microscopy roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hell, Stefan W.; Sahl, Steffen J.; Bates, Mark; Zhuang, Xiaowei; Heintzmann, Rainer; Booth, Martin J.; Bewersdorf, Joerg; Shtengel, Gleb; Hess, Harald; Tinnefeld, Philip; Honigmann, Alf; Jakobs, Stefan; Testa, Ilaria; Cognet, Laurent; Lounis, Brahim; Ewers, Helge; Davis, Simon J.; Eggeling, Christian; Klenerman, David; Willig, Katrin I.; Vicidomini, Giuseppe; Castello, Marco; Diaspro, Alberto; Cordes, Thorben

    2015-11-01

    Far-field optical microscopy using focused light is an important tool in a number of scientific disciplines including chemical, (bio)physical and biomedical research, particularly with respect to the study of living cells and organisms. Unfortunately, the applicability of the optical microscope is limited, since the diffraction of light imposes limitations on the spatial resolution of the image. Consequently the details of, for example, cellular protein distributions, can be visualized only to a certain extent. Fortunately, recent years have witnessed the development of ‘super-resolution’ far-field optical microscopy (nanoscopy) techniques such as stimulated emission depletion (STED), ground state depletion (GSD), reversible saturated optical (fluorescence) transitions (RESOLFT), photoactivation localization microscopy (PALM), stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM), structured illumination microscopy (SIM) or saturated structured illumination microscopy (SSIM), all in one way or another addressing the problem of the limited spatial resolution of far-field optical microscopy. While SIM achieves a two-fold improvement in spatial resolution compared to conventional optical microscopy, STED, RESOLFT, PALM/STORM, or SSIM have all gone beyond, pushing the limits of optical image resolution to the nanometer scale. Consequently, all super-resolution techniques open new avenues of biomedical research. Because the field is so young, the potential capabilities of different super-resolution microscopy approaches have yet to be fully explored, and uncertainties remain when considering the best choice of methodology. Thus, even for experts, the road to the future is sometimes shrouded in mist. The super-resolution optical microscopy roadmap of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics addresses this need for clarity. It provides guidance to the outstanding questions through a collection of short review articles from experts in the field, giving a thorough

  6. The SuperMAG data processing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gjerloev, J. W.

    2012-09-01

    In this paper I outline the data processing technique which is used in the SuperMAG initiative. SuperMAG is a worldwide collaboration of organizations and national agencies that currently operate more than 300 ground based magnetometers. SuperMAG provides easy access to validated ground magnetic field perturbations in the same coordinate system, identical time resolution and with a common baseline removal approach. The purpose of SuperMAG is to provide scientists, teachers, students and the general public easy access to measurements of the magnetic field at the surface of the Earth. Easy access to data, plots and derived products maximizes the utilization of this unique data set. It is outlined how SuperMAG processes the observations obtained by the individual data provider. Data are rotated into a local magnetic coordinate system by determining a time dependent declination angle. This angle displays a slow gradual change and a yearly periodic variation attributed to changes in the Earth main field and season temperature variations. The baseline is determined from the data itself in a three step process: (1) a daily baseline, (2) a yearly trend, and (3) a residual offset. This technique does not require so-called quiet days and thus it avoids all the well-known problems associated with their identification. The residual offset for the N- and Z-components shows a distinct latitudinal dependence while the E-component is independent of the latitude. This result is interpreted as being due to a weak ring current (likely asymmetric) which is present even during official quiet days. For the purpose of M-I research using 1-min data I find no difference between observatories and variometers. I finally argue that there is no correct baseline determination technique since we do not have a set of ground-truth observations required to make an objective evaluation. Instead, the user must keep in mind the assumptions on which the baseline was determined and draw conclusions

  7. Live, video-rate super-resolution microscopy using structured illumination and rapid GPU-based parallel processing.

    PubMed

    Lefman, Jonathan; Scott, Keana; Stranick, Stephan

    2011-04-01

    Structured illumination fluorescence microscopy is a powerful super-resolution method that is capable of achieving a resolution below 100 nm. Each super-resolution image is computationally constructed from a set of differentially illuminated images. However, real-time application of structured illumination microscopy (SIM) has generally been limited due to the computational overhead needed to generate super-resolution images. Here, we have developed a real-time SIM system that incorporates graphic processing unit (GPU) based in-line parallel processing of raw/differentially illuminated images. By using GPU processing, the system has achieved a 90-fold increase in processing speed compared to performing equivalent operations on a multiprocessor computer--the total throughput of the system is limited by data acquisition speed, but not by image processing. Overall, more than 350 raw images (16-bit depth, 512 × 512 pixels) can be processed per second, resulting in a maximum frame rate of 39 super-resolution images per second. This ultrafast processing capability is used to provide immediate feedback of super-resolution images for real-time display. These developments are increasing the potential for sophisticated super-resolution imaging applications.

  8. The relationship between mean birth weight and poverty using the Townsend deprivation score and the Super Profile classification system.

    PubMed

    Aveyard, P; Manaseki, S; Chambers, J

    2002-11-01

    Super Profiles have been used as alternative methods of characterising the deprivation of an area. Some reports suggest that Super Profiles are as accurate as established indices such as the Townsend score (TS). This was a test of this assertion.A total of 138 696 live born singleton births to Birmingham residents born between 1986 and 1996 (inclusive) were allocated to enumeration districts (EDs) by linkage from the postcode. We allocated the TS of the individual's ED. We allocated a Lifestyle and Target Market (TM) from Super Profiles by linkage to the ED. We examined the gradient between mean birth weight and the 10 Super Profile Lifestyles and compared this to the gradient between 10 Townsend groups and mean birth weight. We repeated this approach using the 40 TMs and 40 Townsend groups. We used both the median income and a census-derived deprivation measure to rank Lifestyles and TMs. The gradient between mean birth weight and area deprivation was linear for Townsend groups but not linear using either Lifestyles or TMs whichever method of ranking Lifestyles or TMs was used. Where Lifestyles or TMs were out of line with their neighbours, the TS of that group mostly explained this. As Super Profiles are generated using nationally representative data, applying the affluence ranking to small areas can lead to inaccuracies, as shown in this data. We conclude that Super Profiles are probably unsuitable as measures of deprivation of small areas.

  9. Are Articular Cartilage Lesions and Meniscus Tears Predictive of IKDC, KOOS, and Marx Activity Level Outcomes after ACL Reconstruction? A 6-Year Multicenter Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Charles L.; Huston, Laura J.; Dunn, Warren R.; Reinke, Emily K.; Nwosu, Samuel K.; Parker, Richard D.; Wright, Rick W.; Kaeding, Christopher C.; Marx, Robert G.; Amendola, Annunziata; McCarty, Eric C.; Wolf, Brian R.; Harrell, Frank E.; Spindler, Kurt P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Identifying risk factors for inferior outcomes after ACL reconstruction (ACLR) is important for prognosis and future treatment. The goal of this study was to determine whether articular cartilage and meniscal variables are predictive of 3 validated sports outcome instruments after ACLR. Hypothesis/Purpose We hypothesized that articular cartilage lesions and meniscus tears/treatment would be predictors of the IKDC, KOOS (all 5 subscales), and Marx activity level at 6 years following ACLR. Study Design Prospective cohort, Level 1 Methods Between 2002 and 2004, 1512 ACLR subjects were prospectively enrolled and followed longitudinally with the IKDC, KOOS, and Marx activity score completed at entry, 2, and 6 years. A logistic regression model was built incorporating variables from patient demographics, surgical technique, articular cartilage injuries, and meniscus tears/treatment to determine the predictors (risk factors) of IKDC, KOOS, and Marx at 6 years. Results We completed a minimum follow-up on 86% (1307/1512) of our cohort at 6 years. The cohort was 56% male, had a median age of 23 years at the time of enrollment, with 76% reporting a non-contact injury mechanism. Incidence of concomitant pathology at the time of surgery consisted of the following: articular cartilage (medial femoral condyle [MFC]-25%, lateral femoral condyle [LFC]-20%, medial tibial plateau [MTP]-6%, lateral tibial plateau [LTP]-12%, patella-20%, trochlear-9%) and meniscal (medial-38%, lateral-46%). Both articular cartilage lesions and meniscal tears were significant predictors of 6-year outcomes on IKDC and KOOS. Grade 3 or 4 articular cartilage lesions (excluding patella) significantly reduced IKDC and KOOS scores at 6 years. IKDC demonstrated worse outcomes with the presence of a grade 3-4 chondral lesion on the MFC, MTP, and LFC. Likewise, KOOS was negatively affected by cartilage injury. The sole significant predictor of reduced Marx activity was the presence of a grade 4 lesion

  10. The super super-healing MRL mouse strain.

    PubMed

    Heydemann, Ahlke

    2012-12-01

    The Murphy Roths Large (MRL/MpJ) mice provide unique insights into wound repair and regeneration. These mice and the closely related MRL/MpJ-Fas(lpr) /J and Large strains heal wounds made in multiple tissues without production of a fibrotic scar. The precise mechanism of this remarkable ability still eludes researchers, but some data has been generated and insights are being revealed. For example, MRL cells reepithelialize over dermal wound sites faster than cells of other mouse strains. This allows a blastema to develop beneath the protective layer. The MRL mice also have an altered basal immune system and an altered immune response to injury. In addition, MRL mice have differences in their tissue resident progenitor cells and certain cell cycle regulatory proteins. The difficulty often lies in separating the causative differences from the corollary differences. Remarkably, not every tissue in these mice heals scarlessly, and the specific type of wound and priming affect regeneration ability as well. The MRL/MpJ, MRL/MpJ-Fas(lpr) /J, and Large mouse strains are also being investigated for their autoimmune characteristic. Whether the two phenotypes of regeneration and autoimmunity are related remains an enigma.

  11. The super super-healing MRL mouse strain

    PubMed Central

    HEYDEMANN, Ahlke

    2013-01-01

    The Murphy Roths Large (MRL/MpJ) mice provide unique insights into wound repair and regeneration. These mice and the closely related MRL/MpJ-Faslpr/J and Large strains heal wounds made in multiple tissues without production of a fibrotic scar. The precise mechanism of this remarkable ability still eludes researchers, but some data has been generated and insights are being revealed. For example, MRL cells reepithelialize over dermal wound sites faster than cells of other mouse strains. This allows a blastema to develop beneath the protective layer. The MRL mice also have an altered basal immune system and an altered immune response to injury. In addition, MRL mice have differences in their tissue resident progenitor cells and certain cell cycle regulatory proteins. The difficulty often lies in separating the causative differences from the corollary differences. Remarkably, not every tissue in these mice heals scarlessly, and the specific type of wound and priming affect regeneration ability as well. The MRL/MpJ, MRL/MpJ-Faslpr/J, and Large mouse strains are also being investigated for their autoimmune characteristic. Whether the two phenotypes of regeneration and autoimmunity are related remains an enigma. PMID:24163690

  12. Astrophysics of Super-Massive Black Hole Mergers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnittman, Jeremy D.

    2013-01-01

    We present here an overview of recent work in the subject of astrophysical manifestations of super-massive black hole (SMBH) mergers. This is a field that has been traditionally driven by theoretical work, but in recent years has also generated a great deal of interest and excitement in the observational astronomy community. In particular, the electromagnetic (EM) counterparts to SMBH mergers provide the means to detect and characterize these highly energetic events at cosmological distances, even in the absence of a space-based gravitational-wave observatory. In addition to providing a mechanism for observing SMBH mergers, EM counterparts also give important information about the environments in which these remarkable events take place, thus teaching us about the mechanisms through which galaxies form and evolve symbiotically with their central black holes.

  13. Strain mapping accuracy improvement using super-resolution techniques.

    PubMed

    Bárcena-González, G; Guerrero-Lebrero, M P; Guerrero, E; Fernández-Reyes, D; González, D; Mayoral, A; Utrilla, A D; Ulloa, J M; Galindo, P L

    2016-04-01

    Super-resolution (SR) software-based techniques aim at generating a final image by combining several noisy frames with lower resolution from the same scene. A comparative study on high-resolution high-angle annular dark field images of InAs/GaAs QDs has been carried out in order to evaluate the performance of the SR technique. The obtained SR images present enhanced resolution and higher signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio and sharpness regarding the experimental images. In addition, SR is also applied in the field of strain analysis using digital image processing applications such as geometrical phase analysis and peak pairs analysis. The precision of the strain mappings can be improved when SR methodologies are applied to experimental images. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  14. Harvesting electrostatic energy using super-hydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pociecha, Dominik; Zylka, Pawel

    2016-11-01

    Almost all environments are now being extensively populated by miniaturized, nano-powered electronic sensor devices communicated together through wireless sensor networks building Internet of Things (IoT). Various energy harvesting techniques are being more and more frequently proposed for battery-less powering of such remote, unattended, implantable or wearable sensors or other low-power electronic gadgets. Energy harvesting relays on extracting energy from the ambient sources readily accessible at the sensor location and converting it into electrical power. The paper exploits possibility of generating electric energy safely accessible for nano-power electronics using tribo-electric and electrostatic induction phenomena displayed at super-hydrophobic surfaces impinged by water droplets. Mechanism of such interaction is discussed and illustrated by experimental results.

  15. In vivo super-resolution RESOLFT microscopy of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Schnorrenberg, Sebastian; Grotjohann, Tim; Vorbrüggen, Gerd; Herzig, Alf; Hell, Stefan W; Jakobs, Stefan

    2016-06-29

    Despite remarkable developments in diffraction unlimited super-resolution microscopy, in vivo nanoscopy of tissues and model organisms is still not satisfactorily established and rarely realized. RESOLFT nanoscopy is particularly suited for live cell imaging because it requires relatively low light levels to overcome the diffraction barrier. Previously, we introduced the reversibly switchable fluorescent protein rsEGFP2, which facilitated fast RESOLFT nanoscopy (Grotjohann et al., 2012). In that study, as in most other nanoscopy studies, only cultivated single cells were analyzed. Here, we report on the use of rsEGFP2 for live-cell RESOLFT nanoscopy of sub-cellular structures of intact Drosophila melanogaster larvae and of resected tissues. We generated flies expressing fusion proteins of alpha-tubulin and rsEGFP2 highlighting the microtubule cytoskeleton in all cells. By focusing through the intact larval cuticle, we achieved lateral resolution of.

  16. Visible Sensor Development for the SuperNovaAcceleration Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roe, N. A.; SNAP Collaboration

    2005-12-01

    Recent progress on the development of radiation-tolerant, red-sensitive CCDs for the SuperNova Acceleration Probe (SNAP) satellite is presented. These CCDs are fully-depleted, thick (200-300 micron), p-channel devices fabricated on high-resistivity n-type silicon. The latest generation of SNAP CCDs can be operated at high substrate voltage (>100V), reducing diffusion and improving the PSF. The improved PSF is important for the precision of shear measurements for the SNAP weak lensing survey. New measurements of diffusion using a "virtual knife edge" technique are presented that verify the predicted improvement, achieving an rms diffusion of 4 microns. In addition, new results on device performance after irradiation with protons and gamma rays are presented. The application of the CCDs designed for the SNAP satellite to ground-based astronomy is also described.

  17. Modelling of acoustic waves propagating in nesting Fibonacci super-lattice phononic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Min; Qi, Hai-Feng; Xu, Jia-Hui; Xie, Ya-Zhuo; Zhang, Xing-Gan; Gao, Jian

    2014-07-01

    Herein, we report construction of one kind of nesting-Fibonacci-super-lattice phononic crystal, in which the super-lattice cell is a well-defined Fibonacci generation sequence. We present a comparative study on band-gap structures of acoustic waves propagating in one-dimensional, nesting Fibonacci-periodic structure and simple-periodic structure. We find that there are more band gaps in nesting Fibonacci super-lattice models, and that they present behavior different from the split-up of band gaps with different generation numbers. With the increase of generation number, more band gaps split and occur. Additionally, when generation number becomes larger, Bragg scattering becomes more significant: the characteristic curves become flatter and band gaps become wider. Furthermore, we study the effect of various parameters such as density, thickness and defects on band-gap structures. Our work is significant both for understanding the intrinsic physical properties of nesting Fibonacci sequences and for providing flexible choices to meet real engineering requirements.

  18. Super-Resolution Enhancement From Multiple Overlapping Images: A Fractional Area Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaels, Joshua A.

    With the availability of large quantities of relatively low-resolution data from several decades of space borne imaging, methods of creating an accurate, higher-resolution image from the multiple lower-resolution images (i.e. super-resolution), have been developed almost since such imagery has been around. The fractional-area super-resolution technique developed in this thesis has never before been documented. Satellite orbits, like Landsat, have a quantifiable variation, which means each image is not centered on the exact same spot more than once and the overlapping information from these multiple images may be used for super-resolution enhancement. By splitting a single initial pixel into many smaller, desired pixels, a relationship can be created between them using the ratio of the area within the initial pixel. The ideal goal for this technique is to obtain smaller pixels with exact values and no error, yielding a better potential result than those methods that yield interpolated pixel values with consequential loss of spatial resolution. A Fortran 95 program was developed to perform all calculations associated with the fractional-area super-resolution technique. The fractional areas are calculated using traditional trigonometry and coordinate geometry and Linear Algebra Package (LAPACK; Anderson et al., 1999) is used to solve for the higher-resolution pixel values. In order to demonstrate proof-of-concept, a synthetic dataset was created using the intrinsic Fortran random number generator and Adobe Illustrator CS4 (for geometry). To test the real-life application, digital pictures from a Sony DSC-S600 digital point-and-shoot camera with a tripod were taken of a large US geological map under fluorescent lighting. While the fractional-area super-resolution technique works in perfect synthetic conditions, it did not successfully produce a reasonable or consistent solution in the digital photograph enhancement test. The prohibitive amount of processing time (up to

  19. Navy F/A-18E/F Super Hornet and EA-18G Growler Aircraft: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-02

    Provide Marginal Operational Improvement at High Cost, GAO/NSIAD-96-98, June 1996. 5 David Fulghum, “Cool, Small, Cheap Defines Flexible Next Generation...CRS-6 9 Bradley Perrett . “RAAF Hedges JSF Bet with Super Hornet.” Aviation Week & Space Technology. January 1, 2007. 10 “Boeing’s Super Hornet...Cleared for International Sales,” Defense Daily, August 7, 2001. 11 Bradley Perrett . “Growler Attraction; Australia confirms F-111s are out, Super Hornets

  20. A no-reference perceptual blurriness metric based fast super-resolution of still pictures using sparse representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jae-Seok; Bae, Sung-Ho; Kim, Munchurl

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, perceptually-driven super-resolution (SR) methods have been proposed to lower computational complexity. Furthermore, sparse representation based super-resolution is known to produce competitive high-resolution images with lower computational costs compared to other SR methods. Nevertheless, super-resolution is still difficult to be implemented with substantially low processing power for real-time applications. In order to speed up the processing time of SR, much effort has been made with efficient methods, which selectively incorporate elaborate computation algorithms for perceptually sensitive image regions based on a metric, such as just noticeable distortion (JND). Inspired by the previous works, we first propose a novel fast super-resolution method with sparse representation, which incorporates a no-reference just noticeable blur (JNB) metric. That is, the proposed fast super-resolution method efficiently generates super-resolution images by selectively applying a sparse representation method for perceptually sensitive image areas which are detected based on the JNB metric. Experimental results show that our JNB-based fast super-resolution method is about 4 times faster than a non-perceptual sparse representation based SR method for 256× 256 test LR images. Compared to a JND-based SR method, the proposed fast JNB-based SR method is about 3 times faster, with approximately 0.1 dB higher PSNR and a slightly higher SSIM value in average. This indicates that our proposed perceptual JNB-based SR method generates high-quality SR images with much lower computational costs, opening a new possibility for real-time hardware implementations.

  1. Design and development of a prototype 25 kV, 10 A long pulse Marx modulator for high power klystron.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Mahesh; Shrivastava, Purushottam

    2016-02-01

    Research, design, and development of high average power modulators for the proposed Indian Spallation Neutron Source are in progress at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology. With this objective, a prototype of 25 kV, 10 A, 1 ms Marx modulator at repetition rate of 1 Hz has been designed and developed which serves as a proof of principle and technology assessment stage for further development of high repetition rate high voltage high average power modulators. Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) based modules of 2.8 kV switching capability have been used as main modules. The modulator had 8.2% droop in output voltage pulse without any droop compensation circuit. A droop compensation involving 15 corrector modules has been used to reduce the droop up to 1%. We have used IGBT based 250 V switches to realize the corrector module. A microcontroller based control unit was designed and developed for triggering the main and corrector modules. With this control unit, programmable output pulse has been achieved. Electrical isolation between high voltage circuits and control circuit has been achieved by the use of fiber optic based control signal transmission. Output pulses of 1 ms pulse width, 800 ns rise time, and 5 μs fall time have been achieved. The modulator has advantages of modular design, adjustable pulse width, adjustable rise time, and fall time.

  2. Design and development of a prototype 25 kV, 10 A long pulse Marx modulator for high power klystron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Mahesh; Shrivastava, Purushottam

    2016-02-01

    Research, design, and development of high average power modulators for the proposed Indian Spallation Neutron Source are in progress at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology. With this objective, a prototype of 25 kV, 10 A, 1 ms Marx modulator at repetition rate of 1 Hz has been designed and developed which serves as a proof of principle and technology assessment stage for further development of high repetition rate high voltage high average power modulators. Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) based modules of 2.8 kV switching capability have been used as main modules. The modulator had 8.2% droop in output voltage pulse without any droop compensation circuit. A droop compensation involving 15 corrector modules has been used to reduce the droop up to 1%. We have used IGBT based 250 V switches to realize the corrector module. A microcontroller based control unit was designed and developed for triggering the main and corrector modules. With this control unit, programmable output pulse has been achieved. Electrical isolation between high voltage circuits and control circuit has been achieved by the use of fiber optic based control signal transmission. Output pulses of 1 ms pulse width, 800 ns rise time, and 5 μs fall time have been achieved. The modulator has advantages of modular design, adjustable pulse width, adjustable rise time, and fall time.

  3. Sensing lectin-glycan interactions using lectin super-microarrays and glycans labeled with dye-doped silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Matei, Elena; Deng, Lingquan; Koharudin, Leonardus; Gronenborn, Angela M; Ramström, Olof; Yan, Mingdi

    2013-09-15

    A new microarray platform, based on lectin super-microarrays and glycans labeled with dye-doped nanoparticles, has been developed to study glycan-lectin interactions. Glycan ligands were conjugated onto fluorescein-doped silica nanoparticles (FSNPs) using a general photocoupling chemistry to afford FSNP-labeled glycan probes. Lectins were printed on epoxy slides in duplicate sets to generate lectin super-microarrays where multiple assays could be carried out simultaneously in each lectin microarray. Thus, the lectin super-microarray was treated with FSNP-labeled glycans to screen for specific binding pairs. Furthermore, a series of ligand competition assays were carried out on a single lectin super-microarray to generate the dose-response curve for each glycan-lectin pair, from which the apparent affinity constants were obtained. Results showed 4-7 orders of magnitude increase in affinity over the free glycans with the corresponding lectins. Thus, the glycan epitope structures having weaker affinity than the parent glycans could be readily identified and analyzed from the lectin super-microarrays. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. SuperAGILE and Gamma Ray Bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Pacciani, Luigi; Costa, Enrico; Del Monte, Ettore; Donnarumma, Immacolata; Evangelista, Yuri; Feroci, Marco; Frutti, Massimo; Lazzarotto, Francesco; Lapshov, Igor; Rubini, Alda; Soffitta, Paolo; Tavani, Marco; Barbiellini, Guido; Mastropietro, Marcello; Morelli, Ennio; Rapisarda, Massimo

    2006-05-19

    The solid-state hard X-ray imager of AGILE gamma-ray mission -- SuperAGILE -- has a six arcmin on-axis angular resolution in the 15-45 keV range, a field of view in excess of 1 steradian. The instrument is very light: 5 kg only. It is equipped with an on-board self triggering logic, image deconvolution, and it is able to transmit the coordinates of a GRB to the ground in real-time through the ORBCOMM constellation of satellites. Photon by photon Scientific Data are sent to the Malindi ground station at every contact. In this paper we review the performance of the SuperAGILE experiment (scheduled for a launch in the middle of 2006), after its first onground calibrations, and show the perspectives for Gamma Ray Bursts.

  5. Super-Eddington winds from neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paczynski, Bohdan

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented from a study of winds driven by a super-Eddington rate of energy deposition near the surface of a neutron star, a condition which may develop following a collision between two neutron stars when more than 10 to the 53rd ergs is radiated during a few seconds. A fraction of that energy, perhaps as large as 10 to the 50th ergs, may be transformed into electron-positron pairs and drive a powerful wind. Using a model of the highly super-Eddington wind, the fraction of energy injected into a wind that emerges as gamma rays is estimated. It is shown that it is possible to reach gamma-ray temperatures with the optically thick winds, provided the energy injection rate is sufficiently high.

  6. FDIRC design for SuperB

    SciTech Connect

    Va'vra, J.; Roberts, D.; Ratcliff, B.; /SLAC

    2011-03-01

    We describe a new design of a focusing DIRC (FDIRC) for the barrel PID at SuperB. The new FDIRC will use a new detector camera attached to the existing BaBar DIRC bar boxes. The camera's double-folded optics, made of solid fused silica, uses two mirrors, one cylindrical, and one flat. The camera's volume is 25-times smaller than the BaBar DIRC stand-off box, and its photon detectors will be 10-times faster than the BaBar DIRC PMTs, ensuring a good protection against backgrounds at SuperB, which is designed to operate at {approx}100-times higher luminosity than BaBar. The detector plane consists of a matrix of H-8500 MaPMTs.

  7. Super-resolution microscopy: a comparative treatment.

    PubMed

    Kasuboski, James M; Sigal, Yury J; Joens, Matthew S; Lillemeier, Bjorn F; Fitzpatrick, James A J

    2012-10-01

    One of the fundamental limitations of optical microscopy is that of diffraction, or in essence, how small a beam of light can be focused by using an optical lens system. This constraint, or barrier if you will, was theoretically described by Ernst Abbe in 1873 and is roughly equal to half the wavelength of light used to probe the system. Many structures, particularly those within cells, are much smaller than this limit and thus are difficult to visualize. Over the last two decades, a new field of super-resolution imaging has been created and been developed into a broad range of techniques that allow routine imaging beyond the far-field diffraction limit of light. In this unit we outline the basic principles of the various super-resolution imaging modalities, paying particular attention to the technical considerations for biological imaging. Furthermore, we discuss their various applications in the imaging of both fixed and live biological samples.

  8. Optical super-resolution microscopy in neurobiology.

    PubMed

    Sigrist, Stephan J; Sabatini, Bernardo L

    2012-02-01

    Understanding the highly plastic nature of neurons requires the dynamic visualization of their molecular and cellular organization in a native context. However, due to the limited resolution of standard light microscopy, many of the structural specializations of neurons cannot be resolved. A recent revolution in light microscopy has given rise to several super-resolution light microscopy methods yielding 2-10-fold higher resolution than conventional microscopy. We here describe the principles behind these techniques as well as their application to the analysis of the molecular architecture of the synapse. Furthermore, we discuss the potential for continued development of super-resolution microscopy as necessary for live imaging of neuronal structure and function in the brain.

  9. SuperTools Test and Evaluation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Mannos, Tom J.

    2017-01-01

    Superconducting electronics (SCE) represents a potential path to efficient exascale computing for HPC and data center applications, but SCE-based circuit design lags far behind its CMOS equivalent. IARPA’s ongoing C3 program and its developing SuperTools program aim to jumpstart SCE R&D with the near-term goal of producing a high-speed, low-energy, 64-bit RISC processor using Josephson Junction based logic cells. SuperTools performers will develop software tools for efficient SCE design and accurate simulation and characterization of JJ-based circuits, which include the RSFQ, RQL, and AQFP logic families. T&E teams from NIST, MIT Lincoln Lab, Berkeley Lab, and Sandia National Labs will evaluate the tools and fabricate test circuits to compare with simulated results. The five-year, three-phase program includes 48 performer deliverables, three annual technical exchange meetings, and annual site visits.

  10. Super-resolution imaging in live cells

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Over the last twenty years super-resolution fluorescence microscopy has gone from proof-of-concept experiments to commercial systems being available in many labs, improving the resolution achievable by up to a factor of 10 or more. There are three major approaches to super-resolution, stimulated emission depletion microscopy, structured illumination microscopy, and localisation microscopy, which have all produced stunning images of cellular structures. A major current challenge is optimising performance of each technique so that the same sort of data can be routinely taken in live cells. There are several major challenges, particularly phototoxicity and the speed with which images of whole cells, or groups of cells, can be acquired. In this review we discuss the various approaches which can be successfully used in live cells, the tradeoffs in resolution, speed, and ease of implementation which one must make for each approach, and the quality of results that one might expect from each technique. PMID:25498481

  11. Properties of super-multiview images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Beom-Ryeol; Park, Jeung-Chul; Jeong, Il-Kwon; Son, Jung-Young

    2014-06-01

    A simulator which can define super-multiview condition is introduced. This simulator can direct two different images to each eye of a viewer. The images are not only different view images but also images of different image cells in different positions in the viewing zone of a contact-type multiview imaging system having parallel configuration. This simulator will inform many conditions and requirements for multiview images to be a super-multiview. The presence of continuous parallax, the possibility of monocular depth sensing, required number of different view images, allowed pattern of different view image mixing, the optimum disparity between images are several examples of the conditions and requirements to be defined by the simulator.

  12. Physics Education Research with the SUPER Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Manjula Devi

    2005-10-01

    The Sydney University Physics Education Research group (SUPER) has an active program offering (a) PhDs by research for students and (b) research projects for visiting scholars. So why do we need to undertake such projects within a physics school rather than in education schools and faculties? The prime reason is that adequate domain knowledge and skills are required to work in areas such as conceptual change, subject-specific cognitive theories, expert/novice modeling, and multiple representations. In addition, a decrease in student motivation for studying physics has captured the interest of research-based university departments who are now interested in reversing the trend. The areas under investigation by the SUPER group include student understandings of gravity, collaborative learning environments for large first-year classes, and the transfer of mathematics skills and knowledge.

  13. Super-resolution microscopy of mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Jakobs, Stefan; Wurm, Christian A

    2014-06-01

    Mitochondria, the powerhouses of the cell, are essential organelles in eukaryotic cells. With their complex inner architecture featuring a smooth outer and a highly convoluted inner membrane, they are challenging objects for microscopy. The diameter of mitochondria is generally close to the resolution limit of conventional light microscopy, rendering diffraction-unlimited super-resolution light microscopy (nanoscopy) for imaging submitochondrial protein distributions often mandatory. In this review, we discuss what can be expected when imaging mitochondria with conventional diffraction-limited and diffraction-unlimited microscopy. We provide an overview on recent studies using super-resolution microscopy to investigate mitochondria and discuss further developments and challenges in mitochondrial biology that might by addressed with these technologies in the future.

  14. Hierarchical super-resolution-based inpainting.

    PubMed

    Le Meur, Olivier; Ebdelli, Mounira; Guillemot, Christine

    2013-10-01

    This paper introduces a novel framework for examplar-based inpainting. It consists in performing first the inpainting on a coarse version of the input image. A hierarchical super-resolution algorithm is then used to recover details on the missing areas. The advantage of this approach is that it is easier to inpaint low-resolution pictures than high-resolution ones. The gain is both in terms of computational complexity and visual quality. However, to be less sensitive to the parameter setting of the inpainting method, the low-resolution input picture is inpainted several times with different configurations. Results are efficiently combined with a loopy belief propagation and details are recovered by a single-image super-resolution algorithm. Experimental results in a context of image editing and texture synthesis demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Results are compared to five state-of-the-art inpainting methods.

  15. Italian super-eruption larger than thought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-07-01

    Recent research suggested that the super-eruption of the Campi Flegrei caldera volcano in southern Italy about 40,000 years ago may have played a part in wiping out, or forcing the migration of, the Neanderthal and modern human populations in the eastern Mediterranean regions that were covered in ash. Now a new modeling study by Costa et al. suggests that this eruption may have been even larger than previously thought. This Campi Flegrei eruption produced a widespread ash layer known as Campanian Ignimbrite (CI). Using ash thickness measurements collected at 115 sites and a three-dimensional ash dispersal model, the researchers found that the CI super-eruption would have spread 250-300 cubic kilometers of ash across a 3.7-million-square kilometer region—2 to 3 times previous ash volume estimates.

  16. Super-earth Detection and "Planet Fever"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pont, Frederic; Aigrain, S.; Zucker, S.

    2009-09-01

    Radial-velocity spectrographs and space transit searches have become sensitive enough to detect planets only a few times more massive than the Earth - the telluric planets or "super-Earths." We are getting one step nearer to knowing how common are Earth analogs. There is a catch however: many of the super-Earth detections are very close to the detection thresholds, and intrinsic stellar variations are an important source of false positive with both the radial velocity and transit technique. In preparation for the coming harvest of new detections, it seems worth attempting to develop some vaccine against the most extreme strands of "planet fever," the contagious disease of seeing extra-solar planet in any signal.

  17. SuperIso Relic: A program for calculating relic density and flavor physics observables in Supersymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbey, A.; Mahmoudi, F.

    2010-07-01

    We describe SuperIso Relic, a public program for evaluation of relic density and flavor physics observables in the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (MSSM). SuperIso Relic is an extension of the SuperIso program which adds to the flavor observables of SuperIso the computation of all possible annihilation and coannihilation processes of the LSP which are required for the relic density calculation. All amplitudes have been generated at the tree level with FeynArts/FormCalc, and widths of the Higgs bosons are computed with FeynHiggs at the two-loop level. SuperIso Relic also provides the possibility to modify the assumptions of the cosmological model, and to study their consequences on the relic density. Catalogue identifier: AEGD_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEGD_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: yes No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2 274 720 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 6 735 649 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C (C99 Standard compliant) and Fortran Computer: 32- or 64-bit PC, Mac Operating system: Linux, MacOS RAM: 100 Mb Classification: 1.9, 11.6 External routines: ISASUGRA/ISAJET and/or SOFTSUSY, FeynHiggs Does the new version supersede the previous version?: No (AEAN_v2_0) Nature of problem: Calculation of the lightest supersymmetric particle relic density, as well as flavor physics observables, in order to derive constraints on the supersymmetric parameter space. Solution method: SuperIso Relic uses a SUSY Les Houches Accord file, which can be either generated automatically via a call to SOFTSUSY or ISAJET, or provided by the user. This file contains the masses and couplings of the supersymmetric particles. SuperIso Relic then computes the lightest supersymmetric particle relic density as well as the most constraining flavor physics

  18. Image amplification based super-resolution reconstruction procedure designed for wavefront-coded imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hui; Zong, Caihui; Wei, Jingxuan; Xie, Xiaopeng

    2016-10-01

    Wave-front coding, proposed by Dowski and Cathey in 1995, is widely known to be capable of extending the depth of focus (DOF) of incoherent imaging systems. However, benefiting from its very large point spread function (PSF) generated by a suitably designed phase mask that is added to the aperture plane, wave-front coding could also be used to achieve super-resolution without replacing the current sensor with one of smaller pitch size. An image amplification based super-resolution reconstruction procedure has been specifically designed for wave-front coded imaging systems and its effectiveness has been tested by experiment. For instance, for a focal length of 50 mm and f-number 4.5, objects within the range [5 m, ∞] are clearly imaged with the help of wave-front coding, which indicates a DOF extension ratio of approximately 20. The proposed super-resolution reconstruction procedure produces at least 3× resolution improvement, with the quality of the reconstructed super-resolution image approaching the diffraction limit.

  19. Development of Super-Ensemble techniques for ocean analyses: the Mediterranean Sea case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pistoia, Jenny; Pinardi, Nadia; Oddo, Paolo; Collins, Matthew; Korres, Gerasimos; Drillet, Yann

    2017-04-01

    Short-term ocean analyses for Sea Surface Temperature SST in the Mediterranean Sea can be improved by a statistical post-processing technique, called super-ensemble. This technique consists in a multi-linear regression algorithm applied to a Multi-Physics Multi-Model Super-Ensemble (MMSE) dataset, a collection of different operational forecasting analyses together with ad-hoc simulations produced by modifying selected numerical model parameterizations. A new linear regression algorithm based on Empirical Orthogonal Function filtering techniques is capable to prevent overfitting problems, even if best performances are achieved when we add correlation to the super-ensemble structure using a simple spatial filter applied after the linear regression. Our outcomes show that super-ensemble performances depend on the selection of an unbiased operator and the length of the learning period, but the quality of the generating MMSE dataset has the largest impact on the MMSE analysis Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) evaluated with respect to observed satellite SST. Lower RMSE analysis estimates result from the following choices: 15 days training period, an overconfident MMSE dataset (a subset with the higher quality ensemble members), and the least square algorithm being filtered a posteriori.

  20. Super-resolution imaging strategies for cell biologists using a spinning disk microscope.

    PubMed

    Hosny, Neveen A; Song, Mingying; Connelly, John T; Ameer-Beg, Simon; Knight, Martin M; Wheeler, Ann P

    2013-01-01

    In this study we use a spinning disk confocal microscope (SD) to generate super-resolution images of multiple cellular features from any plane in the cell. We obtain super-resolution images by using stochastic intensity fluctuations of biological probes, combining Photoactivation Light-Microscopy (PALM)/Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (STORM) methodologies. We compared different image analysis algorithms for processing super-resolution data to identify the most suitable for analysis of particular cell structures. SOFI was chosen for X and Y and was able to achieve a resolution of ca. 80 nm; however higher resolution was possible >30 nm, dependant on the super-resolution image analysis algorithm used. Our method uses low laser power and fluorescent probes which are available either commercially or through the scientific community, and therefore it is gentle enough for biological imaging. Through comparative studies with structured illumination microscopy (SIM) and widefield epifluorescence imaging we identified that our methodology was advantageous for imaging cellular structures which are not immediately at the cell-substrate interface, which include the nuclear architecture and mitochondria. We have shown that it was possible to obtain two coloured images, which highlights the potential this technique has for high-content screening, imaging of multiple epitopes and live cell imaging.

  1. New Approaches in Renal Microscopy: Volumetric Imaging and Super-resolution Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Alfred H.J.; Suleiman, Hani; Shaw, Andrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Histologic and electron microscopic analysis of the kidney has provided tremendous insight into structures such as the glomerulus and nephron. Recent advances in imaging, such as deep volumetric approaches and super-resolution microscopy, have the capacity to dramatically enhance our current understanding of the structure and function of the kidney. Volumetric imaging can generate images millimeters below the surface of the intact kidney. Super-resolution microscopy breaks the diffraction barrier inherent in traditional light microscopy, enabling for the visualization of fine structures. Here, we describe new approaches to deep volumetric and super-resolution microscopy of the kidney. Recent findings Rapid advances in lasers, microscopic objectives, and tissue preparation have transformed our ability to deep volumetric image the kidney. Innovations in sample preparation have allowed for super-resolution imaging with electron microscopy correlation, providing unprecedented insight into the structures within the glomerulus. Summary Technological advances in imaging have revolutionized our capacity to image both large volumes of tissue and the finest structural details of a cell. These new advances have the potential to provide additional profound observations into the normal and pathologic functions of the kidney. PMID:27023834

  2. Super-Resolution Imaging Strategies for Cell Biologists Using a Spinning Disk Microscope

    PubMed Central

    Hosny, Neveen A.; Song, Mingying; Connelly, John T.; Ameer-Beg, Simon; Knight, Martin M.; Wheeler, Ann P.

    2013-01-01

    In this study we use a spinning disk confocal microscope (SD) to generate super-resolution images of multiple cellular features from any plane in the cell. We obtain super-resolution images by using stochastic intensity fluctuations of biological probes, combining Photoactivation Light-Microscopy (PALM)/Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (STORM) methodologies. We compared different image analysis algorithms for processing super-resolution data to identify the most suitable for analysis of particular cell structures. SOFI was chosen for X and Y and was able to achieve a resolution of ca. 80 nm; however higher resolution was possible >30 nm, dependant on the super-resolution image analysis algorithm used. Our method uses low laser power and fluorescent probes which are available either commercially or through the scientific community, and therefore it is gentle enough for biological imaging. Through comparative studies with structured illumination microscopy (SIM) and widefield epifluorescence imaging we identified that our methodology was advantageous for imaging cellular structures which are not immediately at the cell-substrate interface, which include the nuclear architecture and mitochondria. We have shown that it was possible to obtain two coloured images, which highlights the potential this technique has for high-content screening, imaging of multiple epitopes and live cell imaging. PMID:24130668

  3. Cubanes: Super explosives and potential pharmaceutical intermediates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bashir-Hashemi, A.

    1994-01-01

    The cubane molecule, in which eight carbon atoms are locked in a cubic framework, shows great potential for both military and pharmaceutical applications. Octanitrocubane, with a predicted density of 2.1 g/cc and strain energy of more than 165 kcal/mol, is considered to be the 'super-explosive', while cubane derivatives submitted to the National Institutes of Health for preliminary biological activity screening have displayed promising anti-cancer and anti-HIV activity.

  4. Recent results from Super-Kamiokande

    SciTech Connect

    Himmel, Alexander; Collaboration: Super-Kamiokande Collaboration

    2014-06-24

    The Super-Kamiokande experiment has collected more than 11 live-years of atmospheric neutrino data. Atmospheric neutrinos cover a wide phase space in both energy and distance travelled, the parameters relevant for studying neutrino oscillations. We present here recent measurements of the three-flavor neutrino oscillation parameters using this atmospheric neutrino data, as well as new limits on mixing with a fourth sterile neutrino state.

  5. The Demise of the Superconducting Super Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riordan, Michael

    2000-12-01

    The largest scientific project ever attempted, the Superconducting Super Collider fell to the axe of Congressional budget cutters in 1993. This paper surveys the ten-year history of the project and discusses the principal reasons for its termination. Special attention is paid to the impact of the end of Cold War upon the perceived need to reduce budget deficits and shift the priorities for U.S. science policy.

  6. Pixel super resolution using wavelength scanning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-08

    Journal Article Journal : Light: Science & Applications (Nature Publishing Group) Publication Location: Article Title: Pixel super-resolution using...of a wide-field imaging system and significantly increase its space-bandwidth product . Publication Identifier Type: DOI Issue: 4 Date Published: 12...significantly increase its space-bandwidth product . We confirmed the effectiveness of this new technique by improving the resolution of lens-free as

  7. SuperB Simulation Production System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomassetti, L.; Bianchi, F.; Ciaschini, V.; Corvo, M.; Del Prete, D.; Di Simone, A.; Donvito, G.; Fella, A.; Franchini, P.; Giacomini, F.; Gianoli, A.; Longo, S.; Luitz, S.; Luppi, E.; Manzali, M.; Pardi, S.; Paolini, A.; Perez, A.; Rama, M.; Russo, G.; Santeramo, B.; Stroili, R.

    2012-12-01

    The SuperB asymmetric e+e- collider and detector to be built at the newly founded Nicola Cabibbo Lab will provide a uniquely sensitive probe of New Physics in the flavor sector of the Standard Model. Studying minute effects in the heavy quark and heavy lepton sectors requires a data sample of 75 ab-1 and a peak luminosity of 1036 cm-2 s-1. The SuperB Computing group is working on developing a simulation production framework capable to satisfy the experiment needs. It provides access to distributed resources in order to support both the detector design definition and its performance evaluation studies. During last year the framework has evolved from the point of view of job workflow, Grid services interfaces and technologies adoption. A complete code refactoring and sub-component language porting now permits the framework to sustain distributed production involving resources from two continents and Grid Flavors. In this paper we will report a complete description of the production system status of the art, its evolution and its integration with Grid services; in particular, we will focus on the utilization of new Grid component features as in LB and WMS version 3. Results from the last official SuperB production cycle will be reported.

  8. Strategies for developing Green Super Rice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qifa

    2007-01-01

    From a global viewpoint, a number of challenges need to be met for sustainable rice production: (i) increasingly severe occurrence of insects and diseases and indiscriminate pesticide applications; (ii) high pressure for yield increase and overuse of fertilizers; (iii) water shortage and increasingly frequent occurrence of drought; and (iv) extensive cultivation in marginal lands. A combination of approaches based on the recent advances in genomic research has been formulated to address these challenges, with the long-term goal to develop rice cultivars referred to as Green Super Rice. On the premise of continued yield increase and quality improvement, Green Super Rice should possess resistances to multiple insects and diseases, high nutrient efficiency, and drought resistance, promising to greatly reduce the consumption of pesticides, chemical fertilizers, and water. Large efforts have been focused on identifying germplasms and discovering genes for resistance to diseases and insects, N- and P-use efficiency, drought resistance, grain quality, and yield. The approaches adopted include screening of germplasm collections and mutant libraries, gene discovery and identification, microarray analysis of differentially regulated genes under stressed conditions, and functional test of candidate genes by transgenic analysis. Genes for almost all of the traits have now been isolated in a global perspective and are gradually incorporated into genetic backgrounds of elite cultivars by molecular marker-assisted selection or transformation. It is anticipated that such strategies and efforts would eventually lead to the development of Green Super Rice. PMID:17923667

  9. Super-resolution without dense flow.

    PubMed

    Su, Heng; Wu, Ying; Zhou, Jie

    2012-04-01

    Super-resolution is a widely applied technique that improves the resolution of input images by software methods. Most conventional reconstruction-based super-resolution algorithms assume accurate dense optical flow fields between the input frames, and their performance degrades rapidly when the motion estimation result is not accurate enough. However, optical flow estimation is usually difficult, particularly when complicated motion is presented in real-world videos. In this paper, we explore a new way to solve this problem by using sparse feature point correspondences between the input images. The feature point correspondences, which are obtained by matching a set of feature points, are usually precise and much more robust than dense optical flow fields. This is because the feature points represent well-selected significant locations in the image, and performing matching on the feature point set is usually very accurate. In order to utilize the sparse correspondences in conventional super-resolution, we extract an adaptive support region with a reliable local flow field from each corresponding feature point pair. The normalized prior is also proposed to increase the visual consistency of the reconstructed result. Extensive experiments on real data were carried out, and results show that the proposed algorithm produces high-resolution images with better quality, particularly in the presence of large-scale or complicated motion fields.

  10. Super-Resolution Imaging and Plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Willets, Katherine A; Wilson, Andrew J; Sundaresan, Vignesh; Joshi, Padmanabh B

    2017-06-14

    This review describes the growing partnership between super-resolution imaging and plasmonics, by describing the various ways in which the two topics mutually benefit one another to enhance our understanding of the nanoscale world. First, localization-based super-resolution imaging strategies, where molecules are modulated between emissive and nonemissive states and their emission localized, are applied to plasmonic nanoparticle substrates, revealing the hidden shape of the nanoparticles while also mapping local electromagnetic field enhancements and reactivity patterns on their surface. However, these results must be interpreted carefully due to localization errors induced by the interaction between metallic substrates and single fluorophores. Second, plasmonic nanoparticles are explored as image contrast agents for both superlocalization and super-resolution imaging, offering benefits such as high photostability, large signal-to-noise, and distance-dependent spectral features but presenting challenges for localizing individual nanoparticles within a diffraction-limited spot. Finally, the use of plasmon-tailored excitation fields to achieve subdiffraction-limited spatial resolution is discussed, using localized surface plasmons and surface plasmon polaritons to create confined excitation volumes or image magnification to enhance spatial resolution.

  11. Cryogenics for Super-FRS at FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Yu; Kauschke, Marion; Schroeder, Claus H.; Kollmus, Holger

    The challenge of cooling down the huge cold mass up to 1100 tons (dominated by iron) to 4.5 K is addressed as one of the most important features for Super-FRS cryogenics at FAIR. For such large cold mass precooling with LN2 is necessary due to the reason that approximately 80% of the cool down load is from 300K to 80K. The capacity of the LN2 precooler at 80 K as well as the 4.5 K cooling power have been specified in order to reach a reasonable cooldown time of three to four weeks. In the paper we will also discuss the technical issues for Super-FRS magnet testing at CERN in terms of the limitations of the cooldown / warmup rates on magnets, interface definition, and the magnet cryostat protection against over-pressure under worst-case scenarios, i.e., quench and insulation vacuum sudden loss to air, which are the key issues for the cryogenic test facility planning and machine protection at FAIR. Meanwhile the important features of the refrigerator and the cryogenic distribution system for the Super-FRS at FAIR will be discussed.

  12. Vibration Budget for SuperB

    SciTech Connect

    Bertsche, K; Wittmer, W.; Bolzon, B.; Brunetti, L.; Jeremie, A.; Esposito, M.; Tomassini, S.; /Frascati

    2011-04-05

    We present a vibration budget for the SuperB accelerator. We include ground motion data, motion sensitivity of machine components, and beam feedback system requirements. The SuperB accelerator design attains at least 50 times higher than current B-factories due to smaller beam sizes and a crabbed waist crossing angle scheme at the IP (interaction point). The beam size (1{sigma}) at the IP will be about 10 {micro}m (horizontal) by 40 nm (vertical). These small beam sizes will make the luminosity very sensitive to mechanical vibration and electrical noise. Relative vertical misalignment of the two beams at the IP by only 8 nm will result in a 1% reduction in luminosity. The corresponding horizontal alignment tolerance of is 250x looser (2 {micro}m). The vertical beam angle at the IP for a 1% luminosity loss is fairly loose at 200 {micro}rad, and the horizontal beam angle tolerance is looser still. We will focus on vertical beam position at the IP, since this presents the greatest alignment challenge. The values presented here are for a closed orbit with tunes near a half-integer in the SuperB v.12 lattice.

  13. SVI: Super-VIOR interface routines

    SciTech Connect

    Alleva, D.

    1987-10-21

    This document describes a set of routines for a VME DMA module called the Super-VIOR. The Super-VIOR interface routines, also called the SVI routines, are written in PILS and run under a Valet-plus system. These routines enable a program to set up, execute, and monitor DMA operations. The Super-VIOR Interface Routines are written in PILS, a high level language similar to BASIC and Pascal which is powerful and fast enough for most applications. One of the most powerful features of the Valet/PILS system is the ability to set up exception vectors and exception handlers directly in a program. This feature is used to handle interrupts from the MC68450 (a 4 channel, 16 bit DMA controller) and the interface's front panel. This document is divided into ten sections, the first being the introduction. The remaining sections detail the interface registers, channel initiation, polling and interrupts, status reporting, front panel interrupts, the configuration routines, the operation control routines, the status reporting routines, and special comments on the MC68450.

  14. Volatile Transport in Pluto's Super Seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earle, Alissa M.; Binzel, Richard; Young, Leslie; Stern, S. Alan; Olkin, Catherine B.; Ennico, Kimberly; Moore, Jeffrey M.; Weaver, Harold A.; NASA New Horizons Composition Team, The NASA New Horizons GGI Team

    2016-10-01

    The data returned from NASA's New Horizons' reconnaissance of the Pluto system shows striking albedo variations from polar to equatorial latitudes as well as sharp boundaries for longitudinal variations. Pluto has a high obliquity (currently around 119 degrees) which varies by more than 23 degrees (between roughly 103 and 127 degrees) over a period of less than 3 million years. These obliquity properties, combined with Pluto's orbital regression in longitude of perihelion (360 degrees over 3.7 million years), create epochs of "Super Seasons" on Pluto. A "Super Season" occurs, for example, when Pluto happens to be pole-on towards the Sun at the same time as perihelion. In such a case, one pole experiences a short, intense summer (relative to its long-term average) followed by a longer than average period of winter darkness. By complement, the other pole experiences a much longer, but less intense summer and short winter season. We explore the relationship between albedo variations and volatile transport for the current epoch as well as historical epochs during which Pluto experienced these "Super Seasons". Our investigation suggests Pluto's orbit creates the potential for runaway albedo variations, particularly in the equatorial region, which would create and support stark longitudinal contrasts like the ones we see between the informally named Tombaugh and Cthulhu Regios.This work was supported by the NASA New Horizons mission.

  15. Super U Technique for Ingrown Nails.

    PubMed

    Correa, J; Magliano, J; Agorio, C; Bazzano, C

    2017-06-01

    Ingrown nails are a common problem, seen mostly in young adults. Also known as onychcrypotisis, this condition typically affects the great toenail. Four stages have been defined according to the severity and duration of the condition, and treatment varies from conservative to surgical techniques depending on the stage. We present our experience with this condition, describing the characteristics of our population and surgical treatment, in particular the super U technique. This was a retrospective, descriptive study of patients with ingrown great toenail treated surgically using the super U technique. We also describe postoperative management. Ten patients with a mean age of 35.7 years underwent operation, 9 for unilateral ingrown great toenail and 1 for bilateral disease. Stage II ingrown nail was the most common. Half of the patients had been treated previously using other surgical techniques. The mean time to healing was 6 weeks. The only postoperative complication was infection in 1 patient. Mild to moderate postoperative pain persisted for a week. The majority of patients were satisfied with the cosmetic result. We believe the super U technique is very useful in stage II ingrown nail and in disease that has recurred after previous surgery, and is the treatment of choice in stage III or IV disease in which excessive hypertrophic tissue is found. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Probing the Birth of Super Star Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Kelsey

    2009-05-01

    Super star clusters are among the most extreme star formation environments known; they have incredible stellar densities, and each can harbor thousands of massive stars within radii of only a few parsecs. The most robust of these clusters may even be precursors to the ancient globular clusters ubiquitous around massive galaxies in the local universe today. Understanding the formation and feedback of super star clusters has the potential to provide us with insight into the evolution of starburst episodes throughout the universe. At present the relationship between the local physical conditions and the voracity of star formation is not well-constrained. Some progress has been made: over the last decade, a number of natal super star clusters have been discovered, providing us with a glimpse into their early evolution. However, the set of existing observations is anemic, and our current physical model for these natal clusters in simplistic. I will overview what we think we know about these objects based on existing observations and outline some of the most significant gaps in our current understanding.

  17. Supergrassmannians, Super τ-FUNCTIONS and Strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolgikh, S. N.; Schwarz, A. S.

    Recently infinite-dimensional grassmannians and their supergeneralizations were used to study conformal two-dimensional fields and strings.1 In particular the super Mumford form (holomorphic square root from the superstring measure on moduli space) was expressed in Ref. 2 through super analog of Sato τ-function, In this paper we present results about supergrassmannians and super τ-functions. Some of these assertions generalize the results of Ref. 2; in these cases we omit the proofs. Let us denote by HN (or simply by H) the space of square integrable functions f(z, θ1, … ,θN) where z is a complex number, |z| = 1 and θ1, … , θN are elements of some Grassmann algebra ΛN. We introduce in H a bilinear scalar product: l< {f,g} rightrangle = ointlimits_{|x| = 1} {fl( {z,θ _1 , ldots ,θ _N } right)dzd^N θ l( 1 right)} and a hermitian scalar product l( {f,g} right) = ointlimits_{|x| = 1} {overline {f(z,θ _1 , ldots ,θ _N )} gl( {z,θ _1 , ldots ,θ _N } right)z^{ - 1} dzd^N θ .l( 2 right)} …

  18. A Layman's Guide to Thrust Engine Development for Super/Hyper Sonic Flight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiesse, James L.

    The intention of this paper is to discuss the advances in thrust engines from the initial development of the J58/SR-71 (JT11D-20) of the U.S. Air Force's SR-71 Blackbird to the development of the RAM and SCRAM engines necessary to propel the new generations of high-flying super-speed aircraft. Engineering complexities suggest that the engines and…

  19. Super-resolution imaging with stochastic single-molecule localization: concepts, technical developments, and biological applications.

    PubMed

    Oddone, Anna; Vilanova, Ione Verdeny; Tam, Johnny; Lakadamyali, Melike

    2014-07-01

    Light microscopy has undergone a revolution with the advent of super-resolution microscopy methods that can surpass the diffraction limit. These methods have generated much enthusiasm, in particular with regards to the new possibilities they offer for biological imaging. The recent years have seen a great advancement both in terms of new technological developments and exciting biological applications. Here, we review some of the important milestones in the field and highlight some recent biological applications. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Super-alfvenic propagation of cosmic rays: The role of streaming modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, P. J.; Scott, J. S.; Holman, G. D.; Ionson, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Numerous cosmic ray propagation and acceleration problems require knowledge of the propagation speed of relativistic particles through an ambient plasma. Previous calculations indicated that self-generated turbulence scatters relativistic particles and reduces their bulk streaming velocity to the Alfven speed. This result was incorporated into all currently prominent theories of cosmic ray acceleration and propagation. It is demonstrated that super-Alfvenic propagation is indeed possible for a wide range of physical parameters. This fact dramatically affects the predictions of these models.

  1. A Layman's Guide to Thrust Engine Development for Super/Hyper Sonic Flight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiesse, James L.

    The intention of this paper is to discuss the advances in thrust engines from the initial development of the J58/SR-71 (JT11D-20) of the U.S. Air Force's SR-71 Blackbird to the development of the RAM and SCRAM engines necessary to propel the new generations of high-flying super-speed aircraft. Engineering complexities suggest that the engines and…

  2. Generation of nanosecond neutron pulses in vacuum accelerating tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didenko, A. N.; Shikanov, A. E.; Rashchikov, V. I.; Ryzhkov, V. I.; Shatokhin, V. L.

    2014-06-01

    The generation of neutron pulses with a duration of 1-100 ns using small vacuum accelerating tubes is considered. Two physical models of acceleration of short deuteron bunches in pulse neutron generators are described. The dependences of an instantaneous neutron flux in accelerating tubes on the parameters of pulse neutron generators are obtained using computer simulation. The results of experimental investigation of short-pulse neutron generators based on the accelerating tube with a vacuum-arc deuteron source, connected in the circuit with a discharge peaker, and an accelerating tube with a laser deuteron source, connected according to the Arkad'ev-Marx circuit, are given. In the experiments, the neutron yield per pulse reached 107 for a pulse duration of 10-100 ns. The resultant experimental data are in satisfactory agreement with the results of computer simulation.

  3. Generalizing the nonlocal-means to super-resolution reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Protter, Matan; Elad, Michael; Takeda, Hiroyuki; Milanfar, Peyman

    2009-01-01

    Super-resolution reconstruction proposes a fusion of several low-quality images into one higher quality result with better optical resolution. Classic super-resolution techniques strongly rely on the availability of accurate motion estimation for this fusion task. When the motion is estimated inaccurately, as often happens for nonglobal motion fields, annoying artifacts appear in the super-resolved outcome. Encouraged by recent developments on the video denoising problem, where state-of-the-art algorithms are formed with no explicit motion estimation, we seek a super-resolution algorithm of similar nature that will allow processing sequences with general motion patterns. In this paper, we base our solution on the Nonlocal-Means (NLM) algorithm. We show how this denoising method is generalized to become a relatively simple super-resolution algorithm with no explicit motion estimation. Results on several test movies show that the proposed method is very successful in providing super-resolution on general sequences.

  4. Space-based Characterization of super-Earth exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demory, B.-O.

    2014-03-01

    Very little is known about those super-Earths that have been discovered so far. Their interiors are largely unconstrained due to compositional degeneracies while no super-Earth's atmosphere has been detected to date. I will present the results of a new program employing both Kepler and Spitzer space telescopes to explore super-Earth properties, by combining observations obtained in different wavelength regimes. We find that close-in super-Earths have large geometric albedos in the Kepler bandpass, possibly due to clouds or reflective surfaces. We also find that some super-Earths initially thought to be volatile-rich exhibit circulation patterns matching a rocky composition, requiring new developments regarding our knowledge of super-Earth interiors.

  5. Super-hybrid composites - An emerging structural material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Lark, R. F.; Sullivan, T. L.

    1975-01-01

    Specimens of super-hybrids and advanced fiber composites were subjected to extensive tests to determine their mechanical properties, including impact and thermal fatigue. The super-hybrids were fabricated by a procedure similar to that reported by Chamis et al., (1975). Super-hybrids subjected to 1000 cycles of thermal fatigue from -100 to 300 F retained over 90% of their longitudinal flexural strength and over 75% of their transverse flexural strength; their transverse flexural strength may be as high as 8 times that of a commercially supplied boron/1100-Al composite. The thin specimen Izod longitudinal impact resistance of the super-hybrids was twice that of the boron/110-Al material. Super-hybrids subjected to transverse tensile loads exhibited nonlinear stress-strain relationships. The experimentally determined initial membrane (in-plane) and bending elastic properties of super-hybrids were predicted adequately by linear laminate analysis.

  6. Review of super Ni/Cd cell designs and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams-Blakemore, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc., in cooperation with Hughes Aircraft Company, began production of the Super Nickel-Cadmium cell in 1989. Since that time the Super Nickel-Cadmium cell has been deployed in a wide variety of satellites. This paper will review one of those programs and provide a performance update. We will discuss storage requirements and capacity histories for the various Super NiCad Cell designs.

  7. Using hybrid hierarchical K-means (HHK) clustering algorithm for protein sequence motif super-rule-tree (SRT) structure construction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bernard; He, Jieyue; Pellicer, Stephen; Pan, Yi

    2010-01-01

    Many algorithms or techniques to discover motifs require a predefined fixed window size in advance. Because of the fixed size, these approaches often deliver a number of similar motifs simply shifted by some bases or including mismatches. To confront the mismatched motifs problem, we use the super-rule concept to construct a Super-Rule-Tree (SRT) by a modified Hybrid Hierarchical K-means (HHK) clustering algorithm, which requires no parameter set-up to identify the similarities and dissimilarities between the motifs. By analysing the motif results generated by our approach, they are significant not only in sequence area but also in secondary structure similarity.

  8. F-region ionosphere effects on the mapping accuracy of SuperDARN HF radar echoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiangcai; Lorentzen, Dag; Moen, Jøran; Oksavik, Kjellmar; Baddeley, Lisa; Lester, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Structured particle precipitation in the cusp is an important source for the generation of F -region ionospheric irregularities. The equatorward boundaries of broad Doppler spectral width in Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) data and the concurrent OI 630.0 nm auroral emission are good empirical proxies for the dayside open-closed field line boundary (OCB). However, SuperDARN currently employs a simple virtual model to determine the location of its echoes, instead of a direct calculation of the radio wave path. The varying ionospheric conditions could influence the final mapping accuracy of SuperDARN echoes. A statistical comparison of the offsets between the SuperDARN Finland radar spectral width boundary (SWB) and the OI 630.0 nm auroral emission boundary (AEB) from a meridian-scanning photometer (MSP) in Longyearbyen from December 1995 to January 2014 in wintertime is performed. By restricting the location of the OI 630.0 nm data to be near local zenith, where the MSP has the highest spatial resolution, the mapping errors were significantly reduced for the AEB. The variation of the SWB - AEB offset confirms that there is a close relationship between the mapping accuracy of the HF radar echoes and solar activity. The asymmetric variation of the SWB - AEB offset versus magnetic local time suggests that the intake of high density solar extreme ultraviolet ionized plasma from post-noon at sub-auroral latitudes could result in a stronger refraction of the HF radar signals in the noon sector. The changing HF radar operating frequency also has a refraction effect that contributes to the final location of the HF radar echoes.

  9. F region ionosphere effects on the mapping accuracy of SuperDARN HF radar echoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.-C.; Lorentzen, D. A.; Moen, J. I.; Oksavik, K.; Baddeley, L. J.; Lester, M.

    2016-05-01

    Structured particle precipitation in the cusp is an important source for the generation of F region ionospheric irregularities. The equatorward boundaries of broad Doppler spectral width in Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) data and the concurrent OI 630.0 nm auroral emission are good empirical proxies for the dayside open-closed field line boundary. However, SuperDARN currently employs a simple virtual model to determine the location of its echoes, instead of a direct calculation of the radio wave path. The varying ionospheric conditions could influence the final mapping accuracy of SuperDARN echoes. A statistical comparison of the offsets between the SuperDARN Finland radar spectral width boundary (SWB) and the OI 630.0 nm auroral emission boundary (AEB) from a meridian-scanning photometer (MSP) on Svalbard is performed in this paper. By restricting the location of the 630.0 nm data to be near local zenith where the MSP has the highest spatial resolution, the optical mapping errors were significantly reduced. The variation of the SWB-AEB offset confirms that there is a close relationship between the mapping accuracy of the HF radar echoes and solar activity. The asymmetric variation of the SWB-AEB offset versus magnetic local time suggests that the intake of high-density solar extreme ultraviolet ionized plasma from postnoon at subauroral latitudes could result in a stronger refraction of the HF radar signals in the noon sector, while changing the HF radar operating frequency also has a refraction effect that contributes to the final location of the HF radar echoes.

  10. Background constrains of the SuperNEMO experiment for neutrinoless double beta-decay searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povinec, Pavel P.

    2017-02-01

    The SuperNEMO experiment is a new generation of experiments dedicated to the search for neutrinoless double beta-decay, which if observed, would confirm the existence of physics beyond the Standard Model. It is based on the tracking and calorimetry techniques, which allow the reconstruction of the final state topology, including timing and kinematics of the double beta-decay transition events, offering a powerful tool for background rejection. While the basic detection strategy of the SuperNEMO detector remains the same as of the NEMO-3 detector, a number of improvements were accomplished for each of detector main components. Upgrades of the detector technologies and development of low-level counting techniques ensure radiopurity control of construction parts of the SuperNEMO detector. A reference material made of glass pellets has been developed to assure quality management and quality control of radiopurity measurements. The first module of the SuperNEMO detector (Demonstrator) is currently under construction in the Modane underground laboratory. No background event is expected in the neutrinoless double beta-decay region in 2.5 years of its operation using 7 kg of 82Se. The half-life sensitivity of the Demonstrator is expected to be >6.5·1024 y, corresponding to an effective Majorana neutrino mass sensitivity of |0.2-0.4| eV (90% C.L.). The full SuperNEMO experiment comprising of 20 modules with 100 kg of 82Se source should reach an effective Majorana neutrino mass sensitivity of |0.04-0.1| eV, and a half-life limit 1·1026 y.

  11. SuperB evaluation of DIRAC Distributed Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fella, A.; Donvito, G.; Santeramo, B.; Gianoli, A.; Luppi, E.; Manzali, M.; Tomassetti, L.; Rama, M.; Russo, G.; Pardi, S.; Del Prete, D.; Stroili, R.; Corvo, M.; Longo, S.; Perez, A.; Di Simone, A.; Bianchi, F.; Luitz, S.; Giacomini, F.; Ciaschini, V.

    2012-12-01

    The SuperB asymmetric energy e+e- collider and detector to be built at the newly founded Nicola Cabibbo Lab will provide a uniquely sensitive probe of New Physics in the flavour sector of the Standard Model. SuperB distributed computing group performed a detailed evaluation of DIRAC Distributed Infrastructure for use in the SuperB experiment based on the two use cases: End User Analysis and Monte Carlo Production. Test aims to evaluate DIRAC capabilities to manage both gLite and OSG sites, File Catalog management, job and data management features in SuperB realistic use cases.

  12. HIV-1 elite controllers: beware of super-infections.

    PubMed

    Clerc, Olivier; Colombo, Sara; Yerly, Sabine; Telenti, Amalio; Cavassini, Matthias

    2010-04-01

    Super- and co-infection with HIV-1 are generally associated with accelerated disease progression. We report on the outcome of super-infection in two HIV-1 infected individuals previously known as elite controllers. Both presented an acute retroviral syndrome following super-infection and showed an immuno-virological progression thereafter. Host genotyping failed to reveal any of the currently recognized protective factors associated with slow disease progression. This report indicates that elite controllers should be informed of the risk of super-infection, and illustrates the complexity of mounting broad anti-HIV immunity.

  13. [Tumors of the 4th ventricle and the craniospinal transitional zone. Review of patients of the Neurosurgical Clinic of the Department of Medicine of the Karl Marx University].

    PubMed

    Niebeling, H G; Fried, H; Goldhahn, W E; Skrzypczak, J; Brachmann, J; Eichler, I

    1983-01-01

    From a total of 1,028 infratentorial tumours operated on at the Neurosurgical Hospital of the Section Medicine of the Karl-Marx University Leipzig in the last 30 years, 167 tumours in the region of the 4th ventrical have been selected. Their statistical processing was carried out with respect to specific localisation, average age, kind of tumour, sex, clinical findings, duration of case history, application of instrumental diagnostic procedures and radicality of operation, success and failure. Some fundamental conclussions are drawn. A subdivision in detail will be contained in the following articles based on this material.

  14. [Development and status of intensive care medicine in internal medicine at the Karl Marx University in Leipzig].

    PubMed

    Engelmann, L; Schneider, D

    1989-01-15

    Issuing from the accomplishments of Köhler for the development of the intensive medicine in internal medicine-in 1964 he performed the first long-term respiration at the then Medical Clinic of the Karl Marx University, in 1969 he institutionalized the young subdiscipline at the clinic, in 1978 he founded the department for intensive medicine and is at work by his decisions concerning the development of young scientists, by the handbook "Intensive Medicine. Internal Medicine and Adjacent Subjects" as well as a member of the presidium of the GDR Society for Internal Medicine for the development of the internal intensive medicine-a description of the development of the department, its achievements and problems is given. The promotion of the intensive medicine by Köhler results, as we think, also from the comprehension that it has the duty to perform a function integrating the subdisciplines, which the modern internal medicine oriented to organs and systems threatens to lose, which, however, makes its self-apprehension, which the patient wishes and the teaching is demanding. From this and from the charge for a highly specialized care of patients who life-threateningly fell ill with internal diseases as well as from the duty to create a scientific forerunning results the stringent necessity of the development of the non-operative, in reality internal intensive medicine in the clinics for internal medicine of the county hospitals and university institutions as well as the greater identification of the internist with the subdiscipline in the district hospitals dealing with multidisciplinary intensive medicine.

  15. Lie super-bialgebra structures on super W-algebra SW(3/2, 3/2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hengyun; Sun, Jiancai

    2017-04-01

    Super W-algebra SW(3/2,3/2) is the supersymmetric extension of Galilean conformal algebra in 2d. In this paper, we obtain that super W-algebra SW(3/2,3/2) admits only triangular coboundary Lie super-bialgebra structures and the proof is mainly based on the computation of the first cohomology group of SW(3/2,3/2) with coefficients in the tensor product of its adjoint module.

  16. A super-assembly of Whi3 encodes memory of deceptive encounters by single cells during yeast courtship.

    PubMed

    Caudron, Fabrice; Barral, Yves

    2013-12-05

    Cellular behavior is frequently influenced by the cell's history, indicating that single cells may memorize past events. We report that budding yeast permanently escape pheromone-induced cell-cycle arrest when experiencing a deceptive mating attempt, i.e., not reaching their putative partner within reasonable time. This acquired behavior depends on super-assembly and inactivation of the G1/S inhibitor Whi3, which liberates the G1 cyclin Cln3 from translational inhibition. Super-assembly of Whi3 is a slow response to pheromone, driven by polyQ and polyN domains, counteracted by Hsp70, and stable over generations. Unlike prion aggregates, Whi3 super-assemblies are not inherited mitotically but segregate to the mother cell. We propose that such polyQ- and polyN-based elements, termed here mnemons, act as cellular memory devices to encode previous environmental conditions.

  17. High Resolution Bathymetry Estimation Improvement with Single Image Super-Resolution Algorithm Super-Resolution Forests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-26

    bathymetry data. Borrowing the machine -learning technique of “training and testing” on a dictionary of sets data, we could create high resolution estimates...interpolation. 26-01-2017 Memorandum Report Bathymetry Super-Resolution Machine learning Single image Estimation Naval Research Laboratory, Code 5514

  18. Investigation of Super*Zip separation joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Schimmel, Morry L.

    1988-01-01

    An investigation to determine the most likely cause of two failures of five tests on 79 inch diameter Lockheed Super*Zip spacecraft separation joints being used for the development of a Shuttle/Centaur propulsion system. This joint utilizes an explosively expanded tube to fracture surrounding prenotched aluminum plates to achieve planar separation. A test method was developed and more than 300 tests firings were made to provide an understanding of severance mechanisms and the functional performance effects of system variables. An approach for defining functional margin was developed, and specific recommendations were made for improving existing and future systems.

  19. Production of super-smooth articles

    SciTech Connect

    Duchane, D.V.

    1983-03-15

    Super-smooth rounded or formed articles made of thermoplastic materials including various poly(Methyl methacrylate) or acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymers are produced by immersing the articles into a bath, the composition of which is slowly changed with time. The starting composition of the bath is made up of at least one solvent for the polymer and a diluent made up of at least one nonsolvent for the polymer and optional materials which are soluble in the bath. The resulting extremely smooth articles are useful as mandrels for laser fusion and should be useful for a wide variety of other purposes, for example lenses.

  20. Quantum-entanglement-initiated super Raman scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, G. S.

    2011-02-15

    It has now been possible to prepare a chain of ions in an entangled state and thus the question arises: How will the optical properties of a chain of entangled ions differ from say a chain of independent particles? We investigate nonlinear optical processes in such chains. Since light scattering is quite a versatile technique to probe matter, we explicitly demonstrate the possibility of entanglement-produced super Raman scattering. Our results suggest the possibility of similar enhancement factors in other nonlinear processes like four-wave mixing.